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Sample records for cat felis catus

  1. Clusters in social behaviour of female domestic cats (Felis silvestris catus) living in confinement

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    vandenBos, R; de Vries, Han

    1996-01-01

    Associations between different agonistic and affiliative behavioural patterns of female domestic cats (Felis silvestris catus) were studied. In three groups of intact cats living in confinement frequencies of fourteen agonistic and affiliative behavioural patterns were recorded. The technique of fac

  2. Studying Cat (Felis catus Diabetes: Beware of the Acromegalic Imposter.

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    Stijn J M Niessen

    Full Text Available Naturally occurring diabetes mellitus (DM is common in domestic cats (Felis catus. It has been proposed as a model for human Type 2 DM given many shared features. Small case studies demonstrate feline DM also occurs as a result of insulin resistance due to a somatotrophinoma. The current study estimates the prevalence of hypersomatotropism or acromegaly in the largest cohort of diabetic cats to date, evaluates clinical presentation and ease of recognition. Diabetic cats were screened for hypersomatotropism using serum total insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1; radioimmunoassay, followed by further evaluation of a subset of cases with suggestive IGF-1 (>1000 ng/ml through pituitary imaging and/ or histopathology. Clinicians indicated pre-test suspicion for hypersomatotropism. In total 1221 diabetic cats were screened; 319 (26.1% demonstrated a serum IGF-1>1000 ng/ml (95% confidence interval: 23.6-28.6%. Of these cats a subset of 63 (20% underwent pituitary imaging and 56/63 (89% had a pituitary tumour on computed tomography; an additional three on magnetic resonance imaging and one on necropsy. These data suggest a positive predictive value of serum IGF-1 for hypersomatotropism of 95% (95% confidence interval: 90-100%, thus suggesting the overall hypersomatotropism prevalence among UK diabetic cats to be 24.8% (95% confidence interval: 21.2-28.6%. Only 24% of clinicians indicated a strong pre-test suspicion; most hypersomatotropism cats did not display typical phenotypical acromegaly signs. The current data suggest hypersomatotropism screening should be considered when studying diabetic cats and opportunities exist for comparative acromegaly research, especially in light of the many detected communalities with the human disease.

  3. Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii and Neospora caninum in feral cats (Felis silvestris catus) in Majorca, Balearic Islands, Spain

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    Felids are important in the epidemiology of Toxoplasma gondii infection because they are the only hosts that can excrete environmentally-resistant oocysts. Antibodies to T. gondii and Neospora caninum were determined in serum samples from 59 feral cats (Felis silvestris catus) captured in baited tra...

  4. Changes in selected hematology and serum biochemistry in Turkish Angora cats (Felis catus during growth period

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    Ozkan Simsek

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the present study was to determine the changes in selected hematology and serum biochemistry of Angora cats (Felis catus during growth period. A total of 32 Angora cats (16 adults and 16 kittens were used in this study. Blood samples were collected from the animals, and were analyzed for white blood cells, red blood cells, hemoglobin, packed cell volume, mean corpuscular volume (MCV, mean corpuscular hemoglobin, mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration, granulocytes, monocytes and lymphocytes numbers. In the serum, alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase (AST, alkaline phosphatase (ALP, gamma glutamyl transferase (GGT, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH, creatinine kinase (CK, total cholesterol, glucose, triglyceride, urea, creatinine, total protein, albumin, Ca, Mg, Pi levels were determined. Monocyte level was found higher, and ALP, LDH, CK activities and Pi levels were lower in adult cats as compared to the kittens. MCV was lower and GGT and AST activities, and glucose level were higher in kittens of 1.5-3 months old than in kittens of >3 months. Concentrations of total cholesterol and Mg were higher in kitten (1.5-3 months old than in adult cats. In conclusion, age related effects on hematological and biochemical blood parameters have been determined for the first time in Angora cats.

  5. Gastrointestinal Helminthic Parasites in Stray Cats (Felis catus from North of Iran

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    A Rezaei-Doust

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cats play a crucial role in the epidemiology of gastrointestinal helminthic parasites and also play a major role in transmitting of these parasites through faecal contamination of soil, food or water. The aim of this study was to determine the species of gastrointestinal helminthes parasites in stray cats from a rural area of Bandar-e-Anzali, Iran.Method: Gastrointestinal helminthes were collected from 50 necropsied stray cats (Felis catus after capturing them by trapping from different regions of the city and humanely euthanatized in Bandar-e-Anzali, a port in the Caspian Sea in northern Iran, from March to November 2003. Results: The prevalence of infection was 90%, with those of individual parasites being Diplopylidium nolleri 54%, Phy­saloptera praeputialis 32%, Ancylostoma tubaeforme 20%, Joyeuxiella pasqualei 10%, Toxocara cati 8%, Pterygoderma­tites affinis 6%, Ancylostoma caninum 4%, and Taenia taeniaeformis 2%. Concurrent infections with two or more parasites were recorded in 34% of the individuals. In relation to the sex, the differences were not significant. Conclusion: P. praeputialis, T. cati, D. nolleri and sometime J. pasqualei are the commonest Helminthes in cats. This is the first reported isolation of P. affinis and A. caninum infections from cats in Iran.

  6. Feeding habits of feral cats Felis silvestris catus in the countryside of Majorca Island, Spain

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    J. Milan

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The diet of feral cats ( Felis silvestris catus in the Mediterranean island of Majorca (Spain was studied from July 2008 to June 2009 by the analysis of the scats of 75 feral cats captured in baited traps in 14 different areas. A total of 138 preys were identified in the analyzed scats. Mammals were the main group preyed on and constituted 93% both in frequency and biomass. Among them, mice were the most frequent prey consumed (55% Mus sp., 18% Apodemus sylvaticus but represented only 20% of biomass. Rat was present in 29% of scats and was the main component in terms of biomass (57%. Rabbit was found at a frequency of 6.6%, and constituted 18% of biomass. Other prey (birds, geckos and insects were found in lower frequency, and all pooled constituted only 7% of biomass. Reproductive females preyed less upon mice (20% than the other cats (77%. This may indicate that these females tended to predate upon higher preys, which may be secondary to increased energetic requirements due to pregnancy or lactation. No seasonal variations were found in any of the different parameters studied. Results indicate that rodents constitute all year round the main prey item in feral cat diet in the countryside of Majorca.

  7. Phenotypic and Molecular Characterization of Domestic Cat (Felis catus) Spermatogonial Stem Cells.

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    Powell, Robin H; Galiguis, Jason; Biancardi, Monica N; Pope, C Earle; Leibo, Stanley P; Wang, Guoshun; Gómez, Martha C

    2016-07-01

    In many mammalian species, surface markers have been used to obtain enriched populations of spermatogonial stem cells (SSCs) for assisted reproduction and other applications; however, little is known about the expression patterns of feline SSCs. In this study, we assessed expression of the SSC surface markers commonly used in other species, KIT, ITGA6, CD9, GFRalpha1, ADGRA3, and THY1, in addition to the less frequently used pluripotent markers TRA-1-60, TRA-1-81, SSEA-1, and SSEA-4 in SSCs of both prepubertal and adult domestic cats (Felis catus). To further characterize cat SSCs, we sorted cells using SSC-specific markers and evaluated the expression of the pluripotent transcription factors NANOG, POU5F1, and SOX2 and the proto-oncogene MYC within these populations. We concluded that SSC surface markers used in other mammalian species were not specific for identifying cat SSCs. However, the pluripotent markers we evaluated were more specific to cat spermatogonia, and the presence of SSEA-1 and SSEA-4 in fewer and primarily individual cells suggests that these two markers may be used for enrichment of cat SSCs. The expression of pluripotent transcription factors at mRNA level by single-stained cells positive for SSEA-4 and by dual-stained cells positive for both GFRalpha1 and SSEA-4 reflects the undifferentiated stage of cat SSCs. The absence of transcription factors in double-stained cells positive for only one marker implies the loss of the stem cell-like identity with the loss of either GFRalpha1 or SSEA-4. Further investigation is warranted to elucidate the biological characteristics of these spermatogonial subpopulations.

  8. Functional Analyses of Bitter Taste Receptors in Domestic Cats (Felis catus.

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    Weiwei Lei

    Full Text Available Cats are obligate carnivores and under most circumstances eat only animal products. Owing to the pseudogenization of one of two subunits of the sweet receptor gene, they are indifferent to sweeteners, presumably having no need to detect plant-based sugars in their diet. Following this reasoning and a recent report of a positive correlation between the proportion of dietary plants and the number of Tas2r (bitter receptor genes in vertebrate species, we tested the hypothesis that if bitter perception exists primarily to protect animals from poisonous plant compounds, the genome of the domestic cat (Felis catus should have lost functional bitter receptors and they should also have reduced bitter receptor function. To test functionality of cat bitter receptors, we expressed cat Tas2R receptors in cell-based assays. We found that they have at least 7 functional receptors with distinct receptive ranges, showing many similarities, along with some differences, with human bitter receptors. To provide a comparative perspective, we compared the cat repertoire of intact receptors with those of a restricted number of members of the order Carnivora, with a range of dietary habits as reported in the literature. The numbers of functional bitter receptors in the terrestrial Carnivora we examined, including omnivorous and herbivorous species, were roughly comparable to that of cats thereby providing no strong support for the hypothesis that a strict meat diet influences bitter receptor number or function. Maintenance of bitter receptor function in terrestrial obligate carnivores may be due to the presence of bitter compounds in vertebrate and invertebrate prey, to the necessary role these receptors play in non-oral perception, or to other unknown factors. We also found that the two aquatic Carnivora species examined had fewer intact bitter receptors. Further comparative studies of factors driving numbers and functions of bitter taste receptors will aid in

  9. Extent of linkage disequilibrium in the domestic cat, Felis silvestris catus, and its breeds.

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    Hasan Alhaddad

    Full Text Available Domestic cats have a unique breeding history and can be used as models for human hereditary and infectious diseases. In the current era of genome-wide association studies, insights regarding linkage disequilibrium (LD are essential for efficient association studies. The objective of this study is to investigate the extent of LD in the domestic cat, Felis silvestris catus, particularly within its breeds. A custom illumina GoldenGate Assay consisting of 1536 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs equally divided over ten 1 Mb chromosomal regions was developed, and genotyped across 18 globally recognized cat breeds and two distinct random bred populations. The pair-wise LD descriptive measure (r(2 was calculated between the SNPs in each region and within each population independently. LD decay was estimated by determining the non-linear least-squares of all pair-wise estimates as a function of distance using established models. The point of 50% decay of r(2 was used to compare the extent of LD between breeds. The longest extent of LD was observed in the Burmese breed, where the distance at which r(2 ≈ 0.25 was ∼380 kb, comparable to several horse and dog breeds. The shortest extent of LD was found in the Siberian breed, with an r(2 ≈ 0.25 at approximately 17 kb, comparable to random bred cats and human populations. A comprehensive haplotype analysis was also conducted. The haplotype structure of each region within each breed mirrored the LD estimates. The LD of cat breeds largely reflects the breeds' population history and breeding strategies. Understanding LD in diverse populations will contribute to an efficient use of the newly developed SNP array for the cat in the design of genome-wide association studies, as well as to the interpretation of results for the fine mapping of disease and phenotypic traits.

  10. Survival of feral cats, Felis catus (Carnivora: Felidae), on Mauna Kea, Hawai'i, based on tooth cementum lines

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    Danner, Raymond M.; Farmer, Chris; Hess, Steven C.; Stephens, Robert M.; Banko, Paul C.

    2010-01-01

    Feral cats (Felis catus) have spread throughout anthropogenic and insular environments of the world. They now threaten many species of native wildlife with chronic depredation. Knowledge of feral cat population dynamics is necessary to understand their ecological effects and to develop effective control strategies. However, there are few studies worldwide regarding annual or lifetime survival rates in remote systems, and none on Pacific islands. We constructed the age distribution and estimated survival of feral cats in a remote area of Hawai'i Island using cementum lines present in lower canine teeth. Our data suggest annual cementum line formation. A log-linear model estimated annual survival ≥ 1 yr of age to be 0.647. Relatively high survival coupled with high reproductive output allows individual cats to affect native wildlife for many years and cat populations to rebound quickly after control efforts.

  11. Echinococcus multilocularis detection in the intestines and feces of free-ranging domestic cats (Felis s. catus) and European wildcats (Felis s. silvestris) from northeastern France.

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    Umhang, Gérald; Forin-Wiart, Marie-Amélie; Hormaz, Vanessa; Caillot, Christophe; Boucher, Jean-Marc; Poulle, Marie-Lazarine; Franck, Boué

    2015-11-30

    Experimental studies have demonstrated that cats can be infected by Echinococcus multilocularis, although few data are available concerning their natural infection. This study was designed to compare experimental findings with information on the prevalence of natural E. multilocularis infections of cats in a rural high endemic area. Of 19 intestines of domestic cats (Felis s. catus) and five of European wildcats (Felis s. silvestris) analyzed by segmental sedimentation and counting technique (SSCT), infection by E. multilocularis was observed for one individual of each species, resulting in a prevalence estimated at 5%, (CI95%: 1-26) in domestic cats and at 20% (CI95%: 1-72) in wildcats. High worm burdens (680 and 7040) were noted, but comprised only immature worms. The same EmsB microsatellite profile obtained from the worms' DNA was observed in the two cats as in foxes from the same area and from other European countries. The presence of E. multilocularis DNA was diagnosed in 3.1% (10/321) of the domestic cat feces collected on the field in two villages. However, no E. multilocularis eggs were found after flotation with zinc chloride of the positive feces. The detection of DNA from E. multilocularis was thought to be due to the presence of cells from worms untied from the intestine and corresponding to prepatent infection or due to the digested metacestode. These results from E. multilocularis presence in wild and domestic cat populations agree with those previously obtained by experimental infections. These findings support that these cats play an insignificant role in E. multilocularis transmission, even in a "highly endemic" region. Nevertheless, since the presence of thick-shelled E. multilocularis eggs from cats has already been reported, the associated zoonotic risk cannot be totally ruled out, even if it is very low.

  12. The genetic integrity of the ex situ population of the European wildcat (Felis silvestris silvestris) is seriously threatened by introgression from domestic cats (Felis silvestris catus).

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    Witzenberger, Kathrin A; Hochkirch, Axel

    2014-01-01

    Studies on the genetic diversity and relatedness of zoo populations are crucial for implementing successful breeding programmes. The European wildcat, Felis s. silvestris, is subject to intensive conservation measures, including captive breeding and reintroduction. We here present the first systematic genetic analysis of the captive population of Felis s. silvestris in comparison with a natural wild population. We used microsatellites and mtDNA sequencing to assess genetic diversity, structure and integrity of the ex situ population. Our results show that the ex situ population of the European wildcat is highly structured and that it has a higher genetic diversity than the studied wild population. Some genetic clusters matched the breeding lines of certain zoos or groups of zoos that often exchanged individuals. Two mitochondrial haplotype groups were detected in the in situ populations, one of which was closely related to the most common haplotype found in domestic cats, suggesting past introgression in the wild. Although native haplotypes were also found in the captive population, the majority (68%) of captive individuals shared a common mtDNA haplotype with the domestic cat (Felis s. catus). Only six captive individuals (7.7%) were assigned as wildcats in the STRUCTURE analysis (at K = 2), two of which had domestic cat mtDNA haplotypes and only two captive individuals were assigned as purebred wildcats by NewHybrids. These results suggest that the high genetic diversity of the captive population has been caused by admixture with domestic cats. Therefore, the captive population cannot be recommended for further breeding and reintroduction.

  13. The genetic integrity of the ex situ population of the European wildcat (Felis silvestris silvestris is seriously threatened by introgression from domestic cats (Felis silvestris catus.

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    Kathrin A Witzenberger

    Full Text Available Studies on the genetic diversity and relatedness of zoo populations are crucial for implementing successful breeding programmes. The European wildcat, Felis s. silvestris, is subject to intensive conservation measures, including captive breeding and reintroduction. We here present the first systematic genetic analysis of the captive population of Felis s. silvestris in comparison with a natural wild population. We used microsatellites and mtDNA sequencing to assess genetic diversity, structure and integrity of the ex situ population. Our results show that the ex situ population of the European wildcat is highly structured and that it has a higher genetic diversity than the studied wild population. Some genetic clusters matched the breeding lines of certain zoos or groups of zoos that often exchanged individuals. Two mitochondrial haplotype groups were detected in the in situ populations, one of which was closely related to the most common haplotype found in domestic cats, suggesting past introgression in the wild. Although native haplotypes were also found in the captive population, the majority (68% of captive individuals shared a common mtDNA haplotype with the domestic cat (Felis s. catus. Only six captive individuals (7.7% were assigned as wildcats in the STRUCTURE analysis (at K = 2, two of which had domestic cat mtDNA haplotypes and only two captive individuals were assigned as purebred wildcats by NewHybrids. These results suggest that the high genetic diversity of the captive population has been caused by admixture with domestic cats. Therefore, the captive population cannot be recommended for further breeding and reintroduction.

  14. Genomic characterisation of Felis catus papillomavirus 4, a novel papillomavirus detected in the oral cavity of a domestic cat.

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    Dunowska, Magdalena; Munday, John S; Laurie, Rebecca E; Hills, Simon F K

    2014-02-01

    Three papillomaviruses (PVs) from the domestic cat have been fully sequenced so far including Felis domesticus PV-1 (FdPV-1), FdPV-2, and a recently described Felis catus PV-3 (FcaPV-4). In the current article, we describe the full genomic sequence of a fourth PV from the domestic cat. This PV was amplified from the oral cavity of a cat with severe gingivitis. However, the aetiological involvement of FcaPV-4 in development of lesions observed in this cat remains uncertain. The complete genome of the novel virus comprised 7,616 bp and was predicted to encode five early (E1, E2, E4, E6 and E7) and two late (L1 and L2) genes, with the organisation typical for PVs. The L1 showed 65.1 % nucleotide sequence identity to L1 of FcaPV-3 and approximately 60 % identity to L1 of canine tau-papillomaviruses CPV-2 and CPV-7. The novel virus clustered with FcaPV-3, CPV-2 and CPV-7 on a phylogenetic tree constructed from a concatenated alignment of 3,013 bp from E1, E2, L1 and L2. Based on the genomic and phylogenetic data, we propose that the novel virus is classified as a distinct species within the same genus as FcaPV-3. We also propose that both viruses are classified within the genus Taupapillomavirus, although this classification may need to be re-visited after more tau-PV genomes become available.

  15. Molecular characterisation of Cryptosporidium and Giardia in cats (Felis catus) in Western Australia.

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    Yang, Rongchang; Ying, Joyce Lau Jie; Monis, Paul; Ryan, Una

    2015-08-01

    Little is known of the prevalence of Cryptosporidium and Giardia in domestic cats in Western Australia and their potential role as zoonotic reservoirs for human infection. In the present study, a total of 345 faecal samples from four different sources were screened for the presence of Cryptosporidium and Giardia by PCR and genotyped by sequence analysis. Oocyst numbers and cyst numbers for Cryptosporidium and Giardia respectively were also determined using quantitative PCR assays. Cryptosporidium and Giardia were detected in 9.9% (95% CI 6.7-13.0) and 10.1% (95% CI 7.0-13.3) of cats in Western Australia respectively. Sequence analysis at the 18S rRNA locus identified five Cryptosporidium species/genotypes; C. felis (n = 8), C. muris (n = 1), C. ryanae (n = 1), Cryptosporidium rat genotype III (n = 5) and a novel genotype most closely related to Cryptosporidium rat genotype III in one isolate. This is the first report of C. ryanae and Cryptosporidium rat genotype III in cats. For Giardia, assemblage F the most commonly identified species, while only 1 assemblage sequence was detected. Since most human cases of cryptosporidiosis are caused by C. parvum and C. hominis and human cases of giardiasis are caused by G. duodenalis assemblage A and B, the domestic cats in the present study are likely to be of low zoonotic risk to pet owners in Perth. Risk analyses identified that elderly cats (more than 6 years) were more prone to Cryptosporidium and Giardia infections than kittens (less than 6 months) (P = 0.009). Clinical symptoms were not associated with the prevalence of Cryptosporidium and Giardia infections in cats.

  16. The parasite fauna of stray domestic cats (Felis catus) in Dubai, United Arab Emirates.

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    Schuster, Rolf K; Thomas, Katja; Sivakumar, Saritha; O'Donovan, Declan

    2009-07-01

    Two hundred forty feral domestic cats trapped between 2004 and 2008 in the city centre and the suburb districts of Dubai, as well as in desert biotopes, were subjected to a complete parasitological dissection. The established parasite fauna consisted of Cystoisospora felis (12.9%), Cystoisospora rivolta (9.2%), Toxoplasma/Hammondia (0.8%), Heterophyes heterophyes (2.5%), Heterophyopsis continua (0.4%), Joyeuxiella spp. (65.8%), Diplopylidium noelleri (37.1%), Hydatigera taeniaeformis (16.7%), Taenia hydatigena (0.4%), Ancylostoma ceylanicum (8.8%), Ollulanus tricuspis (0.8%), Toxocara mystax (2.9%), Toxascaris leonina (0.8%), Pterygodermatites affinis (35.0%), Centrorhynchus aluconis (4.6%), Rhipicephalus sanguineus (4.2%), Xenopsylla astia (3.8%) and Synosternus pallidus (4.2%).

  17. An STR forensic typing system for genetic individualization of domestic cat (Felis catus) samples.

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    Menotti-Raymond, Marilyn A; David, Victor A; Wachter, Leslie L; Butler, John M; O'Brien, Stephen J

    2005-09-01

    A forensic genotyping panel of 11 tetranucleotide STR loci from the domestic cat was characterized and evaluated for genetic individualization of cat tissues. We first examined 49 candidate STR loci and their frequency assessment in domestic cat populations. The STR loci (3-4 base pair repeat motifs), mapped in the cat genome relative to 579 coding loci and 255 STR loci, are well distributed across the 18 feline autosomes. All loci exhibit Mendelian inheritance in a multi-generation pedigree. Eleven loci that were unlinked and were highly heterozygous in cat breeds were selected for a forensic panel. Heterozygosity values obtained for the independent loci, ranged from 0.60-0.82, while the average cat breed heterozygosity obtained for the 11 locus panel was 0.71 (range of 0.57-0.83). A small sample set of outbred domestic cats displayed a heterozygosity of 0.86 for the 11 locus panel. The power of discrimination of the panel is moderate to high in the cat breeds examined, with an average P(m) of 3.7E-06. The panel shows good potential for genetic individualization within outbred domestic cats with a P(m) of 5.31E-08. A multiplex protocol, designed for the co-amplification of the 11 loci and a gender-identifying locus, is species specific and robust, generating a product profile with as little as 0.125 nanograms of genomic DNA.

  18. Evaluation of cats (Felis catus) as possible asymptomatic carriers of dermatophytes in extreme south of Brazil

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    Tony Silveira; Renata de Faria; Mariana Remio; Camila Graeff; Fabiana Poetsch; Guilherme Azevedo; Juliane Guimares; Rafaela Bellora; Tassiane Moraes; Pedro Quevedo

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the presence of Microsporum canis in pelage of asymptomatic cats for dermatophytosis, in south region of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, and evaluate its importance in epidemiology of dermatophytosis in the study area. Methods: A total of 60 domestic cats were evaluated for the presence of Microsporum canis. The animals were divided into three groups of 20 felines. Each group consisted of exclusively domiciled, semi-domiciled and rural animals. Samples were collected following the carpet-square technique. The microorganisms were cultivated under laminar flow in mycosel agar and grown in a greenhouse. Results: All the cats of the three groups analysed had negative cultures for dermatophytes. In 85% of the dishes, there was a growth of environmental saprophytic fungi such as Aspergillus sp., Fusarium sp. and Penicillium sp. Conclusions: Thus, asymptomatic cats for dermatophytes did not show importance in the transmission and maintenance of the disease in southern of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil.

  19. Detection of antibodies against Leishmania infantum in cats (Felis catus from the State of Pernambuco, Brazil

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    Rita de Cássia Nascimento Silva

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Little information is available concerning infection by Leishmania infantum in cats. Therefore, the aim of this study was to perform a serological study in domestic cats. Methods: Serum samples (n=153 obtained from animals living in the Cities of Recife and Petrolina, State of Pernambuco, Brazil, were tested by ELISA/S7® (Biogene. Results: Anti-L. infantum antibodies were detected in 3.9% (6/153 of the cats. All seroreagent animals were from Petrolina. Conclusions: These results serve as an important alert, and future studies are needed to better understand the possible role of cats in the epidemiology of visceral leishmaniasis (VL in this area.

  20. [Architectural structure of the pterygoidian plane of the masticatory musculature in the cat (Felis catus L.)].

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    Lautrou, A; Laison, F

    1975-09-01

    The architectural analysis of the ptérygoidal plane of the cat identified the two pterygoid muscles. The medial pterygoid showed an orbital and an angular part inserted respectively on the internal face of the mandibule and on the maeto-angular ligament. The lateral pterygoid consisted of only one pterygoid bundle, involved in lateral movements and adjustments of the jaw condyle.

  1. Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii in Cats (Felis catus, Linnaeus 1758 Living in San Carlos (Chile

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    Ignacio Eduardo Troncoso Toro

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available There are few studies about seroprevalence of toxoplasmosis in Chile; therefore, this article aims to determine seroprevalence in cats in the district of San Carlos, by ELISA Immuno- Comb® serological technique, and, at the same time, to examine association with variables of sex, age, diet, and habitat. To the effect, 60 cats over 2 months old were randomly sampled. Sera were analyzed using the ELISA ImmunoComb® Biogal Toxo & Chlamydia test kit, which detects specific immunoglobulin G-type antibodies against Toxoplasma gondii with a sensitivity of 92.3% and a specificity of 100%. The study evidenced that 29 individuals were positive (48.3% seroprevalence; when broken down by gender this corresponded to 9 males and 20 females (39.1% and 54%, respectively. By age, seropositivity was higher in the “Adult” group (76.7%, followed by groups “Over 7 years” (50% and “Young” (25%. With respect to diet, higher seropositivity was obtained in animals fed on mixed diet, as opposed to commercial diet (60% vs. 47.2%. By variable habitat, 16 indoor and 13 outdoor cats were positive (45.7% and 52%, showing statistically significant difference only for the variable age (p < 0.05. Finally, through relating age with seropositivity, a negative correlation was evidenced (r = –0.3, indicating that older individuals had lower seroprevalence. The results show the presence of antibodies against Toxoplasma gondii in domestic cats.

  2. Esporotricose do gato doméstico (Felis catus: transmissão humana Sporothricosis of the domestic cat (Felis catus: human transmission

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    Silvio Alencar Marques

    1993-08-01

    Full Text Available No presente trabalho relata-se caso de paciente, funcionário de hospital veterinário, infectado através de arranhadura de gato doméstico portador de esporotricose. Inquérito domiciliar junto aos proprietários do animal fonte de infecção, revelou dois outros casos presuntivos de esporotricose humana transmitida por gatos, e confirmou o diagnóstico, por cultivo do Sporotrix schenckii, em 3 gatos domésticos adicionais. A esporotricose felina caracteriza-se por lesões cutâneas ulceradas e tendência à disseminação sistêmica e evolução fatal. A transmissão intra e inter-espécie é facilitada pela exuberância de fungos nas lesões cutâneas de felinos infectados.A case of sporothricosis transmitted by cat to a veterinarian hospital employee is reported. Inquiry at domiciliar area of the cat's owner revelled two other presumable cases of human sporothricosis transmitted by cats, and confirmed the diagnosis (by culture of Sporothrix schenckii of disease in three other domestic cats. Feline sporothricosis is characterized by ulcerative, cutaneous lesions and systemic dissemination, which invariably cause animal's death. The transmission of sporothricosis to other animals and humans is enhanced by the great amount of fungus present in cat's lesions.

  3. Prevalence of Bartonella species DNA and antibodies in cats (Felis catus) submitted to a spay/neuter program in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

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    Crissiuma, Ana; Favacho, Alexsandra; Gershony, Liza; Mendes-de-Almeida, Flavya; Gomes, Raphael; Mares-Guia, Angélica; Rozental, Tatiana; Barreira, Jairo; Lemos, Elba; Labarthe, Norma

    2011-02-01

    The prevalence of Bartonella species DNA and antibodies for Bartonella henselae were studied in 40 clinically healthy cats (Felis catus, Linnaeus 1758) submitted to a spay/neuter program in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Additionally, the prevalence of Bartonella species DNA was investigated in the fleas found parasitizing the subject cats. For this purpose, blood samples were obtained from all cats, and DNA extraction was performed on the blood, and blood clotted samples, as well as on pools of fleas obtained from them. Antibodies for B henselae were detected on serum samples. Bartonella species DNA was detected in 17 cats, whereas serum reactivity for B henselae was found in 19. A total of 20 cats were flea-infested and nine of these 20 had Bartonella species DNA in their blood. In four of the 20 flea-infested cats, Bartonella species DNA was detected in the fleas obtained from those cats, but only one of these four cats had Bartonella species DNA in its blood.

  4. Coat genetic markers of the domestic cat Felis catus (Felidae from southwestern Colombia

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    Mauricio Peñuela A

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. Establish the genetic profiles of cats from 12 neighboring municipalities in southwestern Colombia, in a town course from Pereira-Popayán. Estimate the degree of diversity, genetic structure, and quantify gene flow. Materials and methods. Were inventoried the phenotypic markers present in the pigmentation and structure of the coat of 1482 cats of the municipalities surveyed. Based on these phenotypic frequencies, allele frequencies, heterozygosity, Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium, F statistics and Nei genetic distances were calculated. A comparison was also made between genetic and geographic distance matrices to determine if there was a significant association between the two. Results. With the genetic profiles of the populations we estimated the degree of diversity. We found the populations in equilibrium for the S autosomal locus and for the O sex-linked locus. We found a low level genetic structure, and it was determined that there was no significant correlation between the genetic and geographic distance matrices among populations. Conclusions: These findings can be explained on the basis of the processes of human displacement for this region, due to the fact that the establishment of feline populations in these municipalities originated during the same historical period. Identical genetic profiles are shared as a result of colonization events, and due to possible continued migration among these populations.

  5. Biología de la gestación en la gata doméstica (Felis catus Biology of pregnancy in the domestic cat (Felis catus

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    A.E SANCHEZ

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available La gata es una hembra poliéstrica estacional en la cual el estímulo coital desencadena la liberación de LH y la ovulación, fenómenos que ocurren dentro de las primeras 50 horas postcoito. La fecundación de los ovocitos ocurre en el oviducto dentro de 30 horas post-ovulación. El transporte embrionario en oviducto toma alrededor de 132 horas y al momento de ingresar al útero los embriones se encuentran al estado de mórula compacta. A continuación los blastocistos migran entre los cuernos uterinos por aproximadamente 80 horas, hasta producirse la implantación 12 a 13 días post-coito. Durante la etapa preimplantacional existe un aumento significativo de la progesterona sérica así como de los receptores luteales a LH. A partir de la segunda mitad de la gestación, decae la producción de progesterona y aumenta la secreción de prolactina, postulándose que esta última sería el principal agente luteotrófico en la gata. También durante la segunda mitad de la gestación aumenta la secreción de relaxina. La producción y rol de la progesterona en la gestación tardía es un tema controversial. Se ha demostrado que la placenta felina posee actividad esteroidogénica y capacidad de sintetizar progesterona, lo cual sugiere que estaría relacionada con el soporte hormonal de la preñezThe domestic cat can be defined as a seasonal poliestrous female. During mating the physical stimulus produce the release of LH and ovulation, which occur during the first 50 hours post mating. The fertilization of oocytes takes place inside the oviduct during the 30 hours post ovulation. The embryos transport on the oviduct takes about 132 hours and when embryos reach the uterus they are already a compacted morulae. After this, the blastocyst migrates to both uterine horns for a period of 80 hours aproximately until implantation ocurrs 12 to 13 days after mating. During the preimplantation period, there is a significant increase in blood progesterone and

  6. Complete nucleotide sequences of the domestic cat (Felis catus) mitochondrial genome and a transposed mtDNA tandem repeat (Numt) in the nuclear genome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez, J.V.; Cevario, S.; O`Brien, S.J. [National Cancer Institute, Frederick, MD (United States)

    1996-04-15

    The complete 17,009-bp mitochondrial genome of the domestic cat, Felis catus, has been sequenced and conforms largely to the typical organization of previously characterized mammalian mtDNAs. Codon usage and base composition also followed canonical vertebrate patterns, except for an unusual ATC (non-AUG) codon initiating the NADH dehydrogenase subunit 2 (ND2) gene. Two distinct repetitive motifs at opposite ends of the control region contribute to the relatively large size (1559 bp) of this carnivore mtDNA. Alignment of the feline mtDNA genome to a homologous 7946-bp nuclear mtDNA tandem repeat DNA sequence in the cat, Numt, indicates simple repeat motifs associated with insertion/deletion mutations. Overall DNA sequence divergence between Numt and cytoplasmic mtDNA sequence was only 5.1%. Substitutions predominate at the third codon position of homologous feline protein genes. Phylogenetic analysis of mitochondrial gene sequences confirms the recent transfer of the cytoplasmic mtDNA sequences to the domestic cat nucleus and recapitulates evolutionary relationships between mammal species. 86 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs.

  7. Seroprevalence and Risk Factors Associated with Seropositivity to Toxoplasma gondii among Stray and Domestic Cats (Felis silvestris catus

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    Christel Bohn T. Garcia

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Toxoplasma gondii is a protozoan parasite that causes toxoplasmosis. It is widespread in the environment and infects a variety of warm-blooded animals, causing miscarriages and birth problems. Previous studies in the Philippines have determined the seropositivity of T. gondii in humans. However, the seroprevalence of the parasite among household pets, par ticularly its feline def initive host, remains insufficient . This study aimed to: (1 determine the seroprevalence of T. gondii antibodies among domestic and stray cats in the Philippines; and, (2 to analyze the risk factors associated with seropositivity. Blood samples from 59 domestic and stray cats were collected and tested for T. gondii seropositivity using a commercially available indirect ELISA kit, while pet owners and handlers were given questionnaires about their cats. Thirteen or 22.03% of the cats were seropositive to T. gondii, and risk factor analysis revealed a significant difference between domestic and stray cats with regard to diet (p = 0.026, OR = 8.333, c = 0.299 and domestication (p = 0.039, OR = 5.000, c = 0.276. Cats fed with table food tested 31.43% seropositive compared to the 4.35% of those fed with cat food, whereas 33.33% of the stray cats were seropositive compared to 7.69% for domestic cats. Odds ratio test showed that the risk factors studied were associated with higher likelihood of T. gondii seropositivity. These results implicate diet and environment in the transmission dynamics of T. gondii among cats.

  8. Coinfection by Toxoplasma gondii and Leishmania spp. in domestic cats (Felis catus in State of Mato Grosso do Sul

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    Audrey Rennó Campos Braga

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Leishmaniasis and toxoplasmosis are important to public health. Methods Antibodies for Toxoplasma gondii and Leishmania spp. were evaluated in cats from Campo Grande, State of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil, a region endemic for canine visceral leishmaniasis. Serum samples from 50 asymptomatic cats were titrated for T. gondii by the immunofluorescence antibody test and modified agglutination test and for Leishmania spp. by the immunofluorescence antibody test. Results These two agents coinfected two (4% of the 50 tested animals. Conclusions These findings demonstrate the concomitant presence of two important zoonoses in cats from Brazilian endemic regions for canine visceral leishmaniasis.

  9. Correlation between fetal age and ultrasonographic measurements during the second half of pregnancy in domestic cats (Felis catus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zambelli, Daniele; Castagnetti, Carolina; Belluzzi, Stefano; Paladini, Cosimo

    2004-11-01

    We ultrasonographically evaluated the prenatal development in cats, from Day 30 to the end of pregnancy, subjecting a group of pregnant cats (n = 8) to daily ultrasonographic examinations. The ultrasonographic images allowed us to measure the diameter of the fetal abdomen, the biparietal diameter of the fetal skull and the diameter of the fetal stomach. A correlation between these measurements and gestational age was found with a linear, parabolic and exponential regression analysis. From Days 38 to 43 after breeding we also performed fetal gender determination by evaluating the external genitalia. All queens successfully carried their pregnancies to term. This study compiled useful new data in order to clinically monitor the normal course of pregnancy in cats and to determine gestational age.

  10. Five-week dietary exposure to dry diets alters the faecal bacterial populations in the domestic cat (Felis catus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bermingham, Emma N; Kittelmann, Sandra; Henderson, Gemma; Young, Wayne; Roy, Nicole C; Thomas, David G

    2011-10-01

    The effects of wet (canned) or dry (kibbled) diets on faecal bacterial populations in the cat were investigated in eight domestic short-haired cats (four males and four females; averaging 6 years of age and 3.4 kg) in a nested design. The cats were fed ad libitum a commercially available wet diet (moisture 82.0 %, crude protein 51.7 %, fat 28.9 %, carbohydrate (CHO) 8.9 % and ash 10.6 % DM) for 5 weeks. On the fifth week, individual feed intakes and faecal outputs were determined. Fresh faecal samples were collected twice daily, mixed for homogeneity, subsampled and stored at - 85 °C until analysis. The cats were then switched to a commercially available dry diet (moisture 8.5 %, crude protein 33.0 %, fat 11.0 %, CHO 49.4 % and ash 6.6 % DM) for 5 weeks, and fresh faeces were sampled as described previously. Energy intake tended to be higher in cats fed dry diets (P 0.05). Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) of bacterial 16S rRNA genes amplified from DNA extracted from faeces was performed. The unweighted pair group method with arithmetic mean cluster analysis of bacterial community profiles using Pearson's correlation revealed diet-specific clustering when the same cats were fed on either a dry or a wet diet (dissimilarity between the groups, 88.6 %; P Pelomonas and Fusobacteriaceae were influenced by a short-term change in diet format. This suggests that 5-week dietary exposure is sufficient to alter gastrointestinal microflora.

  11. Propionate absorbed from the colon acts as gluconeogenic substrate in a strict carnivore, the domestic cat (Felis catus)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Verbrugghe, A; Hesta, M; Daminet, S

    2012-01-01

    In six normal-weight and six obese cats, the metabolic effect of propionate absorbed from the colon was assessed. Two colonic infusions were tested in a crossover design with intervals of 4 weeks. The test solution contained 4 mmol sodium propionate per kg ideal body weight in a 0.2% NaCl solution...

  12. Molecular detection of Leishmania sp. in cats (Felis catus) from Andradina Municipality, São Paulo State, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coelho, Willian Marinho Dourado; Richini-Pereira, Virgínia Bodelão; Langoni, Helio; Bresciani, Katia Denise Saraiva

    2011-03-10

    The aim of this work was to molecularly detect Leishmania species in 52 cats from Andradina Municipality, São Paulo State, Brazil. The direct parasitological test was performed by using imprints of poplited lymph node, bone marrow and spleen to verify amastigote forms of Leishmania spp. The samples that were positive parasitological tests were subjected to molecular analysis (PCR) and sequencing. Infection was detected for 5.76% (3/52) of the examined cats and two had presence of amastigote forms of Leishmania spp. in lymph nodes. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) of kinetoplast minicircle DNA, indicated positive amplification for samples of spleen and lymph nodes and the sequencing resulted in 97% similarity with Leishmania (L.) chagasi. This study proved the occurrence of infection with Leishmania (L.) chagasi in felines from Andradina municipality, São Paulo State.

  13. Different patterns of metabolic cryo-damage in domestic cat (Felis catus) and cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus) spermatozoa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terrell, Kimberly A; Wildt, David E; Anthony, Nicola M; Bavister, Barry D; Leibo, S P; Penfold, Linda M; Marker, Laurie L; Crosier, Adrienne E

    2012-04-01

    Felid spermatozoa are sensitive to cryopreservation-induced damage, but functional losses can be mitigated by post-thaw swim-up or density gradient processing methods that selectively recover motile or structurally-normal spermatozoa, respectively. Despite the importance of sperm energy production to achieving fertilization, there is little knowledge about the influence of cryopreservation or post-thaw processing on felid sperm metabolism. We conducted a comparative study of domestic cat and cheetah sperm metabolism after cryopreservation and post-thaw processing. We hypothesized that freezing/thawing impairs sperm metabolism and that swim-up, but not density gradient centrifugation, recovers metabolically-normal spermatozoa. Ejaculates were cryopreserved, thawed, and processed by swim-up, Accudenz gradient centrifugation, or conventional washing (representing the 'control'). Sperm glucose and pyruvate uptake, lactate production, motility, and acrosomal integrity were assessed. Mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) was measured in cat spermatozoa. In both species, lactate production, motility, and acrosomal integrity were reduced in post-thaw, washed samples compared to freshly-collected ejaculates. Glucose uptake was minimal pre- and post-cryopreservation, whereas pyruvate uptake was similar between treatments due to high coefficients of variation. In the cat, swim-up, but not Accudenz processing, recovered spermatozoa with increased lactate production, pyruvate uptake, and motility compared to controls. Although confounded by differences in non-specific fluorescence among processing methods, MMP values within treatments were positively correlated to sperm motility and acrosomal integrity. Cheetah spermatozoa isolated by either selection method exhibited improved motility and/or acrosomal integrity, but remained metabolically compromised. Collectively, findings revealed a metabolically-robust subpopulation of cryopreserved cat, but not cheetah, spermatozoa

  14. Occurrence of Leishmania (Leishmania) chagasi in a domestic cat (Felis catus) in Andradina, São Paulo, Brazil: case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coelho, Willian Marinho Dourado; Lima, Valéria Marçal Felix de; Amarante, Alessandro Francisco Talamini do; Langoni, Helio; Pereira, Virgínia Bodelão Richini; Abdelnour, Aziz; Bresciani, Katia Denise Saraiva

    2010-01-01

    This work describes natural infection by Leishmania in a domestic cat where amastigote forms of the parasite were observed in the popliteal lymph node imprint. Positive and negative serological reactions were observed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and indirect immunofluorescence assay (IFA), respectively. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) revealed that the nucleotide sequence of the sample was identical to Leishmania (L.) chagasi. This is the first report of the disease in felines of the city of Andradina, SP, an area considered endemic for canine and human visceral leishmaniasis.

  15. Sequence analysis of feline caliciviruses isolated from the oral cavity of clinically normal domestic cats (Felis catus) in Florida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weeks, M L; Gallagher, A; Romero, C H

    2001-12-01

    Four isolates (7.3 per cent) of feline calicivirus (FCV), from oropharyngeal swabs taken from 55 unvaccinated apparently healthy cats, were identified by electron microscopy and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). A 671-bp fragment, comprising part of region B, all of regions C, D, and E and part of region F of the FCV capsid protein gene, was amplified from each isolate by RT-PCR and cloned for sequence analysis. Amino acid sequence comparison of these regions revealed significant sequence divergence from the F9 vaccine strain within regions C, E, and F. The hypervariable region E of the four Florida isolates and the NADC isolate contained three fewer amino acids than the commonly used F9 vaccine strain. This work provides support to the idea that currently circulating FCV strains may differ substantially from presently used vaccine strains.

  16. Expression profiles of relaxin family peptides and their receptors indicate their influence on spermatogenesis in the domestic cat (Felis catus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braun, B C; Müller, K; Jewgenow, K

    2015-07-01

    Disturbed spermatogenesis is a common problem in felines. Studying spermatogenesis in the domestic cat can improve the understanding of the biological background and help to counteract fertility problems in other feline species. Here, we analyzed 3 relaxin family peptides (relaxin, relaxin-3, and INSL3) and their receptors (RXFP1, RXFP2, and RXFP3) as potential spermatogenic factors involving their expression in the testis at different stages of its development. It may be concluded from its stage-dependent expression that relaxin, together with RXFP1, appears to be involved in the first stage of spermatogenesis, whereas relaxin-3 via binding to RXFP3 influences spermiogenesis. Furthermore, correlations were observed between relaxin, relaxin-3, RXFP1, RXFP2 and RXFP3 messenger RNA expression, and the relative numbers of haploid cells in testes. The peptide INSL3 was highly expressed at all testis development stages. Because of the low and stage-independent expression of its receptor RXFP2, an auto- and/or paracrine function of INSL3 in spermatogenesis seems unlikely. In the adult testis, messenger RNA expression of relaxin, RXFP1, and RXFP3 predominantly occurs in the tubular testis compartment, whereas INLS3 is mainly expressed in the interstitium.

  17. Post-weaning diet affects faecal microbial composition but not selected adipose gene expression in the cat (Felis catus.

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    Emma N Bermingham

    Full Text Available The effects of pre- (i.e., gestation and during lactation and post-weaning diet on the composition of faecal bacterial communities and adipose expression of key genes in the glucose and insulin pathways were investigated in the cat. Queens were maintained on a moderate protein:fat:carbohydrate kibbled ("Diet A"; 35:20:28% DM; n  =  4 or high protein:fat:carbohydrate canned ("Diet B"; 45:37:2% DM; n = 3 diet throughout pregnancy and lactation. Offspring were weaned onto these diets in a nested design (n  =  5 per treatment. Faecal samples were collected at wk 8 and 17 of age. DNA was isolated from faeces and bacterial 16S rRNA gene amplicons were analysed by pyrosequencing. RNA was extracted from blood (wk 18 and adipose tissue and ovarian/testicular tissues (wk 24 and gene expression levels determined using RT-qPCR. Differences (P<0.05 in composition of faecal bacteria were observed between pregnant queens fed Diet A or B. However, pre-weaning diet had little effect on faecal bacterial composition in weaned kittens. In contrast, post-weaning diet altered bacterial population profiles in the kittens. Increased (P<0.05 abundance of Firmicutes (77% vs 52% of total reads and Actinobacteria (0.8% vs 0.2% of total reads, and decreased (P<0.05 abundance of Fusobacteria (1.6% vs 18.4% of total reads were observed for kittens fed the Diet A compared to those fed Diet B post-weaning. Feeding Diet B pre-weaning increased (P<0.05 the expression levels of INRS, LEPT, PAI-1 and tended to increase GLUT1, while the expression levels of IRS-1 in blood increased in kittens fed Diet A pre-weaning. Post-weaning diet had no effect on expression levels of target genes. Correlations between the expression levels of genes involved in glucose and insulin pathways and faecal Bacteriodetes and Firmicutes phyla were identified. The reasons for why post-weaning diet affects microbial populations and not gene expression levels are of interest.

  18. Spotlight census of the red fox (Vulpes vulpes and the domestic cat (Felis catus in three sample areas of the Marches region (Central Italy / Censimento notturno di Volpe (Vulpes vulpes e di Gatto domestico (Felis catus in tre aree campione delle Marche

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    Massimo Pandolfi

    1991-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In order to evaluate the density of the red fox and of the domestic cat, 55 transects were made from 1986 to 1989 using spotlight census method in three sample areas. The mean density of foxes agreed substantially with its biological cycle and the hightes values (2.01 foxes/km² in spring and 4.3 foxes/km² in winter were recorded in the study area with the better natural characteristics. Foxes selected the shrub woodland (macchia all year round, the inhabited area in spring. The domestic cat was widely spread and abundant, and selected especially inhabited areas where the density varied from 4.27 cats/km² (in winter to 12.42 cat/km² (in spring. Riassunto Dal 1986 al 1989, con il metodo dei percorsi notturni con fari, sono stati effettuati complessivamente 55 conteggi in tre aree campione per valutare la densità della Volpe (Vulpes vulpes e del Gatto domestico (Felis catus nonché le loro preferenze ambientali limitatamente ad una zona campione. Per la Volpe le densità medie rilevate sono sostanzialmente in accordo con il ciclo biologico della specie e quelle più elevate (2,O1 volpi/km² in primavera e 4,3 volpi/km² in inverno sono state registrate nella zona campione con maggior presenza di boschi ed aree incolte. La Volpe seleziona le zone con vegetazione "di macchia" in ogni periodo dell'anno, e le aree abitate in primavera. Per il Gatto domestico le densità rilevate evidenziano la presenza di una diffusa ed abbondante popolazione. La specie mostra una spiccata preferenza per le aree abitate dove raggiunge densità di 4,27 individui/km² e 12,42 individui/km² in inverno e primavera rispettivamente.

  19. Apparent total tract energy and macronutrient digestibility of one- to three-day-old, adult ground, extruded, and canned chicken-based diets in domestic cats (Felis silvestris catus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerr, K R; Morris, C L; Burke, S L; Swanson, K S

    2014-08-01

    There has been a recent increase in the popularity of feeding unconventional diets, including whole prey diets, to domestic cats (Felis silvestris catus). Data are needed that allow animal caretakers to choose and formulate diets that meet the nutritional requirements of their cats. Our objective was to evaluate the effects of feeding 1- to 3-d-old whole chicks (WHO), ground adult chicken product (GRO), a chicken-based canned diet (CAN), and a chicken-based extruded diet (EXT) on apparent total tract energy and macronutrient digestibility, N balance, and blood metabolites of domestic cats (n = 11). Macronutrient, energy, and moisture concentrations of diets varied greatly (e.g., CP: 35 to 72% DM); however, cats fed all diets maintained BW and N balance. In general, cats fed WHO had lower nutrient digestibility than those fed CAN and EXT. Cats fed GRO had greater nutrient digestibility than cats fed commercial diets. For example, apparent OM and GE digestibility coefficients were greater (P ≤ 0.05) for cats fed CAN (86 and 88%, respectively), EXT (88 and 88%), and GRO (94 and 95%) compared with those fed WHO (83 and 83%) and greater (P ≤ 0.05) for cats fed GRO compared with those fed CAN and EXT. Many blood metabolites were modified by diet, but most remained within reference ranges for domestic cats. Serum cholesterol was elevated above the reference range for all treatments and greater (P ≤ 0.05) for cats fed WHO compared with those fed CAN, EXT, and GRO. Serum creatinine concentrations were above the reference range for all treatments and greater (P ≤ 0.05) for cats fed GRO compared with those fed CAN or WHO. These data indicate that the whole prey tested herein maintained short-term health and are adequately digestible for use in companion animal diets. Research is needed to determine the global and long-term health implications of feeding whole or ground diets to domestic cats, which may be different in terms of macronutrient, energy, and moisture

  20. When cats' ways of life interact with their viruses: a study in 15 natural populations of owned and unowned cats (Felis silvestris catus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hellard, E; Fouchet, D; Santin-Janin, H; Tarin, B; Badol, V; Coupier, C; Leblanc, G; Poulet, H; Pontier, D

    2011-09-01

    In natural populations, virus circulation is influenced by host behavior and physiological characteristics. Cat populations exhibit a great variability in social and spatial structure, the existence of different ways of life within a same population may also result in different epidemiological patterns. To test this hypothesis, we used a logistic regression to analyze the risk factors of Feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV), feline herpes virus (FHV), feline calicivirus (FCV), and feline parvovirus (FPV) infection in owned (fed and sheltered) and unowned (neither fed nor sheltered, unsocialized) cats living in a rural environment in the North Eastern part of France. A serological survey was carried out in 492 non-vaccinated and non-sterilized individuals from 15 populations living in the same area. The prevalence of feline leukemia virus (FeLV) was also studied, but too few were infected to analyze the risk factors of this virus. For each virus, the epidemiological pattern was different in owned and unowned cats. Unowned cats were more frequently infected by directly transmitted viruses like FIV, FHV and FCV (21.22%, 67.66%, 86.52% in unowned cats vs 9.55%, 53.88%, 77.18% in owned cats, respectively), a difference that may be explained by a more solitary and more aggressive behavior in unowned adults, and/or possibly by a higher sensitivity related to a more stressful life. On the contrary, owned cats were more frequently infected with FPV (36.41% in owned cats vs 15.61% in unowned cats), possibly as a result of their concentration around human settlements. The present study showed that owned and unowned cats living in a same area have behavioral and physiological characteristics sufficiently different to influence virus circulation. Pooling different types of cats in a single sample without taking it into account could give a wrong picture of the epidemiology of their viruses. The conclusion of this work can be extended to any epidemiological studies led in

  1. Comparison of efficiency between two artificial insemination methods using frozen-thawed semen in domestic cat (Felis catus): artificial insemination in domestic cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villaverde, Ana Izabel Silva Balbin; Melo, Cely Marini; Martin, Ian; Ferreira, Tatiana Henriques; Papa, Frederico Ozanam; Taconeli, Cesar Augusto; Lopes, Maria Denise

    2009-09-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the efficiency of the intravaginal (IVAI) vs. intrauterine artificial insemination (IUAI) using frozen-thawed sperm in the domestic cat. Semen was collected from two tom cats using an artificial vagina and samples were assessed for motility (computer-assisted sperm analysis (CASA)), sperm morphology and plasma membrane integrity. After dilution with TRIS/OEP/YOLK (4% of glycerol), sperm samples were loaded into 0.25 mL straws (25 x 10(6)motile sperm/straw), incubated at 5 degrees C for 20 min and cryopreserved over liquid nitrogen (LN(2)) vapor for 15 min and then immersed in LN(2). For each AI, four straws from the same male were thawed (12s at 46 degrees C) and centrifuged at 250 x g for 8 min to pellet the sperm. The supernatant was discarded and sperm pellet resuspended with the remaining liquid, approximately 100 microL, and analyzed as described above. Queens were treated with a single im injection of 100 IU eCG to induce ovarian follicular development. Final oocyte maturation and ovulation was induced with 100 IU hCG given im at 82-84 h after eCG administration. Thirty hours after hCG administration, females were inseminated either intrauterine (n=8 queens) or intravaginally (n=8 queens), using thawed sperm from a single male. Although a pronounced decrease in sperm motility, acrosome and plasma membrane integrity was observed in sperm samples from both cats, a pregnancy rate of 75% was achieved when using the intrauterine AI method compared with 0% pregnancy when inseminated intravaginally.

  2. Evidence for compromised metabolic function and limited glucose uptake in spermatozoa from the teratospermic domestic cat (Felis catus) and cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terrell, Kimberly A; Wildt, David E; Anthony, Nicola M; Bavister, Barry D; Leibo, Stanley P; Penfold, Linda M; Marker, Laurie L; Crosier, Adrienne E

    2010-11-01

    Cheetahs and certain other felids consistently ejaculate high proportions (≥ 60%) of malformed spermatozoa, a condition known as teratospermia, which is prevalent in humans. Even seemingly normal spermatozoa from domestic cat teratospermic ejaculates have reduced fertilizing capacity. To understand the role of sperm metabolism in this phenomenon, we conducted a comparative study in the normospermic domestic cat versus the teratospermic cat and cheetah with the general hypothesis that sperm metabolic function is impaired in males producing predominantly pleiomorphic spermatozoa. Washed ejaculates were incubated in chemically defined medium containing glucose and pyruvate. Uptake of glucose and pyruvate and production of lactate were assessed using enzyme-linked fluorescence assays. Spermatozoa from domestic cats and cheetahs exhibited similar metabolic profiles, with minimal glucose metabolism and approximately equimolar rates of pyruvate uptake and lactate production. Compared to normospermic counterparts, pyruvate and lactate metabolism were reduced in teratospermic cat and cheetah ejaculates, even when controlling for sperm motility. Rates of pyruvate and lactate (but not glucose) metabolism were correlated positively with sperm motility, acrosomal integrity, and normal morphology. Collectively, our findings reveal that pyruvate uptake and lactate production are reliable, quantitative indicators of sperm quality in these two felid species and that metabolic function is impaired in teratospermic ejaculates. Furthermore, patterns of substrate utilization are conserved between these species, including the unexpected lack of exogenous glucose metabolism. Because glycolysis is required to support sperm motility and capacitation in certain other mammals (including dogs), the activity of this pathway in felid spermatozoa is a target for future investigation.

  3. Correlation between the age of the conceptus and various ultrasonographic measurements during the first 30 days of pregnancy in domestic cats (Felis catus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zambelli, D; Castagnetti, C; Belluzzi, S; Bassi, S

    2002-05-01

    We ultrasonographically evaluated the prenatal development in cats, from the early phases to Day 30 of pregnancy, subjecting a group of pregnant cats (n = 12) to a daily ultrasonographic exam. The ultrasonographic images allowed us to measure the minor diameter of the gestational sac and the crown-rump length of the embryo/fetus. Ten subjects underwent ovariohysterectomy at specific intervals during the pregnancy, with the aim of comparing the ultrasonographic data with real data; only two subjects brought their pregnancy to term. The earliest ultrasonographic observation of the gestational sac was on Day 10 after mating, while the embryo could be measured only beginning with Day 18. This study allowed to gather useful new data in order to clinically monitor the normal course of pregnancy in cats and to date the gestational age.

  4. Glycolytic enzyme activity is essential for domestic cat (Felis catus) and cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus) sperm motility and viability in a sugar-free medium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terrell, Kimberly A; Wildt, David E; Anthony, Nicola M; Bavister, Barry D; Leibo, S P; Penfold, Linda M; Marker, Laurie L; Crosier, Adrienne E

    2011-06-01

    We have previously reported a lack of glucose uptake in domestic cat and cheetah spermatozoa, despite observing that these cells produce lactate at rates that correlate positively with sperm function. To elucidate the role of glycolysis in felid sperm energy production, we conducted a comparative study in the domestic cat and cheetah, with the hypothesis that sperm motility and viability are maintained in both species in the absence of glycolytic metabolism and are fueled by endogenous substrates. Washed ejaculates were incubated in chemically defined medium in the presence/absence of glucose and pyruvate. A second set of ejaculates was exposed to a chemical inhibitor of either lactate dehydrogenase (sodium oxamate) or glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (alpha-chlorohydrin). Sperm function (motility and acrosomal integrity) and lactate production were assessed, and a subset of spermatozoa was assayed for intracellular glycogen. In both the cat and cheetah, sperm function was maintained without exogenous substrates and following lactate dehydrogenase inhibition. Lactate production occurred in the absence of exogenous hexoses, but only if pyruvate was present. Intracellular glycogen was not detected in spermatozoa from either species. Unexpectedly, glycolytic inhibition by alpha-chlorohydrin resulted in an immediate decline in sperm motility, particularly in the domestic cat. Collectively, our findings reveal an essential role of the glycolytic pathway in felid spermatozoa that is unrelated to hexose metabolism or lactate formation. Instead, glycolytic enzyme activity could be required for the metabolism of endogenous lipid-derived glycerol, with fatty acid oxidation providing the primary energy source in felid spermatozoa.

  5. Anatomical study of the forearm and hand nerves of the domestic cat ( Felis catus), puma ( Puma concolor) and jaguar ( Panthera onca).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez, H L; Silva, L B; Rafasquino, M E; Mateo, A G; Zuccolilli, G O; Portiansky, E L; Alonso, C R

    2013-04-01

    The innervation of the forearm and hand regions of cats has not been well described despite its importance for any surgery or any neurological disorder. It is probably the main area where disorders of peripheral nerves in this species are observed. In felines, the forelimbs facilitate the jump and represent the most important way for capturing prey. The main muscles and nerves involved in this activity are located in the region of the forearm and hand. The aim of the present study was to provide a detailed description of the innervation of the forearm and hand regions of the jaguar and puma, in comparison with that of the domestic cat, contributing thus with the anatomical knowledge of the area for applying it to surgery and pathology. The forearms of three pumas and two jaguars (all of them fixed in formalin) and of six domestic cats (fresh) were dissected. The nerves path and their forearm distribution patterns of all three species were described. The analysed results indicate that the observed variations between species are minimal; thus, the anatomy described for domestic cats can be widely applied to American wild felids.

  6. Oxidative phosphorylation is essential for felid sperm function, but is substantially lower in cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus) compared to domestic cat (Felis catus) ejaculate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terrell, Kimberly A; Wildt, David E; Anthony, Nicola M; Bavister, Barry D; Leibo, S P; Penfold, Linda M; Marker, Laurie L; Crosier, Adrienne E

    2011-09-01

    Compared with the normospermic domestic cat, sperm metabolic function is compromised in the teratospermic cat and cheetah, but the pathway(s) involved in this deficiency are unknown. Glycolysis is essential for sperm motility, yet it appears to function normally in spermatozoa of either species regardless of structural morphology. We conducted a comparative study to further understand the mechanisms of energy production in felid spermatozoa, with the hypothesis that oxidative phosphorylation is required for normal sperm function and is impaired in teratospermic ejaculates. Electroejaculates from both species were stained with MitoTracker to quantify mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) or were incubated to assess changes in sperm function (motility, acrosomal integrity, and lactate production) after mitochondrial inhibition with myxothiazol. Sperm midpiece dimensions also were quantified. Sperm mitochondrial fluorescence (directly proportional to MMP) was ~95% lower in the cheetah compared with the normospermic and teratospermic cat, despite the cheetah having a 10% longer midpiece. In both species, MMP was increased 5-fold in spermatozoa with retained cytoplasm compared with structurally normal cells. Inhibition of oxidative phosphorylation impaired sperm function in both species, but a 100-fold higher inhibitor concentration was required in the cat compared with the cheetah. Collectively, findings revealed that oxidative phosphorylation was required for sperm function in the domestic cat and cheetah. This pathway of energy production appeared markedly less active in the cheetah, indicating a species-specific vulnerability to mitochondrial dysfunction. The unexpected, cross-species linkage between retained cytoplasmic droplets and elevated MMP may reflect increased concentrations of metabolic enzymes or substrates in these structures.

  7. Hyoid apparatus and pharynx in the lion (Panthera leo), jaguar (Panthera onca), tiger (Panthera tigris), cheetah (Acinonyxjubatus) and domestic cat (Felis silvestris f. catus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weissengruber, G E; Forstenpointner, G; Peters, G; Kübber-Heiss, A; Fitch, W T

    2002-09-01

    Structures of the hyoid apparatus, the pharynx and their topographical positions in the lion, tiger, jaguar, cheetah and domestic cat were described in order to determine morphological differences between species or subfamilies of the Felidae. In the lion, tiger and jaguar (species of the subfamily Pantherinae) the Epihyoideum is an elastic ligament lying between the lateral pharyngeal muscles and the Musculus (M.) thyroglossus rather than a bony element like in the cheetah or the domestic cat. The M. thyroglossus was only present in the species of the Pantherinae studied. In the lion and the jaguar the Thyrohyoideum and the thyroid cartilage are connected by an elastic ligament, whereas in the tiger there is a synovial articulation. In adult individuals of the lion, tiger and jaguar the ventral end of the tympanohyal cartilage is rotated and therefore the ventral end of the attached Stylohyoideum lies caudal to the Tympanohyoideum and the cranial base. In newborn jaguars the Apparatus hyoideus shows a similar topographical position as in adult cheetahs or domestic cats. In adult Pantherinae, the Basihyoideum and the attached larynx occupy a descended position: they are situated near the cranial thoracic aperture, the pharyngeal wall and the soft palate are caudally elongated accordingly. In the Pantherinae examined the caudal end of the soft palate lies dorsal to the glottis. Differences in these morphological features between the subfamilies of the Felidae have an influence on specific structural characters of their vocalizations.

  8. Genetic variability of Herpailurus yagouaroundi, Puma concolor and Panthera onca (Mammalia, Felidae studied using Felis catus microsatellites

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    Vanessa Roma Moreno

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available We used four microsatellite loci (Fca08, Fca45, Fca77 and Fca96 from the domestic cat, Felis catus, to investigate genetic variability in specimens of Herpailurus yagouaroundi (jaguarundi, otter cat, eyra, Puma concolor (cougar, mountain lion, puma and Panthera onca (jaguar held in various Brazilian zoos. Samples of DNA from the cats were PCR amplified and then sequenced before being analyzed using the CERVUS program. Our results show a mean polymorphic information content (PIC of 0.83 for H. yagouaroundi, 0.66 for P. concolor and 0.69 for P. onca and a mean of 10.3 alleles for the Fca08 locus, 5.3 for Fca 45, 9 for Fca 77 and 14 for Fca 96. These results indicate a relatively high level of genetic diversity for the specimens studied.

  9. Sanitary conditions of a colony of urban feral cats (Felis catus Linnaeus, 1758 in a zoological garden of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil Condições sanitárias de uma colônia urbana de gatos (Felis catus Linnaeus, 1758 em um jardim zoológico do Rio de Janeiro, Brasil

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    Flavya Mendes-de-Almeida

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available The colony of urban stray cats living in the Rio de Janeiro zoological garden was studied in order to develop a population and health control program. As many cats as possible were captured during two months (47 animals and were classified according to gender, age, weight and coat markings. They were submitted to a general health evaluation, examined for the presence of ectoparasites and sent to a surgical neutering program. All animals had a blood sample drawn for CBC, platelet count, heartworm and retroviruses detection. Capillary blood smears were made for hemoparasites detection. Coat marking and colors were tabby (59.7%, followed by solid black (17%; torbie (10.6%; bicolor (10.6% and harlequin (2.1%. The only ectoparasites found were fleas, which infested 28% of the animals. The hemoparasites found were Haemobartonella felis (38% and piroplasmas that could not be differentiated between Cytauxzoon spp. and Babesia spp. (47%. No cat was found infected by Dirofilaria immitis or FeLV (Feline Leukemia Virus, although FIV (Feline Immunodeficiency Virus antibodies could be detected (21%. There was no correlation between hemoparasites and FIV infections. The estimated total cat population (mark-recapture method was 59; 68% female and 32% male, suggesting that a neutering program is in fact needed.As condições sanitárias e composição populacional de uma colônia de gatos urbanos, errantes, habitantes do zoológico do Rio de Janeiro foram estudadas, objetivando-se um programa de controle populacional e sanitário. Capturou-se o maior número de indivíduos possível durante dois meses (47 animais. Os animais capturados foram examinados quanto ao gênero, idade, peso, pelagem, inspeção geral e presença de ectoparasitas e eram encaminhados a um programa de esterilização cirúrgica. Cada animal teve uma amostra de sangue colhida para realização de hemograma completo, plaquetometria, pesquisa de hemoparasitas e de retrovírus. As marca

  10. Frequent detection of transcriptionally active Felis catus papillomavirus 2 in feline cutaneous squamous cell carcinomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomson, Neroli A; Munday, John S; Dittmer, Keren E

    2016-05-01

    Felis catus papillomavirus 2 (FcaPV-2) causes premalignant skin lesions in cats and has also been found in a proportion of cutaneous squamous cell carcinomas (SCCs) - a common and potentially fatal cancer of cats. Whilst this could suggest a role of the virus in cancer development, FcaPV-2 has also been detected in skin swabs of normal cats, making it difficult to discern whether the papillomavirus is causing the cancer or merely an 'innocent bystander'. To distinguish between these two possibilities, real-time PCR was used to determine the viral copy number and the transcriptional activity of FcaPV-2 infections present in 70 formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded skin lesions including 10 papillomavirus-induced premalignant lesions and 60 SCCs. FcaPV-2 gene expression was found in 21 of 60 (35 %) SCCs, all 10 premalignant lesions and none of 10 normal skin samples. The results showed two distinct subsets of SCCs. The majority of the SCCs had low copy numbers of FcaPV-2 DNA (mean of 17 copies per copy of reference gene DNA) and no FcaPV-2 gene expression, suggesting the virus was an incidental finding. In contrast, 20 SCCs had detectable FcaPV-2 E6/E7 gene expression and very high copy numbers of FcaPV-2 DNA, with a mean of 32 930 copies per copy of reference gene DNA. The relative quantity of E6/E7 gene expression and the viral copy number in this group were similar to those found in the papillomavirus-induced premalignant lesions, suggesting that FcaPV-2 may play a role in the development of a subset of feline cutaneous SCCs.

  11. Molecular Detection of Rickettsia felis in Humans, Cats, and Cat Fleas in Bangladesh, 2013-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Rajib; Paul, Shyamal Kumar; Hossain, Muhammad Akram; Ahmed, Salma; Mahmud, Muhammad Chand; Nasreen, Syeda Anjuman; Ferdouse, Faria; Sharmi, Rumana Hasan; Ahamed, Farid; Ghosh, Souvik; Urushibara, Noriko; Aung, Meiji Soe; Kobayashi, Nobumichi

    2016-05-01

    High prevalence of Rickettsia felis in patients with fever of unknown origin was revealed in the north-central Bangladesh from 2012 to 2013. Subsequently, in this study, prevalence of R. felis in cats and cat fleas (Ctenocephalides felis), together with febrile patients, was studied by PCR detection of 17 kDa antigen gene and DNA sequencing. R. felis was detected in 28% (28/100) and 21% (14/68) of cat blood and cat flea samples, respectively, whereas 42% (21/50) of patients were positive for R. felis. R. felis-positive cat fleas were detected at significantly higher rate on R. felis-positive cats. The results suggested a potential role of cats and cat fleas for transmission of R. felis to humans in Bangladesh.

  12. Genomic characterization of Felis catus papillomavirus-3: a novel papillomavirus detected in a feline Bowenoid in situ carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munday, John S; Dunowska, Magda; Hills, Simon F; Laurie, Rebecca E

    2013-08-30

    There is increasing evidence that papillomaviruses (PVs) may cause skin cancer in cats. Neoplasms most frequently contain Felis domesticus PV type 2 (FdPV-2) DNA, but other PV DNA sequences have also been detected suggesting multiple PVs could cause disease. One of these sequences, FdPV-MY2, was previously detected in 5 of a series of 70 feline skin cancers. The aim was to determine the genome sequence of this PV. Using the circular nature of PV DNA, 'outward facing' primers specific for FdPV-MY2 were designed and amplified a 7300 bp length of DNA from a feline Bowenoid in situ carcinoma (BISC) that showed microscopic evidence of a viral etiology and tested positive for FdPV-MY2 DNA. The PCR product was sequenced using next generation sequencing technology. The full genomic sequence of the virus, comprising 7583 bp, was assembled and analyzed. As this is the third PV from a domestic cat, the virus was designated Felis catus PV type 3 (FcaPV-3). Consistent with other PVs, the putative coding regions of FcaPV-3 were predicted to produce 6 early proteins and 2 late ones. Classification was difficult as the virus contained over 60% nucleotide similarity within the ORF L1 with PVs from 3 different genera. However, based on phylogenetic analysis of ORF L1, FcaPV-3 was most closely related to the tau-PVs CPV-2 and CPV-7. As FcaPV-3 has over 60% nucleotide similarity with the ORF L1 of both tau-PVs, it is proposed that FcaPV-3 is classified in the genus Taupapillomavirus and is the first non-canine PV in this genus.

  13. Terapia floral em gatos domésticos (Felis catus, Linnaeus, 1758 portadores do complexo da doença respiratória felina: estudo clínico e hematológico Flower therapy in domestic cats (Felis catus, Linnaeus, 1758 with feline respiratory disease complex: clinical and hematological study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.F. Araújo

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available A terapia floral é considerada, atualmente, prática médica alternativa utilizada em diversas situações clínicas, constituindo possibilidade a mais de prevenção e cura de muitas doenças de natureza física e emocional. Este estudo objetivou pesquisar o efeito das essências do Sistema Brasileiro de Florais Compostos de Joel Aleixo num mesmo grupo de gatos domésticos com sinais clínicos sugestivos de Doença Respiratória Felina (DRF, tratados em diferentes momentos (M0, M1, M2, M3. Foram utilizados 20 gatos domésticos, de ambos os sexos, sem raça definida, com idade média de 5,63 ± 3,02 anos criados em gatil na UFRPE. Os animais foram submetidos ao tratamento com os florais por via oral em duas etapas. Na primeira etapa com os florais Desintus Total e Helminthus Total por 14 dias, e na segunda etapa com os florais Antibius e Regius por 28 dias. Os resultados observados, quanto aos aspectos clínicos, foram redução de secreção nasal, secreção ocular e estertores pulmonares; desaparecimento de sinais clínicos como fezes alteradas, úlceras na cavidade oral, pêlos eriçados e permanência da hipertrofia dos linfonodos. Quanto aos aspectos hematológicos houve interferência nas variáveis relacionadas ao hemograma (hemoglobina, VCM, CHCM, leucócitos, linfócitos e monócitos. Conclui-se que a terapia floral mostrou-se eficaz em gatos domésticos com sinais sugestivos de DRF criados nas mesmas condições de manejo.Flower therapy is currently considered an alternative medical practice used in several clinical situations, providing another way to prevent and cure many diseases of physical and emotional nature. This study aimed to investigate the effect of essences of the Brazilian Compound Flower System of Joel Aleixo in one same group of domestic cats showing suggestive clinical signs of Feline Respiratory Disease (FRD, treated in different moments (M0, M1, M2, M3. Twenty domestic cats, males and females, of mixed breed, with

  14. Occurrence of Leishmania (Leishmania chagasi in a domestic cat (Felis catus in Andradina, São Paulo, Brazil: case report Ocorrência de Leishmania (Leishmania chagasi em gato doméstico (Felis catus em Andradina, São Paulo, Brasil: relato de caso

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    Willian Marinho Dourado Coelho

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This work describes natural infection by Leishmania in a domestic cat where amastigote forms of the parasite were observed in the popliteal lymph node imprint. Positive and negative serological reactions were observed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA and indirect immunofluorescence assay (IFA, respectively. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR revealed that the nucleotide sequence of the sample was identical to Leishmania (L. chagasi. This is the first report of the disease in felines of the city of Andradina, SP, an area considered endemic for canine and human visceral leishmaniasis.Neste trabalho, é relatada a infecção natural por Leishmania em um gato doméstico no qual, formas amastigotas do parasito foram observadas em imprint de linfonodo poplíteo. Reações sorológicas positivas e negativas foram observadas pelo teste de imunoadsorção enzimática (ELISA e reação de imunofluorescência indireta (RIFI, respectivamente. A reação em cadeia da polimerase (PCR revelou que a sequência de nucleotídeos foi idêntica à Leishmania (L. chagasi. Este é o primeiro relato da doença em felino da cidade de Andradina, Estado de São Paulo, Brasil, área considerada endêmica para leishmaniose visceral canina e humana.

  15. COMPARISON BETWEEN TWO METHODS OF STAINING FOR ASSESSMENT OF MORPHOLOGY AND ACROSOME IN DOMESTIC CAT (Felis catus SPERMATOZOA COMPARAÇÃO ENTRE DOIS MÉTODOS DE COLORAÇÃO PARA ANÁLISE MORFOLÓGICA E ACROSSOMAL DE ESPERMATOZÓIDES DE GATO DOMÉSTICO (Felis catus.

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    Frederico Ozanam Papa

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficiency of the modified Karras staining technique (KA to analyze domestic cat sperm morphology by comparing it with the Fast Green FCF/ Rose Bengal staining (FR, previously used for this species. Four adult cats were used, from which sperm samples were collected four times in alternate days for each tom using an artificial vagina (n=16 ejaculates. Both staining techniques were performed for each ejaculate. For the FR staining technique, the semen in natura was diluted in 2.9% sodium citrate and, afterwards, in the staining solution. After 70 seconds, smears were made onto slide and dried at 37ºC. For the KA staining technique, previously made and formol saline fixed slides were sequentially immersed in Rose Bengal solution, Tannin solution, and Victoria Blue B solution, and dried at room temperature. For sperm evaluation, 200 sperm cells were assessed for each staining technique in all ejaculate samples using a bright field microscope at 1000X magnification. Statistical analysis used the non-parametric Wilcoxon test, establishing significance at p<0.05. For the KA staining technique, higher percentage of distal cytoplasmic droplets and lower percentage of sperm head defects were obtained when compared to the FR staining technique. This way, both staining techniques were not totally efficient for the assessment of morphological defects found in the domestic cat in natura spermatozoa.

    KEY WORDS: Acrosome, domestic cat, spermatozoa, sperm morphology, staining.

     

    O objetivo do estudo foi avaliar a eficiência do método de colora

  16. Prevalencia de enfermedades dentales en gatos (felis catus) de los distritos del cono norte de Lima.

    OpenAIRE

    Grandez, Ricardo; Facultad e Medicina Veterinaria y Zootecnia - Universidad Peruana Cayetano Heredia. Lima.; Guerrero, Heidi; Facultad e Medicina Veterinaria y Zootecnia - Universidad Peruana Cayetano Heredia. Lima

    2014-01-01

    Objetivo: Determinar la prevalencia de las patologías dentales de los gatos (Felis catus) del Cono Norte de Lima atendidos en la Clínica Veterinaria de la Universidad Peruana Cayetano Heredia. Material y métodos: Se evaluaron 200 felinos de 1 a 16 años de edad, sin distinción de raza y sexo. Las variables evaluadas fueron: edad (≥1 a <5, ≥5 a <9, ≥9 años), tipo de alimentación (balanceada, mixta sin hueso y mixta con hueso) y localización de la patología dental. Resultados: Se determinó...

  17. Hallazgo de un hemopárasito eritrocítico tipo Cytauxzoon en Felis catus domesticus

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    Baraboglia, E. R.

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available ResumenSe comunica el hallazgo de protozoarios eritrocíticos en Felis catusdomesticus con características morfológicas de Cytauxzoon, no pudiendoarriesgarse la especie por los detalles que exponemos, como tampoco señalar cual serían el o los vectores que actúan en nuestros casos por las particularidades que surgen de los mismos.SummaryWe show the finding of erythrocytic parasites in Felis catus domesticus similar to Cytauxzoon detected by us. It is not possible to confirm the species not either the vector.

  18. Toxoplasma gondii, Dirofilaria immitis, feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV), and feline leukemia virus (FeLV) infections in stray and pet cats (Felis catus) in northwest China: co-infections and risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cong, Wei; Meng, Qing-Feng; Blaga, Radu; Villena, Isabelle; Zhu, Xing-Quan; Qian, Ai-Dong

    2016-01-01

    This study was conducted to estimate the prevalence of Toxoplasma gondii, Dirofilaria immitis, feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV), and feline leukemia virus (FeLV) infections among stray and pet cats in Lanzhou, northwest China, and to identify the influence of age, gender, and regions on seropositivity. T. gondii antibodies were examined in cat sera by the modified agglutination test (MAT). The circulating antigens of D. immitis and FeLV and specific antibodies to FIV were examined using kits commercially available. The overall prevalence of T. gondii, FIV, FeLV, and D. immitis was 19.34, 9.12, 11.33, and 3.04 %, respectively. For the genetic characterization of T. gondii genotypes in cats, genomic DNA was extracted from the seropositive cats and the T. gondii B1 gene was amplified using a semi-nested PCR. DNA samples giving positive B1 amplification were then genotyped using multilocus PCR-RFLP. Two T. gondii genotypes (ToxoDB#9 and ToxoDB#1) were identified. Results of the multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that older cats are more likely to be seropositive than juveniles for T. gondii, FIV, FeLV, and D. immitis. This is the first report of T. gondii genotypes in cats in northwest China. Moreover, the present study is the first study of retrovirus and D. immitis seroprevalence in cats in China. The results revealed that T. gondii, FIV, and FeLV infections are common in stray and pet cats in northwest China.

  19. Vocal correlates of sender-identity and arousal in the isolation calls of domestic kitten (Felis silvestris catus

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    Scheumann Marina

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Human speech does not only communicate linguistic information but also paralinguistic features, e.g. information about the identity and the arousal state of the sender. Comparable morphological and physiological constraints on vocal production in mammals suggest the existence of commonalities encoding sender-identity and the arousal state of a sender across mammals. To explore this hypothesis and to investigate whether specific acoustic parameters encode for sender-identity while others encode for arousal, we studied infants of the domestic cat (Felis silvestris catus. Kittens are an excellent model for analysing vocal correlates of sender-identity and arousal. They strongly depend on the care of their mother. Thus, the acoustical conveyance of sender-identity and arousal may be important for their survival. Results We recorded calls of 18 kittens in an experimentally-induced separation paradigm, where kittens were spatially separated from their mother and siblings. In the Low arousal condition, infants were just separated without any manipulation. In the High arousal condition infants were handled by the experimenter. Multi-parametric sound analyses revealed that kitten isolation calls are individually distinct and differ between the Low and High arousal conditions. Our results suggested that source- and filter-related parameters are important for encoding sender-identity, whereas time-, source- and tonality-related parameters are important for encoding arousal. Conclusion Comparable findings in other mammalian lineages provide evidence for commonalities in non-verbal cues encoding sender-identity and arousal across mammals comparable to paralinguistic cues in humans. This favours the establishment of general concepts for voice recognition and emotions in humans and animals.

  20. Ultrastructural study of the spermatozoon of Taenia taeniaeformis (Batsch, 1786) (Cestoda, Cyclophyllidea, Taeniidae), an intestinal parasite of Felis catus from La Palma (Canary Islands, Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miquel, Jordi; Foronda, Pilar; Torres, Jordi; Swiderski, Zdzisław; Feliu, Carlos

    2009-06-01

    The ultrastructural characters of the mature spermatozoon of Taenia taeniaeformis are described by means of transmission electron microscopy. Materials were obtained from a naturally infected road-killed cat (Felis catus) from La Palma (Canary Islands, Spain). The mature spermatozoon of T. taeniaeformis is a filiform cell, which is tapered at both extremities and lacks mitochondria. It is characterised by the presence of (1) a single spirallised crested body about 140 nm thick, (2) a single axoneme of the 9+'1' pattern of trepaxonematan Platyhelminthes, (3) a twisted (40 degrees ) layer of submembranous cortical microtubules, (4) a periaxonemal sheath surrounding the axoneme, (5) transverse intracytoplasmic walls and (6) a spirallised nucleus encircling the axoneme. The mature spermatozoon of T. taeniaeformis is also characterised by the presence of an apical cone in its anterior extremity and by the disorganisation of the axoneme in its posterior extremity. The ultrastructural characters of the mature spermatozoon of T. taeniaeformis are compared with those of other cestodes studied to date, with particular emphasis on other representatives of the family Taeniidae.

  1. Life cycle of Cystoisospora felis (Coccidia: Apicomplexa) in cats and mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cystoisospora felis is a ubiquitous apicomplexan protozoon of cats. The endogenous development of C. felis was studied in cats after feeding them infected mice. For this, 5 newborn cats were killed at 24, 48, 72, 96, and 120 h after having been fed mesenteric lymph nodes and spleens of mice that wer...

  2. Cat fleas (Ctenocephalides felis) from cats and dogs in New Zealand: Molecular characterisation, presence of Rickettsia felis and Bartonella clarridgeiae and comparison with Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandra, Shona; Forsyth, Maureen; Lawrence, Andrea L; Emery, David; Šlapeta, Jan

    2017-01-30

    The cat flea (Ctenocephalides felis) is the most common flea species parasitising both domestic cats and dogs globally. Fleas are known vectors of zoonotic pathogens such as vector borne Rickettsia and Bartonella. This study compared cat fleas from domestic cats and dogs in New Zealand's North and South Islands to Australian cat fleas, using the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) marker, cytochrome c oxidase subunit I and II (cox1, cox2). We assessed the prevalence of Rickettsia and Bartonella using genus specific multiplexed real-time PCR assays. Morphological identification confirmed that the cat flea (C. felis) is the most common flea in New Zealand. The examined fleas (n=43) at cox1 locus revealed six closely related C. felis haplotypes (inter-haplotype distance 1.1%) across New Zealand. The New Zealand C. felis haplotypes were identical or near identical with haplotypes from southern Australia demonstrating common dispersal of haplotype lineage across both the geographical (Tasman Sea) and climate scale. New Zealand cat fleas carried Rickettsia felis (5.3%) and Bartonella clarridgeiae (18.4%). To understand the capability of C. felis to vector zoonotic pathogens, we determined flea cox1 and cox2 haplotype diversity with the tandem multiplexed real-time PCR and sequencing for Bartonella and Rickettsia. This enabled us to demonstrate highly similar cat fleas on cat and dog populations across Australia and New Zealand.

  3. In vitro fertilization and sperm cryopreservation in the black-footed cat (Felis nigripes) and sand cat (Felis margarita).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrick, J R; Campbell, M; Levens, G; Moore, T; Benson, K; D'Agostino, J; West, G; Okeson, D M; Coke, R; Portacio, S C; Leiske, K; Kreider, C; Polumbo, P J; Swanson, W F

    2010-03-01

    Studies of in vitro fertilization (IVF) and sperm cryopreservation have been conducted in several small cat species, but virtually no data exist for black-footed cats (Felis nigripes) (BFCs) or sand cats (Felis margarita) (SCs). The objectives of this study were 1) to compare in vitro motility and acrosome status of fresh and cryopreserved (frozen in pellets on dry ice or in straws in liquid nitrogen vapor) BFC and SC spermatozoa cultured in feline-optimized culture medium (FOCM) or Ham F-10, 2) to assess ovarian responsiveness in BFCs and SCs following exogenous gonadotropin treatment and laparoscopic oocyte recovery, and 3) to evaluate the fertility of fresh and frozen-thawed spermatozoa from both species using homologous and heterologous (domestic cat oocytes) IVF in the two culture media. Motility and acrosomal integrity of fresh and frozen-thawed spermatozoa from BFCs and SCs were similar (P > 0.05) in both media during 6 h of culture. Although effects were more pronounced in SCs, cryopreservation in straws was superior (P 80% of recovered oocytes were of optimal (grade 1) quality. The BFC and SC spermatozoa fertilized 60.0%-79.4% of homologous and 37.7%-42.7% of heterologous oocytes in both culture media, with increased (P < 0.05) cleavage of homologous (SC) and heterologous (BFC and SC) oocytes in FOCM. These results provide the first information to date on the gamete biology of two imperiled cat species and further our capacity to apply reproductive technologies for their conservation.

  4. The use of quantitative PCR to detect Felis catus papillomavirus type 2 DNA from a high proportion of queens and their kittens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomson, N A; Dunowska, M; Munday, J S

    2015-02-25

    Squamous cell carcinomas are common feline skin cancers that have been associated with infection with Felis catus papillomavirus type 2 (FcaPV-2). Currently, little is known about the epidemiology of FcaPV-2 infection. The aim of this study was to develop a real-time PCR assay to quantify FcaPV-2 DNA in plucked hairs and skin swabs from 11 healthy breeding queens and their kittens. Samples were taken prior to kittening and then 2, 7 and 28 days after kittening to determine the age at which the kittens were first exposed to the virus. FcaPV-2 DNA was amplified from all of the queens and from 91% of the kittens at 2 days of age. There was a wide range in the quantity of FcaPV-2 DNA detected, from 1 to 92,520 copies per swab, and from 0.01 to 234 copies per copy of reference gene DNA in the hair plucks. The quantity of FcaPV-2 DNA detected in samples collected from the kittens was strongly correlated to that of their respective queens and the mean viral DNA load was similar for cats within a household but varied significantly between households. This is the first time that quantitative PCR has been used to detect FcaPV-2 DNA and the results suggest that the virus is ubiquitous but there is a wide variation of viral DNA loads. Kittens appear to be exposed to FcaPV-2 early in life, presumably from direct contact with their queen. These results are important when determining if FcaPV-2 infection of cats is preventable.

  5. Taxonomy Icon Data: domestic cat [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available tris_catus_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Felis+silvestris+catus&t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy..._icon/icon.cgi?i=Felis+silvestris+catus&t=NL http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy..._icon/icon.cgi?i=Felis+silvestris+catus&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Felis+silvestris+catus&t=NS ...

  6. Integrated morphological and molecular identification of cat fleas (Ctenocephalides felis) and dog fleas (Ctenocephalides canis) vectoring Rickettsia felis in central Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, Andrea L; Hii, Sze-Fui; Jirsová, Dagmar; Panáková, Lucia; Ionică, Angela M; Gilchrist, Katrina; Modrý, David; Mihalca, Andrei D; Webb, Cameron E; Traub, Rebecca J; Šlapeta, Jan

    2015-06-15

    Fleas of the genus Ctenocephalides are the most common ectoparasites infesting dogs and cats world-wide. The species Ctenocephalides felis and Ctenocephalides canis are competent vectors for zoonotic pathogens such as Rickettsia felis and Bartonella spp. Improved knowledge on the diversity and phylogenetics of fleas is important for understanding flea-borne pathogen transmission cycles. Fleas infesting privately owned dogs and cats from the Czech Republic (n=97) and Romania (n=66) were subjected to morphological and molecular identification and phylogenetic analysis. There were a total of 59 (60.82%) cat fleas (Ctenocephalides felis felis), 30 (30.93%) dog fleas (Ctenocephalides canis), 7 (7.22%) European chicken fleas (Ceratophyllus gallinae) and 1 (1.03%) northern rat flea (Nosopsyllus fasciatus) collected in the Czech Republic. Both C. canis and C. felis felis were identified in Romania. Mitochondrial DNA sequencing at the cox1 gene on a cohort of 40 fleas revealed the cosmopolitan C. felis felis clade represented by cox1 haplotype 1 is present in the Czech Republic. A new C. felis felis clade from both the Czech Republic and Romania is also reported. A high proportion of C. canis was observed from dogs and cats in the current study and phylogeny revealed that C. canis forms a sister clade to the oriental cat flea Ctenocephalides orientis (syn. C. felis orientis). Out of 33 fleas tested, representing C. felis felis, C. canis and Ce. gallinae, 7 (21.2%) were positive for R. felis using diagnostic real-time PCR targeting the gltA gene and a conventional PCR targeting the ompB gene. No samples tested positive for Bartonella spp. using a diagnostic real-time PCR assay targeting ssrA gene. This study confirms high genetic diversity of C. felis felis globally and serves as a foundation to understand the implication for zoonotic disease carriage and transmission by the flea genus Ctenocephalides.

  7. Embryonic thymic development in fetuses of domestic cats (Felis domesticus

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    Fernanda Rodrigues Agreste

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available During fetal life, and during the neonatal period, the thymus is a very important immune organ, and is the largest lymphatic organ, which exhibits high lymphopoietic activity as a precursor of lymphopoiesis. Morphological studies on the development of the thymus are rare and only include general information. Given the above, this study aimed to characterize the morphological development of the thymus of embryos and fetuses of domestic cats (Felis domesticus, from natural pregnancy, using macroscopic dissection techniques and light microscopy. The thymus of the cats was pale pink and was resting in the region of the cranial mediastinum, medially to the lungs and dorsally to the base of the heart. Histologically, two distinct regions were observed (cortical and medullar. The medullary region had reticular epithelial cells with large nuclei and dendritic extensions. The fetuses had exponential growth and were more pronounced starting on the 35th day of gestation.

  8. Amyloidosis in black-footed cats (Felis nigripes).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terio, K A; O'Brien, T; Lamberski, N; Famula, T R; Munson, L

    2008-05-01

    A high prevalence of systemic amyloidosis was documented in the black-footed cat (Felis nigripes) based on a retrospective review of necropsy tissues (n = 38) submitted as part of ongoing disease surveillance. Some degree of amyloid deposition was present in 33 of 38 (87%) of the examined cats, and amyloidosis was the most common cause of death (26/38, 68%). Amyloid deposition was most severe in the renal medullary interstitium (30/33, 91%) and glomeruli (21/33, 63%). Other common sites included the splenic follicular germinal centers (26/31, 84%), gastric lamina propria (9/23, 39%), and intestinal lamina propria (3/23, 13%). Amyloid in all sites stained with Congo red, and in 13 of 15 (87%) cats, deposits had strong immunoreactivity for canine AA protein by immunohistochemistry. There was no association with concurrent chronic inflammatory conditions (P = .51), suggesting that amyloidosis was not secondary to inflammation. Adrenal cortical hyperplasia, a morphologic indicator of stress that can predispose to amyloid deposition, was similarly not associated (P = .09) with amyloidosis. However, adrenals were not available from the majority of cats without amyloidosis; therefore, further analysis of this risk factor is warranted. Heritability estimation suggested that amyloidosis might be familial in this species. Additionally, tissues from a single free-ranging black-footed cat had small amounts of amyloid deposition, suggesting that there could be a predilection for amyloidosis in this species. Research to identify the protein sequence of serum amyloid A (SAA) in the black-footed cat is needed to further investigate the possibility of an amyloidogenic SAA in this species.

  9. Efecto del agonista de GnRH acetato de deslorelina en felinos domésticos (Felis catus) prepúberes

    OpenAIRE

    Carranza, Ana

    2015-01-01

    Debido a la marcada prolificidad propia de la especie, la sobrepoblación de felinos domésticos (Felis catus) representa un problema mundial. Bajo el objetivo general de brindar un aportate al control de la reproducción indeseada felina, en este Trabajo de Tesis: se evaluó el patrón posnatal de los esteroides sexuales fecales, se estudió la eficacia (postergación de la pubertad e infertilidad) y la seguridad clínica de un agonista de larga duración (acetato de deslorelina) y un antagonista (ac...

  10. Occurrence of Chlamydophila felis, feline herpesvirus 1 and calcivirus in domestic cats of Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Nadi Maazi; Shahram Jamshidi; Payman Kayhani; Hassan Momtaz

    2016-01-01

    Background and Objectives: Feline herpesvirus-1, feline calicivirus and Chlamydophila felis are the main causes of feline upper respiratory tract disease. This study was conducted to identify of FeHV-1, FCV and C. felis infections in domestic cat population and also to estimate the prevalence of each specific infection in Iran.Materials and Methods: The ocular conjunctiva and oropharyngeal specimens obtained from 80 cats were examined using PCR and reverse transcription PCR.Results: FeHV-1 wa...

  11. Experimental infection of cats with Afipia felis and various Bartonella species or subspecies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chomel, Bruno B; Kasten, Rickie W; Stuckey, Matthew J; Breitschwerdt, Edward B; Maggi, Ricardo G; Henn, Jennifer B; Koehler, Jane E; Chang, Chao-chin

    2014-08-27

    Based upon prior studies, domestic cats have been shown to be the natural reservoir for Bartonella henselae, Bartonella clarridgeiae and Bartonella koehlerae. However, other Bartonella species, such as Bartonella vinsonii subsp. berkhoffii, Bartonella quintana or Bartonella bovis (ex weissii) have been either isolated from or Bartonella DNA sequences PCR amplified and sequenced. In the late 1980s, before B. henselae was confirmed as the etiological agent of cat scratch disease, Afipia felis had been proposed as the causative agent. In order to determine the feline susceptibility to A. felis, B. vinsonii subsp. berkhoffii, Bartonella rochalimae, B. quintana or B. bovis, we sought to detect the presence of bacteremia and seroconversion in experimentally-inoculated cats. Most of the cats seroconverted, but only the cats inoculated with B. rochalimae became bacteremic, indicating that cats are not natural hosts of A. felis or the other Bartonella species or subspecies tested in this study.

  12. Maxillary incisor root resorption after rapid palatal expansion in Felis catus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vardimon, Alexander D; Levy, Thierry; Weinreb, Miron

    2005-02-01

    Root resorption after rapid palatal expansion (RPE) treatment was found in anchored teeth but has not been studied on non-anchored incisors. This study evaluated root resorption, root tipping, and root proximity of maxillary incisors after RPE treatment. Fourteen cats were divided into treated (n = 10) and untreated (n = 4) groups. The RPE treatment consisted of active, retention, and relapse phases, lasting 25, 60 and 60 d, respectively. Standardized occlusal radiographs were taken to measure tipping and root proximity before and after each treatment phase. Maxillary incisors were analysed histologically by fluorescent microscopy for root resorption. Data was analysed statistically with anova with repeated measures, t-test and Pearson's coefficient of correlation. Root resorption was confined to the first incisors and was 750-fold greater in the treated vs. the control group. Root tipping and root proximity were significantly greater (2.5- and 17-fold, respectively) in the first than in the second maxillary incisor and highly correlated with root resorption (r = -0.927 and 0.723, respectively). This suggests a cause (tipping and root proximity) and effect (root resorption) relationship. Data suggest that first maxillary incisor susceptibility to root resorption during RPE is associated with severe tipping and root proximity.

  13. Conservation inequality and the charismatic cat: Felis felicis

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    E.A. Macdonald

    2015-01-01

    . While the felids are widely regarded as a popular taxonomic group, the great extent to which they appealed to our respondents emphasises their potential as ambassadors for conservation. Indeed, the big cats were so highly rated that we might think of them as one, Felis felicis: a globally powerful flagship for conservation.

  14. Lateral bias and temperament in the domestic cat (Felis silvestris).

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDowell, Louise J; Wells, Deborah L; Hepper, Peter G; Dempster, Martin

    2016-11-01

    Research points to a relationship between lateralization and emotional functioning in humans and many species of animal. The present study explored the association between paw preferences and emotional functioning, specifically temperament, in a species thus far overlooked in this area, the domestic cat. Thirty left-pawed, 30 right-pawed, and 30 ambilateral pet cats were recruited following an assessment of their paw preferences using a food-reaching challenge. The animals' temperament was subsequently assessed using the Feline Temperament Profile (FTP). Cats' owners also completed a purpose-designed cat temperament (CAT) scale. Analysis revealed a significant relationship between lateral bias and FTP and CAT scale scores. Ambilateral cats had lower positive (FTP+) scores, and were perceived as less affectionate, obedient, friendly, and more aggressive, than left or right-pawed animals. Left and right pawed cats differed significantly on 1 trait on the CAT scale, namely playfulness. The strength of the cats' paw preferences was related to the animals' FTP and CAT scores. Cats with a greater strength of paw preference had higher FTP+ scores than those with a weaker strength of paw preference. Animals with stronger paw preferences were perceived as more confident, affectionate, active, and friendly than those with weaker paw preferences. Results suggest that motor laterality in the cat is strongly related to temperament and that the presence or absence of lateralization has greater implications for the expression of emotion in this species than the direction of the lateralized bias. (PsycINFO Database Record

  15. Teaching A-level Genetics: The Coat Colours of the Domestic Cat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talbot, D. J.; Talbot, C. D.

    1992-01-01

    The authors provide an introduction to the inheritance of coat colors in cats and suggest strategies designed to integrate the domestic cat (Felis domesticus or catus) into the teaching of genetics. Provides examples to illustrate dominance, recessiveness, epistasis, multiple allelism, environmental effect of phenotype, incomplete dominance,…

  16. Aspergillus felis sp. nov., an emerging agent of invasive aspergillosis in humans, cats, and dogs.

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    Vanessa R Barrs

    Full Text Available We describe a novel heterothallic species in Aspergillus section Fumigati, namely A. felis (neosartorya-morph isolated from three host species with invasive aspergillosis including a human patient with chronic invasive pulmonary aspergillosis, domestic cats with invasive fungal rhinosinusitis and a dog with disseminated invasive aspergillosis. Disease in all host species was often refractory to aggressive antifungal therapeutic regimens. Four other human isolates previously reported as A. viridinutans were identified as A. felis on comparative sequence analysis of the partial β-tubulin and/or calmodulin genes. A. felis is a heterothallic mold with a fully functioning reproductive cycle, as confirmed by mating-type analysis, induction of teleomorphs within 7 to 10 days in vitro and ascospore germination. Phenotypic analyses show that A. felis can be distinguished from the related species A. viridinutans by its ability to grow at 45°C and from A. fumigatus by its inability to grow at 50°C. Itraconazole and voriconazole cross-resistance was common in vitro.

  17. Prevalence of feline herpesvirus-1, feline calicivirus, Chlamydophila felis and Mycoplasma felis DNA and associated risk factors in cats in Spain with upper respiratory tract disease, conjunctivitis and/or gingivostomatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez, Mireia; Manzanilla, Edgar G; Lloret, Albert; León, Marta; Thibault, Jean-Christophe

    2017-04-01

    Objectives Our objective was to perform the first multicentric study in Spain to evaluate the prevalence of feline herpesvirus-1 (FHV-1), feline calicivirus (FCV), Chlamydophila felis and Mycoplasma felis in cats with upper respiratory tract disease (URTD), conjunctivitis and/or gingivostomatitis (GS) compared with control cats; and to evaluate risk factors for these clinical conditions. Methods Conjunctival and oropharyngeal swabs were collected and a questionnaire regarding signalment, lifestyle, vaccination history and clinical signs was obtained for each cat. Swabs were tested for each pathogen by real-time PCR. Results The study population consisted of 358 cats, including 98 control cats. Among the 260 diseased cats, 127 cats presented with URTD, 149 cats had conjunctivitis, 154 cats were suffering GS; many cats presented more than one clinical condition. The prevalence observed of FHV-1, FCV, C felis and M felis was, respectively, 28.3%, 48.0%, 20.5% and 46.5% in cats with URTD; 24.2%, 43.6%, 19.5% and 38.3% in cats with conjunctivitis; and 15.6%, 58.4%, 9.1% and 37.7% in cats with GS. Prevalences in the control group were 6.1%, 15.3%, 2.0% and 20.4%, respectively. Coinfections were common among all groups of cats. Risk factors were identified for all groups. FHV-1, FCV and C felis were associated with URTD and conjunctivitis. FCV was strongly associated with GS. M felis was present in a high percentage of the population in all groups, but its role in these clinical conditions remains uncertain. Vaccination was protective for URTD and GS but not for conjunctivitis. Conclusions and relevance This epidemiological study describes, for the first time, prevalence for FHV-1, FCV, C felis and M felis in Spain. In general, the prevalences found are similar to those reported in other countries. Factors associated with disease expression were also identified, which are relevant for practitioners.

  18. Feeding Behavior Modulates Biofilm-Mediated Transmission of Yersinia pestis by the Cat Flea, Ctenocephalides felis.

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    David M Bland

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The cat flea, Ctenocephalides felis, is prevalent worldwide, will parasitize animal reservoirs of plague, and is associated with human habitations in known plague foci. Despite its pervasiveness, limited information is available about the cat flea's competence as a vector for Yersinia pestis. It is generally considered to be a poor vector, based on studies examining early-phase transmission during the first week after infection, but transmission potential by the biofilm-dependent proventricular-blocking mechanism has never been systematically evaluated. In this study, we assessed the vector competence of cat fleas by both mechanisms. Because the feeding behavior of cat fleas differs markedly from important rat flea vectors, we also examined the influence of feeding behavior on transmission dynamics.Groups of cat fleas were infected with Y. pestis and subsequently provided access to sterile blood meals twice-weekly, 5 times per week, or daily for 4 weeks and monitored for infection, the development of proventricular biofilm and blockage, mortality, and the ability to transmit. In cat fleas allowed prolonged, daily access to blood meals, mimicking their natural feeding behavior, Y. pestis did not efficiently colonize the digestive tract and could only be transmitted during the first week after infection. In contrast, cat fleas that were fed intermittently, mimicking the feeding behavior of the efficient vector Xenopsylla cheopis, could become blocked and regularly transmitted Y. pestis for 3-4 weeks by the biofilm-mediated mechanism, but early-phase transmission was not detected.The normal feeding behavior of C. felis, more than an intrinsic resistance to infection or blockage by Y. pestis, limits its vector competence. Rapid turnover of midgut contents results in bacterial clearance and disruption of biofilm accumulation in the proventriculus. Anatomical features of the cat flea foregut may also restrict transmission by both early-phase and

  19. Blood meal identification in off-host cat fleas (Ctenocephalides felis) from a plague-endemic region of Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Christine B; Borchert, Jeff N; Black, William C; Atiku, Linda A; Mpanga, Joseph T; Boegler, Karen A; Moore, Sean M; Gage, Kenneth L; Eisen, Rebecca J

    2013-02-01

    The cat flea, Ctenocephalides felis, is an inefficient vector of the plague bacterium (Yersinia pestis) and is the predominant off-host flea species in human habitations in the West Nile region, an established plague focus in northwest Uganda. To determine if C. felis might serve as a Y. pestis bridging vector in the West Nile region, we collected on- and off-host fleas from human habitations and used a real-time polymerase chain reaction-based assay to estimate the proportion of off-host C. felis that had fed on humans and the proportion that had fed on potentially infectious rodents or shrews. Our findings indicate that cat fleas in human habitations in the West Nile region feed primarily on domesticated species. We conclude that C. felis is unlikely to serve as a Y. pestis bridging vector in this region.

  20. Relationship between the Presence of Bartonella Species and Bacterial Loads in Cats and Cat Fleas (Ctenocephalides felis) under Natural Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutiérrez, Ricardo; Nachum-Biala, Yaarit; Harrus, Shimon

    2015-08-15

    Cats are considered the main reservoir of three zoonotic Bartonella species: Bartonella henselae, Bartonella clarridgeiae, and Bartonella koehlerae. Cat fleas (Ctenocephalides felis) have been experimentally demonstrated to be a competent vector of B. henselae and have been proposed as the potential vector of the two other Bartonella species. Previous studies have reported a lack of association between the Bartonella species infection status (infected or uninfected) and/or bacteremia levels of cats and the infection status of the fleas they host. Nevertheless, to date, no study has compared the quantitative distributions of these bacteria in both cats and their fleas under natural conditions. Thus, the present study explored these relationships by identifying and quantifying the different Bartonella species in both cats and their fleas. Therefore, EDTA-blood samples and fleas collected from stray cats were screened for Bartonella bacteria. Bacterial loads were quantified by high-resolution melt real-time quantitative PCR assays. The results indicated a moderate correlation between the Bartonella bacterial loads in the cats and their fleas when both were infected with the same Bartonella species. Moreover, a positive effect of the host infection status on the Bartonella bacterial loads of the fleas was observed. Conversely, the cat bacterial loads were not affected by the infection status of their fleas. Our results suggest that the Bartonella bacterial loads of fleas are positively affected by the presence of the bacteria in their feline host, probably by multiple acquisitions/accumulation and/or multiplication events.

  1. Transforming properties of Felis catus papillomavirus type 2 E6 and E7 putative oncogenes in vitro and their transcriptional activity in feline squamous cell carcinoma in vivo

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    Altamura, Gennaro, E-mail: gennaro.altamura@unina.it [Department of Veterinary Medicine and Animal Productions, General Pathology and Pathological Anatomy Unit, University of Naples Federico II, Via Delpino 1, 80137 Naples (Italy); Corteggio, Annunziata, E-mail: ancorteg@unina.it [Department of Veterinary Medicine and Animal Productions, General Pathology and Pathological Anatomy Unit, University of Naples Federico II, Via Delpino 1, 80137 Naples (Italy); Pacini, Laura, E-mail: PaciniL@students.iarc.fr [Infections and Cancer Biology Group, International Agency for Research on Cancer, 150 Cours Albert Thomas, 69372 Lyon (France); Conte, Andrea, E-mail: andreaconte88@hotmail.it [Department of Molecular Medicine and Medical Biotechnologies, University of Naples Federico II, Via Pansini 5, 80131 Naples (Italy); Pierantoni, Giovanna Maria, E-mail: gmpieran@unina.it [Department of Molecular Medicine and Medical Biotechnologies, University of Naples Federico II, Via Pansini 5, 80131 Naples (Italy); Tommasino, Massimo, E-mail: tommasinom@iarc.fr [Infections and Cancer Biology Group, International Agency for Research on Cancer, 150 Cours Albert Thomas, 69372 Lyon (France); Accardi, Rosita, E-mail: accardir@iarc.fr [Infections and Cancer Biology Group, International Agency for Research on Cancer, 150 Cours Albert Thomas, 69372 Lyon (France); Borzacchiello, Giuseppe, E-mail: borzacch@unina.it [Department of Veterinary Medicine and Animal Productions, General Pathology and Pathological Anatomy Unit, University of Naples Federico II, Via Delpino 1, 80137 Naples (Italy)

    2016-09-15

    Felis catus papillomavirus type 2 (FcaPV2) DNA is found in feline cutaneous squamous cell carcinomas (SCCs); however, its biological properties are still uncharacterized. In this study, we successfully expressed FcaPV2 E6 and E7 putative oncogenes in feline epithelial cells and demonstrated that FcaPV2 E6 binds to p53, impairing its protein level. In addition, E6 and E7 inhibited ultraviolet B (UVB)-triggered accumulation of p53, p21 and pro-apoptotic markers such as Cleaved Caspase3, Bax and Bak, suggesting a synergistic action of the virus with UV exposure in tumour pathogenesis. Furthermore, FcaPV2 E7 bound to feline pRb and impaired pRb levels, resulting in upregulation of the downstream pro-proliferative genes Cyclin A and Cdc2. Importantly, we demonstrated mRNA expression of FcaPV2 E2, E6 and E7 in feline SCC samples, strengthening the hypothesis of a causative role in the development of feline SCC. - Highlights: • FcaPV2 E6 binds to and deregulates feline p53 protein. • FcaPV2 E7 binds to and deregulates feline pRb protein. • FcaPV2 oncogenes inhibit UVB-induced apoptosis. • FcaPV2 E6E7 and E7 increase the lifespan of primary cells. • FcaPV2 E2, E6 and E7 are expressed at the mRNA level in feline SCC in vivo.

  2. Efficacy of an imidacloprid 10 % / flumethrin 4.5 % collar (Seresto®, Bayer) for preventing the transmission of Cytauxzoon felis to domestic cats by Amblyomma americanum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reichard, Mason V; Thomas, Jennifer E; Arther, Robert G; Hostetler, Joseph A; Raetzel, Kara L; Meinkoth, James H; Little, Susan E

    2013-08-01

    Infection of Cytauxzoon felis in domestic cats produces a severe disease characterised by fever, lethargy, inappetence, anorexia, depression, dehydration, icterus and often death. Transmission of C. felis to cats is dependent on being fed upon by infected Amblyomma americanum (lone star ticks). The purpose of the present study was to determine if application of a 10 % imidacloprid/4.5 % flumethrin collar (Seresto®, Bayer) on cats prevents transmission of C. felis by repelling ticks. Twenty cats were randomised to either a treated (n = 10) or non-treated control group (n = 10) based on their susceptibility to ticks. Cats of high, medium and low tick susceptibility were represented in both groups. Treated cats were fitted with 10 % imidacloprid/4.5 % flumethrin collars on study day 0 and both groups were then infested with C. felis-infected A. americanum on study day 30. Tick thumb counts were performed at 24 and 48 hours post infestation. Transmission of C. felis was determined by examining blood of cats by DNA extraction followed by PCR amplification with piroplasm-specific primers. Ticks did not attach to any of the 10 % imidacloprid/4.5 % flumethrin- treated cats. However, ticks attached and fed on all the non-treated control cats. The geometric mean number of ticks attached to the non-treated control cats at 24 and 48 hours was 15.3 and 14.2, respectively. Cytauxzoon felis was transmitted to 9 of 10 (90 %) non-treated control cats; C. felis was not transmitted to any of the treated cats. Transmission of C. felis to the non-treated cats was first detected between 8 and 16 days post infestation. Our results indicate that application of the 10 % imidacloprid/4.5 % flumethrin collar to cats prevented ticks from attaching, feeding and transmitting C. felis.

  3. Ecology driving genetic variation: a comparative phylogeography of jungle cat (Felis chaus and leopard cat (Prionailurus bengalensis in India.

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    Shomita Mukherjee

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Comparative phylogeography links historical population processes to current/ecological processes through congruent/incongruent patterns of genetic variation among species/lineages. Despite high biodiversity, India lacks a phylogeographic paradigm due to limited comparative studies. We compared the phylogenetic patterns of Indian populations of jungle cat (Felis chaus and leopard cat (Prionailurus bengalensis. Given similarities in their distribution within India, evolutionary histories, body size and habits, congruent patterns of genetic variation were expected. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We collected scats from various biogeographic zones in India and analyzed mtDNA from 55 jungle cats (460 bp NADH5, 141 bp cytochrome b and 40 leopard cats (362 bp NADH5, 202 bp cytochrome b. Jungle cats revealed high genetic variation, relatively low population structure and demographic expansion around the mid-Pleistocene. In contrast, leopard cats revealed lower genetic variation and high population structure with a F(ST of 0.86 between North and South Indian populations. Niche-model analyses using two approaches (BIOCLIM and MaxEnt support absence of leopard cats from Central India, indicating a climate associated barrier. We hypothesize that high summer temperatures limit leopard cat distribution and that a rise in temperature in the peninsular region of India during the LGM caused the split in leopard cat population in India. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our results indicate that ecological variables describing a species range can predict genetic patterns. Our study has also resolved the confusion over the distribution of the leopard cat in India. The reciprocally monophyletic island population in the South mandates conservation attention.

  4. Ectoparasitic species from Felis catus domesticus (Linnaeus, 1758 in João Pessoa city, Paraíba state, Brazil

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    Débora Rochelly Alves Ferreira

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this research was to analyze the ectoparasitic species from domestic cats in João Pessoa city, Paraíba state, Brazil. A total of 432 cats of various breeds and ages, of both genders, were included. All animals were submitted to physical and parasitological examination through skin inspection and an otoscopic exam was realized. Parasites were collected in vials containing 70% alcohol for subsequent mounting and identifi cation according to specific keys. The results showed that 62.7% (271/432 of animals were parasitized by one or more species. The ectoparasitic species observed were Ctenocephalides felis (27.3%, Lynxacarus radovskyi (26.2%, Otodectes cynotis (17.4%, Felicola subrostratus (9.7%, Notoedres cati (2.1% and Rhipicephalus sanguineus (1.6%. The results showed that ectoparasites are a common and important skin disease in cats, and variables such breed, age, and sex did not show any influence on parasitism.

  5. Fecal endocrine profiles and ejaculate traits in black-footed cats (Felis nigripes) and sand cats (Felis margarita).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrick, J R; Bond, J B; Campbell, M; Levens, G; Moore, T; Benson, K; D'Agostino, J; West, G; Okeson, D M; Coke, R; Portacio, S C; Leiske, K; Kreider, C; Polumbo, P J; Swanson, W F

    2010-01-15

    Information regarding the reproductive biology of black-footed cats (BFC) and sand cats (SC) is extremely limited. Our objectives were to: (1) validate fecal hormone analysis (estrogens, E; progestagens, P; androgens, T) for noninvasive monitoring of gonadal activity; (2) characterize estrous cyclicity, ovulatory mechanisms, gestation, and seasonality; and (3) evaluate male reproductive activity via fecal androgen metabolites and ejaculate traits. In both species, the estrous cycle averaged 11-12 days. In BFC (n=8), estrus lasted 2.2+/-0.2 days with peak concentrations of E (2962.8+/-166.3 ng/g feces) increasing 2.7-fold above basal concentrations. In SC (n=6), peak concentrations of E (1669.9+/-83.5 ng/g feces) during estrus (2.9+/-0.2 days) were 4.0-fold higher than basal concentrations. Nonpregnant luteal phases occurred in 26.5% (26 of 98) of BFC estrous cycles, but were not observed in SC (0 of 109 cycles). In both species, P concentrations during pregnancy were elevated (32.3+/-3.0 microg/g feces BFC; 8.5+/-0.7 microg/g feces SC) approximately 10-fold above basal concentrations. Fecal T concentrations in males averaged 3.1+/-0.1 microg/g feces in BFC and 2.3+/-0.0 microg/g feces in SC. Following electroejaculation, 200 to 250 microl of semen was collected containing 29.9 (BFC) to 36.5 (SC)x10(6) spermatozoa with 40.4 (SC) to 46.8 (BFC)% normal morphology. All females exhibited estrous cycles during the study and spermatozoa were recovered from all males on every collection attempt, suggesting poor reproductive success in these species may not be due to physiological infertility.

  6. Prevalence of Zoonotic and Other Intestinal Protozoan Parasites in Stray Cats (Felis domesticus of Kerman, South-East of Iran

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    Sakineh BEIGI

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Intestinal protozoan parasites constitute a major source of diseases for stray cats and have been recognized as important public health problems in several parts of the world. Considering the potential risk of stray cats for public health, present cross-sectional study was carried out to determine the type and frequency of protozoan parasites by faecal examination. A total of 100 stray cats were examined in Kerman city, Iran, Overall 67 cats (67% were infected with at least one protozoan parasite. The following parasites, with their respective prevalence, were found; Isospora felis 38%, Isospora rivolta 25%, Toxoplasma gondii 16%, Sarcocystis spp. 8%, Cryptosporidium spp. 7%, and Giardia sp. 5%. Based on our data, the sex of stray cats was not significantly associated with the prevalence of gastrointestinal protozoan parasites. The high infection rate of zoonotic intestinal protozoan parasites in stray cats is considered to be critical from the viewpoint of public health importance.We

  7. Increased vitamin D-driven signalling and expression of the vitamin D receptor, MSX2, and RANKL in tooth resorption in cats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Booij-Vrieling, H.E.; Ferbus, D.; Tryfonidou, M.A.; Riemers, F.M.; Penning, L.C.; Berdal, A.; Everts, V.; Hazewinkel, H.A.W.

    2010-01-01

    Tooth resorption occurs in 20-75% of cats (Felis catus). The aetiology is not known, but vitamin D is suggested to be involved. Vitamin D acts through a nuclear receptor (VDR) and increases the expression of receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB ligand (rankl) and muscle segment homeobox 2 (msx2)

  8. An insight into the sialotranscriptome of the cat flea, Ctenocephalides felis.

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    José M C Ribeiro

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Saliva of hematophagous arthropods contains a diverse mixture of compounds that counteracts host hemostasis. Immunomodulatory and antiinflammatory components are also found in these organisms' saliva. Blood feeding evolved at least ten times within arthropods, providing a scenario of convergent evolution for the solution of the salivary potion. Perhaps because of immune pressure from hosts, the salivary proteins of related organisms have considerable divergence, and new protein families are often found within different genera of the same family or even among subgenera. Fleas radiated with their vertebrate hosts, including within the mammal expansion initiated 65 million years ago. Currently, only one flea species-the rat flea Xenopsylla cheopis-has been investigated by means of salivary transcriptome analysis to reveal salivary constituents, or sialome. We present the analysis of the sialome of cat flea Ctenocephaides felis. METHODOLOGY AND CRITICAL FINDINGS: A salivary gland cDNA library from adult fleas was randomly sequenced, assembled, and annotated. Sialomes of cat and rat fleas have in common the enzyme families of phosphatases (inactive, CD-39-type apyrase, adenosine deaminases, and esterases. Antigen-5 members are also common to both sialomes, as are defensins. FS-I/Cys7 and the 8-Cys families of peptides are also shared by both fleas and are unique to these organisms. The Gly-His-rich peptide similar to holotricin was found only in the cat flea, as were the abundantly expressed Cys-less peptide and a novel short peptide family. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Fleas, in contrast to bloodsucking Nematocera (mosquitoes, sand flies, and black flies, appear to concentrate a good portion of their sialome in small polypeptides, none of which have a known function but could act as inhibitors of hemostasis or inflammation. They are also unique in expansion of a phosphatase family that appears to be deficient of enzyme activity and has an

  9. Parasites of domestic and wild animals in South Africa. XLVIII . Ticks (Acari: Ixodidae infesting domestic cats and wild felids in southern Africa

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    Ivan G. Horak

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Ticks collected from domestic cats (Felis catus, cheetahs (Acinonyx jubatus,caracals (Caracal caracal, African wild cats (Felis lybica, black-footed cats (Felis nigripes, a serval (Leptailurus serval, lions(Panthera leo, and leopards (Panthera pardus were identified and counted. Thirteen species of ixodid ticks and one argasid tick were identified from domestic cats and 17 species of ixodid ticks from wild felids. The domestic cats and wild felids harboured 11 ixodid species in common. The adults of Haemaphysalis elliptica, the most abundant tick species infesting cats and wild felids, were most numerous on a domestic cat in late winter and in mid-summer, during 2 consecutive years. The recorded geographic distribution of the recently described Haemaphysalis colesbergensis, a parasite of cats and caracals, was extended by 2 new locality records in the Northern Cape Province,South Africa.

  10. Toxoplasmosis in sand cats (Felis margarita) and other animals in the Breeding Centre for Endangered Arabian Wildlife in the United Arab Emirates

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Sand cat (Felis margarita) is a small-sized felid occurring in the United Arab Emirates (UAE). The Sand cat captive breeding program at the Breeding Centre for Endangered Arabian Wildlife (BCEAW), Sharjah, UAE, has experienced high newborn mortality rates, and congenital toxoplasmosis was recent...

  11. Early-Onset Progressive Retinal Atrophy Associated with an IQCB1 Variant in African Black-Footed Cats (Felis nigripes)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Annie; Pearce, Jacqueline W.; Gandolfi, Barbara; Creighton, Erica K.; Suedmeyer, William K.; Selig, Michael; Bosiack, Ann P.; Castaner, Leilani J.; Whiting, Rebecca E. H.; Belknap, Ellen B.; Lyons, Leslie A.; Aderdein, Danielle; Alves, Paulo C.; Barsh, Gregory S.; Beale, Holly C.; Boyko, Adam R.; Castelhano, Marta G.; Chan, Patricia; Ellinwood, N. Matthew; Garrick, Dorian J.; Helps, Christopher R.; Kaelin, Christopher B.; Leeb, Tosso; Lohi, Hannes; Longeri, Maria; Malik, Richard; Montague, Michael J.; Munday, John S.; Murphy, William J.; Pedersen, Niels C.; Rothschild, Max F.; Swanson, William F.; Terio, Karen A.; Todhunter, Rory J.; Warren, Wesley C.

    2017-01-01

    African black-footed cats (Felis nigripes) are endangered wild felids. One male and full-sibling female African black-footed cat developed vision deficits and mydriasis as early as 3 months of age. The diagnosis of early-onset progressive retinal atrophy (PRA) was supported by reduced direct and consensual pupillary light reflexes, phenotypic presence of retinal degeneration, and a non-recordable electroretinogram with negligible amplitudes in both eyes. Whole genome sequencing, conducted on two unaffected parents and one affected offspring was compared to a variant database from 51 domestic cats and a Pallas cat, revealed 50 candidate variants that segregated concordantly with the PRA phenotype. Testing in additional affected cats confirmed that cats homozygous for a 2 base pair (bp) deletion within IQ calmodulin-binding motif-containing protein-1 (IQCB1), the gene that encodes for nephrocystin-5 (NPHP5), had vision loss. The variant segregated concordantly in other related individuals within the pedigree supporting the identification of a recessively inherited early-onset feline PRA. Analysis of the black-footed cat studbook suggests additional captive cats are at risk. Genetic testing for IQCB1 and avoidance of matings between carriers should be added to the species survival plan for captive management. PMID:28322220

  12. Rickettsial Infections among Ctenocephalides felis and Host Animals during a Flea-Borne Rickettsioses Outbreak in Orange County, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fogarty, Carrie; Krueger, Laura; Macaluso, Kevin R.; Odhiambo, Antony; Nguyen, Kiet; Farris, Christina M.; Luce-Fedrow, Alison; Bennett, Stephen; Jiang, Ju; Sun, Sokanary; Cummings, Robert F.; Richards, Allen L.

    2016-01-01

    Due to a resurgence of flea-borne rickettsioses in Orange County, California, we investigated the etiologies of rickettsial infections of Ctenocephalides felis, the predominant fleas species obtained from opossums (Didelphis virginiana) and domestic cats (Felis catus), collected from case exposure sites and other areas in Orange County. In addition, we assessed the prevalence of IgG antibodies against spotted fever group (SFGR) and typhus group (TGR) rickettsiae in opossum sera. Of the 597 flea specimens collected from opossums and cats, 37.2% tested positive for Rickettsia. PCR and sequencing of rickettsial genes obtained from C. felis flea DNA preparations revealed the presence of R. typhi (1.3%), R. felis (28.0%) and R. felis-like organisms (7.5%). Sera from opossums contained TGR-specific (40.84%), but not SFGR-specific antibodies. The detection of R. felis and R. typhi in the C. felis fleas in Orange County highlights the potential risk for human infection with either of these pathogens, and underscores the need for further investigations incorporating specimens from humans, animal hosts, and invertebrate vectors in endemic areas. Such studies will be essential for establishing a link in the ongoing flea-borne rickettsioses outbreaks. PMID:27537367

  13. Prevalence of Bartonella species, hemoplasmas, and Rickettsia felis DNA in blood and fleas of cats in Bangkok, Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assarasakorn, S; Veir, J K; Hawley, J R; Brewer, M M; Morris, A K; Hill, A E; Lappin, M R

    2012-12-01

    Flea infestations are common in Thailand, but little is known about the flea-borne infections. Fifty flea pools and 153 blood samples were collected from client-owned cats between June and August 2009 from veterinary hospitals in Bangkok, Thailand. Total DNA was extracted from all samples, and then assessed by conventional PCR assays. The prevalence rates of Bartonella spp. in blood and flea samples were 17% and 32%, respectively, with DNA of Bartonella henselae and Bartonella clarridgeiae being amplified most commonly. Bartonella koehlerae DNA was amplified for the first time in Thailand. Hemoplasma DNA was amplified from 23% and 34% of blood samples and flea pools, respectively, with 'Candidatus Mycoplasma haemominutum' and Mycoplasma haemofelis being detected most frequently. All samples were negative for Rickettsia felis. Prevalence rate of B. henselae DNA was increased 6.9 times in cats with flea infestation. Cats administered flea control products were 4.2 times less likely to be Bartonella-infected.

  14. Anticipation is differently expressed in rats (Rattus norvegicus) and domestic cats (Felis silvestris catus) in the same Pavlovian conditioning paradigm

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bos, van den R.; Meijer, M.K.; Renselaar, van J.; Harst, van der J.E.; Spruijt, B.M.

    2003-01-01

    In rats (Rattus norvegicus) anticipation to an oncoming food reward in an appetitive Pavlovian conditioning procedure is expressed as an increase of behavioural transitions, i.e. hyperactivity. This behaviour might be related to the spontaneous appetitive behaviour of animals in relation to oncoming

  15. Control of immature stages of the flea Ctenocephalides felis(Bouché in carpets exposed to cats treated with imidacloprid

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    L.J. Fourie

    2000-07-01

    Full Text Available Fleas cause allergic dermatitis in cats and dogs and therefore warrant control. It has been demonstrated previously that there is marked inhibition of the development of the immature stages of the cat flea Ctenocephalides felis on fleece blankets exposed to cats treated with imidacloprid. This study reports on the efficacy of imidacloprid in suppressing adult flea emergence in carpet exposed to treated cats. Circular discs of carpet pre-seeded with flea eggs and larvae were exposed to 6 untreated control and 6 topically treated (imidacloprid 10 % m/v cats 1 to 2 days after treatment and subsequently fortnightly for 6 weeks. Exposure times on alternate days were either 1 or 6 hours. Adult flea yield from carpets was determined 35 days after exposure. Differences between flea yield on control carpets and those exposed for 1 hour were significant only for days +1 and +14. For the 6-hour exposure, differences were significant at all times except on Day +43. The ability of imidacloprid to suppress the yield of adult fleas on carpets (6-hour exposure steadily declined from 82 % (Day +2 to 12 %(Day +43. For the 1-hour exposure it varied inconsistently between 0 and 83 % over the 6-week study period.

  16. Isolation and genetic characterization of Toxoplasma gondii from black bears (Ursus americanus), bobcats (Felis rufus), and feral cats (Felis catus) from Pennsylvania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toxoplasma gondii infects virtually all warm-blooded hosts worldwide. Recently, attention has been focused on the genetic diversity of the parasite to explain its pathogenicity in different hosts. It has been hypothesized that interaction between feral and domestic cycles of T. gondii may increase u...

  17. A gregarine from the gut of cat flea, Ctenocephalides felis (Bouché) (Siphonaptera: Pulicidae) in Taiwan: dynamic of infection patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alarcón, Mauricio E; Huang, Chin-Gi; Dubey, Anil Kumar; Benítez, Hugo A

    2013-02-18

    An understanding on host-parasite interaction is essential for control of disease causing organisms in domestic animals. The cat flea, Ctenocephalides felis (Bouché) is the predominant flea infesting dogs and cats in Taiwan. It was collected from 933 dogs and 197 cats from Taiwan. A total of 5878 C. felis adults were recovered; 14.6% fleas were observed to harbor Steinina ctenocephali. Female fleas were more susceptible to gregarine infection than males. Further, fleas were more likely to be infected with the gregarine at high temperatures, particularly during March-July with high parasite prevalence and intensity. Fleas harboring gregarines infection were higher in dogs than cats. Our study may help in development and application of appropriate flea control measures in Taiwan.

  18. Factors associated with upper respiratory tract disease caused by feline herpesvirus, feline calicivirus, Chlamydophila felis and Bordetella bronchiseptica in cats: experience from 218 European catteries

    OpenAIRE

    Helps, C. R.; Lait, P.; Damhuis, A.; Björnehammar, U.; Bolta, D.; Brovida, C.; Chabanne, L.; Egberink, H; Ferrand, G.; Fontbonne, A.; Pennisi, M G; Gruffydd-Jones, T.; Gunn-Moore, D.; Hartmann, K.; Lutz, H

    2005-01-01

    A full history of the management practices and the prevalence of upper respiratory tract disease (URTD) at 218 rescue shelters, breeding establishments and private households with five or more cats was recorded. Oropharyngeal and conjunctival swabs and blood samples were taken from 1748 cats. The prevalences of feline herpesvirus (FHV), feline calicivirus (FCV), Chlamydophila felis and Bordetella bronchiseptica were determined by PCR on swab samples. An ELISA was applied to determine the prev...

  19. Aspectos morfométricos do timo em gatos domésticos (Felis domesticus Morphometric aspects of the thymus in domestic cats (Felis domesticus

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    Camila E. Barroso

    2012-12-01

    defenses, it is not yet fully understood, neither the morphological basis accounting for such functions as the process of development and the organ involution. The objective was to analyze and characterize the morphology of the thymus, such as its size and volume, and histological aspects of the thymus in cats, correlating sex and age development. Twelve foetus of mongrel domestic cats (Felis domesticus, males and females, divided into three age groups. The thymus presented two parts with a pale pink color, the thoracic and cervical portion; each has a right lobe and a left lobe mostly. The thoracic portion was located in the region of cranial mediastinum, between the lungs and the heart base. And the cervical portion extended beyond the ribs cranially and is located ventral to the trachea. The thymus cellular structure was shown by the presence of organized concentric aggregates, named Hassall's corpuscles, formed by epithelial cells, supported by a connective tissue capsule that penetrated the parenchyma dividing it into lobules. Significant changes with number of lobes and thymus size between individuals of the same age, and between sex. The values for length, thickness and width, in general, showed an increase, according to the development of animals, with differences between sex.

  20. The molecular detection of relaxin and its receptor RXFP1 in reproductive tissue of Felis catus and Lynx pardinus during pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braun, Beate C; Vargas, Astrid; Jewgenow, Katarina

    2012-03-01

    Relaxin acts as a pregnancy-specific signal in feline species, but specific information about protein structure and binding is essential for the improvement of pregnancy diagnosis in endangered feline species, like the Iberian lynx. To generate a felid-specific relaxin antibody, the DNA and protein sequences of lynx and cat were determined and peptides were chosen for antibody generation. In addition, relaxin and relaxin receptor (RXFP1) mRNA expressions were measured in uteri and ovaries of pregnant domestic cats and lynx placentae. Using real-time PCR and immunohistochemistry, it was established that feline placenta is the main source of relaxin during pregnancy. In other tested tissues, relaxin mRNA expression was weak. The RXFP1 mRNA expression was found mainly in cat uterine tissue and feline placentae. It was assumed that these tissues were main targets for relaxin. In the ovary, relaxin immunostaining was associated with blood vessels, signifying its role in vascularization.

  1. Hybridization versus conservation: are domestic cats threatening the genetic integrity of wildcats (Felis silvestris silvestris) in Iberian Peninsula?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Rita; Godinho, Raquel; Randi, Ettore; Alves, Paulo C

    2008-09-12

    Cross-breeding between wild and free-ranging domestic species is one of the main conservation problems for some threatened species. The situation of wildcats (Felis silvestris silvestris) in Europe is a good example of this critical phenomenon. Extensive hybridization was described in Hungary and Scotland, contrasting with occasional interbreeding in Italy and Germany. First analyses in Portugal revealed a clear genetic differentiation between wild and domestic cats; however, four hybrids were detected. Here, we extended the approach to Iberian Peninsula using multivariate and Bayesian analyses of multilocus genotypes for 44 Portuguese wildcats, 31 Spanish wildcats and 109 domestic cats. Globally, wild and domestic cats were significantly differentiated (FST=0.20, ppower of admixture analyses was assessed by simulating hybrid genotypes, which revealed that used microsatellites were able to detect 100, 91 and 85% of first-generation hybrids, second-generation genotypes and backcrosses, respectively. These findings suggest that the true proportion of admixture can be higher than the value estimated in this study and that the improvement of genetic tools for hybrids detection is crucial for wildcat conservation.

  2. Rickettsia felis in Ctenocephalides felis from Guatemala and Costa Rica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troyo, Adriana; Álvarez, Danilo; Taylor, Lizeth; Abdalla, Gabriela; Calderón-Arguedas, Ólger; Zambrano, Maria L.; Dasch, Gregory A.; Lindblade, Kim; Hun, Laya; Eremeeva, Marina E.; Estévez, Alejandra

    2012-01-01

    Rickettsia felis is an emerging human pathogen associated primarily with the cat flea Ctenocephalides felis. In this study, we investigated the presence of Rickettsia felis in C. felis from Guatemala and Costa Rica. Ctenocephalides felis were collected directly from dogs and cats, and analyzed by polymerase chain reaction for Rickettsia-specific fragments of 17-kDa protein, OmpA, and citrate synthase genes. Rickettsia DNA was detected in 64% (55 of 86) and 58% (47 of 81) of flea pools in Guatemala and Costa Rica, respectively. Sequencing of gltA fragments identified R. felis genotype URRWXCal2 in samples from both countries, and genotype Rf2125 in Costa Rica. This is the first report of R. felis in Guatemala and of genotype Rf2125 in Costa Rica. The extensive presence of this pathogen in countries of Central America stresses the need for increased awareness and diagnosis. PMID:22665618

  3. Occupancy of the Invasive Feral Cat Varies with Habitat Complexity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hohnen, Rosemary; Tuft, Katherine; McGregor, Hugh W.; Legge, Sarah; Radford, Ian J.; Johnson, Christopher N.

    2016-01-01

    The domestic cat (Felis catus) is an invasive exotic in many locations around the world and is thought to be a key factor driving recent mammal declines across northern Australia. Many mammal species native to this region now persist only in areas with high topographic complexity, provided by features such as gorges or escarpments. Do mammals persist in these habitats because cats occupy them less, or despite high cat occupancy? We show that occupancy of feral cats was lower in mammal-rich habitats of high topographic complexity. These results support the idea that predation pressure by feral cats is a factor contributing to the collapse of mammal communities across northern Australia. Managing impacts of feral cats is a global conservation challenge. Conservation actions such as choosing sites for small mammal reintroductions may be more successful if variation in cat occupancy with landscape features is taken into account. PMID:27655024

  4. Serotyping of Toxoplasma gondii in Cats (Felis domesticus) Reveals Predominance of Type II Infections in Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: Cats are definitive hosts of Toxoplasma gondii and play an essential role in the epidemiology of this parasite. The study aims at clarifying whether cats are able to develop specific antibodies against different clonal types of T. gondii and to determine by serotyping the T. gondii clona...

  5. Efficacy of emodepside/toltrazuril suspension (Procox® oral suspension for dogs) against mixed experimental Isospora felis/Isospora rivolta infection in cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petry, Gabriele; Kruedewagen, Eva; Kampkoetter, Andreas; Krieger, Klemens

    2011-08-01

    The coccidia Isospora felis and Isospora rivolta are intestinal parasites occurring worldwide in domestic cats. In young cats, they can be detected with higher prevalence.The effects of toltrazuril in the new combination product Procox(®) oral suspension for dogs containing 0.1 % emodepside and 2 % toltrazuril (0.9 mg emodepside + 18 mg toltrazuril per ml) were studied in eighteen kittens experimentally infected each with a total of 1 x 10(5) oocysts of a mixture of Isospora felis and Isospora rivolta. In the infectious material, the quantitative relation of I. felis and I. rivolta was about 1:5. Following a three-days period after infection, two groups of 6 kittens were treated during the prepatent period with either a single dose of 0.45 mg emodepside + 9 mg toltrazuril/kg body weight or 0.9 mg emodepside + 18 mg toltrazuril/kg body weight. A group of six kittens without any treatment served as a control. On day 5 post infection, the untreated kittens started the excretion of oocysts. Treatment with both toltrazuril doses significantly reduced oocyst excretion. Following the single higher dose, the reduction of oocysts of both Isospora spp. was more pronounced (96.7 % to 100 %) in comparison to the lower dose (57.2 % to 100 %). The Procox(®) application was well tolerated and no adverse events were seen with any of the applied dosages.When administered to kittens and as a single treatment during the prepatent period, Procox(®) is suitable to control the number of oocysts excreted in the faeces in case of an Isospora felis and Isospora rivolta infection.

  6. Space and Habitat Selection by Female European Wild Cats (Felis silvestris silvestris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tarroso, P.

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Studies on the use of space and habitat selection of threatened species are useful for identifying factors that influence fitness of individuals and population viability. However, there is a considerable lack of published information regarding these factors for the European wildcat (Felis silvestris. Serra da Malcata Nature Reserve (SMNR, a mountainous area in the eastern centre of Portugal, hosts a stable wildcat population which constitutes a priority in terms of conservation. We studied space use and habitat selection of female wildcats in SMNR with the following objectives: 1 to describe seasonal space use and habitat selection and 2 to obtain information on priority habitats for wildcats in order to develop a proper conservation strategy. We used radio-telemetry as the basic tool for our study and we analysed habitat selection using an Euclidean distance-based approach to investigate seasonal and annual habitat selection by wildcats. We detected that during spring females exhibit smaller home ranges and core areas. Females exhibited habitat selection for establishing home ranges from the available habitats within the study area. In fact, females selected Quercus pyrenaica forests and Quercus rotundifolia and Arbutus unedo forests positively and avoided Erica spp. and Cistus ladanifer scrubland and other habitats. Quercus pyrenaica forests and Quercus rotundifolia and Arbutus unedo forests are important habitats for female wildcats because they provide shelter and food resources, such as small mammals. They also contain elevated tree cavities which can be use as dens. In contrast, Erica spp. and Cistus ladanifer scrubland is an extremely dense habitat with low associated biodiversity and so wildcats avoid it. We believe that this habitat, as well as pine stands, do not provide food and cover resources for wildcats. Home ranges with higher percentage of these habitat types tend to be larger, since females are required to use larger areas to

  7. Estudo microscópico e macroscópico, com enfoque radiográfico e de alizarina, no desenvolvimento embrionário e fetal de gatos domésticos (Felis catus em diferentes idades gestacionais

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dilayla K Abreu

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available O gato doméstico (Felis catus foi nomeado por Carolus Linnaeus em seu livro Systema Naturae, em 1798. A família Felidea apresenta muita semelhança morfológica com os felinos selvagens. O estudo da embriologia do gato doméstico é de grande valia, uma vez que, é considerado um importante modelo animal quando comparado aos gatos selvagem em extinção, especialmente relacionado às pesquisas sobre biologia reprodutiva. Este trabalho objetivou análisar e comparar as fases embrionárias de quatro embriões e um feto de felinos domésticos. Nos embriões com idade gestacional estimada em 17 dias (0,5cm CR podemos observar pela análise macroscópica a presença de dilatação rostral correspondente ao prosencéfalo, o local placóide do cristalino, a flexura cervical, os quatro arcos faríngeos com os sulcos que o dividem, a proeminência cardíaca, o indício do brotamento do membro pélvico, além da presença de somitos. Na região caudal do embrião, visualizamos a curvatura cranio-caudal, permitindo ao mesmo uma posição em formato de "C". Nos embriões com idade gestacional estimada em 22 dias (1,2cm CR, na análise macroscópica foi visualizado o prosencéfalo, vesícula óptica com pigmentação da retina, vesícula ótica, quarto ventrículo, fígado, membros torácicos e pélvicos com discreta distinção dos dígitos e vascularização superficial. Nos embriões com idade gestacional estimada em 25 dias (1,5cm CR notamos a presença do prosencéfalo e mesencéfalo, a curvatura cervical pronunciada, vesícula óptica com forte pigmentação da retina, vesícula ótica, membros pélvicos e torácicos bem desenvolvidos, com distinção dos dígitos e fígado bem pronunciado. Os fetos com idade gestacional estimada em 52 dias (10cm CR possuem estruturas internas e externas facilmente identificadas em animais adultos. Com relação às estruturas ósseas notamos que as mesmas não apresentam nenhuma epífise óssea formada, sendo vis

  8. Born to roam? Surveying cat owners in Tasmania, Australia, to identify the drivers and barriers to cat containment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLeod, Lynette J; Hine, Donald W; Bengsen, Andrew J

    2015-12-01

    Free-roaming domestic cats, Felis catus, are a major public nuisance in neighbourhoods across the world, and have been linked to biodiversity loss and a host of community health problems. Owners who let their cats roam, also place their cats at risk of serious injury. One management strategy that is gaining considerable support involves encouraging cat owners to contain their pets within their property. Contemporary behaviour change models highlight the importance of identifying drivers and barriers that encourage and discourage target behaviours such as cat containment. Results from a random dial phone survey of 356 cat owners in northern Tasmania identified four distinct cat containment profiles: owners who contained their cat all the time, owners who only contained their cat at night, owners who sporadically contained their cat with no set routine, and owners who made no attempt to contain their pet. Our results indicated that cat-owners' decisions to contain or not contain their cats were guided by a range of factors including owners' beliefs about their ability to implement an effective containment strategy and their views about the physical and psychological needs of their cats. The results are discussed in terms of improving the behavioural effectiveness of cat containment interventions by selecting appropriate behavioural change tools for the identified drivers and barriers, and developing targeted engagement strategies and messaging.

  9. Auditory lateralization of conspecific and heterospecific vocalizations in cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siniscalchi, Marcello; Laddago, Serena; Quaranta, Angelo

    2016-01-01

    Auditory lateralization in response to both conspecific and heterospecific vocalizations (dog vocalizations) was observed in 16 tabby cats (Felis catus). Six different vocalizations were used: cat "purring," "meowing" and "growling" and dog typical vocalizations of "disturbance," "isolation" and "play." The head-orienting paradigm showed that cats turned their head with the right ear leading (left hemisphere activation) in response to their typical-species vocalization ("meow" and "purring"); on the other hand, a clear bias in the use of the left ear (right hemisphere activation) was observed in response to vocalizations eliciting intense emotion (dogs' vocalizations of "disturbance" and "isolation"). Overall these findings suggest that auditory sensory domain seems to be lateralized also in cat species, stressing the role of the left hemisphere for intraspecific communication and of the right hemisphere in processing threatening and alarming stimuli.

  10. Epidemiology of Sarcocystis neurona infections in domestic cats (Felis domesticus) and its association with equine protozoal myeloencephalitis (EPM) case farms and feral cats from a mobile spay and neuter clinic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanek, J F; Stich, R W; Dubey, J P; Reed, S M; Njoku, C J; Lindsay, D S; Schmall, L M; Johnson, G K; LaFave, B M; Saville, W J A

    2003-11-28

    Equine protozoal myeloencephalitis (EPM) is a serious neurologic disease in the horse most commonly caused by Sarcocystis neurona. The domestic cat (Felis domesticus) is an intermediate host for S. neurona. In the present study, nine farms, known to have prior clinically diagnosed cases of EPM and a resident cat population were identified and sampled accordingly. In addition to the farm cats sampled, samples were also collected from a mobile spay and neuter clinic. Overall, serum samples were collected in 2001 from 310 cats, with samples including barn, feral and inside/outside cats. Of these 310 samples, 35 were from nine horse farms. Horse serum samples were also collected and traps were set for opossums at each of the farms. The S. neurona direct agglutination test (SAT) was used for both the horse and cat serum samples (1:25 dilution). Fourteen of 35 (40%) cats sampled from horse farms had circulating S. neurona agglutinating antibodies. Twenty-seven of the 275 (10%) cats from the spay/neuter clinic also had detectable S. neurona antibodies. Overall, 115 of 123 (93%) horses tested positive for anti-S. neurona antibodies, with each farm having greater than a 75% exposure rate among sampled horses. Twenty-one opossums were trapped on seven of the nine farms. Eleven opossums had Sarcocystis sp. sporocysts, six of them were identified as S. neurona sporocysts based on bioassays in gamma-interferon gene knockout mice with each opossum representing a different farm. Demonstration of S. neurona agglutinating antibodies in domestic and feral cats corroborates previous research demonstrating feral cats to be naturally infected, and also suggests that cats can be frequently infected with S. neurona and serve as one of several natural intermediate hosts for S. neurona.

  11. Food habits and temporal activity patterns of the Golden Jackal Canis aureus and the Jungle Cat Felis chaos in Pench Tiger Reserve, Madhya Pradesh

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    A. Majumder

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The food habits and temporal activity patterns of the Golden Jackal Canis aureus and the Jungle Cat Felis chaus were studied between January 2008 and June 2009 in Pench Tiger Reserve (PTR, Madhya Pradesh. A total of 50 jackal scats and 85 jungle cat scats were collected where-ever encountered in the study area. Information on activity pattern was obtained using camera traps. Fifty-two pair self-triggered analog cameras were deployed in each 2 x 2 km² across the study area (> 250 km² close to animal trails which were set to work on a continuous 24 hour period. Rodents contributed maximum in the diet of these two species (65% golden jackal scats and 56% jungle cat scats. Eight thousand five hundred and sixty camera-trap nights revealed 189 jungle cat captures and 49 golden jackal captures. The activity of golden jackal had a more homogeneous distribution in time. Present study showed that although some degree of overlap is observed between the two sympatric species, an overall difference in dietary composition and activity patterns enabled them to coexist in PTR.

  12. Environmental Aspects of Domestic Cat Care and Management: Implications for Cat Welfare

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    Stella, Judith L.

    2016-01-01

    Domestic cats (Felis silvestris catus) are the most commonly kept companion animals in the US with large populations of owned (86 million), free-roaming (70 million), research (13,000), and shelter (2-3 million) cats. Vast numbers of cats are maintained in homes and other facilities each year and are reliant on humans for all of their care. Understanding cat behavior and providing the highest quality environments possible, including positive human-cat interactions, based on research could help improve the outcomes of biomedical research, shelter adoptions, and veterinary care, as well as overall cat welfare. Often, however, cats' needs are inadequately met in homes and some aspects may also not be well met in research colonies and shelters, despite the fact that similar problems are likely to be encountered in all of these environments. This paper provides a brief overview of common welfare challenges associated with indoor housing of domestic cats. Essential considerations for cage confinement are reviewed, along with implications of poor cat coping, such as weakening of the human-animal bond and relinquishment to shelters. The important role that environmental management plays in cat behavior and welfare outcomes is explored along with the need for additional research in key areas.

  13. Antibody detection and molecular characterization of toxoplasma gondii from bobcats (Lynx rufus), domestic cats (Felis catus), and wildlife from Minnesota, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little is known of the epidemiology of toxoplasmosis in Minnesota. In this study, we evaluated Toxoplasma gondii infection in 50 wild bobcats (Lynx rufus) and 75 other animals on/near 10 cattle farms. Antibodies to T. gondii were assayed in serum samples or tissue fluids by the modified agglutinatio...

  14. Evidence of feline immunodeficiency virus, feline leukemia virus, and Toxoplasma gondii in feral cats on Mauna Kea, Hawaii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danner, Raymond M; Goltz, Daniel M; Hess, Steven C; Banko, Paul C

    2007-04-01

    We determined prevalence to feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) antibodies, feline leukemia virus (FeLV) antigen, and Toxoplasma gondii antibodies in feral cats (Felis catus) on Mauna Kea Hawaii from April 2002 to May 2004. Six of 68 (8.8%) and 11 of 68 (16.2%) cats were antibody positive to FIV and antigen positive for FeLV, respectively; 25 of 67 (37.3%) cats were seropositive to T. gondii. Antibodies to FeLV and T. gondii occurred in all age and sex classes, but FIV occurred only in adult males. Evidence of current or previous infections with two of these infectious agents was detected in eight of 64 cats (12.5%). Despite exposure to these infectious agents, feral cats remain abundant throughout the Hawaiian Islands.

  15. Evidence of feline immunodeficiency virus, feline leukemia virus, and Toxoplasma gondii in feral cats on Mauna Kea, Hawaii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danner, R.M.; Goltz, Dan M.; Hess, S.C.; Banko, P.C.

    2007-01-01

    We determined prevalence to feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) antibodies, feline leukemia virus (FeLV) antigen, and Toxoplasma gondii antibodies in feral cats (Felis catus) on Mauna Kea Hawaii from April 2002 to May 2004. Six of 68 (8.8%) and 11 of 68 (16.2%) cats were antibody positive to FIV and antigen positive for FeLV, respectively; 25 of 67 (37.3%) cats were seropositive to T. gondii. Antibodies to FeLV and T. gondii occurred in all age and sex classes, but FIV occurred only in adult males. Evidence of current or previous infections with two of these infectious agents was detected in eight of 64 cats (12.5%). Despite exposure to these infectious agents, feral cats remain abundant throughout the Hawaiian Islands. ?? Wildlife Disease Association 2007.

  16. Absence of zoonotic Bartonella species in questing ticks: First detection of Bartonella clarridgeiae and Rickettsia felis in cat fleas in the Netherlands

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    Reimerink Johan R

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Awareness for flea- and tick-borne infections has grown in recent years and the range of microorganisms associated with these ectoparasites is rising. Bartonella henselae, the causative agent of Cat Scratch Disease, and other Bartonella species have been reported in fleas and ticks. The role of Ixodes ricinus ticks in the natural cycle of Bartonella spp. and the transmission of these bacteria to humans is unclear. Rickettsia spp. have also been reported from as well ticks as also from fleas. However, to date no flea-borne Rickettsia spp. were reported from the Netherlands. Here, the presence of Bartonellaceae and Rickettsiae in ectoparasites was investigated using molecular detection and identification on part of the gltA- and 16S rRNA-genes. Results The zoonotic Bartonella clarridgeiae and Rickettsia felis were detected for the first time in Dutch cat fleas. B. henselae was found in cat fleas and B. schoenbuchensis in ticks and keds feeding on deer. Two Bartonella species, previously identified in rodents, were found in wild mice and their fleas. However, none of these microorganisms were found in 1719 questing Ixodes ricinus ticks. Notably, the gltA gene amplified from DNA lysates of approximately 10% of the questing nymph and adult ticks was similar to that of an uncultured Bartonella-related species found in other hard tick species. The gltA gene of this Bartonella-related species was also detected in questing larvae for which a 16S rRNA gene PCR also tested positive for "Candidatus Midichloria mitochondrii". The gltA-gene of the Bartonella-related species found in I. ricinus may therefore be from this endosymbiont. Conclusions We conclude that the risk of acquiring Cat Scratch Disease or a related bartonellosis from questing ticks in the Netherlands is negligible. On the other hand fleas and deer keds are probable vectors for associated Bartonella species between animals and might also transmit Bartonella spp. to humans.

  17. Understanding public perceptions of risk regarding outdoor pet cats to inform conservation action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gramza, Ashley; Teel, Tara; VandeWoude, Susan; Crooks, Kevin

    2016-04-01

    Free-ranging domestic cats (Felis catus) incur and impose risks on ecosystems and represent a complex issue of critical importance to biodiversity conservation and cat and human health globally. Prior social science research on this topic is limited and has emphasized feral cats even though owned cats often comprise a large proportion of the outdoor cat population, particularly in urban areas. To address this gap, we examined public risk perceptions and attitudes toward outdoor pet cats across varying levels of urbanization, including along the wildland-urban interface, in Colorado (U.S.A.), through a mail survey of 1397 residents. Residents did not view all types of risks uniformly. They viewed risks of cat predation on wildlife and carnivore predation on cats as more likely than disease-related risks. Additionally, risk perceptions were related to attitudes, prior experiences with cats and cat-wildlife interactions, and cat-owner behavior. Our findings suggest that changes in risk perceptions may result in behavior change. Therefore, knowledge of cat-related risk perceptions and attitudes could be used to develop communication programs aimed at promoting risk-aversive behaviors among cat owners and cat-management strategies that are acceptable to the public and that directly advance the conservation of native species.

  18. The Population Origins and Expansion of Feral Cats in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spencer, Peter B S; Yurchenko, Andrey A; David, Victor A; Scott, Rachael; Koepfli, Klaus-Peter; Driscoll, Carlos; O'Brien, Stephen J; Menotti-Raymond, Marilyn

    2016-03-01

    The historical literature suggests that in Australia, the domestic cat (Felis catus) had a European origin [~200 years before present (ybp)], but it is unclear if cats arrived from across the Asian land bridge contemporaneously with the dingo (4000 ybp), or perhaps immigrated ~40000 ybp in association with Aboriginal settlement from Asia. The origin of cats in Australia is important because the continent has a complex and ancient faunal assemblage that is dominated by endemic rodents and marsupials and lacks the large placental carnivores found on other large continents. Cats are now ubiquitous across the entire Australian continent and have been implicit in the range contraction or extinction of its small to medium sized (cats using 15 short tandem repeat (STR) genomic markers. Their origin appears to come exclusively from European founders. Feral cats in continental Australia exhibit high genetic diversity in comparison with the low diversity found in populations of feral cats living on islands. The genetic structure is consistent with a rapid westerly expansion from eastern Australia and a limited expansion in coastal Western Australia. Australian cats show modest if any population structure and a close genetic alignment with European feral cats as compared to cats from Asia, the Christmas and Cocos (Keeling) Islands (Indian Ocean), and European wildcats (F. silvestris silvestris).

  19. Haematology and biochemistry values of captive sand cats (Felis margarita) in Al Ain Wildlife Park and Resort, United Arab Emirates

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Stephen Chege; Arshad Toosy; Judith Howlett; Ahmed Saker; John Kagira

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the haematology and biochemistry values of apparently healthy captive sand cats kept in Al Ain Wildlife Park and Resort, United Arab Emirates, with a view to establishing baseline values.Methods:Blood was collected from the femoral vein using aseptic techniques, kept in a cool box and sent to laboratory for analysis. The blood was analysed for haematological and biochemical values using veterinary hematology and chemistry analysers (ABX ABC Vet, Horiba ABX SAS Montpellier, France). Results: Haematological values were within the normal ranges recorded in domestic cats and there was no statistical difference between values found in males and females. Aspartate aminotransferase values were higher (P0.05) between males and females values.Conclusions:Our results present reference ranges for haematology and biochemistry parameters in captive sand cats. These values will be important for diagnosis of various diseases and monitoring of treatments.

  20. What makes a feline fatal in Toxoplasma gondii's fatal feline attraction? Infected rats choose wild cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaushik, M; Knowles, S C L; Webster, J P

    2014-07-01

    Toxoplasma gondii is an indirectly transmitted protozoan parasite, of which members of the cat family (Felidae) are the only definitive hosts and small mammals such as rats serve as intermediate hosts. The innate aversion of rodents to cat odor provides an obstacle for the parasite against successful predation by the feline definitive host. Previous research has demonstrated that T. gondii appears to alter a rat's perception of the risk of being preyed upon by cats. Although uninfected rats display normal aversion to cat odor, infected rats show no avoidance and in some cases even show attraction to cat odor, which we originally termed the "Fatal Feline Attraction." In this study, we tested for the first time whether the "Fatal Feline Attraction" of T. gondii-infected rats differed according to the type of feline odor used, specifically whether it came from domestic cats (Felis silvestris catus) or wild cats-cheetahs (Acinonyx jubatus) or pumas (Felis concolor). In two-choice odor trials, where wild and domestic cat odors were competed against one another, consistent with previous findings we demonstrated that infected rats spent more time in feline odor zones compared with uninfected rats. However, we further demonstrated that all cat odors are not equal: infected rats had a stronger preference for wild cat odor over that of domestic cats, an effect that did not differ significantly according to the type of wild cat odor used (cheetah or puma). We discuss these results in terms of the potential mechanism of action and their implications for the current and evolutionary role of wild, in addition to domestic, cats in transmission of T. gondii.

  1. Seasonal Changes in Testes Vascularisation in the Domestic Cat (Felis domesticus: Evaluation of Microvasculature, Angiogenic Activity, and Endothelial Cell Expression

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    Graça Alexandre-Pires

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Some male seasonal breeders undergo testicular growth and regression throughout the year. The objective of this study was to understand the effect of seasonality on: (i microvasculature of cat testes; (ii angiogenic activity in testicular tissue in vitro; and (iii testicular endothelial cells expression throughout the year. Testicular vascular areas increased in March and April, June and July, being the highest in November and December. Testes tissue differently stimulated in vitro angiogenic activity, according to seasonality, being more evident in February, and November and December. Even though CD143 expression was higher in December, smaller peaks were present in April and July. As changes in angiogenesis may play a role on testes vascular growth and regression during the breeding and non-breeding seasons, data suggest that testicular vascularisation in cats is increased in three photoperiod windows of time, November/December, March/April and June/July. This increase in testicular vascularisation might be related to higher seasonal sexual activity in cats, which is in agreement with the fact that most queens give birth at the beginning of the year, between May and July, and in September.

  2. Efficacy of imidacloprid + moxidectin and selamectin topical solutions against the KS1 Ctenocephalides felis flea strain infesting cats

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    Dryden Michael W

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Two studies were conducted to evaluate and compare the efficacy of imidacloprid + moxidectin and selamectin topical solutions against the KS1 flea strain infesting cats. In both studies the treatment groups were comprised of non-treated controls, 6% w/v selamectin (Revolution®; Pfizer Animal Health topical solution and 10% w/v imidacloprid + 1% w/v moxidectin (Advantage Multi® for Cats, Bayer Animal Health topical solution. All cats were infested with 100 fleas on Days -2, 7, 14, 21, and 28. The difference in the studies was that in study #1 efficacy evaluations were conducted at 24 and 48 hours post-treatment or post-infestation, and in study #2 evaluations were conducted at 12 and 24 hours. Results In study #1 imidacloprid + moxidectin and the selamectin formulation provided 99.8% and 99.0% efficacy at 24 hours post-treatment. On day 28, the 24 hour efficacy of the selamectin formulation dropped to 87.1%, whereas the imidacloprid + moxidectin formulation provided 98.9% efficacy. At the 48 hour assessments following the 28 day infestations, efficacy of the imidacloprid + moxidectin and selamectin formulations was 96.8% and 98.3% respectively. In study # 2 the efficacy of the imidacloprid + moxidectin and selamectin formulations 12 hours after treatment was 100% and 69.4%, respectively. On day 28, efficacy of the imidacloprid + moxidectin and selamectin formulations 12 hours after infestation was 90.2% and 57.3%, respectively. In study #2 both formulations provided high levels of efficacy at the 24 hour post-infestation assessments, with selamectin and imidacloprid + moxidectin providing 95.3% and 97.5% efficacy, following infestations on day 28. Conclusions At the 24 and 48 hour residual efficacy assessments, the imidacloprid + moxidectin and selamectin formulations were similarly highly efficacious. However, the imidacloprid + moxidectin formulation provided a significantly higher rate of flea kill against the KS1 flea

  3. Social referencing and cat-human communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merola, I; Lazzaroni, M; Marshall-Pescini, S; Prato-Previde, E

    2015-05-01

    Cats' (Felis catus) communicative behaviour towards humans was explored using a social referencing paradigm in the presence of a potentially frightening object. One group of cats observed their owner delivering a positive emotional message, whereas another group received a negative emotional message. The aim was to evaluate whether cats use the emotional information provided by their owners about a novel/unfamiliar object to guide their own behaviour towards it. We assessed the presence of social referencing, in terms of referential looking towards the owner (defined as looking to the owner immediately before or after looking at the object), the behavioural regulation based on the owner's emotional (positive vs negative) message (vocal and facial), and the observational conditioning following the owner's actions towards the object. Most cats (79 %) exhibited referential looking between the owner and the object, and also to some extent changed their behaviour in line with the emotional message given by the owner. Results are discussed in relation to social referencing in other species (dogs in particular) and cats' social organization and domestication history.

  4. Rickettsia felis, an emerging flea-transmitted human pathogen

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    Stephen Graves

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Rickettsia felis was first recognised two decades ago and has now been described as endemic to all continents except Antarctica. The rickettsiosis caused by R. felis is known as flea-borne spotted fever or cat-flea typhus. The large number of arthropod species found to harbour R. felis and that may act as potential vectors support the view that it is a pan-global microbe. The main arthropod reservoir and vector is the cat flea, Ctenocephalides felis, yet more than 20 other species of fleas, ticks, and mites species have been reported to harbour R. felis. Few bacterial pathogens of humans have been found associated with such a diverse range of invertebrates. With the projected increase in global temperature over the next century, there is concern that changes to the ecology and distribution of R. felis vectors may adversely impact public health.

  5. An Evaluation of Feral Cat Management Options Using a Decision Analysis Network

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    Kerrie Anne T. Loyd

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The feral domestic cat (Felis catus is a predatory invasive species with documented negative effects on native wildlife. The issue of appropriate and acceptable feral cat management is a matter of contentious debate in cities and states across the United States due to concerns for wildlife conservation, cat welfare, and public health. Common management strategies include: Trap-Neuter-Release, Trap-Neuter-Release with removal of kittens for adoption and Trap-Euthanize. Very little empirical evidence exists relevant to the efficacy of alternative options and a model-based approach is needed to predict population response and extend calculations to impact on wildlife. We have created a structured decision support model representing multiple stakeholder groups to facilitate the coordinated management of feral cats. We used a probabilistic graphical model (a Bayesian Belief Network to evaluate and rank alternative management decisions according to efficacy, societal preferences, and cost. Our model predicts that Trap-Neuter-Release strategies would be optimal management decisions for small local populations of less than fifty cats while Trap-Euthanize would be the optimal management decision for populations greater than 50 cats. Removal is predicted to reduce feral cat populations quickly and prevent cats from taking a large number of wildlife prey.

  6. Toxoplasmosis in Sand cats (Felis margarita) and other animals in the Breeding Centre for Endangered Arabian Wildlife in the United Arab Emirates and Al Wabra Wildlife Preservation, the State of Qatar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubey, J P; Pas, An; Rajendran, C; Kwok, O C H; Ferreira, L R; Martins, J; Hebel, C; Hammer, S; Su, C

    2010-09-20

    The Sand cat (Felis margarita) is a small-sized felid found in sand and stone deserts ranging from the north of Africa to Asia, with the Arabian Peninsula as its centre of distribution. The Sand cat captive breeding program at the Breeding Centre for Endangered Arabian Wildlife (BCEAW), Sharjah, UAE, has experienced high newborn mortality rates, and congenital toxoplasmosis was recently recognized as one of the causes of this mortality. In the present study, one 18-month-old Sand cat (FM019) died of acute toxoplasmosis-associated hepatitis and pneumonitis acquired after birth; Toxoplasma gondii was demonstrated in histological sections which reacted with T. gondii polyclonal antibodies by immunohistochemistry (IHC). T. gondii DNA was found by PCR of extracted DNA from liver and lung tissues of this cat. Antibodies to T. gondii were found in serum examined in 1:1600 dilution in the modified agglutination test (MAT); its 2-year-old cage mate seroconverted (MAT titer 1:3200) at the same time. Another Sand cat (FM017) was euthanized because of ill health when 3 years old; its MAT titer was >1:3200, and T. gondii tissue cysts were found in brain, heart, ocular muscles and skeletal muscle, confirmed by IHC. Viable T. gondii was isolated by bioassays in mice inoculated with tissues of another chronically infected Sand cat (FM002); T. gondii was not found in histological sections of this cat. T. gondii antibodies were found in several species of animals tested, notably in 49 of 57 wild felids at BCEAW. A 7-year-old Sand cat (3657) from Al Wabra Wildlife Preservation (AWWP), Doha, State of Qatar died of acute visceral toxoplasmosis with demonstrable T. gondii tachyzoites by IHC, and T. gondii DNA by PCR, and a MAT titer of >3200. T. gondii antibodies were found in 21 of 27 of wild felids at AWWP. PCR-RFLP genotyping at 10 genetic loci revealed that these T. gondii isolates from Sand cat (FM002 and FM019) at BCEAW have an atypical genotype, which was previously reported in T

  7. Preventive efficacy of Frontline® Combo and Certifect® against Dipylidium caninum infestation of cats and dogs using a natural flea (Ctenocephalides felis infestation model

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    Beugnet Frederic

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Two studies were performed to evaluate the effectiveness of two monthly topical anti-flea products for the prevention of Dipylidium caninum infestations in cats and dogs. A single treatment with Frontline® Combo spot-on for cats (fipronil-(S-methoprene and two successive monthly treatments of Certifect® for dogs (fipronil-amitraz-(S-methoprene were assessed for the prevention of D. caninum infestations following weekly challenges of treated cats or dogs with metacestode naturally-infected fleas. The rate of infestations using the model in cats versus dogs explains the choice of a 1-month trial in cats and a 2-month trial in dogs. The experimental flea-infection model resulted in a range of 22–53% of the fleas being infected by Dipylidium cysticercoids. The arithmetic mean flea counts recorded for the untreated cats ranged from 51.2 to 68. The geometric mean flea counts recorded for the Frontline Combo treated cats differed significantly (p < 0.05 from those of the untreated control cats on all assessment days. The arithmetic mean flea counts recorded for the untreated dogs ranged from 166.6 to 238.6. The geometric mean flea counts recorded for the Certifect treated dogs differed significantly (p < 0.001 from those of the untreated group on all assessment days. Frontline Combo treatment on cats provided ≥99.8% persistent anti-flea efficacy throughout the 30-day treatment period. In the dog study, the two Certifect treatments provided ≥97% persistent efficacy throughout the 60-day study. Based on the collection of expelled D. caninum proglottids by cats, 100% (6/6 of the control cats and 0% (0/6 of Frontline Combo treated cats were infested with D. caninum. Frontline Combo spot-on for cats was therefore 100% effective in preventing infection with D. caninum. In dogs, 7 out of the 8 control group dogs (87.5% produced proglottids following infestation of infected fleas, whereas 0 out of 8 dogs (0% in the treated group were infected. The

  8. Evaluation of the curative and preventive efficacy of a single oral administration of afoxolaner against cat flea Ctenocephalides felis infestations on dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, James S; Dumont, Pascal; Chester, Theodore S; Young, David R; Fourie, Josephus J; Larsen, Diane L

    2014-04-02

    The efficacy of orally administered afoxolaner for treatment and prevention of repeated infestations with adult Ctenocephalides felis on dogs was evaluated in two studies after administration of a beef-flavored soft chew. In each study, 32 dogs were divided randomly into four equal groups. Dogs in Groups 1 and 3 were not treated and served as controls. Dogs in Groups 2 and 4 were treated on Day 0 with a combination of chewable tablets to be as close as possible to the minimum therapeutic dose of 2.5mg/kg. All animals were infested experimentally with unfed C. felis (100 ± 5) on Days -1, 7, 14, 21, 28 and 35. Flea killing efficacy was evaluated in both studies while, efficacy against flea egg production was assessed in Study 1. Live fleas were counted at 12 (Groups 1 and 2) and 24h (Groups 3 and 4), after treatment or after weekly infestations. In Study 1, flea eggs were collected and counted at either 12 or 24h after each flea infestation on Days 7, 14, 21, 28 and 35. The results of both studies demonstrate the long lasting and rapid efficacy of afoxolaner against C. felis, when administered as a single oral dose to dogs. For flea counts conducted 24h after treatment or infestation, efficacy was 100% for all time points up to Day 36 in both studies, except for one time point (99.9% on Day 22) for Study 2. For flea counts performed 12h after treatment or infestation, efficacy was ≥ 95.2% until Day 21 in both studies. Efficacy at 12h was ≥ 93.0% on Day 35 in Study 1 and ≥ 89.7% on Day 35 in Study 2. The treated groups had significantly fewer fleas than untreated control dogs in both studies for all flea counts (p=0.003 Study 1, p=0.0006 Study 2). In Study 1, for all egg counts performed at or beyond Day 7, efficacy in egg reduction was >99% for all time points between Days 7 and 35.

  9. CANINE DISTEMPER VIRUS ANTIBODY TITERS IN DOMESTIC CATS AFTER DELIVERY OF A LIVE ATTENUATED VIRUS VACCINE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramsay, Edward; Sadler, Ryan; Rush, Robert; Seimon, Tracie; Tomaszewicz, Ania; Fleetwood, Ellen A; McAloose, Denise; Wilkes, Rebecca P

    2016-06-01

    Three methods for delivering a live attenuated canine distemper virus (CDV) vaccine to domestic cats ( Felis catus ) were investigated, as models for developing vaccination protocols for tigers (Panthera tigris). Twenty domestic cats were randomly divided into four treatment groups: saline injection (negative controls); and oral, intranasal, and subcutaneous vaccinates. Cats were injected with saline or a CDV vaccine (Nobivac DP, Merck) at wk 0 and 4. Blood and nasal swabs were collected at wk 0 (prior to the initial vaccination) and weekly thereafter for 9 wk. Urine samples were collected on wk 1 to 9 after initial vaccination. Forty-nine weeks following the initial vaccination series, three cats from the subcutaneous group and three cats from the intranasal group were revaccinated. Blood was collected immediately prior, and 7 and 21 days subsequent to revaccination. Nasal swabs and urine samples were collected from each cat prior to wk 49 revaccination and daily for 7 days thereafter. Nasal swabs and urine were analyzed by quantitative PCR for vaccine virus presence. Sera were tested for CDV antibodies by virus neutralization. All cats were sero-negative for CDV antibodies at the beginning of the study, and saline-injected cats remained sero-negative throughout the study. A dramatic anamnestic response was seen following wk 4 subcutaneous vaccinations, with titers peaking at wk 6 (geometric mean = 2,435.5). Following wk 49 revaccination, subcutaneous vaccinates again mounted impressive titers (wk 52 geometric mean = 2,048). Revaccination of the intranasal group cats at wk 49 produced a small increase in titers (wk 52 geometric mean = 203). CDV viral RNA was detected in six nasal swabs but no urine samples, demonstrating low viral shedding postvaccination. The strong antibody response to subcutaneous vaccination and the lack of adverse effects suggest this vaccine is safe and potentially protective against CDV infection in domestic cats.

  10. Five-month comparative efficacy evaluation of three ectoparasiticides against adult cat fleas (Ctenocephalides felis), flea egg hatch and emergence, and adult brown dog ticks (Rhipicephalus sanguineus sensu lato) on dogs housed outdoors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varloud, Marie; Hodgkins, Elizabeth

    2015-03-01

    This study was designed to compare the efficacy of three topical combinations on dogs in outdoor conditions against adult cat fleas (Ctenocephalides felis), flea egg hatch and emergence, and against adult brown dog ticks (Rhipicephalus sanguineus sensu lato). Treatment was performed on day 0 with a placebo; dinotefuran, pyriproxifen and permethrin (DPP); fipronil and (S)-methoprene (FM) or imidacloprid and permethrin (IP). Dogs (n = 32), housed outdoors for 7 months, were treated monthly for four consecutive months (on days 0, 30, 60 and 90) and infested with ~100 unfed adult fleas on days 14, 55, 74, 115 and 150 and with ~50 unfed adult ticks on days 28, 44, 88 and 104. Adult fleas were counted and removed 24 h after infestation. Immediately after flea removal, dogs were reinfested with ~100 new adult fleas 72 h prior to egg collection for up to 48 h. Flea eggs were incubated for 32 days, and newly emerged adults were counted. Ticks were counted and removed 48 h after each infestation. FM had >90 % efficacy against fleas at each time point and variable efficacy against ticks (38.0-99.6 %). Efficacy of IP was 60 days after the last treatment. Despite challenging weather conditions, DPP was highly effective, providing >90 % efficacy against adult ticks as well as adult and immature fleas at every time point of the study.

  11. Absence of zoonotic Bartonella species in questing ticks: First detection of Bartonella clarridgeiae and Rickettsia felis in cat fleas in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tijsse-Klasen, E.; Fonville, M.; Gassner, F.; Nijhof, A.M.; Hovius, E.K.E.; Jongejan, F.; Takken, W.; Reimerink, J.R.; Overgaauw, P.A.M.; Sprong, H.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Awareness for flea-and tick-borne infections has grown in recent years and the range of microorganisms associated with these ectoparasites is rising. Bartonella henselae, the causative agent of Cat Scratch Disease, and other Bartonella species have been reported in fleas and ticks. The r

  12. Absence of zoonotic Bartonella species in questing ticks: First detection of Bartonella clarridgeiae and Rickettsia felis in cat fleas in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tijsse-Klasen, E.; Fonville, M.; Gassner, F.; Nijhof, A.M.; Hovius, E.K.; Jongejan, F.; Takken, F.; Reimerink, J.R.; Overgaauw, P.A.M.; Sprong, H.

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Awareness for flea- and tick-borne infections has grown in recent years and the range of microorganisms associated with these ectoparasites is rising. Bartonella henselae, the causative agent of Cat Scratch Disease, and other Bartonella species have been reported in fleas and ticks. The

  13. Expression and activity of a novel cathelicidin from domestic cats.

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    Brian C Leonard

    Full Text Available Cathelicidins are small cationic antimicrobial peptides found in many species including primates, mammals, marsupials, birds and even more primitive vertebrates, such as the hagfish. Some animals encode multiple cathelicidins in their genome, whereas others have only one. This report identifies and characterizes feline cathelicidin (feCath as the sole cathelicidin in domestic cats (Felis catus. Expression of feCath is predominantly found in the bone marrow, with lower levels of expression in the gastrointestinal tract and skin. By immunocytochemistry, feCath localizes to the cytoplasm of neutrophils in feline peripheral blood. Structurally, the mature feCath sequence is most similar to a subgroup of cathelicidins that form linear α-helices. feCath possesses antimicrobial activity against E. coli D31, Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium (IR715, Listeria monocytogenes and Staphylococcus pseudintermedius (clinical isolate similar to that of the human ortholog, LL-37. In contrast, feCath lacks the DNA binding activity seen with LL-37. Given its similarity in sequence, structure, tissue expression, and antimicrobial activity, the cathelicidin encoded by cats, feCath, belongs to the subgroup of linear cathelicidins found not only in humans, but also non-human primates, dogs, mice, and rats.

  14. Integrative taxonomy at work: DNA barcoding of taeniids harboured by wild and domestic cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galimberti, A; Romano, D F; Genchi, M; Paoloni, D; Vercillo, F; Bizzarri, L; Sassera, D; Bandi, C; Genchi, C; Ragni, B; Casiraghi, M

    2012-05-01

    In modern taxonomy, DNA barcoding is particularly useful where biometric parameters are difficult to determine or useless owing to the poor quality of samples. These situations are frequent in parasitology. Here, we present an integrated study, based on both DNA barcoding and morphological analysis, on cestodes belonging to the genus Taenia, for which biodiversity is still largely underestimated. In particular, we characterized cestodes from Italian wildcats (Felis silvestris silvestris), free-ranging domestic cats (Felis silvestris catus) and hybrids populations. Adult taeniids were collected by post-mortem examinations of the hosts and morphologically identified as Taenia taeniaeformis. We produced cox1 barcode sequences for all the analysed specimens, and we compared them with reference sequences of individuals belonging to the genus Taenia retrieved from GenBank. In order to evaluate the performance of a DNA barcoding approach to discriminate these parasites, the strength of correlation between species identification based on classical morphology and the molecular divergence of cox1 sequences was measured. Our study provides clear evidence that DNA barcoding is highly efficient to reveal the presence of cryptic lineages within already-described taeniid species. Indeed, we detected three well-defined molecular lineages within the whole panel of specimens morphologically identified as T. taeniaeformis. Two of these molecular groups were already identified by other authors and should be ranked at species level. The third molecular group encompasses only samples collected in Italy during this study, and it represents a third candidate species, still morphologically undescribed.

  15. Assessment of the efficacy of a topical combination of fipronil-permethrin (Frontline Tri-Act®/Frontect® against egg laying and adult emergence of the cat flea (Ctenocephalides felis in dogs

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    Beugnet Frédéric

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to assess the prevention of egg laying and the inhibition of the emergence of the cat flea (Ctenocephalides felis resulting from the application of a combination of fipronil and permethrin (Frontline Tri-Act®/Frontect®, Merial on dogs. Sixteen healthy dogs were included after pre-treatment live flea counts and randomly allocated to two groups. Eight dogs served as untreated controls and 8 dogs were treated on Day 0 and Day 30 with topical application of fipronil/permethrin at the minimum dose of 6.76 mg/kg fipronil and 50.48 mg/kg permethrin. On days −2, 7, 21, 28, 42 and 56, each dog was infested with 100 fleas. Flea eggs were collected from each dog in individual trays from 12 to 36 h after treatment or each flea re-infestation. All fleas were removed by combing and counted 36 h after treatment or infestations. The collected eggs were counted and incubated for 28 days for larval development and adult emergence assessment. The curative efficacy of Frontline Tri-Act®/Frontect® against adult fleas 36 h after treatment was 95.3% and the efficacy remained 100% after subsequent flea infestations for 8 weeks. Compared to the control group, the treatment reduced egg laying by 84.5% within 36 h after first treatment and was 99.9%, 100%, 100%, 100%, 100% on collection days 7, 21, 29, 43 and 57, respectively. Frontline Tri-Act®/Frontect® reduced by 28.7% the emergence of new adult fleas from eggs laid during the 48 h of pre-treatment infestation. The inhibition of adult emergence from incubated flea eggs could not be assessed after flea re-infestation in the treated group as no eggs were collected.

  16. Spatial distribution of soil contaminated with Toxoplasma gondii oocysts in relation to the distribution and use of domestic cat defecation sites on dairy farms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, J A; Kurdzielewicz, S; Jeanniot, E; Dupuis, E; Marnef, F; Aubert, D; Villena, I; Poulle, M-L

    2017-03-16

    Little information is available on the relationship between the spatial distribution of zoonotic parasites in soil and the pattern of hosts' faeces deposition at a local scale. In this study, the spatial distribution of soil contaminated by the parasite Toxoplasma gondii was investigated in relation to the distribution and use of the defecation sites of its definitive host, the domestic cat (Felis catus). The study was conducted on six dairy farms with a high number of cats (seven to 30 cats). During regular visits to the farms over a 10month period, the cat population and cat defecation sites (latrines and sites of scattered faeces) on each farm were systematically surveyed. During the last visit, 561 soil samples were collected from defecation sites and random points, and these samples were searched for T. gondii DNA using real-time quantitative PCR. Depending on the farm, T. gondii DNA was detected in 37.7-66.3% of the soil samples. The proportion of contaminated samples at a farm was positively correlated with the rate of new cat latrines replacing former cat latrines, suggesting that inconstancy in use of a latrine by cats affects the distribution of T. gondii in soil. On the farms, known cat defecation sites were significantly more often contaminated than random points, but 25-62.5% of the latter were also found to be contaminated. Lastly, the proportion of positive T. gondii samples in latrines was related to the proximity of the cats' main feeding and resting sites on the farms. This study demonstrates that T. gondii can be widely distributed in farm soil despite the heterogeneous distribution of cat faeces. This supports the hypothesis that farms are hotspot areas for the risk of T. gondii oocyst-induced infection in rural environments.

  17. Multilocus variable-number tandem-repeat analysis scheme for chlamydia felis genotyping: comparison with multilocus sequence typing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laroucau, Karine; Di Francesco, Antonietta; Vorimore, Fabien; Thierry, Simon; Pingret, Jean Luc; Bertin, Claire; Willems, Hermann; Bölske, Goran; Harley, Ross

    2012-06-01

    Chlamydia felis is an important ocular pathogen in cats worldwide. A multilocus variable-number tandem-repeat analysis (MLVA) system for the detection of tandem repeats across the whole genome of C. felis strain Fe/C-56 was developed. Nine selected genetic loci were tested by MLVA in 17 C. felis isolates, including the C. felis Baker vaccine strain, and 122 clinical samples from different geographic origins. Analysis of the results identified 25 distinct C. felis MLVA patterns. In parallel, a recently described multilocus sequence typing scheme for the typing of Chlamydia was applied to 13 clinical samples with 12 different C. felis MLVA patterns. Rare sequence differences were observed. Thus, the newly developed MLVA system provides a highly sensitive high-resolution test for the differentiation of C. felis isolates from different origins that is suitable for molecular epidemiological studies.

  18. Mesopredator Management: Effects of Red Fox Control on the Abundance, Diet and Use of Space by Feral Cats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molsher, Robyn; Newsome, Thomas M.; Dickman, Christopher R.

    2017-01-01

    Apex predators are subject to lethal control in many parts of the world to minimize their impacts on human industries and livelihoods. Diverse communities of smaller predators—mesopredators—often remain after apex predator removal. Despite concern that these mesopredators may be 'released' in the absence of the apex predator and exert negative effects on each other and on co-occurring prey, these interactions have been little studied. Here, we investigate the potential effects of competition and intraguild predation between red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) and feral cats (Felis catus) in south-eastern Australia where the apex predator, the dingo (Canis dingo), has been extirpated by humans. We predicted that the larger fox would dominate the cat in encounters, and used a fox-removal experiment to assess whether foxes affect cat abundance, diet, home-range and habitat use. Our results provide little indication that intraguild predation occurred or that cats responded numerically to the fox removal, but suggest that the fox affects some aspects of cat resource use. In particular, where foxes were removed cats increased their consumption of invertebrates and carrion, decreased their home range size and foraged more in open habitats. Fox control takes place over large areas of Australia to protect threatened native species and agricultural interests. Our results suggest that fox control programmes could lead to changes in the way that cats interact with co-occurring prey, and that some prey may become more vulnerable to cat predation in open habitats after foxes have been removed. Moreover, with intensive and more sustained fox control it is possible that cats could respond numerically and alter their behaviour in different ways to those documented herein. Such outcomes need to be considered when estimating the indirect impacts of fox control. We conclude that novel approaches are urgently required to control invasive mesopredators at the same time, especially in areas

  19. Fiber fermentability effects on energy and macronutrient digestibility, fecal traits, postprandial metabolite responses, and colon histology of overweight cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, M M; Kessler, A M; de Sá, L R M; Vasconcellos, R S; Filho, F O Roberti; Nogueira, S P; Oliveira, M C C; Carciofi, A C

    2012-07-01

    Considering the different potential benefits of divergent fiber ingredients, the effect of 3 fiber sources on energy and macronutrient digestibility, fermentation product formation, postprandial metabolite responses, and colon histology of overweight cats (Felis catus) fed kibble diets was compared. Twenty-four healthy adult cats were assigned in a complete randomized block design to 2 groups of 12 animals, and 3 animals from each group were fed 1 of 4 of the following kibble diets: control (CO; 11.5% dietary fiber), beet pulp (BP; 26% dietary fiber), wheat bran (WB; 24% dietary fiber), and sugarcane fiber (SF; 28% dietary fiber). Digestibility was measured by the total collection of feces. After 16 d of diet adaptation and an overnight period without food, blood glucose, cholesterol, and triglyceride postprandial responses were evaluated for 16 h after continued exposure to food. On d 20, colon biopsies of the cats were collected under general anesthesia. Fiber addition reduced food energy and nutrient digestibility. Of all the fiber sources, SF had the least dietary fiber digestibility (P fiber solubility and fermentation rates, fiber sources can induce different physiological responses in cats, reduce energy digestibility, and favor glucose metabolism (SF), or improve gut health (BP).

  20. Modelling landscape-level numerical responses of predators to prey: the case of cats and rabbits.

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    Jennyffer Cruz

    Full Text Available Predator-prey systems can extend over large geographical areas but empirical modelling of predator-prey dynamics has been largely limited to localised scales. This is due partly to difficulties in estimating predator and prey abundances over large areas. Collection of data at suitably large scales has been a major problem in previous studies of European rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus and their predators. This applies in Western Europe, where conserving rabbits and predators such as Iberian lynx (Lynx pardinus is important, and in other parts of the world where rabbits are an invasive species supporting populations of introduced, and sometimes native, predators. In pastoral regions of New Zealand, rabbits are the primary prey of feral cats (Felis catus that threaten native fauna. We estimate the seasonal numerical response of cats to fluctuations in rabbit numbers in grassland-shrubland habitat across the Otago and Mackenzie regions of the South Island of New Zealand. We use spotlight counts over 1645 km of transects to estimate rabbit and cat abundances with a novel modelling approach that accounts simultaneously for environmental stochasticity, density dependence and varying detection probability. Our model suggests that cat abundance is related consistently to rabbit abundance in spring and summer, possibly through increased rabbit numbers improving the fecundity and juvenile survival of cats. Maintaining rabbits at low abundance should therefore suppress cat numbers, relieving predation pressure on native prey. Our approach provided estimates of the abundance of cats and rabbits over a large geographical area. This was made possible by repeated sampling within each season, which allows estimation of detection probabilities. A similar approach could be applied to predator-prey systems elsewhere, and could be adapted to any method of direct observation in which there is no double-counting of individuals. Reliable estimates of numerical

  1. An update on the detection and treatment of Rickettsia felis

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    Hun L

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Laya Hun, Adriana TroyoCentro de Investigación en Enfermedades Tropicales, Facultad de Microbiología, Universidad de Costa Rica, San José, Costa RicaAbstract: Rickettsia felis was described as a human pathogen almost two decades ago, and human infection is currently reported in 18 countries in all continents. The distribution of this species is worldwide, determined by the presence of the main arthropod vector, Ctenocephalides felis (Bouché. The list of symptoms, which includes fever, headache, myalgia, and rash, keeps increasing as new cases with unexpected symptoms are described. Moreover, the clinical presentation of R. felis infection can be easily confused with many tropical and nontropical diseases, as well as other rickettsial infections. Although specific laboratory diagnosis and treatment for this flea-borne rickettsiosis are detailed in the scientific literature, it is possible that most human cases are not being diagnosed properly. Furthermore, since the cat flea infests different common domestic animals, contact with humans may be more frequent than reported. In this review, we provide an update on methods for specific detection of human infection by R. felis described in the literature, as well as the treatment prescribed to the patients. Considering advances in molecular detection tools, as well as options for as-yet-unreported isolation of R. felis from patients in cell culture, increased diagnosis and characterization of this emerging pathogen is warranted.Keywords: Rickettsia felis, human cases, laboratory diagnosis, treatment

  2. In vitro efficacy of essential oils and extracts of Schinus molle L. against Ctenocephalides felis felis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batista, Lilian C De S O; Cid, Yara P; De Almeida, Ana Paula; Prudêncio, Edlene R; Riger, Cristiano J; De Souza, Marco A A; Coumendouros, Katherine; Chaves, Douglas S A

    2016-04-01

    Extracts and essential oils from plants are important natural sources of pesticides. These compounds are considered an alternative to control ectoparasites of veterinary importance. Schinus molle, an endemic species of Brazil, produces a high level of essential oil and several other compounds. The aim of this work was to determinate the chemical composition of extracts and essential oils of S. molle and further to evaluate the activity against eggs and adults of Ctenocephalides felis felis, a predominant flea that infests dogs and cats in Brazil. In an in vitro assay, the non-polar (n-hexane) extract showed 100% efficacy (800 µg cm(-2); LD50 = 524·80 µg cm(-2)) at 24 and 48 h. Its major compound was lupenone (50·25%). Essential oils from fruits and leaves were evaluated, and had 100% efficacy against adult fleas at 800 µg cm(-2) (LD50 = 353·95 µg cm(-2)) and at 50 µg cm(-2) (LD50 = 12·02 µg cm(-2)), respectively. On the other hand, the essential oil from fruits and leaves was not active against flea eggs. This is the first study that reports the insecticidal effects of essential oils and extracts obtained from Schinus molle against Ctenocephalides felis felis.

  3. Pseudogenization of a Sweet-Receptor Gene Accounts for Cats' Indifference toward Sugar.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Although domestic cats (Felis silvestris catus possess an otherwise functional sense of taste, they, unlike most mammals, do not prefer and may be unable to detect the sweetness of sugars. One possible explanation for this behavior is that cats lack the sensory system to taste sugars and therefore are indifferent to them. Drawing on work in mice, demonstrating that alleles of sweet-receptor genes predict low sugar intake, we examined the possibility that genes involved in the initial transduction of sweet perception might account for the indifference to sweet-tasting foods by cats. We characterized the sweet-receptor genes of domestic cats as well as those of other members of the Felidae family of obligate carnivores, tiger and cheetah. Because the mammalian sweet-taste receptor is formed by the dimerization of two proteins (T1R2 and T1R3; gene symbols Tas1r2 and Tas1r3, we identified and sequenced both genes in the cat by screening a feline genomic BAC library and by performing PCR with degenerate primers on cat genomic DNA. Gene expression was assessed by RT-PCR of taste tissue, in situ hybridization, and immunohistochemistry. The cat Tas1r3 gene shows high sequence similarity with functional Tas1r3 genes of other species. Message from Tas1r3 was detected by RT-PCR of taste tissue. In situ hybridization and immunohistochemical studies demonstrate that Tas1r3 is expressed, as expected, in taste buds. However, the cat Tas1r2 gene shows a 247-base pair microdeletion in exon 3 and stop codons in exons 4 and 6. There was no evidence of detectable mRNA from cat Tas1r2 by RT-PCR or in situ hybridization, and no evidence of protein expression by immunohistochemistry. Tas1r2 in tiger and cheetah and in six healthy adult domestic cats all show the similar deletion and stop codons. We conclude that cat Tas1r3 is an apparently functional and expressed receptor but that cat Tas1r2 is an unexpressed pseudogene. A functional sweet-taste receptor heteromer

  4. Pseudogenization of a sweet-receptor gene accounts for cats' indifference toward sugar.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xia Li

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Although domestic cats (Felis silvestris catus possess an otherwise functional sense of taste, they, unlike most mammals, do not prefer and may be unable to detect the sweetness of sugars. One possible explanation for this behavior is that cats lack the sensory system to taste sugars and therefore are indifferent to them. Drawing on work in mice, demonstrating that alleles of sweet-receptor genes predict low sugar intake, we examined the possibility that genes involved in the initial transduction of sweet perception might account for the indifference to sweet-tasting foods by cats. We characterized the sweet-receptor genes of domestic cats as well as those of other members of the Felidae family of obligate carnivores, tiger and cheetah. Because the mammalian sweet-taste receptor is formed by the dimerization of two proteins (T1R2 and T1R3; gene symbols Tas1r2 and Tas1r3, we identified and sequenced both genes in the cat by screening a feline genomic BAC library and by performing PCR with degenerate primers on cat genomic DNA. Gene expression was assessed by RT-PCR of taste tissue, in situ hybridization, and immunohistochemistry. The cat Tas1r3 gene shows high sequence similarity with functional Tas1r3 genes of other species. Message from Tas1r3 was detected by RT-PCR of taste tissue. In situ hybridization and immunohistochemical studies demonstrate that Tas1r3 is expressed, as expected, in taste buds. However, the cat Tas1r2 gene shows a 247-base pair microdeletion in exon 3 and stop codons in exons 4 and 6. There was no evidence of detectable mRNA from cat Tas1r2 by RT-PCR or in situ hybridization, and no evidence of protein expression by immunohistochemistry. Tas1r2 in tiger and cheetah and in six healthy adult domestic cats all show the similar deletion and stop codons. We conclude that cat Tas1r3 is an apparently functional and expressed receptor but that cat Tas1r2 is an unexpressed pseudogene. A functional sweet-taste receptor heteromer

  5. Feline immunodeficiency virus and feline leukemia virus infection in free-ranging guignas (Leopardus guigna) and sympatric domestic cats in human perturbed landscapes on Chiloé Island, Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mora, Mónica; Napolitano, Constanza; Ortega, René; Poulin, Elie; Pizarro-Lucero, José

    2015-01-01

    Feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) and feline leukemia virus (FeLV) are two of the most common viruses affecting domestic cats (Felis catus). During the last two decades, reports show that both viruses also infect or affect other species of the family Felidae. Human landscape perturbation is one of the main causes of emerging diseases in wild animals, facilitating contact and transmission of pathogens between domestic and wild animals. We investigated FIV and FeLV infection in free-ranging guignas (Leopardus guigna) and sympatric domestic cats in human perturbed landscapes on Chiloé Island, Chile. Samples from 78 domestic cats and 15 guignas were collected from 2008 to 2010 and analyzed by PCR amplification and sequencing. Two guignas and two domestic cats were positive for FIV; three guignas and 26 domestic cats were positive for FeLV. The high percentage of nucleotide identity of FIV and FeLV sequences from both species suggests possible interspecies transmission of viruses, facilitated by increased contact probability through human invasion into natural habitats, fragmentation of guigna habitat, and poultry attacks by guignas. This study enhances our knowledge on the transmission of pathogens from domestic to wild animals in the global scenario of human landscape perturbation and emerging diseases.

  6. Home range and movements of Feral cats on Mauna Kea, Hawai'i

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goltz, Dan M.; Hess, S.C.; Brinck, K.W.; Banko, P.C.; Danner, R.M.

    2008-01-01

    Feral cats Felis catus in dry subalpine woodland of Mauna Kea, Hawai'i, live in low density and exhibit some of the largest reported home ranges in the literature. While 95% fixed kemel home range estimates for three females averaged 772 ha, four males averaged 1 418 ha, and one male maintained a home range of 2 050 ha. Mean daily movement rates between sexes overlapped widely and did not differ significantly (P = 0.083). Log-transformed 95% kernel home ranges for males were significantly larger than those of females (P = 0.024), but 25% kernel home ranges for females were larger than those of males (P = 0.017). Moreover, log-transformed home ranges of males were also significantly larger than those of females in this and seven other studies from the Pacific region (P = 0.044). Feral cats present a major threat to endangered Hawaiian birds, but knowledge of their ecology can be used for management by optimizing trap spacing and creating buffer zones around conservation areas.

  7. Trophic garnishes: cat-rat interactions in an urban environment.

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    Gregory E Glass

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Community interactions can produce complex dynamics with counterintuitive responses. Synanthropic community members are of increasing practical interest for their effects on biodiversity and public health. Most studies incorporating introduced species have been performed on islands where they may pose a risk to the native fauna. Few have examined their interactions in urban environments where they represent the majority of species. We characterized house cat (Felis catus predation on wild Norway rats (Rattus norvegicus, and its population effects in an urban area as a model system. Three aspects of predation likely to influence population dynamics were examined; the stratum of the prey population killed by predators, the intensity of the predation, and the size of the predator population. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Predation pressure was estimated from the sizes of the rat and cat populations, and the characteristics of rats killed in 20 alleys. Short and long term responses of rat population to perturbations were examined by removal trapping. Perturbations removed an average of 56% of the rats/alley but had no negative long-term impact on the size of the rat population (49.6+/-12.5 rats/alley and 123.8+/-42.2 rats/alley over two years. The sizes of the cat population during two years (3.5 animals/alley and 2.7 animals/alley also were unaffected by rat population perturbations. Predation by cats occurred in 9/20 alleys. Predated rats were predominantly juveniles and significantly smaller (144.6 g+/-17.8 g than the trapped rats (385.0 g+/-135.6 g. Cats rarely preyed on the larger, older portion of the rat population. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The rat population appears resilient to perturbation from even substantial population reduction using targeted removal. In this area there is a relatively low population density of cats and they only occasionally prey on the rat population. This occasional predation primarily removes the

  8. Ctenocephalides felis an in vitro potential vector for five Bartonella species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouhsira, Emilie; Ferrandez, Yann; Liu, MaFeng; Franc, Michel; Boulouis, Henri-Jean; Biville, Francis

    2013-03-01

    The blood-sucking arthropod Ctenocephalides felis has been confirmed as a vector for Bartonella henselae and is a suspected vector for Bartonella clarridgeiae, Bartonella quintana and Bartonella koehlerae in Bartonella transmission to mammals. To understand the absence of other Bartonella species in the cat flea, we have developed an artificial flea-feeding method with blood infected successively with five different Bartonella species. The results demonstrated the ability of these five Bartonella species to persist in C. felis suggesting an ability of fleas to be a potential vector for several Bartonella species. In addition, we demonstrated a regurgitation of Bartonella DNA in uninfected blood used to feed C. felis thus suggesting a potential horizontal transmission of Bartonella through C. felis saliva. On the contrary, no vertical transmission was detected in these artificial conditions.

  9. Parasite meningomyelitis in cats in Uruguay Meningomielites parasitária em gatos no Uruguai

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    Rodolfo Rivero

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Two outbreaks of progressive hind limb paresis in cats (Felis catus caused by parasitic meningomyelitis in Uruguay are reported. The case studies occurred in 2008 and 2009 respectively, in the rural areas of Fray Bentos (33º 07' 40.39" S and were characterized by hindquarter paralysis. This paralysis was progressive and had a chronic progression of approximately 12 months until the death or euthanasia of the animals. Clinical symptoms started with ataxia of the hindquarters with lateral side-to-side swaying and culminated in total paralysis. Two animals were sent for necropsy in 2009. The main histopathological findings were severe myelitis in the lumbar spinal cord with perivascular cuffing and white matter necrosis, severe nonsuppurative meningitis with thrombi in subarachnoid blood vessels, and intravascular presence of multiple adult parasites. From the morphological characteristics of the parasites and location in the leptomeninges, the parasite was identified as the nematode Gurltia paralysans.São relatados dois surtos de paralisia progressiva dos membros posteriores em gatos (Felis catus, causada por meningomielite parasitária no Uruguai. Os estudos de casos ocorreram entre os anos 2008 e 2009, respectivamente, nas zonas rurais de Fray Bentos (33º 07' 40,39" S e foram caracterizados por paralisia dos membros posteriores. Esta paralisia era progressiva e tinha evolução crônica de aproximadamente 12 meses, até que os animais vinham a óbito ou eram eutanasiados. Os sintomas clínicos começaram com ataxia dos membros posteriores, com movimentos laterais, terminado em paralisia total. Em 2009, dois animais foram encaminhados para necropsia. Os achados histopatológicos foram caracterizados por severa mielite na medula espinhal lombar com manguitos perivasculares linfocitarios e necrose da substância branca, severa meningite não supurativa com trombos nos vasos sanguíneos subaracnóideos, e presença intravascular de m

  10. Lesion profiling and subcellular prion localization of cervid chronic wasting disease in domestic cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seelig, D M; Nalls, A V; Flasik, M; Frank, V; Eaton, S; Mathiason, C K; Hoover, E A

    2015-01-01

    Chronic wasting disease (CWD) is an efficiently transmitted, fatal, and progressive prion disease of cervids with an as yet to be fully clarified host range. While outbred domestic cats (Felis catus) have recently been shown to be susceptible to experimental CWD infection, the neuropathologic features of the infection are lacking. Such information is vital to provide diagnostic power in the event of natural interspecies transmission and insights into host and strain interactions in interspecies prion infection. Using light microscopy and immunohistochemistry, we detail the topographic pattern of neural spongiosis (the "lesion profile") and the distribution of misfolded prion protein in the primary and secondary passage of feline CWD (Fel(CWD)). We also evaluated cellular and subcellular associations between misfolded prion protein (PrP(D)) and central nervous system neurons and glial cell populations. From these studies, we (1) describe the novel neuropathologic profile of Fel(CWD), which is distinct from either cervid CWD or feline spongiform encephalopathy (FSE), and (2) provide evidence of serial passage-associated interspecies prion adaptation. In addition, we demonstrate through confocal analysis the successful co-localization of PrP(D) with neurons, astrocytes, microglia, lysosomes, and synaptophysin, which, in part, implicates each of these in the neuropathology of Fel(CWD). In conclusion, this work illustrates the simultaneous role of both host and strain in the development of a unique Fel(CWD) neuropathologic profile and that such a profile can be used to discriminate between Fel(CWD) and FSE.

  11. Temporal overlaps of feral cats with prey and competitors in primary and human-altered habitats on Bohol Island, Philippines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogdan, Vlastimil; Jůnek, Tomáš; Jůnková Vymyslická, Pavla

    2016-01-01

    The vertebrate fauna of the Philippines, known for its diversity and high proportion of endemic species, comprises mainly small- to medium-sized forms with a few large exceptions. As with other tropical ecosystems, the major threats to wildlife are habitat loss, hunting and invasive species, of which the feral cat (Felis catus) is considered the most damaging. Our camera-trapping study focused on a terrestrial vertebrate species inventory on Bohol Island and tempo-spatial co-occurrences of feral cats with their prey and competitors. The survey took place in the Rajah Sikatuna Protected Landscape, and we examined the primary rainforest, its border with agricultural land, and rural areas in the vicinity of villages. Altogether, over 2,885 trap days we captured 30 species of vertebrates-10 mammals (including Sus philippensis), 19 birds and one reptile, Varanus cumingi. We trapped 81.8% of expected vertebrates. Based on the number of events, the most frequent native species was the barred rail (Gallirallus torquatus). The highest overlap in diel activity between cats and potential prey was recorded with rodents in rural areas (Δ = 0.62); the lowest was in the same habitat with ground-dwelling birds (Δ = 0.40). Cat activity was not recorded inside the rainforest; in other habitats their diel activity pattern differed. The cats' activity declined in daylight in the proximity of humans, while it peaked at the transition zone between rainforest and fields. Both rodents and ground-dwelling birds exhibited a shift in activity levels between sites where cats were present or absent. Rodents tend to become active by day in cat-free habitats. No cats' temporal response to co-occurrences of civets (Paradoxurus hermaphroditus and Viverra tangalunga) was found but cats in diel activity avoided domestic dogs (Canis lupus familiaris). Our first insight into the ecology of this invasive predator in the Philippines revealed an avoidance of homogeneous primary rainforest and a

  12. Assessing risks to non-target species during poison baiting programs for feral cats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tony Buckmaster

    Full Text Available Poison baiting is used frequently to reduce the impacts of pest species of mammals on agricultural and biodiversity interests. However, baiting may not be appropriate if non-target species are at risk of poisoning. Here we use a desktop decision tree approach to assess the risks to non-target vertebrate species in Australia that arise from using poison baits developed to control feral house cats (Felis catus. These baits are presented in the form of sausages with toxicant implanted in the bait medium within an acid-soluble polymer capsule (hard shell delivery vehicle, or HSDV that disintegrates after ingestion. Using criteria based on body size, diet and feeding behaviour, we assessed 221 of Australia's 3,769 native vertebrate species as likely to consume cat-baits, with 47 of these likely to ingest implanted HSDVs too. Carnivorous marsupials were judged most likely to consume both the baits and HSDVs, with some large-bodied and ground-active birds and reptiles also consuming them. If criteria were relaxed, a further 269 species were assessed as possibly able to consume baits and 343 as possibly able to consume HSDVs; most of these consumers were birds. One threatened species, the Tasmanian devil (Sarcophilus harrisii was judged as definitely able to consume baits with implanted HSDVs, whereas five threatened species of birds and 21 species of threatened mammals were rated as possible consumers. Amphibia were not considered to be at risk. We conclude that most species of native Australian vertebrates would not consume surface-laid baits during feral cat control programs, and that significantly fewer would be exposed to poisoning if HSDVs were employed. However, risks to susceptible species should be quantified in field or pen trials prior to the implementation of a control program, and minimized further by applying baits at times and in places where non-target species have little access.

  13. Assessing risks to non-target species during poison baiting programs for feral cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckmaster, Tony; Dickman, Christopher R; Johnston, Michael J

    2014-01-01

    Poison baiting is used frequently to reduce the impacts of pest species of mammals on agricultural and biodiversity interests. However, baiting may not be appropriate if non-target species are at risk of poisoning. Here we use a desktop decision tree approach to assess the risks to non-target vertebrate species in Australia that arise from using poison baits developed to control feral house cats (Felis catus). These baits are presented in the form of sausages with toxicant implanted in the bait medium within an acid-soluble polymer capsule (hard shell delivery vehicle, or HSDV) that disintegrates after ingestion. Using criteria based on body size, diet and feeding behaviour, we assessed 221 of Australia's 3,769 native vertebrate species as likely to consume cat-baits, with 47 of these likely to ingest implanted HSDVs too. Carnivorous marsupials were judged most likely to consume both the baits and HSDVs, with some large-bodied and ground-active birds and reptiles also consuming them. If criteria were relaxed, a further 269 species were assessed as possibly able to consume baits and 343 as possibly able to consume HSDVs; most of these consumers were birds. One threatened species, the Tasmanian devil (Sarcophilus harrisii) was judged as definitely able to consume baits with implanted HSDVs, whereas five threatened species of birds and 21 species of threatened mammals were rated as possible consumers. Amphibia were not considered to be at risk. We conclude that most species of native Australian vertebrates would not consume surface-laid baits during feral cat control programs, and that significantly fewer would be exposed to poisoning if HSDVs were employed. However, risks to susceptible species should be quantified in field or pen trials prior to the implementation of a control program, and minimized further by applying baits at times and in places where non-target species have little access.

  14. Estudo anatômico do trajeto do canal mandibular em felinos (Felis catus domesticus

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    S.C. Cotrim

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se descrever, por meio de tomografia computadorizada, o trajeto do canal mandibular (CM em 20 gatos sem raça definida, com ausência de alterações na cavidade oral, provenientes do Centro de Controle de Zoonoses do Distrito Federal. Foram realizados cortes tomográficos com 2mm de espessura, acompanhando todo o trajeto do CM, tendo como referência a região do forame mandibular, as raízes distais e mesiais dos dentes pré-molares e molares e o forame mentoniano, obtendo-se medidas desde o CM até as faces vestibular, lingual, ventral e alveolar (profundidade do corpo da mandíbula, bem como seu diâmetro. Pôde constatar que o CM manteve-se no aspecto lingual do corpo da mandíbula desde o forame mandibular até a raiz mesial do 1º pré-molar, onde se deslocou para a face vestibular, emergindo no forame mentoniano. Com relação à profundidade, seu trajeto sofreu declive a partir do forame mandibular até a região da raiz mesial do 1º molar, onde alcançou seu ponto mais profundo para prosseguir em suave ascensão até o forame mentoniano. Os dados apresentados contribuem para o estudo anatômico da mandíbula de gatos, bem como auxiliam no melhor planejamento e execução de procedimentos cirúrgicos na mandíbula dessa espécie.

  15. ENTEROPARÁSITOS EN PERROS (Canis familiaris) Y GATOS (Felis catus) DE LA PROVINCIA DE PUNO

    OpenAIRE

    VILCA DE DIAZ, FELICIANA; Universidad Nacional del Altiplano; MELO ANCCASI, MAXIMO; Universidad Nacional del Altiplano

    2013-01-01

    ResumenLas mascotas que conviven con el hombre, el  perro y el gato ocupan un lugar muy especial, como amigos fieles, especialmente de los niños; sin embargo esta relación se interrumpe por la presencia de parásitos ciclozoonóticos, ocasionando múltiples enfermedades, incluso en algunos casos podrían ocasionar  la muerte, con repercusiones socioeconómicas de impacto. Por ello la necesidad de realizar esta investigación para determinar la prevalencia de entero parásitos  en estas especies, eva...

  16. Função testicular em gatos domésticos (Felis catus)

    OpenAIRE

    Meyer, Katlyn Barp

    2013-01-01

    Resumo: O presente trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar a esteroidogênese e a espermatogênese em relação à qualidade espermática em machos de gatos domésticos de forma a responder questões sobre a sazonalidade reprodutiva e o fenômeno da teratospermia em felinos. Foram realizadas análises da morfologia e de parâmetros físicos de espermatozóides obtidos da cauda do epidídimo, mensuração das concentrações sérica de testosterona (T) e intratesticulares de T e 17?-estradiol (E2) e análise da ativi...

  17. A High-Resolution SNP Array-Based Linkage Map Anchors a New Domestic Cat Draft Genome Assembly and Provides Detailed Patterns of Recombination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Gang; Hillier, LaDeana W; Grahn, Robert A; Zimin, Aleksey V; David, Victor A; Menotti-Raymond, Marilyn; Middleton, Rondo; Hannah, Steven; Hendrickson, Sher; Makunin, Alex; O'Brien, Stephen J; Minx, Pat; Wilson, Richard K; Lyons, Leslie A; Warren, Wesley C; Murphy, William J

    2016-06-01

    High-resolution genetic and physical maps are invaluable tools for building accurate genome assemblies, and interpreting results of genome-wide association studies (GWAS). Previous genetic and physical maps anchored good quality draft assemblies of the domestic cat genome, enabling the discovery of numerous genes underlying hereditary disease and phenotypes of interest to the biomedical science and breeding communities. However, these maps lacked sufficient marker density to order thousands of shorter scaffolds in earlier assemblies, which instead relied heavily on comparative mapping with related species. A high-resolution map would aid in validating and ordering chromosome scaffolds from existing and new genome assemblies. Here, we describe a high-resolution genetic linkage map of the domestic cat genome based on genotyping 453 domestic cats from several multi-generational pedigrees on the Illumina 63K SNP array. The final maps include 58,055 SNP markers placed relative to 6637 markers with unique positions, distributed across all autosomes and the X chromosome. Our final sex-averaged maps span a total autosomal length of 4464 cM, the longest described linkage map for any mammal, confirming length estimates from a previous microsatellite-based map. The linkage map was used to order and orient the scaffolds from a substantially more contiguous domestic cat genome assembly (Felis catus v8.0), which incorporated ∼20 × coverage of Illumina fragment reads. The new genome assembly shows substantial improvements in contiguity, with a nearly fourfold increase in N50 scaffold size to 18 Mb. We use this map to report probable structural errors in previous maps and assemblies, and to describe features of the recombination landscape, including a massive (∼50 Mb) recombination desert (of virtually zero recombination) on the X chromosome that parallels a similar desert on the porcine X chromosome in both size and physical location.

  18. Temporal overlaps of feral cats with prey and competitors in primary and human-altered habitats on Bohol Island, Philippines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vlastimil Bogdan

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The vertebrate fauna of the Philippines, known for its diversity and high proportion of endemic species, comprises mainly small- to medium-sized forms with a few large exceptions. As with other tropical ecosystems, the major threats to wildlife are habitat loss, hunting and invasive species, of which the feral cat (Felis catus is considered the most damaging. Our camera-trapping study focused on a terrestrial vertebrate species inventory on Bohol Island and tempo-spatial co-occurrences of feral cats with their prey and competitors. The survey took place in the Rajah Sikatuna Protected Landscape, and we examined the primary rainforest, its border with agricultural land, and rural areas in the vicinity of villages. Altogether, over 2,885 trap days we captured 30 species of vertebrates–10 mammals (including Sus philippensis, 19 birds and one reptile, Varanus cumingi. We trapped 81.8% of expected vertebrates. Based on the number of events, the most frequent native species was the barred rail (Gallirallus torquatus. The highest overlap in diel activity between cats and potential prey was recorded with rodents in rural areas (Δ = 0.62; the lowest was in the same habitat with ground-dwelling birds (Δ = 0.40. Cat activity was not recorded inside the rainforest; in other habitats their diel activity pattern differed. The cats’ activity declined in daylight in the proximity of humans, while it peaked at the transition zone between rainforest and fields. Both rodents and ground-dwelling birds exhibited a shift in activity levels between sites where cats were present or absent. Rodents tend to become active by day in cat-free habitats. No cats’ temporal response to co-occurrences of civets (Paradoxurus hermaphroditus and Viverra tangalunga was found but cats in diel activity avoided domestic dogs (Canis lupus familiaris. Our first insight into the ecology of this invasive predator in the Philippines revealed an avoidance of homogeneous primary

  19. The Near Eastern origin of cat domestication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Driscoll, Carlos A; Menotti-Raymond, Marilyn; Roca, Alfred L; Hupe, Karsten; Johnson, Warren E; Geffen, Eli; Harley, Eric H; Delibes, Miguel; Pontier, Dominique; Kitchener, Andrew C; Yamaguchi, Nobuyuki; O'brien, Stephen J; Macdonald, David W

    2007-07-27

    The world's domestic cats carry patterns of sequence variation in their genome that reflect a history of domestication and breed development. A genetic assessment of 979 domestic cats and their wild progenitors-Felis silvestris silvestris (European wildcat), F. s. lybica (Near Eastern wildcat), F. s. ornata (central Asian wildcat), F. s. cafra (southern African wildcat), and F. s. bieti (Chinese desert cat)-indicated that each wild group represents a distinctive subspecies of Felis silvestris. Further analysis revealed that cats were domesticated in the Near East, probably coincident with agricultural village development in the Fertile Crescent. Domestic cats derive from at least five founders from across this region, whose descendants were transported across the world by human assistance.

  20. PCR amplification of a multi-copy mitochondrial gene (cox3) improves detection of Cytauxzoon felis infection as compared to a ribosomal gene (18S).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreeg, Megan E; Marr, Henry S; Griffith, Emily H; Tarigo, Jaime L; Bird, David M; Reichard, Mason V; Cohn, Leah A; Levy, Michael G; Birkenheuer, Adam J

    2016-07-30

    Cytauxzoon felis is a tick-transmitted protozoan parasite that infects felids. Clinical disease caused by acute C. felis infection rapidly progresses in domestic cats, leading to high morbidity and mortality. Accurately diagnosing cytauxzoonosis as soon as possible during acute infection would allow for earlier initiation of antiprotozoal therapy which could lead to higher survival rates. Molecular detection of parasite rRNA genes (18S) by PCR has previously been shown to be a sensitive method of diagnosing C. felis infections. Based on evidence from related apicomplexan species, we hypothesized that C. felis mitochondrial genes would exist at higher copy numbers than 18S and would be a more sensitive diagnostic target. In this study we have designed a PCR assay targeting the C. felis mitochondrial gene cytochrome c oxidase subunit III (cox3). Herein we demonstrate that (1) the cox3 PCR can detect as low as 1 copy of DNA target and can detect C. felis in samples with known mitochondrial sequence heterogeneity, (2) cox3 copy number is increased relative to 18S in blood and tissue samples from acutely infected cats, and (3) the cox3 PCR is more sensitive than 18S PCR for detection of C. felis during early infections.

  1. Candidatus ‘Rickettsia senegalensis’ in cat fleas in Senegal

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    O. Mediannikov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Epidemiological studies of Rickettsia felis and related bacteria are very important, because the natural cycle of this important infection has not yet been established. The recent emergence of R. felis-associated febrile diseases in West and East Africa demands insightful epidemiological studies of the vectors and reservoirs of this bacterium in Africa. Twenty-nine cat fleas, Ctenocephalides felis, were tested for the presence of rickettsiae, including R. felis, bartonellae, and borreliae, with specific quantitative real-time PCR assays. Supporting our previous studies, R. felis was not detected in the fleas collected. In addition, neither Bartonella nor Borrelia was found. In five (17% examined fleas, we found another species of rickettsia. We isolated three rickettsial strains, and genetic analysis demonstrated that these strains represent a probable new species, provisionally called Candidatus Rickettsia senegalensis here.

  2. To the Root of the Curl: A Signature of a Recent Selective Sweep Identifies a Mutation That Defines the Cornish Rex Cat Breed.

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    Barbara Gandolfi

    Full Text Available The cat (Felis silvestris catus shows significant variation in pelage, morphological, and behavioral phenotypes amongst its over 40 domesticated breeds. The majority of the breed specific phenotypic presentations originated through artificial selection, especially on desired novel phenotypic characteristics that arose only a few hundred years ago. Variations in coat texture and color of hair often delineate breeds amongst domestic animals. Although the genetic basis of several feline coat colors and hair lengths are characterized, less is known about the genes influencing variation in coat growth and texture, especially rexoid - curly coated types. Cornish Rex is a cat breed defined by a fixed recessive curly coat trait. Genome-wide analyses for selection (di, Tajima's D and nucleotide diversity were performed in the Cornish Rex breed and in 11 phenotypically diverse breeds and two random bred populations. Approximately 63K SNPs were used in the analysis that aimed to localize the locus controlling the rexoid hair texture. A region with a strong signature of recent selective sweep was identified in the Cornish Rex breed on chromosome A1, as well as a consensus block of homozygosity that spans approximately 3 Mb. Inspection of the region for candidate genes led to the identification of the lysophosphatidic acid receptor 6 (LPAR6. A 4 bp deletion in exon 5, c.250_253_delTTTG, which induces a premature stop codon in the receptor, was identified via Sanger sequencing. The mutation is fixed in Cornish Rex, absent in all straight haired cats analyzed, and is also segregating in the German Rex breed. LPAR6 encodes a G protein-coupled receptor essential for maintaining the structural integrity of the hair shaft; and has mutations resulting in a wooly hair phenotype in humans.

  3. Mammalian genome projects reveal new growth hormone (GH) sequences. Characterization of the GH-encoding genes of armadillo (Dasypus novemcinctus), hedgehog (Erinaceus europaeus), bat (Myotis lucifugus), hyrax (Procavia capensis), shrew (Sorex araneus), ground squirrel (Spermophilus tridecemlineatus), elephant (Loxodonta africana), cat (Felis catus) and opossum (Monodelphis domestica).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallis, Michael

    2008-01-15

    Mammalian growth hormone (GH) sequences have been shown previously to display episodic evolution: the sequence is generally strongly conserved but on at least two occasions during mammalian evolution (on lineages leading to higher primates and ruminants) bursts of rapid evolution occurred. However, the number of mammalian orders studied previously has been relatively limited, and the availability of sequence data via mammalian genome projects provides the potential for extending the range of GH gene sequences examined. Complete or nearly complete GH gene sequences for six mammalian species for which no data were previously available have been extracted from the genome databases-Dasypus novemcinctus (nine-banded armadillo), Erinaceus europaeus (western European hedgehog), Myotis lucifugus (little brown bat), Procavia capensis (cape rock hyrax), Sorex araneus (European shrew), Spermophilus tridecemlineatus (13-lined ground squirrel). In addition incomplete data for several other species have been extended. Examination of the data in detail and comparison with previously available sequences has allowed assessment of the reliability of deduced sequences. Several of the new sequences differ substantially from the consensus sequence previously determined for eutherian GHs, indicating greater variability than previously recognised, and confirming the episodic pattern of evolution. The episodic pattern is not seen for signal sequences, 5' upstream sequence or synonymous substitutions-it is specific to the mature protein sequence, suggesting that it relates to the hormonal function. The substitutions accumulated during the course of GH evolution have occurred mainly on the side of the hormone facing away from the receptor, in a non-random fashion, and it is suggested that this may reflect interaction of the receptor-bound hormone with other proteins or small ligands.

  4. Steroidogenic capacity of the placenta as a supplemental source of progesterone during pregnancy in domestic cats

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    Siemieniuch Marta J

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Until recently, the corpus luteum (CL was considered to be the main source of progesterone (P4 during pregnancy in the domestic cat (Felis catus. However, other possible sources of P4 have not been ruled out. Although feline placental homogenates were found to be capable of synthesizing P4, expression of the respective steroidogenic enzymes has not been investigated at the molecular level. Therefore, in the present study, expression of the two major factors involved in the synthesis of P4 - 3beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (3betaHSD and steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR - was investigated in the feline CL and placenta during the course of pseudopregnancy and pregnancy. Methods The mRNA levels of StAR and 3betaHSD were determined using Real Time PCR and their localizations were determined by immunohistochemistry. Placental P4 concentrations, after ethyl extraction, were measured by EIA. Results Luteal 3betaHSD and StAR mRNA levels were strongly time-dependent, peaking during mid-pregnancy. The placental 3betaHSD mRNA level was significantly upregulated towards the end of pregnancy. In the CL, 3betaHSD and StAR protein were localized in the luteal cells whereas in the placenta they were localized to the maternal decidual cells. Placental P4 concentrations were low in early pregnant queens, but increased along with gestational age. Conclusions These results confirm that the placenta is an additional source of P4 in pregnant queens and can thereby be considered as an important endocrine organ supporting feline pregnancy.

  5. Analyzing the proximity to cover in a landscape of fear: a new approach applied to fine-scale habitat use by rabbits facing feral cat predation on Kerguelen archipelago

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    Pierrick Blanchard

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Although proximity to cover has been routinely considered as an explanatory variable in studies investigating prey behavioral adjustments to predation pressure, the way it shapes risk perception still remains equivocal. This paradox arises from both the ambivalent nature of cover as potentially both obstructive and protective, making its impact on risk perception complex and context-dependent, and from the choice of the proxy used to measure proximity to cover in the field, which leads to an incomplete picture of the landscape of fear experienced by the prey. Here, we study a simple predator-prey-habitat system, i.e., rabbits Oryctolagus cuniculus facing feral cat Felis catus predation on Kerguelen archipelago. We assess how cover shapes risk perception in prey and develop an easily implementable field method to improve the estimation of proximity to cover. In contrast to protocols considering the “distance to nearest cover”, we focus on the overall “area to cover”. We show that fine-scale habitat use by rabbits is clearly related to our measure, in accordance with our hypothesis of higher risk in patches with smaller area to cover in this predator-prey-habitat system. In contrast, classical measures of proximity to cover are not retained in the best predictive models of habitat use. The use of this new approach, together with a more in-depth consideration of contrasting properties of cover, could help to better understand the role of this complex yet decisive parameter for predator-prey ecology.

  6. Case report: pulicosis por Ctenocephalides felis felis en ovinos y caprinos en la sabana de Bogotá, Colombia

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    Efraín Benavides Ortiz

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available In Colombia the rearing of hair sheep and goats are expanding in various regions for being an alternative for meat and milk production at competitive prices due to their adaptability and easiness to digest rough fodder. Among the ectoparasites that affect small ruminants traditionally are recognized the lice and the sheep keds Melophagus ovinus (Díptera: Hippoboscidae, however fleas are not included. Here the occurrence of the common cat flea Ctenocephalides felis felis (Díptera: Siphonaptera affecting sheep and goats in a farm at the Sabana de Bogotá are described an so there was performed an epidemiological and parasitological evaluation. The barn maintained animals in rotational grazing at an approximated stocking rate of 25 head/ha, receiving additional supplements of hay and silage. The presence of the flea was confirmed in sheep and goats, young and adult, as well as in dogs. Diverse degrees of anemia were evidenced but the association between flea infestation and anemia, or the presence of other anemia producing agents could not be studied. In the farm synthetic parasiticides are not used, extracts of Ruda (Ruta graveolens are administered to mitigate parasitosis, without major efficacy. Sheep and goat breeders in the tropics should consider flea infestation as an agent causing adverse animal welfare situations in their farms. Control should start from the knowledge of the life cycle of the flea, trying to interrupt it.

  7. Diseases of the European wildcat (Felis silvestris Schreber, 1777) in Great Britain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McOrist, S

    1992-12-01

    The author describes an examination conducted in collaboration with the Nature Conservancy Council of Great Britain into the status with regard to disease, conservation and genetics of the European wildcat (Felis silvestris). Feline leukaemia virus (FeLV) infection was detected by positive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay in blood from 2 of 23 wildcats and was tested and confirmed by FeLV isolation in one of the two cats. This is the first time the virus has been clearly demonstrated in a free-living felid, other than the domestic cat. Toxoplasmosis was detected in all cats tested, but neither feline coronavirus nor feline immunodeficiency virus was detected in any sample. The genetic analysis indicated that only 8 of 42 wildcats tested were genetically distinct. These were mainly located in the western highlands of Scotland where "relict" populations may have survived. Interbreeding with domestic cats and persecution by trapping and hunting represent major threats to the survival of the European wildcat.

  8. Cat serum contamination by phthalates, PCBs, and PBDEs versus food and indoor air.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braouezec, Clélie; Enriquez, Brigitte; Blanchard, Martine; Chevreuil, Marc; Teil, Marie-Jeanne

    2016-05-01

    A wide variety of endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs) with semi-volatile properties are emitted to indoor air and, thus, humans might get exposed to these compounds. Pet cats spend the major part of their lifetime at home and might integrate indoor contamination so that they could mirror the human exposure. Three classes of EDCs, polybromodiphenyl ethers (PBDEs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and phthalates (PAEs), were simultaneously considered and quantified in the serum of cats (Felis silvestris catus) living in the Paris area (France). The main compound concentrations by decreasing importance order were as follows: for PAEs, di-n-butyl phthalate (79,900 ng L(-1)) next di-iso-butyl phthalate (53,200 ng L(-1)), di-iso-nonyl phthalate (43,800 ng L(-1)), and di-ethylhexyl phthalate (32,830 ng L(-1)); for PCBs, CB153 (1378 ng L(-1)) next CB52 (509 ng L(-1)), CB101 (355 ng L(-1)), CB110 (264 ng L(-1)), and CB118 (165 ng L(-1)); and for PBDEs, BDE 153/154 (35 ng L(-1)) next BDE47 (10.7 ng L(-1)). Total serum concentrations as mean ± standard deviation were 107 ± 98 μg L(-1) for ∑9PAEs, 2799 ± 944 ng L(-1) for ∑19PCBs, and 56 ± 21 ng L(-1) for ∑9BDEs. The three chemical groups were found in cat food: 0.088 ng g(-1) for ∑9BDEs, 1.7 ng g(-1) for ∑19PCBs, and 2292 ng g(-1) for ∑9PAEs and in indoor air: 0.063 ng m(-3) for ∑9BDEs, 1.5 ng m(-3) for ∑19PCBs, and 848 ng m(-3) for ∑9PAEs. Contaminant intake by food ingestion was approximately 100-fold higher than that by indoor air inhalation.

  9. Uso da técnica de Southern Blot/Hibridização associada à reação em cadeia da polimerase para aumentar a sensibilidade no diagnóstico das infecções por hemoplasmas em gatos domésticos: Use of Southern Blot/Hybridization technique associated to polymerase chain reaction to improve the sensitivity in the diagnosis of hemoplasma infections in domestic cats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel B. Macieira

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi verificar se a técnica de Southern Blot/Hibridização (SB em associação à reação de polimerização em cadeia (PCR aumenta a sensibilidade na detecção de DNA de hemoplasmas em gatos domésticos (Felis catus. O sangue total foi coletado em tubos contendo o anticoagulante ácido etilenodiamino tetra-acético, o DNA extraído a partir de 149 animais e a PCR realizada com o uso de sequências iniciadoras espécie-específicas, para amplificar subunidade 16S do RNA ribossomal de Mycoplasma haemofelis e 'Candidatus M. haemominutum' dessas amostras. Para a hibridização, foram utilizadas sondas específicas quimicamente marcadas, e os resultados visualizados por meio da adição de substrato quimiluminescente seguida de autoradiografia. Dezoito (12,1% das 149 amostras testadas apresentaram resultado PCR-positivo para o DNA de hemoplasmas. A técnica de SB mostrou que 24/149 (16,1% amostras apresentaram resultado positivo para hemoplasmas, confirmando os 18 resultados PCR-positivos, além de revelar seis outros adicionais (p The aim of this study was to determine whether Southern Blot/Hybridization (SB associated to Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR improves the sensitivity in the detection of hemoplasma DNA in domestic cats (Felis catus. Whole blood was collected in tubes containing the anticoagulant ethylenediamine tetra-acetic acid and DNA extracted from 149 animals. PCR was performed using species specific primers to amplify the 16S ribosomal RNA subunit of Mycoplasma haemofelis and 'Candidatus M. haemominutum' from these samples. Hybridization was performed using a 16S rDNA probes chemically labeled and the results were visualized using a chemiluminescent substrate addition followed by autoradiography. Eighteen (12.1% of the 149 tested samples had a positive PCR result for hemoplasma species DNA. SB/hybridization technique showed that 24/149 (16.1% samples were positive for hemoplasmas, confirming the 18 PCR

  10. How does a carnivore guild utilise a substantial but unpredictable anthropogenic food source? Scavenging on hunter-shot ungulate carcasses by wild dogs/dingoes, red foxes and feral cats in south-eastern Australia revealed by camera traps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forsyth, David M; Woodford, Luke; Moloney, Paul D; Hampton, Jordan O; Woolnough, Andrew P; Tucker, Mark

    2014-01-01

    There is much interest in understanding how anthropogenic food resources subsidise carnivore populations. Carcasses of hunter-shot ungulates are a potentially substantial food source for mammalian carnivores. The sambar deer (Rusa unicolor) is a large (≥ 150 kg) exotic ungulate that can be hunted throughout the year in south-eastern Australia, and hunters are not required to remove or bury carcasses. We investigated how wild dogs/dingoes and their hybrids (Canis lupus familiaris/dingo), red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) and feral cats (Felis catus) utilised sambar deer carcasses during the peak hunting seasons (i.e. winter and spring). We placed carcasses at 1-km intervals along each of six transects that extended 4-km into forest from farm boundaries. Visits to carcasses were monitored using camera traps, and the rate of change in edible biomass estimated at ∼ 14-day intervals. Wild dogs and foxes fed on 70% and 60% of 30 carcasses, respectively, but feral cats seldom (10%) fed on carcasses. Spatial and temporal patterns of visits to carcasses were consistent with the hypothesis that foxes avoid wild dogs. Wild dog activity peaked at carcasses 2 and 3 km from farms, a likely legacy of wild dog control, whereas fox activity peaked at carcasses 0 and 4 km from farms. Wild dog activity peaked at dawn and dusk, whereas nearly all fox activity occurred after dusk and before dawn. Neither wild dogs nor foxes remained at carcasses for long periods and the amount of feeding activity by either species was a less important predictor of the loss of edible biomass than season. Reasons for the low impacts of wild dogs and foxes on sambar deer carcass biomass include the spatially and temporally unpredictable distribution of carcasses in the landscape, the rapid rate of edible biomass decomposition in warm periods, low wild dog densities and the availability of alternative food resources.

  11. How does a carnivore guild utilise a substantial but unpredictable anthropogenic food source? Scavenging on hunter-shot ungulate carcasses by wild dogs/dingoes, red foxes and feral cats in south-eastern Australia revealed by camera traps.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David M Forsyth

    Full Text Available There is much interest in understanding how anthropogenic food resources subsidise carnivore populations. Carcasses of hunter-shot ungulates are a potentially substantial food source for mammalian carnivores. The sambar deer (Rusa unicolor is a large (≥ 150 kg exotic ungulate that can be hunted throughout the year in south-eastern Australia, and hunters are not required to remove or bury carcasses. We investigated how wild dogs/dingoes and their hybrids (Canis lupus familiaris/dingo, red foxes (Vulpes vulpes and feral cats (Felis catus utilised sambar deer carcasses during the peak hunting seasons (i.e. winter and spring. We placed carcasses at 1-km intervals along each of six transects that extended 4-km into forest from farm boundaries. Visits to carcasses were monitored using camera traps, and the rate of change in edible biomass estimated at ∼ 14-day intervals. Wild dogs and foxes fed on 70% and 60% of 30 carcasses, respectively, but feral cats seldom (10% fed on carcasses. Spatial and temporal patterns of visits to carcasses were consistent with the hypothesis that foxes avoid wild dogs. Wild dog activity peaked at carcasses 2 and 3 km from farms, a likely legacy of wild dog control, whereas fox activity peaked at carcasses 0 and 4 km from farms. Wild dog activity peaked at dawn and dusk, whereas nearly all fox activity occurred after dusk and before dawn. Neither wild dogs nor foxes remained at carcasses for long periods and the amount of feeding activity by either species was a less important predictor of the loss of edible biomass than season. Reasons for the low impacts of wild dogs and foxes on sambar deer carcass biomass include the spatially and temporally unpredictable distribution of carcasses in the landscape, the rapid rate of edible biomass decomposition in warm periods, low wild dog densities and the availability of alternative food resources.

  12. Anatomia dental de cães (Canis familiaris) e gatos (Felis catus). Considerações cirúrgicas

    OpenAIRE

    Juliana Kowalesky

    2005-01-01

    Com a rápida evolução da odontologia veterinária na última década, faz-se crescente a busca pelo conhecimento da área e a busca por referências bibliográficas, porém nota-se que as informações existentes de uma área essencial, a anatomia, estão limitadas a descrições básicas. Sabe-se que o conhecimento da anatomia do sistema estomatognático é de fundamental importância para que clínicos e cirurgiões possam diagnosticar e instituir tratamento adequado e preciso. Apesar dos livros de odontologi...

  13. Hepatozoonosis in cats : ABCD guidelines on prevention and management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lloret, Albert; Addie, Diane D; Boucraut-Baralon, Corine; Egberink, Herman; Frymus, Tadeusz; Gruffydd-Jones, Tim; Hartmann, Katrin; Horzinek, Marian C; Hosie, Margaret J; Lutz, Hans; Marsilio, Fulvio; Pennisi, Maria Grazia; Radford, Alan D; Thiry, Etienne; Truyen, Uwe; Möstl, Karin

    2015-01-01

    OVERVIEW: Hepatozoonosis of domestic cats has been reported in several countries, mainly as a subclinical infection. DISEASE AGENT: Infection has been described mostly in areas where canine infection is present and, in recent years, Hepatozoon felis has been identified as a distinct species by molec

  14. Osteossíntese de fêmur em gato-do-mato-pequeno (Leopardus tigrinus Femur osteosynthesis in little spotted cat (Leopardus tigrinus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ísis S. Dal-Bó

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available O gato-do-mato-pequeno (Leopardus tigrinus apresenta porte e proporção corporal semelhante ao gato doméstico e é a menor espécie de felídeo não doméstico do Brasil, sendo classificado com espécie da fauna brasileira ameaçada de extinção. Em gatos domésticos, o fêmur é o osso que mais sofre trauma e a porção distal é a mais acometida por fraturas. Uma fêmea de gato-do-mato-pequeno, com cinco meses de idade, apresentando fratura completa transversa supracondilar de fêmur direito foi tratada com sucesso por meio de osteossíntese com dois fios de Kirschner cruzados. Aos 60 dias de evolução do procedimento cirúrgico, a paciente recebeu alta do Hospital Veterinário, sendo devolvida ao seu local de origem. Segundo o conhecimento dos autores, este é o primeiro relato de osteossíntese de fêmur com o uso de fios de Kirschner em Leopardus tigrinus. Assim, o tratamento foi desenvolvido com base em dados referentes ao gato doméstico em função da similaridade anatômica entre as duas espécies. O método de osteossíntese escolhido, nesse relato, mostrou-se eficaz, promovendo retorno adequado à função do membro.The little spotted cat or oncilla (Leopardus tigrinus is a wild feline that has size and body proportions similar to the domestic cat (Felis catus, but can be classified as the smallest wild feline all the way from Costa Rica to Brazil and Argentina threatened with extinction. In domestic cats, the distal portion of the long bone femur is more susceptible to fractures. The aim of this paper is to report the treatment of a complete, transverse, supracondylar fracture of the right femur on a five-month-old little female oncilla, by internal fixation by two crossed Kirschner wires. At 60 days after surgery, the patient was discharged from the veterinary hospital and returned to its place of origin. Considering the author's knowledge, this is the first report of osteosynthesis in L. tigrinus using this described technique

  15. Efeitos da infecção crônica por Toxoplasma gondii sobre a parede intestinal de gatos domésticos The effects of the infection caused by Toxoplasma gondii on the cat duodenal wall

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Maria da Silva

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi analisar os efeitos da infecção causada pelo Toxoplasma gondii sobre a parede do duodeno de gatos. Foram utilizados seis gatos (Felis catus, com cerca de três meses de vida, distribuídos aleatoriamente em Grupo controle (G1; n = 3 e Grupo infectado (G2; n = 3. Os animais do G2 receberam, por via oral, 200 cistos teciduais da cepa ME49 (tipo II do T. gondii. Após 40 dias, os animais foram submetidos à eutanásia, laparotomia e retirada do duodeno, que foi fixado em solução de Bouin e submetido à rotina histológica para obtenção de cortes transversais de 3 µm. Os cortes foram corados com Hematoxilina-Eosina (HE, Azan, Ácido Periódico de Schiff (PAS, Alcian-Blue e Tricrômio de Mallory. Realizou-se uma avaliação qualitativa da parede intestinal e medidas comparativas entre os dois grupos, com relação: à espessura da túnica mucosa, túnica muscular, parede total, altura dos vilos, profundidade das criptas e altura dos enterócitos e seus núcleos. As células caliciformes, os linfócitos intraepiteliais e as células de Paneth foram quantificados. Os resultados mostraram que a infecção levou à atrofia da túnica mucosa, túnica muscular e parede intestinal do duodeno de gatos do G2 (p This paper analyzes the effects of the infection caused by Toxoplasma gondii on the cat duodenal wall. Six cats (Felis catus with 3-month-old were randomly divided into Control Group (G1; n = 3 and Infected Group (G2; n = 3. The animals from G2 received orarilly 200 T. gondii tissye cysts of ME49-strain (type II. After 40 days, the animals were submitted to euthanasia, laparotomy and had their duodenum removed, fixed in Bouin solution and submitted to histological routine obtaining 3 µm transverse cuts. The cuts were stained with Hematoxylin-Eosin (HE, Azan, Periodic acid - Schiff (PAS, Alcian-Blue, and Mallory trichrome. Qualitative assessment of the intestine wall as well as comparative measurements with respect

  16. The dog louse Heterodoxus spiniger from stray cats in Penang, Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norhidayu, S; Mohd Zain, S N; Jeffery, J; Lewis, J W

    2012-06-01

    Stray cats collected from Georgetown, Penang from 2008 to 2010 were screened for ectoparasites via fine-tooth combing. Two cats from a total 102 examined were infested with the dog louse, Heterodoxus spiniger. Both cats, a juvenile male and female were found in close contact with each other prior to capture. The number of lice ranged from 5 and 14 in the male and female cat respectively. Other ectoparasites recovered included the common cat flea, Ctenocephalides felis, one louse species Felicola subrostratus, one tick species Haemaphysalis bispinosa and one mite species of Listrophoridae. The present study reports for the first time the finding of H. spiniger on cats from peninsular Malaysia.

  17. Prevalence of selected infectious disease agents in stray cats in Catalonia, Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Ravicini

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Objectives The objective of the current study was to investigate the prevalence rates of the following infectious agents in 116 stray cats in the Barcelona area of Spain: Anaplasma phagocytophilum, Bartonella species, Borrelia burgdorferi, Chlamydia felis, Dirofilaria immitis, Ehrlichia species, feline calicivirus (FCV, feline herpesvirus-1 (FHV-1, feline leukaemia virus (FeLV, feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV, haemoplasmas, Mycoplasma species and Rickettsia species. Methods Serum antibodies were used to estimate the prevalence of exposure to A phagocytophilum, Bartonella species, B burgdorferi, Ehrlichia species and FIV; serum antigens were used to assess for infection by D immitis and FeLV; and molecular assays were used to amplify nucleic acids of Anaplasma species, Bartonella species, C felis, D immitis, Ehrlichia species, FCV, FHV-1, haemoplasmas, Mycoplasma species and Rickettsia species from blood and nasal or oral swabs. Results Of the 116 cats, 63 (54.3% had evidence of infection by Bartonella species, FeLV, FIV or a haemoplasma. Anaplasma species, Ehrlichia species or Rickettsia species DNA was not amplified from these cats. A total of 18/116 cats (15.5% were positive for FCV RNA (six cats, Mycoplasma species DNA (six cats, FHV-1 DNA (three cats or C felis DNA (three cats. Conclusions and relevance This study documents that shelter cats in Catalonia are exposed to many infectious agents with clinical and zoonotic significance, and that flea control is indicated for cats in the region.

  18. Consistent detection of Felis domesticus papillomavirus 2 DNA sequences within feline viral plaques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munday, John S; Peters-Kennedy, Jeanine

    2010-11-01

    Viral plaques are well recognized skin lesions of cats. They are thought to be caused by papillomavirus infection; however, the causative papillomavirus is uncertain. In the current study, polymerase chain reaction using 2 consensus primer sets and 1 primer set specific for Felis domesticus papillomavirus 2 (FdPV-2) was used to amplify DNA from a series of 14 feline viral plaques. The FdPV-2 sequences were detected in all 14 viral plaques by the specific primers but in only 1 of 14 feline cutaneous trichoblastomas. Papillomavirus DNA was amplified from 8 plaques using the consensus primers. Sequences from FdPV-2 were amplified using the consensus primers from 4 plaques. In addition, 3 plaques contained papillomavirus DNA sequences from Felis domesticus papillomavirus sequence MY1, and a previously unreported papillomavirus DNA sequence was amplified from 1 plaque. As FdPV-2 was consistently present within the plaques, this suggests that this papillomavirus is the likely etiologic agent. Feline viral plaques can undergo neoplastic transformation to Bowenoid in situ carcinomas (BISCs). As FdPV-2 DNA is frequently present within BISCs, this suggests that FdPV-2 induces viral plaque formation and then remains detectible after neoplastic transformation.

  19. Common epidemiology of Rickettsia felis infection and malaria, Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mediannikov, Oleg; Socolovschi, Cristina; Edouard, Sophie; Fenollar, Florence; Mouffok, Nadjet; Bassene, Hubert; Diatta, Georges; Tall, Adama; Niangaly, Hamidou; Doumbo, Ogobara; Lekana-Douki, Jean Bernard; Znazen, Abir; Sarih, M'hammed; Ratmanov, Pavel; Richet, Herve; Ndiath, Mamadou O; Sokhna, Cheikh; Parola, Philippe; Raoult, Didier

    2013-11-01

    This study aimed to compare the epidemiology of Rickettsia felis infection and malaria in France, North Africa, and sub-Saharan Africa and to identify a common vector. Blood specimens from 3,122 febrile patients and from 500 nonfebrile persons were analyzed for R. felis and Plasmodium spp. We observed a significant linear trend (pAfrica also protects against rickettsioses; thus, empirical treatment strategies for febrile illness for travelers and residents in sub-Saharan Africa may require reevaluation.

  20. Molecular detection of Rickettsia typhi in cats and fleas.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Mercedes Nogueras

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Rickettsiatyphi is the etiological agent of murine typhus (MT, a disease transmitted by two cycles: rat-flea-rat, and peridomestic cycle. Murine typhus is often misdiagnosed and underreported. A correct diagnosis is important because MT can cause severe illness and death. Our previous seroprevalence results pointed to presence of human R. typhi infection in our region; however, no clinical case has been reported. Although cats have been related to MT, no naturally infected cat has been described. The aim of the study is to confirm the existence of R. typhi in our location analyzing its presence in cats and fleas. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: 221 cats and 80 fleas were collected from Veterinary clinics, shelters, and the street (2001-2009. Variables surveyed were: date of collection, age, sex, municipality, living place, outdoor activities, demographic area, healthy status, contact with animals, and ectoparasite infestation. IgG against R. typhi were evaluated by indirect immunofluorescence assay. Molecular detection in cats and fleas was performed by real-time PCR. Cultures were performed in those cats with positive molecular detection. Statistical analysis was carried out using SPSS. A p < 0.05 was considered significant. Thirty-five (15.8% cats were seropositive. There were no significant associations among seropositivity and any variables. R. typhi was detected in 5 blood and 2 cultures. High titres and molecular detection were observed in stray cats and pets, as well as in spring and winter. All fleas were Ctenocephalides felis. R. typhi was detected in 44 fleas (55%, from shelters and pets. Co-infection with R. felis was observed. CONCLUSIONS: Although no clinical case has been described in this area, the presence of R. typhi in cats and fleas is demonstrated. Moreover, a considerable percentage of those animals lived in households. To our knowledge, this is the first time R. typhi is detected in naturally infected cats.

  1. Cat parasites

    OpenAIRE

    Vošická, Kristýna

    2016-01-01

    The content of this bachelor thesis describes a different variety of cat parasites. This study discovers that the most infected group of the outdoor cats due to the fact that these animals are not provided with the same care as the household pets. Those cats are usually not vaccinated, not rid of worms, no one takes care of their fur and so they tend to become a host for the parasites. There are several kinds of parasites which attack cats. Among those belong the skin parasites like a cat fle...

  2. Techniques used in the study of African wildcat, Felis silvestris cafra, in the Kgalagadi Transfrontier Park (South Africa/Botswana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marna Herbst

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The techniques used for the capture, marking and habituation of African wildcats (Felis silvestris cafra in the Kalahari are described and evaluated in this paper. African wildcats were captured, with either baited cage traps or chemical immobilisation through darting. Darting proved to be a more efficient and less stressful way of capturing cats. Very high frequency (VHF radio collars fitted with activity monitors were especially effective in the open habitat of the Kalahari for locating and maintaining contact with cats; they also aided in determining if the cats were active or resting in dense vegetation. The habituation of individual cats to a 4×4 vehicle proved to be time consuming, but it provided a unique opportunity to investigate the feeding ecology and spatial organisation of cats through direct visual observations.Conservation implications: In describing and comparing the various methods of capture, handling and release of the African wildcats that we followed during our study in the southern Kalahari, we recommend the most efficient, least stressful method for researchers to follow – both in relation to time and energy, as well as in terms of the impact on the animals being studied.

  3. Optical properties of infrared FELs from the FELI Facility II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saeki, K.; Okuma, S.; Oshita, E. [Free Electron Laser Institute, Osaka (Japan)] [and others

    1995-12-31

    The FELI Facility II has succeeded in infrared FEL oscillation at 1.91 {mu} m using a 68-MeV, 40-A electron beam from the FELI S-band linac in February 27, 1995. The FELI Facility II is composed of a 3-m vertical type undulator ({lambda}u=3.8cm, N=78, Km a x=1.4, gap length {ge}20mm) and a 6.72-m optical cavity. It can cover the wavelength range of 1-5{mu}m. The FELs can be delivered from the optical cavity to the diagnostics room through a 40-m evacuated optical pipeline. Wavelength and cavity length dependences of optical properties such as peak power, average power, spectrum width, FEL macropulse, FEL transverse profile are reported.

  4. Prevalence of Rickettsia and Bartonella species in Spanish cats and their fleas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gracia, María Jesús; Marcén, José Miguel; Pinal, Rocio; Calvete, Carlos; Rodes, Daniel

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of Bartonella henselae, Rickettsia felis, and Rickettsia typhi in fleas and companion cats (serum and claws) and to assess their presence as a function of host, host habitat, and level of parasitism. Eighty-nine serum and claw samples and 90 flea pools were collected. Cat sera were assayed by IFA for Bartonella henselae and Rickettssia species IgG antibodies. Conventional PCRs were performed on DNA extracted from nails and fleas collected from cats. A large portion (55.8%) of the feline population sampled was exposed to at least one of the three tested vector-borne pathogens. Seroreactivity to B. henselae was found in 50% of the feline studied population, and to R. felis in 16.3%. R. typhi antibodies were not found in any cat. No Bartonella sp. DNA was amplified from the claws. Flea samples from 41 cats (46%) showed molecular evidence for at least one pathogen; our study demonstrated a prevalence rate of 43.3 % of Rickettsia sp and 4.4% of Bartonella sp. in the studied flea population. None of the risk factors studied (cat's features, host habitat, and level of parasitation) was associated with either the serology or the PCR results for Bartonella sp. and Rickettsia sp.. Flea-associated infectious agents are common in cats and fleas and support the recommendation that stringent flea control should be maintained on cats.

  5. Who's behind that mask and cape? The Asian leopard cat's Agouti (ASIP) allele likely affects coat colour phenotype in the Bengal cat breed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gershony, L C; Penedo, M C T; Davis, B W; Murphy, W J; Helps, C R; Lyons, L A

    2014-12-01

    Coat colours and patterns are highly variable in cats and are determined mainly by several genes with Mendelian inheritance. A 2-bp deletion in agouti signalling protein (ASIP) is associated with melanism in domestic cats. Bengal cats are hybrids between domestic cats and Asian leopard cats (Prionailurus bengalensis), and the charcoal coat colouration/pattern in Bengals presents as a possible incomplete melanism. The complete coding region of ASIP was directly sequenced in Asian leopard, domestic and Bengal cats. Twenty-seven variants were identified between domestic and leopard cats and were investigated in Bengals and Savannahs, a hybrid with servals (Leptailurus serval). The leopard cat ASIP haplotype was distinguished from domestic cat by four synonymous and four non-synonymous exonic SNPs, as well as 19 intronic variants, including a 42-bp deletion in intron 4. Fifty-six of 64 reported charcoal cats were compound heterozygotes at ASIP, with leopard cat agouti (A(P) (be) ) and domestic cat non-agouti (a) haplotypes. Twenty-four Bengals had an additional unique haplotype (A2) for exon 2 that was not identified in leopard cats, servals or jungle cats (Felis chaus). The compound heterozygote state suggests the leopard cat allele, in combination with the recessive non-agouti allele, influences Bengal markings, producing a darker, yet not completely melanistic coat. This is the first validation of a leopard cat allele segregating in the Bengal breed and likely affecting their overall pelage phenotype. Genetic testing services need to be aware of the possible segregation of wild felid alleles in all assays performed on hybrid cats.

  6. Cat Scan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    <正> A man takes his motionless dog to the vet."Doc,I think my dog is dead.”The vet looks the dog over, goes into a backroom,and comes out with a cat.He places the caton the table next to the dog.The cat walks aroundand sniffs at the dog.The dog does not move.The

  7. Presence of Bartonella species and Rickettsia species DNA in the blood, oral cavity, skin and claw beds of cats in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lappin, Michael R; Hawley, Jennifer

    2009-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of Bartonella species and Rickettsia species DNA in the blood, oral cavity, skin and claw beds of feral cats without evidence of skin disease that were housed in Alabama (n = 24), Florida (n = 27) and Colorado (n = 32). Samples were assessed by use of polymerase chain reaction assays. The Bartonella species IgG prevalence was also determined. While Bartonella species DNA was not amplified from any sample from Colorado cats, it was commonly amplified from blood (56.9%), skin (31.4%), claws (17.6%) and gingiva (17.6%) of the 51 cats housed in Alabama and Florida. All 10 flea groups assessed in this study were infected with a Bartonella species or R. felis. Bartonella species IgG titres did not accurately predict bacteraemia (positive predictive value = 57.1%; negative predictive value = 82.1%). Bartonella species DNA was amplified from blood of cats with and without C. felis. Rickettsia felis DNA was only detected in or on the skin of one cat and the gingiva of an additional cat. It was concluded that cats can be an occupational health risk for veterinarians, particularly in areas with high prevalence of Ctenocephalides felis. Further study is required to determine whether Bartonella species or Rickettsia species infections of cats are associated with dermatological disease. The combination of Bartonella species serological test results with Bartonella species PCR or culture is likely to give the most accurate information concerning the current infection status of individual cats.

  8. Uso de la ecografía para el bloqueo de nervios periféricos del miembro torácico en el gato (Felis catus L:)

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    Objetivos 1. Describir los abordajes ecográficos para la evaluación del plexo braquial (PB) y los principales nervios del miembro torácico, así como la anatomía y apariencia ecográfica normales correlacionando las imágenes ecográficas con la disección anatómica y las criosecciones. 2. Establecer los abordajes ecográficos para el bloqueo ecoguiado del PB. 3. Determinar la eficacia de los diferentes abordajes para el bloqueo anestésico ecoguiado del PB, mediante la evaluación de la d...

  9. PRESSÃO ARTERIAL MÉDIA E O FLUXO SANGÜÍNEO DA ARTÉRIA OFTÁLMICA EXTERNA EM GATOS (Felis catus Linnaeus, 1758)

    OpenAIRE

    Gentil Ferreira Gonçalves

    2005-01-01

    A medicina veterinária vem se beneficiando dos avanços tecnológicos dos meios diagnósticos em medicina, e da facilitação da divulgação da ciência. Para que novas tecnologias sejam utilizadas são necessárias informações acerca dos padrões normais para cada tipo de exame, para que se possa utilizá-lo na rotina e destiná-lo adequadamente para cada paciente. A fluxometria ultra-sonográfica está começando a ser utilizada em medicina veterinária com propósitos e fins diversos. Para destiná-la a um ...

  10. Vocal correlates of sender-identity and arousal in the isolation calls of domestic kitten (Felis silvestris catus)

    OpenAIRE

    Scheumann Marina; Roser Anna-Elisa; Konerding Wiebke; Bleich Eva; Hedrich Hans-Jürgen; Zimmermann Elke

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Introduction Human speech does not only communicate linguistic information but also paralinguistic features, e.g. information about the identity and the arousal state of the sender. Comparable morphological and physiological constraints on vocal production in mammals suggest the existence of commonalities encoding sender-identity and the arousal state of a sender across mammals. To explore this hypothesis and to investigate whether specific acoustic parameters encode for sender-ident...

  11. Avaliação da pressão arterial em gatas (Felis catus submetidas a pneumoperitônio com dióxido de carbono

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JEO Alves

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Pneumoperitônio é a técnica de insuflação com gás da cavidade peritoneal necessária para que haja uma boa visualização das estruturas anatômicas na cirurgia videolaparoscópica. Todavia, diversas alterações fisiológicas são relatadas em decorrência do pneumoperitônio, quais sejam por deslocamento e compressão de estruturas como o diafragma, alterando a fisiologia respiratória, e a veia cava caudal, comprometendo o pré-carga e o débito cardíaco, ou por efeitos sistêmicos decorrentes da absorção de CO2, por exemplo. O presente estudo teve como objetivo avaliar as alterações hemodinâmicas do pneumoperitônio com CO2 em gatas anestesiadas. Foram utilizadas 10 gatas sadias, adultas, premedicadas com cloridrato de cetamina e midazolam e anestesiadas com isoflurano e submetidas a OSH por cirurgia laparoscópica com insuflação abdominal por CO2. As pressões diastólica, sistólica e média foram avaliadas de maneira invasiva por cateterização da artéria femoral e mensurada por um monitor multiparamétrico antes e depois do estabelecimento do pneumoperitônio. Os resultados foram formatados e submetidos à análise de variância e posteriormente analisados pelo teste t de Student e teste Tukey. As alterações em PAS, PAD e PAM observadas no decorrer dos procedimentos, entretanto, não configuraram diferenças estatísticas conforme as análises realizadas. Conclui-se, então, que a realização do pneumoperitônio com CO2 não provoque alterações relevantes na pressão arterial em gatas anestesiadas ou que estas alterações sejam fisiologicamente corrigidas por mecanismos compensatórios.

  12. 猫蚤的交配习性及雄蚤对雌蚤提取物的反应%MATING BEHAVIOR OF THE CAT FLEA, CTENOCEPHALIDES FELIS BOUCHE ( SIPHONAPTERA: PULICIDAE) AND MALE RESPONSE TO FEMALE EXTRACT ON AN ARTIFICIAL FEEDING SYSTEM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    岳碧松; 邹方东; 孙奇志; 李静

    2002-01-01

    The mating behavior of cat flea, Ctenocephalidesfelis (Bouche) was studied on an artificial feeding de-.vice. Male and female can mate repeatedly with same partner or different ones. In the situation of male: female ratio of1: 5, each mating lasted an average of 6.6 min, with a mean interval between matings at 2.5 min., compared to 11.1 min and 12.1 min respectively in a cell with 5 males and 1 female. As many as 48 mating events were observed forone male during.an 8 h period. One female mated 27 times in 7 h with 5 males in the same cell. Newly emerged malesand females can not mate before blood meal and about 24 h blood feeding is required for successful mating. Newlyemerged males can not mate with fed females (fed for 48 h), but fed males can mate with newly emerged females whoare feeding the blood. Significantly more male contacts and male-male mating attempts were observed after the papertreated with female extract was introduced into the cell. The paper contacts and mating attempts were 16.75 - 32.25times and 15.75 -31.38 times, respectively, on average during a period of 20 min when different doses (FE) of ex-tract were provided.%在人工饲喂系统上研究了猫蚤的交配习性及雄蚤对雌蚤化学提取物的发应.结果表明,当5雌1雄在饲养盒内时,该雄虫可与其他雌虫进行多次交配,连续8小时内交配达48次,交配时间平均持续6.6分钟,两次交配的间隔时间平均为2.5分钟.当1雌5雄时,交配时间平均持续11.1分钟,交配间隔时间为12.1分钟,连续7小时内,该雌虫与雄虫交配27次.新羽化的雌雄虫吸血前不能交配.当把用雌虫提取物处理过的黑色滤纸片放进只有雄虫的饲养盒时,雄虫接触纸片的次数及雄-雄交配企图明显增加.

  13. Gastrointestinal parasites of stray cats in Kashan, Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohsen, A; Hossein, H

    2009-04-01

    Considering the role of parasites in contamination of human beings and domestic animals and lack of information in the region, the present study was performed to investigate the infection status of helminthes and protozoa of stray cats in central Iran. A cross - sectional study was conducted on 113 stray cats trapped from different geographic regions of Kashan during four seasons and were necropsied. Different organs including: kidney, heart, liver, lungs, gastrointestinal tract and abdominal cavity were inspected for helminthes and protozoa infection. Animal's characters including: genus, weight, and season, location, microscopic and macroscopic findings were recorded in a special form. Data were classified and statistically analyzed with a confidence interval of 95%. Chi- Squire Test was used to show the relationship between different factors and parasitic infection. From a total 113 stray cats examined, 67(59.3%) were male and 46(40.7%) were female. Fifteen species of endoparasite including helminthes and protozoa were detected in intestine and fecal sample of the examined cats. There were six protozoa, five cestodes and four nematodes. All endoparasite were localized in the gastrointestinal tract. Overall 108 cats (95.6%) have been infected with at least one of the endoparasites. Prevalences of parasites found were Nematodea: Toxocara cati 13.3%, Physaloptera preputialis 39.8%, Rictularia 52.2% and Uncinaria stenocephala 1.8%; Cestodea: Mesocestoides lineatus 7.1%, Taenia taeniaformis 15%, Diplopylidium nolleri 64.6%, Dipylidium caninum 68.1% and Joyeuxiella echinorhyncoides 85%; Sporozoea: Isospora rivolta 5.3%, Isospora felis 5.3%, Sarcocystis spp 8%, Blastocystis spp 16.8% and Zoomastigophorea: Giardia felis 0.9% and Trichomonas spp 1.8%. Contamination rate for zoonotic parasites of cat was greater than expected in Kashan region. In this respect, appropriate control measures should be taken and it is recommended to determine the most appropriate preventive

  14. On-host viability and fecundity of Ctenocephalides felis (Siphonaptera: Pulicidae), using a novel chambered flea technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, R E; Wallenfels, L; Popiel, I

    1996-03-01

    The on-host viability and fecundity of cat fleas, Ctenocephalides felis (Bouché), confined within a novel chambering system are described. Using this system, all fleas and flea eggs are recovered from chambers after fleas have fed on cats. Thus, accurate calculations of both adult flea survival and female flea fecundity can be made. The technique provides a microenvironment in which adult fleas exhibit > 90% survival over 14 d. Female fleas lay an average of 9.5 eggs per day on the 2nd d of feeding, 22.1 eggs per day between days 3 and 7, and 19.6 eggs per day between days 3 and 14. These numbers are similar to values previously reported for studies in which fleas were not confined. The technique permits accurate, multiple sampling of experimental flea populations during a study, and does not require the use of pesticides or extensive combing to collect surviving fleas at the end of a study. Moreover, the technique does not require that cats be caged or prevented from grooming. Collecting data from fleas confined in chambers is much less time consuming and labor intensive than studies with free-roaming fleas.

  15. Prevalence of Bartonella species, haemoplasmas and Toxoplasma gondii in cats in Scotland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Alexander D; Gunn-Moore, Danielle A; Brewer, Melissa; Lappin, Michael R

    2011-08-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence rates for select infectious agents of cats presented to the Royal (Dick) School of Veterinary Studies at the University of Edinburgh, Scotland. Whole blood, serum, and oral mucosal and nail bed swabs were collected. While Ehrlichia species, Anaplasma species or Rickettsia felis DNA were not amplified from any cat, 44.2% of the cats had evidence of infection or exposure to either a Bartonella species (15.3% were seropositive and 5.8% polymerase chain reaction (PCR) positive), a haemoplasma (28.6% PCR positive), and/or Toxoplasma gondii (19.2% seropositive). No Bartonella species DNA was amplified from the nail or oral mucosal swabs despite a 5.8% amplification rate from the blood samples. This finding likely reflects the absence of Ctenocephalides felis infection from our study population, as this organism is a key component for Bartonella species translocation in cats. The results from this study support the use of flea control products to lessen exposure of cats (and people) to Bartonella species and support discouraging the feeding of raw meat to cats and preventing them from hunting to lessen T gondii infection.

  16. Molecular evidence of Rickettsia felis infection in dogs from northern territory, Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rees Robert L

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The prevalence of spotted fever group rickettsial infection in dogs from a remote indigenous community in the Northern Territory (NT was determined using molecular tools. Blood samples collected from 130 dogs in the community of Maningrida were subjected to a spotted fever group (SFG-specific PCR targeting the ompB gene followed by a Rickettsia felis-specific PCR targeting the gltA gene of R. felis. Rickettsia felis ompB and gltA genes were amplified from the blood of 3 dogs. This study is the first report of R. felis infection in indigenous community dogs in NT.

  17. Cat and Dog Bites

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Prevention and Wellness Staying Healthy Pets and Animals Cat and Dog Bites Cat and Dog Bites Pets and AnimalsPrevention and WellnessStaying Healthy Share Cat and Dog Bites Cat and dog bites are ...

  18. Cat Scratch Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cat scratch disease (CSD) is an illness caused by the bacterium Bartonella henselae. Almost half of all cats carry ... infection does not make cats sick. However, the scratch or bite of an infected cat can cause ...

  19. Outbreaks of Rickettsia felis in Kenya and Senegal, 2010

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2010-06-09

    This podcast describes the outbreak of Rickettsia felis in Kenya between August 2006 and June 2008, and in rural Senegal from November 2008 through July 2009. CDC infectious disease pathologist Dr. Chris Paddock discusses what researchers learned about this flea-borne disease and how to prevent infection.  Created: 6/9/2010 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 6/24/2010.

  20. Mesothelioma in Two Nondomestic Felids: North American Cougar (Felis concolor and Cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda Whiton

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A 15-year-old male North American cougar (Felis concolor presented with a 2-day history of anorexia, restlessness, and dyspnea. White blood cell count ( cells/μL and absolute segmented neutrophil count ( cells/μL were increased, and BUN (143 mg/dL, creatinine (6.3 mg/dL, and phosphorus (8.5 mg/dL concentrations indicated chronic renal disease. Thoracic radiographs showed severe pleural and pericardial effusion. During attempts to remove the fluid, cardiac tamponade developed and the cat died. At necropsy, nodular masses decorated the pericardium at the level of the base of the heart. The final microscopic diagnosis was mesothelioma of the pericardium, tunica adventitia of the main pulmonary artery, left auricle epicardium, and left ventricular epicardium. A 15-year-old female cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus was evaluated for acute respiratory distress. The white blood cell count ( cells/μL and absolute segmented neutrophil count ( cells/μL were increased. Radiographically pleural effusion and a cranial thoracic mass were seen. The cheetah was euthanized, and a gross diagnosis of disseminated pleural mesothelioma with thoracic effusion was made. Histologically, pleural mesothelioma was confirmed with local invasion of the lung and pulmonary arterial emboli and infarction. In both cases, a diagnosis of mesothelioma was made based on cellular morphology, microscopic architecture, and neoplastic cell coexpression of cytokeratin and vimentin.

  1. My Cat

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王悦; 李成梅

    2002-01-01

    The name of my cat is Naty. This year he is one year old. He isvery fat, but he is very nice. He has a big round white head. His mouth and nose are small. His eyes are interesting. In the day,they are small and black,but at night they are big and blue.

  2. A Catalogue of Anatomical Fugitive Sheets: Cat. 49-62

    OpenAIRE

    1999-01-01

    Images Cat. 50 Cat. 51 Cat. 53 Cat. 54 Cat. 55 (a) Cat. 55 (b) Cat. 56 Cat. 57: 1 Cat. 57: 2 Cat. 57: 3 Cat. 57: 4 Cat. 59: 1 Cat. 59: 2 Cat. 59: 3 Cat. 59: 4 Cat. 60 Cat. 61 Cat. 62: 1 (a) Cat. 62: 1 (b) Cat. 62: 2 (a) Cat. 62: 2 (b)

  3. A Catalogue of Anatomical Fugitive Sheets: Cat. 26-48

    OpenAIRE

    1999-01-01

    Images Cat. 26: 1 (a) Cat. 26: 1 (b) Cat. 26: 2 (a) Cat. 26: 2(b) Cat. 27: 1 (a) Cat. 27: 1 (b) Cat. 27: 2 (a) Cat. 27: 2 (b) Cat. 28 Cat. 29: 2 (a) Cat. 29: 2 (b) Cat. 30: 1 Cat. 30: 2 Cat. 30: 3 Cat. 33 Cat. 34: 1 Cat. 34: 2 Cat. 35: 1 Cat. 35: 2 Cat. 35: 3 Cat. 36 Cat. 37 Cat. 38: 1 Cat. 38: 2 Cat. 40 Cat. 42 Cat. 43 Cat. 44 Cat. 45: 1 Cat. 45: 2 Cat. 46 Cat. 47: 1 Cat. 47: 2 Cat. 47: 3 Cat. 48: 1 Cat. 48: 2 Cat. 48: 3

  4. black cat

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜铁梅

    2016-01-01

    The black cat is a masterpiece of short fiction of Poe. He successfully solved the problem of creating of the horror effect by using scene description, symbol, repetition and first-person narrative methods. And created a complete and unified mysterious terror, achieved the effect of shocking. This paper aims to discuss the mystery in-depth and to enrich the research system in Poe’s novels.

  5. Identification of Ctenocephalides felis fleas as a host of Rickettsia felis, the agent of a spotted fever rickettsiosis in Yucatań, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zavala-Velázquez, J E; Zavala-Castro, J E; Vado-Solís, I; Ruiz-Sosa, J A; Moron, C G; Bouyer, D H; Walker, D H

    2002-01-01

    In search for the vector of the recently recognized spotted fever rickettsiosis of the Yucatán, ticks, fleas, and lice were collected from vegetation and dogs in localities where seropositive persons had been found. The arthropods were examined by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using primers for the genus-specific 17-kDa protein gene followed by restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) and DNA sequencing. Eleven (20%) of 54 pools of Ctenocephalides felis fleas contained DNA of Rickettsia felis. None of 219 Amblyomma cajennense, 474 Rhiphicephalus sanguineus, 258 Boophilus sp. ticks, and 33 Poliplax species lice contained DNA of Rickettsia. The identity of the rickettsial DNA was confirmed as R. felis by PCR/RFLP for the citrate synthase and outer membrane protein A genes and by DNA sequencing. The results indicate that the host of R. felis in Yucatán is C. felis and suggest that the spotted fever rickettsiosis that has infected >5% of the population of the Yucatán and can present as a dengue-like illness is likely to be caused by R. felis.

  6. Identification of Helicobacter spp. in gastrointestinal tract, pancreas and hepatobiliary system of stray cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shojaee Tabrizi, A; Derakhshandeh, A; Esfandiari, A; Ali Atashi, Z

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine the presence of Helicobacter species in different parts of gastrointestinal tract, hepatobiliary system and pancreas of stray cats. Six different sites at the level of genus, gastric (H. heilmannii and H. felis) and enterohepatic species of Helicobacter were investigated in six cats using species-specific primers by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Interestingly, DNA of enterohepatic spp. was detected in 1/6 duodenum, 2/6 colon and 1/6 pancreas specimens. Results of sequencing revealed that all of these four positive samples belong to Helicobacter canis. While cats have not been considered as a potential zoonotic danger for non-pylori Helicobacter infections, the results of current study show prompt re-evaluation of that view. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study about distribution of Helicobcater spp. in gastrointestinal tract of cats.

  7. Videographic evidence of endangered species depredation by feral cat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Judge, Seth; Lippert, Jill S.; Misajon, Kathleen; Hu, Darcy; Hess, Steven C.

    2012-01-01

    Feral cats (Felis cafus) have long been implicated as nest predators of endangered 'Ua'u (Hawaiian Petrel; Pterodroma sandwichensis) on Hawaii Island, but until recently, visual confirmation has been limited by available technology. 'Ua'u nest out of view, deep inside small cavities, on alpine lava flows. During the breeding seasons of 2007 and 2008, we monitored known burrows within Hawai'i Volcanoes National Park. Digital infrared video cameras assisted in determining the breeding behaviour and nesting success at the most isolated of burrows. With 7 cameras, we collected a total of 819 videos and 89 still photographs of adult and nestling 'Ua'u at 14 burrows. Videos also confirmed the presence of rats (Rattus spp.) at 2 burrows, 'Ōmao (Myadestes obscurus) at 8 burrows, and feral cats at 6 burrows. A sequence of videos showed a feral cat taking a downy 'Ua'u chick from its burrow, representing the first direct evidence of 'Ua'u depredation by feral cat in Hawai'i. This technique provides greater understanding of feral cat behaviour in 'Ua'u colonies, which may assist in the development of more targeted management strategies to reduce nest predation on endangered insular bird species.

  8. FREQUENCY OF THE VIRUS OF THE FELINE LEUKEMIA (FeLV IN DOMESTIC FELINES (Felis catus SEMI-DOMICILED IN THE MUNICIPALITIES OF PELOTAS AND RIO GRANDE FREQUÊNCIA DO Vírus da Leucemia Felina (VLFe em FELINOS DOMÉSTICOS (Felis catus SEMIDOMICILIADOS NOS MUNICÍPIOS DE PELOTAS E RIO GRANDE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dilmara Reischak

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Considering the importance of FeLV in the feline clinic, as well as the likely agent spread from a symptomatic or asymptomatic feline bearer, this work has as objective the study of the frequency of FeLV in felines residents in the cities of the Pelotas and Rio Grande, municipalities located in the south area of Brazil. For that, the blood of 120 semi-domiciled animals was collected for the detection of the retrovirus through the Indirect Immunofluorescence technique (IFA. FeLV was detected in 38,3% (46/120 of the studied animals, representing a larger frequency considering other studies accomplished in other areas of Brazil, what confirms the importance of FeLV in the studied region.

    KEY WORDS: FeLV, felines, immunofluorescence, retrovirus.

    Considerando a importância do VLFe na clínica felina, assim como a possível disseminação do agente a partir de um felino portador sintomático ou assintomático, o estudo tem como objetivo verificar a frequência de viremia pelo VLFe em felinos residentes em Pelotas e Rio Grande, municípios situados na região sul do Brasil. Para isso foi coletado sangue de 120 animais semidomiciliados para a detecção do retrovírus através da técnica de imunofluorescência indireta (IFI. Detectou-se a viremia em 38,3% (46/120 dos animais estudados, representando uma frequência maior em relação a outros estudos realizados no Brasil, o que confirma a importância deste agente na região estudada.

    PALAVRAS-CHAVES: Felinos, imunofluorescência, retrovírus, VLFe.

  9. Molecular detection of tick-borne protozoan parasites in a population of domestic cats in midwestern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braga, Ísis Assis; de Souza Ramos, Dirceu Guilherme; Marcili, Arlei; Melo, Andréia Lima Tomé; Taques, Isis Indaiara Gonçalves Granjeiro; Amude, Alexandre Mendes; Chitarra, Cristiane Silva; Nakazato, Luciano; Dutra, Valéria; de Campos Pacheco, Richard; Aguiar, Daniel Moura

    2016-07-01

    Some tick-borne pathogens that infect domestic cats have been considered emergent in veterinary medicine. Occurrences of Hepatozoon spp., Babesia spp. and Cytauxzoon spp. have been described in several regions of Brazil. This paper offers a comprehensive analysis of the 18S rRNA gene of a Hepatozoon sp. strain detected in domestic cats in the metropolitan area of Cuiabá, in Midwestern Brazil. Based on a molecular analysis, we detected the presence of Hepatozoon species circulating among cats in this region. The aforementioned strain is closely related to other isolates of H. felis detected in wild felids. Moreover, a phylogenetic analysis indicates that this genotype is grouped into a clade of 18S rRNA sequences previously described for the genus Hepatozoon in wild felids around the world. Hepatozoon felis strains detected in cats from Spain and Israel showed, respectively, 98% and 97% identity to our sequence and are clustered on a separate branch of the phylogenetic tree. This finding suggests a high diversity of Hepatozoon genotypes occurring in cats in Europe and South America. None of the analyzed cats were positive for Babesia spp. or Cytauxzoon spp. by PCR analysis.

  10. Genetic structure of different cat populations in Europe and South America at a microgeographic level: importance of the choice of an adequate sampling level in the accuracy of population genetics interpretations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Ruiz-Garcia

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available The phenotypic markers, coat color, pattern and hair length, of natural domestic cat populations observed in four cities (Barcelona, Catalonia; Palma Majorca, Balearic Islands; Rimini, Italy and Buenos Aires, Argentina were studied at a microgeographical level. Various population genetics techniques revealed that the degree of genetic differentiation between populations of Felis catus within these cities is relatively low, when compared with that found between populations of other mammals. Two different levels of sampling were used. One was that of "natural" colonies of cat families living together in specific points within the cities, and the other referred to "artificial" subpopulations, or groups of colonies, inhabiting the same district within a city. For the two sampling levels, some of the results were identical: 1 little genic heterogeneity, 2 existence of panmixia, 3 similar levels of expected heterozygosity in all populations analyzed, 4 no spatial autocorrelation, with certain differentiation in the Buenos Aires population compared to the others, and 5 very high correlations between colonies and subpopulations with the first factors from a Q factor analysis. Nevertheless, other population genetic statistics were greatly affected by the differential choice of sampling level. This was the case for: 1 the amount of heterogeneity of the FST and GST statistics between the cities, which was greater at the subpopulation level than at colony level, 2 the existence of correlations between genic differentiation statistics and size variables at subpopulation level, but not at the colony level, and 3 the relationships between the genetic variables and the principal factors of the R factorial analysis. This suggests that care should be taken in the choice of the sampling unit, for inferences on population genetics to be valid at the microgeographical level.Os marcadores fenotípicos cor da pelagem, padrão e comprimento dos pelos de popula

  11. Detection of Rickettsia felis in Wild Mammals from Three Municipalities in Yucatan, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panti-May, Jesús Alonso; Torres-Castro, Marco; Hernández-Betancourt, Silvia; Dzul-Rosado, Karla; Zavala-Castro, Jorge; López-Avila, Karina; Tello-Martín, Raúl

    2015-09-01

    The aim of this study was to provide information of the occurrence of Rickettsia felis in wild mammals from three municipalities in Yucatan, Mexico. The reactivity of rodent serum to Rickettsia antigens was detected in 80.9% (17 of 21) samples using immunofluorescence assay. Polymerase chain reaction identified rickettsial DNA in spleens of 43.5% (10 of 23) rodents and 57.1% (4 of 7) opossums. The identification of the rickettsial DNA was confirmed as R. felis by restriction fragment length polymorphism and DNA sequencing. This study comprises the first report of R. felis detection in wild mammals in Yucatan.

  12. Molecular identification of Cryptosporidium spp. in seagulls, pigeons, dogs, and cats in Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koompapong Khuanchai

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Zoonotic Cryptosporidium spp., particularly C. meleagridis, C. canis, and C. felis, are enteric protozoa responsible for major public health concerns around the world. To determine the spread of this parasite in Thailand, we conducted molecular identification of Cryptosporidium spp. from animal samples around the country, by collecting and investigating the feces of seagulls (Chroicocephalus brunnicephalus and Chroicocephalus ridibundus, domestic pigeons (Columba livia domestica, dogs, and cats. Seagull and pigeon samples were collected at the seaside and on the riverside to evaluate their potential for waterborne transmission. Ten pigeon samples were combined into one set, and a total of seven sets were collected. Seventy seagull samples were combined into one set, and a total of 13 sets were collected. In addition, 111 dog samples were collected from cattle farms, and 95 dog and 80 cat samples were collected from a temple. We identified C. meleagridis in pigeons, Cryptosporidium avian genotype III in seagulls, C. canis in dogs, and C. felis in cats. In the temple, the prevalence was 2.1% (2/95 for dogs and 2.5% (2/80 for cats. No Cryptosporidium was found in dog samples from cattle farms. These are the first findings of C. meleagridis in domestic pigeons, and Cryptosporidium avian genotype III in seagulls. Our study invites further molecular epidemiological investigations of Cryptosporidium in these animals and their environment to evaluate the public health risk in Thailand.

  13. Molecular identification of Cryptosporidium spp. in seagulls, pigeons, dogs, and cats in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koompapong, Khuanchai; Mori, Hirotake; Thammasonthijarern, Nipa; Prasertbun, Rapeepun; Pintong, Ai-rada; Popruk, Supaluk; Rojekittikhun, Wichit; Chaisiri, Kittipong; Sukthana, Yaowalark; Mahittikorn, Aongart

    2014-01-01

    Zoonotic Cryptosporidium spp., particularly C. meleagridis, C. canis, and C. felis, are enteric protozoa responsible for major public health concerns around the world. To determine the spread of this parasite in Thailand, we conducted molecular identification of Cryptosporidium spp. from animal samples around the country, by collecting and investigating the feces of seagulls (Chroicocephalus brunnicephalus and Chroicocephalus ridibundus), domestic pigeons (Columba livia domestica), dogs, and cats. Seagull and pigeon samples were collected at the seaside and on the riverside to evaluate their potential for waterborne transmission. Ten pigeon samples were combined into one set, and a total of seven sets were collected. Seventy seagull samples were combined into one set, and a total of 13 sets were collected. In addition, 111 dog samples were collected from cattle farms, and 95 dog and 80 cat samples were collected from a temple. We identified C. meleagridis in pigeons, Cryptosporidium avian genotype III in seagulls, C. canis in dogs, and C. felis in cats. In the temple, the prevalence was 2.1% (2/95) for dogs and 2.5% (2/80) for cats. No Cryptosporidium was found in dog samples from cattle farms. These are the first findings of C. meleagridis in domestic pigeons, and Cryptosporidium avian genotype III in seagulls. Our study invites further molecular epidemiological investigations of Cryptosporidium in these animals and their environment to evaluate the public health risk in Thailand.

  14. Prevalence and Risk Factors of Intestinal Parasites in Cats from China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yurong; Liang, Hongde

    2015-01-01

    The prevalence of intestinal parasites in cats from China was largely unknown prior to this study. The aim of the present study was to investigate the presence of intestinal parasites in cats from central China and also identify risk factors for parasitism. Fecal samples from 360 cats were examined using sugar flotation procedure and fecal smear test by microscope. Cats had mixed two or three kinds of parasites infections. Of the 360 cats feces, intestinal parasites positive feces were 149 (41.39%). 64 (17.78%) were infected with Toxocara cati, 61 (16.94%) with Isospora felis, 41 (11.39%) with Isospora rivolta, 33 (9.17%) with Paragonimus, 23 (6.39%) with hookworms, 11 (3.06%) with Toxoplasma-like oocysts, 10 (2.78%) with Trichuris, 4 (1.11%) with lungworm, 2 (0.56%) with Sarcocystis, and 1 (0.28%) with Trematode. The cats' living outdoor was identified as risk factor by statistical analysis. These results provide relevant basic data for assessing the infection of intestinal parasites in cats from central region of China. In conclusion, there was high prevalence of intestinal parasites in cats from China.

  15. Prevalence and Risk Factors of Intestinal Parasites in Cats from China

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    The prevalence of intestinal parasites in cats from China was largely unknown prior to this study. The aim of the present study was to investigate the presence of intestinal parasites in cats from central China and also identify risk factors for parasitism. Fecal samples from 360 cats were examined using sugar flotation procedure and fecal smear test by microscope. Cats had mixed two or three kinds of parasites infections. Of the 360 cats feces, intestinal parasites positive feces were 149 (41.39%). 64 (17.78%) were infected with Toxocara cati, 61 (16.94%) with Isospora felis, 41 (11.39%) with Isospora rivolta, 33 (9.17%) with Paragonimus, 23 (6.39%) with hookworms, 11 (3.06%) with Toxoplasma-like oocysts, 10 (2.78%) with Trichuris, 4 (1.11%) with lungworm, 2 (0.56%) with Sarcocystis, and 1 (0.28%) with Trematode. The cats' living outdoor was identified as risk factor by statistical analysis. These results provide relevant basic data for assessing the infection of intestinal parasites in cats from central region of China. In conclusion, there was high prevalence of intestinal parasites in cats from China. PMID:26078975

  16. Peptic ulcer disease associated with Helicobacter felis in a dog owner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Bock, Manuelle; Van den Bulck, Kathleen; Hellemans, Ann; Daminet, Sylvie; Coche, Jean-Charles; Debongnie, Jean-Claude; Decostere, Annemie; Haesebrouck, Freddy; Ducatelle, Richard

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the identity of the Helicobacter heilmannii-like bacteria found in the stomach of a human patient suffering from stomach ulcers and her asymptomatic pet dog. An elderly woman was referred for gastroscopy because of right hypochondrial pain, nausea, anorexia and vomiting. Gastric ulcers were observed and histology revealed the presence of multiple H. heilmannii-like bacteria. Multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) identified the bacteria as H. felis. Her pet dog was also examined gastroscopically. Only mild gastric lesions were found but PCR showed the presence of H. felis as well as H. bizzozeronii and Candidatus H. heilmannii. This report associates H. felis infection in humans with severe gastric ulceration. Moreover, the suggestion can be made that the patient contracted H. felis from her dog.

  17. INFECTION BY Rickettsia felis IN OPOSSUMS (Didelphis sp.) FROM YUCATAN, MEXICO.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peniche-Lara, Gaspar; Ruiz-Piña, Hugo A; Reyes-Novelo, Enrique; Dzul-Rosado, Karla; Zavala-Castro, Jorge

    2016-01-01

    Rickettsia felis is an emergent pathogen and the causative agent of a typhus-like rickettsiosis in the Americas. Its transmission cycle involves fleas as biological vectors (mainly Ctenocephalides felis) and multiple domestic and synanthropic mammal hosts. Nonetheless, the role of mammals in the cycle of R. felis is not well understood and many efforts are ongoing in different countries of America to clarify it. The present study describes for the first time in Mexico the infection of two species of opossum (Didelphis virginiana and D. marsupialis) by R. felis. A diagnosis was carried out from blood samples by molecular methods through the gltA and 17 kDa genes and sequence determination. Eighty-seven opossum samples were analyzed and 28 were found to be infected (32.1%) from five out of the six studied localities of Yucatan. These findings enable recognition of the potential epidemiological implications for public health of the presence of infected synanthropic Didelphis in households.

  18. Plasmids and rickettsial evolution: insight from Rickettsia felis.

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    Joseph J Gillespie

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The genome sequence of Rickettsia felis revealed a number of rickettsial genetic anomalies that likely contribute not only to a large genome size relative to other rickettsiae, but also to phenotypic oddities that have confounded the categorization of R. felis as either typhus group (TG or spotted fever group (SFG rickettsiae. Most intriguing was the first report from rickettsiae of a conjugative plasmid (pRF that contains 68 putative open reading frames, several of which are predicted to encode proteins with high similarity to conjugative machinery in other plasmid-containing bacteria. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Using phylogeny estimation, we determined the mode of inheritance of pRF genes relative to conserved rickettsial chromosomal genes. Phylogenies of chromosomal genes were in agreement with other published rickettsial trees. However, phylogenies including pRF genes yielded different topologies and suggest a close relationship between pRF and ancestral group (AG rickettsiae, including the recently completed genome of R. bellii str. RML369-C. This relatedness is further supported by the distribution of pRF genes across other rickettsiae, as 10 pRF genes (or inactive derivatives also occur in AG (but not SFG rickettsiae, with five of these genes characteristic of typical plasmids. Detailed characterization of pRF genes resulted in two novel findings: the identification of oriV and replication termination regions, and the likelihood that a second proposed plasmid, pRFdelta, is an artifact of the original genome assembly. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: Altogether, we propose a new rickettsial classification scheme with the addition of a fourth lineage, transitional group (TRG rickettsiae, that is unique from TG and SFG rickettsiae and harbors genes from possible exchanges with AG rickettsiae via conjugation. We offer insight into the evolution of a plastic plasmid system in rickettsiae, including the role plasmids may have played in

  19. Toxoplasmosis in Pallas' cats (Otocolobus manul) raised in captivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basso, W; Edelhofer, R; Zenker, W; Möstl, K; Kübber-Heiss, A; Prosl, H

    2005-03-01

    Manuls or Pallas' cats (Felis manul, syn. Otocolobus manul) are endangered wild cats from Central Asia kept and bred in many zoos. Despite good breeding success young cats frequently die from acute toxoplasmosis. From 1998 to 2002, a breeding pair in the Schönbrunn Zoo in Vienna, Austria, gave birth to 24 kittens; 58 % of kittens died between the 2nd and the 14th week of life, mostly due to acute toxoplasmosis. The epidemiology of toxoplasmosis in Pallas' cats was examined and a control strategy to protect the kittens from fatal toxoplasmosis was developed. One 12-week-old kitten from a litter of 6 born in 2001 died of generalized toxoplasmosis. This kitten had shed T. gondii oocysts that were bioassayed in mice. Toxoplasma gondii was isolated in tissue culture inoculated with tissues of these mice. The surviving animals were immediately treated with clindamycin for 16 weeks; they acquired a natural infection and seroconverted by the end of this time without clinical signs.

  20. Endoparasites in dogs and cats in Germany 1999-2002.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barutzki, D; Schaper, R

    2003-07-01

    Infections with endoparasites in dogs and cats have been determined by analysing the results of faecal examinations (Flotation, MIFC, sedimentation, Baermann, smear, ProSpecT Giardia Microplate Assay). Samples of 8438 dogs and 3167 cats from the years 1999 until 2002 have been included in the investigation. 2717 dogs (32.2%) and 771 cats (24.3%) have been infected with endoparasites. In the infected dogs the following parasites have been identified: Class Nematodea: Toxocara canis: 22.4%, Toxascaris leonina: 1.8%, Ancylostomatidae: 8.6%, Trichuris vulpis: 4.0%, Capillaria spp.: 2.3%, Crenosoma vulpis: 0.9%, Angiostrongylus vasorum: 0.3%; Class Cestodea: Taeniidae: 1.2%, Dipylidium caninum: 0.4%, Diplopylidium/Joyeuxiella: 0.1%, Mesocestoides: 0.2%, Diphyllobothrium latum: canis: 8.0%, C. ohioensis: 17.0%, Hammondia/Neospora: 1.7%; Class Zoomastigophorea: Giardia spp.: 51.6%. In the 771 infected cats the following prevalences of parasites have been found: Class Nematodea: Toxocara mystax: 26.2%, Ancylostoma tubaeforme: 0.3%, Capillaria spp.: 7.0%, Aelurostrongylus abstrusus: 2.7%; Class Cestodea: Taeniidae: 2.6%, Dipylidium caninum: 0.1%; Class Sporozoea: Sarcocystis spp.: 2.2%, Cystoisospora spp.: 21.9%, C. felis: 15.3%, C. rivolta: 7.9%, Toxoplasma/Hammondia: 4.5%; Class Zoomastigophorea: Giardia spp.: 51.6%.

  1. Ectoparasitos de cães e gatos da cidade de Manaus, Amazonas, Brasil Ectoparasites on cats and dogs from Manaus, Amazonas State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Cutrim Moreira de Castro

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available São apresentados resultados da coleta de ectoparasitos em cães e gatos entre agosto de 2001 e maio de 2002 em diferentes bairros da cidade Manaus. No cão foram encontrados: Ctenocephalides f. felis (Bouché, 1835 (Siphonaptera, Pulicidae, Heterodoxus spiniger (Enderlein, 1909(Phthiraptera, Boopidae, Trichodectes canis (De Geer, 1778 (Phthiraptera, Trichodectidae e Rhipicephalus sanguineus (Latreille,1806 (Acari, Ixodidae. No gato foi coletado C. f. felis. A prevalência de ectoparasitos foi de 80,8% para cães e 72,7% para gatos. Para a pulga C. f. felis foi de 28,7% para cães e 72,7% para gatos. Para o piolho H. spiniger foi de 12,3% para cães. Para o piolho T. canis foi de 0,1% para cães e para o carrapato R. sanguineus foi de 63% para cães. A média de infestaçãode pulga foi de 1,26 para cães e 1,27 para gatos. A proporção sexual fêmea/macho foi de 1,96:1 no cão e de 3,66:1 no gato. A pulga C. canis (Curtis, 1826, registrada em 1922, não foi coletada.Ectoparasites from different neighborhood of Manaus were collected from august 2001 to May 2002. On dogs it was found: Ctenocephalides f. felis (Bouché, 1835 (Siphonaptera, Pulicidae, Heterodoxus spiniger (Enderlein, 1909(Phthiraptera, Boopidae, Trichodetes canis (De Geer, 1778 (Phthiraptera, Trichodectidae and Rhipicephalus sanguineus (Latreille,1806 (Acari, Ixodidae. On cats: C. f. felis. The prevalence of ectoparasites was 80.8% to dogs and 72.7% to cats. For the flea C. f. felis was 28.7% to dogs and 72.7% to cats. For the lice H. spiniger was 12.3% for dogs. For the lice T. canis was 0.1% for dogs and for the tick R. sanguineus was 63% for dogs. The infestation index for fleas was 1.26 to dogs and 1.27 to cats. The sexual ratio obtained was 1.96:1 to dogs and 3.66:1 to cats. The flea C. canis (Curtis, 1826 registered in 1922 was not found.

  2. Prevalence and Risk Factors of Intestinal Parasites in Cats from China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yurong Yang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The prevalence of intestinal parasites in cats from China was largely unknown prior to this study. The aim of the present study was to investigate the presence of intestinal parasites in cats from central China and also identify risk factors for parasitism. Fecal samples from 360 cats were examined using sugar flotation procedure and fecal smear test by microscope. Cats had mixed two or three kinds of parasites infections. Of the 360 cats feces, intestinal parasites positive feces were 149 (41.39%. 64 (17.78% were infected with Toxocara cati, 61 (16.94% with Isospora felis, 41 (11.39% with Isospora rivolta, 33 (9.17% with Paragonimus, 23 (6.39% with hookworms, 11 (3.06% with Toxoplasma-like oocysts, 10 (2.78% with Trichuris, 4 (1.11% with lungworm, 2 (0.56% with Sarcocystis, and 1 (0.28% with Trematode. The cats’ living outdoor was identified as risk factor by statistical analysis. These results provide relevant basic data for assessing the infection of intestinal parasites in cats from central region of China. In conclusion, there was high prevalence of intestinal parasites in cats from China.

  3. Prevalence of Leishmania infantum and co-infections in stray cats in northern Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spada, Eva; Canzi, Ilaria; Baggiani, Luciana; Perego, Roberta; Vitale, Fabrizio; Migliazzo, Antonella; Proverbio, Daniela

    2016-04-01

    Stray cats in the city of Milan, Italy, were tested for Leishmania infantum and other selected infections. Twenty-seven cats (30.0%) were seroreactive by indirect fluorescent antibody test (IFAT), with an antibody titer of 1:40 for 16 (17.7%) cats and 1:80 (cut-off for feline L. infantum infection) for 11 (12.2%) cats. One blood (1.1%) and one popliteal lymph node (1.1%) sample tested positive by real-time polymerase chain reaction; no oculoconjunctival swabs tested positive. Feline immunodeficiency virus, feline leukemia virus, and feline coronavirus (FCoV) seroprevalence determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was 6.1, 6.1, and 39.0%, respectively. Toxoplasma gondii, Bartonella henselae, and Chlamydophila felis prevalence determined by IFAT was 29.3, 17.1, and 17.1%, respectively. The frequency of seroreactivity to L. infantum was significantly higher in FCoV-seropositive cats (OR=4.4, P=0.04). L. infantum-infected stray cats in Milan have a high seropositivity rate, comparable to that of cats in areas endemic for leishmaniosis.

  4. Frequent detection of papillomavirus DNA in clinically normal skin of cats infected and noninfected with feline immunodeficiency virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munday, John S; Witham, Adrian I

    2010-06-01

    Feline cutaneous squamous cell carcinomas (SCCs) often contain felis domesticus papillomavirus type 2 (FdPV-2) DNA. While this may suggest FdPV-2 causes feline SCC development, the proportion of cats that are asymptomatically infected by this PV is unknown. Infection by feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) is associated with high rates of cutaneous SCC development, possibly due to increased PV infection. This study examines the frequency of cutaneous asymptomatic FdPV-2 infections in cats and compares the rate of FdPV-2 infection in 22 FIV-positive cats with that in 22 FIV-negative cats. FdPV-2 sequences were detected in 39% of skin swabs. One or both swabs contained FdPV-2 DNA from 52% of the cats. FIV status, age or sex of the cat did not significantly influence FdPV-2 infection. Cats that shared a household with a PV-infected cat could remain uninfected suggesting infection depends more on host factors than exposure to the PV. These results indicate that asymptomatic FdPV-2 infections are common in cats, but do not provide evidence that FdPV-2 causes feline SCC development.

  5. Exposure to positively- and negatively-charged plasma cluster ions impairs IgE-binding capacity of indoor cat and fungal allergens

    OpenAIRE

    NISHIKAWA, Kazuo; Fujimura, Takashi; Ota, Yasuhiro; Abe, Takuya; ElRamlawy, Kareem Gamal; Nakano, Miyako; Takado, Tomoaki; Uenishi, Akira; Kawazoe, Hidechika; Sekoguchi, Yoshinori; Tanaka, Akihiko; Ono, Kazuhisa; Kawamoto, Seiji

    2016-01-01

    Background Environmental control to reduce the amount of allergens in a living place is thought to be important to avoid sensitization to airborne allergens. However, efficacy of environmental control on inactivation of airborne allergens is not fully investigated. We have previously reported that positively- and negatively-charged plasma cluster ions (PC-ions) reduce the IgE-binding capacity of crude allergens from Japanese cedar pollen as important seasonal airborne allergens. Cat (Felis do...

  6. Molecular Detection of Bartonella Species in Fleas Collected from Dogs and Cats from Costa Rica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojas, Norman; Troyo, Adriana; Castillo, Daniela; Gutierrez, Ricardo; Harrus, Shimon

    2015-10-01

    The bacterial genus Bartonella includes several species with zoonotic potential, some of which are common in domestic dogs and cats, as well as in their fleas. Because there is no previous information about the presence of Bartonella species in fleas from Central America, this study aimed at evaluating the presence of Bartonella spp. in fleas collected from dogs and cats in Costa Rica. A total 72 pools of Ctenocephalides felis and 21 pools of Pulex simulans were screened by conventional PCR to detect Bartonella DNA fragments of the citrate synthase (gltA) and the β subunit RNA polymerase (rpoB) genes. Three (4.2%) pools of C. felis and five pools (22.7%) of P. simulans were found positive for Bartonella DNA. Sequences corresponding to Bartonella vinsonii subsp. berkhoffii strain Winnie, B. rochalimae, and an undescribed Bartonella sp. (clone BR10) were detected in flea pools from dogs, whereas Bartonella henselae and B. clarridgeiae sequences were identified in flea pools from cats. The detection of zoonotic Bartonella spp. in this study should increase the awareness to these flea-borne diseases among physicians and public health workers and highlight the importance of flea control in the region.

  7. Cat, cougar, and jaguar spermatogenesis: a comparative analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deiler Sampaio Costa

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available This work presents a comparative review about the spermatogenic process in cats (Felis domestica, jaguars (Panthera onca and cougars (Puma concolor, with emphasis on testicular biometry, gonadossomatic index, volumetric proportion of testicular parenchyma components, tubular diameter, seminiferous epithelial height and seminiferous tubule length. It was an approach of the differences among the cell proportions that allowed conclusions about the overall yield of spermatogenic process and Sertoli cell index in three feline species.O processo espermatogênico do gato doméstico (Felis domestica, da onça-pintada (Panthera onca e da onça-parda (Puma concolor são analisados de forma comparativa, dando-se ênfase à biometria testicular, ao índice gonadossomático, à proporção volumétrica dos constituintes do parênquima testicular, ao diâmetro tubular, à altura do epitélio seminífero e ao comprimento dos túbulos seminíferos. Abordam-se ainda as diferenças entres as razões celulares que permitem conclusões sobre o rendimento do processo espermatogênico e índices de células de Sértoli das três espécies.

  8. Parasite communities in stray cat populations from Lisbon, Portugal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waap, H; Gomes, J; Nunes, T

    2014-12-01

    Stray cats live in high-density colonies in urban areas and pose a health hazard to household cats and humans. In Portugal, information on the parasitic fauna of stray cats is limited and relies mostly on results from faecal analysis. The present survey aimed to determine the prevalence, diversity and intensity of parasites in stray cats from the urban area of Lisbon by means of parasitological necropsy. Internal organs were collected from 162 cats captured in different areas of the city and systematically subjected to parasitological dissection. Helminths were identified by macro- and microscopic examination and protozoa by faecal floatation and sedimentation techniques. The overall prevalence of parasites was 90.7% (95% confidence interval (CI): 85.3-94.6%). A total of 12 parasite species was recorded: Cystoisospora felis (14.2%), Cystoisospora rivolta (46.3%), Sarcocystis sp. (1.2%), Ancylostoma tubaeforme (19.1%), Toxocara cati (38.3%), Ollulanus tricuspis (30.9%), Aelurostrongylus abstrusus (12.4%), Eucoleus aerophilus (0.6%), Taenia taeniaeformis (3.1%), Dipylidium caninum (53.1%), Joyeuxiella pasqualei (15.4%) and Diplopylidium nölleri (3.7%). Overall mean species richness was 2.36 ±  1.52. Helminth mean intensity was highest for O. tricuspis (285.8), followed by D. caninum (42.4), J. pasqualei (14.4), A. tubaeforme (8.1) and T. cati (5.9). The prevalence and variety of parasites found in our sampling are substantially higher than the numbers previously reported in Portugal. Some of the parasites, including T. cati and A. tubaeforme, are zoonotic, which emphasizes the need for parasite control strategies based on demographic containment of stray cat populations in urban areas to promote public health protection.

  9. Pilot study to evaluate the role of Mycoplasma species in cat bite abscesses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres-Henderson, Camille; Hesser, Jeff; Hyatt, Doreene R; Hawley, Jennifer; Brewer, Melissa; Lappin, Michael R

    2014-12-01

    Mycoplasma species are common inhabitants of the feline oral cavity, and so likely contaminate many cat bite abscesses. The objectives of this study were to determine whether Mycoplasma species are common contaminants of cat bite abscesses and whether they are are associated with β-lactam-resistant clinical disease. Twenty-six privately owned cats with clinical evidence of an abscess suspected to be from a cat bite were included in the study. Samples from each cat were evaluated by aerobic and anaerobic culture, as well as Mycoplasma species culture and polymerase chain reaction (PCR). All cats were initially treated with appropriate wound management and were administered an antibiotic of the β-lactam class (amoxicillin, amoxicillin clavulanate or cefovecin sodium). Mycoplasma species DNA was amplified by PCR from 4/26 samples (15.4%); one of these cases was concurrently culture positive. Adequate DNA for sequencing was present for 2/4 positive PCR samples; one was most homologous with Mycoplasma felis, and the other was most homologous with Mycoplasma equigenitalium and Mycoplasma elephantis. Of the 26 cats, 25 responded to the initial treatment by day 7. The cat that failed initial treatment was positive for M equigenitalium or M elephantis DNA on days 0 and 12, and ultimately responded to administration of enrofloxacin and clindamycin. The results suggest that while Mycoplasma species can contaminate cat bite abscesses, routine wound management and β-lactam antibiotic therapy is adequate for treatment in most cases of abscess. However, as Mycoplasma species infections do not respond to β-lactam class antibiotic therapy, these organisms should be on the differential list for cats with abscesses that fail treatment with this antibiotic class.

  10. Molecular evidence for the presence of Rickettsia Felis in the feces of wild-living African apes.

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    Alpha Kabinet Keita

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Rickettsia felis is a common emerging pathogen detected in mosquitoes in sub-Saharan Africa. We hypothesized that, as with malaria, great apes may be exposed to the infectious bite of infected mosquitoes and release R. felis DNA in their feces. METHODS: We conducted a study of 17 forest sites in Central Africa, testing 1,028 fecal samples from 313 chimpanzees, 430 gorillas and 285 bonobos. The presence of rickettsial DNA was investigated by specific quantitative real-time PCR. Positive results were confirmed by a second PCR using primers and a probe targeting a specific gene for R. felis. All positive samples were sequenced. RESULTS: Overall, 113 samples (11% were positive for the Rickettsia-specific gltA gene, including 25 (22% that were positive for R. felis. The citrate synthase (gltA sequence and outer membrane protein A (ompA sequence analysis indicated 99% identity at the nucleotide level to R. felis. The 88 other samples (78% were negative using R. felis-specific qPCR and were compatible with R. felis-like organisms. CONCLUSION: For the first time, we detected R. felis in wild-living ape feces. This non invasive detection of human pathogens in endangered species opens up new possibilities in the molecular epidemiology and evolutionary analysis of infectious diseases, beside HIV and malaria.

  11. Brainstem acoustic areas in the marine catfish, Arius felis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCormick, C A

    2001-03-01

    The marine catfish Arius felis produces low frequency sounds for communication and obstacle detection. It was hypothesized that the utriculus of the inner ear might play an important role in these behaviors. In the current study, brainstem acoustic areas were studied to reveal possible neuroanatomical specializations in utricular processing areas. The first-order octaval nuclei in Arius were identical in number, anatomical characteristics, and organization of saccular, lagenar, and utricular inputs to previous reports of these features in Ictalurus, a closely related species of catfish that does not exhibit the specialized acoustic behaviors present in Arius. Similarly, injections of neural tracer in the acoustic midbrain (nucleus centralis) of Arius revealed afferent and retrograde pathways almost identical to those previously reported in Ictalurus. It is suggested that areas within the primary and higher-order octaval nuclei that utilize utricular input in acoustic processing are likely identical in Arius and Ictalurus. Two sets of higher-order connections in Arius differ from those in Ictalurus. First, Arius apparently lacks the direct input from the anterior octaval nucleus to nucleus centralis reported in Ictalurus. Second, in Arius nucleus centralis projects bilaterally to a strip of neurons positioned ventral to the ventral boundary of the torus semicircularis. This projection is apparently absent in Ictalurus and in the related species Carassius (goldfish), but has been previously reported in Porichthyes, a sound-producing species belonging to a different teleost taxon.

  12. A Catalogue of Anatomical Fugitive Sheets: Cat. 1-10

    OpenAIRE

    1999-01-01

    Images Cat. 1 Cat. 2 (a) Cat. 2 (b) Cat. 2 (c) Cat. 2 (d) Cat. 2 (e) Cat. 2 (f) Cat. 3: 1 (a) Cat. 3: 1 (b) Cat. 3: 2 (a) Cat. 3: 2 (b) Cat. 4: 1 Cat. 4: 2 Cat. 6: 1 (a) Cat. 6: 1 (b) Cat. 6: 2 (a) Cat. 6: 2 (b) Cat. 7: 1 (a) Cat. 7: 1 (b) Cat. 7: 2 (a) Cat. 7: 2 (b) Cat. 8: 1 Cat. 9: 1 Cat. 9: 2 Cat. 10: 1 Cat. 10: 2

  13. Prophylactic treatment of flea-infested cats with an imidacloprid/flumethrin collar to forestall infection with Dipylidium caninum

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    Fourie Josephus J

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The objective of the study was to determine the sustained effectiveness of 10% imidacloprid (w/w and 4.5% flumethrin (w/w incorporated in a slow-release matrix collar in preventing Dipylidium caninum infection in cats following repeated laboratory-infestations with fleas infected with metacestodes. Methods Efficacy against infection with D. caninum was evaluated by infesting 16 cats with the flea Ctenocephalides felis felis infected with metacestodes of the tapeworm. Medicated collars were fitted to 8 of the cats and infestation of each cat with 200 fleas from a suitably infected batch commenced 7 days later and continued at weekly intervals until Day 28. Efficacy against fleas was evaluated 24 h after each infestation. Infection of the cats with D. caninum was verified by daily examination of the cats’ faeces and immediate surroundings for proglottids from Day 21 to Day 60. Calculation of the prophylactic effectiveness of the collars in preventing infection of the cats with D. caninum was based on the difference in the geometric mean number of scoleces recovered from the gastrointestinal tracts of collared compared to untreated cats at necropsy on Day 61. Results Efficacy of the collars against infestation of the cats with fleas was 99.9% on Day 7 and 100% at each subsequent weekly assessment. Infection of the fleas with metacestodes was ≥40% in 7 to 13 day old fleas, but progressively decreased thereafter. At necropsy all the control cats were infected with D. caninum and harboured between 19 and 346 scoleces with a geometric mean of 58.3. A single treated cat was infected and harboured 2 scoleces. Effective prevention of infection with D. caninum, based on a comparison of the geometric mean numbers of scoleces recovered from control and treated cats, was 99.7%. Conclusion The insecticidal components of the medicated collars are capable of rapidly eliminating newly-acquired infestations of fleas that are infected

  14. Efficacy of an imidacloprid/flumethrin collar against fleas and ticks on cats

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    Stanneck Dorothee

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The objectives of the studies listed here were to ascertain the therapeutic and sustained efficacy of 10% imidacloprid (w/w and 4.5% flumethrin (w/w incorporated in a slow-release matrix collar, against laboratory-infestations of fleas and ticks on cats. Efficacy was evaluated against the flea Ctenocephalides felis felis, and the ticks Ixodes ricinus, Amblyomma americanum and Rhipicephalus turanicus. The number of studies was so large that only a general overview can be presented in this abstract. Methods Preventive efficacy was evaluated by infesting groups of cats (n = 8-10 with C. felis felis and/or I. ricinus, A. americanum or R. turanicus at monthly intervals at least, for a period of up to 8 months. Efficacy against fleas was evaluated 24 to 48 h after treatment and 24 h after infestation, and against ticks at 6 h (repellent or 48 h (acaricidal after infestation. Efficacy against flea larvae was evaluated over a period of 8 months by incubating viable flea eggs on blanket samples after cat contact. In all cases efficacy was calculated by comparison with untreated negative control groups. Results Efficacy against fleas (24 h generally exceeded 95% until study termination. In vitro efficacy against flea larvae exceeded 92% until Day 90 and then declined to 67% at the conclusion of the study on Day 230. Sustained acaricidal (48 h efficacy over a period of eight months was consistently 100% against I. ricinus from Day 2 after treatment, 100% against A. americanum, except for 98.5% and 97.7% at two time-points, and between 94% and 100% against R. turanicus. From Day 2 until 8 months after treatment the repellent (6 h, efficacy was consistently 100% against I. ricinus, and between 54.8% and 85.4% against R. turanicus. Conclusion The rapid insecticidal and acaricidal properties of the medicated collars against newly- acquired infestations of fleas and ticks and their sustained high levels of preventive efficacy have been

  15. A Catalogue of Anatomical Fugitive Sheets: Cat. 11-25

    OpenAIRE

    1999-01-01

    Images Cat. 11 (a) Cat. 11 (b) Cat. 11 (c) Cat. 11 (d) Cat. 12: 1 (a) Cat. 12: 1 (b) Cat. 12: 2 (a) Cat. 12: 2 (b) Cat. 13 Cat. 14 (a) Cat. 14 (b) Cat. 14 (c) Cat. 15 (a) Cat. 15 (b) Cat. 17: 1 Cat. 17: 2 Cat. 18: 1 Cat. 18: 2 Cat. 19: 1 (a) Cat. 19: 1 (b) Cat. 19: 2 (a) Cat. 19: 2 (b) Cat. 20: 1 Cat. 20: 2 (a) Cat. 20: 2 (b) Cat. 21 (a) Cat. 21 (b) Cat. 21 (c) Cat. 21 (d) Cat. 21 (e) Cat. 22 Cat. 24: 1 and 2 Cat. 25: 1 Cat. 25: 2 Cat. 25: 3 Cat. 25: 4

  16. Helminth parasites of cats from the Vientiane Province, Laos, as indicators of the occurrence of causative agents of human parasitoses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scholz T.

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available A total of 55 domestic cats (Felis calus f. domestico and one wild (Bengal cat (Prionailurus bengalensis from the Vientiane Province, central Laos, were examined for helminth parasites with emphasis given to potential human parasites. The following species were found (parasites infective to man marked with an asterisk: Opisthorchis viverrini*, Haplorchis pumilio*,H. laichui*,H. yokogawai*, Stellantchasmus falcatus* (Digenea; Spirometra sp.*, Dipylidium caninum*, Taenia taeniaeformis (Cestoda; Capillariidae gen. sp., Toxocara canis*, T. cati*, Ancylostoma ceylanicum*, A. tubaeforme, Gnathostoma spinigerum*, Physaloptera preputials (Nematoda; and Oncicola sp. (Acanthocephala. This study demonstrated that examination of cats may provide useful data on the occurrence of helminths which are potential causative agents of human diseases.

  17. Cat scratch encephalopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silver, B E; Bean, C S

    1991-06-01

    Cat scratch disease is usually benign, self-limited and without sequelae. Margileth has established four clinical criteria, three of which must be satisfied to make the diagnosis: 1) a history of animal exposure, usually kitten, with primary skin or ocular lesions; 2) regional chronic adenopathy without other apparent cause; 3) a positive cat scratch disease antigen skin test; and 4) lymph node biopsy demonstrating noncaseating granulomas and germinal center hyperplasia. Central nervous system involvement in cat scratch disease has been previously reported, although it is extremely uncommon. In a several-month period, we encountered two cases of cat scratch disease complicated by encephalopathy. The intents of this paper are twofold: 1) to briefly review the current literature on cat scratch disease, 2) to demonstrate that cat scratch disease complicated by encephalopathy presents acutely with seizures, posturing and coma and resolves rapidly with supportive care.

  18. INFECTION BY Rickettsia felis IN OPOSSUMS (Didelphis sp. FROM YUCATAN, MEXICO

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    Gaspar PENICHE-LARA

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Rickettsia felis is an emergent pathogen and the causative agent of a typhus-like rickettsiosis in the Americas. Its transmission cycle involves fleas as biological vectors (mainly Ctenocephalides felis and multiple domestic and synanthropic mammal hosts. Nonetheless, the role of mammals in the cycle of R. felis is not well understood and many efforts are ongoing in different countries of America to clarify it. The present study describes for the first time in Mexico the infection of two species of opossum (Didelphis virginiana and D. marsupialis by R. felis. A diagnosis was carried out from blood samples by molecular methods through the gltAand 17 kDa genes and sequence determination. Eighty-seven opossum samples were analyzed and 28 were found to be infected (32.1% from five out of the six studied localities of Yucatan. These findings enable recognition of the potential epidemiological implications for public health of the presence of infected synanthropic Didelphis in households.

  19. Possible Role of Rickettsia felis in Acute Febrile Illness among Children in Gabon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mourembou, Gaël; Lekana-Douki, Jean Bernard; Mediannikov, Oleg; Nzondo, Sydney Maghendji; Kouna, Lady Charlene; Essone, Jean Claude Biteghe Bi; Fenollar, Florence; Raoult, Didier

    2015-10-01

    Rickettsia felis has been reported to be a cause of fever in sub-Saharan Africa, but this association has been poorly evaluated in Gabon. We assessed the prevalence of this bacterium among children Gabon; the locations were in urban, semiurban, and rural areas. DNA samples from 410 febrile children and 60 afebrile children were analyzed by quantitative PCR. Overall, the prevalence of R. felis among febrile and afebrile children was 10.2% (42/410 children) and 3.3% (2/60 children), respectively. Prevalence differed among febrile children living in areas that are urban (Franceville, 1.3% [1/77]), semiurban (Koulamoutou, 2.1% [3/141]), and rural (Lastourville, 11.2% [15/134]; Fougamou, 39.7% [23/58]). Furthermore, in a rural area (Fougamou), R. felis was significantly more prevalent in febrile (39.7% [23/58]) than afebrile children (5.0% [1/20]). Additional studies are needed to better understand the pathogenic role of R. felis in this part of the world.

  20. Tiger, Bengal and Domestic Cat Embryos Produced by Homospecific and Interspecific Zona-Free Nuclear Transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moro, L N; Jarazo, J; Buemo, C; Hiriart, M I; Sestelo, A; Salamone, D F

    2015-10-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate three different cloning strategies in the domestic cat (Felis silvestris) and to use the most efficient to generate wild felid embryos by interspecific cloning (iSCNT) using Bengal (a hybrid formed by the cross of Felis silvestris and Prionailurus bengalensis) and tiger (Panthera tigris) donor cells. In experiment 1, zona-free (ZP-free) cloning resulted in higher fusion and expanded blastocyst rates with respect to zona included cloning techniques that involved fusion or injection of the donor cell. In experiment 2, ZP-free iSCNT and embryo aggregation (2X) were assessed. Division velocity and blastocyst rates were increased by embryo aggregation in the three species. Despite fewer tiger embryos than Bengal and cat embryos reached the blastocyst stage, Tiger 2X group increased the percentage of blastocysts with respect to Tiger 1X group (3.2% vs 12.1%, respectively). Moreover, blastocyst cell number was almost duplicated in aggregated embryos with respect to non-aggregated ones within Bengal and tiger groups (278.3 ± 61.9 vs 516.8 ± 103.6 for Bengal 1X and Bengal 2X groups, respectively; 41 vs 220 ± 60 for Tiger 1X and Tiger 2X groups, respectively). OCT4 analysis also revealed that tiger blastocysts had higher proportion of OCT4-positive cells with respect to Bengal blastocysts and cat intracytoplasmic sperm injection blastocysts. In conclusion, ZP-free cloning has improved the quality of cat embryos with respect to the other cloning techniques evaluated and was successfully applied in iSCNT complemented with embryo aggregation.

  1. Molecular detection of feline arthropod-borne pathogens in cats in Cuiabá, state of Mato Grosso, central-western region of Brazil

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    Natasha Gandolfi Miceli

    Full Text Available Hemotrophic mycoplasmas (hemoplasmas, Bartonellasp., Hepatozoon sp. and Cytauxzoon felis are prominent pathogens that circulate between cats and invertebrate hosts. The present study aimed to detect the presence of DNA from hemoplasmas,Bartonella sp., Hepatozoon sp. andCytauxzoon felis, and then confirm it by means of sequencing, in blood samples from cats in Cuiabá, MT, Brazil. From February 2009 to February 2011, blood samples with added EDTA were collected from 163 cats that were being housed in four different animal shelters in the city of Cuiabá, state of Mato Grosso, Brazil and from 15 cats that were admitted to the veterinary hospital of the Federal University of Mato Grosso (UFMT. Out of the 178 cats sampled, 15 (8.4% were positive for hemoplasmas: four (2.2% forMycoplasma haemofelis, 12 (6.7% for ‘Candidatus M. haemominutum’ and one (0.5% for ‘Candidatus M. turicensis’. One cat (0.5%, a patient that was attended at the veterinary hospital, was coinfected with M. haemofelis, ‘Candidatus M. haemominutum’ and ‘Candidatus M. turicensis’, based on sequencing confirmation. Four cats were positive for Bartonella spp.: three (1.7% for B. henselae and one (0.5% for B. clarridgeiae. None of the animals showedCytauxzoon sp. or Hepatozoon sp. DNA in their blood samples. This study showed that cats housed in animal shelters in the city of Cuiabá, state of Mato Grosso, are exposed to hemoplasmas andBartonella species.

  2. Molecular detection of Rickettsia felis and Candidatus Rickettsia asemboensis in fleas from human habitats, Asembo, Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Ju; Maina, Alice N; Knobel, Darryn L; Cleaveland, Sarah; Laudisoit, Anne; Wamburu, Kabura; Ogola, Eric; Parola, Philippe; Breiman, Robert F; Njenga, M Kariuki; Richards, Allen L

    2013-08-01

    The flea-borne rickettsioses murine typhus (Rickettsia typhi) and flea-borne spotted fever (FBSF) (Rickettsia felis) are febrile diseases distributed among humans worldwide. Murine typhus has been known to be endemic to Kenya since the 1950s, but FBSF was only recently documented in northeastern (2010) and western (2012) Kenya. To characterize the potential exposure of humans in Kenya to flea-borne rickettsioses, a total of 330 fleas (134 pools) including 5 species (Xenopsylla cheopis, Ctenocephalides felis, Ctenocephalides canis, Pulex irritans, and Echidnophaga gallinacea) were collected from domestic and peridomestic animals and from human dwellings within Asembo, western Kenya. DNA was extracted from the 134 pooled flea samples and 89 (66.4%) pools tested positively for rickettsial DNA by 2 genus-specific quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) assays based upon the citrate synthase (gltA) and 17-kD antigen genes and the Rfelis qPCR assay. Sequences from the 17-kD antigen gene, the outer membrane protein (omp)B, and 2 R. felis plasmid genes (pRF and pRFd) of 12 selected rickettsia-positive samples revealed a unique Rickettsia sp. (n=11) and R. felis (n=1). Depiction of the new rickettsia by multilocus sequence typing (MLST) targeting the 16S rRNA (rrs), 17-kD antigen gene, gltA, ompA, ompB, and surface cell antigen 4 (sca4), shows that it is most closely related to R. felis but genetically dissimilar enough to be considered a separate species provisionally named Candidatus Rickettsia asemboensis. Subsequently, 81 of the 134 (60.4%) flea pools tested positively for Candidatus Rickettsia asemboensis by a newly developed agent-specific qPCR assay, Rasemb. R. felis was identified in 9 of the 134 (6.7%) flea pools, and R. typhi the causative agent of murine typhus was not detected in any of 78 rickettsia-positive pools assessed using a species-specific qPCR assay, Rtyph. Two pools were found to contain both R. felis and Candidatus Rickettsia asemboensis DNA and 1 pool

  3. Enteric protozoa of cats and their zoonotic potential-a field study from Austria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinney, Barbara; Ederer, Christina; Stengl, Carina; Wilding, Katrin; Štrkolcová, Gabriela; Harl, Josef; Flechl, Eva; Fuehrer, Hans-Peter; Joachim, Anja

    2015-05-01

    Domestic cats can be infected with a variety of enteric protozoa. Genotyping of protozoan species, especially Giardia as the most common, can improve assessment of their relevance as zoonotic agents. For an overview on the occurrence of feline enteric protozoa, 298 faecal samples of cats from private households, catteries and animal shelters in Austria were collected. All samples were examined by flotation and using a rapid test for Giardia (FASTest). For the detection of Tritrichomonas blagburni, freshly voided faeces (n = 40) were processed using a commercial culturing system (InPouch TF-Feline). Genotyping was done at the β-giardin gene loci (each sample) and triosephosphate isomerase gene loci (positive samples) for Giardia and at the 18S rRNA gene (positive samples) for Cryptosporidium. Thirty-seven samples (12.4%) were positive for Giardia by flotation and/or using a rapid test. Cryptosporidium was present in 1.7%, Cystoisospora in 4.0%, Sarcocystis in 0.3% and T. blagburni in 2.5% of the samples. Genotyping revealed Giardia cati, the potentially zoonotic Giardia duodenalis and Cryptosporidium felis. Most of the infected cats had no diarrhoea. Cats from shelters were significantly more often infected than owned cats (p = 0.01). When comparing Giardia detection methods, the rapid test had a higher sensitivity than flotation. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) results were mostly independent from the other two tests.

  4. Cat-scratch disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... scratch or bite from a cat, your health care provider may suspect cat-scratch disease. A physical examination may also reveal an enlarged spleen . Sometimes, an infected lymph node may form a tunnel ( fistula ) through the skin and drain (leak fluid). This ...

  5. Hyperadrenocorticism in a cat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zerbe, C A; Nachreiner, R F; Dunstan, R W; Dalley, J B

    1987-03-01

    A diabetic cat with hyperadrenocorticism had polydipsia, polyuria, ventral abdominal alopecia, thin dry skin, and a pendulous abdomen. Results of laboratory testing indicated persistent resting hypercortisolemia, hyperresponsiveness of the adrenal glands (increased cortisol concentration) to ACTH gel, and no suppression of cortisol concentrations after administration of dexamethasone at 0.01 or 1.0 mg/kg of body weight. Necropsy revealed a pituitary gland tumor, bilateral adrenal hyperplasia, hepatic neoplasia, and demodicosis. Adrenal gland function was concurrently assessed in 2 cats with diabetes mellitus. One cat had resting hypercortisolemia, and both had hyperresponsiveness to ACTH gel (increased cortisol concentration) at one hour. After administration of dexamethasone (0.01 and 1.0 mg/kg), the diabetic cats appeared to have normal suppression of cortisol concentrations. The effects of mitotane were investigated in 4 clinically normal cats. Adrenocortical suppression of cortisol production occurred in 2 of 4 cats after dosages of 25, 37, and 50 mg/kg. Three cats remained clinically normal throughout the study. One cat experienced vomiting, diarrhea, and anorexia.

  6. Cat-Scratch Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... bites and scratches well with soap and running water. Do not allow cats to lick your wounds. Contact your doctor if you develop any symptoms of cat-scratch disease or infection. CSD is caused by a bacterium called Bartonella henselae . About 40% ...

  7. That Fat Cat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambert, Phyllis Gilchrist

    2012-01-01

    This activity began with a picture book, Nurit Karlin's "Fat Cat On a Mat" (HarperCollins; 1998). The author and her students started their project with a 5-inch circular template for the head of their cats. They reviewed shapes as they drew the head and then added the ears and nose, which were triangles. Details to the face were added when…

  8. Cat scratch colon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Rebollo, M Lourdes; Velayos-Jiménez, Benito; Prieto de Paula, José María; Alvarez Quiñones, María; González Hernández, José Manuel

    2011-01-01

    Over the past few years, we have read several publications regarding the term "cat scratch colon." This neologism was developed to define some bright red linear markings seen in the colonic mucosa that resemble scratches made by a cat. We would like to communicate a recent case attended at our institution.

  9. Cat Scratch Colon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Lourdes Ruiz-Rebollo

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Over the past few years, we have read several publications regarding the term “cat scratch colon.” This neologism was developed to define some bright red linear markings seen in the colonic mucosa that resemble scratches made by a cat. We would like to communicate a recent case attended at our institution.

  10. State of cat genomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, Stephen J; Johnson, Warren; Driscoll, Carlos; Pontius, Joan; Pecon-Slattery, Jill; Menotti-Raymond, Marilyn

    2008-06-01

    Our knowledge of cat family biology was recently expanded to include a genomics perspective with the completion of a draft whole genome sequence of an Abyssinian cat. The utility of the new genome information has been demonstrated by applications ranging from disease gene discovery and comparative genomics to species conservation. Patterns of genomic organization among cats and inbred domestic cat breeds have illuminated our view of domestication, revealing linkage disequilibrium tracks consequent of breed formation, defining chromosome exchanges that punctuated major lineages of mammals and suggesting ancestral continental migration events that led to 37 modern species of Felidae. We review these recent advances here. As the genome resources develop, the cat is poised to make a major contribution to many areas in genetics and biology.

  11. Comparative study of aural microflora in healthy cats, allergic cats and cats with systemic disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pressanti, Charline; Drouet, Clémence; Cadiergues, Marie-Christine

    2014-12-01

    Twenty healthy cats (group 1) with clinically normal ears, 15 cats with systemic disease (group 2) and 15 allergic cats (group 3) were included in a prospective study. The experimental unit was the ear. A clinical score was established for each ear canal after otoscopic examination. Microbial population was assessed on cytological examination of smears performed with the cotton-tipped applicator smear technique. Fungal population was significantly more prominent in allergic cats (P cats compared with healthy cats (P cats than in healthy cats (P cats suffering from systemic disease (P cats with systemic disease than healthy cats. In cats from group 2, only fungal overgrowth was associated with otitis severity. In group 3, only bacterial overgrowth was associated with otitis severity.

  12. Clinical and laboratorial evidence of Rickettsia felis infections in Latin America Evidência clínica e laboratorial de infecções por Rickettsia felis na América Latina

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    Márcio Antônio Moreira Galvão

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available After the discovery and initial characterization of Rickettsia felis in 1992 by Azad and cols, and the subsequent first description of a human case of infection in 1994, there have been two communications of human rickettsiosis cases caused by Rickettsia felis in Latin America. The first one was published in 2000 by Zavala-Velazquez and cols in Mexico. In 2001 Raoult and cols described the occurrence of two human cases of Rickettsia felis rickettsiosis in Brazil. In the present discussion these two articles were compared and after the description of the principal signs and symptoms, it was concluded that more studies are needed with descriptions of a greater number of patients to establish the true frequency of the clinical signs and symptoms present in Rickettsia felis rickettsiosis.Depois da descoberta e caracterização inicial da Rickettsia felis em 1992 por Azad e cols, e à descrição subseqüente do primeiro caso de infecção humana em 1994, houveram duas comunicações de rickettsioses causadas por Rickettsia felis na América Latina. A primeira foi feita por Zavala-Velazquez e cols em 2000 no México. Em 2001, Raoult e cols descreveram a ocorrência de dois casos humanos de rickettsiose por Rickettsia felis no Brasil. Na presente discussão, esses dois artigos foram comparados, e depois da descrição dos principais sinais e sintomas, conclui-se que outros estudos são necessários, com a participação de um maior número de pacientes, para se estabelecer a verdadeira freqüência dos sinais clínicos e sintomas presentes nas rickettsioses por Rickettsia felis.

  13. Effect of interactions with humans on behaviour, mucosal immunity and upper respiratory disease of shelter cats rated as contented on arrival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gourkow, Nadine; Phillips, Clive J C

    2015-10-01

    Sustained positive affect may decrease vulnerability to upper respiratory infections in cats admitted to a shelter. Incidence of upper respiratory infections was examined in cats rated as Content upon admission to an animal shelter when provided with or without treatment to sustain contentment. Ninety-six cats rated as Content upon admission were provided with either human interaction, including petting, playing, and grooming, in four 10min sessions/d for 10 days or were exposed to a control treatment of a human standing in front of the cage with eyes averted for the same period. Changes in emotional state and mucosal immune responses were measured daily in treated and control groups. Infectious status was determined upon admission and on days 4 and 10 using combined conjunctival and oropharyngeal swab specimens tested by quantitative real-time PCR for feline herpes virus type 1, feline calicivirus, Mycoplasma felis, Chlamydophila felis, and Bordetella bronchiseptica. The onset of upper respiratory disease (URD) was determined by veterinary staff based on clinical signs, including ocular or nasal discharge. Treated cats were more likely to remain Content (Incident Rate Ratio [IRR]:1.13, Confidence Interval: 0.98-1.30, P <0.0001) and less likely to be rated as Anxious or Frustrated than Control cats over a 10 day period (IRR: 0.61, 95% CI: 0.42-0.88, P =0.007). Feline secretory IgA (S-IgA) quantified in faeces by ELISA techniques, was greater for Treated than Control cats (1451 Vs 846μg/g). Within the Treatment group, S-IgA was greater for cats that sustained Contentment throughout the study period compared to cats that became Anxious or Frustrated (1846 Vs 1394μg/g). An increasing proportion of Control than Treated cats shed pathogens over time (Control 22%, 36%, 61%; Treated 35%, 26%, 32% on d 1, 4 and 10, respectively; P =0.006). Control cats were more likely to develop URD than Treated cats (HR 2.9, CI: 1.30-6.67, P =0.01). Cats that responded positively to

  14. Prevalence and genetic characteristics of Cryptosporidium, Enterocytozoon bieneusi and Giardia duodenalis in cats and dogs in Heilongjiang province, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wei; Li, Yijing; Song, Mingxin; Lu, Yixin; Yang, Jinping; Tao, Wei; Jiang, Yanxue; Wan, Qiang; Zhang, Siwen; Xiao, Lihua

    2015-03-15

    This study investigated 319 fecal specimens of cats (n=52) and dogs (n=267) from Heilongjiang province, China for the prevalence and genetic characteristics of Cryptosporidium, Enterocytozoon bieneusi, and Giardia duodenalis. PCR and DNA sequence analysis of the small subunit rRNA gene identified C. felis and C. parvum in one cat each (3.8%) and C. canis and C. ubiquitum in 6 dogs (2.2%). Polymorphisms in the ribosomal internal transcribed spacer and phylogenetic analysis characterized zoonotic E. bieneusi genotypes D, EbpC, NED1, and NED2 and host-adapted ones NED3, NED4, and PtEb IX in 18 dogs (6.7%) and human-pathogenic genotypes D and IV in 3 cats (5.8%). Genotyping based on the hypermutation of G. duodenalis triosephosphate isomerase gene (TPI) facilitated identification of assemblage F in a cat (1.9%) and assemblages C and E in 12 dogs (4.5%). Subtypes of G. duodenalis isolates were determined by measuring the diversity of both TPI nucleotide and amino acid sequences. C. canis, C. felis, C. parvum, E. bieneusi genotypes D, EbpC, and IV, and G. duodenalis assemblage C identified herein have been documented in human infections in China. C. canis, C. parvum, C. ubiquitum, and E. bieneusi genotypes D, EbpC, and IV carried by cats or dogs also existed in wastewater in China. The finding suggested pet animals could be reservoirs for human cryptosporidiosis, microsporidiosis, and giardiasis and potential sources of water contamination in China.

  15. Giardia infection in cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janeczko, Stephanie; Griffin, Brenda

    2010-08-01

    The protozoon Giardia duodenalis is a common gastrointestinal parasite of cats. While most Giardia-infected cats are asymptomatic, acute small bowel diarrhea, occasionally with concomitant weight loss, may occur. Giardia poses a diagnostic challenge, but newer tests, including a commercially available ELISA kit, have improved clinicians' ability to obtain an accurate diagnosis. Several treatment options have been reported, and although none has been shown to be universally effective, most cases can be successfully managed with drug therapy, supportive measures, and environmental control. Current recommendations suggest that combination therapy with fenbendazole and metronidazole may be the safest, most effective treatment option for symptomatic cats.

  16. Desenvolvimento dos fungos Metarhizium anisopliae (Metschnikoff, 1879 Sorokin, 1883 E Beauveria bassiana (Balsamo Vuillemin, 1912 sobre Ctenocephalides felis felis (Bouché, 1835 Development of the fungi Metarhizium anisopliae (Metschnikoff, 1879 Sorokin, 1883 and Beauveria bassiana (Balsamo Vuillemin, 1912 on the Ctenophephalides felis felis (Bouché, 1835

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise R. De Melo

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available A pulga Ctenocephalides felis felis é um parasita causador dermatites alérgicas e também pode transmitir diversos agentes etiológicos aos animais domésticos e aos homens. O objetivo deste trabalho foi verificar o desenvolvimento do fungo sobre a cutícula da pulga, através da microscopia eletrônica de varredura. Os isolados fúngicos testados foram o Metarhizium anisopliae 959 e Beauveria bassiana 986, ambos na concentração 10(8 conídios/ml. Após a exposição dos isolados fúngicos no período de duas, 15, 26 e 96 horas , o material foi processado para a microscopia eletrônica de varredura. Com a obtenção das micrografias, pode-se observar que com 2 horas após exposição aos fungos, os conídios estavam aderidos por toda a cutícula, situando-se preferencialmente nas membranas intersegmentais do abdome. Com 15 horas observou-se a formação do tubo de germinação e a cabeça do apressório e após 26 horas foi possível observar as ramificações e o engrossamento das hifas sobre a cutícula das pulgas. Os resultados indicam que os fungos testados foram capazes de se desenvolver sobre a cutícula de C. f. felis.The flea Ctenocephalides felis felis is a parasite that causes allergic dermatitis and also may transmit etiologic agents to domestic animals and humans. This study investigated by scanning electron microscopy the development of entomopathogenic fungi on flea cuticle. Fleas were exposed to conidia (10(8 ml-1 of Metarhizium anisopliae (isolate 959 or Beauveria bassiana (isolate 986. Following standard protocols for electron microscopy, the specimens were prepared 2, 15, 26 and 96 h after infection. The micrography revealed that 2 h after fungus exposure, conidia attachments encompassed the entire flea cuticle, especially on abdominal intersegmental membranes. The emergence of germ tubes and appressoria formation occurred at 15 h, thickening and branching of hyphae on the flea cuticle was noted at 26 h. Therefore, both of

  17. Morphological variability of Demodex cati in a feline immunodeficiency virus-positive cat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taffin, Elien R L; Casaert, Stijn; Claerebout, Edwin; Vandekerkhof, Thomas J J; Vandenabeele, Sophie

    2016-12-01

    CASE DESCRIPTION A 17-year-old FIV-positive cat was evaluated because of weight loss during the preceding few months. The cat had a weight loss of 0.5 kg (1.1 lb) during the last month. Because of its FIV-positive status, the cat was confined indoors. CLINICAL FINDINGS A large nonpruritic area of alopecia with hyperpigmentation and comedones was present on the right lateral aspect of the neck. The chin had diffuse alopecia and comedones. Mild alopecia was present on the dorsal aspect of the muzzle. Trichography and microscopic examination of acetate tape imprint preparations and skin scrapings revealed a very morphologically heterogeneous population of Demodex mites. Micrometry of adult mites revealed a broad range of body lengths (92.68 to 245.94 μm), which suggested that as many as 3 Demodex spp might be present in the skin lesions of this cat. TREATMENT AND OUTCOME Owing to its concurrent disease, no treatment was initiated for the demodicosis, and the cat died spontaneously 14 days after the evaluation. Sequence analysis of the 16S rRNA gene of collected mites was performed. Analysis revealed that the 16S rRNA gene sequence of collected mites appeared 100% identical to the Demodex cati 16S rRNA gene sequence deposited in GenBank (JX193759). A similarity of 79.2% and 74.4% was found when the 16S rRNA gene sequence of collected mites was compared with that of Demodex gatoi (JX981921) and Demodex felis (KF052995), respectively. CLINICAL RELEVANCE Demodicosis in cats is often associated with underlying disease. In cats, FIV infection may lead to an altered immune response and induce species polymorphism of Demodex mites.

  18. Applying embryo cryopreservation technologies to the production of domestic and black-footed cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pope, C E; Gómez, M C; Galiguis, J; Dresser, B l

    2012-12-01

    Our objectives were (i) compare in vitro development of early cleavage stage domestic cat embryos after cryopreservation by minimal volume vitrification vs a standard slow, controlled-rate method, (ii) determine viability of vitrified domestic cat embryos by oviductal transfer into synchronous recipients and (iii) evaluate in vivo survival of black-footed cat (BFC, Felis nigripes) embryos after intra- and inter-species transfer. In vitro-derived (IVM/IVF) cat embryos were used to evaluate in vitro development after controlled-rate cryopreservation vs vitrification vs controls. Blastocyst development was similar in both groups of cryopreserved embryos (22-26%), but it was lower (p pregnancies--three of six (50%) and one of two (50%) that received embryos from in vivo- and in vitro-matured oocytes, respectively. Three male and two female kittens weighing from 51 to 124 g (mean = 88 g) were delivered on days 61-65 of gestation. In BFC, four intra-species embryo transfer procedures were carried out--two recipients received fresh day 2 embryos (n = 5, 8) and two recipients received embryos that had been cryopreserved on day 1 (n = 6) or 2 (n = 8). A 2-year-old recipient of cryopreserved embryos established pregnancy and delivered two live male kittens. Subsequently, five cryopreserved BFC embryos were transferred to a domestic cat recipient. On day 29, the recipient was determined to be pregnant and delivered naturally a live, healthy female BFC kitten on day 66. In summary, in vivo survival of vitrified domestic cat embryos was shown by the births of kittens after transfer into recipients. Also, we demonstrated that sperm and embryo cryopreservation could be combined with intra- and inter-species embryo transfer and integrated into the array of assisted reproductive techniques used successfully for propagation of a rare and vulnerable felid species, the black-footed cat.

  19. Evaluation of "Helicobacter heilmannii" subtypes in the gastric mucosas of cats and dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Priestnall, Simon L; Wiinberg, Bo; Spohr, Anette; Neuhaus, Britta; Kuffer, Manuela; Wiedmann, Martin; Simpson, Kenneth W

    2004-05-01

    Infection with candidatus "Helicobacter heilmannii" is associated with gastritis and mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma in people. Infection with "H. heilmannii" type 1 predominates (80%) and is thought to be acquired from dogs, cats, or pigs. We further examined the zoonotic potential of dogs and cats by amplifying gastric DNA from cats (n = 45) and dogs (n = 10) with primers against "H. heilmannii" ureB and 16S rRNA genes and sequencing the products. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) with eubacterial and "H. heilmannii"-specific probes was employed to directly visualize "H. heilmannii" types and their intragastric distribution. ureB sequences of "H. heilmannii" amplicons clustered with human and feline isolates of "H. heilmannii" and were distinct from the "H. heilmannii"-like organisms (HHLO) H. felis, H. salomonis, and H. bizzozeronii. 16S ribosomal DNA sequences in 20 "H. heilmannii"-infected cats and dogs were distinct from "H. heilmannii" type 1 and "H. suis" and clustered with "H. heilmannii" types 2 and 4. FISH confirmed the presence of "H. heilmannii" types 2 and 4 in dogs but failed to definitively characterize the "H. heilmannii" types present in cats. In infected dogs, "H. heilmannii" inhabited the gastric mucus and glands, and in dogs coinfected with other HHLO it shared the same gastric niche. The results indicate that dogs and cats are predominantly colonized by "H. heilmannii" bacteria that are distinct from type 1 and from "H. suis." As "H. heilmannii" type 1 predominates in people, the zoonotic risk posed by dogs and cats is likely small.

  20. StreamCat

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The StreamCat Dataset provides summaries of natural and anthropogenic landscape features for ~2.65 million streams, and their associated catchments, within the...

  1. IndexCat

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — IndexCat provides access to the digitized version of the printed Index-Catalogue of the Library of the Surgeon General's Office; eTK for medieval Latin texts; and...

  2. Cat tongue Velcro

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noel, Alexis; Martinez, Andrea; Jung, Hyewon; Tsai, Ting-Wen; Hu, David

    2016-11-01

    A cat's tongue is covered in an array of spines called papillae. These spines are thought to be used in grooming and rasping meat from bones of prey, although no mechanism has been given. We use high-speed video to film a cat removing cat food deeply wedged into a 3-D printed fur mat. We show that the spines on the tongue act as Velcro for particles. The tongue itself is highly elastic. As the cat presses it against a substrate, the tongue flattens and the spines separate. When the tongue is removed from the substrate the spines come together, wedging particles between them. This elasticity-driven entrapment permits the surface of the tongue to act as a carrier for hard to reach particles, and to increase the efficacy of grooming and feeding.

  3. Origem, ramificação e distribuição fascicular do nervo radial no braço do gato doméstico (Felis catus domesticus, Linnaeus, 1758)

    OpenAIRE

    Guimarães, Gregório Corrêa

    2004-01-01

    Estudou-se a origem, a distribuição e a ramificação do nervo radial de 35 gatos domésticos adultos, 17 machos e 18 fêmeas, sem raça definida, mediante dissecações macro e mesoscópicas, após a fixação dos espécimes em solução aquosa de formaldeído a 10 %, e também realizou-se o exame histológico do referido nervo. O nervo radial mostrou-se polifasciculado desde sua origem até a divisão em ramos superficial e profundo. Originou-se do C6 ao T1 em 30 % dos exemplares e do C7 ao T1 em 70 % dos exe...

  4. Estudo retrospectivo das afecções orais em 754 felinos domésticos (Felis catus) atendidos no Laboratório de Odontologia Comparada da Universidade de São Paulo

    OpenAIRE

    Mariana Suemi Fugita

    2016-01-01

    Objetivou-se fazer um estudo retrospectivo avaliando quais as afecções da cavidade oral foram mais frequentes nos gatos domésticos atendidos no Laboratório de Odontologia Comparada da Faculdade de Medicina Veterinária e Zootecnia da Universidade de São Paulo, relatando estatisticamente a prevalência das afecções da cavidade oral de gatos, enfatizando se há correlação entre elas e com características como raça, sexo, faixa etária e estado reprodutivo. Os dados analisados dos 754 prontuários fo...

  5. Efecto del fotoperíodo y de la administración de melatonina sobre la producción espermática en el gato doméstico (Felis silvestris catus)

    OpenAIRE

    Núñez Favre, Romina de los Ángeles

    2013-01-01

    En el felino doméstico, la estacionalidad ovulatoria y estral de la hembra ocurre durante los días que presentan más de 12 h luz. Sin embargo, la estacionalidad reproductiva del gato ha sido definida recientemente. El objetivo de esta tesis fue estudiar el efecto del fotoperiodo natural, el manejo lumínico artificial y la administración de melatonina sobre la producción espermática en el gato doméstico. En el primer estudio se evaluó el efecto del fotoperiodo natural sobre la morfología testi...

  6. Rickettsia typhi and Rickettsia felis in Xenopsylla cheopis and Leptopsylla segnis parasitizing rats in Cyprus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christou, Christos; Psaroulaki, Anna; Antoniou, Maria; Toumazos, Pavlos; Ioannou, Ioannis; Mazeris, Apostolos; Chochlakis, Dimosthenis; Tselentis, Yannis

    2010-12-01

    Fleas collected from rats during a three-year period (2000-2003) in 51 areas of all provinces of Cyprus were tested by molecular analysis to characterize the prevalence and identity of fleaborne rickettsiae. Rickettsia typhi, the causative agent of murine typhus, was detected in Xenopsylla cheopis (4%) and in Leptopsylla segnis (6.6%). Rickettsia felis was detected in X. cheopis (1%). This is the first report of R. typhi in X. cheopis and L. segnis from rats, in Cyprus, and the first report of R. felis in X. cheopis in Europe. The role of fleas (mainly X. cheopis) was confirmed in the epidemiologic cycle of murine typhus in Cyprus by interrelation of current results with those of previous studies. The geographic distribution of fleas coincided with the geographic distribution of the pathogen they can harbor, which emphasizes the potential risk of flea-transmitted infections in Cyprus.

  7. Progress in research of Rickettsia felis%猫立克次体研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘杨; 杨雨; 陈萍; 赵锋; 钟玮

    2015-01-01

    猫立克次体(Rickettsia felis)可以引起蚤传斑点热(Flea-Borne Spotted Fever,FBSF),主要传播媒介是猫蚤(Ctenocephalides felis).自上世纪90年代首次发现以来,已被证实分布于地球上除南极以外的各大洲.本文对猫立克次体的传播媒介、检测方法以及基因组学研究进展进行了综述,并讨论了在全球气候变化的背景下,开展猫立克次体研究的重要意义.

  8. Weak Cat-Operads

    CERN Document Server

    Dosen, K

    2010-01-01

    An operad (this paper deals with non-symmetric operads) may be conceived as a partial algebra with a family of insertion operations, Gerstenhaber's circle-i products, which satisfy two kinds of associativity, one of them involving commutativity. A Cat-operad is an operad enriched over the category Cat of small categories, as a 2-category with small hom-categories is a category enriched over Cat. The notion of weak Cat-operad is to the notion of Cat-operad what the notion of bicategory is to the notion of 2-category. The equations of operads like associativity of insertions are replaced by isomorphisms in a category. The goal of this paper is to formulate conditions concerning these isomorphisms that ensure coherence, in the sense that all diagrams of canonical arrows commute. This is the sense in which the notions of monoidal category and bicategory are coherent. The coherence proof in the paper is much simplified by indexing the insertion operations in a context-independent way, and not in the usual manner. ...

  9. Detection of Rickettsia felis, Rickettsia typhi, Bartonella Species and Yersinia pestis in Fleas (Siphonaptera from Africa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamza Leulmi

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Little is known about the presence/absence and prevalence of Rickettsia spp, Bartonella spp. and Yersinia pestis in domestic and urban flea populations in tropical and subtropical African countries.Fleas collected in Benin, the United Republic of Tanzania and the Democratic Republic of the Congo were investigated for the presence and identity of Rickettsia spp., Bartonella spp. and Yersinia pestis using two qPCR systems or qPCR and standard PCR. In Xenopsylla cheopis fleas collected from Cotonou (Benin, Rickettsia typhi was detected in 1% (2/199, and an uncultured Bartonella sp. was detected in 34.7% (69/199. In the Lushoto district (United Republic of Tanzania, R. typhi DNA was detected in 10% (2/20 of Xenopsylla brasiliensis, and Rickettsia felis was detected in 65% (13/20 of Ctenocephalides felis strongylus, 71.4% (5/7 of Ctenocephalides canis and 25% (5/20 of Ctenophthalmus calceatus calceatus. In the Democratic Republic of the Congo, R. felis was detected in 56.5% (13/23 of Ct. f. felis from Kinshasa, in 26.3% (10/38 of Ct. f. felis and 9% (1/11 of Leptopsylla aethiopica aethiopica from Ituri district and in 19.2% (5/26 of Ct. f. strongylus and 4.7% (1/21 of Echidnophaga gallinacea. Bartonella sp. was also detected in 36.3% (4/11 of L. a. aethiopica. Finally, in Ituri, Y. pestis DNA was detected in 3.8% (1/26 of Ct. f. strongylus and 10% (3/30 of Pulex irritans from the villages of Wanyale and Zaa.Most flea-borne infections are neglected diseases which should be monitored systematically in domestic rural and urban human populations to assess their epidemiological and clinical relevance. Finally, the presence of Y. pestis DNA in fleas captured in households was unexpected and raises a series of questions regarding the role of free fleas in the transmission of plague in rural Africa, especially in remote areas where the flea density in houses is high.

  10. The Feline Mystique: Dispelling the Myth of the Independent Cat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soltow, Willow

    1984-01-01

    Describes learning activities about cats for primary and intermediate grades. Primary grade activity subjects include cat behavior, needs, breeds, storybook cats, and celestial cats. Intermediate grade activity subjects include cat history, care, language, literary cats, and cats in art. (BC)

  11. Imidacloprid/moxidectin topical solution for the prevention of heartworm disease and the treatment and control of flea and intestinal nematodes of cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arther, R G; Charles, S; Ciszewski, D K; Davis, W L; Settje, T S

    2005-10-24

    Sixteen controlled laboratory studies, involving 420 kittens and cats, were conducted to evaluate the efficacy and safety of topically applied formulations of imidacloprid and moxidectin for the prevention of feline heartworm disease, treatment of flea infestations and treatment and control of intestinal nematodes. Unit-dose applicators and the dosing schedule used in these studies were designed to provide a minimum of 10mg imidacloprid and 1mg moxidectin/kg. Treatments were applied topically by parting the hair at the base of the skull and applying the solution on the skin. Imidacloprid treatment alone did not display activity against Dirofilaria immitis or intestinal nematodes and moxidectin treatment alone provided little or no activity against adult Ctenocephalides felis infestations. The formulation containing 10% imidacloprid and 1% moxidectin was 100% efficacious against the development of adult D. immitis infections when cats were treated 30 days after inoculation with third-stage larvae. A single treatment with this formulation also provided 88.4-100% control of adult C. felis for 35 days. Imidacloprid/moxidectin was 100% efficacious against adult Toxocara cati and 91.0-98.3% efficacious against immature adults and fourth-stage T. cati larvae. The formulation provided 98.8-100% efficacy against adult Ancylostoma and immature adults and third-stage A. tubaeforme larvae. Monthly topical application with 10% imidacloprid/1% moxidectin is convenient, efficacious and safe for the prevention of feline heartworm disease, treatment of flea infestation and for the treatment and control of intestinal nematode infections of cats.

  12. Hexane Extracts of Calophyllum brasiliense Inhibit the Development of Gastric Preneoplasia in Helicobacter felis Infected INS-Gas Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemos, Larissa M. S.; Miyajima, Fabio; Castilho, Geovane R. C.; Martins, Domingos Tabajara O.; Pritchard, D. Mark; Burkitt, Michael D.

    2017-01-01

    Objectives: Indigenous Latin American populations have used extracts from Calophyllum brasiliense, a native hardwood, to treat gastrointestinal symptoms for generations. The hexane extract of Calophyllum brasiliense stem bark (HECb) protects against ethanol-mediated gastric ulceration in Swiss–Webster mice. We investigated whether HECb inhibits the development of gastric epithelial pathology following Helicobacter felis infection of INS-Gas mice. Materials and Methods: Groups of five male, 6-week-old INS-Gas mice were colonized with H. felis by gavage. From 2 weeks after colonization their drinking water was supplemented with 2% Tween20 (vehicle), low dose HECb (33 mg/L, lHECb) or high dose HECb (133 mg/L, hHECb). Equivalent uninfected groups were studied. Animals were culled 6 weeks after H. felis colonization. Preneoplastic pathology was quantified using established histological criteria. Gastric epithelial cell turnover was quantified by immunohistochemistry for Ki67 and active-caspase 3. Cytokines were quantified using an electrochemiluminescence assay. Results: Vehicle-treated H. felis infected mice exhibited higher gastric atrophy scores than similarly treated uninfected mice (mean atrophy score 5.6 ± 0.87 SEM vs. 2.2 ± 0.58, p < 0.01). The same pattern was observed following lHECb. Following hHECb treatment, H. felis status did not significantly alter atrophy scores. Gastric epithelial apoptosis was not altered by H. felis or HECb administration. Amongst vehicle-treated mice, gastric epithelial cell proliferation was increased 2.8-fold in infected compared to uninfected animals (p < 0.01). Administration of either lHECb or hHECb reduced proliferation in infected mice to levels similar to uninfected mice. A Th17 polarized response to H. felis infection was observed in all infected groups. hHECb attenuated IFN-γ, IL-6, and TNF production following H. felis infection [70% (p < 0.01), 67% (p < 0.01), and 41% (p < 0.05) reduction vs. vehicle, respectively

  13. Enteric protozoan parasites in stray cats in Kuwait with special references to toxoplasmosis and risk factors affecting its occurrence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdou, Nadra-Elwgoud M I; Al-Batel, Maha K; El-Azazy, Osama M E; Sami, Attia M; Majeed, Qais A H

    2013-08-01

    In Kuwait, stray cats were surveyed for enteric protozoan infection using fecal examination and their sera were tested for Toxoplasma gondii IgG using indirect hemagglutination test (IHAT) as well as for feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) antibodies and feline leukaemia virus (FeLV) antibodies using ELISA. Out of 240 fecal samples examined 22 (9.2%) were found to be infected with oocysts of four species of coccidian protozoa. Isopspora felis was the most predominant enteric protozoan parasite (7.1%), followed by T. gondii (2.1%), I. rivolta (1.6), Sarcocystis was only found in one case (0.4%). Juvenile cats ( 6 months old) had higher infection rate with oocyst of enteric protozoa than older cats (p-value 0.001). Sero-survey of 240 stray cats revealed that 19.6% were positive to T. gondii IgG. Toxoplasma sero-positivity was observed in higher number of adults compared to young cats suggests that with age the risk of exposure to T. gondii increases. While concurrent retroviral infections were not found to be associated with increased risk for developing T. gondii antibodies.

  14. Molecular evidence of vector-borne pathogens in dogs and cats and their ectoparasites in Algiers, Algeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bessas, Amina; Leulmi, Hamza; Bitam, Idir; Zaidi, Sara; Ait-Oudhia, Khatima; Raoult, Didier; Parola, Philippe

    2016-04-01

    In Algeria, only limited information is currently available on the prevalence of emergent canine and feline vector-borne diseases. The aim of the present work was to detect by qPCR vector-associated bacteria in stray dogs and cats and their ectoparasites from Algiers. 18/117 (15.38%) dogs and 2/107 (1.87%) cats were positive for at least one vector-borne agent. Coxiella burnetii and Bartonella henselae were identified in 1/117 (0.85%) dog individually. Ehrlichia canis DNA was detected in 17/117 (14.52%) dogs. 1/107 (0.93%) cat was positive to C. burnetii and another 1/107 (0.93%) to B. henselae. DNA of Rickettsia massiliae, Rickettsia conorii and E. canis was detected in Rhipicephalus sanguineus. Cat fleas were infected with Rickettsia felis, B. henselae and Bartonella clarridgeiae. B. vinsonii subsp. berkhoffii was identified in Xenopsylla cheopis collected from dogs. The findings of this study indicate that dogs and cats from Algeria are exposed to multiple tick and flea-borne pathogens.

  15. Cat Scratch Disease (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Old Feeding Your 1- to 2-Year-Old Cat Scratch Disease KidsHealth > For Parents > Cat Scratch Disease A A A What's in this ... Doctor en español Enfermedad por arañazo de gato Cat scratch disease is a bacterial infection that a ...

  16. A tortoiseshell male cat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, A. S.; Berg, Lise Charlotte; Almstrup, Kristian

    2014-01-01

    . Immunostaining using anti-vimentin and anti-VASA (DDX4) showed that only Sertoli cells and no germ cells were observed in the testicular tubules. As no sign of spermatogenesis was detected, we conclude that this is a classic case of a sterile, male tortoiseshell cat with a 39,XXY chromosome complement. © 2013 S...

  17. Vibrational Schroedinger Cats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kis, Z.; Janszky, J.; Vinogradov, An. V.; Kobayashi, T.

    1996-01-01

    The optical Schroedinger cat states are simple realizations of quantum states having nonclassical features. It is shown that vibrational analogues of such states can be realized in an experiment of double pulse excitation of vibrionic transitions. To track the evolution of the vibrational wave packet we derive a non-unitary time evolution operator so that calculations are made in a quasi Heisenberg picture.

  18. The Fishing Cat

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙雅飞; 乐伟国

    2008-01-01

    @@ 一、故事内容 A cat goes fishing every day. He wants to eat fish, but he can't catch any fish. One day, he goes to the river as usual. Suddenly, a fish comes out. He catches the fish and putsthe fish in the basket. He's very happy, but he forgest to put the lid on the basket.

  19. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-CFAM-12-0016 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-CFAM-12-0016 ref|NP_001009331.1| cannabinoid receptor 1 [Felis catus] sp|O02777|CNR1_FELCA Canna...binoid receptor 1 (CB1) (CB-R) gb|AAB53440.1| CB1 cannabinoid receptor [Felis catus] NP_001009331.1 0.0 97% ...

  20. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-RNOR-05-0081 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-RNOR-05-0081 ref|NP_001009331.1| cannabinoid receptor 1 [Felis catus] sp|O02777|CNR1_FELCA Canna...binoid receptor 1 (CB1) (CB-R) gb|AAB53440.1| CB1 cannabinoid receptor [Felis catus] NP_001009331.1 0.0 96% ...

  1. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-SARA-01-0195 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-SARA-01-0195 ref|NP_001009331.1| cannabinoid receptor 1 [Felis catus] sp|O02777|CNR1_FELCA Canna...binoid receptor 1 (CB1) (CB-R) gb|AAB53440.1| CB1 cannabinoid receptor [Felis catus] NP_001009331.1 0.0 96% ...

  2. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-TBEL-01-1883 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-TBEL-01-1883 ref|NP_001009331.1| cannabinoid receptor 1 [Felis catus] sp|O02777|CNR1_FELCA Canna...binoid receptor 1 (CB1) (CB-R) gb|AAB53440.1| CB1 cannabinoid receptor [Felis catus] NP_001009331.1 0.0 97% ...

  3. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-LAFR-01-1734 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-LAFR-01-1734 ref|NP_001009331.1| cannabinoid receptor 1 [Felis catus] sp|O02777|CNR1_FELCA Canna...binoid receptor 1 (CB1) (CB-R) gb|AAB53440.1| CB1 cannabinoid receptor [Felis catus] NP_001009331.1 0.0 90% ...

  4. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-FCAT-01-1020 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-FCAT-01-1020 ref|NP_001009331.1| cannabinoid receptor 1 [Felis catus] sp|O02777|CNR1_FELCA Canna...binoid receptor 1 (CB1) (CB-R) gb|AAB53440.1| CB1 cannabinoid receptor [Felis catus] NP_001009331.1 0.0 98% ...

  5. Design of FELiChEM, the first infrared free-electron laser user facility in China

    CERN Document Server

    Li, He-Ting; Zhang, Shan-Cai; Wang, Lin; Yang, Yong-Liang

    2016-01-01

    FELiChEM is a new experimental facility under construction at University of Science and Technology of China (USTC), whose core device is two free electron laser oscillators generating middle-infrared and far-infrared laser and covering the spectral range of 2.5-200 ?m. It will be a dedicated infrared light source aiming at energy chemistry research. We present the brief design of FEL oscillators with the emphasis put on the middle-infrared oscillator. Most of the basic parameters are determined and the anticipated performance of the output radiation is given. The first light of FELiChEM is targeted for the end of 2017.

  6. A retrospective molecular study of select intestinal protozoa in healthy pet cats from Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mancianti, Francesca; Nardoni, Simona; Mugnaini, Linda; Zambernardi, Lucia; Guerrini, Alessandro; Gazzola, Valentina; Papini, Roberto Amerigo

    2015-02-01

    The feline gut can harbour a number of protozoan parasites. Recent genetic studies have highlighted new epidemiological findings about species of Cryptosporidium, assemblages of Giardia duodenalis and Toxoplasma gondii. Furthermore, epidemiological studies suggest the occurrence of Tritrichomonas foetus in cats is on the increase worldwide. The prevalence of selected intestinal protozoa was determined by PCR using DNA previously extracted from the faeces of 146 privately owned healthy cats from Italy. Molecular genotyping on T gondii, G duodenalis and Cryptosporidium DNA was achieved. PCR assays were positive in 32 (22.9%) samples. Three animals (2.0%) were positive for T foetus and Cryptosporidium DNA, 15 specimens (10.3%) were positive for T gondii and 11 (7.5%) for G duodenalis. Co-infections were never observed. Results of the typing analysis allowed the identification of Cryptosporidium felis in all cases. The specimens positive for T gondii hinted at clonal genotype I (n = 7), genotype II (n = 1) and genotype III (n = 7). The G duodenalis isolates were referable to assemblages F (n = 9) and C (n = 2). In conclusion, the results obtained in this study add to the literature regarding the epidemiology of these parasites by confirming their presence in the faeces of healthy pet cats.

  7. Genetic testing in domestic cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, Leslie A

    2012-12-01

    Varieties of genetic tests are currently available for the domestic cat that support veterinary health care, breed management, species identification, and forensic investigations. Approximately thirty-five genes contain over fifty mutations that cause feline health problems or alterations in the cat's appearance. Specific genes, such as sweet and drug receptors, have been knocked-out of Felidae during evolution and can be used along with mtDNA markers for species identification. Both STR and SNP panels differentiate cat race, breed, and individual identity, as well as gender-specific markers to determine sex of an individual. Cat genetic tests are common offerings for commercial laboratories, allowing both the veterinary clinician and the private owner to obtain DNA test results. This article will review the genetic tests for the domestic cat, and their various applications in different fields of science. Highlighted are genetic tests specific to the individual cat, which are a part of the cat's genome.

  8. Mouse Model of Cat Allergic Rhinitis and Intranasal Liposome-Adjuvanted Refined Fel d 1 Vaccine.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natt Tasaniyananda

    Full Text Available Cats (Felis domesticus are rich source of airborne allergens that prevailed in the environment and sensitized a number of people to allergy. In this study, a mouse model of allergic rhinitis caused by the cat allergens was developed for the first time and the model was used for testing therapeutic efficacy of a novel intranasal liposome-entrapped vaccines made of native Fel d 1 (major cat allergen in comparison with the vaccine made of crude cat hair extract (cCE. BALB/c mice were sensitized with cCE mixed with alum intraperitoneally and intranasally. The allergic mice were treated with eight doses of either liposome (L-entrapped native Fel d 1 (L-nFD1, L-cCE, or placebo on every alternate day. Vaccine efficacy evaluation was performed one day after provoking the treated mice with aerosolic cCE. All allergenized mice developed histological features of allergic rhinitis with rises of serum specific-IgE and Th2 cytokine gene expression. Serum IgE and intranasal mucus production of allergic mice reduced significantly after vaccination in comparison with the placebo mice. The vaccines also caused a shift of the Th2 response (reduction of Th2 cytokine expressions towards the non-pathogenic responses: Th1 (down-regulation of the Th1 suppressive cytokine gene, IL-35 and Treg (up-regulation of IL-10 and TGF-β. In conclusions, a mouse model of allergic rhinitis to cat allergens was successfully developed. The intranasal, liposome-adjuvanted vaccines, especially the refined single allergen formulation, assuaged the allergic manifestations in the modeled mice. The prototype vaccine is worthwhile testing further for clinical use in the pet allergic patients.

  9. Mouse Model of Cat Allergic Rhinitis and Intranasal Liposome-Adjuvanted Refined Fel d 1 Vaccine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tasaniyananda, Natt; Chaisri, Urai; Tungtrongchitr, Anchalee; Chaicumpa, Wanpen; Sookrung, Nitat

    2016-01-01

    Cats (Felis domesticus) are rich source of airborne allergens that prevailed in the environment and sensitized a number of people to allergy. In this study, a mouse model of allergic rhinitis caused by the cat allergens was developed for the first time and the model was used for testing therapeutic efficacy of a novel intranasal liposome-entrapped vaccines made of native Fel d 1 (major cat allergen) in comparison with the vaccine made of crude cat hair extract (cCE). BALB/c mice were sensitized with cCE mixed with alum intraperitoneally and intranasally. The allergic mice were treated with eight doses of either liposome (L)-entrapped native Fel d 1 (L-nFD1), L-cCE), or placebo on every alternate day. Vaccine efficacy evaluation was performed one day after provoking the treated mice with aerosolic cCE. All allergenized mice developed histological features of allergic rhinitis with rises of serum specific-IgE and Th2 cytokine gene expression. Serum IgE and intranasal mucus production of allergic mice reduced significantly after vaccination in comparison with the placebo mice. The vaccines also caused a shift of the Th2 response (reduction of Th2 cytokine expressions) towards the non-pathogenic responses: Th1 (down-regulation of the Th1 suppressive cytokine gene, IL-35) and Treg (up-regulation of IL-10 and TGF-β). In conclusions, a mouse model of allergic rhinitis to cat allergens was successfully developed. The intranasal, liposome-adjuvanted vaccines, especially the refined single allergen formulation, assuaged the allergic manifestations in the modeled mice. The prototype vaccine is worthwhile testing further for clinical use in the pet allergic patients. PMID:26954254

  10. Cat scratch disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozhkov, V; Madjov, R; Plachkov, I; Arnaudov, P; Chernopolsky, P; Krasnaliev, I

    2014-01-01

    Approximately 24,000 people are infected with cat scratch disease (CSD) every year. CSD is caused by the bacteria Bartonella henselae, a gram-negative bacteria most often transmitted to humans through a bite or scratch from an infected cat or kitten. Although CSD is often a benign and self-limiting condition, it can affect any major organ system in the body, manifesting in different ways and sometimes leading to lifelong sequelae. It is a disease that is often overlooked in primary care because of the wide range of symptom presentation and relative rarity of serious complications. It is important for health care providers to recognize patients at risk for CSD, know what laboratory testing and treatments are available, and be aware of complications that may arise from this disease in the future.

  11. The Cheshire Cat revisited

    CERN Document Server

    Vento, V

    1998-01-01

    The concept of effective field theory leads in a natural way to a construction principle for phenomenological sensible models known under the name of the Cheshire Cat Principle. We review its formulation in the chiral bag scenario and discuss its realization for the flavor singlet axial charge. Quantum effects inside the chiral bag induce a color anomaly which requires a compensating surface term to prevent breakdown of color gauge invariance. The presence of this surface term allows one to derive in a gauge-invariant way a chiral-bag version of the Shore-Veneziano two-component formula for the flavor-singlet axial charge of the proton. We show that one can obtain a striking Cheshire-Cat phenomenon with a negligibly small singlet axial charge.

  12. Mineral metabolism in cats

    OpenAIRE

    Pineda Martos, Carmen María

    2014-01-01

    The present Doctoral Thesis wa metabolism in the feline species. Through a series of studies, the relationship between calcium metabolism and the main hormones involved in it has been determined metabolism during the juvenile stage of growing cats effects linked to feeding calculolytic diets on feline mineral metabolism. The first part of the work was aimed the quantification of intact (I-PTH) and whole PTH) and to characterize the dynamics of PTH secretion, including ...

  13. Implantação de colônia de Ctenocephalides felis felis (Bouché, 1835 e determinação do período de desenvolvimento dos estágios imaturos sob condições controladas / Implantation of a Ctenocephalides felis felis (Bouché, 1835 colony and determination of the development period of the immature stages under controlled conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karina Carrão Castagnolli

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available O presente estudo teve como objetivo a implantação de uma colônia de pulgas (Ctenocephalides felis felis, para determinação do período de desenvolvimento dos estágios imaturos desse inseto, quando mantido emcondições controladas. Para isto, gatos foram infestados artifi cialmente com estágios adultos de C. felis felis e mantidos em gaiolas metálicas suspensas. Diariamente, durante trinta dias, os ovos de pulgas provenientes dos gatos eram recolhidos e mantidos em estufa do tipo B.O.D., com Tode 28±1oC e umidade relativa de 75%. O tempo de eclosão larval foi em média de dois a quatro dias, as pré-pupas surgiram no período de seis a nove dias, a pupação iniciou-se com nove a onze dias e a emergência dos adultos variou de quatorze a vinte dias. Nessas condições climáticas associadas à dieta adotada, foi possível uma recuperação de adultos de aproximadamente 90%, resultados favoráveis à manutenção de umacolônia.

  14. A new atypical genotype mouse virulent strain of Toxoplasma gondii isolated from the heart of a wild caught puma (Felis concolor) from Durango, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubey, J P; Alvarado-Esquivel, C; Herrera-Valenzuela, V H; Ortiz-Diaz, J J; Oliveira, S; Verma, S K; Choudhary, S; Kwok, O C H; Su, C

    2013-11-08

    Nothing is known of the genetic diversity of Toxoplasma gondii circulating in wildlife in Mexico. In the present study, a mouse virulent T. gondii strain was isolated from the heart of a wild puma (Felis concolor). The puma was found roaming in outskirt of Durango City, Mexico and tranquilized for moving to a zoo. The puma died during translocation and a necropsy examination was performed. The puma had an antibody titer for T. gondii of 200 by the modified agglutination test. Its heart and brain tissue were bioassayed into 2 outbred Swiss Webster (SW) and 1 gamma interferon gene knockout (KO) mouse. The KO mouse and the 2 SW mice that became infected after inoculation with homogenate of puma heart died of acute toxoplasmosis 12, 19 and 20 days p.i. respectively and tachyzoites were found in lungs of all 3 mice. None of the 4 SW and 1 KO mouse inoculated with digest of the puma brain became infected with T. gondii. Tachyzoites from the lungs of mice were propagated in cell cultures. Tachyzoites from cell culture were inoculated into 5 SW; the mice died or had to be killed 14 days p.i. and a cat fed tissues of these mice shed T. gondii oocysts. Results of mortality and infectivity of tachyzoites and oocysts in SW mice indicated that the puma T. gondii strain (designated TgPumaMe1) was virulent for outbred mice. DNA isolated from culture-derived tachyzoites was characterized using 11 PCR-RFLP markers (SAG1, 5'- and 3'-SAG2, alt.SAG2, SAG3, BTUB, GRA6, c22-8, c29-2, L358, PK1 and Apico) revealed a new genotype (ToxoDB PCR-RFLP #222). Isolation of atypical genotype T. gondii from wild puma indicates that mouse virulent strains are circulating in wildlife in Mexico.

  15. A review of over three decades of research on cat-human and human-cat interactions and relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Dennis C

    2017-01-22

    This review article covers research conducted over the last three decades on cat-human and human-cat interactions and relationships, especially from an ethological point of view. It includes findings on cat-cat and cat-human communication, cat personalities and cat-owner personalities, the effects of cats on humans, and problems caused by cats.

  16. Shell-vial culture and real-time PCR applied to Rickettsia typhi and Rickettsia felis detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segura, Ferran; Pons, Immaculada; Pla, Júlia; Nogueras, María-Mercedes

    2015-11-01

    Murine typhus is a zoonosis transmitted by fleas, whose etiological agent is Rickettsia typhi. Rickettsia felis infection can produces similar symptoms. Both are intracellular microorganisms. Therefore, their diagnosis is difficult and their infections can be misdiagnosed. Early diagnosis prevents severity and inappropriate treatment regimens. Serology can't be applied during the early stages of infection because it requires seroconversion. Shell-vial (SV) culture assay is a powerful tool to detect Rickettsia. The aim of the study was to optimize SV using a real-time PCR as monitoring method. Moreover, the study analyzes which antibiotics are useful to isolate these microorganisms from fleas avoiding contamination by other bacteria. For the first purpose, SVs were inoculated with each microorganism. They were incubated at different temperatures and monitored by real-time PCR and classical methods (Gimenez staining and indirect immunofluorescence assay). R. typhi grew at all temperatures. R. felis grew at 28 and 32 °C. Real-time PCR was more sensitive than classical methods and it detected microorganisms much earlier. Besides, the assay sensitivity was improved by increasing the number of SV. For the second purpose, microorganisms and fleas were incubated and monitored in different concentrations of antibiotics. Gentamicin, sufamethoxazole, trimethoprim were useful for R. typhi isolation. Gentamicin, streptomycin, penicillin, and amphotericin B were useful for R. felis isolation. Finally, the optimized conditions were used to isolate R. felis from fleas collected at a veterinary clinic. R. felis was isolated at 28 and 32 °C. However, successful establishment of cultures were not possible probably due to sub-optimal conditions of samples.

  17. ServCat Document Selection Guidelines

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The ServCat document selection guidelines were developed for selecting appropriate documents to upload into ServCat. When beginning to upload documents into ServCat,...

  18. College Students and Their Cats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinstein, Lawrence; Alexander, Ralph

    2010-01-01

    Twenty-two Siamese and 32 mixed breed cats' personalities were rated by their respective college student owners and compared. Further, the owners' self rated personality traits were correlated with the pets'; significant Siamese and Mixed differences and correlations were obtained. These are the first data to examine breed of cat on a personality…

  19. CONTRACT ADMINISTRATIVE TRACKING SYSTEM (CATS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Contract Administrative Tracking System (CATS) was developed in response to an ORD NHEERL, Mid-Continent Ecology Division (MED)-recognized need for an automated tracking and retrieval system for Cost Reimbursable Level of Effort (CR/LOE) Contracts. CATS is an Oracle-based app...

  20. Oral masses in two cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bock, P; Hach, V; Baumgärtner, W

    2011-07-01

    Incisional biopsies from the oral cavity of 2 adult cats were submitted for histological investigation. Cat No. 1 showed a solitary well-circumscribed neoplasm in the left mandible. Cat No. 2 demonstrated a diffusely infiltrating neoplasm in the left maxilla. Both tumors consisted of medium-size epithelial cells embedded in a fibrovascular stroma. The mitotic index was 0 to 1 mitosis per high-power field. The epithelial cells showed an irregular arrangement forming nests or streams in cat No. 1, whereas a palisading growth was noted in cat No. 2. Both tumors, especially that of cat No. 1, showed multifocal accumulations of amyloid as confirmed by Congo red staining and a distinct green birefringence under polarized light, which lacked cytokeratin immunoreactivity as well as and AL and AA amyloid immunoreactivity. In addition, the amyloid in cat No. 2 was positive for the odontogenic ameloblast-associated protein, formerly termed APin. In sum, both cats suffered from an amyloid-producing odontogenic tumor, but their tumors varied with respect to morphology and type of amyloid produced.

  1. Lumbosacral agenesis in a cat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabrielle C Hybki

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Case summary Lumbosacral agenesis is a rare congenital condition reported in children. We report a 17-week-old female domestic shorthair cat with lumbosacral agenesis on whole-body radiographs. The cat was euthanized shortly thereafter presentation. A necropsy was not permitted. Relevance and novel information This is the first reported feline case of lumbosacral agenesis.

  2. CAT-generation of ideals

    CERN Document Server

    Ueckerdt, Torsten

    2010-01-01

    We consider the problem of generating all ideals of a poset. It is a long standing open problem, whether or not the ideals of any poset can be generated in constant amortized time, CAT for short. We refine the tree traversal, a method introduced by Pruesse and Ruskey in 1993, to obtain a CAT-generator for two large classes of posets: posets of interval dimension at most two and so called locally planar posets. This includes all posets for which a CAT-generator was known before. Posets of interval dimension at most two generalize both, interval orders and 2-dimensional posets. Locally planar posets generalize for example posets with a planar cover graph. We apply our results to CAT-generate all $c$-orientations of a planar graph. As a special case this is a CAT-generator for many combinatorial objects like domino and lozenge tilings, planar spanning trees, planar bipartite perfect matchings, Schnyder woods, and others.

  3. A hybrid type undulator for far-infrared FELs at FELI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zako, A.; Miyauchi, Y.; Koga, A. [Free Electron Laser Research Institute, Inc., Osaka (Japan)] [and others

    1995-12-31

    Two FEL facilities of the FELI are now operating in the wavelength range of 1-20 {mu}m. A 3.2-m hybrid type undulator ({lambda}{sub u}=80mm, N=40) has been designed for far-infrared FELs and will be installed in December. It can cover the wavelength of 20-60 {mu}m by changing K-value from 1 to 2.7 for a 28.0-MeV electron beam. It is composed of ferrite magnetic poles and Sm-Co permanent magnets. Commonly wound coils induce alternating magnetic field in ferrite poles. Combination of the induced field and the permanent magnet field can controls the magnetic field between the undulator gap.

  4. Occurrence and clinical significance of Aelurostrongylus abstrusus and other endoparasites in Danish cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Alice P; Skarbye, Line K; Vinther, Lene M; Willesen, Jakob L; Pipper, Christian B; Olsen, Caroline S; Mejer, Helena

    2017-01-30

    Feline endoparasites are highly prevalent worldwide and may cause a variety of clinical signs in infected cats. Prevalence rates are dynamic and there is limited knowledge of the current prevalence in Denmark and the clinical manifestation and significance of especially the lungworm Aelurostrongylus abstrusus. This study investigated the total and local prevalence of Aelurostrongylus abstrusus and other endoparasites in Danish cats. The clinical significance of feline aelurostrongylosis was also examined through identification of frequency and severity of selected clinical signs. Faecal samples (n=327) and clinical data (n=312) were collected from August to October 2015, primarily from outdoor cats located at shelters distributed across Denmark. A modified Baermann method and a concentration McMaster technique was used to diagnose A. abstrusus first stage larvae and eggs/oocysts of other endoparasites. The total A. abstrusus prevalence was 8.3% [95% CI: 5.6-11.9] but local prevalence rates varied from 0% [95% CI: 0.0-8.8] to 31.4% [95% CI: 16.9-49.3]. A rural habitat appeared to increase the risk of A. abstrusus and this accounted for most of the local variation. Furthermore, the risk of infection was lower in kittens younger than 11 weeks compared to older cats (p=0.002). The cats were also infected with Toxocara cati (44.4% [95% CI: 38.3-50.7]), taeniid species (8.9% [95% CI: 5.7-13.0]), Capillaria aerophila (3.1% [95% CI: 1.3-6.0]), Aonchotheca putorii (3.9% [95% CI: 1.9-7.0]), Cystoisospora felis (3.1% [95% CI: 1.3-6.0]) and Cystoisospora rivolta (2.3% [95% CI: 0.9-5.0]), but there was no difference in local distribution. Co-infection was common, as 66.7% of A. abstrusus infected cats were also infected with one or more other parasites, the most common being T. cati. However, none of these parasites were significantly associated with A. abstrusus. The vast majority of the A. abstrusus infected cats displayed mild to moderate clinical signs. The main symptoms

  5. Toxoplasmosis : Beware of Cats !!!

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rubina Kumari Baithalu

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Anthropozoonotic parasite Toxoplasma gondii causes widespread human and animal diseases, mostly involving central nervous system. Human acquires toxoplasmosis from cats, from consuming raw or undercooked meat and from vertical transmission to the fetus through placenta from mother during pregnancy. Socio-epidemiological as well as unique environmental factors also plays a significant role in transmission of this infection. Preventive measures should be taken into account the importance of culture, tradition, and beliefs of people in various communities more than solving poverty and giving health education. Therefore the focus of this article is to create public awareness regarding sense of responsibility of looking after pets to prevent such an important zoonotic disease. [Vet. World 2010; 3(5.000: 247-249

  6. Perfil hematológico, bioquímico sérico e sorológico de Felis domesticus com lagochilascariose experimental Hematological, serum biochemical and serological profile of Felis domesticus with experimental lagochilascariosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Félix de Souza Prudente

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available No presente trabalho, avaliou-se o hemograma, diversas proteínas e enzimas séricas ou plasmáticas e a produção de anticorpos específicos em Felis domesticus, experimentalmente infectados por Lagochilascaris minor. Verificou-se nos animais infectados aumento de leucócitos totais, principalmente eosinófilos; queda do número de plaquetas; aumento de aspartato-aminotransferase e alanina-aminotransferase; e principalmente a presença de anticorpos IgG específicos para antígenos do parasita. A reação com extrato bruto de parasitas adultos mostrou-se mais específica, permitindo a discriminação de soros de animais: não infectados, com infecção por outros parasitas, e com lagochilascariose. Esta é a primeira descrição da padronização de uma reação sorológica para diagnóstico da lagochilascariose em Felis domesticus.The present study evaluated the hemogram, different proteins, plasma enzymes, serum enzymes and specific antibody production of Felis domesticus experimentally infected by Lagochilascaris minor. The infected animals were seen to present increased total leukocytes (particularly eosinophils, decreased platelet counts, increased aspartate-aminotransferase and alanine-aminotransferase and, especially, the presence of specific IgG antibodies against antigens of the parasite. The reaction with crude extract of adult parasites was shown to be more specific, thereby enabling serum discrimination between the animals: non-infected, infected with other parasites and infected with lagochilascariosis. This is the first description of the standardization of a serological reaction for diagnosing lagochilascariosis in Felis domesticus.

  7. Pemphigus foliaceus in a cat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kofod, H

    1993-01-16

    The author's cat started to develop the signs of pemphigus foliaceus one month after he returned home after six months absence. The initial signs included dry coughing and difficulty with purring and swallowing, followed by typical changes of the skin. The cat was treated by a combination of chrysotherapy and systemic glucocorticoid injections, and remained free of clinical signs for one and a half years. The cat then relapsed and showed the initial signs except that coughing was not observed. It was treated as before but after a second relapse and the same treatment it slowly developed a general weakness and was euthanased.

  8. Design of FELiChEM, the first infrared free-electron laser user facility in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, He-Ting; Jia, Qi-Ka; Zhang, Shan-Cai; Wang, Lin; Yang, Yong-Liang

    2017-01-01

    FELiChEM is a new experimental facility under construction at the University of Science and Technology of China (USTC). Its core device is two free electron laser oscillators generating middle-infrared and far-infrared laser and covering the spectral range of 2.5-200 μm. It will be a dedicated infrared light source aiming at energy chemistry research. We present the brief design of the FEL oscillators, with the emphasis put on the middle-infrared oscillator. Most of the basic parameters are determined and the anticipated performance of the output radiation is given. The first light of FELiChEM is targeted for the end of 2017. Supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (21327901)

  9. Fundamentals of ServCat

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This training manual for the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service Catalog (ServCat) provides detailed instructions on searching for records, creating records, and managing...

  10. NRPC ServCat priorities

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This document lists the Natural Resource Program Center’s priority ServCat documents. It is recommended that these documents- which include annual narrative reports,...

  11. Food hypersensitivity in a cat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medleau, L; Latimer, K S; Duncan, J R

    1986-09-15

    Food hypersensitivity was diagnosed in a 4-year-old Siamese cat. Clinical signs included intense erythema, with alopecia, excoriations, erosions, and crusts involving the ventral portion of the abdomen, inguinal region, medial aspect of each thigh, and cranial and lateral aspects of all 4 limbs. The cat was intensely pruritic. Histologically, there was cutaneous mast cell hyperplasia and diffuse infiltration of eosinophils in the dermis. Blood eosinophilia also was found. Clinical signs resolved after exclusive feeding of a hypoallergenic diet.

  12. Schrodinger's cat: much ado about nothing

    CERN Document Server

    Ionicioiu, Radu

    2016-01-01

    In this note I briefly discuss the Schrodinger's cat Gedankenexperiment. By analysing the information flow in the system I show that no entanglement exists between the atom and the cat. The atom and the cat are connected only through a classical information channel (detector clicks $\\rightarrow$ poison is released $\\rightarrow$ cat is dead). No amount of local operations and classical communication can entangle the atom and the cat. Consequently, the paradox disappears.

  13. Cat Ownership Perception and Caretaking Explored in an Internet Survey of People Associated with Cats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Zito

    Full Text Available People who feed cats that they do not perceive they own (sometimes called semi-owners are thought to make a considerable contribution to unwanted cat numbers because the cats they support are generally not sterilized. Understanding people's perception of cat ownership and the psychology underlying cat semi-ownership could inform approaches to mitigate the negative effects of cat semi-ownership. The primary aims of this study were to investigate cat ownership perception and to examine its association with human-cat interactions and caretaking behaviours. A secondary aim was to evaluate a definition of cat semi-ownership (including an association time of ≥1 month and frequent feeding, revised from a previous definition proposed in the literature to distinguish cat semi-ownership from casual interactions with unowned cats. Cat owners and semi-owners displayed similar types of interactions and caretaking behaviours. Nevertheless, caretaking behaviours were more commonly displayed towards owned cats than semi-owned cats, and semi-owned cats were more likely to have produced kittens (p<0.01. All interactions and caretaking behaviours were more likely to be displayed towards cats in semi-ownership relationships compared to casual interaction relationships. Determinants of cat ownership perception were identified (p<0.05 and included association time, attachment, perceived cat friendliness and health, and feelings about unowned cats, including the acceptability of feeding unowned cats. Encouraging semi-owners to have the cats they care for sterilized may assist in reducing the number of unwanted kittens and could be a valuable alternative to trying to prevent semi-ownership entirely. Highly accessible semi-owner "gatekeepers" could help to deliver education messages and facilitate the provision of cat sterilization services to semi-owners. This research enabled semi-ownership to be distinguished from casual interaction relationships and can assist

  14. Interspecies discrimination of A. fumigatus and siblings A. lentulus and A. felis of the Aspergillus section Fumigati using the AsperGenius(®) assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chong, G M; Vonk, A G; Meis, J F; Dingemans, G J H; Houbraken, J; Hagen, F; Gaajetaan, G R; van Tegelen, D W E; Simons, G F M; Rijnders, B J A

    2017-03-01

    The AsperGenius(®) assay detects several Aspergillus species and the A. fumigatus Cyp51A mutations TR34/L98H/T289A/Y121F that are associated with azole resistance. We evaluated its contribution in identifying A. lentulus and A. felis, 2 rare but intrinsically azole-resistant sibling species within the Aspergillus section Fumigati. Identification of these species with conventional culture techniques is difficult and time-consuming. The assay was tested on (i) 2 A. lentulus and A. felis strains obtained from biopsy proven invasive aspergillosis and (ii) control A. fumigatus (n=3), A. lentulus (n=6) and A. felis species complex (n=12) strains. The AsperGenius(®) resistance PCR did not detect the TR34 target in A. lentulus and A. felis in contrast to A. fumigatus. Melting peaks for L98H and Y121F markers differed and those of the Y121F marker were particularly suitable to discriminate the 3 species. In conclusion, the assay can be used to rapidly discriminate A. fumigatus, A. lentulus and A. felis.

  15. Performance of an undulator for visible and UV FELs at FELI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miyauchi, Y.; Zako, A.; Koga, A. [Free Electron Laser Research Institute, Inc., Osaka (Japan)] [and others

    1995-12-31

    Two infrared free electron lasers (FELs) of the FELI project are now operating in the wavelength range of 1-20{mu}m. A 2.68-m undulator has been constructed for visible and UV FELs covering the wavelength of 1-0.2{mu}m for 100-165 MeV electron beams. It generates alternating, horizontal magnetic field, and wiggles electron beam on a vertical plane. The undulator length and period are 2.68m and 40mm, respectively. The gap of undulator magnets can be changed remotely by using servomotors with an accuracy of 1 {mu}m from the control room. The maximum K-value and related magnetic field strength are 1.9 and 0.5T, respectively, when its gap is set to the minimum value of 16mm. In order to minimize magnetic field reduction due to radiation damage, Sm-Co permanent magnet was adopted. Its structure and the results of magnetic field measurement will be reported.

  16. Energy requirements of adult cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bermingham, Emma N; Thomas, David G; Morris, Penelope J; Hawthorne, Amanda J

    2010-04-01

    A meta-analysis was carried out in order to establish the energy requirements of adult cats. Publications that identified cat body weight (BW) were used to generate allometric relationships between energy requirements and BW of healthy adult cats, using log-log linear regression. Energy requirements were expressed in kcal/kg BW to be consistent with those reported by the National Research Council. Mean maintenance energy requirements were 55.1 (se 1.2) kcal/kg BW (115 treatment groups). Three allometric equations were identified to predict the energy requirements for maintenance of BW in the cat based on BW: light (53.7 kcal/kg BW- 1.061), normal (46.8 kcal/kg BW- 1.115) and heavy (131.8 kcal/kg BW- 0 .366). When reported on lean mass, the allometric equation revealed maintenance requirements were 58.4 kcal/kg lean mass- 1.140 (adjusted R2 0.694; thirty-six treatment groups). The present review suggests that values for maintenance energy requirements based on BW alone may not be an accurate prediction and more detailed information on the age, sex and neuter status, BW and composition would enhance the ability to interpret the maintenance energy requirements of cats.

  17. A review of Sarcocystis of domestic animals and of other coccidia of cats and dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubey, J P

    1976-11-15

    The nomenclature, life cycles, and pathogenicity of Sarcocystis of domestic animals are reviewed. Sarcocystis had a 2-host life cycle, with carnivores as definitive hosts and herbivores as intermediate hosts. The following species are found in domestic animals (with the definitive hosts given in parentheses): 3 species in the ox: S cruzi (dog, wolf, coyote, raccoon, fox), S hirsuta (cat), S hominis (man, monkey); 2 species in the sheep: S ovicanis (dog), S tenella (cat); 3 species in the pig: S miescheriana (dog), S porcifelis n sp (cat), S porcihominis n sp (man); and 1 species in the horse: S bertrami (dog). Sarcocystis cruzi, S ovicanis, and S porcifelis are highly pathogenic to the ox, the sheep, and the pig, respectively. Clinical signs of acute bovine sarcocystosis are: anorexia, pyrexia (42 C, or more), anemia, cachexia, enlarged palpable lymph nodes, excessive salivation, and loss of hair at the tip of the tail. Anemia, anorexia, ataxia, and abortions are the chief clinical signs of acute ovine sarcocystosis. These signs are evident at the time of vascular endothelium is parasitized by schizonts. The schizonts disappear in about 1 month, and cysts are formed in the muscles. The cystic phase of sarcocystosis is virtually nonpathogenic. Carnivores shed sporocysts in their feces after ingesting the intramuscular cysts from the herbivores. Sarcocystis is nonpathogenic to the definitive host. Feline and canine coccidia are also reviewed. The following 11 species are found in cats: Toxoplasma gondii, Hammondia hammondi, Isospora felis, Isosporarivolta, Besnoitia besnoiti, Besnoitia sp, and 5 types of Sarcocystis (S hirsuta from the ox, S tenella from the sheep, S muris from the mouse, S porcifelis from the pig, and Sarcocystis sp from Grant's gazelle). The following 10 species are found in canine feces (Isospora canis, Isospora ohioensis, Isospora wallacei n sp; and 7 types of Sarcocystis (S cruzi from the ox, S ovicanis from the sheep, S bertrami and Sarcocystis

  18. Cat Ownership Perception and Caretaking Explored in an Internet Survey of People Associated with Cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zito, Sarah; Vankan, Dianne; Bennett, Pauleen; Paterson, Mandy; Phillips, Clive J C

    2015-01-01

    People who feed cats that they do not perceive they own (sometimes called semi-owners) are thought to make a considerable contribution to unwanted cat numbers because the cats they support are generally not sterilized. Understanding people's perception of cat ownership and the psychology underlying cat semi-ownership could inform approaches to mitigate the negative effects of cat semi-ownership. The primary aims of this study were to investigate cat ownership perception and to examine its association with human-cat interactions and caretaking behaviours. A secondary aim was to evaluate a definition of cat semi-ownership (including an association time of ≥1 month and frequent feeding), revised from a previous definition proposed in the literature to distinguish cat semi-ownership from casual interactions with unowned cats. Cat owners and semi-owners displayed similar types of interactions and caretaking behaviours. Nevertheless, caretaking behaviours were more commonly displayed towards owned cats than semi-owned cats, and semi-owned cats were more likely to have produced kittens (pcats in semi-ownership relationships compared to casual interaction relationships. Determinants of cat ownership perception were identified (pcat friendliness and health, and feelings about unowned cats, including the acceptability of feeding unowned cats. Encouraging semi-owners to have the cats they care for sterilized may assist in reducing the number of unwanted kittens and could be a valuable alternative to trying to prevent semi-ownership entirely. Highly accessible semi-owner "gatekeepers" could help to deliver education messages and facilitate the provision of cat sterilization services to semi-owners. This research enabled semi-ownership to be distinguished from casual interaction relationships and can assist welfare and government agencies to identify cat semi-owners in order to develop strategies to address this source of unwanted cats.

  19. EUROmediCAT signal detection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Luteijn, Johannes Michiel; Morris, Joan K; Garne, Ester

    2016-01-01

    AIMS: Information about medication safety in pregnancy is inadequate. We aimed to develop a signal detection methodology to routinely identify unusual associations between medications and congenital anomalies using data collected by 15 European congenital anomaly registries. METHODS: EUROmediCAT......). CONCLUSIONS: Medication exposure data in the EUROmediCAT central database can be analyzed systematically to determine a manageable set of associations for validation and then testing in independent datasets. Detection of teratogens depends on frequency of exposure, level of risk and teratogenic specificity....

  20. Results of parasitological examinations of faecal samples from cats and dogs in Germany between 2003 and 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barutzki, Dieter; Schaper, Roland

    2011-08-01

    In a retrospective study, the results of parasitological examinations of faecal samples from 8,560 cats and 24,677 dogs between January 2003 and December 2010 in Germany were analysed. 30.4 % of the examined dogs and 22.8 % of the cats were infected with endoparasites. The examination of the faecal samples from dogs revealed stages of Giardia spp. (18.6 %), Toxocara canis (6.1 %), Toxascaris leonina (0.6 %), Ancylostomatidae (2.2 %), Trichuris vulpis (1.2 %), Capillaria spp. (1.3 %), Crenosoma vulpis (0.4 %), Angiostrongylus vasorum (0.5 %), Taeniidae (0.4 %), Dipylidiidae (canis (2.4 %), Sarcocystis spp. (2.2 %) and Hammondia heydorni/Neospora caninum (0.3 %). Dogs in the age groups up to 3 months and > 3 up to 6 months of age showed significantly higher infection rates with Giardia spp. (37.5 % and 38.2 %, respectively), Toxocara canis (12.0 % and 12.4 %, respectively), Toxascaris leonina (1.1 % and 1.6 %, respectively), Isospora spp. (23.4 % and 11.8 %, respectively), I. ohioensis-complex (15.6 % and 7.2 %, respectively) and I. canis (11.8 % and 5.2 %, respectively) compared to older dogs. In faecal samples from cats, stages of Giardia spp. (12.6 %), Toxocara cati (4.7 %), Toxascaris leonina (0.1 %), Ancylostoma tubaeforme (0.2 %), Aelurostrongylus abstrusus (0.5 %), Capillaria spp. (1.0 %), Taeniidae (0.6 %), Dipylidium caninum ( 3 up to 6 months of age showed significantly higher infection rates with Giardia spp. (19.5 % and 24.0 %, respectively), T. cati (8.1 % and 6.9 %, respectively), Isospora spp. (12.8 % and 8.6 %, respectively), I. felis (10.0 % and 5.9%, respectively) and I. rivolta (4.6 % and 2.9%, respectively) compared to older cats.

  1. Degenerative mucinotic mural folliculitis in cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, T L; Olivry, T; Vitale, C B; Power, H T

    2001-10-01

    A novel form of mural folliculitis is described in seven cats. Clinically, all cats exhibited generalized alopecia with scaling or crusting that was more pronounced over the head, neck, and shoulders. The face and muzzle of all cats was unusually thickened. Six of seven cats were progressively lethargic but did not demonstrate any other consistent systemic abnormalities. Histologically, there was severe mixed inflammation of the wall of the follicular isthmus in all cats, accompanied by some follicular destruction in five cats. Sebaceous glands were not affected. All cats had variable, but often striking, follicular mucin deposition, as well as epidermal hyperkeratosis and crusting. The cause of the severe mural folliculitis was not identified, and all cats responded poorly to immunomodulating therapy. Follicular mucinosis may be a nonspecific finding, likely reflective of the follicular lymphocytic milieu, and does not always herald follicular lymphoma.

  2. Cerebral cysticercosis in a cat : clinical communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.V. Schwan

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available The metacestode of Taenia solium, Cysticercus cellulosae, was recovered from the brain of a cat showing central nervous clinical signs ante mortem. This is the first record of cerebral cysticercosis in a cat in South Africa.

  3. Detection of Rickettsia in Rhipicephalus sanguineus ticks and Ctenocephalides felis fleas from southeastern Tunisia by reverse line blot assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khrouf, Fatma; M'Ghirbi, Youmna; Znazen, Abir; Ben Jemaa, Mounir; Hammami, Adnene; Bouattour, Ali

    2014-01-01

    Ticks (n = 663) and fleas (n = 470) collected from domestic animals from southeastern Tunisia were screened for Rickettsia infection using reverse line blot assay. Evidence of spotted fever group Rickettsia was obtained. We detected Rickettsia felis in fleas, Rickettsia massiliae Bar 29 and the Rickettsia conorii Israeli spotted fever strain in ticks, and Rickettsia conorii subsp. conorii and Rickettsia spp. in both arthropods. The sensitivity of the adopted technique allowed the identification of a new association between fleas and R. conorii subsp. conorii species. The presence of these vector-borne Rickettsia infections should be considered when diagnosing this disease in humans in Tunisia.

  4. Toxoplasmosis: An Important Message for Cat Owners

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a s t is O : wAnneIrmsportant What role do cats play in the spread of toxoplasmosis? Cats get Toxoplasma infection by eating infected rodents, birds ... animals, or anything contaminated with feces from another cat that is shedding the microscopic parasite in its ...

  5. Getting a CAT Scan (For Kids)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... What Happens in the Operating Room? Getting a CAT Scan (Video) KidsHealth > For Kids > Getting a CAT Scan (Video) A A A en español Obtención de una tomografía computada (video) CAT stands for "computerized axial tomography." Translated, that means ...

  6. Dipylidium (Dog and Cat Flea Tapeworm) FAQs

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the most common kind of tapeworm dogs and cats get? The most common tapeworm of dogs and cats in the United States is called Dipylidium caninum . ... infected with a tapeworm larvae. A dog or cat may swallow a flea while self-grooming. Once ...

  7. Cats & Dogs%猫狗大战

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    阿萌

    2003-01-01

    @@ ( Dogs and cats are permanent enemies. A dog named Bubby is catnapped by the cats. The whole cats' world is shocked and alert. ) Dog Chairman: Gentlemen, a few moments ago I received word of the gravest nature. The key agent working the Brody case has been catnapped. Although he is safe, new must replace him as soon as possible.

  8. EUROmediCAT signal detection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Given, Joanne E; Loane, Maria; Luteijn, Johannes Michiel

    2016-01-01

    AIMS: To evaluate congenital anomaly (CA)-medication exposure associations produced by the new EUROmediCAT signal detection system and determine which require further investigation. METHODS: Data from 15 EUROCAT registries (1995-2011) with medication exposures at the chemical substance (5th level...

  9. A strange cat in Dublin

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Raifeartaigh, Cormac

    2012-11-01

    Not many life stories in physics involve Nazis, illicit sex, a strange cat and the genetic code. Thus, a new biography of the great Austrian physicist Erwin Schrödinger is always of interest, and with Erwin Schrödinger and the Quantum Revolution, veteran science writer John Gribbin does not disappoint.

  10. Survey on parasitic infections in wildcat (Felis silvestris silvestris Schreber, 1777) by scat collection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Napoli, Ettore; Anile, Stefano; Arrabito, Carmelo; Scornavacca, Davide; Mazzamuto, Maria Vittoria; Gaglio, Gabriella; Otranto, Domenico; Giannetto, Salvatore; Brianti, Emanuele

    2016-01-01

    Wildcats are endangered felid species living in Europe, Asia, and Africa. Regrettably, scientific information on parasites of wildcats is particularly meager and they often rely on data gained by necropsies of a small number of animals. In the present study, scat collection was used to assess the parasite spectrum of European wildcats living in the Etna Park (Sicily, Italy). Scat collection was performed from May to September 2010 by weekly walking four transects for a total of 391 km. Samples were then analyzed by flotation and sedimentation techniques to investigate wildcat parasitic fauna. A total of 121 scats of wildcats were collected, and parasitic forms (i.e., oocysts, eggs, and larvae) were retrieved in 110 (90.9 %) of the samples. Parasites found were Physaloptera sp. (52.1 %), tapeworms (45.5 %), Toxocara cati (43.8 %), Eucoleus aerophilus (27.3 %), Ancylostoma sp. (22.3 %), Troglostrongylus brevior (15.7 %), trematodes (9.9 %), Isospora felis (4.1 %), Cylicospirura sp. (1.7 %), and Acanthocephala (0.8 %). The prevalence of endoparasitic infections herein recorded is similar to that described in other studies conducted using necropsy technique. The species richness of parasites found in the present survey, with a total of nine helminths and one protozoon, is the highest ever reported for wildcat in Europe. Scat collection and examination are reliable and rapid non-invasive tools which can be used in a systematic survey design to study the parasite spectrum of wildcat as well as that of other endangered wild species.

  11. The 18-kDa form of cat allergen Felis domesticus 1 (Fel d 1) is associated with gelatin- and fibronectin-degrading activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ring, P C; Wan, H; Schou, C;

    2000-01-01

    , allergens that degrade proteins have been suggested to facilitate allergen presentation by increasing parallelular permeability of airways epithelium. However, little information exists to indicate whether Fel d 1 has other activities relevant to allergic responses. OBJECTIVE: To study whether Fel d 1......, suggest that their inhibitory action may be due to noncatalytic site interactions. Alternatively, highly purified Fel d 1 may be associated with an active contaminant, although none were found. CONCLUSION: These results suggest that Fel d 1 is another example of a domestic allergen which is associated...... with enzyme activity. It remains to be established whether the activity resides in Fel d 1 itself or in an unresolved, and possibly related, protein....

  12. My Experience of Feeding a Cat

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    乔琳

    2006-01-01

    I liked cat very much. In my old opinion, cat was cute and gentle. One day, my friend asked me to feed the cat for him. So I went to his house in order to take care of his cat. His neighbor was an old woman. When I was doing some cleaning, the old woman asked me if I needed some help. Suddenly, the cat stretched out its sharp claws, and clawed me and bit me with its sharp teeth. WowA It was too abrupt. The old woman got scared. “It goes crazyA” I said and asked her to get out of the room, otherwise she woul...

  13. Caracal depereti nov. Sp. Y felis aff. Silvestris (felidae, mammalia del plioceno inferior de layna (Soria, España

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salesa, M. J.

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available Two species of small-medium size felids, Felis aff. silvestris and Caracal depereti nov. sp., have been identified from the Pliocene karstic locality of Layna (Soria, Spain. Caracal depereti nov. sp. shows close affinities with Caracal issiodorensis, species that has been traditionally classified in the genus Lynx. This new interpretation implies that there are no evidences of lynxes in the Pliocene of Westem Europe, and probably this consideration can be applicable to other Eurasiatic localities where Lynx issiodorensis has been determined.Dos especies de félidos de talla pequeña a media, Felis aff. silvestris y Caracal depereti nov. sp., han sido identificadas en el yacimiento cárstico plioceno de Layna, Soria. Caracal depereti nov. sp. muestra estrechas afinidades con Caracal issiodorensis, especie que tradicionalmente ha sido clasificada en el género Lynx. Esta interpretación implica que no hay evidencias de linces en el Plioceno de Europa occidental, y probablemente esta consideración pueda aplicarse a otros yacimientos pliocenos de Eurasia, en los que se ha determinado Lynx issiodorensis.

  14. Assessment of the onset of action of afoxolaner against existing adult flea (Ctenocephalides felis) infestations on dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunkle, Bruce N; Drag, Marlene D; Chester, Theodore S; Larsen, Diane L

    2014-04-02

    The speed of kill of afoxolaner against experimental infestations by Ctenocephalides felis was evaluated after oral administration of afoxolaner in a soft chew (NEXGARD(®)) at a dose to achieve 2.5mg/kg bodyweight. Forty beagles were allocated to two treatment groups. Dogs in Treatment Group 1 were untreated controls. Dogs in Treatment Group 2 were treated on Day-0 with afoxolaner, according to their pre-treatment bodyweight. All dogs were infested with approximately 100 C. felis on Day-1. Live fleas were counted upon removal at 5 time points after treatment (i.e., 2, 4, 8, 12 and 24h after treatment). For each time point, counts were performed on 4 dogs from each of the treated and the untreated groups. Early curative flea killing efficacy was evaluated with respect to the untreated control group. The afoxolaner treated group had significantly fewer fleas than the untreated control group at 8, 12, and 24h (pafoxolaner were 15.0%, 87.8%, 99.5%, 100.0%, and 100.0% at 2, 4, 8, 12, and 24h, respectively. In this study, afoxolaner began killing fleas by 2h after treatment with increasing efficacy at subsequent time points and had >99.5% efficacy at 8, 12, and 24h after treatment demonstrating an early onset of action.

  15. The fecal microbiome in cats with diarrhea.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan S Suchodolski

    Full Text Available Recent studies have revealed that microbes play an important role in the pathogenesis of gastrointestinal (GI diseases in various animal species, but only limited data is available about the microbiome in cats with GI disease. The aim of this study was to evaluate the fecal microbiome in cats with diarrhea. Fecal samples were obtained from healthy cats (n = 21 and cats with acute (n = 19 or chronic diarrhea (n = 29 and analyzed by sequencing of 16S rRNA genes, and PICRUSt was used to predict the functional gene content of the microbiome. Linear discriminant analysis (LDA effect size (LEfSe revealed significant differences in bacterial groups between healthy cats and cats with diarrhea. The order Burkholderiales, the families Enterobacteriaceae, and the genera Streptococcus and Collinsella were significantly increased in diarrheic cats. In contrast the order Campylobacterales, the family Bacteroidaceae, and the genera Megamonas, Helicobacter, and Roseburia were significantly increased in healthy cats. Phylum Bacteroidetes was significantly decreased in cats with chronic diarrhea (>21 days duration, while the class Erysipelotrichi and the genus Lactobacillus were significantly decreased in cats with acute diarrhea. The observed changes in bacterial groups were accompanied by significant differences in functional gene contents: metabolism of fatty acids, biosynthesis of glycosphingolipids, metabolism of biotin, metabolism of tryptophan, and ascorbate and aldarate metabolism, were all significantly (p<0.001 altered in cats with diarrhea. In conclusion, significant differences in the fecal microbiomes between healthy cats and cats with diarrhea were identified. This dysbiosis was accompanied by changes in bacterial functional gene categories. Future studies are warranted to evaluate if these microbial changes correlate with changes in fecal concentrations of microbial metabolites in cats with diarrhea for the identification of potential diagnostic or

  16. Tõsõ mu maailman : [luuletused] / Häniläne, pseud.

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Häniläne,, pseud.

    2008-01-01

    Sisu: Bombus lucorum (maakimalane) ; Podiceps auritus (sarvikpütt) ; Malus domestica (aed-õunapuu) ; Felis catus domesticus (kodukass) ; Inachis io (päevapaabusilm) ; Lacerta vivipara (arusisalik) ; Canis familiaris (kodukoer) ; Clangula hyemalis (aul)

  17. Interspecies discrimination of A. fumigatus and siblings A. lentulus and A. felis of the Aspergillus section Fumigati using the AsperGenius(®) assay

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chong, G M; Vonk, A G; Meis, J F; Dingemans, G J H; Houbraken, J; Hagen, F.; Gaajetaan, G R; van Tegelen, D W E; Simons, G F M; Rijnders, B J A

    2016-01-01

    The AsperGenius(®) assay detects several Aspergillus species and the A. fumigatus Cyp51A mutations TR34/L98H/T289A/Y121F that are associated with azole resistance. We evaluated its contribution in identifying A. lentulus and A. felis, 2 rare but intrinsically azole-resistant sibling species within t

  18. Interspecies discrimination of A. fumigatus and siblings A. lentulus and A. felis of the Aspergillus section Fumigati using the AsperGenius® assay

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G.M. Chong; A.G. Vonk (Alieke); J.F. Meis (Jacques F.); G. Dingemans (Gijs); J. Houbraken (Jos); F. Hagen (Ferry); G.R. Gaajetaan (Giel R.); D.W.E. Van Tegelen (Dennis W. E.); G.F.M. Simons (Guus F. M.); B.J.A. Rijnders (Bart)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractThe AsperGenius® assay detects several Aspergillus species and the A. fumigatus Cyp51A mutations TR34/L98H/T289A/Y121F that are associated with azole resistance. We evaluated its contribution in identifying A. lentulus and A. felis, 2 rare but intrinsically azole-resistant sibling specie

  19. Myeloproliferative disease in a cat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yates, R.W.; Weller, R.E.; Feldman, B.F.

    1984-10-01

    Myeloproliferative disorders, a complex of cytologic abnormalities arising in the bone marrow, are among domestic animals most frequently recognized in cats but are relatively uncommon. A 4-year-old female Siamese, with splenomegaly and weight loss, was listless, anorectic, pale and dehydrated. A hemogram showed severe, macrocytic normochromic anemia, leukocytosis and reticulocytosis, with abnormally high numbers of nucleated RBC and undifferentiated blast cells. Bone marrow smears contained predominantly undifferentiated blast cells, RBC precursors and myeloblasts. The fluorescent antibody test for FeLV was positive. The cat died 66 days later despite a blood transfusion and chemotherapy. Necropsy confirmed a diagnosis of myeloproliferative disease, with hepatic and splenic invasion. 15 references, 5 figures, 1 table.

  20. Eosinophilic leukaemia in a cat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharifi, Hassan; Nassiri, Seyed Mahdi; Esmaelli, Hossein; Khoshnegah, Javad

    2007-12-01

    A 14-year-old female domestic shorthair cat was presented to Tehran University Veterinary Teaching Hospital for a persistent fever, anorexia, intermittent vomiting, weight loss and weakness. The main clinical signs were pale mucous membranes, dehydration and splenomegaly. The complete blood count and serum biochemistry tests revealed non-regenerative anaemia, thrombocytopenia and increased alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity. An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) test for feline leukaemia virus was negative. Blood film and bone marrow examination revealed a large number of immature eosinophils with variable sizes and numbers of faintly azurophilic granules. Cytochemical staining of blood film demonstrated 70% positive cells for ALP activity. Four percent CD34 positive cells were detected by flow cytometry. As eosinophilic leukaemia is difficult to identify by light microscopy, well-defined diagnostic criteria and the use of flow cytometry and cytochemical staining can improve the ability to correctly diagnose this type of leukaemia in cats.

  1. Cats, Cancer and Comparative Oncology

    OpenAIRE

    Cannon, Claire M.

    2015-01-01

    Naturally occurring tumors in dogs are well-established models for several human cancers. Domestic cats share many of the benefits of dogs as a model (spontaneous cancers developing in an immunocompetent animal sharing the same environment as humans, shorter lifespan allowing more rapid trial completion and data collection, lack of standard of care for many cancers allowing evaluation of therapies in treatment-naïve populations), but have not been utilized to the same degree in the One Medici...

  2. Cat Scratch Disease: Expanded Spectrum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aziz, Hassan A.; Plesec, Thomas P.; Sabella, Camille; Udayasankar, Unni K.; Singh, Arun D.

    2016-01-01

    Background To expand the spectrum of ophthalmic manifestations in cat scratch disease. Methods Case report. Results A 7-year-old male was referred for evaluation of his left optic disc after failing vision screening test at school. His visual acuity was 20/20 OD and light perception OS. Fundus examination showed a left optic disc lesion associated with an exudative retinal detachment and vitreous seeding. Ultrasonography revealed a 7 × 7.5 × 3.8 mm lesion with a possible 6.3 mm of retrolaminar extension into the substance of the optic nerve. Brain MRI did not show evidence of optic nerve involvement but revealed a 6-mm nodule of the pineal gland suggestive of a pineoblastoma. Enucleation was performed and histopathology revealed a suppurative granulomatous inflammation suggestive of Bartonella infection. Upon further questioning, the patient had recent exposure to kittens with areas of cat scratches along both of his arms. He was subsequently referred to and treated with a 2-week course of trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole and rifampin by the pediatric infectious disease specialist. Repeat brain MRI showed interval total resolution of enlarged pineal gland. Conclusion: Optic nerve granulomas are a rare presentation of cat scratch disease and could potentially masquerade as retinoblastoma. PMID:27843905

  3. Schroedinger's Cat is not Alone

    CERN Document Server

    Gato, Beatriz

    2010-01-01

    We introduce the `Complete Wave Function' and deduce that all living beings, not just Schroedinger's cat, are actually described by a superposition of `alive' and `dead' quantum states; otherwise they would never die. Therefore this proposal provides a quantum mechanical explanation to the world-wide observation that we all pass away. Next we consider the Measurement problem in the framework of M-theory. For this purpose, together with Schroedinger's cat we also place inside the box Rasputin's cat, which is unaffected by poisson. We analyse the system identifying its excitations (catons and catinos) and we discuss its evolution: either to a classical fight or to a quantum entanglement. We also propose the $BSV\\Psi$ scenario, which implements the Complete Wave Function as well as the Big Bang and the String Landscape in a very (super)natural way. Then we test the gravitational decoherence of the entangled system applying an experimental setting due to Galileo. We also discuss the Information Loss paradox. For ...

  4. Bacterial pericarditis in a cat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicole LeBlanc

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Case summary A 4-year-old male neutered domestic shorthair cat was presented to the Oregon State University cardiology service for suspected pericardial effusion. Cardiac tamponade was documented and pericardiocentesis yielded purulent fluid with cytologic results supportive of bacterial pericarditis. The microbial population consisted of Pasteurella multocida, Actinomyces canis, Fusobacterium and Bacteroides species. Conservative management was elected consisting of intravenous antibiotic therapy with ampicillin sodium/sulbactam sodium and metronidazole for 48 h followed by 4 weeks of oral antibiotics. Re-examination 3 months after the initial incident indicated no recurrence of effusion and the cat remained free of clinical signs 2 years after presentation. Relevance and novel information Bacterial pericarditis is a rare cause of pericardial effusion in cats. Growth of P multocida, A canis, Fusobacterium and Bacteroides species has not previously been documented in feline septic pericarditis. Conservative management with broad-spectrum antibiotics may be considered when further diagnostic imaging or exploratory surgery to search for a primary nidus of infection is not feasible or elected.

  5. Aspectos morfométricos do timo em gatos domésticos (Felis domesticus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camila E. Barroso

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available O timo é um órgão linfático primário que desenvolve sua atividade em organismos jovens. Apesar de sua função ser responsável por mecanismos fundamentais na aquisição das defesas e conseqüentes respostas orgânicas, ela ainda não está totalmente esclarecida, nem tampouco as bases morfológicas que respondem por tais funções, como o processo de desenvolvimento e involução do órgão. Objetivou-se analisar e caracterizar os aspectos morfológicos do timo, tais como seu tamanho e volume, e aspectos histológicos do timo em gatos, correlacionando o sexo e o desenvolvimento etário. Doze timos provenientes de fetos de gatos domésticos (Felis domesticus sem raça definida (SRD, machos e fêmeas, separados em três grupos etários. O timo apresentou-se com uma coloração rosa-pálida e com duas porções, a torácica e a cervical, sendo que cada uma delas possuía um lobo direito e um lobo esquerdo em sua maioria. A porção torácica localizava-se em região de mediastino cranial, entre os pulmões e à base do coração. E a porção cervical estendia-se além das costelas em sentido cranial, estando localizada ventralmente à traqueia. A estrutura celular do timo demonstrou-se organizada com a presença de agregados concêntricos, os chamados corpúsculos tímicos, formados por células epiteliais, sustentada por uma cápsula de tecido conjuntivo de onde partiam septos que ao penetrar no órgão dividia-o em lóbulos. Ocorreram variações significativas quanto à lobação e as dimensões do timo entre indivíduos da mesma faixa etária, e entre sexos diferentes. Os valores relativos ao comprimento, espessura e largura, de maneira geral, apresentaram aumento, em conformidade ao desenvolvimento dos animais, mas com diferenças entre os sexos.

  6. Management of obesity in cats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoelmkjaer KM

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Kirsten M Hoelmkjaer, Charlotte R Bjornvad Department of Veterinary Clinical and Animal Sciences, Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Frederiksberg, Denmark Abstract: Obesity is a common nutritional disorder in cats, especially when they are neutered and middle-aged. Obesity predisposes cats to several metabolic and clinical disorders, including insulin resistance, diabetes mellitus, lameness, and skin disease. Prevention and treatment of obesity is therefore of great importance in veterinary practice. Correct assessment of body composition is important for recognizing early states of obesity and for monitoring success of weight-loss programs. Various methods for assessing body composition have been proposed, of which a 9-point body-condition score has been validated in cats, and is possibly the most simple to use in the clinic; however, for extremely obese individuals, it is less useful. When calculating the appropriate daily caloric intake for a weight-loss plan, the aim is to maintain a safe weight-loss rate, increasing the chance of preserving lean body mass and decreasing the risk of developing hepatic lipidosis, while also producing a sufficient weight-loss rate to keep owners motivated. A weight-loss rate of 0.5%–2% per week is recommended, which for a cat that needs to lose 3 kg body weight results in an anticipated time for reaching the target weight of 24–60 weeks. There are several purpose-made weight-loss diets available. The optimal composition of a weight-loss diet for cats is unknown, but most of the available products have lower caloric density, an increased nutrient:energy ratio, and higher protein and fiber content. Regular follow-up visits allow the caloric intake to be adjusted based on progress, and possibly increase the chance of success. This review discusses the risk factors for and consequences of obesity, and gives directions for formulating a weight-loss plan, including daily caloric

  7. Incidence of pyometra in Swedish insured cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagman, Ragnvi; Ström Holst, Bodil; Möller, Lotta; Egenvall, Agneta

    2014-07-01

    Pyometra is a clinically relevant problem in intact female cats and dogs. The etiology is similar in both animal species, with the disease caused by bacterial infection of a progesterone-sensitized uterus. Here, we studied pyometra in cats with the aim to describe the incidence and probability of developing pyometra based on age and breed. The data used were reimbursed claims for veterinary care insurance or life insurance claims or both in cats insured in a Swedish insurance database from 1999 to 2006. The mean incidence rate (IR) for pyometra was about 17 cats per 10,000 cat years at risk (CYAR). Cats with pyometra were diagnosed at a median age of 4 years and a significant breed effect was observed. The breed with the highest IR (433 cats per 10,000 CYAR) was the Sphynx, and other breeds with IR over 60 cats per 10,000 CYAR were Siberian cat, Ocicat, Korat, Siamese, Ragdoll, Maine coon, and Bengal. Pyometra was more commonly diagnosed with increasing age, with a marked increase in cats older than 7 years. The mean case fatality rate in all cats was 5.7%, which is slightly higher than corresponding reports in dogs of 3% to 4%. Geographical location (urban or rural) did not affect the risk of developing the disease. The present study provides information of incidence and probability of developing pyometra based on age, breed, and urban or rural geographical location. These data may be useful for designing cat breeding programs in high-risk breeds and for future studies of the genetic background of the disease.

  8. The Value of Cat Ownership to Elderly Women Living Alone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahalski, Pauline A.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Surveyed elderly women in two New Zealand cities; one allowed pet cats, one did not. Attitudes toward pet cats were more positive in city allowing pets and among pensioners who owned, or wished to own, cats. Since positive attitudes outweighed negative ones, City Authority banning cats reversed its policy. Found conflicting evidence about cats'…

  9. 42 CFR 71.51 - Dogs and cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Dogs and cats. 71.51 Section 71.51 Public Health... QUARANTINE Importations § 71.51 Dogs and cats. (a) Definitions. As used in this section the term: Cat means all domestic cats. Confinement means restriction of a dog or cat to a building or other enclosure at...

  10. Controlled Archaeological Test Site (CATS) Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — CATS facility is at the Construction Engineering Research Laboratory (CERL), Champaign, IL. This 1-acre test site includes a variety of subsurface features carefully...

  11. Cats

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Dogs Farm Animals Backyard Poultry Ferrets Fish Horses Reptiles and Amphibians Turtles Kept as Pets Key Messages ... L. Feline Bartonellosis. The Veterinary Clinics of North America. Small Animal Practice. 2010 Nov;40(6):1073- ...

  12. Evolutionary analysis of a large mtDNA translocation (numt) into the nuclear genome of the Panthera genus species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jae-Heup; Antunes, Agostinho; Luo, Shu-Jin; Menninger, Joan; Nash, William G; O'Brien, Stephen J; Johnson, Warren E

    2006-02-01

    Translocation of cymtDNA into the nuclear genome, also referred to as numt, has been reported in many species, including several closely related to the domestic cat (Felis catus). We describe the recent transposition of 12,536 bp of the 17 kb mitochondrial genome into the nucleus of the common ancestor of the five Panthera genus species: tiger, P. tigris; snow leopard, P. uncia; jaguar, P. onca; leopard, P. pardus; and lion, P. leo. This nuclear integration, representing 74% of the mitochondrial genome, is one of the largest to be reported in eukaryotes. The Panthera genus numt differs from the numt previously described in the Felis genus in: (1) chromosomal location (F2-telomeric region vs. D2-centromeric region), (2) gene make up (from the ND5 to the ATP8 vs. from the CR to the COII), (3) size (12.5 vs. 7.9 kb), and (4) structure (single monomer vs. tandemly repeated in Felis). These distinctions indicate that the origin of this large numt fragment in the nuclear genome of the Panthera species is an independent insertion from that of the domestic cat lineage, which has been further supported by phylogenetic analyses. The tiger cymtDNA shared around 90% sequence identity with the homologous numt sequence, suggesting an origin for the Panthera numt at around 3.5 million years ago, prior to the radiation of the five extant Panthera species.

  13. Cats, Cancer and Comparative Oncology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claire M. Cannon

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Naturally occurring tumors in dogs are well-established models for several human cancers. Domestic cats share many of the benefits of dogs as a model (spontaneous cancers developing in an immunocompetent animal sharing the same environment as humans, shorter lifespan allowing more rapid trial completion and data collection, lack of standard of care for many cancers allowing evaluation of therapies in treatment-naïve populations, but have not been utilized to the same degree in the One Medicine approach to cancer. There are both challenges and opportunities in feline compared to canine models. This review will discuss three specific tumor types where cats may offer insights into human cancers. Feline oral squamous cell carcinoma is common, shares both clinical and molecular features with human head and neck cancer and is an attractive model for evaluating new therapies. Feline mammary tumors are usually malignant and aggressive, with the ‘triple-negative’ phenotype being more common than in humans, offering an enriched population in which to examine potential targets and treatments. Finally, although there is not an exact corollary in humans, feline injection site sarcoma may be a model for inflammation-driven tumorigenesis, offering opportunities for studying variations in individual susceptibility as well as preventative and therapeutic strategies.

  14. Domestic cat allergen and allergic sensitisation in young children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chen, Chih-Mei; Gehring, Ulrike; Wickman, Magnus; Hoek, Gerard; Giovannangelo, Mariella; Nordling, Emma; Wijga, Alet; de Jongste, Johan; Pershagen, Goeran; Almqvist, Catarina; Kerkhof, Marjan; Bellander, Tom; Wichmann, H. -Erich; Brunekreef, Bert; Heinrich, Joachim

    2008-01-01

    Studies have presented conflicting associations between cat allergen exposure and sensitisation and atopic disease. We therefore investigated the association between the observed domestic cat allergen level and cat sensitisation in young children in four study populations from three European countri

  15. Babesiosis in dogs and cats--expanding parasitological and clinical spectra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solano-Gallego, Laia; Baneth, Gad

    2011-09-08

    Canine babesiosis caused by different Babesia species is a protozoal tick-borne disease with worldwide distribution and global significance. Historically, Babesia infection in dogs was identified based on the morphologic appearance of the parasite in the erythrocyte. All large forms of Babesia were designated Babesia canis, whereas all small forms of Babesia were considered to be Babesia gibsoni. However, the development of molecular methods has demonstrated that other Babesia species such as Babesia conradae, Babesia microti like piroplasm, Theileria spp. and a yet unnamed large form Babesia spp. infect dogs and cause distinct diseases. Babesia rossi, B. canis and Babesia vogeli previously considered as subspecies are identical morphologically but differ in the severity of clinical manifestations which they induce, their tick vectors, genetic characteristics, and geographic distributions, and are therefore currently considered separate species. The geographic distribution of the causative agent and thus the occurrence of babesiosis are largely dependent on the habitat of relevant tick vector species, with the exception of B. gibsoni where evidence for dog to dog transmission indicates that infection can be transmitted among fighting dog breeds independently of the limitations of vector tick infestation. Knowledge of the prevalence and clinicopathological aspects of Babesia species infecting dogs around the world is of epidemiologic and medical interest. Babesiosis in domestic cats is less common and has mostly been reported from South Africa where infection is mainly due to Babesia felis, a small Babesia that causes anemia and icterus. In addition, Babesia cati was reported from India and sporadic cases of B. canis infection in domestic cats have been reported in Europe, B. canis presentii in Israel and B. vogeli in Thailand. Babesiosis caused by large Babesia spp. is commonly treated with imidocarb dipropionate with good clinical response while small Babesia spp

  16. Refinement of a commercial bench-top relaxin assay for pregnancy diagnosis using urine from domestic and nondomestic felids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Laurie A; Steinetz, Bernard G; Bond, Jennifer B; Lasano, Sally; Swanson, William F

    2008-06-01

    Relaxin, a 6-kDa polypeptide hormone, is excreted in the urine during pregnancy in several mammalian species. A recent study showed that detection of urinary relaxin using a bench-top serum assay (Witness relaxin kit, Synbiotics Corp., San Diego, California 92127, USA) can be diagnostic for pregnancy in domestic cats (Felis silvestris catus), but it is unknown whether the bench-top kit is applicable with urine across felid species. Our objectives were to 1) examine modifications in urine processing to improve kit reliability in pregnant cats, 2) evaluate the impact of concentrating urine via filtration on relaxin detection, 3) assess the effect of sample freezing on relaxin concentrations, and 4) begin quantifying urinary relaxin levels in nondomestic felids. Urine and serum were collected from domestic cats and nondomestic cat species (Pallas' cat, Otocolobus manul; sand cat, Felis margarita; cheetah, Acinonyx jubatus; and lion, Panthera leo) at several times after breeding. Urine samples, subjected to various processing methods, were tested using the bench-top kit, and relaxin levels were later quantified via radioimmunoassay. For domestic cat urine samples, filtration and addition of protein/phosphate buffer improved the consistency of the relaxin kit for early pregnancy diagnosis. Urine freezing caused a slight (approximately 13%) but significant decrease in relaxin concentrations, but frozen-thawed samples still tested positive with the bench-top kit. In nondomestic felids, urinary relaxin immunoreactivity during pregnancy was similar to or higher than that of pregnant domestic cats, suggesting that relaxin is a reliable cross-species marker of pregnancy. Urinary relaxin was detectable using the bench-top kit in pregnant Pallas' cats, but urine samples from other species tested negative, regardless of processing methods. Findings suggest that measurement of urinary relaxin is a promising approach for noninvasive pregnancy diagnosis in exotic felids, but

  17. Quantum Computer Games: Schrodinger Cat and Hounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Michal; Gordon, Goren

    2012-01-01

    The quantum computer game "Schrodinger cat and hounds" is the quantum extension of the well-known classical game fox and hounds. Its main objective is to teach the unique concepts of quantum mechanics in a fun way. "Schrodinger cat and hounds" demonstrates the effects of superposition, destructive and constructive interference, measurements and…

  18. Malassezia spp. overgrowth in allergic cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ordeix, Laura; Galeotti, Franca; Scarampella, Fabia; Dedola, Carla; Bardagí, Mar; Romano, Erica; Fondati, Alessandra

    2007-10-01

    A series of 18 allergic cats with multifocal Malassezia spp. overgrowth is reported: atopic dermatitis was diagnosed in 16, an adverse food reaction in another and one was euthanized 2 months after diagnosis of Malassezia overgrowth. All the cats were otherwise healthy and those tested (16 out of 18) for feline leukaemia or feline immunodeficiency virus infections were all negative. At dermatological examination, multifocal alopecia, erythema, crusting and greasy adherent brownish scales were variably distributed on all cats. Cytological examination revealed Malassezia spp. overgrowth with/without bacterial infection in facial skin (n = 11), ventral neck (n = 6), abdomen (n = 6), ear canal (n = 4), chin (n = 2), ear pinnae (n = 2), interdigital (n = 1) and claw folds skin (n = 1). Moreover, in two cats Malassezia pachydermatis was isolated in fungal cultures from lesional skin. Azoles therapy alone was prescribed in seven, azoles and antibacterial therapy in eight and azoles with both antibacterial and anti-inflammatory therapy in three of the cats. After 3-4 weeks of treatment, substantial reduction of pruritus and skin lesions was observed in all 11 cats treated with a combined therapy and in five of seven treated solely with azoles. Malassezia spp. overgrowth may represent a secondary cutaneous problem in allergic cats particularly in those presented for dermatological examination displaying greasy adherent brownish scales. The favourable response to treatment with antifungal treatments alone suggests that, as in dogs, Malassezia spp. may be partly responsible for both pruritus and cutaneous lesions in allergic cats.

  19. Criptococose em felino Cryptococcosis in cat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F.J.F. Sant’Ana

    1999-08-01

    Full Text Available A case of cryptococcosis in a cat refferred to the Hospital Veterinário da Universidade Federal Rural de Pernambuco is described. The cat was euthanized and the microscopic examination of a firm mass observed in the nasal cavity was accomplished. Cryptococcus sp. and a chronic inflammatory process was observed throughout the tissue.

  20. Intestinal obstruction by trichobezoars in five cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrs, V R; Beatty, J A; Tisdall, P L; Hunt, G B; Gunew, M; Nicoll, R G; Malik, R

    1999-12-01

    Between 1997 and 1999, five domestic crossbred cats (four long haired, one short haired) presented with a palpable abdominal mass and were shown to have small intestinal trichobezoars at laparotomy or necropsy. Hair balls were associated with partial or complete intestinal obstruction and were situated in the proximal jejunum to distal ileum. In four cats obstructions were simple, while the remaining cat had a strangulating obstruction. Three of the cats were 10 years or older, and two were less than 4 years. In the three older cats abdominal neoplasia was suspected and investigations were delayed or declined in two of these cats because of a perceived poor prognosis. Predisposing factors identified in this series of cats included a long-hair coat, flea allergy dermatitis, inflammatory bowel disease and ingestion of non-digestible plant material. This report shows that the ingestion of hair is not always innocuous and that intestinal trichobezoars should be considered in the differential diagnoses of intestinal obstruction and intra-abdominal mass lesions, particularly in long-haired cats.

  1. A cross-species alignment tool (CAT)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Heng; Guan, Liang; Liu, Tao;

    2007-01-01

    sensitive methods which are usually applied in aligning inter-species sequences. RESULTS: Here we present a new algorithm called CAT (for Cross-species Alignment Tool). It is designed to align mRNA sequences to mammalian-sized genomes. CAT is implemented using C scripts and is freely available on the web...

  2. Cool Cats: Feline Fun with Abstract Art.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambert, Phyllis Gilchrist

    2002-01-01

    Presents a lesson that teaches students about abstract art in a fun way. Explains that students draw cats, learn about the work of Pablo Picasso, and, in the style of Picasso, combine the parts of the cats (tail, legs, head, body) together in unconventional ways. (CMK)

  3. Getting a CAT Scan (For Kids)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... A Kid's Guide to Fever Getting a CAT Scan (Video) KidsHealth > For Kids > Getting a CAT Scan (Video) A A A en español Obtención de ... of what's going on inside your body. The scan itself is painless. All you'll need to ...

  4. Ocorrência do vírus da leucemia felina em Felis cattus em Belo Horizonte

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F.M. Coelho

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Blood samples from 1,072 domestic cats of nine administrative regions of Belo Horizonte, MG, were collected and tested using PCR nested for the occurrence of feline leukemia virus (FeLV. Overall occurrence was 47.5% (507/1072 being North (68.1% and East (54.4% the most prevalent areas. Epidemiological data showed that FeLV infection was very common among examined cats and breed neither gender nor were predisposing factors for FeLV. The results suggest that the agglomeration of a large number of cats in the same environment can be an important factor for the increase in the rate of transmission of this retrovirus among domestic cats in the studied city.

  5. Polycystic kidney disease in a Chartreux cat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volta, Antonella; Manfredi, Sabrina; Gnudi, Giacomo; Gelati, Aldo; Bertoni, Giorgio

    2010-02-01

    Polycystic kidney disease (PKD) is one of the most common genetic diseases in cats. It has been widely described in Persians and Persian-related cats and sporadically in other breeds. The purpose of the present paper is to describe the first reported case of PKD in a 12-year-old female Chartreux cat. The cat was referred with polyuria and polydipsia and enlarged and irregular kidneys at palpation. Multiple renal cysts and a single liver cyst were identified by ultrasound and the inherited pattern was confirmed by genetic test (polymerase chain reaction/restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR/RFLP) assay). Chartreux cats should be included in the screening programme of PKD, and PKD should be always considered as a possible cause of chronic renal failure in this breed.

  6. Feline Epitheliotropic Mastocytic Conjunctivitis in 15 Cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beckwith-Cohen, B; Dubielzig, R R; Maggs, D J; Teixeira, L B C

    2017-01-01

    Mast cell infiltration occurs in malignant, inflammatory (eg, allergic, infectious), and idiopathic disease processes in humans and animals. Here, we describe the clinical and histological features of a unique proliferative conjunctivitis occurring in 15 cats. Ocular specimens were examined histologically, and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for feline herpesvirus 1 (FHV-1) was performed on ocular tissues obtained from 10 cats. Cats had a median age of 8 years (range: 7 months-17.5 years). The known median duration of ocular lesions prior to biopsy was 4 months (range: 1 week-3 years). Ocular disease was unilateral in 12 cats, and 9 cats had coexisting corneal disease. Clinically and histologically, proliferative or nodular conjunctival lesions were noted in 13 cats. The nictitating membrane was affected in 10 cats. Histologically, lesions were characterized by mixed inflammatory infiltrates with an abundance of Giemsa-positive and toluidine blue-positive intraepithelial and subepithelial mast cells, marked edema, and papillary epithelial hyperplasia. Feline herpesvirus 1 was demonstrated by PCR in 1 of 10 cats tested. Follow-up information was available for 14 cats: 8 had no recurrence during a median follow-up period of 17.5 months (range: 4.5-30 months), 2 underwent orbital exenteration, 3 had recurrence that was medically managed, and 1 cat had diffuse conjunctivitis at the time of biopsy and recurrence was deemed irrelevant. Various ocular medications were administered before and after surgical biopsy. This condition was designated as feline epitheliotropic mastocytic conjunctivitis, with intraepithelial mast cells being an essential feature and papillary epithelial proliferation being characteristic but not diagnostic alone. The condition appears to be uncommon and benign. Although the cause is unknown, an allergic component is possible.

  7. Lesions of structures showing FOS expression to cat presentation: effects on responsivity to a Cat, Cat odor, and nonpredator threat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanchard, D Caroline; Canteras, Newton S; Markham, Chris M; Pentkowski, Nathan S; Blanchard, Robert J

    2005-01-01

    Exposure of rats to a cat elicits Fos activity in a number of brain areas or structures. Based on hodological relationships of these, Canteras has proposed a medial hypothalamic defense system, with input from several forebrain sites. Both electrolytic and neurotoxic lesions of the dorsal premammillary nucleus, which shows the strongest Fos response to cat exposure, produce striking decrements in a number of defensive behaviors to a cat or to cat odor stimuli, but do not have a major effect on either postshock freezing, or responsivity to the odor of a female in estrus. Neurotoxic lesions of the medial amygdala produce decrements in defensiveness to predator stimuli, particularly odor stimuli, that are consistent with a view of this structure as involved with allomonal cues. While dorsal hippocampal lesions had little effect on responsivity to predator stimuli, neurotoxic lesions of the ventral hippocampus reduced freezing and enhanced a variety of nondefensive behaviors to both cat odor and footshock, with similar reductions in defensiveness during context conditioning tests for cat odor, cat exposure and footshock. These results support the view that the dorsal premammillary nucleus is strongly and selectively involved in control of responsivity to predator stimuli. Structures with important input into the medial hypothalamic defense system appear also to be functionally involved with antipredator defensive behaviors, and these lesion studies may suggest specific hypotheses as to the particular defense functions of different areas.

  8. CAT — EDRN Public Portal

    Science.gov (United States)

    The CAT gene product, catalase, occurs in the peroxisome of almost all respiring organismÃÆ'¢â‚¬â„¢s cells. Catalase is a heme enzyme that converts the reactive oxygen species hydrogen peroxide to water and oxygen, diminishing the toxic effects of hydrogen peroxide on the cell. Catalase promotes growth of cells including T-cells, B-cells, myeloid leukemia cells, melanoma cells, mastocytoma cells and normal and transformed fibroblast cells. Polymorphisms in this gene have been associated with decreases in catalase activity but, to date, acatalasemia is the only disease known to be caused by this gene.

  9. Seroprevalence and genomic divergence of circulating strains of feline immunodeficiency virus among Felidae and Hyaenidae species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troyer, Jennifer L; Pecon-Slattery, Jill; Roelke, Melody E; Johnson, Warren; VandeWoude, Sue; Vazquez-Salat, Nuria; Brown, Meredith; Frank, Laurence; Woodroffe, Rosie; Winterbach, Christiaan; Winterbach, Hanlie; Hemson, Graham; Bush, Mitch; Alexander, Kathleen A; Revilla, Eloy; O'Brien, Stephen J

    2005-07-01

    Feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) infects numerous wild and domestic feline species and is closely related to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV). Species-specific strains of FIV have been described for domestic cat (Felis catus), puma (Puma concolor), lion (Panthera leo), leopard (Panthera pardus), and Pallas' cat (Otocolobus manul). Here, we employ a three-antigen Western blot screening (domestic cat, puma, and lion FIV antigens) and PCR analysis to survey worldwide prevalence, distribution, and genomic differentiation of FIV based on 3,055 specimens from 35 Felidae and 3 Hyaenidae species. Although FIV infects a wide variety of host species, it is confirmed to be endemic in free-ranging populations of nine Felidae and one Hyaenidae species. These include the large African carnivores (lion, leopard, cheetah, and spotted hyena), where FIV is widely distributed in multiple populations; most of the South American felids (puma, jaguar, ocelot, margay, Geoffroy's cat, and tigrina), which maintain a lower FIV-positive level throughout their range; and two Asian species, the Pallas' cat, which has a species-specific strain of FIV, and the leopard cat, which has a domestic cat FIV strain in one population. Phylogenetic analysis of FIV proviral sequence demonstrates that most species for which FIV is endemic harbor monophyletic, genetically distinct species-specific FIV strains, suggesting that FIV transfer between cat species has occurred in the past but is quite infrequent today.

  10. Antifungal activity of extracts from Atacama Desert fungi againstParacoccidioides brasiliensis and identification ofAspergillus felis as a promising source of natural bioactive compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graziele Mendes

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Fungi of the genus Paracoccidioides are responsible for paracoccidioidomycosis. The occurrence of drug toxicity and relapse in this disease justify the development of new antifungal agents. Compounds extracted from fungal extract have showing antifungal activity. Extracts of 78 fungi isolated from rocks of the Atacama Desert were tested in a microdilution assay against Paracoccidioides brasiliensis Pb18. Approximately 18% (5 of the extracts showed minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC values≤ 125.0 µg/mL. Among these, extract from the fungus UFMGCB 8030 demonstrated the best results, with an MIC of 15.6 µg/mL. This isolate was identified as Aspergillus felis (by macro and micromorphologies, and internal transcribed spacer, β-tubulin, and ribosomal polymerase II gene analyses and was grown in five different culture media and extracted with various solvents to optimise its antifungal activity. Potato dextrose agar culture and dichloromethane extraction resulted in an MIC of 1.9 µg/mL against P. brasiliensis and did not show cytotoxicity at the concentrations tested in normal mammalian cell (Vero. This extract was subjected to bioassay-guided fractionation using analytical C18RP-high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC and an antifungal assay using P. brasiliensis. Analysis of the active fractions by HPLC-high resolution mass spectrometry allowed us to identify the antifungal agents present in the A. felis extracts cytochalasins. These results reveal the potential of A. felis as a producer of bioactive compounds with antifungal activity.

  11. Rickettsia typhi IN RODENTS AND R. felis IN FLEAS IN YUCATÁN AS A POSSIBLE CAUSAL AGENT OF UNDEFINED FEBRILE CASES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaspar PENICHE-LARA

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Rickettsia typhi is the causal agent of murine typhus; a worldwide zoonotic and vector-borne infectious disease, commonly associated with the presence of domestic and wild rodents. Human cases of murine typhus in the state of Yucatán are frequent. However, there is no evidence of the presence of Rickettsia typhi in mammals or vectors in Yucatán. The presence of Rickettsia in rodents and their ectoparasites was evaluated in a small municipality of Yucatán using the conventional polymerase chain reaction technique and sequencing. The study only identified the presence of Rickettsia typhi in blood samples obtained from Rattus rattus and it reported, for the first time, the presence of R. felis in the flea Polygenis odiosus collected from Ototylomys phyllotis rodent. Additionally, Rickettsia felis was detected in the ectoparasite Ctenocephalides felis fleas parasitizing the wild rodent Peromyscus yucatanicus. This study’s results contributed to a better knowledge of Rickettsia epidemiology in Yucatán.

  12. The CATS Service: An Astrophysical Research Tool

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O V Verkhodanov

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available We describe the current status of CATS (astrophysical CATalogs Support system, a publicly accessible tool maintained at Special Astrophysical Observatory of the Russian Academy of Sciences (SAO RAS (http://cats.sao.ru allowing one to search hundreds of catalogs of astronomical objects discovered all along the electromagnetic spectrum. Our emphasis is mainly on catalogs of radio continuum sources observed from 10 MHz to 245 GHz, and secondly on catalogs of objects such as radio and active stars, X-ray binaries, planetary nebulae, HII regions, supernova remnants, pulsars, nearby and radio galaxies, AGN and quasars. CATS also includes the catalogs from the largest extragalactic surveys with non-radio waves. In 2008 CATS comprised a total of about 109 records from over 400 catalogs in the radio, IR, optical and X-ray windows, including most source catalogs deriving from observations with the Russian radio telescope RATAN-600. CATS offers several search tools through different ways of access, e.g. via Web-interface and e-mail. Since its creation in 1997 CATS has managed about 105requests. Currently CATS is used by external users about 1500 times per day and since its opening to the public in 1997 has received about 4000 requests for its selection and matching tasks.

  13. Exocrine Pancreas in Cats With Diabetes Mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zini, E; Ferro, S; Lunardi, F; Zanetti, R; Heller, R S; Coppola, L M; Guscetti, F; Osto, M; Lutz, T A; Cavicchioli, L; Reusch, C E

    2016-01-01

    Pancreatitis has been described in cats with diabetes mellitus, although the number of studies currently available is very limited. In addition, ketoacidosis has been hypothesized to be associated with pancreatitis in diabetic cats. The aims of the present study were to investigate whether diabetic cats have pancreatitis and to determine if pancreatitis is more frequent with ketoacidosis. Samples of pancreas were collected postmortem from 37 diabetic cats, including 15 with ketoacidosis, and 20 control cats matched for age, sex, breed, and body weight. Sections were stained with hematoxylin and eosin, double-labeled for insulin/CD3, insulin/CD20, insulin/myeloperoxidase, insulin/PCNA, and glucagon/Ki67, and single-labeled for Iba1. A previously proposed semiquantitative score was used to characterize pancreatitis, along with counts of inflammatory cells. Scores of pancreatitis and the number of neutrophils, macrophages, and lymphocytes in the exocrine pancreas did not differ between diabetic and control cats or between diabetic cats with and without ketoacidosis. Of note, PCNA-positive acinar cells were increased (P = .002) in diabetic cats, particularly near islets (P < .001). Ki67-positive acinar cells were increased only near islets (P = .038). Ketoacidosis was not linked to proliferation. The results suggest that histopathologic evidence of pancreatitis may not be more frequent in diabetic cats and that ketoacidosis may not be associated with it at the time of death. Augmented PCNA-positive acinar cells might indicate increased proliferation due to chronic pancreatitis. The reason behind the prevalent proliferation of acinar cells surrounding pancreatic islets deserves further investigation.

  14. Endocrine Pancreas in Cats With Diabetes Mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zini, E; Lunardi, F; Zanetti, R; Heller, R S; Coppola, L M; Ferro, S; Guscetti, F; Osto, M; Lutz, T A; Reusch, C E; Cavicchioli, L

    2016-01-01

    Pancreatic amyloidosis and loss of α and β cells have been shown to occur in cats with diabetes mellitus, although the number of studies currently available is very limited. Furthermore, it is not known whether pancreatic islet inflammation is a common feature. The aims of the present study were to characterize islet lesions and to investigate whether diabetic cats have inflammation of the pancreatic islets. Samples of pancreas were collected postmortem from 37 diabetic and 20 control cats matched for age, sex, breed, and body weight. Histologic sections were stained with hematoxylin and eosin and Congo red; double labeled for insulin/CD3, insulin/CD20, insulin/myeloperoxidase, insulin/proliferating cell nuclear antigen, and glucagon/Ki67; and single labeled for amylin and Iba1. Mean insulin-positive cross-sectional area was approximately 65% lower in diabetic than control cats (P = .009), while that of amylin and glucagon was similar. Surprisingly, amyloid deposition was similar between groups (P = .408). Proliferation of insulin- and glucagon-positive cells and the number of neutrophils, macrophages, and T (CD3) and B (CD20) lymphocytes in the islets did not differ. The presence of T and B lymphocytes combined tended to be more frequent in diabetic cats (n = 8 of 37; 21.6%) than control cats (n = 1 of 20; 5.0%). The results confirm previous observations that loss of β cells but not α cells occurs in diabetic cats. Islet amyloidosis was present in diabetic cats but was not greater than in controls. A subset of diabetic cats had lymphocytic infiltration of the islets, which might be associated with β-cell loss.

  15. Aspergillus species cystitis in a cat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamama-Moraitou, K K; Paitaki, C G; Rallis, T S; Tontis, D

    2001-03-01

    A Persian male cat with a history of lower urinary tract disease was presented because of polydipsia, polyuria, constipation and nasal discharge. Ten weeks before admission, the cat had been treated for lower urinary tract disease by catheterisation and flushing of the bladder. The animal was thin, dehydrated, anaemic and azotaemic. Urine culture revealed Aspergillus species cystitis. Antibodies against Aspergillus nidulans were identified in serum. Fluconazole was administered orally (7.5 mg/kg, q 12 h) for 10 consecutive weeks. The azotaemia was resolved, the kidney concentrating ability was recovered and the cat has remained healthy without similar problems.

  16. Utilização experimental de hidroxiapatita sintética em alvéolos dentários de gatos domésticos (Felis catus: estudo clínico, radiográfico e histomorfométrico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.C. Silva

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available A fim de avaliar a resposta biológica da hidroxiapatita sintética (HAP-91 nos alvéolos de felinos domésticos, este biomaterial foi implantado após extração do terceiro pré-molar inferior direito em 12 gatos e mantida por meio de uma membrana de celulose bacteriana. No lado esquerdo, os alvéolos foram apenas recobertos com a membrana de celulose bacteriana, formando o grupo-controle. Observou-se, durante a avaliação clínica, que todos os animais voltaram a comer normalmente ração úmida, sem apresentarem sinais de dor ou desconforto após a recuperação anestésica. A cicatrização da ferida cirúrgica ocorreu de forma satisfatória, sendo que a membrana de celulose bacteriana evitou a saída precoce da hidroxiapatita. Radiograficamente, aos 50 dias, todos os animais apresentaram radiopacidade óssea homogênea em ambos os lados. À análise histomorfométrica, observou-se adiantamento do processo de reparo do osso alveolar nos oito primeiros dias do grupo-tratado quando comparado ao grupo-controle, bem como atraso aos 30 dias, porém, aos 50 dias, ambos os grupos apresentavam porcentagem de tecido ósseo semelhante e morfologicamente normal. Os resultados sugerem que a hidroxiapatita é biocompatível, integra-se ao tecido ósseo alveolar e pode ser utilizada em felinos.

  17. Comparative speed of efficacy against Ctenocephalides felis of two oral treatments for dogs containing either afoxolaner or fluralaner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beugnet, Frederic; Liebenberg, Julian; Halos, Lenaïg

    2015-01-30

    A study was designed to compare the efficacy of NexGard(®) and Bravecto™, 2 recently introduced oral ectoparasiticides containing isoxazolines, against fleas (Ctenocephalides felis) on dogs. Twenty-four healthy dogs, weighing 9.2 kg to 28.6 kg, were included in this parallel group design, randomized, and controlled efficacy study. On Day -1, the 24 dogs were allocated to 3 study groups: untreated control; Nexgard(®) treated and Bravecto™ treated. The treatments were administered on Days 0, 28 and 56 for Nexgard(®) (labelled for monthly administration), and once on Day 0 for Bravecto™ (labelled for a 12 week use). Flea infestations were performed weekly with 100 adult unfed C. felis on each dog from Days 42 to 84. Fleas were counted and re-applied at 6 and 12 h post-infestation and removed and counted 24 h post-infestation. The arithmetic mean flea count for the untreated group ranged from 62.9 to 77.6 at 24 h post-infestation, indicating vigorous flea challenges on all assessment days. Both the Nexgard(®) and Bravecto™ treated groups had statistically significantly (p<0.05) less fleas compared to the untreated group on all assessment time points and days. Significantly fewer fleas were recorded for NexGard(®) treated dogs compared to Bravecto™ treated dogs at 6 h post-infestation on Day 56, 63, 70, 77 and 84 and at 12 h post-infestation on Days 70 and 84. No statistically significant (p<0.05) differences were recorded between the treated groups at 24 h post-infestation. Efficacies recorded 6 h post-infestation for Nexgard(®) ranged from 62.8% (Day 49) to 97.3% (Day 56), and efficacies ranged from 94.1% (Day 49) to 100% (Days 42, 56, 70 and 84) at 12 h post-infestation. Efficacies recorded for Bravecto™ ranged from 45.1% (Day 84) to 97.8% (Day 42) at 6 h post-infestation, and from 64.7% (Day 84) to 100% (Days 42 and 56) at 12 h post-infestation. Efficacies observed at 24 h were 100% for both products during the study except 99.6% on Day 84 for

  18. Susceptibility of cat fleas (Siphonaptera: Pulicidae) to fipronil and imidacloprid using adult and larval bioassays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rust, M K; Vetter, R; Denholm, I; Blagburn, B; Williamson, M S; Kopp, S; Coleman, G; Hostetler, J; Davis, W; Mencke, N; Rees, R; Foit, S; Tetzner, K

    2014-05-01

    The monitoring of the susceptibility offleas to insecticides has typically been conducted by exposing adults on treated surfaces. Other methods such as topical applications of insecticides to adults and larval bioassays on treated rearing media have been developed. Unfortunately, baseline responses of susceptible strains of cat flea, Ctenocephalides felis (Bouchè), except for imidacloprid, have not been determined for all on-animal therapies and new classes of chemistry now being used. However, the relationship between adult and larval bioassays of fleas has not been previously investigated. The adult and larval bioassays of fipronil and imidacloprid were compared for both field-collected isolates and laboratory strains. Adult topical bioassays of fipronil and imidacloprid to laboratory strains and field-collected isolates demonstrated that LD50s of fipronil and imidacloprid ranged from 0.11 to 0.40 nanograms per flea and 0.02 to 0.18 nanograms per flea, respectively. Resistance ratios for fipronil and imidacloprid ranged from 0.11 to 2.21. Based on the larval bioassay published for imidacloprid, a larval bioassay was established for fipronil and reported in this article. The ranges of the LC50s of fipronil and imidacloprid in the larval rearing media were 0.07-0.16 and 0.11-0.21 ppm, respectively. Resistance ratios for adult and larval bioassays ranged from 0.11 to 2.2 and 0.58 to 1.75, respectively. Both adult and larval bioassays provided similar patterns for fipronil and imidacloprid. Although the adult bioassays permitted a more precise dosage applied, the larval bioassays allowed for testing isolates without the need to maintain on synthetic or natural hosts.

  19. Monitoring field susceptibility to imidacloprid in the cat flea: a world-first initiative twelve years on.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopp, Steven; Blagburn, Byron; Coleman, Glen; Davis, Wendell; Denholm, Ian; Field, Chris; Hostetler, Joe; Mencke, Norbert; Rees, Robert; Rust, Michael; Schroeder, Iris; Tetzner, Kathrin; Williamson, Martin

    2013-08-01

    In 2001, an international surveillance initiative was established, utilising a validated larval development inhibition assay to track the susceptibility of cat flea isolates to imidacloprid. In 2009, an Australian node was incorporated into the programme, joining laboratories in the United States and Europe. Field isolates of Ctenocephalides felis eggs were submitted to participating laboratories and, where egg quantity and quality was sufficient, were placed in the imidacloprid discriminating dose bioassay for evaluation. Between 2002 and 2012, a total of 2,307 cat flea isolates were received across all sites; 1,685 submissions (73 %) were suitable for placement into the bioassay. In the Northern Hemisphere, isolate submission rate was influenced by season, with highest numbers submitted between June and October. In Australia, pets with flea infestations could be sourced year-round, and submission rate was largely influenced by programme factors and not climate. A total of 1,367 valid assays were performed between 2002 and 2012 (assay validity data was not recorded in 2001); adult flea emergence 5 % or greater at 3 ppm imidacloprid was observed in 38 of these assays (2.8 %). For these isolates that reached the threshold for further investigation, re-conduct of the assay using either a repeat challenge dose of 3 ppm of imidacloprid or a dose response probit analysis confirmed their susceptibility to imidacloprid. From 2009 to 2012, the Australian node performed valid assays on 97 field isolates from a total of 136 submissions, with no adult emergence observed at the 3-ppm imidacloprid discriminating dose. In addition to reviewing the data generated by this twelve-year initiative, this paper discusses lessons learned from the coordination and evolution of a complex project across geographically dispersed laboratories on three continents.

  20. Salinomycin-induced polyneuropathy in cats: Morphologic and epidemiologic data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Linde-Sipman, J.S. van der; Inch, T.S.G.A.M. van den; Nes, J.J. van; Verhagen, H.; Kersten, J.G.T.M.; Beynen, A.C.; Plekkringa, R.

    1999-01-01

    In April 1996, an outbreak of toxic polyneuropathy in cats occurred in the Netherlands. All cats had been fed one of two brands of dry cat food from one manufacturer. Chemical analyses of these foods, stomach contents, and liver and kidney of affected cats revealed contamination with the ionophor sa

  1. Influence de la température sur le développement de la puce africaine du chat Ctenocephalides felis strongylus (Jordan, 1925 (Siphonaptera : Pulicidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yao K.P.

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Ctenocephalides felis (Bouché, 1835 communément appelée “puce du chat” présente deux sous-espèces reconnues : Ctenocephalides felis strongylus (Jordan, 1925 inféodée au continent africain et Ctenocephalides felis felis (Bouché, 1835 présente dans les zones à climat tempéré (Afrique du Nord, Europe et Amérique (Ménier et Beaucournu, 1999. En Afrique subsaharienne, la principale puce retrouvée chez les animaux de compagnie et chez certains animaux d’élevage (ovins, caprins et bovins appartient à la sous-espèce C. f. strongylus. Quelques paramètres bio-écologiques de C. f. strongylus ont été étudiés dans différentes conditions d’élevage. Les résultats ont été comparés à ceux de C. f. felis actuellement disponibles. À 75% ± 5 d’humidité relative, le cycle de développement de C. f. strongylus dure 20-21 jours à 27 °C et de 16 à 17 jours à 29 °C. Ainsi, la sousespèce africaine de la puce du chat (C. f. strongylus se développe moins vite que C. f. felis à températures identiques. Cette différence pourrait s’expliquer par l’influence du climat de leurs aires de distribution respectives sur leur cycle de développement. À 75% ± 5 d’humidité relative, les adultes de C. f. strongylus ne peuvent survivre plus de 14 jours dans l’environnement à des températures comprises entre 27 et 29 °C, lorsqu’elles n’ont jamais pris de repas sanguin. Dans ces mêmes conditions, la durée de survie n’excède pas 16 jours à 19 °C. Mais lorsque C. f. strongylus a pris un premier repas de sang, elle a une durée de vie beaucoup plus courte lorsqu’elle est hors de son hôte. En effet, aucun individu n’est retrouvé vivant trois jours passé hors de la fourrure de son hôte à 29 °C, cinq jours à 27 °C et huit jours à 19 °C. Il en est de même pour C. f. felis. Ces données sur la bio-écologie de C. f. strongylus permettent de comprendre l’influence de la température sur son cycle de d

  2. SWMM-CAT User’s Guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Storm Water Management Model Climate Adjustment Tool (SWMM-CAT) is a simple to use software utility that allows future climate change projections to be incorporated into the Storm Water Management Model (SWMM).

  3. Notoedres cati in cats and its management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivajothi, S; Sudhakara Reddy, B; Rayulu, V C; Sreedevi, C

    2015-06-01

    Notoedres cati was observed in two domestic cats. Cats exhibited crust formation, hyperkeratosis, alopecia and intense pruritus. Distribution of lesions observed at the ear margins, face, and legs. Owners also had intense pruritus over the hands, small erythematic crusted papules on the wrists and both the legs. Laboratory examination of skin scrapings from the cat revealed the presence of ova, adult mites of N. cati. The infected cats were treated with weekly twice oral administration of ivermectin at 200 μg/kg body weight, oral administration of 2 ml of multi-vitamin and mineral syrup daily. Improvement was noticed by complete clinical recovery along with absence of mites in skin scrapings, after completion of four doses of oral ivermectin along with supportive therapy.

  4. Cat Island NWR Recreational Hunting Plan

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — A natural resource management plan describing the regulations and decision processes for sport hunting at Cat Island NWR. This plan has been replaced by a more...

  5. Nutritional secondary hyperparathyroidism in two cats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dimopoulou, Maria; Kirpensteijn, Jolle; Nielsen, Dorte Hald

    2010-01-01

    severely affected cat, postmortem examination revealed changes consistent with nutritional secondary hyperparathyroidism and fibrous osteodystrophy, such as cortical thinning, massive connective tissue invasion in the diaphysis of long bones, and hypertrophy of the chief cells in both parathyroid glands...

  6. Suppression of fertility in adult cats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Goericke-Pesch, Sandra Kathrin; Wehrend, A.; Georgiev, P.

    2014-01-01

    Contents: Cats are animals with highly efficient reproduction, clearly pointing to a need for suppression of fertility. Although surgical contraception is highly effective, it is not always the method of choice. This is predominantly because it is cost-intensive, time-consuming and irreversible......, with the latter being of major importance for cat breeders. This article reviews the use of progestins, scleroting agents, immunocontraception, melatonin, GnRH antagonists and finally, GnRH agonists, in adult male and female cats in detail, according to the present state of the art. By now, various scientific...... and clinical options are available for the suppression of fertility in adult cats and the decision as to which should be chosen - independent of the legal registration of any state - depends on different facts: (i) feral or privately owned animal? (ii) temporary or permanent suppression of fertility wanted...

  7. Prevalence of feline haemoplasma in cats in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosenqvist, Maja Benedicte; Meilstrup, Ann-Katrine Helene; Larsen, Jesper

    2016-01-01

    cats in different age groups. The presence was detected by a conventional polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay on blood samples as well as by real-time PCR (RT-PCR). Results The study revealed a prevalence of 14.9% Candidatus Mycoplasma haemominutum positive cats and 1.5% Mycoplasma haemofelis...... positive cats. No cats were found positive for Candidatus Mycoplasma turicensis. The results showed a statistically significant higher prevalence in older (>8 years) cats compared to younger cats and a higher prevalence among domestic cats compared to purebred cats. As part of this study, we developed...... a cloning strategy to obtain Danish positive controls of haemoplasma 16S rRNA. Conclusion From convenience-sampled cats in Denmark, we found that 16.4% were carriers of feline haemotropic mycoplasmas. Haemoplasma was mostly found in older and domestic cats. The prevalence found in Denmark is similar...

  8. The synergistic action of imidacloprid and flumethrin and their release kinetics from collars applied for ectoparasite control in dogs and cats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanneck Dorothee

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The control of tick and flea burdens in dogs and cats has become essential to the control of important and emerging vector borne diseases, some of which are zoonoses. Flea worry and flea bite hypersensitivity are additionally a significant disease entity in dogs and cats. Owner compliance in maintaining the pressure of control measures has been shown to be poor. For these reasons efforts are continuously being made to develop ectoparasiticides and application methods that are safe, effective and easy to apply for pet owners. A new polymer matrix collar has recently been developed which is registered for 8 months use in cats and dogs. The basic properties of this collar have been investigated in several in vitro and in vivo studies. Methods The effects of imidacloprid, flumethrin and the combination were evaluated in vitro by means of whole cell voltage clamp measurement experiments conducted on isolated neuron cells from Spodoptera frugiperda. The in vitro efficacy of the two compounds and the combination against three species of ticks and their life stages and fleas were evaluated in a dry surface glass vial assay. The kinetics of the compounds over time in the collar were evaluated by the change in mass of the collar and measurement of the surface concentrations and concentrations of the actives in the collar matrix by HPLC. Hair clipped from collar treated dogs and cats, collected at various time points, was used to assess the acaricidal efficacy of the actives ex vivo. Results An in vitro isolated insect nerve model demonstrated the synergistic neurotoxic effects of the pyrethroid flumethrin and the neonicotinoid imidacloprid. An in vitro glass vial efficacy and mortality study against various life stages of the ticks Ixodes ricinus, Rhipicephalus sanguineus and Dermacentor reticulatus and against the flea (Ctenocephalides felis demonstrated that the combination of these products was highly effective against these

  9. Cloning, Expression and Bioinformatics Analysis of Porcine CatSperB and CatSperG Genes%猪CatSperB和CatSperG基因的克隆、表达及生物信息学

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋成义; 周家庆; 冯晓军; 谢雨琇; 李庆平; 吴晗; 高波; 王霄燕

    2012-01-01

    [目的]揭示猪CatSperB和CatSperG基因的存在、蛋白的结构特征、进化关系及时空表达特性.[方法]利用电子和分子克隆技术鉴定猪CatSperB和CatSperG基因全长cDNA,并利用定性RT-PCR和荧光定量RT-PCR进行CatSperB和CatSperG基因的时空表达研究.[结果]①分别获得了3 508 bp CatSperB和3 715 bp CatSperG电子转录子,分别包含3 3 30和3 483 bp开放阅读框,并经TA克隆测序验证,其CDS序列与人、牛、马和狗等的CatSperB和CatSperG基因的序列相似性在80%以上;②CatSperB分子质量为125.79 kD,为稳定蛋白;CatSperG分子质量为133.40 kD,为不稳定蛋白;③CatSperB和CatSperG都包含7个通道蛋白保守的跨膜结构域,CatSperG蛋白C端含一个超螺旋结构,而CatSperB蛋白无明显的超螺旋结构信号;猪CatSperB和CatSperG与牛、狗和马的CatSperB和CatSperG蛋白同源关系较近,与人和小鼠的同源关系较远;④RT-PCR分析表明,CatSperB和CatSperG基因主要在辜丸中表达,但CatSperB在其它组织也有表达信号;⑤CatSperB和CatSperG基因mRNA表达水平在猪性发育的重要阶段,精子发生(60日龄)、初情期(90日龄)和性成熟(150日龄)前后都有显著提高(P< 0.05).[结论]获得了猪CatSperB和CatSperG基因的cDNA克隆及其一系列生物信息学参数,揭示了CatSperB和CatSperG蛋白含7个保守的跨膜结构域及不同物种间的进化关系,证实CatSperB和CatSperG基因主要在睾丸表达,且其mRNA表达变化与公猪的性发育相一致.%[Objective] The aim of the current study is to confirm the existence of porcine CatSperB and CatSperG genes, and investigate the protein structures, evolutionary relationship and the spatial-temporal expression profiles of CatSperB and CatSperG. [Method] The in silico and molecular cloning was used to identify the full length cDNAs of porcine CatSperB and CatSperG, and the spatial-temporal expression profile was investigated by qualitative and

  10. Food hypersensitivity to lamb in a cat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reedy, L M

    1994-04-01

    Severe facial pruritus in a cat was caused by food hypersensitivity to lamb. The cat had been fed an exclusive diet of lamb for 2 years after it had been diagnosed to have food hypersensitivity to fish. Signs, including erythema, alopecia, and excoriations of the head and neck, were poorly responsive to corticosteroid administration, but resolved within a few weeks after removal of the suspected allergen.

  11. Mandibular Osteosarcoma in Cat: Case report

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    The primary malignant bone tumors are uncommon in cats. Osteosarcoma is the most frequently observed in old animals. This tumors affects the appendicular skeleton, however the axial skeleton is also affected, but the bones of the head and pelvis frequent sites of injury. This paper reports a case of a cat with a history of progressive swelling in the left mandible, with follow-up period of four months. The presumptive diagnosis of osteopathy, signed by clinical and radiographic observations w...

  12. Agonistic Vocalisations in Domestic Cats : A Case Study

    OpenAIRE

    Schötz, Susanne

    2015-01-01

    Introducing a new cat to a home with resident cats may lead to stress, aggression and even fights. In this case study 468 agonistic cat vocalisations were recorded as one cat was introduced to three resident cats in her new home. Six vocalisation types were identified: growl, howl, howl-growl, hiss, spit and snarl. Numerous other intermediate and complex vocalisations were also observed. An acoustic analysis showed differences within and between all types. Future studies include further acous...

  13. Contractile properties of extraocular muscle in Siamese cat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lennerstrand, G

    1979-01-01

    Siamese cats are albinos with poor visual resolution and severely impaired binocular vision. Eey muscle phyiology was studied in Siamese cats as a part of a more extensive project on eye muscle properties in cats with deficient binocular vision. Isometric contractions of the inferior oblique muscle were recorded in response to single and repetitive muscle nerve stimulation. Speed of contraction, measured as twitch contraction time, fusion frequency and rate of tetanic tension rise, was lower in Siamese than in normal cats. Eye muscles of Siamese cats fatiqued more easily to continuous activation than normal cat eye mucle. These functional changes have also been found in cats with binocular defects from monocular lid suture, but were much more marked in Siamese cats. It is suggested that the eye muscle changes represent muscular adaptations to genetically caused impairments of binocular vision and visual resolution in Siamese cats.

  14. Risk factors for feline infectious peritonitis in Australian cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worthing, Kate A; Wigney, Denise I; Dhand, Navneet K; Fawcett, Anne; McDonagh, Phillip; Malik, Richard; Norris, Jacqueline M

    2012-06-01

    The objective of this study was to determine whether patient signalment (age, breed, sex and neuter status) is associated with naturally-occurring feline infectious peritonitis (FIP) in cats in Australia. A retrospective comparison of the signalment between cats with confirmed FIP and the general cat population was designed. The patient signalment of 382 FIP confirmed cases were compared with the Companion Animal Register of NSW and the general cat population of Sydney. Younger cats were significantly over-represented among FIP cases. Domestic crossbred, Persian and Himalayan cats were significantly under-represented in the FIP cohort, while several breeds were over-represented, including British Shorthair, Devon Rex and Abyssinian. A significantly higher proportion of male cats had FIP compared with female cats. This study provides further evidence that FIP is a disease primarily of young cats and that significant breed and sex predilections exist in Australia. This opens further avenues to investigate the role of genetic factors in FIP.

  15. Tetrathyridiosis in a domestic shorthair cat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorothee Dahlem

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Case summary This report describes the clinical and parasitological findings in a domestic shorthair cat with isolated thoracic tetrathyridiosis. The cat was a stray from Malta that had lived in Germany for several years since as an indoor-only cat. Therefore, the process of infection remains very unusual. In this case it must be considered that the cat had been infected years previously while in Malta, and had lived at least 4 years without any clinical signs. It was possible to diagnose this uncommon disease and initiate an effective treatment with fenbendazole, praziquantel and supportive care. Clinical signs, as well as radiographic findings, were regressive with this treatment. Relevance and novel information Tetrathyridiosis is a rare finding in cats, especially in Germany, but it seems to be a potential differential diagnosis of pleural effusion. Mesocestoides corti, which was the causative parasite in this case, has not previously been isolated in Germany. Because tetrathyridiosis is only diagnosed post mortem in most cases, little is known about effective therapeutic options. Furthermore, clinical signs of this disease can be absent for several years and can potentially be triggered by neoplastic conditions or immunosuppression. Tetrathyridiosis seems to be a treatable disease that can be controlled by adequate antiparasitic therapy.

  16. The CATS Service: an Astrophysical Research Tool

    CERN Document Server

    Verkhodanov, O V; Andernach, H; Chernenkov, V N

    2009-01-01

    We describe the current status of CATS (astrophysical CATalogs Support system), a publicly accessible tool maintained at Special Astrophysical Observatory of the Russian Academy of Sciences (SAO RAS) (http://cats.sao.ru) allowing one to search hundreds of catalogs of astronomical objects discovered all along the electromagnetic spectrum. Our emphasis is mainly on catalogs of radio continuum sources observed from 10 MHz to 245 GHz, and secondly on catalogs of objects such as radio and active stars, X-ray binaries, planetary nebulae, HII regions, supernova remnants, pulsars, nearby and radio galaxies, AGN and quasars. CATS also includes the catalogs from the largest extragalactic surveys with non-radio waves. In 2008 CATS comprised a total of about 10e9 records from over 400 catalogs in the radio, IR, optical and X-ray windows, including most source catalogs deriving from observations with the Russian radio telescope RATAN-600. CATS offers several search tools through different ways of access, e.g. via web inte...

  17. ParCAT: Parallel Climate Analysis Toolkit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, Brian E. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Steed, Chad A. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Shipman, Galen M. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Ricciuto, Daniel M. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Thornton, Peter E. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Wehner, Michael [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Williams, Dean N. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Climate science is employing increasingly complex models and simulations to analyze the past and predict the future of Earth s climate. This growth in complexity is creating a widening gap between the data being produced and the ability to analyze the datasets. Parallel computing tools are necessary to analyze, compare, and interpret the simulation data. The Parallel Climate Analysis Toolkit (ParCAT) provides basic tools to efficiently use parallel computing techniques to make analysis of these datasets manageable. The toolkit provides the ability to compute spatio-temporal means, differences between runs or differences between averages of runs, and histograms of the values in a data set. ParCAT is implemented as a command-line utility written in C. This allows for easy integration in other tools and allows for use in scripts. This also makes it possible to run ParCAT on many platforms from laptops to supercomputers. ParCAT outputs NetCDF files so it is compatible with existing utilities such as Panoply and UV-CDAT. This paper describes ParCAT and presents results from some example runs on the Titan system at ORNL.

  18. Multidimensional effects of biologically synthesized silver nanoparticles in Helicobacter pylori, Helicobacter felis, and human lung (L132) and lung carcinoma A549 cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurunathan, Sangiliyandi; Jeong, Jae-Kyo; Han, Jae Woong; Zhang, Xi-Feng; Park, Jung Hyun; Kim, Jin-Hoi

    2015-02-01

    Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) are prominent group of nanomaterials and are recognized for their diverse applications in various health sectors. This study aimed to synthesize the AgNPs using the leaf extract of Artemisia princeps as a bio-reductant. Furthermore, we evaluated the multidimensional effect of the biologically synthesized AgNPs in Helicobacter pylori, Helicobacter felis, and human lung (L132) and lung carcinoma (A549) cells. UV-visible (UV-vis) spectroscopy confirmed the synthesis of AgNPs. X-ray diffraction (XRD) indicated that the AgNPs are specifically indexed to a crystal structure. The results from Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) indicate that biomolecules are involved in the synthesis and stabilization of AgNPs. Dynamic light scattering (DLS) studies showed the average size distribution of the particle between 10 and 40 nm, and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) confirmed that the AgNPs were significantly well separated and spherical with an average size of 20 nm. AgNPs caused dose-dependent decrease in cell viability and biofilm formation and increase in reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation and DNA fragmentation in H. pylori and H. felis. Furthermore, AgNPs induced mitochondrial-mediated apoptosis in A549 cells; conversely, AgNPs had no significant effects on L132 cells. The results from this study suggest that AgNPs could cause cell-specific apoptosis in mammalian cells. Our findings demonstrate that this environmentally friendly method for the synthesis of AgNPs and that the prepared AgNPs have multidimensional effects such as anti-bacterial and anti-biofilm activity against H. pylori and H. felis and also cytotoxic effects against human cancer cells. This report describes comprehensively the effects of AgNPs on bacteria and mammalian cells. We believe that biologically synthesized AgNPs will open a new avenue towards various biotechnological and biomedical applications in the near future.

  19. Metaphyseal osteopathy in a British Shorthair cat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adagra, Carl; Spielman, Derek; Adagra, Angela; Foster, Darren J

    2015-04-01

    Metaphyseal osteopathy, otherwise known as hypertrophic osteodystrophy, is a disease that causes pyrexia and lethargy accompanied by pain in the thoracic and pelvic limbs of rapidly growing large-breed dogs. While metaphyseal osteopathy has been descibed in association with slipped capital femoral epiphysis in cats, it has not previously been reported as a cause of limb pain and pyrexia in this species. A 7-month-old British Shorthair cat presented with a 1 month history of pyrexia, lethargy and pain in all limbs. Investigation included radiographs of the limbs and chest, abdominal ultrasound, serum biochemical analysis, haematology, bone biopsy, joint fluid aspiration and cytology. Findings were consistent with a diagnosis of metaphyseal osteopathy. The cat's clinical signs resolved following the administration of prednisolone. Symptoms recurred 1 month after the cessation of prednisolone therapy, but resolved when administration was resumed.

  20. Hunting for the Quantum Cheshire Cat

    CERN Document Server

    Di Lorenzo, Antonio

    2012-01-01

    The proposal of Aharonov, Popescu, and Skrzypczyk [arXiv:1202.0631] of disembodying physical properties from particles is analyzed. It is argued that: (1) in order to state that the cat is at one location and the smile at another, one should look at correlations, not mean values; (2) a weak value of one for the presence of the cat describes the average over a large number of trials, where the detector gives in each trial outputs that are not zero nor one, and that are much larger than unity (they can be large and negative as well); (3) once these issues are addressed, the specific model proposed does not provide evidence for disembodiment of physical properties. Here, the exact probability distribution and its characteristic function are derived for arbitrary coupling strength, preparation and post-selection. This allows to successfully hunt down the quantum Cheshire cat.

  1. CATS Aerosol Typing and Future Directions

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGill, Matt; Yorks, John; Scott, Stan; Palm, Stephen; Hlavka, Dennis; Hart, William; Nowottnick, Ed; Selmer, Patrick; Kupchock, Andrew; Midzak, Natalie; Trepte, Chip; Vaughan, Mark; Colarco, Peter; da Silva, Arlindo

    2016-01-01

    The Cloud Aerosol Transport System (CATS), launched in January of 2015, is a lidar remote sensing instrument that will provide range-resolved profile measurements of atmospheric aerosols and clouds from the International Space Station (ISS). CATS is intended to operate on-orbit for at least six months, and up to three years. Status of CATS Level 2 and Plans for the Future:Version. 1. Aerosol Typing (ongoing): Mode 1: L1B data released later this summer; L2 data released shortly after; Identify algorithm biases (ex. striping, FOV (field of view) biases). Mode 2: Processed Released Currently working on correcting algorithm issues. Version 2 Aerosol Typing (Fall, 2016): Implementation of version 1 modifications Integrate GEOS-5 aerosols for typing guidance for non spherical aerosols. Version 3 Aerosol Typing (2017): Implementation of 1-D Var Assimilation into GEOS-5 Dynamic lidar ratio that will evolve in conjunction with simulated aerosol mixtures.

  2. Cognitive activation theory of stress (CATS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ursin, Holger; Eriksen, Hege R

    2010-05-01

    The cognitive activation theory of stress (CATS) is based on a long series of experiments on animals and on humans, in the laboratory, and in real life situations. From the common sense coping concept formulated by Seymour Levine; coping is when my "tommy" does not hurt, we have advanced to a systematic theory for what is behind the relaxed and happy coping rat (and cat). We also cover the translational leap to humans, starting with the now classic parachutist study. The bridge is based on formal and symbolic definitions, a theoretical short cut that Levine actually never really accepted. The essential pathophysiological concept is the potential pathological effects of sustained activation, which may occur in the absence of coping (positive response outcome expectancy). We review the current status of CATS in Behavioural Medicine by discussing its potential explanatory power in epidemiology, prevention and treatment of "subjective health complaints".

  3. Somatotopic organization of the facial lobe of the sea catfish Arius felis studied by transganglionic transport of horseradish peroxidase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiyohara, S; Caprio, J

    1996-04-22

    To reveal the somatotopical organization of the facial lobe (FL), a primary medullary gustatory nucleus in the sea catfish Arius felis, the central projections of the peripheral rami of the facial nerve innervating taste buds located across the entire body surface and rostral oral regions were traced by means of horseradish peroxidase neurohistochemistry. The maxillary barbel, lateral mandibular barbel, medial mandibular barbel, and trunk-tail branches project to four different longitudinal columns (i.e., lobules) extending rostrocaudally in the FL. The trunk-tail lobule, which is located dorsolateral to the barbel lobules, lies in the anterior two-thirds of the FL. The tail is represented in a more rostral portion of the trunk-tail lobule than the trunk, indicating that the rostrocaudal trunk axis is represented in the trunk-tail lobule in a posteroanterior axis. The pectoral fin branch ends in an intermediate region of the FL, whereas the hyomandibular, ophthalmic, lower lip, upper lip, and palatine branches terminate in discrete regions of the caudal one-third of the FL. These results reveal a sharply defined somatotopical organization of the FL of Arius and support the hypothesis that the number and lengths of the barbel lobules within the FL of catfishes are directly related to the number and relative lengths of the barbels. An additional subcolumn, the intermediate nucleus of the FL (NIF), which develops in the medioventral region of the caudal two-thirds of the FL, receives projections in a diffuse somatotopical fashion from the barbels, lower lip, and palatine branches. Trigeminal fibers of the barbel and lower lip branches project in a somatotopic fashion to the FL. The present findings suggest that the FL of Arius is highly organized somatotopically to detect, by tropotaxis, precise spatial information concerning taste and tactile stimuli in the environment.

  4. Development of the cat-owner relationship scale (CORS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howell, Tiffani J; Bowen, Jonathan; Fatjó, Jaume; Calvo, Paula; Holloway, Anna; Bennett, Pauleen C

    2017-03-07

    Characteristics of the human-animal bond can be influenced by both owner-related and pet-related factors, which likely differ between species. Three studies adapted the Monash Dog-Owner Relationship Scale (MDORS) to permit assessment of human-cat interactions as perceived by the cat's owner. In Study 1293 female cat owners completed a modified version of the MDORS, where 'dog' was replaced with 'cat' for all items. Responses were compared with a matched sample of female dog owners. A partial least squares discriminant analysis revealed systematic differences between cat and dog owners in the Dog (Cat)-Owner Interaction subscale (MDORS subscale 1), but not for Perceived Emotional Closeness or Perceived Costs (Subscales 2 and 3). Study 2 involved analysis of free-text descriptions of cat-owner interactions provided by 61 female cat owners. Text mining identified key words which were used to create additional questions for a new Cat-Owner Interaction subscale. In Study 3, the resulting cat-owner relationship scale (CORS) was tested in a group of 570 cat owners. The main psychometric properties of the scale, including internal consistency and factor structure, were evaluated. We propose that this scale can be used to accurately assess owner perceptions of their relationship with their cat. A modified scale, combining items from the CORS and MDORS (a C/DORS), is also provided for when researchers would find it desirable to compare human-cat and human-dog interactions.

  5. Astaxanthin uptake in domestic dogs and cats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massimino Stefan

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Research on the uptake and transport of astaxanthin is lacking in most species. We studied the uptake of astaxanthin by plasma, lipoproteins and leukocytes in domestic dogs and cats. Methods Mature female Beagle dogs (18 to 19 mo old; 11 to 14 kg BW were dosed orally with 0, 0.1, 0.5, 2.5, 10 or 40 mg astaxanthin and blood taken at 0, 3, 6, 9, 12, 18 and 24 h post-administration (n = 8/treatment. Similarly, mature domestic short hair cats (12 mo old; 3 to 3.5 kg body weight were fed a single dose of 0, 0.02, 0.08, 0.4, 2, 5, or 10 mg astaxanthin and blood taken (n = 8/treatment at the same interval. Results Both dogs and cats showed similar biokinetic profiles. Maximal astaxanthin concentration in plasma was approximately 0.14 μmol/L in both species, and was observed at 6 h post-dosing. The plasma astaxanthin elimination half-life was 9 to 18 h. Astaxanthin was still detectable by 24 h in both species. In a subsequent study, dogs and cats were fed similar doses of astaxanthin daily for 15 to 16 d and astaxanthin uptake by plasma, lipoproteins, and leukocytes studied. In both species, plasma astaxanthin concentrations generally continued to increase through d 15 or 16 of supplementation. The astaxanthin was mainly associated with high density lipoprotein (HDL. In blood leukocytes, approximately half of the total astaxanthin was found in the mitochondria, with significant amounts also associated with the microsomes and nuclei. Conclusion Dogs and cats absorb astaxanthin from the diet. In the blood, the astaxanthin is mainly associated with HDL, and is taken up by blood leukocytes, where it is distributed to all subcellular organelles. Certain aspects of the biokinetic uptake of astaxanthin in dogs and cats are similar to that in humans.

  6. Biochemical and immunohistochemical characterization of feline spongiform encephalopathy in a German captive cheetah.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eiden, Martin; Hoffmann, Christine; Balkema-Buschmann, Anne; Müller, Matthias; Baumgartner, Katrin; Groschup, Martin H

    2010-11-01

    Feline spongiform encephalopathy (FSE) is a transmissible spongiform encephalopathy that affects domestic cats (Felis catus) and captive wild members of the family Felidae. In this report we describe a case of FSE in a captive cheetah from the zoological garden of Nuremberg. The biochemical examination revealed a BSE-like pattern. Disease-associated scrapie prion protein (PrP(Sc)) was widely distributed in the central and peripheral nervous system, as well as in the lymphoreticular system and in other tissues of the affected animal, as demonstrated by immunohistochemistry and/or immunoblotting. Moreover, we report for the first time the use of the protein misfolding cyclic amplification technique for highly sensitive detection of PrP(Sc) in the family Felidae. The widespread PrP(Sc) deposition suggests a simultaneous lymphatic and neural spread of the FSE agent. The detection of PrP(Sc) in the spleen indicates a potential for prion infectivity of cheetah blood.

  7. PREVALENCE OF ANTIBODIES TO SELECTED VIRUSES AND PARASITES IN INTRODUCED AND ENDEMIC CARNIVORES IN WESTERN MADAGASCAR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pomerantz, Julie; Rasambainarivo, Fidisoa T; Dollar, Luke; Rahajanirina, Leon Pierrot; Andrianaivoarivelo, Radosoa; Parker, Patricia; Dubovi, Edward

    2016-07-01

    Introduced animals impact endemic populations through predation, competition, and disease transmission. Populations of endemic carnivores in Madagascar are declining, and pathogens transmitted from introduced species may further endanger these unique species. We assessed the exposure of introduced and endemic carnivores to common viral and parasitic pathogens in two national parks of Madagascar (Kirindy Mitea National Park and Ankarafantsika National Park) and their neighboring villages. We also identified variables associated with the presence of antibodies to these pathogens in fosa ( Cryptoprocta ferox ). Introduced and endemic species were exposed to canine parvovirus, canine herpesvirus, feline calicivirus, and Toxoplasma gondii . Domestic dogs ( Canis familiaris ) and cats ( Felis catus ) may be sources of infection for these pathogens. Prevalence of antibodies to Toxoplasma in captured fosa was >93%, and adults were more likely to be exposed than immature individuals. Our data provide a basis upon which to evaluate and manage risks of pathogen transmission between species.

  8. Transcriptome analysis of feline infectious peritonitis virus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehrbod, Parvaneh; Harun, Mohammad Syamsul Reza; Shuid, Ahmad Naqib; Omar, Abdul Rahman

    2015-01-01

    Feline infectious peritonitis (FIP) is a lethal systemic disease caused by FIP virus (FIPV). There are no effective vaccines or treatment available, and the virus virulence determinants and pathogenesis are not fully understood. Here, we describe the sequencing of RNA extracted from Crandell Rees Feline Kidney (CRFK) cells infected with FIPV using the Illumina next-generation sequencing approach. Bioinformatics analysis, based on Felis catus 2X annotated shotgun reference genome, using CLC bio Genome Workbench is used to map both control and infected cells. Kal's Z test statistical analysis is used to analyze the differentially expressed genes from the infected CRFK cells. In addition, RT-qPCR analysis is used for further transcriptional profiling of selected genes in infected CRFK cells and Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells (PBMCs) from healthy and FIP-diagnosed cats.

  9. Probing cochlear tuning and tonotopy in the tiger using otoacoustic emissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergevin, Christopher; Walsh, Edward J; McGee, JoAnn; Shera, Christopher A

    2012-08-01

    Otoacoustic emissions (sound emitted from the ear) allow cochlear function to be probed noninvasively. The emissions evoked by pure tones, known as stimulus-frequency emissions (SFOAEs), have been shown to provide reliable estimates of peripheral frequency tuning in a variety of mammalian and non-mammalian species. Here, we apply the same methodology to explore peripheral auditory function in the largest member of the cat family, the tiger (Panthera tigris). We measured SFOAEs in 9 unique ears of 5 anesthetized tigers. The tigers, housed at the Henry Doorly Zoo (Omaha, NE), were of both sexes and ranged in age from 3 to 10 years. SFOAE phase-gradient delays are significantly longer in tigers--by approximately a factor of two above 2 kHz and even more at lower frequencies--than in domestic cats (Felis catus), a species commonly used in auditory studies. Based on correlations between tuning and delay established in other species, our results imply that cochlear tuning in the tiger is significantly sharper than in domestic cat and appears comparable to that of humans. Furthermore, the SFOAE data indicate that tigers have a larger tonotopic mapping constant (mm/octave) than domestic cats. A larger mapping constant in tiger is consistent both with auditory brainstem response thresholds (that suggest a lower upper frequency limit of hearing for the tiger than domestic cat) and with measurements of basilar-membrane length (about 1.5 times longer in the tiger than domestic cat).

  10. Clinical management of pregnancy in cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Root Kustritz, Margaret V

    2006-07-01

    Average gestation length in domestic cats is 65.6 days, with a range of 52-74 days. Average reported litter size is 4.0 kittens per litter; litter size is not correlated with number of matings in a given estrus. Superfecundation is common in domestic cats; superfetation never has been definitively proven to occur. Eclampsia may occur during pregnancy in queens, with non-specific clinical signs. Ectopic pregnancy and uterine torsion have been reported. Pregnancy loss may be due to infectious causes, including bacteria, viruses or protozoa, or non-infectious causes, such as hypoluteoidism and chromosome errors.

  11. Amputation for histiocytic sarcoma in a cat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teshima, Takahiro; Hata, Takashi; Nezu, Yoko; Michishita, Masaki; Matsumoto, Hirotaka; Mizutani, Hisashi; Takahashi, Kimimasa; Koyama, Hidekazu

    2012-02-01

    A 9-year-old spayed female domestic shorthair cat presented with a skin lesion of the left tarsus. The lesion was biopsied and, based on the microscopic appearance and immunohistochemical characteristics, histiocytic sarcoma was diagnosed. Amputation was performed with improved demeanor seen postoperatively. However, between 44 and 60 days following the surgery, relapse of skin lesions appeared in multiple locations, including at the previous amputation site, and euthanasia was elected. This is the first report of a histiocytic sarcoma treated with amputation in a cat.

  12. Halal Cat Food for the World Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir H.M.S

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Currently, University Technology Malaysia (UTM is engaged with a well-known private company in Malaysia to develop halal cat food for the world. A team of scientists from UTM was formed for the development of cat food from preparing palatants to producing canned cat and kibbled cat food formulation on a commercial scale to fulfil the vast market demand, as well as to act as contract manufacturer for this private company. Financial aid is made available by the university and Malaysian government. The promising market potential of cat food is estimated to be over USD27 billion with over 7 million tonnes produced in 2013 (35% of the pet food market. It is expected to grow at 5.5% in value and 2% in volume; and this had driven the project to be initiated by UTM. The idea of halal, itself is a selling point to the Muslim consumers and the world at large.  The world’s Muslim population is estimated to be around 1.6 billion, while the world population is estimated to be at 4.6 billion. The demand for halal products is ever growing with emerging markets in India & China.  In addition, the purchasing power of the Muslims is growing, where between 1990 and 2010, the Growth Domestic Product (GDP per capita for Muslims globally had risen from a Cumulative Annual Growth Rate (CAGR of 6.8% in comparison to global GDP per capita which is only at CAGR of 5.0%. Cat food will come in human contact during feeding, handling, cleaning of feeding utensils under the same washing basin and dishwasher. Many times cat food will engage with human food storage facilities such as in the refrigerator and May to some extent affect the human food chain if it is not halal. Most of the available cat feed produce worldwide is non halal and majority are known to contain residues of porcine, dog materials and blood meal, deem unhealthy and unclean by the Muslims community.

  13. Bird Flu Strain May Have Jumped from Cat to Human

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_162717.html Bird Flu Strain May Have Jumped From Cat to ... would be the first known transmission of this bird flu strain from cat to human, officials said. ...

  14. Cat Scratch Can Sometimes Lead to Serious Illness: CDC

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_161086.html Cat Scratch Can Sometimes Lead to Serious Illness: CDC But ... Fluffy the cat gets out of sorts and scratches you, it's possible you could get a bacterial ...

  15. Keep Your Dogs and Cats Safe From Holiday Hazards

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... For Consumers Consumer Updates Keep Your Dogs and Cats Safe From Holiday Hazards Share Tweet Linkedin Pin ... leave your leftover tinsel, string, and ribbons. “Your cat may find these decorations irresistible because they look ...

  16. Determinants of Cat Choice and Outcomes for Adult Cats and Kittens Adopted from an Australian Animal Shelter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zito, Sarah; Paterson, Mandy; Vankan, Dianne; Morton, John; Bennett, Pauleen; Phillips, Clive

    2015-04-29

    The percentage of adult cats euthanized in animal shelters is greater than that of kittens because adult cats are less likely to be adopted. This study aimed to provide evidence to inform the design of strategies to encourage adult cat adoptions. One such strategy is to discount adoption prices, but there are concerns that this may result in poor adoption outcomes. We surveyed 382 cat adopters at the time of adoption, to assess potential determinants of adopters' cat age group choice (adult or kitten) and, for adult cat adopters, the price they are willing to pay. The same respondents were surveyed again 6-12 months after the adoption to compare outcomes between cat age groups and between adult cats in two price categories. Most adopters had benevolent motivations for adopting from the shelter and had put considerable thought into the adoption and requirements for responsible ownership. However, adult cat adopters were more likely to have been influenced by price than kitten adopters. Adoption outcomes were generally positive for both adult cats and kittens and for adult cats adopted at low prices. The latter finding alleviates concerns about the outcomes of "low-cost" adoptions in populations, such as the study population, and lends support for the use of "low-cost" adoptions as an option for attempting to increase adoption rates. In addition, the results provide information that can be used to inform future campaigns aimed at increasing the number of adult cat adoptions, particularly in devising marketing strategies for adult cats.

  17. Lungworm disease in cats : ABCD guidelines on prevention and management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pennisi, Maria Grazia; Hartmann, Katrin; Addie, Diane D; Boucraut-Baralon, Corine; Egberink, Herman; Frymus, Tadeusz; Gruffydd-Jones, Tim; Horzinek, Marian C; Hosie, Margaret J; Lloret, Albert; Lutz, Hans; Marsilio, Fulvio; Radford, Alan D; Thiry, Etienne; Truyen, Uwe; Möstl, Karin

    2015-01-01

    OVERVIEW: Cardiopulmonary nematodes are emerging parasites of cats in Europe. A number of helminth parasites may be involved. The most prevalent lungworm in domestic cats is Aelurostrongylus abstrusus. Oslerus rostratus and Troglostrongylus species are found mainly in wild cats. The trichurid Capill

  18. Song Prompts: I Had a Cat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenney, Susan Hobson

    2011-01-01

    This article discusses song prompts as a way to encourage children to sing during exploratory play. A song prompt for "I Had a Cat" is included for educators to try in their own classrooms or preschools. Educators are invited to share ideas they have used that encourage children to sing during free play.

  19. Evaluating "Cat Country": The Humor within Satire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Chung-chien Karen

    2010-01-01

    Satire, as a mode, is not frequently employed in Chinese narratives. "Cat Country," or "Mao Cheng Ji," written by Lao She (pen name of Shu Qing Chun, 1898--1966) has come under much attack of its literary values. Whereas most critics have no doubt that this work sets out to satirize China through the portrayal of a society of…

  20. COMPUTED TOMOGRAPHY OF TOOTH RESORPTION IN CATS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, Linda G; Wilkinson, Thomas E; White, Tammy L; Farnsworth, Raelynn K; Potter, Kathleen A

    2016-09-01

    Tooth resorption is the most common dental disease in cats and can be a source of oral pain. The current clinical gold standard for diagnosis includes a combination of oral exam and dental radiography, however early lesions are not always detected. Computed tomography (CT) of the skull, including the dental arches, is a commonly performed diagnostic procedure, however the appearance of tooth resorption on CT and the diagnostic ability of CT to detect tooth resorption have not been evaluated. The purpose of this prospective, descriptive, diagnostic accuracy study was to characterize the CT appearance of tooth resorption in a sample of affected cats and to evaluate the sensitivity and specificity of CT for tooth resorption compared to the clinical gold standard of oral exam and intraoral dental radiography. Twenty-eight cat cadaver specimens were recruited for inclusion. Each specimen was evaluated using oral exam, intraoral dental radiography, and computed tomography (four different slice thicknesses). Each tooth was evaluated for the presence or absence of tooth resorption. Teeth with lesions and a subset of normal teeth were evaluated with histopathology. On CT, tooth resorption appeared as irregularly marginated hypoattenuating defects in the mineral attenuating tooth components, most commonly involving the root or cementoenamel junction. Sensitivity for CT detection of tooth resorption was fair to poor (42.2-57.7%) and specificity was good to excellent (92.8-96.3%). Findings from this study indicated that CT has high specificity but low sensitivity for detection of tooth resorption in cats.

  1. Mammary hypertrophy in an ovariohysterectomized cat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pukay, B P; Stevenson, D A

    1983-05-01

    A four year old ovariohysterectomized domestic short-haired cat under treatment for behavioral urine spraying and idiopathic alopecia developed mammary gland hypertrophy following treatment with megestrol acetate. Withdrawal of the progestin and treatment with androgen failed to cause regression of the hypertrophy. The affected mammary gland was surgically excised and recovery was uneventful.

  2. The antihypertensive effect of amlodipine in cats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Morar,

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the study was to evaluate the effect of amlodipine on blood pressure and renal function in cats with arterial hypertension secondary to chronic renal failure. The research was conducted on 11 cats, aged between 7 and 14.5 years, diagnosed with arterial hypertension secondary to chronic renal failure. Systolic blood pressure (SBP, diastolic blood pressure (DBP, mean arterial pressure (MBP and pulse rate were determined by oscillometric method, before and after 7, 30 or 120 days of treatment with amlodipine. At the beginning of treatment, all cats were receiving 0.625 mg amlodipine once daily and after 7 days oftreatment, in five cats, the dose was increased to 1.25 mg amlodipine, once daily. Before amlodipine administration the mean values of SBP/DBP were 175 ± 13.2 mmHg/119 ± 7.2 mmHg and after 30 days of treatment, the mean values of the SBP/DBP were reduced by 27.9/25.4 mmHg (p<0,001. After 120 days of treatment with amlodipine mean values of SBP/DBP were lower with 32/31 mmHg compared with baseline values (p<0.001. The treatment with amlodipine did not significantly affect the values of blood biochemical parameters of renal profile.

  3. Effective generation of cat and kitten states

    CERN Document Server

    Stobi'nska, M; Wodkiewicz, K; Stobi\\'nska, Magdalena; W\\'odkiewicz, Krzysztof

    2006-01-01

    We present an effective method of coherent state superposition (cat state) generation using single trapped ion in a Paul trap. The method is experimentally feasible for coherent states with amplitude $\\alpha \\le 2$ using available technology. It works both in and beyond the Lamb-Dicke regime.

  4. Nutrition and oxalate metabolism in cats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijcker, J.C.

    2013-01-01

    Over the past 30 years, a progressive increase in calcium oxalate (CaOx) urolith prevalence is reported in cats and dogs diagnosed with urolithiasis. This increase in prevalence appears to have occurred since dietary modifications were introduced to address magnesium ammonium phosphate urolithiasis.

  5. Cat Scratch Disease: The Story Continues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary Anne Opavsky

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To present a perspective on the current state of knowledge of cat scratch disease (CSD, including the evidence for Bartonella henselae as the etiological agent, epidemiological and clinical characteristics of the disease, available diagnostic tests and current therapeutic options.

  6. Inflammatory oral cavity diseases of the cat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedersen, N C

    1992-11-01

    There is a great deal of frustration among veterinarians about the diagnosis and treatment of inflammatory diseases of the oral cavity of the cat. This frustration is due to both the high frequency of feline oral inflammatory lesions and our poor understanding of their causes. This poor understanding can be blamed on several things: (1) a rapidly emerging, but still relatively poor, understanding of feline diseases in general and nutrition in particular; (2) a tendency to lump rather than separate specific oral inflammations; (3) a tendency not to use a thorough and systematic approach to diagnosing oral cavity disease; and (4) the reluctance of veterinarians to apply what is already known about human oral cavity diseases to cats. When problems 2 through 4 are adequately addressed, it becomes apparent that we really know more about oral cavity disease in the cat than we thought we knew and that great progress has been made. The task ahead is to define, in precise medical terms, those remaining disease entities of the oral cavity that pose the greatest health risk to cats, to apply what has been already been discovered from human disease counterparts, and to study them systematically.

  7. Phenotypic variability of cat-eye syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berends, MJW; Tan-Sindhunata, G; Leegte, B; Van Essen, AJ

    2001-01-01

    Cat-Eye syndrome (CES) is a disorder with a variable pattern of multiple congenital anomalies of which coloboma of the iris and anal atresia are the best known. CES is cyogenetically characterised by the presence of an extra bisatellited marker chromosome, which represents an inverted dicentric dupl

  8. Benign cementoblastoma (true cementoma in a cat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lenin A Villamizar-Martinez

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Case summary A 10-year-old castrated male domestic shorthair cat was presented for assessment of a gingival mass surrounding the left maxillary third and fourth premolar teeth. The mass was surgically removed by means of a marginal rim excision, and the tissue was submitted for histological assessment. It was identified as a benign cementoblastoma (true cementoma. There was proliferation of mineralized eosinophilic material with multiple irregularly placed lacunae and reversal lines, reminiscent of cementum. The cat recovered uneventfully from the anesthesia, and there was no evidence of tumor recurrence 6 months after surgery. Relevance and novel information Cementoblastomas (true cementomas in domestic animals are rare, with just a few reports in ruminants, monogastric herbivores and rodents. Cementoblastoma is considered a benign tumor that arises from the tooth root. The slow, expansive and constant growth that characterizes these masses may be accompanied by signs of oral discomfort and dysphagia. This case report is intended to increase knowledge regarding this tumor in cats and also highlights the importance of complete excision of the neoplasm. To our knowledge, there are no previous reports in the literature of cementoblastoma in the cat.

  9. Halpern's Iteration in CAT(0 Spaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satit Saejung

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Motivated by Halpern's result, we prove strong convergence theorem of an iterative sequence in CAT(0 spaces. We apply our result to find a common fixed point of a family of nonexpansive mappings. A convergence theorem for nonself mappings is also discussed.

  10. COMPARISON OF PBDES IN CAT SERUM TO LEVELS IN CAT FOOD: EVIDENCE OF DECA DEBROMINATION?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abstract Since the introduction of brominated flame retardants (such as the PBDEs), increases in feline hyperthyroidism have been observed. We hypothesized that PBDE exposure was linked to the increased occurrence of hyperthyroidism in cats. Herein, PBDEs in serum of pet ...

  11. Wehrl information entropy and phase distributions of Schrodinger cat and cat-like states

    CERN Document Server

    Miranowicz, A; Wahiddin, M R B; Imoto, N

    2001-01-01

    The Wehrl information entropy and its phase density, the so-called Wehrl phase distribution, are applied to describe Schr\\"odinger cat and cat-like (kitten) states. The advantages of the Wehrl phase distribution over the Wehrl entropy in a description of the superposition principle are presented. The entropic measures are compared with a conventional phase distribution from the Husimi Q-function. Compact-form formulae for the entropic measures are found for superpositions of well-separated states. Examples of Schr\\"odinger cats (including even, odd and Yurke-Stoler coherent states), as well as the cat-like states generated in Kerr medium are analyzed in detail. It is shown that, in contrast to the Wehrl entropy, the Wehrl phase distribution properly distinguishes between different superpositions of unequally-weighted states in respect to their number and phase-space configuration.

  12. Experimental pandemic (H1N1) 2009 virus infection of cats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.M.A. van den Brand (Judith); K.J. Stittelaar (Koert); G. van Amerongen (Geert); M.W.G. van de Bildt (Marco); L.M.E. Leijten (Lonneke); T. Kuiken (Thijs); A.D.M.E. Osterhaus (Albert)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractTo demonstrate that pandemic (H1N1) 2009 virus may cause respiratory disease in cats, we intratracheally infected cats. Diffuse alveolar damage developed. Seroconversion of sentinel cats indicated cat-to-cat virus transmission. Unlike in cats infected with highly pathogenic avian influen

  13. Cat sensitization according to cat window of exposure in adult asthmatics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.P. Oryszczyn; R. Ree; J. Maccario; R. Nadif; F. Kauffmann

    2009-01-01

    P>Background In adults, there is limited information on tolerance to cat, which may be reflected by high IgG(4) without IgE sensitization. Early exposure to cat may play a critical role. Objective The aim was to assess among adults the association of Fel d 1 IgG(4), Fel d 1 IgE, skin prick test (SPT

  14. Head movement during walking in the cat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zubair, Humza N; Beloozerova, Irina N; Sun, Hai; Marlinski, Vladimir

    2016-09-22

    Knowledge of how the head moves during locomotion is essential for understanding how locomotion is controlled by sensory systems of the head. We have analyzed head movements of the cat walking along a straight flat pathway in the darkness and light. We found that cats' head left-right translations, and roll and yaw rotations oscillated once per stride, while fore-aft and vertical translations, and pitch rotations oscillated twice. The head reached its highest vertical positions during second half of each forelimb swing, following maxima of the shoulder/trunk by 20-90°. Nose-up rotation followed head upward translation by another 40-90° delay. The peak-to-peak amplitude of vertical translation was ∼1.5cm and amplitude of pitch rotation was ∼3°. Amplitudes of lateral translation and roll rotation were ∼1cm and 1.5-3°, respectively. Overall, cats' heads were neutral in roll and 10-30° nose-down, maintaining horizontal semicircular canals and utriculi within 10° of the earth horizontal. The head longitudinal velocity was 0.5-1m/s, maximal upward and downward linear velocities were ∼0.05 and ∼0.1m/s, respectively, and maximal lateral velocity was ∼0.05m/s. Maximal velocities of head pitch rotation were 20-50°/s. During walking in light, cats stood 0.3-0.5cm taller and held their head 0.5-2cm higher than in darkness. Forward acceleration was 25-100% higher and peak-to-peak amplitude of head pitch oscillations was ∼20°/s larger. We concluded that, during walking, the head of the cat is held actively. Reflexes appear to play only a partial role in determining head movement, and vision might further diminish their role.

  15. An experimental study on cerebral paragonimiasis using cats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Seon Kyu; Chang, Kee Hyun; Goo, Jin Mo; Han, Moon Hee; Shin, Yong Moon; Choo, Sung Wook; Yu, In Kyu [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Cho, Seung Yull; Kong, Yoon [Chung-Ang University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1994-06-15

    It is important to diagnosis paragonimiasis in early active because it can be dared by chemotherapy. However, it is difficult to make a correct diagnosis of cerebral paragonimiasis in the early active stage, and the radiographic findings of cerebral paragonimiasis have been rarely reported. Thus, this experimental study was designed to produce early active cerebral paragonimiasis and to demonstrate radiologic-pathologic correlations. In 8 cats, 7-8 metacercariae of Paragonimus Westermani were directly introduced into brain parenchyma of each cat's after trephination of the skull. In another 16 cats, the juvenile worms and the adult worms that had developed for varying periods (2 weeks, 4 weeks, 6 weeks, 8 weeks and 12 weeks) in the lunges of another cats were introduced into the brain parenchyma of each cat's with the same procedure described above. Follow -up MR images and chest radiographs were obtained at 2 days, 1 weeks, 2 weeks, 4 weeks and 8 weeks after inoculation. The autopsies and histopathological examinations of the cat's brain were undertaken in 22 cats. In 9 cats that were suspected with pulmonary lesion on chest radiograph, the soft tissue radiographs of inflated-fixed lungs were obtained. In one cat with inoculation of adult worm, acute suppurative inflammation of the brain parenchyma was demonstrated. But the other cats with inoculation of adult worm or juvenile worm and the cats with intentional of metacercaris did not reveal any evidence of acute cerebral paragonimiasis. More than half of the introduce metacercariae (5 out of 8 cats) were found in the lung parenchyma, while only 25% (4 out of 16 cats) of the adult worm inoculated cats were. Acute suppurative inflammation suggesting acute stage cerebral paragonimiasis was obtained in one case of adult worm inoculated cat. Most of the inoculated metacercariae and some of the juvenile worms or adult worms were migrated to the lungs.

  16. Prevalence of otitis externa in stray cats in northern Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perego, Roberta; Proverbio, Daniela; Bagnagatti De Giorgi, Giada; Della Pepa, Alessandra; Spada, Eva

    2014-06-01

    Feline otitis externa is a dermatological disorder that has not been evaluated much in stray cats. One hundred and eighty-seven stray cats were randomly selected during a trap-neuter-release programme to investigate the prevalence of otitis externa in stray cat colonies in northern Italy. Swabs for cytological examination were obtained from the external ear canal of each cat. A direct otoscopic assessment of the external ear canal was made in 86/187 cats. Cytological evidence of otitis externa was present in 55.1% of cats. The influence on otitis of age, gender, habitat and season of sampling was tested, but no risk factors were found. Otodectes cynotis (as a sole agent or in combination) was the primary cause of otitis in 53.3% of cats. Cocci and rods, either alone or in combination with other agents, were perpetuating factors in 71.8% and 29.1% of cats, respectively. Pregnancy status was a risk factor for otitis caused by coccal infections. Malassezia species, alone or in combination, was the perpetuating factor in 50.5% of cats with otitis. Urban habitat and winter season were risk factors for otitis associated with Malassezia species. Demodex cati was identified as an incidental finding in two cats. There was good agreement between otoscopy and cytology with regard to the diagnosis of otitis externa. The results of this study show a high prevalence of otitis externa in stray colony cats and provide information on causal factors for feline otitis externa.

  17. Opinions from the front lines of cat colony management conflict.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Nils Peterson

    Full Text Available Outdoor cats represent a global threat to terrestrial vertebrate conservation, but management has been rife with conflict due to differences in views of the problem and appropriate responses to it. To evaluate these differences we conducted a survey of opinions about outdoor cats and their management with two contrasting stakeholder groups, cat colony caretakers (CCCs and bird conservation professionals (BCPs across the United States. Group opinions were polarized, for both normative statements (CCCs supported treating feral cats as protected wildlife and using trap neuter and release [TNR] and BCPs supported treating feral cats as pests and using euthanasia and empirical statements. Opinions also were related to gender, age, and education, with females and older respondents being less likely than their counterparts to support treating feral cats as pests, and females being less likely than males to support euthanasia. Most CCCs held false beliefs about the impacts of feral cats on wildlife and the impacts of TNR (e.g., 9% believed feral cats harmed bird populations, 70% believed TNR eliminates cat colonies, and 18% disagreed with the statement that feral cats filled the role of native predators. Only 6% of CCCs believed feral cats carried diseases. To the extent the beliefs held by CCCs are rooted in lack of knowledge and mistrust, rather than denial of directly observable phenomenon, the conservation community can manage these conflicts more productively by bringing CCCs into the process of defining data collection methods, defining study/management locations, and identifying common goals related to caring for animals.

  18. Post-anesthetic cortical blindness in cats: twenty cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stiles, J; Weil, A B; Packer, R A; Lantz, G C

    2012-08-01

    The medical records of 20 cats with post-anesthetic cortical blindness were reviewed. Information collected included signalment and health status, reason for anesthesia, anesthetic protocols and adverse events, post-anesthetic visual and neurological abnormalities, clinical outcome, and risk factors. The vascular anatomy of the cat brain was reviewed by cadaver dissections. Thirteen cats were anaesthetised for dentistry, four for endoscopy, two for neutering procedures and one for urethral obstruction. A mouth gag was used in 16/20 cats. Three cats had had cardiac arrest, whereas in the remaining 17 cases, no specific cause of blindness was identified. Seventeen cats (85%) had neurological deficits in addition to blindness. Fourteen of 20 cats (70%) had documented recovery of vision, whereas four (20%) remained blind. Two cats (10%) were lost to follow up while still blind. Ten of 17 cats (59%) with neurological deficits had full recovery from neurological disease, two (12%) had mild persistent deficits and one (6%) was euthanased as it failed to recover. Four cats (23%) without documented resolution of neurological signs were lost to follow up. Mouth gags were identified as a potential risk factor for cerebral ischemia and blindness in cats.

  19. A New Family of Generalized 3D Cat Maps

    CERN Document Server

    Wu, Yue; Noonan, Joseph P

    2012-01-01

    Since the 1990s chaotic cat maps are widely used in data encryption, for their very complicated dynamics within a simple model and desired characteristics related to requirements of cryptography. The number of cat map parameters and the map period length after discretization are two major concerns in many applications for security reasons. In this paper, we propose a new family of 36 distinctive 3D cat maps with different spatial configurations taking existing 3D cat maps [1]-[4] as special cases. Our analysis and comparisons show that this new 3D cat maps family has more independent map parameters and much longer averaged period lengths than existing 3D cat maps. The presented cat map family can be extended to higher dimensional cases.

  20. Seroprevalence of Rickettsia bellii and Rickettsia felis in dogs, São José dos Pinhais, State of Paraná, Brazil Soroprevalência de Rickettsia bellii e Rickettsia felis em cães, São José dos Pinhais, Paraná, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Silva Fortes

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Brazilian spotted fever (BSF is a vector-borne zoonosis caused by Rickettsia rickettsii bacteria. Dogs can be host sentinels for this bacterium. The aim of the study was to determine the presence of antibodies against Rickettsia spp. in dogs from the city of São José dos Pinhais, State of Paraná, Southern Brazil, where a human case of BSF was first reported in the state. Between February 2006 and July 2007, serum samples from 364 dogs were collected and tested at 1:64 dilutions by indirect immunofluorescence assay (IFA against R. rickettsii and R. parkeri. All sera that reacted at least to one of Rickettsia species were tested against the six main Rickettsia species identified in Brazil: R. rickettsii, R. parkeri, R. bellii, R. rhipicephali, R. amblyommii and R. felis. Sixteen samples (4.4% reacted to at least one Rickettsia species. Among positive animals, two dogs (15.5% showed suggestive titers for R. bellii exposure. One sample had a homologous reaction to R. felis, a confirmed human pathogen. Although Rickettsia spp. circulation in dogs in the area studied may be considered at low prevalence, suggesting low risk of human infection, the present data demonstrate for the first time the exposure of dogs to R. bellii and R. felis in Southern Brazil.A febre maculosa brasileira (FMB é uma zoonose veiculada por carrapatos e causada pela bactéria Rickettsia rickettsii, podendo os cães ser hospedeiros sentinelas para essa bactéria. O objetivo do estudo foi determinar a presença de anticorpos contra Rickettsia spp. em cães de São José dos Pinhais, estado do Paraná, Sul do Brasil. Entre fevereiro de 2006 e julho de 2007, amostras séricas de 364 cães foram coletadas e testadas na diluição de 1:64 por Reação de Imunofluorescência Indireta (RIFI contra R. rickettsii e R. parkeri. Todos os soros reagentes para pelo menos uma espécie de Rickettsia foram testados contra as seis principais espécies de Rickettsia identificadas no Brasil: R

  1. Metales pesados en tejido muscular del bagre Ariopsis felis en el sur del golfo de México (2001-2004 Heavy metals in muscular tissue of the catfish, Ariopsis felis, in the southern Gulfof México (2001-2004

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe Vázquez

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Se analizó el contenido de metales pesados en tejido muscular del bagre, Ariopsis felis en el sur del golfo de México durante el período 2001-2004. La investigación fue efectuada buscando establecer un marco de referencia ambiental para este organismo. La concentración metálica siguió el orden: Hg We analyzed the heavy metal content in the muscular tissue of the catfish, Ariopsis felis, in the southern Gulf of México between 2001 and 2004. The research was done in order to establish an environmental frame of reference for this organism. The metal concentration was as follows: Hg < Co < Pb < Ni < V < Cr. Cobalt and vanadium contents were found to decrease and those of nickel, mercury, and chromium to ulerease; however, neither of these trends was observed for the lead content. One-way analyses of variance con-firm significant temporal variation only for cobalt, mercury, lead, and vanadium. Significant linear correlation coefficients (p ≤ 0.05 were found for Co-V, Cr-Ni, Cr-Pb, Co-Hg, Ni-V, and V-Pb. The first three associa-tions showed positive correlations, whereas the remaining ones had negative correlations. A factor analysis grouped the studied metals depending on their origins. The metal levels found in the muscular tissue of A. felis from the southern Gulf of México were lower than those set by national and international regulations.

  2. Dissipative Quantum Metrology with Spin Cat States

    CERN Document Server

    Huang, Jiahao; Zhong, Honghua; Ke, Yongguan; Lee, Chaohong

    2014-01-01

    We present a robust high-precision phase estimation scheme via spin cat states in the presence of particle losses. The input Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger (GHZ) state, which may achieve the Heisenberg-limited measurement in the absence of particle losses, becomes fragile against particle losses and its achieved precision becomes even worse than the standard quantum limit (SQL). However, the input spin cat states, a kind of non-Gaussian entangled states in superposition of two spin coherent states, are of excellent robustness against particle losses and the achieved precision may still beat the SQL. For realistic measurements based upon our scheme, comparing with the population measurement, the parity measurement is more suitable for yielding higher precisions. In phase measurement with realistic dissipative systems of bosonic particles, our scheme provides a robust and realizable way to achieve high-precision measurements beyond the SQL.

  3. Igreja Católica Romana

    OpenAIRE

    GIL FILHO, Sylvio Fausto

    2012-01-01

    RESUMO Este trabalho, sob o título "Igreja Católica Romana: Fronteiras do Discurso e Territorialidade do Sagrado," foi construído a partir da observação de que a Igreja mantém estratégias de expansão e preservação que configuram determinada territorialidade do sagrado. Nossa análise toma como referência o Concilio Vaticano II (1962-1965) e as repercussões no último quartel do século XX. Deste modo, partimos da desconstrução do discurso oficial da Igreja Católica Romana em quatro níveis es...

  4. Allium species poisoning in dogs and cats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BS Salgado

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Dogs and cats are the animals that owners most frequently seek assistance for potential poisonings, and these species are frequently involved with toxicoses due to ingestion of poisonous food. Feeding human foodstuff to pets may prove itself dangerous for their health, similarly to what is observed in Allium species toxicosis. Allium species toxicosis is reported worldwide in several animal species, and the toxic principles present in them causes the transformation of hemoglobin into methemoglobin, consequently resulting in hemolytic anemia with Heinz body formation. The aim of this review is to analyze the clinicopathologic aspects and therapeutic approach of this serious toxicosis of dogs and cats in order to give knowledge to veterinarians about Allium species toxicosis, and subsequently allow them to correctly diagnose this disease when facing it; and to educate pet owners to not feed their animals with Allium-containg food in order to better control this particular life-threatening toxicosis.

  5. Asthma, Airway Symptoms and Rhinitis in Office Workers in Malaysia: Associations with House Dust Mite (HDM Allergy, Cat Allergy and Levels of House Dust Mite Allergens in Office Dust.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fang Lee Lim

    Full Text Available A prevalence study was conducted among office workers in Malaysia (N= 695. The aim of this study was to examine associations between asthma, airway symptoms, rhinitis and house dust mites (HDM and cat allergy and HDM levels in office dust. Medical data was collected by a questionnaire. Skin prick tests were performed for HDM allergens (Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus, Dermatophagoides farinae and cat allergen Felis domesticus. Indoor temperature and relative air humidity (RH were measured in the offices and vacuumed dust samples were analyzed for HDM allergens. The prevalence of D. pteronyssinus, D. farinae and cat allergy were 50.3%, 49.0% and 25.5% respectively. Totally 9.6% had doctor-diagnosed asthma, 15.5% had current wheeze and 53.0% had current rhinitis. The Der p 1 (from D. pteronyssinus and Der f 1 (from D. farinae allergens levels in dust were 556 ng/g and 658 ng/g respectively. Statistical analysis was conducted by multilevel logistic regression, adjusting for age, gender, current smoking, HDM or cat allergy, home dampness and recent indoor painting at home. Office workers with HDM allergy had more wheeze (p= 0.035, any airway symptoms (p= 0.032, doctor-diagnosed asthma (p= 0.005, current asthma (p= 0.007, current rhinitis (p= 0.021 and rhinoconjuctivitis (p< 0.001. Cat allergy was associated with wheeze (p= 0.021, wheeze when not having a cold (p= 0.033, any airway symptoms (p= 0.034, doctor-diagnosed asthma (p= 0.010, current asthma (p= 0.020 and nasal allergy medication (p= 0.042. Der f 1 level in dust was associated with daytime breathlessness (p= 0.033 especially among those with HDM allergy. Der f 1 levels were correlated with indoor temperature (p< 0.001 and inversely correlated with RH (p< 0.001. In conclusion, HDM and cat allergies were common and independently associated with asthma, airway symptoms and rhinitis. Der f 1 allergen can be a risk factor for daytime breathlessness.

  6. CAT: the INGV Tsunami Alert Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michelini, A.

    2014-12-01

    After the big 2004 Sumatra earthquake, the tsunami threat posed by large earthquakes occurring in the Mediterranean sea was formally taken into account by many countries around the Mediterranean basin. In the past, large earthquakes that originated significant tsunamis occurred nearly once per century (Maramai et al., 2014, Annals of Geophysics). The Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission of UNESCO (IOC-UNESCO) received a mandate from the international community to coordinate the establishment of the ICG/NEAMTWS (http://neamtic.ioc-unesco.org) through Resolution IOC-XXIII-14. Since then, several countries (France, Turkey, Greece) have started operating as candidate Tsunami Watch Provider (cTWP) in the Mediterranean. Italy started operating as cTWP on October 1st, 2014. The Italian cTWP is formed by INGV ("Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia)", DPC ("Dipartimento di Protezione Civile") and ISPRA ("Istituto Superiore per la Protezione e la Ricerca Ambientale"). INGV is in charge of issuing the alert for potentially tsunamigenic earthquakes, ISPRA provides the sea level recordings and DPC is in charge of disseminating the alert. INGV established the tsunami alert center (CAT, "Centro di Allerta Tsunami") at the end of 2013. CAT is co-located with the INGV national seismic surveillance center operated since many years. In this work, we show the technical and personnel organization of CAT, its response to recent earthquakes, and the new procedures under development for implementation. (*) INGV-CAT WG: Amato A., Basili R., Bernardi F., Bono A., Danecek P., De Martini P.M., Govoni A., Graziani L., Lauciani V., Lomax, A., Lorito S., Maramai A., Mele F., Melini D., Molinari I., Nostro C., Piatanesi A., Pintore S., Quintiliani M., Romano F., Selva J., Selvaggi G., Sorrentino D., Tonini R.

  7. [Chronic inflammatory bowel diseases in cats].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghermai, A K

    1989-01-01

    The aetiology of chronic idiopathic intestinal inflammation is unknown. It is characterized by a diffuse infiltration with inflammatory cells into the intestinal mucosa and sometimes submucosa. Cats with chronic intermittent vomiting and diarrhoea, later on accompanied by anorexia and weight loss, are presented. Definitive diagnosis can be obtained by intestinal biopsy only. An immune pathogenesis is suspected, which is supported by the fact, that chronic inflammatory bowel disease responds to steroid therapy.

  8. Fatal disseminated toxoplasmosis in an immunocompetent cat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susanna S. Nagel

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available A 10-year-old domestic short hair cat was referred for investigation of anorexia and polydipsia of 3 days’ duration. Clinically the cat was obese, pyrexic (39.8 °C, had acute abdominal pain and severe bilirubinuria. Haematology and serum biochemistry revealed severe panleukopenia, thrombocytopenia, markedly elevated alanine aminotransferase (ALT and five-fold increased pre-prandial bile acids. Ultrasonographic evaluation of the abdomen did not identify any abnormalities. Serum tests for feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV and feline leukaemia virus (FeLV were negative. Broad-spectrum antibiotic treatment for infectious hepatitis was to no avail; the cat deteriorated and died 72 h after admission. Necropsy revealed mild icterus and anaemia, severe multifocal hepatic necrosis, serofibrinous hydrothorax, pulmonary oedema and interstitial pneumonia. Histopathology confirmed the macroscopic findings and revealed multifocal microgranulomata in the brain and myocardium, as well as areas of necrosis in lymph nodes and multifocally in splenic red pulp. Long bone shaft marrow was hyperplastic with a predominance of leukocyte precursors and megakaryocytes and splenic red pulp showed mild extramedullary haemopoiesis. Immunohistochemical staining for Toxoplasma gondii was strongly positive, with scattered cysts and tachyzoites in the liver, lymph nodes, spleen, lungs, brain, salivary glands and intracellularly in round cells in occasional blood vessels. Immunohistochemical staining for corona virus on the same tissues was negative, ruling out feline infectious peritonitis (FIP. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR on formalin-fixed paraffin-wax embedded tissues was positive for Toxoplasma sp., but attempts at sequencing were unsuccessful. This was the first case report of fulminant disseminated toxoplasmosis in South Africa, in which detailed histopathology in an apparently immunocompetent cat was described.

  9. Metales pesados en tejido muscular del bagre Ariopsis felis en el sur del golfo de México (2001-2004) Heavy metals in muscular tissue of the catfish, Ariopsis felis, in the southern Gulfof México (2001-2004)

    OpenAIRE

    Felipe Vázquez; Tomás R Florville-Alejandre; Miguel Herrera; Luz María Díaz de León

    2008-01-01

    Se analizó el contenido de metales pesados en tejido muscular del bagre, Ariopsis felis en el sur del golfo de México durante el período 2001-2004. La investigación fue efectuada buscando establecer un marco de referencia ambiental para este organismo. La concentración metálica siguió el orden: Hg < Co < Pb < Ni < V < Cr. Fue observado un decremento en contenido de cobalto y vanadio, incremento en contenido de níquel, mercurio y cromo, y ausencia de estos comportamientos para contenido de plo...

  10. A population genetic database of cat breeds developed in coordination with a domestic cat STR multiplex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menotti-Raymond, Marilyn; David, Victor A; Weir, Bruce S; O'Brien, Stephen J

    2012-05-01

    A simple tandem repeat (STR) PCR-based typing system developed for the genetic individualization of domestic cat samples has been used to generate a population genetic database of domestic cat breeds. A panel of 10 tetranucleotide STR loci and a gender-identifying sequence tagged site (STS) were co-amplified in genomic DNA of 1043 individuals representing 38 cat breeds. The STR panel exhibits relatively high heterozygosity in cat breeds, with an average 10-locus heterozygosity of 0.71, which represents an average of 38 breed-specific heterozygosities for the 10-member panel. When the entire set of breed individuals was analyzed as a single population, a heterozygosity of 0.87 was observed. Heterozygosities obtained for the 10 loci range from 0.72 to 0.96. The power for genetic individualization of domestic cat samples of the multiplex is high, with a probability of match (p(m)) of 6.2E-14, using a conservative θ = 0.05.

  11. Dermoid cyst in a domestic shorthair cat

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Akhtardanesh B; Kheirandish R; Azari O

    2012-01-01

    A 5-year-old neutered male domestic shorthair cat was presented for examination of a subcutaneous mass in his tail. The mass was firm, non-painful, oval, and approximately 2.5 × 3.5 cm. Surgical exploration revealed a well-circumscribed, encapsulated mass. The mass was removed and sectioned for histopathological examination. In gross section, it was filled with numerous dark hairs. Histologically the mass was consisted of haired skin with dermal cystic structures lined by stratified squamous epithelium. The cyst lumen contained squamous debris and filled with keratinous material. Numerous hair shafts were extended from the wall of the cyst. The sebaceous and apocrine gland adnexal structures were also observed which confirmed the diagnosis of dermoid cyst. No tumor recurrence was observed after surgery in fallowing checkups. Cutaneous or subcutaneous cysts of all types are considered rare in cats and to our knowledge this is the third reported case of cutaneous dermoid cyst of cats in veterinary literature which is different from the other cases because it occurred in dorsal midline in tail area whereas others occurred in flank area.

  12. Biplane transesophageal echocardiography in the normal cat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kienle, R D; Thomas, W P; Rishniw, M

    1997-01-01

    Eight healthy, adult cats were examined with biplane transesophageal echocardiography (TEE). Cats were sedated with a combination of diazepam and propofol and were examined using a 5 mm x 80 cm pediatric biplane TEE probe. Consistent images were obtained at three imaging depths within the esophagus. The caudal position provided satisfactory short-axis images of the left ventricle and heart base. The middle position provided the best long-axis views of the left atrium, left ventricle, and aorta and allowed Doppler examination of transmitral left ventricular inflow. The cranial position provided satisfactory imaging of the aorta and pulmonary artery and allowed Doppler examination of right ventricular and left ventricular outflow. Biplane TEE provides an additional method of imaging the feline heart which is complimentary to other imaging techniques and the images obtained were similar to those reported for dogs. Although TEE offers a slight advantage over transthorcic imaging for Doppler examination, the quality of the images of heart base structures was not as consistently superior to transthoracic images in cats as reported in dogs.

  13. Dermal mass aspirate from a Persian cat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmerman, Kurt; Feldman, Bernard; Robertson, John; Herring, Erin S; Manning, Thomas

    2003-01-01

    A 1-year-old spayed female Persian cat with alopecia and weight loss had numerous variably ulcerated dermal nodules. Cytologic examination of an aspirate of one of the nodules revealed pyogranulomatous inflammation along with septate hyphae and basophilic round bodies, 0.5-1.0 microm in diameter, surrounded by a thin clear halo (arthrospores). The cytologic diagnosis was dermatophytic pseudomycetoma. Histologically, there were dermal granulomas containing poorly staining, septate hyphae with bulbous spores embedded within abundant amorphous eosinophilic material (Splendore-Hoeppli reaction), and the histologic diagnosis was pseudomycetoma-associated chronic multifocal severe granulomatous dermatitis with lymphocytic perifolliculitis and furunculosis. Microsporum canis was cultured from the lesion. Pseudomycetomas are distinguished from fungal mycetomas, or eumycotic mycetomas, by the findings of multiple lesions, lack of a history of skin trauma, an association with dermatophytes, most commonly Microsporum canis, and, histologically, lack of true cement material and a more abundant Splendore-Hoeppli reaction in pseudomycetomas. Additionally, pseudomycetomas differ from dermatophytosis, in which lesions are restricted to epidermal structures. Persian cats have a high incidence of pseudomycetoma formation, suggesting a heritable predisposition. The prognosis is fair with systemic antifungal therapy. When examining cytologic specimens from Persian cats with single or multiple dermal nodules, especially if pyogranulomatous inflammation is present, a diagnosis of pseudomycetoma should be suspected and is warranted if arthrospores and refractile septate hyphae are present.

  14. Radiographic characterization of the os penis in the cat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piola, Valentina; Posch, Barbara; Aghte, Petra; Caine, Abby; Herrtage, Michael E

    2011-01-01

    The os penis in the cat has not been described radiographically, as compared with the dog. However, a small linear bony radiopacity is sometimes detected in the perineal area of male cats. We hypothesized that the feline os penis might be visible on survey radiographs of the pelvis, and we aimed to investigate the frequency of its visualization using analog and computed radiography (CR) system. One hundred radiographs of the pelvis of 99 male cats were reviewed retrospectively (50 were obtained with a CR system and 50 with an analog system). Age, breed, neutering status, and reason for presentation were recorded, as well as the visualization of the os penis. An os penis was detected in 19/50 (38%) cats with CR and in eight of 50 (16%) cats with analog radiography; this difference was statistically significant. With CR, the median age of cats with a visible os penis was significantly higher than in cats where the os penis was not seen. In one cat with a visible os penis examined with CR and analog radiography, the os penis was only visible on CR images. The penile tissues were examined histopathologically in one cat and well-differentiated bone was found but there were no pathologic findings detected in surrounding tissues. Thus, the os penis can be detected on radiographs of cats and this should not be mistaken for a pathologic finding such as urolithiasis or dystrophic mineralization.

  15. Distortion product otoacoustic emissions in young adult and geriatric cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strain, George M; McGee, Kain A

    2017-03-01

    Recordings of distortion product otoacoustic emissions (DPOAEs) were taken from 15 geriatric cats (mean age ± standard deviation, SD, 13.6 ± 2.7 years; range 10.2-19.4 years) and 12 young adult control cats (mean ± SD 4.6 ± 0.5 years; range 3.4-5 years) to identify frequency-specific age-related changes in cochlear responses. Recordings were performed for primary frequencies from 2 to 12 kHz in 2 kHz increments. Cats were considered to be geriatric > 11.9 ± 1.9 years of age. Brainstem auditory evoked response (BAER) recordings were also made for subjective comparison with DPOAE responses. No differences in DPOAE response amplitudes were observed at any tested frequency in geriatric cats compared to control cats, reflecting an apparent absence of loss of cochlear outer hair cells along the length of the cochlea. No linear regression relationships were found for DPOAE response amplitude versus age in geriatric cats, despite the progressive nature of age-related hearing loss in other species. The absence of reductions in response at any of the tested frequencies in cats within the age span where cats are considered to be geriatric indicates that age-related hearing loss, if it does develop in cats, begins later in the life span of cats than in dogs or human beings.

  16. Hypofractionated radiation therapy of oral melanoma in five cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrelly, John; Denman, David L; Hohenhaus, Ann E; Patnaik, Amiya K; Bergman, Philip J

    2004-01-01

    Five cats with melanoma involving the oral cavity were treated with hypofractionated radiation therapy (RT). Cobalt photons were used to administer three fractions of 8.0 Gray (Gy) for a total dose of 24 Gy. Four cats received radiation on days 0, 7, and 21 and one cat received radiation on days 0, 7, and 13. One of the cats received additional irradiation following the initial treatment course. Two cats received chemotherapy. Their age ranged from 11 to 15 years with a median age of 12 years. Three cats had a response to radiation, including one complete response and two partial responses. All five cats were euthanized due to progression of disease, with one cat having evidence of metastatic disease at the time of euthanasia. The median survival time for the five cats was 146 days (range 66-224 days) from the start of RT. The results of this study suggest that oral melanoma in cats may be responsive to hypofractionated RT, but response does not seem to be durable.

  17. Detection of Hepatozoon felis in Ticks Collected from Free-Ranging Amur Tigers ( Panthera tigris altaica), Russian Far East, 2002-12.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Lindsay H; Seryodkin, Ivan V; Goodrich, John M; Miquelle, Dale G; Birtles, Richard J; Lewis, John C M

    2016-07-01

    We collected 69 ticks from nine, free-ranging Amur tigers ( Panthera tigris altaica) between 2002 and 2011 and investigated them for tick-borne pathogens. DNA was extracted using alkaline digestion and PCR was performed to detect apicomplexan organisms. Partial 18S rDNA amplification products were obtained from 14 ticks from four tigers, of which 13 yielded unambiguous nucleotide sequence data. Comparative sequence analysis revealed all 13 partial 18S rDNA sequences were most similar to those belonging to strains of Hepatozoon felis (>564/572 base-pair identity, >99% sequence similarity). Although this tick-borne protozoon pathogen has been detected in wild felids from many parts of the world, this is the first record from the Russian Far East.

  18. Determinants of Cat Choice and Outcomes for Adult Cats and Kittens Adopted from an Australian Animal Shelter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zito, Sarah; Paterson, Mandy; Vankan, Dianne; Morton, John; Bennett, Pauleen; Phillips, Clive

    2015-01-01

    Simple Summary Commonly, more adult cats than kittens are euthanized in animal shelters. We surveyed 382 cat adopters to assess adoption outcomes and potential determinants of adopters’ choice of cat age group and price. Most adopters had benevolent motivations for adopting from the shelter and had put considerable thought into the adoption and responsible ownership requirements. However, adult cat adopters were more likely to have been influenced by price than kitten adopters. Adoption outcomes were generally positive in all age and adoption price groups. This study provides evidence to inform the design of strategies to encourage adult cat adoptions. Abstract The percentage of adult cats euthanized in animal shelters is greater than that of kittens because adult cats are less likely to be adopted. This study aimed to provide evidence to inform the design of strategies to encourage adult cat adoptions. One such strategy is to discount adoption prices, but there are concerns that this may result in poor adoption outcomes. We surveyed 382 cat adopters at the time of adoption, to assess potential determinants of adopters’ cat age group choice (adult or kitten) and, for adult cat adopters, the price they are willing to pay. The same respondents were surveyed again 6–12 months after the adoption to compare outcomes between cat age groups and between adult cats in two price categories. Most adopters had benevolent motivations for adopting from the shelter and had put considerable thought into the adoption and requirements for responsible ownership. However, adult cat adopters were more likely to have been influenced by price than kitten adopters. Adoption outcomes were generally positive for both adult cats and kittens and for adult cats adopted at low prices. The latter finding alleviates concerns about the outcomes of “low-cost” adoptions in populations, such as the study population, and lends support for the use of “low-cost” adoptions as an option for

  19. Response of CYP1A Gene expression in fish liver of catfish (Ariopsis felis) from Gulf of Mexico and their relationship with the genetic variability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zapata-Perez, Omar; Sanchez-Teyer, Lorenzo F; Perez-Nunez, Maria T; Arroyo-Herrera, Ana L; Moreno, Adriana Quiroz; Albores-Medina, Arnulfo

    2010-01-01

    We determined the hepatic Cytochrome P4501A (CYP1A) mRNA and Ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD) activities in the fish, Ariopsis felis, from highly polluted to relatively pristine regions in the southwest Gulf of Mexico and their relationship with the genetic polymorphisms of the same fish. We hypothesized that a high genetic variation reflects interindividual variability in levels of CYP1A mRNA underlying the pathway culminating in EROD induction caused by the environmental contaminants. Catfish from Laguna de Mecoacan exhibited marked induction of CYP1A mRNA and high levels of hepatic EROD activities, whereas fish from Laguna de Celestun showed no induction of CYP1A mRNA and moderately low levels of EROD activities. In contrast, the similarity index considering all samples varied from 0.4 to 0.87, showing a wide range of variation. A dendrogram showed a clear grouping of fish collected from the Laguna de Terminos, Rio Coatzacoalcos and Laguna de Celestun, with discrete subgroups according to region. In contrast, fish from Laguna de Mecoacan were grouped together completely separate from the rest of the fish. Despite the low number of fish from Mecoacan (a high bootstrap support was observed in this group), the results indicated a significant genetic variability in comparison with the other ecosystems included. The differential level of expression of CYP1A and the EROD activity observed among the ecosystems analyzed could be due to the high range of genetic variation, with special emphasis on fish collected in Mecoacan where it is possible to find a subspecies of Ariopsis felis.

  20. Cats' Internal Exposure to Selected Brominated Flame Retardants and Organochlorines Correlated to House Dust and Cat Food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norrgran Engdahl, J; Bignert, A; Jones, B; Athanassiadis, I; Bergman, Å; Weiss, J M

    2017-03-07

    Pet cats may be used as a biomarker for assessing exposures to organohalogen compounds (OHCs) adsorbed to household dust in home environments. This study explores two exposure routes of OHCs, ingestion of OHCs (i) via house dust and (ii) via cat food. House dust from 17 Swedish homes and serum from the participating families' pet cats were collected, and cat food was purchased matching the diet reported. Paired samples of cat serum, house dust, and cat food were analyzed for brominated flame retardants/natural products (polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), decabromobiphenyl (BB-209), decabromodiphenyl ethane (DBDPE), 2,4,6-tribromophenol (2,4,6-TBP), OH-PBDEs) and organochlorines (polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), 1,1-bis(4,4'-dichlorodiphenyl)-2,2,2-trichloroethane (4,4'-DDT), 1,1-bis(4,4'-dichlorodiphenyl)-2,2-dichloroethene (4,4'-DDE), hexachlorobenzene (HCB), pentachlorophenol (PCP)). Significant correlations were found between serum and dust samples from the living rooms for BDE-47 (p cat serum levels and household dust has been established, a finding that supports the hypothesis that dust is a significant exposure route for cats. Serum levels were also significantly correlated with concentrations found in cat food for 6-OH-BDE47 (p cats.

  1. Concentration of D-dimers in healthy cats and sick cats with and without disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tholen, Inger; Weingart, Christiane; Kohn, Barbara

    2009-10-01

    The objective of this prospective study was to measure concentrations of D-dimers in 48 cats with various diseases and in 20 healthy cats to evaluate the sensitivity and specificity for D-dimers to diagnose disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC). The cats were classified as having DIC if an underlying disease and at least three of the following criteria were present: thrombocytopenia, prolonged activated partial thromboplastin time, prothrombin time or thrombin time, schistocytes and/or a reduced antithrombin activity. D-dimer concentrations were measured using a semi-quantitative latex agglutination (LA) test (Accuclot D-Dimer, Sigma Diagnostics). The D-dimer test was positive for 8/12 cats with DIC and for 16/36 sick cats without DIC. D-dimers were negative for all healthy control cats. The comparison of the sick cats with DIC and those without DIC revealed a specificity and sensitivity of the D-dimer test of 56% and 67%; a comparison of the results for healthy cats and cats with DIC revealed a specificity and sensitivity of 100% and 67%, respectively. The D-dimer LA test is only of limited value for the diagnosis of DIC in cats.

  2. Determinants of Cat Choice and Outcomes for Adult Cats and Kittens Adopted from an Australian Animal Shelter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Zito

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The percentage of adult cats euthanized in animal shelters is greater than that of kittens because adult cats are less likely to be adopted. This study aimed to provide evidence to inform the design of strategies to encourage adult cat adoptions. One such strategy is to discount adoption prices, but there are concerns that this may result in poor adoption outcomes. We surveyed 382 cat adopters at the time of adoption, to assess potential determinants of adopters’ cat age group choice (adult or kitten and, for adult cat adopters, the price they are willing to pay. The same respondents were surveyed again 6–12 months after the adoption to compare outcomes between cat age groups and between adult cats in two price categories. Most adopters had benevolent motivations for adopting from the shelter and had put considerable thought into the adoption and requirements for responsible ownership. However, adult cat adopters were more likely to have been influenced by price than kitten adopters. Adoption outcomes were generally positive for both adult cats and kittens and for adult cats adopted at low prices. The latter finding alleviates concerns about the outcomes of “low-cost” adoptions in populations, such as the study population, and lends support for the use of “low-cost” adoptions as an option for attempting to increase adoption rates. In addition, the results provide information that can be used to inform future campaigns aimed at increasing the number of adult cat adoptions, particularly in devising marketing strategies for adult cats.

  3. Development of an operational specific CAT risk (SCATR) index

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, J. L.; Haines, P. A.; Luers, J. K.

    1983-01-01

    The original formulations of Roach (1970) and Oard (1974) for the calculation of clear air turbulence (CAT) potential from synoptic scale data were extended. An index which gives a measure of the specific risk of encountering CAT - the specific clear air turbulence risk (SCATR) index - was defined. This index takes into account both the locally and advected contributions to the energy necessary for CAT. The advected contribution is associated with the role of atmospheric gravity waves. The SCATR index was calculated for a number of cases where documented encounters with CAT occurred. Of particular interest were those made for cases involving severe CAT. The results for the two severe CAT cases run were quite impressive and elicited considerable interest from operational aviation meteorologists.

  4. Ultrastructural myocardial changes in seven cats with spontaneous hypertrophic cardiomyopathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Liselotte Bruun; Prats Gavalda, Clara; Hyttel, Poul

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) is the most common heart disease in cats and shares clinical and pathological characteristics with human HCM. Little is known about the pathogenic mechanisms underlying development of spontaneous feline HCM. ANIMALS: The study population consisted...... of seven cats diagnosed with HCM and eight age-matched cats with no evidence of cardiac disease. METHODS: Fresh myocardial biopsies taken from the middle of the left ventricular posterior free wall were obtained and examined with transmission electron microscopy. RESULTS: Electron microscopic examination...... showed ultrastructural aberrations of the myocardial cytoarchitecture and of the interstitium in the seven cats with HCM. In the most severely affected cats the myofibrils were disorganized and subsarcolemmal mitochondria were depleted. In control cats, contraction band artifacts were commonly seen...

  5. Squamous Cell Carcinoma of Mammary Gland in Domestic Cat

    OpenAIRE

    Filgueira, Kilder Dantas; Reche Junior,Archivaldo

    2012-01-01

    Background: In the feline species, 80% to 93% of neoplasias in the mammary gland are malignant, being the majority carcinomas. Among them, there is the mammary squamous cell carcinoma, which amounts to a very rare neoplasm in the domestic cat, with considerable potential for malignancy. This study aimed to report a case of squamous cell mammary carcinoma in the feline species. Case: A female cat, mixed breed, ten years old, presented history of skin lesion. The cat had been spayed two years b...

  6. Faecal microbiota of cats with insulin-treated diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Erin T; Suchodolski, Jan S; Isaiah, Anitha; Fleeman, Linda M; Cook, Audrey K; Steiner, Jörg M; Mansfield, Caroline S

    2014-01-01

    Microorganisms within the gastrointestinal tract significantly influence metabolic processes within their mammalian host, and recently several groups have sought to characterise the gastrointestinal microbiota of individuals affected by metabolic disease. Differences in the composition of the gastrointestinal microbiota have been reported in mouse models of type 2 diabetes mellitus, as well as in human patients. Diabetes mellitus in cats has many similarities to type 2 diabetes in humans. No studies of the gastrointestinal microbiota of diabetic cats have been previously published. The objectives of this study were to compare the composition of the faecal microbiota of diabetic and non-diabetic cats, and secondarily to determine if host signalment and dietary factors influence the composition of the faecal microbiota in cats. Faecal samples were collected from insulin-treated diabetic and non-diabetic cats, and Illumina sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene and quantitative PCR were performed on each sample. ANOSIM based on the unweighted UniFrac distance metric identified no difference in the composition of the faecal microbiota between diabetic and non-diabetic cats, and no significant differences in the proportions of dominant bacteria by phylum, class, order, family or genus as determined by 16S rRNA gene sequencing were identified between diabetic and non-diabetic cats. qPCR identified a decrease in Faecalibacterium spp. in cats aged over ten years. Cat breed or gender, dietary carbohydrate, protein or fat content, and dietary formulation (wet versus dry food) did not affect the composition of the faecal microbiota. In conclusion, the composition of the faecal microbiota was not altered by the presence of diabetes mellitus in cats. Additional studies that compare the functional products of the microbiota in diabetic and non-diabetic cats are warranted to further investigate the potential impact of the gastrointestinal microbiota on metabolic diseases such as

  7. Earliest evidence for commensal processes of cat domestication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yaowu; Hu, Songmei; Wang, Weilin; Wu, Xiaohong; Marshall, Fiona B; Chen, Xianglong; Hou, Liangliang; Wang, Changsui

    2014-01-01

    Domestic cats are one of the most popular pets globally, but the process of their domestication is not well understood. Near Eastern wildcats are thought to have been attracted to food sources in early agricultural settlements, following a commensal pathway to domestication. Early evidence for close human-cat relationships comes from a wildcat interred near a human on Cyprus ca. 9,500 y ago, but the earliest domestic cats are known only from Egyptian art dating to 4,000 y ago. Evidence is lacking from the key period of cat domestication 9,500-4,000 y ago. We report on the presence of cats directly dated between 5560-5280 cal B.P. in the early agricultural village of Quanhucun in Shaanxi, China. These cats were outside the wild range of Near Eastern wildcats and biometrically smaller, but within the size-range of domestic cats. The δ(13)C and δ(15)N values of human and animal bone collagen revealed substantial consumption of millet-based foods by humans, rodents, and cats. Ceramic storage containers designed to exclude rodents indicated a threat to stored grain in Yangshao villages. Taken together, isotopic and archaeological data demonstrate that cats were advantageous for ancient farmers. Isotopic data also show that one cat ate less meat and consumed more millet-based foods than expected, indicating that it scavenged among or was fed by people. This study offers fresh perspectives on cat domestication, providing the earliest known evidence for commensal relationships between people and cats.

  8. RadCat 2.0 User Guide.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Osborn, Douglas.; Weiner, Ruth F.; Mills, George Scott; Hamp, Steve C.; O' Donnell, Brandon, M.; Orcutt, David J.; Heames, Terence J.; Hinojosa, Daniel

    2005-01-01

    This document provides a detailed discussion and a guide for the use of the RadCat 2.0 Graphical User Interface input file generator for the RADTRAN 5.5 code. The differences between RadCat 2.0 and RadCat 1.0 can be attributed to the differences between RADTRAN 5 and RADTRAN 5.5 as well as clarification for some of the input parameters. 3

  9. Comparison of periodontal pathogens between cats and their owners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Booij-Vrieling, H E; van der Reijden, W A; Houwers, D J; de Wit, W E A J; Bosch-Tijhof, C J; Penning, L C; van Winkelhoff, A J; Hazewinkel, H A W

    2010-07-29

    The periodontal pathogens Porphyromonas gingivalis and Tannerella forsythia are strongly associated with periodontal disease and are highly prevalent in humans with periodontitis. Porphyromonas and Tannerella spp. have also been isolated from the oral cavity of cats. The oral microflora in animals was compared with those in humans in earlier studies, but no studies are available on the comparison of the oral microflora from pets and their respective owners. The aim of this study was to determine the presence of these bacteria in the oral microflora of cats and their owners, since animal to human transmission, or vice versa, of oral pathogens could have public health implications. This study investigated the prevalence of Porphyromonas gulae, P. gingivalis, and T. forsythia in the oral microflora of cats and their owners, using culture and polymerase chain reaction (PCR). All Porphyromonas isolates from cats (n=64) were catalase positive, whereas the Porphyromonas isolates from owners (n=7) were catalase negative, suggesting that the isolates from cats were P. gulae whereas those from the owners were P. gingivalis. T. forsythia was recovered from both cats (n=63) and owners (n=31); the proportion of T. forsythia relative to the total CFU was higher in cats with periodontitis than in cats without periodontal disease. Genotyping of T. forsythia isolates (n=54) in six cat/owner couples showed that in one cat/owner couple the T. forsythia isolates (n=6) were identical. These T. forsythia isolates were all catalase positive, which led us to hypothesize that transmission from cats to owners had occurred and that cats may be a reservoir of T. forsythia.

  10. Intestinal obstruction caused by Taenia taeniaeformis infection in a cat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilcox, Rebbecca S; Bowman, Dwight D; Barr, Stephen C; Euclid, James M

    2009-01-01

    An adult domestic shorthair (DSH) cat was presented with acute vomiting, anorexia, lethargy, and dyspnea. The cat's clinical status worsened over 24 hours with conservative medical management. An exploratory celiotomy was performed. Acute intestinal obstruction resulting from infection with Taenia (T.) taeniaeformis was diagnosed. Surgical removal of the cestodes via multiple enterotomies resolved the obstruction. This paper reports, for the first time, small intestinal obstruction caused by T. taeniaeformis infection in a cat.

  11. "Cat scratch colon" in a patient with ischemic colitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Eui Ju; Lee, Joon Seong; Lee, Tae Hee; Choi, Dae Han; Kim, Eui Bae; Jeon, Seong Ran; Hong, Su Jin; Kim, Jin-Oh

    2015-03-01

    "Cat scratch colon" is a gross finding characterized by hemorrhagic mucosal scratches on colonoscopy. It is usually associated with a normal colon and is rarely associated with collagenous colitis. In a previous report, cat scratch colon was noted in the cecum and ascending colon, but has also been observed in the distal transverse colon. The patient in this study was also diagnosed with ischemic colitis that may have played a role in the development of cat scratch colon.

  12. Human bubonic plague transmitted by a domestic cat scratch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weniger, B G; Warren, A J; Forseth, V; Shipps, G W; Creelman, T; Gorton, J; Barnes, A M

    1984-02-17

    Bubonic plague was transmitted to a 10-year-old girl in Oregon by a scratch wound inflicted by a domestic cat. The cat probably was infected by contact with infected wild rodents or their fleas. Yersinia pestis was identified in Diamanus montanus fleas collected from an abandoned burrow near the patient's home. Domestic cats may infect humans with Y pestis by inoculation from a scratch.

  13. Axillary temperature measurement: a less stressful alternative for hospitalised cats?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girod, M; Vandenheede, M; Farnir, F; Gommeren, K

    2016-02-20

    Rectal temperature measurement (RTM) can promote stress and defensive behaviour in hospitalised cats. The aim of this study was to assess if axillary temperature measurement (ATM) could be a reliable and less stressful alternative for these animals. In this prospective study, paired rectal and axillary temperatures were measured in 42 cats, either by a veterinarian or a student. To assess the impact of these procedures on the cat's stress state, their heart rate was checked and a cat stress score (CSS) was defined and graded from 1 (relaxed) to 5 (terrified). A moderate correlation was found between RTM and ATM (r=0.52; Pcats.

  14. Toxoplasmosis in two cats with inflammatory intestinal disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, J L; Willard, M D; Lees, G E; Lappin, M R; Dieringer, T; Floyd, E

    1991-08-15

    Lymphocytic-plasmacytic enteritis, a chronic inflammatory intestinal disease, was diagnosed in 2 cats. In 1 cat, recurrence of clinical signs after initiating treatment was attributed to relapse of the inflammatory intestinal disease, but was found to be attributable to relapsing toxoplasmosis secondary to immunosuppressive drug therapy. Treatment with clindamycin resolved the recurrent toxoplasmosis. In the second cat, clinical signs of toxoplasmosis did not develop, but serologic testing yielded evidence of active toxoplasmosis. Treatment with clindamycin caused the titers to decrease. Relapsing toxoplasmosis may be responsible for apparent resistance to treatment in cats for inflammatory intestinal disease being treated with immunosuppressive drugs.

  15. OCLC WorldCat Local发展综述

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙杨

    2011-01-01

    WorldCat Local是OCLC于2008年推出的一站式发现与传递服务。本文通过分析WorldCat在40年里的四个发展阶段辨析WorldCat Local的发展路径,再从内容建设、功能开发、用户规模等方面介绍WorldCat Local逐步完善的过程,最后分析WorldCat Local的主要功能及其与其他发现平台的异同点。

  16. Systemic uptake of buprenorphine by cats after oral mucosal administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, S A; Taylor, P M; Sear, J W

    2003-05-31

    The plasma concentration of buprenorphine was measured by radioimmunoassay in six female cats after the administration of 0.01 mg/kg (0.033 ml/kg) buprenorphine hydrochloride solution into the side of the cat's mouth. Blood samples were taken through a preplaced jugular catheter before and one, two, four, six, 10, 15, 30, 45 and 60 minutes, and two, four, six, 12 and 24 hours after the dose was administered. The buprenorphine was accepted well by all the cats and did not cause salivation or vomiting. Its median peak plasma concentration was 7.5 ng/ml and was reached after 15 minutes. The pharmacokinetic data were similar to the pharmacokinetic data obtained after the intramuscular and intravenous administration of buprenorphine to cats from the same colony, suggesting that the mucosal route of administration should be as effective as intravenous and intramuscular injections. In addition, the pH of the oral cavity of 26 cats was measured with pH paper, and 100 cat owners were asked their preferred method of administering drugs to cats. The pH of the cats' mouths was between 8 and 9, and the technique preferred by the cat owners was the use of drops placed in the mouth.

  17. Appendicular arterial tumor embolization in two cats with pulmonary carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibarrola, Patricia; German, Alexander J; Stell, Anneliese J; Fox, Richard; Summerfield, Nuala J; Blackwood, Laura

    2004-10-01

    A 13-year-old neutered male Persian cat and an 11-year-old neutered female Persian cat were examined because of an acute onset of lameness. In both cats, conscious proprioception and reflexes were diminished in the affected limb. In 1 cat, no blood flow was detected in the left brachial artery with a Doppler ultrasonic flow detector, whereas blood flow in the right brachial artery was easily documented. In the other cat, the right femoral pulse was not palpable. Neither cat had any echocardiographic evidence of cardiac disease. In both cats, treatment was primarily supportive. One cat died, and the other was euthanatized. At necropsy, lung lobe consolidation was seen. Microscopically, there was multifocal infiltration of the lung parenchyma with cuboidal to columnar neoplastic epithelial cells. Neoplastic epithelial cells of similar morphology were identified in nodular masses in sections of muscle, and intravascular tumor emboli were identified obliterating small and large arterioles. Immunohistochemical staining of pulmonary and muscular tissue for pan-cytokeratin antigen revealed intense cytoplasmic staining of neoplastic cells. Staining for factor VIII-related antigen confirmed that clusters of neoplastic cells represented intravascular emboli. Clinical signs in the cats were attributed to arterial occlusion by tumor emboli.

  18. Comparative aspects of diabetes mellitus in dogs and cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoenig, M

    2002-11-29

    Diabetes mellitus is a common disease in cats and dogs. Its incidence is increasing, possibly due to an increase in obesity in both species. Different types of diabetes have been identified in pet animals. The classification of diabetic dogs and cats is modeled after the human classification but especially in the diabetic dogs, many aspects are different. The diabetic cat, however, resembles type 2 diabetic human patients more closely. The clinical presentation, pathophysiology, and histologic findings are described for both dog and cat and possible etiological mechanisms are discussed.

  19. Medical management of gastrinoma in a cat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Lane

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Case summary A 7-year-old male castrated domestic short-haired cat was evaluated for a 4 week history of intermittent vomiting, ptyalism, lethargy and weight loss. Serum biochemistry revealed mild mixed hepatopathy. Abdominal ultrasonography identified multiple heterogeneous hepatic masses and a linear, hyperechoic focus with associated reverberation artifact in the wall of the stomach consistent with a gastric ulcer. Serum gastrin concentrations were markedly increased. Cytologic interpretation of a fine-needle aspirate of the hepatic masses was consistent with neuroendocrine neoplasia, and a diagnosis of gastrinoma was established. Deterioration of the cat’s condition, despite at-home acid-suppressant therapy, led to hospitalization. The cat was initially stabilized with intravenous crystalloid fluid therapy, maropitant, pantoprazole and octreotide. A continuous radiotelemetric intragastric pH monitoring system was used to monitor the response of intragastric pH to therapy. Long-term therapy was continued with omeprazole (orally q12h, octreotide (subcutaneously q8h and thrice-weekly toceranib administered orally. Toceranib therapy led to gastrointestinal upset and was discontinued. Gastric ulceration resolved within 8 weeks, and palliation of clinical signs was achieved for approximately 5 months. Relevance and novel information Including this report, only six cases of feline gastrinoma have been reported in the veterinary literature. Little is known regarding non-surgical therapy, and octreotide has not been previously reported for medical management of feline gastrinoma. Results of intragastric pH monitoring and clinical improvement suggest that medical therapy using octreotide and proton pump inhibitors represents a novel therapeutic option for cats with gastrinoma where surgical excision is not feasible.

  20. Halpern Iteration in CAT(κ) Spaces

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bo(z)ena PI(A)TEK

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we show that an iterative sequence generated by the Halpern algorithm converges to a fixed point in the case of complete CAT(κ) spaces. Similar results for Hadamard manifolds were obtained in[Li,C.,López, G., Martín-Márquez, V.:Iterative algorithms for nonexpansive mappings on Hadamard manifolds. Taiwanese J. Math., 14, 541-559 (2010)], but we study a much more general case. Moreover, we discuss the Halpern iteration procedure for set-valued mappings.

  1. Revenge of the Black Cat--Interpretation of Allan Poe's"Black Cat"

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周田莉

    2014-01-01

    埃德加•爱伦•坡(1809~1849),十九世纪美国诗人、小说家和文学评论家,同时爱伦坡也是一位恐怖小说大师。《黑猫》便是坡的代表作品之一。猫是整篇文章的线索,为什么一系列事件的发生与猫有关,到底是什么力量使男主人公最后走向毁灭。整个事件因猫而起,因猫而灭,由此作者发现故事中人物病态心理的产生,自我心灵的恐怖过程和最终走向毁灭的原因都是源于黑猫的复仇。本文通过对爱伦坡恐怖小说的背景的探索,及对原著仔细的分析,从黑猫的复仇的角度来解读《黑猫》。%Edgar Al an Poe (1809~1849), nineteenth century American poet, novelist and literary critic, while Poe was also a master of horror fiction."Black Cat"is one of the representative works of Poe. The cat is the clue of the entire article, why a series of events is related to the cat, what has lead the hero to destroy himself in the end. Al troubles rise for a cat, al troubles disappear for a cat. The author find that the producing of the characters' morbid psychology, the terror in his mind and the ultimate self-destruction are due to black cat's revenge. Then this thesis from the perspective of cat’s revenge to interpret the"Black Cat"through exploring the background of the Al enPoe' horror novel, and analyzing the original work careful y.

  2. Clinicopathological and ultrasonographic features of cats with eosinophilic enteritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, Samuel; Penninck, Dominique G; Keating, John H; Webster, Cynthia R L

    2014-12-01

    Eosinophilic enteritis (EE) in cats is poorly characterized. The aim of the current study was to retrospectively evaluate the clinical and ultrasonographic findings in cats with histologic evidence of eosinophilic inflammation on gastrointestinal biopsy. Twenty-five cats with tissue eosinophilia on surgical (10) or endoscopic (15) biopsy of the gastrointestinal tract, having an abdominal ultrasound performed within 48 h of biopsy acquisition, were enrolled. History, clinical presentation, clinical pathology and abdominal ultrasound findings were reviewed. Intestinal biopsies were evaluated by a single pathologist and separated into two groups based on the degree of eosinophilic infiltrate: mild (eosinophils/high-power field [HPF], 11/25 cats), or moderate/marked (>10 eosinophils/HPF, 14/25 cats). The former were considered primary lymphoplasmacytic or lymphocytic inflammatory bowel disease (LPE) with subtle eosinophilic infiltrates, and the latter to have EE. Signalment, history and clinical signs were similar in all cats. Only cats with EE (6/14) had palpably thickened intestines. The only distinguishing clinicopathological feature of cats with EE was the presence of peripheral eosinophilia (6/14). On ultrasound, when compared with cats with LPE, cats with EE had a greater mean jejunal wall thickness (3.34 mm ± 0.72 mm vs 4.07 mm ± 0.58 mm, respectively) and an increased incidence of thickening of the muscularis layer (1/11 and 11/14, respectively). In conclusion, ultrasonographic evidence of a prominent intestinal muscularis layer, palpably thickened intestines and peripheral eosinophilia can serve as biomarkers for the presence of EE in cats with chronic intestinal signs.

  3. Ancylostoma genettae, A. protelesis, A. somaliense: three new species from wild Carnivora in the Somali Republic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macchioni, G

    1995-12-01

    Ancylostoma braziliense was found in Somalia in Acinonyx jubatus, Canis familiaris, C. mesomelas, Crocuta crocuta, Felis catus, F. libyca, Genetta genetta, Otocyon megalotis, Proteles cristatus; A. caninum in A. jubatus, C. familiaris, C. mesomelas, C. crocuta; A. duodenale in C. crocuta; A. iperodontatum in Lynx caracal; A. paraduodenale in Felis serval; A. tubaeforme in A. jubatus, F. catus, F. libyca; Arthrocephalus gambiense in Ichneumia albicauda; Uncinaria parvibursata in Mellivora capensis. In addition, three new species of Ancylostoma were collected: A. genettae in Genetta genetta, A. protelesis in Proteles cristatus, A. somaliense in Canis mesomelas. These new species are described and illustrated.

  4. Paragonimus y Paragonimiasis en el norte peruano. Proceso del desarrollo de Paragonimus peruvianus Miyazaki¡ Ibañez y Miranda¡ 1969 en Felis cati L. gato doméstico infectado experimentalmente.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicanor Ibáñez H.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Se ha estudiado el proceso del desarrollo de Parogonimus peruvianus Miyazaki, Ibóñez y Miranda, 1969 en el gato doméstico, Felis cati L. infectado experimentalmente mediante la administración oral de metacercarias del parasito extraídas de ejemplares de Pseudothelphusa chilensis Milne Edwards, 1843 procedentes de áreas endémicas.

  5. Acromegaly in a non-diabetic cat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Federico Fracassi

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Case summary A 14-year-old, neutered male European shorthair cat was evaluated for a routine health check. The owner did not report any clinical signs except for respiratory stridor. On physical examination the main findings were broad facial features and increased interdental spaces. On haematology, a mild, non-regenerative anaemia was detected, whereas the serum biochemistry profile and urinalysis were unremarkable. The serum glucose concentration was within the reference interval. Serum insulin-like growth factor-1 concentration was markedly elevated (>1600 ng/ml. The basal serum growth hormone concentration was elevated and decreased only mildly after somatostatin administration. Basal serum insulin concentration was high, and the insulin concentration increased considerably after glucose loading, consistent with insulin resistance. CT scanning of the skull showed an enlarged pituitary gland and increased skull bone thickness. The final diagnosis was acromegaly. Relevance and novel information These findings demonstrate that acromegaly should be pursued and suspected in cats other than those with diabetes mellitus.

  6. Hypo-osmotic test in cat spermatozoa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comercio, E A; Monachesi, N E; Loza, M E; Gambarotta, M; Wanke, M M

    2013-10-01

    The hypo-osmotic (HOS) test has been used in other species as an indicator of the fertilising capacity of spermatozoa. The aims of this study were to assess the response of domestic cat spermatozoa to the hypo-osmotic test, to determine the type of solution, concentration and time of incubation needed to obtain a maximum percentage of swelling, to correlate the selected combination with the percentages of progressive motility and to evaluate whether dilution of the ejaculate alters the results. Incubation for 30 and 45 min in solutions of fructose and of citrate of 50 and 100 mOsmol kg⁻¹ was evaluated. The highest percentage of swelling was obtained using the 50 mOsmol kg⁻¹ solution, and no significant differences were observed between the times of exposure to the solutions. A positive correlation was observed between the percentage of individual progressive motility and the percentage of sperm swelling in a 50 mOsmol kg⁻¹ fructose solution, with no significant differences being observed between raw and diluted semen samples. The results of this study suggest that the HOS test could be useful for evaluating membrane function in domestic cat spermatozoa, both in raw semen and in samples diluted in the EZ Mixin® commercial extender, and thus could be incorporated into routine semen evaluation protocols.

  7. On the Trail of a Cosmic Cat

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ESO has just released a stunning new image of the vast cloud known as the Cat's Paw Nebula or NGC 6334. This complex region of gas and dust, where numerous massive stars are born, lies near the heart of the Milky Way galaxy, and is heavily obscured by intervening dust clouds. Few objects in the sky have been as well named as the Cat's Paw Nebula, a glowing gas cloud resembling the gigantic pawprint of a celestial cat out on an errand across the Universe. British astronomer John Herschel first recorded NGC 6334 in 1837 during his stay in South Africa. Despite using one of the largest telescopes in the world at the time, Herschel seems to have only noted the brightest part of the cloud, seen here towards the lower left. NGC 6334 lies about 5500 light-years away in the direction of the constellation Scorpius (the Scorpion) and covers an area on the sky slightly larger than the full Moon. The whole gas cloud is about 50 light-years across. The nebula appears red because its blue and green light are scattered and absorbed more efficiently by material between the nebula and Earth. The red light comes predominantly from hydrogen gas glowing under the intense glare of hot young stars. NGC 6334 is one of the most active nurseries of massive stars in our galaxy and has been extensively studied by astronomers. The nebula conceals freshly minted brilliant blue stars - each nearly ten times the mass of our Sun and born in the last few million years. The region is also home to many baby stars that are buried deep in the dust, making them difficult to study. In total, the Cat's Paw Nebula could contain several tens of thousands of stars. Particularly striking is the red, intricate bubble in the lower right part of the image. This is most likely either a star expelling large amount of matter at high speed as it nears the end of its life or the remnant of a star that already has exploded. This new portrait of the Cat's Paw Nebula was created from images taken with the Wide Field

  8. Lack of autologous tissue transmission of eosinophilic plaques in cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moriello, K A; Kunkle, G; Miller, L M; Crowley, A

    1990-07-01

    Autologous tissue transmission of spontaneously developing feline eosinophilic plaques was attempted in 5 cats. Macerated tissue from the plaque was vigorously rubbed onto 2 scarified skin sites in each cat. The inoculated areas were observed daily for 30 days. During that time, no clinical or histologic evidence of transmission was found.

  9. Isolation of Actinobacillus suis from a cat's lung

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Daignault, D.; Chouinard, L.; Møller, Kristian

    1999-01-01

    Actinobacillus suis has been isolated from the lungs of a 9-month-old cat. The bacterium was characterized biochemically as well as genetically, and its sensitivity profile to different antimicrobial agents was established. The role of this isolate in the cat's condition is discussed....

  10. Using the Domestic Cat in the Teaching of Genetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinnear, Judith F.

    1986-01-01

    Focuses on genetic concepts that form key components of transmission genetics and illustrates how the domestic cat can be used in the teaching of these concepts. Offers examples of how laboratory experiences with the cat can enhance student learning of genetics. (ML)

  11. Felinine excretion in domestic cat breeds: a preliminary investigation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hagen-Plantinga, E.A.; Bosch, G.; Hendriks, W.H.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine possible differences in felinine excretion between domesticated cat breeds. For this purpose, urine was collected from a total of 83 privately owned entire male cats from eight different breeds in the Netherlands during the period of November 2010 till November

  12. Felinine excretion in domestic cat breeds: a preliminary investigation.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hagen - Plantinga, Esther; Hendriks, Wouter; Bosch, Guido

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine possible differences in felinine excretion between domesticated cat breeds. For this purpose, urine was collected from a total of 83 privately owned entire male cats from eight different breeds in the Netherlands during the period of November 2010 till November

  13. Spinal dural ossification causing neurological signs in a cat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antila, Johanna M; Jeserevics, Janis; Rakauskas, Mindaugas; Anttila, Marjukka; Cizinauskas, Sigitas

    2013-06-19

    A six-year-old Ragdoll cat underwent examination due to a six-month history of slowly progressive gait abnormalities. The cat presented with an ambulatory tetraparesis with a neurological examination indicating a C1-T2 myelopathy. Radiographs of the spine showed a radiopaque irregular line ventrally in the vertebral canal dorsal to vertebral bodies C3-C5. In this area, magnetic resonance imaging revealed an intradural extramedullary/extradural lesion compressing the spinal cord. The spinal cord was surgically decompressed. The cause of the spinal cord compression was dural ossification, a diagnosis confirmed by histopathological examination of the surgically dissected sample of dura mater. The cat gradually improved after the procedure and was ambulating better than prior to the surgery. The cat's locomotion later worsened again due to ossified plaques in the dura causing spinal cord compression on the same cervical area as before. Oral prednisolone treatment provided temporary remission. Ten months after surgery, the cat was euthanized due to severe worsening of gait abnormalities, non-ambulatory tetraparesis. Necropsy confirmed spinal cord compression and secondary degenerative changes in the spinal cord on cervical and lumbar areas caused by dural ossification. To our knowledge, this is the first report of spinal dural ossification in a cat. The reported cat showed neurological signs associated with these dural changes. Dural ossification should be considered in the differential diagnosis of compressive spinal cord disorders in cats.

  14. 50 CFR 28.43 - Destruction of dogs and cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Destruction of dogs and cats. 28.43 Section 28.43 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR... VIOLATIONS OF PARTS 25, 26, AND 27 Impoundment Procedures § 28.43 Destruction of dogs and cats. Dogs and...

  15. European consensus statement on leptospirosis in dogs and cats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leptospirosis is a zoonotic disease of worldwide distribution affecting most mammalian species. Clinical leptospirosis is common in dogs but seems to be rare in cats. Both dogs and cats however, can shed leptospires in the urine. This is problematic as it can lead to exposure of humans. The control ...

  16. Local Dependence in an Operational CAT: Diagnosis and Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pommerich, Mary; Segall, Daniel O.

    2008-01-01

    The accuracy of CAT scores can be negatively affected by local dependence if the CAT utilizes parameters that are misspecified due to the presence of local dependence and/or fails to control for local dependence in responses during the administration stage. This article evaluates the existence and effect of local dependence in a test of…

  17. Population structure of Bartonella henselae in Algerian urban stray cats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naouelle Azzag

    Full Text Available Whole blood samples from 211 stray cats from Algiers, Algeria, were cultured to detect the presence of Bartonella species and to evaluate the genetic diversity of B. henselae strains by multiple locus VNTR analysis (MLVA. Bartonella henselae was the only species isolated from 36 (17% of 211 cats. B. henselae genotype I was the predominant genotype (64%. MLVA typing of 259 strains from 30 bacteremic cats revealed 52 different profiles as compared to only 3 profiles using MLST. Of these 52 profiles, 48 (92.3% were identified for the first time. One-third of the cats harbored one MLVA profile only. As there was a correlation between the age of cats and the number of MLVA profiles, we hypothesized that the single profile in these cats was the profile of the initial infecting strain. Two-third of the cats harbored 2 to 6 MLVA profiles simultaneously. The similarity of MLVA profiles obtained from the same cat, neighbor-joining clustering and structure-neighbor clustering indicate that such a diversity likely results from two different mechanisms occurring either independently or simultaneously: independent infections and genetic drift from a primary strain.

  18. Zoonotic diseases associated with free-roaming cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerhold, R W; Jessup, D A

    2013-05-01

    Free-roaming cat populations have been identified as a significant public health threat and are a source for several zoonotic diseases including rabies, toxoplasmosis, cutaneous larval migrans because of various nematode parasites, plague, tularemia and murine typhus. Several of these diseases are reported to cause mortality in humans and can cause other important health issues including abortion, blindness, pruritic skin rashes and other various symptoms. A recent case of rabies in a young girl from California that likely was transmitted by a free-roaming cat underscores that free-roaming cats can be a source of zoonotic diseases. Increased attention has been placed on trap-neuter-release (TNR) programmes as a viable tool to manage cat populations. However, some studies have shown that TNR leads to increased immigration of unneutered cats into neutered populations as well as increased kitten survival in neutered groups. These compensatory mechanisms in neutered groups leading to increased kitten survival and immigration would confound rabies vaccination campaigns and produce naïve populations of cats that can serve as source of zoonotic disease agents owing to lack of immunity. This manuscript is a review of the various diseases of free-roaming cats and the public health implications associated with the cat populations.

  19. Tooth resorption in cats: contribution of vitamin D and inflammation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vrieling, H.E.

    2010-01-01

    Tooth resorption in cats Tooth resorption affecting several teeth is a painful disease with a prevalence of up to 75% in household cats and is often accompanied by periodontitis. Tooth resorption is caused by an increased number and activity of tooth-resorbing odontoclasts, cells that share function

  20. Neutralizing antibodies in cats infected with feline immunodeficiency virus.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    F. Tozzini; D. Matteucci; P. Bandecchi; F. Baldinotti; C.H.J. Siebelink (Kees); A.D.M.E. Osterhaus (Albert); M. Bendinelli

    1993-01-01

    textabstractSera from cats experimentally infected with five isolates of feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) from various geographical regions and from FIV enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay-seropositive field cats from four European countries neutralized the Petaluma strain of FIV (FIV-P), originall