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Sample records for cat flea ctenocephalides

  1. Feeding Behavior Modulates Biofilm-Mediated Transmission of Yersinia pestis by the Cat Flea, Ctenocephalides felis

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    Bland, David M.; Hinnebusch, B. Joseph

    2016-01-01

    Background The cat flea, Ctenocephalides felis, is prevalent worldwide, will parasitize animal reservoirs of plague, and is associated with human habitations in known plague foci. Despite its pervasiveness, limited information is available about the cat flea?s competence as a vector for Yersinia pestis. It is generally considered to be a poor vector, based on studies examining early-phase transmission during the first week after infection, but transmission potential by the biofilm-dependent p...

  2. Rickettsia felis in cat fleas, Ctenocephalides felis parasitizing opossums, San Bernardino County, California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abramowicz, K F; Wekesa, J W; Nwadike, C N; Zambrano, M L; Karpathy, S E; Cecil, D; Burns, J; Hu, R; Eremeeva, M E

    2012-12-01

    Los Angeles and Orange Counties are known endemic areas for murine typhus in California; however, no recent reports of flea-borne rickettsioses are known from adjacent San Bernardino County. Sixty-five opossums (Didelphis virginiana) were trapped in the suburban residential and industrial zones of the southwestern part of San Bernardino County in 2007. Sixty out of 65 opossums were infested with fleas, primarily cat fleas, Ctenocephalides felis (Bouché, 1835). The flea minimum infection rate with Rickettsia felis was 13.3% in pooled samples and the prevalence was 23.7% in single fleas, with two gltA genotypes detected. In spite of historic records of murine typhus in this area, no evidence for circulation of R. typhi in fleas was found during the present study. Factors contributing to the absence of R. typhi in these cat fleas in contrast to its presence in cat fleas from Orange and Los Angeles Counties are unknown and need to be investigated further in San Bernardino County. Published 2012. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  3. Feeding Behavior Modulates Biofilm-Mediated Transmission of Yersinia pestis by the Cat Flea, Ctenocephalides felis.

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    David M Bland

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The cat flea, Ctenocephalides felis, is prevalent worldwide, will parasitize animal reservoirs of plague, and is associated with human habitations in known plague foci. Despite its pervasiveness, limited information is available about the cat flea's competence as a vector for Yersinia pestis. It is generally considered to be a poor vector, based on studies examining early-phase transmission during the first week after infection, but transmission potential by the biofilm-dependent proventricular-blocking mechanism has never been systematically evaluated. In this study, we assessed the vector competence of cat fleas by both mechanisms. Because the feeding behavior of cat fleas differs markedly from important rat flea vectors, we also examined the influence of feeding behavior on transmission dynamics.Groups of cat fleas were infected with Y. pestis and subsequently provided access to sterile blood meals twice-weekly, 5 times per week, or daily for 4 weeks and monitored for infection, the development of proventricular biofilm and blockage, mortality, and the ability to transmit. In cat fleas allowed prolonged, daily access to blood meals, mimicking their natural feeding behavior, Y. pestis did not efficiently colonize the digestive tract and could only be transmitted during the first week after infection. In contrast, cat fleas that were fed intermittently, mimicking the feeding behavior of the efficient vector Xenopsylla cheopis, could become blocked and regularly transmitted Y. pestis for 3-4 weeks by the biofilm-mediated mechanism, but early-phase transmission was not detected.The normal feeding behavior of C. felis, more than an intrinsic resistance to infection or blockage by Y. pestis, limits its vector competence. Rapid turnover of midgut contents results in bacterial clearance and disruption of biofilm accumulation in the proventriculus. Anatomical features of the cat flea foregut may also restrict transmission by both early-phase and

  4. Feeding Behavior Modulates Biofilm-Mediated Transmission of Yersinia pestis by the Cat Flea, Ctenocephalides felis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bland, David M; Hinnebusch, B Joseph

    2016-02-01

    The cat flea, Ctenocephalides felis, is prevalent worldwide, will parasitize animal reservoirs of plague, and is associated with human habitations in known plague foci. Despite its pervasiveness, limited information is available about the cat flea's competence as a vector for Yersinia pestis. It is generally considered to be a poor vector, based on studies examining early-phase transmission during the first week after infection, but transmission potential by the biofilm-dependent proventricular-blocking mechanism has never been systematically evaluated. In this study, we assessed the vector competence of cat fleas by both mechanisms. Because the feeding behavior of cat fleas differs markedly from important rat flea vectors, we also examined the influence of feeding behavior on transmission dynamics. Groups of cat fleas were infected with Y. pestis and subsequently provided access to sterile blood meals twice-weekly, 5 times per week, or daily for 4 weeks and monitored for infection, the development of proventricular biofilm and blockage, mortality, and the ability to transmit. In cat fleas allowed prolonged, daily access to blood meals, mimicking their natural feeding behavior, Y. pestis did not efficiently colonize the digestive tract and could only be transmitted during the first week after infection. In contrast, cat fleas that were fed intermittently, mimicking the feeding behavior of the efficient vector Xenopsylla cheopis, could become blocked and regularly transmitted Y. pestis for 3-4 weeks by the biofilm-mediated mechanism, but early-phase transmission was not detected. The normal feeding behavior of C. felis, more than an intrinsic resistance to infection or blockage by Y. pestis, limits its vector competence. Rapid turnover of midgut contents results in bacterial clearance and disruption of biofilm accumulation in the proventriculus. Anatomical features of the cat flea foregut may also restrict transmission by both early-phase and proventricular biofilm

  5. Feeding Behavior Modulates Biofilm-Mediated Transmission of Yersinia pestis by the Cat Flea, Ctenocephalides felis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bland, David M.; Hinnebusch, B. Joseph

    2016-01-01

    Background The cat flea, Ctenocephalides felis, is prevalent worldwide, will parasitize animal reservoirs of plague, and is associated with human habitations in known plague foci. Despite its pervasiveness, limited information is available about the cat flea’s competence as a vector for Yersinia pestis. It is generally considered to be a poor vector, based on studies examining early-phase transmission during the first week after infection, but transmission potential by the biofilm-dependent proventricular-blocking mechanism has never been systematically evaluated. In this study, we assessed the vector competence of cat fleas by both mechanisms. Because the feeding behavior of cat fleas differs markedly from important rat flea vectors, we also examined the influence of feeding behavior on transmission dynamics. Methodology/Principal Findings Groups of cat fleas were infected with Y. pestis and subsequently provided access to sterile blood meals twice-weekly, 5 times per week, or daily for 4 weeks and monitored for infection, the development of proventricular biofilm and blockage, mortality, and the ability to transmit. In cat fleas allowed prolonged, daily access to blood meals, mimicking their natural feeding behavior, Y. pestis did not efficiently colonize the digestive tract and could only be transmitted during the first week after infection. In contrast, cat fleas that were fed intermittently, mimicking the feeding behavior of the efficient vector Xenopsylla cheopis, could become blocked and regularly transmitted Y. pestis for 3–4 weeks by the biofilm-mediated mechanism, but early-phase transmission was not detected. Conclusions The normal feeding behavior of C. felis, more than an intrinsic resistance to infection or blockage by Y. pestis, limits its vector competence. Rapid turnover of midgut contents results in bacterial clearance and disruption of biofilm accumulation in the proventriculus. Anatomical features of the cat flea foregut may also restrict

  6. Cat fleas (Ctenocephalides felis) carrying Rickettsia felis and Bartonella species in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Šlapeta, Jan; Lawrence, Andrea; Reichel, Michael P

    2018-04-01

    Fleas are commonly recorded on stray as well as domestic dogs and cats in Hong Kong. Fleas can be a major cause of pruritus in dogs and cats and also vectors of potentially zoonotic bacteria in the genera Rickettsia and Bartonella. Morphological examination of 174 fleas from dogs and cats living in Hong Kong revealed only cat fleas (Ctenocephalides felis). Cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 gene (cox1) genotyping of 20 randomly selected specimens, revealed three cox1 haplotypes (HK-h1 to HK-h3). The most common haplotype was HK-h1 with 17 specimens (17/20, 85%). HK-h1 was identical to cox1 sequences of fleas in Thailand and Fiji. HK-h1 and HK-h2 form a distinct cat flea cox1 clade previously recognized as the Clade 3. HK-h3 forms a new Clade 6. A multiplex Bartonella and Rickettsia real-time PCR of DNA from 20 C. felis found Bartonella and Rickettsia DNA in three (15%) and ten (50%) C. felis, respectively. DNA sequencing confirmed the presence of R. felis, B. clarridgeiae and Bartonella henselae. This is the first reported study of that kind in Hong Kong, and further work is required to expand the survey of companion animals in the geographical region. The sampling of fleas on domestic cats and dogs in Hong Kong revealed them to be exclusively infested by the cat flea and to be harbouring pathogens of zoonotic potential. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Control of immature stages of the flea Ctenocephalides felis(Bouché in carpets exposed to cats treated with imidacloprid

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    L.J. Fourie

    2000-07-01

    Full Text Available Fleas cause allergic dermatitis in cats and dogs and therefore warrant control. It has been demonstrated previously that there is marked inhibition of the development of the immature stages of the cat flea Ctenocephalides felis on fleece blankets exposed to cats treated with imidacloprid. This study reports on the efficacy of imidacloprid in suppressing adult flea emergence in carpet exposed to treated cats. Circular discs of carpet pre-seeded with flea eggs and larvae were exposed to 6 untreated control and 6 topically treated (imidacloprid 10 % m/v cats 1 to 2 days after treatment and subsequently fortnightly for 6 weeks. Exposure times on alternate days were either 1 or 6 hours. Adult flea yield from carpets was determined 35 days after exposure. Differences between flea yield on control carpets and those exposed for 1 hour were significant only for days +1 and +14. For the 6-hour exposure, differences were significant at all times except on Day +43. The ability of imidacloprid to suppress the yield of adult fleas on carpets (6-hour exposure steadily declined from 82 % (Day +2 to 12 %(Day +43. For the 1-hour exposure it varied inconsistently between 0 and 83 % over the 6-week study period.

  8. Identification of the Rdl mutation in laboratory and field strains of the cat flea, Ctenocephalides felis (Siphonaptera: Pulicidae).

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    Bass, Chris; Schroeder, Iris; Turberg, Andreas; Field, Linda M; Williamson, Martin S

    2004-12-01

    In many insect species, resistance to cyclodiene insecticides is caused by amino acid substitutions at a single residue (A302) within the M2 transmembrane region of the gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) receptor sub-unit termed Rdl (resistance to dieldrin). These mutations (A302S and A302G) have also been shown to confer varying levels of cross-resistance to fipronil, a phenylpyrazole insecticide with a similar mode of action to cyclodienes. To investigate the possible occurrence of these mutations in the cat flea, Ctenocephalides felis (Bouché), a 176-bp fragment of the cat flea Rdl gene, encompassing the mutation site, was PCR amplified and sequenced from nine laboratory flea strains. The A302S mutation was found in eight of the nine strains analysed, although the relative frequency of the mutant allele varied between strains. Only one strain (R6) was found to be homozygous for the S302 allele in all the individuals tested, and this correlated with previous reports of low-level fipronil resistance in this strain. A PCR-based diagnostic assay, capable of screening individual fleas for this mutation, was developed and used to survey a range of fleas collected at random from veterinary clinics in the UK and USA. The A302S mutation was present at a high frequency in these domestic pet populations. 2004 Society of Chemical Industry.

  9. Efficacy of fluralaner flavored chews (Bravecto) administered to dogs against the adult cat flea, Ctenocephalides felis felis and egg production.

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    Dryden, Michael W; Smith, Vicki; Bennett, Tashina; Math, Lisa; Kallman, James; Heaney, Kathleen; Sun, Fangshi

    2015-07-11

    Fluralaner is a potent insecticide and acaricide with rapid and persistent efficacy. This study measured the efficacy of fluralaner flavored chews (Bravecto®, Merck Animal Health) administered to dogs against adult Ctenocephalides felis felis and egg production. Twelve purpose-bred dogs were randomly allocated to two groups of six dogs each. Dogs in treatment group 1 were administered a single fluralaner flavored chew to achieve a minimum dose of at least 25 mg/kg while treatment group 2 served as untreated controls. On Days -2, 28, 56, 84, 91, 98, 105, 112, and 120 post-treatment, each dog was infested with approximately 200 unfed cat fleas, C. felis felis (KS1 strain). Forty-eight hours after treatment and 48 h after each infestation, eggs were collected over a 3-h period, counted and viability determined. Dogs were combed to remove any remaining fleas. Treatment of dogs with oral fluralaner provided a 100% reduction in flea counts 48 h after treatment and within 48 h of every post-treatment infestation through Day122. Egg production from fluralaner treated dogs was reduced by 99.9% (two eggs from one dog) within 48 h after treatment and not a single egg (100% efficacy) was thereafter collected from treated dogs. Adult flea counts and egg production from the fluralaner-treated dogs were significantly lower than for non-treated controls at all post-treatment evaluations (P dog 48 h after treatment did not produce any adult fleas. As no additional eggs were collected from treated dogs, no viability assessment was performed. A single oral dose of fluralaner flavored chews provided 100% efficacy against repeated flea infestations on dogs for 4 months. Fluralaner reduced egg production of activity reproducing female fleas by 99.9% and then killed every single female flea before any eggs could be produced following each subsequent re-infestation for the entire 122-day evaluation period.

  10. Isolation and characterization of a novel Rickettsia species (Rickettsia asembonensis sp. nov.) obtained from cat fleas (Ctenocephalides felis).

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    Maina, Alice N; Luce-Fedrow, Alison; Omulo, Sylvia; Hang, Jun; Chan, Teik-Chye; Ade, Fredrick; Jima, Dereje D; Ogola, Eric; Ge, Hong; Breiman, Robert F; Njenga, Moses K; Richards, Allen L

    2016-11-01

    A novel rickettsial agent, 'Candidatus Rickettsia asembonensis' strain NMRCiiT, was isolated from cat fleas, Ctenocephalides felis, from Kenya. Genotypic characterization of the new isolate based on sequence analysis of five rickettsial genes, rrs, gltA, ompA, ompB and sca4, indicated that this isolate clustered with Rickettsia felis URRWXCal2. The degree of nucleotide similarity demonstrated that isolate NMRCiiT belongs within the genus Rickettsia and fulfils the criteria for classification as a representative of a novel species. The name Rickettsia asembonensis sp. nov. is proposed, with NMRCiiT (=DSM 100172T=CDC CRIRC RAS001T=ATCC VR-1827T) as the type strain.

  11. Parasite spread at the domestic animal - wildlife interface: anthropogenic habitat use, phylogeny and body mass drive risk of cat and dog flea (Ctenocephalides spp.) infestation in wild mammals.

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    Clark, Nicholas J; Seddon, Jennifer M; Šlapeta, Jan; Wells, Konstans

    2018-01-08

    Spillover of parasites at the domestic animal - wildlife interface is a pervasive threat to animal health. Cat and dog fleas (Ctenocephalides felis and C. canis) are among the world's most invasive and economically important ectoparasites. Although both species are presumed to infest a diversity of host species across the globe, knowledge on their distributions in wildlife is poor. We built a global dataset of wild mammal host associations for cat and dog fleas, and used Bayesian hierarchical models to identify traits that predict wildlife infestation probability. We complemented this by calculating functional-phylogenetic host specificity to assess whether fleas are restricted to hosts with similar evolutionary histories, diet or habitat niches. Over 130 wildlife species have been found to harbour cat fleas, representing nearly 20% of all mammal species sampled for fleas. Phylogenetic models indicate cat fleas are capable of infesting a broad diversity of wild mammal species through ecological fitting. Those that use anthropogenic habitats are at highest risk. Dog fleas, by contrast, have been recorded in 31 mammal species that are primarily restricted to certain phylogenetic clades, including canids, felids and murids. Both flea species are commonly reported infesting mammals that are feral (free-roaming cats and dogs) or introduced (red foxes, black rats and brown rats), suggesting the breakdown of barriers between wildlife and invasive reservoir species will increase spillover at the domestic animal - wildlife interface. Our empirical evidence shows that cat fleas are incredibly host-generalist, likely exhibiting a host range that is among the broadest of all ectoparasites. Reducing wild species' contact rates with domestic animals across natural and anthropogenic habitats, together with mitigating impacts of invasive reservoir hosts, will be crucial for reducing invasive flea infestations in wild mammals.

  12. Five-month comparative efficacy evaluation of three ectoparasiticides against adult cat fleas (Ctenocephalides felis), flea egg hatch and emergence, and adult brown dog ticks (Rhipicephalus sanguineus sensu lato) on dogs housed outdoors.

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    Varloud, Marie; Hodgkins, Elizabeth

    2015-03-01

    This study was designed to compare the efficacy of three topical combinations on dogs in outdoor conditions against adult cat fleas (Ctenocephalides felis), flea egg hatch and emergence, and against adult brown dog ticks (Rhipicephalus sanguineus sensu lato). Treatment was performed on day 0 with a placebo; dinotefuran, pyriproxifen and permethrin (DPP); fipronil and (S)-methoprene (FM) or imidacloprid and permethrin (IP). Dogs (n = 32), housed outdoors for 7 months, were treated monthly for four consecutive months (on days 0, 30, 60 and 90) and infested with ~100 unfed adult fleas on days 14, 55, 74, 115 and 150 and with ~50 unfed adult ticks on days 28, 44, 88 and 104. Adult fleas were counted and removed 24 h after infestation. Immediately after flea removal, dogs were reinfested with ~100 new adult fleas 72 h prior to egg collection for up to 48 h. Flea eggs were incubated for 32 days, and newly emerged adults were counted. Ticks were counted and removed 48 h after each infestation. FM had >90 % efficacy against fleas at each time point and variable efficacy against ticks (38.0-99.6 %). Efficacy of IP was 60 days after the last treatment. Despite challenging weather conditions, DPP was highly effective, providing >90 % efficacy against adult ticks as well as adult and immature fleas at every time point of the study.

  13. Efficacy of imidacloprid + moxidectin and selamectin topical solutions against the KS1 Ctenocephalides felis flea strain infesting cats

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    Dryden Michael W

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Two studies were conducted to evaluate and compare the efficacy of imidacloprid + moxidectin and selamectin topical solutions against the KS1 flea strain infesting cats. In both studies the treatment groups were comprised of non-treated controls, 6% w/v selamectin (Revolution®; Pfizer Animal Health topical solution and 10% w/v imidacloprid + 1% w/v moxidectin (Advantage Multi® for Cats, Bayer Animal Health topical solution. All cats were infested with 100 fleas on Days -2, 7, 14, 21, and 28. The difference in the studies was that in study #1 efficacy evaluations were conducted at 24 and 48 hours post-treatment or post-infestation, and in study #2 evaluations were conducted at 12 and 24 hours. Results In study #1 imidacloprid + moxidectin and the selamectin formulation provided 99.8% and 99.0% efficacy at 24 hours post-treatment. On day 28, the 24 hour efficacy of the selamectin formulation dropped to 87.1%, whereas the imidacloprid + moxidectin formulation provided 98.9% efficacy. At the 48 hour assessments following the 28 day infestations, efficacy of the imidacloprid + moxidectin and selamectin formulations was 96.8% and 98.3% respectively. In study # 2 the efficacy of the imidacloprid + moxidectin and selamectin formulations 12 hours after treatment was 100% and 69.4%, respectively. On day 28, efficacy of the imidacloprid + moxidectin and selamectin formulations 12 hours after infestation was 90.2% and 57.3%, respectively. In study #2 both formulations provided high levels of efficacy at the 24 hour post-infestation assessments, with selamectin and imidacloprid + moxidectin providing 95.3% and 97.5% efficacy, following infestations on day 28. Conclusions At the 24 and 48 hour residual efficacy assessments, the imidacloprid + moxidectin and selamectin formulations were similarly highly efficacious. However, the imidacloprid + moxidectin formulation provided a significantly higher rate of flea kill against the KS1 flea

  14. Preventive efficacy of Frontline® Combo and Certifect® against Dipylidium caninum infestation of cats and dogs using a natural flea (Ctenocephalides felis) infestation model.

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    Beugnet, Frederic; Delport, Peet; Luus, Hermann; Crafford, Dione; Fourie, Josephus

    2013-01-01

    Two studies were performed to evaluate the effectiveness of two monthly topical anti-flea products for the prevention of Dipylidium caninum infestations in cats and dogs. A single treatment with Frontline(®) Combo spot-on for cats (fipronil-(S)-methoprene) and two successive monthly treatments of Certifect(®) for dogs (fipronil-amitraz-(S)-methoprene) were assessed for the prevention of D. caninum infestations following weekly challenges of treated cats or dogs with metacestode naturally-infected fleas. The rate of infestations using the model in cats versus dogs explains the choice of a 1-month trial in cats and a 2-month trial in dogs. The experimental flea-infection model resulted in a range of 22-53% of the fleas being infected by Dipylidium cysticercoids. The arithmetic mean flea counts recorded for the untreated cats ranged from 51.2 to 68. The geometric mean flea counts recorded for the Frontline Combo treated cats differed significantly (p caninum proglottids by cats, 100% (6/6) of the control cats and 0% (0/6) of Frontline Combo treated cats were infested with D. caninum. Frontline Combo spot-on for cats was therefore 100% effective in preventing infection with D. caninum. In dogs, 7 out of the 8 control group dogs (87.5%) produced proglottids following infestation of infected fleas, whereas 0 out of 8 dogs (0%) in the treated group were infected. The infection rates of the two groups were significantly different. The percent effectiveness for the Certifect treatment group for the prevention of D. caninum infection was 100% during this 2-month trial. No treatment-related adverse events were observed in either cats or dogs during these studies. © F. Beugnet et al., Published by EDP Sciences 2013.

  15. Preventive efficacy of Frontline® Combo and Certifect® against Dipylidium caninum infestation of cats and dogs using a natural flea (Ctenocephalides felis infestation model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beugnet Frederic

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Two studies were performed to evaluate the effectiveness of two monthly topical anti-flea products for the prevention of Dipylidium caninum infestations in cats and dogs. A single treatment with Frontline® Combo spot-on for cats (fipronil-(S-methoprene and two successive monthly treatments of Certifect® for dogs (fipronil-amitraz-(S-methoprene were assessed for the prevention of D. caninum infestations following weekly challenges of treated cats or dogs with metacestode naturally-infected fleas. The rate of infestations using the model in cats versus dogs explains the choice of a 1-month trial in cats and a 2-month trial in dogs. The experimental flea-infection model resulted in a range of 22–53% of the fleas being infected by Dipylidium cysticercoids. The arithmetic mean flea counts recorded for the untreated cats ranged from 51.2 to 68. The geometric mean flea counts recorded for the Frontline Combo treated cats differed significantly (p < 0.05 from those of the untreated control cats on all assessment days. The arithmetic mean flea counts recorded for the untreated dogs ranged from 166.6 to 238.6. The geometric mean flea counts recorded for the Certifect treated dogs differed significantly (p < 0.001 from those of the untreated group on all assessment days. Frontline Combo treatment on cats provided ≥99.8% persistent anti-flea efficacy throughout the 30-day treatment period. In the dog study, the two Certifect treatments provided ≥97% persistent efficacy throughout the 60-day study. Based on the collection of expelled D. caninum proglottids by cats, 100% (6/6 of the control cats and 0% (0/6 of Frontline Combo treated cats were infested with D. caninum. Frontline Combo spot-on for cats was therefore 100% effective in preventing infection with D. caninum. In dogs, 7 out of the 8 control group dogs (87.5% produced proglottids following infestation of infected fleas, whereas 0 out of 8 dogs (0% in the treated group were infected. The

  16. Evaluation and comparison of a flumethrin-imidacloprid collar and repeated monthly treatments of fipronil/(s)-methoprene to control flea, Ctenocephalides f. felis, infestations on cats for eight months.

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    Dryden, Michael W; Smith, Vicki; Davis, Wendell L; Settje, Terry; Hostetler, Joe

    2016-05-17

    This controlled laboratory study was designed to evaluate the efficacy of the 10 % imidacloprid/4.5 % flumethrin collar (Seresto®, Bayer Animal Health) against fleas (Ctenocephalides f. felis) on cats, when compared to fipronil (9.8 %w/w)/(s)-methoprene (11.8 % w/w) topical spot-on formulation (Frontline® Plus for Cats and Kittens, Merial). Thirty cats were randomized into three groups of ten animals based on pre-treatment flea counts: Group 1: imidacloprid/flumethrin collar; Group 2: fipronil/(s)-methoprene topical spot-on and Group 3: non-treated controls. The imidacloprid/flumethrin collars were applied one time on Day 0, while the fipronil/(s)-methoprene spot-on was administered every 30 days from Day 0 through Day 210. Cats were infested with 100 fleas on study days 0, 7, 14, 29, 59, 89, 119, 149, 179, 209 and 239. All flea counts were conducted by combing to remove fleas on post-treatment days 2, 8, 15, 30, 60, 90, 120, 150, 180, 210 and 240. The efficacy of the imidacloprid/flumethrin collar ranged from 98.2 to 100 % for eight months. The efficacy of fipronil/(s)-methoprene spot-on ranged from 68.2 to 99.9 %. Efficacy was imidacloprid/flumethrin collar group when compared to the fipronil/(s)-methoprene group on Days 90, 150 and 210 (P imidacloprid/flumethrin collar (Seresto®, Bayer Animal Health) maintained excellent ( > 98.2 %) efficacy against fleas on cats for the entire 8 month study. Monthly applications of fipronil/(s)-methoprene (Frontline® Plus for Cats and Kittens, Merial) generally had high, but variable (68.2 to 99.9 %) efficacy over the course of the eight month study. Based on the very high residual efficacy achieved by the imidacloprid/flumethrin collar in this study, veterinarians should expect that this collar will control and eliminate existing flea infestations on cats and in their in-home premises as long as every flea infested host is treated.

  17. Molecular Detection of Rickettsia felis in Humans, Cats, and Cat Fleas in Bangladesh, 2013-2014.

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    Ahmed, Rajib; Paul, Shyamal Kumar; Hossain, Muhammad Akram; Ahmed, Salma; Mahmud, Muhammad Chand; Nasreen, Syeda Anjuman; Ferdouse, Faria; Sharmi, Rumana Hasan; Ahamed, Farid; Ghosh, Souvik; Urushibara, Noriko; Aung, Meiji Soe; Kobayashi, Nobumichi

    2016-05-01

    High prevalence of Rickettsia felis in patients with fever of unknown origin was revealed in the north-central Bangladesh from 2012 to 2013. Subsequently, in this study, prevalence of R. felis in cats and cat fleas (Ctenocephalides felis), together with febrile patients, was studied by PCR detection of 17 kDa antigen gene and DNA sequencing. R. felis was detected in 28% (28/100) and 21% (14/68) of cat blood and cat flea samples, respectively, whereas 42% (21/50) of patients were positive for R. felis. R. felis-positive cat fleas were detected at significantly higher rate on R. felis-positive cats. The results suggested a potential role of cats and cat fleas for transmission of R. felis to humans in Bangladesh.

  18. Modelling the current distribution and predicted spread of the flea species Ctenocephalides felis infesting outdoor dogs in Spain.

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    Gálvez, Rosa; Musella, Vicenzo; Descalzo, Miguel A; Montoya, Ana; Checa, Rocío; Marino, Valentina; Martín, Oihane; Cringoli, Giuseppe; Rinaldi, Laura; Miró, Guadalupe

    2017-09-19

    The cat flea, Ctenocephalides felis, is the most prevalent flea species detected on dogs and cats in Europe and other world regions. The status of flea infestation today is an evident public health concern because of their cosmopolitan distribution and the flea-borne diseases transmission. This study determines the spatial distribution of the cat flea C. felis infesting dogs in Spain. Using geospatial tools, models were constructed based on entomological data collected from dogs during the period 2013-2015. Bioclimatic zones, covering broad climate and vegetation ranges, were surveyed in relation to their size. The models builded were obtained by negative binomial regression of several environmental variables to show impacts on C. felis infestation prevalence: land cover, bioclimatic zone, mean summer and autumn temperature, mean summer rainfall, distance to urban settlement and normalized difference vegetation index. In the face of climate change, we also simulated the future distributions of C. felis for the global climate model (GCM) "GFDL-CM3" and for the representative concentration pathway RCP45, which predicts their spread in the country. Predictive models for current climate conditions indicated the widespread distribution of C. felis throughout Spain, mainly across the central northernmost zone of the mainland. Under predicted conditions of climate change, the risk of spread was slightly greater, especially in the north and central peninsula, than for the current situation. The data provided will be useful for local veterinarians to design effective strategies against flea infestation and the pathogens transmitted by these arthropods.

  19. Rickettsial Infections among Ctenocephalides felis and Host Animals during a Flea-Borne Rickettsioses Outbreak in Orange County, California

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    Fogarty, Carrie; Krueger, Laura; Macaluso, Kevin R.; Odhiambo, Antony; Nguyen, Kiet; Farris, Christina M.; Luce-Fedrow, Alison; Bennett, Stephen; Jiang, Ju; Sun, Sokanary; Cummings, Robert F.; Richards, Allen L.

    2016-01-01

    Due to a resurgence of flea-borne rickettsioses in Orange County, California, we investigated the etiologies of rickettsial infections of Ctenocephalides felis, the predominant fleas species obtained from opossums (Didelphis virginiana) and domestic cats (Felis catus), collected from case exposure sites and other areas in Orange County. In addition, we assessed the prevalence of IgG antibodies against spotted fever group (SFGR) and typhus group (TGR) rickettsiae in opossum sera. Of the 597 flea specimens collected from opossums and cats, 37.2% tested positive for Rickettsia. PCR and sequencing of rickettsial genes obtained from C. felis flea DNA preparations revealed the presence of R. typhi (1.3%), R. felis (28.0%) and R. felis-like organisms (7.5%). Sera from opossums contained TGR-specific (40.84%), but not SFGR-specific antibodies. The detection of R. felis and R. typhi in the C. felis fleas in Orange County highlights the potential risk for human infection with either of these pathogens, and underscores the need for further investigations incorporating specimens from humans, animal hosts, and invertebrate vectors in endemic areas. Such studies will be essential for establishing a link in the ongoing flea-borne rickettsioses outbreaks. PMID:27537367

  20. A survey of cats and dogs for fleas: with particular reference to their role as intermediate hosts of Dipylidium caninum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzman, R F

    1984-05-01

    Three species of fleas, viz. Ctenocephalides felis, Ctenocephalides canis, and Pulex irritans were found in an examination of 81 cats and 48 dogs in Wellington. C. felis was the most prevalent flea in cats, and C. canis predominated in dogs. It is speculated that C. felis, and its primary host the cat, may assume greater medical and veterinary significance than C. canis. In an examination of 1578 fleas for cysticercoids of the dog tapeworm, Dipylidium caninum, all were found negative. These results do not necessarily reflect the availability of cysticercoids in the environment, and the reasons for this are discussed.

  1. Molecular detection of Rickettsia typhi in cats and fleas.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Mercedes Nogueras

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Rickettsiatyphi is the etiological agent of murine typhus (MT, a disease transmitted by two cycles: rat-flea-rat, and peridomestic cycle. Murine typhus is often misdiagnosed and underreported. A correct diagnosis is important because MT can cause severe illness and death. Our previous seroprevalence results pointed to presence of human R. typhi infection in our region; however, no clinical case has been reported. Although cats have been related to MT, no naturally infected cat has been described. The aim of the study is to confirm the existence of R. typhi in our location analyzing its presence in cats and fleas. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: 221 cats and 80 fleas were collected from Veterinary clinics, shelters, and the street (2001-2009. Variables surveyed were: date of collection, age, sex, municipality, living place, outdoor activities, demographic area, healthy status, contact with animals, and ectoparasite infestation. IgG against R. typhi were evaluated by indirect immunofluorescence assay. Molecular detection in cats and fleas was performed by real-time PCR. Cultures were performed in those cats with positive molecular detection. Statistical analysis was carried out using SPSS. A p < 0.05 was considered significant. Thirty-five (15.8% cats were seropositive. There were no significant associations among seropositivity and any variables. R. typhi was detected in 5 blood and 2 cultures. High titres and molecular detection were observed in stray cats and pets, as well as in spring and winter. All fleas were Ctenocephalides felis. R. typhi was detected in 44 fleas (55%, from shelters and pets. Co-infection with R. felis was observed. CONCLUSIONS: Although no clinical case has been described in this area, the presence of R. typhi in cats and fleas is demonstrated. Moreover, a considerable percentage of those animals lived in households. To our knowledge, this is the first time R. typhi is detected in naturally infected cats.

  2. Detection of Rickettsia Species in Fleas Collected from Cats in Regions Endemic and Nonendemic for Flea-Borne Rickettsioses in California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Billeter, Sarah A; Diniz, Pedro Paulo Vissotto de Paiva; Jett, Lindsey A; Wournell, Andrea L; Kjemtrup, Anne M; Padgett, Kerry A; Yoshimizu, Melissa Hardstone; Metzger, Marco E; Barr, Margaret C

    2016-03-01

    Rickettsia typhi, transmitted by rat fleas, causes most human flea-borne rickettsioses worldwide. Another rickettsia, Rickettsia felis, found in cat fleas, Ctenocephalides felis, has also been implicated as a potential human pathogen. In the continental United States, human cases of flea-borne rickettsioses are reported primarily from the southern regions of Texas and California where the cat flea is considered the principal vector. In California, more than 90% of locally acquired human cases are reported from suburban communities within Los Angeles and Orange counties despite the almost ubiquitous presence of cat fleas and their hosts throughout the state. The objective of this study is to assess the presence and infection rate of Rickettsia species in cat fleas from selected endemic and nonendemic regions of California. Cat fleas were collected from cats in Los Angeles County (endemic region) and Sacramento and Contra Costa counties (nonendemic region). Sequencing of 17 amplicons confirmed the presence of R. felis in both the endemic and non-endemic regions with a calculated maximum likelihood estimation of 131 and 234 per 1000 fleas, respectively. R. typhi was not detected in any flea pools. Two R. felis-like genotypes were also detected in fleas from Los Angeles County; Genotype 1 was detected in 1 flea pool and Genotype 2 was found in 10 flea pools. Genotype 1 was also detected in a single flea pool from Sacramento County. Results from this study show that R. felis is widespread in cat flea populations in both flea-borne rickettsioses endemic and nonendemic regions of California, suggesting that a high prevalence of this bacterium in cat fleas does not predispose to increased risk of human infection. Further studies are needed to elucidate the role of R. felis and the two R. felis-like organisms as etiologic agents of human flea-borne rickettsioses in California.

  3. A molecular survey of Rickettsia felis in fleas from cats and dogs in Sicily (Southern Italy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabetta Giudice

    Full Text Available Rickettsia felis, the agent of flea-borne spotted fever, has a cosmopolitan distribution. Its pathogenic role in humans has been demonstrated through molecular and serologic tests in several cases. The cat flea (Ctenocephalides felis is considered the main reservoir and the biological vector. The aim of this study was to assess the presence and occurrence of R. felis in fleas collected from dogs and cats in various sites of Palermo (Sicily. Between August and October 2012, 134 fleas were collected from 42 animals: 37 fleas from 13 dogs and 97 fleas from 29 cats. Two species of fleas were identified: 132 Ctenocephalides felis (98.51% collected on all animals and only two C. canis (1.49% on one dog. Out of 132 C. felis, 34 (25.76%, 12 from dogs (32.43% and 22 (22.68% from cats, were positive for R. felis DNA by a polymerase chain reaction (PCR, confirmed by sequencing. The only two C. canis fleas were negative. About half of examined animals (47.62%, 20/42 were infested with at least one infected flea; in particular 46.15% of dogs (6/13 and 48.28% of cats (14/29. It seems that in the Palermo district there is a peri-domestic cycle, with a relatively high prevalence of R. felis infection in the cat flea, an insect widely diffused in home environments and which can frequently bite humans. The results also suggest that R. felis should be considered in the human differential diagnosis of any spotted-like fever or febrile illness without a clear source of infection in Sicily, especially if the patient is known to have been exposed to flea bites.

  4. Occurrence of Dipylidium caninum in fleas from client-owned cats and dogs in Europe using a new PCR detection assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beugnet, Frédéric; Labuschagne, Michel; Fourie, Josephus; Jacques, Guillot; Farkas, Robert; Cozma, Vasile; Halos, Lénaïg; Hellmann, Klaus; Knaus, Martin; Rehbein, Steffen

    2014-09-15

    Ctenocephalides fleas are not only the most prevalent ectoparasites of dogs and cats but also the intermediate host of the cestode Dipylidium caninum. Due to the poor sensitivity of coproscopy to diagnose cat and dog infestation by Dipylidium, few epidemiological data are available on its prevalence among pet populations. A new PCR method was developed to specifically identify D. caninum rDNA inside single fleas. The PCR test was then applied to 5529 fleas of Ctenocephalides genus, 2701 Ctenocephalides felis fleas (1969 collected on 435 cats and 732 on 178 dogs) and 2828 Ctenocephalides canis fleas collected from 396 dogs. Precisely, 4.37% of cats were infested by a flea population infected with D. caninum. Out of the 1969 C. felis from cats, 2.23% were found to be infected with Dipylidium. From the 396 dogs infested with C. canis, 9.1%% were infested with the Dipylidium infected fleas, which is significantly higher than the observation made in cats (p=0.03). Moreover, 3.1% of the C. canis fleas were found to be infected with Dipylidium, which is not significantly different than in C. felis. Looking at the number of infected fleas in the positive samples (at least one PCR positive flea in a sample), the infestation rate in samples was varied from 3 to 100% with an average of 19.7% which is in favour of easy and regular Dipylidium reinfestations of both cats and dogs in households. For the first time, the spread of D. caninum between fleas and dogs and cats is confirmed throughout Europe. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Dipylidium (Dog and Cat Flea Tapeworm) FAQs

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the most common kind of tapeworm dogs and cats get? The most common tapeworm of dogs and cats in the United States is called Dipylidium caninum . ... infected with a tapeworm larvae. A dog or cat may swallow a flea while self-grooming. Once ...

  6. The Biology and Ecology of Cat Fleas and Advancements in Their Pest Management: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael K. Rust

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The cat flea Ctenocephalides felis felis (Bouché is the most important ectoparasite of domestic cats and dogs worldwide. It has been two decades since the last comprehensive review concerning the biology and ecology of C. f. felis and its management. Since then there have been major advances in our understanding of the diseases associated with C. f. felis and their implications for humans and their pets. Two rickettsial diseases, flea-borne spotted fever and murine typhus, have been identified in domestic animal populations and cat fleas. Cat fleas are the primary vector of Bartonella henselae (cat scratch fever with the spread of the bacteria when flea feces are scratched in to bites or wounds. Flea allergic dermatitis (FAD common in dogs and cats has been successfully treated and tapeworm infestations prevented with a number of new products being used to control fleas. There has been a continuous development of new products with novel chemistries that have focused on increased convenience and the control of fleas and other arthropod ectoparasites. The possibility of feral animals serving as potential reservoirs for flea infestations has taken on additional importance because of the lack of effective environmental controls in recent years. Physiological insecticide resistance in C. f. felis continues to be of concern, especially because pyrethroid resistance now appears to be more widespread. In spite of their broad use since 1994, there is little evidence that resistance has developed to many of the on-animal or oral treatments such as fipronil, imidacloprid or lufenuron. Reports of the perceived lack of performance of some of the new on-animal therapies have been attributed to compliance issues and their misuse. Consequentially, there is a continuing need for consumer awareness of products registered for cats and dogs and their safety.

  7. The Biology and Ecology of Cat Fleas and Advancements in Their Pest Management: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    The cat flea Ctenocephalides felis felis (Bouché) is the most important ectoparasite of domestic cats and dogs worldwide. It has been two decades since the last comprehensive review concerning the biology and ecology of C. f. felis and its management. Since then there have been major advances in our understanding of the diseases associated with C. f. felis and their implications for humans and their pets. Two rickettsial diseases, flea-borne spotted fever and murine typhus, have been identified in domestic animal populations and cat fleas. Cat fleas are the primary vector of Bartonella henselae (cat scratch fever) with the spread of the bacteria when flea feces are scratched in to bites or wounds. Flea allergic dermatitis (FAD) common in dogs and cats has been successfully treated and tapeworm infestations prevented with a number of new products being used to control fleas. There has been a continuous development of new products with novel chemistries that have focused on increased convenience and the control of fleas and other arthropod ectoparasites. The possibility of feral animals serving as potential reservoirs for flea infestations has taken on additional importance because of the lack of effective environmental controls in recent years. Physiological insecticide resistance in C. f. felis continues to be of concern, especially because pyrethroid resistance now appears to be more widespread. In spite of their broad use since 1994, there is little evidence that resistance has developed to many of the on-animal or oral treatments such as fipronil, imidacloprid or lufenuron. Reports of the perceived lack of performance of some of the new on-animal therapies have been attributed to compliance issues and their misuse. Consequentially, there is a continuing need for consumer awareness of products registered for cats and dogs and their safety. PMID:29077073

  8. Prevalence of fleas and gastrointestinal parasites in free-roaming cats in central Mexico.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Germinal J Cantó

    Full Text Available The prevalence of fleas and gastrointestinal parasites in free-roaming and domestic cats in central Mexico was evaluated. Three hundred and fifty eight cats captured in the street or brought in by owners to the Animal Control Center Unit, a unit of State Government, from June 2010 to May 2011, were included in the study. All cats were examined for the presence of fleas and gastrointestinal worms. One-hundred and ninety (53% cats were infested with at least one flea species. Single infestations were observed in 106 (30% cats and mixed infestations in 84 (23% cats. Four species of fleas were recovered: Ctenocephalides felis in 53% of the cats, C. canis in 18%, Echidnophaga gallinacea in 7% and Pulex irritans in 1%. One-hundred and sixty three (45% cats were infected with one or more species of gastrointestinal parasites: 48 (13% with nematodes, 145 (40% with cestodes, and one animal presented Moniliformis moniliformis. Prevalences and mean intensity of infection were: Physaloptera praeputialis 7 and 18; T. cati 3 and 2; Ancylostoma tubaeforme 2.5 and 2; Toxascaris leonina 0.5 and 2; Dipylidium caninum 36 and 32; Taenia taeniformis 4 and 3 and Moniliformis moniliformis 0.3 and 106, respectively. There was significant association (P0.05. The correlation between the total number of ectoparasites and endoparasites was not significant (r = 0.089, P = 0.094.

  9. Prevalence of Fleas and Gastrointestinal Parasites in Free-Roaming Cats in Central Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantó, Germinal J.; Guerrero, Roberto I.; Olvera-Ramírez, Andrea M.; Milián, Feliciano; Mosqueda, Juan; Aguilar-Tipacamú, Gabriela

    2013-01-01

    The prevalence of fleas and gastrointestinal parasites in free-roaming and domestic cats in central Mexico was evaluated. Three hundred and fifty eight cats captured in the street or brought in by owners to the Animal Control Center Unit, a unit of State Government, from June 2010 to May 2011, were included in the study. All cats were examined for the presence of fleas and gastrointestinal worms. One-hundred and ninety (53%) cats were infested with at least one flea species. Single infestations were observed in 106 (30%) cats and mixed infestations in 84 (23%) cats. Four species of fleas were recovered: Ctenocephalides felis in 53% of the cats, C. canis in 18%, Echidnophaga gallinacea in 7% and Pulex irritans in 1%. One-hundred and sixty three (45%) cats were infected with one or more species of gastrointestinal parasites: 48 (13%) with nematodes, 145 (40%) with cestodes, and one animal presented Moniliformis moniliformis. Prevalences and mean intensity of infection were: Physaloptera praeputialis 7 and 18; T. cati 3 and 2; Ancylostoma tubaeforme 2.5 and 2; Toxascaris leonina 0.5 and 2; Dipylidium caninum 36 and 32; Taenia taeniformis 4 and 3 and Moniliformis moniliformis 0.3 and 106, respectively. There was significant association (P0.05). The correlation between the total number of ectoparasites and endoparasites was not significant (r = 0.089, P = 0.094). PMID:23573282

  10. Preventive efficacy of NexGard Spectra® against Dipylidium caninum infection in dogs using a natural flea (Ctenocephalides felis) infestation model

    OpenAIRE

    Beugnet Frédéric; Meyer Leon; Fourie Josephus; Larsen Diane

    2017-01-01

    The efficacy of a monthly oral endectocide product, NexGard Spectra? (Merial), a combination of afoxolaner and milbemycin oxime, was evaluated in a flea (Ctenocephalides felis) challenge model for the prevention of Dipylidium caninum tapeworm infection in dogs. The efficacy of treatment with NexGard Spectra? was assessed in 10 dogs following weekly flea infestation with metacestode naturally infected fleas and compared with that in 10 untreated control dogs. The 100 fleas deposited weekly on ...

  11. Ectoparasites in urban stray cats in Jerusalem, Israel: differences in infestation patterns of fleas, ticks and permanent ectoparasites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salant, H; Mumcuoglu, K Y; Baneth, G

    2014-09-01

    In a period cross-sectional study performed to examine ectoparasites on 340 stray cats in Jerusalem, Israel, 186 (54.7%) were infested with the cat flea, Ctenocephalides felis (Siphonaptera: Pulicidae), 49 (14.4%) with the cat louse, Felicola subrostratus (Phthiraptera: Trichodectidae), 41 (12.0%) with the ear mite, Otodectes cynotis (Astigmata: Psoroptidae), three (0.9%) with the fur mite, Cheyletiella blakei (Trobidiformes: Cheyletidae), two (0.6%) with the itch mite Notoedres cati (Astigmata: Sarcoptidae), and 25 (7.3%) with ticks of the species Rhipicephalus sanguineus sensu lato (Ixodida: Ixodidae), Rhipicephalus turanicus or Haemaphysalis adleri (Ixodida: Ixodidae). A higher number of flea infestations was observed in apparently sick cats (P < 0.05) and in cats aged < 6 months (P < 0.05). The proportion of flea-infested cats (P < 0.01), as well as the number of fleas per infested cat (P < 0.01), was higher in autumn than in other seasons. By contrast with findings in cats with flea infestations, rates of infestation with ticks were higher amongst cats with clinical signs (P < 0.01) and cats aged ≥ 6 months (P < 0.05). The high rates of ectoparasite infestation in the cats studied constitute a risk for the spread of vector-borne infections of zoonotic and veterinary importance. © 2013 The Royal Entomological Society.

  12. Effect of Rickettsia felis Strain Variation on Infection, Transmission, and Fitness in the Cat Flea (Siphonaptera: Pulicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healy, Sean P; Brown, Lisa D; Hagstrom, Melena R; Foil, Lane D; Macaluso, Kevin R

    2017-07-01

    Rickettsia felis is a human pathogen transmitted by the cat flea, Ctenocephalides felis (Bouché) (str. LSU), as well as an obligate symbiont of the parthenogenic booklouse Liposcelis bostrychophila (Badonnel) (str. LSU-Lb). The influence of genetic variability in these two strains of R. felis on host specialization and fitness and possible resulting differences on infection and transmission kinetics in C. felis is unknown. Utilizing an artificial host system, cat fleas were exposed to a R. felis str. LSU-Lb-infected bloodmeal and monitored for infection at 7-d intervals for 28 d. Quantitative real-time PCR was used to determine rickettsial load and infection density in newly exposed cat fleas, and transmission frequency between cat fleas. The effect of persistent R. felis infection on cat flea F1 progeny was also assessed. At 7 d postexposure 76.7% of the cat fleas successfully acquired R. felis str. LSU-Lb. In R. felis str. LSU-Lb-exposed cat fleas, the mean infection load (6.15 × 106), infection density (0.76), and infection prevalence (91/114) were significantly greater than R. felis str. LSU infection load (3.09 × 106), infection density (0.68), and infection prevalence (76/113). A persistent R. felis str. LSU-Lb infection was detected for 28 d in adult cat fleas but neither female:male ratio distortion nor vertical transmission was observed in F1 progeny. While infection kinetics differed, with higher intensity associated with R. felis str. LSU-Lb, no distinct phenotype was observed in the F1 progeny. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America.

  13. Fleas

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... small insects that feed on the blood of humans, dogs, cats, and other warm-blooded animals. ... Fleas prefer to live on dogs and cats. They may also be found on ... not be bothered by fleas until their pet has been gone for a ...

  14. Assessing Cat Flea Microbiomes in Northern and Southern California by 16S rRNA Next-Generation Sequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasconcelos, Elton J R; Billeter, Sarah A; Jett, Lindsey A; Meinersmann, Richard J; Barr, Margaret C; Diniz, Pedro P V P; Oakley, Brian B

    2018-06-12

    Flea-borne diseases (FBDs) impact both human and animal health worldwide. Because adult fleas are obligately hematophagous and can harbor potential pathogens, fleas act as ectoparasites of vertebrates, as well as zoonotic disease vectors. Cat fleas (Ctenocephalides felis) are important vectors of two zoonotic bacterial genera listed as priority pathogens by the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID-USA): Bartonella spp. and Rickettsia spp., causative agents of bartonelloses and rickettsioses, respectively. In this study, we introduce the first microbiome analysis of C. felis samples from California, determining the presence and abundance of relevant pathogenic genera by characterizing the cat flea microbiome through 16S rRNA next-generation sequencing (16S-NGS). Samples from both northern (NoCal) and southern (SoCal) California were assessed to expand current knowledge regarding FBDs in the state. We identified Rickettsia and Bartonella, as well as the endosymbiont Wolbachia, as the most abundant genera, followed by less abundant taxa. In comparison to our previous study screening Californian cat fleas for rickettsiae using PCR/digestion/sequencing of the ompB gene, the 16S-NGS approach applied herein showed a 95% level of agreement in detecting Rickettsia spp. There was no overall difference in microbiome diversity between NoCal and SoCal samples. Bacterial taxa identified by 16S-NGS in this study may help to improve epidemiological investigations, pathogen surveillance efforts, and clinical diagnostics of FBDs in California and elsewhere.

  15. Flea (Ctenocephalides felis) control efficacy of topical indoxacarb on dogs subsequently bathed with a chlorhexidine-ketoconazole shampoo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, R D; Liebenberg, J E; Heaney, K; Guerino, F

    2015-08-01

    An evaluation of the effect of chlorhexidine/ketoconazole shampoo baths on the flea control efficacy of indoxacarb applied topically to dogs. We randomly allocated 18 healthy mixed-breed dogs to 3 groups: shampoo only; indoxacarb treated and medicated shampoo; and indoxacarb treated but not shampooed. Indoxacarb was administered on day 0 and dogs were shampooed on days 9 and 23. Dogs were infested with 100 adult Ctenocephalides felis initially 2 days before treatment and then weekly from days 7 to 28. Fleas were removed and counted 48 h post-infestation. Medicated shampoo use did not significantly reduce indoxacarb efficacy against C. felis. © 2015 MSD Animal Health. Australian Veterinary Journal published by Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd on behalf of Australian Veterinary Association.

  16. Flea (Ctenocephalides felis) control efficacy of topical indoxacarb on dogs subsequently bathed with a chlorhexidine–ketoconazole shampoo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liebenberg, JE; Heaney, K; Guerino, F

    2015-01-01

    Objective An evaluation of the effect of chlorhexidine/ketoconazole shampoo baths on the flea control efficacy of indoxacarb applied topically to dogs. Methods and Results We randomly allocated 18 healthy mixed‐breed dogs to 3 groups: shampoo only; indoxacarb treated and medicated shampoo; and indoxacarb treated but not shampooed. Indoxacarb was administered on day 0 and dogs were shampooed on days 9 and 23. Dogs were infested with 100 adult Ctenocephalides felis initially 2 days before treatment and then weekly from days 7 to 28. Fleas were removed and counted 48 h post‐infestation. Conclusion Medicated shampoo use did not significantly reduce indoxacarb efficacy against C. felis. PMID:26220323

  17. Effects on the development of Dipylidium caninum and on the host reaction to this parasite in the adult flea (Ctenocephalides felis felis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pugh, R E

    1987-01-01

    Temperature was found to be a major factor affecting the development of Dipylidium caninum and the presence of a host reaction of adult Ctenocephalides felis felis to D. caninum. Adult fleas reared at 30-32 degrees C contained fully developed metacestodes when they emerged from their cocoons. However at lower temperatures, D. caninum could not complete development until the flea hosts had spent some time on their mammalian hosts. It was the surface temperature of the mammals (31-36 degrees C) and not the fleas' blood meals which resulted in the metacestodes completing their development. This development of D. caninum was therefore independent of the flea development. At 20 degrees C, a larger and more prolonged host reaction was mounted than at higher temperatures. The larval flea diet had a small effect on the subsequent cestode development and the adult fleas' reaction to it.

  18. Prophylactic treatment of flea-infested cats with an imidacloprid/flumethrin collar to forestall infection with Dipylidium caninum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fourie, Josephus J; Crafford, Dionne; Horak, Ivan G; Stanneck, Dorothee

    2012-07-27

    The objective of the study was to determine the sustained effectiveness of 10% imidacloprid (w/w) and 4.5% flumethrin (w/w) incorporated in a slow-release matrix collar in preventing Dipylidium caninum infection in cats following repeated laboratory-infestations with fleas infected with metacestodes. Efficacy against infection with D. caninum was evaluated by infesting 16 cats with the flea Ctenocephalides felis felis infected with metacestodes of the tapeworm. Medicated collars were fitted to 8 of the cats and infestation of each cat with 200 fleas from a suitably infected batch commenced 7 days later and continued at weekly intervals until Day 28. Efficacy against fleas was evaluated 24 h after each infestation. Infection of the cats with D. caninum was verified by daily examination of the cats' faeces and immediate surroundings for proglottids from Day 21 to Day 60. Calculation of the prophylactic effectiveness of the collars in preventing infection of the cats with D. caninum was based on the difference in the geometric mean number of scoleces recovered from the gastrointestinal tracts of collared compared to untreated cats at necropsy on Day 61. Efficacy of the collars against infestation of the cats with fleas was 99.9% on Day 7 and 100% at each subsequent weekly assessment. Infection of the fleas with metacestodes was ≥40% in 7 to 13 day old fleas, but progressively decreased thereafter. At necropsy all the control cats were infected with D. caninum and harboured between 19 and 346 scoleces with a geometric mean of 58.3. A single treated cat was infected and harboured 2 scoleces. Effective prevention of infection with D. caninum, based on a comparison of the geometric mean numbers of scoleces recovered from control and treated cats, was 99.7%. The insecticidal components of the medicated collars are capable of rapidly eliminating newly-acquired infestations of fleas that are infected with the metacestodes of D. caninum, thus preventing infection with the

  19. Prophylactic treatment of flea-infested cats with an imidacloprid/flumethrin collar to forestall infection with Dipylidium caninum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fourie Josephus J

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The objective of the study was to determine the sustained effectiveness of 10% imidacloprid (w/w and 4.5% flumethrin (w/w incorporated in a slow-release matrix collar in preventing Dipylidium caninum infection in cats following repeated laboratory-infestations with fleas infected with metacestodes. Methods Efficacy against infection with D. caninum was evaluated by infesting 16 cats with the flea Ctenocephalides felis felis infected with metacestodes of the tapeworm. Medicated collars were fitted to 8 of the cats and infestation of each cat with 200 fleas from a suitably infected batch commenced 7 days later and continued at weekly intervals until Day 28. Efficacy against fleas was evaluated 24 h after each infestation. Infection of the cats with D. caninum was verified by daily examination of the cats’ faeces and immediate surroundings for proglottids from Day 21 to Day 60. Calculation of the prophylactic effectiveness of the collars in preventing infection of the cats with D. caninum was based on the difference in the geometric mean number of scoleces recovered from the gastrointestinal tracts of collared compared to untreated cats at necropsy on Day 61. Results Efficacy of the collars against infestation of the cats with fleas was 99.9% on Day 7 and 100% at each subsequent weekly assessment. Infection of the fleas with metacestodes was ≥40% in 7 to 13 day old fleas, but progressively decreased thereafter. At necropsy all the control cats were infected with D. caninum and harboured between 19 and 346 scoleces with a geometric mean of 58.3. A single treated cat was infected and harboured 2 scoleces. Effective prevention of infection with D. caninum, based on a comparison of the geometric mean numbers of scoleces recovered from control and treated cats, was 99.7%. Conclusion The insecticidal components of the medicated collars are capable of rapidly eliminating newly-acquired infestations of fleas that are infected

  20. Systemic activity of the avermectins against the cat flea (Siphonaptera: Pulicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakson-Aiken, M; Gregory, L M; Meinke, P T; Shoop, W L

    2001-07-01

    Ivermectin has potent systemic activity against numerous species of nematodes and arthropods, but there are some important species in these two groups, such as the cat flea, Ctenocephalides felis (Bouché), that appear to be refractory to it. In an effort to determine if the lack of systemic activity against C. felis is specific to ivermectin, or if it is a class-wide phenomenon, 20 avermectin derivatives were tested in an artificial membrane flea feeding system at concentrations of 20, 10, and 1 microg/ml. Results showed that ivermectin had LC90 and LC50 values against fleas of 19.1 and 9.9 microg/ml, respectively. Only four of the other 19 compounds evaluated possessed both LC90 and LC50 values more potent than ivermectin and even then the advantage was modest. Among those four compounds was a two-fold increase in potency relative to ivermectin when the LC90 values were considered (range, 9.2-10.3 microg/ml) and a two- to eight-fold increase when the LC50 values were examined (range, 1.23-5.26 microg/ml). Neither the possession nor the number of oleandrosyl sugars on the macrocyclic backbone were relevant for additional flea activity because among these four compounds were two disaccharides, a monosaccharide and an aglycone. Also, bond disposition between C-22 and 23 did not contribute to increase in activity because these molecules comprise members with either single or double bonds. One of these avermectin analogs was scaled-up and tested subcutaneously in a dog at >100 times the commercial ivermectin dosage and zero efficacy was observed against the flea. We conclude that even the best in vitro avermectin does not have the in vivo potential to become a commercial oral or subcutaneous flea treatment for companion animals.

  1. Preventive efficacy of NexGard Spectra® against Dipylidium caninum infection in dogs using a natural flea (Ctenocephalides felis infestation model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beugnet Frédéric

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The efficacy of a monthly oral endectocide product, NexGard Spectra® (Merial, a combination of afoxolaner and milbemycin oxime, was evaluated in a flea (Ctenocephalides felis challenge model for the prevention of Dipylidium caninum tapeworm infection in dogs. The efficacy of treatment with NexGard Spectra® was assessed in 10 dogs following weekly flea infestation with metacestode naturally infected fleas and compared with that in 10 untreated control dogs. The 100 fleas deposited weekly on each dog were not removed until Day 35, allowing enough time for their ingestion. The microscopical analysis of 30 fleas from the flea batches before each weekly challenge demonstrated that 10–33% of the fleas were infected by D. caninum cysticercoid larvae. The arithmetic mean flea count recorded was 47.7 for the 10 untreated dogs and 0 for the 10 treated dogs at Day 35. Based on the daily collection of expelled D. caninum proglottids by dogs during the 70 days of the study, 70% (7/10 of the control dogs and 0% (0/10 of the treated dogs were infected with D. caninum (p < 0.0031. Through its efficacy against fleas, NexGard Spectra® treatment provided indirect prevention of D. caninum infestation. No treatment-related adverse events were observed in dogs during this study.

  2. Preventive efficacy of NexGard Spectra® against Dipylidium caninum infection in dogs using a natural flea (Ctenocephalides felis) infestation model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beugnet, Frédéric; Meyer, Leon; Fourie, Josephus; Larsen, Diane

    2017-01-01

    The efficacy of a monthly oral endectocide product, NexGard Spectra ® (Merial), a combination of afoxolaner and milbemycin oxime, was evaluated in a flea (Ctenocephalides felis) challenge model for the prevention of Dipylidium caninum tapeworm infection in dogs. The efficacy of treatment with NexGard Spectra ® was assessed in 10 dogs following weekly flea infestation with metacestode naturally infected fleas and compared with that in 10 untreated control dogs. The 100 fleas deposited weekly on each dog were not removed until Day 35, allowing enough time for their ingestion. The microscopical analysis of 30 fleas from the flea batches before each weekly challenge demonstrated that 10-33% of the fleas were infected by D. caninum cysticercoid larvae. The arithmetic mean flea count recorded was 47.7 for the 10 untreated dogs and 0 for the 10 treated dogs at Day 35. Based on the daily collection of expelled D. caninum proglottids by dogs during the 70 days of the study, 70% (7/10) of the control dogs and 0% (0/10) of the treated dogs were infected with D. caninum (p caninum infestation. No treatment-related adverse events were observed in dogs during this study. © F. Beugnet et al., published by EDP Sciences, 2017.

  3. Fleas and Flea-Associated Bartonella Species in Dogs and Cats from Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizzo, M F; Billeter, S A; Osikowicz, L; Luna-Caipo, D V; Cáceres, A G; Kosoy, M

    2015-11-01

    In the present study, we investigated 238 fleas collected from cats and dogs in three regions of Peru (Ancash, Cajamarca, and Lima) for the presence of Bartonella DNA. Bartonella spp. were detected by amplification of the citrate synthase gene (16.4%) and the 16S-23S intergenic spacer region (20.6%). Bartonella rochalimae was the most common species detected followed by Bartonella clarridgeiae and Bartonella henselae. Our results demonstrate that dogs and cats in Peru are infested with fleas harboring zoonotic Bartonella spp. and these infected fleas could pose a disease risk for humans. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America 2015. This work is written by US Government employees and is in the public domain in the US.

  4. Identification, cloning, and characterization of a major cat flea salivary allergen (Cte f 1).

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDermott, M J; Weber, E; Hunter, S; Stedman, K E; Best, E; Frank, G R; Wang, R; Escudero, J; Kuner, J; McCall, C

    2000-05-01

    An 18 kDa protein isolated from saliva of the cat flea, Ctenocephalides felis, elicits a positive intradermal skin test (IDST) in 100 and 80% of experimental and clinical flea allergic dogs, respectively. Using solid-phase enzyme-linked immuno assay (ELISA), this protein detected IgE in 100 and 80% of experimental and clinical flea allergic dogs, respectively. A cDNA (pFSI) encoding a full-length Cte f 1 protein was isolated from a C. felis salivary gland cDNA library, using a combination of PCR and hybridization screening. This cDNA is 658 bp in length, and contains an open reading frame of 528 bp. The open reading frame encodes a protein of 176 amino acids, consisting of an 18 amino acid signal sequence and a 158 amino acid mature protein. The calculated molecular weight and pI of the mature protein are 18106 Da and 9.3, respectively. The protein, named Cte f 1, is the first novel major allergen described for canine flea allergy. Recombinant Cte f 1 (rCte f 1) was expressed in Escherichia coli, Pichia pastoris and baculovirus infected Trichoplusia ni cells. Approximately, 90% of the rCte f 1 expressed in E. coli accumulated in insoluble inclusion bodies, which could be refolded to a soluble mixture of disulfide isomers with partial IgE binding activity. Small quantities of an apparently correctly refolded form of rCte f 1, which had IgE binding activity equal to the native antigen, was isolated from the soluble fraction of E. coli cells. However, P. pastoris and baculovirus infected insect cells expressed and secreted a fully processed, correctly refolded and fully active form of rCte f 1. Mass spectrometry analysis of the active forms of rCte f 1confirmed that eight intact disulfide bonds were present, matching the number observed in the native allergen. The relative ability of rCte f 1 to bind IgE in the serum of flea allergic animals, produced in these three expression systems, matched that of the native allergen. Competition ELISA demonstrated that

  5. Parasites of domestic and wild animals in South Africa. XLIV. Fleas (Insecta : Siphonaptera : Pulicidae collected from 15 carnivore species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.G. Horak

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available Fleas were collected from 61 wild carnivores belonging to 13 species in various nature reserves and on farms, two feral domestic cats in a nature reserve and a domestic dog in the city of Johannesburg. Eleven flea species, including two subspecies of one of these, belonging to six genera were recovered. Amongst these only Ctenocephalides felis felis and Ctenocephalides felis strongylus are considered specific parasites of carnivores. The remaining ten species normally infest the prey animals of the various carnivores.

  6. Efficacy of fipronil, amitraz and (S)-methoprene combination spot-on for dogs against adult dog fleas (Ctenocephalides canis, Curtis, 1826).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouhsira, Emilie; Yoon, Stephen S; Roques, Martine; Manavella, Coralie; Vermot, Solange; Cramer, Luiz G; Ollagnier, Catherine; Franc, Michel

    2011-07-15

    A novel spot-on formulation combining fipronil, amitraz and (S)-methoprene (CERTIFECT™, Merial Limited, GA, USA) was evaluated in adult Beagle dogs in a study to determine its adulticidal efficacy against the dog flea (Ctenocephalides canis, Curtis, 1826). Sixteen dogs were randomly allocated to treatment groups: 8 dogs served as untreated controls, and 8 dogs were treated once. Treatment consisted of applying a new combination formulation to deliver at least 6.7mg fipronil/kg body weight (bw), 8.0mg amitraz/kg bw, and 6.0mg (S)-methoprene/kg bw. The combination was designed to enhance the efficacy against ticks of the original fipronil/(S)-methoprene combination. Each dog was infested with 100 adult unfed dog fleas within 24h prior to treatment and then at weekly intervals for 8 weeks after treatment. At 24h after treatment or after each subsequent infestation, each dog was combed thoroughly to remove live fleas to be counted. A single treatment with CERTIFECT provided excellent knock-down of fleas within 24h after treatment and controlled re-infestations for up to 7 weeks (efficacy ≥96.5%, p<0.05). Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Knock-down and speed of kill of a combination of fipronil and permethrin for the prevention of Ctenocephalides felis flea infestation in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halos, Lénaïg; Fourie, Josephus J; Fankhauser, Becky; Beugnet, Frederic

    2016-02-02

    A topical combination of fipronil + permethrin (Frontline Tri-Act/Frontect, Merial) has recently been developed to control fleas, ticks, mosquitoes, sandflies and stable flies on dogs. Two studies were conducted to assess its speed of kill and knock-down effect on Ctenocephalides felis fleas. The combination was compared to either fipronil alone or to a combination of permethrin, dinotefuran, and pyriproxyfen, In each study, 18 dogs were randomly allocated to one of three groups: (Group 1: untreated dog; Group 2: treated once on D0 with the combination of fipronil and permethrin; Group 3: treated once on D0 either with fipronil alone (study 1) or with a combination of permethrin, dinetofuran and pyriproxyfen (study 2)). Each dog was infested with 100 unfed adult C. felis fleas on Days 2 (study 2), 7, 14, 21 and 28. Fleas were collected from dogs at 1 h and 12 h post- infestations (PI) (study 1) or at 2 h and 6 h PI (study 2) to assess efficacy and from collection pans underneath cages 1 h (study 1) or 5 min (study 2) PI to assess knock-down effect. All treated dogs had significantly (p ≤ 0.01) lower flea counts than untreated dogs at every time point in both studies. For a whole month, a significant knock-down effect against infesting fleas is obtained in five minutes PI with the combination of permethrin and fipronil. Complete efficacy (>95%) was achieved in 1 h (study 1) or 2 h (study 2) PI for 14 days and by 6 h PI for all challenges conducted throughout the month. Efficacy remains >85% at 2 h PI for the whole month. A significantly higher efficacy of the fipronil + permethrin combination compared to other treatments was demonstrated at the earliest time points for the month (1 h knock-down effect and insecticidal efficacy compared to fipronil alone; 5 min knock-down effect compared to the combination of permethrin + dinetofuran + pyriproxyfen). The rapid flea knock-down effect and speed of kill demonstrated by the spot on combination of

  8. Detection of Rickettsia in Rhipicephalus sanguineus Ticks and Ctenocephalides felis Fleas from Southeastern Tunisia by Reverse Line Blot Assay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khrouf, Fatma; M'Ghirbi, Youmna; Znazen, Abir; Ben Jemaa, Mounir; Hammami, Adnene

    2014-01-01

    Ticks (n = 663) and fleas (n = 470) collected from domestic animals from southeastern Tunisia were screened for Rickettsia infection using reverse line blot assay. Evidence of spotted fever group Rickettsia was obtained. We detected Rickettsia felis in fleas, Rickettsia massiliae Bar 29 and the Rickettsia conorii Israeli spotted fever strain in ticks, and Rickettsia conorii subsp. conorii and Rickettsia spp. in both arthropods. The sensitivity of the adopted technique allowed the identification of a new association between fleas and R. conorii subsp. conorii species. The presence of these vector-borne Rickettsia infections should be considered when diagnosing this disease in humans in Tunisia. PMID:24226919

  9. Coexistence of Bartonella henselae and B. clarridgeiae in populations of cats and their fleas in Guatemala.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Ying; Rizzo, Maria Fernanda; Alvarez, Danilo; Moran, David; Peruski, Leonard F; Kosoy, Michael

    2015-12-01

    Cats and their fleas collected in Guatemala were investigated for the presence of Bartonella infections. Bartonella bacteria were cultured from 8.2% (13/159) of cats, and all cultures were identified as B. henselae. Molecular analysis allowed detection of Bartonella DNA in 33.8% (48/142) of cats and in 22.4% (34/152) of cat fleas using gltA, nuoG, and 16S-23S internal transcribed spacer targets. Two Bartonella species, B. henselae and B. clarridgeiae, were identified in cats and cat fleas by molecular analysis, with B. henselae being more common than B. clarridgeiae in the cats (68.1%; 32/47 vs 31.9%; 15/47). The nuoG was found to be less sensitive for detecting B. clarridgeiae compared with other molecular targets and could detect only two of the 15 B. clarridgeiae-infected cats. No significant differences were observed for prevalence between male and female cats and between different age groups. No evident association was observed between the presence of Bartonella species in cats and in their fleas. © 2015 The Society for Vector Ecology.

  10. Integrated morphological and molecular identification of cat fleas (Ctenocephalides felis) and dog fleas (Ctenocephalides canis) vectoring Rickettsia felis in central Europe

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Lawrence, A.L.; Hii, S.-F.; Jirsová, D.; Panáková, L.; Ionică, A.M.; Gilchrist, K.; Modrý, David; Mihalca, A. D.; Webb, C.E.; Traub, R.J.; Šlapeta, J.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 210, 3-4 (2015), s. 215-223 ISSN 0304-4017 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Arthropod * Siphonaptera * Zoonosis * Bartonella * Taxonomy * cox1 Subject RIV: GJ - Animal Vermins ; Diseases, Veterinary Medicine Impact factor: 2.242, year: 2015

  11. Comparative efficacy on dogs of a single topical treatment with fipronil/(S-methoprene or weekly physiological hygiene shampoos against Ctenocephalides felis in a simulated flea-infested environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beugnet F.

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Flea infestations of pets continue to persist due to the lack of knowledge of flea biology and ecology. It is not unusual that pet owners believe regular hygiene, such as shampooing their dogs can replace regular insecticidal treatment. The objective of this study was to compare in a flea simulated environment, modelling exposure similar to that found in a home, that the use of regular physiological shampoo does not control fleas adequately when compared to a long acting topical formulation. Three groups of six dogs were formed: one untreated control group, one group treated monthly with the topical formulation of fipronil/(S-methoprene, and a third group treated weekly with a hygiene shampoo. All dogs were infested with adult unfed Ctenocephalides felis fleas (200 ± 5 on Days -28 and -21. Each animal’s sleeping box was fitted with a plastic cup mounted to the inside roof of the box. The sleeping bench of each animal was covered with a carpet to accommodate flea development. The dogs were maintained in their kennels throughout the study. In order to maintain the environmental flea challenge, C. felis pupae (100 ± 5 were placed in the plastic cup in each animal’s sleeping box on Days -14, -7, 0, 7, 14, 21, 28, 35 and 42. The dogs were combed and fleas counted weekly on Days -1, 3, 10, 17, 24, 31, 38, 45, and 51. The fleas were placed immediately back on the dogs. On Day 60, fleas were counted and removed. Flea infestations in the untreated control group at each count averaged between 46.2 and 74.2 fleas throughout the study. The average number of fleas infesting dogs was significantly different (p < 0.05 between the untreated and the two treatment groups and between the two treatment groups at all counts throughout the two months study (Days 3, 10, 17, 24, 31, 38, 45, 51 and 60. The efficacy was never below 99.1% in the fipronil/(S-methoprene group, and efficacy in the shampoo group was never above 79.2%. Weekly shampooing in treatment

  12. Rickettsia felis in fleas from Catalonia (Northeast Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nogueras, María-Mercedes; Pons, Immaculada; Ortuño, Anna; Lario, Sergio; Segura, Ferran

    2011-05-01

    Rickettsia felis produces a syndrome indistinguishable from murine typhus, which has been described in Spain. R. felis is transmitted to humans by fleas. Although no clinical case has been described so far, serologic evidence of infections in humans, cats, and dogs has been obtained in our area. However, no study has been conducted regarding its presence in vectors. Recognition of routes of transmission is of great importance to prevent infection in humans. Taking into account these results, R. felis seems to be present in animals that are in contact with humans. The aim of this study was to determine the presence of R. felis in the fleas of cats and dogs from Northeast Spain, to show the presence of peridomestic cycle in our area. Between May 2006 and July 2008, 78 fleas were collected. Sixty-three fleas were recovered from kennels. Most of them were collected from cages and a few of them on dogs and cats living in kennels. Fifteen fleas were collected from dogs and cats attended at a veterinary clinic. Fleas were rinsed with ethanol, dried, identified, and stored at 4°C. DNA was extracted from each flea individually. Rickettsial DNA was determined by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. OmpB-specific primers and molecular beacon probes targeting specifically R. felis were used. All 78 fleas were identified as Ctenocephalides felis. R. felis was detected in 34 (43.6%) fleas. No nucleic acids were amplified from negative controls and expected results were obtained from positive controls. Eight positive samples were also confirmed by sequencing. R. felis was found in a high percentage of Ct. felis from cats and dogs. It seems that there is a peridomestic cycle in Northeast Spain, which would allow contact of R. felis with humans.

  13. Real-time PCR of the mammalian hydroxymethylbilane synthase (HMBS gene for analysis of flea (Ctenocephalides felis feeding patterns on dogs

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    Wang Chengming

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Precise data on quantitative kinetics of blood feeding of fleas, particularly immediately after contact with the host, are essential for understanding dynamics of flea-borne disease transmission and for evaluating flea control strategies. Standard methods used are inadequate for studies that simulate early events after real-life flea access to the host. Methods Here, we developed a novel quantitative polymerase chain reaction targeting mammalian DNA within fleas to quantify blood consumption with high sensitivity and specificity. We used primers and fluorescent probes that amplify the hydroxymethylbilane synthase (HMBS gene, an evolutionary divergent gene that is unlikely to be detected in insects by mammalian-specific primers and probes. To validate this assay, fleas were placed on dogs, allowed to distribute in the hair, and removed at specific time points with single-use combs. Fleas were then immediately homogenized by vigorous shaking with ceramic beads in guanidinium-based DNA preservation buffer for DNA extraction. Results The specificity of this assay was ascertained by amplification of canine, feline and equine blood with differential product melting temperatures (Tm, and lack of amplification of bovine and porcine blood and of adult fleas reared from larvae fed with bovine blood. Sensitivity of the assay was established by limiting dilution and detection of single copies of HMBS DNA equivalent to 0.043 nL blood. Application of the assay indicated that after 15 minutes on a dog, male and female fleas had ingested low, but similar amounts of approximately 1.1. nL blood. Saturation uptake of 118 and 100 nL blood per flea was found at 30 and 60 min on the dog, respectively. Conclusions The HMBS PCR method developed here offers the advantages of both exquisite sensitivity and specificity that make it superior to other approaches for quantification of blood ingested by fleas. The capability to detect minute quantities of

  14. In vitro efficacy of essential oils and extracts of Schinus molle L. against Ctenocephalides felis felis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batista, Lilian C De S O; Cid, Yara P; De Almeida, Ana Paula; Prudêncio, Edlene R; Riger, Cristiano J; De Souza, Marco A A; Coumendouros, Katherine; Chaves, Douglas S A

    2016-04-01

    Extracts and essential oils from plants are important natural sources of pesticides. These compounds are considered an alternative to control ectoparasites of veterinary importance. Schinus molle, an endemic species of Brazil, produces a high level of essential oil and several other compounds. The aim of this work was to determinate the chemical composition of extracts and essential oils of S. molle and further to evaluate the activity against eggs and adults of Ctenocephalides felis felis, a predominant flea that infests dogs and cats in Brazil. In an in vitro assay, the non-polar (n-hexane) extract showed 100% efficacy (800 µg cm(-2); LD50 = 524·80 µg cm(-2)) at 24 and 48 h. Its major compound was lupenone (50·25%). Essential oils from fruits and leaves were evaluated, and had 100% efficacy against adult fleas at 800 µg cm(-2) (LD50 = 353·95 µg cm(-2)) and at 50 µg cm(-2) (LD50 = 12·02 µg cm(-2)), respectively. On the other hand, the essential oil from fruits and leaves was not active against flea eggs. This is the first study that reports the insecticidal effects of essential oils and extracts obtained from Schinus molle against Ctenocephalides felis felis.

  15. Absence of zoonotic Bartonella species in questing ticks: First detection of Bartonella clarridgeiae and Rickettsia felis in cat fleas in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tijsse-Klasen, E.; Fonville, M.; Gassner, F.; Nijhof, A.M.; Hovius, E.K.E.; Jongejan, F.; Takken, W.; Reimerink, J.R.; Overgaauw, P.A.M.; Sprong, H.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Awareness for flea-and tick-borne infections has grown in recent years and the range of microorganisms associated with these ectoparasites is rising. Bartonella henselae, the causative agent of Cat Scratch Disease, and other Bartonella species have been reported in fleas and ticks. The

  16. Absence of zoonotic Bartonella species in questing ticks: First detection of Bartonella clarridgeiae and Rickettsia felis in cat fleas in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tijsse-Klasen, E.; Fonville, M.; Gassner, F.; Nijhof, A.M.; Hovius, E.K.; Jongejan, F.; Takken, F.; Reimerink, J.R.; Overgaauw, P.A.M.; Sprong, H.

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Awareness for flea- and tick-borne infections has grown in recent years and the range of microorganisms associated with these ectoparasites is rising. Bartonella henselae, the causative agent of Cat Scratch Disease, and other Bartonella species have been reported in fleas and ticks. The

  17. Adverse reactions from essential oil-containing natural flea products exempted from Environmental Protection Agency regulations in dogs and cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genovese, Allison G; McLean, Mary Kay; Khan, Safdar A

    2012-08-01

    To describe adverse effects in dogs and cats exposed to Environmental Protection Agency exempted plant-derived flea preventatives containing mixtures of essential oils. Retrospective study from 2006 to 2008. Records of dog and cat cases were reviewed from the American Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals, Animal Poison Control Center database. Thirty-nine cats and 9 dogs with history of exposure to natural flea preventatives. The following information was retrieved from each incident: number of animals, species involved, frequency, types, onset time, duration of clinical signs, exposure appropriateness, final outcome, and treatment information. Ninety-two percent of animals (n = 44) showed presence of one or more adverse effects. The frequency of adverse effects in dogs (n = 8; 89%) and cats (n = 36; 92%) was similar. Onset time of adverse effects in 39 of 44 animals occurred within 24 hours. The duration of signs in 24 animals ranged from 30 minutes to 149 hours. The products were used as per label in 77% animals (n = 37). Of 28 animals with known outcome, 50% (n = 14) recovered with bathing alone while others received intravenous fluids, muscle relaxants, and anticonvulsive medications. Death (1 cat; n = 1/28; 4%) or euthanasia (1 cat and 1 dog; n = 2/28; 7%) was reported in 3 animals. Dogs and cats can experience significant adverse effects when exposed to plant-derived flea preventatives even when used according to label directions. The number of reports of exposure in cats was higher than dogs, but the frequency of reported adverse effects was similar between the 2 species. Agitation and hypersalivation were common in cats, whereas lethargy and vomiting were common in dogs. © Veterinary Emergency and Critical Care Society 2012.

  18. Case report: pulicosis por Ctenocephalides felis felis en ovinos y caprinos en la sabana de Bogotá, Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Efraín Benavides Ortiz

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available In Colombia the rearing of hair sheep and goats are expanding in various regions for being an alternative for meat and milk production at competitive prices due to their adaptability and easiness to digest rough fodder. Among the ectoparasites that affect small ruminants traditionally are recognized the lice and the sheep keds Melophagus ovinus (Díptera: Hippoboscidae, however fleas are not included. Here the occurrence of the common cat flea Ctenocephalides felis felis (Díptera: Siphonaptera affecting sheep and goats in a farm at the Sabana de Bogotá are described an so there was performed an epidemiological and parasitological evaluation. The barn maintained animals in rotational grazing at an approximated stocking rate of 25 head/ha, receiving additional supplements of hay and silage. The presence of the flea was confirmed in sheep and goats, young and adult, as well as in dogs. Diverse degrees of anemia were evidenced but the association between flea infestation and anemia, or the presence of other anemia producing agents could not be studied. In the farm synthetic parasiticides are not used, extracts of Ruda (Ruta graveolens are administered to mitigate parasitosis, without major efficacy. Sheep and goat breeders in the tropics should consider flea infestation as an agent causing adverse animal welfare situations in their farms. Control should start from the knowledge of the life cycle of the flea, trying to interrupt it.

  19. Gastrointestinal Helminths and Ectoparasites in the Stray Cats (Felidae: Felis catus) of Ahar Municipality, Northwestern Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    YAKHCHALI, Mohammad; HAJIPOUR, Nasser; MALEKZADEH-VIAYEH, Reza; ESMAEILNEJAD, Bijan; NEMATI-HARAVANI, Taher; FATHOLLAHZADEH, Mohammad; JAFARI, Rasool

    2017-01-01

    Background: The stray cats are considered as the sources of emerging humans and domestic livestock pathogens and the zoonoses of public health importance. The present study was aimed to elucidate intestinal helminth infections and infestation with ectoparasites of the stray cats of Ahar City, northwestern Iran. Methods: Totally, 51 stray cats were randomly trapped from different parts of the city between Mar and Nov 2013. The cats were assessed for ectoparasites by hair brushing, skin scraping, acetate tape preparation and othic swabs. They were euthanized and inspected for helminths infection. Results: Overall prevalence of helminths and flea were 44/51 (86.3%) and 31/51 (60.78%), respectively. The infection rates were significantly different among different age groups (PDipylidium caninum (29.41%), T. hydatigena (19.6%)) were identified. The predominant infectious helminths in all the infected cats were T. cati (86.3% with egg per gram of feces 27.75±9). Of the 270 collected fleas, two species of Ctenocephalides felis (80%) and C. canis (20%) were notably frequent in the cats aged 2-3-year-old. The average number of fleas per each infected cat was recorded as 5.29, with no incidence of cross-infection. Conclusion: The results indicated the high rate of helminths infections and flea infestation in the urban stray cats of which Toxocara cati and Ctenocephalides felis may play important roles as zoonotic agents in the region. PMID:28761492

  20. Fleas and flea control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dautović Živomir

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Fleas as hemeatophagous arthropodes take part in the spreading of certain diseases such as bubonic plague, murine typhus, tick-borne typhus tularaemia, or can be transitory hosts for certain species of cestodes for dogs and cats. Depending on the type of host on which fleas persist and the habitat, measures that can be taken to control them can be only sanitary-hygiene, individual, or treatment of the habitat. Sanitary-hygiene measures mostly consist of regular cleaning. Individual protection implies the use of insecticides for re-impregnating clothing, spraying clothing and the use of repellents. Treatment of habitats comprises the use of insecticides of the group of organophosphates, metyl-carbamates, pyrethroids and organo-chlorine compounds, instruments for dusting and spraying. In addition to these compounds, preparations based on imidaclopride, fipronyl and inhibitors of insect growth (IGRs and development (IDIs are also used. Flea control in household pets is implemented using measures of individual protection and treatment of their habitats.

  1. Absence of zoonotic Bartonella species in questing ticks: First detection of Bartonella clarridgeiae and Rickettsia felis in cat fleas in the Netherlands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reimerink Johan R

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Awareness for flea- and tick-borne infections has grown in recent years and the range of microorganisms associated with these ectoparasites is rising. Bartonella henselae, the causative agent of Cat Scratch Disease, and other Bartonella species have been reported in fleas and ticks. The role of Ixodes ricinus ticks in the natural cycle of Bartonella spp. and the transmission of these bacteria to humans is unclear. Rickettsia spp. have also been reported from as well ticks as also from fleas. However, to date no flea-borne Rickettsia spp. were reported from the Netherlands. Here, the presence of Bartonellaceae and Rickettsiae in ectoparasites was investigated using molecular detection and identification on part of the gltA- and 16S rRNA-genes. Results The zoonotic Bartonella clarridgeiae and Rickettsia felis were detected for the first time in Dutch cat fleas. B. henselae was found in cat fleas and B. schoenbuchensis in ticks and keds feeding on deer. Two Bartonella species, previously identified in rodents, were found in wild mice and their fleas. However, none of these microorganisms were found in 1719 questing Ixodes ricinus ticks. Notably, the gltA gene amplified from DNA lysates of approximately 10% of the questing nymph and adult ticks was similar to that of an uncultured Bartonella-related species found in other hard tick species. The gltA gene of this Bartonella-related species was also detected in questing larvae for which a 16S rRNA gene PCR also tested positive for "Candidatus Midichloria mitochondrii". The gltA-gene of the Bartonella-related species found in I. ricinus may therefore be from this endosymbiont. Conclusions We conclude that the risk of acquiring Cat Scratch Disease or a related bartonellosis from questing ticks in the Netherlands is negligible. On the other hand fleas and deer keds are probable vectors for associated Bartonella species between animals and might also transmit Bartonella spp. to humans.

  2. Gastrointestinal Helminths and Ectoparasites in the Stray Cats (Felidae: Felis catus of Ahar Municipality, Northwestern Iran

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    Mohammad YAKHCHALI

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: The stray cats are considered as the sources of emerging humans and domestic livestock pathogens and the zoonoses of public health importance. The present study was aimed to elucidate intestinal helminth infections and infestation with ectoparasites of the stray cats of Ahar City, northwestern Iran.Methods: Totally, 51 stray cats were randomly trapped from different parts of the city between Mar and Nov 2013. The cats were assessed for ectoparasites by hair brushing, skin scraping, acetate tape preparation and othic swabs. They were euthanized and inspected for helminths infection.Results: Overall prevalence of helminths and flea were 44/51 (86.3% and 31/51 (60.78%, respectively. The infection rates were significantly different among different age groups (P<0.05. Of the 282 isolated helminths, three species of nematodes (Toxocara cati (86.3%, T. leonina (11.77%, Ancylostoma tubaeforme (5.9% and four species of cestodes (Taenia taeniaeformis (64.7%, Mesocestoides lineatus (49.02%, Dipylidium caninum (29.41%, T. hydatigena (19.6% were identified. The predominant infectious helminths in all the infected cats were T. cati (86.3% with egg per gram of feces 27.75±9. Of the 270 collected fleas, two species of Ctenocephalides felis (80% and C. canis (20% were notably frequent in the cats aged 2-3-year-old. The average number of fleas per each infected cat was recorded as 5.29, with no incidence of cross-infection.Conclusion: The results indicated the high rate of helminths infections and flea infestation in the urban stray cats of which Toxocara cati and Ctenocephalides felis may play important roles as zoonotic agents in the region.

  3. Two Pathogens and One Disease: Detection and Identification of Flea-Borne Rickettsiae in Areas Endemic for Murine Typhus in California

    Science.gov (United States)

    EREMEEVA, MARINA E.; KARPATHY, SANDOR E.; KRUEGER, LAURA; HAYES, ERICA K.; WILLIAMS, ASHLEY M.; ZALDIVAR, YAMITZEL; BENNETT, STEPHEN; CUMMINGS, ROBERT; TILZER, ART; VELTEN, ROBERT K.; KERR, NELSON; DASCH, GREGORY A.; HU, RENJIE

    2018-01-01

    Results of an environmental assessment conducted in a newly emergent focus of murine typhus in southern California are described. Opossums, Didelphis virginiana Kerr, infested with cat fleas, Ctenocephalides felis Buché, in the suburban area were abundant. Animal and flea specimens were tested for the DNA of two flea-borne rickettsiae, Rickettsia typhi and Rickettsia felis. R. felis was commonly detected in fleas collected throughout this area while R. typhi was found at a much lower prevalence in the vicinity of just 7 of 14 case-patient homes identified. DNA of R. felis, but not R. typhi, was detected in renal, hepatic, and pulmonary tissues of opossums. In contrast, there were no hematologic polymerase chain reaction findings of R. felis or R. typhi in opossums, rats, and cats within the endemic area studied. Our data suggest a significant probability of human exposure to R. felis in the area studied; however, disease caused by this agent is not recognized by the medical community and may be misdiagnosed as murine typhus using nondiscriminatory serologic methods. PMID:23270180

  4. Prophylactic treatment of flea-infested dogs with an imidacloprid / flumethrin collar (Seresto®, Bayer) to preempt infection with Dipylidium caninum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fourie, Josephus J; Crafford, Dionne; Horak, Ivan G; Stanneck, Dorothee

    2013-08-01

    The objective of the study was to determine the sustained effectiveness of 10 % imidacloprid and 4.5 % flumethrin, incorporated in a slow-release matrix collar, in preventing Dipylidium caninum infection in dogs after repeated laboratory infestations with fleas infected with metacestodes of this tapeworm. Efficacy against infection with D. caninum was evaluated by infesting 16 dogs with cat fleas (Ctenocephalides felis) on study days 7, 14, 21, 28, 35 and 42, from batches suitably infected with D. caninum metacestodes. Prior to each post-treatment infestation the D. caninum infection rate for the fleas was determined by microscopically examining 100 fleas for D. caninum metacestodes. The D. caninum prevalence in the fleas used for infestations ranged from 23 % to 52 %. Medicated collars were fitted to 8 of the dogs on study day 0. The weight of the IVP collars varied between 35.48 g and 38.48 g (average 37.16 g), whilst animal weight varied between 12.20 kg and 17.98 kg (treated group, n = 8, average 14.79 kg). Seven days later infestation of each of the 16 dogs with 250 fleas commenced. Infestations continued at weekly intervals until Day 42 with efficacy against fleas evaluated 24 hours after each infestation. From Days 21 to 74, infection of the dogs with D. caninum was verified (daily examination of faeces and cages for the presence of expelled proglottids). Calculation of prophylactic effectiveness of the collars in preventing infection with D. caninum was based on the difference in geometric mean numbers of scoleces between groups at necropsy on Day 75. Effective prevention of infection with D. caninum was found to be 96.6 %. Efficacy of the collars against fleas was ≥ 99.9 % for the duration of the assessment period. Newly acquired infestations of fleas are rapidly eliminated by the insecticidal components of the medicated collars over a period of several months. In the event of fleas being infected with metacestodes, with D. caninum can be prevented in

  5. Evaluation of the effectiveness of a novel oral formulation of sarolaner (Simparica™) for the treatment and control of fleas on dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Six, Robert H; Geurden, Thomas; Packianathan, Raj; Colgan, Sally; Everett, William R; Grace, Sarah; Hodge, Andrew; Mahabir, Sean P; Myers, Melanie R; Slootmans, Nathalie; Davis, Kylie

    2016-05-30

    The efficacy of a single oral dose of a novel isoxazoline, sarolaner (Simparica™, Zoetis), for the treatment and control of flea infestations on dogs was confirmed in five laboratory studies. The studies were conducted using adult purpose-bred Beagles and/or mixed breed dogs. All animals were individually identified and housed, and were allocated randomly to treatment with either placebo or sarolaner (eight to 10 per group) based on pretreatment parasite counts. Three studies used cat flea (Ctenocephalides felis felis) strains recently isolated from the field from the US, EU, or Australia; in the fourth study a laboratory strain (KS1) with documented tolerance to a number of insecticides such as fipronil, imidacloprid, and permethrin was used. In the fifth study, dogs were infested with dog fleas, Ctenocephalides canis. Dogs were treated orally on Day 0 with a placebo or a sarolaner tablet providing a minimum dose of 2mg/kg. Dogs were infested with approximately 100 unfed, adult fleas prior to treatment and at weekly intervals post-treatment. Comb counts were conducted to determine the numbers of viable fleas at 24h after treatment and after each subsequent infestation. Efficacy against C. felis and C. canis was 99.8-100% from treatment through Day 35. In all five studies, elimination of existing infestations was achieved within 24h after dosing, with only a single live C. felis found on one dog on Day 1. Similarly, control of flea challenges was achieved within 24h after infestation throughout the 35day study periods, with only single live C. felis found on two dogs on Day 28 in one study, and on a single dog on Day 35 in another study. There were no adverse reactions to treatment with sarolaner. These studies confirmed that a single oral dose of sarolaner at 2mg/kg provided highly effective treatment of existing C. felis infestations and persistent control of C. felis on dogs for 35days after treatment. Efficacy equivalent to that seen with C. felis was

  6. A 2015 outbreak of flea-borne rickettsiosis in San Gabriel Valley, Los Angeles County, California.

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    Kimberly Nelson

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Although flea-borne rickettsiosis is endemic in Los Angeles County, outbreaks are rare. In the spring of 2015 three human cases of flea-borne rickettsiosis among residents of a mobile home community (MHC prompted an investigation. Fleas were ubiquitous in common areas due to presence of flea-infested opossums and overabundant outdoor cats and dogs. The MHC was summarily abated in June 2015, and within five months, flea control and removal of animals significantly reduced the flea population. Two additional epidemiologically-linked human cases of flea-borne rickettsiosis detected at the MHC were suspected to have occurred before control efforts began. Molecular testing of 106 individual and 85 pooled cat fleas, blood and ear tissue samples from three opossums and thirteen feral cats using PCR amplification and DNA sequencing detected rickettsial DNA in 18.8% of the fleas. Seventeen percent of these cat fleas tested positive for R. felis-specific DNA compared to under two (<2 percent for Candidatus R. senegalensis-specific DNA. In addition, serological testing of 13 cats using a group-specific IgG-ELISA detected antibodies against typhus group rickettsiae and spotted fever group rickettsiae in six (46.2% and one (7.7% cat, respectively. These results indicate that cats and their fleas may have played an active role in the epidemiology of the typhus group and/or spotted fever group rickettsial disease(s in this outbreak.

  7. Ectoparasites of dogs and cats in Albania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xhaxhiu, Dashamir; Kusi, Ilir; Rapti, Dhimiter; Visser, Martin; Knaus, Martin; Lindner, Thomas; Rehbein, Steffen

    2009-11-01

    One hundred eighty-one dogs and 26 short-hair cats from suburban areas around Tirana, Albania were examined for ectoparasite infestation. The dogs were examined on several occasions from 2005 through 2009 representing three seasons: winter (December-February), spring (March-May), and summer (June-August); the cats were examined in late autumn (November). In addition, deep ear swab specimens of 30 dogs were examined for ear mites. The arthropod ectoparasite fauna of the dogs included two tick species (Rhipicephalus sanguineus and Ixodes ricinus), three mite species (Sarcoptes scabiei var. canis, Otodectes cynotis, and Demodex canis), three flea species (Ctenocephalides canis, Ctenocephalides felis, and Pulex irritans), and one louse species (Trichodectes canis). In the dogs, rates of infestation were 23.8% for R. sanguineus, 0.6% for I. ricinus, 4.4% for S. scabiei var. canis, 6.7% for O. cynotis, 0.6% for D. canis, 75.7% for C. canis, 5.0% for C. felis, 8.3% for P. irritans, and 6.6% for T. canis. Mixed infestation with two or three species of ectoparasites was recorded on 38.1% of the dogs. Fleas infested 75.7% dogs (geometric mean, 3.96; range, 1-80) and were observed in winter, spring, and summer with increasing prevalences of 64.3%, 75.9%, and 100%. Ticks parasitized 24.3% of the dogs (geometric mean, 0.41; range, 1-331). R. sanguineus ticks were recorded on 34.2% and 50% of the dogs examined in spring and summer, respectively, but were absent on the dogs during winter except for a single I. ricinus specimen observed. Prevalence of infestation with R. sanguineus, S. scabiei var. canis, C. felis, P. irritans, and T. canis did not differ between dogs 6 months of age; however, prevalence of infestation with C. canis was significantly (p 6 months old. There was no difference between the sexes for the prevalences of infestation with those parasites. The examination of the cats revealed infestation with only one species of ectoparasite, C. felis (prevalence, 100

  8. Diversity of Flea (Siphonaptera) Parasites on Red Foxes (Vulpes vulpes) in Romania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foley, P; Foley, J; Sándor, A D; Ionica, A M; Matei, I A; D'Amico, G; Gherman, C M; Dom A, C; Mihalca, A D

    2017-09-01

    Red foxes (Vulpes vulpes (L.)) are widespread across Europe, tolerant of synanthropic ecosystems, and susceptible to diseases potentially shared with humans and other animals. We describe flea fauna on red foxes in Romania, a large, ecologically diverse country, in part because fleas may serve as an indicator of the risk of spillover of vector-borne disease. We found 912 individual fleas of seven species on the 305 foxes assessed, for an infestation prevalence of 49.5%. Mean flea load per fox was 5.8 (range 0-44 fleas), and flea detections were most abundant in fall and early spring. Fleas included generalists (Ctenocephalides canis (Curtis), 32.6% of all fleas), Ct. felis (Bouché, 0.1%), and Pulex irritans L. (29.9%), the fox specialist Chaetopsylla globiceps (Taschenberg, 32.5%), mesocarnivore fleas Paraceras melis Walker (3.2%) and Ch. trichosa Kohaut (1.5%), and the small mammal flea Ctenophthalmus assimilis (Taschenberg, 0.1%), which is rarely or never reported from carnivores. There were significantly more female than male Ch. globiceps, Ct. canis, and Pu. irritans, and these three species were the most broadly distributed geographically. Diversity indices suggested reduced diversity in mountainous areas above 700 m. When compared to other flea studies on foxes in Europe, Romania had flea diversity near the median of reports, which was unexpected given Romania's high ecological diversity. Notably absent prey specialists, compared to other studies, include Archaeopsylla erinacei (Bouché) and Spilopsyllus cuniculi (Dale). Further studies of possible disease agents in fox fleas could help elucidate possible risks of vector-borne disease in foxes, domestic animals, and humans as well. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  9. Evaluation of the long-term efficacy and safety of an imidacloprid 10%/flumethrin 4.5% polymer matrix collar (Seresto® in dogs and cats naturally infested with fleas and/or ticks in multicentre clinical field studies in Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanneck Dorothee

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The objective of these two GCP multicentre European clinical field studies was to evaluate the long-term efficacy and safety of a new imidacloprid/flumethrin collar (Seresto®, Bayer AnimalHealth, Investigational Veterinary Product(IVP in dogs and cats naturally infested with fleas and/or ticks in comparison to a dimpylat collar ("Ungezieferband fuer Hunde/fuer Katzen", Beaphar, Control Product (CP. Methods 232 (IVP and 81 (CP cats and 271(IVP and 129 (CP dogs were treated with either product according to label claims and formed the safety population. Flea and tick counts were conducted in monthly intervals for up to 8 months in the efficacy subpopulation consisting of 118 (IVP + 47 (CP cats and 197 (IVP + 94 (CP dogs. Efficacy was calculated as reduction of infestation rate within the same treatment group and statistically compared between the two treatment groups. Results Preventive efficacy against fleas in cats/dogs varied in the IVP group between 97.4%/94.1% and 100%/100% (overall mean: 98.3%/96.7% throughout the 8 month period and in the CP group between 57.1%/28.2% and 96.1%/67.8% (overall mean: 79.3%/57.9%. Preventive efficacy against ticks in cats/dogs varied in the IVP group between 94.0%/91.2% and 100%/100% (overall mean: 98.4%/94.7% throughout the 8 month period and in the CP group between 90.7%/79.9% and 100%/88.0% (overall mean: 96.9%/85.6%. The IVP group was statistically non-inferior to the CP group, and on various assessment days, statistical superiority was proven for flea and tick count reduction in dogs and cats. Both treatments proved to be safe in dogs and cats with mainly minor local observations at the application site. There was moreover, no incidence of any mechanical problem with the collar in dogs and cats during the entire study period. Conclusions The imidacloprid/flumethrin collar proved to reduce tick counts by at least 90% and flea counts by at least 95% for a period of at least 7-8 months in

  10. Evaluation of the long-term efficacy and safety of an imidacloprid 10%/flumethrin 4.5% polymer matrix collar (Seresto®) in dogs and cats naturally infested with fleas and/or ticks in multicentre clinical field studies in Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background The objective of these two GCP multicentre European clinical field studies was to evaluate the long-term efficacy and safety of a new imidacloprid/flumethrin collar (Seresto®, Bayer AnimalHealth, Investigational Veterinary Product(IVP)) in dogs and cats naturally infested with fleas and/or ticks in comparison to a dimpylat collar ("Ungezieferband fuer Hunde/fuer Katzen", Beaphar, Control Product (CP)). Methods 232 (IVP) and 81 (CP) cats and 271(IVP) and 129 (CP) dogs were treated with either product according to label claims and formed the safety population. Flea and tick counts were conducted in monthly intervals for up to 8 months in the efficacy subpopulation consisting of 118 (IVP) + 47 (CP) cats and 197 (IVP) + 94 (CP) dogs. Efficacy was calculated as reduction of infestation rate within the same treatment group and statistically compared between the two treatment groups. Results Preventive efficacy against fleas in cats/dogs varied in the IVP group between 97.4%/94.1% and 100%/100% (overall mean: 98.3%/96.7%) throughout the 8 month period and in the CP group between 57.1%/28.2% and 96.1%/67.8% (overall mean: 79.3%/57.9%). Preventive efficacy against ticks in cats/dogs varied in the IVP group between 94.0%/91.2% and 100%/100% (overall mean: 98.4%/94.7%) throughout the 8 month period and in the CP group between 90.7%/79.9% and 100%/88.0% (overall mean: 96.9%/85.6%). The IVP group was statistically non-inferior to the CP group, and on various assessment days, statistical superiority was proven for flea and tick count reduction in dogs and cats. Both treatments proved to be safe in dogs and cats with mainly minor local observations at the application site. There was moreover, no incidence of any mechanical problem with the collar in dogs and cats during the entire study period. Conclusions The imidacloprid/flumethrin collar proved to reduce tick counts by at least 90% and flea counts by at least 95% for a period of at least 7-8 months in cats and dogs

  11. Dipylidium caninum infection in dogs infested with fleas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wani, Z A; Allaie, I M; Shah, B M; Raies, A; Athar, H; Junaid, S

    2015-03-01

    The present study pertains to the Dipylidium caninum infection in dogs infested with fleas. Twenty dogs were presented to the Divison of Surgery, SKUAST-K for different surgical procedures. Majority of the dogs had a history of pruritus, loss of weight as well as rubbing their perineal region against the wall. On external examination dogs were found infested with Ctenocephalides canis. When dogs were anesthetized, motile segments were seen coming out of their anus, which were then identified as mature segments of D. caninum.

  12. Detection of flea-borne Rickettsia species in the Western Himalayan region of India

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    R Chahota

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Human infections by various rickettsial species are frequently reported globally. We investigated a flea-borne rickettsial outbreak infecting 300 people in Western Himalayan region of India. Arthropod vectors (ticks and fleas and animal and human blood samples from affected households were analysed by gltA and ompB genes based polymerase chain reaction (PCR. Rat flea (Ceratophyllus fasciatus samples were found harbouring a Rickettsia sp. Phylogenetic analysis based on gltA gene using PHYLIP revealed that the detected Rickettsia sp. has 100% identity with SE313 and RF2125 strains of Rickettsia sp. of flea origin from Egypt and Thai-Myanmar border, respectively and cf1 and 5 strains from fleas and lice from the USA. But, the nucleotide sequence of genetically variable gene ompB of R14 strain was found closely related to cf9 strain, reported from Ctenocephalides felis fleas. These results highlight the public health importance of such newly discovered or less recognised Rickettsia species/strains, harboured by arthropod vectors like fleas.

  13. The synergistic action of imidacloprid and flumethrin and their release kinetics from collars applied for ectoparasite control in dogs and cats

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    Stanneck Dorothee

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The control of tick and flea burdens in dogs and cats has become essential to the control of important and emerging vector borne diseases, some of which are zoonoses. Flea worry and flea bite hypersensitivity are additionally a significant disease entity in dogs and cats. Owner compliance in maintaining the pressure of control measures has been shown to be poor. For these reasons efforts are continuously being made to develop ectoparasiticides and application methods that are safe, effective and easy to apply for pet owners. A new polymer matrix collar has recently been developed which is registered for 8 months use in cats and dogs. The basic properties of this collar have been investigated in several in vitro and in vivo studies. Methods The effects of imidacloprid, flumethrin and the combination were evaluated in vitro by means of whole cell voltage clamp measurement experiments conducted on isolated neuron cells from Spodoptera frugiperda. The in vitro efficacy of the two compounds and the combination against three species of ticks and their life stages and fleas were evaluated in a dry surface glass vial assay. The kinetics of the compounds over time in the collar were evaluated by the change in mass of the collar and measurement of the surface concentrations and concentrations of the actives in the collar matrix by HPLC. Hair clipped from collar treated dogs and cats, collected at various time points, was used to assess the acaricidal efficacy of the actives ex vivo. Results An in vitro isolated insect nerve model demonstrated the synergistic neurotoxic effects of the pyrethroid flumethrin and the neonicotinoid imidacloprid. An in vitro glass vial efficacy and mortality study against various life stages of the ticks Ixodes ricinus, Rhipicephalus sanguineus and Dermacentor reticulatus and against the flea (Ctenocephalides felis demonstrated that the combination of these products was highly effective against these

  14. The synergistic action of imidacloprid and flumethrin and their release kinetics from collars applied for ectoparasite control in dogs and cats

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background The control of tick and flea burdens in dogs and cats has become essential to the control of important and emerging vector borne diseases, some of which are zoonoses. Flea worry and flea bite hypersensitivity are additionally a significant disease entity in dogs and cats. Owner compliance in maintaining the pressure of control measures has been shown to be poor. For these reasons efforts are continuously being made to develop ectoparasiticides and application methods that are safe, effective and easy to apply for pet owners. A new polymer matrix collar has recently been developed which is registered for 8 months use in cats and dogs. The basic properties of this collar have been investigated in several in vitro and in vivo studies. Methods The effects of imidacloprid, flumethrin and the combination were evaluated in vitro by means of whole cell voltage clamp measurement experiments conducted on isolated neuron cells from Spodoptera frugiperda. The in vitro efficacy of the two compounds and the combination against three species of ticks and their life stages and fleas were evaluated in a dry surface glass vial assay. The kinetics of the compounds over time in the collar were evaluated by the change in mass of the collar and measurement of the surface concentrations and concentrations of the actives in the collar matrix by HPLC. Hair clipped from collar treated dogs and cats, collected at various time points, was used to assess the acaricidal efficacy of the actives ex vivo. Results An in vitro isolated insect nerve model demonstrated the synergistic neurotoxic effects of the pyrethroid flumethrin and the neonicotinoid imidacloprid. An in vitro glass vial efficacy and mortality study against various life stages of the ticks Ixodes ricinus, Rhipicephalus sanguineus and Dermacentor reticulatus and against the flea (Ctenocephalides felis) demonstrated that the combination of these products was highly effective against these parasites. The release kinetics of

  15. Does hair coat length affect flea infestation in naturally infested dogs?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Guilherme Araujo Collares da; Lins, Luciana Araujo; Irala, Márcio Josué Costa; Cárcamo, Marcial Corrêa; Ribeiro, Paulo Bretanha

    2016-01-01

    The Siphonaptera are parasitic insects of endothermic animals and Ctenocephalides felis and Pulex irritans are important parasites of dogs. This study evaluated the effect of hair coat length and time of year on the population size of C. felis and P. irritans in naturally infested dogs. Fleas were collected from 14 dogs on a monthly basis for a year (February 2015 to January 2016) at a rural property in Bagé, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. The dogs were divided into two groups based on hair coat length: short coat (coat length coat (coat length > 5.0 cm, n= 7). In total, 2057 fleas were collected, 1541 of which were C. felis (74.91%) and 516 were P. irritans (25.08%). The number of C. felis and P. irritans individuals was significantly affected by hair coat length and time of year. The variation in flea numbers over the study months was higher in long-coated than in short-coated dogs for the two flea species and flea numbers increased with increasing mean monthly temperatures. The results provide a better understanding of behavioral aspects of flea communities in dogs and may help develop control strategies targeting these parasites.

  16. Cats

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... CDC.gov . Healthy Pets, Healthy People About Pets & People Pets & Other Animals Birds Cats Dogs Farm Animals Backyard ... pets CDC Podcasts Zoonoses in the Bedroom CDC People Can Catch Diseases from Their Pets CDC Helpful books and references Cat-associated outbreaks ...

  17. Characterization of Spotted Fever Group Rickettsiae in Flea and Tick Specimens From Northern Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-11-01

    boliviensis 3 (18.7) 1 (6.2) Ixodes pararicinus 2 (12.5) 0 Flea speciesb Adoratopsilla intermedia 2 (3.4) 0 Ctenocephalides felis 33 (55.9) 2 (3.4...analysis of a genus-common rickettsial antigen gene. J. Bacteriol. 171:5199–5201. 3. Azad, A. F., S. Radulovic, J. A. Higgins , B. H. Noden, and J. M...Y. Acad. Sci. 990:57–61. 21. Hackstadt, T. 1996. The biology of rickettsiae. Infect. Agents Dis. 5:127–143. 22. Higgins , J. A., S. Radulovic, M. E

  18. Monitoring laundry for fleas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cooper, T.L.; Goldin, E.M.; Warnock, R.V.

    1987-01-01

    The San Onofre Unit 3 nuclear plant experienced fuel cladding failures during its first fuel cycle. When primary systems were opened for maintenance and refueling, areas on site were contaminated with fleas - tiny, highly radioactive fuel fragments. While highly mobile, these fragments demonstrated an affinity to attach to some surfaces and clothing. This paper discusses the problems encountered in detecting fleas in the presence of residual activation and fission product contamination on laundered protective clothing. A novel approach to overcome those inherent problems is presented and a home-built laundry monitor utilizing off-the-shelf components is described

  19. Detection of Rickettsia felis, Rickettsia typhi, Bartonella Species and Yersinia pestis in Fleas (Siphonaptera) from Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leulmi, Hamza; Socolovschi, Cristina; Laudisoit, Anne; Houemenou, Gualbert; Davoust, Bernard; Bitam, Idir; Raoult, Didier; Parola, Philippe

    2014-10-01

    Little is known about the presence/absence and prevalence of Rickettsia spp, Bartonella spp. and Yersinia pestis in domestic and urban flea populations in tropical and subtropical African countries. Fleas collected in Benin, the United Republic of Tanzania and the Democratic Republic of the Congo were investigated for the presence and identity of Rickettsia spp., Bartonella spp. and Yersinia pestis using two qPCR systems or qPCR and standard PCR. In Xenopsylla cheopis fleas collected from Cotonou (Benin), Rickettsia typhi was detected in 1% (2/199), and an uncultured Bartonella sp. was detected in 34.7% (69/199). In the Lushoto district (United Republic of Tanzania), R. typhi DNA was detected in 10% (2/20) of Xenopsylla brasiliensis, and Rickettsia felis was detected in 65% (13/20) of Ctenocephalides felis strongylus, 71.4% (5/7) of Ctenocephalides canis and 25% (5/20) of Ctenophthalmus calceatus calceatus. In the Democratic Republic of the Congo, R. felis was detected in 56.5% (13/23) of Ct. f. felis from Kinshasa, in 26.3% (10/38) of Ct. f. felis and 9% (1/11) of Leptopsylla aethiopica aethiopica from Ituri district and in 19.2% (5/26) of Ct. f. strongylus and 4.7% (1/21) of Echidnophaga gallinacea. Bartonella sp. was also detected in 36.3% (4/11) of L. a. aethiopica. Finally, in Ituri, Y. pestis DNA was detected in 3.8% (1/26) of Ct. f. strongylus and 10% (3/30) of Pulex irritans from the villages of Wanyale and Zaa. Most flea-borne infections are neglected diseases which should be monitored systematically in domestic rural and urban human populations to assess their epidemiological and clinical relevance. Finally, the presence of Y. pestis DNA in fleas captured in households was unexpected and raises a series of questions regarding the role of free fleas in the transmission of plague in rural Africa, especially in remote areas where the flea density in houses is high.

  20. Human bubonic plague transmitted by a domestic cat scratch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weniger, B G; Warren, A J; Forseth, V; Shipps, G W; Creelman, T; Gorton, J; Barnes, A M

    1984-02-17

    Bubonic plague was transmitted to a 10-year-old girl in Oregon by a scratch wound inflicted by a domestic cat. The cat probably was infected by contact with infected wild rodents or their fleas. Yersinia pestis was identified in Diamanus montanus fleas collected from an abandoned burrow near the patient's home. Domestic cats may infect humans with Y pestis by inoculation from a scratch.

  1. First report of a Rickettsia asembonensis related infecting fleas in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Arannadia Barbosa; Vizzoni, Vinicius Figueiredo; Costa, Andréa Pereira; Costa, Francisco Borges; Moraes-Filho, Jonas; Labruna, Marcelo Bahia; Gazêta, Gilberto Salles; de Maria Seabra Nogueira, Rita

    2017-08-01

    The present study was performed in a non-endemic area for spotted fever (SF) in Imperatriz microregion, state of Maranhão, Brazil. Blood samples and ectoparasites were collected from 300 dogs of the Imperatriz microregion. Canine serum samples were tested individually by indirect immunofluorescence assay (IFA), using five Rickettsia isolates from Brazil. Antibodies reactive to at least one of the five species of Rickettsia were detected in 1.6% of the dogs (5/300). These sera were considered reactive to Rickettsia rickettsii and Rickettsia amblyommatis or very closely related species. The ticks (Acari: Ixodidae), identified as Rhipicephalus sanguineus sensu lato (Latreille), and the fleas, identified as Ctenocephalides felis, were tested by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for detection of rickettsial DNA. More than 78% (83/106) of the C. felis fleas were found to be infected with Rickettsia species using gltA as rickettsial PCR targets, whereas no evidence of Rickettsia spp. was found in R. sanguineus s. l. Genetic analysis based on genes gltA, htrA and ompB showed that the detected strain, is most closely related to Rickettsia asembonensis (formerly Candidatus Rickettsia asemboensis). The present study is the first report of a R. asembonensis related infecting C. felis fleas in Brazil. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. High Prevalence of Rickettsia spp. in Dog Fleas (Siphonaptera: Pulicidae) in Rural Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palomar, Ana M; Cevidanes, Aitor; Portillo, Aránzazu; Kalema-Zikusoka, Gladis; Chirife, Andrea D; Romero, Lourdes; Muro, Jesús; Mugisha, Lawrence; Oteo, José A; Millán, Javier

    2017-07-01

    Fleas are known vectors of zoonotic agents. Thirty-five fleas, including 28 Ctenocephalides felis (Bouché), four Pulex irritans (L.), and three Echidnophaga gallinacea (Westwood) from 19 rural dogs from southwestern Uganda were analyzed for the presence of Rickettsia spp. (ompB, gltA, and 17 kDa fragment genes) and Bartonella spp. (rpoB and ITS genes) by PCR. Rickettsial DNA was detected in 27 out of 28 of Ct. felis and in two out of four P. irritans. None of the E. gallinacea specimens harbored Rickettsia DNA. Rickettsia felis was confirmed in 12 Ct. felis and in the two P. irritans specimens with positive PCR-results. In addition, the presence of Candidatus Rickettsia asemboensis was evidenced in 15 Ct. felis. Bartonella spp. was not amplified in any sample. Our survey indicates that R. felis, the agent of the flea-borne spotted fever, is present in the study area. Besides, this is the first description of Ca. R. asemboensis in Uganda. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. Bartonella infection in shelter cats and dogs and their ectoparasites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Yi-Lun; Lin, Chao-Chen; Chomel, Bruno B; Chuang, Shih-Te; Tsai, Kun-Hsien; Wu, Wen-Jer; Huang, Chin-Gi; Yu, Jiann-Chung; Sung, Min-Hua; Kass, Philip H; Chang, Chao-Chin

    2011-08-01

    Mainly through vector transmission, domestic cats and dogs are infected by several Bartonella spp. and represent a large reservoir for human infections. This study investigated the relationship of prevalences of Bartonella infection in shelter dogs and cats and various ectoparasite species infesting them (fleas, ticks, and lice). Moreover, relationships between Bartonella infection and animal gender and age and presence of ectoparasites were analyzed. Blood samples were collected from 120 dogs and 103 cats. There were 386 ticks and 36 fleas harvested on these dogs, and 141 fleas, 4 ticks, and 2 lice harvested on these cats. Isolation/detection of Bartonella sp. was performed by culture, polymerase chain reaction (PCR), and partial sequencing. Bartonella was isolated from 21 (20.4%) cats and detected by PCR from 20 (19.4%) cats, 2 (1.7%) dogs, 55 (39%) fleas collected from cats, 28 (10%) ticks DNA samples, and 1 (2.8%) flea collected from dogs. When combining culture and PCR data, 27 cats and 55 fleas collected on cats were positive for Bartonella henselae or Bartonella clarridgeiae, but none were coinfected. Approximately half of the B. henselae isolates from 21 cats were B. henselae type I. Moreover, B. henselae, Bartonella phoceensis, Bartonella queenslandensis, Bartonella rattimassiliensis, Bartonella elizabethae DNA was detected in ticks collected from dogs and one flea was B. clarridgeiae PCR positive. This is the first report of such a wide variety of Bartonella spp. detected in Rhipicephalus sanguineus. Further studies are required to understand the relative importance of these ectoparasites to transmit Bartonella spp. in dogs and cats.

  4. Detection of Bartonellaspp. and Rickettsiaspp. in fleas, ticks and lice collected in rural areas of Peru

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abraham G. Cáceres

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Bartonellosis and rickettsiosis are commonly reported in Peru. In order to detect Bartonella sp. and Rickettsiasp. in fleas, ticks and lice, specimens from five distinct locations in Peru (Marizagua, Cajaruro, Jamalca, Lonya Grande and El Milagro were collected and screened for the presence of these bacteria using PCR and later confirmation by DNA sequencing. The specimens collected were distributed in 102 pools (76 Ctenocephalides felis, 2 Ctenocephalides canis, 16 Pulex irritans, 5 Pediculus humanus, 2 Rhiphicephalus sanguineus, and 1 Boophilus spp., where Bartonellawas detected in 17 pools (6 of C. felis, 9 of P. irritans, 1 of C. canis, and 1 P. humanus. Also, Rickettsiawas detected in 76 pools (62 C. felis, 10 P. irritans, 2 P. humanus, and 2 C. canis. Bartonella clarridgeiaewas detected in C. felis, C. canisand P. irritanspools at 5.3%, 50% and 12.5%, respectively.Bartonella rochalimaewas detected in one C. felisand two P. irritanspools at 1.3% and 12.5%, respectively. Furthermore, B. henselaewas detected in one C. felispool and one P. humanuspool corresponding to 1.3% and 20%, respectively; and Bartonella spp.was also found in 5 pools of P. irritansat 31.3%. Additionally, R. feliswas detected in C. felis, C. canisand P. irritanspools at 76.3%, 100% and 37.5%, respectively; and Rickettsia spp. was detected in C. felis, P. irritansand P. humanuspools at 5.3%, 25% and 40%, respectively. These results demonstrate the circulation of these bacteria in Peru.

  5. Flea Bite Dermatitis in a Herd of Dairy Calves in Vom Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    They have piercing and sucking mouth parts which are specially designed for injecting into a host and sucking blood. They feed on the blood of cats, dogs and other animals, including humans (Lyon, 1997; Kramer and Mencke, 2001). Flea infestation in cattle and other ruminants is rare; it has been more commonly reported ...

  6. [The biology of Dipylidium caninum. Part 2].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinaidy, H K

    1991-07-01

    From 198 cats and 182 dogs in Austria 9,134 fleas were collected. Ctenocephalides felis is the main flea of our cats (98.5%) and dogs (77.5%). Demonstration of cysticercoids of Dipylidium caninum through bleaching of fleas failed. Dissection of fleas gave, however, positive results. Each 44th flea from cats and 61st flea from dogs harbours cysticercoids. Infection intensity rates were 2.3% for C. felis (cats), 1.2% for C. felis (dogs), and 3.1% for C. canis (dogs). Male fleas are more extensively, but less intensively infected than female fleas. Cysticercoids form fleas of feline origin are more infective to cats than those from fleas found on dogs. The longest patency in cats lasted 3 years.

  7. Rickettsia typhi in rodents and R. felis in fleas in Yucatán as a possible causal agent of undefined febrile cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peniche-Lara, Gaspar; Dzul-Rosado, Karla; Pérez-Osorio, Carlos; Zavala-Castro, Jorge

    2015-01-01

    Rickettsia typhi is the causal agent of murine typhus; a worldwide zoonotic and vector-borne infectious disease, commonly associated with the presence of domestic and wild rodents. Human cases of murine typhus in the state of Yucatán are frequent. However, there is no evidence of the presence of Rickettsia typhi in mammals or vectors in Yucatán. The presence of Rickettsia in rodents and their ectoparasites was evaluated in a small municipality of Yucatán using the conventional polymerase chain reaction technique and sequencing. The study only identified the presence of Rickettsia typhi in blood samples obtained from Rattus rattus and it reported, for the first time, the presence of R. felis in the flea Polygenis odiosus collected from Ototylomys phyllotis rodent. Additionally, Rickettsia felis was detected in the ectoparasite Ctenocephalides felis fleas parasitizing the wild rodent Peromyscus yucatanicus. This study's results contributed to a better knowledge of Rickettsia epidemiology in Yucatán.

  8. Human Dipylidiasis: A Case Report of Dipylidium caninum Infection from Karimnagar

    OpenAIRE

    KV Ramana; Sanjeev D Rao; Ratna Rao; SK Mohanty; CG Wilson

    2011-01-01

    Dipylidium caninum also refered to as the double-pored tapeworm is a cyclophyllidean cestode that commonly infects dogs and cats. Mammals act as definite hosts with intermediate hosts being dog and cat flea, the Ctenocephalides canis and Ctenocephalides catis respectively. The dog lice, Trichodectes canis and human flea (Pulex irritans) also transmit Dipylidium caninum infection. Infants and young children are at high risk of acquiring infection. Majority of the infections are due to close as...

  9. Atividade residual in vitro do pelo de cobertura de cães tratados com dinotefuran sobre larvas e adultos de Ctenocephalides felis felis (Bouché, 1835 (Siphonaptera: pulicidae Residual activity in vitro of treated dog's hair coat with dinotefuran on larvae and adults of Ctenocephalides felis felis (Bouché, 1835 (Siphonaptera: Pulicidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thaís R. Correia

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a atividade in vitro do resíduo em pelo de cobertura de cães tratados com dinotefuran sobre larvas e adultos de Ctenocephalides felis felis. Foram utilizadas três cadelas da Raça Beagle: a nº 1 foi tratada com uma formulação spray de dinotefuran a 0,834%, a nº 2 com uma formulação "strip-on" de dinotefuran a 30% e a nº 3 foi mantida sem tratamento. Pequenas áreas foram tricotomizadas nos dias 2, 9, 16, 23, 30, 37 e 44 após o tratamento. Para avaliação adulticida e larvicida, foram utilizados pulgas de uma colônia mantida em laboratório. Seis repetições com cada uma contendo 10 exemplares de C. f. felis, acondicionados em tubos de ensaio, da etapa correspondente foram utilizados por dia de desafio. Em cada repetição foi adicionado 0,02 gramas de pelo de cada área tricotomizada e dieta na etapa de larvas. O material da etapa adulto foi avaliado num período de 24 horas, o da etapa larvas foi avaliado após 20 dias de cada desafio. O resíduo no pêlo de cães tratados com ambas as formulações de dinotefuran foi eficaz no controle de larvas por um período de 44 dias, e no controle de adultos as formulações spray e a "strip-on" foram eficazes por um período de 16 e 23 dias, respectivamente.The aim of this study was to evaluate the residual activity of treated dog's hair coat with dinotefuran on larvae and adults of Ctenocephalides felis felis. Three female Beagle dogs were used. One female dog was treated with 0.834% dinotefuran spray, the second was treated with 30% dinotefuran strip-on and the third was not treated. Some areas of dog's hair were clipped on days 2, 9, 16, 23, 30, 37 and 44 after treatment. For the evaluation of adulticidal and larvicidal activities, flea adults and larvae from the laboratory colony were used. Six repetitions were used with 10 samples of each flea stage per day, placed in assay tubes. In each repetition we added 0.02 g of treated or untreated dog

  10. Plague and the Human Flea, Tanzania

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laudisoit, Anne; Leirs, Herwig; Makundi, Rhodes H

    2007-01-01

    Domestic fleas were collected in 12 villages in the western Usambara Mountains in Tanzania. Of these, 7 are considered villages with high plague frequency, where human plague was recorded during at least 6 of the 17 plague seasons between 1986 and 2004. In the remaining 5 villages with low plague...... frequency, plague was either rare or unrecorded. Pulex irritans, known as the human flea, was the predominant flea species (72.4%) in houses. The density of P. irritans, but not of other domestic fleas, was significantly higher in villages with a higher plague frequency or incidence. Moreover, the P....... irritans index was strongly positively correlated with plague frequency and with the logarithmically transformed plague incidence. These observations suggest that in Lushoto District human fleas may play a role in plague epidemiology. These findings are of immediate public health relevance because...

  11. Comparative analysis of storage conditions and homogenization methods for tick and flea species for identification by MALDI-TOF MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nebbak, A; El Hamzaoui, B; Berenger, J-M; Bitam, I; Raoult, D; Almeras, L; Parola, P

    2017-12-01

    Ticks and fleas are vectors for numerous human and animal pathogens. Controlling them, which is important in combating such diseases, requires accurate identification, to distinguish between vector and non-vector species. Recently, matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS) was applied to the rapid identification of arthropods. The growth of this promising tool, however, requires guidelines to be established. To this end, standardization protocols were applied to species of Rhipicephalus sanguineus (Ixodida: Ixodidae) Latreille and Ctenocephalides felis felis (Siphonaptera: Pulicidae) Bouché, including the automation of sample homogenization using two homogenizer devices, and varied sample preservation modes for a period of 1-6 months. The MS spectra were then compared with those obtained from manual pestle grinding, the standard homogenization method. Both automated methods generated intense, reproducible MS spectra from fresh specimens. Frozen storage methods appeared to represent the best preservation mode, for up to 6 months, while storage in ethanol is also possible, with some caveats for tick specimens. Carnoy's buffer, however, was shown to be less compatible with MS analysis for the purpose of identifying ticks or fleas. These standard protocols for MALDI-TOF MS arthropod identification should be complemented by additional MS spectrum quality controls, to generalize their use in monitoring arthropods of medical interest. © 2017 The Royal Entomological Society.

  12. Non-equilibrium dog-flea model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ackerson, Bruce J.

    2017-11-01

    We develop the open dog-flea model to serve as a check of proposed non-equilibrium theories of statistical mechanics. The model is developed in detail. Then it is applied to four recent models for non-equilibrium statistical mechanics. Comparison of the dog-flea solution with these different models allows checking claims and giving a concrete example of the theoretical models.

  13. Efficacy of orally administered powdered aloe juice (Aloe ferox against ticks on cattle and ticks and fleas on dogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.J. Fourie

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available The efficacy of orally administered powdered aloe juice (Aloe ferox was evaluated against ticks on cattle and against ticks and fleas on dogs. Twelve calves were each infested over a 25-day period with approximately 4000 larvae of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus decoloratus and allocated to 3 groups of 4 calves each. Three days after the last larval infestation and daily for 22 days thereafter, the calves in 1 group were fed 5 mg / kg body weight and those in another 25 mg / kg body weight of powdered aloe juice incorporated in game maintenance pellets, while the animals in the 3rd group received only pellets. Detached female ticks were collected daily and counted and the weights and the fertility of groups of 50 engorged female ticks collected from the animals were ascertained. The powdered aloe juice in the game maintenance pellets had no effect on the tick burdens of the calves or on the fertility of the ticks. Six dogs, in each of 2 groups, were treated daily for 15 consecutive days, commencing on Day -5 before the 1st tick infestation, with either 0.39 g or 0.74 g of powdered aloe juice, administered orally in gelatin capsules, while a 3rd group of 6 dogs served as untreated controls. All the dogs were challenged with Haemaphysalis leachi on Days 0 and +7, and with Ctenocephalides felis on Days+1and +8, and efficacy assessments were made 1 day after flea and 2 days after tick challenge, respectively. Treatment was not effective against ticks or fleas on the dogs.

  14. Desenvolvimento dos fungos Metarhizium anisopliae (Metschnikoff, 1879 Sorokin, 1883 E Beauveria bassiana (Balsamo Vuillemin, 1912 sobre Ctenocephalides felis felis (Bouché, 1835 Development of the fungi Metarhizium anisopliae (Metschnikoff, 1879 Sorokin, 1883 and Beauveria bassiana (Balsamo Vuillemin, 1912 on the Ctenophephalides felis felis (Bouché, 1835

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise R. De Melo

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available A pulga Ctenocephalides felis felis é um parasita causador dermatites alérgicas e também pode transmitir diversos agentes etiológicos aos animais domésticos e aos homens. O objetivo deste trabalho foi verificar o desenvolvimento do fungo sobre a cutícula da pulga, através da microscopia eletrônica de varredura. Os isolados fúngicos testados foram o Metarhizium anisopliae 959 e Beauveria bassiana 986, ambos na concentração 10(8 conídios/ml. Após a exposição dos isolados fúngicos no período de duas, 15, 26 e 96 horas , o material foi processado para a microscopia eletrônica de varredura. Com a obtenção das micrografias, pode-se observar que com 2 horas após exposição aos fungos, os conídios estavam aderidos por toda a cutícula, situando-se preferencialmente nas membranas intersegmentais do abdome. Com 15 horas observou-se a formação do tubo de germinação e a cabeça do apressório e após 26 horas foi possível observar as ramificações e o engrossamento das hifas sobre a cutícula das pulgas. Os resultados indicam que os fungos testados foram capazes de se desenvolver sobre a cutícula de C. f. felis.The flea Ctenocephalides felis felis is a parasite that causes allergic dermatitis and also may transmit etiologic agents to domestic animals and humans. This study investigated by scanning electron microscopy the development of entomopathogenic fungi on flea cuticle. Fleas were exposed to conidia (10(8 ml-1 of Metarhizium anisopliae (isolate 959 or Beauveria bassiana (isolate 986. Following standard protocols for electron microscopy, the specimens were prepared 2, 15, 26 and 96 h after infection. The micrography revealed that 2 h after fungus exposure, conidia attachments encompassed the entire flea cuticle, especially on abdominal intersegmental membranes. The emergence of germ tubes and appressoria formation occurred at 15 h, thickening and branching of hyphae on the flea cuticle was noted at 26 h. Therefore, both of

  15. Rickettsia typhi IN RODENTS AND R. felis IN FLEAS IN YUCATÁN AS A POSSIBLE CAUSAL AGENT OF UNDEFINED FEBRILE CASES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaspar PENICHE-LARA

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Rickettsia typhi is the causal agent of murine typhus; a worldwide zoonotic and vector-borne infectious disease, commonly associated with the presence of domestic and wild rodents. Human cases of murine typhus in the state of Yucatán are frequent. However, there is no evidence of the presence of Rickettsia typhi in mammals or vectors in Yucatán. The presence of Rickettsia in rodents and their ectoparasites was evaluated in a small municipality of Yucatán using the conventional polymerase chain reaction technique and sequencing. The study only identified the presence of Rickettsia typhi in blood samples obtained from Rattus rattus and it reported, for the first time, the presence of R. felis in the flea Polygenis odiosus collected from Ototylomys phyllotis rodent. Additionally, Rickettsia felis was detected in the ectoparasite Ctenocephalides felis fleas parasitizing the wild rodent Peromyscus yucatanicus. This study’s results contributed to a better knowledge of Rickettsia epidemiology in Yucatán.

  16. Human Dipylidiasis: A Case Report of Dipylidium caninum Infection from Karimnagar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KV Ramana

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Dipylidium caninum also refered to as the double-pored tapeworm is a cyclophyllidean cestode that commonly infects dogs and cats. Mammals act as definite hosts with intermediate hosts being dog and cat flea, the Ctenocephalides canis and Ctenocephalides catis respectively. The dog lice, Trichodectes canis and human flea (Pulex irritans also transmit Dipylidium caninum infection. Infants and young children are at high risk of acquiring infection. Majority of the infections are due to close association with pet dog and cats. Humans are accidental hosts who acquire infection by ingestion of infected dog and cat fleas. We report a rare case of Dipylidium caninum infection in a 9 year old girl who could have acquired infection by consuming food contaminated with infected fleas.

  17. Infectious disease prevalence in a feral cat population on Prince Edward Island, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stojanovic, Vladimir; Foley, Peter

    2011-01-01

    Ninety-six feral cats from Prince Edward Island were used to determine the prevalence of selected infectious agents. The prevalence rates were 5.2% for feline immunodeficiency virus, 3.1% for feline leukemia virus, 3.1% for Mycoplasma haemofelis, 8.4% for Candidatus Mycoplasma haemominutum, 2.1% for Bartonella spp. and 29.8% for exposure to Toxoplasma gondii. Oocysts of T. gondii were detected in 1.3% of the fecal samples that were collected. Gender and retroviral status of the cats were significantly correlated with hemoplasma infections. Use of a flea comb showed that 9.6% of the cats had fleas; however, flea infestation was not associated with any of the infectious agents. PMID:22379197

  18. Human infestation by pigeon fleas (Ceratophyllus columbae) from feral pigeons.

    OpenAIRE

    Haag-Wackernagel, D; Spiewak, R.W.

    2004-01-01

    The report concerns a married couple who were repeatedly invaded by pigeon fleas (Ceratophyllus columbae) over a period of 2 months. The source of the fleas was a pair of breeding feral pigeons (Columba livia). The birds' nest was located in the attic immediately above the couple's apartment, and the fleas found their way along an unsealed heating pipe. The people encountered up to 40 bites per night. With invasions repeated almost every night, the man gradually developed an allergic urticari...

  19. Infestasi pinjal dan infeksi Dipylidium caninum Linnaeus pada kucing liar di lingkungan kampus Institut Pertanian Bogor, Kecamatan Dramaga

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aulia Syifak Bashofi

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to investigate flea infestation and Dipylidium caninum (Linnaeus 1758 infection on stray cat on Bogor Agricultural University Dramaga. Thirty stray cats were collected from various places around on Bogor Agricultural University Dramaga. The stray cats that showed clinical signs of pruritus and alopecia were collected purposively. The whole body was powdered by gamexan powder, after that the fleas were collected by manual and examined microscopically. The totals of 30 fecal stray cat samples collected and examined toward D. caninum used Mcmaster methode, flotation methode, and saw the existence of proglottid. The result of identification showed that there was found one species of flea, namely Ctenocephalides felis (Bouche 1835, while on faeces was not found D. caninum. Twenty one stray cats were infected by the flea with density average of fleas per cat was 3.8 ± 1.9 individual.

  20. Human infestation by pigeon fleas (Ceratophyllus columbae) from feral pigeons.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haag-Wackernagel, D; Spiewak, R.W.

    2004-01-01

    The report concerns a married couple who were repeatedly invaded by pigeon fleas (Ceratophyllus columbae) over a period of 2 months. The source of the fleas was a pair of breeding feral pigeons (Columba livia). The birds' nest was located in the attic immediately above the couple's apartment, and

  1. Factors associated with flea infestation among the different rodent ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Flea infection with the bacterium, Yersinia pestis is acquired from reservoirs which include several rodents and other small mammals. In areas that are endemic of plague, reservoirs of Y. pestis and various flea vectors are responsible for perpetuating existence of the disease. The objective of this cross sectional study was to ...

  2. A review of plague persistence with special emphasis on fleas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wimsatt, Jeffrey; Biggins, Dean E.

    2009-01-01

    Sylvatic plague is highly prevalent during infrequent epizootics that ravage the landscape of western North America. During these periods, plague dissemination is very efficient. Epizootics end when rodent and flea populations are decimated and vectored transmission declines. A second phase (enzootic plague) ensues when plague is difficult to detect from fleas, hosts or the environment, and presents less of a threat to public health.

  3. Rickettsia species in fleas collected from small mammals in Slovakia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Špitalská, Eva; Boldiš, Vojtech; Mošanský, Ladislav; Sparagano, Olivier; Stanko, Michal

    2015-11-01

    Epidemiological and epizootiological studies of Rickettsia felis and other Rickettsia spp. are very important, because their natural cycle has not yet been established completely. In total, 315 fleas (Siphonaptera) of 11 species of Ceratophyllidae, Hystrichopsyllidae and Leptopsyllidae families were tested for the presence of Rickettsia species and Coxiella burnetii with conventional and specific quantitative real-time PCR assays. Fleas were collected from five rodent hosts (Myodes glareolus, Apodemus flavicollis, Apodemus agrarius, Microtus subterraneus, Microtus arvalis) and three shrew species (Sorex araneus, Neomys fodiens, Crocidura suaveolens) captured in Eastern and Southern Slovakia. Overall, Rickettsia spp. was found in 10.8% (34/315) of the tested fleas of Ctenophthalmus agyrtes, Ctenophthalmus solutus, Ctenophthalmus uncinatus and Nosopsyllus fasciatus species. Infected fleas were coming from A. flavicollis, A. agrarius, and M. glareolus captured in Eastern Slovakia. C. burnetii was not found in any fleas. R. felis, Rickettsia helvetica, unidentified Rickettsia, and rickettsial endosymbionts were identified in fleas infesting small mammals in the Košice region, Eastern Slovakia. This study is the first report of R. felis infection in C. solutus male flea collected from A. agrarius in Slovakia.

  4. Human infestation by pigeon fleas (Ceratophyllus columbae) from feral pigeons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haag-Wackernagel, Daniel; Spiewak, Radosław

    2004-01-01

    The report concerns a married couple who were repeatedly invaded by pigeon fleas (Ceratophyllus columbae) over a period of 2 months. The source of the fleas was a pair of breeding feral pigeons (Columba livia). The birds' nest was located in the attic immediately above the couple's apartment, and the fleas found their way along an unsealed heating pipe. The people encountered up to 40 bites per night. With invasions repeated almost every night, the man gradually developed an allergic urticarial reaction. The most traumatic experience for the couple, however, was to learn that they were invaded by fleas (initially, they had presumed they were bothered by mosquitoes). This information resulted in severe psychological distress with phobic reactions and insomnia. Despite the successful removal of the fleas and the pigeons that were source of the pest, parasitophobia of the man persisted over the following 4 months. This case is discussed from the broader aspect of health risks related to feral pigeons and animal fleas. Also summarised are previous observations on people invaded by pigeon fleas.

  5. Flea (Pulex simulans) infestation in captive giant anteaters (Myrmecophaga tridactyla).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutlow, Adrian G; Dryden, Michael W; Payne, Patricia A

    2006-09-01

    A pair of captive adult giant anteaters (Myrmecophaga tridactyla) presented heavily infested with a flea species (Pulex simulans) commonly found on Virginia opossums (Didelphis virginiana) and raccoons (Procyon lotor) in the central United States. In this case, the flea was demonstrated to have completed its entire life cycle with the anteaters as the host. A single treatment of topical imidacloprid, coupled with removal and replacement of infested bedding, was rapidly effective at controlling the infestation and no adverse effects of the drug were noted. Control of the anteater infestation also removed the flea infestation of aardvarks in the same building.

  6. Domestic cat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diffendorfer, James E.

    2017-01-01

    The familiar domestic cat is not native to southern California and is considered an invasive spe-cies by biologists and conservation organizations. When owners abandon their cats, wild or feral populations may arise, as they have in San Diego County. Cats’ pelage color, tail length, and hair thickness vary widely, given human fascination with breeding diverse phenotypes, but all have a typical felid body with upright ears, forward-looking eyes adapted for nocturnal foraging, protractible claws, and a sinuous, flexible body. Cats allowed outdoors and feral cats kill and eat a wide variety of vertebrates such as small mammals, birds, and reptiles

  7. Seasonal and habitat dependence of fleas parasitic on small mammals in Tanzania

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laudisoit, Anne; Leirs, Herwig; Makundi, Rhodes

    2009-01-01

    in both host and flea species composition varied seasonally. Despite the relatively rich mammal and flea fauna of the study region, the major contribution to variation in species composition between seasons and among habitats was due to a few species only. Flea assemblages on Lophuromys kilonzoi Verheyen...

  8. Blind Cat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arka Chattopadhyay

    2015-08-01

    There’s no way to know whether he was blind from birth or blindness was something he had picked up from his fights with other cats. He wasn’t an urban cat. He lived in a little village, soaked in the smell of fish with a river running right beside it. Cats like these have stories of a different kind. The two-storied hotel where he lived had a wooden floor. It stood right on the riverbank and had more than a tilt towards the river, as if deliberately leaning on the water.

  9. Factors that affect parasitism of black-tailed prairie dogs by fleas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eads, David A.; Hoogland, John L.

    2016-01-01

    Fleas (Insecta: Siphonaptera) are hematophagous ectoparasites that feed on vertebrate hosts. Fleas can reduce the fitness of hosts by interfering with immune responses, disrupting adaptive behaviors, and transmitting pathogens. The negative effects of fleas on hosts are usually most pronounced when fleas attain high densities. In lab studies, fleas desiccate and die under dry conditions, suggesting that populations of fleas will tend to decline when precipitation is scarce under natural conditions. To test this hypothesis, we compared precipitation vs. parasitism of black-tailed prairie dogs (Cynomys ludovicianus) by fleas at a single colony during May and June of 13 consecutive years (1976–1988) at Wind Cave National Park, South Dakota, USA. The number of fleas on prairie dogs decreased with increasing precipitation during both the prior growing season (April through August of the prior year) and the just-completed winter–spring (January through April of current year). Due to the reduction in available moisture and palatable forage in dry years, herbivorous prairie dogs might have been food-limited, with weakened behavioral and immunological defenses against fleas. In support of this hypothesis, adult prairie dogs of low mass harbored more fleas than heavier adults. Our results have implications for the spread of plague, an introduced bacterial disease, transmitted by fleas, that devastates prairie dog colonies and, in doing so, can transform grassland ecosystems.

  10. Factors affecting the development of Dipylidium caninum in Ctenocephalides felis felis (Bouché, 1835).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pugh, R E; Moorhouse, D E

    1985-01-01

    Ctenocephalides felis felis larvae were infected with Dipylidium caninum at a range of temperatures from 20 degrees - 35 degrees C at 3 mm Hg saturation deficit (SD) and 30 degrees C at 8 mm Hg SD. Hosts were subsequently dissected at 6, 9 and 12 days after infection. Four replicate experiments were performed and results of development, and host reactions analysed by the Genstat computer programme. These were found to depend on the temperature and saturation deficit of the environment. Unlike previous findings, parasite development and host reaction were found to be independent of host development. Host reaction was more marked and prolonged at 20 degrees - 25 degrees C than at higher temperatures. No perceptible growth of the parasite occurred at 20 degrees C. The development patterns of growth at the higher temperatures were similar but shifted in time so that faster growth occurred at higher temperatures. Rate of growth was fastest at 35 degrees C, despite the fact that this temperature was unfavourable to the hosts, all of which died at the time of pupation.

  11. Fleas and lice of mammals in New Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulette L. Ford; Richard A. Fagerlund; Donald W. Duszynski; Paul J. Polechla

    2004-01-01

    All available records are compiled for three orders of ectoparasites of mammals in New Mexico: fleas (Siphonaptera), sucking lice (Anoplura), and chewing lice (Mallophaga). We have drawn from records at the University of New Mexico's Museum of Southwestern Biology, the Vector Control Program of the New Mexico Environment Department, the Environmental Health...

  12. Ticks and Fleas Infestation on East Hedgehogs (Erinaceus concolor in Van Province, Eastern Region of Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaşar Goz

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Ixodid ticks (Acari: İxodidae and fleas (Siphonaptera are the major vectors of pathogens threatening animals and human healths. The aim of our study was to detect the infestation rates of East Hedgehogs (Erinaceus concolor with ticks and fleas in Van Province, eastern region of Turkey.Methods: We examined fleas and ticks infestation patterns in 21 hedgehogs, collected from three suburbs with the greater of number gardens. In order to estimate flea and tick infestation of hedgehogs, we immobilized the ectoparasites by treatment the body with a insecticide trichlorphon (Neguvon®-Bayer.Results: On the hedgehogs, 60 ixodid ticks and 125 fleas were detected. All of the ixodid ticks were Rhipicephalus turanicus and all of the fleas were Archaeopsylla erinacei. Infestation rate for ticks and fleas was detected 66.66 % and 100 %, respectively.Conclusion: We detected ticks (R. turanicus and fleas (A. erinacei in hedgehogs at fairly high rates. Since many ticks and fleas species may harbor on hedgehogs and transmit some tick-borne and flea-borne patogens, this results are the important in terms of veterinary and public health. 

  13. Transit through the flea vector induces a pretransmission innate immunity resistance phenotype in Yersinia pestis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viveka Vadyvaloo

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Yersinia pestis, the agent of plague, is transmitted to mammals by infected fleas. Y. pestis exhibits a distinct life stage in the flea, where it grows in the form of a cohesive biofilm that promotes transmission. After transmission, the temperature shift to 37 degrees C induces many known virulence factors of Y. pestis that confer resistance to innate immunity. These factors are not produced in the low-temperature environment of the flea, however, suggesting that Y. pestis is vulnerable to the initial encounter with innate immune cells at the flea bite site. In this study, we used whole-genome microarrays to compare the Y. pestis in vivo transcriptome in infective fleas to in vitro transcriptomes in temperature-matched biofilm and planktonic cultures, and to the previously characterized in vivo gene expression profile in the rat bubo. In addition to genes involved in metabolic adaptation to the flea gut and biofilm formation, several genes with known or predicted roles in resistance to innate immunity and pathogenicity in the mammal were upregulated in the flea. Y. pestis from infected fleas were more resistant to phagocytosis by macrophages than in vitro-grown bacteria, in part attributable to a cluster of insecticidal-like toxin genes that were highly expressed only in the flea. Our results suggest that transit through the flea vector induces a phenotype that enhances survival and dissemination of Y. pestis after transmission to the mammalian host.

  14. Katsvanga, CAT

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Katsvanga, CAT. Vol 1, No 2 (2006) - Articles Eucalyptus species performance under short rotation conditions on the Vumba highlands in Zimbabwe Abstract PDF. ISSN: 1819-3692. AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors · FAQ's · More about AJOL · AJOL's Partners ...

  15. [Fleas on small mammals in the surrounding area of Erhai Lake].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Wen-Ge; Guo, Xian-Guo; Men, Xing-Yuan; Gong, Zheng-Da; Wu, Dian; Zhang, Zheng-Kun; Zhang, Li-Yun

    2009-12-01

    To investigate the distribution pattern, species diversity and community structure of fleas on small mammals in the surrounding area of Erhai Lake, and the relationship between fleas and their hosts. Different geographical areas surrounding the Erhai Lake in Yunnan were selected as investigated spots. Small mammals were captured with baited cages. The cage-traps were examined and re-baited each morning. All fleas on the hosts were collected and identified. The richness (S), evenness (J'), diversity index (H'), dominance index (C'), total ectoparasite infestation rate (Rpt), total ectoparasite infestation index (Ipt), and constituent ratio (Cr) were used to measure the community structure. Altogether, 3,303 small mammals and 3,243 fleas were collected. From the 21 species of small mammal hosts, 13 species of fleas were identified. In southern area of the Lake, the species richness (21 species of small mammals & 12 species of fleas) was highest among the three selected areas. Seventeen species of small mammals and 8 species of fleas were found in eastern area, and only 13 species of small mammals and 7 species of fleas found in the west. This implied the probable influences of ecological environments on the fleas and their corresponding hosts. The community structure of fleas on small mammals was complex. The species diversity, species composition, community structure and distribution pattern of fleas were simultaneously influenced by the hosts' body surface microenvironment and the macroenvironment (habitat). The fleas are commonly distributed in small mammals in the areas and their communities are related to host species and the habitats.

  16. Evidence of an aggregation pheromone in the flea beetle,Phyllotreta Cruciferae (Goeze) (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, C; Weiss, M J

    1992-06-01

    Laboratory olfactometer bioassays and field trapping experiments showed that the flea beetle,Phyllotreta cruciferae (Goeze), was highly attracted by oilseed rape(Brassica napus L.) when flea beetles were on the plant. This attraction was mediated by a flea beetle-produced aggregation pheromone based upon: (1) Oilseed rape damaged mechanically, or byP. cruciferae, or by diamondback moth,Plutella xylostella (L.), did not attractP. cruciferae. (2) Contact with the plants or feeding was required for the production of aggregation pheromone because oilseed rape alone was not attractive when separated from flea beetles by a screen. (3) Equal numbers of males and females were attracted.

  17. FLEAS OF BLACK-FOOTED FERRETS (MUSTELA NIGRIPES) AND THEIR POTENTIAL ROLE IN THE MOVEMENT OF PLAGUE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mize, Erica L; Grassel, Shaun M; Britten, Hugh B

    2017-07-01

    Sylvatic plague is one of the major impediments to the recovery of the black-footed ferret ( Mustela nigripes ) because it decimates their primary prey species, prairie dogs ( Cynomys spp.), and directly causes mortality in ferrets. Fleas are the primary vector of Yersinia pestis , the causative agent of sylvatic plague. The goal of this research was to better understand the flea fauna of ferrets and the factors that might influence flea abundance on ferrets. Fleas from ferrets were tested for Y. pestis in a post hoc assessment to investigate the plausibility that some ferrets could act as incidental transporter hosts of fleas infected with Y. pestis . Fleas were collected from ferrets captured on the Lower Brule Indian Reservation in central South Dakota, US from 2009 to 2012. A total of 528 fleas collected from 67 individual ferrets were identified and tested for the presence of Y. pestis with a nested PCR assay. The predominant flea recovered from ferrets was Oropsylla hirsuta , a species that comprises 70-100% of the fleas recovered from prairie dogs and their burrows in the study area. Yersinia pestis was detected at low levels in fleas collected from ferrets with prevalence ranging from 0% to 2.9%; male ferrets harbored significantly more fleas than female ferrets. Six of 67 ferrets vaccinated against plague carried fleas that tested positive for Y. pestis , which suggests ferrets vaccinated against plague could inadvertently act as incidental transporter hosts of Y. pestis -positive fleas.

  18. Prevalence of selected infectious disease agents in stray cats in Catalonia, Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Ravicini

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Objectives The objective of the current study was to investigate the prevalence rates of the following infectious agents in 116 stray cats in the Barcelona area of Spain: Anaplasma phagocytophilum, Bartonella species, Borrelia burgdorferi, Chlamydia felis, Dirofilaria immitis, Ehrlichia species, feline calicivirus (FCV, feline herpesvirus-1 (FHV-1, feline leukaemia virus (FeLV, feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV, haemoplasmas, Mycoplasma species and Rickettsia species. Methods Serum antibodies were used to estimate the prevalence of exposure to A phagocytophilum, Bartonella species, B burgdorferi, Ehrlichia species and FIV; serum antigens were used to assess for infection by D immitis and FeLV; and molecular assays were used to amplify nucleic acids of Anaplasma species, Bartonella species, C felis, D immitis, Ehrlichia species, FCV, FHV-1, haemoplasmas, Mycoplasma species and Rickettsia species from blood and nasal or oral swabs. Results Of the 116 cats, 63 (54.3% had evidence of infection by Bartonella species, FeLV, FIV or a haemoplasma. Anaplasma species, Ehrlichia species or Rickettsia species DNA was not amplified from these cats. A total of 18/116 cats (15.5% were positive for FCV RNA (six cats, Mycoplasma species DNA (six cats, FHV-1 DNA (three cats or C felis DNA (three cats. Conclusions and relevance This study documents that shelter cats in Catalonia are exposed to many infectious agents with clinical and zoonotic significance, and that flea control is indicated for cats in the region.

  19. Group 1 and 2 Dermatophagoides house dust mite allergens in the microenvironment of cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loft, Klaus Earl; Rosser, Edmund J

    2010-04-01

    House dust mite allergens (HDMAs) are some of the most common allergens associated with allergic diseases in humans and dogs. The purpose of this study was to determine whether HDMAs could be detected in cat-associated household microenvironments. From 50 cat-only households with 95 cats, dust samples were collected by vacuuming for 2 min m(-2) from three areas where cats slept or rested regularly from September to October 2006. Relative humidity and temperature were measured in each household using a data logger. Each owner completed a questionnaire on potential factors that might influence the prevalence of house dust mites (HDMs). Dust samples were analysed utilizing an ELISA for Der p 1, Der f 1 and HDM group 2 allergens. In 38 of 50 households there was greater than 2 microg g(-1) of dust for at least one HDMA. Using stepwise logistic regression, factors associated with increased HDMA levels included: free-standing houses, number of humans in household, longhaired cats and age of the cat. Factors associated with decreased HDMA concentrations included: forced air heating and central air conditioning, less than 50% carpeting of the home, use of flea control, cats suffering from dermatological disease and the average temperature of the household. Many sleeping/resting areas utilized by cats contain sufficiently high levels of HDMAs to be potential sources of sensitization. This finding should lead to further determination of the role of HDMs in cats suffering from putative allergic conditions such as atopic dermatitis or asthma.

  20. Myxomatosis: some observations on breeding the European rabbit flea Spilopsyllus cuniculi (Dale) in an animal house

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobey, W. R.; Menzies, W.; Conolly, Dorothy

    1974-01-01

    Rabbit fleas for use in Myxomatosis investigations have been successfully bred on rabbits in an animal house. The timing of emergence appeared to be governed by a biological timing control interacting with different forms of disturbance. Yield was found to be related to litter size, the time the doe and her kittens were removed from the nest, the number of fleas put onto a doe before littering and the mean ambient temperature to which the doe was exposed in the week pre-partum. The survival rate of fleas in storage was affected by temperature, the degree of crowding, moisture content of the containers, whether fleas were fed or unfed and the source of fleas in terms of emergence times. PMID:4526409

  1. Dermal neutrophil, macrophage and dendritic cell responses to Yersinia pestis transmitted by fleas.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey G Shannon

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Yersinia pestis, the causative agent of plague, is typically transmitted by the bite of an infected flea. Many aspects of mammalian innate immune response early after Y. pestis infection remain poorly understood. A previous study by our lab showed that neutrophils are the most prominent cell type recruited to the injection site after intradermal needle inoculation of Y. pestis, suggesting that neutrophil interactions with Y. pestis may be important in bubonic plague pathogenesis. In the present study, we developed new tools allowing for intravital microscopy of Y. pestis in the dermis of an infected mouse after transmission by its natural route of infection, the bite of an infected flea. We found that uninfected flea bites typically induced minimal neutrophil recruitment. The magnitude of neutrophil response to flea-transmitted Y. pestis varied considerably and appeared to correspond to the number of bacteria deposited at the bite site. Macrophages migrated towards flea bite sites and interacted with small numbers of flea-transmitted bacteria. Consistent with a previous study, we observed minimal interaction between Y. pestis and dendritic cells; however, dendritic cells did consistently migrate towards flea bite sites containing Y. pestis. Interestingly, we often recovered viable Y. pestis from the draining lymph node (dLN 1 h after flea feeding, indicating that the migration of bacteria from the dermis to the dLN may be more rapid than previously reported. Overall, the innate cellular host responses to flea-transmitted Y. pestis differed from and were more variable than responses to needle-inoculated bacteria. This work highlights the importance of studying the interactions between fleas, Y. pestis and the mammalian host to gain a better understanding of the early events in plague pathogenesis.

  2. Effects of temperature on the transmission of Yersinia Pestis by the flea, Xenopsylla Cheopis, in the late phase period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schotthoefer, Anna M; Bearden, Scott W; Holmes, Jennifer L; Vetter, Sara M; Montenieri, John A; Williams, Shanna K; Graham, Christine B; Woods, Michael E; Eisen, Rebecca J; Gage, Kenneth L

    2011-09-29

    Traditionally, efficient flea-borne transmission of Yersinia pestis, the causative agent of plague, was thought to be dependent on a process referred to as blockage in which biofilm-mediated growth of the bacteria physically blocks the flea gut, leading to the regurgitation of contaminated blood into the host. This process was previously shown to be temperature-regulated, with blockage failing at temperatures approaching 30°C; however, the abilities of fleas to transmit infections at different temperatures had not been adequately assessed. We infected colony-reared fleas of Xenopsylla cheopis with a wild type strain of Y. pestis and maintained them at 10, 23, 27, or 30°C. Naïve mice were exposed to groups of infected fleas beginning on day 7 post-infection (p.i.), and every 3-4 days thereafter until day 14 p.i. for fleas held at 10°C, or 28 days p.i. for fleas held at 23-30°C. Transmission was confirmed using Y. pestis-specific antigen or antibody detection assays on mouse tissues. Although no statistically significant differences in per flea transmission efficiencies were detected between 23 and 30°C, efficiencies were highest for fleas maintained at 23°C and they began to decline at 27 and 30°C by day 21 p.i. These declines coincided with declining median bacterial loads in fleas at 27 and 30°C. Survival and feeding rates of fleas also varied by temperature to suggest fleas at 27 and 30°C would be less likely to sustain transmission than fleas maintained at 23°C. Fleas held at 10°C transmitted Y. pestis infections, although flea survival was significantly reduced compared to that of uninfected fleas at this temperature. Median bacterial loads were significantly higher at 10°C than at the other temperatures. Our results suggest that temperature does not significantly effect the per flea efficiency of Y. pestis transmission by X. cheopis, but that temperature is likely to influence the dynamics of Y. pestis flea-borne transmission, perhaps by affecting

  3. EKTOPARASIT (FLEAS PADA RESERVOIR DI DAERAH FOKUS PEST DI KABUPATEN BOYOLALI PROVINSI JAWA TENGAH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tri Ramadhani

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTRat is a rodent (rodensia which cannot be separated from parasitic organism attacks the ectoparasites(fleas. In the presence of fleas plague focus areas need to watch out, for no increase in cases of plague(outbreak. Pest is a zoonosis in rat that can be transmitted to humans through the bite of fleas Xenopsyllacheopsis containing Yersinia pestis. Boyolali District is one of the plague focus areas in Central Java. Thisstudy aims to identify the species of rats and fleas, trap succes, flea infestation in rats and flea index as anindicator of vulnerability to transmission of plague. The study is a descriptive survey with cross sectionaldesign. The population is all the rats and fleas in Boyolali district. Samples are rats and fleas that werecaught using live trap with coconut roasted and salted fish is placed inside and outside the home (each 2trap. Rat combed for fleas. The results showed the number of mouses caught were 245. There are 4 speciesrats and small mammals found in R. tanezumi, R. tiomanicus, R. exulans, N. fulvescens and S.murinus withsucces trap at 5.71%. Only 3 species and S.murinus of infected fleas. Species of flea is X. cheopis and S.cognatus. Specific flea index: Xenopsylla cheopis by 1.67; flea index cognatus Stavilus common flea indexof 0.88 and 2.55. Based on the warning system indicator about the bubonic plague spreading,which isspecific flea index of X.cheopis >1 and fleas index >2, Selo sub distric should be aware to the spreading ofbubonic plague in its area, so that it is important to carry out the controlling of rat and flea population.Keyword: ectoparasite, reservoir, fleas, plague. ABSTRAK Tikus adalah hewan mengerat (rodensiayang tidak lepas dari serangan organisme parasit yaitu ektoparasit (pinjal.Pada daerah fokus pestt keberadaan pinjal perlu diwaspadai,agar tidak terjadi peningkatan kasus pestt (KLB. Pest merupakan zoonosispada tikusyang dapat ditularkan kepada manusia melalui gigitan pinjal Xenopsylla

  4. Schroedinger's cat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lubkin, E [Wisconsin Univ., Madison (USA). Dept. of Physics

    1979-08-01

    The issue is to seek quantum interference effects in an arbitrary field, in particular in psychology. For this a digest of quantum mechanics over finite-n-dimensional Hilbert space is invented. In order to match crude data not only von Neumann's mixed states are used but also a parallel notion of unsharp tests. The mathematically styled text (and earlier work on multibin tests, designated MB) deals largely with these new tests. Quantum psychology itself is only given a foundation. It readily engenders objections; its plausibility is developed gradually, in interlocking essays. There is also the empirically definite proposal that (state, test, outcome)-indexed counts be gathered to record data, then fed to a matrix format (MF) search for quantum models. A previously proposed experiment in visual perception which has since failed to find significant quantum correlations, is discussed. The suspicion that quantum mechanics is all around goes beyond MF, and Schroedinger's cat symbolizes this broader perspective.

  5. Schroedinger's cat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lubkin, E.

    1979-01-01

    The issue is to seek quantum interference effects in an arbitrary field, in particular in psychology. For this a digest of quantum mechanics over finite-n-dimensional Hilbert space is invented. In order to match crude data not only von Neumann's mixed states are used but also a parallel notion of unsharp tests. The mathematically styled text (and earlier work on multibin tests, designated MB) deals largely with these new tests. Quantum psychology itself is only given a foundation. It readily engenders objections; its plausibility is developed gradually, in interlocking essays. There is also the empirically definite proposal that (state, test, outcome)-indexed counts be gathered to record data, then fed to a 'matrix format' (MF) search for quantum models. A previously proposed experiment in visual perception which has since failed to find significant quantum correlations, is discussed. The suspicion that quantum mechanics is all around goes beyond MF, and 'Schroedinger's cat' symbolizes this broader perspective. (author)

  6. Cat and Dog Bites

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Wellness Staying Healthy Pets and Animals Cat and Dog Bites Cat and Dog Bites Share Print Cat and dog bites are common injuries. A family pet or ... bites. Path to safety If a cat or dog bites you, you should: Wash the wound gently ...

  7. Precipitation, Climate Change, and Parasitism of Prairie Dogs by Fleas that Transmit Plague.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eads, David A; Hoogland, John L

    2017-08-01

    Fleas (Insecta: Siphonaptera) are hematophagous ectoparasites that can reduce the fitness of vertebrate hosts. Laboratory populations of fleas decline under dry conditions, implying that populations of fleas will also decline when precipitation is scarce under natural conditions. If precipitation and hence vegetative production are reduced, however, then herbivorous hosts might suffer declines in body condition and have weakened defenses against fleas, so that fleas will increase in abundance. We tested these competing hypotheses using information from 23 yr of research on 3 species of colonial prairie dogs in the western United States: Gunnison's prairie dog (Cynomys gunnisoni, 1989-1994), Utah prairie dog (Cynomys parvidens, 1996-2005), and white-tailed prairie dog (Cynomys leucurus, 2006-2012). For all 3 species, flea-counts per individual varied inversely with the number of days in the prior growing season with >10 mm of precipitation, an index of the number of precipitation events that might have caused a substantial, prolonged increase in soil moisture and vegetative production. Flea-counts per Utah prairie dog also varied inversely with cumulative precipitation of the prior growing season. Furthermore, flea-counts per Gunnison's and white-tailed prairie dog varied inversely with cumulative precipitation of the just-completed January and February. These results complement research on black-tailed prairie dog (Cynomys ludovicianus) and might have important ramifications for plague, a bacterial disease transmitted by fleas that devastates populations of prairie dogs. In particular, our results might help to explain why, at some colonies, epizootics of plague, which can kill >95% of prairie dogs, are more likely to occur during or shortly after periods of reduced precipitation. Climate change is projected to increase the frequency of droughts in the grasslands of western North America. If so, then climate change might affect the occurrence of plague epizootics

  8. Genetic structure and gene flow of the flea Xenopsylla cheopis in Madagascar and Mayotte.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harimalala, Mireille; Telfer, Sandra; Delatte, Hélène; Watts, Phillip C; Miarinjara, Adélaïde; Ramihangihajason, Tojo Rindra; Rahelinirina, Soanandrasana; Rajerison, Minoarisoa; Boyer, Sébastien

    2017-07-20

    The flea Xenopsylla cheopis (Siphonaptera: Pulicidae) is a vector of plague. Despite this insect's medical importance, especially in Madagascar where plague is endemic, little is known about the organization of its natural populations. We undertook population genetic analyses (i) to determine the spatial genetic structure of X. cheopis in Madagascar and (ii) to determine the potential risk of plague introduction in the neighboring island of Mayotte. We genotyped 205 fleas from 12 sites using nine microsatellite markers. Madagascan populations of X. cheopis differed, with the mean number of alleles per locus per population ranging from 1.78 to 4.44 and with moderate to high levels of genetic differentiation between populations. Three distinct genetic clusters were identified, with different geographical distributions but with some apparent gene flow between both islands and within Malagasy regions. The approximate Bayesian computation (ABC) used to test the predominant direction of flea dispersal implied a recent population introduction from Mayotte to Madagascar, which was estimated to have occurred between 1993 and 2012. The impact of this flea introduction in terms of plague transmission in Madagascar is unclear, but the low level of flea exchange between the two islands seems to keep Mayotte free of plague for now. This study highlights the occurrence of genetic structure among populations of the flea vector of plague, X. cheopis, in Madagascar and suggests that a flea population from Mayotte has been introduced to Madagascar recently. As plague has not been reported in Mayotte, this introduction is unlikely to present a major concern for plague transmission. Nonetheless, evidence of connectivity among flea populations in the two islands indicates a possibility for dispersal by fleas in the opposite direction and thus a risk of plague introduction to Mayotte.

  9. [Fleas community in introduced Siberian chipmunks (Tamias sibiricus Laxmann) in Forest of Sénart, France].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pisanu, B; Marmet, J; Beaucournu, J C; Chapuis, J L

    2008-03-01

    We examined the fleas community in an introduced population of Siberian chipmunks, Tamias sibiricus, between 2005 and 2007, in the Forest of Sénart (Essonne, France). We collected and identified 383 fleas on 463 chipmunks (total: 1,891 captures on 471 chipmunks). In 2005, 120 fleas were also collected on 65 bank voles, Clethrionomys glareolus, and on 25 wood mice, Apodemus sylvaticus, trapped within the same area. Ceratophyllus sciurorum sciurorum formed 73.6% of the chipmunks' flea community, with an annual prevalence (P) ranging between 8 and 13% and a mean intensity (I) ranging between 1.1 and 1.6 fleas per individual. Among the six other species infecting this Sciurid, Ctenophthalmus agyrtes impavidus constituted 17.2% (P: 1.6-2.2%; I: 1.1-2.6), and Megabothris turbidus 8.1% (P: 0.8-1.9%; I: 1.0-1.4) of the flea community, respectively. These last two species represented respectively 60.8% and 36.6% of the flea community on the bank vole and the wood mouse. Originated from Asia, chipmunks did not import any flea species to Sénart, probably because they were used as pets before their release in the wild. Abundance in C. s. sciurorum increased with adult chipmunk density and with juvenile density in summer. On adult chipmunks C. s. sciurorum tented to decrease with increasing abundance of red squirrels (Sciurus vulgaris]. Moreover, the two other flea species mainly infected young chipmunks during the fall, and their number was not related to chipmunk density. However, the distribution of species within the flea community became more balanced with increase juvenile chipmunk density. Overall, these results indicate that the close phyletic relationship between chipmunks and red squirrels contributed in the acquisition and the spread of fleas by chipmunks. Primary and secondary hosts densities, their habitat use, and more specifically burrowing activities and tree canopy use, also played a role in the spread of fleas on chipmunks.

  10. Zoonoses from cats: with special reference to Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabry, Abdel-Hameed A; Fouad, Mahmoud A H; Morsy, Ayman T A

    2013-08-01

    A zoonosis is an animal disease that is transmissible to humans. Humans are usually an accidental host that acquires disease through close contact with an infected animal, who may or may not be symptomatic. Children are at highest risk for infection because they are more likely to have close contact with pets. Cats are responsible for transmission of an extensive array of bacterial, fungal, and parasitic zoonotic pathogens. The route of transmission can be through the saliva (e.g., bites or contaminated scratches), feces, respiratory secretions, direct contact, or by the cat acting as a vehicle and source of tick or flea exposure. Although cats have been implicated in transmission of zoonosis to their owners, risk of transmission from contact with cats is low and may be further reduced by simple precautions. There is a need for education on zoonotic disease prevention practices for pet-owning households with individuals at higher risk of infection, and to educate future veterinarians during their early years in veterinary school about the risks associated with their future jobs. Also, zoonotic disease awareness training is a valuable service to animal shelter workers.

  11. Fleas (Siphonaptera) in the Nests of Dormice (Gliridae: Rodentia) in Lithuania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipatova, I; Stanko, M; Paulauskas, A; Spakovaite, S; Gedminas, V

    2015-05-01

    Negative effects of flea (Siphonaptera) parasitism on the host may be expressed in different ways. The aim of this study was to assess distribution of the flea fauna in nests of dormice in Lithuania. Nests of Glis glis (L.), Dryomys nitedula (Pallas), and Muscardinus avellanarius (L.) were collected from nest boxes in 2012 and 2013. Fleas were collected from nests in the laboratory and put into plastic tubes with 70% ethanol. Flea species were identified using morphological keys. From 400 nest boxes, 112 nests of dormice were collected from eight sites from mixed forests of central Lithuania. Twenty-three nests of G. glis were collected from nest boxes, with 16 of them containing 286 fleas belonging to four species: Ceratophyllus sciurorum (Schrank) (259), C. gallinae (Schrank) (23), Hystrichopsylla talpae (Curtis) (3), and Megabothris turbidus (Rothschild) (1). Fourteen nests of M. avellanarius were collected from nest boxes, 4 of which contained 224 fleas belonging to two species: C. sciurorum (221) and C. gallinae (3). Twenty-four nests of D. nitedula were collected from nest boxes, including 17 containing 207 fleas belonging to two species: C. sciurorum (205) and C. gallinae (2). Fifty-one nests of undetermined dormice species also were collected from nest boxes, 12 of them contained 395 fleas belonging to three species: C. sciurorum (374), Ctenophthalmus agyrtes (Heller) (19), and Ctenophthalmus assimilis (Taschenberg) (2). C. sciurorum was a predominant species in the nests of dormice. The occurrence of C. gallinae was documented in Lithuania for the first time. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. Dogs, cats, parasites, and humans in Brazil: opening the black box

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Dogs and cats in Brazil serve as primary hosts for a considerable number of parasites, which may affect their health and wellbeing. These may include endoparasites (e.g., protozoa, cestodes, trematodes, and nematodes) and ectoparasites (i.e., fleas, lice, mites, and ticks). While some dog and cat parasites are highly host-specific (e.g., Aelurostrongylus abstrusus and Felicola subrostratus for cats, and Angiostrongylus vasorum and Trichodectes canis for dogs), others may easily switch to other hosts, including humans. In fact, several dog and cat parasites (e.g., Toxoplasma gondii, Dipylidium caninum, Ancylostoma caninum, Strongyloides stercoralis, and Toxocara canis) are important not only from a veterinary perspective but also from a medical standpoint. In addition, some of them (e.g., Lynxacarus radovskyi on cats and Rangelia vitalii in dogs) are little known to most veterinary practitioners working in Brazil. This article is a compendium on dog and cat parasites in Brazil and a call for a One Health approach towards a better management of some of these parasites, which may potentially affect humans. Practical aspects related to the diagnosis, treatment, and control of parasitic diseases of dogs and cats in Brazil are discussed. PMID:24423244

  13. [The fleas of mammals from the Ucayali River basin (the Peruvian Amazonia)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darskaia, N F; Malygin, V M

    1996-01-01

    The material collected from 57 specimens of 9 mammalian species in two localities of the Peruvian Amazonia includes 212 specimens of fleas belonging to four species (Polygenis klagesi, Ropalopsyllus lugubris, Rh. australis and Rothschildopsylla noctilionis). This is the first record of fleas in the Ucayali River basin. The majority of flea specimens were collected form three morphologically similar but karyotypically and electrophoretically distinct species of spiny rats of the genus Proechimys. These fleas belong to the species P. klagesi. The subspecies P. k. samuelis was collected from 32-chromosome spiny rats nearby Pucallpa (8 degrees 22' S, 74 degrees 43' W), whereas in the locality nearby the village Jenaro Errera (4 degrees 52' S, 73 degrees 39' W) only the nominative subspecies P. k. klagesi were collected from all three species of spiny rats. Other species of fleas have relatively less abundance. Six fleas Rh. l. lugubris were found on one specimen of Cuniculus paca; a single Rh. australis--on one specimen of Myoprocta pratti; and a single R. noctilionis--on one specimen of Eptesicus brasiliensis.

  14. Flea diversity as an element for persistence of plague bacteria in an East African plague focus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca J Eisen

    Full Text Available Plague is a flea-borne rodent-associated zoonotic disease that is caused by Yersinia pestis and characterized by long quiescent periods punctuated by rapidly spreading epidemics and epizootics. How plague bacteria persist during inter-epizootic periods is poorly understood, yet is important for predicting when and where epizootics are likely to occur and for designing interventions aimed at local elimination of the pathogen. Existing hypotheses of how Y. pestis is maintained within plague foci typically center on host abundance or diversity, but little attention has been paid to the importance of flea diversity in enzootic maintenance. Our study compares host and flea abundance and diversity along an elevation gradient that spans from low elevation sites outside of a plague focus in the West Nile region of Uganda (~725-1160 m to higher elevation sites within the focus (~1380-1630 m. Based on a year of sampling, we showed that host abundance and diversity, as well as total flea abundance on hosts was similar between sites inside compared with outside the plague focus. By contrast, flea diversity was significantly higher inside the focus than outside. Our study highlights the importance of considering flea diversity in models of Y. pestis persistence.

  15. Efficacy of slow-release collar formulations of imidacloprid/flumethrin and deltamethrin and of spot-on formulations of fipronil/(s - methoprene, dinotefuran/pyriproxyfen/permethrin and (s –methoprene/amitraz/fipronil against Rhipicephalus sanguineus and Ctenocephalides felis felis on dogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Horak Ivan G

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Two studies evaluating the efficacy of an imidacloprid/flumethrin collar (Seresto®, Bayer Animal Health, IVP, a deltamethrin collar (Scalibor®, MSD, CP1, a fipronil/(s-methoprene spot-on (Frontline Combo®, Merial, CP2, a dinotefuran/pyriproxyfen/permethrin spot-on (Vectra 3D®, Ceva, CP3 and an amitraz/fipronil/(s-methoprene spot-on (Certifect®, Merial, CP4/CP5 against repeated infestations with Rhipicephalus sanguineus and Ctenocephalides felis felis on dogs were conducted over periods of 226 days and 71 days respectively. Methods The first study comprised 4 groups of treated dogs and one untreated control group, and the second 3 groups of treated dogs and one control group. Each group consisted of 8 dogs. All dogs were infested with ticks and fleas at regular intervals. Ticks were counted 6 h, 18 h or 48 h after infestations and fleas 24 h after infestations. Efficacies of the treatments were calculated by comparison with the untreated control groups using standard descriptive statistics. Results The protective 48 h tick efficacy was 97.8% to 100% for the IVP (226 days, 69.3% to 97.4% for CP1 (170 days, 99.6% to 43.4% for CP2 (35 days and 98% to 61.4% for CP3 (35 days. The protective 18 h tick efficacy was 98% to 99.6% for the IVP (71 days, 100% to 86.5% for CP4 (29 days, 100% to 72.8% for CP4 after re-treatment (35 days and 98.8% to 54.3% for CP5 (35 days. The protective 6 h tick efficacy was 85.6% at Day 7 and 90.1% to 97.1% from Day 14 onwards for the IVP (70 days, 92.3% to 70.7% for CP4 (35 days, 97.5% to 65.2% for CP4 after re-treatment (35 days and 95.1% to 51.8% for CP5 (35 days. The protective 24 h flea efficacy was 99.5/90.9% to 100% for the IVP (71/226 days, 66.7% to 83% for CP1 (170 days, 100% to 88.5% for CP2 (35 days, 100% to 73.3% for CP3 (35 days, 100% to 98.7% for CP4 (35 days, 100% to 87.5% for CP4 after re-treatment (35 days and 100% to 79.5% for

  16. Discospondylitis in a cat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watson, E.; Roberts, R.E.

    1993-01-01

    The incidence and causative agents of discospondylitis in cats are unknown. This report describes a cat with radiologic changes consistent with discospondylitis and concurrent urinary tract infection. As in dogs, discospondylitis should be the primary rule out for vertebral end plate lysis in cats

  17. Characterization of the cutaneous mycobiota in healthy and allergic cats using next generation sequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meason-Smith, Courtney; Diesel, Alison; Patterson, Adam P; Older, Caitlin E; Johnson, Timothy J; Mansell, Joanne M; Suchodolski, Jan S; Rodrigues Hoffmann, Aline

    2017-02-01

    Next generation sequencing (NGS) studies have demonstrated a diverse skin-associated microbiota and microbial dysbiosis associated with atopic dermatitis in people and in dogs. The skin of cats has yet to be investigated using NGS techniques. We hypothesized that the fungal microbiota of healthy feline skin would be similar to that of dogs, with a predominance of environmental fungi, and that fungal dysbiosis would be present on the skin of allergic cats. Eleven healthy cats and nine cats diagnosed with one or more cutaneous hypersensitivity disorders, including flea bite, food-induced and nonflea nonfood-induced hypersensitivity. Healthy cats were sampled at twelve body sites and allergic cats at six sites. DNA was isolated and Illumina sequencing was performed targeting the internal transcribed spacer region of fungi. Sequences were processed using the bioinformatics software QIIME. The most abundant fungal sequences from the skin of all cats were classified as Cladosporium and Alternaria. The mucosal sites, including nostril, conjunctiva and reproductive tracts, had the fewest number of fungi, whereas the pre-aural space had the most. Allergic feline skin had significantly greater amounts of Agaricomycetes and Sordariomycetes, and significantly less Epicoccum compared to healthy feline skin. The skin of healthy cats appears to have a more diverse fungal microbiota compared to previous studies, and a fungal dysbiosis is noted in the skin of allergic cats. Future studies assessing the temporal stability of the skin microbiota in cats will be useful in determining whether the microbiota sequenced using NGS are colonizers or transient microbes. © 2016 ESVD and ACVD.

  18. Cutaneous Hypersensitivity Dermatoses in the Feline Patient: A Review of Allergic Skin Disease in Cats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alison Diesel

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Feline allergic skin disease presents a unique set of challenges to the veterinary practitioner. Although there is some similarity to what is seen in the allergic canine patient, cutaneous hypersensitivity dermatoses in cats can manifest with strikingly different clinical signs, treatment options and outcomes, and secondary complications/disease entities. Additionally, less is known about the pathogenesis of feline allergic skin diseases, particularly “feline atopic syndrome” when compared to dogs or people. This article aims to review what is currently known in regards to allergic skin disease in the feline patient, with focus on non-flea, non-food hypersensitivity dermatitis.

  19. Cutaneous Hypersensitivity Dermatoses in the Feline Patient: A Review of Allergic Skin Disease in Cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diesel, Alison

    2017-05-09

    Feline allergic skin disease presents a unique set of challenges to the veterinary practitioner. Although there is some similarity to what is seen in the allergic canine patient, cutaneous hypersensitivity dermatoses in cats can manifest with strikingly different clinical signs, treatment options and outcomes, and secondary complications/disease entities. Additionally, less is known about the pathogenesis of feline allergic skin diseases, particularly "feline atopic syndrome" when compared to dogs or people. This article aims to review what is currently known in regards to allergic skin disease in the feline patient, with focus on non-flea, non-food hypersensitivity dermatitis.

  20. Description of Medwayella independencia (Siphonaptera, Stivaliidae, a new species of flea from Mindanao Island, the Philippines and their phoretic mites, and miscellaneous flea records from the Malay Archipelago

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Hastriter

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Medwayella independencia, a new species of flea, is described from the tupaiid host Urogale everetti (Thomas from Mindanao Island, Philippines. Several other species of fleas are also recorded from the Philippines including a single male of Lentistivalius philippinensis Hastriter & Bush, 2013 (previously known only from two males, the bat fleas Thaumapsylla breviceps orientalis Smit and Thaumapsylla longiforceps Traub, a single unidentified female species of Macrostylophora Ewing collected from the murid Bullimus bagobos Mearns, and a pair of Medwayella robinsoni ssp. from Sundasciurus hoogstraali (Sanborn from Busuanga Island, Philippines. Representatives of Medwayella Traub, 1972 and Macrostylophora have not previously been recorded from the Philippines. A key to the male sex of Medwayella is provided. Phoretic mites of the genus Psylloglyphus (family Winterschmidtiidae were present under the abdominal sclerites of several male and female specimens of M. independencia. This is the second report of a phoretic mite on a species of Medwayella Traub. The co-evolutionary implications between phoretic mites and fleas are discussed.

  1. Characterization of Hop-and-Sink Locomotion of Water Fleas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skipper, A. N.; Murphy, D. W.; Webster, D. R.

    2017-11-01

    The freshwater crustacean Daphnia magna is a widely studied zooplankton in relation to food webs, predator-prey interactions, and other biological/ecological considerations; however, their locomotion is poorly quantified and understood. These water fleas utilize a hop-and-sink mechanism that consists of making quick, impulsive jumps by beating their antennae to propel themselves forward (roughly 1 body length). The animals then sink for a period, during which they stretch out their antennae to increase drag and thereby reduce their sinking velocity. Time-resolved three-dimensional flow fields surrounding the animals were quantified with a unique infrared tomographic particle image velocimetry (tomo-PIV) system. Three-dimensional kinematics data were also extracted from the image sequences. In the current work, we compared body kinematics and flow disturbance among organisms of size in the range of 1.3 to 2.8 mm. The stroke cycle averaged 150 +/- 20 ms, with each stroke cycle split nearly evenly between power and recovery strokes. The kinematics data collapsed onto a self-similar curve when properly nondimensionalized, and a general trend was shown to exist between the nondimensionalized peak body speed and body length. The fluid flow induced by each antennae consisted of a viscous vortex ring that demonstrated a slow decay in the wake. The viscous dissipation showed no clear dependence on body size, whereas the volume of fluid exceeding 5 mm/s (the speed near the sinking speed of the animal) decayed more slowly with increasing body size.

  2. Phylogenetic Analysis of Entomoparasitic Nematodes, Potential Control Agents of Flea Populations in Natural Foci of Plague

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koshel, E. I.; Aleshin, V. V.; Eroshenko, G. A.; Kutyrev, V. V.

    2014-01-01

    Entomoparasitic nematodes are natural control agents for many insect pests, including fleas that transmit Yersinia pestis, a causative agent of plague, in the natural foci of this extremely dangerous zoonosis. We examined the flea samples from the Volga-Ural natural focus of plague for their infestation with nematodes. Among the six flea species feeding on different rodent hosts (Citellus pygmaeus, Microtus socialis, and Allactaga major), the rate of infestation varied from 0 to 21%. The propagation rate of parasitic nematodes in the haemocoel of infected fleas was very high; in some cases, we observed up to 1,000 juveniles per flea specimen. Our study of morphology, life cycle, and rDNA sequences of these parasites revealed that they belong to three distinct species differing in the host specificity. On SSU and LSU rRNA phylogenies, these species representing three genera (Rubzovinema, Psyllotylenchus, and Spilotylenchus), constitute a monophyletic group close to Allantonema and Parasitylenchus, the type genera of the families Allantonematidae and Parasitylenchidae (Nematoda: Tylenchida). We discuss the SSU-ITS1-5.8S-LSU rDNA phylogeny of the Tylenchida with a special emphasis on the suborder Hexatylina. PMID:24804197

  3. Market Hydraulics and Subjectivities in the "Wild": Circulations of the Flea Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niklas Hansson

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Since consumer researchers started paying attention to flea markets they represent common consumer and market research objects. Arguably, in the "natural laboratory" of the flea market, researchers can observe and theorize market and consumer processes "in the wild", as forms of direct marketing and consumption. We build on existing flea market research through adopting a circulatory approach, inspired by actor-network theory (ANT. Rather than presenting a theory of (flea markets, ANT is useful for studying markets from the perspective of grounded market-making processes. Consumption is understood as the interplay of consumers, marketers, retailers, and a wide array of artifacts and market mediators like products, economic theories and ideas, packaging, market space (in the physical sense and furniture, etc. Our results point out that not only does such an approach enable analysis of features commonly studied within consumer research such as calculative action and social interaction, but also issues more rarely in focus in such research, such as cognitive patterns of consumer curiosity, emotions, senses, and affect. Furthermore, even though flea markets foremost are places of commerce and exchange of second hand goods, there is a large variety of other forms of flows or circulations going on "backstage" that enable the surface phenomena of second hand consumption to come into being. Many of these circulations, we argue, are material rather than immaterial Vendor and buyer subjectivities are thus understood as outcomes of circulatory dynamism that involves a range of material and immaterial flows.

  4. Potential role for dog fleas in the cycle of Leishmania spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Marilia Gabriele Prado Albuquerque; Fattori, Karina Reinaldo; Souza, Fausto; Lima, Valéria Marçal Felix

    2009-10-28

    Several species of Leishmania spp. cause diseases in humans that range from self-healing cutaneous lesions to fatal visceral leishmaniosis. It has been observed that besides being transmitted by sand flies, Leishmania spp. may also be transmitted by arthropods such as ticks and fleas. To investigate the possible role of dog fleas in the transmission of Leishmania spp., Ctenocefalides felis were removed from 22 dogs which were positive according to ELISA and rK-39 tests. A C. felis sample from each of the 22 dogs was used to infect a hamster. The 22 hamsters were euthanized 4 months after infection with the fleas and the blood was subjected to ELISA to detect antibody anti-Leishmania spp., and the spleen samples were submitted to PCR for detection of Leishmania spp. DNA. PCR and ELISA were both positive in 18.1% (4/22), with PCR alone being positive in 45% (10/22) and ELISA alone in only 9% (2/22). These results suggest the participation of dog fleas in the Leishmania spp. cycle. Confirmation that C. felis indeed transmit leishmaniosis to dogs requires new strategies against leishmaniosis to be enforced by public health authorities and which focus on better ways to keep dogs free of fleas.

  5. Evidence of Yersinia pestis DNA from fleas in an endemic plague area of Zambia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hang'ombe Bernard M

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Yersinia pestis is a bacterium that causes plague which infects a variety of mammals throughout the world. The disease is usually transmitted among wild rodents through a flea vector. The sources and routes of transmission of plague are poorly researched in Africa, yet remains a concern in several sub-Saharan countries. In Zambia, the disease has been reported on annual basis with up to 20 cases per year, without investigating animal reservoirs or vectors that may be responsible in the maintenance and propagation of the bacterium. In this study, we undertook plague surveillance by using PCR amplification of the plasminogen activator gene in fleas. Findings Xenopsylla species of fleas were collected from 83 rodents trapped in a plague endemic area of Zambia. Of these rodents 5 had fleas positive (6.02% for Y. pestis plasminogen activator gene. All the Y. pestis positive rodents were gerbils. Conclusions We conclude that fleas may be responsible in the transmission of Y. pestis and that PCR may provide means of plague surveillance in the endemic areas of Zambia.

  6. Fleas, hosts and habitat: What can we predict about the spread of vector-borne zoonotic diseases?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Megan M. Friggens

    2010-01-01

    Vector-borne diseases of humans and wildlife are experiencing resurgence across the globe. I examine the dynamics of flea borne diseases through a comparative analysis of flea literature and analyses of field data collected from three sites in New Mexico: The Sevilleta National Wildlife Refuge, the Sandia Mountains and the Valles Caldera National Preserve (VCNP). My...

  7. Droughts may increase susceptibility of prairie dogs to fleas: Incongruity with hypothesized mechanisms of plague cycles in rodents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eads, David A.; Biggins, Dean E.; Long, Dustin H.; Gage, Kenneth L.; Antolin, Michael F.

    2016-01-01

    Plague is a reemerging, rodent-associated zoonosis caused by the flea-borne bacterium Yersinia pestis. As a vector-borne disease, rates of plague transmission may increase when fleas are abundant. Fleas are highly susceptible to desiccation under hot-dry conditions; we posited that their densities decline during droughts. We evaluated this hypothesis with black-tailed prairie dogs (Cynomys ludovicianus) in New Mexico, June–August 2010–2012. Precipitation was relatively plentiful during 2010 and 2012 but scarce during 2011, the driest spring–summer on record for the northeastern grasslands of New Mexico. Unexpectedly, fleas were 200% more abundant in 2011 than in 2010 and 2012. Prairie dogs were in 27% better condition during 2010 and 2012, and they devoted 287% more time to grooming in 2012 than in 2011. During 2012, prairie dogs provided with supplemental food and water were in 23% better condition and carried 40% fewer fleas. Collectively, these results suggest that during dry years, prairie dogs are limited by food and water, and they exhibit weakened defenses against fleas. Long-term data are needed to evaluate the generality of whether droughts increase flea densities and how changes in flea abundance during sequences of dry and wet years might affect plague cycles in mammalian hosts.

  8. A tortoiseshell male cat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, A. S.; Berg, Lise Charlotte; Almstrup, Kristian

    2014-01-01

    Tortoiseshell coat color is normally restricted to female cats due to X-linkage of the gene that encodes the orange coat color. Tortoiseshell male cats do, however, occur at a low frequency among tortoiseshell cats because of chromosome aberrations similar to the Klinefelter syndrome in man...... tissue from a tortoiseshell male cat referred to us. Chromosome analysis using RBA-banding consistently revealed a 39,XXY karyotype. Histological examinations of testis biopsies from this cat showed degeneration of the tubules, hyperplasia of the interstitial tissue, and complete loss of germ cells....... Immunostaining using anti-vimentin and anti-VASA (DDX4) showed that only Sertoli cells and no germ cells were observed in the testicular tubules. As no sign of spermatogenesis was detected, we conclude that this is a classic case of a sterile, male tortoiseshell cat with a 39,XXY chromosome complement. © 2013 S...

  9. Megaesophagus in two cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoenig, M; Mahaffey, M B; Parnell, P G; Styles, M E

    1990-03-01

    Megaesophagus was diagnosed in 2 cats. Both had a history of regurgitation, and one was dyspneic. Radiography of the thorax and abdomen revealed generalized megaesophagus and gastric distention with gas. There was no esophageal motility during fluoroscopic observation. The prognosis for cats with megaesophagus is guarded. Although they may be satisfactory pets, cats with this condition should not be used for breeding because the condition is believed to be inherited through recessive genes.

  10. First detection of Candidatus Rickettsia barbariae in the flea Vermipsylla alakurt from north-western China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Shan-Shan; Li, Hong-Yu; Yin, Xiao-Ping; Liu, Zhi-Qiang; Chen, Chuang-Fu; Wang, Yuan-Zhi

    2016-06-07

    Vermipsylla is a genus of the family Vermipsyllidae within the order Siphonaptera of fleas. Vermipsylla alakurt is mainly distributed in alpine pastoral areas of Kazakhstan, Mongolia, China and Nepal, and infests sheep, yaks and horses, causing irritation, poor condition, anaemia and even death. However, to date, no rickettsial agents have been reported in V. alakurt. A total of 133 fleas were collected directly from the tails of three sheep flocks (n = 335) in Minfeng County, Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region, north-western China. Of these, 55 fleas were identified by morphological examination and molecular analysis of four loci (the ribosomal 18S and 28S rDNA genes and the mitochondrial genes cytochrome  c oxidase subunit II and elongation factor 1-alpha). Eight Rickettsia-specific gene fragments originated from seven genes: the 17-kilodalton antigen gene (17-kDa), citrate synthase gene (gltA), 16S rRNA gene (rrs), outer membrane protein A gene (ompA), surface cell antigen 1 gene (sca1), PS120 protein gene (gene D), and outer membrane protein B gene (ompB, two fragments), were used to identify the species of Rickettsia in 53 fleas. The amplified products were sequenced and included in a phylogenetic analysis to verify the taxonomic identification of the rickettsial agents. Based on morphological and molecular evidence, the flea was identified as Vermipsylla alakurt. Nine samples were positive (16.98 %, 9/53) for Rickettsia spp. The phylogenetic tree revealed that the rickettsial agents found in V. alakurt cluster with Candidatus Rickettsia barbariae. Our study suggests that: (i) V. alakurt may serve as a carrier for Candidatus R. barbariae; and (ii) Candidatus R. barbariae, previously reported in Israel, is the eighth newly discovered validated Rickettsia species in China. This finding extends our knowledge of the distribution of Candidatus R. barbariae and the profile of carriers, which not only comprise ticks but also fleas.

  11. Differential Rickettsial Transcription in Bloodfeeding and Non-Bloodfeeding Arthropod Hosts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victoria I Verhoeve

    Full Text Available Crucial factors influencing the epidemiology of Rickettsia felis rickettsiosis include pathogenesis and transmission. Detection of R. felis DNA in a number of arthropod species has been reported, with characterized isolates, R. felis strain LSU and strain LSU-Lb, generated from the cat flea, Ctenocephalides felis, and the non-hematophagous booklouse, Liposcelis bostrychophila, respectively. While it is realized that strain influence on host biology varies, the rickettsial response to these distinct host environments remained undefined. To identify a panel of potential rickettsial transmission determinants in the cat flea, the transcriptional profile for these two strains of R. felis were compared in their arthropod hosts using RNAseq. Rickettsial genes with increased transcription in the flea as compared to the booklouse were identified. Genes previously associated with bacterial virulence including LPS biosynthesis, Type IV secretion system, ABC transporters, and a toxin-antitoxin system were selected for further study. Transcription of putative virulence-associated genes was determined in a flea infection bioassay for both strains of R. felis. A host-dependent transcriptional profile during bloodfeeding, specifically, an increased expression of selected transcripts in newly infected cat fleas and flea feces was detected when compared to arthropod cell culture and incubation in vertebrate blood. Together, these studies have identified novel, host-dependent rickettsial factors that likely contribute to successful horizontal transmission by bloodfeeding arthropods.

  12. Obesity in show cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corbee, R J

    2014-12-01

    Obesity is an important disease with a high prevalence in cats. Because obesity is related to several other diseases, it is important to identify the population at risk. Several risk factors for obesity have been described in the literature. A higher incidence of obesity in certain cat breeds has been suggested. The aim of this study was to determine whether obesity occurs more often in certain breeds. The second aim was to relate the increased prevalence of obesity in certain breeds to the official standards of that breed. To this end, 268 cats of 22 different breeds investigated by determining their body condition score (BCS) on a nine-point scale by inspection and palpation, at two different cat shows. Overall, 45.5% of the show cats had a BCS > 5, and 4.5% of the show cats had a BCS > 7. There were significant differences between breeds, which could be related to the breed standards. Most overweight and obese cats were in the neutered group. It warrants firm discussions with breeders and cat show judges to come to different interpretations of the standards in order to prevent overweight conditions in certain breeds from being the standard of beauty. Neutering predisposes for obesity and requires early nutritional intervention to prevent obese conditions. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition © 2014 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  13. Cat-Scratch Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... CDC.gov . Healthy Pets, Healthy People About Pets & People Pets & Other Animals Birds Cats Dogs Farm Animals Backyard ... to have CSD and spread it to people, persons with a weakened immune system should ... Play rough with your pets because they may scratch and bite. Allow cats ...

  14. That Fat Cat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambert, Phyllis Gilchrist

    2012-01-01

    This activity began with a picture book, Nurit Karlin's "Fat Cat On a Mat" (HarperCollins; 1998). The author and her students started their project with a 5-inch circular template for the head of their cats. They reviewed shapes as they drew the head and then added the ears and nose, which were triangles. Details to the face were added when…

  15. New record of a phoretic flea associated with earwigs (Dermaptera, Arixeniidae) and a redescription of the bat flea Lagaropsylla signata (Siphonaptera, Ischnopsyllidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Hastriter,Michael; Miller,Kelly; Svenson,Gavin; Whiting,Michael F.; Whiting,Michael

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Lagaropsylla signata (Wahlgren, 1903), previously known only from the Island of Java, Indonesia is redescribed and reported for the first time in Deer Cave, Gunung Mulu National Park, Sarawak, Malaysia (west coast of Borneo). Many were found clinging to the earwig Arixenia esau Jordan, 1909. A similar account of a phoretic flea ( Lagaropsylla turba Smit, 1958) on the same species of cave-dwelling earwig has been reported in peninsular Malaysia in a well-documented association with th...

  16. CAT questions and answers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-02-01

    This document, prepared in February 1993, addresses the most common questions asked by APS Collaborative Access Teams (CATs). The answers represent the best judgment on the part of the APS at this time. In some cases, details are provided in separate documents to be supplied by the APS. Some of the answers are brief because details are not yet available. The questions are separated into five categories representing different aspects of CAT interactions with the APS: (1) Memorandum of Understanding (MOU), (2) CAT Beamline Review and Construction, (3) CAT Beamline Safety, (4) CAT Beamline Operations, and (5) Miscellaneous. The APS plans to generate similar documents as needed to both address new questions and clarify answers to present questions

  17. Contribution of land use to rodent flea load distribution in the plague ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    These findings suggest that land use factors have a major influence on rodent flea abundance which can be taken as a proxy for plague infection risk. The results further point to the need for a comprehensive package that includes land tillage and crop type considerations on one hand and the associated human activities on ...

  18. Laboratory and field tests of Carbaryl 5% against fleas in Lushoto ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background and Objective: Lushoto district in north-eastern Tanzania has been an active focus of plague disease since 1980 and many pesticides were used to control rodents and fleas from 1980 to 2003 when outbreaks occurred yearly. For over seven years ago commercial Carbaryl 5% powder has been used for ...

  19. Assessing plague risk and presence through surveys of small mammal flea communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    M. M. Friggens; P. L. Ford; R. R. Parmenter; M. Boyden; K. Gage

    2011-01-01

    Plague, caused by the bacterium Yersinia pestis, remains a threat to human and wildlife populations in the Western United States (Gage and Kosoy 2005). Several rodent species have been implicated as important maintenance hosts in the U.S., including Peromyscus maniculatus and Dipodomys spp. Fleas are a critical component of plague foci (Gage and Kosoy 2005)....

  20. Retracing the evolutionary path that led to flea-borne transmission of Yersinia pestis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yi-Cheng; Jarrett, Clayton O; Bosio, Christopher F; Hinnebusch, B Joseph

    2014-05-14

    Yersinia pestis is an arthropod-borne bacterial pathogen that evolved recently from Yersinia pseudotuberculosis, an enteric pathogen transmitted via the fecal-oral route. This radical ecological transition can be attributed to a few discrete genetic changes from a still-extant recent ancestor, thus providing a tractable case study in pathogen evolution and emergence. Here, we determined the genetic and mechanistic basis of the evolutionary adaptation of Y. pestis to flea-borne transmission. Remarkably, only four minor changes in the bacterial progenitor, representing one gene gain and three gene losses, enabled transmission by flea vectors. All three loss-of-function mutations enhanced cyclic-di-GMP-mediated bacterial biofilm formation in the flea foregut, which greatly increased transmissibility. Our results suggest a step-wise evolutionary model in which Y. pestis emerged as a flea-borne clone, with each genetic change incrementally reinforcing the transmission cycle. The model conforms well to the ecological theory of adaptive radiation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Comparative Ability of Oropsylla montana and Xenopsylla cheopis Fleas to Transmit Yersinia pestis by Two Different Mechanisms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B Joseph Hinnebusch

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Transmission of Yersinia pestis by flea bite can occur by two mechanisms. After taking a blood meal from a bacteremic mammal, fleas have the potential to transmit the very next time they feed. This early-phase transmission resembles mechanical transmission in some respects, but the mechanism is unknown. Thereafter, transmission occurs after Yersinia pestis forms a biofilm in the proventricular valve in the flea foregut. The biofilm can impede and sometimes completely block the ingestion of blood, resulting in regurgitative transmission of bacteria into the bite site. In this study, we compared the relative efficiency of the two modes of transmission for Xenopsylla cheopis, a flea known to become completely blocked at a high rate, and Oropsylla montana, a flea that has been considered to rarely develop proventricular blockage.Fleas that took an infectious blood meal containing Y. pestis were maintained and monitored for four weeks for infection and proventricular blockage. The number of Y. pestis transmitted by groups of fleas by the two modes of transmission was also determined. O. montana readily developed complete proventricular blockage, and large numbers of Y. pestis were transmitted by that mechanism both by it and by X. cheopis, a flea known to block at a high rate. In contrast, few bacteria were transmitted in the early phase by either species.A model system incorporating standardized experimental conditions and viability controls was developed to more reliably compare the infection, proventricular blockage and transmission dynamics of different flea vectors, and was used to resolve a long-standing uncertainty concerning the vector competence of O. montana. Both X. cheopis and O. montana are fully capable of transmitting Y. pestis by the proventricular biofilm-dependent mechanism.

  2. Computerised Axial Tomography (CAT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-06-01

    Ministry of’ Defence, Defence Research Information Centre, UK. Computerised Axial Tomography ( CAT ) Report Secufty C"uMiauion tide Onadtiicadon (U. R, Cor S...DRIC T 8485 COMPUTERISED AXIAL TOMOGRAPHY ( CAT ) F.P. GENTILE, F. SABETTA, V. TRO1* ISS R 78/4.Rome, 1.5 Mlarch 1978 (from Italian) B Distribution(f...dello Radiazioni ISSN 0390--6477 F.P. GENTILE, F. SABETTA. V. TROI Computerised Axial Tomography ( CAT ) March 15, 1978). This paper is a review of

  3. StreamCat

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The StreamCat Dataset provides summaries of natural and anthropogenic landscape features for ~2.65 million streams, and their associated catchments, within the...

  4. IndexCat

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — IndexCat provides access to the digitized version of the printed Index-Catalogue of the Library of the Surgeon General's Office; eTK for medieval Latin texts; and...

  5. Role of the Yersinia pestis yersiniabactin iron acquisition system in the incidence of flea-borne plague.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florent Sebbane

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Plague is a flea-borne zoonosis caused by the bacterium Yersinia pestis. Y. pestis mutants lacking the yersiniabactin (Ybt siderophore-based iron transport system are avirulent when inoculated intradermally but fully virulent when inoculated intravenously in mice. Presumably, Ybt is required to provide sufficient iron at the peripheral injection site, suggesting that Ybt would be an essential virulence factor for flea-borne plague. Here, using a flea-to-mouse transmission model, we show that a Y. pestis strain lacking the Ybt system causes fatal plague at low incidence when transmitted by fleas. Bacteriology and histology analyses revealed that a Ybt-negative strain caused only primary septicemic plague and atypical bubonic plague instead of the typical bubonic form of disease. The results provide new evidence that primary septicemic plague is a distinct clinical entity and suggest that unusual forms of plague may be caused by atypical Y. pestis strains.

  6. Transmission efficiency of the plague pathogen (Y. pestis) by the flea, Xenopsylla skrjabini, to mice and great gerbils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yujiang; Dai, Xiang; Wang, Qiguo; Chen, Hongjian; Meng, Weiwei; Wu, Kemei; Luo, Tao; Wang, Xinhui; Rehemu, Azhati; Guo, Rong; Yu, Xiaotao; Yang, Ruifu; Cao, Hanli; Song, Yajun

    2015-05-01

    Plague, a zoonotic disease caused by Yersinia pestis, is characterized by its ability to persist in the plague natural foci. Junggar Basin plague focus was recently identified in China, with Rhombomys opimus (great gerbils) and Xenopsylla skrjabini as the main reservoir and vector for plague. No transmission efficiency data of X. skrjabini for Y. pestis is available till now. In this study, we estimated the median infectious dose (ID50) and the blockage rates of X. skrjabini with Y. pestis, by using artificial feeders. We then evaluated the flea transmission ability of Y. pestis to the mice and great gerbils via artificial bloodmeal feeding. Finally, we investigated the transmission of Y. pestis to mice with fleas fed by infected great gerbils. ID50 of Y. pestis to X. skrjabini was estimated as 2.04 × 10(5) CFU (95% CI, 1.45 × 10(5) - 3.18 × 10(5) CFU), around 40 times higher than that of X. cheopis. Although fleas fed by higher bacteremia bloodmeal had higher infection rates for Y. pestis, they lived significantly shorter than their counterparts. X. skrjabini could get fully blocked as early as day 3 post of infection (7.1%, 3/42 fleas), and the overall blockage rate of X. cheopis was estimated as 14.9% (82/550 fleas) during the 14 days of investigation. For the fleas infected by artificial feeders, they seemed to transmit plague more efficiently to great gerbils than mice. Our single flea transmission experiments also revealed that, the transmission capacity of naturally infected fleas (fed by infected great gerbils) was significantly higher than that of artificially infected ones (fed by artificial feeders). Our results indicated that ID50 of Y. pestis to X. skrjabini was higher than other fleas like X. cheopis, and its transmission efficiency to mice might be lower than other flea vectors in the artificial feeding modes. We also found different transmission potentials in the artificially infected fleas and the naturally infected ones. Further studies are

  7. Contribution of land use to rodent flea load distribution in the plague endemic area of Lushoto District, Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hieronimo, Proches; Kihupi, Nganga I; Kimaro, Didas N; Gulinck, Hubert; Mulungu, Loth S; Msanya, Balthazar M; Leirs, Herwig; Deckers, Jozef A

    2014-07-01

    Fleas associated with different rodent species are considered as the major vectors of bubonic plague, which is still rampant in different parts of the world. The objective of this study was to investigate the contribution of land use to rodent flea load distribution at fine scale in the plague endemic area of north-eastern Tanzania. Data was collected in three case areas namely, Shume, Lukozi and Mwangoi, differing in plague incidence levels. Data collection was carried out during both wet and dry seasons of 2012. Analysis of Variance and Boosted Regression Tree (BRT) statistical methods were used to clarify the relationships between fleas and specific land use characteristics. There was a significant variation (P ≤ 0.05) of flea indices in different land use types. Fallow and natural forest had higher flea indices whereas plantation forest mono-crop and mixed annual crops had the lowest flea indices among the aggregated land use types. The influence of individual land use types on flea indices was variable with fallow having a positive effect and land tillage showing a negative effect. The results also demonstrated a seasonal effect, part of which can be attributed to different land use practices such as application of pesticides, or the presence of grass strips around fields. These findings suggest that land use factors have a major influence on rodent flea abundance which can be taken as a proxy for plague infection risk. The results further point to the need for a comprehensive package that includes land tillage and crop type considerations on one hand and the associated human activities on the other, in planning and implementation of plague control interventions.

  8. Using occupancy models to investigate the prevalence of ectoparasitic vectors on hosts: an example with fleas on prairie dogs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eads, David A.; Biggins, Dean E.; Doherty, Paul F.; Gage, Kenneth L.; Huyvaert, Kathryn P.; Long, Dustin H.; Antolin, Michael F.

    2013-01-01

    Ectoparasites are often difficult to detect in the field. We developed a method that can be used with occupancy models to estimate the prevalence of ectoparasites on hosts, and to investigate factors that influence rates of ectoparasite occupancy while accounting for imperfect detection. We describe the approach using a study of fleas (Siphonaptera) on black-tailed prairie dogs (Cynomys ludovicianus). During each primary occasion (monthly trapping events), we combed a prairie dog three consecutive times to detect fleas (15 s/combing). We used robust design occupancy modeling to evaluate hypotheses for factors that might correlate with the occurrence of fleas on prairie dogs, and factors that might influence the rate at which prairie dogs are colonized by fleas. Our combing method was highly effective; dislodged fleas fell into a tub of water and could not escape, and there was an estimated 99.3% probability of detecting a flea on an occupied host when using three combings. While overall detection was high, the probability of detection was always dogs, flea occupancy was heightened in old/natural colonies of prairie dogs, and on hosts that were in poor condition. Occupancy was initially low in plots with high densities of prairie dogs, but, as the study progressed, the rate of flea colonization increased in plots with high densities of prairie dogs in particular. Our methodology can be used to improve studies of ectoparasites, especially when the probability of detection is low. Moreover, the method can be modified to investigate the co-occurrence of ectoparasite species, and community level factors such as species richness and interspecific interactions.

  9. The Feline Mystique: Dispelling the Myth of the Independent Cat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soltow, Willow

    1984-01-01

    Describes learning activities about cats for primary and intermediate grades. Primary grade activity subjects include cat behavior, needs, breeds, storybook cats, and celestial cats. Intermediate grade activity subjects include cat history, care, language, literary cats, and cats in art. (BC)

  10. Bell inequalities with Schroedinger cats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reid, M.D.

    2001-01-01

    In the Schrodinger cat gedanken experiment a ''cat'' is in a quantum superposition of two macroscopically distinct states. There is the apparent interpretation that the ''cat'' is not in one state or the other, ''alive'' or ''dead''. Here this interpretation is proved objectively. I propose the following definition of macroscopic reality: first, that the ''cat'' is either dead or alive, the measurement revealing which; second, that measurements on other ''cats'' some distance away cannot induce the macroscopic change, ''dead'' to ''alive'' and vice versa, to the ''cat''. The predictions of quantum mechanics are shown to be incompatible with this premise. (orig.)

  11. An update on the distribution and nomenclature of fleas (Order Siphonaptera of bats (Order Chiroptera and rodents (Order Rodentia from La Rioja Province, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Fernanda López Berrizbeitia

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The mammalian and flea fauna of La Rioja Province is one of the least known from northwestern Argentina. In this study, the distribution and nomenclature of 13 species of fleas of bats and rodents from La Rioja Province are updated. Four species of fleas are recorded for the first time in La Rioja Province including a new record for northwestern Argentina, and two new flea-host associations. An identification key and distribution map are included for all known species of Siphonaptera of bats and rodents from La Rioja Province, Argentina.

  12. Crystallized Schroedinger cat states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castanos, O.; Lopez-Pena, R.; Man'ko, V.I.

    1995-01-01

    Crystallized Schroedinger cat states (male and female) are introduced on the base of extension of group construction for the even and odd coherent states of the electromagnetic field oscillator. The Wigner and Q functions are calculated and some are plotted for C 2 , C 3 , C 4 , C 5 , C 3v Schroedinger cat states. Quadrature means and dispersions for these states are calculated and squeezing and correlation phenomena are studied. Photon distribution functions for these states are given explicitly and are plotted for several examples. A strong oscillatory behavior of the photon distribution function for some field amplitudes is found in the new type of states

  13. E-Z-CAT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nyman, U.; Dinnetz, G.; Andersson, I.

    1984-01-01

    A new barium sulphate suspension, E-Z-CAT, for use as an oral contrast medium at computed tomography of the abdomen has been compared with the commonly used water-soluble iodinated contrast medium Gastrografin as regards patient tolerance and diagnostic information. The investigation was conducted as an unpaired randomized single-blind study in 100 consecutive patients. E-Z-CAT seems to be preferred because of its better taste, its lesser tendency to cause diarrhoea, and for usage in patients who are known to be hypersensitive to iodinated contrast media. The diagnostic information was the same for both contrast media. (Auth.)

  14. Influence de la température sur le développement de la puce africaine du chat Ctenocephalides felis strongylus (Jordan, 1925 (Siphonaptera : Pulicidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yao K.P.

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Ctenocephalides felis (Bouché, 1835 communément appelée “puce du chat” présente deux sous-espèces reconnues : Ctenocephalides felis strongylus (Jordan, 1925 inféodée au continent africain et Ctenocephalides felis felis (Bouché, 1835 présente dans les zones à climat tempéré (Afrique du Nord, Europe et Amérique (Ménier et Beaucournu, 1999. En Afrique subsaharienne, la principale puce retrouvée chez les animaux de compagnie et chez certains animaux d’élevage (ovins, caprins et bovins appartient à la sous-espèce C. f. strongylus. Quelques paramètres bio-écologiques de C. f. strongylus ont été étudiés dans différentes conditions d’élevage. Les résultats ont été comparés à ceux de C. f. felis actuellement disponibles. À 75% ± 5 d’humidité relative, le cycle de développement de C. f. strongylus dure 20-21 jours à 27 °C et de 16 à 17 jours à 29 °C. Ainsi, la sousespèce africaine de la puce du chat (C. f. strongylus se développe moins vite que C. f. felis à températures identiques. Cette différence pourrait s’expliquer par l’influence du climat de leurs aires de distribution respectives sur leur cycle de développement. À 75% ± 5 d’humidité relative, les adultes de C. f. strongylus ne peuvent survivre plus de 14 jours dans l’environnement à des températures comprises entre 27 et 29 °C, lorsqu’elles n’ont jamais pris de repas sanguin. Dans ces mêmes conditions, la durée de survie n’excède pas 16 jours à 19 °C. Mais lorsque C. f. strongylus a pris un premier repas de sang, elle a une durée de vie beaucoup plus courte lorsqu’elle est hors de son hôte. En effet, aucun individu n’est retrouvé vivant trois jours passé hors de la fourrure de son hôte à 29 °C, cinq jours à 27 °C et huit jours à 19 °C. Il en est de même pour C. f. felis. Ces données sur la bio-écologie de C. f. strongylus permettent de comprendre l’influence de la température sur son cycle de d

  15. Juvenile hyperthyroidism in a cat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Jana M; Ehrhart, E J; Sisson, D D; Jones, M A

    2003-01-01

    An 8-month-old, male domestic shorthaired cat presented for chronic weight loss, intermittent dyspnea, chronic diarrhea, hyperactivity, and weakness. The cat had a palpable thyroid nodule and increased serum total thyroxine and 3,5,3' triiodothyronine levels. The cat was diagnosed with hyperthyroidism, and a unilateral thyroidectomy was performed followed by radioactive iodine at a later date. The clinical signs resolved following radioactive iodine, and the cat subsequently developed clinical hypothyroidism.

  16. Predicting small mammal and flea abundance using landform and soil properties in a plague endemic area in Lushoto District, Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meliyo, Joel L; Kimaro, Didas N; Msanya, Balthazar M; Mulungu, Loth S; Hieronimo, Proches; Kihupi, Nganga I; Gulinck, Hubert; Deckers, Jozef A

    2014-07-01

    Small mammals particularly rodents, are considered the primary natural hosts of plague. Literature suggests that plague persistence in natural foci has a root cause in soils. The objective of this study was to investigate the relationship between on the one hand landforms and associated soil properties, and on the other hand small mammals and fleas in West Usambara Mountains in Tanzania, a plague endemic area. Standard field survey methods coupled with Geographical Information System (GIS) technique were used to examine landform and soils characteristics. Soil samples were analysed in the laboratory for physico-chemical properties. Small mammals were trapped on pre-established landform positions and identified to genus/species level. Fleas were removed from the trapped small mammals and counted. Exploration of landform and soil data was done using ArcGIS Toolbox functions and descriptive statistical analysis. The relationships between landforms, soils, small mammals and fleas were established by generalised linear regression model (GLM) operated in R statistics software. Results show that landforms and soils influence the abundance of small mammals and fleas and their spatial distribution. The abundance of small mammals and fleas increased with increase in elevation. Small mammal species richness also increases with elevation. A landform-soil model shows that available phosphorus, slope aspect and elevation were statistically significant predictors explaining richness and abundance of small mammals. Fleas' abundance and spatial distribution were influenced by hill-shade, available phosphorus and base saturation. The study suggests that landforms and soils have a strong influence on the richness and evenness of small mammals and their fleas' abundance hence could be used to explain plague dynamics in the area.

  17. Tracheal collapse in two cats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hendricks, J.C.; O'Brien, J.A.

    1985-01-01

    Two cats examined bronchoscopically to discover the cause of tracheal collapse were found to have tracheal obstruction cranial to the collapse. Cats with this unusual sign should be examined bronchoscopically to ascertain whether there is an obstruction, as the cause in these 2 cats was distinct from the diffuse airway abnormality that causes tracheal collapse in dogs

  18. Coxofemoral luxations in cats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pérez-Aparicio, F.J.; Fjeld, T.O.

    1993-01-01

    In a retrospective study, 79 untreated luxations of the coxofemoral joint in cats were recorded over a 12-year period. Twenty-nine of these cases were available for follow-up, of which 13 were re-examined clinically and radiologically. It was found that the maximum incidence of the injury occurred from one to three years of age. Follow-up radiographs showed that the cats had developed nearthroses of various degrees located dorsally on the ilium. The degree of nearthrosis formation was not consistently correlated with the length of the observation time. Radiological signs of decreased bone density of the proximal femur may be caused by reduced weightbearing related to changes in biomechanical function and altered blood supply in the luxated limb. Almost two-thirds of the re-examined animals presented some kind of locomotor dysfunction on clinical examination. Limb function improved with time. The best clinical results appeared to be in cats that were immature at the time of injury and developed nearthrosis similar to a normal coxofemoral joint. All the cats available to this study showed acceptable functional results and had a normal level of activity according to the owners

  19. Rickettsial pathogens and arthropod vectors of medical and veterinary significance on Kwajalein Atoll and Wake Island

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Durden, L.

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Modern surveys of ectoparasites and potential vector-borne pathogens in the Republic of the Marshall Islands and Wake Island are poorly documented. We report on field surveys of ectoparasites from 2010 with collections from dogs, cats, and rats. Five ectoparasites were identified: the cat flea Ctenocephalides felis, a sucking louse Hoplopleura pacifica, the mites Laelaps nuttalli and Radfordia ensifera, and the brown dog tickRhipicephalus sanguineus. Ectoparasites were screened for rickettsial pathogens. DNA from Anaplasma platys, a Coxiella symbiont of Rhipicephalus sanguineus, anda Rickettsia sp. were identified by PCR and DNA sequencing from ticks and fleas on Kwajalein Atoll. An unidentified spotted fever group Rickettsia was detected in a pool of Laelaps nuttalli and Hoplopleura pacifica from Wake Island. The records of Hoplopleura pacifica, Laelaps nuttalli, and Radfordia ensifera and the pathogens are new for Kwajalein Atoll and Wake Island.

  20. Prostatic carcinoma in two cats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caney, S.M.A.; Holt, P.E.; Day, M.J.; Rudorf, H.; Gruffydd-Jones, T.J.

    1998-01-01

    Clinical, radiological and pathological features of two cats with prostatic carcinoma are reported. In both cats the presenting history included signs of lower urinary tract disease with haematuria and dysuria. Prostatomegaly was visible radiographically in one cat; an irregular intraprostatic urethra was seen on retrograde contrast urethrography in both cats. In one of the cats, neoplasia was suspected on the basis of a transurethral catheter biopsy. Following a poor response to palliative treatment in both cases, euthanasia was performed with histological confirmation of the diagnosis

  1. Flea abundance, diversity, and plague in Gunnison's prairie dogs (Cynomys gunnisoni) and their burrows in montane grasslands in northern New Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Megan M. Friggens; Robert R. Parmenter; Michael Boyden; Paulette L. Ford; Kenneth Gage; Paul Keim

    2010-01-01

    Plague, a flea-transmitted infectious disease caused by the bacterium Yersinia pestis, is a primary threat to the persistence of prairie dog populations (Cynomys spp.). We conducted a 3-yr survey (2004-2006) of fleas from Gunnison's prairie dogs (Cynomys gunnisoni) and their burrows in montane grasslands in Valles Caldera National Preserve in New Mexico. Our...

  2. Small todents fleas from the bubonic plague focus located in the Serra dos Órgãos Mountain Range, State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raimundo Wilson de Carvalho

    2001-07-01

    Full Text Available Eleven species of fleas were collected from 601 small rodents, from November 1995 to October 1997, in areas of natural focus of bubonic plague, including the municipalities of Nova Friburgo, Sumidouro and Teresópolis, State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Among 924 fleas collected, Polygenis (Polygenis rimatus (Rhopalopsyllidae was the predominant species regarding the frequency, representing 41.3% (N:382, followed by P. (Neopolygenis pradoi, representing 20% (N:185 and Craneopsylla minervaminerva (Stephanocircidae, representing 18.9% (N:175. The host Akodon cursor harbored 47.9% of these fleas. Other six host species were infested by 52.1% of the remaining fleas. Fleas were found on hosts and in places within the focus not previously reported by the literature.

  3. Hybrid Cat Bonds

    OpenAIRE

    Barrieu, Pauline; Louberge, Henri

    2009-01-01

    Natural catastrophes attract regularly the attention of media and have become a source of public concern. From a financial viewpoint, natural catastrophes represent idiosyncratic risks, diversifiable at the world level. But for reasons analyzed in this paper reinsurance markets are unable to cope with this risk completely. Insurance-linked securities, such as cat bonds, have been issued to complete the international risk transfer process, but their development is disappointing so far. This pa...

  4. as a cause of acute-onset febrile illness in cats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edward B Breitschwerdt

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Case series summary At different time points spanning 6 months, three adopted feral flea-infested cats, residing in the household of a veterinary technician, became acutely anorexic, lethargic and febrile. Enrichment blood culture/PCR using Bartonella alpha Proteobacteria growth medium (BAPGM confirmed initial infection with the same Bartonella henselae genotype in all three cases. With the exception of anemia and neutropenia, complete blood counts, serum biochemical profiles and urinalysis results were within reference intervals. Also, tests for feline leukemia virus, feline immunodeficiency virus, Toxoplasma gondii and feline coronavirus antibodies were negative. Serial daily temperature monitoring in one case confirmed a cyclic, relapsing febrile temperature pattern during 1 month, with resolution during and after treatment with azithromycin. Bartonella henselae Western immunoblot (WB results did not consistently correlate with BAPGM enrichment blood culture/PCR results or B henselae indirect fluorescent antibody (IFA titers, and WB titration results were not informative for establishing antibiotic treatment failure. During the respective follow-up periods, no illnesses or additional febrile episodes were reported, despite repeat documentation of B henselae bacteremia in two cats available for follow-up (one with the same genotype and the other with a different B henselae genotype; one cat was, unfortunately, killed by dogs before follow-up testing. Relevance and novel information We conclude that microbiological diagnosis and treatment of B henselae infection in cats can be challenging, that antibody titration results and resolution of clinical abnormalities may not correlate with a therapeutic cure, and that fever and potentially neutropenia should be differential diagnostic considerations for young cats with suspected bartonellosis.

  5. Impact of planting dates and insecticide strategies for managing crucifer flea beetles (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) in spring-planted canola.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knodel, Janet J; Olson, Denise L; Hanson, Bryan K; Henson, Robert A

    2008-06-01

    Integration of cultural practices, such as planting date with insecticide-based strategies, was investigated to determine best management strategy for flea beetles (Phyllotreta spp.) (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) in canola (Brassica napus L.). We studied the effect of two spring planting dates of B. napus and different insecticide-based management strategies on the feeding injury caused by fleabeetles in North Dakota during 2002-2003. Adult beetle peak emergence usually coincided with the emergence of the early planted canola, and this resulted in greater feeding injury in the early planted canola than later planted canola. Use of late-planted canola may have limited potential for cultural control of flea beetle, because late-planted canola is at risk for yield loss due to heat stress during flowering. Flea beetle injury ratings declined when 1) the high rate of insecticide seed treatment plus a foliar insecticide applied 21 d after planting was used, 2) the high rate of insecticide seed treatment only was used, or 3) two foliar insecticide sprays were applied. These insecticide strategies provided better protection than the low rates of insecticide seed treatments or a single foliar spray, especially in areas with moderate-to-high flea beetle populations. The foliar spray on top of the seed treatment controlled later-emerging flea beetles as the seed treatment residual was diminishing and the crop became vulnerable to feeding injury. The best insecticide strategy for management of flea beetle was the high rate of insecticide seed treatment plus a foliar insecticide applied at 21 d after planting, regardless of planting date.

  6. Tick-, Flea-, and Louse-Borne Diseases of Public Health and Veterinary Significance in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oluwaseun Oguntomole

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Mosquito-borne diseases are common high-impact diseases in tropical and subtropical areas. However, other non-mosquito vector-borne pathogens (VBPs may share their geographic distribution, seasonality, and clinical manifestations, thereby contributing their share to the morbidity and mortality caused by febrile illnesses in these regions. The purpose of this work was to collect and review existing information and identify knowledge gaps about tick, flea-, and louse-borne diseases of veterinary and public health significance in Nigeria. Full-length articles about VBPs were reviewed and relevant information about the vectors, their hosts, geographic distribution, seasonality, and association(s with human or veterinary diseases was extracted. Specific laboratory tools used for detection and identification of VBPs in Nigeria were also identified. A total of 62 original publications were examined. Substantial information about the prevalence and impacts of ticks and fleas on pet and service dogs (18 articles, and livestock animals (23 articles were available; however, information about their association with and potential for causing human illnesses was largely absent despite the zoonotic nature of many of these peri-domestic veterinary diseases. Recent publications that employed molecular methods of detection demonstrated the occurrence of several classic (Ehrlichia canis, Rickettsia africae, Bartonella sp. and emerging human pathogens (R. aeschlimannii, Neoehrlichia mikurensis in ticks and fleas. However, information about other pathogens often found in association with ticks (R. conorii and fleas (R. typhi, R. felis across the African continent was lacking. Records of louse-borne epidemic typhus in Nigeria date to 1947; however, its current status is not known. This review provides an essential baseline summary of the current knowledge in Nigeria of non-mosquito VBPs, and should stimulate improvements in the surveillance of the veterinary and

  7. Observations on the endemicity of plague in Karatu and Ngorongoro, northern Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilonzo, B S; Mbise, T J; Mwalimu, D C; Kindamba, L

    2006-01-01

    Commensal and field rodents and wild small carnivores were live-trapped in five villages of Karatu district and one settlement in the Ngorongoro Conservation Area in Ngorongoro district in Tanzania. Blood samples were taken and serologically tested for plague, using the Blocking ELISA technique. Some domestic dogs and cats in the Karatu villages were aseptically bled and similarly tested for plague. Fleas were collected from the examined animals and from randomly selected residential houses. A total of 241 rodents, 1 Crocidura spp, 43 dogs, 12 cats and 4 slender mongooses were involved in the survey. Of the rodents, 14.5% were infested with fleas, which comprised of Xenopsylla brasiliensis (45.8%) and Dinopsyllus lypusus (54.2%), with an overall population density of 0.2 fleas/animal. Thirty one (72.1%) of the dogs were infested with fleas, all of which were Ctenocephalides spp. Thirty five (63.3%) houses were infested with fleas whose population was composed of Ctenocephalides spp, Pulex irritans, Tunga penetrans and Echinophaga gallinacea. Infected rodents were found in all the villages while the infected dog was found at Rhotia-Kati. Nineteen (11%) of the rodents and one (2%) dog harboured specific plague antibodies. It was broadly concluded that sylvatic plague was endemic in Karatu district and Ngorongoro Conservation Area and that outbreaks of the disease can occur in the area any time if and when relevant conditions become favourable. Prompt application of appropriate preventive and control measures and survey for substantiating the status in the Lake Manyara National Park, which is adjacent to some of the infected villages, are recommended.

  8. Local cloning of CAT states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rahaman, Ramij

    2011-01-01

    In this Letter we analyze the (im)possibility of the exact cloning of orthogonal three-qubit CAT states under local operation and classical communication (LOCC) with the help of a restricted entangled state. We also classify the three-qubit CAT states that can (not) be cloned under LOCC restrictions and extend the results to the n-qubit case. -- Highlights: → We analyze the (im)possibility of exact cloning of orthogonal CAT states under LOCC. → We also classify the set of CAT states that can(not) be cloned by LOCC. → No set of orthogonal CAT states can be cloned by LOCC with help of similar CAT state. → Any two orthogonal n-qubit GHZ-states can be cloned by LOCC with help of a GHZ state.

  9. Evaluation of sarolaner and spinosad oral treatments to eliminate fleas, reduce dermatologic lesions and minimize pruritus in naturally infested dogs in west Central Florida, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dryden, Michael W; Canfield, Michael S; Niedfeldt, Emily; Kinnon, Amanda; Kalosy, Kimberly; Smith, Amber; Foley, Kaitlin M; Smith, Vicki; Bress, Todd S; Smith, Nicole; Endrizzi, Mike; Login, Joyce

    2017-08-17

    An in-home investigation of naturally flea infested dogs was conducted in West Central Florida, USA to evaluate and compare the effectiveness of two different oral flea adulticides to control flea infestations, minimize dermatologic lesions and reduce pruritus over an 8-week period. Twenty-nine dogs living in 19 homes and another 26 dogs residing in 16 different homes were orally administered either a sarolaner or spinosad chewable, respectively on day 0 and once between days 28-30. Products were administered by study personnel according to label directions. Flea populations on dogs were estimated using visual area counts and flea infestations in the indoor premises were assessed using intermittent-light flea traps on days 0, 7, 14, 21 and once between days 28-30, 40-45, and 56-60. Assessments of dermatologic lesions were conducted monthly during the study and severity of pruritus was evaluated throughout the study on the same schedule as flea counts were conducted. Concurrent treatments for existing skin disease were not allowed. The administration of sarolaner or spinosad reduced flea populations on dogs by 99.0% and 97.3%, respectively within 7 days. Flea infestations on the sarolaner- and spinosad-treated dogs were reduced by > 99% at every counting period from day 14 post-treatment through the end of the 8-week study. At the end of the study 96.4 and 92.0% of the dogs treated with sarolaner and spinosad, respectively were flea-free. Flea populations in the indoor premises were also markedly reduced the end of the study, with 100 and 99.8% reductions in flea trap counts in the sarolaner and spinosad treatment groups, respectively. FAD lesion scores, atopic dermatitis lesions scores (CADESI-4) and pruritus severity scores were also markedly improved with both formulations. An in-home clinical field study conducted during the summer of 2016 in subtropical Florida demonstrated that two-monthly administrations of either sarolaner or spinosad chewables almost

  10. Evaluation of the speed of kill, effects on reproduction, and effectiveness in a simulated infested-home environment of sarolaner (Simparica™) against fleas on dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Six, Robert H; Becskei, Csilla; Carter, Lori; Gale, Boyd; Young, David R; Mahabir, Sean P; Chapin, Sara; Myers, Melanie R

    2016-05-30

    Four studies were conducted to evaluate the speed of kill, effect on egg production, and efficacy in a simulated infested-home environment of a novel isoxazoline, sarolaner (Simparica™, Zoetis), against fleas on dogs. Individually identified and housed, purpose-bred Beagles were used in each study and were allocated randomly to groups based on pretreatment parasite counts. In two speed of kill studies, groups of dogs infested with 100 fleas prior to treatment were treated orally with placebo or sarolaner tablets providing the minimum dose of 2mg/kg and then re-infested with fleas weekly for five weeks post-treatment. Comb counts were conducted to determine the numbers of viable fleas at one to three, four, eight and 12h after treatment and each subsequent infestation. In the egg production study, sarolaner- and placebo-treated dogs were similarly challenged with fleas and at 48h after each infestation the dogs were housed for 20h in cages allowing the collection and counting of all flea eggs produced during this period. Collected eggs were incubated to evaluate hatch and development to adults. The last study used dogs housed in a flea-infested simulated-home environment. Dogs were allocated to treatment with either placebo or sarolaner tablets providing a dose of 2mg/kg once a month for three treatments. Flea infestations were assessed by comb counts (fleas were replaced on the dogs) on Days 14, 30, 44, 60, 74 and 90. The speed of kill studies demonstrated that a single 2mg/kg oral dose of sarolaner started killing fleas within three to four hours after treatment or subsequent re-infestations for up to a month, and achieved ≥98% control of fleas by eight hours after treatment or re-infestation for 28 days. In the study to assess effects on flea reproduction, a single oral treatment of sarolaner resulted in the complete cessation of egg-laying for 35 days. This rapid kill of fleas and inhibition of reproduction were confirmed in a simulated-home environment

  11. Molecular detection of Hepatozoon spp. and Cytauxzoon sp. in domestic and stray cats from Madrid, Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz-Regañón, David; Villaescusa, Alejandra; Ayllón, Tania; Rodríguez-Franco, Fernando; Baneth, Gad; Calleja-Bueno, Lydia; García-Sancho, Mercedes; Agulla, Beatriz; Sainz, Ángel

    2017-03-13

    Different species of apicomplexan protozoans of the genera Hepatozoon and Cytauxzoon can infect domestic cats, but their epidemiology and clinical relevance are not fully understood. The aim of this study was to assess the molecular prevalence of Hepatozoon spp. and Cytauxzoon spp. and to identify associated risk factors and clinical and laboratory abnormalities in a population of cats from Madrid, Spain. Six hundred and forty-four client-owned and stray cats from Madrid, Spain, were included in this study. DNA samples were analyzed by two polymerase chain reaction (PCR) tests to detect a partial sequence of the 18S rRNA gene of Hepatozoon spp. and Cytauxzoon spp. In order to evaluate possible associations between infection by these protozoans and epidemiological or clinical parameters, data were collected related to: the season of sample collection, age, gender, spayed/neutered status, breed, living area, lifestyle, outdoor access, contact with other animals, prey on wild animals, history of tick or flea infestation, travel history, ectoparasiticide treatment, previous blood transfusion, previous tetracycline administration in the last 60 days, Feline Leukemia virus (FeLV) and Feline Immunodeficiency virus (FIV) status, positivity to other vector-borne diseases, the presence or absence of clinical signs and hematological or biochemical alterations. DNA of Hepatozoon spp. and Cytauxzoon sp. was amplified from the blood of 10 (1.6%) and 8 (1.2%) cats, respectively. Previous treatment with tetracyclines in the last 60 days, previous administration of blood transfusion, a decrease in haematocrit and an increase in creatinine were associated with Hepatozoon spp. infection. Cytauxzoon sp. infection was more frequent in samples collected during the winter months and in cats living in rural areas. This infection was associated with a FIV-positive status. Some of the cats that were positive for Hepatozoon spp. or Cytauxzoon sp. had been exposed to other vector

  12. Diprosopia in a cat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camón, J; Ruberte, J; Ordóñez, G

    1990-05-01

    A diprosopic cat is described. In the head, two snouts, three eyes and two pinnae were present. The mandible was single and immobile because labial skin of both upper lips and single lower lip was partly fused. Superimposition of upper and lower dental arches was impossible and the mouths remained permanently open. Two incomplete oral cavities were present and the two tongues were joined at their base. The brain was duplicated in part. In the cranium only occipital and temporal bones were normal, the basisphenoid was bifurcated and the remaining bones were duplicated. Embryological mechanisms are discussed.

  13. European bat Lyssavirus transmission among cats, Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dacheux, Laurent; Larrous, Florence; Mailles, Alexandra; Boisseleau, Didier; Delmas, Olivier; Biron, Charlotte; Bouchier, Christiane; Capek, Isabelle; Muller, Michel; Ilari, Frédéric; Lefranc, Tanguy; Raffi, François; Goudal, Maryvonne; Bourhy, Hervé

    2009-02-01

    We identified 2 cases of European bat lyssavirus subtype 1 transmission to domestic carnivores (cats) in France. Bat-to-cat transmission is suspected. Low amounts of virus antigen in cat brain made diagnosis difficult.

  14. Toxoplasmosis: An Important Message for Cat Owners

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... role do cats play in the spread of toxoplasmosis? Cats get Toxoplasma infection by eating infected rodents, ... an infected cat may have defecated. What is toxoplasmosis? Toxoplasmosis is an infection caused by a microscopic ...

  15. Stevesaltica, a new genus of moss and leaf-litter inhabiting flea beetles from Bolivia (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae: Galerucinae: Alticini)

    Science.gov (United States)

    A new genus (Stevesaltica) with two new species (S. normi and S. perdita) from Bolivia is described and illustrated. It is similar to Exoceras Jacoby. An identification key for all flea beetle genera known to occur in mosses in the Western Hemisphere is provided....

  16. SEASON OF DELTAMETHRIN APPLICATION AFFECTS FLEA AND PLAGUE CONTROL IN WHITE-TAILED PRAIRIE DOG (CYNOMYS LEUCURUS) COLONIES, COLORADO, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tripp, Daniel W; Streich, Sean P; Sack, Danielle A; Martin, Daniel J; Griffin, Karen A; Miller, Michael W

    2016-07-01

    In 2008 and 2009, we evaluated the duration of prophylactic deltamethrin treatments in white-tailed prairie dog ( Cynomys leucurus ) colonies and compared effects of autumn or spring dust application in suppressing flea numbers and plague. Plague occurred before and during our experiment. Overall, flea abundance tended to increase from May or June to September, but it was affected by deltamethrin treatment and plague dynamics. Success in trapping prairie dogs (animals caught/trap days) declined between June and September at all study sites. However, by September trap success on dusted sites (19%; 95% confidence interval [CI] 16-22%) was about 15-fold greater than on undusted control sites (1%; CI 0.3-4%; P≤0.0001). Applying deltamethrin dust as early as 12 mo prior seemed to afford some protection to prairie dogs. Our data showed that dusting even a portion of a prairie dog colony can prolong its persistence despite epizootic plague. Autumn dusting may offer advantages over spring in suppressing overwinter or early-spring flea activity, but timing should be adjusted to precede the annual decline in aboveground activity for hibernating prairie dog species. Large colony complexes or collections of occupied but fragmented habitat may benefit from dusting some sites in spring and others in autumn to maximize flea suppression in a portion of the complex or habitat year-round.

  17. Invertebrates of The H.J. Andrews Experimental Forest, Western Cascades, Oregon: I. An annotated checklist of fleas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert E. Lewis; Chris Maser

    1981-01-01

    During a trapping survey of small mammals (approximately 3,000 individuals), species of fleas (1,632 specimens) were collected in the H.J. Andrews Experimental Forest, Western Cascades, Oregon. Host mammals were represented by 15 species—6 insectivores and 9 rodents captured from June through September. The collections extend our knowledge of the fauna of Oregon.

  18. Integrated control of ticks and fleas on dogs with particular reference to the prevention of vector-borne diseases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fourie, J.J.

    2015-01-01

    Because dogs are such loved companion animals, their health and wellbeing is of great importance to their human companions. Moreover, controlling ticks and fleas on dogs is also important in respect of the zoonotic risk that some of these parasites pose to their human companions. Numerous products

  19. AFLP markers for the R-gene in the flea beetle, Phyllotreta nemorum, conferring resistance to defenses in Barbarea vulgaris

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Breuker, C.J.; Victoir, K.; Jong, de P.W.; Meijden, van der E.; Brakefield, P.M.; Vrieling, K.

    2005-01-01

    A so-called R-gene renders the yellow-striped flea beetle Phyllotreta nemorum L. (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae: Alticinae) resistant to the defenses of the yellow rocket Barbarea vulgaris R.Br. (Brassicacea) and enables it to use it as a host plant in Denmark. In this study, genetic markers for an

  20. High prevalence of Rickettsia typhi and Bartonella species in rats and fleas, Kisangani, Democratic Republic of the Congo

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laudisoit, A.; Falay, D.; Amundala, N.; de Bellock, J.G.; van Houtte, N.; Breno, M.; Verheven, E.; Wilschut, Liesbeth; Parola, P.; Raoult, D.; C., Socolovschi

    2014-01-01

    The prevalence and identity of Rickettsia and Bartonella in urban rat and flea populations were evaluated in Kisangani, Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC) by molecular tools. An overall prevalence of 17% Bartonella species and 13% Rickettsia typhi, the agent of murine typhus, was found in the

  1. Survival of cabbage stem flea beetle larvae, Psylliodes chrysocephala, exposed to low temperatures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mathiasen, Helle; Bligaard, J.; Esbjerg, Peter

    2015-01-01

    The cabbage stem flea beetle, Psylliodes chrysocephala (L.) (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae), is a major pest of winter oilseed rape. The larvae live throughout winter in leaf petioles and stems. Winter temperatures might play an important role in survival during winter and hence population dynamics, ...

  2. Effect of temperature on reproduction and embryonic development of the cabbage stem flea beetle, Psylliodes chrysocephala L., (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mathiasen, Helle; Sørensen, Helle; Bligaard, J.

    2015-01-01

    The cabbage stem flea beetle, Psylliodes chrysocephala (L.) (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae), is a major pest of winter oilseed rape. Despite the importance of this pest, detailed information on reproduction to predict risk of crop damage is lacking. This study investigates the effect of temperature...

  3. Systemic Cat Scratch Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui-Min Liao

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Systemic cat scratch disease (CSD is often associated with prolonged fever and microabscesses in the liver and/or spleen. We report a case of systemic CSD with hepatic, splenic and renal involvement in an aboriginal child in Taiwan. A previously healthy 9-year-old girl had an intermittent fever for about 17 days, and complained of abdominal pain, headache and weight loss. Abdominal computed tomography showed multiple tiny hypodense nodular lesions in the spleen and both kidneys. Laparotomy revealed multiple soft, whitishtan lesions on the surface of the liver and spleen. Histopathologic examination of a biopsy specimen of the spleen showed necrotizing granulomatous inflammation with central necrosis surrounded by epithelioid cells and occasional Langhans' giant cells, strongly suggestive of Bartonella henselae infection. History revealed close contact with a cat. B. henselae DNA was detected by polymerase chain reaction in the tissue specimen, and the single antibody titer against B. henselae was greater than 1:2048. These results confirmed the diagnosis of visceral CSD caused by B. henselae. The patient's symptoms resolved after treatment with rifampin and tetracycline. This case illustrates the need for inclusion of systemic CSD in patients with fever of unknown origin and abdominal pain.

  4. Accelerator programme at CAT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramamurthi, S.S.

    1991-01-01

    The Accelerator Programme at the Centre for Advanced Technology (CAT), Indore, has very broad based concept under which all types of accelerators are to be taken up for design and fabrication. This centre will be housing a wide variety of accelerators to serve as a common facility for the universities, national laboratories in addition to laboratories under the Department of Atomic Energy. In the first phase of the programme, a series of electron accelerators are designed and fabricated. They are synchrotron radiation sources of 450 MeV (INDUS-I) and of 2 GeV (INDUS-II), microtron upto energy of 20 MeV, linear accelerator upto 20 MeV, and DC Accelerator for industrial irradiation upto 750 KeV and 20 KW. A proton accelerator of 300 MeV with 20 MeV linac injector is also designed. CAT is also developing a strong base for support technologies like ultra high vacuum, radio frequency and microwaves, DC pulsed and superconducting magnets, power supplies and controls etc. These technologies are very useful for other industrial applications also. To develop user groups to utilise INDUS-II synchrotron radiation source, a batch production of rotating Anode X-ray generators with power supplies has been initiated. So also, the sputter ion pumps, electron guns, turbo molecular pumps are brought into batch production. (author)

  5. Lumbosacral agenesis in a cat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabrielle C Hybki

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Case summary Lumbosacral agenesis is a rare congenital condition reported in children. We report a 17-week-old female domestic shorthair cat with lumbosacral agenesis on whole-body radiographs. The cat was euthanized shortly thereafter presentation. A necropsy was not permitted. Relevance and novel information This is the first reported feline case of lumbosacral agenesis.

  6. College Students and Their Cats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinstein, Lawrence; Alexander, Ralph

    2010-01-01

    Twenty-two Siamese and 32 mixed breed cats' personalities were rated by their respective college student owners and compared. Further, the owners' self rated personality traits were correlated with the pets'; significant Siamese and Mixed differences and correlations were obtained. These are the first data to examine breed of cat on a personality…

  7. CONTRACT ADMINISTRATIVE TRACKING SYSTEM (CATS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Contract Administrative Tracking System (CATS) was developed in response to an ORD NHEERL, Mid-Continent Ecology Division (MED)-recognized need for an automated tracking and retrieval system for Cost Reimbursable Level of Effort (CR/LOE) Contracts. CATS is an Oracle-based app...

  8. Efficacy and safety of sarolaner (Simparica™) against fleas on dogs presented as veterinary patients in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherni, Judith A; Mahabir, Sean P; Six, Robert H

    2016-05-30

    The efficacy and safety of a novel isoxazoline parasiticide, sarolaner (Simparica™), for the control of fleas on dogs was evaluated in a randomized, controlled clinical study conducted in 19 general veterinary practices throughout the United States. Four hundred and seventy nine (479) dogs from 293 households were enrolled. Each household was randomly assigned to treatment with either sarolaner oral tablets (Simparica™, Zoetis) at the proposed label dose or an approved comparator product at the label dose (spinosad, Comfortis(®), Elanco). Dogs were dosed by their owners at home on Day 0 and on approximately Days 30 and 60. Dogs were examined at the clinics for general health, flea and tick infestation, and clinical signs of flea allergy dermatitis (FAD) at the initial visit and Days 14, 30, 60 and 90. Blood was collected for clinical pathology at screening and Day 90. Sarolaner was well-accepted by dogs with the majority of flavored chewable tablets (91.5%) accepted free choice, by hand or in food. Geometric mean live flea counts were reduced by >99% at the first time measured (14 days) after initiation of treatment and continued to reduce through the study. Treatment success (proportion of dogs with ≥90% reduction in fleas) for the sarolaner-treated dogs was superior to that for spinosad-treated dogs at Days 14 and 30 and non-inferior on Days 60 and 90 (P≤0.025) The rapid reduction in flea infestations resulted in a similar rapid resolution of the clinical signs associated with FAD. Sarolaner chewable tablets were well tolerated with no treatment related adverse reactions. Most of the clinical signs reported were consistent with allergies and dermatitis or sporadic occurrences of conditions commonly observed in the general dog population. A wide variety of concomitant medications, including many commercially available heartworm preventatives and other anthelmintic drugs, were administered to study dogs and all were well tolerated. Sarolaner administered

  9. Repellency Effect of Essential Oils of Some Native Plants and Synthetic Repellents against Human Flea, Pulex irritans (Siphonaptera: Pulicidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Bagher Ghavami

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Fleas are important vectors of human and animal disease, and control measures for protection against their bites and flea-borne diseases are necessary.Methods: The essential oils (EOs of four native medicinal plants, Ziziphora tenuiore, Myrtus communis, Achillea wilhelmsii and Mentha piperita were isolated by hydrodistillation technique and analyzed by GC-MC. The repellent activity of EOs and synthetic compounds, DEET and permethrin, were assayed on human subjects against field col­lected fleas. The effective doses of 50% and 90% of EOs and synthetic compounds were estimated by probit analysis of dose and response regression line.Results: Analysis of EOs revealed about 19 major components. All oils were found to be more repellent (ED50 range= 208–955µg cm-2 than DEET and permethrin (ED50 range= 27–182 x 103 µg cm-2. Thyme and myrtle oils showed high repellent activities and among the total detected terpenes, thymol (36.26% and α- pinene (32.5% were the major components of those oils respectively.Conclusion: Low repellent potency of DEET and permethrin against fleas might be related to flea olfactory system and further molecular and electrophysiological studies are required to conceive new ideas for the discovery and de­velopment of the next generation of repellents. Based on high repellent activity of thyme and myrtle essential oils against Pulex irritans further studies should be staged to develop their appropriate effective formulations. Likewise, field trials should be carried out to evaluate the operational feasibility and dermal toxicity over a long period.

  10. Grooming behaviors of black-tailed prairie dogs are influenced by flea parasitism, conspecifics, and proximity to refuge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eads, David A.; Biggins, Dean E.; Eads, Samantha L.

    2017-01-01

    Grooming is a common animal behavior that aids in ectoparasite defense. Ectoparasites can stimulate grooming, and natural selection can also favor endogenous mechanisms that evoke periodic bouts of “programmed” grooming to dislodge or kill ectoparasites before they bite or feed. Moreover, grooming can function as a displacement or communication behavior. We compared the grooming behaviors of adult female black-tailed prairie dogs (Cynomys ludovicianus) on colonies with or without flea control via pulicide dust. Roughly 91% of the prairie dogs sampled on the non-dusted colony carried at least one flea, whereas we did not find fleas on two dusted colonies. During focal observations, prairie dogs on the non-dusted colony groomed at higher frequencies and for longer durations than prairie dogs on the dusted colonies, lending support to the hypothesis that fleas stimulated grooming. However, the reduced amount of time spent grooming on the dusted colonies suggested that approximately 25% of grooming might be attributed to factors other than direct stimulation from ectoparasites. Non-dusted colony prairie dogs rarely autogroomed when near each other. Dusted colony prairie dogs autogroomed for shorter durations when far from a burrow opening (refuge), suggesting a trade-off between self-grooming and antipredator defense. Allogrooming was detected only on the non-dusted colony and was limited to adult females grooming young pups. Grooming appears to serve an antiparasitic function in C. ludovicianus. Antiparasitic grooming might aid in defense against fleas that transmit the plague bacterium Yersinia pestis. Plague was introduced to North America ca. 1900 and now has a strong influence on most prairie dog populations, suggesting a magnified effect of grooming on prairie dog fitness.

  11. Toxoplasmosis : Beware of Cats !!!

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rubina Kumari Baithalu

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Anthropozoonotic parasite Toxoplasma gondii causes widespread human and animal diseases, mostly involving central nervous system. Human acquires toxoplasmosis from cats, from consuming raw or undercooked meat and from vertical transmission to the fetus through placenta from mother during pregnancy. Socio-epidemiological as well as unique environmental factors also plays a significant role in transmission of this infection. Preventive measures should be taken into account the importance of culture, tradition, and beliefs of people in various communities more than solving poverty and giving health education. Therefore the focus of this article is to create public awareness regarding sense of responsibility of looking after pets to prevent such an important zoonotic disease. [Vet. World 2010; 3(5.000: 247-249

  12. CAT-D-T tokamaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greenspan, E.; Blue, T.; Miley, G.H.

    1981-01-01

    The domains of plasma fuel cycles bounded by the D-T and Cat-D, and by the D-T and SCD modes of operation are examined. These domains, referred to as, respectively, the Cat-D-T and SCD-T modes of operation, are characterized by the number (γ) of tritons per fusion neutron available from external (to the plasma) sources. Two external tritium sources are considered - the blankets of the Cat-D-T (SCD-T) reactors and fission reactors supported by the Cat-D-T (SCD-T) driven hybrid reactors. It is found that by using 6 Li for the active material of the control elements of the fission reactors, it is possible to achieve γ values close to unity. Cat-D-T tokamaks could be designed to have smaller size, higher power density, lower magnetic field and even lower plasma temperature than Cat-D tokamaks; the difference becomes significant for γ greater than or equal to .75. The SCD-T mode of operation appears to be even more attractive. Promising applications identified for these Cat-D-T and SCD-T modes of operation include hybrid reactors, fusion synfuel factories and fusion reactors which have difficulty in providing all their tritium needs

  13. Sonography of cat scratch disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melville, David M; Jacobson, Jon A; Downie, Brian; Biermann, J Sybil; Kim, Sung Moon; Yablon, Corrie M

    2015-03-01

    To characterize the sonographic features of cat scratch disease and to identify features that allow differentiation from other causes of medial epitrochlear masses. After Institutional Review Board approval was obtained, patients who underwent sonography for a medial epitrochlear mass or lymph node were identified via the radiology information system. Patients were divided into 2 groups: cat scratch disease and non-cat scratch disease, based on pathologic results and clinical information. Sonograms were retrospectively reviewed and characterized with respect to dimension, shape (round, oval, or lobular), symmetry, location (subcutaneous or intramuscular), multiplicity, echogenicity (anechoic, hypoechoic, isoechoic, hyperechoic, or mixed), hyperechoic hilum (present or absent), adjacent anechoic or hypoechoic area, hyperemia (present or absent), pattern of hyperemia if present (central, peripheral, or mixed), increased posterior through-transmission (present or absent), and shadowing (present or absent). Sonographic findings were compared between the patients with and without cat scratch disease. The final patient group consisted of 5 cases of cat scratch disease and 16 cases of other causes of medial epitrochlear masses. The 2 sonographic findings that were significantly different between the cat scratch disease and non-cat scratch disease cases included mass asymmetry (P = .0062) and the presence of a hyperechoic hilum (P = .0075). The other sonographic findings showed no significant differences between the groups. The sonographic finding of an epitrochlear mass due to cat scratch disease most commonly is that of a hypoechoic lobular or oval mass with central hyperemia and a possible adjacent fluid collection; however, the presence of asymmetry and a hyperechoic hilum differentiate cat scratch disease from other etiologies. © 2015 by the American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine.

  14. Genomic Diversification in Strains of Rickettsia felis Isolated from Different Arthropods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillespie, Joseph J.; Driscoll, Timothy P.; Verhoeve, Victoria I.; Utsuki, Tadanobu; Husseneder, Claudia; Chouljenko, Vladimir N.; Azad, Abdu F.; Macaluso, Kevin R.

    2015-01-01

    Rickettsia felis (Alphaproteobacteria: Rickettsiales) is the causative agent of an emerging flea-borne rickettsiosis with worldwide occurrence. Originally described from the cat flea, Ctenocephalides felis, recent reports have identified R. felis from other flea species, as well as other insects and ticks. This diverse host range for R. felis may indicate an underlying genetic variability associated with host-specific strains. Accordingly, to determine a potential genetic basis for host specialization, we sequenced the genome of R. felis str. LSU-Lb, which is an obligate mutualist of the parthenogenic booklouse Liposcelis bostrychophila (Insecta: Psocoptera). We also sequenced the genome of R. felis str. LSU, the second genome sequence for cat flea-associated strains (cf. R. felis str. URRWXCal2), which are presumably facultative parasites of fleas. Phylogenomics analysis revealed R. felis str. LSU-Lb diverged from the flea-associated strains. Unexpectedly, R. felis str. LSU was found to be divergent from R. felis str. URRWXCal2, despite sharing similar hosts. Although all three R. felis genomes contain the pRF plasmid, R. felis str. LSU-Lb carries an additional unique plasmid, pLbaR (plasmid of L. bostrychophila associated Rickettsia), nearly half of which encodes a unique 23-gene integrative conjugative element. Remarkably, pLbaR also encodes a repeats-in-toxin-like type I secretion system and associated toxin, heretofore unknown from other Rickettsiales genomes, which likely originated from lateral gene transfer with another obligate intracellular parasite of arthropods, Cardinium (Bacteroidetes). Collectively, our study reveals unexpected genomic diversity across three R. felis strains and identifies several diversifying factors that differentiate facultative parasites of fleas from obligate mutualists of booklice. PMID:25477419

  15. Myxomatosis: passive immunity in the offspring of immune rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) infested with fleas (Spilopsyllus cuniculi Dale) and exposed to myxoma virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobey, W R; Conolly, D

    1975-02-01

    Kittens with maternal antibodies to myxoma virus, the offspring of rabbits which had recovered from myxomatosis, were exposed to fleas contaminated with myxoma virus and/or contact with infected rabbits from birth. All kittens died or became infected before 8 weeks of age. When compared with adult animals similarly infected the kittens showed no advantage in terms of survival time or recovery rate attributable to maternal antibodies. Flea transmission of virus was found more effective than contact transmissions.

  16. A LysR-Type Transcriptional Regulator, RovM, Senses Nutritional Cues Suggesting that It Is Involved in Metabolic Adaptation of Yersinia pestis to the Flea Gut.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viveka Vadyvaloo

    Full Text Available Yersinia pestis has evolved as a clonal variant of Yersinia pseudotuberculosis to cause flea-borne biofilm-mediated transmission of the bubonic plague. The LysR-type transcriptional regulator, RovM, is highly induced only during Y. pestis infection of the flea host. RovM homologs in other pathogens regulate biofilm formation, nutrient sensing, and virulence; including in Y. pseudotuberculosis, where RovM represses the major virulence factor, RovA. Here the role that RovM plays during flea infection was investigated using a Y. pestis KIM6+ strain deleted of rovM, ΔrovM. The ΔrovM mutant strain was not affected in characteristic biofilm gut blockage, growth, or survival during single infection of fleas. Nonetheless, during a co-infection of fleas, the ΔrovM mutant exhibited a significant competitive fitness defect relative to the wild type strain. This competitive fitness defect was restored as a fitness advantage relative to the wild type in a ΔrovM mutant complemented in trans to over-express rovM. Consistent with this, Y. pestis strains, producing elevated transcriptional levels of rovM, displayed higher growth rates, and differential ability to form biofilm in response to specific nutrients in comparison to the wild type. In addition, we demonstrated that rovA was not repressed by RovM in fleas, but that elevated transcriptional levels of rovM in vitro correlated with repression of rovA under specific nutritional conditions. Collectively, these findings suggest that RovM likely senses specific nutrient cues in the flea gut environment, and accordingly directs metabolic adaptation to enhance flea gut colonization by Y. pestis.

  17. NRPC ServCat priorities

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of the Interior — This document lists the Natural Resource Program Center’s priority ServCat documents. It is recommended that these documents- which include annual narrative reports,...

  18. Multistate matrix population model to assess the contributions and impacts on population abundance of domestic cats in urban areas including owned cats, unowned cats, and cats in shelters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coe, Jason B.

    2018-01-01

    Concerns over cat homelessness, over-taxed animal shelters, public health risks, and environmental impacts has raised attention on urban-cat populations. To truly understand cat population dynamics, the collective population of owned cats, unowned cats, and cats in the shelter system must be considered simultaneously because each subpopulation contributes differently to the overall population of cats in a community (e.g., differences in neuter rates, differences in impacts on wildlife) and cats move among categories through human interventions (e.g., adoption, abandonment). To assess this complex socio-ecological system, we developed a multistate matrix model of cats in urban areas that include owned cats, unowned cats (free-roaming and feral), and cats that move through the shelter system. Our model requires three inputs—location, number of human dwellings, and urban area—to provide testable predictions of cat abundance for any city in North America. Model-predicted population size of unowned cats in seven Canadian cities were not significantly different than published estimates (p = 0.23). Model-predicted proportions of sterile feral cats did not match observed sterile cat proportions for six USA cities (p = 0.001). Using a case study from Guelph, Ontario, Canada, we compared model-predicted to empirical estimates of cat abundance in each subpopulation and used perturbation analysis to calculate relative sensitivity of vital rates to cat abundance to demonstrate how management or mismanagement in one portion of the population could have repercussions across all portions of the network. Our study provides a general framework to consider cat population abundance in urban areas and, with refinement that includes city-specific parameter estimates and modeling, could provide a better understanding of population dynamics of cats in our communities. PMID:29489854

  19. Multistate matrix population model to assess the contributions and impacts on population abundance of domestic cats in urban areas including owned cats, unowned cats, and cats in shelters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flockhart, D T Tyler; Coe, Jason B

    2018-01-01

    Concerns over cat homelessness, over-taxed animal shelters, public health risks, and environmental impacts has raised attention on urban-cat populations. To truly understand cat population dynamics, the collective population of owned cats, unowned cats, and cats in the shelter system must be considered simultaneously because each subpopulation contributes differently to the overall population of cats in a community (e.g., differences in neuter rates, differences in impacts on wildlife) and cats move among categories through human interventions (e.g., adoption, abandonment). To assess this complex socio-ecological system, we developed a multistate matrix model of cats in urban areas that include owned cats, unowned cats (free-roaming and feral), and cats that move through the shelter system. Our model requires three inputs-location, number of human dwellings, and urban area-to provide testable predictions of cat abundance for any city in North America. Model-predicted population size of unowned cats in seven Canadian cities were not significantly different than published estimates (p = 0.23). Model-predicted proportions of sterile feral cats did not match observed sterile cat proportions for six USA cities (p = 0.001). Using a case study from Guelph, Ontario, Canada, we compared model-predicted to empirical estimates of cat abundance in each subpopulation and used perturbation analysis to calculate relative sensitivity of vital rates to cat abundance to demonstrate how management or mismanagement in one portion of the population could have repercussions across all portions of the network. Our study provides a general framework to consider cat population abundance in urban areas and, with refinement that includes city-specific parameter estimates and modeling, could provide a better understanding of population dynamics of cats in our communities.

  20. Acetaminophen Toxicosis in a Cat

    OpenAIRE

    Özkan, Burçak

    2017-01-01

    Acetaminophen causes serious problems as toxication in cats in spite of being an effective and reliable analgesic and antipyretic in humans. A six months-old female cat suffering from cough was presented to examination to International Pet Hospital/Tirana/Albania when no result was obtained after one  acetaminophen tablet had been administered in order to heal the disease. Depression, grey and cyanotic mucous membranes and tongue, tachypnea, tachycardia, hypothermia were primary clinical sign...

  1. Properties of squeezed Schroedinger cats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Obada, A.S.F.; Omar, Z.M.

    1995-09-01

    In this article we investigate some statistical properties of the even and odd squeezed (squeezed Schroedinger cat) states. The quasi-probability distribution functions especially W(α) and Q(α) are calculated and discussed for these states. The phase distribution function is discussed. A generation scheme is proposed for either the squeezed generalized Schroedinger cat, or the squeezed number state. (author). 35 refs, 5 figs

  2. Viral haemorrhagic septicaemia virus (VHSV) remains viable for several days but at low levels in the water flea Moina macrocopa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ito, Takafumi; Olesen, Niels Jørgen

    2017-01-01

    in the water flea Moina macrocopa. VHSV was re-isolated from replicate groups of M. macrocopa that had been immersed with 108.0, 107.0, and 105.0 TCID50 ml-1 of VHSV (DK-3592B, Genotype Ia). Furthermore, 40 M. macrocopa that had been immersed with 108.0 TCID50 ml-1 of VHSV for 72 h had VHSV titers of 102...

  3. A review of over three decades of research on cat-human and human-cat interactions and relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Dennis C

    2017-08-01

    This review article covers research conducted over the last three decades on cat-human and human-cat interactions and relationships, especially from an ethological point of view. It includes findings on cat-cat and cat-human communication, cat personalities and cat-owner personalities, the effects of cats on humans, and problems caused by cats. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Effects of parasitism on host reproductive investment in a rodent-flea system: host litter size matters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warburton, Elizabeth M; Khokhlova, Irina S; Dlugosz, Elizabeth M; Der Mescht, Luther Van; Krasnov, Boris R

    2017-02-01

    Parents may alter offspring phenotype depending on the type of environment they encounter. Parasitism is a common stressor; therefore, maternal reproductive investment could change in response to parasitic infection. However, few experiments have investigated the relationship between parasitism and maternal investment, whereas earlier field studies provided contradictory evidence. We investigated number, sex ratio, and growth of offspring in two rodent species, solitary altricial Meriones crassus and social precocial Acomys cahirinus, exposed to parasitism by fleas Xenopsylla ramesis and Parapulex chephrenis. No effect of treatment on litter size or sex ratio of a litter was found in either rodent species. Flea parasitism was found to affect pre-weaning body mass gain in M. crassus, but not in A. cahirinus pups. Furthermore, it appeared that female M. crassus invested resources into their offspring differently in dependence of litter size. In small litters (1-3 offspring), pups from infested females gained more body mass before weaning than pups from uninfested mothers. However, this trend was reversed in females with large litters indicating that parasitized females have a finite amount of resources with which to provision their young. Thus, M. crassus mothers parasitized by fleas seemed to receive some sort of external cues (e.g., stress caused by infestation) that prompted them to alter offspring provisioning, depending on species-specific possibilities and constraints. Therefore, parasites could be a mediator of environmentally induced maternal effects and offspring provisioning may have adaptive value against parasitism.

  5. Silencing urease: a key evolutionary step that facilitated the adaptation of Yersinia pestis to the flea-borne transmission route.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chouikha, Iman; Hinnebusch, B Joseph

    2014-12-30

    The arthropod-borne transmission route of Yersinia pestis, the bacterial agent of plague, is a recent evolutionary adaptation. Yersinia pseudotuberculosis, the closely related food-and water-borne enteric species from which Y. pestis diverged less than 6,400 y ago, exhibits significant oral toxicity to the flea vectors of plague, whereas Y. pestis does not. In this study, we identify the Yersinia urease enzyme as the responsible oral toxin. All Y. pestis strains, including those phylogenetically closest to the Y. pseudotuberculosis progenitor, contain a mutated ureD allele that eliminated urease activity. Restoration of a functional ureD was sufficient to make Y. pestis orally toxic to fleas. Conversely, deletion of the urease operon in Y. pseudotuberculosis rendered it nontoxic. Enzymatic activity was required for toxicity. Because urease-related mortality eliminates 30-40% of infective flea vectors, ureD mutation early in the evolution of Y. pestis was likely subject to strong positive selection because it significantly increased transmission potential.

  6. Silencing urease: A key evolutionary step that facilitated the adaptation of Yersinia pestis to the flea-borne transmission route

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chouikha, Iman; Hinnebusch, B. Joseph

    2014-01-01

    The arthropod-borne transmission route of Yersinia pestis, the bacterial agent of plague, is a recent evolutionary adaptation. Yersinia pseudotuberculosis, the closely related food-and water-borne enteric species from which Y. pestis diverged less than 6,400 y ago, exhibits significant oral toxicity to the flea vectors of plague, whereas Y. pestis does not. In this study, we identify the Yersinia urease enzyme as the responsible oral toxin. All Y. pestis strains, including those phylogenetically closest to the Y. pseudotuberculosis progenitor, contain a mutated ureD allele that eliminated urease activity. Restoration of a functional ureD was sufficient to make Y. pestis orally toxic to fleas. Conversely, deletion of the urease operon in Y. pseudotuberculosis rendered it nontoxic. Enzymatic activity was required for toxicity. Because urease-related mortality eliminates 30–40% of infective flea vectors, ureD mutation early in the evolution of Y. pestis was likely subject to strong positive selection because it significantly increased transmission potential. PMID:25453069

  7. Sanitary conditions of a colony of urban feral cats (Felis catus Linnaeus, 1758) in a zoological garden of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendes-de-Almeida, Flavya; Faria, Maria Carolina Ferreira; Branco, Aline Serricella; Serrão, Maria Lucia; Souza, Aline Moreira; Almosny, Nádia; Charme, Márcia; Labarthe, Norma

    2004-01-01

    The colony of urban stray cats living in the Rio de Janeiro zoological garden was studied in order to develop a population and health control program. As many cats as possible were captured during two months (47 animals) and were classified according to gender, age, weight and coat markings. They were submitted to a general health evaluation, examined for the presence of ectoparasites and sent to a surgical neutering program. All animals had a blood sample drawn for CBC, platelet count, heartworm and retroviruses detection. Capillary blood smears were made for hemoparasites detection. Coat marking and colors were tabby (59.7%), followed by solid black (17%); torbie (10.6%); bicolor (10.6%) and harlequin (2.1%). The only ectoparasites found were fleas, which infested 28% of the animals. The hemoparasites found were Haemobartonella felis (38%) and piroplasmas that could not be differentiated between Cytauxzoon spp. and Babesia spp. (47%). No cat was found infected by Dirofilaria immitis or FeLV (Feline Leukemia Virus), although FIV (Feline Immunodeficiency Virus) antibodies could be detected (21%). There was no correlation between hemoparasites and FIV infections. The estimated total cat population (mark-recapture method) was 59; 68% female and 32% male, suggesting that a neutering program is in fact needed.

  8. Cat Ownership Perception and Caretaking Explored in an Internet Survey of People Associated with Cats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zito, Sarah; Vankan, Dianne

    2015-01-01

    People who feed cats that they do not perceive they own (sometimes called semi-owners) are thought to make a considerable contribution to unwanted cat numbers because the cats they support are generally not sterilized. Understanding people’s perception of cat ownership and the psychology underlying cat semi-ownership could inform approaches to mitigate the negative effects of cat semi-ownership. The primary aims of this study were to investigate cat ownership perception and to examine its association with human-cat interactions and caretaking behaviours. A secondary aim was to evaluate a definition of cat semi-ownership (including an association time of ≥1 month and frequent feeding), revised from a previous definition proposed in the literature to distinguish cat semi-ownership from casual interactions with unowned cats. Cat owners and semi-owners displayed similar types of interactions and caretaking behaviours. Nevertheless, caretaking behaviours were more commonly displayed towards owned cats than semi-owned cats, and semi-owned cats were more likely to have produced kittens (pcats in semi-ownership relationships compared to casual interaction relationships. Determinants of cat ownership perception were identified (pcat friendliness and health, and feelings about unowned cats, including the acceptability of feeding unowned cats. Encouraging semi-owners to have the cats they care for sterilized may assist in reducing the number of unwanted kittens and could be a valuable alternative to trying to prevent semi-ownership entirely. Highly accessible semi-owner “gatekeepers” could help to deliver education messages and facilitate the provision of cat sterilization services to semi-owners. This research enabled semi-ownership to be distinguished from casual interaction relationships and can assist welfare and government agencies to identify cat semi-owners in order to develop strategies to address this source of unwanted cats. PMID:26218243

  9. Review of thymic pathology in 30 cats and 36 dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day, M J

    1997-09-01

    Data are presented from 30 cats and 36 dogs in which thymic disease was recognised clinically or on postmortem examination. The diagnoses included thymic lymphoma (19 cats, 12 dogs), thymoma (five cats, 18 dogs), thymic branchial cyst formation or cystic change (one cat, four dogs), thymic hyperplasia (two cats), congenital hypoplasia (one cat, one dog), thymic haemorrhage (one cat, one dog) and thymic amyloidosis (one cat). Thymic lymphoma occurred in younger dogs and cats, and was recorded equally among domestic shorthaired and purebred (especially Siamese) cats. Eight cats with thymic lymphoma were tested for feline leukaemia virus and four were positive. Thymoma occurred more frequently in older cats and dogs, and in Labradors and German shepherd dogs. Thymic tumours were associated with paraneoplastic hypercalcaemia (six dogs), megaoesophagus (two dogs) or interface dermatitis with basement membrane immune complex deposition (one cat). Non-neoplastic thymic diseases were associated with myasthenia gravis (one cat), pemphigus foliaceus (one cat) and superficial necrolytic dermatitis (one cat).

  10. Cerebral cysticercosis in a cat : clinical communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.V. Schwan

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available The metacestode of Taenia solium, Cysticercus cellulosae, was recovered from the brain of a cat showing central nervous clinical signs ante mortem. This is the first record of cerebral cysticercosis in a cat in South Africa.

  11. Prevalence of Yersinia pestis in rodents and fleas associated with black-tailed prairie dogs (Cynomys ludovicianus) at Thunder Basin National Grassland, Wyoming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiagarajan, Bala; Bai, Ying; Gage, Kenneth L.; Cully, Jack F.

    2008-01-01

    Rodents (and their fleas) that are associated with prairie dogs are considered important for the maintenance and transmission of the bacterium (Yersinia pestis) that causes plague. Our goal was to identify rodent and flea species that were potentially involved in a plague epizootic in black-tailed prairie dogs at Thunder Basin National Grassland. We collected blood samples and ectoparasites from rodents trapped at off- and on-colony grids at Thunder Basin National Grassland between 2002 and 2004. Blood samples were tested for antibodies to Y. pestis F-1 antigen by a passive hemagglutination assay, and fleas were tested by a multiplex polymerase chain reaction, for the presence of the plague bacterium. Only one of 1,421 fleas, an Oropsylla hirsuta collected in 2002 from a deer mouse, Peromyscus maniculatus, tested positive for Y. pestis. Blood samples collected in summer 2004 from two northern grasshopper mice, Onychomys leucogaster, tested positive for Y. pestis antibodies. All three positive samples were collected from on-colony grids shortly after a plague epizootic occurred. This study confirms that plague is difficult to detect in rodents and fleas associated with prairie dog colonies, unless samples are collected immediately after a prairie dog die-off.

  12. Getting a CAT Scan (For Kids)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... A) Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Getting a CAT Scan (Video) KidsHealth / For Kids / Getting a CAT Scan (Video) Print en español Obtención de una tomografía computada (video) CAT stands ...

  13. Diagnostic Exercise: Neurologic Disorder in a Cat

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-12-21

    IWORK UNIT ELEMENT NO. NO. NO. ACCESSION NO. 11. TITLE (Include Security Classification) Diagnostic Exercise - Neurologic Disorder in a Cat 12...and identify by block number) This report documents the fifth reported occurrance of cerebral phaeophyphomycosis in cats . Because mycotic...Exercise: Neurologic Disorder in a Cat Ronald C. Bell United States Army Medical Research Institute of Infectious Diseases (USAMRIID), Fort Detrick

  14. Groups acting on CAT(0) cube complexes

    OpenAIRE

    Niblo, Graham A.; Reeves, Lawrence

    1997-01-01

    We show that groups satisfying Kazhdan's property (T) have no unbounded actions on finite dimensional CAT(0) cube complexes, and deduce that there is a locally CAT(-1) Riemannian manifold which is not homotopy equivalent to any finite dimensional, locally CAT(0) cube complex.

  15. Cat-scratch disease osteomyelitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heye, S.; Matthijs, P.; Campenhoudt, M. van; Wallon, J.

    2003-01-01

    We report on a patient who presented with osteomyelitis of a rib and adjacent abscess as a rare and atypical manifestation of cat-scratch disease. Radiographic findings showed an osteolytic lesion with adjacent mass. Biopsy, serology and polymerase chain reaction technique are essential for the final diagnosis. Prognosis is excellent with full recovery. (orig.)

  16. A strange cat in Dublin

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Raifeartaigh, Cormac

    2012-11-01

    Not many life stories in physics involve Nazis, illicit sex, a strange cat and the genetic code. Thus, a new biography of the great Austrian physicist Erwin Schrödinger is always of interest, and with Erwin Schrödinger and the Quantum Revolution, veteran science writer John Gribbin does not disappoint.

  17. Religiosidad catódica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Ignacio Sierra G.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Estos apuntes se refieren a que en estos últimos tiempos ha habido un resurgimiento del fenómeno religioso de diversas maneras, incluso sorprendentes. Al aproximarse el tercer milenio, la posmodernidad religiosa disputa parte de la pantalla electrónica con el melodrama religioso: hoy estamos viviendo una religiosidad mediática, una religiosidad catódica.

  18. EUROmediCAT signal detection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Given, Joanne E; Loane, Maria; Luteijn, Johannes Michiel

    2016-01-01

    AIMS: To evaluate congenital anomaly (CA)-medication exposure associations produced by the new EUROmediCAT signal detection system and determine which require further investigation. METHODS: Data from 15 EUROCAT registries (1995-2011) with medication exposures at the chemical substance (5th level...

  19. Environmental Aspects of Domestic Cat Care and Management: Implications for Cat Welfare

    OpenAIRE

    Stella, Judith L.; Croney, Candace C.

    2016-01-01

    Domestic cats (Felis silvestris catus) are the most commonly kept companion animals in the US with large populations of owned (86 million), free-roaming (70 million), research (13,000), and shelter (2-3 million) cats. Vast numbers of cats are maintained in homes and other facilities each year and are reliant on humans for all of their care. Understanding cat behavior and providing the highest quality environments possible, including positive human-cat interactions, based on research could hel...

  20. Dietary dissolution of urinary calculi in cats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hyde, D.C.

    1987-01-01

    A young adult, castrated male DSH cat was admitted for pollakiuria, hematuria and dysuria. The cat was being fed a commercial dry grocery brand cat food. Radiographs demonstrated multiple radiodense cystic calculi and urinalysis showed hematuria but no crystalluria. A tentative diagnosis of struvite urolithiasis was made. The cat was fed s/d® Feline food exclusively. Clinical signs disappeared within a week and no calculi were visible radiographically within three weeks. s/d® Feline food was continued an additional two weeks. This case study shows that s/d® Feline therapeutic food can be used to successfully manage struvite urolithiasis in cats

  1. Acute pancreatitis in cats with hepatic lipidosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akol, K G; Washabau, R J; Saunders, H M; Hendrick, M J

    1993-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to characterize the incidence, clinical features, and prognosis of acute pancreatitis in cats with hepatic lipidosis. Of 13 cats histologically diagnosed with hepatic lipidosis between July 1988, and November 1989, 5(38%) were also histologically diagnosed with acute pancreatitis. In cats with hepatic lipidosis alone, the signalment, history, physical examination, and clinicopathologic findings were generally indistinguishable from those of cats with concurrent acute pancreatitis except that cats with acute pancreatitis were more likely to be cachectic and to have coagulation abnormalities. Hepatomegaly was seen on abdominal radiographs in both groups. Of the 5 cats with concurrent acute pancreatitis, abdominal ultrasonography detected 1 cat with a hypoechoic pancreas and 5 with peritoneal effusion; those abnormalities were not seen in cats without concurrent acute pancreatitis. Cats with concurrent acute pancreatitis had only a 20% recovery rate, compared with a 50% recovery rate in cats with hepatic lipidosis alone. We conclude that cats with hepatic lipidosis should be rigorously evaluated for concurrent acute pancreatitis because of 1) the rate of disease coincidence, 2) the inability of signalment, history, physical examination, and clinicopathologic findings to adequately distinguish between hepatic lipidosis and acute pancreatitis, 3) the worse prognosis associated with concurrent acute pancreatitis, and 4) the opposing nutritional strategies for hepatic lipidosis and acute pancreatitis.

  2. Identification of Hepatozoon erhardovae Krampitz, 1964 from bank voles (Myodes glareolus) and fleas in Southern Hungary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rigó, Krisztina; Majoros, Gábor; Szekeres, Sándor; Molnár, Imola; Jablonszky, Mónika; Majláthová, Viktória; Majláth, Igor; Földvári, Gábor

    2016-06-01

    In order to investigate the prevalence and life cycle of apicomplexan parasites, small mammals were live-trapped with modified Sherman traps in Southern Hungary between 2010 and 2012. Altogether, 528 rodents (Apodemus flavicollis Melchior, 1834, Apodemus agrarius Pallas, 1771, Myodes glareolus Schreber, 1780, Microtus agrestis Linnaeus, 1761, Mus musculus Linnaeus, 1758 and Micromys minutus Pallas, 1771) were collected and four shrews (Sorex spp.) were by-catched. Captured animals belonging to non-protected species were euthanized, and spleen samples were preserved for histological and molecular analyses. During the examination of spleen smears, Hepatozoon parasites were observed in eight out of 48 bank voles (M. glareolus). DNA was isolated from altogether 221 spleen samples, and 18S rDNA was amplified using two different PCR protocols. The eight bank vole samples were positive with PCR, but none of the other M. glareolus spleen samples or any of the tissue samples from other species were found to be infected. Sequenced amplicons were very similar to Hepatozoon spp. detected in M. glareolus in Spain and Poland. Ectoparasites were collected from the small mammal carcasses and from the vegetation. Hepatozoon DNA was not found in the 181 ticks removed from the small mammals or in the 162 ticks collected with flagging, but was detected in all three flea species (4/43 Megabothris turbidus Rothschild, 1909, 3/10 Ctenophthalmus assimilis Taschenberg, 1880 and 7/78 Ctenophthalmus agyrtes Heller, 1896). Based on gamont morphology, vertebrate and arthropod host species and DNA sequences, the parasites in our study can be identified as Hepatozoon erhardovae.

  3. Gene expression profiling of three different stressors in the water flea Daphnia magna.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansen, Mieke; Vergauwen, Lucia; Vandenbrouck, Tine; Knapen, Dries; Dom, Nathalie; Spanier, Katina I; Cielen, Anke; De Meester, Luc

    2013-07-01

    Microarrays are an ideal tool to screen for differences in gene expression of thousands of genes simultaneously. However, often commercial arrays are not available. In this study, we performed microarray analyses to evaluate patterns of gene transcription following exposure to two natural and one anthropogenic stressor. cDNA microarrays compiled of three life stage specific and three stressor-specific EST libraries, yielding 1734 different EST sequences, were used. We exposed juveniles of the water flea Daphnia magna for 48, 96 and 144 h to three stressors known to exert strong selection in natural populations of this species i.e. a sublethal concentration of the pesticide carbaryl, infective spores of the endoparasite Pasteuria ramosa, and fish predation risk mimicked by exposure to fish kairomones. A total of 148 gene fragments were differentially expressed compared to the control. Based on a PCA, the exposure treatments were separated into two main groups based on the extent of the transcriptional response: a low and a high (144 h of fish or carbaryl exposure and 96 h of parasite exposure) stress group. Firstly, we observed a general stress-related transcriptional expression profile independent of the treatment characterized by repression of transcripts involved in transcription, translation, signal transduction and energy metabolism. Secondly, we observed treatment-specific responses including signs of migration to deeper water layers in response to fish predation, structural challenge of the cuticle in response to carbaryl exposure, and disturbance of the ATP production in parasite exposure. A third important conclusion is that transcription expression patterns exhibit stress-specific changes over time. Parasite exposure shows the most differentially expressed gene fragments after 96 h. The peak of differentially expressed transcripts came only after 144 h of fish exposure, while carbaryl exposure induced a more stable number of differently expressed gene

  4. Propulsion of the Water Flea, Daphnia magna: Experiments, Scaling, and Modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skipper, A. N.; Murphy, D.; Webster, D. R.; Yen, J.

    2016-02-01

    The freshwater crustacean Daphnia magna is a widely studied zooplankton in relation to food webs, predator-prey interactions, and other biological/ecological considerations; however, their locomotion is poorly quantified and understood. These water fleas utilize a hop-and-sink mechanism that consists of making quick, impulsive jumps by beating their antennae to propel themselves forward ( 1 body length). The animals then sink for a period, during which they stretch out their antennae to increase drag and thereby reduce their sinking velocity. Time-resolved three-dimensional flow fields surrounding the animals were quantified with a unique infrared tomographic particle image velocity (tomo-PIV) system. Three-dimensional kinematics data were also extracted from the image sequences. In the current work, we compared body kinematics and flow disturbance among organisms of size in the range of 1.3 to 2.8 mm. The stroke cycle averaged 150 ms in duration, ranging from 100 to 180 ms; this period is generally evenly split between the power and recovery strokes. The range of peak hop velocity was 27.2 to 32.5 mm/s, and peak acceleration was in the range of 0.68 to 1.8 m/s2. The results showed a distinct relationship between peak hop speed (Vmax 14 BL/s) and body size; these data collapsed onto a single time-record curve during the power stroke when properly non-dimensionalized. The fluid flow induced by each antennae consisted of a viscous vortex ring that demonstrated a slow decay in the wake. The strength, size, and decay of the induced viscous vortex rings were compared as a function of organism size. Finally, the viscous vortex rings were analyzed in the context of a double Stokeslet model that consisted of two impulsively applied point forces separated by the animal width.

  5. The fecal microbiome in cats with diarrhea.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan S Suchodolski

    Full Text Available Recent studies have revealed that microbes play an important role in the pathogenesis of gastrointestinal (GI diseases in various animal species, but only limited data is available about the microbiome in cats with GI disease. The aim of this study was to evaluate the fecal microbiome in cats with diarrhea. Fecal samples were obtained from healthy cats (n = 21 and cats with acute (n = 19 or chronic diarrhea (n = 29 and analyzed by sequencing of 16S rRNA genes, and PICRUSt was used to predict the functional gene content of the microbiome. Linear discriminant analysis (LDA effect size (LEfSe revealed significant differences in bacterial groups between healthy cats and cats with diarrhea. The order Burkholderiales, the families Enterobacteriaceae, and the genera Streptococcus and Collinsella were significantly increased in diarrheic cats. In contrast the order Campylobacterales, the family Bacteroidaceae, and the genera Megamonas, Helicobacter, and Roseburia were significantly increased in healthy cats. Phylum Bacteroidetes was significantly decreased in cats with chronic diarrhea (>21 days duration, while the class Erysipelotrichi and the genus Lactobacillus were significantly decreased in cats with acute diarrhea. The observed changes in bacterial groups were accompanied by significant differences in functional gene contents: metabolism of fatty acids, biosynthesis of glycosphingolipids, metabolism of biotin, metabolism of tryptophan, and ascorbate and aldarate metabolism, were all significantly (p<0.001 altered in cats with diarrhea. In conclusion, significant differences in the fecal microbiomes between healthy cats and cats with diarrhea were identified. This dysbiosis was accompanied by changes in bacterial functional gene categories. Future studies are warranted to evaluate if these microbial changes correlate with changes in fecal concentrations of microbial metabolites in cats with diarrhea for the identification of potential diagnostic or

  6. Yersinia pestis insecticidal-like toxin complex (Tc family proteins: characterization of expression, subcellular localization, and potential role in infection of the flea vector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Spinner Justin L

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Toxin complex (Tc family proteins were first identified as insecticidal toxins in Photorhabdus luminescens and have since been found in a wide range of bacteria. The genome of Yersinia pestis, the causative agent of bubonic plague, contains a locus that encodes the Tc protein homologues YitA, YitB, YitC, and YipA and YipB. Previous microarray data indicate that the Tc genes are highly upregulated by Y. pestis while in the flea vector; however, their role in the infection of fleas and pathogenesis in the mammalian host is unclear. Results We show that the Tc proteins YitA and YipA are highly produced by Y. pestis while in the flea but not during growth in brain heart infusion (BHI broth at the same temperature. Over-production of the LysR-type regulator YitR from an exogenous plasmid increased YitA and YipA synthesis in broth culture. The increase in production of YitA and YipA correlated with the yitR copy number and was temperature-dependent. Although highly synthesized in fleas, deletion of the Tc proteins did not alter survival of Y. pestis in the flea or prevent blockage of the proventriculus. Furthermore, YipA was found to undergo post-translational processing and YipA and YitA are localized to the outer membrane of Y. pestis. YitA was also detected by immunofluorescence microscopy on the surface of Y. pestis. Both YitA and YipA are produced maximally at low temperature but persist for several hours after transfer to 37°C. Conclusions Y. pestis Tc proteins are highly expressed in the flea but are not essential for Y. pestis to stably infect or produce a transmissible infection in the flea. However, YitA and YipA localize to the outer membrane and YitA is exposed on the surface, indicating that at least YitA is present on the surface when Y. pestis is transmitted into the mammalian host from the flea.

  7. Mapping of cat albumin using monoclonal antibodies: identification of determinants common to cat and dog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boutin, Y; Hébert, J; Vrancken, E R; Mourad, W

    1989-01-01

    Cat and dog albumins from commercial extracts were used to produce monoclonal antibodies (MoAb). Anti-cat albumin MoAb recognized both cat and dog albumin equally, as did anti-dog albumin MoAb; this confirms cross-reactivity between cat and dog. The MoAb were separated into two groups according to their epitopic specificity; they recognized two overlapping epitopes of cat albumin. Furthermore, by competitive inhibition of radio-allergosorbent test (RAST), it was shown that one MoAb group inhibited significantly the binding of human IgE antibodies (from a pool of 13 patients allergic to both cats and dogs) to insolubilized cat or dog extracts. These observations suggest that murine anti-cat or anti-dog MoAb and human IgE antibodies recognize identical or closely related determinants on cat and dog albumin. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 PMID:2478325

  8. Behaviour Problems of Cats Reared Individually or in Coexistence with other Animals (Cats, Dog

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kmecová N.

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine whether behaviour problems in indoor cats depend on the number of cats in a household or rearing one or more cats in a household together with a dog. The study was carried out on animals which were divided for the purpose of this study into 4 groups: (1 households with one cat; (2 households with two cats; (3 households with three or more cats; (4 households with one or more cats and a dog. Altogether 91 cats were included in the study. The practical part of this investigation was based on a questionnaire. It was observed that the probability of behaviour problems was not related unambiguously to the number of cats in a household or the company of a dog. The percentage of the occurrence of changed behaviour did not differ significantly between the groups.

  9. Serum and urinary cystatin C in cats with feline immunodeficiency virus infection and cats with hyperthyroidism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghys, Liesbeth Fe; Paepe, Dominique; Taffin, Elien Rl; Vandermeulen, Eva; Duchateau, Luc; Smets, Pascale My; Delanghe, Joris; Daminet, Sylvie

    2016-08-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate serum cystatin C (sCysC) and urinary cystatin C (uCysC) in cats with hyperthyroidism and cats with feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV). Thirty cats with FIV, 26 hyperthyroid cats and 28 healthy cats were included. sCysC and uCysC:creatinine (uCysC/uCr) ratio were measured with a human particle-enhanced nephelometric immunoassay, previously validated for feline CysC measurement. Routine renal variables (serum creatinine [sCr], urine specific gravity, urinary protein:creatinine ratio [UPC]) were also measured in the three groups. Cats with hyperthyroidism had significantly higher sCysC and higher uCysC/uCr ratio, lower sCr and a higher UPC than healthy cats. Cats with FIV infection did not show a significantly higher sCysC concentration but had a significantly higher sCr and UPC than healthy cats. uCysC could be detected in only four of them. This study demonstrated that sCysC is increased in cats with hyperthyroidism, in contrast with sCr, but not in cats with FIV. Many hyperthyroid cats, but only four cats with FIV, had an elevated uCysC/uCr ratio. Further studies may reveal if uCysC might be a valuable marker for tubular dysfunction in cats. © The Author(s) 2015.

  10. Differences between vocalization evoked by social stimuli in feral cats and house cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeon, Seong C; Kim, Young K; Park, Se J; Lee, Scott S; Lee, Seung Y; Suh, Euy H; Houpt, Katherine A; Chang, Hong H; Lee, Hee C; Yang, Byung G; Lee, Hyo J

    2011-06-01

    To investigate how socialization can affect the types and characteristics of vocalization produced by cats, feral cats (n=25) and house cats (n=13) were used as subjects, allowing a comparison between cats socialized to people and non-socialized cats. To record vocalization and assess the cats' responses to behavioural stimuli, five test situations were used: approach by a familiar caretaker, by a threatening stranger, by a large doll, by a stranger with a dog and by a stranger with a cat. Feral cats showed extremely aggressive and defensive behaviour in most test situations, and produced higher call rates than those of house cats in the test situations, which could be attributed to less socialization to other animals and to more sensitivity to fearful situations. Differences were observed in the acoustic parameters of feral cats in comparison to those of house cats. The feral cat produced significantly higher frequency in fundamental frequency, peak frequency, 1st quartile frequency, 3rd quartile frequency of growls and hisses in agonistic test situations. In contrast to the growls and hisses, in meow, all acoustic parameters like fundamental frequency, first formant, peak frequency, 1st quartile frequency, and 3rd quartile frequency of house cats were of significantly higher frequency than those of feral cats. Also, house cats produced calls of significantly shorter in duration than feral cats in agonistic test situations. These results support the conclusion that a lack of socialization may affect usage of types of vocalizations, and the vocal characteristics, so that the proper socialization of cat may be essential to be a suitable companion house cat. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Acetaminophen Toxicosis in a Cat

    OpenAIRE

    Anvik, J. O.

    1984-01-01

    A seven month old domestic shorthaired male cat was presented with a known history of acetaminophen ingestion. Clinical findings included icterus, depression, hypothermia, tachypnea and pronounced edema of the head and neck. Treatment was aimed at providing substrate to assist in conjugation of the drug and reversing methemoglobinemia. Administration of oral acetylcysteine, ascorbic acid and IV fluids was insufficient in this case due to a delay in initiation of treatment. The salient postmor...

  12. Hypophosphatemia associated with enteral alimentation in cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Justin, R B; Hohenhaus, A E

    1995-01-01

    Hypophosphatemia is uncommon in cats, but it has been reported in association with diabetes mellitus and hepatic lipidosis, where it can cause hemolysis, rhabdomyopathy, depression, seizures, and coma. The purpose of this article is to describe 9 cats that developed low serum phosphorus concentrations (alimentation. Serum biochemical analyses from more than 6,000 cats were reviewed. The medical records of all cats with hypophosphatemia were examined for history of enteral alimentation; diabetic cats were excluded from the study. Nine cats, ranging in age from 3 to 17 years, were identified. All cats had normal serum phosphorus concentrations before tube feeding began. Onset of hypophosphatemia occurred 12 to 72 hours after initiation of enteral alimentation, and the nadir for phosphorus concentrations ranged from 0.4 to 2.4 mg/dL. Hemolysis occurred in 6 of the 9 cats. Hypophosphatemia secondary to enteral alimentation is an uncommon clinical finding in cats. Cats with high alanine aminotransferase activity, hyperbilirubinemia, and weight loss should be closely monitored for hypophosphatemia during the first 72 hours of enteral alimentation.

  13. Radioactive iodine therapy in cats with hyperthyroidism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turrel, J.M.; Feldman, E.C.; Hays, M.; Hornof, W.J.

    1984-01-01

    Eleven cats with hyperthyroidism were treated with radioactive iodine ( 131 I). Previous unsuccessful treatments for hyperthyroidism included hemithyroidectomy (2 cats) and an antithyroid drug (7 cats). Two cats had no prior treatment. Thyroid scans, using technetium 99m, showed enlargement and increased radionuclide accumulation in 1 thyroid lobe in 5 cats and in both lobes in 6 cats. Serum thyroxine concentrations were high and ranged from 4.7 to 18 micrograms/dl. Radioactive iodine tracer studies were used to determine peak radioactive iodine uptake (RAIU) and effective and biological half-lives. Activity of 131 I administered was calculated from peak RAIU, effective half-life, and estimated thyroid gland weight. Activity of 131 I administered ranged from 1.0 to 5.9 mCi. The treatment goal was to deliver 20,000 rad to hyperactive thyroid tissue. However, retrospective calculations based on peak RAIU and effective half-life obtained during the treatment period showed that radiation doses actually ranged from 7,100 to 64,900 rad. Complete ablation of the hyperfunctioning thyroid tissue and a return to euthyroidism were seen in 7 cats. Partial responses were seen in 2 cats, and 2 cats became hypothyroid. It was concluded that 131 I ablation of thyroid tumors was a reasonable alternative in the treatment of hyperthyroidism in cats. The optimal method of dosimetry remains to be determined

  14. Odontogenic keratocyst in a cat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaDouceur, E E B; Walker, K S; Mohr, F C; Murphy, B

    2014-01-01

    Odontogenic cysts are derived from odontogenic epithelium, can be locally invasive and destructive and have been reported rarely in cats. A 16-year-old, male domestic shorthair cat had a 3-year history of a slowly progressive, right mandibular swelling. Intraoral dental radiographs revealed a multilocular, radiolucent, cystic mass within the right mandible that extended from the distal aspect of the canine tooth to the mesial aspect of the fourth premolar tooth. Radiographically, the mass was associated with distortion and regional destruction of the right mandibular bone and resorption of regional tooth roots. Histological examination of an incisional biopsy sample revealed multiple ruptured cysts lined by stratified squamous epithelium of odontogenic origin with luminal parakeratinization and a prominent palisading basal cell layer. The cyst contained abundant orthokeratotic and parakeratotic keratin. The clinical, radiographical and histological features were consistent with a diagnosis of odontogenic keratocyst, as seen in man. This is the first report of an odontogenic keratocyst in a cat. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Management of obesity in cats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoelmkjaer KM

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Kirsten M Hoelmkjaer, Charlotte R Bjornvad Department of Veterinary Clinical and Animal Sciences, Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Frederiksberg, Denmark Abstract: Obesity is a common nutritional disorder in cats, especially when they are neutered and middle-aged. Obesity predisposes cats to several metabolic and clinical disorders, including insulin resistance, diabetes mellitus, lameness, and skin disease. Prevention and treatment of obesity is therefore of great importance in veterinary practice. Correct assessment of body composition is important for recognizing early states of obesity and for monitoring success of weight-loss programs. Various methods for assessing body composition have been proposed, of which a 9-point body-condition score has been validated in cats, and is possibly the most simple to use in the clinic; however, for extremely obese individuals, it is less useful. When calculating the appropriate daily caloric intake for a weight-loss plan, the aim is to maintain a safe weight-loss rate, increasing the chance of preserving lean body mass and decreasing the risk of developing hepatic lipidosis, while also producing a sufficient weight-loss rate to keep owners motivated. A weight-loss rate of 0.5%–2% per week is recommended, which for a cat that needs to lose 3 kg body weight results in an anticipated time for reaching the target weight of 24–60 weeks. There are several purpose-made weight-loss diets available. The optimal composition of a weight-loss diet for cats is unknown, but most of the available products have lower caloric density, an increased nutrient:energy ratio, and higher protein and fiber content. Regular follow-up visits allow the caloric intake to be adjusted based on progress, and possibly increase the chance of success. This review discusses the risk factors for and consequences of obesity, and gives directions for formulating a weight-loss plan, including daily caloric

  16. A review of feral cat control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Sheilah A

    2008-08-01

    Animal overpopulation including feral cats is an important global problem. There are many stakeholders involved in the feral cat debate over 'what to do about the problem', including those who consider them a nuisance, the public at risk from zoonotic disease, people who are concerned about the welfare of feral cats, those concerned with wildlife impacts, and the cats themselves. How best to control this population is controversial and has ranged from culling, relocation, and more recently 'trap neuter return' (TNR) methods. Data support the success of TNR in reducing cat populations, but to have a large impact it will have to be adopted on a far greater scale than it is currently practised. Non-surgical contraception is a realistic future goal. Because the feral cat problem was created by humans, concerted educational efforts on responsible pet ownership and the intrinsic value of animals is an integral part of a solution.

  17. 42 CFR 71.51 - Dogs and cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Dogs and cats. 71.51 Section 71.51 Public Health... QUARANTINE Importations § 71.51 Dogs and cats. (a) Definitions. As used in this section the term: Cat means all domestic cats. Confinement means restriction of a dog or cat to a building or other enclosure at a...

  18. CAT-ASVAB Technical Bulletin Number 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-03-01

    CAT -ASVAB Technical Bulletin #1 Personnel Testing Division Defense Manpower Data Center March 2006 Report...2. REPORT TYPE N/A 3. DATES COVERED - 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE CAT -ASVAB Technical Bulletin #1 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c...Hetter, R. D. "Psychometric Procedures for Administering CAT -ASVAB" (pp. 131-140) Chapter 4 Hetter, R. D., & Sympson J. B. "Item Exposure

  19. Channel CAT: A Tactical Link Analysis Tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-09-01

    NAVAL POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL Monterey, California THESIS CHANNEL CAT : A TACTICAL LINK ANALYSIS TOOL by Michael Glenn Coleman September 1997 Thesis...REPORT TYPE AND DATES COVERED September 1997 Master’s Thesis 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE CHANNEL CAT : A TACTICAL LINK ANALYSIS TOOL 5. FUNDING NUMBERS 6...tool, the Channel Capacity Analysis Tool (Channel CAT ), designed to provide an automated tool for the anlysis of design decisions in developing client

  20. CAT/RF Simulation Lessons Learned

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-06-11

    IVSS-2003-MAS-7 CAT /RF Simulation Lessons Learned Christopher Mocnik Vetronics Technology Area, RDECOM TARDEC Tim Lee DCS Corporation...developed a re- configurable Unmanned Ground Vehicle (UGV) simulation for the Crew integration and Automation Test bed ( CAT ) and Robotics Follower (RF...Advanced Technology Demonstration (ATD) experiments. This simulation was developed as a component of the Embedded Simulation System (ESS) of the CAT

  1. New contributions to the knowledge of Chinese flea beetle fauna (I); Gansuapteris new genus and Primulavorus new genus (Coleoptera; Chrysomelidae; Galerucinae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Two new genera and species of flea beetles (Gansuapteris gen. nov., Primulavorus gen. nov., Gansuapteris fulvus sp. nov. and Primulavorus maculata sp. nov.) from South-west China are described and illustrated. The morphological differences of new genera and their allies are discussed....

  2. New contributions to the knowledge of Chinese flea beetle fauna (III): Revision of Meishania Chen & Wang with description of five new species (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae: Galerucinae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The flea beetle genus Meishania Chen & Wang is revised and five new species - M. cangshanensis sp. nov., M. flavipennis sp. nov., M. fulvotigera sp. nov., and M. sichuanica sp. nov. from China and M. bhutanensis sp. nov. from Bhutan - are described. All species of Meishania are illustrated and a key...

  3. Controlled Archaeological Test Site (CATS) Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — CATS facility is at the Construction Engineering Research Laboratory (CERL), Champaign, IL. This 1-acre test site includes a variety of subsurface features carefully...

  4. Radio-iodine treatment of hyperthyroid cats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, B.R.; Cayzer, J.; Dillon, E.A.; Smidt, K.P.

    1991-01-01

    Thirty-two elderly domestic shorthaired cats (mean age 12.9 years) were treated with radioiodine (131I). The dose of 131I administered ranged from 39 mBq to 134 mBq. Twenty-eight cats became euthyroid after treatment, one became hypothyroid and three remained hyperthyroxaemic. Two of the hyperthyroxaemic cats were successfully re-treated with 131I. Five cats died from concurrent diseases within one year of treatment. The administration of a dose of 131I selected by assessing the severity of the clinical signs, the size of the thyroid gland(s) and the serum level of thyroxine was an effective treatment for hyperthyroidism

  5. Association between Characteristics of Cats and Satisfaction of Owners who Adopted Cats from an Animal Hospital in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    ONODERA, Nodoka; UCHIDA, Keiko; KAKUMA, Yoshie

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT A follow-up questionnaire survey was conducted with 29 cat owners who adopted cats from an animal hospital in Japan. Physical characteristics were found to be important factors for the owners when choosing a cat. There were significant differences between impression of the cat for the owners at present and images of their ideal cats, and the levels of aggression and activeness of the cats at present were rated higher than their ideal cats. A significant negative correlation was found between the degree of satisfaction with the cat and occurrence of house soiling; thus, some behavioral problems may deteriorate the relationship between the owner and the cat. PMID:24419973

  6. Effect of temperature and relative humidity on the development times and survival of Synopsyllus fonquerniei and Xenopsylla cheopis, the flea vectors of plague in Madagascar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreppel, Katharina S; Telfer, Sandra; Rajerison, Minoarisoa; Morse, Andy; Baylis, Matthew

    2016-02-11

    Plague, a zoonosis caused by Yersinia pestis, is found in Asia, the Americas but mainly in Africa, with the island of Madagascar reporting almost one third of human cases worldwide. In the highlands of Madagascar, plague is transmitted predominantly by two flea species which coexist on the island, but differ in their distribution. The endemic flea, Synopsyllus fonquerniei, dominates flea communities on rats caught outdoors, while the cosmopolitan flea, Xenopsylla cheopis, is found mostly on rats caught in houses. Additionally S. fonquerniei seems restricted to areas above 800 m. Climatic constraints on the development of the two main vectors of plague could explain the differences in their distribution and the seasonal changes in their abundance. Here we present the first study on effects of temperature and relative humidity on the immature stages of both vector species. We examined the two species' temperature and humidity requirements under experimental conditions at five different temperatures and two relative humidities. By employing multivariate and survival analysis we established the impact of temperature and relative humidity on development times and survival for both species. Using degree-day analysis we then predicted the average developmental threshold for larvae to reach pupation and for pupae to complete development under each treatment. This analysis was undertaken separately for the two relative humidities and for the two species. Development times and time to death differed significantly, with the endemic S. fonquerniei taking on average 1.79 times longer to complete development and having a shorter time to death than X. cheopis under adverse conditions with high temperature and low humidity. Temperature had a significant effect on the development times of flea larvae and pupae. While humidity did not affect the development times of either species, it did influence the time of death of S. fonquerniei. Using degree-day analysis we estimated an

  7. Development of a loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay for rapid screening of ticks and fleas for spotted fever group rickettsia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noden, Bruce H; Martin, Jaclyn; Carrillo, Yisel; Talley, Justin L; Ochoa-Corona, Francisco M

    2018-01-01

    The importance of tick and flea-borne rickettsia infections is increasingly recognized worldwide. While increased focus has shifted in recent years to the development of point-of-care diagnostics for various vector-borne diseases in humans and animals, little research effort has been devoted to their integration into vector surveillance and control programs, particularly in resource-challenged countries. One technology which may be helpful for large scale vector surveillance initiatives is loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP). The aim of this study was to develop a LAMP assay to detect spotted fever group (SFG) rickettsia DNA from field-collected ticks and fleas and compare with published end-point PCR results. A Spotted Fever Group rickettsia-specific loop-mediated isothermal amplification (SFGR-LAMP) assay was developed using primers based on a region of the R. rickettsii 17kDa protein gene. The sensitivity, specificity, and reproducibility of the assay were evaluated. The assay was then compared with the results of end-point PCR assays for pooled tick and flea samples obtained from field-based surveillance studies. The sensitivity of the SFGR-LAMP assay was 0.00001 ng/μl (25μl volume) which was 10 times more sensitive than the 17kDa protein gene end-point PCR used as the reference method. The assay only recognized gDNA from SFG and transitional group (TRG) rickettsia species tested but did not detect gDNA from typhus group (TG) rickettsia species or closely or distantly related bacterial species. The SFGR-LAMP assay detected the same positives from a set of pooled tick and flea samples detected by end-point PCR in addition to two pooled flea samples not detected by end-point PCR. To our knowledge, this is the first study to develop a functional LAMP assay to initially screen for SFG and TRG rickettsia pathogens in field-collected ticks and fleas. With a high sensitivity and specificity, the results indicate the potential use as a field

  8. Periaortic lymphoma in a cat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Bree

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Case summary A 14-year-old neutered male Siamese cat was presented with a 3 month history of lethargy, inappetence, dehydration, hindlimb ataxia and intermittent proprioceptive deficits in the hindlimbs. Physical examination revealed low body condition score (1.75/5, pallor and bilateral basilar grade II/VI systolic heart murmur. Neurological examination revealed hindlimb ataxia, severe atrophy of the hindlimb musculature, intermittent hindlimb proprioceptive deficits and normoreflexia. Clinicopathological investigations revealed non-regenerative anaemia (haematocrit 0.17 l/l; reference interval [RI] 0.24–0.45 l/l and increased feline pancreatic lipase concentration (Spec fPL test [IDEXX] 8.3 μg/l; RI 0.1–3.5 μg/l. Feline leukaemia virus antigen and feline immunodeficiency virus antibody tests were negative. Thoracic and abdominal imaging revealed a soft tissue structure in the area of the thoracoabdominal aorta. CT confirmed a periaortic contrast-enhancing mass extending from the level of T9–L2, with associated intervertebral infiltration at the level of T11–T12. Post-mortem examination confirmed the presence of a solid, white, multinodular, well-demarcated mass encircling the aorta extending from T9–L2. Based on histopathology and immunohistochemistry, a diagnosis of B-cell lymphoma was made. Lymphoma was also identified histopathologically within the kidneys and spleen. Evidence of mild Wallerian degeneration was present within the spinal cord, indicating compression at the level of the periaortic mass. Relevance and novel information To our knowledge, this is the first report of periaortic lymphoma in the cat. Although periaortic tumours are exceptionally rare in veterinary medicine, lymphoma should be considered as a differential in cats.

  9. Toxicity and transfer of polyvinylpyrrolidone-coated silver nanowires in an aquatic food chain consisting of algae, water fleas, and zebrafish

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chae, Yooeun; An, Youn-Joo, E-mail: anyjoo@konkuk.ac.kr

    2016-04-15

    Highlights: • Trophic transfer of silver nanowires (AgNWs) was studied in an aquatic food chain. • The transfer of AgNWs from algae to fish via water fleas was observed. • Toxicity of long AgNWs on aquatic organisms is higher than that of short ones. • AgNWs damage the gut of water fleas and may cause undernourishment. • Quantity of lipid droplets increased with increasing exposure concentration. - Abstract: Nanomaterials of various shapes and dimensions are widely used in the medical, chemical, and electronic industries. Multiple studies have reported the ecotoxicological effects of nanaoparticles when released in aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems; however, information on the toxicity of silver nanowires (AgNWs) to freshwater organisms and their transfer through the food webs is limited. In the present study, we aimed to evaluate the toxicity of 10- and 20-μm-long AgNWs to the alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, the water flea Daphnia magna, and the zebrafish and study their movement through this three-species food chain using a variety of qualitative and quantitative methods as well as optical techniques. We found that AgNWs directly inhibited the growth of algae and destroyed the digestive organs of water fleas. The results showed that longer AgNWs (20 μm) were more toxic than shorter ones (10 μm) to both algae and water fleas, but shorter AgNWs were accumulated more than longer ones in the body of the fish. Overall, this study suggests that AgNWs are transferred through food chains, and that they affect organisms at higher trophic levels, potentially including humans. Therefore, further studies that take into account environmental factors, food web complexity, and differences between nanomaterials are required to gain better understanding of the impact of nanomaterials on natural communities and human health.

  10. Toxicity and transfer of polyvinylpyrrolidone-coated silver nanowires in an aquatic food chain consisting of algae, water fleas, and zebrafish

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chae, Yooeun; An, Youn-Joo

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Trophic transfer of silver nanowires (AgNWs) was studied in an aquatic food chain. • The transfer of AgNWs from algae to fish via water fleas was observed. • Toxicity of long AgNWs on aquatic organisms is higher than that of short ones. • AgNWs damage the gut of water fleas and may cause undernourishment. • Quantity of lipid droplets increased with increasing exposure concentration. - Abstract: Nanomaterials of various shapes and dimensions are widely used in the medical, chemical, and electronic industries. Multiple studies have reported the ecotoxicological effects of nanaoparticles when released in aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems; however, information on the toxicity of silver nanowires (AgNWs) to freshwater organisms and their transfer through the food webs is limited. In the present study, we aimed to evaluate the toxicity of 10- and 20-μm-long AgNWs to the alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, the water flea Daphnia magna, and the zebrafish and study their movement through this three-species food chain using a variety of qualitative and quantitative methods as well as optical techniques. We found that AgNWs directly inhibited the growth of algae and destroyed the digestive organs of water fleas. The results showed that longer AgNWs (20 μm) were more toxic than shorter ones (10 μm) to both algae and water fleas, but shorter AgNWs were accumulated more than longer ones in the body of the fish. Overall, this study suggests that AgNWs are transferred through food chains, and that they affect organisms at higher trophic levels, potentially including humans. Therefore, further studies that take into account environmental factors, food web complexity, and differences between nanomaterials are required to gain better understanding of the impact of nanomaterials on natural communities and human health.

  11. Differential control of Yersinia pestis biofilm formation in vitro and in the flea vector by two c-di-GMP diguanylate cyclases.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-Cheng Sun

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Yersinia pestis forms a biofilm in the foregut of its flea vector that promotes transmission by flea bite. As in many bacteria, biofilm formation in Y. pestis is controlled by intracellular levels of the bacterial second messenger c-di-GMP. Two Y. pestis diguanylate cyclase (DGC enzymes, encoded by hmsT and y3730, and one phosphodiesterase (PDE, encoded by hmsP, have been shown to control biofilm production in vitro via their opposing c-di-GMP synthesis and degradation activities, respectively. In this study, we provide further evidence that hmsT, hmsP, and y3730 are the only three genes involved in c-di-GMP metabolism in Y. pestis and evaluated the two DGCs for their comparative roles in biofilm formation in vitro and in the flea vector. As with HmsT, the DGC activity of Y3730 depended on a catalytic GGDEF domain, but the relative contribution of the two enzymes to the biofilm phenotype was influenced strongly by the environmental niche. Deletion of y3730 had a very minor effect on in vitro biofilm formation, but resulted in greatly reduced biofilm formation in the flea. In contrast, the predominant effect of hmsT was on in vitro biofilm formation. DGC activity was also required for the Hms-independent autoaggregation phenotype of Y. pestis, but was not required for virulence in a mouse model of bubonic plague. Our results confirm that only one PDE (HmsP and two DGCs (HmsT and Y3730 control c-di-GMP levels in Y. pestis, indicate that hmsT and y3730 are regulated post-transcriptionally to differentially control biofilm formation in vitro and in the flea vector, and identify a second c-di-GMP-regulated phenotype in Y. pestis.

  12. On Schr\\"odinger's cat

    OpenAIRE

    de Silva, Nalin

    2010-01-01

    Schr\\"odinger's cat appears to have been harassed in a chamber during the past eighty years or so by interpreting the role of the observer as a person, who sets an experiment and then observes results, may be after some time. The realist position tells us that the physical processes would take place independent of the observer with well defined properties, whereas the positivist position wants us to believe that nothing can be said of a system when it is not being observed. In this paper we q...

  13. In search of Schroedinger's cat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gribbin, John.

    1984-01-01

    The book explains how the paradox of Schroedinger's cat led to an understanding of reality in quantum physics. The contents of the book is divided into three parts. Part one concerns light, atoms and Bohr's atom. Quantum mechanics is discussed in Part Two, including photons and electrons, matrices and waves, and applications of quanta. The last part deals with chance and uncertainty, paradoxes and possibilities, the experimental proof of the paradoxical reality of the quantum world, and the many-worlds interpretation of quantum mechanics. (U.K.)

  14. Domestic cat allergen and allergic sensitisation in young children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chen, Chih-Mei; Gehring, Ulrike; Wickman, Magnus; Hoek, Gerard; Giovannangelo, Mariella; Nordling, Emma; Wijga, Alet; de Jongste, Johan; Pershagen, Goeran; Almqvist, Catarina; Kerkhof, Marjan; Bellander, Tom; Wichmann, H. -Erich; Brunekreef, Bert; Heinrich, Joachim

    Studies have presented conflicting associations between cat allergen exposure and sensitisation and atopic disease. We therefore investigated the association between the observed domestic cat allergen level and cat sensitisation in young children in four study populations from three European

  15. Overweight adult cats have significantly lower voluntary physical activity than adult lean cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Godoy, Maria Rc; Shoveller, Anna K

    2017-12-01

    Objectives The objectives of the current pilot study were to evaluate whether body condition score (BCS) and body weight are significantly related to physical activity counts, and to evaluate potential interaction between BCS and voluntary physical activity measured over a 14 day period. Methods Ten (five lean, five overweight), neutered, adult American Shorthair cats were selected for this study (median age 4 ± 0.5 years). Cats with a BCS of ⩽3.0 were considered lean, whereas cats with a BCS >3.0 were considered overweight, using a 5-point scale. Cats were housed in a free-living environment with indoor/outdoor access and were individually fed once daily a commercially available dry extruded diet and allowed 1 h to eat. Voluntary physical activity was measured consecutively for 14 days using the Actical Activity Monitors that were worn parallel to the ribs and attached via a harness. Results Lean cats had a greater mean total daily voluntary physical activity ( P = 0.0059), and a greater voluntary physical activity during light ( P = 0.0023) and dark ( P = 0.0446) periods, with overweight cats having 60% of the physical activity of lean cats. Lean cats were more active before feeding and during animal care procedures. These data suggest that lean cats have a greater anticipatory physical activity prior to feeding and are more eager to have social interaction with humans than overweight cats. A significant interaction was observed between day of physical activity measurement and BCS for total daily voluntary physical activity ( P = 0.0133) and activity during the light period ( P = 0.0016) where lean cats were consistently more active than overweight cats. In general, cats were more active during weekdays vs weekends. Conclusions and relevance The results of this study suggest that overweight cats are less active than lean cats and that voluntary physical activity level appears to be influenced by social interaction with humans.

  16. Implantação de colônia de Ctenocephalides felis felis (Bouché, 1835 e determinação do período de desenvolvimento dos estágios imaturos sob condições controladas / Implantation of a Ctenocephalides felis felis (Bouché, 1835 colony and determination of the development period of the immature stages under controlled conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karina Carrão Castagnolli

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available O presente estudo teve como objetivo a implantação de uma colônia de pulgas (Ctenocephalides felis felis, para determinação do período de desenvolvimento dos estágios imaturos desse inseto, quando mantido emcondições controladas. Para isto, gatos foram infestados artifi cialmente com estágios adultos de C. felis felis e mantidos em gaiolas metálicas suspensas. Diariamente, durante trinta dias, os ovos de pulgas provenientes dos gatos eram recolhidos e mantidos em estufa do tipo B.O.D., com Tode 28±1oC e umidade relativa de 75%. O tempo de eclosão larval foi em média de dois a quatro dias, as pré-pupas surgiram no período de seis a nove dias, a pupação iniciou-se com nove a onze dias e a emergência dos adultos variou de quatorze a vinte dias. Nessas condições climáticas associadas à dieta adotada, foi possível uma recuperação de adultos de aproximadamente 90%, resultados favoráveis à manutenção de umacolônia.

  17. Efficacy of materials used by resource limited farmers in ethno ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    zino

    2013-04-03

    Apr 3, 2013 ... and efficacy of selected materials used in the control fleas in free-range chickens. The materials tested .... Mature fleas, Ctenocephalides felis of mixed sex were obtained from Clinvet ... were bought from one farmer in the Amatola basin. In addition, ..... Ababa University of School of graduate studies.

  18. Probing a gravitational cat state

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anastopoulos, C; Hu, B L

    2015-01-01

    We investigate the nature of a gravitational two-state system (G2S) in the simplest setup in Newtonian gravity. In a quantum description of matter a single motionless massive particle can in principle be in a superposition state of two spatially separated locations. This superposition state in gravity, or gravitational cat state, would lead to fluctuations in the Newtonian force exerted on a nearby test particle. The central quantity of importance for this inquiry is the energy density correlation. This corresponds to the noise kernel in stochastic gravity theory, evaluated in the weak field nonrelativistic limit. In this limit quantum fluctuations of the stress–energy tensor manifest as the fluctuations of the Newtonian force. We describe the properties of such a G2S system and present two ways of measuring the cat state for the Newtonian force, one by way of a classical probe, the other a quantum harmonic oscillator. Our findings include: (i) mass density fluctuations persist even in single particle systems, and they are of the same order of magnitude as the mean; (ii) a classical probe generically records a non-Markovian fluctuating force; (iii) a quantum probe interacting with the G2S system may undergo Rabi oscillations in a strong coupling regime. This simple prototypical gravitational quantum system could provide a robust testing ground to compare predictions from alternative quantum theories, since the results reported here are based on standard quantum mechanics and classical gravity. (paper)

  19. Cats, Cancer and Comparative Oncology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claire M. Cannon

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Naturally occurring tumors in dogs are well-established models for several human cancers. Domestic cats share many of the benefits of dogs as a model (spontaneous cancers developing in an immunocompetent animal sharing the same environment as humans, shorter lifespan allowing more rapid trial completion and data collection, lack of standard of care for many cancers allowing evaluation of therapies in treatment-naïve populations, but have not been utilized to the same degree in the One Medicine approach to cancer. There are both challenges and opportunities in feline compared to canine models. This review will discuss three specific tumor types where cats may offer insights into human cancers. Feline oral squamous cell carcinoma is common, shares both clinical and molecular features with human head and neck cancer and is an attractive model for evaluating new therapies. Feline mammary tumors are usually malignant and aggressive, with the ‘triple-negative’ phenotype being more common than in humans, offering an enriched population in which to examine potential targets and treatments. Finally, although there is not an exact corollary in humans, feline injection site sarcoma may be a model for inflammation-driven tumorigenesis, offering opportunities for studying variations in individual susceptibility as well as preventative and therapeutic strategies.

  20. Bacterial reproductive pathogens of cats and dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Elizabeth M; Taylor, David J

    2012-05-01

    With the notable exception of Brucella canis, exogenous bacterial pathogens are uncommon causes of reproductive disease in cats and dogs. Most bacterial reproductive infections are endogenous, and predisposing factors for infection are important. This article reviews the etiology, pathogenesis, clinical presentation, diagnosis, treatment, and public health significance of bacterial reproductive pathogens in cats and dogs.

  1. Quantum Computer Games: Schrodinger Cat and Hounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Michal; Gordon, Goren

    2012-01-01

    The quantum computer game "Schrodinger cat and hounds" is the quantum extension of the well-known classical game fox and hounds. Its main objective is to teach the unique concepts of quantum mechanics in a fun way. "Schrodinger cat and hounds" demonstrates the effects of superposition, destructive and constructive interference, measurements and…

  2. Disseminated Mycobacterium avium infection in a cat

    OpenAIRE

    Barry, Maureen; Taylor, Judith; Woods, Paul

    2002-01-01

    A domestic shorthair cat was presented for lethargy and ataxia. Clinical findings included an abdominal mass, lumbosacral pain, ataxia. Aspirates from the liver and lymph nodes revealed intracellular, negative-staining rods. Treatment for presumptive mycobacterium infection was unsuccessful and the cat was euthanized. Disseminated Mycobacterium avium was confirmed on culture.

  3. Disseminated Mycobacterium avium infection in a cat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barry, Maureen; Taylor, Judith; Woods, J Paul

    2002-05-01

    A domestic shorthair cat was presented for lethargy and ataxia. Clinical findings included an abdominal mass, lumbosacral pain, ataxia. Aspirates from the liver and lymph nodes revealed intracellular, negative-staining rods. Treatment for presumptive mycobacterium infection was unsuccessful and the cat was euthanized. Disseminated Mycobacterium avium was confirmed on culture.

  4. Criptococose em felino Cryptococcosis in cat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F.J.F. Sant’Ana

    1999-08-01

    Full Text Available A case of cryptococcosis in a cat refferred to the Hospital Veterinário da Universidade Federal Rural de Pernambuco is described. The cat was euthanized and the microscopic examination of a firm mass observed in the nasal cavity was accomplished. Cryptococcus sp. and a chronic inflammatory process was observed throughout the tissue.

  5. Malassezia spp. overgrowth in allergic cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ordeix, Laura; Galeotti, Franca; Scarampella, Fabia; Dedola, Carla; Bardagí, Mar; Romano, Erica; Fondati, Alessandra

    2007-10-01

    A series of 18 allergic cats with multifocal Malassezia spp. overgrowth is reported: atopic dermatitis was diagnosed in 16, an adverse food reaction in another and one was euthanized 2 months after diagnosis of Malassezia overgrowth. All the cats were otherwise healthy and those tested (16 out of 18) for feline leukaemia or feline immunodeficiency virus infections were all negative. At dermatological examination, multifocal alopecia, erythema, crusting and greasy adherent brownish scales were variably distributed on all cats. Cytological examination revealed Malassezia spp. overgrowth with/without bacterial infection in facial skin (n = 11), ventral neck (n = 6), abdomen (n = 6), ear canal (n = 4), chin (n = 2), ear pinnae (n = 2), interdigital (n = 1) and claw folds skin (n = 1). Moreover, in two cats Malassezia pachydermatis was isolated in fungal cultures from lesional skin. Azoles therapy alone was prescribed in seven, azoles and antibacterial therapy in eight and azoles with both antibacterial and anti-inflammatory therapy in three of the cats. After 3-4 weeks of treatment, substantial reduction of pruritus and skin lesions was observed in all 11 cats treated with a combined therapy and in five of seven treated solely with azoles. Malassezia spp. overgrowth may represent a secondary cutaneous problem in allergic cats particularly in those presented for dermatological examination displaying greasy adherent brownish scales. The favourable response to treatment with antifungal treatments alone suggests that, as in dogs, Malassezia spp. may be partly responsible for both pruritus and cutaneous lesions in allergic cats.

  6. Mysterious quantum Cheshire cat: an illusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michielsen, K.; Lippert, Th.; De Raedt, H.

    2015-09-01

    We provide a mystery-free explanation for the experimentally observed facts in the neutron interferometry quantum Cheshire cat experiment of Denkmayr et al. [Nat. Comm. 5, 4492, 2014] in terms of a discrete-event simulation model, demonstrating that the quantum Cheshire cat is an illusion.

  7. Getting a CAT Scan (For Kids)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... First Aid & Safety Doctors & Hospitals Videos Recipes for Kids Kids site Sitio para niños How the Body Works ... Español Getting a CAT Scan (Video) KidsHealth / For Kids / Getting a CAT Scan (Video) Print en español ...

  8. Feral Cats: Too Long a Threat to Hawaiian Wildlife

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hess, Steven C.; Banko, Paul C.

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND Domestic cats (Felis catus) were first brought to Hawai`i aboard sailing ships of European explorers and colonists. The job of these predators was to control mice and rats on the ships during the long voyages. As in other places, cats were taken in and adopted by the families of Hawai`i and soon became household pets known as popoki. But cats have always been very well equipped to live and hunt on their own. On tropical archipelagos like the Hawaiian Islands where no other predatory mammals of comparable size existed, abundant and naive prey were particularly easy game, and cats soon thrived in the wild. Although the details of when cats first came to live in the wild remain little known, adventurers, writers, and naturalists of the day recorded some important observations. Feral cats were observed in remote wilderness around K?ilauea volcano on Hawai`i Island as early as 1840 by explorer William Brackenridge. Mark Twain was so impressed by the great abundance of cats when he visited Honolulu in 1866 that he reported his observations in the Sacramento Union newspaper, which were later reprinted in his book Roughing It: I saw... tame cats, wild cats, singed cats, individual cats, groups of cats, platoons of cats, companies of cats, regiments of cats, armies of cats, multitudes of cats, millions of cats...

  9. Reconciling actual and perceived rates of predation by domestic cats

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Jennifer L; Maclean, Mairead; Evans, Matthew R; Hodgson, Dave J

    2015-01-01

    The predation of wildlife by domestic cats (Felis catus) is a complex problem: Cats are popular companion animals in modern society but are also acknowledged predators of birds, herpetofauna, invertebrates, and small mammals. A comprehensive understanding of this conservation issue demands an understanding of both the ecological consequence of owning a domestic cat and the attitudes of cat owners. Here, we determine whether cat owners are aware of the predatory behavior of their cats, using data collected from 86 cats in two UK villages. We examine whether the amount of prey their cat returns influences the attitudes of 45 cat owners toward the broader issue of domestic cat predation. We also contribute to the wider understanding of physiological, spatial, and behavioral drivers of prey returns among cats. We find an association between actual prey returns and owner predictions at the coarse scale of predatory/nonpredatory behavior, but no correlation between the observed and predicted prey-return rates among predatory cats. Cat owners generally disagreed with the statement that cats are harmful to wildlife, and disfavored all mitigation options apart from neutering. These attitudes were uncorrelated with the predatory behavior of their cats. Cat owners failed to perceive the magnitude of their cats’ impacts on wildlife and were not influenced by ecological information. Management options for the mitigation of cat predation appear unlikely to work if they focus on “predation awareness” campaigns or restrictions of cat freedom. PMID:26306163

  10. A Survey of Public Opinion on Cat (Felis catus) Predation and the Future Direction of Cat Management in New Zealand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Jessica K.; Bruce, Stephanie J.; Dale, Arnja R.

    2017-01-01

    Simple Summary The need to balance the benefits of cat ownership with the prevention of wildlife predation in New Zealand evokes strong and opposing views. This paper evaluates public concern for wildlife predation by four categories of cats; owned cats, managed-stray cats, unmanaged-stray cats, and feral cats. In addition, public support for a National Cat Management Strategy and a range of management techniques are investigated. Although the participants expressed concern regarding wildlife predation by all four categories of cats, the highest levels of concern were predation by feral cats, followed by unmanaged stray cats, then managed stray cats, and finally owned cats. The large majority of participants were found to support the implementation of a National Cat Management Strategy. Management techniques for owned cats that obtained public support included; cat exclusion zones, limits on ownership numbers, microchipping, Council registration, and de-sexing. Trap-Neuter-Return (TNR) was the favoured management technique for managed stray cats, while TNR and lethal management techniques were equally favoured for unmanaged stray cats. Lethal control methods were favoured for feral cats. The findings presented in this paper will be useful to consider during the development of legislation relating to cat management and predation in New Zealand. Abstract Cat predation is a prominent issue in New Zealand that provokes strong and opposing views. We explored, via 1011 face-to-face questionnaires, public opinion on (a) support for a National Cat Management Strategy (78% support); (b) concern regarding predation of wildlife by owned and un-owned cats (managed stray, unmanaged stray, and feral cats); (c) the acceptability of management techniques for owned cats; and (d) the acceptability of population management techniques for un-owned cats. The highest concern was expressed regarding the predation of non-native and native wildlife by feral cats (60 and 86% repectively

  11. Assessment of Clicker Training for Shelter Cats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kogan, Lori

    2017-01-01

    Simple Summary Living conditions in animal shelters can be stressful for cats. Clicker training might be able to alleviate this stress, by giving cats an opportunity to learn new behaviors and interact with humans. In this study, we assessed the initial ability of 100 shelter cats to perform four cued behaviors: touching a target, sitting, spinning, and giving a high-five. Each cat completed 15, five-min training sessions over a two-week span. At the end of the program, we assessed the cats’ ability to perform the same behaviors. On average, the cats performed better on all four behaviors after clicker training, suggesting that the cats could learn to perform specific behaviors on cue. Individual cats with a higher level of interest in food showed greater gains in learning for two of the behaviors (high-five and touching a target). Cats with a bolder temperament at post-assessment demonstrated greater gains in learning than those classified as shy. We suggest that clicker training can be used to enhance cats’ well-being while they are housed in shelters, and that the learned behaviors might make them more desirable to adopters. Abstract Clicker training has the potential to mitigate stress among shelter cats by providing environmental enrichment and human interaction. This study assessed the ability of cats housed in a shelter-like setting to learn new behaviors via clicker training in a limited amount of time. One hundred shelter cats were enrolled in the study. Their baseline ability to perform four specific behaviors touching a target, sitting, spinning, and giving a high-five was assessed, before exposing them to 15, five-min clicker training sessions, followed by a post-training assessment. Significant gains in performance scores were found for all four cued behaviors after training (p = 0.001). A cat’s age and sex did not have any effect on successful learning, but increased food motivation was correlated with greater gains in learning for two of the

  12. Interspecies Transmission of Feline Immunodeficiency Virus from the Domestic Cat to the Tsushima Cat (Felis bengalensis euptilura) in the Wild

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishimura, Yoshiaki; Goto, Yuko; Yoneda, Kumiko; Endo, Yasuyuki; Mizuno, Takuya; Hamachi, Masaharu; Maruyama, Hiroyuki; Kinoshita, Hirotoshi; Koga, Susumu; Komori, Mitsuru; Fushuku, Seigo; Ushinohama, Kanji; Akuzawa, Masao; Watari, Toshihiro; Hasegawa, Atsuhiko; Tsujimoto, Hajime

    1999-01-01

    Feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) was isolated from a wild-caught Tsushima cat (Felis bengalensis euptilura), an endangered Japanese nondomestic subspecies of leopard cat (F. bengalensis). Phylogenetic analysis of the env gene sequences indicated that the FIV from the Tsushima cat belonged to a cluster of subtype D FIVs from domestic cats. FIVs from both the Tsushima cat and the domestic cat showed similar levels of replication and cytopathicity in lymphoid cell lines derived from these two species. The results indicated the occurrence of interspecies transmission of FIV from the domestic cat to the Tsushima cat in the wild. PMID:10438892

  13. Environmental Aspects of Domestic Cat Care and Management: Implications for Cat Welfare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stella, Judith L; Croney, Candace C

    2016-01-01

    Domestic cats ( Felis silvestris catus ) are the most commonly kept companion animals in the US with large populations of owned (86 million), free-roaming (70 million), research (13,000), and shelter (2-3 million) cats. Vast numbers of cats are maintained in homes and other facilities each year and are reliant on humans for all of their care. Understanding cat behavior and providing the highest quality environments possible, including positive human-cat interactions, based on research could help improve the outcomes of biomedical research, shelter adoptions, and veterinary care, as well as overall cat welfare. Often, however, cats' needs are inadequately met in homes and some aspects may also not be well met in research colonies and shelters, despite the fact that similar problems are likely to be encountered in all of these environments. This paper provides a brief overview of common welfare challenges associated with indoor housing of domestic cats. Essential considerations for cage confinement are reviewed, along with implications of poor cat coping, such as weakening of the human-animal bond and relinquishment to shelters. The important role that environmental management plays in cat behavior and welfare outcomes is explored along with the need for additional research in key areas.

  14. Reduction of feral cat (Felis catus Linnaeus 1758) colony size following hysterectomy of adult female cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendes-de-Almeida, Flavya; Remy, Gabriella L; Gershony, Liza C; Rodrigues, Daniela P; Chame, Marcia; Labarthe, Norma V

    2011-06-01

    The size of urban cat colonies is limited only by the availability of food and shelter; therefore, their population growth challenges all known population control programs. To test a new population control method, a free-roaming feral cat colony at the Zoological Park in the city of Rio de Janeiro was studied, beginning in 2001. The novel method consisted of performing a hysterectomy on all captured female cats over 6 months of age. To estimate the size of the colony and compare population from year to year, a method of capture-mark-release-recapture was used. The aim was to capture as many individuals as possible, including cats of all ages and gender to estimate numbers of cats in all population categories. Results indicated that the feral cat population remained constant from 2001 to 2004. From 2004 to 2008, the hysterectomy program and population estimates were performed every other year (2006 and 2008). The population was estimated to be 40 cats in 2004, 26 in 2006, and 17 cats in 2008. Although pathogens tend to infect more individuals as the population grows older and maintains natural behavior, these results show that free-roaming feral cat colonies could have their population controlled by a biannual program that focuses on hysterectomy of sexually active female cats. Copyright © 2011 ISFM and AAFP. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Birds be safe: Can a novel cat collar reduce avian mortality by domestic cats (Felis catus?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.K. Willson

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The domestic cat (Felis catus has been described as the largest anthropogenic threat to songbird populations in North America. We examined the effectiveness of a novel cat collar in reducing avian and small mammal mortality by cats. The 2-inch wide Birdsbesafe® collar cover (CC is worn over a nylon quick-release collar, and the bright colors and patterns of the CC are hypothesized to warn birds of approaching cats. We conducted two seasonal trials, each lasting 12 weeks, in autumn 2013 (n=54 cats and spring 2014 (n=19 cats. Cats were randomly assigned to two groups, and CCs with interior collars were removed or put on every two weeks, to control for weather fluctuations and seasonal change. Cats wearing Birdsbesafe® CCs killed 19 times fewer birds than uncollared cats in the spring trial, and 3.4 times fewer birds in the fall. Birdsbesafe® CCs were extremely effective at reducing predation on birds. Small mammal data were less clear, but did decrease predation by half in the fall. The Birdsbesafe® CC is a highly effective device for decreasing bird predation, especially in the spring season. We suggest that the CCs be used as a conservation tool for owned as well as feral cats.

  16. Cats and Carbohydrates: The Carnivore Fantasy?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adronie Verbrugghe

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The domestic cat’s wild ancestors are obligate carnivores that consume prey containing only minimal amounts of carbohydrates. Evolutionary events adapted the cat’s metabolism and physiology to this diet strictly composed of animal tissues and led to unique digestive and metabolic peculiarities of carbohydrate metabolism. The domestic cat still closely resembles its wild ancestor. Although the carnivore connection of domestic cats is well recognised, little is known about the precise nutrient profile to which the digestive physiology and metabolism of the cat have adapted throughout evolution. Moreover, studies show that domestic cats balance macronutrient intake by selecting low-carbohydrate foods. The fact that cats evolved consuming low-carbohydrate prey has led to speculations that high-carbohydrate diets could be detrimental for a cat’s health. More specifically, it has been suggested that excess carbohydrates could lead to feline obesity and diabetes mellitus. Additionally, the chances for remission of diabetes mellitus are higher in cats that consume a low-carbohydrate diet. This literature review will summarise current carbohydrate knowledge pertaining to digestion, absorption and metabolism of carbohydrates, food selection and macronutrient balancing in healthy, obese and diabetic cats, as well as the role of carbohydrates in prevention and treatment of obesity and diabetes mellitus.

  17. Environmental enrichment choices of shelter cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, J J; Stryhn, H; Spears, J; Cockram, M S

    2017-08-01

    Choices made by cats between different types of environmental enrichment may help shelters to prioritize how to most effectively enrich cat housing, especially when limited by space or funds. This study investigates the environmental enrichment use of cats in a choice test. Twenty-six shelter cats were kept singularly in choice chambers for 10days. Each chamber had a central area and four centrally-linked compartments containing different types of environmental enrichment: 1) an empty control, 2) a prey-simulating toy, 3) a perching opportunity, and 4) a hiding opportunity. Cat movement between compartments was quantitatively recorded using a data-logger. Enriched compartments were visited significantly more frequently during the light period than during the dark period. Cats spent a significantly greater percentage of time in the hiding compartment (median=55%, IQR=46) than in the toy compartment (median=2%, IQR=9), or in the empty control compartment (median=4%, IQR=4). These results provide additional evidence to support the value of a hiding box to cats housed in a novel environment, in that they choose hiding relative to other types of environmental enrichment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. The CATS Service: An Astrophysical Research Tool

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O V Verkhodanov

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available We describe the current status of CATS (astrophysical CATalogs Support system, a publicly accessible tool maintained at Special Astrophysical Observatory of the Russian Academy of Sciences (SAO RAS (http://cats.sao.ru allowing one to search hundreds of catalogs of astronomical objects discovered all along the electromagnetic spectrum. Our emphasis is mainly on catalogs of radio continuum sources observed from 10 MHz to 245 GHz, and secondly on catalogs of objects such as radio and active stars, X-ray binaries, planetary nebulae, HII regions, supernova remnants, pulsars, nearby and radio galaxies, AGN and quasars. CATS also includes the catalogs from the largest extragalactic surveys with non-radio waves. In 2008 CATS comprised a total of about 109 records from over 400 catalogs in the radio, IR, optical and X-ray windows, including most source catalogs deriving from observations with the Russian radio telescope RATAN-600. CATS offers several search tools through different ways of access, e.g. via Web-interface and e-mail. Since its creation in 1997 CATS has managed about 105requests. Currently CATS is used by external users about 1500 times per day and since its opening to the public in 1997 has received about 4000 requests for its selection and matching tasks.

  19. The Carolina Autism Transition Study (CATS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-07-01

    AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-15-1-0093 TITLE: The Carolina Autism Transition Study (CATS) PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Laura Carpenter, MD RECIPIENT...Carolina Autism Transition Study (CATS) 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-15-1-0093 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT NUMBER Laura Carpenter...provides a description of the Year 2 progress made and plans for Year 3 for the project entitled “The Carolina Autism Transition Study (CATS).” The goal of

  20. Hybrid fixed point in CAT(0 spaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hemant Kumar Pathak

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we introduce an ultrapower approach to prove fixed point theorems for $H^{+}$-nonexpansive multi-valued mappings in the setting of CAT(0 spaces and prove several hybrid fixed point results in CAT(0 spaces for families of single-valued nonexpansive or quasinonexpansive mappings and multi-valued upper semicontinuous, almost lower semicontinuous or $H^{+}$-nonexpansive mappings which are weakly commuting. We also establish a result about structure of the set of fixed points of $H^{+}$-quasinonexpansive mapping on a CAT(0 space.

  1. Cockpit Automation Technology CSERIAC-CAT

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-06-01

    AD-A273 124 AL-TR-1991-0078 A R COCKPIT AUTOMATION TECHNOLOGY M CSERIAC- CAT S JULY 1989 - DEC 1990: FINAL REPORT T R Trudy S. Abrams Cindy D. Martin...TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5. FUNDING NUMBERS Cockpit Automation Technology CSERIAC- CAT JUL 89 - DEC 90 PE 62202F Final Report (U) PR 7184 ,___,TA 12 6. AUTHOR(S...Boeing-developed CAT software tools, and for facilitating their use by the cockpit design community. A brief description of the overall task is given

  2. Microcomputer Network for Computerized Adaptive Testing (CAT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-03-01

    PRDC TR 84-33 \\Q.�d-33- \\ MICROCOMPUTER NETWOJlt FOR COMPUTERIZED ADAPTIVE TESTING ( CAT ) Baldwin Quan Thomas A . Park Gary Sandahl John H...ACCEIIION NO NPRDC TR 84-33 4. TITLE (-d Sul>tlllo) MICROCOMP UTER NETWORK FOR COMPUTERIZED ADA PTIVE TESTING ( CAT ) 1. Q B. uan T. A . Park...adaptive testing ( CAT ) Bayesian sequential testing 20. ABSTitACT (Continuo on ro•••• aide II noco .. _, _., ld-tlly ,.,. t.loclt _._.) DO Computerized

  3. Human-directed aggression in the cat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curtis, Terry Marie

    2008-09-01

    Feline aggression-between cats or directed at humans-is, after inappropriate elimination and urine-marking behaviors, the second most common reason cats are seen by behavioral specialists. For diagnosis and treatment it is important to determine the motivation for the aggression. The more common causes for human-directed aggression in cats include play, fear, petting intolerance, and redirected aggression. Other causes include pain and maternal behavior. Sexually motivated and status related aggression are much more rare. Treatment includes a combination of behavioral modification, environmental modification, and, in some cases, medication.

  4. Domestic Cat (Felis silvestris catus) Urine Odour as a Potential ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of cat urine odour extract on rodent pest species to reduce crop losses. Cat urine from the captured cats was drawn using cat catcher. Urinary catheter was inserted into the urethra up to the urinary bladder and a syringe attached to the urinary catheter was used to draw ...

  5. 9 CFR 113.39 - Cat safety tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Cat safety tests. 113.39 Section 113... Procedures § 113.39 Cat safety tests. The safety tests provided in this section shall be conducted when... recommended for use in cats. (a) The cat safety test provided in this paragraph shall be used when the Master...

  6. Salinomycin-induced polyneuropathy in cats: Morphologic and epidemiologic data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Linde-Sipman, J.S. van der; Inch, T.S.G.A.M. van den; Nes, J.J. van; Verhagen, H.; Kersten, J.G.T.M.; Beynen, A.C.; Plekkringa, R.

    1999-01-01

    In April 1996, an outbreak of toxic polyneuropathy in cats occurred in the Netherlands. All cats had been fed one of two brands of dry cat food from one manufacturer. Chemical analyses of these foods, stomach contents, and liver and kidney of affected cats revealed contamination with the ionophor

  7. Myxomatosis: changes in the epidemiology of myxomatosis coincident with the establishment of the European rabbit flea Spilopsyllus cuniculi (Dale) in the Mallee region of Victoria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shepherd, R C; Edmonds, J W

    1978-12-01

    Outbreaks of myxomatosis during the winter or spring have coincided with the establishment of the European rabbit flea in the Mallee region. The severity of these outbreaks has varied from causing complete suppression of the normal spring increase in rabbit numbers to being completely ineffective in a year in which late spring rains allowed rabbit breeding to extend into the early summer.In 1973 and 1974 effective spring myxomatosis caused heavy mortality in kittens before they emerged from the warrens. The age of the population increased as the result of few young rabbits coming into the population and of the lessened stress on old rabbits in a low summer-autumn population. This effect was reversed in the late-breeding year, 1976, when flea numbers were apparently too low to maintain a spring outbreak and rabbit numbers increased rapidly.

  8. CATS Deliverable 5.1 : CATS verification of test matrix and protocol

    OpenAIRE

    Uittenbogaard, J.; Camp, O.M.G.C. op den; Montfort, S. van

    2016-01-01

    This report summarizes the work conducted within work package (WP) 5 "Verification of test matrix and protocol" of the Cyclist AEB testing system (CATS) project. It describes the verification process of the draft CATS test matrix resulting from WP1 and WP2, and the feasibility of meeting requirements set by CATS consortium based on requirements in Euro NCAP AEB protocols regarding accuracy, repeatability and reproducibility using the developed test hardware. For the cases where verification t...

  9. [Present Status of Displaying Pharmaceutical Products for Sale on Flea Market Applications for Smartphones and the Responses to Illicit Selling by Service Providers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kishimoto, Keiko; Takeuchi, Tomoe; Fukushima, Noriko

    2017-12-01

     In Japan, a pharmacy or drug store license is required for selling pharmaceutical products. However, civilians without a pharmacy or drug store license are displaying pharmaceutical products for sale on a flea market application, which is illegal dealing. This study discussed the modality for implementing countermeasures for the illicit selling of pharmaceutical products. We extracted pharmaceutical products displayed for sale on three flea market applications (Mercari, Rakuma, Fril) on one day. One hundred and eighty-one pharmaceutical products were displayed (49 on Mercari, 86 on Rakuma, and 46 on Fril). There were 6.1% (11/181) domestically prescribed drugs, 69.1% (125/181) domestic OTC drugs, 23.8% (43/181) foreign-made prescribed drugs, and 1.1% (2/181) foreign-made OTC drugs. The seller could display the product for sale without confirming whether it is prohibited. We alerted the service providers of this illicit selling at flea markets at three different instances. The pharmaceutical product displays were deleted by the service providers at a rate of 55.1% (27/49) for Mercari and 51.2% (44/86) for Rakuma. The average number of drugs that were displayed for sale by each seller was 1.4 and the average number of total products that were displayed for sale by each seller was 100. The seller could have unintentionally displayed the pharmaceutical products for sale, without the knowledge that it is illegal. The service providers of flea market applications should create mechanisms to alert the sellers that displaying pharmaceutical products for sale is an illicit act and regulate these violations.

  10. Extract of the seeds of the plant Vitex agnus castus proven to be highly efficacious as a repellent against ticks, fleas, mosquitoes and biting flies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehlhorn, Heinz; Schmahl, Günter; Schmidt, Jürgen

    2005-03-01

    About 70 plant extracts were tested for their ability to repel the attacks of blood-sucking arthropods. It was found that a CO2 extract of the seeds of the Mediterranean plant Vitex agnus castus (monk's pepper) can be used as a spray to keep away especially Ixodes ricinus and Rhipicephalus sanguineus ticks from animals and humans for at least 6 h. In addition mosquitoes, biting flies and fleas are also repelled for about 6 h.

  11. Environmental Aspects of Domestic Cat Care and Management: Implications for Cat Welfare

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judith L. Stella

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Domestic cats (Felis silvestris catus are the most commonly kept companion animals in the US with large populations of owned (86 million, free-roaming (70 million, research (13,000, and shelter (2-3 million cats. Vast numbers of cats are maintained in homes and other facilities each year and are reliant on humans for all of their care. Understanding cat behavior and providing the highest quality environments possible, including positive human-cat interactions, based on research could help improve the outcomes of biomedical research, shelter adoptions, and veterinary care, as well as overall cat welfare. Often, however, cats’ needs are inadequately met in homes and some aspects may also not be well met in research colonies and shelters, despite the fact that similar problems are likely to be encountered in all of these environments. This paper provides a brief overview of common welfare challenges associated with indoor housing of domestic cats. Essential considerations for cage confinement are reviewed, along with implications of poor cat coping, such as weakening of the human-animal bond and relinquishment to shelters. The important role that environmental management plays in cat behavior and welfare outcomes is explored along with the need for additional research in key areas.

  12. Cats of the Pharaohs: Genetic Comparison of Egyptian Cat Mummies to their Feline Contemporaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurushima, Jennifer D.; Ikram, Salima; Knudsen, Joan; Bleiberg, Edward; Grahn, Robert A.; Lyons, Leslie A.

    2012-01-01

    The ancient Egyptians mummified an abundance of cats during the Late Period (664 - 332 BC). The overlapping morphology and sizes of developing wildcats and domestic cats confounds the identity of mummified cat species. Genetic analyses should support mummy identification and was conducted on two long bones and a mandible of three cats that were mummified by the ancient Egyptians. The mummy DNA was extracted in a dedicated ancient DNA laboratory at the University of California – Davis, then directly sequencing between 246 and 402 bp of the mtDNA control region from each bone. When compared to a dataset of wildcats (Felis silvestris silvestris, F. s. tristrami, and F. chaus) as well as a previously published worldwide dataset of modern domestic cat samples, including Egypt, the DNA evidence suggests the three mummies represent common contemporary domestic cat mitotypes prevalent in modern Egypt and the Middle East. Divergence estimates date the origin of the mummies’ mitotypes to between two and 7.5 thousand years prior to their mummification, likely prior to or during Egyptian Predyanstic and Early Dynastic Periods. These data are the first genetic evidence supporting that the ancient Egyptians used domesticated cats, F. s. catus, for votive mummies, and likely implies cats were domesticated prior to extensive mummification of cats. PMID:22923880

  13. CAT -- computer aided testing for resonant inspection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foley, David K.

    1998-01-01

    Application of computer technology relates to inspection and quality control. The computer aided testing (CAT) can be used to analyze various NDT technologies, such as eddy current, ultrasonics, and resonant inspection

  14. A cross-species alignment tool (CAT)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Heng; Guan, Liang; Liu, Tao

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The main two sorts of automatic gene annotation frameworks are ab initio and alignment-based, the latter splitting into two sub-groups. The first group is used for intra-species alignments, among which are successful ones with high specificity and speed. The other group contains more...... sensitive methods which are usually applied in aligning inter-species sequences. RESULTS: Here we present a new algorithm called CAT (for Cross-species Alignment Tool). It is designed to align mRNA sequences to mammalian-sized genomes. CAT is implemented using C scripts and is freely available on the web...... at http://xat.sourceforge.net/. CONCLUSIONS: Examined from different angles, CAT outperforms other extant alignment tools. Tested against all available mouse-human and zebrafish-human orthologs, we demonstrate that CAT combines the specificity and speed of the best intra-species algorithms, like BLAT...

  15. Channel CAT: A Tactical Link Analysis Tool

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Coleman, Michael

    1997-01-01

    .... This thesis produced an analysis tool, the Channel Capacity Analysis Tool (Channel CAT), designed to provide an automated tool for the analysis of design decisions in developing client-server software...

  16. SWMM-CAT User’s Guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Storm Water Management Model Climate Adjustment Tool (SWMM-CAT) is a simple to use software utility that allows future climate change projections to be incorporated into the Storm Water Management Model (SWMM).

  17. Effects of experimental amitraz intoxication in cats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.F. Andrade

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available This work studied the effects of experimental amitraz intoxication in cats. Sixteen cats were randomly divided equally into two groups: amitraz group - animals received 1.5% amitraz at 1mg/kg IV; and the control group - animals without amitraz. Physiological parameters from blood, cardiorespiratory system, and sedation indicators were quantified over time up to 360 minutes. Blood profile, urea, creatinine, alananine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase were not affected by amitraz. Sedation, loss of reflexes, hypothermia, bradycardia, bradyarrhythmia, hypotension, bradypnea, mydriasis, besides transitory hyperglycemia, hypoinsulinemia and decrease of cortisol levels were observed in cats experimentally exposed to amitraz. The alpha2-adrenergic effects induced by amitraz intoxication in cats are very similar to the same effects reported in others species, contributing with more information about this type of intoxication to veterinary toxicology.

  18. High rise syndrome with impalement in three cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pratschke, K M; Kirby, B M

    2002-06-01

    Three cats were presented for management of impalement injuries sustained following falls from second storey windows onto spiked metal railings. Two cats presented with penetrating thoracic wounds and extensive pulmonary parenchymal trauma, while one presented with abdominal impalement and splenic rupture. Following stabilisation, all three cats underwent exploratory surgery. A good outcome was achieved in two of the cats: one with thoracic and one with abdominal penetration. Impalement injury secondary to free fallis a previously unreported variation of 'high rise syndrome' in cats.

  19. Fatal disseminated toxoplasmosis in an immunocompetent cat

    OpenAIRE

    Susanna S. Nagel; June H. Williams; Johannes P. Schoeman

    2013-01-01

    A 10-year-old domestic short hair cat was referred for investigation of anorexia and polydipsia of 3 days’ duration. Clinically the cat was obese, pyrexic (39.8 °C), had acute abdominal pain and severe bilirubinuria. Haematology and serum biochemistry revealed severe panleukopenia, thrombocytopenia, markedly elevated alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and five-fold increased pre-prandial bile acids. Ultrasonographic evaluation of the abdomen did not identify any abnormalities. Serum tests fo...

  20. Improving risk allocation through cat bonds

    OpenAIRE

    Nell, Martin; Richter, Andreas

    2002-01-01

    Catastrophe bonds (cat bonds) often use index triggers, such as, for instance, parametric descriptions of a catastrophe. This implies the problem of the so-called basis risk, resulting from the fact that, in contrast to traditional reinsurance, this kind of coverage cannot be a perfect hedge for the primary's insured portfolio. On the other hand, cat bonds offer some very attractive economic features: Besides their usefulness as a solution to the problems of moral hazard and default risk, an ...

  1. Bioacoustic Signal Classification in Cat Auditory Cortex

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-01-01

    of the cat’s WINER. 1. A. Anatomy of layer IV in cat primary auditory cortex t4,1). J miedial geniculate body Ideintified by projections to binaural...34language" (see for example Tartter, 1986, chapter 8; and Lieberman, 1984). Attempts have been made to train animals (mainly apes, gorillas , _ _ ___I 3...gestures of a gorilla : Language acquisition in another Pongid. Brain and Language, 1978a, 5, 72-97. Patterson, F. Conversations with a gorilla

  2. Rickettsia infection in five areas of the state of São Paulo, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maurício C Horta

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated rickettsial infection in animals, humans, ticks, and fleas collected in five areas of the state of São Paulo. Eight flea species (Adoratopsylla antiquorum antiquorum, Ctenocephalides felis felis, Polygenis atopus, Polygenis rimatus, Polygenis roberti roberti, Polygenis tripus, Rhopalopsyllus lugubris, and Rhopalopsyllus lutzi lutzi, and five tick species (Amblyomma aureolatum, Amblyomma cajennense, Amblyomma dubitatum, Ixodes loricatus, and Rhipicephalus sanguineus were collected from dogs, cats, and opossums. Rickettsia felis was the only rickettsia found infecting fleas, whereas Rickettsia bellii was the only agent infecting ticks, but no animal or human blood was shown to contain rickettsial DNA. Testing animal and human sera by indirect immunofluorescence assay against four rickettsia antigens (R. rickettsii, R. parkeri, R. felis, and R. bellii, some opossum, dog, horse, and human sera reacted to R. rickettsii with titers at least four-fold higher than to the other three rickettsial antigens. These sera were considered to have a predominant antibody response to R. rickettsii. Using the same criteria, opossum, dog, and horse sera showed predominant antibody response to R. parkeri or a very closely related genotype. Our serological results suggest that both R. rickettsii and R. parkeri infected animals and/or humans in the studied areas.

  3. Effect of single-cat versus multi-cat home history on perceived behavioral stress in domestic cats (Felis silvestrus catus) in an animal shelter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broadley, Heidi M; McCobb, Emily C; Slater, Margaret R

    2014-02-01

    This study investigates the effect of living with other cats in a prior home on stress levels of cats recently surrendered to an animal shelter. A total of 63 cats was evaluated using a Cat-Stress-Score and an approach test. Cats were categorized in terms of previous home history with or without other cats. No significant difference was found in stress scores between cats from single-cat households and those from multiple-cat households, although single cats that had been in the shelter less than 4 days demonstrated higher stress levels. No significant difference was found between the two groups in terms of approach results. Results of this study suggest that, in traditional individual cage settings, cats that are not accustomed to living with other cats may experience more stress in the initial few days of attempting to adjust to shelter existence. Through the use of such assessments, shelter personnel may develop an increased awareness to the needs of these cats and attempt to provide measures to improve their well-being within the shelter environment.

  4. Campylobacteriosis in dogs and cats: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acke, E

    2018-05-13

    Campylobacter species are commonly isolated from faecal samples collected from dogs and cats with the most prevalent species being C. upsaliensis, C. helveticus, and C. jejuni. Although the majority of dogs and cats are subclinically infected, some will develop mild to moderate enteritis. Immature animals, animals from intensive housing backgrounds, and animals with concurrent disease are especially predisposed to infection and the development of clinical signs. Bacterial culture methods applied in diagnostic laboratories remain biased to C. jejuni and C. coli detection, but molecular methods to diagnose Campylobacter spp. infections in dogs and cats have become widely available and can aid rapid and accurate diagnosis. Multilocus sequence typing has also been developed for subtyping different strains and has been used in epidemiological investigations. In the majority of cases, clinical signs are self-limiting and antimicrobial treatment is not warranted. Campylobacter spp. isolated from dogs and cats have shown resistance to commonly used antimicrobials, so antimicrobial therapy should only be administered where this is justified. Contact with dogs and cats is a recognised risk factor for human campylobacteriosis, thus people living or working in close contact with cats and dogs should be made aware of the zoonotic organisms these animals can shed.

  5. Prevalence and risk factors for patent Toxocara infections in cats and cat owners' attitude towards deworming

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijsse, R; Ploeger, H W; Wagenaar, J A; Mughini-Gras, L

    2016-01-01

    The prevalence of and risk factors for shedding Toxocara eggs in cats older than 6 months were determined by examining 670 faecal samples collected in 4 cross-sectional studies in the Netherlands. Additionally, cat owners provided information on their attitude towards routine deworming. Samples were

  6. Prevalence and risk factors for patent Toxocara infections in cats and cat owners’ attitude towards deworming

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijsse, R.; Ploeger, H.W.; Wagenaar, J.A.; Mughini-Gras, L.

    2016-01-01

    The prevalence of and risk factors for shedding Toxocara eggs in cats older than 6 months were determined by examining 670 faecal samples collected in 4 cross-sectional studies in the Netherlands. Additionally, cat owners provided information on their attitude towards routine deworming. Samples

  7. CATS Deliverable 5.1 : CATS verification of test matrix and protocol

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Uittenbogaard, J.; Camp, O.M.G.C. op den; Montfort, S. van

    2016-01-01

    This report summarizes the work conducted within work package (WP) 5 "Verification of test matrix and protocol" of the Cyclist AEB testing system (CATS) project. It describes the verification process of the draft CATS test matrix resulting from WP1 and WP2, and the feasibility of meeting

  8. Cat sensitization according to cat window of exposure in adult asthmatics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oryszczyn, M.-P.; van Ree, R.; Maccario, J.; Nadif, R.; Kauffmann, F.

    2009-01-01

    P>Background In adults, there is limited information on tolerance to cat, which may be reflected by high IgG(4) without IgE sensitization. Early exposure to cat may play a critical role. Objective The aim was to assess among adults the association of Fel d 1 IgG(4), Fel d 1 IgE, skin prick test

  9. Evaluation of skin test reactivity to environmental allergens in healthy cats and cats with atopic dermatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schleifer, Sebastian G; Willemse, Ton

    2003-06-01

    To evaluate skin test reactivity to environmental allergens in healthy cats and in cats with atopic dermatitis (AD). 10 healthy cats and 10 cats with AD. 10 allergens in serial dilutions were injected ID on the lateral aspect of the thorax of sedated cats. Histamine (0.01% solution) and buffer solutions were used as positive and negative controls, respectively. Immediately after the last injection, 10% fluorescein solution was administered IV. Skin test results were evaluated with ultraviolet light after 15 to 30 minutes and at 4 and 6 hours by 2 independent observers. In the control group, skin tests were repeated after 6 weeks. Skin test reactivity and the nature of the immunoglobulin involved were investigated by use of the Prausnitz-Küstner test with untreated and heat-treated cat sera. Intertest and interobserver agreement were high when measurement of the diameter of the fluorescent wheal was used to evaluate skin test responses, compared with assessment of its intensity. In both groups of cats, immediate skin test reactivity was observed as an IgE-mediated reaction, as an IgG-mediated reaction, and as a result of nonspecific mast cell degranulation. There was no correlation between allergen concentration and the type of reaction observed. Skin test reactivity in cats should be evaluated after IV administration of 10% fluorescein solution by means of a Prausnitz-Küstner test to differentiate among IgE-mediated, IgG-mediated, and nonspecific reactions.

  10. Hypothermia in Uremic Dogs and Cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabatchnick, E; Langston, C; Olson, B; Lamb, K E

    2016-09-01

    The prevalence of uremic hypothermia (UH) and the effects of improving uremia on body temperature have not been determined in veterinary patients. To determine the prevalence of UH and correlations between uremia and body temperature in patients undergoing intermittent hemodialysis (IHD). Uremic dogs (n = 122) and cats (n = 79) treated by IHD at the Bobst Hospital of the Animal Medical Center from 1997 to 2013. Retrospective review of medical records. The prevalence of hypothermia was 38% in azotemic cats and 20.5% in azotemic dogs. Statistically significant temperature differences were observed between uremic and nonuremic dogs (nonuremic: mean, 100.8°F; range, 91.2-109.5°F; uremic: mean, 99.9°F; range, 95.6-103.8°F; P cats (nonuremic: mean, 100.6°F; range, 94.0-103.8°F; uremic: mean, 99.3°F; range, 92.3-103.4°F; P dog dialysis patients, significant models included (1) timing (pre-dialysis versus post-dialysis) with weight class (small [P dogs), (2) timing with serum creatinine concentration (P = .021), and (3) timing with BUN concentration (P cat dialysis patients, there was a significant interaction between timing and weight as a categorical variable (cats and dogs. Uremic patients are hypothermic compared to ill nonuremic patients and body temperatures increase when uremia is corrected with IHD in dogs and in cats >5 kg. In cats, UH seems to be a more prevalent phenomenon driven by uremia. Uremic hypothermia does occur in dogs, but body weight is a more important predictor of body temperature. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine.

  11. 3 alpha-Hydroxylated bile acid profiles in clinically normal cats, cats with severe hepatic lipidosis, and cats with complete extrahepatic bile duct occlusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Center, S A; Thompson, M; Guida, L

    1993-05-01

    Concentrations of 3 alpha-hydroxylated bile acids were measured in serum and urine of clinically normal (healthy) cats (n = 6), cats with severe hepatic lipidosis (n = 9), and cats with complete bile duct occlusion (n = 4). Bile acid concentrations were measured by use of a gradient flow high-performance liquid chromatography procedure with an acetonitrile and ammonium phosphate mobile phase and an in-line postanalytic column containing 3 alpha-hydroxy-steroid dehydrogenase and a fluorescence detector. Specific identification of all bile acid peaks was not completed; unidentified moieties were represented in terms of their elution time (in minutes). Significant differences in serum and urine bile acid concentrations, quantitative and proportional, were determined among groups of cats. Cats with hepatic lipidosis and bile duct occlusion had significantly (P > or = 0.05) greater total serum and urine bile acids concentrations than did healthy cats. The proportion of hydrophobic bile acids in serum, those eluting at > or = 400 minutes, was 1.9% for healthy cats, 3.3% for cats with lipidosis, and 5.4% for bile duct-obstructed cats. Both groups of ill cats had a broader spectrum of unidentified late-eluting serum bile acids than did healthy cats; the largest spectrum developed in bile duct-occluded cats.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  12. Metabolic and hormonal alterations in cats with hepatic lipidosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, B; Mauldin, G E; Armstrong, J; Moroff, S D; Mauldin, G N

    2000-01-01

    Hepatic lipidosis in cats is a commonly diagnosed hepatobiliary disease of unknown cause. The purpose of this prospective study was to characterize the blood hormone and lipid status of cats with hepatic lipidosis, and to compare this status to that of cats with other types of liver disease and to control cats. Twenty-three cats with hepatic disease were assigned to 1 of 2 groups on the basis of cytopathologic or histopathologic examination of the liver: group 1, hepatic lipidosis (n = 18); or group 2, cholangiohepatitis (n = 5). Ten healthy young adult cats were used as controls. Food was withheld from control animals for 24 hours before blood collection. Concentrations of plasma glucagon and serum insulin, cortisol, thyroxine, triglycerides, cholesterol, phospholipids, and nonesterified fatty acids (NEFAs) were determined in all cats, in addition to routine hematologic and serum biochemical testing. Cats with hepatic lipidosis had higher serum NEFA concentrations than cats with cholangiohepatitis or control cats (P lipidosis or control cats (P hepatic lipidosis. Serum insulin concentrations were significantly higher in control cats than in diseased cats (P hepatic disease. The high concentration of NEFAs in cats with hepatic lipidosis suggests that at least 1 factor in the pathogenesis of this syndrome may involve the regulation of hormone-sensitive lipase.

  13. Deltamethrin flea-control preserves genetic variability of black-tailed prairie dogs during a plague outbreak

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, P.H.; Biggins, D.E.; Eads, D.A.; Eads, S.L.; Britten, H.B.

    2012-01-01

    Genetic variability and structure of nine black-tailed prairie dog (BTPD, Cynomys ludovicianus) colonies were estimated with 15 unlinked microsatellite markers. A plague epizootic occurred between the first and second years of sampling and our study colonies were nearly extirpated with the exception of three colonies in which prairie dog burrows were previously dusted with an insecticide, deltamethrin, used to control fleas (vectors of the causative agent of plague, Yersinia pestis). This situation provided context to compare genetic variability and structure among dusted and non-dusted colonies pre-epizootic, and among the three dusted colonies pre- and post-epizootic. We found no statistical difference in population genetic structures between dusted and non-dusted colonies pre-epizootic. On dusted colonies, gene flow and recent migration rates increased from the first (pre-epizootic) year to the second (post-epizootic) year which suggested dusted colonies were acting as refugia for prairie dogs from surrounding colonies impacted by plague. Indeed, in the dusted colonies, estimated densities of adult prairie dogs (including dispersers), but not juveniles (non-dispersers), increased from the first year to the second year. In addition to preserving BTPDs and many species that depend on them, protecting colonies with deltamethrin or a plague vaccine could be an effective method to preserve genetic variability of prairie dogs. ?? 2011 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.

  14. A Survey of Public Opinion on Cat (Felis catus) Predation and the Future Direction of Cat Management in New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Jessica K; Bruce, Stephanie J; Dale, Arnja R

    2017-07-03

    Cat predation is a prominent issue in New Zealand that provokes strong and opposing views. We explored, via 1011 face-to-face questionnaires, public opinion on (a) support for a National Cat Management Strategy (78% support); (b) concern regarding predation of wildlife by owned and un-owned cats (managed stray, unmanaged stray, and feral cats); (c) the acceptability of management techniques for owned cats; and (d) the acceptability of population management techniques for un-owned cats. The highest concern was expressed regarding the predation of non-native and native wildlife by feral cats (60 and 86% repectively), followed by unmanaged stray cats (59 and 86% respectively), managed stray cats (54 and 82% respectively), and finally owned cats (38 and 69% repectively). Limits to the number of cats owned and cat restriction zones received high levels of support (>65%), and compulsory microchipping, Council registration, and de-sexing were supported by the majority (>58%). Public support of population control methods for unowned cats was explored, and the influence of participant demographic variables on responses is described. These findings provide insight into public opinion regarding the management of cats in New Zealand, which should be considered during the development of legislation in this area.

  15. Born to roam? Surveying cat owners in Tasmania, Australia, to identify the drivers and barriers to cat containment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLeod, Lynette J; Hine, Donald W; Bengsen, Andrew J

    2015-12-01

    Free-roaming domestic cats, Felis catus, are a major public nuisance in neighbourhoods across the world, and have been linked to biodiversity loss and a host of community health problems. Owners who let their cats roam, also place their cats at risk of serious injury. One management strategy that is gaining considerable support involves encouraging cat owners to contain their pets within their property. Contemporary behaviour change models highlight the importance of identifying drivers and barriers that encourage and discourage target behaviours such as cat containment. Results from a random dial phone survey of 356 cat owners in northern Tasmania identified four distinct cat containment profiles: owners who contained their cat all the time, owners who only contained their cat at night, owners who sporadically contained their cat with no set routine, and owners who made no attempt to contain their pet. Our results indicated that cat-owners' decisions to contain or not contain their cats were guided by a range of factors including owners' beliefs about their ability to implement an effective containment strategy and their views about the physical and psychological needs of their cats. The results are discussed in terms of improving the behavioural effectiveness of cat containment interventions by selecting appropriate behavioural change tools for the identified drivers and barriers, and developing targeted engagement strategies and messaging. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. A Survey of Public Opinion on Cat (Felis catus Predation and the Future Direction of Cat Management in New Zealand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica K. Walker

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Cat predation is a prominent issue in New Zealand that provokes strong and opposing views. We explored, via 1011 face-to-face questionnaires, public opinion on (a support for a National Cat Management Strategy (78% support; (b concern regarding predation of wildlife by owned and un-owned cats (managed stray, unmanaged stray, and feral cats; (c the acceptability of management techniques for owned cats; and (d the acceptability of population management techniques for un-owned cats. The highest concern was expressed regarding the predation of non-native and native wildlife by feral cats (60 and 86% repectively, followed by unmanaged stray cats (59 and 86% respectively, managed stray cats (54 and 82% respectively, and finally owned cats (38 and 69% repectively. Limits to the number of cats owned and cat restriction zones received high levels of support (>65%, and compulsory microchipping, Council registration, and de-sexing were supported by the majority (>58%. Public support of population control methods for unowned cats was explored, and the influence of participant demographic variables on responses is described. These findings provide insight into public opinion regarding the management of cats in New Zealand, which should be considered during the development of legislation in this area.

  17. Optical quality of the living cat eye.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonds, A B

    1974-12-01

    1. The optical quality of the living cat eye was measured under conditions similar to those of cat retinal ganglion cell experiments by recording the aerial image of a nearly monochromatic thin line of light.2. Experiments were performed to assess the nature of the fundal reflexion of the cat eye, which was found to behave essentially as a diffuser.3. The optical Modulation Transfer Function (MTF) was calculated from the measured aerial linespread using Fourier mathematics; the MTF of a ;typical' cat eye was averaged from data collected from ten eyes.4. The state of focus of the optical system, the pupil size and the angle of the light incident on the eye were all varied to determine their effect on image quality.5. By using an image rotator, the aerial linespread was measured for several orientations of the line; these measurements yielded an approximation of the two-dimensional pointspread completely characterizing the optical system.6. Evidence is reviewed to show that the optical resolution of the cat, albeit some 3-5 times worse than that of human, appears to be better than the neural resolution of its retina and its visual system as a whole.

  18. Social referencing and cat-human communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merola, I; Lazzaroni, M; Marshall-Pescini, S; Prato-Previde, E

    2015-05-01

    Cats' (Felis catus) communicative behaviour towards humans was explored using a social referencing paradigm in the presence of a potentially frightening object. One group of cats observed their owner delivering a positive emotional message, whereas another group received a negative emotional message. The aim was to evaluate whether cats use the emotional information provided by their owners about a novel/unfamiliar object to guide their own behaviour towards it. We assessed the presence of social referencing, in terms of referential looking towards the owner (defined as looking to the owner immediately before or after looking at the object), the behavioural regulation based on the owner's emotional (positive vs negative) message (vocal and facial), and the observational conditioning following the owner's actions towards the object. Most cats (79 %) exhibited referential looking between the owner and the object, and also to some extent changed their behaviour in line with the emotional message given by the owner. Results are discussed in relation to social referencing in other species (dogs in particular) and cats' social organization and domestication history.

  19. Experimental induction of hepatic lipidosis in cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biourge, V C; Groff, J M; Munn, R J; Kirk, C A; Nyland, T G; Madeiros, V A; Morris, J G; Rogers, Q R

    1994-09-01

    The effect of long-term voluntary fasting on hematologic variables, biochemical profiles, and liver histologic findings was assessed in 15 obese cats (> 40% overweight). Clinical signs and laboratory results consistent with hepatic lipidosis were observed in 12 of 15 cats after 5 to 7 weeks of fasting, and were associated with 30 to 35% reduction of initial body weight. Histologic examination of successive liver biopsy specimens revealed that obesity was not associated with liver parenchymal lipid accumulation, but that fasting resulted in lipidosis in all 15 cats. The long-term fast was associated with an early (after 2 to 4 weeks of fasting) and significant (P hepatic-associated enzyme activities and in total and direct serum bilirubin concentrations. Significant (P hepatic lipidosis, cats appeared to tolerate the fast without other adverse effect. This study confirmed that long-term fasting may induce clinical hepatic lipidosis in obese cats. Fasting appears to induce a syndrome of hepatic lipidosis that is indistinguishable from feline idiopathic hepatic lipidosis and may be an appropriate model to study the pathophysiologic features and treatment of hepatic lipidosis.

  20. Tetrathyridiosis in a domestic shorthair cat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorothee Dahlem

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Case summary This report describes the clinical and parasitological findings in a domestic shorthair cat with isolated thoracic tetrathyridiosis. The cat was a stray from Malta that had lived in Germany for several years since as an indoor-only cat. Therefore, the process of infection remains very unusual. In this case it must be considered that the cat had been infected years previously while in Malta, and had lived at least 4 years without any clinical signs. It was possible to diagnose this uncommon disease and initiate an effective treatment with fenbendazole, praziquantel and supportive care. Clinical signs, as well as radiographic findings, were regressive with this treatment. Relevance and novel information Tetrathyridiosis is a rare finding in cats, especially in Germany, but it seems to be a potential differential diagnosis of pleural effusion. Mesocestoides corti , which was the causative parasite in this case, has not previously been isolated in Germany. Because tetrathyridiosis is only diagnosed post mortem in most cases, little is known about effective therapeutic options. Furthermore, clinical signs of this disease can be absent for several years and can potentially be triggered by neoplastic conditions or immunosuppression. Tetrathyridiosis seems to be a treatable disease that can be controlled by adequate antiparasitic therapy.

  1. Surrenderers’ Relationships with Cats Admitted to Four Australian Animal Shelters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Zito

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The surrender of cats to animal shelters results in financial, social and moral burdens for the community. Correlations of caretaking and interactions with surrendered cats were calculated, to understand more about humans’ relationships with surrendered cats and the contribution of semi-owned cats to shelter intakes. A questionnaire was used to collect detailed information about 100 surrenderers’ relationships with cats they surrendered to four animal shelters in Australia, with each surrenderer classifying themselves as being either the owner or a non-owner of the surrendered cat (ownership perception. Method of acquisition of the cat, association time, closeness of the relationship with the cat and degree of responsibility for the cat’s care were all associated with ownership perception. Many non-owners (59% fed and interacted with the cat they surrendered but rarely displayed other caretaking behaviours. However, most surrenderers of owned and unowned cats were attached to and felt responsible for the cat. Based on these results and other evidence, a causal model of ownership perception was proposed to provide a better understanding of factors influencing ownership perception. This model consisted of a set of variables proposed as directly or indirectly influencing ownership perception, with connecting arrows to indicate proposed causal relationships. Understanding ownership perception and the contribution of semi-owned cats to shelter intake is important as these can inform the development of more targeted and effective intervention strategies to reduce numbers of unwanted cats.

  2. Osteosarcoma in cats: 22 cases (1974-1984)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bitetto, W.V.; Patnaik, A.K.; Schrader, S.C.; Mooney, S.C.

    1987-01-01

    Osteosarcoma was diagnosed in 22 cats. Diagnosis was based on results of physical, radiographic, and histologic findings. Fifteen tumors arose from the appendicular skeleton, 4 from the skull, 2 from the pelvis, and 1 from a rib. Radiography revealed that in 14 of 15 cats (93%) with appendicular tumors, the lesion was metaphyseal, primarily lytic, with a ''moth-eaten'' appearance; absence and presence of periosteal new bone formation were associated with the tumors in 12 and 3 cats, respectively. The remaining 7 cats had axial tumors that were characterized by the presence of periosteal new bone formation in addition to bony lysis. Of the 15 cats with appendicular tumors, 12 were treated by amputation and 3 were euthanatized at the time of diagnosis. Of the cats undergoing amputation for treatment of their appendicular tumors, 6 cats were still alive 64 months after surgery (range, 13 to 64 months); the median survival time of the 5 cats (1 cat was lost to follow-up evaluation) that died was 49.2 months (range, 1 to 122 months). Four of 12 cats (33%) survived greater than or equal to 5 years after diagnosis. Of the cats with axial tumors that were not euthanatized at the time of diagnosis (6 of 7), the median survival time was 5.5 months. Based on these findings, we concluded that cats with appendicular osteosarcoma have a better prognosis than those with axial osteosarcoma, and that amputation is a viable treatment for cats with appendicular osteosarcoma

  3. Metaphyseal osteopathy in a British Shorthair cat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adagra, Carl; Spielman, Derek; Adagra, Angela; Foster, Darren J

    2015-04-01

    Metaphyseal osteopathy, otherwise known as hypertrophic osteodystrophy, is a disease that causes pyrexia and lethargy accompanied by pain in the thoracic and pelvic limbs of rapidly growing large-breed dogs. While metaphyseal osteopathy has been descibed in association with slipped capital femoral epiphysis in cats, it has not previously been reported as a cause of limb pain and pyrexia in this species. A 7-month-old British Shorthair cat presented with a 1 month history of pyrexia, lethargy and pain in all limbs. Investigation included radiographs of the limbs and chest, abdominal ultrasound, serum biochemical analysis, haematology, bone biopsy, joint fluid aspiration and cytology. Findings were consistent with a diagnosis of metaphyseal osteopathy. The cat's clinical signs resolved following the administration of prednisolone. Symptoms recurred 1 month after the cessation of prednisolone therapy, but resolved when administration was resumed. © ISFM and AAFP 2014.

  4. Suppression of fertility in adult cats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Goericke-Pesch, Sandra Kathrin; Wehrend, A.; Georgiev, P.

    2014-01-01

    /needed? (iii) sex of the animal? New effective and available methods for hormonal contraception include melatonin implants for short-term post ponement of oestrus in adult queens and slow-release GnRH-agonist implants containing deslorelin (Suprelorin®) for short- and long-term contraception in male and female......Contents: Cats are animals with highly efficient reproduction, clearly pointing to a need for suppression of fertility. Although surgical contraception is highly effective, it is not always the method of choice. This is predominantly because it is cost-intensive, time-consuming and irreversible......, with the latter being of major importance for cat breeders. This article reviews the use of progestins, scleroting agents, immunocontraception, melatonin, GnRH antagonists and finally, GnRH agonists, in adult male and female cats in detail, according to the present state of the art. By now, various scientific...

  5. Dilated cardiomyopathy in cats - A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Jeyaraja

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Two cats were brought to Madras Veterinary College Teaching Hospital with the history and clinical signs suggestive of congestive heart failure ie, coughing, exercise intolerance, dyspnea, abdominal distension etc. There was history of feeding the cat with home made diet in one case and in other with commercial dog food. Based on electrocardiographic, radiographic and echocardiographic findings, the diagnosis of dilated cardiomyopathy was done in both the cases. The cases were managed with enalapril maleate, furosemide, dietary taurine supplementation and other supportive therapy. Among these two cases, one cat died on 2nd day of treatment and the other showed recovery after 8 days of treatment. [Vet World 2013; 6(4.000: 226-227

  6. CATS Aerosol Typing and Future Directions

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGill, Matt; Yorks, John; Scott, Stan; Palm, Stephen; Hlavka, Dennis; Hart, William; Nowottnick, Ed; Selmer, Patrick; Kupchock, Andrew; Midzak, Natalie; hide

    2016-01-01

    The Cloud Aerosol Transport System (CATS), launched in January of 2015, is a lidar remote sensing instrument that will provide range-resolved profile measurements of atmospheric aerosols and clouds from the International Space Station (ISS). CATS is intended to operate on-orbit for at least six months, and up to three years. Status of CATS Level 2 and Plans for the Future:Version. 1. Aerosol Typing (ongoing): Mode 1: L1B data released later this summer; L2 data released shortly after; Identify algorithm biases (ex. striping, FOV (field of view) biases). Mode 2: Processed Released Currently working on correcting algorithm issues. Version 2 Aerosol Typing (Fall, 2016): Implementation of version 1 modifications Integrate GEOS-5 aerosols for typing guidance for non spherical aerosols. Version 3 Aerosol Typing (2017): Implementation of 1-D Var Assimilation into GEOS-5 Dynamic lidar ratio that will evolve in conjunction with simulated aerosol mixtures.

  7. Astaxanthin uptake in domestic dogs and cats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massimino Stefan

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Research on the uptake and transport of astaxanthin is lacking in most species. We studied the uptake of astaxanthin by plasma, lipoproteins and leukocytes in domestic dogs and cats. Methods Mature female Beagle dogs (18 to 19 mo old; 11 to 14 kg BW were dosed orally with 0, 0.1, 0.5, 2.5, 10 or 40 mg astaxanthin and blood taken at 0, 3, 6, 9, 12, 18 and 24 h post-administration (n = 8/treatment. Similarly, mature domestic short hair cats (12 mo old; 3 to 3.5 kg body weight were fed a single dose of 0, 0.02, 0.08, 0.4, 2, 5, or 10 mg astaxanthin and blood taken (n = 8/treatment at the same interval. Results Both dogs and cats showed similar biokinetic profiles. Maximal astaxanthin concentration in plasma was approximately 0.14 μmol/L in both species, and was observed at 6 h post-dosing. The plasma astaxanthin elimination half-life was 9 to 18 h. Astaxanthin was still detectable by 24 h in both species. In a subsequent study, dogs and cats were fed similar doses of astaxanthin daily for 15 to 16 d and astaxanthin uptake by plasma, lipoproteins, and leukocytes studied. In both species, plasma astaxanthin concentrations generally continued to increase through d 15 or 16 of supplementation. The astaxanthin was mainly associated with high density lipoprotein (HDL. In blood leukocytes, approximately half of the total astaxanthin was found in the mitochondria, with significant amounts also associated with the microsomes and nuclei. Conclusion Dogs and cats absorb astaxanthin from the diet. In the blood, the astaxanthin is mainly associated with HDL, and is taken up by blood leukocytes, where it is distributed to all subcellular organelles. Certain aspects of the biokinetic uptake of astaxanthin in dogs and cats are similar to that in humans.

  8. Computed Tomographic Angiography of the Pancreas in Cats with Chronic Diabetes Mellitus Compared to Normal Cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Secrest, S; Sharma, A; Bugbee, A

    2018-03-02

    Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a common endocrinopathy in cats. No known diagnostic test or patient characteristic at the time of diagnosis can predict likely disease course, unlike in people in whom computed tomographic angiography (CTA) is used. No published data exist regarding the CTA appearance of the pancreas in cats with DM, and thus, it is unknown what if any CTA variables should be further assessed for associations with pancreatic endocrine function. A significant difference in pancreatic attenuation, volume, and size will be identified between normal cats and those with chronic DM on CTA. Ten healthy control cats and 15 cats with naturally occurring DM present for >12 months. Prospective cross-sectional study comparing pancreatic attenuation, enhancement pattern, size, volume, pancreatic volume-to-body weight ratio (V:BW), pancreatic arterial: portal phase ratio (A:P), time-to-arterial enhancement, and time-to-peak portal enhancement on CTA between sedated healthy control cats and those with chronic DM. The pancreas in cats with chronic DM was significantly larger, had higher volume, higher V:BW, and shorter time-to-peak portal enhancement on CTA when compared to normal cats. Peak portal enhancement time, pancreatic size, pancreatic volume, and V:BW can be used to differentiate normal sedated cats from those with chronic DM by CTA. These variables warrant further investigation to identify possible associations with endocrine function. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine.

  9. KnowCat: Catalizador de Conocimiento

    OpenAIRE

    Cobos, Ruth; Alamán, Xavier; Esquivel, José A.

    2001-01-01

    KnowCat es un sistema distribuido que tiene como meta la creación incremental de conocimiento estructurado. El nombre del sistema, KnowCat, es el acrónimo de "Knowledge Catalyser" o "catalizador de conocimiento", que hace referencia a la propiedad principal que exhibirá: la catalización del proceso de cristalización del conocimiento como resultado de la interacción de los usuarios con dicho conocimiento. Un área de aplicación del sistema es la generación de materiales educativos de alta c...

  10. Hypertrophic osteopathy and megaoesophagus in a cat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, J

    2010-01-01

    A case of hypertrophic osteopathy in a stray cat is reported. It was not known how long periosteal proliferation had been present prior to the time of first presentation. A few months later, megaoesophagus became apparent. Computer tomography was performed at least 18 months after periosteal proliferation had first become evident, but an underlying neoplasia was not identifed in association with the hypertrophic osteopathy. The hypertrophic osteopathy and the megaoesophagus were both successfully medically managed, and the cat continued to do well 33 months after the hypertrophic osteopathy was first evident.

  11. Transmission of feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) among cohabiting cats in two cat rescue shelters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litster, Annette L

    2014-08-01

    Conflicting accounts have been published in the veterinary literature regarding transmission of feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) between cohabiting cats in mixed households, and the mechanics of possible casual transmission, if it occurs, are poorly understood. Similarly, there are conflicting reports of vertical transmission of FIV. The aim of the present study was to document the FIV serological status of cats taken into two rescue shelters. At rescue shelter 1 (Rescue 1), cats cohabited in a multi-cat household of FIV-negative and naturally-infected, FIV-positive cats. A study was performed that combined a retrospective review of records of FIV serological status at intake (Test 1) and prospective FIV serological testing (Tests 2 and 3). Retrospective records were analyzed at rescue shelter 2 (Rescue 2), where FIV-positive queens with litters of nursing kittens were taken into the shelter, before being rehomed. FIV serology was performed on all kittens after weaning. Initial test results (Test 1) for 138 cohabiting cats from Rescue 1 showed that there were 130 FIV-negative cats and eight FIV-positive cats (six male neutered and two female spayed). A second test (Test 2), performed in 45 of the FIV-negative and five of the FIV-positive cats at median 28 months after Test 1 (range, 1 month to 8.8 years) showed that results were unchanged. Similarly, a third test (Test 3), performed in four of the original FeLV-negative cats and one remaining FIV-positive cat at median 38 months after Test 1 (range, 4 months to 4 years), also showed that results were unchanged. These results show a lack of evidence of FIV transmission, despite years of exposure to naturally-infected, FIV-positive cats in a mixed household. At Rescue 2, records were available from five FIV-positive queens with 19 kittens. All 19 kittens tested FIV-negative, suggesting that vertical transmission had not occurred. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Transitional cell carcinomas in four fishing cats (Prionailurus viverrinus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutherland-Smith, Meg; Harvey, Catherine; Campbell, Mark; McAloose, Denise; Rideout, Bruce; Morris, Patrick

    2004-09-01

    Transitional cell carcinomas (TCC) of the urinary bladder were diagnosed in four related fishing cats (Prionailurus viverrinus). The major clinical sign in each case was persistent hematuria unresponsive to medical therapy. Cystotomy and biopsy provided an antemortem diagnosis in three of the fishing cats before euthanasia because of progression of clinical signs. The diagnosis was made in the fourth cat after euthanasia because of renal failure. Hematuria improved temporarily in one of the cats diagnosed antemortem and treated with piroxicam and carboplatin. Attempts to isolate a herpesvirus in two of the cats failed. Histopathologic appearance of the TCC was similar to that described for other species. TCC metastasis to the lungs was noted at necropsy in one cat; metastatic disease was not noted in the other fishing cats on gross or histopathologic examination. TCC of the urinary bladder appears to be more prevalent in fishing cats than in other species of domestic or nondomestic felids.

  13. Prevalence of infectious diseases in feral cats in Northern Florida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luria, Brian J; Levy, Julie K; Lappin, Michael R; Breitschwerdt, Edward B; Legendre, Alfred M; Hernandez, Jorge A; Gorman, Shawn P; Lee, Irene T

    2004-10-01

    Objectives of this study were to determine prevalence of infection in feral cats in Northern Florida with a select group of infectious organisms and to determine risk factors for infection. Blood samples or sera from 553 cats were tested with a panel of antibody, antigen or PCR assays. Male cats were at higher risk for FIV, Mycoplasma haemofelis, and M. haemominutum. Infection with either FeLV or FIV was associated with increased risk for coinfection with the other retrovirus, M. haemofelis, or M. haemominutum. Bartonella henselae had the highest prevalence and was the only organism that did not have any associated risk for coinfection with other organisms. Feral cats in this study had similar or lower prevalence rates of infections than those published for pet cats in the United States. Thus, feral cats assessed in this study appear to be of no greater risk to human beings or other cats than pet cats.

  14. Determinants of Cat Choice and Outcomes for Adult Cats and Kittens Adopted from an Australian Animal Shelter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zito, Sarah; Paterson, Mandy; Vankan, Dianne; Morton, John; Bennett, Pauleen; Phillips, Clive

    2015-04-29

    The percentage of adult cats euthanized in animal shelters is greater than that of kittens because adult cats are less likely to be adopted. This study aimed to provide evidence to inform the design of strategies to encourage adult cat adoptions. One such strategy is to discount adoption prices, but there are concerns that this may result in poor adoption outcomes. We surveyed 382 cat adopters at the time of adoption, to assess potential determinants of adopters' cat age group choice (adult or kitten) and, for adult cat adopters, the price they are willing to pay. The same respondents were surveyed again 6-12 months after the adoption to compare outcomes between cat age groups and between adult cats in two price categories. Most adopters had benevolent motivations for adopting from the shelter and had put considerable thought into the adoption and requirements for responsible ownership. However, adult cat adopters were more likely to have been influenced by price than kitten adopters. Adoption outcomes were generally positive for both adult cats and kittens and for adult cats adopted at low prices. The latter finding alleviates concerns about the outcomes of "low-cost" adoptions in populations, such as the study population, and lends support for the use of "low-cost" adoptions as an option for attempting to increase adoption rates. In addition, the results provide information that can be used to inform future campaigns aimed at increasing the number of adult cat adoptions, particularly in devising marketing strategies for adult cats.

  15. Guidelines for vaccination of dogs and cats in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Woo-Jin; Kim, Hyun-Tae; Yoo, Han-Sang; Youn, Hwa-Young

    2014-07-01

    This guideline contains the recommended vaccination schedules of dogs and cats from World Small Animal Veterinary Association (WSAVA) and American Animal Hospital Association (AAHA). In 2010, WSAVA published guidelines for the vaccination of dogs and cats. And, in 2011, AAHA also published guidelines for vaccination of dogs. In Korea, there is no published guideline for vaccination of dogs and cats yet. Therefore, the plane of vaccination also reports the present situation of vaccination schedule of dogs and cats in Korean animal hospitals.

  16. The effect of cat Felis catus predation on three breeding ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Breeding success of Pterodroma macroptera, Procellaria aequinoctialis and Pachyptila vittata salvini in three cat-free and three control areas were used to evaluate the effects of cat Felis catus predation on the avifauna of Marion Island. Breeding success of all three species was significantly higher in the combined cat-free ...

  17. The effect of keeping pet dogs and cats on Toxocariasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    esmaeel Fallah

    2012-03-01

    Conclusion: According to the results of this study, much of the dogs and cats owners were exposed to parasite. Training of dogs and cats owners, promotion of their awareness about various ways of transmission and examination of the infections in dogs and cats and prevention of these infections are recommended.

  18. 50 CFR 28.43 - Destruction of dogs and cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Destruction of dogs and cats. 28.43 Section 28.43 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR... VIOLATIONS OF PARTS 25, 26, AND 27 Impoundment Procedures § 28.43 Destruction of dogs and cats. Dogs and cats...

  19. Visual classification of feral cat Felis silvestris catus vocalizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owens, Jessica L; Olsen, Mariana; Fontaine, Amy; Kloth, Christopher; Kershenbaum, Arik; Waller, Sara

    2017-06-01

    Cat vocal behavior, in particular, the vocal and social behavior of feral cats, is poorly understood, as are the differences between feral and fully domestic cats. The relationship between feral cat social and vocal behavior is important because of the markedly different ecology of feral and domestic cats, and enhanced comprehension of the repertoire and potential information content of feral cat calls can provide both better understanding of the domestication and socialization process, and improved welfare for feral cats undergoing adoption. Previous studies have used conflicting classification schemes for cat vocalizations, often relying on onomatopoeic or popular descriptions of call types (e.g., "miow"). We studied the vocalizations of 13 unaltered domestic cats that complied with our behavioral definition used to distinguish feral cats from domestic. A total of 71 acoustic units were extracted and visually analyzed for the construction of a hierarchical classification of vocal sounds, based on acoustic properties. We identified 3 major categories (tonal, pulse, and broadband) that further breakdown into 8 subcategories, and show a high degree of reliability when sounds are classified blindly by independent observers (Fleiss' Kappa K  = 0.863). Due to the limited behavioral contexts in this study, additional subcategories of cat vocalizations may be identified in the future, but our hierarchical classification system allows for the addition of new categories and new subcategories as they are described. This study shows that cat vocalizations are diverse and complex, and provides an objective and reliable classification system that can be used in future studies.

  20. Gallbladder mucocoele and concurrent hepatic lipidosis in a cat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, S L; Milne, M; Slocombe, R F; Landon, B P

    2007-10-01

    A 3-year-old Domestic Shorthair cat was presented with weight loss, anorexia and icterus. Feline hepatic lipidosis and gallbladder mucocoele were diagnosed; this is the first report of gallbladder mucocoele in the cat. The case was managed successfully with cholecystojejunostomy, gastrostomy tube placement and tube feeding for 3 months. The cat has survived over the long term with minimal complications.

  1. Lungworm disease in cats : ABCD guidelines on prevention and management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pennisi, Maria Grazia; Hartmann, Katrin; Addie, Diane D; Boucraut-Baralon, Corine; Egberink, Herman; Frymus, Tadeusz; Gruffydd-Jones, Tim; Horzinek, Marian C; Hosie, Margaret J; Lloret, Albert; Lutz, Hans; Marsilio, Fulvio; Radford, Alan D; Thiry, Etienne; Truyen, Uwe; Möstl, Karin

    OVERVIEW: Cardiopulmonary nematodes are emerging parasites of cats in Europe. A number of helminth parasites may be involved. The most prevalent lungworm in domestic cats is Aelurostrongylus abstrusus. Oslerus rostratus and Troglostrongylus species are found mainly in wild cats. The trichurid

  2. Purified natural and recombinant Fel d 1 and cat albumin in in vitro diagnostics for cat allergy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Ree, R.; van Leeuwen, W. A.; Bulder, I.; Bond, J.; Aalberse, R. C.

    1999-01-01

    Current diagnostics and therapeutics for cat allergy are based on cat epithelial extracts originating from highly variable source materials. This gives rise to several problems: variability of allergen composition, contamination with house dust mite allergens, and potential transfer of pathogenic

  3. Ixodes ricinus ticks are reservoir hosts for Rickettsia helvetica and potentially carry flea-borne Rickettsia species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaasenbeek Cor

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hard ticks have been identified as important vectors of rickettsiae causing the spotted fever syndrome. Tick-borne rickettsiae are considered to be emerging, but only limited data are available about their presence in Western Europe, their natural life cycle and their reservoir hosts. Ixodes ricinus, the most prevalent tick species, were collected and tested from different vegetation types and from potential reservoir hosts. In one biotope area, the annual and seasonal variability of rickettsiae infections of the different tick stages were determined for 9 years. Results The DNA of the human pathogen R. conorii as well as R. helvetica, R. sp. IRS and R. bellii-like were found. Unexpectedly, the DNA of the highly pathogenic R. typhi and R. prowazekii and 4 other uncharacterized Rickettsia spp. related to the typhus group were also detected in I. ricinus. The presence of R. helvetica in fleas isolated from small rodents supported our hypothesis that cross-infection can occur under natural conditions, since R. typhi/prowazekii and R. helvetica as well as their vectors share rodents as reservoir hosts. In one biotope, the infection rate with R. helvetica was ~66% for 9 years, and was comparable between larvae, nymphs, and adults. Larvae caught by flagging generally have not yet taken a blood meal from a vertebrate host. The simplest explanation for the comparable prevalence of R. helvetica between the defined tick stages is, that R. helvetica is vertically transmitted through the next generation with high efficiency. The DNA of R. helvetica was also present in whole blood from mice, deer and wild boar. Conclusion Besides R. helvetica, unexpected rickettsiae are found in I. ricinus ticks. We propose that I. ricinus is a major reservoir host for R. helvetica, and that vertebrate hosts play important roles in the further geographical dispersion of rickettsiae.

  4. COMPARISON OF PBDES IN CAT SERUM TO LEVELS IN CAT FOOD: EVIDENCE OF DECA DEBROMINATION?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abstract Since the introduction of brominated flame retardants (such as the PBDEs), increases in feline hyperthyroidism have been observed. We hypothesized that PBDE exposure was linked to the increased occurrence of hyperthyroidism in cats. Herein, PBDEs in serum of pet ...

  5. Stray cats are more frequently infected with zoonotic protists than pet cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kvac, Martin; Hofmannova, Lada; Ortega, Ynes; Holubova, Nikola; Horcickova, Michaela; Kicia, Marta; Hlaskova, Lenka; Kvetonova, Dana; Sak, Bohumil; McEvoy, John

    2017-12-06

    Faecal samples were collected from cats kept as pets (n = 120) and stray cats (n = 135) in Central Europe (Czech Republic, Poland and Slovakia) and screened for the presence of Cryptosporidium spp., Giardia intestinalis (Kunstler, 1882), Encephalitozoon spp. and Enterocytozoon bieneusi Desportes, Le Charpentier, Galian, Bernard, Cochand-Priollet, Lavergne, Ravisse et Modigliani, 1985 by PCR analysis of the small-subunit of rRNA (Cryptosporidium spp. and G. intestinalis) and ITS (microsporidia) genes. Sequence analysis of targeted genes revealed the presence of C. felis Iseki, 1979, G. intestinalis assemblage F, E. cuniculi Levaditi, Nicolau et Schoen, 1923 genotype II, and E. bieneusi genotype D. There was no correlation between the occurrence of detected parasites and sex, presence of diarrhoea or drug treatment (drug containing pyrantel and praziquantel). Compared to pet cats (7%), stray cats (30%) were statistically more frequently infected with protist parasites and overall may present a greater risk to human health.

  6. Surrenderers’ Relationships with Cats Admitted to Four Australian Animal Shelters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zito, Sarah; Paterson, Mandy; Rand, Jacquie; Phillips, Clive J. C.

    2018-01-01

    Simple Summary The surrender of cats to animal shelters results in financial, social and moral burdens for the community. Human caretaking of cats was explored in a sample of people surrendering cats to shelters in Australia. At the shelters surrenderers classified themselves as owners or non-owners and a questionnaire identified that this was related to their method of acquisition of the cat, their association time with the cat, the closeness of their relationship with the cat and their degree of responsibility for the cat’s care. A model of ownership perception was developed to provide a better understanding of factors influencing ownership perception. Understanding ownership perceptions in cats surrendered to shelters is important as these can inform the development of more targeted and effective intervention strategies to reduce numbers of unwanted cats. Abstract The surrender of cats to animal shelters results in financial, social and moral burdens for the community. Correlations of caretaking and interactions with surrendered cats were calculated, to understand more about humans’ relationships with surrendered cats and the contribution of semi-owned cats to shelter intakes. A questionnaire was used to collect detailed information about 100 surrenderers’ relationships with cats they surrendered to four animal shelters in Australia, with each surrenderer classifying themselves as being either the owner or a non-owner of the surrendered cat (ownership perception). Method of acquisition of the cat, association time, closeness of the relationship with the cat and degree of responsibility for the cat’s care were all associated with ownership perception. Many non-owners (59%) fed and interacted with the cat they surrendered but rarely displayed other caretaking behaviours. However, most surrenderers of owned and unowned cats were attached to and felt responsible for the cat. Based on these results and other evidence, a causal model of ownership perception

  7. Evaluating "Cat Country": The Humor within Satire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Chung-chien Karen

    2010-01-01

    Satire, as a mode, is not frequently employed in Chinese narratives. "Cat Country," or "Mao Cheng Ji," written by Lao She (pen name of Shu Qing Chun, 1898--1966) has come under much attack of its literary values. Whereas most critics have no doubt that this work sets out to satirize China through the portrayal of a society of…

  8. Veterinarian Gets Flu Virus from Cats

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2018-03-28

    Dr. Todd Davis, a CDC research biologist, discusses transmission of avian H7N2 from a cat to a human.  Created: 3/28/2018 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 3/28/2018.

  9. The antihypertensive effect of amlodipine in cats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Morar,

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the study was to evaluate the effect of amlodipine on blood pressure and renal function in cats with arterial hypertension secondary to chronic renal failure. The research was conducted on 11 cats, aged between 7 and 14.5 years, diagnosed with arterial hypertension secondary to chronic renal failure. Systolic blood pressure (SBP, diastolic blood pressure (DBP, mean arterial pressure (MBP and pulse rate were determined by oscillometric method, before and after 7, 30 or 120 days of treatment with amlodipine. At the beginning of treatment, all cats were receiving 0.625 mg amlodipine once daily and after 7 days oftreatment, in five cats, the dose was increased to 1.25 mg amlodipine, once daily. Before amlodipine administration the mean values of SBP/DBP were 175 ± 13.2 mmHg/119 ± 7.2 mmHg and after 30 days of treatment, the mean values of the SBP/DBP were reduced by 27.9/25.4 mmHg (p<0,001. After 120 days of treatment with amlodipine mean values of SBP/DBP were lower with 32/31 mmHg compared with baseline values (p<0.001. The treatment with amlodipine did not significantly affect the values of blood biochemical parameters of renal profile.

  10. Benign cementoblastoma (true cementoma in a cat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lenin A Villamizar-Martinez

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Case summary A 10-year-old castrated male domestic shorthair cat was presented for assessment of a gingival mass surrounding the left maxillary third and fourth premolar teeth. The mass was surgically removed by means of a marginal rim excision, and the tissue was submitted for histological assessment. It was identified as a benign cementoblastoma (true cementoma. There was proliferation of mineralized eosinophilic material with multiple irregularly placed lacunae and reversal lines, reminiscent of cementum. The cat recovered uneventfully from the anesthesia, and there was no evidence of tumor recurrence 6 months after surgery. Relevance and novel information Cementoblastomas (true cementomas in domestic animals are rare, with just a few reports in ruminants, monogastric herbivores and rodents. Cementoblastoma is considered a benign tumor that arises from the tooth root. The slow, expansive and constant growth that characterizes these masses may be accompanied by signs of oral discomfort and dysphagia. This case report is intended to increase knowledge regarding this tumor in cats and also highlights the importance of complete excision of the neoplasm. To our knowledge, there are no previous reports in the literature of cementoblastoma in the cat.

  11. Getting a CAT Scan (For Kids)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Answers (Q&A) Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Getting a CAT Scan (Video) KidsHealth / ... Nondiscrimination Visit the Nemours Web site. Note: All information on KidsHealth® is for educational purposes only. For ...

  12. Look What the Cat Brought In.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erslev, Carole

    1984-01-01

    The small, uneaten, slate-gray, pointed-nose animal that is distasteful to the cat because of foul-tasting scent glands is the shrew. Describes the short-tailed shrew's physical characteristics, lifespan, habitat, eating habits, and senses. (ERB)

  13. Nutrition and oxalate metabolism in cats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijcker, J.C.

    2013-01-01

    Over the past 30 years, a progressive increase in calcium oxalate (CaOx) urolith prevalence is reported in cats and dogs diagnosed with urolithiasis. This increase in prevalence appears to have occurred since dietary modifications were introduced to address magnesium ammonium phosphate urolithiasis.

  14. Diagnostic radiology of the dog and cat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kealy, J.K.

    1981-01-01

    Radiolographic examinations have become an important aid in small animal veterinary practice. The emphasis of the examinations has shifted from surgical and orthopedic applications to internal diseases. The book gives a comprehensive picture of X-ray diagnosis in dogs and cats. (orig./MG) [de

  15. Daffodil toxicosis in an adult cat

    OpenAIRE

    Saxon-Buri, Sharon

    2004-01-01

    A domestic longhair cat with a 3-day history of lethargy and vomiting after ingesting dried daffodil stems (Narcissus spp.) was severely hypothermic (33.0°C), with bradycardia (78 beats/min) and hypotension. Treatment with atropine, dexamethasone, fluid therapy, and supportive care resulted in a complete recovery by 6 days after exposure.

  16. An experimental study on cerebral paragonimiasis using cats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Seon Kyu; Chang, Kee Hyun; Goo, Jin Mo; Han, Moon Hee; Shin, Yong Moon; Choo, Sung Wook; Yu, In Kyu; Cho, Seung Yull; Kong, Yoon

    1994-01-01

    It is important to diagnosis paragonimiasis in early active because it can be dared by chemotherapy. However, it is difficult to make a correct diagnosis of cerebral paragonimiasis in the early active stage, and the radiographic findings of cerebral paragonimiasis have been rarely reported. Thus, this experimental study was designed to produce early active cerebral paragonimiasis and to demonstrate radiologic-pathologic correlations. In 8 cats, 7-8 metacercariae of Paragonimus Westermani were directly introduced into brain parenchyma of each cat's after trephination of the skull. In another 16 cats, the juvenile worms and the adult worms that had developed for varying periods (2 weeks, 4 weeks, 6 weeks, 8 weeks and 12 weeks) in the lunges of another cats were introduced into the brain parenchyma of each cat's with the same procedure described above. Follow -up MR images and chest radiographs were obtained at 2 days, 1 weeks, 2 weeks, 4 weeks and 8 weeks after inoculation. The autopsies and histopathological examinations of the cat's brain were undertaken in 22 cats. In 9 cats that were suspected with pulmonary lesion on chest radiograph, the soft tissue radiographs of inflated-fixed lungs were obtained. In one cat with inoculation of adult worm, acute suppurative inflammation of the brain parenchyma was demonstrated. But the other cats with inoculation of adult worm or juvenile worm and the cats with intentional of metacercaris did not reveal any evidence of acute cerebral paragonimiasis. More than half of the introduce metacercariae (5 out of 8 cats) were found in the lung parenchyma, while only 25% (4 out of 16 cats) of the adult worm inoculated cats were. Acute suppurative inflammation suggesting acute stage cerebral paragonimiasis was obtained in one case of adult worm inoculated cat. Most of the inoculated metacercariae and some of the juvenile worms or adult worms were migrated to the lungs

  17. Evaluating Sucralfate as a Phosphate Binder in Normal Cats and Cats with Chronic Kidney Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quimby, Jessica; Lappin, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Control of hyperphosphatemia is an important part of the management of chronic kidney disease (CKD). The purpose of this study was to determine the efficacy of sucralfate as a phosphate binder in normal cats and normophosphatemic CKD cats. A 500 mg sucralfate slurry was administered orally q 8 hr for 2 wk, and serum phosphorus, urine fractional excretion of phosphorus, and fecal phosphorus concentrations were measured. In normal cats treated with sucralfate, significant changes in serum phosphorus concentration or urinary excretion of phosphorus were not detected, and vomiting occurred after 14.7% of administrations. Of the five normophosphatemic cats with CKD treated with sucralfate, three experienced clinical decompensation, including vomiting, anorexia, constipation, and increased azotemia. Administration of sucralfate did not result in significant changes in fecal phosphorus concentration in these cats. The effects of sucralfate administration on serum phosphorus concentration and urinary excretion of phosphorus in CKD cats was difficult to determine because of dehydration and worsening azotemia associated with decompensation. Due to side effects and the apparent lack of efficacy of the medication, the study was discontinued. This study was unable to confirm efficacy of this sucralfate formulation as a phosphate binder, and side effects were problematic during the study.

  18. HEAD MOVEMENT DURING WALKING IN THE CAT

    Science.gov (United States)

    ZUBAIR, HUMZA N.; BELOOZEROVA, IRINA N.; SUN, HAI; MARLINSKI, VLADIMIR

    2016-01-01

    Knowledge of how the head moves during locomotion is essential for understanding how locomotion is controlled by sensory systems of the head. We have analyzed head movements of the cat walking along a straight flat pathway in the darkness and light. We found that cats' head left-right translations, and roll and yaw rotations oscillated once per stride, while fore-aft and vertical translations, and pitch rotations oscillated twice. The head reached its highest vertical positions during second half of each forelimb swing, following maxima of the shoulder/trunk by 20–90°. Nose-up rotation followed head upward translation by another 40–90° delay. The peak-to-peak amplitude of vertical translation was ~1.5 cm and amplitude of pitch rotation was ~3°. Amplitudes of lateral translation and roll rotation were ~1 cm and 1.5–3°, respectively. Overall, cats' heads were neutral in roll and 10–30° nose-down, maintaining horizontal semicircular canals and utriculi within 10° of the earth horizontal. The head longitudinal velocity was 0.5–1 m/s, maximal upward and downward linear velocities were ~0.05 and ~0.1 m/s, respectively, and maximal lateral velocity was ~0.05 m/s. Maximal velocities of head pitch rotation were 20–50 °/s. During walking in light, cats stood 0.3–0.5 cm taller and held their head 0.5–2 cm higher than in darkness. Forward acceleration was 25–100% higher and peak-to-peak amplitude of head pitch oscillations was ~20 °/s larger. We concluded that, during walking, the head of the cat is held actively. Reflexes appear to play only a partial role in determining head movement, and vision might further diminish their role. PMID:27339731

  19. Comparative serological investigation between cat and tiger blood for transfusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thengchaisri, Naris; Sinthusingha, Chayakrit; Arthitwong, Surapong; Sattasathuchana, Panpicha

    2017-06-29

    Evidence suggests that non-domesticated felids inherited the same AB-erythrocyte antigens as domestic cats. To study the possible compatibility of tiger blood with that of other endangered felidae, blood samples from captive tigers and domestic cats were subjected to an in vitro study. The objectives of this study were to (1) identify whether the captive tigers had blood type AB and (2) determine the compatibility between the blood of captive tigers and that of domestic cats with a similar blood type. The anti-coagulated blood with ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid of 30 tigers was examined to determine blood type, and a crossmatching test was performed between tiger and cat blood. All 30 tigers had blood type A. Tube agglutination tests using tiger plasma with cat erythrocytes resulted in 100% agglutination (n=30) with type B cat erythrocytes and 76.7% agglutination (n=23) with type A cat erythrocytes. The 80% of major and 60% of minor compatibilities between blood from 10 tigers and 10 domestic cats with blood type A were found to pass compatibility tests. Interestingly, 3/10 of the tigers' red blood cell samples were fully compatible with all cat plasmas, and 1/10 of the tiger plasma samples were fully compatible with the type A red cells of domestic cats. Although the result of present findings revealed type-A blood group in the surveyed tigers, the reaction of tiger plasma with Type-A red cell from cats suggested a possibility of other blood type in tigers.

  20. Opinions from the front lines of cat colony management conflict.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Nils Peterson

    Full Text Available Outdoor cats represent a global threat to terrestrial vertebrate conservation, but management has been rife with conflict due to differences in views of the problem and appropriate responses to it. To evaluate these differences we conducted a survey of opinions about outdoor cats and their management with two contrasting stakeholder groups, cat colony caretakers (CCCs and bird conservation professionals (BCPs across the United States. Group opinions were polarized, for both normative statements (CCCs supported treating feral cats as protected wildlife and using trap neuter and release [TNR] and BCPs supported treating feral cats as pests and using euthanasia and empirical statements. Opinions also were related to gender, age, and education, with females and older respondents being less likely than their counterparts to support treating feral cats as pests, and females being less likely than males to support euthanasia. Most CCCs held false beliefs about the impacts of feral cats on wildlife and the impacts of TNR (e.g., 9% believed feral cats harmed bird populations, 70% believed TNR eliminates cat colonies, and 18% disagreed with the statement that feral cats filled the role of native predators. Only 6% of CCCs believed feral cats carried diseases. To the extent the beliefs held by CCCs are rooted in lack of knowledge and mistrust, rather than denial of directly observable phenomenon, the conservation community can manage these conflicts more productively by bringing CCCs into the process of defining data collection methods, defining study/management locations, and identifying common goals related to caring for animals.

  1. Opinions from the Front Lines of Cat Colony Management Conflict

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, M. Nils; Hartis, Brett; Rodriguez, Shari; Green, Matthew; Lepczyk, Christopher A.

    2012-01-01

    Outdoor cats represent a global threat to terrestrial vertebrate conservation, but management has been rife with conflict due to differences in views of the problem and appropriate responses to it. To evaluate these differences we conducted a survey of opinions about outdoor cats and their management with two contrasting stakeholder groups, cat colony caretakers (CCCs) and bird conservation professionals (BCPs) across the United States. Group opinions were polarized, for both normative statements (CCCs supported treating feral cats as protected wildlife and using trap neuter and release [TNR] and BCPs supported treating feral cats as pests and using euthanasia) and empirical statements. Opinions also were related to gender, age, and education, with females and older respondents being less likely than their counterparts to support treating feral cats as pests, and females being less likely than males to support euthanasia. Most CCCs held false beliefs about the impacts of feral cats on wildlife and the impacts of TNR (e.g., 9% believed feral cats harmed bird populations, 70% believed TNR eliminates cat colonies, and 18% disagreed with the statement that feral cats filled the role of native predators). Only 6% of CCCs believed feral cats carried diseases. To the extent the beliefs held by CCCs are rooted in lack of knowledge and mistrust, rather than denial of directly observable phenomenon, the conservation community can manage these conflicts more productively by bringing CCCs into the process of defining data collection methods, defining study/management locations, and identifying common goals related to caring for animals. PMID:22970269

  2. Opinions from the front lines of cat colony management conflict.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, M Nils; Hartis, Brett; Rodriguez, Shari; Green, Matthew; Lepczyk, Christopher A

    2012-01-01

    Outdoor cats represent a global threat to terrestrial vertebrate conservation, but management has been rife with conflict due to differences in views of the problem and appropriate responses to it. To evaluate these differences we conducted a survey of opinions about outdoor cats and their management with two contrasting stakeholder groups, cat colony caretakers (CCCs) and bird conservation professionals (BCPs) across the United States. Group opinions were polarized, for both normative statements (CCCs supported treating feral cats as protected wildlife and using trap neuter and release [TNR] and BCPs supported treating feral cats as pests and using euthanasia) and empirical statements. Opinions also were related to gender, age, and education, with females and older respondents being less likely than their counterparts to support treating feral cats as pests, and females being less likely than males to support euthanasia. Most CCCs held false beliefs about the impacts of feral cats on wildlife and the impacts of TNR (e.g., 9% believed feral cats harmed bird populations, 70% believed TNR eliminates cat colonies, and 18% disagreed with the statement that feral cats filled the role of native predators). Only 6% of CCCs believed feral cats carried diseases. To the extent the beliefs held by CCCs are rooted in lack of knowledge and mistrust, rather than denial of directly observable phenomenon, the conservation community can manage these conflicts more productively by bringing CCCs into the process of defining data collection methods, defining study/management locations, and identifying common goals related to caring for animals.

  3. Hypoglycemia associated with refeeding syndrome in a cat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeAvilla, Marisa D; Leech, Elizabeth B

    2016-11-01

    To describe the clinical presentation and biochemical abnormalities occurring during the successful treatment of refeeding syndrome in a cat. A 2-year-old neutered male domestic shorthair cat presented after having been missing for 12 weeks. The cat had clinical signs of severe starvation. Common complications developed during refeeding (eg, hypophosphatemia, hypokalemia, and hemolytic anemia). The cat also developed hypoglycemia, a complication common in people but not previously reported in a cat. Hypoglycemia and electrolyte deficiencies were managed with intravenous supplementation. The cat was successfully treated and was discharged alive 7 days after presentation. Hypoglycemia has not been reported previously as a complication of refeeding in a cat. Frequent monitoring of electrolyte, mineral, and blood glucose concentrations is essential to successful management of refeeding syndrome. The ideal refeeding strategy is unknown at this time. Evidence suggests that a diet low in carbohydrate decreases the likelihood of metabolic derangements commonly associated with refeeding. © Veterinary Emergency and Critical Care Society 2016.

  4. Occupancy of the Invasive Feral Cat Varies with Habitat Complexity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosemary Hohnen

    Full Text Available The domestic cat (Felis catus is an invasive exotic in many locations around the world and is thought to be a key factor driving recent mammal declines across northern Australia. Many mammal species native to this region now persist only in areas with high topographic complexity, provided by features such as gorges or escarpments. Do mammals persist in these habitats because cats occupy them less, or despite high cat occupancy? We show that occupancy of feral cats was lower in mammal-rich habitats of high topographic complexity. These results support the idea that predation pressure by feral cats is a factor contributing to the collapse of mammal communities across northern Australia. Managing impacts of feral cats is a global conservation challenge. Conservation actions such as choosing sites for small mammal reintroductions may be more successful if variation in cat occupancy with landscape features is taken into account.

  5. MRI of secondary cervical syringomyelia in four cats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okada, Midori; Itou, Takuya; Sakai, Takeo; Kitagawa, Masato; Ito, Daisuke; Kanayama, Kiichi

    2009-01-01

    This report describes the use of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to diagnose cervical syringomyelia in 4 cats. MRI revealed enlargement of the lateral ventricle in all the cats. Of the 4 cases, MRI revealed herniation of the cerebellum in 3 cats, an isolated fourth ventricle in 1 cat, severe hydrocephalus in 2 cats and brain masses in 1 cat. In this report, the cervical syringomyelia in these cats may have been due to formation of a secondary syrinx (enlargement of the central canal) as a result of blockage of flow in the outlet of the fourth ventricle caused by feline infectious peritonitis (FIP) encephalomyelitis or secondary cerebellar tonsillar herniation caused by increased intracranial pressure due to intracranial masses or may have been due to caudal compression of the cerebellum caused by increased intracranial pressure due to hydrocephalus. (author)

  6. Revision of fleas of the genus Plocopsylla belonging to the 'angusticeps-lewisi' complex in the Andean biogeographic region, with the description of a new species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez, J; Beaucournu, J-C; Lareschi, M

    2015-06-01

    In Argentina, the Andean biogeographic region accommodates the most diverse population of fleas in the country. The Craneopsyllinae (Siphonaptera: Stephanocircidae) represent one of the most commonly found subfamilies in this region and show some endemism and high diversity. Plocopsylla is the most diverse genus of Craneopsyllinae; it includes 10 species mainly distributed in the Patagonian subregion, which parasitize sigmodontine rodents (Rodentia: Cricetidae). We describe and illustrate the morphology of the aedeagus in species of Plocopsylla that belong to the 'angusticeps-lewisi' complex. This character is of diagnostic value in differentiating among species. A new species of this complex, Plocopsylla (Plocopsylla) linardii sp. n., is described and identified by the shape and chaetotaxy of the distal arm of sternite IX, as well as by the shape of the median dorsal lobe of the aedeagus. New host associations for this complex and range extensions for most of its species are reported. Plocopsylla (P.) silewi is recorded for the first time in Argentina. The southern limits of the distributions of Plocopsylla (P.) lewisi and Plocopsylla (P.) wilesi are extended to Santa Cruz Province. The angusticeps-lewisi complex is found for the first time in San Juan Province. The information may be useful in epidemiological studies of flea-borne diseases. © 2015 The Royal Entomological Society.

  7. Drought controls on H2O2 accumulation, catalase (CAT) activity and CAT gene expression in wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luna, Celina M; Pastori, Gabriela M; Driscoll, Simon; Groten, Karin; Bernard, Stephanie; Foyer, Christine H

    2005-01-01

    Plants co-ordinate information derived from many diverse external and internal signals to ensure appropriate control of gene expression under optimal and stress conditions. In this work, the relationships between catalase (CAT) and H2O2 during drought in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) are studied. Drought-induced H2O2 accumulation correlated with decreases in soil water content and CO2 assimilation. Leaf H2O2 content increased even though total CAT activity doubled under severe drought conditions. Diurnal regulation of CAT1 and CAT2 mRNA abundance was apparent in all conditions and day/night CAT1 and CAT2 expression patterns were modified by mild and severe drought. The abundance of CAT1 transcripts was regulated by circadian controls that persisted in continuous darkness, while CAT2 was modulated by light. Drought decreased abundance, and modified the pattern, of CAT1 and CAT2 mRNAs. It was concluded that the complex regulation of CAT mRNA, particularly at the level of translation, allows precise control of leaf H2O2 accumulation.

  8. A comparison of cat-related risk perceptions and tolerance for outdoor cats in Florida and Hawaii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wald, Dara M; Lohr, Cheryl A; Lepczyk, Christopher A; Jacobson, Susan K; Cox, Linda J

    2016-12-01

    Risk perceptions and attitudes toward animals often explain tolerance for wildlife and management preferences. However, little is understood about how these relationships vary across different geographic regions and stakeholder groups. To address this gap in knowledge, we compared differences in acceptance capacity, risk perceptions, perceived enjoyment from outdoor cats, and experiences with outdoor cats among 3 groups (general public, conservation community, and animal-welfare community) in Hawaii and Florida, two states with large conservation challenges. We combined independently collected data from Florida and Hawaii, to determine how perception of the risks presented by outdoor cats, group membership, and state of residence influenced people's tolerance for outdoor cats. Florida respondents were significantly more tolerant of outdoor cats and less concerned about cat-related risks than Hawaii respondents (p cats and perceived a smaller increase in the cat population and lower levels of risk than other groups (p cat population. Our results suggest public tolerance for cats varied due to the influence of local or geographical concerns, but that strongly held beliefs, risk perceptions, and feelings about cats explained more of the variance in stakeholder tolerance. © 2016 Society for Conservation Biology.

  9. Lipid composition of hepatic and adipose tissues from normal cats and from cats with idiopathic hepatic lipidosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, J A; Barstad, L A; Connor, W E

    1997-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to characterize the lipid classes in hepatic and adipose tissues from cats with idiopathic hepatic lipidosis (IHL). Concentrations of triglyceride, phospholipid phosphorus, and free and total cholesterol were determined in lipid extracts of liver homogenates from 5 cats with IHL and 5 healthy control cats. Total fatty acid composition of liver and adipose tissue was also compared. Triglyceride accounted for 34% of liver by weight in cats with IHL (338 +/- 38 mg/g wet liver) versus 1% in control cats (9.9 +/- 1.0 mg/g wet liver, P hepatic tissue in the 2 groups differed; palmitate was higher (19.5 +/- 1.1% of total fatty acids in cats with IHL versus 9.2 +/- 2.7% in controls, P hepatic triglyceride in cats with IHL is the mobilization of fatty acids from adipose tissue.

  10. 1993 CAT workshop on beamline optical designs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-11-01

    An Advanced Photon Source (APS) Collaborative Access Team (CAT) Workshop on Beamline Optical Designs was held at Argonne National Laboratory on July 26--27, 1993. The goal of this workshop was to bring together experts from various synchrotron sources to provide status reports on crystal, reflecting, and polarizing optics as a baseline for discussions of issues facing optical designers for CAT beamlines at the APS. Speakers from the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility (ESRF), the University of Chicago, the National Synchrotron Light Source, and the University of Manchester (England) described single- and double-crystal monochromators, mirrors, glass capillaries, and polarizing optics. Following these presentations, the 90 participants divided into three working groups: Crystal Optics Design, Reflecting Optics, and Optics for Polarization Studies. This volume contains copies of the presentation materials from all speakers, summaries of the three working groups, and a ''catalog'' of various monochromator designs

  11. Rectal duplication cyst in a cat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kook, Peter H; Hagen, Regine; Willi, Barbara; Ruetten, Maja; Venzin, Claudio

    2010-12-01

    Enteric duplication is a rare developmental malformation in people, dogs and cats. The purpose of the present report is to describe the first case of a rectal duplication cyst in a 7-year-old domestic shorthair cat presenting for acute constipation and tenesmus. On rectal palpation a spherical mass compressing the lumen of the rectum could be felt in the dorsal wall of the rectum. A computed tomography (CT) scan confirmed the presence of a well demarcated cystic lesion in the pelvic canal, dorsal to the rectum. The cyst was surgically removed via a perineal approach. No communication with the rectal lumen could be demonstrated. Histopathological examination was consistent with a rectal duplication cyst. Clinical signs resolved completely after excision of this conjoined non-communicating cystic rectal duplicate. Copyright © 2010 ISFM and AAFP. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. CT studies of brain abscesses in cats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kretzschmar, K.; Wallenfang, T.; Bohl, J.

    1981-01-01

    Cerebral abscesses were produced in 56 cats by introducing staphylococcus aureus into the white matter of one cerebral hemisphere, using a stereotaxic apparatus. The cats were treated with antibiotics and/or steroids. The size and density of the inflammatory process and the abscess ring were measured on postcontrast CT scans. Differences were found depending on the stage of the abscess, but the deviation of values was too great for determining the age of the abscess from one measurement, to be able to apply proper treatment. The size and density of the abscesses were the same on CT whether the animals were treated or not. This was contrary to the clinical picture, the measurements of edema, and the histopathological studies. (orig.)

  13. Cheshire cat phenomena and quarks in nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rho, M.

    1986-11-01

    The notion of the ''Cheshire Cat'' principle in hadron structure is developed rigorously in (1+1) dimensions and approximately in (3+1) dimensions for up- and down-quark flavor systems. This phenomenon is invoked to address the issue as to whether or not direct quark-gluon signatures can be ''seen'' in low-energy nuclear phenomena. How addition of the third flavor -strangeness- can modify the Cheshire Cat property is discussed. It is proposed that one of the primary objectives of nuclear physics be to probe -and disturb- the ''vacuum'' of the strong interactions (QCD) and that for this purpose the chiral symmetry SU(3)xSU(3) can play a crucial role in normal and extreme conditions. As an illustration, kaon condensation at a density ρ>∼ 3ρ 0 is discussed in terms of a toy model and is related to ''cleansing'' of the quark condensates from the vacuum

  14. 1993 CAT workshop on beamline optical designs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-11-01

    An Advanced Photon Source (APS) Collaborative Access Team (CAT) Workshop on Beamline Optical Designs was held at Argonne National Laboratory on July 26--27, 1993. The goal of this workshop was to bring together experts from various synchrotron sources to provide status reports on crystal, reflecting, and polarizing optics as a baseline for discussions of issues facing optical designers for CAT beamlines at the APS. Speakers from the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility (ESRF), the University of Chicago, the National Synchrotron Light Source, and the University of Manchester (England) described single- and double-crystal monochromators, mirrors, glass capillaries, and polarizing optics. Following these presentations, the 90 participants divided into three working groups: Crystal Optics Design, Reflecting Optics, and Optics for Polarization Studies. This volume contains copies of the presentation materials from all speakers, summaries of the three working groups, and a ``catalog`` of various monochromator designs.

  15. Las catástrofes naturales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Capacci

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Durante los últimos cuarenta años, la cantidad de víctimas por catástrofes naturales se ha quintuplicado en el mundo. El aumento incontrolado de la población, especialmente de la urbana, así como la situación socioeconómica, medioambiental y política de algunas regiones, son las principales causas de esta situación. El objetivo del presente trabajo es dar una idea de las principales cuestiones (teóricas, tipológicas, dimensionales y de costos ligadas a dichas catástrofes, las cuales pueden estimular reflexiones, desde consideraciones de tipo teórico hasta aquellas más prácticas y operativas.

  16. The contribution of cat owners' attitudes and behaviours to the free-roaming cat overpopulation in Tel Aviv, Israel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finkler, Hilit; Terkel, Joseph

    2012-04-01

    The attitudes and behaviours of cat owners in regard to treatment of cats may have a cumulative effect on the food availability, reproduction, density and welfare of the free-roaming cat population and thus also on the extent of cat overpopulation. Understanding this is thus a vital step in the a priori planning of cat management programs on any scale, as well as in developing public education programs on this issue. Although recent years have seen an accumulation of knowledge in regard to cat owners' attitudes and behaviours, the findings vary among countries and locations and in Israel this has never been investigated systematically. Using a questionnaire provided to cat owners in veterinary clinics, this study aimed at identifying those attitudes and behaviours that may be contributing to cat overpopulation in Tel Aviv, Israel, and at exploring the socio-economic factors that influence this problem. The findings show that the influential factors can be predicted from the cat owners' socio-economic status, mainly education and income, as well as gender and age. A consistency in those cat owner behaviours that contribute to cat overpopulation was also uncovered, revealing a sub-population of individuals who persist in the undesirable behaviours. Finally, a strong relationship between attitude and consequent behaviour was demonstrated, indicating the importance of education and targeted publicity as a means to influence attitudes and thereby change behaviours in this respect. We propose several measures by which to reduce the current extent of cat owners' contribution to the cat overpopulation: discouraging unwanted owner behaviours such as abandonment of their cats and allowing them to breed; promoting awareness of the neutering option among cat caretakers; and increasing pre-adoption neutering rates in shelters. Regional and national laws promoting responsible pet ownership need to be enacted. By improving the current level of knowledge and awareness among cat

  17. Cognitive Activation Theory of Stress (CATS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-01

    of reciprocity occurs frequently under the following three conditions: (i) “dependency” (due to a lack of alternative choice in the labour market ...Box, N 5020 Bergen Norway SUMMARY This is a brief review of the Cognitive Activation Theory of Stress (CATS) (Ursin and Eriksen 2004), which offers...of Bergen Krinkelkroken 1 P.O. Box, N 5020 Bergen Norway 8. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION REPORT NUMBER 9. SPONSORING/MONITORING AGENCY NAME(S) AND

  18. Chlamydiosis in a fishing cat (Felis viverrina).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kik, M J; van der Hage, M H; Greydanus-van der Putten, S W

    1997-06-01

    A fishing cat (Felis viverrina) died overnight, within 12 hr of peracute onset of depression, slight tremors, pallor, and icterus. Necropsy showed widespread hemorrhage and hematomata in the heart, stomach, and kidneys. The lungs were hyperemic and edematous. The liver was swollen and yellowish green. The spleen was very large and hyperemic. Histologic changes consisted of pneumonia, hepatic necrosis, and renal hemorrhage with glomerular fibrin clots. Chlamydia antigen was detected in liver and kidney using a direct immunofluorescence assay, and Chlamydia were cultured.

  19. Fatal disseminated toxoplasmosis in an immunocompetent cat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susanna S. Nagel

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available A 10-year-old domestic short hair cat was referred for investigation of anorexia and polydipsia of 3 days’ duration. Clinically the cat was obese, pyrexic (39.8 °C, had acute abdominal pain and severe bilirubinuria. Haematology and serum biochemistry revealed severe panleukopenia, thrombocytopenia, markedly elevated alanine aminotransferase (ALT and five-fold increased pre-prandial bile acids. Ultrasonographic evaluation of the abdomen did not identify any abnormalities. Serum tests for feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV and feline leukaemia virus (FeLV were negative. Broad-spectrum antibiotic treatment for infectious hepatitis was to no avail; the cat deteriorated and died 72 h after admission. Necropsy revealed mild icterus and anaemia, severe multifocal hepatic necrosis, serofibrinous hydrothorax, pulmonary oedema and interstitial pneumonia. Histopathology confirmed the macroscopic findings and revealed multifocal microgranulomata in the brain and myocardium, as well as areas of necrosis in lymph nodes and multifocally in splenic red pulp. Long bone shaft marrow was hyperplastic with a predominance of leukocyte precursors and megakaryocytes and splenic red pulp showed mild extramedullary haemopoiesis. Immunohistochemical staining for Toxoplasma gondii was strongly positive, with scattered cysts and tachyzoites in the liver, lymph nodes, spleen, lungs, brain, salivary glands and intracellularly in round cells in occasional blood vessels. Immunohistochemical staining for corona virus on the same tissues was negative, ruling out feline infectious peritonitis (FIP. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR on formalin-fixed paraffin-wax embedded tissues was positive for Toxoplasma sp., but attempts at sequencing were unsuccessful. This was the first case report of fulminant disseminated toxoplasmosis in South Africa, in which detailed histopathology in an apparently immunocompetent cat was described.

  20. Fatal disseminated toxoplasmosis in an immunocompetent cat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagel, Susanna S; Williams, June H; Schoeman, Johannes P

    2013-02-14

    A 10-year-old domestic short hair cat was referred for investigation of anorexia and polydipsia of 3 days' duration. Clinically the cat was obese, pyrexic (39.8 °C), had acute abdominal pain and severe bilirubinuria. Haematology and serum biochemistry revealed severe panleukopenia, thrombocytopenia, markedly elevated alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and five-fold increased pre-prandial bile acids. Ultrasonographic evaluation of the abdomen did not identify any abnormalities. Serum tests for feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) and feline leukaemia virus (FeLV) were negative. Broad-spectrum antibiotic treatment for infectious hepatitis was to no avail; the cat deteriorated and died 72 h after admission. Necropsy revealed mild icterus and anaemia, severe multifocal hepatic necrosis, serofibrinous hydrothorax, pulmonary oedema and interstitial pneumonia. Histopathology confirmed the macroscopic findings and revealed multifocal microgranulomata in the brain and myocardium, as well as areas of necrosis in lymph nodes and multifocally in splenic red pulp. Long bone shaft marrow was hyperplastic with a predominance of leukocyte precursors and megakaryocytes and splenic red pulp showed mild extramedullary haemopoiesis. Immunohistochemical staining for Toxoplasma gondii was strongly positive, with scattered cysts and tachyzoites in the liver, lymph nodes, spleen, lungs, brain, salivary glands and intracellularly in round cells in occasional blood vessels. Immunohistochemical staining for corona virus on the same tissues was negative, ruling out feline infectious peritonitis (FIP). Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) on formalin-fixed paraffin-wax embedded tissues was positive for Toxoplasma sp., but attempts at sequencing were unsuccessful. This was the first case report of fulminant disseminated toxoplasmosis in South Africa, in which detailed histopathology in an apparently immunocompetent cat was described.

  1. Cefazolin pharmacokinetics in cats under surgical conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albarellos, Gabriela A; Montoya, Laura; Passini, Sabrina M; Lupi, Martín P; Lorenzini, Paula M; Landoni, María F

    2017-10-01

    Objectives The aim of this study was to determine the plasma pharmacokinetic profile, tissue concentrations and urine elimination of cefazolin in cats under surgical conditions after a single intravenous dose of 20 mg/kg. Methods Intravenous cefazolin (20 mg/kg) was administered to nine young mixed-breed cats 30 mins before they underwent surgical procedures (ovariectomy or orchiectomy). After antibiotic administration, samples from blood, some tissues and urine were taken. Cefazolin concentrations were determined in all biological matrices and pharmacokinetic parameters were estimated. Results Initial plasma concentrations were high (C p(0) , 134.80 ± 40.54 µg/ml), with fast and moderately wide distribution (distribution half-life [t ½(d) ] 0.16 ± 0.15 h; volume of distribution at steady state [V (d[ss]) ] 0.29 ± 0.10 l/kg) and rapid elimination (body clearance [Cl B ], 0.21 ± 0.06 l/h/kg; elimination half-life [t ½ ], 1.18 ± 0.27 h; mean residence time 1.42 ± 0.36 h). Thirty to 60 mins after intravenous administration, cefazolin tissue concentrations ranged from 9.24 µg/ml (subcutaneous tissue) to 26.44 µg/ml (ovary). The tissue/plasma concentration ratio ranged from 0.18 (muscle) to 0.58 (ovary). Cefazolin urine concentrations were high with 84.2% of the administered dose being eliminated in the first 6 h postadministration. Conclusions and relevance Cefazolin plasma concentrations remained above a minimum inhibitory concentration of ⩽2 µg/ml up to 4 h in all the studied cats. This suggests that a single intravenous dose of 20 mg/kg cefazolin would be adequate for perioperative prophylactic use in cats.

  2. Endocrine emergencies in dogs and cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koenig, Amie

    2013-07-01

    Success in treatment of endocrine emergencies is contingent on early recognition and treatment. Many endocrine diseases presenting emergently have nonspecific signs and symptoms. In addition, these endocrine crises are often precipitated by concurrent disease, further making early identification difficult. This article concentrates on recognition and emergency management of the most common endocrine crises in dogs and cats. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Mycobacterial panniculitis caused by in a cat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Polina Vishkautsan

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Case summary A domestic shorthair cat was evaluated for chronic, bilateral, ulcerative dermatitis affecting the inguinal region and lateral aspects of both pelvic limbs. Histopathologic examination of skin biopsies collected throughout the course of disease revealed chronic pyogranulomatous ulcerative dermatitis. Aerobic bacterial skin cultures yielded growth of a methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and Corynebacterium amycolatum . Upon referral the clinical findings were suggestive of a non-tuberculous Mycobacterium species infection. Previously obtained skin cultures failed to yield growth of mycobacterial organisms. A deep skin biopsy was collected and submitted for mycobacterial culture. At 5 weeks of incubation Mycobacterium thermoresistibile was isolated. In previous reports, M thermoresistibile has been isolated after 2–4 days of incubation, suggesting that this strain may have been a slower growing variant, or other factors (such as prior antimicrobial therapy inhibited rapid growth of this isolate. The cat was hospitalized for intravenous antibiotic therapy, surgical debridement of wounds, vacuum-assisted wound closure therapy and reconstruction procedures. The wounds were ultimately primarily closed and the cat was discharged to the owner after 50 days of hospitalization. Seven months after hospitalization, the ulcerative skin lesions had healed. Relevance and novel information To our knowledge, only two cases of M thermoresistibile panniculitis have been reported in cats. In the only detailed report of feline M thermoresistibile panniculitis, treatment was not attempted. The second case only reported detection of M thermoresistibile by PCR without a clinical description of the case. In our case report, severe chronic skin infection with M thermoresistibile was addressed using prolonged specific antibiotic therapy, surgical debridement and reconstructions, and treatment of secondary bacterial infections.

  4. Social behavior and aggressive problems of cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crowell-Davis, S L; Barry, K; Wolfe, R

    1997-05-01

    Cats form social groups in which individuals recognize each other, and the cohesiveness of the group is maintained by a variety of amicable behaviors. Agonistic behavior may occur between group members and between group members and nongroup members. Within the domestic environment, agonistic behavior may become a problem when it is directed at housemates or humans. Differential diagnosis and treatment of various problems of aggressive behavior are discussed.

  5. Sudden behavior change in a cat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelberg, H B

    2013-11-01

    A 5-year-old, spayed female, domestic short-haired cat had a 10-day history of sudden behavioral changes followed by seizures. Blood parameters were in the reference ranges, and radiographs failed to detect a mass lesion in the brain. Euthanasia was followed by rabies testing, which was negative. Gross lesions were absent. Histologic changes were present only in the brain and consisted of foci of hippocampal pyramidal cell loss, mild gliosis, pallor of the associated neuropil, and neovascularization.

  6. Online Relinquishments of Dogs and Cats in Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan J. Hazel

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available While traditionally people relinquish their pets to an animal shelter or pound, the internet provides a newer method to re-home. We analyzed advertisements (ads on the largest website in Australia for trading dogs and cats: Gumtree. Data was collected in 2016. Dogs were sampled on 7, 16 and 24 February 2016 and cats on 9, 19 and 26 February 2016, with 2640 ads for relinquished dogs, and 2093 ads for relinquished cats. It was estimated >31,000 puppies/dogs and >24,000 kittens/cats are relinquished on Gumtree per year. The median age of dogs was 1.42 and cats 0.9 years of age. There were 23% of dog ads and 62% of cat ads for free animals. Compared to the human population, there were proportionately more ads in Queensland and fewer ads in Victoria. A total of 15 people were surveyed who had relinquished a dog or cat using Gumtree. The dog owners used Gumtree for two reasons: because they believed the shelters were full (n = 4; and they wanted to see/interview the new owner (n = 2. For cat owners: they had originally got the cat on Gumtree (n = 2; they use Gumtree for other things, and it works (n = 2, and; they wanted to see/interview the new owner (n = 2. The data collected will be valuable for implementation of policy and interventions to protect the welfare of unwanted dogs and cats.

  7. The Population Origins and Expansion of Feral Cats in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spencer, Peter B S; Yurchenko, Andrey A; David, Victor A; Scott, Rachael; Koepfli, Klaus-Peter; Driscoll, Carlos; O'Brien, Stephen J; Menotti-Raymond, Marilyn

    2016-03-01

    The historical literature suggests that in Australia, the domestic cat (Felis catus) had a European origin [~200 years before present (ybp)], but it is unclear if cats arrived from across the Asian land bridge contemporaneously with the dingo (4000 ybp), or perhaps immigrated ~40000 ybp in association with Aboriginal settlement from Asia. The origin of cats in Australia is important because the continent has a complex and ancient faunal assemblage that is dominated by endemic rodents and marsupials and lacks the large placental carnivores found on other large continents. Cats are now ubiquitous across the entire Australian continent and have been implicit in the range contraction or extinction of its small to medium sized (cats using 15 short tandem repeat (STR) genomic markers. Their origin appears to come exclusively from European founders. Feral cats in continental Australia exhibit high genetic diversity in comparison with the low diversity found in populations of feral cats living on islands. The genetic structure is consistent with a rapid westerly expansion from eastern Australia and a limited expansion in coastal Western Australia. Australian cats show modest if any population structure and a close genetic alignment with European feral cats as compared to cats from Asia, the Christmas and Cocos (Keeling) Islands (Indian Ocean), and European wildcats (F. silvestris silvestris). © The American Genetic Association 2015. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  8. The Population Origins and Expansion of Feral Cats in Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yurchenko, Andrey A.; David, Victor A.; Scott, Rachael; Koepfli, Klaus-Peter; Driscoll, Carlos; O’Brien, Stephen J.; Menotti-Raymond, Marilyn

    2016-01-01

    The historical literature suggests that in Australia, the domestic cat (Felis catus) had a European origin [~200 years before present (ybp)], but it is unclear if cats arrived from across the Asian land bridge contemporaneously with the dingo (4000 ybp), or perhaps immigrated ~40000 ybp in association with Aboriginal settlement from Asia. The origin of cats in Australia is important because the continent has a complex and ancient faunal assemblage that is dominated by endemic rodents and marsupials and lacks the large placental carnivores found on other large continents. Cats are now ubiquitous across the entire Australian continent and have been implicit in the range contraction or extinction of its small to medium sized (cats using 15 short tandem repeat (STR) genomic markers. Their origin appears to come exclusively from European founders. Feral cats in continental Australia exhibit high genetic diversity in comparison with the low diversity found in populations of feral cats living on islands. The genetic structure is consistent with a rapid westerly expansion from eastern Australia and a limited expansion in coastal Western Australia. Australian cats show modest if any population structure and a close genetic alignment with European feral cats as compared to cats from Asia, the Christmas and Cocos (Keeling) Islands (Indian Ocean), and European wildcats (F. silvestris silvestris). PMID:26647063

  9. Topical flurbiprofen toxicosis in a cat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Elizabeth M; Leech, Elizabeth

    2017-11-01

    To describe the clinical presentation and treatment of a cat with flurbiprofen toxicosis due to topical cream exposure. A 3-year-old castrated male domestic shorthair cat presented to an emergency and referral center for acute lethargy, hematemesis, and anemia. Severe azotemia was observed on serum biochemistry panel. The patient's anemia was treated with packed RBC transfusion, and treatment with crystalloid fluids, famotidine, pantoprazole, ampicillin, and sucralfate were begun on presentation. Anemia became intractable and the patient received multiple packed RBC and whole blood transfusions. Severe gastric ulcerations and duodenal perforation were confirmed via gastroduodenoscopy, and the patient was treated with surgical excision and repair of duodenal perforation. Azotemia resolved with IV fluid therapy, and anemia resolved following surgery. The patient recovered and was discharged after 9 days of hospitalization. The patient had likely been exposed to the owner's compounded pain relief cream containing 10% flurbiprofen. There was confirmation of flurbiprofen exposure via acid extraction urine analysis at a university toxicology laboratory. This is the first described case of flurbiprofen toxicosis due to topical cream exposure in a cat. © Veterinary Emergency and Critical Care Society 2017.

  10. Development of the cat-owner relationship scale (CORS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howell, Tiffani J; Bowen, Jonathan; Fatjó, Jaume; Calvo, Paula; Holloway, Anna; Bennett, Pauleen C

    2017-08-01

    Characteristics of the human-animal bond can be influenced by both owner-related and pet-related factors, which likely differ between species. Three studies adapted the Monash Dog-Owner Relationship Scale (MDORS) to permit assessment of human-cat interactions as perceived by the cat's owner. In Study 1293 female cat owners completed a modified version of the MDORS, where 'dog' was replaced with 'cat' for all items. Responses were compared with a matched sample of female dog owners. A partial least squares discriminant analysis revealed systematic differences between cat and dog owners in the Dog (Cat)-Owner Interaction subscale (MDORS subscale 1), but not for Perceived Emotional Closeness or Perceived Costs (Subscales 2 and 3). Study 2 involved analysis of free-text descriptions of cat-owner interactions provided by 61 female cat owners. Text mining identified key words which were used to create additional questions for a new Cat-Owner Interaction subscale. In Study 3, the resulting cat-owner relationship scale (CORS) was tested in a group of 570 cat owners. The main psychometric properties of the scale, including internal consistency and factor structure, were evaluated. We propose that this scale can be used to accurately assess owner perceptions of their relationship with their cat. A modified scale, combining items from the CORS and MDORS (a C/DORS), is also provided for when researchers would find it desirable to compare human-cat and human-dog interactions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Determinants of Cat Choice and Outcomes for Adult Cats and Kittens Adopted from an Australian Animal Shelter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zito, Sarah; Paterson, Mandy; Vankan, Dianne; Morton, John; Bennett, Pauleen; Phillips, Clive

    2015-01-01

    Simple Summary Commonly, more adult cats than kittens are euthanized in animal shelters. We surveyed 382 cat adopters to assess adoption outcomes and potential determinants of adopters’ choice of cat age group and price. Most adopters had benevolent motivations for adopting from the shelter and had put considerable thought into the adoption and responsible ownership requirements. However, adult cat adopters were more likely to have been influenced by price than kitten adopters. Adoption outcomes were generally positive in all age and adoption price groups. This study provides evidence to inform the design of strategies to encourage adult cat adoptions. Abstract The percentage of adult cats euthanized in animal shelters is greater than that of kittens because adult cats are less likely to be adopted. This study aimed to provide evidence to inform the design of strategies to encourage adult cat adoptions. One such strategy is to discount adoption prices, but there are concerns that this may result in poor adoption outcomes. We surveyed 382 cat adopters at the time of adoption, to assess potential determinants of adopters’ cat age group choice (adult or kitten) and, for adult cat adopters, the price they are willing to pay. The same respondents were surveyed again 6–12 months after the adoption to compare outcomes between cat age groups and between adult cats in two price categories. Most adopters had benevolent motivations for adopting from the shelter and had put considerable thought into the adoption and requirements for responsible ownership. However, adult cat adopters were more likely to have been influenced by price than kitten adopters. Adoption outcomes were generally positive for both adult cats and kittens and for adult cats adopted at low prices. The latter finding alleviates concerns about the outcomes of “low-cost” adoptions in populations, such as the study population, and lends support for the use of “low-cost” adoptions as an option for

  12. Determinants of Cat Choice and Outcomes for Adult Cats and Kittens Adopted from an Australian Animal Shelter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Zito

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The percentage of adult cats euthanized in animal shelters is greater than that of kittens because adult cats are less likely to be adopted. This study aimed to provide evidence to inform the design of strategies to encourage adult cat adoptions. One such strategy is to discount adoption prices, but there are concerns that this may result in poor adoption outcomes. We surveyed 382 cat adopters at the time of adoption, to assess potential determinants of adopters’ cat age group choice (adult or kitten and, for adult cat adopters, the price they are willing to pay. The same respondents were surveyed again 6–12 months after the adoption to compare outcomes between cat age groups and between adult cats in two price categories. Most adopters had benevolent motivations for adopting from the shelter and had put considerable thought into the adoption and requirements for responsible ownership. However, adult cat adopters were more likely to have been influenced by price than kitten adopters. Adoption outcomes were generally positive for both adult cats and kittens and for adult cats adopted at low prices. The latter finding alleviates concerns about the outcomes of “low-cost” adoptions in populations, such as the study population, and lends support for the use of “low-cost” adoptions as an option for attempting to increase adoption rates. In addition, the results provide information that can be used to inform future campaigns aimed at increasing the number of adult cat adoptions, particularly in devising marketing strategies for adult cats.

  13. Feline immunodeficiency virus testing in stray, feral, and client-owned cats of Ottawa

    OpenAIRE

    Little, Susan E.

    2005-01-01

    Feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) seroprevalence is evaluated in 3 groups of cats. Seventy-four unowned urban strays were tested, as well as 20 cats from a small feral cat colony, and 152 client-owned cats. Of the 246 cats tested, 161 (65%) were male and 85 (35%) were female. Seroprevalence for FIV was 23% in the urban strays, 5% in the feral cat colony, and 5.9% in the client-owned cats. Ten cats (4%) were also positive for Feline leukemia virus (FeLV) antigen, including 2 cats coinfected ...

  14. Bartonella and Toxoplasma Infections in Stray Cats from Iraq

    Science.gov (United States)

    Switzer, Alexandra D.; McMillan-Cole, Audrey C.; Kasten, Rickie W.; Stuckey, Matthew J.; Kass, Philip H.; Chomel, Bruno B.

    2013-01-01

    Because of overpopulation, stray/feral cats were captured on military bases in Iraq as part of the US Army Zoonotic Disease Surveillance Program. Blood samples were collected from 207 cats, mainly in Baghdad but also in North and West Iraq, to determine the prevalence of Bartonella and Toxoplasma infections. Nine (4.3%) cats, all from Baghdad, were bacteremic with B. henselae type I. Seroprevalence was 30.4% for T. gondii, 15% for B. henselae, and 12.6% for B. clarridgeiae. Differences in Bartonella prevalence by location were statistically significant, because most of the seropositive cats were from Baghdad. There was no association between T. gondii seropositivity and either of the two Bartonella species surveyed. This report is the first report on the prevalence of Bartonella and T. gondii among stray cats in Iraq, which allows for better evaluation of the zoonotic risk potential to the Iraqi people and deployed military personnel by feral cat colonies. PMID:24062480

  15. Ferrokinetic and erythrocyte survival studies in healthy and anemic cats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Madewell, B.R.; Holmes, P.H.; Onions, D.E.

    1983-03-01

    Erythrocyte survival and ferrokinetic studies were adapted to the cat. For 5 clinically healthy 4- to 9-month-old cats, mean /sup 51/Cr-labeled erythrocyte survival was 144 hours, and mean plasma /sup 59/Fe-labeled transferrin disappearance halftime was 51 minutes. Erythrocyte use of radioiron was rapid and efficient, with 50% to 80% of labeled iron incorporated into the erythron by 100 hours after injection into the cat. Six cats with feline leukemia virus infection were studied. For 2 cats with erythroid aplasia associated with C subgroup of feline leukemia virus, erythrocyte survival times were similar to those determined for the healthy cats, but plasma radioiron disappearance half time and erythrocyte use of radioiron were markedly diminished.

  16. Ferrokinetic and erythrocyte survival studies in healthy and anemic cats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Madewell, B.R.; Holmes, P.H.; Onions, D.E.

    1983-01-01

    Erythrocyte survival and ferrokinetic studies were adapted to the cat. For 5 clinically healthy 4- to 9-month-old cats, mean 51 Cr-labeled erythrocyte survival was 144 hours, and mean plasma 59 Fe-labeled transferrin disappearance halftime was 51 minutes. Erythrocyte use of radioiron was rapid and efficient, with 50% to 80% of labeled iron incorporated into the erythron by 100 hours after injection into the cat. Six cats with feline leukemia virus infection were studied. For 2 cats with erythroid aplasia associated with C subgroup of feline leukemia virus, erythrocyte survival times were similar to those determined for the healthy cats, but plasma radioiron disappearance half time and erythrocyte use of radioiron were markedly diminished

  17. Multiple endocrine diseases in cats: 15 cases (1997-2008).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blois, Shauna L; Dickie, Erica L; Kruth, Stephen A; Allen, Dana G

    2010-08-01

    The objective of this retrospective study was to characterize a population of cats from a tertiary care center diagnosed with multiple endocrine disorders, including the specific disorders and time intervals between diagnosis of each disorder. Medical records of 15 cats diagnosed with more than one endocrine disorder were reviewed. The majority of cats were domestic shorthairs, and the mean age at the time of diagnosis of the first disorder was 10.3 years. The most common combination of disorders was diabetes mellitus and hyperthyroidism. Two cats had concurrent diabetes mellitus and hyperadrenocorticism, one cat had concurrent central diabetes insipidus and diabetes mellitus. A mean of 25.7 months elapsed between diagnoses of the first and second endocrine disorder, but this was variable. This study suggests the occurrence of multiple endocrine disorders is uncommon in cats. Copyright 2010 ISFM and AAFP. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Ultrastructural myocardial changes in seven cats with spontaneous hypertrophic cardiomyopathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Liselotte Bruun; Prats Gavalda, Clara; Hyttel, Poul

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) is the most common heart disease in cats and shares clinical and pathological characteristics with human HCM. Little is known about the pathogenic mechanisms underlying development of spontaneous feline HCM. ANIMALS: The study population consisted...... of seven cats diagnosed with HCM and eight age-matched cats with no evidence of cardiac disease. METHODS: Fresh myocardial biopsies taken from the middle of the left ventricular posterior free wall were obtained and examined with transmission electron microscopy. RESULTS: Electron microscopic examination...... showed ultrastructural aberrations of the myocardial cytoarchitecture and of the interstitium in the seven cats with HCM. In the most severely affected cats the myofibrils were disorganized and subsarcolemmal mitochondria were depleted. In control cats, contraction band artifacts were commonly seen...

  19. Crossed fused renal ectopia in a Persian cat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sang-Hyuk Seo

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Case summary This report describes a rare case of crossed fused renal ectopia (CFRE in a cat. A mature intact male Persian cat presented with bloody nasal discharge and ascites. Diagnostic studies revealed an ectopic left kidney fused with an orthotopic right kidney and a concurrent feline infectious peritonitis (FIP infection. The FIP was responsible for clinical signs in this cat, while clinical signs associated with CFRE were not obvious. Despite receiving intensive treatment, the cat died. A post-mortem examination was not performed because the owners declined approval. Relevance and novel information To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of L-shaped CFRE in a cat. In addition, this report describes the CT features of L-shaped CFRE in a cat.

  20. Gastrointestinal parasites of cats in Denmark assessed by necropsy and concentration McMaster technique

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Takeuchi-Storm, Nao; Mejer, H.; Al-Sabi, Mohammad Nafi Solaiman

    2015-01-01

    The large population of feral cats in Denmark may potentially transmit pathogens to household cats and zoonotic parasites to humans. A total of 99 euthanized cats; feral cats (n = 92) and household cats with outdoor access (n = 7), were collected from March to May 2014 from the Zealand region...

  1. Seasonal fluctuations of small mammal and flea communities in a Ugandan plague focus: evidence to implicate Arvicanthis niloticus and Crocidura spp. as key hosts in Yersinia pestis transmission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Sean M; Monaghan, Andrew; Borchert, Jeff N; Mpanga, Joseph T; Atiku, Linda A; Boegler, Karen A; Montenieri, John; MacMillan, Katherine; Gage, Kenneth L; Eisen, Rebecca J

    2015-01-08

    The distribution of human plague risk is strongly associated with rainfall in the tropical plague foci of East Africa, but little is known about how the plague bacterium is maintained during periods between outbreaks or whether environmental drivers trigger these outbreaks. We collected small mammals and fleas over a two year period in the West Nile region of Uganda to examine how the ecological community varies seasonally in a region with areas of both high and low risk of human plague cases. Seasonal changes in the small mammal and flea communities were examined along an elevation gradient to determine whether small mammal and flea populations exhibit differences in their response to seasonal fluctuations in precipitation, temperature, and crop harvests in areas within (above 1300 m) and outside (below 1300 m) of a model-defined plague focus. The abundance of two potential enzootic host species (Arvicanthis niloticus and Crocidura spp.) increased during the plague season within the plague focus, but did not show the same increase at lower elevations outside this focus. In contrast, the abundance of the domestic rat population (Rattus rattus) did not show significant seasonal fluctuations regardless of locality. Arvicanthis niloticus abundance was negatively associated with monthly precipitation at a six month lag and positively associated with current monthly temperatures, and Crocidura spp. abundance was positively associated with precipitation at a three month lag and negatively associated with current monthly temperatures. The abundance of A. niloticus and Crocidura spp. were both positively correlated with the harvest of millet and maize. The association between the abundance of several small mammal species and rainfall is consistent with previous models of the timing of human plague cases in relation to precipitation in the West Nile region. The seasonal increase in the abundance of key potential host species within the plague focus, but not outside of

  2. Guidelines for vaccination of dogs and cats in Korea

    OpenAIRE

    Song, Woo-Jin; Kim, Hyun-Tae; Yoo, Han-Sang; Youn, Hwa-Young

    2014-01-01

    This guideline contains the recommended vaccination schedules of dogs and cats from World Small Animal Veterinary Association (WSAVA) and American Animal Hospital Association (AAHA). In 2010, WSAVA published guidelines for the vaccination of dogs and cats. And, in 2011, AAHA also published guidelines for vaccination of dogs. In Korea, there is no published guideline for vaccination of dogs and cats yet. Therefore, the plane of vaccination also reports the present situation of vaccination sche...

  3. Affectionate Interactions of Cats with Children Having Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, Lynette A.; Thigpen, Abigail P.; Willits, Neil H.; Lyons, Leslie A.; Hertz-Picciotto, Irva; Hart, Benjamin L.

    2018-01-01

    Mental and physical benefits of dogs have been reported for adults and children with special needs, but less is known about benefits of cats for children. A cat that can be held by a child could provide important therapeutic companionship for children with severe or less severe autism spectrum disorder (ASD) who otherwise may lack prosocial behaviors. Because relatively little is known about the behavior of cats around children, we conducted this study. Phase 1 gathered web-survey data from families having an adult cat and a child with ASD (n = 64). In Phase 2, there were direct telephone interviews of parents having a child with severe ASD (n = 16) or less severe ASD (n = 11), or typical development (n = 17). From the Phase 1 web survey of families with ASD children (full range of severities), affectionate interactions of the cats with children were common. Most parents with ASD children volunteered positive comments regarding the cat, such as calming the child, being a soothing protector or a guardian. In the interviews in Phase 2, for all three groups, most parents characterized cats as at least moderately affectionate toward the child. However, cats living with severe ASD children were reported to exhibit less affection than those living with typically developing children or children with less severe ASD. A minority of cats in each group showed some aggression to the specified child; this was not elevated with ASD children. Responses suggested that the cats adopted as kittens were more affectionate and less aggressive to all categories of children than those adopted as adults. Overall, participants reported that ASD children’s behaviors indicated that they valued the relationship with the cat, similar to typically developing children, pointing to the importance and potential usefulness of selecting affectionate and compatible cats for ASD children. PMID:29594156

  4. Earliest evidence for commensal processes of cat domestication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yaowu; Hu, Songmei; Wang, Weilin; Wu, Xiaohong; Marshall, Fiona B; Chen, Xianglong; Hou, Liangliang; Wang, Changsui

    2014-01-07

    Domestic cats are one of the most popular pets globally, but the process of their domestication is not well understood. Near Eastern wildcats are thought to have been attracted to food sources in early agricultural settlements, following a commensal pathway to domestication. Early evidence for close human-cat relationships comes from a wildcat interred near a human on Cyprus ca. 9,500 y ago, but the earliest domestic cats are known only from Egyptian art dating to 4,000 y ago. Evidence is lacking from the key period of cat domestication 9,500-4,000 y ago. We report on the presence of cats directly dated between 5560-5280 cal B.P. in the early agricultural village of Quanhucun in Shaanxi, China. These cats were outside the wild range of Near Eastern wildcats and biometrically smaller, but within the size-range of domestic cats. The δ(13)C and δ(15)N values of human and animal bone collagen revealed substantial consumption of millet-based foods by humans, rodents, and cats. Ceramic storage containers designed to exclude rodents indicated a threat to stored grain in Yangshao villages. Taken together, isotopic and archaeological data demonstrate that cats were advantageous for ancient farmers. Isotopic data also show that one cat ate less meat and consumed more millet-based foods than expected, indicating that it scavenged among or was fed by people. This study offers fresh perspectives on cat domestication, providing the earliest known evidence for commensal relationships between people and cats.

  5. Resistive index for kidney evaluation in normal and diseased cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tipisca, Vlad; Murino, Carla; Cortese, Laura; Mennonna, Giuseppina; Auletta, Luigi; Vulpe, Vasile; Meomartino, Leonardo

    2016-06-01

    The objectives were to determine the resistive index (RI) in normal cats and in cats with various renal diseases, and to evaluate the effect of age on RI. The subjects were cats that had ultrasonography (US) of the urinary tract and RI measurement at our centre between January 2003 and April 2014. Based on clinical evaluation, biochemical and haematological tests, urinalysis and US, the cats were classified as healthy or diseased. RI measurements were made from the interlobar or arcuate arteries. Data were analysed for differences between the right and the left kidney, the two sexes, different age groups in healthy cats, and between healthy and diseased cats. A total of 116 cats (68 males, 48 females) were included: 24 healthy and 92 diseased. In the healthy cats, RI (mean ± SD) differed significantly (P = 0.02) between the right kidney (0.54 ± 0.07) and the left kidney (0.59 ± 0.08). For the left kidney, RI was significantly higher in cats with chronic kidney disease (0.73 ± 0.12) and acute kidney injury (0.72 ± 0.08) (P = 0.0008). For the right kidney, RI was significantly higher in cats with chronic kidney disease (0.72 ± 0.11), acute kidney injury (0.74 ± 0.08), polycystic kidney disease (0.77 ± 0.11) and renal tumour (0.74 ± 0.001) (P cats, useful in the differential diagnosis of diffuse renal diseases. While it does not change with the age of the cat, ultrasonographers should be aware that RI may differ between the two kidneys. © ISFM and AAFP 2015.

  6. Clinical and Some Laboratory Findings in Cats with Toxoplasmosis

    OpenAIRE

    Bastan, Idil

    2018-01-01

    Objectives: The aim of this study wasto draw attention to the clinical course of the disease and some laboratoryfindings in cats diagnosed with Toxoplasmosis.Materials and Methods: Toxoplasma gondiiseropositive 14 cats were used in this study.  A serologicalevaluation was carried out to determine the presence of Toxoplasmagondii specific IgG using commercial diagnostic kits, by theenzyme-linked immunosorbent assay method. Hematological andclinical changes of those cats were recorded. Results:...

  7. RadCat 2.0 User Guide.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Osborn, Douglas.; Weiner, Ruth F.; Mills, George Scott; Hamp, Steve C.; O' Donnell, Brandon, M.; Orcutt, David J.; Heames, Terence J.; Hinojosa, Daniel

    2005-01-01

    This document provides a detailed discussion and a guide for the use of the RadCat 2.0 Graphical User Interface input file generator for the RADTRAN 5.5 code. The differences between RadCat 2.0 and RadCat 1.0 can be attributed to the differences between RADTRAN 5 and RADTRAN 5.5 as well as clarification for some of the input parameters. 3

  8. Do free-falling quantum cats land on their feet?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chryssomalakos, C; Serrano-Ensástiga, E; Hernández-Coronado, H

    2015-01-01

    We present a quantum description of the mechanism by which a free-falling cat manages to reorient itself and land on its feet, having all along zero angular momentum. Our approach is geometrical, making use of the fiber bundle structure of the cat configuration space. We show how the classical picture can be recovered, but also point out a purely quantum scenario, that ends up with a Schroedinger cat. Finally, we sketch possible applications to molecular, nuclear, and nano-systems. (paper)

  9. Distal renal tubular acidosis and hepatic lipidosis in a cat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, S A; Spyridakis, L K; Crowell, W A

    1986-11-15

    Clinical and laboratory evidence of hepatic failure was found in a chronically anorectic cat. Simultaneous blood and urine pH determinations established a diagnosis of distal renal tubular acidosis. The cat did not respond to treatment. Necropsy revealed distal tubular nephrosis and hepatic lipidosis. The finding of distal renal tubular acidosis in a cat with hepatic lipidosis emphasizes the importance of complete evaluation of acid-base disorders in patients.

  10. Renal disease in cats infected with feline immunodeficiency virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baxter, K J; Levy, J K; Edinboro, C H; Vaden, S L; Tompkins, M B

    2012-01-01

    Feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection cause similar clinical syndromes of immune dysregulation, opportunistic infections, inflammatory diseases, and neoplasia. Renal disease is the 4th most common cause of death associated with HIV infection. To investigate the association between FIV infection and renal disease in cats. Client-owned cats (153 FIV-infected, 306 FIV-noninfected) and specific-pathogen-free (SPF) research colony cats (95 FIV-infected, 98 FIV-noninfected). A mixed retrospective/prospective cross-sectional study. Blood urea nitrogen (BUN), serum creatinine, urine specific gravity (USG), and urine protein:creatinine ratio (UPC) data were compared between FIV-infected and FIV-noninfected cats. In FIV-infected cats, total CD4+ and CD8+ T lymphocytes were measured using flow cytometry, and CD4+:CD8+ T lymphocyte ratio was calculated. Renal azotemia was defined as a serum creatinine ≥ 1.9 mg/dL with USG ≤ 1.035. Proteinuria was defined as a UPC > 0.4 with an inactive urine sediment. Among the client-owned cats, no association was detected between FIV infection and renal azotemia (P = .24); however, a greater proportion of FIV-infected cats were proteinuric (25.0%, 16 of 64 cats) compared to FIV-noninfected cats (10.3%, 20 of 195 cats) (P < .01). Neither neuter status nor health status were risk factors for proteinuria in FIV-infected cats, but UPC was positively correlated with the CD4+:CD8+ T lymphocyte ratio (Spearman's rho = 0.37, P = .01). Among the SPF research colony cats, no association was detected between FIV infection and renal azotemia (P = .21) or proteinuria (P = .25). Proteinuria but not azotemia was associated with natural FIV infection. Copyright © 2012 by the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine.

  11. Affectionate Interactions of Cats with Children Having Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lynette A. Hart

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Mental and physical benefits of dogs have been reported for adults and children with special needs, but less is known about benefits of cats for children. A cat that can be held by a child could provide important therapeutic companionship for children with severe or less severe autism spectrum disorder (ASD who otherwise may lack prosocial behaviors. Because relatively little is known about the behavior of cats around children, we conducted this study. Phase 1 gathered web-survey data from families having an adult cat and a child with ASD (n = 64. In Phase 2, there were direct telephone interviews of parents having a child with severe ASD (n = 16 or less severe ASD (n = 11, or typical development (n = 17. From the Phase 1 web survey of families with ASD children (full range of severities, affectionate interactions of the cats with children were common. Most parents with ASD children volunteered positive comments regarding the cat, such as calming the child, being a soothing protector or a guardian. In the interviews in Phase 2, for all three groups, most parents characterized cats as at least moderately affectionate toward the child. However, cats living with severe ASD children were reported to exhibit less affection than those living with typically developing children or children with less severe ASD. A minority of cats in each group showed some aggression to the specified child; this was not elevated with ASD children. Responses suggested that the cats adopted as kittens were more affectionate and less aggressive to all categories of children than those adopted as adults. Overall, participants reported that ASD children’s behaviors indicated that they valued the relationship with the cat, similar to typically developing children, pointing to the importance and potential usefulness of selecting affectionate and compatible cats for ASD children.

  12. Radiographic assessment of laryngeal reflexes in ketamine-anesthetized cats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robinson, E.P.; Johnston, G.R.

    1986-01-01

    The competence of the laryngeal closure reflexes of cats anesthetized with ketamine was assessed. Radiographic evaluations of the respiratory and digestive tracts were made after colloidal barium suspension was instilled into the pharynges of conscious and ketamine-anesthetized cats. There was a significant ketamine dose-related response of spread of contrast medium into the supraglottic laryngeal area and into the stomach 2 minutes after contrast medium was instilled into the pharynx (P less than 0.05). Cats did not aspirate contrast medium into the lower respiratory tract. Three ketamine-anesthetized cats aspirated contrast medium into the subglottic area of the larynx, and 2 of these cats also aspirated the material into the cranial part of the trachea. This material was coughed up and swallowed within 5 minutes. Transit time of contrast medium into the stomach seemed to be increased in 11 of the 15 cats given the larger dosages of ketamine (24, 36, 48 mg/kg of body weight), compared with that in conscious cats and those given ketamine at 12 mg/kg. Competent laryngeal protective reflexes in cats can be maintained with ketamine anesthesia. Contrast radiography could be used as a diagnostic aid in ketamine-anesthetized cats suspected of laryngeal reflex abnormalities

  13. Molecular detection of feline hemoplasmas in feral cats in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Do-Hyeon; Kim, Hyun-Wook; Desai, Atul R; Han, In-Ae; Li, Ying-Hua; Lee, Mi-Jin; Kim, In-Shik; Chae, Joon-Seok; Park, Jinho

    2007-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine if Mycoplasma haemofelis, 'Candidatus Mycoplasma haemominutum' exist in Korea. Three hundreds and thirty one feral cats were evaluated by using PCR assay targeting 16S rRNA gene sequence. Fourteen cats (4.2%) were positive for M. haemofelis, 34 cats (10.3%) were positive for 'Candidatus M. haemominutum' and 18 cats (5.4%) were positive for both species. Partial 16S rRNA gene sequences were closely (>98%) related to those from other countries. This is the first molecular detection of feline hemoplasmas in Korea.

  14. [Uroliths of cats in Switzerland from 2002 to 2009].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerber, B; Brandenberger-Schenk, F; Rothenanger, E; Müller, C

    2016-10-01

    In this study data on composition of uroliths collected from cats and epidemiologic data of affected cats in Switzerland from 2002 to 2009 are summarised. Of 884 stones analysed 50% (n=441) were composed of calcium oxalate, 45% (n=398) of struvite, 3% (n=18) of ammonium urate, 1% (n=12) were mixed stones, 1% (n=9) were composed of silica, 3 stones were solidified blood, 2 consisted of cystine and 1of xanthine. 40% of the ureteral stones were composed of struvite. Domestic cats had significantly less calcium oxalate stones compared to British Shorthair or Persian cats. Cats with calcium oxalate stones were older and cats with struvite stones were younger than other affected cats. Female and male cats were equally affected with stones. Compared to studies from other countries, in Switzerland silica stones occurred more often and ureteral stones were more often composed of Struvite. The present study shows that occurrence and prevalence of urinary calculi of cats from Switzerland exhibited only slight differences to studies from other countries.

  15. Fibrinous pericarditis secondary to bacterial infection in a cat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tagawa, Michihito; Kurashima, Chihiro; Shimbo, Genya; Omura, Hiroshi; Koyama, Kenji; Horiuchi, Noriyuki; Kobayashi, Yoshiyasu; Kawamoto, Keiko; Miyahara, Kazuro

    2017-06-10

    A three-year-old spayed domestic short-haired cat presented for evaluation of weight loss, cardiomegaly and pleural effusion. Echocardiographic examination demonstrated a thickened pericardium with mild pericardial effusion and a large volume of pleural effusion characterized by exudate. Although the cat was treated with antibiotics, the clinical symptoms did not improve. The cat developed dyspnea and died on day 7. Necropsy revealed a large amount of modified transudates ascites, pleural effusion and markedly dilated pericardium. Histopathological examination revealed severe exudation of fibrin and granulation tissue in a thick layer of the epicardium. The cat was diagnosed with fibrinous pericarditis secondary to bacterial infection.

  16. Ultrasonographic features of intestinal adenocarcinoma in five cats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rivers, B.J.; Walter, P.A.; Feeney, D.A.; Johnston, G.R.

    1997-01-01

    Adenocarcinoma, followed by lymphosarcoma, are the most common feline intestinal neoplasms. Clinicopathological, survey radiographic, and ultrasonographic findings of five cats with intestinal adenocarcinoma are reported. An abdominal mass was palpable in all five cats, but the mass could be localized to bowel in only two cats. Radiographically an abdominal mass was detected in only one cat. Ultrasonographically there was a segmental intestinal mural mass in all five cats. The mass was characterized by circumferential bowel wall thickening with transmural loss of normal sonographic wall layers. In one cat, the circumferential symmetric hypoechoic bowel wall thickening was similar to that reported for segmental lymphoma. In the other four cats, the sonographic features of the thickened bowel wall were varied, being mixed echogenicity and asymmetric in 3 cats and mixed echogenicity and symmetric in one. The results of the present report suggest that sonographic observation of mixed echogenicity segmental intestinal wall thickening in the cat represents adenocarcinoma rather than lymphosarcoma, although other infiltrative diseases should be considered

  17. Online Relinquishments of Dogs and Cats in Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenvey, Caitlin J.; Tuke, Jonathan

    2018-01-01

    Simple Summary The aim of this study was to analyze dog and cat advertisements on a popular online trading website in Australia in February 2016. A total of 2640 ads for dogs and 2093 ads for cats were classified as being relinquished on Gumtree. A total of 23% of dog ads and 62% of cat ads were for free animals. The median age was 1.42 years in dogs and 0.9 years in cats. Compared to the human population there were proportionately more ads in Queensland and fewer ads in Victoria. In comparison to pets from animal shelters advertised on PetRescue, there were more purebred dogs on Gumtree, although the common breeds were similar. Fifteen people who had relinquished a dog or cat on Gumtree were interviewed. They used Gumtree because they believed shelters were full, they wanted to see/interview the new owner, or because they originally got the animal on Gumtree and it works. These results shed light on a hitherto under-studied population of relinquished dogs and cats. Abstract While traditionally people relinquish their pets to an animal shelter or pound, the internet provides a newer method to re-home. We analyzed advertisements (ads) on the largest website in Australia for trading dogs and cats: Gumtree. Data was collected in 2016. Dogs were sampled on 7, 16 and 24 February 2016 and cats on 9, 19 and 26 February 2016, with 2640 ads for relinquished dogs, and 2093 ads for relinquished cats. It was estimated >31,000 puppies/dogs and >24,000 kittens/cats are relinquished on Gumtree per year. The median age of dogs was 1.42 and cats 0.9 years of age. There were 23% of dog ads and 62% of cat ads for free animals. Compared to the human population, there were proportionately more ads in Queensland and fewer ads in Victoria. A total of 15 people were surveyed who had relinquished a dog or cat using Gumtree. The dog owners used Gumtree for two reasons: because they believed the shelters were full (n = 4); and they wanted to see/interview the new owner (n = 2). For cat

  18. Comparison of plasma, liver, and skeletal muscle carnitine concentrations in cats with idiopathic hepatic lipidosis and in healthy cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, G; Cornelius, L; Keene, B; Rakich, P; Shug, A

    1990-09-01

    Concentrations of total, free, and esterified carnitine were determined in plasma, liver, and skeletal muscle from cats with idiopathic hepatic lipidosis and compared with values from healthy cats. The mean concentrations of plasma, liver, and skeletal muscle total carnitine; plasma and skeletal muscle free carnitine; and plasma and liver esterified carnitine were greater (P less than 0.05) in cats with idiopathic hepatic lipidosis than in control cats. The mean for the ratio of free/total carnitine in plasma and liver was lower (P less than 0.05) in cats with idiopathic hepatic lipidosis than in control cats. These data suggest that carnitine deficiency does not contribute to the pathogenesis of feline idiopathic hepatic lipidosis.

  19. Medical management of gastrinoma in a cat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Lane

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Case summary A 7-year-old male castrated domestic short-haired cat was evaluated for a 4 week history of intermittent vomiting, ptyalism, lethargy and weight loss. Serum biochemistry revealed mild mixed hepatopathy. Abdominal ultrasonography identified multiple heterogeneous hepatic masses and a linear, hyperechoic focus with associated reverberation artifact in the wall of the stomach consistent with a gastric ulcer. Serum gastrin concentrations were markedly increased. Cytologic interpretation of a fine-needle aspirate of the hepatic masses was consistent with neuroendocrine neoplasia, and a diagnosis of gastrinoma was established. Deterioration of the cat’s condition, despite at-home acid-suppressant therapy, led to hospitalization. The cat was initially stabilized with intravenous crystalloid fluid therapy, maropitant, pantoprazole and octreotide. A continuous radiotelemetric intragastric pH monitoring system was used to monitor the response of intragastric pH to therapy. Long-term therapy was continued with omeprazole (orally q12h, octreotide (subcutaneously q8h and thrice-weekly toceranib administered orally. Toceranib therapy led to gastrointestinal upset and was discontinued. Gastric ulceration resolved within 8 weeks, and palliation of clinical signs was achieved for approximately 5 months. Relevance and novel information Including this report, only six cases of feline gastrinoma have been reported in the veterinary literature. Little is known regarding non-surgical therapy, and octreotide has not been previously reported for medical management of feline gastrinoma. Results of intragastric pH monitoring and clinical improvement suggest that medical therapy using octreotide and proton pump inhibitors represents a novel therapeutic option for cats with gastrinoma where surgical excision is not feasible.

  20. Uninvited guests: traditional insect repellents in Estonia used against the clothes moth Tineola bisselliella, human flea Pulex irritons and bedbug Cimex lectularius.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sõukand, Renata; Kalle, Raivo; Svanberg, Ingvar

    2010-01-01

    Extensive folklore records from pre-modern Estonia give us an excellent opportunity to study a variety of local plant knowledge and plant use among the peasantry in various parts of the country. One important biocultural domain where plant knowledge has been crucial was in the various methods of combating different ectoparasites that cohabited and coexisted with humans and their domestic animals. Some of these methods were widely known (world-wide, Eurasia, Europe, Baltic Rim), while others were more local. Here we discuss ways of reducing clothes moths Tineola bisselliella (Hummel) (Lepidoptera: Tineidae), human fleas Pulex irritons L. (Siphonaptera: Pulicidae) and bedbugs Cimex lectularius L. (Hemiptera: Cimicidae) with the help of plants. Various taxa used as traditional repellents have been identified. The use of plants as repellents and their toxic principles are also discussed from a comparative perspective.

  1. Flea beetles (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae: Alticinae collected by malaise trap method in Gölcük Natural Park (Isparta, Turkey, with a new record for Turkish fauna

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aslan Gül E.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This study is based on Alticinae (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae material collected by Malaise trapping which is different from other standardized collecting methods. A total of 19 flea beetle species belonging to 6 genera were collected from Gölcük Natural Park, Isparta (Turkey during 2009. The species are listed in a table together with distributional data in Turkey. Among them, Longitarsus curtus (Allard, 1860 is recorded for the first time in Turkey. L. monticola Kutschera, 1863 and L. curtus are recently separated synonyms and thus all data referring to the distribution of both species are currently important. Hence, the zoogeographical distribution of the new record is reviewed with some remarks; habitus and genitalia are illustrated.

  2. Scotopic electroretinography in fishing cat (Prionailurus viverrinus) and leopard cat (Prionailurus bengalensis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sussadee, Metita; Vorawattanatham, Narathip; Pinyopummin, Anuchai; Phavaphutanon, Janjira; Thayananuphat, Aree

    2017-05-01

    To establish baseline normal scotopic electroretinograpic (ERG) parameters for two wild cat species: fishing cats (FC) and leopard cats (LC). Twelve normal, FC and eight LC kept in the Chiang Mai Night Safari Zoo, Thailand. The mean ages of FC and LC were 7.08 and 5.00 years, respectively. All animals were studied using a standard scotopic protocol of a portable, handheld, multi-species electroretinography (HMsERG). There were significant differences in the means of ERG b-wave amplitude of the rod response (Rod, 0.01 cd.s/m 2 ), a- and b-wave amplitudes of standard light intensity of rod and cone response (Std R&C, 3 cd.s/m 2 ) and b-wave amplitude of high light intensity of rod and cone response (Hi-int R&C, 10 cd.s/m 2 ) with LC having higher amplitudes than FC. There was no significant difference in a- and b- wave implicit time except for the b-wave of Hi-int (P=0.03). No significant differences were observed in b/a amplitude ratios. Data from this report provides reference values for scotopic ERG measurements in these two wild cat species. It showed that the normal scotopic ERG responses have some differences between the two species which might be due to the skull conformation, eye size or physiology of the retina. © 2016 American College of Veterinary Ophthalmologists.

  3. Post incisional hernia in dogs and cats

    OpenAIRE

    Raiser, Alceu Gaspar

    1999-01-01

    A hérnia pós-incisão foi analisada quanto à prevalência e protocolo terapêutico em nove cães e seis gatos cadastrados no Hospital Veterinário da Universidade Federal de Santa Maria, RS, Brasil. Os animais apresentaram peritonite localizada que foi tratada com reposição hidroeletrolítica, antibioticoterapia, irrigação abundante da cavidade abdominal e debridamento cirúrgico. Todos tiveram evolução favorável.The case records of nine dogs and six cats with post-incisional hernia were managed by ...

  4. Preparing Schrodinger cat states by parametric pumping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leghtas, Zaki; Touzard, Steven; Pop, Ioan; Vlastakis, Brian; Zalys-Geller, Evan; Albert, Victor V.; Jiang, Liang; Frunzio, Luigi; Schoelkopf, Robert J.; Mirrahimi, Mazyar; Devoret, Michel H.

    2014-03-01

    Maintaining a quantum superposition state of light in a cavity has important applications for quantum error correction. We present an experimental protocol based on parametric pumping and Josephson circuits, which could prepare a Schrodinger cat state in a cavity. This is achieved by engineering a dissipative environment, which exchanges only pairs or quadruples of photons with our cavity mode. The dissipative nature of this preparation would lead to the observation of a dynamical Zeno effect, where the competition between a coherent drive and the dissipation reveals non trivial dynamics. Work supported by: IARPA, ARO, and NSF.

  5. Estimation of the dietary nutrient profile of free-roaming feral cats: possible implications for nutrition of domestic cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plantinga, Esther A; Bosch, Guido; Hendriks, Wouter H

    2011-10-01

    Cats are strict carnivores and in the wild rely on a diet solely based on animal tissues to meet their specific and unique nutritional requirements. Although the feeding ecology of cats in the wild has been well documented in the literature, there is no information on the precise nutrient profile to which the cat's metabolism has adapted. The present study aimed to derive the dietary nutrient profile of free-living cats. Studies reporting the feeding habits of cats in the wild were reviewed and data on the nutrient composition of the consumed prey items obtained from the literature. Fifty-five studies reported feeding strategy data of cats in the wild. After specific exclusion criteria, twenty-seven studies were used to derive thirty individual dietary nutrient profiles. The results show that feral cats are obligatory carnivores, with their daily energy intake from crude protein being 52 %, from crude fat 46 % and from N-free extract only 2 %. Minerals and trace elements are consumed in relatively high concentrations compared with recommended allowances determined using empirical methods. The calculated nutrient profile may be considered the nutrient intake to which the cat's metabolic system has adapted. The present study provides insight into the nutritive, as well as possible non-nutritive aspects of a natural diet of whole prey for cats and provides novel ways to further improve feline diets to increase health and longevity.

  6. Overweight in adult cats: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Öhlund, Malin; Palmgren, Malin; Holst, Bodil Ström

    2018-01-19

    Overweight in cats is a major risk factor for diabetes mellitus and has also been associated with other disorders. Overweight and obesity are believed to be increasing problems in cats, as is currently seen in people, with important health consequences. The objectives of the present study were to determine the prevalence of overweight in cats from two different cohorts in a cross-sectional study design and to assess associations between overweight and diagnoses, and between overweight and demographic and environmental factors. Data were obtained from medical records for cats (n = 1072) visiting an academic medical center during 2013-2015, and from a questionnaire on insured cats (n = 1665). From the medical records, information on body condition score, breed, age, sex, neutering status, and diagnosis was obtained. The questionnaire included questions relating to the cat's body condition, breed, age, sex, neutering status, outdoor access, activity level, and diet. Data were analyzed by multivariable logistic regression. The prevalence of overweight was 45% in the medical records cohort and 22% in the questionnaire cohort, where owners judged their pet's body condition. Overweight cats in the medical records cohort were more likely to be diagnosed with lower urinary tract disease, diabetes mellitus, respiratory disease, skin disorders, locomotor disease, and trauma. Eating predominantly dry food, being a greedy eater, and inactivity were factors associated with an increased risk of overweight in the final model in the questionnaire cohort. In both cohorts, the Birman and Persian breeds, and geriatric cats, were less likely to be overweight, and male cats were more likely to be overweight. The prevalence of overweight cats (45%) as assessed by trained personnel was high and in the same range as previously reported. Birman and Persian cats had a lower risk of overweight. The association with dry food found in adult, neutered cats is potentially important because

  7. Prevalence of external ear disorders in Belgian stray cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bollez, Anouck; de Rooster, Hilde; Furcas, Alessandra; Vandenabeele, Sophie

    2018-02-01

    Objectives Feline otitis externa is a multifactorial dermatological disorder about which very little is known. The objective of this study was to map the prevalence of external ear canal disorders and the pathogens causing otitis externa in stray cats roaming around the region of Ghent, Belgium. Methods One hundred and thirty stray cats were randomly selected during a local trap-neuter-return programme. All cats were European Shorthairs. This study included clinical, otoscopic and cytological evaluation of both external ears of each cat. Prospective data used as parameters in this study included the sex, age and body condition score of each cat, as well as the presence of nasal and/or ocular discharge, and the results of feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) and feline leukaemia virus (FeLV) Snap tests. Results Remarkably, very few (sub)clinical problems of the external ear canal were found in the stray cat population. Malassezia species was by far the most common organism found in the external ear canals of the 130 stray cats. A total of 96/130 (74%) cats were found to have Malassezia species organisms present in one or both ears based on the cytological examination. No correlation was found between the parameters of sex, age, body condition score, the presence of nasal and/or ocular discharge and FIV and FeLV status, and the presence of parasites, bacteria or yeasts. Conclusions and relevance This study provides more information about the normal state of the external ear canal of stray cats. The ears of most stray cats are relatively healthy. The presence of Malassezia species organisms in the external ear canal is not rare among stray cats.

  8. Limbic control of aggression in the cat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamec, R E; Stark-Adamec, C I

    1983-01-01

    Over a decade of work by Flynn and colleagues has delineated a network of limbic circuits which function to modulate the expression of predatory aggression and defence in the cat, and aspects of this work are reviewed. In particular, Flynn's work revealed a circuit involving the basomedial amygdala which functions to suppress attack, and at the same time facilitates defence. A second circuit, involving the ventral hippocampus, is involved in attack facilitation. Studies relating stable differences in excitability in these two circuits to developmentally determined behavioural dispositions toward aggression or defence are summarized. Finally, the impact of experimentally induced limbic seizures on interictally maintained expression of aggression and defence behaviourally, and on limbic excitability are reviewed. Taken together, the data indicate that the behavioural balance of attack and defence is under the tonic control of opponent limbic circuits, which are themselves biased in a measureable manner. Developmental studies indicate that adult defensiveness is determined early in life, so early as to suggest some pre-programmed neuro-developmental process. Experimentally induced seizures alter behaviour lastingly, producing an increase in defensive disposition. At the same time there is an equally lasting potentiation of interictal transmission of neural activity from the amygdala to the hypothalamus. Moreover, seizures may reduce interictal transmission of activity through the ventral hippocampus by potentiating recurrent inhibition. These effects of seizures are of interest since seizures reproduce naturally occurring differences in limbic excitability seen in naturally defensive cats.

  9. Rotational diffusion of a molecular cat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz-Saporta, Ori; Efrati, Efi

    We show that a simple isolated system can perform rotational random walk on account of internal excitations alone. We consider the classical dynamics of a ''molecular cat'': a triatomic molecule connected by three harmonic springs with non-zero rest lengths, suspended in free space. In this system, much like for falling cats, the angular momentum constraint is non-holonomic allowing for rotations with zero overall angular momentum. The geometric nonlinearities arising from the non-zero rest lengths of the springs suffice to break integrability and lead to chaotic dynamics. The coupling of the non-integrability of the system and its non-holonomic nature results in an angular random walk of the molecule. We study the properties and dynamics of this angular motion analytically and numerically. For low energy excitations the system displays normal-mode-like motion, while for high enough excitation energy we observe regular random-walk. In between, at intermediate energies we observe an angular Lévy-walk type motion associated with a fractional diffusion coefficient interpolating between the two regimes.

  10. Leptin and ghrelin concentration in hyperthyroid cats before and after radioactive iodine therapy compared to euthyroid control cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsilio, Sina; Glanemann, Barbara; Martin, Lucile; Szladovits, Balazs; Neiger, Reto

    2017-04-19

    Leptin and ghrelin, two peptide hormones with antagonistic effects on satiety and energy balance, could be involved in the pathogenesis of weight loss and polyphagia in cats with hyperthyroidism. Leptin generally decreases appetite and increases energy expenditure, while ghrelin exerts the opposite effects. Leptin and ghrelin were measured in 42 client owned hyperthyroid cats with a body condition score (BCS) ≤ 5/9 before (T0) and 4 weeks after radioactive iodine treatment (RAIT) (T1). Dependent on the serum total thyroxine concentration concentration at T1, cats were sub-classified as still hyperthyroid (ht-ht) (n = 4), euthyroid (ht-eu) (n = 10) or hypothyroid (ht-hypo) (n = 28). Results were compared to those of 22 healthy, euthyroid control cats with a comparable BCS (≤ 5/9) and age (≥ 8 years) to hyperthyroid cats. At T0, there were no significant differences between hyperthyroid and control cats for leptin (p = 0.06) or ghrelin concentrations (p = 0.27). At T1, leptin significantly decreased in ht-hypo cats compared to T0 (p = 0.0008) despite a significantly increased body weight in this group (p = 0.0001). Serum ghrelin concentrations did not differ between hyperthyroid cats with a history of polyphagia compared to non-polyphagic cats (p = 0.42). After RAIT, ghrelin concentration significantly increased in all hyperthyroid cats (p weight in different states of thyroid dysfunction; increasing ghrelin concentrations after RAIT suggest a ghrelin-independent mechanism for polyphagia in hyperthyroid cats.

  11. Nuisances and welfare of free-roaming cats in urban settings and their association with cat reproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunther, I; Raz, T; Berke, O; Klement, E

    2015-05-01

    Free roaming cats (FRC) are highly abundant in cities around the world. Increasing populations of these cats might result in impairment of cat welfare and cause nuisances and public health risks. In order to study the seasonal dynamics of FRC populations and its association with events of cat welfare impairment and nuisances, we analyzed a database of FRC-associated citizens' telephone complaint events, which were registered in five cities in Israel (total human population of 1.42 million residents) during the years 2007-2011. These complaint events were classified to the following six categories: cat's carcasses, kittens, parturition, aggressive behavior toward people, invasion to human facilities, and cat injuries and distress. Overall, 87,764 complaint events associated with these categories were registered in the five cities during the study period (123.2 complaint events per 10,000 citizens per year). Length of daylight was moderately correlated with the rate of complaints on kittens in the same month (r=0.64) and parturition in the previous month (r=0.54) (Pcat aggressiveness toward people, cat invasion to human facilities and cat injuries and distress. In most of the cities the rate of citizen complaints regarding carcasses, aggression, invasion and injuries were still significantly correlated with rate of complaints regarding kittens after omission of these joint complaints and remained significant after controlling for seasonality. These findings imply an association of cat welfare impairment and nuisances with FRC reproduction intensity. The current study revealed the high rate of nuisances and potential public health hazards related to FRC, as well as the impairment of cat welfare, which might be merely 'the tip of the iceberg' of the real welfare situation of these cats. Further studies should examine the effectiveness of FRC population control strategies for the reduction of the rate of nuisances and public health risks related to FRC, as well as for

  12. European consensus statement on leptospirosis in dogs and cats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leptospirosis is a zoonotic disease of worldwide distribution affecting most mammalian species. Clinical leptospirosis is common in dogs but seems to be rare in cats. Both dogs and cats however, can shed leptospires in the urine. This is problematic as it can lead to exposure of humans. The control ...

  13. Simple nonparametric checks for model data fit in CAT

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijer, R.R.

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, the usefulness of several nonparametric checks is discussed in a computerized adaptive testing (CAT) context. Although there is no tradition of nonparametric scalability in CAT, it can be argued that scalability checks can be useful to investigate, for example, the quality of item

  14. Bacteriology of the Anterior Genitalia of the Domestic House Cat ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The bacteriology of the anterior genitalia of the domestic house cat was determined using vaginal swabs collected from sixty apparently healthy female domestic cats (20 kittens, 20 pregnant and 20 non-pregnant adults). The swabs were streaked on blood agar, Mac Conkey agar and eosin methylene blue agar plates ...

  15. Neutralizing antibodies in cats infected with feline immunodeficiency virus.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    F. Tozzini; D. Matteucci; P. Bandecchi; F. Baldinotti; C.H.J. Siebelink (Kees); A.D.M.E. Osterhaus (Albert); M. Bendinelli

    1993-01-01

    textabstractSera from cats experimentally infected with five isolates of feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) from various geographical regions and from FIV enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay-seropositive field cats from four European countries neutralized the Petaluma strain of FIV (FIV-P),

  16. Tooth resorption in cats: contribution of vitamin D and inflammation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vrieling, H.E.

    2010-01-01

    Tooth resorption in cats Tooth resorption affecting several teeth is a painful disease with a prevalence of up to 75% in household cats and is often accompanied by periodontitis. Tooth resorption is caused by an increased number and activity of tooth-resorbing odontoclasts, cells that share

  17. Cat-transmitted Sporotrichosis, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Schubach, Armando; Schubach, Tânia Maria Pacheco; Barros, Mônica Bastos de Lima; Wanke, Bodo

    2005-01-01

    Sporotrichosis is an emerging zoonosis in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. From 1998 to 2003, 497 humans and 1,056 cats with culture-proven sporotrichosis were studied. A total of 421 patients, 67.4% with a history of a scratch or bite, reported contact with cats that had sporotrichosis.

  18. Cat-transmitted Sporotrichosis, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schubach, Tânia Maria Pacheco; Barros, Mônica Bastos de Lima; Wanke, Bodo

    2005-01-01

    Sporotrichosis is an emerging zoonosis in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. From 1998 to 2003, 497 humans and 1,056 cats with culture-proven sporotrichosis were studied. A total of 421 patients, 67.4% with a history of a scratch or bite, reported contact with cats that had sporotrichosis. PMID:16485488

  19. Effectiveness of the Domestic Cat (Felis silvestris catus) Urine ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The stored cat urine was then thawed and mixed with maize starch to form a thick dough and then granulated and dried at room temperature before being packed in a hermetically closed jar. Initially, rodent foot marks on tracking soot coat tiles were used to estimate the rat population before the cat urine extracts application.

  20. 33 CFR 117.1001 - Cat Point Creek.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Cat Point Creek. 117.1001 Section 117.1001 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Virginia § 117.1001 Cat Point Creek. The draw of the...

  1. CatReg Software for Categorical Regression Analysis (Jul 2012)

    Science.gov (United States)

    CatReg is a computer program, written in the R (r-project.org">http://cran.r-project.org) programming language, to support the conduct of exposure-response analyses by toxicologists and health scientists. CatReg can be used to perform categorical regressi...

  2. CatReg Software for Categorical Regression Analysis (Feb 2011)

    Science.gov (United States)

    CatReg is a computer program, written in the R (r-project.org">http://cran.r-project.org) programming language, to support the conduct of exposure-response analyses by toxicologists and health scientists. CatReg can be used to perform categorical regressi...

  3. CatReg Software for Categorical Regression Analysis (Nov 2006)

    Science.gov (United States)

    CatReg is a computer program, written in the R (r-project.org">http://cran.r-project.org) programming language, to support the conduct of exposure-response analyses by toxicologists and health scientists. CatReg can be used to perform categorical regressi...

  4. Evaluation of thromboelastography in two factor XII-deficient cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blois, Shauna L; Holowaychuk, Marie K; Wood, R Darren

    2015-01-01

    The current report describes thromboelastography (TEG) findings in two cats with factor XII (FXII) deficiency. The first cat was diagnosed with bilateral perinephric pseudocysts; hemostatic testing was performed prior to performing renal aspirates. The second cat was healthy; hemostatic testing was performed prior to inclusion into a research project. Both cats had markedly prolonged partial thromboplastin times and hypocoagulable TEG tracings when samples were activated with kaolin. However, when tissue factor (TF) was used to activate the sample, both cats had normal-to-hypercoagulable TEG tracings. The cats each had a subnormal FXII level. TEG is becoming widely used to investigate hemostasis in veterinary patients, and TEG results in cats with FXII deficiency have not been previously reported. FXII deficiency is the most common hereditary hemostatic defect in cats. While FXII deficiency does not lead to in vivo hemorrhagic tendencies, it can lead to marked prolongation in activated partial thromboplastin and activated clotting times, and cannot be differentiated from true hemorrhagic diatheses without measuring individual factor activity. With the increased use of TEG to evaluate hemostasis in veterinary patients, it is important to recognize the effects of FXII deficiency on this testing modality. The finding of a hypocoagulable kaolin-activated TEG tracing and a concurrent normal TF-activated TEG tracing in samples should prompt clinicians to consider ruling out FXII deficiency.

  5. Evaluation of thromboelastography in two factor XII-deficient cats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shauna L Blois

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Case summary The current report describes thromboelastography (TEG findings in two cats with factor XII (FXII deficiency. The first cat was diagnosed with bilateral perinephric pseudocysts; hemostatic testing was performed prior to performing renal aspirates. The second cat was healthy; hemostatic testing was performed prior to inclusion into a research project. Both cats had markedly prolonged partial thromboplastin times and hypocoagulable TEG tracings when samples were activated with kaolin. However, when tissue factor (TF was used to activate the sample, both cats had normal-to-hypercoagulable TEG tracings. The cats each had a subnormal FXII level. Relevance and novel information TEG is becoming widely used to investigate hemostasis in veterinary patients, and TEG results in cats with FXII deficiency have not been previously reported. FXII deficiency is the most common hereditary hemostatic defect in cats. While FXII deficiency does not lead to in vivo hemorrhagic tendencies, it can lead to marked prolongation in activated partial thromboplastin and activated clotting times, and cannot be differentiated from true hemorrhagic diatheses without measuring individual factor activity. With the increased use of TEG to evaluate hemostasis in veterinary patients, it is important to recognize the effects of FXII deficiency on this testing modality. The finding of a hypocoagulable kaolin-activated TEG tracing and a concurrent normal TF-activated TEG tracing in samples should prompt clinicians to consider ruling out FXII deficiency.

  6. Investigations on the immunopathogenesis of atopic dermatitis in cats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roosje, Pieternella Janna

    2002-01-01

    The term atopic dermatitis (AD) is commonly used in cats. At present, however, there is little known about the pathogenesis of feline AD. The aim was to investigate various aspects of the immunopathogenesis in a defined group of cats with signs and symptoms of atopic dermatitis and compare our

  7. Bone metastasis of undifferentiated pulmonary adenocarcinoma in a cat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jensen, H.E.; Arnbjerg, J.

    1986-01-01

    In the cat, metastases from primary lung tumors (PLT) to distal bones have been described by Moore & Middleton (differentiated adenocarcinoma) and Pool et al. (squamous cell carcinoma) (16 22). This paper describes the radiological and pathological findings in a cat with metastatic undifferentiated papillary adenocarcinoma. The involvement of the toes was the initial sign leading to veterinary consultation

  8. Oral cobalamin supplementation in cats with hypocobalaminaemia: a retrospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toresson, Linda; Steiner, Joerg M; Olmedal, Gunilla; Larsen, MajBritt; Suchodolski, Jan S; Spillmann, Thomas

    2017-12-01

    Objectives The objective of the study was to evaluate whether oral cobalamin supplementation can restore normocobal-aminaemia in cats with hypocobalaminaemia and clinical signs of gastrointestinal disease. Methods This was a retrospective study based on a computerised database search for client-owned cats treated at Evidensia Specialist Animal Hospital, Helsingborg, Sweden, during the period December 2013 to August 2016. Inclusion criteria were cats with clinical signs of chronic enteropathy, an initial serum cobalamin concentration ⩽250 pmol/l (reference interval 214-738 pmol/l) and oral treatment with cobalamin tablets. Results Twenty-five cats met the inclusion criteria. The cats were treated with 0.25 mg cyanocobalamin tablets once daily. Serum cobalamin concentration was rechecked 27-94 days after continuous oral cobalamin supplementation. All cats had serum cobalamin concentrations above the reference interval after oral cobalamin supplementation. Median (range) serum cobalamin concentration was 128 pmol/l (111-250 pmol/l) prior to treatment and 2701 pmol/l (738-16,359 pmol/l) after supplementation. This difference was statistically significant ( P cats with hypocobalaminaemia. Thus, oral cobalamin supplementation is a promising alternative to parenteral administration. Prospective comparative studies in cats being treated with parenteral vs oral cobalamin supplementation in a larger number of patients are warranted before oral supplementation can be recommended for routine use.

  9. Primary pulmonary neoplasia in the dog and cat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mehlhaff, C.J.; Mooney, S.

    1985-01-01

    This article covers the pertinent clinical, physical, and radiographic findings in dogs and cats with primary pulmonary neoplasia. Diagnostic and treatment recommendations are made. Although primary pulmonary neoplasia is rare in both the dog and cat, it appears to be diagnosed with increasing frequency. Early detection and surgical treatment of carefully selected cases can prolong a good quality of life

  10. Feline hepatic biotransformation of diazepam: Differences between cats and dogs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Beusekom, Cyrina D; van den Heuvel, Jeroen J M W; Russel, Frans G M; Schrickx, Johannes A

    2015-01-01

    In contrast to humans and dogs, diazepam has been reported to induce severe hepatic side effects in cats, particularly after repeated dosing. With the aim to elucidate the mechanisms underlying this apparent sensitivity of cats to drug-induced liver injury, in a series of in vitro experiments, the

  11. Measurement-induced amplification of optical cat-like states

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laghaout, Amine; Neergaard-Nielsen, Jonas Schou; Rigas, J.

    2013-01-01

    with pairs of small cats and then to interfere them on a balanced beam splitter. The projective measurement of one of the outputs is used to herald a larger cat resulting from the constructive interference of the initial states. The scheme proposed here uses the projection |x = 0〉〈x = 0| as the heralding...

  12. Gaze Behavior, Believability, Likability and the iCat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poel, Mannes; Heylen, Dirk K.J.; Meulemans, M.; Nijholt, Antinus; Stock, O.; Nishida, T.

    2007-01-01

    The iCat is a user-interface robot with the ability to express a range of emotions through its facial features. This paper summarizes our research whether we can increase the believability and likability of the iCat for its human partners through the application of gaze behaviour. Gaze behaviour

  13. Gaze Behavior, Believability, Likability and the iCat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijholt, Antinus; Poel, Mannes; Heylen, Dirk K.J.; Stock, O.; Nishida, T.; Meulemans, M.; van Bremen, A.

    2009-01-01

    The iCat is a user-interface robot with the ability to express a range of emotions through its facial features. This paper summarizes our research whether we can increase the believability and likability of the iCat for its human partners through the application of gaze behaviour. Gaze behaviour

  14. Seroprevalence of viral infections in domestic cats in Costa Rica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanco, Kinndle; Prendas, Jorge; Cortes, Rocío; Jimenez, Carlos; Dolz, Gaby

    2009-05-01

    A cross-sectional survey of a convenient sample of domestic cats from Costa Rica's greater metropolitan area was carried out to determine the prevalence of antibodies against feline herpesvirus type 1 (FHV-1), feline parvovirus (FPV), feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) and antigens of feline leukemia virus (FeLV). Blood samples were collected from at least 96 cats from June 1998 to December 2001; data related to the individual cats and household variables were obtained using a questionnaire. Antibodies against FHV-1 were found in 71.9% of the cats sampled, but only 25.0% of them had a history of previous vaccination. The prevalence of FPV was 92.8%, and all positive cats showed protective antibodies titres; however, only 16.5% of them were previously vaccinated. Antigens of FeLV were detected in 16.7% of the sampled cats; 11 (64.7%) of the 17 positive cats were older than 1 year at the time of testing. No differences were found between the percentage of seropositive males and females. Antibodies against FIV were detected in 8.8% of the samples tested; 8 (88.8%) of the seropositive cats were older than 1 year of age, and a greater proportion of seropositive males (66.6%) was found.

  15. Extraterritorial hunting expeditions to intense fire scars by feral cats

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGregor, Hugh W.; Legge, Sarah; Jones, Menna E.; Johnson, Christopher N.

    2016-03-01

    Feral cats are normally territorial in Australia’s tropical savannahs, and hunt intensively with home-ranges only two to three kilometres across. Here we report that they also undertake expeditions of up to 12.5 km from their home ranges to hunt for short periods over recently burned areas. Cats are especially likely to travel to areas burned at high intensity, probably in response to vulnerability of prey soon after such fires. The movements of journeying cats are highly directed to specific destinations. We argue that the effect of this behaviour is to increase the aggregate impact of cats on vulnerable prey. This has profound implications for conservation, considering the ubiquity of feral cats and global trends of intensified fire regimes.

  16. Aberrant right subclavian artery causing megaoesophagus in three cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cinti, F; Della Santa, D; Borgonovo, S; Bussadori, R; Troiano, D; Pisani, G

    2018-05-07

    Three entire, domestic, shorthair male cats (age range: 3 months to 5 years) were referred because of regurgitation. Megaoesophagus attributable to aberrant right subclavian artery, originating from the aorta at the level of the fourth intercostal space, was diagnosed in all cats using thoracic radiography and CT angiography. One cat had concurrent patent ductus arteriosus with a normal aortic arch. Three-dimensional volume-rendered CT images were used to assess the malformations and to plan surgery for the treatment of the vascular anomalies. Different surgical approaches were used in the two kittens. The third cat was not operated. CT angiography is well suited for preoperative planning in cats with aberrant right subclavian artery alone or in combination with other vascular anomalies. © 2018 British Small Animal Veterinary Association.

  17. Occurrence of Aelurostrongylus abstrusus (Railliet, 1898) in Danish cats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Caroline Salling; Willesen, Jakob; Pipper, Christian Bressen

    2015-01-01

    As Aelurostrongylus abstrusus has not previously received any attention in Denmark, the study investigated the occurrence of A. abstrusus amongst outdoor cats from three regions (Zealand, Møn and Falster). Faeces and lungs were collected from a total of 147 feral (n=125) and domesticated cats (n=22......) that were euthanized for reasons outside of this project. Using a modified Baermann technique 13.6% of the cats was found to be positive. A new lung digestion technique was developed to isolate eggs, L1 and adult worms from the lungs and this revealed a prevalence of 15.6% although with regional differences....... There was no difference between feral and domesticated cats just as sex and age did not appear to influence prevalence and worm burden. Lungs from 87% of the positive cats had the gross appearance compatible with A. abstrusus and the severity of lung damage was proportional to LPG and number of adult worms. Within...

  18. Pancreatic rupture in four cats with high-rise syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liehmann, Lea M; Dörner, Judith; Hittmair, Katharina M; Schwendenwein, Ilse; Reifinger, Martin; Dupré, Gilles

    2012-02-01

    Pancreatic trauma and rupture are rare after feline high-rise syndrome; however, should it happen, pancreatic enzymes will leak into the abdominal cavity and may cause pancreatic autodigestion and fatty tissue saponification. If not diagnosed and treated, it can ultimately lead to multiorgan failure and death. In this case series, 700 records of high-rise syndrome cats that presented between April 2001 and May 2006 were analysed, and four cats with pancreatic rupture were identified. Clinical signs, diagnosis using ultrasonography and lipase activity in blood and abdominal effusion, and treatment modalities are reported. Three cats underwent surgical abdominal exploration, one cat was euthanased. Rupture of the left pancreatic limb was confirmed in all cases. Two of the operated cats survived to date. High-rise syndrome can lead to abdominal trauma, including pancreatic rupture. A prompt diagnosis and surgical treatment should be considered.

  19. FELINE IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS (FIV) IN WILD PALLAS’ CATS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Meredith A.; Munkhtsog, Bariushaa; Troyer, Jennifer L.; Ross, Steve; Sellers, Rani; Fine, Amanda E.; Swanson, William F.; Roelke, Melody E.; O’Brien1, Stephen J.

    2009-01-01

    Feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV), a feline lentivirus related to HIV, causes immune dysfunction in domestic and wild cats. The Pallas’ cat is the only species from Asia known to harbor a species-specific strain of FIV designated FIVOma in natural populations. Here, a 25% seroprevalence of FIV is reported from 28 wild Mongolian Pallas’ cats sampled from 2000-2008. Phylogenetic analysis of proviral RT-Pol from eight FIVOma isolates from Mongolia, Russia, China and Kazakhstan reveals a unique monophyletic lineage of the virus within the Pallas’ cat population, most closely related to the African cheetah and leopard FIV strains. Histopathological examination of lymph node and spleen from infected and uninfected Pallas’ cats suggests that FIVOma causes immune depletion in its’ native host. PMID:19926144

  20. Selected Blood Serum Elements in Van (Turkey Cats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Altunok

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The Turkish Van cat originates from eastern Turkey. One of the characteristic features of Van cats is the colour of their eyes, which can be both eyes blue, both eyes amber or one eye blue and the other amber. Serum essential trace, macro and industrial element concentrations of Van cats (n = 47 according to sex, age, hair length and eye colour differences were investigated. Serum aluminium, arsenic, boron, barium, cobalt, chromium, copper, gallium, indium, iron, lead, lithium, manganese, nickel, selenium, silver, sulphur, strontium, vanadium and zinc were measured with ICP-OES plasma optical atomic emission spectrometer. In result, serum aluminium, barium, copper, manganese and strontium levels in male cats were found higher (p p p p > 0.05 found in the age and hair length groups. Our results indicate that several of the blood serum elements of Van cats may be related to their eye colours and sex differences.

  1. Chronic pretrigeminal and cerveau isolé cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slósarska, M; Zernicki, B

    1973-01-01

    Ten pretrigeminal and ten cerveau isole cats were observed chronically. During 24-36 h sessions EEG activity was continuously recorded and the EEG and ocular responses to visual and olfactory stimuli were studied. In the pretrigeminal cat acute and chronic stages were distinguished, and in the cerveau isole, acute, "early chronic" and "late chronic" stages. During the acute stage, the pretrigeminal cat is continuously awake, whereas the cerveau isole is comatose. During the "early chronic stage", which lasted at least about 3 weeks, the cerveau isole is semicomatose. During the chronic stage in the pretrigeminal cat and the "late chronic stage" in the cerveau isole, the sleep-waking cycle is present. In both preparations alert wakefulness, drowsiness, light .synchronized sleep and deep synchronized sleep occupy, respectively, about 30 percent, 45 percent, 15 percent and 10 percent of the time. Thus, synchronized sleep is strikingly reduced in comparison with an intact cat, while desynchronized sleep is absent.

  2. Contraceptive vaccines for the humane control of community cat populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, Julie K.

    2011-01-01

    Problem Free-roaming unowned stray and feral cats exist throughout the world, creating concerns regarding their welfare as well as their impact on the environment on public health. Millions of healthy cats are culled each year in an attempt to control their numbers. Surgical sterilization followed by return to the environment is an effective nonlethal population control method but is limited in scope due to expense and logistical impediments. Immunocontraception has the potential to be a more practical and cost-effective method of control. Method of study This is a review of current research in immunocontraception in domestic cats. Functional characteristics of an ideal immunocontraceptive for community cats would include a wide margin of safety for target animals and the environment, rapid onset and long duration of activity following a single treatment in males and females of all ages, and sex hormone inhibition. In addition, product characteristics should include stability and ease of use under field conditions, efficient manufacturing process, and low cost to the user. Two reproductive antigens, zona pellucida and GnRH, have been identified as possible targets for fertility control in cats. Results Zona pellucida, which is used successfully in multiple wildlife species, has achieved little success in cats. In contrast, immunization against GnRH has resulted in long-term contraception in both male and female cats following a single dose. GnRH is an ideal contraceptive target because it regulates pituitary and gonadal hormone responses in both males and females, thus suppressing nuisance behaviors associated with sex hormones in addition to preventing pregnancy. Conclusion The responsiveness of cats to fertility control via GnRH suppression should encourage researchers and cat control stakeholders to continue efforts to optimize vaccines that induce multi-year contraception following a single dose in a high proportion of treated cats. PMID:21501281

  3. Dystocia in the cat evaluated using an insurance database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holst, Bodil Ström; Axnér, Eva; Öhlund, Malin; Möller, Lotta; Egenvall, Agneta

    2017-01-01

    Objectives The aim of this study was to describe the incidence of feline dystocia with respect to breed. Methods The data used were reimbursed claims for veterinary care insurance and/or life insurance claims in cats registered in a Swedish insurance database from 1999-2006. Results The incidence rates for dystocia were about 22 cats per 10,000 cat-years at risk, 67 per 10,000 for purebred cats and seven per 10,000 for domestic shorthair cats. The median age was 2.5 years. A significant effect of breed was seen. An incidence rate ratio (IRR) that was significantly higher compared with other purebred cats was seen in the British Shorthair (IRR 2.5), the Oriental group (IRR 2.2), Birman (IRR 1.7), Ragdoll (IRR 1.5) and the Abyssinian group (IRR 1.5). A significantly lower IRR was seen in the Norwegian Forest Cat (IRR 0.38), the Maine Coon (IRR 0.48), the Persian/Exotic group (IRR 0.49) and the Cornish Rex (IRR 0.50). No common factor among the high-risk breeds explained their high risk for dystocia. There was no effect of location; that is, the incidence rate did not differ depending on whether the cat lived in an urban or rural area. Caesarean section was performed in 56% of the cats with dystocia, and the case fatality was 2%. Conclusions and relevance The incidence rate for dystocia was of a similar magnitude in purebred cats as in dogs. The IRR varied significantly among breeds, and the main cause for dystocia should be identified separately for each breed. A selection for easy parturitions in breeding programmes is suggested.

  4. Whole-Blood Taurine Concentrations in Cats With Intestinal Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kathrani, A; Fascetti, A J; Larsen, J A; Maunder, C; Hall, E J

    2017-07-01

    Increased delivery of taurine-conjugated bile acids to the distal bowel can lead to dysbiosis resulting in colitis in mouse models of inflammatory bowel disease. A similar situation also could occur in cats with intestinal disease and might therefore result in decreased whole-body taurine concentration. To determine whether whole-blood taurine concentrations are decreased at the time of diagnosis in cats with intestinal disease and to correlate concentrations with clinical and laboratory variables. Twenty-one cats with chronic inflammatory enteropathy and 7 cats with intestinal neoplasia from the University of Bristol. Cats that had undergone a thorough investigation consisting of a CBC, serum biochemistry, serum cobalamin and folate concentrations, transabdominal ultrasound examination and histopathology of intestinal biopsy specimens, as well as additional testing if indicated, were included. Whole-blood from these cats collected at the time of histologic diagnosis and stored in ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid was retrospectively analyzed for taurine with an automated high-performance liquid chromatography amino acid analyzer. Although whole-blood taurine concentrations remained within the reference range, those cats with predominantly large intestinal clinical signs had significantly lower concentrations than did cats with small intestinal and mixed bowel clinical signs (P = 0.033) and this difference also was significant when assessed only in cats with chronic inflammatory enteropathy (P = 0.019). Additional studies are needed to determine whether large intestinal signs in cats with chronic inflammatory enteropathy are caused by alterations in the microbiota arising as a consequence of increased delivery of taurine-conjugated bile acids. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine.

  5. Intra-abdominal fungal pseudomycetoma in two cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianchi, Matheus V; Laisse, Cláudio J M; Vargas, Thainã P; Wouters, Flademir; Boabaid, Fabiana M; Pavarini, Saulo P; Ferreiro, Laerte; Driemeier, David

    Pseudomycetomas are deep cutaneous to subcutaneous lesions caused by Microsporum canis mainly described in Persian cats, with few reports of intra-abdominal location. This report describes the clinical signs and lesions of intra-abdominal pseudomycetomas caused by M. canis in two Persian cats. Two Persian cats with a history of previous laparotomy (ovariohysterectomy and nephrostomy) and fecal impaction were examined. Cat #1 was euthanized and subjected to necropsy, histopathology and mycological evaluation. Cat #2 presented with chronic dermatophytosis, and an intra-abdominal mass, that was subjected to histopathology evaluation. Cat #1 presented at necropsy a white-grayish, firm mass (6cm×3.5cm×2.8cm) in the uterine cervix. Cat #2 presented a firm whitish mass (6.5cm×1.5cm×0.5cm) located close to the left kidney. Histologically, both masses contained multifocal granules with hyphae and spores surrounded by Splendore-Hoeppli reaction, with a pyogranulomatous inflammatory infiltrate and fibrous connective tissue proliferation in the periphery. Hyphae and spores exhibited marked Grocott and periodic acid-Schiff staining. M. canis was identified by fungal isolation in cat #1. Pseudomycetoma should be considered as a differential diagnosis in cats, especially in Persian cats presenting with an intra-abdominal mass. Entrance of the agent into the cavity can occur during laparotomy. Copyright © 2016 Asociación Española de Micología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  6. Distortion product otoacoustic emissions in young adult and geriatric cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strain, George M; McGee, Kain A

    2017-03-01

    Recordings of distortion product otoacoustic emissions (DPOAEs) were taken from 15 geriatric cats (mean age ± standard deviation, SD, 13.6 ± 2.7 years; range 10.2-19.4 years) and 12 young adult control cats (mean ± SD 4.6 ± 0.5 years; range 3.4-5 years) to identify frequency-specific age-related changes in cochlear responses. Recordings were performed for primary frequencies from 2 to 12 kHz in 2 kHz increments. Cats were considered to be geriatric > 11.9 ± 1.9 years of age. Brainstem auditory evoked response (BAER) recordings were also made for subjective comparison with DPOAE responses. No differences in DPOAE response amplitudes were observed at any tested frequency in geriatric cats compared to control cats, reflecting an apparent absence of loss of cochlear outer hair cells along the length of the cochlea. No linear regression relationships were found for DPOAE response amplitude versus age in geriatric cats, despite the progressive nature of age-related hearing loss in other species. The absence of reductions in response at any of the tested frequencies in cats within the age span where cats are considered to be geriatric indicates that age-related hearing loss, if it does develop in cats, begins later in the life span of cats than in dogs or human beings. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. What's inside your cat's head? A review of cat (Felis silvestris catus) cognition research past, present and future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitale Shreve, Kristyn R; Udell, Monique A R

    2015-11-01

    The domestic cat (Felis silvestris catus) has shared an intertwined existence with humans for thousands of years, living on our city streets and in our homes. Yet, little scientific research has focused on the cognition of the domestic cat, especially in comparison with human's other companion, the domestic dog (Canis lupus familiaris). This review surveys the current status of several areas of cat cognition research including perception, object permanence, memory, physical causality, quantity and time discrimination, cats' sensitivity to human cues, vocal recognition and communication, attachment bonds, personality, and cognitive health. Although interest in cat cognition is growing, we still have a long way to go until we have an inclusive body of research on the subject. Therefore, this review also identifies areas where future research must be conducted. In addition to the scientific value of future work in this area, future research on cat cognition could have an important influence on the management and welfare of pet and free-roaming cats, leading to improved human-cat interactions.

  8. Estimation of the dietary nutrient profile of free-roaming feral cats: possible implications for nutrition of domestic cats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Plantinga, E.A.; Bosch, G.; Hendriks, W.H.

    2011-01-01

    Cats are strict carnivores and in the wild rely on a diet solely based on animal tissues to meet their specific and unique nutritional requirements. Although the feeding ecology of cats in the wild has been well documented in the literature, there is no information on the precise nutrient profile to

  9. Reasons People Surrender Unowned and Owned Cats to Australian Animal Shelters and Barriers to Assuming Ownership of Unowned Cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zito, Sarah; Morton, John; Vankan, Dianne; Paterson, Mandy; Bennett, Pauleen C; Rand, Jacquie; Phillips, Clive J C

    2016-01-01

    Most cats surrendered to nonhuman animal shelters are identified as unowned, and the surrender reason for these cats is usually simply recorded as "stray." A cross-sectional study was conducted with people surrendering cats to 4 Australian animal shelters. Surrenderers of unowned cats commonly gave surrender reasons relating to concern for the cat and his/her welfare. Seventeen percent of noncaregivers had considered adopting the cat. Barriers to assuming ownership most commonly related to responsible ownership concerns. Unwanted kittens commonly contributed to the decision to surrender for both caregivers and noncaregivers. Nonowners gave more surrender reasons than owners, although many owners also gave multiple surrender reasons. These findings highlight the multifactorial nature of the decision-making process leading to surrender and demonstrate that recording only one reason for surrender does not capture the complexity of the surrender decision. Collecting information about multiple reasons for surrender, particularly reasons for surrender of unowned cats and barriers to assuming ownership, could help to develop strategies to reduce the number of cats surrendered.

  10. Matrix vaccination guidelines : 2015 ABCD recommendations for indoor/outdoor cats, rescue shelter cats and breeding catteries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hosie, Margaret J; Addie, Diane D; Boucraut-Baralon, Corine; Egberink, Herman; Frymus, Tadeusz; Gruffydd-Jones, Tim; Hartmann, Katrin; Horzinek, Marian C; Lloret, Albert; Lutz, Hans; Marsilio, Fulvio; Pennisi, Maria Grazia; Radford, Alan D; Thiry, Etienne; Truyen, Uwe; Möstl, Karin

    OVERVIEW: In 2013, the ABCD published 'Matrix vaccination guidelines: ABCD recommendations for indoor/outdoor cats, rescue shelter cats and breeding catteries' in a Special Issue of the Journal of Feline Medicine and Surgery (Volume 15, Issue 7, pages 540-544). The ABCD's vaccination recommendations

  11. Grooming a CAT: customizing CAT administration rules to increase response efficiency in specific research and clinical settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kallen, Michael A; Cook, Karon F; Amtmann, Dagmar; Knowlton, Elizabeth; Gershon, Richard C

    2018-05-05

    To evaluate the degree to which applying alternative stopping rules would reduce response burden while maintaining score precision in the context of computer adaptive testing (CAT). Analyses were conducted on secondary data comprised of CATs administered in a clinical setting at multiple time points (baseline and up to two follow ups) to 417 study participants who had back pain (51.3%) and/or depression (47.0%). Participant mean age was 51.3 years (SD = 17.2) and ranged from 18 to 86. Participants tended to be white (84.7%), relatively well educated (77% with at least some college), female (63.9%), and married or living in a committed relationship (57.4%). The unit of analysis was individual assessment histories (i.e., CAT item response histories) from the parent study. Data were first aggregated across all individuals, domains, and time points in an omnibus dataset of assessment histories and then were disaggregated by measure for domain-specific analyses. Finally, assessment histories within a "clinically relevant range" (score ≥ 1 SD from the mean in direction of poorer health) were analyzed separately to explore score level-specific findings. Two different sets of CAT administration rules were compared. The original CAT (CAT ORIG ) rules required at least four and no more than 12 items be administered. If the score standard error (SE) reached a value CAT was stopped. We simulated applying alternative stopping rules (CAT ALT ), removing the requirement that a minimum four items be administered, and stopped a CAT if responses to the first two items were both associated with best health, if the SE was CAT ORIG and CAT ALT . CAT ORIG and CAT ALT scores varied little, especially within the clinically relevant range, and response burden was substantially lower under CAT ALT (e.g., 41.2% savings in omnibus dataset). Alternate stopping rules result in substantial reductions in response burden with minimal sacrifice in score precision.

  12. Feline immunodeficiency virus testing in stray, feral, and client-owned cats of Ottawa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little, Susan E

    2005-10-01

    Feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) seroprevalence is evaluated in 3 groups of cats. Seventy-four unowned urban strays were tested, as well as 20 cats from a small feral cat colony, and 152 client-owned cats. Of the 246 cats tested, 161 (65%) were male and 85 (35%) were female. Seroprevalence for FIV was 23% in the urban strays, 5% in the feral cat colony, and 5.9% in the client-owned cats. Ten cats (4%) were also positive for Feline leukemia virus (FeLV) antigen, including 2 cats coinfected with FeLV and FIV. Seroprevalence for FIV in cats from Ottawa is similar to that found in other nonrandom studies of cats in North America.

  13. Diagnosis and surgical management of obstructive ureteral calculi in cats: 11 cases (1993-1996)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kyles, A.E.; Stone, E.A.; Gookin, J.; Spaulding, K.; Clary, E.M.; Wylie, K.; Spodnick, G.

    1998-01-01

    To evaluate diagnostic methods, surgical treatment, perioperative management, and renal function of cats with obstructive calcium oxalate ureteroliths. Retrospective case series. 11 cats that underwent surgery for removal of calcium oxalate ureteroliths. Medical records were reviewed, and the following information was recorded: signalment; results of physical examination, clinicopathologic analyses, and abdominal imaging; surgical procedure; postoperative management; and results of ureterolith quantitative analysis. Ureteroliths in the proximal portion of the ureter were removed from 5 cats (pyelotomy, 1 cat; unilateral ureterotomy, 2 cats; bilateral ureterotomies, 2 cats). Calculi in the middle and distal part of the ureter were removed by partial ureterectomy and ureteroneocystostomy (6 cats). Ten cats recovered from surgery and were discharged from the hospital. One cat died from unknown causes 4 months after surgery, and 1 cat had a nephrectomy elsewhere 5 weeks after ureterolith removal. Eight cats were evaluated 12 to 20 months after surgery. Of these, 2 cats that were markedly azotemic before surgery improved after surgery, and 2 cats developed nephroliths after surgery. Also, of 5 cats that had nephroliths that were not removed at the time of surgery, 4 still had visible nephroliths. One cat had recurrent ureteral obstruction from a ureterolith and persistent urinary tract infection. Ureteroliths or ultrasonographic evidence of ureteral obstruction were not detected in other cats. A combination of microsurgical techniques and intensive postoperative care is necessary to minimize morbidity of cats after removal of a ureterolith. Renal function may improve or stabilize after removal of the ureteral obstruction

  14. Seroprevalence of Coxiella burnetii in domesticated and feral cats in eastern Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapiro, Amanda J; Bosward, Katrina L; Heller, Jane; Norris, Jacqueline M

    2015-05-15

    The seroprevalence of Coxiella burnetii (C. burnetii) in cats in eastern Australia is unknown, and the risk of transmission from cats to humans is undetermined. This study aimed to determine the exposure of cats to C. burnetii in four distinct cat subpopulations. An indirect immunofluoresence assay (IFA) and an Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) used for detection of anti-C. burnetii antibodies in humans were adapted, verified for use on feline serum, and compared. Cat serum samples (n=712) were tested with IFA from four subpopulations [cattery-confined breeding cats, pet cats, feral cats and shelter cats]. The proportions of seropositive cats were; cattery-confined breeding cats (35/376, 9.3%), pets (2/198, 1%), feral cats (0/50), shelter cats (0/88). The significant variables in C. burnetii seropositivity were cattery-confined breeding cat subpopulation and sterilisation status, with infected cats 17.1 (CI 4.2-70.2; Pcats and 6.00 (CI 2.13-16.89; Pcats have been exposed to C. burnetii and that a higher seroprevalence of C. burnetii is seen amongst cattery-confined breeding cats. Cat breeders and veterinary personnel involved in feline reproductive procedures may be at higher risk of exposure to C. burnetii. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. The cat is out of the bag

    KAUST Repository

    Ananthanarayanan, Rajagopal

    2009-01-01

    In the quest for cognitive computing, we have built a massively parallel cortical simulator, C2, that incorporates a number of innovations in computation, memory, and communication. Using C2 on LLNL\\'s Dawn Blue Gene/P supercomputer with 147, 456 CPUs and 144 TB of main memory, we report two cortical simulations - at unprecedented scale - that effectively saturate the entire memory capacity and refresh it at least every simulated second. The first simulation consists of 1.6 billion neurons and 8.87 trillion synapses with experimentally-measured gray matter thalamocortical connectivity. The second simulation has 900 million neurons and 9 trillion synapses with probabilistic connectivity. We demonstrate nearly perfect weak scaling and attractive strong scaling. The simulations, which incorporate phenomenological spiking neurons, individual learning synapses, axonal delays, and dynamic synaptic channels, exceed the scale of the cat cortex, marking the dawn of a new era in the scale of cortical simulations. Copyright 2009 ACM.

  16. Bone vitality in the cat's irradiated jaw

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dambrain, R.; Dhem, A.; Gueulette, J.; Wambersie, A.

    1988-01-01

    The vitality of the mandible in cats was studied from two to 15 months after irradiation. Dose of 80 Gy in three days was delivered using three hairpin shape iridium-192 wires surrounding the mandibula. The osseous vitality was assessed from the percentages of lacunae inhabited by osteocytes (IL). The results are compared with those obtained by microradiography. At two months, a small reduction of vitality is already observed, it becomes progressively more important. At one year, vitality is recovered nearly fully in the ventral part of the mandibula, mainly at the level of the alveolar crest. Vitality remains reduced in the dorsal part. Microradiographic lesions appear more slowly; they are apparent at six months. (orig.) [de

  17. Intrathoracic neoplasms in the dog and cat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weller, R.E.

    1991-06-01

    Neoplasms of the thoracic cavity are as diverse as the structures and tissues that comprise the thorax. This paper summarizes the clinical signs, diagnosis and treatment of thoracic neoplasms in the dog and cat. Specific diagnostic techniques are evaluated, as is the utility of imaging techniques for clinical staging. Surgery is recommended as the treatment of choice for intrathoracic neoplasms, with exception for multiple tumor masses, metastasis, or poor patient health. Radiation therapy, chemotherapy, and hyperthermia are discussed individually or in combination with surgery or each other. Prognosis for specific tumors is discussed, as is lymph node involvement as a prognostic indicator. As the use of newer diagnostic procedures become more available in veterinary medicine, it should be possible to offer patients a variety of positive choices that will enhance their survival and quality of life

  18. Intrathoracic neoplasms in the dog and cat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weller, R.E.

    1994-03-01

    Very little is known regarding the epidemiology, etiology, and mechanisms of spontaneous intrathoracic neoplasia in companion animals. Much of what we know or suspect about thoracic neoplasia in animals has been extrapolated from experimentally-induced neoplasms. Most studies of thoracic neoplasia have focused on the pathology of primary and metastatic neoplasms of the lung with little attention given to diagnostic and therapeutic considerations. Although the cited incidence rate for primary respiratory tract neoplasia is low, 8.5 cases per 100,000 dogs and 5.5 cases per 100,000 cats, intrathoracic masses often attract attention out of proportion to their actual importance since they are often readily visualized on routine thoracic radiographs.

  19. Physics Girl: Where Education meets Cat Videos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowern, Dianna

    YouTube is usually considered an entertainment medium to watch cats, gaming, and music videos. But educational channels have been gaining momentum on the platform, some garnering millions of subscribers and billions of views. The Physics Girl YouTube channel is an educational series with PBS Digital Studios created by Dianna Cowern. Using Physics Girl as an example, this talk will examine what it takes to start a short-form educational video series, including logistics and resources. One benefit of video is that every failure is documented on camera and can, and will, be used in this talk as a learning tool. We will look at the channels demographical reach, discuss best practices for effective physics outreach, and survey how online media and technology can facilitate good and bad learning. The aim of this talk is to show how videos are a unique way to share science and enrich the learning experience, in and out of a classroom.

  20. Statistical mechanics of a cat's cradle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Tongye; Wolynes, Peter G.

    2006-11-01

    It is believed that, much like a cat's cradle, the cytoskeleton can be thought of as a network of strings under tension. We show that both regular and random bond-disordered networks having bonds that buckle upon compression exhibit a variety of phase transitions as a function of temperature and extension. The results of self-consistent phonon calculations for the regular networks agree very well with computer simulations at finite temperature. The analytic theory also yields a rigidity onset (mechanical percolation) and the fraction of extended bonds for random networks. There is very good agreement with the simulations by Delaney et al (2005 Europhys. Lett. 72 990). The mean field theory reveals a nontranslationally invariant phase with self-generated heterogeneity of tautness, representing 'antiferroelasticity'.