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Sample records for cat felis catus

  1. Clusters in social behaviour of female domestic cats (Felis silvestris catus) living in confinement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    vandenBos, R; de Vries, Han

    1996-01-01

    Associations between different agonistic and affiliative behavioural patterns of female domestic cats (Felis silvestris catus) were studied. In three groups of intact cats living in confinement frequencies of fourteen agonistic and affiliative behavioural patterns were recorded. The technique of fac

  2. Folliculogenesis in the domestic cat (Felis catus).

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    Bristol-Gould, Sarah; Woodruff, Teresa K

    2006-07-01

    The dynamic regulation of mammalian folliculogenesis is a key component of the reproductive process. Traditionally, the rodent had been used as a model to study ovarian function and reproductive physiology due to the availability of animals, their relatively short cycle length, high rate of fecundity and short generation interval. We maintain that much basic information can be determined using domestic cat ovaries retrieved from local veterinary clinics following routine spaying, without having the expense of maintaining a colony of laboratory cats. Studies of normal feline reproductive physiology and advances in reproductive technology may be extrapolated for use in endangered non-domestic felids. Increased understanding of feline reproduction will be beneficial to veterinary medicine, and to groups working to control feral cat populations. It is important to examine reproductive mechanisms in alternative animal models as there are a vast number of threatened and endangered species in which we lack the critical reproductive information needed to assist in preserving their long-term survival. PMID:16620931

  3. Studying Cat (Felis catus Diabetes: Beware of the Acromegalic Imposter.

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    Stijn J M Niessen

    Full Text Available Naturally occurring diabetes mellitus (DM is common in domestic cats (Felis catus. It has been proposed as a model for human Type 2 DM given many shared features. Small case studies demonstrate feline DM also occurs as a result of insulin resistance due to a somatotrophinoma. The current study estimates the prevalence of hypersomatotropism or acromegaly in the largest cohort of diabetic cats to date, evaluates clinical presentation and ease of recognition. Diabetic cats were screened for hypersomatotropism using serum total insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1; radioimmunoassay, followed by further evaluation of a subset of cases with suggestive IGF-1 (>1000 ng/ml through pituitary imaging and/ or histopathology. Clinicians indicated pre-test suspicion for hypersomatotropism. In total 1221 diabetic cats were screened; 319 (26.1% demonstrated a serum IGF-1>1000 ng/ml (95% confidence interval: 23.6-28.6%. Of these cats a subset of 63 (20% underwent pituitary imaging and 56/63 (89% had a pituitary tumour on computed tomography; an additional three on magnetic resonance imaging and one on necropsy. These data suggest a positive predictive value of serum IGF-1 for hypersomatotropism of 95% (95% confidence interval: 90-100%, thus suggesting the overall hypersomatotropism prevalence among UK diabetic cats to be 24.8% (95% confidence interval: 21.2-28.6%. Only 24% of clinicians indicated a strong pre-test suspicion; most hypersomatotropism cats did not display typical phenotypical acromegaly signs. The current data suggest hypersomatotropism screening should be considered when studying diabetic cats and opportunities exist for comparative acromegaly research, especially in light of the many detected communalities with the human disease.

  4. Clusters in social behaviour of female domestic cats (Felis silvestris catus) living in confinement

    OpenAIRE

    vandenBos, R; de Vries, Han

    1996-01-01

    Associations between different agonistic and affiliative behavioural patterns of female domestic cats (Felis silvestris catus) were studied. In three groups of intact cats living in confinement frequencies of fourteen agonistic and affiliative behavioural patterns were recorded. The technique of factor analysis (Principal Components Analysis followed by varimax rotation on a dyads X behavioural patterns matrix) was used to detect clusters in these behavioural patterns. Five factors (or types ...

  5. High variation in multiple paternity of domestic cats (Felis catus L.) in relation to environmental conditions.

    OpenAIRE

    Say, L.; Pontier, D; Natoli, E

    1999-01-01

    Paternity was analysed in two domestic cat (Felis catus) populations differing in habitat structure (rural versus urban) and density (234 cats km-2 versus 2,091 cats km-2). A total of 312 offspring, 76 mothers and 65 putative fathers were typed at nine microsatellite loci in the two populations. Our data showed a high rate of multiple paternity in the urban population (70-83% of litters with more than one father), whereas it was much lower in the rural population (0-22% of litters with more t...

  6. Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii and Neospora caninum in feral cats (Felis silvestris catus) in Majorca, Balearic Islands, Spain

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    Felids are important in the epidemiology of Toxoplasma gondii infection because they are the only hosts that can excrete environmentally-resistant oocysts. Antibodies to T. gondii and Neospora caninum were determined in serum samples from 59 feral cats (Felis silvestris catus) captured in baited tra...

  7. Gastrointestinal Helminthic Parasites in Stray Cats (Felis catus from North of Iran

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    A Rezaei-Doust

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cats play a crucial role in the epidemiology of gastrointestinal helminthic parasites and also play a major role in transmitting of these parasites through faecal contamination of soil, food or water. The aim of this study was to determine the species of gastrointestinal helminthes parasites in stray cats from a rural area of Bandar-e-Anzali, Iran.Method: Gastrointestinal helminthes were collected from 50 necropsied stray cats (Felis catus after capturing them by trapping from different regions of the city and humanely euthanatized in Bandar-e-Anzali, a port in the Caspian Sea in northern Iran, from March to November 2003. Results: The prevalence of infection was 90%, with those of individual parasites being Diplopylidium nolleri 54%, Phy­saloptera praeputialis 32%, Ancylostoma tubaeforme 20%, Joyeuxiella pasqualei 10%, Toxocara cati 8%, Pterygoderma­tites affinis 6%, Ancylostoma caninum 4%, and Taenia taeniaeformis 2%. Concurrent infections with two or more parasites were recorded in 34% of the individuals. In relation to the sex, the differences were not significant. Conclusion: P. praeputialis, T. cati, D. nolleri and sometime J. pasqualei are the commonest Helminthes in cats. This is the first reported isolation of P. affinis and A. caninum infections from cats in Iran.

  8. Feeding habits of feral cats Felis silvestris catus in the countryside of Majorca Island, Spain

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    J. Milan

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The diet of feral cats ( Felis silvestris catus in the Mediterranean island of Majorca (Spain was studied from July 2008 to June 2009 by the analysis of the scats of 75 feral cats captured in baited traps in 14 different areas. A total of 138 preys were identified in the analyzed scats. Mammals were the main group preyed on and constituted 93% both in frequency and biomass. Among them, mice were the most frequent prey consumed (55% Mus sp., 18% Apodemus sylvaticus but represented only 20% of biomass. Rat was present in 29% of scats and was the main component in terms of biomass (57%. Rabbit was found at a frequency of 6.6%, and constituted 18% of biomass. Other prey (birds, geckos and insects were found in lower frequency, and all pooled constituted only 7% of biomass. Reproductive females preyed less upon mice (20% than the other cats (77%. This may indicate that these females tended to predate upon higher preys, which may be secondary to increased energetic requirements due to pregnancy or lactation. No seasonal variations were found in any of the different parameters studied. Results indicate that rodents constitute all year round the main prey item in feral cat diet in the countryside of Majorca.

  9. Domestic cats seropositive for Felis catus gammaherpesvirus 1 are often qPCR negative.

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    Stutzman-Rodriguez, Kathryn; Rovnak, Joel; VandeWoude, Sue; Troyer, Ryan M

    2016-11-01

    Felis catus gammaherpesvirus 1 (FcaGHV1) is a newly described virus that infects domestic cats. To identify FcaGHV1 antigens, we developed an immunofluorescent antibody assay by expressing FcaGHV1 open reading frames (ORFs) in feline cells and incubating fixed cells with sera from FcaGHV1-positive cats. Of the seven ORFs tested, ORF52 and ORF38 had the strongest, most consistent antibody responses. We used recombinant ORF52 and ORF38 proteins to develop two FcaGHV1 ELISAs. These assays were used to detect reactivity in cats previously tested by qPCR for FcaGHV1 in blood cell DNA. Results indicated 32%FcaGHV1seroprevalence, compared to 15%qPCR-evaluated prevalence (n=133);all but one qPCR positive animal was seropositive. ELISA results confirmed infection risk factors previously identified by qPCR: geographic location, male sex, and adult age. These data suggest that FcaGHV1is a common infection of domestic cats that has a seropositive but often qPCR negative state characteristic of herpesviral latency. PMID:27540873

  10. Functional Analyses of Bitter Taste Receptors in Domestic Cats (Felis catus.

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    Weiwei Lei

    Full Text Available Cats are obligate carnivores and under most circumstances eat only animal products. Owing to the pseudogenization of one of two subunits of the sweet receptor gene, they are indifferent to sweeteners, presumably having no need to detect plant-based sugars in their diet. Following this reasoning and a recent report of a positive correlation between the proportion of dietary plants and the number of Tas2r (bitter receptor genes in vertebrate species, we tested the hypothesis that if bitter perception exists primarily to protect animals from poisonous plant compounds, the genome of the domestic cat (Felis catus should have lost functional bitter receptors and they should also have reduced bitter receptor function. To test functionality of cat bitter receptors, we expressed cat Tas2R receptors in cell-based assays. We found that they have at least 7 functional receptors with distinct receptive ranges, showing many similarities, along with some differences, with human bitter receptors. To provide a comparative perspective, we compared the cat repertoire of intact receptors with those of a restricted number of members of the order Carnivora, with a range of dietary habits as reported in the literature. The numbers of functional bitter receptors in the terrestrial Carnivora we examined, including omnivorous and herbivorous species, were roughly comparable to that of cats thereby providing no strong support for the hypothesis that a strict meat diet influences bitter receptor number or function. Maintenance of bitter receptor function in terrestrial obligate carnivores may be due to the presence of bitter compounds in vertebrate and invertebrate prey, to the necessary role these receptors play in non-oral perception, or to other unknown factors. We also found that the two aquatic Carnivora species examined had fewer intact bitter receptors. Further comparative studies of factors driving numbers and functions of bitter taste receptors will aid in

  11. Phenotypic and Molecular Characterization of Domestic Cat (Felis catus) Spermatogonial Stem Cells.

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    Powell, Robin H; Galiguis, Jason; Biancardi, Monica N; Pope, C Earle; Leibo, Stanley P; Wang, Guoshun; Gómez, Martha C

    2016-07-01

    In many mammalian species, surface markers have been used to obtain enriched populations of spermatogonial stem cells (SSCs) for assisted reproduction and other applications; however, little is known about the expression patterns of feline SSCs. In this study, we assessed expression of the SSC surface markers commonly used in other species, KIT, ITGA6, CD9, GFRalpha1, ADGRA3, and THY1, in addition to the less frequently used pluripotent markers TRA-1-60, TRA-1-81, SSEA-1, and SSEA-4 in SSCs of both prepubertal and adult domestic cats (Felis catus). To further characterize cat SSCs, we sorted cells using SSC-specific markers and evaluated the expression of the pluripotent transcription factors NANOG, POU5F1, and SOX2 and the proto-oncogene MYC within these populations. We concluded that SSC surface markers used in other mammalian species were not specific for identifying cat SSCs. However, the pluripotent markers we evaluated were more specific to cat spermatogonia, and the presence of SSEA-1 and SSEA-4 in fewer and primarily individual cells suggests that these two markers may be used for enrichment of cat SSCs. The expression of pluripotent transcription factors at mRNA level by single-stained cells positive for SSEA-4 and by dual-stained cells positive for both GFRalpha1 and SSEA-4 reflects the undifferentiated stage of cat SSCs. The absence of transcription factors in double-stained cells positive for only one marker implies the loss of the stem cell-like identity with the loss of either GFRalpha1 or SSEA-4. Further investigation is warranted to elucidate the biological characteristics of these spermatogonial subpopulations. PMID:27281702

  12. Extent of linkage disequilibrium in the domestic cat, Felis silvestris catus, and its breeds.

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    Hasan Alhaddad

    Full Text Available Domestic cats have a unique breeding history and can be used as models for human hereditary and infectious diseases. In the current era of genome-wide association studies, insights regarding linkage disequilibrium (LD are essential for efficient association studies. The objective of this study is to investigate the extent of LD in the domestic cat, Felis silvestris catus, particularly within its breeds. A custom illumina GoldenGate Assay consisting of 1536 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs equally divided over ten 1 Mb chromosomal regions was developed, and genotyped across 18 globally recognized cat breeds and two distinct random bred populations. The pair-wise LD descriptive measure (r(2 was calculated between the SNPs in each region and within each population independently. LD decay was estimated by determining the non-linear least-squares of all pair-wise estimates as a function of distance using established models. The point of 50% decay of r(2 was used to compare the extent of LD between breeds. The longest extent of LD was observed in the Burmese breed, where the distance at which r(2 ≈ 0.25 was ∼380 kb, comparable to several horse and dog breeds. The shortest extent of LD was found in the Siberian breed, with an r(2 ≈ 0.25 at approximately 17 kb, comparable to random bred cats and human populations. A comprehensive haplotype analysis was also conducted. The haplotype structure of each region within each breed mirrored the LD estimates. The LD of cat breeds largely reflects the breeds' population history and breeding strategies. Understanding LD in diverse populations will contribute to an efficient use of the newly developed SNP array for the cat in the design of genome-wide association studies, as well as to the interpretation of results for the fine mapping of disease and phenotypic traits.

  13. What's inside your cat's head? A review of cat (Felis silvestris catus) cognition research past, present and future.

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    Vitale Shreve, Kristyn R; Udell, Monique A R

    2015-11-01

    The domestic cat (Felis silvestris catus) has shared an intertwined existence with humans for thousands of years, living on our city streets and in our homes. Yet, little scientific research has focused on the cognition of the domestic cat, especially in comparison with human's other companion, the domestic dog (Canis lupus familiaris). This review surveys the current status of several areas of cat cognition research including perception, object permanence, memory, physical causality, quantity and time discrimination, cats' sensitivity to human cues, vocal recognition and communication, attachment bonds, personality, and cognitive health. Although interest in cat cognition is growing, we still have a long way to go until we have an inclusive body of research on the subject. Therefore, this review also identifies areas where future research must be conducted. In addition to the scientific value of future work in this area, future research on cat cognition could have an important influence on the management and welfare of pet and free-roaming cats, leading to improved human-cat interactions. PMID:26154131

  14. Survival of feral cats, Felis catus (Carnivora: Felidae), on Mauna Kea, Hawai'i, based on tooth cementum lines

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    Danner, Raymond M.; Farmer, Chris; Hess, Steven C.; Stephens, Robert M.; Banko, Paul C.

    2010-01-01

    Feral cats (Felis catus) have spread throughout anthropogenic and insular environments of the world. They now threaten many species of native wildlife with chronic depredation. Knowledge of feral cat population dynamics is necessary to understand their ecological effects and to develop effective control strategies. However, there are few studies worldwide regarding annual or lifetime survival rates in remote systems, and none on Pacific islands. We constructed the age distribution and estimated survival of feral cats in a remote area of Hawai'i Island using cementum lines present in lower canine teeth. Our data suggest annual cementum line formation. A log-linear model estimated annual survival ≥ 1 yr of age to be 0.647. Relatively high survival coupled with high reproductive output allows individual cats to affect native wildlife for many years and cat populations to rebound quickly after control efforts.

  15. High prevalence of Felis catus gammaherpesvirus 1 infection in haemoplasma-infected cats supports co-transmission.

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    McLuckie, A; Tasker, S; Dhand, N K; Spencer, S; Beatty, J A

    2016-08-01

    Felis catus gammaherpesvirus 1 (FcaGHV1), a potential feline pathogen, has been identified in domestic cats from USA, Asia-Pacific and Central Europe. Transmission of FcaGHV1 during territorial encounters, a route not typical for gammaherpesviruses, is suggested by risk factor analyses from some regions. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between FcaGHV1 detection and risk factors, including haemoplasma co-infections, among UK cats to better understand transmission and global distribution of FcaGHV1. FcaGHV1 DNA was detected in blood samples from UK cats (11.56%; 95% confidence interval [CI], 7.47-16.84; n = 199). Logistic regression analyses showed that entire male cats were more likely to be FcaGHV1 positive than neutered male cats (odds ratio, 3.60; 95% CI, 1.22-10.46). Samples positive for DNA from any of three haemoplasma species had 19 times greater odds for testing positive for FcaGHV1 than haemoplasma negative cats in multivariable analyses after adjusting for age, sex and neuter status. Domestic cats in the UK can be infected with FcaGHV1, confirming that this virus is globally endemic. The identification of neuter status as a risk factor for FcaGHV1 detection provides further evidence to support transmission of this virus during territorial encounters and co-transmission with haemoplasmas is suggested. PMID:27387737

  16. Echinococcus multilocularis detection in the intestines and feces of free-ranging domestic cats (Felis s. catus) and European wildcats (Felis s. silvestris) from northeastern France.

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    Umhang, Gérald; Forin-Wiart, Marie-Amélie; Hormaz, Vanessa; Caillot, Christophe; Boucher, Jean-Marc; Poulle, Marie-Lazarine; Franck, Boué

    2015-11-30

    Experimental studies have demonstrated that cats can be infected by Echinococcus multilocularis, although few data are available concerning their natural infection. This study was designed to compare experimental findings with information on the prevalence of natural E. multilocularis infections of cats in a rural high endemic area. Of 19 intestines of domestic cats (Felis s. catus) and five of European wildcats (Felis s. silvestris) analyzed by segmental sedimentation and counting technique (SSCT), infection by E. multilocularis was observed for one individual of each species, resulting in a prevalence estimated at 5%, (CI95%: 1-26) in domestic cats and at 20% (CI95%: 1-72) in wildcats. High worm burdens (680 and 7040) were noted, but comprised only immature worms. The same EmsB microsatellite profile obtained from the worms' DNA was observed in the two cats as in foxes from the same area and from other European countries. The presence of E. multilocularis DNA was diagnosed in 3.1% (10/321) of the domestic cat feces collected on the field in two villages. However, no E. multilocularis eggs were found after flotation with zinc chloride of the positive feces. The detection of DNA from E. multilocularis was thought to be due to the presence of cells from worms untied from the intestine and corresponding to prepatent infection or due to the digested metacestode. These results from E. multilocularis presence in wild and domestic cat populations agree with those previously obtained by experimental infections. These findings support that these cats play an insignificant role in E. multilocularis transmission, even in a "highly endemic" region. Nevertheless, since the presence of thick-shelled E. multilocularis eggs from cats has already been reported, the associated zoonotic risk cannot be totally ruled out, even if it is very low. PMID:26206606

  17. Echinococcus multilocularis detection in the intestines and feces of free-ranging domestic cats (Felis s. catus) and European wildcats (Felis s. silvestris) from northeastern France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umhang, Gérald; Forin-Wiart, Marie-Amélie; Hormaz, Vanessa; Caillot, Christophe; Boucher, Jean-Marc; Poulle, Marie-Lazarine; Franck, Boué

    2015-11-30

    Experimental studies have demonstrated that cats can be infected by Echinococcus multilocularis, although few data are available concerning their natural infection. This study was designed to compare experimental findings with information on the prevalence of natural E. multilocularis infections of cats in a rural high endemic area. Of 19 intestines of domestic cats (Felis s. catus) and five of European wildcats (Felis s. silvestris) analyzed by segmental sedimentation and counting technique (SSCT), infection by E. multilocularis was observed for one individual of each species, resulting in a prevalence estimated at 5%, (CI95%: 1-26) in domestic cats and at 20% (CI95%: 1-72) in wildcats. High worm burdens (680 and 7040) were noted, but comprised only immature worms. The same EmsB microsatellite profile obtained from the worms' DNA was observed in the two cats as in foxes from the same area and from other European countries. The presence of E. multilocularis DNA was diagnosed in 3.1% (10/321) of the domestic cat feces collected on the field in two villages. However, no E. multilocularis eggs were found after flotation with zinc chloride of the positive feces. The detection of DNA from E. multilocularis was thought to be due to the presence of cells from worms untied from the intestine and corresponding to prepatent infection or due to the digested metacestode. These results from E. multilocularis presence in wild and domestic cat populations agree with those previously obtained by experimental infections. These findings support that these cats play an insignificant role in E. multilocularis transmission, even in a "highly endemic" region. Nevertheless, since the presence of thick-shelled E. multilocularis eggs from cats has already been reported, the associated zoonotic risk cannot be totally ruled out, even if it is very low.

  18. The genetic integrity of the ex situ population of the European wildcat (Felis silvestris silvestris) is seriously threatened by introgression from domestic cats (Felis silvestris catus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witzenberger, Kathrin A; Hochkirch, Axel

    2014-01-01

    Studies on the genetic diversity and relatedness of zoo populations are crucial for implementing successful breeding programmes. The European wildcat, Felis s. silvestris, is subject to intensive conservation measures, including captive breeding and reintroduction. We here present the first systematic genetic analysis of the captive population of Felis s. silvestris in comparison with a natural wild population. We used microsatellites and mtDNA sequencing to assess genetic diversity, structure and integrity of the ex situ population. Our results show that the ex situ population of the European wildcat is highly structured and that it has a higher genetic diversity than the studied wild population. Some genetic clusters matched the breeding lines of certain zoos or groups of zoos that often exchanged individuals. Two mitochondrial haplotype groups were detected in the in situ populations, one of which was closely related to the most common haplotype found in domestic cats, suggesting past introgression in the wild. Although native haplotypes were also found in the captive population, the majority (68%) of captive individuals shared a common mtDNA haplotype with the domestic cat (Felis s. catus). Only six captive individuals (7.7%) were assigned as wildcats in the STRUCTURE analysis (at K = 2), two of which had domestic cat mtDNA haplotypes and only two captive individuals were assigned as purebred wildcats by NewHybrids. These results suggest that the high genetic diversity of the captive population has been caused by admixture with domestic cats. Therefore, the captive population cannot be recommended for further breeding and reintroduction. PMID:25162450

  19. The genetic integrity of the ex situ population of the European wildcat (Felis silvestris silvestris) is seriously threatened by introgression from domestic cats (Felis silvestris catus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witzenberger, Kathrin A; Hochkirch, Axel

    2014-01-01

    Studies on the genetic diversity and relatedness of zoo populations are crucial for implementing successful breeding programmes. The European wildcat, Felis s. silvestris, is subject to intensive conservation measures, including captive breeding and reintroduction. We here present the first systematic genetic analysis of the captive population of Felis s. silvestris in comparison with a natural wild population. We used microsatellites and mtDNA sequencing to assess genetic diversity, structure and integrity of the ex situ population. Our results show that the ex situ population of the European wildcat is highly structured and that it has a higher genetic diversity than the studied wild population. Some genetic clusters matched the breeding lines of certain zoos or groups of zoos that often exchanged individuals. Two mitochondrial haplotype groups were detected in the in situ populations, one of which was closely related to the most common haplotype found in domestic cats, suggesting past introgression in the wild. Although native haplotypes were also found in the captive population, the majority (68%) of captive individuals shared a common mtDNA haplotype with the domestic cat (Felis s. catus). Only six captive individuals (7.7%) were assigned as wildcats in the STRUCTURE analysis (at K = 2), two of which had domestic cat mtDNA haplotypes and only two captive individuals were assigned as purebred wildcats by NewHybrids. These results suggest that the high genetic diversity of the captive population has been caused by admixture with domestic cats. Therefore, the captive population cannot be recommended for further breeding and reintroduction.

  20. Influences of stage of lactation, teat position and sequential milk sampling on the composition of domestic cat milk (Felis catus).

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    Jacobsen, K L; DePeters, E J; Rogers, Q R; Taylor, S J

    2004-02-01

    Milk from 11 domestic shorthair cats (Felis catus; n=7 fed dry low-fat diet, n=4 fed dry high-fat diet) was collected weekly for 6 weeks following parturition, and analysed for total solids (TS), crude protein (CP), fat, lactose and ash. Samples were collected in 1-ml sequential fractions to determine whether within-sampling changes in composition existed Samples of extracted milk fat were also analysed for fatty acid content. Two commercia kitten milk replacers were analysed according to the same procedures utilized for mil samples. In statistical analyses individual cat, diet, stage of lactation, litter size, and teat position influenced concentrations of milk components; parity and sequential sampling had no effect. Averaged cat milk was 27.9% TS, and 8.7% CP, 12.7% fat, 4.2% lactose and 1.3% ash (on a wet basis). Milk protein percentage increased over lactation for both diet groups, but fat percentage increased only for queens fed the high-fat diet. Milk replacers were lower in fat and protein content than milk from queens, and had considerably lower levels of arachidonic acid. Data from this study contribute to the limited information available regarding the composition of domestic cat milk, and give possible reasons for poor growth occasionally observed in kittens fed unsupplemented commercial milk replacers. PMID:19774762

  1. Molecular characterisation of Cryptosporidium and Giardia in cats (Felis catus) in Western Australia.

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    Yang, Rongchang; Ying, Joyce Lau Jie; Monis, Paul; Ryan, Una

    2015-08-01

    Little is known of the prevalence of Cryptosporidium and Giardia in domestic cats in Western Australia and their potential role as zoonotic reservoirs for human infection. In the present study, a total of 345 faecal samples from four different sources were screened for the presence of Cryptosporidium and Giardia by PCR and genotyped by sequence analysis. Oocyst numbers and cyst numbers for Cryptosporidium and Giardia respectively were also determined using quantitative PCR assays. Cryptosporidium and Giardia were detected in 9.9% (95% CI 6.7-13.0) and 10.1% (95% CI 7.0-13.3) of cats in Western Australia respectively. Sequence analysis at the 18S rRNA locus identified five Cryptosporidium species/genotypes; C. felis (n = 8), C. muris (n = 1), C. ryanae (n = 1), Cryptosporidium rat genotype III (n = 5) and a novel genotype most closely related to Cryptosporidium rat genotype III in one isolate. This is the first report of C. ryanae and Cryptosporidium rat genotype III in cats. For Giardia, assemblage F the most commonly identified species, while only 1 assemblage sequence was detected. Since most human cases of cryptosporidiosis are caused by C. parvum and C. hominis and human cases of giardiasis are caused by G. duodenalis assemblage A and B, the domestic cats in the present study are likely to be of low zoonotic risk to pet owners in Perth. Risk analyses identified that elderly cats (more than 6 years) were more prone to Cryptosporidium and Giardia infections than kittens (less than 6 months) (P = 0.009). Clinical symptoms were not associated with the prevalence of Cryptosporidium and Giardia infections in cats. PMID:25959691

  2. The parasite fauna of stray domestic cats (Felis catus) in Dubai, United Arab Emirates.

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    Schuster, Rolf K; Thomas, Katja; Sivakumar, Saritha; O'Donovan, Declan

    2009-07-01

    Two hundred forty feral domestic cats trapped between 2004 and 2008 in the city centre and the suburb districts of Dubai, as well as in desert biotopes, were subjected to a complete parasitological dissection. The established parasite fauna consisted of Cystoisospora felis (12.9%), Cystoisospora rivolta (9.2%), Toxoplasma/Hammondia (0.8%), Heterophyes heterophyes (2.5%), Heterophyopsis continua (0.4%), Joyeuxiella spp. (65.8%), Diplopylidium noelleri (37.1%), Hydatigera taeniaeformis (16.7%), Taenia hydatigena (0.4%), Ancylostoma ceylanicum (8.8%), Ollulanus tricuspis (0.8%), Toxocara mystax (2.9%), Toxascaris leonina (0.8%), Pterygodermatites affinis (35.0%), Centrorhynchus aluconis (4.6%), Rhipicephalus sanguineus (4.2%), Xenopsylla astia (3.8%) and Synosternus pallidus (4.2%).

  3. Individual differences in visual and olfactory cue preference and use by cats (Felis catus)

    OpenAIRE

    Mayes, Evely.-Rose E.; Wilkinson, Anna; Pike, Thomas W; Mills, Daniel S.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights • Eight cats were trained in a T-maze using a two-alternative forced choice procedure. • Cats could use either an olfactory or visual cue to locate a food reward. • Cues were then put in conflict to determine which was preferred for the task. • Most cats used the visual cue to learn the location of the food. • Preferences were stable, repeatable and rapidly learned. -------------------------------------------------------------------------------- ...

  4. An STR forensic typing system for genetic individualization of domestic cat (Felis catus) samples.

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    Menotti-Raymond, Marilyn A; David, Victor A; Wachter, Leslie L; Butler, John M; O'Brien, Stephen J

    2005-09-01

    A forensic genotyping panel of 11 tetranucleotide STR loci from the domestic cat was characterized and evaluated for genetic individualization of cat tissues. We first examined 49 candidate STR loci and their frequency assessment in domestic cat populations. The STR loci (3-4 base pair repeat motifs), mapped in the cat genome relative to 579 coding loci and 255 STR loci, are well distributed across the 18 feline autosomes. All loci exhibit Mendelian inheritance in a multi-generation pedigree. Eleven loci that were unlinked and were highly heterozygous in cat breeds were selected for a forensic panel. Heterozygosity values obtained for the independent loci, ranged from 0.60-0.82, while the average cat breed heterozygosity obtained for the 11 locus panel was 0.71 (range of 0.57-0.83). A small sample set of outbred domestic cats displayed a heterozygosity of 0.86 for the 11 locus panel. The power of discrimination of the panel is moderate to high in the cat breeds examined, with an average P(m) of 3.7E-06. The panel shows good potential for genetic individualization within outbred domestic cats with a P(m) of 5.31E-08. A multiplex protocol, designed for the co-amplification of the 11 loci and a gender-identifying locus, is species specific and robust, generating a product profile with as little as 0.125 nanograms of genomic DNA.

  5. Flat Feline Faces: Is Brachycephaly Associated with Respiratory Abnormalities in the Domestic Cat (Felis catus)?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Packer, Rowena M. A.; Caney, Sarah M. A.; Gunn-Moore, Danièlle A.

    2016-01-01

    There has been little research into brachycephalism and associated disorders in cats. A questionnaire aimed at cat owners was used to determine the relationship between feline facial conformation and owner-reported cat management requirements and respiratory abnormalities. Owner-submitted photographs of cats were used to develop novel measures of skull conformation. One thousand valid questionnaires were received. Within these there were 373 valid photographs that allowed measurement of muzzle ratio (M%) and 494 that allowed nose position ratio (NP%). The data included 239 cats for which both measurements were available. Owners reported lifestyle factors (e.g. feeding type, grooming routine, activity level), physical characteristics (e.g. hair length) and other health characteristics of their cat (e.g. tear staining, body condition score). A composite respiratory score (RS) was calculated for each cat using their owner’s assessment of respiratory noise whilst their cat was asleep and then breathing difficulty following activity. Multivariate analyses were carried out using linear models to explore the relationship between RS and facial conformation, and lifestyle risk factors. The results showed that reductions in NP% and M% were significantly associated with RS (P < 0.001 and P = 0.026, respectively) and that the relationship was significantly negatively correlated (r = -0.56, P < 0.001 for both). Respiratory score was also significantly associated with increased presence of tear staining (P < 0.001) and a sedentary lifestyle (P = 0.01). This study improves current knowledge concerning cats with breeding-related alterations in skull confirmation and indicates that brachycephalism may have negative respiratory implications for cat health and welfare, as has been previously shown in dogs. PMID:27574987

  6. Domestic Cats (Felis silvestris catus Do Not Show Signs of Secure Attachment to Their Owners.

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    Alice Potter

    Full Text Available The Ainsworth Strange Situation Test (SST has been widely used to demonstrate that the bond between both children and dogs to their primary carer typically meets the requirements of a secure attachment (i.e. the carer being perceived as a focus of safety and security in otherwise threatening environments, and has been adapted for cats with a similar claim made. However methodological problems in this latter research make the claim that the cat-owner bond is typically a secure attachment, operationally definable by its behaviour in the SST, questionable. We therefore developed an adapted version of the SST with the necessary methodological controls which include a full counterbalance of the procedure. A cross-over design experiment with 20 cat-owner pairs (10 each undertaking one of the two versions of the SST first and continuous focal sampling was used to record the duration of a range of behavioural states expressed by the cats that might be useful for assessing secure attachment. Since data were not normally distributed, non-parametric analyses were used on those behaviours shown to be reliable across the two versions of the test (which excluded much cat behaviour. Although cats vocalised more when the owner rather the stranger left the cat with the other individual, there was no other evidence consistent with the interpretation of the bond between a cat and its owner meeting the requirements of a secure attachment. These results are consistent with the view that adult cats are typically quite autonomous, even in their social relationships, and not necessarily dependent on others to provide a sense of security and safety. It is concluded that alternative methods need to be developed to characterise the normal psychological features of the cat-owner bond.

  7. Flat Feline Faces: Is Brachycephaly Associated with Respiratory Abnormalities in the Domestic Cat (Felis catus)?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farnworth, Mark J; Chen, Ruoning; Packer, Rowena M A; Caney, Sarah M A; Gunn-Moore, Danièlle A

    2016-01-01

    There has been little research into brachycephalism and associated disorders in cats. A questionnaire aimed at cat owners was used to determine the relationship between feline facial conformation and owner-reported cat management requirements and respiratory abnormalities. Owner-submitted photographs of cats were used to develop novel measures of skull conformation. One thousand valid questionnaires were received. Within these there were 373 valid photographs that allowed measurement of muzzle ratio (M%) and 494 that allowed nose position ratio (NP%). The data included 239 cats for which both measurements were available. Owners reported lifestyle factors (e.g. feeding type, grooming routine, activity level), physical characteristics (e.g. hair length) and other health characteristics of their cat (e.g. tear staining, body condition score). A composite respiratory score (RS) was calculated for each cat using their owner's assessment of respiratory noise whilst their cat was asleep and then breathing difficulty following activity. Multivariate analyses were carried out using linear models to explore the relationship between RS and facial conformation, and lifestyle risk factors. The results showed that reductions in NP% and M% were significantly associated with RS (P < 0.001 and P = 0.026, respectively) and that the relationship was significantly negatively correlated (r = -0.56, P < 0.001 for both). Respiratory score was also significantly associated with increased presence of tear staining (P < 0.001) and a sedentary lifestyle (P = 0.01). This study improves current knowledge concerning cats with breeding-related alterations in skull confirmation and indicates that brachycephalism may have negative respiratory implications for cat health and welfare, as has been previously shown in dogs. PMID:27574987

  8. Detection of antibodies against Leishmania infantum in cats (Felis catus from the State of Pernambuco, Brazil

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    Rita de Cássia Nascimento Silva

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Little information is available concerning infection by Leishmania infantum in cats. Therefore, the aim of this study was to perform a serological study in domestic cats. Methods: Serum samples (n=153 obtained from animals living in the Cities of Recife and Petrolina, State of Pernambuco, Brazil, were tested by ELISA/S7® (Biogene. Results: Anti-L. infantum antibodies were detected in 3.9% (6/153 of the cats. All seroreagent animals were from Petrolina. Conclusions: These results serve as an important alert, and future studies are needed to better understand the possible role of cats in the epidemiology of visceral leishmaniasis (VL in this area.

  9. Evaluation of cats (Felis catus) as possible asymptomatic carriers of dermatophytes in extreme south of Brazil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tony Silveira; Renata de Faria; Mariana Remio; Camila Graeff; Fabiana Poetsch; Guilherme Azevedo; Juliane Guimares; Rafaela Bellora; Tassiane Moraes; Pedro Quevedo

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the presence of Microsporum canis in pelage of asymptomatic cats for dermatophytosis, in south region of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, and evaluate its importance in epidemiology of dermatophytosis in the study area. Methods: A total of 60 domestic cats were evaluated for the presence of Microsporum canis. The animals were divided into three groups of 20 felines. Each group consisted of exclusively domiciled, semi-domiciled and rural animals. Samples were collected following the carpet-square technique. The microorganisms were cultivated under laminar flow in mycosel agar and grown in a greenhouse. Results: All the cats of the three groups analysed had negative cultures for dermatophytes. In 85% of the dishes, there was a growth of environmental saprophytic fungi such as Aspergillus sp., Fusarium sp. and Penicillium sp. Conclusions: Thus, asymptomatic cats for dermatophytes did not show importance in the transmission and maintenance of the disease in southern of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil.

  10. Seasonal Variation in the Voluntary Food Intake of Domesticated Cats (Felis Catus)

    OpenAIRE

    Serisier, Samuel; Feugier, Alexandre; Delmotte, Sebastien; Biourge, Vincent; German, Alexander James

    2014-01-01

    There are numerous reports about seasonal cycles on food intake in animals but information is limited in dogs and cats. A 4-year prospective, observational, cohort study was conducted to assess differences in food intake in 38 ad-libitum-fed adult colony cats, of various breeds, ages and genders. Individual food intake was recorded on a daily basis, and the mean daily intake for each calendar month was calculated. These data were compared with climatic data (temperature and daylight length) f...

  11. Seasonal Variation in the Voluntary Food Intake of Domesticated Cats (Felis Catus)

    OpenAIRE

    Samuel Serisier; Alexandre Feugier; Sébastien Delmotte; Vincent Biourge; Alexander James German

    2014-01-01

    International audience There are numerous reports about seasonal cycles on food intake in animals but information is limited in dogs and cats. A 4-year prospective, observational, cohort study was conducted to assess differences in food intake in 38 ad-libitum-fed adult colony cats, of various breeds, ages and genders. Individual food intake was recorded on a daily basis, and the mean daily intake for each calendar month was calculated. These data were compared with climatic data (temperat...

  12. Domestic cats (Felis catus) are definitive hosts for Sarcocystis sinensis from water buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gjerde, Bjørn; Hilali, Mosaad

    2016-08-01

    The definitive hosts of Sarcocystis sinensis in water buffaloes have hitherto been unknown, but the close similarity of this species to the cat-transmitted Sarcocystis bovifelis in cattle suggested they were felids. In a previous study, two domestic cats were fed macroscopic sarcocysts of Sarcocystis fusiformis contained within or dissected from the esophageal muscles of water buffaloes, while no microscopic sarcocysts of S. sinensis were noticed. Both cats started shedding small numbers of sporocysts 8-10 days post infection (dpi) and were euthanized 15 dpi. Using a PCR-based molecular assay targeting the mitochondrial cox1 gene of S. fusiformis, both cats were shown to act as definitive hosts for this species. In the present study, DNA samples derived from oocysts/sporocysts in the intestinal mucosa of both cats were further examined by PCR for the presence of S. sinensis using 2 newly designed primers selectively targeting the cox1 gene of this species. All 6 DNA samples examined from each cat tested positive for S. sinensis. A 1,038-bp-long portion of cox1 was amplified and sequenced as 2 overlapping fragments from 5 of these DNA samples. The 5 sequences shared 99.3-100% identity with 7 previous cox1 sequences of S. sinensis obtained from sarcocysts in water buffaloes. Additionally, amplification of the ITS1 region with primers targeting various Sarcocystis spp., yielded amplicons of 2 different lengths, corresponding to those obtained from sarcocyst isolates of S. sinensis and S. fusiformis, respectively. This is the first study to show that cats act as definitive hosts for S. sinensis. PMID:27075117

  13. Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii in Cats (Felis catus, Linnaeus 1758 Living in San Carlos (Chile

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    Ignacio Eduardo Troncoso Toro

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available There are few studies about seroprevalence of toxoplasmosis in Chile; therefore, this article aims to determine seroprevalence in cats in the district of San Carlos, by ELISA Immuno- Comb® serological technique, and, at the same time, to examine association with variables of sex, age, diet, and habitat. To the effect, 60 cats over 2 months old were randomly sampled. Sera were analyzed using the ELISA ImmunoComb® Biogal Toxo & Chlamydia test kit, which detects specific immunoglobulin G-type antibodies against Toxoplasma gondii with a sensitivity of 92.3% and a specificity of 100%. The study evidenced that 29 individuals were positive (48.3% seroprevalence; when broken down by gender this corresponded to 9 males and 20 females (39.1% and 54%, respectively. By age, seropositivity was higher in the “Adult” group (76.7%, followed by groups “Over 7 years” (50% and “Young” (25%. With respect to diet, higher seropositivity was obtained in animals fed on mixed diet, as opposed to commercial diet (60% vs. 47.2%. By variable habitat, 16 indoor and 13 outdoor cats were positive (45.7% and 52%, showing statistically significant difference only for the variable age (p < 0.05. Finally, through relating age with seropositivity, a negative correlation was evidenced (r = –0.3, indicating that older individuals had lower seroprevalence. The results show the presence of antibodies against Toxoplasma gondii in domestic cats.

  14. [Architectural structure of the pterygoidian plane of the masticatory musculature in the cat (Felis catus L.)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lautrou, A; Laison, F

    1975-09-01

    The architectural analysis of the ptérygoidal plane of the cat identified the two pterygoid muscles. The medial pterygoid showed an orbital and an angular part inserted respectively on the internal face of the mandibule and on the maeto-angular ligament. The lateral pterygoid consisted of only one pterygoid bundle, involved in lateral movements and adjustments of the jaw condyle.

  15. A Mutation in LTBP2 Causes Congenital Glaucoma in Domestic Cats (Felis catus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuehn, Markus H; Lipsett, Koren A; Menotti-Raymond, Marilyn; Whitmore, S Scott; Scheetz, Todd E; David, Victor A; O'Brien, Stephen J; Zhao, Zhongyuan; Jens, Jackie K; Snella, Elizabeth M; Ellinwood, N Matthew; McLellan, Gillian J

    2016-01-01

    The glaucomas are a group of diseases characterized by optic nerve damage that together represent a leading cause of blindness in the human population and in domestic animals. Here we report a mutation in LTBP2 that causes primary congenital glaucoma (PCG) in domestic cats. We identified a spontaneous form of PCG in cats and established a breeding colony segregating for PCG consistent with fully penetrant, autosomal recessive inheritance of the trait. Elevated intraocular pressure, globe enlargement and elongated ciliary processes were consistently observed in all affected cats by 8 weeks of age. Varying degrees of optic nerve damage resulted by 6 months of age. Although subtle lens zonular instability was a common feature in this cohort, pronounced ectopia lentis was identified in less than 10% of cats examined. Thus, glaucoma in this pedigree is attributed to histologically confirmed arrest in the early post-natal development of the aqueous humor outflow pathways in the anterior segment of the eyes of affected animals. Using a candidate gene approach, significant linkage was established on cat chromosome B3 (LOD 18.38, θ = 0.00) using tightly linked short tandem repeat (STR) loci to the candidate gene, LTBP2. A 4 base-pair insertion was identified in exon 8 of LTBP2 in affected individuals that generates a frame shift that completely alters the downstream open reading frame and eliminates functional domains. Thus, we describe the first spontaneous and highly penetrant non-rodent model of PCG identifying a valuable animal model for primary glaucoma that closely resembles the human disease, providing valuable insights into mechanisms underlying the disease and a valuable animal model for testing therapies. PMID:27149523

  16. A Mutation in LTBP2 Causes Congenital Glaucoma in Domestic Cats (Felis catus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuehn, Markus H; Lipsett, Koren A; Menotti-Raymond, Marilyn; Whitmore, S Scott; Scheetz, Todd E; David, Victor A; O'Brien, Stephen J; Zhao, Zhongyuan; Jens, Jackie K; Snella, Elizabeth M; Ellinwood, N Matthew; McLellan, Gillian J

    2016-01-01

    The glaucomas are a group of diseases characterized by optic nerve damage that together represent a leading cause of blindness in the human population and in domestic animals. Here we report a mutation in LTBP2 that causes primary congenital glaucoma (PCG) in domestic cats. We identified a spontaneous form of PCG in cats and established a breeding colony segregating for PCG consistent with fully penetrant, autosomal recessive inheritance of the trait. Elevated intraocular pressure, globe enlargement and elongated ciliary processes were consistently observed in all affected cats by 8 weeks of age. Varying degrees of optic nerve damage resulted by 6 months of age. Although subtle lens zonular instability was a common feature in this cohort, pronounced ectopia lentis was identified in less than 10% of cats examined. Thus, glaucoma in this pedigree is attributed to histologically confirmed arrest in the early post-natal development of the aqueous humor outflow pathways in the anterior segment of the eyes of affected animals. Using a candidate gene approach, significant linkage was established on cat chromosome B3 (LOD 18.38, θ = 0.00) using tightly linked short tandem repeat (STR) loci to the candidate gene, LTBP2. A 4 base-pair insertion was identified in exon 8 of LTBP2 in affected individuals that generates a frame shift that completely alters the downstream open reading frame and eliminates functional domains. Thus, we describe the first spontaneous and highly penetrant non-rodent model of PCG identifying a valuable animal model for primary glaucoma that closely resembles the human disease, providing valuable insights into mechanisms underlying the disease and a valuable animal model for testing therapies.

  17. Esporotricose do gato doméstico (Felis catus: transmissão humana Sporothricosis of the domestic cat (Felis catus: human transmission

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    Silvio Alencar Marques

    1993-08-01

    Full Text Available No presente trabalho relata-se caso de paciente, funcionário de hospital veterinário, infectado através de arranhadura de gato doméstico portador de esporotricose. Inquérito domiciliar junto aos proprietários do animal fonte de infecção, revelou dois outros casos presuntivos de esporotricose humana transmitida por gatos, e confirmou o diagnóstico, por cultivo do Sporotrix schenckii, em 3 gatos domésticos adicionais. A esporotricose felina caracteriza-se por lesões cutâneas ulceradas e tendência à disseminação sistêmica e evolução fatal. A transmissão intra e inter-espécie é facilitada pela exuberância de fungos nas lesões cutâneas de felinos infectados.A case of sporothricosis transmitted by cat to a veterinarian hospital employee is reported. Inquiry at domiciliar area of the cat's owner revelled two other presumable cases of human sporothricosis transmitted by cats, and confirmed the diagnosis (by culture of Sporothrix schenckii of disease in three other domestic cats. Feline sporothricosis is characterized by ulcerative, cutaneous lesions and systemic dissemination, which invariably cause animal's death. The transmission of sporothricosis to other animals and humans is enhanced by the great amount of fungus present in cat's lesions.

  18. Coat genetic markers of the domestic cat Felis catus (Felidae from southwestern Colombia

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    Mauricio Peñuela A

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. Establish the genetic profiles of cats from 12 neighboring municipalities in southwestern Colombia, in a town course from Pereira-Popayán. Estimate the degree of diversity, genetic structure, and quantify gene flow. Materials and methods. Were inventoried the phenotypic markers present in the pigmentation and structure of the coat of 1482 cats of the municipalities surveyed. Based on these phenotypic frequencies, allele frequencies, heterozygosity, Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium, F statistics and Nei genetic distances were calculated. A comparison was also made between genetic and geographic distance matrices to determine if there was a significant association between the two. Results. With the genetic profiles of the populations we estimated the degree of diversity. We found the populations in equilibrium for the S autosomal locus and for the O sex-linked locus. We found a low level genetic structure, and it was determined that there was no significant correlation between the genetic and geographic distance matrices among populations. Conclusions: These findings can be explained on the basis of the processes of human displacement for this region, due to the fact that the establishment of feline populations in these municipalities originated during the same historical period. Identical genetic profiles are shared as a result of colonization events, and due to possible continued migration among these populations.

  19. Effect of melatonin implants on spermatogenesis in the domestic cat (Felis silvestris catus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Favre, R Nuñez; Bonaura, M C; Praderio, R; Stornelli, M C; de la Sota, R L; Stornelli, M A

    2014-10-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the efficacy of subcutaneous melatonin implants to temporarily and reversibly suppress spermatogenesis in male cats. Tomcats (n = 8) were housed in a conditioned room with alternating long and short 2-month photoperiod cycles to maintain sperm production and quality. Animals were randomly assigned to one of the two treatments. Four animals received a subcutaneous melatonin implant (MEL, 18 mg; Syntex, Argentina), whereas the other four received a subcutaneous placebo implant (PLA, 0 mg; Syntex). Semen samples were collected by electroejaculation every 14 days for 252 days. Sperm parameters were evaluated in all ejaculates, and data were analyzed by ANOVA. Melatonin-implanted cats significantly decreased their sperm quality in all the parameters studied compared with the control group (MEL vs. PLA; least squares means ± SEM; motility, 71.3 ± 3.4 vs. 82.1 ± 3.6; velocity, 3.4 ± 0.1 vs. 4.6 ± 0.1; total sperm count, 2.6 ± 2.2 vs. 19.4 ± 3.3; acrosome integrity, 48.7 ± 5.6 vs. 62.8 ± 5.6; plasma membrane integrity, 52.2 ± 4.7 vs. 72.9 ± 5.5; normal sperm morphology, 45.8 ± 3.3 vs. 63.7 ± 3.4; P 0.05). At 91 ± 7 days after implant insertion, sperm motility decreased 38.5%, velocity 26.5%, total sperm count 82%, acrosome integrity 22%, plasma membrane integrity 30%, and normal sperm morphology decreased 32% of preimplant values. This effect was present until 120 ± 15 days after implant insertion. After that, seminal parameters started to increase and reached preimplant values at about 140 ± 7 days after implant insertion. Nevertheless, treated animals conserved the capacity to produce semen during the treatment period. In conclusion, a single subcutaneous melatonin implant effectively and reversibly reduced sperm production and quality in male domestic cats for approximately 120 ± 15 days without clinically detectable adverse effects. PMID:25082022

  20. Biología de la gestación en la gata doméstica (Felis catus Biology of pregnancy in the domestic cat (Felis catus

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    A.E SANCHEZ

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available La gata es una hembra poliéstrica estacional en la cual el estímulo coital desencadena la liberación de LH y la ovulación, fenómenos que ocurren dentro de las primeras 50 horas postcoito. La fecundación de los ovocitos ocurre en el oviducto dentro de 30 horas post-ovulación. El transporte embrionario en oviducto toma alrededor de 132 horas y al momento de ingresar al útero los embriones se encuentran al estado de mórula compacta. A continuación los blastocistos migran entre los cuernos uterinos por aproximadamente 80 horas, hasta producirse la implantación 12 a 13 días post-coito. Durante la etapa preimplantacional existe un aumento significativo de la progesterona sérica así como de los receptores luteales a LH. A partir de la segunda mitad de la gestación, decae la producción de progesterona y aumenta la secreción de prolactina, postulándose que esta última sería el principal agente luteotrófico en la gata. También durante la segunda mitad de la gestación aumenta la secreción de relaxina. La producción y rol de la progesterona en la gestación tardía es un tema controversial. Se ha demostrado que la placenta felina posee actividad esteroidogénica y capacidad de sintetizar progesterona, lo cual sugiere que estaría relacionada con el soporte hormonal de la preñezThe domestic cat can be defined as a seasonal poliestrous female. During mating the physical stimulus produce the release of LH and ovulation, which occur during the first 50 hours post mating. The fertilization of oocytes takes place inside the oviduct during the 30 hours post ovulation. The embryos transport on the oviduct takes about 132 hours and when embryos reach the uterus they are already a compacted morulae. After this, the blastocyst migrates to both uterine horns for a period of 80 hours aproximately until implantation ocurrs 12 to 13 days after mating. During the preimplantation period, there is a significant increase in blood progesterone and

  1. Spatio-temporal variation in predation by urban domestic cats (Felis catus and the acceptability of possible management actions in the UK.

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    Rebecca L Thomas

    Full Text Available Urban domestic cat (Felis catus populations can attain exceedingly high densities and are not limited by natural prey availability. This has generated concerns that they may negatively affect prey populations, leading to calls for management. We enlisted cat-owners to record prey returned home to estimate patterns of predation by free-roaming pets in different localities within the town of Reading, UK and questionnaire surveys were used to quantify attitudes to different possible management strategies. Prey return rates were highly variable: only 20% of cats returned ≥4 dead prey annually. Consequently, approximately 65% of owners received no prey in a given season, but this declined to 22% after eight seasons. The estimated mean predation rate was 18.3 prey cat⁻¹ year⁻¹ but this varied markedly both spatially and temporally: per capita predation rates declined with increasing cat density. Comparisons with estimates of the density of six common bird prey species indicated that cats killed numbers equivalent to adult density on c. 39% of occasions. Population modeling studies suggest that such predation rates could significantly reduce the size of local bird populations for common urban species. Conversely, most urban residents did not consider cat predation to be a significant problem. Collar-mounted anti-predation devices were the only management action acceptable to the majority of urban residents (65%, but were less acceptable to cat-owners because of perceived risks to their pets; only 24% of cats were fitted with such devices. Overall, cat predation did appear to be of sufficient magnitude to affect some prey populations, although further investigation of some key aspects of cat predation is warranted. Management of the predation behavior of urban cat populations in the UK is likely to be challenging and achieving this would require considerable engagement with cat owners.

  2. Are cats (Felis catus) from multi-cat households more stressed? Evidence from assessment of fecal glucocorticoid metabolite analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, D; Reche-Junior, A; Fragoso, P L; Palme, R; Yanasse, N K; Gouvêa, V R; Beck, A; Mills, D S

    2013-10-01

    Given the social and territorial features described in feral cats, it is commonly assumed that life in multi-cat households is stressful for domestic cats and suggested that cats kept as single pets are likely to have better welfare. On the other hand, it has been hypothesized that under high densities cats can organize themselves socially thus preventing stress when spatial dispersion is unavailable. This study was aimed at comparing the general arousal underpinning emotional distress in single housed cats and in cats from multi-cat households (2 and 3-4 cats) on the basis of fecal glucocorticoid metabolites (GCM) measured via enzyme immunoassay (EIA). GCM did not significantly vary as a function of living style (single, double or group-housing); highly stressed individuals were equally likely in the three groups. Young cats in multi-cat households had lower GCM, and overall cats that tolerate (as opposed to dislike) petting by the owners tended to have higher GCM levels. Other environmental aspects within cat houses (e.g. relationship with humans, resource availability) may play a more important role in day to day feline arousal levels than the number of cats per se. PMID:24021924

  3. Detection of Felis catus gammaherpesvirus 1 (FcaGHV1) in peripheral blood B- and T-lymphocytes in asymptomatic, naturally-infected domestic cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLuckie, Alicia J; Barrs, Vanessa R; Smith, Adrian L; Beatty, Julia A

    2016-10-01

    The domestic cat is natural host to both feline immunodeficiency virus and Felis catus gammaherpesvirus 1 (FcaGHV1). Comparative data suggest that these agents might act as synergistic copathogens in feline AIDS-related lymphoma. To identify leucocyte subsets harbouring gammaherpesvirus DNA, whole blood from 5 healthy, FcaGHV1-infected cats was labelled with monoclonal antibodies to feline CD21, CD4, CD8 and CD14 for 4-way fluorescence-activated cell sorting. FcaGHV1gB qPCR was performed on DNA extracted from purified fractions and whole blood longitudinally. FcaGHV1 DNA was detected in CD21+, CD4+, CD8+, but not CD14+ cells. Variation in whole blood load, up to 19,788 copies/10(6)cells, was detected in individual cats over time. FcaGHV1 DNA was undetectable in one cat on one occasion highlighting that qPCR of whole blood from a single time point will not detect all cases of FcaGHV1 infection. Further investigation of the role of FcaGHV1 in feline lymphoid malignancies is warranted. PMID:27497183

  4. The glucose and insulin response to isoenergetic reduction of dietary energy sources in a true carnivore: the domestic cat ( Felis catus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verbrugghe, Adronie; Hesta, Myriam; Van Weyenberg, Stephanie; Papadopoulos, Georgios A; Gommeren, Kris; Daminet, Sylvie; Bosmans, Tim; Polis, Ingeborgh; Buyse, Johan; Janssens, Geert P J

    2010-07-01

    The present study assessed the effect of separate reduction of each energy-delivering nutrient - protein, fat and carbohydrate - on glucose tolerance and insulin response in a strict carnivore: the domestic cat (Felis catus). Three isoenergetic, home-made diets with the following energetic distribution, low protein (LP): protein 28 % of metabolisable energy; fat 43 %; nitrogen-free extract 29 %; low fat: 47, 27 and 25 %; low carbohydrate (LC): 45, 48 and 7 %, were tested in a 3 x 3 Latin square design. Nine healthy normal-weight cats were randomly assigned to each of the diets in a random order at intervals of 3 weeks. At the end of each testing period, intravenous glucose tolerance tests were performed. Plasma glucose concentrations and area under the glucose curve showed no differences. Area under the insulin curve was lower when cats were fed the LP diet, and the second insulin peak tended to be delayed when the LC diet was fed. In contrast to other studies, in which energy sources were elevated instead of being reduced, the present trial contradicts the often suggested negative impact of carbohydrates on insulin sensitivity in carnivores, and shows that reducing the dietary carbohydrate content below common amounts for commercial foods evokes an insulin-resistant state, which can be explained by the cats' strict carnivorous nature. It even points to a negative effect of protein on insulin sensitivity, a finding that corresponds with the highly gluconeogenic nature of amino acids in strict carnivores. PMID:20193098

  5. Complete nucleotide sequences of the domestic cat (Felis catus) mitochondrial genome and a transposed mtDNA tandem repeat (Numt) in the nuclear genome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez, J.V.; Cevario, S.; O`Brien, S.J. [National Cancer Institute, Frederick, MD (United States)

    1996-04-15

    The complete 17,009-bp mitochondrial genome of the domestic cat, Felis catus, has been sequenced and conforms largely to the typical organization of previously characterized mammalian mtDNAs. Codon usage and base composition also followed canonical vertebrate patterns, except for an unusual ATC (non-AUG) codon initiating the NADH dehydrogenase subunit 2 (ND2) gene. Two distinct repetitive motifs at opposite ends of the control region contribute to the relatively large size (1559 bp) of this carnivore mtDNA. Alignment of the feline mtDNA genome to a homologous 7946-bp nuclear mtDNA tandem repeat DNA sequence in the cat, Numt, indicates simple repeat motifs associated with insertion/deletion mutations. Overall DNA sequence divergence between Numt and cytoplasmic mtDNA sequence was only 5.1%. Substitutions predominate at the third codon position of homologous feline protein genes. Phylogenetic analysis of mitochondrial gene sequences confirms the recent transfer of the cytoplasmic mtDNA sequences to the domestic cat nucleus and recapitulates evolutionary relationships between mammal species. 86 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs.

  6. Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii in White-Tailed Deer (Odocoileus virginianus) and Free-Roaming Cats (Felis catus) Across a Suburban to Urban Gradient in Northeastern Ohio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballash, Gregory A; Dubey, J P; Kwok, O C H; Shoben, Abigail B; Robison, Terry L; Kraft, Tom J; Dennis, Patricia M

    2015-06-01

    Felids serve as the definitive host of Toxoplasma gondii contaminating environments with oocysts. White-tailed deer (WTD; Odocoileus virginianus) are used as sentinel species for contaminated environments as well as a potential source for human foodborne infection with T. gondii. Here we determine the seroprevalence of T. gondii in a WTD and felid population, and examine those risk factors that increase exposure to the parasite. Serum samples from 444 WTD and 200 free-roaming cats (Felis catus) from urban and suburban reservations were tested for T. gondii antibodies using the modified agglutination test (MAT, cut-off 1:25). Antibodies to T. gondii were found in 261 (58.8%) of 444 WTD, with 164 (66.1%) of 248 from urban and 97 (49.5%) of 196 from suburban regions. Significant risk factors for seroprevalence included increasing age (P < 0.0001), reservation type (P < 0.0001), and household densities within reservation (P < 0.0001). Antibodies to T. gondii were found in 103 (51.5%) of 200 cats, with seroprevalences of 79 (51%) of 155 and 24 (53.3%) of 45 from areas surrounding urban and suburban reservations, respectively. Seroprevalence did not differ by age, gender, or reservation among the cats' sample. Results indicate WTD are exposed by horizontal transmission, and this occurs more frequently in urban environments. The difference between urban and suburban cat densities is the most likely the reason for an increased seroprevalence in urban WTD. These data have public health implications for individuals living near or visiting urban areas where outdoor cats are abundant as well as those individuals who may consume WTD venison. PMID:25269422

  7. Seroprevalence and Risk Factors Associated with Seropositivity to Toxoplasma gondii among Stray and Domestic Cats (Felis silvestris catus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christel Bohn T. Garcia

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Toxoplasma gondii is a protozoan parasite that causes toxoplasmosis. It is widespread in the environment and infects a variety of warm-blooded animals, causing miscarriages and birth problems. Previous studies in the Philippines have determined the seropositivity of T. gondii in humans. However, the seroprevalence of the parasite among household pets, par ticularly its feline def initive host, remains insufficient . This study aimed to: (1 determine the seroprevalence of T. gondii antibodies among domestic and stray cats in the Philippines; and, (2 to analyze the risk factors associated with seropositivity. Blood samples from 59 domestic and stray cats were collected and tested for T. gondii seropositivity using a commercially available indirect ELISA kit, while pet owners and handlers were given questionnaires about their cats. Thirteen or 22.03% of the cats were seropositive to T. gondii, and risk factor analysis revealed a significant difference between domestic and stray cats with regard to diet (p = 0.026, OR = 8.333, c = 0.299 and domestication (p = 0.039, OR = 5.000, c = 0.276. Cats fed with table food tested 31.43% seropositive compared to the 4.35% of those fed with cat food, whereas 33.33% of the stray cats were seropositive compared to 7.69% for domestic cats. Odds ratio test showed that the risk factors studied were associated with higher likelihood of T. gondii seropositivity. These results implicate diet and environment in the transmission dynamics of T. gondii among cats.

  8. Coinfection by Toxoplasma gondii and Leishmania spp. in domestic cats (Felis catus in State of Mato Grosso do Sul

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    Audrey Rennó Campos Braga

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Leishmaniasis and toxoplasmosis are important to public health. Methods Antibodies for Toxoplasma gondii and Leishmania spp. were evaluated in cats from Campo Grande, State of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil, a region endemic for canine visceral leishmaniasis. Serum samples from 50 asymptomatic cats were titrated for T. gondii by the immunofluorescence antibody test and modified agglutination test and for Leishmania spp. by the immunofluorescence antibody test. Results These two agents coinfected two (4% of the 50 tested animals. Conclusions These findings demonstrate the concomitant presence of two important zoonoses in cats from Brazilian endemic regions for canine visceral leishmaniasis.

  9. Nuclear and microtubule remodeling and in vitro development of nuclear transferred cat oocytes with skin fibroblasts of the domestic cat (Felis silvestris catus) and leopard cat (Prionailurus bengalensis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, X J; Lee, Y H; Jin, J Y; Kim, N H; Kong, I K

    2006-10-01

    The leopard cat (Prionailurus bengalensis), a member of the felidae family, is a threatened animal in South Korea. In terms of protecting endangered felids, nuclear transfer (NT) is a potentially valuable technique for assuring the continuation of species with dwindling numbers. In the present experiment, nuclear and microtubule remodeling and the in vitro developmental potential of enucleated domestic cat oocytes reconstructed with nuclei of somatic cells from either domestic cat fibroblast (DCF) or leopard cat fibroblast (LCF) were evaluated. Microtubule aster is allocated to de-condensed chromatin following nuclear transfer (3h after activation) of fibroblast cells from both domestic and leopard cats, suggesting the introduction of a somatic cell centrosome. The transferred fibroblast nuclei formed a large, swollen, pronuclear-like structure in most reconstructed oocytes, in the cat or leopard cat. At 18h following nuclear transfer, mitosis occurred, and according to the photo (F) it appears that spindle microtubules and two asters were observed. The percentages of blastocyst formation from nuclear transfer embryos derived from domestic cat fibroblasts (4/46, 8.6%) were not significantly different than those for nuclear transfer embryos constructed with leopard cat fibroblasts (4/52, 7.6%). These results indicate that nuclear and microtubule remodeling processes and in vitro developmental ability are similar in reconstructed cat oocytes following transfer of nuclei from either domestic or leopard cats. PMID:16310987

  10. Rickettsia felis infection in cat fleas Ctenocephalides felis felis

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    Mauricio C. Horta

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The present study evaluated the rickettsial infection in a laboratory colony of cat fleas, Ctenocephalides felis felis (Bouche in Brazil. All flea samples (30 eggs, 30 larvae, 30 cocoons, 30 males, and 30 females tested by polymerase chain reaction (PCR were shown to contain rickettsial DNA. PCR products, corresponding to the rickettsial gltA, htrA, ompA and ompB gene partial sequences were sequenced and showed to correspond to Rickettsia felis, indicating that the flea colony was 100% infected by R. felis. The immunofluorescence assay (IFA showed the presence of R. felis-reactive antibodies in blood sera of 7 (87.5% out of 8 cats that were regularly used to feed the flea colony. From 15 humans that used to work with the flea colony in the laboratory, 6 (40.0% reacted positively to R. felis by IFA. Reactive feline and human sera showed low endpoint titers against R. felis, varying from 64 to 256. With the exception of one human serum, all R. felis-reactive sera were also reactive to Rickettsia rickettsii and/or Rickettsia parkeri antigens at similar titers to R. felis. The single human serum that was reactive solely to R. felis had an endpoint titer of 256, indicating that this person was infected by R. felis.

  11. Detection of Babesia hongkongensis sp. nov. in a Free-Roaming Felis catus Cat in Hong Kong

    OpenAIRE

    Wong, Samson S. Y.; Poon, Rosana W. S.; Hui, Janet J. Y.; Yuen, Kwok-Yung

    2012-01-01

    Intraerythrocytic Babesia-like trophozoites were seen in postmortem kidney sections of a free-roaming cat in Hong Kong. DNA sequences of the 18S rRNA and mitochondrial cytochrome b genes had only 96.7% and 90.4% nucleotide identity with known Babesia sequences. We propose that this new species be named Babesia hongkongensis.

  12. Propionate absorbed from the colon acts as gluconeogenic substrate in a strict carnivore, the domestic cat (Felis catus)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Verbrugghe, A; Hesta, M; Daminet, S;

    2012-01-01

    In six normal-weight and six obese cats, the metabolic effect of propionate absorbed from the colon was assessed. Two colonic infusions were tested in a crossover design with intervals of 4 weeks. The test solution contained 4 mmol sodium propionate per kg ideal body weight in a 0.2% NaCl solution...

  13. Using population genetic tools to develop a control strategy for feral cats (Felis catus) in Hawai'i

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, H.; Hess, S.C.; Cole, D.; Banko, P.C.

    2007-01-01

    Population genetics can provide information about the demographics and dynamics of invasive species that is beneficial for developing effective control strategies. We studied the population genetics of feral cats on Hawai'i Island by microsatellite analysis to evaluate genetic diversity and population structure, assess gene flow and connectivity among three populations, identify potential source populations, characterise population dynamics, and evaluate sex-biased dispersal. High genetic diversity, low structure, and high number of migrants per generation supported high gene flow that was not limited spatially. Migration rates revealed that most migration occurred out of West Mauna Kea. Effective population size estimates indicated increasing cat populations despite control efforts. Despite high gene flow, relatedness estimates declined significantly with increased geographic distance and Bayesian assignment tests revealed the presence of three population clusters. Genetic structure and relatedness estimates indicated male-biased dispersal, primarily from Mauna Kea, suggesting that this population should be targeted for control. However, recolonisation seems likely, given the great dispersal ability that may not be inhibited by barriers such as lava flows. Genetic monitoring will be necessary to assess the effectiveness of future control efforts. Management of other invasive species may benefit by employing these population genetic tools. ?? CSIRO 2007.

  14. Expression profiles of relaxin family peptides and their receptors indicate their influence on spermatogenesis in the domestic cat (Felis catus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braun, B C; Müller, K; Jewgenow, K

    2015-07-01

    Disturbed spermatogenesis is a common problem in felines. Studying spermatogenesis in the domestic cat can improve the understanding of the biological background and help to counteract fertility problems in other feline species. Here, we analyzed 3 relaxin family peptides (relaxin, relaxin-3, and INSL3) and their receptors (RXFP1, RXFP2, and RXFP3) as potential spermatogenic factors involving their expression in the testis at different stages of its development. It may be concluded from its stage-dependent expression that relaxin, together with RXFP1, appears to be involved in the first stage of spermatogenesis, whereas relaxin-3 via binding to RXFP3 influences spermiogenesis. Furthermore, correlations were observed between relaxin, relaxin-3, RXFP1, RXFP2 and RXFP3 messenger RNA expression, and the relative numbers of haploid cells in testes. The peptide INSL3 was highly expressed at all testis development stages. Because of the low and stage-independent expression of its receptor RXFP2, an auto- and/or paracrine function of INSL3 in spermatogenesis seems unlikely. In the adult testis, messenger RNA expression of relaxin, RXFP1, and RXFP3 predominantly occurs in the tubular testis compartment, whereas INLS3 is mainly expressed in the interstitium. PMID:25704248

  15. Spotlight census of the red fox (Vulpes vulpes and the domestic cat (Felis catus in three sample areas of the Marches region (Central Italy / Censimento notturno di Volpe (Vulpes vulpes e di Gatto domestico (Felis catus in tre aree campione delle Marche

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    Massimo Pandolfi

    1991-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In order to evaluate the density of the red fox and of the domestic cat, 55 transects were made from 1986 to 1989 using spotlight census method in three sample areas. The mean density of foxes agreed substantially with its biological cycle and the hightes values (2.01 foxes/km² in spring and 4.3 foxes/km² in winter were recorded in the study area with the better natural characteristics. Foxes selected the shrub woodland (macchia all year round, the inhabited area in spring. The domestic cat was widely spread and abundant, and selected especially inhabited areas where the density varied from 4.27 cats/km² (in winter to 12.42 cat/km² (in spring. Riassunto Dal 1986 al 1989, con il metodo dei percorsi notturni con fari, sono stati effettuati complessivamente 55 conteggi in tre aree campione per valutare la densità della Volpe (Vulpes vulpes e del Gatto domestico (Felis catus nonché le loro preferenze ambientali limitatamente ad una zona campione. Per la Volpe le densità medie rilevate sono sostanzialmente in accordo con il ciclo biologico della specie e quelle più elevate (2,O1 volpi/km² in primavera e 4,3 volpi/km² in inverno sono state registrate nella zona campione con maggior presenza di boschi ed aree incolte. La Volpe seleziona le zone con vegetazione "di macchia" in ogni periodo dell'anno, e le aree abitate in primavera. Per il Gatto domestico le densità rilevate evidenziano la presenza di una diffusa ed abbondante popolazione. La specie mostra una spiccata preferenza per le aree abitate dove raggiunge densità di 4,27 individui/km² e 12,42 individui/km² in inverno e primavera rispettivamente.

  16. Rickettsia felis infection in cat fleas Ctenocephalides felis felis

    OpenAIRE

    Horta, Mauricio C.; Fabio B. Scott; Thaís R. Correia; Julio I. Fernandes; Leonardo J. Richtzenhain; Labruna, Marcelo B.

    2010-01-01

    The present study evaluated the rickettsial infection in a laboratory colony of cat fleas, Ctenocephalides felis felis (Bouche) in Brazil. All flea samples (30 eggs, 30 larvae, 30 cocoons, 30 males, and 30 females) tested by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) were shown to contain rickettsial DNA. PCR products, corresponding to the rickettsial gltA, htrA, ompA and ompB gene partial sequences were sequenced and showed to correspond to Rickettsia felis, indicating that the flea colony was 100% inf...

  17. SEROPREVALENCE OF Toxoplasma gondii (Nicole & Manceaux, 1909 AND RETROVIRAL STATUS OF CLIENT-OWNED PET CATS (Felis catus, Linnaeus, 1758 IN RIO DE JANEIRO, BRAZIL

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    Bethânia Ferreira Bastos

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Cats, as definitive host, play an important role in the transmission of Toxoplasma gondii. This study aimed to establish the seroprevalence of anti-T. gondii immunoglobulins G and M, and determine the frequency of oocysts in the feces of the domestic cat population in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. We also aimed to study the association between T. gondii infection and age, sex, breed, lifestyle, diet and retroviral infection. A total of 108 cats were included in the study and fecal samples of 54 of those cats were obtained. Only 5.6% of the cats were seropositive for anti-T. gondii immunoglobulins using the indirect hemagglutination test. None of the 54 cats presented oocysts in their fecal samples. Although not statistically significant, males, mixed-breed, free-roaming and cats aged two years and older were found to be more exposed. Age, lifestyle and the use of litter boxes were found to play an important role as risk factors. Anemia and retroviral infections were independent of T. gondii infection. No antibodies were detected in the majority of cats (94.4%, indicating that those cats had never been exposed to the parasite and, therefore, once infected, they could present the risk of shedding large numbers of oocysts into the environment.

  18. Anatomical study of the forearm and hand nerves of the domestic cat ( Felis catus), puma ( Puma concolor) and jaguar ( Panthera onca).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez, H L; Silva, L B; Rafasquino, M E; Mateo, A G; Zuccolilli, G O; Portiansky, E L; Alonso, C R

    2013-04-01

    The innervation of the forearm and hand regions of cats has not been well described despite its importance for any surgery or any neurological disorder. It is probably the main area where disorders of peripheral nerves in this species are observed. In felines, the forelimbs facilitate the jump and represent the most important way for capturing prey. The main muscles and nerves involved in this activity are located in the region of the forearm and hand. The aim of the present study was to provide a detailed description of the innervation of the forearm and hand regions of the jaguar and puma, in comparison with that of the domestic cat, contributing thus with the anatomical knowledge of the area for applying it to surgery and pathology. The forearms of three pumas and two jaguars (all of them fixed in formalin) and of six domestic cats (fresh) were dissected. The nerves path and their forearm distribution patterns of all three species were described. The analysed results indicate that the observed variations between species are minimal; thus, the anatomy described for domestic cats can be widely applied to American wild felids.

  19. Region-specific localization of NOS isoforms and NADPH-diaphorase activity in the intratesticular and excurrent duct systems of adult domestic cats (Felis catus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liman, Narin; Alan, Emel

    2016-03-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) is produced by nitric oxide synthases (NOSs) and plays an important role in all levels of reproduction from the brain to the reproductive organs. Recently, it has been discovered that all germ cells and Leydig cells in the cat testis exhibit stage-dependent nuclear and cytoplasmic endothelial (eNOS) and inducible (iNOS)-NOS immunoreactivity and cytoplasmic nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate-diaphorase (NADPH-d) reactivity. As a continuation of this finding, in this study, cellular localization of NADPH-d and immunolocalization and expression of all three NOS isoforms were investigated in the intratesticular (tubuli recti and rete testis), and excurrent ducts (efferent ductules, epididymal duct and vas deferens) of adult cats using histochemistry, immunohistochemistry and western blotting. NADPH-d activity was found in the midpiece of the spermatozoa tail and epithelial cells of all of ducts, except for nonciliated cells of the efferent ductules. Even though the immunoblotting results revealed similar levels of nNOS, eNOS and iNOS in the caput, corpus and cauda segments of epididymis and the vas deferens, immunostainings showed cell-specific localization in the efferent ductules and region- and cell-specific localization in the epididymal duct. All of three NOS isoforms were immunolocalized to the nuclear membrane and cytoplasm of the epithelial cells in all ducts, but were found in the tail and the cytoplasmic droplets of spermatozoa. These data suggest that NO/NOS activity might be of importance not only for the functions of the intratesticular and excurrent ducts but also for sperm maturation. PMID:26910642

  20. Occurrence of Leishmania (Leishmania) chagasi in a domestic cat (Felis catus) in Andradina, São Paulo, Brazil: case report Ocorrência de Leishmania (Leishmania) chagasi em gato doméstico (Felis catus) em Andradina, São Paulo, Brasil: relato de caso

    OpenAIRE

    Willian Marinho Dourado Coelho; Valéria Marçal Felix de Lima; Alessandro Francisco Talamini do Amarante; Helio Langoni; Virgínia Bodelão Richini Pereira; Aziz Abdelnour; Katia Denise Saraiva Bresciani

    2010-01-01

    This work describes natural infection by Leishmania in a domestic cat where amastigote forms of the parasite were observed in the popliteal lymph node imprint. Positive and negative serological reactions were observed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and indirect immunofluorescence assay (IFA), respectively. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) revealed that the nucleotide sequence of the sample was identical to Leishmania (L.) chagasi. This is the first report of the disease in feline...

  1. Cat Scratch Disease: the Rare Role of Afipia felis

    OpenAIRE

    Giladi, Michael; Avidor, Boaz; Kletter, Yehudith; Abulafia, Suzy; Slater, Leonard N.; Welch, David F.; Brenner, Don J.; Steigerwalt, Arnold G.; Whitney, Anne M.; Ephros, Moshe

    1998-01-01

    Since its isolation in 1988, Afipia felis has been associated with cat scratch disease (CSD) in only one report and its role in CSD has been questioned. We have cultured A. felis from a lymph node of a patient with CSD. 16S rRNA gene sequencing, DNA relatedness studies, fatty acid analysis, and PCR of the A. felis ferredoxin gene showed that the isolate is identical to the previously reported A. felis isolate. To determine the role of A. felis in CSD, PCR of the 16S rRNA gene followed by hybr...

  2. COMPARISON BETWEEN TWO METHODS OF STAINING FOR ASSESSMENT OF MORPHOLOGY AND ACROSOME IN DOMESTIC CAT (Felis catus SPERMATOZOA COMPARAÇÃO ENTRE DOIS MÉTODOS DE COLORAÇÃO PARA ANÁLISE MORFOLÓGICA E ACROSSOMAL DE ESPERMATOZÓIDES DE GATO DOMÉSTICO (Felis catus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frederico Ozanam Papa

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficiency of the modified Karras staining technique (KA to analyze domestic cat sperm morphology by comparing it with the Fast Green FCF/ Rose Bengal staining (FR, previously used for this species. Four adult cats were used, from which sperm samples were collected four times in alternate days for each tom using an artificial vagina (n=16 ejaculates. Both staining techniques were performed for each ejaculate. For the FR staining technique, the semen in natura was diluted in 2.9% sodium citrate and, afterwards, in the staining solution. After 70 seconds, smears were made onto slide and dried at 37ºC. For the KA staining technique, previously made and formol saline fixed slides were sequentially immersed in Rose Bengal solution, Tannin solution, and Victoria Blue B solution, and dried at room temperature. For sperm evaluation, 200 sperm cells were assessed for each staining technique in all ejaculate samples using a bright field microscope at 1000X magnification. Statistical analysis used the non-parametric Wilcoxon test, establishing significance at p<0.05. For the KA staining technique, higher percentage of distal cytoplasmic droplets and lower percentage of sperm head defects were obtained when compared to the FR staining technique. This way, both staining techniques were not totally efficient for the assessment of morphological defects found in the domestic cat in natura spermatozoa.

    KEY WORDS: Acrosome, domestic cat, spermatozoa, sperm morphology, staining.

     

    O objetivo do estudo foi avaliar a eficiência do método de colora

  3. Occurrence of Leishmania (Leishmania chagasi in a domestic cat (Felis catus in Andradina, São Paulo, Brazil: case report Ocorrência de Leishmania (Leishmania chagasi em gato doméstico (Felis catus em Andradina, São Paulo, Brasil: relato de caso

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Willian Marinho Dourado Coelho

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This work describes natural infection by Leishmania in a domestic cat where amastigote forms of the parasite were observed in the popliteal lymph node imprint. Positive and negative serological reactions were observed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA and indirect immunofluorescence assay (IFA, respectively. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR revealed that the nucleotide sequence of the sample was identical to Leishmania (L. chagasi. This is the first report of the disease in felines of the city of Andradina, SP, an area considered endemic for canine and human visceral leishmaniasis.Neste trabalho, é relatada a infecção natural por Leishmania em um gato doméstico no qual, formas amastigotas do parasito foram observadas em imprint de linfonodo poplíteo. Reações sorológicas positivas e negativas foram observadas pelo teste de imunoadsorção enzimática (ELISA e reação de imunofluorescência indireta (RIFI, respectivamente. A reação em cadeia da polimerase (PCR revelou que a sequência de nucleotídeos foi idêntica à Leishmania (L. chagasi. Este é o primeiro relato da doença em felino da cidade de Andradina, Estado de São Paulo, Brasil, área considerada endêmica para leishmaniose visceral canina e humana.

  4. The detection of Felis catus papillomavirus 3 DNA in a feline bowenoid in situ carcinoma with novel histologic features and benign clinical behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munday, John S; Fairley, Rob; Atkinson, Karen

    2016-09-01

    Bowenoid in situ carcinoma (BISC; papillomavirus-associated squamous cell carcinoma in situ) is an uncommon skin neoplasm of cats that can result in euthanasia because of the development of multiple lesions or because of progression to invasive squamous cell carcinoma. BISCs are currently thought to be caused by Felis catus papillomavirus 2 (FcaPV-2). The presently described cat developed a single 0.5 cm in diameter interscapular mass. Over the following 18 months, the mass doubled in size; no additional lesions developed. The mass was surgically excised and histologically diagnosed as a BISC. However, in contrast to previously reported BISCs, neither prominent thickening of the deep aspects of the follicular infundibula nor marked cell dysplasia were present. Furthermore, ~50% of the keratinocytes in the affected epidermis had prominent PV cytopathic changes that included shrunken angular nuclei and elongated basophilic cytoplasmic inclusions. As the histopathology was not typical for FcaPV-2 infection, polymerase chain reaction was performed and revealed only DNA sequences from Felis catus papillomavirus 3 (FcaPV-3). No further BISCs developed in this cat 6 months postremoval, hence surgical excision appeared to be curative. Results from this case suggest that, although FcaPV-2 appears to be the predominant cause of BISCs in cats, infection by FcaPV-3 can also cause these neoplasms. BISCs caused by FcaPV-3 appear to have unique histologic features that allow the causative PV type to be predicted. Results from this single case suggest that BISCs caused by FcaPV-3 may have a more benign clinical course than those caused by FcaPV-2. PMID:27423734

  5. Hallazgo de un hemopárasito eritrocítico tipo Cytauxzoon en Felis catus domesticus

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    Baraboglia, E. R.

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available ResumenSe comunica el hallazgo de protozoarios eritrocíticos en Felis catusdomesticus con características morfológicas de Cytauxzoon, no pudiendoarriesgarse la especie por los detalles que exponemos, como tampoco señalar cual serían el o los vectores que actúan en nuestros casos por las particularidades que surgen de los mismos.SummaryWe show the finding of erythrocytic parasites in Felis catus domesticus similar to Cytauxzoon detected by us. It is not possible to confirm the species not either the vector.

  6. Toxoplasma gondii, Dirofilaria immitis, feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV), and feline leukemia virus (FeLV) infections in stray and pet cats (Felis catus) in northwest China: co-infections and risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cong, Wei; Meng, Qing-Feng; Blaga, Radu; Villena, Isabelle; Zhu, Xing-Quan; Qian, Ai-Dong

    2016-01-01

    This study was conducted to estimate the prevalence of Toxoplasma gondii, Dirofilaria immitis, feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV), and feline leukemia virus (FeLV) infections among stray and pet cats in Lanzhou, northwest China, and to identify the influence of age, gender, and regions on seropositivity. T. gondii antibodies were examined in cat sera by the modified agglutination test (MAT). The circulating antigens of D. immitis and FeLV and specific antibodies to FIV were examined using kits commercially available. The overall prevalence of T. gondii, FIV, FeLV, and D. immitis was 19.34, 9.12, 11.33, and 3.04 %, respectively. For the genetic characterization of T. gondii genotypes in cats, genomic DNA was extracted from the seropositive cats and the T. gondii B1 gene was amplified using a semi-nested PCR. DNA samples giving positive B1 amplification were then genotyped using multilocus PCR-RFLP. Two T. gondii genotypes (ToxoDB#9 and ToxoDB#1) were identified. Results of the multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that older cats are more likely to be seropositive than juveniles for T. gondii, FIV, FeLV, and D. immitis. This is the first report of T. gondii genotypes in cats in northwest China. Moreover, the present study is the first study of retrovirus and D. immitis seroprevalence in cats in China. The results revealed that T. gondii, FIV, and FeLV infections are common in stray and pet cats in northwest China.

  7. Vocal correlates of sender-identity and arousal in the isolation calls of domestic kitten (Felis silvestris catus

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    Scheumann Marina

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Human speech does not only communicate linguistic information but also paralinguistic features, e.g. information about the identity and the arousal state of the sender. Comparable morphological and physiological constraints on vocal production in mammals suggest the existence of commonalities encoding sender-identity and the arousal state of a sender across mammals. To explore this hypothesis and to investigate whether specific acoustic parameters encode for sender-identity while others encode for arousal, we studied infants of the domestic cat (Felis silvestris catus. Kittens are an excellent model for analysing vocal correlates of sender-identity and arousal. They strongly depend on the care of their mother. Thus, the acoustical conveyance of sender-identity and arousal may be important for their survival. Results We recorded calls of 18 kittens in an experimentally-induced separation paradigm, where kittens were spatially separated from their mother and siblings. In the Low arousal condition, infants were just separated without any manipulation. In the High arousal condition infants were handled by the experimenter. Multi-parametric sound analyses revealed that kitten isolation calls are individually distinct and differ between the Low and High arousal conditions. Our results suggested that source- and filter-related parameters are important for encoding sender-identity, whereas time-, source- and tonality-related parameters are important for encoding arousal. Conclusion Comparable findings in other mammalian lineages provide evidence for commonalities in non-verbal cues encoding sender-identity and arousal across mammals comparable to paralinguistic cues in humans. This favours the establishment of general concepts for voice recognition and emotions in humans and animals.

  8. Prevalence and infection load dynamics of Rickettsia felis in actively feeding cat fleas.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathryn E Reif

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Rickettsia felis is a flea-associated rickettsial pathogen recurrently identified in both colonized and wild-caught cat fleas, Ctenocephalides felis. We hypothesized that within colonized fleas, the intimate relationship between R. felis and C. felis allows for the coordination of rickettsial replication and metabolically active periods during flea bloodmeal acquisition and oogenesis. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A quantitative real-time PCR assay was developed to quantify R. felis in actively feeding R. felis-infected fleas. In three separate trials, fleas were allowed to feed on cats, and a mean of 3.9x10(6 R. felis 17-kDa gene copies was detected for each flea. A distinct R. felis infection pattern was not observed in fleas during nine consecutive days of bloodfeeding. However, an inverse correlation between the prevalence of R. felis-infection, which ranged from 96% in Trial 1 to 35% in Trial 3, and the R. felis-infection load in individual fleas was identified. Expression of R. felis-infection load as a ratio of R. felis/C. felis genes confirmed that fleas in Trial 3 had significantly greater rickettsial loads than those in Trial 1. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: Examining rickettsial infection dynamics in the flea vector will further elucidate the intimate relationship between R. felis and C. felis, and facilitate a more accurate understanding of the ecology and epidemiology of R. felis transmission in nature.

  9. Estudo morfométrico de rins em felinos domésticos (Felis catus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael G. Agopian

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Resumo A saúde renal tem ao longo dos últimos anos chamado atenção dos médicos veterinários, pois o comprometimento deste órgão na insuficiência renal crônica se apresenta como a maior causa de morbidade e mortalidade em felinos. O presente estudo propõe a caracterização biométrica dos rins de gatos, Felis catus, sob os aspectos macroscópicos (comprimento, altura, largura, peso e volume, mesoscópico (altura do córtex e da medula, e a sua inter-relação e microscópica (volume glomerular, a fim de se estabelecer possíveis diferenças decorrentes de idade, sexo e simetria bilateral. Foram utilizados, rins de 30 animais da espécie Felis catus (gato deméstico, sendo 15 machos e 15 fêmeas com idade variando entre 3 meses a 15 anos, divididos em três grupos: grupo 1 (3-9 meses, grupo 2 (3-5 anos e grupo 3 (acima de 10 anos. Os rins foram fotografados, pesados, mensurados e processados para histologia. O volume glomerular foi obtido através de estereologia. Os dados macroscópicos permitiram observar uma imparcialidade morfométrica e morfológica quando comparados os lados, independente do grupo e do sexo, sobre o comprimento, altura, largura, peso e volume dos rins. Para o sexo foi detectado diferença significante entre machos e fêmeas independente da faixa etária para comprimento, altura, peso e volume, com exceção da largura. Considerando a idade houve diferença significativa para todos os parâmetros: comprimento, altura, largura, peso e volume. Nas mensurações de córtex, medula e sua inter-relação, quando considerada a simetria bilateral, não foi detectada diferença significante entre rim direito e esquerdo. Para o sexo, não foi detectada diferença entre machos e fêmeas na mesoscopia no córtex, na medula e na inter-relação córtex/medula. Quanto à idade, a mensuração da altura do córtex e a inter-relação córtex/medula apresentou diferença significante, porém essa diferença não foi estabelecida

  10. Life cycle of Cystoisospora felis (Coccidia: Apicomplexa) in cats and mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cystoisospora felis is a ubiquitous apicomplexan protozoon of cats. The endogenous development of C. felis was studied in cats after feeding them infected mice. For this, 5 newborn cats were killed at 24, 48, 72, 96, and 120 h after having been fed mesenteric lymph nodes and spleens of mice that wer...

  11. Prevalence and Infection Load Dynamics of Rickettsia felis in Actively Feeding Cat Fleas

    OpenAIRE

    Reif, Kathryn E.; Stout, Rhett W.; Gretchen C Henry; Lane D Foil; Macaluso, Kevin R.

    2008-01-01

    Background Rickettsia felis is a flea-associated rickettsial pathogen recurrently identified in both colonized and wild-caught cat fleas, Ctenocephalides felis. We hypothesized that within colonized fleas, the intimate relationship between R. felis and C. felis allows for the coordination of rickettsial replication and metabolically active periods during flea bloodmeal acquisition and oogenesis. Methodology/Principal Findings A quantitative real-time PCR assay was developed to quantify R. fel...

  12. Integrated morphological and molecular identification of cat fleas (Ctenocephalides felis) and dog fleas (Ctenocephalides canis) vectoring Rickettsia felis in central Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, Andrea L; Hii, Sze-Fui; Jirsová, Dagmar; Panáková, Lucia; Ionică, Angela M; Gilchrist, Katrina; Modrý, David; Mihalca, Andrei D; Webb, Cameron E; Traub, Rebecca J; Šlapeta, Jan

    2015-06-15

    Fleas of the genus Ctenocephalides are the most common ectoparasites infesting dogs and cats world-wide. The species Ctenocephalides felis and Ctenocephalides canis are competent vectors for zoonotic pathogens such as Rickettsia felis and Bartonella spp. Improved knowledge on the diversity and phylogenetics of fleas is important for understanding flea-borne pathogen transmission cycles. Fleas infesting privately owned dogs and cats from the Czech Republic (n=97) and Romania (n=66) were subjected to morphological and molecular identification and phylogenetic analysis. There were a total of 59 (60.82%) cat fleas (Ctenocephalides felis felis), 30 (30.93%) dog fleas (Ctenocephalides canis), 7 (7.22%) European chicken fleas (Ceratophyllus gallinae) and 1 (1.03%) northern rat flea (Nosopsyllus fasciatus) collected in the Czech Republic. Both C. canis and C. felis felis were identified in Romania. Mitochondrial DNA sequencing at the cox1 gene on a cohort of 40 fleas revealed the cosmopolitan C. felis felis clade represented by cox1 haplotype 1 is present in the Czech Republic. A new C. felis felis clade from both the Czech Republic and Romania is also reported. A high proportion of C. canis was observed from dogs and cats in the current study and phylogeny revealed that C. canis forms a sister clade to the oriental cat flea Ctenocephalides orientis (syn. C. felis orientis). Out of 33 fleas tested, representing C. felis felis, C. canis and Ce. gallinae, 7 (21.2%) were positive for R. felis using diagnostic real-time PCR targeting the gltA gene and a conventional PCR targeting the ompB gene. No samples tested positive for Bartonella spp. using a diagnostic real-time PCR assay targeting ssrA gene. This study confirms high genetic diversity of C. felis felis globally and serves as a foundation to understand the implication for zoonotic disease carriage and transmission by the flea genus Ctenocephalides.

  13. Taxonomy Icon Data: domestic cat [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available tris_catus_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Felis+silvestris+catus&t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy..._icon/icon.cgi?i=Felis+silvestris+catus&t=NL http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy..._icon/icon.cgi?i=Felis+silvestris+catus&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Felis+silvestris+catus&t=NS ...

  14. Efficacy of selamectin against adult flea infestations (Ctenocephalides felis felis and Ctenocephalides canis) on dogs and cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McTier, T L; Jones, R L; Holbert, M S; Murphy, M G; Watson, P; Sun, F; Smith, D G; Rowan, T G; Jernigan, A D

    2000-08-23

    Selamectin was evaluated in eight controlled studies (4 in dogs, 4 in cats) to determine the efficacy of a single topical unit dose providing the recommended minimum dosage of 6mgkg(-1) against Ctenocephalides felis felis and Ctenocephalides canis fleas on dogs and against C. felis on cats. In addition, the effect of bathing on the efficacy of selamectin against C. felis was evaluated. Identical studies were performed in Beagles and domestic shorthaired cats. For each study, animals were allocated randomly to treatments of 8-12 animals each. All studies (dog studies A, B, C, and D and cat studies A, B, C, and D) evaluated the efficacy of selamectin without bathing. In addition, study C in both dogs and cats evaluated efficacy with a shampoo bath at 24h after dosing, and study D evaluated the efficacy of selamectin with water soaking at 2h after dosing or with a shampoo bath at 2-6h after dosing. Dog study B evaluated efficacy against C. canis, whereas all other studies used C. felis. In each study, selamectin was administered on day 0 as a topical dose that was applied directly to the skin in a single spot at the base of the neck in front of the scapulae. Dogs and cats were infested with approximately 100 viable unfed C. felis or C. canis on days 4, 11, 18, and 27. On days 7, 14, 21, and 30, approximately 72h after infestation, a comb count of the number of viable fleas present on each animal was made. For C. felis and C. canis for dogs and cats, compared with controls, selamectin achieved significant reductions in geometric mean adult flea comb counts of > or =98.9% on days 7, 14, and 21 in all eight studies. On day 30, the reduction for C. felis remained at or above 98.0%. This included the dogs and cats that were soaked with water or bathed with shampoo at 2, 6, or 24h after treatment. There were no significant (P>0.05) differences between the flea counts from selamectin-treated animals in these studies, regardless of bathing status. On day 30, a significant

  15. Efficacy of selamectin against adult flea infestations (Ctenocephalides felis felis and Ctenocephalides canis) on dogs and cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McTier, T L; Jones, R L; Holbert, M S; Murphy, M G; Watson, P; Sun, F; Smith, D G; Rowan, T G; Jernigan, A D

    2000-08-23

    Selamectin was evaluated in eight controlled studies (4 in dogs, 4 in cats) to determine the efficacy of a single topical unit dose providing the recommended minimum dosage of 6mgkg(-1) against Ctenocephalides felis felis and Ctenocephalides canis fleas on dogs and against C. felis on cats. In addition, the effect of bathing on the efficacy of selamectin against C. felis was evaluated. Identical studies were performed in Beagles and domestic shorthaired cats. For each study, animals were allocated randomly to treatments of 8-12 animals each. All studies (dog studies A, B, C, and D and cat studies A, B, C, and D) evaluated the efficacy of selamectin without bathing. In addition, study C in both dogs and cats evaluated efficacy with a shampoo bath at 24h after dosing, and study D evaluated the efficacy of selamectin with water soaking at 2h after dosing or with a shampoo bath at 2-6h after dosing. Dog study B evaluated efficacy against C. canis, whereas all other studies used C. felis. In each study, selamectin was administered on day 0 as a topical dose that was applied directly to the skin in a single spot at the base of the neck in front of the scapulae. Dogs and cats were infested with approximately 100 viable unfed C. felis or C. canis on days 4, 11, 18, and 27. On days 7, 14, 21, and 30, approximately 72h after infestation, a comb count of the number of viable fleas present on each animal was made. For C. felis and C. canis for dogs and cats, compared with controls, selamectin achieved significant reductions in geometric mean adult flea comb counts of > or =98.9% on days 7, 14, and 21 in all eight studies. On day 30, the reduction for C. felis remained at or above 98.0%. This included the dogs and cats that were soaked with water or bathed with shampoo at 2, 6, or 24h after treatment. There were no significant (P>0.05) differences between the flea counts from selamectin-treated animals in these studies, regardless of bathing status. On day 30, a significant

  16. Assessing Introgression betweenEuropean Wildcats (Felis silvestris silvestris) and Domestic Cats (Felis silvestris catus)

    OpenAIRE

    Nussberger, Beatrice

    2013-01-01

    Introgression is an important issue in evolutionarybiology. It is defined as the flow of genes between taxa through hybridization beyond the first generation. Introduced genes of a closely related taxon may serve as raw material for rapid adaptive evolutionary change. On the other hand, introgression could lead to reduced fitness in hybrids, i.e. outbreeding depression, if the newly mixed traits are maladapted to the environment or if, on the genomiclevel, co-adapted gene complexes are di...

  17. Amyloidosis in black-footed cats (Felis nigripes).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terio, K A; O'Brien, T; Lamberski, N; Famula, T R; Munson, L

    2008-05-01

    A high prevalence of systemic amyloidosis was documented in the black-footed cat (Felis nigripes) based on a retrospective review of necropsy tissues (n = 38) submitted as part of ongoing disease surveillance. Some degree of amyloid deposition was present in 33 of 38 (87%) of the examined cats, and amyloidosis was the most common cause of death (26/38, 68%). Amyloid deposition was most severe in the renal medullary interstitium (30/33, 91%) and glomeruli (21/33, 63%). Other common sites included the splenic follicular germinal centers (26/31, 84%), gastric lamina propria (9/23, 39%), and intestinal lamina propria (3/23, 13%). Amyloid in all sites stained with Congo red, and in 13 of 15 (87%) cats, deposits had strong immunoreactivity for canine AA protein by immunohistochemistry. There was no association with concurrent chronic inflammatory conditions (P = .51), suggesting that amyloidosis was not secondary to inflammation. Adrenal cortical hyperplasia, a morphologic indicator of stress that can predispose to amyloid deposition, was similarly not associated (P = .09) with amyloidosis. However, adrenals were not available from the majority of cats without amyloidosis; therefore, further analysis of this risk factor is warranted. Heritability estimation suggested that amyloidosis might be familial in this species. Additionally, tissues from a single free-ranging black-footed cat had small amounts of amyloid deposition, suggesting that there could be a predilection for amyloidosis in this species. Research to identify the protein sequence of serum amyloid A (SAA) in the black-footed cat is needed to further investigate the possibility of an amyloidogenic SAA in this species.

  18. Chlamydia felis exposure in companion dogs and cats in Lanzhou, China: a public health concern

    OpenAIRE

    Wu, Song-Ming; Huang, Si-Yang; Xu, Min-Jun; Zhou, Dong-Hui; Song, Hui-Qun; Zhu, Xing-Quan

    2013-01-01

    Background Chlamydiaceae is a family of obligate intracellular pathogens with a worldwide distribution in many animal species, including humans. No information exists on the prevalence of Chlamydia felis infections in cats and dogs in Lanzhou, the geographical center of China. The aim of this study was to carry out a census of cats and dogs in Lanzhou and document the seroprevalence of C. felis exposure in these companion animals. Results In this study, blood samples were collected from 485 a...

  19. Man's other best friend: domestic cats (F. silvestris catus) and their discrimination of human emotion cues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galvan, Moriah; Vonk, Jennifer

    2016-01-01

    The ability of domestic dogs (C. lupus famaliaris) to follow and attend to human emotion expressions is well documented. It is unknown whether domestic cats (F. silvestris catus) possess similar abilities. Because cats belong to the same order (Carnivora), but did not evolve to live in complex social groups, research with them enables us to tease apart the influence of social structure versus domestication processes on the capacity to recognize human communicative cues, such as emotions. Two experiments were conducted to determine the extent to which domestic cats discriminate between human emotion cues. The first experiment presented cats with facial and postural cues of happiness and anger from both an unfamiliar experimenter and their familiar owner in the absence of vocal cues. The second experiment presented cats with vocal cues of human emotion through a positively or negatively charged conversation between an experimenter and owner. Domestic cats were only modestly sensitive to emotion, particularly when displayed by their owner, suggesting that a history of human interaction alone may not be sufficient to shape such abilities in domestic cats. PMID:26400749

  20. How cats lap

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stocker, Roman; Reis, Pedro; Jung, Sunghwan; Aristoff, Jeffrey

    2010-11-01

    We studied the lapping of the domestic cat (Felis catus) by combining high-speed photography with a laboratory model of lapping. We found that Felis catus laps by a subtle mechanism based on water adhesion to the dorsal side of the tongue and the creation of a liquid column, exploiting inertia to defeat gravity and pull liquid into the mouth. The competition between inertia and gravity controls the pinch-off time of the column, determining the optimal lapping frequency, f. Felis catus was found to operate near the optimum and theoretical analysis yielded a scaling, f ˜M-1/6, of lapping frequency with animal mass, M. This prediction was verified by measuring lapping frequency across felids, from ocelots to lions, suggesting that the lapping mechanism is conserved among felines.

  1. Efficacy of indoxacarb applied to cats against the adult cat flea, Ctenocephalides felis, flea eggs and adult flea emergence

    OpenAIRE

    Dryden, Michael W; Payne, Patricia A; Smith, Vicki; Heaney, Kathleen; Sun, Fangshi

    2013-01-01

    Background A study was conducted to evaluate the effect of indoxacarb applied to cats on adult cat fleas, Ctenocephalides felis, flea egg production and adult flea emergence. Methods Sixteen cats were selected for the study and allocated to two treatment groups. Eight cats were treated with a 19.5% w/v topical spot-on solution of indoxacarb on day 0 and eight cats served as untreated controls. Each cat was infested with 50 fleas on Days -2, 7, 14, 21, 28, 35 and 42. On Days 1, 2, and 3, and a...

  2. Conservation inequality and the charismatic cat: Felis felicis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.A. Macdonald

    2015-01-01

    . While the felids are widely regarded as a popular taxonomic group, the great extent to which they appealed to our respondents emphasises their potential as ambassadors for conservation. Indeed, the big cats were so highly rated that we might think of them as one, Felis felicis: a globally powerful flagship for conservation.

  3. Transforming properties of Felis catus papillomavirus type 2 E6 and E7 putative oncogenes in vitro and their transcriptional activity in feline squamous cell carcinoma in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altamura, Gennaro; Corteggio, Annunziata; Pacini, Laura; Conte, Andrea; Pierantoni, Giovanna Maria; Tommasino, Massimo; Accardi, Rosita; Borzacchiello, Giuseppe

    2016-09-01

    Felis catus papillomavirus type 2 (FcaPV2) DNA is found in feline cutaneous squamous cell carcinomas (SCCs); however, its biological properties are still uncharacterized. In this study, we successfully expressed FcaPV2 E6 and E7 putative oncogenes in feline epithelial cells and demonstrated that FcaPV2 E6 binds to p53, impairing its protein level. In addition, E6 and E7 inhibited ultraviolet B (UVB)-triggered accumulation of p53, p21 and pro-apoptotic markers such as Cleaved Caspase3, Bax and Bak, suggesting a synergistic action of the virus with UV exposure in tumour pathogenesis. Furthermore, FcaPV2 E7 bound to feline pRb and impaired pRb levels, resulting in upregulation of the downstream pro-proliferative genes Cyclin A and Cdc2. Importantly, we demonstrated mRNA expression of FcaPV2 E2, E6 and E7 in feline SCC samples, strengthening the hypothesis of a causative role in the development of feline SCC. PMID:27236740

  4. Teaching A-level Genetics: The Coat Colours of the Domestic Cat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talbot, D. J.; Talbot, C. D.

    1992-01-01

    The authors provide an introduction to the inheritance of coat colors in cats and suggest strategies designed to integrate the domestic cat (Felis domesticus or catus) into the teaching of genetics. Provides examples to illustrate dominance, recessiveness, epistasis, multiple allelism, environmental effect of phenotype, incomplete dominance,…

  5. Detection of Helicobacter felis in a cat with gastric disease in laboratory animal facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Sunhwa; Chung, Yungho; Kang, Won-Guk

    2016-01-01

    A 3-month-old male cat in the animal facility was presented for investigation of anorexia and occasional vomiting. We collected the specimens from gastroscopic biopsy and stool collection. The gastroscopic biopsy specimens were tested using a rapid urease test, CLO Helicobacter-detection kits. Stool specimens were gathered and evaluated using the commercially available SD Bioline H. pylori Ag kit according to the manufacturer's instructions. Genomic DNAs from gastroscopic biopsy and stool specimens of the cat were extracted and submitted to the consensus PCR to amplify Helicobacter rpoB gene. Then the DNAs from gastroscopic biopsy and stool specimens were conducted a multiplex species-specific PCR to amplify urease B gene for H. heilmannii, H. pylori and H. felis. As the results, the rapid urease test with gastroscopic biopsy was revealed positive reaction. The result of H. pylori Stool Ag assay was one red line, negative for H. pylori. The gastroscopic biopsy and stool specimen were positive reactions by the consensus PCR reaction using the RNA polymerase beta-subunit-coding gene (rpoB) to detect Helicobacter species. By multiplex species-specific PCR with gastroscopic biopsy and stool specimens, no amplification products corresponding to either H. heilmannii or H. pylori were detected, but the specimens tested were positive for H. felis. This case was confirmed as gastroenteric disease induced by H. felis infection. On our knowledge, this is a very rare report about H. felis-induced gastroenteric disease in cat and may provide a valuable data on the study of feline Helicobacter infection. PMID:27382381

  6. Retroviruses and sexual size dimorphism in domestic cats (Felis catus L.).

    OpenAIRE

    Pontier, D; Fromont, E; Courchamp, F.; Artois, M; Yoccoz, N G

    1998-01-01

    Hochberg and co-workers have predicted that an increase in host adult mortality due to parasites is balanced by an earlier age at first reproduction. In polygynous species we hypothesize that such a pattern would lead to diverging selection pressure on body size between sexes and increased sexual size dimorphism. In polygynous mammals, male body size is considered to be an important factor for reproductive success. Thus, under the pressure of a virulent infection, males should be selected for...

  7. Heartworm (Dirofilaria immitis) disease and glomerulonephritis in a black-footed cat (Felis nigripes).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deem, S L; Heard, D J; LaRock, R

    1998-06-01

    A 6-yr-old, 1.36-kg, intact female black-footed cat (Felis nigripes) was presented to the Veterinary Medical Teaching Hospital, University of Florida, with a history of depression, lethargy, and anorexia. Cardiac dysfunction and renal failure were diagnosed on the basis of antemortem and postmortem findings. At necropsy, heartworms (Dirofilaria immitis), glomerulonephritis, and endometritis were present. The glomerulonephritis could have been immune mediated and may have been associated with the heartworm infection or the chronic endometritis or both. Heartworm disease should be included in the list of differential diagnoses for any exotic cat housed outdoors in an endemic heartworm region that dies peracutely or has suggestive gastrointestinal or respiratory signs. Heartworm prophylaxis and annual serologic testing in exotic cats housed outdoors in heartworm endemic regions are recommended. PMID:9732037

  8. Will a hiding box provide stress reduction for shelter cats?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vinke, Claudia; Godijn, L.M.; van der Leij, Ruth

    2014-01-01

    Domestic cats (Felis sylvestris catus) can experience serious stress in shelters. Stressful experiences can have a major impact on the cats’ welfare and may cause higher incidences of infectious diseases in the shelters due to raised cortisol levels causing immuno deficiency.Though several studies s

  9. Fecal endocrine profiles and ejaculate traits in black-footed cats (Felis nigripes) and sand cats (Felis margarita).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrick, J R; Bond, J B; Campbell, M; Levens, G; Moore, T; Benson, K; D'Agostino, J; West, G; Okeson, D M; Coke, R; Portacio, S C; Leiske, K; Kreider, C; Polumbo, P J; Swanson, W F

    2010-01-15

    Information regarding the reproductive biology of black-footed cats (BFC) and sand cats (SC) is extremely limited. Our objectives were to: (1) validate fecal hormone analysis (estrogens, E; progestagens, P; androgens, T) for noninvasive monitoring of gonadal activity; (2) characterize estrous cyclicity, ovulatory mechanisms, gestation, and seasonality; and (3) evaluate male reproductive activity via fecal androgen metabolites and ejaculate traits. In both species, the estrous cycle averaged 11-12 days. In BFC (n=8), estrus lasted 2.2+/-0.2 days with peak concentrations of E (2962.8+/-166.3 ng/g feces) increasing 2.7-fold above basal concentrations. In SC (n=6), peak concentrations of E (1669.9+/-83.5 ng/g feces) during estrus (2.9+/-0.2 days) were 4.0-fold higher than basal concentrations. Nonpregnant luteal phases occurred in 26.5% (26 of 98) of BFC estrous cycles, but were not observed in SC (0 of 109 cycles). In both species, P concentrations during pregnancy were elevated (32.3+/-3.0 microg/g feces BFC; 8.5+/-0.7 microg/g feces SC) approximately 10-fold above basal concentrations. Fecal T concentrations in males averaged 3.1+/-0.1 microg/g feces in BFC and 2.3+/-0.0 microg/g feces in SC. Following electroejaculation, 200 to 250 microl of semen was collected containing 29.9 (BFC) to 36.5 (SC)x10(6) spermatozoa with 40.4 (SC) to 46.8 (BFC)% normal morphology. All females exhibited estrous cycles during the study and spermatozoa were recovered from all males on every collection attempt, suggesting poor reproductive success in these species may not be due to physiological infertility.

  10. Blood Meal Identification in Off-Host Cat Fleas (Ctenocephalides felis) from a Plague-Endemic Region of Uganda

    OpenAIRE

    Graham, Christine B.; Borchert, Jeff N.; Black, William C.; ATIKU, LINDA A.; Mpanga, Joseph T; Boegler, Karen A.; Moore, Sean M.; Gage, Kenneth L.; Eisen, Rebecca J.

    2013-01-01

    The cat flea, Ctenocephalides felis, is an inefficient vector of the plague bacterium (Yersinia pestis) and is the predominant off-host flea species in human habitations in the West Nile region, an established plague focus in northwest Uganda. To determine if C. felis might serve as a Y. pestis bridging vector in the West Nile region, we collected on- and off-host fleas from human habitations and used a real-time polymerase chain reaction-based assay to estimate the proportion of off-host C. ...

  11. Toxoplasmosis in sand cats (Felis margarita) and other animals in the Breeding Centre for Endangered Arabian Wildlife in the United Arab Emirates

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Sand cat (Felis margarita) is a small-sized felid occurring in the United Arab Emirates (UAE). The Sand cat captive breeding program at the Breeding Centre for Endangered Arabian Wildlife (BCEAW), Sharjah, UAE, has experienced high newborn mortality rates, and congenital toxoplasmosis was recent...

  12. Rickettsial Infections among Ctenocephalides felis and Host Animals during a Flea-Borne Rickettsioses Outbreak in Orange County, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fogarty, Carrie; Krueger, Laura; Macaluso, Kevin R.; Odhiambo, Antony; Nguyen, Kiet; Farris, Christina M.; Luce-Fedrow, Alison; Bennett, Stephen; Jiang, Ju; Sun, Sokanary; Cummings, Robert F.; Richards, Allen L.

    2016-01-01

    Due to a resurgence of flea-borne rickettsioses in Orange County, California, we investigated the etiologies of rickettsial infections of Ctenocephalides felis, the predominant fleas species obtained from opossums (Didelphis virginiana) and domestic cats (Felis catus), collected from case exposure sites and other areas in Orange County. In addition, we assessed the prevalence of IgG antibodies against spotted fever group (SFGR) and typhus group (TGR) rickettsiae in opossum sera. Of the 597 flea specimens collected from opossums and cats, 37.2% tested positive for Rickettsia. PCR and sequencing of rickettsial genes obtained from C. felis flea DNA preparations revealed the presence of R. typhi (1.3%), R. felis (28.0%) and R. felis-like organisms (7.5%). Sera from opossums contained TGR-specific (40.84%), but not SFGR-specific antibodies. The detection of R. felis and R. typhi in the C. felis fleas in Orange County highlights the potential risk for human infection with either of these pathogens, and underscores the need for further investigations incorporating specimens from humans, animal hosts, and invertebrate vectors in endemic areas. Such studies will be essential for establishing a link in the ongoing flea-borne rickettsioses outbreaks. PMID:27537367

  13. Estimating free-roaming cat densities in urban areas: comparison of mark-resight and distance sampling

    OpenAIRE

    Schmidt, P. M.; Lopez, R. R.; Pierce, B. L.

    2007-01-01

    Obtaining reliable population estimates is imperative in managing wildlife populations, particularly when attempting to implement nuisance control measures. Free-roaming cats (Felis catus) impact wildlife worldwide through predation, competition and disease transmission. Ideally, measures of controlling free-roaming cat populations should be evaluated a priori, which requires obtaining population estimates for use in population control programs (e.g., euthanasia, trap/treat/neuter/release). W...

  14. EFFECTS OF SURGICAL STRESS ON THE SECRETION OF LUTEINIZING HORMONE, TESTOSTERONE AND CORTISOL IN THE DOMESTIC CAT (Felis catus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gelson Genaro

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available A influência do estresse sobre as diversas funções fisiológicas tem sido por longo tempo estudada. Observações de que situações de estresse são geralmente acompanhadas de alterações nas atividades reprodutivas são também conhecidas. Assim, utilizaram-se 21 gatos (machos,adultos em procedimento cirúrgico (24, 48 e 72 h, após canulação do vaso jugular direito, coletando-se sangue para dosagem, via radioimunoensaio, dos hormônios cortisol, testosterona e hormônio luteinizante (LH. Os resultados obtidos demonstraram que, para o gato doméstico, os níveis séricos dos hormônios estudados apresentaram uma elevação acentuada em suas concentrações, após o ato cirúrgico, e que diminuía gradativamente, voltando aos valores basais ao final de 48 h (2 ng/ml para o cortisol, 1ng/ml para testosteona, e 3,5 ng/ml para LH, aproximadamente, regularizando-se a seguir. Esses resultados demonstram que, após procedimento cirúrgico, os felinos têm suas concentrações especialmente de cortisol aumentadas significativamente. O intervalo de pelo menos três dias deve ser aguardado antes que se proceda a quaisquer outros processos de manipulação que envolvam o sistema endócrino dessa espécie animal, já que durante esse período as concentrações de cortisol, bem como de outros hormônios, estão alteradas. PALAVRAS-CHAVE: Cortisol, estresse, gato, LH, testosterona.

  15. Anticipation is differently expressed in rats (Rattus norvegicus) and domestic cats (Felis silvestris catus) in the same Pavlovian conditioning paradigm

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bos, van den R.; Meijer, M.K.; Renselaar, van J.; Harst, van der J.E.; Spruijt, B.M.

    2003-01-01

    In rats (Rattus norvegicus) anticipation to an oncoming food reward in an appetitive Pavlovian conditioning procedure is expressed as an increase of behavioural transitions, i.e. hyperactivity. This behaviour might be related to the spontaneous appetitive behaviour of animals in relation to oncoming

  16. ISOLATION AND GENETIC CHARACTERIZATION OF TOXOPLASMA GONDII FROM RACCOONS (PROCYON LOTOR), CATS (FELIS DOMESTICUS), STRIPED SKUNK (MEPHITIS MEPHITIS), BLACK BEAR (URSUS AMERICANUS), AND COUGAR (PUMA CONCOLOR) FROM CANADA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viable Toxoplasma gondii was isolated by bioassay in mice from tissues of 2 feral cats ( Felis domesticus), 2 raccoons (Procyon lotor), a skunk (Mephitis mephitis) trapped in remote locations in Manitoba, Canada, and a black bear (Ursus americanus ) from Kuujjuaq, northern Quebec, Canada. Geno...

  17. Isolation and genetic characterization of Toxoplasma gondii from black bears (Ursus americanus), bobcats (Felis rufus), and feral cats (Felis catus) from Pennsylvania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toxoplasma gondii infects virtually all warm-blooded hosts worldwide. Recently, attention has been focused on the genetic diversity of the parasite to explain its pathogenicity in different hosts. It has been hypothesized that interaction between feral and domestic cycles of T. gondii may increase u...

  18. Aspectos morfométricos do timo em gatos domésticos (Felis domesticus Morphometric aspects of the thymus in domestic cats (Felis domesticus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camila E. Barroso

    2012-12-01

    defenses, it is not yet fully understood, neither the morphological basis accounting for such functions as the process of development and the organ involution. The objective was to analyze and characterize the morphology of the thymus, such as its size and volume, and histological aspects of the thymus in cats, correlating sex and age development. Twelve foetus of mongrel domestic cats (Felis domesticus, males and females, divided into three age groups. The thymus presented two parts with a pale pink color, the thoracic and cervical portion; each has a right lobe and a left lobe mostly. The thoracic portion was located in the region of cranial mediastinum, between the lungs and the heart base. And the cervical portion extended beyond the ribs cranially and is located ventral to the trachea. The thymus cellular structure was shown by the presence of organized concentric aggregates, named Hassall's corpuscles, formed by epithelial cells, supported by a connective tissue capsule that penetrated the parenchyma dividing it into lobules. Significant changes with number of lobes and thymus size between individuals of the same age, and between sex. The values for length, thickness and width, in general, showed an increase, according to the development of animals, with differences between sex.

  19. On Felis badia Gray

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jentink, F.A.

    1901-01-01

    Among some very commonly known mammals, presented to the Leyden Museum by the well-known Dutch Borneoexplorer Dr. Nieuwenhuis, I found a fine Cat quite distinct from all other cats I ever saw; it has a size somewhat larger than Felis planiceps, a small head like that cat, a much longer tail and a mu

  20. Stable individual differences in separation calls during early development in cats and mice

    OpenAIRE

    Hudson, Robyn; Rangassamy, Marylin; Saldaña, Amor; Bánszegi, Oxána; Rödel, Heiko G

    2015-01-01

    Background The development of ethologically meaningful test paradigms in young animals is an essential step in the study of the ontogeny of animal personality. Here we explore the possibility to integrate offspring separation (distress) calls into the study of consistent individual differences in behaviour in two species of mammals, the domestic cat (Felis silvestris catus) and the mound-building mouse (Mus spicilegus). Such vocal responses in young mammals are a potentially useful test optio...

  1. AVALIAÇÃO DE SEGURANÇA E ANALGESIA DE PROTOCOLOS ANESTÉSICOS PARA ELETROEJACULAÇÃO EM GATOS DOMÉSTICOS (Felis catus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TICIANA FRANCO PEREIRA DA SILVA

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the security and analgesia of anesthetics protocols usually used for electroejaculation (EEJ in domestic cats. Fourteen toms were anesthetized with 4 protocols and submitted to a 3 series of electric stimuli (2-6 mA. The heart rate, respiratory rate, temperature, pain sensibility and eyes blink were analyzed prior and after induction, and during and after electroejaculation. The anesthesia protocol thatused isoflurane was the best for analgesic parameters, security and speed of recuperation for electroejaculation in domestic cats

  2. Isoflavone metabolism in domestic fcats (Felis catus): comparison of plasma metabolites detected after ingestion of two different dietary forms of genistein daidzein

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Whitehouse-Tedd, K.; Cave, N.J.; Ugarte, C.E.; Waldron, L.A.; Prasain, J.K.; Arabshahi, A.; Barnes, S.; Hendriks, W.H.; Thomas, D.G.

    2013-01-01

    Some felid diets contain isoflavones but the metabolic capacity of cats towards isoflavones is relatively unknown, despite the understanding that isoflavones have divergent biological potential according to their metabolite end-products. The objective of this study was to determine the plasma metabo

  3. AVALIAÇÃO DE SEGURANÇA E ANALGESIA DE PROTOCOLOS ANESTÉSICOS PARA ELETROEJACULAÇÃO EM GATOS DOMÉSTICOS (Felis catus)

    OpenAIRE

    TICIANA FRANCO PEREIRA DA SILVA; CARLOS GABRIEL ALMEIDA DIAS; CAMILA LOUISE ACKERMANN; FRANCISCO TIAGO SILVA PINHEIRO; ANA CRISTINA PAULINO BRAGA; LÚCIA DANIEL MACHADO DA SILVA

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the security and analgesia of anesthetics protocols usually used for electroejaculation (EEJ) in domestic cats. Fourteen toms were anesthetized with 4 protocols and submitted to a 3 series of electric stimuli (2-6 mA). The heart rate, respiratory rate, temperature, pain sensibility and eyes blink were analyzed prior and after induction, and during and after electroejaculation. The anesthesia protocol thatused isoflurane was the best for analgesic pa...

  4. Comparative anatomy of the cardiac foramen ovale in cats (Felidae), dogs (Canidae), bears (Ursidae) and hyaenas (Hyaenidae).

    OpenAIRE

    Macdonald, A A; Johnstone, M.

    1995-01-01

    The structure of the foramen ovale from 16 species representing 4 carnivore families, the Felidae, Canidae, Ursidae and Hyaenidae, was studied using the scanning electron microscope. The Felidae were represented by 9 domestic cat fetuses (Felis catus), 2 snow leopard neonates (Uncia uncia), an ocelot neonate (Leopardus pardalis), 2 lion neonates (Panthera leo), a panther neonate (Panthera pardus) and 3 tigers (Neofelis tigris), comprising 2 fetuses and a neonate. The Canidae were represented ...

  5. Serotyping of Toxoplasma gondii in Cats (Felis domesticus) Reveals Predominance of Type II Infections in Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: Cats are definitive hosts of Toxoplasma gondii and play an essential role in the epidemiology of this parasite. The study aims at clarifying whether cats are able to develop specific antibodies against different clonal types of T. gondii and to determine by serotyping the T. gondii clona...

  6. Occupancy of the Invasive Feral Cat Varies with Habitat Complexity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hohnen, Rosemary; Tuft, Katherine; McGregor, Hugh W.; Legge, Sarah; Radford, Ian J.; Johnson, Christopher N.

    2016-01-01

    The domestic cat (Felis catus) is an invasive exotic in many locations around the world and is thought to be a key factor driving recent mammal declines across northern Australia. Many mammal species native to this region now persist only in areas with high topographic complexity, provided by features such as gorges or escarpments. Do mammals persist in these habitats because cats occupy them less, or despite high cat occupancy? We show that occupancy of feral cats was lower in mammal-rich habitats of high topographic complexity. These results support the idea that predation pressure by feral cats is a factor contributing to the collapse of mammal communities across northern Australia. Managing impacts of feral cats is a global conservation challenge. Conservation actions such as choosing sites for small mammal reintroductions may be more successful if variation in cat occupancy with landscape features is taken into account. PMID:27655024

  7. Food habits and temporal activity patterns of the Golden Jackal Canis aureus and the Jungle Cat Felis chaos in Pench Tiger Reserve, Madhya Pradesh

    OpenAIRE

    Majumder, A.; K. Sankar; Q. Qureshi; S. Basu

    2011-01-01

    The food habits and temporal activity patterns of the Golden Jackal Canis aureus and the Jungle Cat Felis chaus were studied between January 2008 and June 2009 in Pench Tiger Reserve (PTR), Madhya Pradesh. A total of 50 jackal scats and 85 jungle cat scats were collected where-ever encountered in the study area. Information on activity pattern was obtained using camera traps. Fifty-two pair self-triggered analog cameras were deployed in each 2 x 2 km² across the study area (> 250 km²) close t...

  8. Reconciling actual and perceived rates of predation by domestic cats

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Jennifer L; Maclean, Mairead; Evans, Matthew R; Hodgson, Dave J

    2015-01-01

    The predation of wildlife by domestic cats (Felis catus) is a complex problem: Cats are popular companion animals in modern society but are also acknowledged predators of birds, herpetofauna, invertebrates, and small mammals. A comprehensive understanding of this conservation issue demands an understanding of both the ecological consequence of owning a domestic cat and the attitudes of cat owners. Here, we determine whether cat owners are aware of the predatory behavior of their cats, using data collected from 86 cats in two UK villages. We examine whether the amount of prey their cat returns influences the attitudes of 45 cat owners toward the broader issue of domestic cat predation. We also contribute to the wider understanding of physiological, spatial, and behavioral drivers of prey returns among cats. We find an association between actual prey returns and owner predictions at the coarse scale of predatory/nonpredatory behavior, but no correlation between the observed and predicted prey-return rates among predatory cats. Cat owners generally disagreed with the statement that cats are harmful to wildlife, and disfavored all mitigation options apart from neutering. These attitudes were uncorrelated with the predatory behavior of their cats. Cat owners failed to perceive the magnitude of their cats’ impacts on wildlife and were not influenced by ecological information. Management options for the mitigation of cat predation appear unlikely to work if they focus on “predation awareness” campaigns or restrictions of cat freedom. PMID:26306163

  9. Computed tomography (CT) of the granial mediastinum in the cat (Felis silverstris F. domestica)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    14 mature clinically healthy domestic cats were studied using contrast computed tomography. Tomographic slices were made transversally across second (Th2) and third (Th3) thoracic vertebrae. The study was carried out using a soft-tissue and lung window. When using a lung window (Th2) the mediastinum was visualised as a heterodense mass, delineated by the lungs. The use of a soft-tissue window at levels Th2 and Th3 visualised the main mediastinal vessels and allowed a percise anatomic CT analysis

  10. Estudo microscópico e macroscópico, com enfoque radiográfico e de alizarina, no desenvolvimento embrionário e fetal de gatos domésticos (Felis catus em diferentes idades gestacionais

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dilayla K Abreu

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available O gato doméstico (Felis catus foi nomeado por Carolus Linnaeus em seu livro Systema Naturae, em 1798. A família Felidea apresenta muita semelhança morfológica com os felinos selvagens. O estudo da embriologia do gato doméstico é de grande valia, uma vez que, é considerado um importante modelo animal quando comparado aos gatos selvagem em extinção, especialmente relacionado às pesquisas sobre biologia reprodutiva. Este trabalho objetivou análisar e comparar as fases embrionárias de quatro embriões e um feto de felinos domésticos. Nos embriões com idade gestacional estimada em 17 dias (0,5cm CR podemos observar pela análise macroscópica a presença de dilatação rostral correspondente ao prosencéfalo, o local placóide do cristalino, a flexura cervical, os quatro arcos faríngeos com os sulcos que o dividem, a proeminência cardíaca, o indício do brotamento do membro pélvico, além da presença de somitos. Na região caudal do embrião, visualizamos a curvatura cranio-caudal, permitindo ao mesmo uma posição em formato de "C". Nos embriões com idade gestacional estimada em 22 dias (1,2cm CR, na análise macroscópica foi visualizado o prosencéfalo, vesícula óptica com pigmentação da retina, vesícula ótica, quarto ventrículo, fígado, membros torácicos e pélvicos com discreta distinção dos dígitos e vascularização superficial. Nos embriões com idade gestacional estimada em 25 dias (1,5cm CR notamos a presença do prosencéfalo e mesencéfalo, a curvatura cervical pronunciada, vesícula óptica com forte pigmentação da retina, vesícula ótica, membros pélvicos e torácicos bem desenvolvidos, com distinção dos dígitos e fígado bem pronunciado. Os fetos com idade gestacional estimada em 52 dias (10cm CR possuem estruturas internas e externas facilmente identificadas em animais adultos. Com relação às estruturas ósseas notamos que as mesmas não apresentam nenhuma epífise óssea formada, sendo vis

  11. Born to roam? Surveying cat owners in Tasmania, Australia, to identify the drivers and barriers to cat containment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLeod, Lynette J; Hine, Donald W; Bengsen, Andrew J

    2015-12-01

    Free-roaming domestic cats, Felis catus, are a major public nuisance in neighbourhoods across the world, and have been linked to biodiversity loss and a host of community health problems. Owners who let their cats roam, also place their cats at risk of serious injury. One management strategy that is gaining considerable support involves encouraging cat owners to contain their pets within their property. Contemporary behaviour change models highlight the importance of identifying drivers and barriers that encourage and discourage target behaviours such as cat containment. Results from a random dial phone survey of 356 cat owners in northern Tasmania identified four distinct cat containment profiles: owners who contained their cat all the time, owners who only contained their cat at night, owners who sporadically contained their cat with no set routine, and owners who made no attempt to contain their pet. Our results indicated that cat-owners' decisions to contain or not contain their cats were guided by a range of factors including owners' beliefs about their ability to implement an effective containment strategy and their views about the physical and psychological needs of their cats. The results are discussed in terms of improving the behavioural effectiveness of cat containment interventions by selecting appropriate behavioural change tools for the identified drivers and barriers, and developing targeted engagement strategies and messaging. PMID:26603046

  12. Food habits and temporal activity patterns of the Golden Jackal Canis aureus and the Jungle Cat Felis chaos in Pench Tiger Reserve, Madhya Pradesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Majumder

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The food habits and temporal activity patterns of the Golden Jackal Canis aureus and the Jungle Cat Felis chaus were studied between January 2008 and June 2009 in Pench Tiger Reserve (PTR, Madhya Pradesh. A total of 50 jackal scats and 85 jungle cat scats were collected where-ever encountered in the study area. Information on activity pattern was obtained using camera traps. Fifty-two pair self-triggered analog cameras were deployed in each 2 x 2 km² across the study area (> 250 km² close to animal trails which were set to work on a continuous 24 hour period. Rodents contributed maximum in the diet of these two species (65% golden jackal scats and 56% jungle cat scats. Eight thousand five hundred and sixty camera-trap nights revealed 189 jungle cat captures and 49 golden jackal captures. The activity of golden jackal had a more homogeneous distribution in time. Present study showed that although some degree of overlap is observed between the two sympatric species, an overall difference in dietary composition and activity patterns enabled them to coexist in PTR.

  13. Environmental Aspects of Domestic Cat Care and Management: Implications for Cat Welfare

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stella, Judith L.

    2016-01-01

    Domestic cats (Felis silvestris catus) are the most commonly kept companion animals in the US with large populations of owned (86 million), free-roaming (70 million), research (13,000), and shelter (2-3 million) cats. Vast numbers of cats are maintained in homes and other facilities each year and are reliant on humans for all of their care. Understanding cat behavior and providing the highest quality environments possible, including positive human-cat interactions, based on research could help improve the outcomes of biomedical research, shelter adoptions, and veterinary care, as well as overall cat welfare. Often, however, cats' needs are inadequately met in homes and some aspects may also not be well met in research colonies and shelters, despite the fact that similar problems are likely to be encountered in all of these environments. This paper provides a brief overview of common welfare challenges associated with indoor housing of domestic cats. Essential considerations for cage confinement are reviewed, along with implications of poor cat coping, such as weakening of the human-animal bond and relinquishment to shelters. The important role that environmental management plays in cat behavior and welfare outcomes is explored along with the need for additional research in key areas.

  14. Antibody detection and molecular characterization of toxoplasma gondii from bobcats (Lynx rufus), domestic cats (Felis catus), and wildlife from Minnesota, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little is known of the epidemiology of toxoplasmosis in Minnesota. In this study, we evaluated Toxoplasma gondii infection in 50 wild bobcats (Lynx rufus) and 75 other animals on/near 10 cattle farms. Antibodies to T. gondii were assayed in serum samples or tissue fluids by the modified agglutinatio...

  15. Assessing Risks to Non-Target Species during Poison Baiting Programs for Feral Cats

    OpenAIRE

    Tony Buckmaster; Dickman, Christopher R.; Johnston, Michael J

    2014-01-01

    Poison baiting is used frequently to reduce the impacts of pest species of mammals on agricultural and biodiversity interests. However, baiting may not be appropriate if non-target species are at risk of poisoning. Here we use a desktop decision tree approach to assess the risks to non-target vertebrate species in Australia that arise from using poison baits developed to control feral house cats (Felis catus). These baits are presented in the form of sausages with toxicant implanted in the ba...

  16. Cats of the Pharaohs: Genetic Comparison of Egyptian Cat Mummies to their Feline Contemporaries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurushima, Jennifer D; Ikram, Salima; Knudsen, Joan; Bleiberg, Edward; Grahn, Robert A; Lyons, Leslie A

    2012-10-01

    The ancient Egyptians mummified an abundance of cats during the Late Period (664 - 332 BC). The overlapping morphology and sizes of developing wildcats and domestic cats confounds the identity of mummified cat species. Genetic analyses should support mummy identification and was conducted on two long bones and a mandible of three cats that were mummified by the ancient Egyptians. The mummy DNA was extracted in a dedicated ancient DNA laboratory at the University of California - Davis, then directly sequencing between 246 and 402 bp of the mtDNA control region from each bone. When compared to a dataset of wildcats (Felis silvestris silvestris, F. s. tristrami, and F. chaus) as well as a previously published worldwide dataset of modern domestic cat samples, including Egypt, the DNA evidence suggests the three mummies represent common contemporary domestic cat mitotypes prevalent in modern Egypt and the Middle East. Divergence estimates date the origin of the mummies' mitotypes to between two and 7.5 thousand years prior to their mummification, likely prior to or during Egyptian Predyanstic and Early Dynastic Periods. These data are the first genetic evidence supporting that the ancient Egyptians used domesticated cats, F. s. catus, for votive mummies, and likely implies cats were domesticated prior to extensive mummification of cats. PMID:22923880

  17. Absence of zoonotic Bartonella species in questing ticks: First detection of Bartonella clarridgeiae and Rickettsia felis in cat fleas in the Netherlands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reimerink Johan R

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Awareness for flea- and tick-borne infections has grown in recent years and the range of microorganisms associated with these ectoparasites is rising. Bartonella henselae, the causative agent of Cat Scratch Disease, and other Bartonella species have been reported in fleas and ticks. The role of Ixodes ricinus ticks in the natural cycle of Bartonella spp. and the transmission of these bacteria to humans is unclear. Rickettsia spp. have also been reported from as well ticks as also from fleas. However, to date no flea-borne Rickettsia spp. were reported from the Netherlands. Here, the presence of Bartonellaceae and Rickettsiae in ectoparasites was investigated using molecular detection and identification on part of the gltA- and 16S rRNA-genes. Results The zoonotic Bartonella clarridgeiae and Rickettsia felis were detected for the first time in Dutch cat fleas. B. henselae was found in cat fleas and B. schoenbuchensis in ticks and keds feeding on deer. Two Bartonella species, previously identified in rodents, were found in wild mice and their fleas. However, none of these microorganisms were found in 1719 questing Ixodes ricinus ticks. Notably, the gltA gene amplified from DNA lysates of approximately 10% of the questing nymph and adult ticks was similar to that of an uncultured Bartonella-related species found in other hard tick species. The gltA gene of this Bartonella-related species was also detected in questing larvae for which a 16S rRNA gene PCR also tested positive for "Candidatus Midichloria mitochondrii". The gltA-gene of the Bartonella-related species found in I. ricinus may therefore be from this endosymbiont. Conclusions We conclude that the risk of acquiring Cat Scratch Disease or a related bartonellosis from questing ticks in the Netherlands is negligible. On the other hand fleas and deer keds are probable vectors for associated Bartonella species between animals and might also transmit Bartonella spp. to humans.

  18. Cystinuria Associated with Different SLC7A9 Gene Variants in the Cat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raj, Karthik; Osborne, Carl; Giger, Urs

    2016-01-01

    Cystinuria is a classical inborn error of metabolism characterized by a selective proximal renal tubular defect affecting cystine, ornithine, lysine, and arginine (COLA) reabsorption, which can lead to uroliths and urinary obstruction. In humans, dogs and mice, cystinuria is caused by variants in one of two genes, SLC3A1 and SLC7A9, which encode the rBAT and bo,+AT subunits of the bo,+ basic amino acid transporter system, respectively. In this study, exons and flanking regions of the SLC3A1 and SLC7A9 genes were sequenced from genomic DNA of cats (Felis catus) with COLAuria and cystine calculi. Relative to the Felis catus-6.2 reference genome sequence, DNA sequences from these affected cats revealed 3 unique homozygous SLC7A9 missense variants: one in exon 5 (p.Asp236Asn) from a non-purpose-bred medium-haired cat, one in exon 7 (p.Val294Glu) in a Maine Coon and a Sphinx cat, and one in exon 10 (p.Thr392Met) from a non-purpose-bred long-haired cat. A genotyping assay subsequently identified another cystinuric domestic medium-haired cat that was homozygous for the variant originally identified in the purebred cats. These missense variants result in deleterious amino acid substitutions of highly conserved residues in the bo,+AT protein. A limited population survey supported that the variants found were likely causative. The remaining 2 sequenced domestic short-haired cats had a heterozygous variant at a splice donor site in intron 10 and a homozygous single nucleotide variant at a branchpoint in intron 11 of SLC7A9, respectively. This study identifies the first SLC7A9 variants causing feline cystinuria and reveals that, as in humans and dogs, this disease is genetically heterogeneous in cats. PMID:27404572

  19. Cystinuria Associated with Different SLC7A9 Gene Variants in the Cat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizukami, Keijiro; Raj, Karthik; Osborne, Carl; Giger, Urs

    2016-01-01

    Cystinuria is a classical inborn error of metabolism characterized by a selective proximal renal tubular defect affecting cystine, ornithine, lysine, and arginine (COLA) reabsorption, which can lead to uroliths and urinary obstruction. In humans, dogs and mice, cystinuria is caused by variants in one of two genes, SLC3A1 and SLC7A9, which encode the rBAT and bo,+AT subunits of the bo,+ basic amino acid transporter system, respectively. In this study, exons and flanking regions of the SLC3A1 and SLC7A9 genes were sequenced from genomic DNA of cats (Felis catus) with COLAuria and cystine calculi. Relative to the Felis catus-6.2 reference genome sequence, DNA sequences from these affected cats revealed 3 unique homozygous SLC7A9 missense variants: one in exon 5 (p.Asp236Asn) from a non-purpose-bred medium-haired cat, one in exon 7 (p.Val294Glu) in a Maine Coon and a Sphinx cat, and one in exon 10 (p.Thr392Met) from a non-purpose-bred long-haired cat. A genotyping assay subsequently identified another cystinuric domestic medium-haired cat that was homozygous for the variant originally identified in the purebred cats. These missense variants result in deleterious amino acid substitutions of highly conserved residues in the bo,+AT protein. A limited population survey supported that the variants found were likely causative. The remaining 2 sequenced domestic short-haired cats had a heterozygous variant at a splice donor site in intron 10 and a homozygous single nucleotide variant at a branchpoint in intron 11 of SLC7A9, respectively. This study identifies the first SLC7A9 variants causing feline cystinuria and reveals that, as in humans and dogs, this disease is genetically heterogeneous in cats. PMID:27404572

  20. Evidence of feline immunodeficiency virus, feline leukemia virus, and Toxoplasma gondii in feral cats on Mauna Kea, Hawaii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danner, R.M.; Goltz, Dan M.; Hess, S.C.; Banko, P.C.

    2007-01-01

    We determined prevalence to feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) antibodies, feline leukemia virus (FeLV) antigen, and Toxoplasma gondii antibodies in feral cats (Felis catus) on Mauna Kea Hawaii from April 2002 to May 2004. Six of 68 (8.8%) and 11 of 68 (16.2%) cats were antibody positive to FIV and antigen positive for FeLV, respectively; 25 of 67 (37.3%) cats were seropositive to T. gondii. Antibodies to FeLV and T. gondii occurred in all age and sex classes, but FIV occurred only in adult males. Evidence of current or previous infections with two of these infectious agents was detected in eight of 64 cats (12.5%). Despite exposure to these infectious agents, feral cats remain abundant throughout the Hawaiian Islands. ?? Wildlife Disease Association 2007.

  1. Evidence of feline immunodeficiency virus, feline leukemia virus, and Toxoplasma gondii in feral cats on Mauna Kea, Hawaii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danner, Raymond M; Goltz, Daniel M; Hess, Steven C; Banko, Paul C

    2007-04-01

    We determined prevalence to feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) antibodies, feline leukemia virus (FeLV) antigen, and Toxoplasma gondii antibodies in feral cats (Felis catus) on Mauna Kea Hawaii from April 2002 to May 2004. Six of 68 (8.8%) and 11 of 68 (16.2%) cats were antibody positive to FIV and antigen positive for FeLV, respectively; 25 of 67 (37.3%) cats were seropositive to T. gondii. Antibodies to FeLV and T. gondii occurred in all age and sex classes, but FIV occurred only in adult males. Evidence of current or previous infections with two of these infectious agents was detected in eight of 64 cats (12.5%). Despite exposure to these infectious agents, feral cats remain abundant throughout the Hawaiian Islands.

  2. Haematology and biochemistry values of captive sand cats (Felis margarita in Al Ain Wildlife Park and Resort, United Arab Emirates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen Chege

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate the haematology and biochemistry values of apparently healthy captive sand cats kept in Al Ain Wildlife Park and Resort, United Arab Emirates, with a view to establishing baseline values. Methods: Blood was collected from the femoral vein using aseptic techniques, kept in a cool box and sent to laboratory for analysis. The blood was analysed for haematological and biochemical values using veterinary hematology and chemistry analysers (ABX ABC Vet, Horiba ABX SAS ® Montpellier, France. Results: Haematological values were within the normal ranges recorded in domestic cats and there was no statistical difference between values found in males and females. Aspartate aminotransferase values were higher (P0.05 between males and females values. Conclusions: Our results present reference ranges for haematology and biochemistry parameters in captive sand cats. These values will be important for diagnosis of various diseases and monitoring of treatments.

  3. Haematology and biochemistry values of captive sand cats (Felis margarita) in Al Ain Wildlife Park and Resort, United Arab Emirates

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Stephen Chege; Arshad Toosy; Judith Howlett; Ahmed Saker; John Kagira

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the haematology and biochemistry values of apparently healthy captive sand cats kept in Al Ain Wildlife Park and Resort, United Arab Emirates, with a view to establishing baseline values.Methods:Blood was collected from the femoral vein using aseptic techniques, kept in a cool box and sent to laboratory for analysis. The blood was analysed for haematological and biochemical values using veterinary hematology and chemistry analysers (ABX ABC Vet, Horiba ABX SAS Montpellier, France). Results: Haematological values were within the normal ranges recorded in domestic cats and there was no statistical difference between values found in males and females. Aspartate aminotransferase values were higher (P0.05) between males and females values.Conclusions:Our results present reference ranges for haematology and biochemistry parameters in captive sand cats. These values will be important for diagnosis of various diseases and monitoring of treatments.

  4. Atypical Toxoplasma gondii genotype in feral cats from the Fernando de Noronha Island, northeastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melo, R P B; Almeida, J C; Lima, D C V; Pedrosa, C M; Magalhães, F J R; Alcântara, A M; Barros, L D; Vieira, R F C; Garcia, J L; Mota, R A

    2016-07-15

    Toxoplasma gondii isolates from Brazil have a different phenotypic and genotypic pattern, with predominance of virulent isolates and recombinant genotypes, compared to the North Hemisphere. Considering that a new T. gondii genotype, non-pathogenic to mice, was previously identified from free-range chickens from the Fernando de Noronha Island, Brazil, this study aimed to identify genotypes of this parasite in tissue samples of feral cats (Felis catus) from this Brazilian Island. Anti-T. gondii IgG antibodies were detected in 18/31 (58%) feral cats. Two non-virulent T. gondii isolates were obtained by mouse bioassay. Genotyping was performed by PCR-RFLP using 10 genetic markers (SAG1, SAG2, SAG3, BTUB, GRA6, c22-8, c29-2, PK1, L358 and Apico) and an atypical strain of T. gondii (ToxoDB #146) was identified. This is the first report of this genotype in feral cats. PMID:27270396

  5. What makes a feline fatal in Toxoplasma gondii's fatal feline attraction? Infected rats choose wild cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaushik, M; Knowles, S C L; Webster, J P

    2014-07-01

    Toxoplasma gondii is an indirectly transmitted protozoan parasite, of which members of the cat family (Felidae) are the only definitive hosts and small mammals such as rats serve as intermediate hosts. The innate aversion of rodents to cat odor provides an obstacle for the parasite against successful predation by the feline definitive host. Previous research has demonstrated that T. gondii appears to alter a rat's perception of the risk of being preyed upon by cats. Although uninfected rats display normal aversion to cat odor, infected rats show no avoidance and in some cases even show attraction to cat odor, which we originally termed the "Fatal Feline Attraction." In this study, we tested for the first time whether the "Fatal Feline Attraction" of T. gondii-infected rats differed according to the type of feline odor used, specifically whether it came from domestic cats (Felis silvestris catus) or wild cats-cheetahs (Acinonyx jubatus) or pumas (Felis concolor). In two-choice odor trials, where wild and domestic cat odors were competed against one another, consistent with previous findings we demonstrated that infected rats spent more time in feline odor zones compared with uninfected rats. However, we further demonstrated that all cat odors are not equal: infected rats had a stronger preference for wild cat odor over that of domestic cats, an effect that did not differ significantly according to the type of wild cat odor used (cheetah or puma). We discuss these results in terms of the potential mechanism of action and their implications for the current and evolutionary role of wild, in addition to domestic, cats in transmission of T. gondii. PMID:24907200

  6. Rickettsia felis, an emerging flea-transmitted human pathogen

    OpenAIRE

    Abdad, Mohammad Yazid; Stenos, John; Graves, Stephen

    2011-01-01

    Rickettsia felis was first recognised two decades ago and has now been described as endemic to all continents except Antarctica. The rickettsiosis caused by R. felis is known as flea-borne spotted fever or cat-flea typhus. The large number of arthropod species found to harbour R. felis, and be potential vectors, supports the view that it is a pan-global microbe. The main arthropod reservoir and vector is the cat flea, Ctenocephalides felis, yet a further twenty other species of fleas, ticks a...

  7. Rickettsia felis, an emerging flea-transmitted human pathogen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen Graves

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Rickettsia felis was first recognised two decades ago and has now been described as endemic to all continents except Antarctica. The rickettsiosis caused by R. felis is known as flea-borne spotted fever or cat-flea typhus. The large number of arthropod species found to harbour R. felis and that may act as potential vectors support the view that it is a pan-global microbe. The main arthropod reservoir and vector is the cat flea, Ctenocephalides felis, yet more than 20 other species of fleas, ticks, and mites species have been reported to harbour R. felis. Few bacterial pathogens of humans have been found associated with such a diverse range of invertebrates. With the projected increase in global temperature over the next century, there is concern that changes to the ecology and distribution of R. felis vectors may adversely impact public health.

  8. DOENÇA DO TRATO URINÁRIO EM GATOS (Felis catus domesticus, LINNAEUS, 1758 ATENDIDOS EM CLÍNICAS VETERINÁRIAS DA REGIÃO DE RIBEIRÃO PRETO-SP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Letícia Neves

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available O presente estudo teve como objetivos avaliar as afecções e os principais sinais clínicos em felinos domésticos com doença primária ou secundária do trato urinário (DTU e comparar os sintomasapresentados pelos animais com ou sem obstrução do trato urinário. Foram analisadas 49 fichas de pacientes felinos atendidos em 2 clínicas e 1 hospital veterinário, na região de Ribeirão Preto, SP. Os animais foram separados em grupos de acordo com a existência ou não de obstrução do fluxo urinário e se apresentavam sinaisclínicos referentes ao trato urinário secundários a outras doenças. O grupo G1 (animais obstruídos foi ainda subdividido em confirmados e suspeitos, o G2 (não obstruídos em confirmados, altamente suspeitos e suspeitos e o G3 foi constituído por felinos com manifestações do trato urinário secundárias à outras afecções. A doença do trato urinário (DTU foi verificada em 28 (57% machos e 21 fêmeas (43%. O G1 representou 39% das amostras (19 animais, o G2, 47% (23 animais e o G3, 14% (7 animais. Os sinais clínicos que diferiram entre os grupos G1 e G2 foram: oligúria, bexiga repleta / iscúria, poliúria, presença de plugs e urólitos no G1; piúria,sensibilidade na região renal, aumento de volume abdominal, icterícia, dificuldade de locomoção, gengivite e queda de pêlos no G2.This study aimed to evaluate the afeccion and clinical signs in domestic cats with primary or secondary disease of the urinary tract (DTU, and compare the symptoms shown by animals with or withouturinary tract obstruction. It has been analyzed 49 files of feline patients treated in two clinics and one veterinary hospital in the region of Ribeirão Preto, SP. The animals were separated into groups according to whether or not an obstruction of urinary tract was present, and if clinical signs related to the urinary tract were found. The G1 (obstructed animals was further divided into confirmed and suspected, G2 (non obstructed in

  9. Rickettsia felis as Emergent Global Threat for Humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Osorio, Carlos E.; Zavala-Velázquez, Jorge E.; León, Juan José Arias

    2008-01-01

    Rickettsia felis is an emergent pathogen belonging to transitional group rickettsiae. First described in 1990, R. felis infections have been reported to occur worldwide in fleas, mammals, and humans. Because clinical signs of the illness are similar to those of murine typhus and other febrile illnesses such as dengue, the infection in humans is likely underestimated. R. felis has been found throughout the world in several types of ectoparasites; cat fleas appear to be the most common vectors. R. felis infection should be considered an emergent threat to human health. PMID:18598619

  10. An Evaluation of Feral Cat Management Options Using a Decision Analysis Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jayna L. DeVore

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The feral domestic cat (Felis catus is a predatory invasive species with documented negative effects on native wildlife. The issue of appropriate and acceptable feral cat management is a matter of contentious debate in cities and states across the United States due to concerns for wildlife conservation, cat welfare, and public health. Common management strategies include: Trap-Neuter-Release, Trap-Neuter-Release with removal of kittens for adoption and Trap-Euthanize. Very little empirical evidence exists relevant to the efficacy of alternative options and a model-based approach is needed to predict population response and extend calculations to impact on wildlife. We have created a structured decision support model representing multiple stakeholder groups to facilitate the coordinated management of feral cats. We used a probabilistic graphical model (a Bayesian Belief Network to evaluate and rank alternative management decisions according to efficacy, societal preferences, and cost. Our model predicts that Trap-Neuter-Release strategies would be optimal management decisions for small local populations of less than fifty cats while Trap-Euthanize would be the optimal management decision for populations greater than 50 cats. Removal is predicted to reduce feral cat populations quickly and prevent cats from taking a large number of wildlife prey.

  11. Toxoplasmosis in Sand cats (Felis margarita) and other animals in the Breeding Centre for Endangered Arabian Wildlife in the United Arab Emirates and Al Wabra Wildlife Preservation, the State of Qatar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubey, J P; Pas, An; Rajendran, C; Kwok, O C H; Ferreira, L R; Martins, J; Hebel, C; Hammer, S; Su, C

    2010-09-20

    The Sand cat (Felis margarita) is a small-sized felid found in sand and stone deserts ranging from the north of Africa to Asia, with the Arabian Peninsula as its centre of distribution. The Sand cat captive breeding program at the Breeding Centre for Endangered Arabian Wildlife (BCEAW), Sharjah, UAE, has experienced high newborn mortality rates, and congenital toxoplasmosis was recently recognized as one of the causes of this mortality. In the present study, one 18-month-old Sand cat (FM019) died of acute toxoplasmosis-associated hepatitis and pneumonitis acquired after birth; Toxoplasma gondii was demonstrated in histological sections which reacted with T. gondii polyclonal antibodies by immunohistochemistry (IHC). T. gondii DNA was found by PCR of extracted DNA from liver and lung tissues of this cat. Antibodies to T. gondii were found in serum examined in 1:1600 dilution in the modified agglutination test (MAT); its 2-year-old cage mate seroconverted (MAT titer 1:3200) at the same time. Another Sand cat (FM017) was euthanized because of ill health when 3 years old; its MAT titer was >1:3200, and T. gondii tissue cysts were found in brain, heart, ocular muscles and skeletal muscle, confirmed by IHC. Viable T. gondii was isolated by bioassays in mice inoculated with tissues of another chronically infected Sand cat (FM002); T. gondii was not found in histological sections of this cat. T. gondii antibodies were found in several species of animals tested, notably in 49 of 57 wild felids at BCEAW. A 7-year-old Sand cat (3657) from Al Wabra Wildlife Preservation (AWWP), Doha, State of Qatar died of acute visceral toxoplasmosis with demonstrable T. gondii tachyzoites by IHC, and T. gondii DNA by PCR, and a MAT titer of >3200. T. gondii antibodies were found in 21 of 27 of wild felids at AWWP. PCR-RFLP genotyping at 10 genetic loci revealed that these T. gondii isolates from Sand cat (FM002 and FM019) at BCEAW have an atypical genotype, which was previously reported in T

  12. Toxoplasmosis in Sand cats (Felis margarita) and other animals in the Breeding Centre for Endangered Arabian Wildlife in the United Arab Emirates and Al Wabra Wildlife Preservation, the State of Qatar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubey, J P; Pas, An; Rajendran, C; Kwok, O C H; Ferreira, L R; Martins, J; Hebel, C; Hammer, S; Su, C

    2010-09-20

    The Sand cat (Felis margarita) is a small-sized felid found in sand and stone deserts ranging from the north of Africa to Asia, with the Arabian Peninsula as its centre of distribution. The Sand cat captive breeding program at the Breeding Centre for Endangered Arabian Wildlife (BCEAW), Sharjah, UAE, has experienced high newborn mortality rates, and congenital toxoplasmosis was recently recognized as one of the causes of this mortality. In the present study, one 18-month-old Sand cat (FM019) died of acute toxoplasmosis-associated hepatitis and pneumonitis acquired after birth; Toxoplasma gondii was demonstrated in histological sections which reacted with T. gondii polyclonal antibodies by immunohistochemistry (IHC). T. gondii DNA was found by PCR of extracted DNA from liver and lung tissues of this cat. Antibodies to T. gondii were found in serum examined in 1:1600 dilution in the modified agglutination test (MAT); its 2-year-old cage mate seroconverted (MAT titer 1:3200) at the same time. Another Sand cat (FM017) was euthanized because of ill health when 3 years old; its MAT titer was >1:3200, and T. gondii tissue cysts were found in brain, heart, ocular muscles and skeletal muscle, confirmed by IHC. Viable T. gondii was isolated by bioassays in mice inoculated with tissues of another chronically infected Sand cat (FM002); T. gondii was not found in histological sections of this cat. T. gondii antibodies were found in several species of animals tested, notably in 49 of 57 wild felids at BCEAW. A 7-year-old Sand cat (3657) from Al Wabra Wildlife Preservation (AWWP), Doha, State of Qatar died of acute visceral toxoplasmosis with demonstrable T. gondii tachyzoites by IHC, and T. gondii DNA by PCR, and a MAT titer of >3200. T. gondii antibodies were found in 21 of 27 of wild felids at AWWP. PCR-RFLP genotyping at 10 genetic loci revealed that these T. gondii isolates from Sand cat (FM002 and FM019) at BCEAW have an atypical genotype, which was previously reported in T

  13. Epidemiological survey of zoonotic helminths in feral cats in Gran Canaria island (Macaronesian archipelago-Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Ponce, Eligia; González, Jorge F; Conde de Felipe, Magnolia; Hernández, Julia N; Raduan Jaber, J

    2016-09-01

    The presence of zoonotic parasites in feral cats have been widely considered all over the world. In Gran Canaria (Macaronesian archipelago, Canary Islands, Spain) the number of feral cats has grown out of control in urban and rural areas. 48 of Felis catus captured in different Gran Canaria areas were studied. Animals were necropsied and several organs were systematically examined in order to collect and identify macroscopic parasites. In addition, coprological tests were done in 28 cats. There were no statistically significant differences in the prevalence rate among sex, age or capture area, showing an overall prevalence of helminths of 77.1%. The most common tapeworms were Dipylidium caninum (64.6%) and Taenia taeniaeformis (31.3%), followed by the nematodes Toxocara cati (20.8%), Ancylostoma tubaeforme (18.8%), Aelurostrongylusabstrusus (10.4%) and Trichuris vulpis (2.08%). We also find several eggs of Alaria alata in the small intestine of one cat (2.08%), being the first description of this trematode in cats in the Canary Islands. Aproximatelly, 40% of the studied cats harboured more than one parasite. High rates of zoonotic species found in these animals suggest the need of controling parasitic infections and preventive measures against them. PMID:27447205

  14. Haemobartonellosis in Van Cats

    OpenAIRE

    AKKAN, Hasan Altan; Karaca, Mehmet; TÜTÜNCÜ, Mehmet

    2005-01-01

    The present study was conducted to determine prevalence of Haemobartonella felis in Van cats. 121 Van cats (82 female, 39 male, aged 1-9 years) were the materials of the study. To determine biochemical and haematological parameters, 2 ml blood with and without anticoagulant were taken according to technique from vena cephalica antebrachii. H. felis was detected in blood smears preparations of 18 (14.88%) by Papenheim staining. Among biochemical parameters aspartate amino transferase (AST), al...

  15. Isolation and characterization of viable Toxoplasma gondii isolates revealed possible high frequency of mixed infection in feral cats (felis domesticus) from St. Kitts, West Indies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cats are essential in the epidemiology of Toxoplasma gondii because they are the only hosts that can excrete the environmentally resistant oocysts in nature. Samples of serum, feces, and tissues from feral cats from St. Kitts, West Indies were examined for T. gondii infection. Antibodies to T. gon...

  16. CANINE DISTEMPER VIRUS ANTIBODY TITERS IN DOMESTIC CATS AFTER DELIVERY OF A LIVE ATTENUATED VIRUS VACCINE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramsay, Edward; Sadler, Ryan; Rush, Robert; Seimon, Tracie; Tomaszewicz, Ania; Fleetwood, Ellen A; McAloose, Denise; Wilkes, Rebecca P

    2016-06-01

    Three methods for delivering a live attenuated canine distemper virus (CDV) vaccine to domestic cats ( Felis catus ) were investigated, as models for developing vaccination protocols for tigers (Panthera tigris). Twenty domestic cats were randomly divided into four treatment groups: saline injection (negative controls); and oral, intranasal, and subcutaneous vaccinates. Cats were injected with saline or a CDV vaccine (Nobivac DP, Merck) at wk 0 and 4. Blood and nasal swabs were collected at wk 0 (prior to the initial vaccination) and weekly thereafter for 9 wk. Urine samples were collected on wk 1 to 9 after initial vaccination. Forty-nine weeks following the initial vaccination series, three cats from the subcutaneous group and three cats from the intranasal group were revaccinated. Blood was collected immediately prior, and 7 and 21 days subsequent to revaccination. Nasal swabs and urine samples were collected from each cat prior to wk 49 revaccination and daily for 7 days thereafter. Nasal swabs and urine were analyzed by quantitative PCR for vaccine virus presence. Sera were tested for CDV antibodies by virus neutralization. All cats were sero-negative for CDV antibodies at the beginning of the study, and saline-injected cats remained sero-negative throughout the study. A dramatic anamnestic response was seen following wk 4 subcutaneous vaccinations, with titers peaking at wk 6 (geometric mean = 2,435.5). Following wk 49 revaccination, subcutaneous vaccinates again mounted impressive titers (wk 52 geometric mean = 2,048). Revaccination of the intranasal group cats at wk 49 produced a small increase in titers (wk 52 geometric mean = 203). CDV viral RNA was detected in six nasal swabs but no urine samples, demonstrating low viral shedding postvaccination. The strong antibody response to subcutaneous vaccination and the lack of adverse effects suggest this vaccine is safe and potentially protective against CDV infection in domestic cats. PMID:27468028

  17. Absence of zoonotic Bartonella species in questing ticks: First detection of Bartonella clarridgeiae and Rickettsia felis in cat fleas in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tijsse-Klasen, E.; Fonville, M.; Gassner, F.; Nijhof, A.M.; Hovius, E.K.E.; Jongejan, F.; Takken, W.; Reimerink, J.R.; Overgaauw, P.A.M.; Sprong, H.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Awareness for flea-and tick-borne infections has grown in recent years and the range of microorganisms associated with these ectoparasites is rising. Bartonella henselae, the causative agent of Cat Scratch Disease, and other Bartonella species have been reported in fleas and ticks. The r

  18. The 18-kDa form of cat allergen Felis domesticus 1 (Fel d 1) is associated with gelatin- and fibronectin-degrading activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ring, P C; Wan, H; Schou, C;

    2000-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Fel d 1, an important allergen from domestic cats, is a significant cause of asthma. In addition to directly promoting IgE synthesis, other biological activities of allergens may contribute to either allergic sensitization or the magnitude of allergic effector responses. For example...

  19. Genomic diversification in strains of Rickettsia felis Isolated from different arthropods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillespie, Joseph J; Driscoll, Timothy P; Verhoeve, Victoria I; Utsuki, Tadanobu; Husseneder, Claudia; Chouljenko, Vladimir N; Azad, Abdu F; Macaluso, Kevin R

    2015-01-01

    Rickettsia felis (Alphaproteobacteria: Rickettsiales) is the causative agent of an emerging flea-borne rickettsiosis with worldwide occurrence. Originally described from the cat flea, Ctenocephalides felis, recent reports have identified R. felis from other flea species, as well as other insects and ticks. This diverse host range for R. felis may indicate an underlying genetic variability associated with host-specific strains. Accordingly, to determine a potential genetic basis for host specialization, we sequenced the genome of R. felis str. LSU-Lb, which is an obligate mutualist of the parthenogenic booklouse Liposcelis bostrychophila (Insecta: Psocoptera). We also sequenced the genome of R. felis str. LSU, the second genome sequence for cat flea-associated strains (cf. R. felis str. URRWXCal2), which are presumably facultative parasites of fleas. Phylogenomics analysis revealed R. felis str. LSU-Lb diverged from the flea-associated strains. Unexpectedly, R. felis str. LSU was found to be divergent from R. felis str. URRWXCal2, despite sharing similar hosts. Although all three R. felis genomes contain the pRF plasmid, R. felis str. LSU-Lb carries an additional unique plasmid, pLbaR (plasmid of L. bostrychophila associated Rickettsia), nearly half of which encodes a unique 23-gene integrative conjugative element. Remarkably, pLbaR also encodes a repeats-in-toxin-like type I secretion system and associated toxin, heretofore unknown from other Rickettsiales genomes, which likely originated from lateral gene transfer with another obligate intracellular parasite of arthropods, Cardinium (Bacteroidetes). Collectively, our study reveals unexpected genomic diversity across three R. felis strains and identifies several diversifying factors that differentiate facultative parasites of fleas from obligate mutualists of booklice. PMID:25477419

  20. Toward a genome-wide approach for detecting hybrids: informative SNPs to detect introgression between domestic cats and European wildcats (Felis silvestris).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, R; Randi, E; Mattucci, F; Kurushima, J D; Lyons, L A; Alves, P C

    2015-09-01

    Endemic gene pools have been severely endangered by human-mediated hybridization, which is posing new challenges in the conservation of several vertebrate species. The endangered European wildcat is an example of this problem, as several natural populations are suffering introgression of genes from the domestic cat. The implementation of molecular methods for detecting hybridization is crucial for supporting appropriate conservation programs on the wildcat. In this study, genetic variation at 158 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) was analyzed in 139 domestic cats, 130 putative European wildcats and 5 captive-bred hybrids (N=274). These SNPs were variable both in wild (HE=0.107) and domestic cats (HE=0.340). Although we did not find any SNP that was private in any population, 22 SNPs were monomorphic in wildcats and pairwise FCT values revealed marked differences between domestic and wildcats, with the most divergent 35 loci providing an average FCT>0.74. The power of all the loci to accurately identify admixture events and discriminate the different hybrid categories was evaluated. Results from simulated and real genotypes show that the 158 SNPs provide successful estimates of admixture, with 100% hybrid individuals (two to three generations in the past) being correctly identified in STRUCTURE and over 92% using the NEWHYBRIDS' algorithm. None of the unclassified cats were wrongly allocated to another hybrid class. Thirty-five SNPs, showing the highest FCT values, provided the most parsimonious panel for robust inferences of parental and first generations of admixed ancestries. This approach may be used to further reconstruct the evolution of wildcat populations and, hopefully, to develop sound conservation guidelines for its legal protection in Europe. PMID:26103945

  1. Cats

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... those experienced by humans. Cats that hunt wild rodents and rabbits in the western, particularly the southwestern, ... caused by a fungus that can infect skin, hair, and nails of both people and animals. Ringworm ...

  2. Molecular and morphologic characterization of Sarcocystis felis (Apicomplexa: Sarcocystidae) in South American wild felids from Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cañón-Franco, William Alberto; López-Orozco, Natalia; Christoff, Alexandre Uarth; de Castilho, Camila Schlieper; de Araújo, Flavio Antônio Pacheco; Verma, Shiv Kumar; Dubey, J P; Soares, Rodrigo Martins; Gennari, Solange Maria

    2016-02-15

    Wild felids are thought to share parasites with domestic cats. However, little is known of the coccidian parasites of wild felids. We investigated the presence of Sarcocystis spp. in tissues of 6 species of 90 Neotropical small felids killed in road accidents in the state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil by using microscopic and molecular techniques. Formalin-fixed tissues from 28 felids were examined, and Sarcocystis felis-like sarcocysts were detected in 4 wild cats (2 Puma yagouaroundi and 2 Leopardus guttulus). By transmission electron microscopy, sarcocysts from a P. yagouaroundi were identical to S. felis from domestic cats in the USA. Direct sequencing of PCR amplicons resulted the unambiguous sequences of the ITS-1 region from 18 of the 31 PCR positive wild cats; 5 sequences from each P. yagouaroundi, and Leopardus geoffroyi, 4 sequences from L. guttulus, and 2 sequences from each Leopardus wiedii, and Leopardus colocolo. Sequences analysis of ITS-1 region revealed the highest identiy (97-99%) with that of previously describe isolates of S. felis from domestic cats in the USA and identified them as S. felis. Tissues of 1 Leopardus pardalis tested by PCR and histology were negative. The phylogenetic relationship indicated that S. felis is quite different to species which employ opossums as their definitive host. This is the first report of S. felis infection in small wild felids from Brazil. PMID:26827854

  3. Pseudogenization of a sweet-receptor gene accounts for cats' indifference toward sugar.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xia Li

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Although domestic cats (Felis silvestris catus possess an otherwise functional sense of taste, they, unlike most mammals, do not prefer and may be unable to detect the sweetness of sugars. One possible explanation for this behavior is that cats lack the sensory system to taste sugars and therefore are indifferent to them. Drawing on work in mice, demonstrating that alleles of sweet-receptor genes predict low sugar intake, we examined the possibility that genes involved in the initial transduction of sweet perception might account for the indifference to sweet-tasting foods by cats. We characterized the sweet-receptor genes of domestic cats as well as those of other members of the Felidae family of obligate carnivores, tiger and cheetah. Because the mammalian sweet-taste receptor is formed by the dimerization of two proteins (T1R2 and T1R3; gene symbols Tas1r2 and Tas1r3, we identified and sequenced both genes in the cat by screening a feline genomic BAC library and by performing PCR with degenerate primers on cat genomic DNA. Gene expression was assessed by RT-PCR of taste tissue, in situ hybridization, and immunohistochemistry. The cat Tas1r3 gene shows high sequence similarity with functional Tas1r3 genes of other species. Message from Tas1r3 was detected by RT-PCR of taste tissue. In situ hybridization and immunohistochemical studies demonstrate that Tas1r3 is expressed, as expected, in taste buds. However, the cat Tas1r2 gene shows a 247-base pair microdeletion in exon 3 and stop codons in exons 4 and 6. There was no evidence of detectable mRNA from cat Tas1r2 by RT-PCR or in situ hybridization, and no evidence of protein expression by immunohistochemistry. Tas1r2 in tiger and cheetah and in six healthy adult domestic cats all show the similar deletion and stop codons. We conclude that cat Tas1r3 is an apparently functional and expressed receptor but that cat Tas1r2 is an unexpressed pseudogene. A functional sweet-taste receptor heteromer

  4. Pseudogenization of a Sweet-Receptor Gene Accounts for Cats' Indifference toward Sugar.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Although domestic cats (Felis silvestris catus possess an otherwise functional sense of taste, they, unlike most mammals, do not prefer and may be unable to detect the sweetness of sugars. One possible explanation for this behavior is that cats lack the sensory system to taste sugars and therefore are indifferent to them. Drawing on work in mice, demonstrating that alleles of sweet-receptor genes predict low sugar intake, we examined the possibility that genes involved in the initial transduction of sweet perception might account for the indifference to sweet-tasting foods by cats. We characterized the sweet-receptor genes of domestic cats as well as those of other members of the Felidae family of obligate carnivores, tiger and cheetah. Because the mammalian sweet-taste receptor is formed by the dimerization of two proteins (T1R2 and T1R3; gene symbols Tas1r2 and Tas1r3, we identified and sequenced both genes in the cat by screening a feline genomic BAC library and by performing PCR with degenerate primers on cat genomic DNA. Gene expression was assessed by RT-PCR of taste tissue, in situ hybridization, and immunohistochemistry. The cat Tas1r3 gene shows high sequence similarity with functional Tas1r3 genes of other species. Message from Tas1r3 was detected by RT-PCR of taste tissue. In situ hybridization and immunohistochemical studies demonstrate that Tas1r3 is expressed, as expected, in taste buds. However, the cat Tas1r2 gene shows a 247-base pair microdeletion in exon 3 and stop codons in exons 4 and 6. There was no evidence of detectable mRNA from cat Tas1r2 by RT-PCR or in situ hybridization, and no evidence of protein expression by immunohistochemistry. Tas1r2 in tiger and cheetah and in six healthy adult domestic cats all show the similar deletion and stop codons. We conclude that cat Tas1r3 is an apparently functional and expressed receptor but that cat Tas1r2 is an unexpressed pseudogene. A functional sweet-taste receptor heteromer

  5. A deletion in FOXN1 is associated with a syndrome characterized by congenital hypotrichosis and short life expectancy in Birman cats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie Abitbol

    Full Text Available An autosomal recessive syndrome characterized by congenital hypotrichosis and short life expectancy has been described in the Birman cat breed (Felis silvestris catus. We hypothesized that a FOXN1 (forkhead box N1 loss-of-function allele, associated with the nude phenotype in humans, mice and rats, may account for the syndrome observed in Birman cats. To the best of our knowledge, spontaneous mutations in FOXN1 have never been described in non-human, non-rodent mammalian species. We identified a recessive c.1030_1033delCTGT deletion in FOXN1 in Birman cats. This 4-bp deletion was associated with the syndrome when present in two copies. Percentage of healthy carriers in our French panel of genotyped Birman cats was estimated to be 3.2%. The deletion led to a frameshift and a premature stop codon at position 547 in the protein. In silico, the truncated FOXN1 protein was predicted to lack the activation domain and critical parts of the forkhead DNA binding domain, both involved in the interaction between FOXN1 and its targets, a mandatory step to promote normal hair and thymic epithelial development. Our results enlarge the panel of recessive FOXN1 loss-of-function alleles described in mammals. A DNA test is available; it will help owners avoid matings at risk and should prevent the dissemination of this morbid mutation in domestic felines.

  6. Home range and movements of Feral cats on Mauna Kea, Hawai'i

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goltz, Dan M.; Hess, S.C.; Brinck, K.W.; Banko, P.C.; Danner, R.M.

    2008-01-01

    Feral cats Felis catus in dry subalpine woodland of Mauna Kea, Hawai'i, live in low density and exhibit some of the largest reported home ranges in the literature. While 95% fixed kemel home range estimates for three females averaged 772 ha, four males averaged 1 418 ha, and one male maintained a home range of 2 050 ha. Mean daily movement rates between sexes overlapped widely and did not differ significantly (P = 0.083). Log-transformed 95% kernel home ranges for males were significantly larger than those of females (P = 0.024), but 25% kernel home ranges for females were larger than those of males (P = 0.017). Moreover, log-transformed home ranges of males were also significantly larger than those of females in this and seven other studies from the Pacific region (P = 0.044). Feral cats present a major threat to endangered Hawaiian birds, but knowledge of their ecology can be used for management by optimizing trap spacing and creating buffer zones around conservation areas.

  7. Trophic garnishes: cat-rat interactions in an urban environment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregory E Glass

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Community interactions can produce complex dynamics with counterintuitive responses. Synanthropic community members are of increasing practical interest for their effects on biodiversity and public health. Most studies incorporating introduced species have been performed on islands where they may pose a risk to the native fauna. Few have examined their interactions in urban environments where they represent the majority of species. We characterized house cat (Felis catus predation on wild Norway rats (Rattus norvegicus, and its population effects in an urban area as a model system. Three aspects of predation likely to influence population dynamics were examined; the stratum of the prey population killed by predators, the intensity of the predation, and the size of the predator population. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Predation pressure was estimated from the sizes of the rat and cat populations, and the characteristics of rats killed in 20 alleys. Short and long term responses of rat population to perturbations were examined by removal trapping. Perturbations removed an average of 56% of the rats/alley but had no negative long-term impact on the size of the rat population (49.6+/-12.5 rats/alley and 123.8+/-42.2 rats/alley over two years. The sizes of the cat population during two years (3.5 animals/alley and 2.7 animals/alley also were unaffected by rat population perturbations. Predation by cats occurred in 9/20 alleys. Predated rats were predominantly juveniles and significantly smaller (144.6 g+/-17.8 g than the trapped rats (385.0 g+/-135.6 g. Cats rarely preyed on the larger, older portion of the rat population. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The rat population appears resilient to perturbation from even substantial population reduction using targeted removal. In this area there is a relatively low population density of cats and they only occasionally prey on the rat population. This occasional predation primarily removes the

  8. Parasite meningomyelitis in cats in Uruguay Meningomielites parasitária em gatos no Uruguai

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodolfo Rivero

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Two outbreaks of progressive hind limb paresis in cats (Felis catus caused by parasitic meningomyelitis in Uruguay are reported. The case studies occurred in 2008 and 2009 respectively, in the rural areas of Fray Bentos (33º 07' 40.39" S and were characterized by hindquarter paralysis. This paralysis was progressive and had a chronic progression of approximately 12 months until the death or euthanasia of the animals. Clinical symptoms started with ataxia of the hindquarters with lateral side-to-side swaying and culminated in total paralysis. Two animals were sent for necropsy in 2009. The main histopathological findings were severe myelitis in the lumbar spinal cord with perivascular cuffing and white matter necrosis, severe nonsuppurative meningitis with thrombi in subarachnoid blood vessels, and intravascular presence of multiple adult parasites. From the morphological characteristics of the parasites and location in the leptomeninges, the parasite was identified as the nematode Gurltia paralysans.São relatados dois surtos de paralisia progressiva dos membros posteriores em gatos (Felis catus, causada por meningomielite parasitária no Uruguai. Os estudos de casos ocorreram entre os anos 2008 e 2009, respectivamente, nas zonas rurais de Fray Bentos (33º 07' 40,39" S e foram caracterizados por paralisia dos membros posteriores. Esta paralisia era progressiva e tinha evolução crônica de aproximadamente 12 meses, até que os animais vinham a óbito ou eram eutanasiados. Os sintomas clínicos começaram com ataxia dos membros posteriores, com movimentos laterais, terminado em paralisia total. Em 2009, dois animais foram encaminhados para necropsia. Os achados histopatológicos foram caracterizados por severa mielite na medula espinhal lombar com manguitos perivasculares linfocitarios e necrose da substância branca, severa meningite não supurativa com trombos nos vasos sanguíneos subaracnóideos, e presença intravascular de m

  9. Temporal overlaps of feral cats with prey and competitors in primary and human-altered habitats on Bohol Island, Philippines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogdan, Vlastimil; Jůnek, Tomáš; Jůnková Vymyslická, Pavla

    2016-01-01

    The vertebrate fauna of the Philippines, known for its diversity and high proportion of endemic species, comprises mainly small- to medium-sized forms with a few large exceptions. As with other tropical ecosystems, the major threats to wildlife are habitat loss, hunting and invasive species, of which the feral cat (Felis catus) is considered the most damaging. Our camera-trapping study focused on a terrestrial vertebrate species inventory on Bohol Island and tempo-spatial co-occurrences of feral cats with their prey and competitors. The survey took place in the Rajah Sikatuna Protected Landscape, and we examined the primary rainforest, its border with agricultural land, and rural areas in the vicinity of villages. Altogether, over 2,885 trap days we captured 30 species of vertebrates-10 mammals (including Sus philippensis), 19 birds and one reptile, Varanus cumingi. We trapped 81.8% of expected vertebrates. Based on the number of events, the most frequent native species was the barred rail (Gallirallus torquatus). The highest overlap in diel activity between cats and potential prey was recorded with rodents in rural areas (Δ = 0.62); the lowest was in the same habitat with ground-dwelling birds (Δ = 0.40). Cat activity was not recorded inside the rainforest; in other habitats their diel activity pattern differed. The cats' activity declined in daylight in the proximity of humans, while it peaked at the transition zone between rainforest and fields. Both rodents and ground-dwelling birds exhibited a shift in activity levels between sites where cats were present or absent. Rodents tend to become active by day in cat-free habitats. No cats' temporal response to co-occurrences of civets (Paradoxurus hermaphroditus and Viverra tangalunga) was found but cats in diel activity avoided domestic dogs (Canis lupus familiaris). Our first insight into the ecology of this invasive predator in the Philippines revealed an avoidance of homogeneous primary rainforest and a

  10. Temporal overlaps of feral cats with prey and competitors in primary and human-altered habitats on Bohol Island, Philippines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogdan, Vlastimil; Jůnek, Tomáš; Jůnková Vymyslická, Pavla

    2016-01-01

    The vertebrate fauna of the Philippines, known for its diversity and high proportion of endemic species, comprises mainly small- to medium-sized forms with a few large exceptions. As with other tropical ecosystems, the major threats to wildlife are habitat loss, hunting and invasive species, of which the feral cat (Felis catus) is considered the most damaging. Our camera-trapping study focused on a terrestrial vertebrate species inventory on Bohol Island and tempo-spatial co-occurrences of feral cats with their prey and competitors. The survey took place in the Rajah Sikatuna Protected Landscape, and we examined the primary rainforest, its border with agricultural land, and rural areas in the vicinity of villages. Altogether, over 2,885 trap days we captured 30 species of vertebrates-10 mammals (including Sus philippensis), 19 birds and one reptile, Varanus cumingi. We trapped 81.8% of expected vertebrates. Based on the number of events, the most frequent native species was the barred rail (Gallirallus torquatus). The highest overlap in diel activity between cats and potential prey was recorded with rodents in rural areas (Δ = 0.62); the lowest was in the same habitat with ground-dwelling birds (Δ = 0.40). Cat activity was not recorded inside the rainforest; in other habitats their diel activity pattern differed. The cats' activity declined in daylight in the proximity of humans, while it peaked at the transition zone between rainforest and fields. Both rodents and ground-dwelling birds exhibited a shift in activity levels between sites where cats were present or absent. Rodents tend to become active by day in cat-free habitats. No cats' temporal response to co-occurrences of civets (Paradoxurus hermaphroditus and Viverra tangalunga) was found but cats in diel activity avoided domestic dogs (Canis lupus familiaris). Our first insight into the ecology of this invasive predator in the Philippines revealed an avoidance of homogeneous primary rainforest and a

  11. Assessing risks to non-target species during poison baiting programs for feral cats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tony Buckmaster

    Full Text Available Poison baiting is used frequently to reduce the impacts of pest species of mammals on agricultural and biodiversity interests. However, baiting may not be appropriate if non-target species are at risk of poisoning. Here we use a desktop decision tree approach to assess the risks to non-target vertebrate species in Australia that arise from using poison baits developed to control feral house cats (Felis catus. These baits are presented in the form of sausages with toxicant implanted in the bait medium within an acid-soluble polymer capsule (hard shell delivery vehicle, or HSDV that disintegrates after ingestion. Using criteria based on body size, diet and feeding behaviour, we assessed 221 of Australia's 3,769 native vertebrate species as likely to consume cat-baits, with 47 of these likely to ingest implanted HSDVs too. Carnivorous marsupials were judged most likely to consume both the baits and HSDVs, with some large-bodied and ground-active birds and reptiles also consuming them. If criteria were relaxed, a further 269 species were assessed as possibly able to consume baits and 343 as possibly able to consume HSDVs; most of these consumers were birds. One threatened species, the Tasmanian devil (Sarcophilus harrisii was judged as definitely able to consume baits with implanted HSDVs, whereas five threatened species of birds and 21 species of threatened mammals were rated as possible consumers. Amphibia were not considered to be at risk. We conclude that most species of native Australian vertebrates would not consume surface-laid baits during feral cat control programs, and that significantly fewer would be exposed to poisoning if HSDVs were employed. However, risks to susceptible species should be quantified in field or pen trials prior to the implementation of a control program, and minimized further by applying baits at times and in places where non-target species have little access.

  12. Assessing risks to non-target species during poison baiting programs for feral cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckmaster, Tony; Dickman, Christopher R; Johnston, Michael J

    2014-01-01

    Poison baiting is used frequently to reduce the impacts of pest species of mammals on agricultural and biodiversity interests. However, baiting may not be appropriate if non-target species are at risk of poisoning. Here we use a desktop decision tree approach to assess the risks to non-target vertebrate species in Australia that arise from using poison baits developed to control feral house cats (Felis catus). These baits are presented in the form of sausages with toxicant implanted in the bait medium within an acid-soluble polymer capsule (hard shell delivery vehicle, or HSDV) that disintegrates after ingestion. Using criteria based on body size, diet and feeding behaviour, we assessed 221 of Australia's 3,769 native vertebrate species as likely to consume cat-baits, with 47 of these likely to ingest implanted HSDVs too. Carnivorous marsupials were judged most likely to consume both the baits and HSDVs, with some large-bodied and ground-active birds and reptiles also consuming them. If criteria were relaxed, a further 269 species were assessed as possibly able to consume baits and 343 as possibly able to consume HSDVs; most of these consumers were birds. One threatened species, the Tasmanian devil (Sarcophilus harrisii) was judged as definitely able to consume baits with implanted HSDVs, whereas five threatened species of birds and 21 species of threatened mammals were rated as possible consumers. Amphibia were not considered to be at risk. We conclude that most species of native Australian vertebrates would not consume surface-laid baits during feral cat control programs, and that significantly fewer would be exposed to poisoning if HSDVs were employed. However, risks to susceptible species should be quantified in field or pen trials prior to the implementation of a control program, and minimized further by applying baits at times and in places where non-target species have little access.

  13. Rickettsia felis in Xenopsylla cheopis, Java, Indonesia

    OpenAIRE

    Jiang, Ju; Soeatmadji, Djoko W.; Henry, Katherine M; Ratiwayanto, Sutanti; Michael J. Bangs; Richards, Allen L.

    2006-01-01

    Rickettsia typhi and R. felis, etiologic agents of murine typhus and fleaborne spotted fever, respectively, were detected in Oriental rat fleas (Xenopsylla cheopis) collected from rodents and shrews in Java, Indonesia. We describe the first evidence of R. felis in Indonesia and naturally occurring R. felis in Oriental rat fleas.

  14. Estudo anatômico do trajeto do canal mandibular em felinos (Felis catus domesticus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.C. Cotrim

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se descrever, por meio de tomografia computadorizada, o trajeto do canal mandibular (CM em 20 gatos sem raça definida, com ausência de alterações na cavidade oral, provenientes do Centro de Controle de Zoonoses do Distrito Federal. Foram realizados cortes tomográficos com 2mm de espessura, acompanhando todo o trajeto do CM, tendo como referência a região do forame mandibular, as raízes distais e mesiais dos dentes pré-molares e molares e o forame mentoniano, obtendo-se medidas desde o CM até as faces vestibular, lingual, ventral e alveolar (profundidade do corpo da mandíbula, bem como seu diâmetro. Pôde constatar que o CM manteve-se no aspecto lingual do corpo da mandíbula desde o forame mandibular até a raiz mesial do 1º pré-molar, onde se deslocou para a face vestibular, emergindo no forame mentoniano. Com relação à profundidade, seu trajeto sofreu declive a partir do forame mandibular até a região da raiz mesial do 1º molar, onde alcançou seu ponto mais profundo para prosseguir em suave ascensão até o forame mentoniano. Os dados apresentados contribuem para o estudo anatômico da mandíbula de gatos, bem como auxiliam no melhor planejamento e execução de procedimentos cirúrgicos na mandíbula dessa espécie.

  15. Função testicular em gatos domésticos (Felis catus)

    OpenAIRE

    Meyer, Katlyn Barp

    2013-01-01

    Resumo: O presente trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar a esteroidogênese e a espermatogênese em relação à qualidade espermática em machos de gatos domésticos de forma a responder questões sobre a sazonalidade reprodutiva e o fenômeno da teratospermia em felinos. Foram realizadas análises da morfologia e de parâmetros físicos de espermatozóides obtidos da cauda do epidídimo, mensuração das concentrações sérica de testosterona (T) e intratesticulares de T e 17?-estradiol (E2) e análise da ativi...

  16. Estacionalidad reproductiva en animales domésticos : Nuevas perspectivas en el gato (Felis silvestris catus)

    OpenAIRE

    Núñez Favre, Romina de los Ángeles; Bonaura, María Candela; García Mitacek, María Carla; Stornelli, María Cecilia; Stornelli, María Alejandra; Sota, Rodolfo Luzbel de la

    2013-01-01

    Algunas especies de animales como los pequeños rumiantes y algunos roedores presentan un período de reposo sexual estacional de duración e intensidad variable. Esta estacionalidad está directamente relacionada con las horas luz diarias (fotoperiodo) a las que se hallan sometidos los animales y se evidencia en las localizaciones geográficas en las que existen marcadas variaciones en la duración del día durante el año. En el caso de los pequeños rumiantes, ambos sexos tienen una actividad sexua...

  17. A High-Resolution SNP Array-Based Linkage Map Anchors a New Domestic Cat Draft Genome Assembly and Provides Detailed Patterns of Recombination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gang Li

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available High-resolution genetic and physical maps are invaluable tools for building accurate genome assemblies, and interpreting results of genome-wide association studies (GWAS. Previous genetic and physical maps anchored good quality draft assemblies of the domestic cat genome, enabling the discovery of numerous genes underlying hereditary disease and phenotypes of interest to the biomedical science and breeding communities. However, these maps lacked sufficient marker density to order thousands of shorter scaffolds in earlier assemblies, which instead relied heavily on comparative mapping with related species. A high-resolution map would aid in validating and ordering chromosome scaffolds from existing and new genome assemblies. Here, we describe a high-resolution genetic linkage map of the domestic cat genome based on genotyping 453 domestic cats from several multi-generational pedigrees on the Illumina 63K SNP array. The final maps include 58,055 SNP markers placed relative to 6637 markers with unique positions, distributed across all autosomes and the X chromosome. Our final sex-averaged maps span a total autosomal length of 4464 cM, the longest described linkage map for any mammal, confirming length estimates from a previous microsatellite-based map. The linkage map was used to order and orient the scaffolds from a substantially more contiguous domestic cat genome assembly (Felis catus v8.0, which incorporated ∼20 × coverage of Illumina fragment reads. The new genome assembly shows substantial improvements in contiguity, with a nearly fourfold increase in N50 scaffold size to 18 Mb. We use this map to report probable structural errors in previous maps and assemblies, and to describe features of the recombination landscape, including a massive (∼50 Mb recombination desert (of virtually zero recombination on the X chromosome that parallels a similar desert on the porcine X chromosome in both size and physical location.

  18. A High-Resolution SNP Array-Based Linkage Map Anchors a New Domestic Cat Draft Genome Assembly and Provides Detailed Patterns of Recombination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Gang; Hillier, LaDeana W; Grahn, Robert A; Zimin, Aleksey V; David, Victor A; Menotti-Raymond, Marilyn; Middleton, Rondo; Hannah, Steven; Hendrickson, Sher; Makunin, Alex; O'Brien, Stephen J; Minx, Pat; Wilson, Richard K; Lyons, Leslie A; Warren, Wesley C; Murphy, William J

    2016-01-01

    High-resolution genetic and physical maps are invaluable tools for building accurate genome assemblies, and interpreting results of genome-wide association studies (GWAS). Previous genetic and physical maps anchored good quality draft assemblies of the domestic cat genome, enabling the discovery of numerous genes underlying hereditary disease and phenotypes of interest to the biomedical science and breeding communities. However, these maps lacked sufficient marker density to order thousands of shorter scaffolds in earlier assemblies, which instead relied heavily on comparative mapping with related species. A high-resolution map would aid in validating and ordering chromosome scaffolds from existing and new genome assemblies. Here, we describe a high-resolution genetic linkage map of the domestic cat genome based on genotyping 453 domestic cats from several multi-generational pedigrees on the Illumina 63K SNP array. The final maps include 58,055 SNP markers placed relative to 6637 markers with unique positions, distributed across all autosomes and the X chromosome. Our final sex-averaged maps span a total autosomal length of 4464 cM, the longest described linkage map for any mammal, confirming length estimates from a previous microsatellite-based map. The linkage map was used to order and orient the scaffolds from a substantially more contiguous domestic cat genome assembly (Felis catus v8.0), which incorporated ∼20 × coverage of Illumina fragment reads. The new genome assembly shows substantial improvements in contiguity, with a nearly fourfold increase in N50 scaffold size to 18 Mb. We use this map to report probable structural errors in previous maps and assemblies, and to describe features of the recombination landscape, including a massive (∼50 Mb) recombination desert (of virtually zero recombination) on the X chromosome that parallels a similar desert on the porcine X chromosome in both size and physical location. PMID:27172201

  19. A High-Resolution SNP Array-Based Linkage Map Anchors a New Domestic Cat Draft Genome Assembly and Provides Detailed Patterns of Recombination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Gang; Hillier, LaDeana W; Grahn, Robert A; Zimin, Aleksey V; David, Victor A; Menotti-Raymond, Marilyn; Middleton, Rondo; Hannah, Steven; Hendrickson, Sher; Makunin, Alex; O'Brien, Stephen J; Minx, Pat; Wilson, Richard K; Lyons, Leslie A; Warren, Wesley C; Murphy, William J

    2016-06-01

    High-resolution genetic and physical maps are invaluable tools for building accurate genome assemblies, and interpreting results of genome-wide association studies (GWAS). Previous genetic and physical maps anchored good quality draft assemblies of the domestic cat genome, enabling the discovery of numerous genes underlying hereditary disease and phenotypes of interest to the biomedical science and breeding communities. However, these maps lacked sufficient marker density to order thousands of shorter scaffolds in earlier assemblies, which instead relied heavily on comparative mapping with related species. A high-resolution map would aid in validating and ordering chromosome scaffolds from existing and new genome assemblies. Here, we describe a high-resolution genetic linkage map of the domestic cat genome based on genotyping 453 domestic cats from several multi-generational pedigrees on the Illumina 63K SNP array. The final maps include 58,055 SNP markers placed relative to 6637 markers with unique positions, distributed across all autosomes and the X chromosome. Our final sex-averaged maps span a total autosomal length of 4464 cM, the longest described linkage map for any mammal, confirming length estimates from a previous microsatellite-based map. The linkage map was used to order and orient the scaffolds from a substantially more contiguous domestic cat genome assembly (Felis catus v8.0), which incorporated ∼20 × coverage of Illumina fragment reads. The new genome assembly shows substantial improvements in contiguity, with a nearly fourfold increase in N50 scaffold size to 18 Mb. We use this map to report probable structural errors in previous maps and assemblies, and to describe features of the recombination landscape, including a massive (∼50 Mb) recombination desert (of virtually zero recombination) on the X chromosome that parallels a similar desert on the porcine X chromosome in both size and physical location.

  20. The Near Eastern origin of cat domestication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Driscoll, Carlos A; Menotti-Raymond, Marilyn; Roca, Alfred L; Hupe, Karsten; Johnson, Warren E; Geffen, Eli; Harley, Eric H; Delibes, Miguel; Pontier, Dominique; Kitchener, Andrew C; Yamaguchi, Nobuyuki; O'brien, Stephen J; Macdonald, David W

    2007-07-27

    The world's domestic cats carry patterns of sequence variation in their genome that reflect a history of domestication and breed development. A genetic assessment of 979 domestic cats and their wild progenitors-Felis silvestris silvestris (European wildcat), F. s. lybica (Near Eastern wildcat), F. s. ornata (central Asian wildcat), F. s. cafra (southern African wildcat), and F. s. bieti (Chinese desert cat)-indicated that each wild group represents a distinctive subspecies of Felis silvestris. Further analysis revealed that cats were domesticated in the Near East, probably coincident with agricultural village development in the Fertile Crescent. Domestic cats derive from at least five founders from across this region, whose descendants were transported across the world by human assistance.

  1. PCR amplification of a multi-copy mitochondrial gene (cox3) improves detection of Cytauxzoon felis infection as compared to a ribosomal gene (18S).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreeg, Megan E; Marr, Henry S; Griffith, Emily H; Tarigo, Jaime L; Bird, David M; Reichard, Mason V; Cohn, Leah A; Levy, Michael G; Birkenheuer, Adam J

    2016-07-30

    Cytauxzoon felis is a tick-transmitted protozoan parasite that infects felids. Clinical disease caused by acute C. felis infection rapidly progresses in domestic cats, leading to high morbidity and mortality. Accurately diagnosing cytauxzoonosis as soon as possible during acute infection would allow for earlier initiation of antiprotozoal therapy which could lead to higher survival rates. Molecular detection of parasite rRNA genes (18S) by PCR has previously been shown to be a sensitive method of diagnosing C. felis infections. Based on evidence from related apicomplexan species, we hypothesized that C. felis mitochondrial genes would exist at higher copy numbers than 18S and would be a more sensitive diagnostic target. In this study we have designed a PCR assay targeting the C. felis mitochondrial gene cytochrome c oxidase subunit III (cox3). Herein we demonstrate that (1) the cox3 PCR can detect as low as 1 copy of DNA target and can detect C. felis in samples with known mitochondrial sequence heterogeneity, (2) cox3 copy number is increased relative to 18S in blood and tissue samples from acutely infected cats, and (3) the cox3 PCR is more sensitive than 18S PCR for detection of C. felis during early infections. PMID:27369587

  2. PCR amplification of a multi-copy mitochondrial gene (cox3) improves detection of Cytauxzoon felis infection as compared to a ribosomal gene (18S).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreeg, Megan E; Marr, Henry S; Griffith, Emily H; Tarigo, Jaime L; Bird, David M; Reichard, Mason V; Cohn, Leah A; Levy, Michael G; Birkenheuer, Adam J

    2016-07-30

    Cytauxzoon felis is a tick-transmitted protozoan parasite that infects felids. Clinical disease caused by acute C. felis infection rapidly progresses in domestic cats, leading to high morbidity and mortality. Accurately diagnosing cytauxzoonosis as soon as possible during acute infection would allow for earlier initiation of antiprotozoal therapy which could lead to higher survival rates. Molecular detection of parasite rRNA genes (18S) by PCR has previously been shown to be a sensitive method of diagnosing C. felis infections. Based on evidence from related apicomplexan species, we hypothesized that C. felis mitochondrial genes would exist at higher copy numbers than 18S and would be a more sensitive diagnostic target. In this study we have designed a PCR assay targeting the C. felis mitochondrial gene cytochrome c oxidase subunit III (cox3). Herein we demonstrate that (1) the cox3 PCR can detect as low as 1 copy of DNA target and can detect C. felis in samples with known mitochondrial sequence heterogeneity, (2) cox3 copy number is increased relative to 18S in blood and tissue samples from acutely infected cats, and (3) the cox3 PCR is more sensitive than 18S PCR for detection of C. felis during early infections.

  3. To the Root of the Curl: A Signature of a Recent Selective Sweep Identifies a Mutation That Defines the Cornish Rex Cat Breed.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Gandolfi

    Full Text Available The cat (Felis silvestris catus shows significant variation in pelage, morphological, and behavioral phenotypes amongst its over 40 domesticated breeds. The majority of the breed specific phenotypic presentations originated through artificial selection, especially on desired novel phenotypic characteristics that arose only a few hundred years ago. Variations in coat texture and color of hair often delineate breeds amongst domestic animals. Although the genetic basis of several feline coat colors and hair lengths are characterized, less is known about the genes influencing variation in coat growth and texture, especially rexoid - curly coated types. Cornish Rex is a cat breed defined by a fixed recessive curly coat trait. Genome-wide analyses for selection (di, Tajima's D and nucleotide diversity were performed in the Cornish Rex breed and in 11 phenotypically diverse breeds and two random bred populations. Approximately 63K SNPs were used in the analysis that aimed to localize the locus controlling the rexoid hair texture. A region with a strong signature of recent selective sweep was identified in the Cornish Rex breed on chromosome A1, as well as a consensus block of homozygosity that spans approximately 3 Mb. Inspection of the region for candidate genes led to the identification of the lysophosphatidic acid receptor 6 (LPAR6. A 4 bp deletion in exon 5, c.250_253_delTTTG, which induces a premature stop codon in the receptor, was identified via Sanger sequencing. The mutation is fixed in Cornish Rex, absent in all straight haired cats analyzed, and is also segregating in the German Rex breed. LPAR6 encodes a G protein-coupled receptor essential for maintaining the structural integrity of the hair shaft; and has mutations resulting in a wooly hair phenotype in humans.

  4. Analyzing the proximity to cover in a landscape of fear: a new approach applied to fine-scale habitat use by rabbits facing feral cat predation on Kerguelen archipelago.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanchard, Pierrick; Lauzeral, Christine; Chamaillé-Jammes, Simon; Yoccoz, Nigel G; Pontier, Dominique

    2016-01-01

    Although proximity to cover has been routinely considered as an explanatory variable in studies investigating prey behavioral adjustments to predation pressure, the way it shapes risk perception still remains equivocal. This paradox arises from both the ambivalent nature of cover as potentially both obstructive and protective, making its impact on risk perception complex and context-dependent, and from the choice of the proxy used to measure proximity to cover in the field, which leads to an incomplete picture of the landscape of fear experienced by the prey. Here, we study a simple predator-prey-habitat system, i.e., rabbits Oryctolagus cuniculus facing feral cat Felis catus predation on Kerguelen archipelago. We assess how cover shapes risk perception in prey and develop an easily implementable field method to improve the estimation of proximity to cover. In contrast to protocols considering the "distance to nearest cover", we focus on the overall "area to cover". We show that fine-scale habitat use by rabbits is clearly related to our measure, in accordance with our hypothesis of higher risk in patches with smaller area to cover in this predator-prey-habitat system. In contrast, classical measures of proximity to cover are not retained in the best predictive models of habitat use. The use of this new approach, together with a more in-depth consideration of contrasting properties of cover, could help to better understand the role of this complex yet decisive parameter for predator-prey ecology. PMID:26989615

  5. Diseases of the European wildcat (Felis silvestris Schreber, 1777) in Great Britain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McOrist, S

    1992-12-01

    The author describes an examination conducted in collaboration with the Nature Conservancy Council of Great Britain into the status with regard to disease, conservation and genetics of the European wildcat (Felis silvestris). Feline leukaemia virus (FeLV) infection was detected by positive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay in blood from 2 of 23 wildcats and was tested and confirmed by FeLV isolation in one of the two cats. This is the first time the virus has been clearly demonstrated in a free-living felid, other than the domestic cat. Toxoplasmosis was detected in all cats tested, but neither feline coronavirus nor feline immunodeficiency virus was detected in any sample. The genetic analysis indicated that only 8 of 42 wildcats tested were genetically distinct. These were mainly located in the western highlands of Scotland where "relict" populations may have survived. Interbreeding with domestic cats and persecution by trapping and hunting represent major threats to the survival of the European wildcat.

  6. Cat serum contamination by phthalates, PCBs, and PBDEs versus food and indoor air.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braouezec, Clélie; Enriquez, Brigitte; Blanchard, Martine; Chevreuil, Marc; Teil, Marie-Jeanne

    2016-05-01

    A wide variety of endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs) with semi-volatile properties are emitted to indoor air and, thus, humans might get exposed to these compounds. Pet cats spend the major part of their lifetime at home and might integrate indoor contamination so that they could mirror the human exposure. Three classes of EDCs, polybromodiphenyl ethers (PBDEs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and phthalates (PAEs), were simultaneously considered and quantified in the serum of cats (Felis silvestris catus) living in the Paris area (France). The main compound concentrations by decreasing importance order were as follows: for PAEs, di-n-butyl phthalate (79,900 ng L(-1)) next di-iso-butyl phthalate (53,200 ng L(-1)), di-iso-nonyl phthalate (43,800 ng L(-1)), and di-ethylhexyl phthalate (32,830 ng L(-1)); for PCBs, CB153 (1378 ng L(-1)) next CB52 (509 ng L(-1)), CB101 (355 ng L(-1)), CB110 (264 ng L(-1)), and CB118 (165 ng L(-1)); and for PBDEs, BDE 153/154 (35 ng L(-1)) next BDE47 (10.7 ng L(-1)). Total serum concentrations as mean ± standard deviation were 107 ± 98 μg L(-1) for ∑9PAEs, 2799 ± 944 ng L(-1) for ∑19PCBs, and 56 ± 21 ng L(-1) for ∑9BDEs. The three chemical groups were found in cat food: 0.088 ng g(-1) for ∑9BDEs, 1.7 ng g(-1) for ∑19PCBs, and 2292 ng g(-1) for ∑9PAEs and in indoor air: 0.063 ng m(-3) for ∑9BDEs, 1.5 ng m(-3) for ∑19PCBs, and 848 ng m(-3) for ∑9PAEs. Contaminant intake by food ingestion was approximately 100-fold higher than that by indoor air inhalation. PMID:26841781

  7. Cat serum contamination by phthalates, PCBs, and PBDEs versus food and indoor air.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braouezec, Clélie; Enriquez, Brigitte; Blanchard, Martine; Chevreuil, Marc; Teil, Marie-Jeanne

    2016-05-01

    A wide variety of endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs) with semi-volatile properties are emitted to indoor air and, thus, humans might get exposed to these compounds. Pet cats spend the major part of their lifetime at home and might integrate indoor contamination so that they could mirror the human exposure. Three classes of EDCs, polybromodiphenyl ethers (PBDEs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and phthalates (PAEs), were simultaneously considered and quantified in the serum of cats (Felis silvestris catus) living in the Paris area (France). The main compound concentrations by decreasing importance order were as follows: for PAEs, di-n-butyl phthalate (79,900 ng L(-1)) next di-iso-butyl phthalate (53,200 ng L(-1)), di-iso-nonyl phthalate (43,800 ng L(-1)), and di-ethylhexyl phthalate (32,830 ng L(-1)); for PCBs, CB153 (1378 ng L(-1)) next CB52 (509 ng L(-1)), CB101 (355 ng L(-1)), CB110 (264 ng L(-1)), and CB118 (165 ng L(-1)); and for PBDEs, BDE 153/154 (35 ng L(-1)) next BDE47 (10.7 ng L(-1)). Total serum concentrations as mean ± standard deviation were 107 ± 98 μg L(-1) for ∑9PAEs, 2799 ± 944 ng L(-1) for ∑19PCBs, and 56 ± 21 ng L(-1) for ∑9BDEs. The three chemical groups were found in cat food: 0.088 ng g(-1) for ∑9BDEs, 1.7 ng g(-1) for ∑19PCBs, and 2292 ng g(-1) for ∑9PAEs and in indoor air: 0.063 ng m(-3) for ∑9BDEs, 1.5 ng m(-3) for ∑19PCBs, and 848 ng m(-3) for ∑9PAEs. Contaminant intake by food ingestion was approximately 100-fold higher than that by indoor air inhalation.

  8. Survey of Helicobacter infection in domestic and feral cats in Korea

    OpenAIRE

    Ghil, Heh-Myung; Yoo, Jong-Hyeon; Jung, Woo-Sung; CHUNG, Tae-Ho; Youn, Hwa-Young; Hwang, Cheol-Yong

    2009-01-01

    Discovery of Helicobacter (H.) pylori has led to a fundamental change in our understanding of gastric diseases in humans. Previous studies have found various Helicobacter spp. in dogs and cats, and pets have been questioned as a zoonotic carrier. The present study surveyed the Helicobacter infections and investigated the presence of H. felis and H. pylori infections in domestic and feral cats in Korea. Sixty-four domestic cats and 101 feral cats were selected from an animal shelter. Saliva an...

  9. Comparative anatomy of the cardiac foramen ovale in cats (Felidae), dogs (Canidae), bears (Ursidae) and hyaenas (Hyaenidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macdonald, A A; Johnstone, M

    1995-04-01

    The structure of the foramen ovale from 16 species representing 4 carnivore families, the Felidae, Canidae, Ursidae and Hyaenidae, was studied using the scanning electron microscope. The Felidae were represented by 9 domestic cat fetuses (Felis catus), 2 snow leopard neonates (Uncia uncia), an ocelot neonate (Leopardus pardalis), 2 lion neonates (Panthera leo), a panther neonate (Panthera pardus) and 3 tigers (Neofelis tigris), comprising 2 fetuses and a neonate. The Canidae were represented by a golden jackal neonate (Canis aureus), a newborn wolf (Canis lupus), 8 domestic dog fetuses (Canis familiaris), 3 red fox neonates (Vulpes vulpes) and a dhole neonate (Cuon alpinus). The Ursidae were represented by a brown bear neonate (Ursus arctos), a day-old grizzly bear cub (Ursus arctos horribilis), a polar bear neonate (Ursus maritimus), and 2 additional bear fetuses (species unknown). The Hyaenidae were represented by a striped hyaena neonate (Hyaena hyaena). In each species, the foramen ovale, when viewed from the terminal part of the caudal vena cava, had the appearance of a short tunnel. A thin fold of tissue, the developed remains of the embryonic septum primum, extended from the distal end of the caudal vena cava for a variable distance into the lumen of the left atrium and contributed towards the 'tunnel' appearance in all specimens. It constituted a large proportion of the tube, and its distal end was straight-edged. There was fibrous material underlying the endothelium of the flap, the apparent morphology of which suggested that it comprised cardiac muscle.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7649822

  10. Uso da técnica de Southern Blot/Hibridização associada à reação em cadeia da polimerase para aumentar a sensibilidade no diagnóstico das infecções por hemoplasmas em gatos domésticos: Use of Southern Blot/Hybridization technique associated to polymerase chain reaction to improve the sensitivity in the diagnosis of hemoplasma infections in domestic cats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel B. Macieira

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi verificar se a técnica de Southern Blot/Hibridização (SB em associação à reação de polimerização em cadeia (PCR aumenta a sensibilidade na detecção de DNA de hemoplasmas em gatos domésticos (Felis catus. O sangue total foi coletado em tubos contendo o anticoagulante ácido etilenodiamino tetra-acético, o DNA extraído a partir de 149 animais e a PCR realizada com o uso de sequências iniciadoras espécie-específicas, para amplificar subunidade 16S do RNA ribossomal de Mycoplasma haemofelis e 'Candidatus M. haemominutum' dessas amostras. Para a hibridização, foram utilizadas sondas específicas quimicamente marcadas, e os resultados visualizados por meio da adição de substrato quimiluminescente seguida de autoradiografia. Dezoito (12,1% das 149 amostras testadas apresentaram resultado PCR-positivo para o DNA de hemoplasmas. A técnica de SB mostrou que 24/149 (16,1% amostras apresentaram resultado positivo para hemoplasmas, confirmando os 18 resultados PCR-positivos, além de revelar seis outros adicionais (p The aim of this study was to determine whether Southern Blot/Hybridization (SB associated to Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR improves the sensitivity in the detection of hemoplasma DNA in domestic cats (Felis catus. Whole blood was collected in tubes containing the anticoagulant ethylenediamine tetra-acetic acid and DNA extracted from 149 animals. PCR was performed using species specific primers to amplify the 16S ribosomal RNA subunit of Mycoplasma haemofelis and 'Candidatus M. haemominutum' from these samples. Hybridization was performed using a 16S rDNA probes chemically labeled and the results were visualized using a chemiluminescent substrate addition followed by autoradiography. Eighteen (12.1% of the 149 tested samples had a positive PCR result for hemoplasma species DNA. SB/hybridization technique showed that 24/149 (16.1% samples were positive for hemoplasmas, confirming the 18 PCR

  11. How does a carnivore guild utilise a substantial but unpredictable anthropogenic food source? Scavenging on hunter-shot ungulate carcasses by wild dogs/dingoes, red foxes and feral cats in south-eastern Australia revealed by camera traps.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David M Forsyth

    Full Text Available There is much interest in understanding how anthropogenic food resources subsidise carnivore populations. Carcasses of hunter-shot ungulates are a potentially substantial food source for mammalian carnivores. The sambar deer (Rusa unicolor is a large (≥ 150 kg exotic ungulate that can be hunted throughout the year in south-eastern Australia, and hunters are not required to remove or bury carcasses. We investigated how wild dogs/dingoes and their hybrids (Canis lupus familiaris/dingo, red foxes (Vulpes vulpes and feral cats (Felis catus utilised sambar deer carcasses during the peak hunting seasons (i.e. winter and spring. We placed carcasses at 1-km intervals along each of six transects that extended 4-km into forest from farm boundaries. Visits to carcasses were monitored using camera traps, and the rate of change in edible biomass estimated at ∼ 14-day intervals. Wild dogs and foxes fed on 70% and 60% of 30 carcasses, respectively, but feral cats seldom (10% fed on carcasses. Spatial and temporal patterns of visits to carcasses were consistent with the hypothesis that foxes avoid wild dogs. Wild dog activity peaked at carcasses 2 and 3 km from farms, a likely legacy of wild dog control, whereas fox activity peaked at carcasses 0 and 4 km from farms. Wild dog activity peaked at dawn and dusk, whereas nearly all fox activity occurred after dusk and before dawn. Neither wild dogs nor foxes remained at carcasses for long periods and the amount of feeding activity by either species was a less important predictor of the loss of edible biomass than season. Reasons for the low impacts of wild dogs and foxes on sambar deer carcass biomass include the spatially and temporally unpredictable distribution of carcasses in the landscape, the rapid rate of edible biomass decomposition in warm periods, low wild dog densities and the availability of alternative food resources.

  12. How does a carnivore guild utilise a substantial but unpredictable anthropogenic food source? Scavenging on hunter-shot ungulate carcasses by wild dogs/dingoes, red foxes and feral cats in south-eastern Australia revealed by camera traps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forsyth, David M; Woodford, Luke; Moloney, Paul D; Hampton, Jordan O; Woolnough, Andrew P; Tucker, Mark

    2014-01-01

    There is much interest in understanding how anthropogenic food resources subsidise carnivore populations. Carcasses of hunter-shot ungulates are a potentially substantial food source for mammalian carnivores. The sambar deer (Rusa unicolor) is a large (≥ 150 kg) exotic ungulate that can be hunted throughout the year in south-eastern Australia, and hunters are not required to remove or bury carcasses. We investigated how wild dogs/dingoes and their hybrids (Canis lupus familiaris/dingo), red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) and feral cats (Felis catus) utilised sambar deer carcasses during the peak hunting seasons (i.e. winter and spring). We placed carcasses at 1-km intervals along each of six transects that extended 4-km into forest from farm boundaries. Visits to carcasses were monitored using camera traps, and the rate of change in edible biomass estimated at ∼ 14-day intervals. Wild dogs and foxes fed on 70% and 60% of 30 carcasses, respectively, but feral cats seldom (10%) fed on carcasses. Spatial and temporal patterns of visits to carcasses were consistent with the hypothesis that foxes avoid wild dogs. Wild dog activity peaked at carcasses 2 and 3 km from farms, a likely legacy of wild dog control, whereas fox activity peaked at carcasses 0 and 4 km from farms. Wild dog activity peaked at dawn and dusk, whereas nearly all fox activity occurred after dusk and before dawn. Neither wild dogs nor foxes remained at carcasses for long periods and the amount of feeding activity by either species was a less important predictor of the loss of edible biomass than season. Reasons for the low impacts of wild dogs and foxes on sambar deer carcass biomass include the spatially and temporally unpredictable distribution of carcasses in the landscape, the rapid rate of edible biomass decomposition in warm periods, low wild dog densities and the availability of alternative food resources. PMID:24918425

  13. How does a carnivore guild utilise a substantial but unpredictable anthropogenic food source? Scavenging on hunter-shot ungulate carcasses by wild dogs/dingoes, red foxes and feral cats in south-eastern Australia revealed by camera traps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forsyth, David M; Woodford, Luke; Moloney, Paul D; Hampton, Jordan O; Woolnough, Andrew P; Tucker, Mark

    2014-01-01

    There is much interest in understanding how anthropogenic food resources subsidise carnivore populations. Carcasses of hunter-shot ungulates are a potentially substantial food source for mammalian carnivores. The sambar deer (Rusa unicolor) is a large (≥ 150 kg) exotic ungulate that can be hunted throughout the year in south-eastern Australia, and hunters are not required to remove or bury carcasses. We investigated how wild dogs/dingoes and their hybrids (Canis lupus familiaris/dingo), red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) and feral cats (Felis catus) utilised sambar deer carcasses during the peak hunting seasons (i.e. winter and spring). We placed carcasses at 1-km intervals along each of six transects that extended 4-km into forest from farm boundaries. Visits to carcasses were monitored using camera traps, and the rate of change in edible biomass estimated at ∼ 14-day intervals. Wild dogs and foxes fed on 70% and 60% of 30 carcasses, respectively, but feral cats seldom (10%) fed on carcasses. Spatial and temporal patterns of visits to carcasses were consistent with the hypothesis that foxes avoid wild dogs. Wild dog activity peaked at carcasses 2 and 3 km from farms, a likely legacy of wild dog control, whereas fox activity peaked at carcasses 0 and 4 km from farms. Wild dog activity peaked at dawn and dusk, whereas nearly all fox activity occurred after dusk and before dawn. Neither wild dogs nor foxes remained at carcasses for long periods and the amount of feeding activity by either species was a less important predictor of the loss of edible biomass than season. Reasons for the low impacts of wild dogs and foxes on sambar deer carcass biomass include the spatially and temporally unpredictable distribution of carcasses in the landscape, the rapid rate of edible biomass decomposition in warm periods, low wild dog densities and the availability of alternative food resources.

  14. Hepatozoonosis in cats : ABCD guidelines on prevention and management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lloret, Albert; Addie, Diane D; Boucraut-Baralon, Corine; Egberink, Herman; Frymus, Tadeusz; Gruffydd-Jones, Tim; Hartmann, Katrin; Horzinek, Marian C; Hosie, Margaret J; Lutz, Hans; Marsilio, Fulvio; Pennisi, Maria Grazia; Radford, Alan D; Thiry, Etienne; Truyen, Uwe; Möstl, Karin

    2015-01-01

    OVERVIEW: Hepatozoonosis of domestic cats has been reported in several countries, mainly as a subclinical infection. DISEASE AGENT: Infection has been described mostly in areas where canine infection is present and, in recent years, Hepatozoon felis has been identified as a distinct species by molec

  15. Efficacy of a new combination of fipronil and permethrin against Ctenocephalides felis flea infestation in dogs

    OpenAIRE

    Fankhauser, Becky; Dumont, Pascal; Halos, Lénaïg; Hunter, James S; Kunkle, Bruce; Everett, William R.; Chester, Theodore S; Fourie, Josephus J.; Soll, Mark D

    2015-01-01

    Background Five studies were conducted to evaluate the effect of a new combination of fipronil and permethrin on cat fleas, Ctenocephalides felis, when applied to dogs, including dogs that underwent water exposure or shampooing. Methods In each study, 16 dogs were allocated to two groups. Each dog was infested with 100 unfed adult fleas on Days −1, 7, 14, 21 and 28. Eight dogs were treated with a new topical spot-on formulation containing 6.76% w/v fipronil + 50.48% w/v permethrinon Day 0; an...

  16. The dog louse Heterodoxus spiniger from stray cats in Penang, Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norhidayu, S; Mohd Zain, S N; Jeffery, J; Lewis, J W

    2012-06-01

    Stray cats collected from Georgetown, Penang from 2008 to 2010 were screened for ectoparasites via fine-tooth combing. Two cats from a total 102 examined were infested with the dog louse, Heterodoxus spiniger. Both cats, a juvenile male and female were found in close contact with each other prior to capture. The number of lice ranged from 5 and 14 in the male and female cat respectively. Other ectoparasites recovered included the common cat flea, Ctenocephalides felis, one louse species Felicola subrostratus, one tick species Haemaphysalis bispinosa and one mite species of Listrophoridae. The present study reports for the first time the finding of H. spiniger on cats from peninsular Malaysia.

  17. Efeitos da infecção crônica por Toxoplasma gondii sobre a parede intestinal de gatos domésticos The effects of the infection caused by Toxoplasma gondii on the cat duodenal wall

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Maria da Silva

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi analisar os efeitos da infecção causada pelo Toxoplasma gondii sobre a parede do duodeno de gatos. Foram utilizados seis gatos (Felis catus, com cerca de três meses de vida, distribuídos aleatoriamente em Grupo controle (G1; n = 3 e Grupo infectado (G2; n = 3. Os animais do G2 receberam, por via oral, 200 cistos teciduais da cepa ME49 (tipo II do T. gondii. Após 40 dias, os animais foram submetidos à eutanásia, laparotomia e retirada do duodeno, que foi fixado em solução de Bouin e submetido à rotina histológica para obtenção de cortes transversais de 3 µm. Os cortes foram corados com Hematoxilina-Eosina (HE, Azan, Ácido Periódico de Schiff (PAS, Alcian-Blue e Tricrômio de Mallory. Realizou-se uma avaliação qualitativa da parede intestinal e medidas comparativas entre os dois grupos, com relação: à espessura da túnica mucosa, túnica muscular, parede total, altura dos vilos, profundidade das criptas e altura dos enterócitos e seus núcleos. As células caliciformes, os linfócitos intraepiteliais e as células de Paneth foram quantificados. Os resultados mostraram que a infecção levou à atrofia da túnica mucosa, túnica muscular e parede intestinal do duodeno de gatos do G2 (p This paper analyzes the effects of the infection caused by Toxoplasma gondii on the cat duodenal wall. Six cats (Felis catus with 3-month-old were randomly divided into Control Group (G1; n = 3 and Infected Group (G2; n = 3. The animals from G2 received orarilly 200 T. gondii tissye cysts of ME49-strain (type II. After 40 days, the animals were submitted to euthanasia, laparotomy and had their duodenum removed, fixed in Bouin solution and submitted to histological routine obtaining 3 µm transverse cuts. The cuts were stained with Hematoxylin-Eosin (HE, Azan, Periodic acid - Schiff (PAS, Alcian-Blue, and Mallory trichrome. Qualitative assessment of the intestine wall as well as comparative measurements with respect

  18. Survey of Helicobacter infection in domestic and feral cats in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghil, Heh-Myung; Yoo, Jong-Hyeon; Jung, Woo-Sung; Chung, Tae-Ho; Youn, Hwa-Young; Hwang, Cheol-Yong

    2009-03-01

    Discovery of Helicobacter (H.) pylori has led to a fundamental change in our understanding of gastric diseases in humans. Previous studies have found various Helicobacter spp. in dogs and cats, and pets have been questioned as a zoonotic carrier. The present study surveyed the Helicobacter infections and investigated the presence of H. felis and H. pylori infections in domestic and feral cats in Korea. Sixty-four domestic cats and 101 feral cats were selected from an animal shelter. Saliva and feces were evaluated by Helicobacter genus-specific polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Genus-specific PCR positive samples were further evaluated for H. felis and H. pylori using specific primer pairs. Thirty-six of 64 (56.3%) samples from domestic cats and 92 of 101 (91.1%) samples from feral cats were PCR positive; the positive rate of feces samples was higher than that of saliva samples in both groups. H. felis and H. pylori species-specific PCR was uniformly negative. The prevalence of Helicobacter spp. in feral cats was approximately two-fold higher than that of domestic cats. The fecal-oral route may be more a common transmission route not only between cats but also in humans. PMID:19255526

  19. Mycoplasma felis as a cause of pleuritis in horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogilvie, T H; Rosendal, S; Blackwell, T E; Rostkowski, C M; Julian, R J; Ruhnke, L

    1983-06-15

    Mycoplasma felis was the only organism recovered from the thoracic cavity of a horse with pleuritis. Large numbers of mildly degenerative neutrophils were in the pleural fluid. The horse developed a serologic response to M felis and recovered during hospitalization. Experimentally, a pony was inoculated in the thoracic cavity with a pure culture of the M felis isolate suspended in the pony's serum. A control pony was inoculated with serum only. Within 48 hours, the principal pony developed fever, increased respiratory rate, pleural effusion, and signs of pain. A highly cellular exudate with nondegenerative neutrophils and large numbers of M felis was recovered from the thoracic cavity. The control pony remained normal. The principal pony developed an antibody response to M felis. The control pony did not. Fourteen days after inoculation, both ponies were euthanatized. Necropsy revealed pleural inflammation in the principal pony. Pleural lesions were not found in the control pony. PMID:6874502

  20. Serological response of cats to experimental Besnoitia darlingi and Besnoitia neotomofelis infections and prevalence of antibodies to these parasites in cats from Virginia and Pennsylvania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Besnoitia darlingi and B. neotomofelis are tissue cyst-forming apicomplexan parasite that use domestic cats (Felis domesticus) as definitive hosts and opossums (Didelphis virginiana) and southern planes woodrats (Neotoma micropus) as intermediate hosts, respectively. Nothing is known about the preva...

  1. Mycoplasma felis pleuritis in two show-jumper horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, A M; Baird, J D; Kloeze, H J; Rosendal, S; Bell, M

    1992-04-01

    Mycoplasma felis was identified as the cause of acute pleuritis in 2 show-jumping horses. The pleural exudate was proteinaceous, contained large numbers of neutrophils, and had a markedly increased lactate concentration. M. felis was isolated in pure culture from pleural fluid. Rising serum antibody titers to M. felis as well as a precipitous decline in titers to equine influenza virus were demonstrated in both horses. Pleural effusion in both horses and a pneumothorax detected in one of the horses resolved following a single drainage of pleural fluid and intravenous fluid, antibiotic, and analgesic therapy. PMID:1623728

  2. Prevalence of antibodies to Sarcocystis neurona in cats from Virginia and Pennsylvania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Vasha; Grant, David C; Dubey, J P; Zajac, Anne M; Lindsay, David S

    2010-08-01

    Sarcocystis neurona is best known as the causative agent of equine protozoal myeloencephalitis of horses in the Americas. Domestic cats ( Felis domesticus ) were the first animals described as an intermediate host for S. neurona . However, S. neurona -associated encephalitis has also been reported in naturally infected cats in the United States. Thus, cats can be implicated in the life cycle of S. neurona as natural intermediate hosts. The present study examined the seroprevalence of IgG antibodies to merozoites of S. neurona in populations of domestic cats from Virginia and Pennsylvania. Overall, sera or plasma from 441 cats (Virginia = 232, Pennsylvania = 209) were tested by an indirect immunofluorescent assay at a 1ratio50 dilution. Antibodies to S. neurona were found in 32 (7%) of 441 cats. Of these, 22 (9%) of the 232 cats from Virginia and 10 (5%) of the 209 cats from Pennsylvania were seropositive for S. neurona . PMID:20476809

  3. Optical properties of infrared FELs from the FELI Facility II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saeki, K.; Okuma, S.; Oshita, E. [Free Electron Laser Institute, Osaka (Japan)] [and others

    1995-12-31

    The FELI Facility II has succeeded in infrared FEL oscillation at 1.91 {mu} m using a 68-MeV, 40-A electron beam from the FELI S-band linac in February 27, 1995. The FELI Facility II is composed of a 3-m vertical type undulator ({lambda}u=3.8cm, N=78, Km a x=1.4, gap length {ge}20mm) and a 6.72-m optical cavity. It can cover the wavelength range of 1-5{mu}m. The FELs can be delivered from the optical cavity to the diagnostics room through a 40-m evacuated optical pipeline. Wavelength and cavity length dependences of optical properties such as peak power, average power, spectrum width, FEL macropulse, FEL transverse profile are reported.

  4. Avaliação de diferentes dietas merídicas sobre a emergência de adultos de Ctenocephalides felis felis (Siphonaptera : Pulicidae Evaluation of different meridic diets upon adult emergence of Ctenocephalides felis felis (Siphonaptera: Pulicidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa Paulino da Cruz Vieira

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do presente trabalho foi avaliar a influência de dietas merídicas compostas por sangue de diferentes espécies animais sobre a emergência de adultos da pulga Ctenocephalides felis felis. Foram utilizadas seis dietas artificiais contendo areia e sangue desidratado de cão, boi, coelho e galinha, acrescidas ou não com farelo de trigo. Foram realizadas seis repetições contendo dez ovos de C. f. felis para cada dieta. Após 25 dias de incubação, os ovos foram quantificados e avaliados quanto à emergência de adultos. O número de pulgas emergidas para dietas com sangue de boi, cão, coelho e galinha, com areia e farelo de trigo, foi de aproximadamente oito pulgas. Para as dietas contendo apenas sangue de boi ou de cão e areia, essa emergência foi de aproximadamente uma pulga para ambas. Conclui-se que a origem do sangue empregado na elaboração da dieta não interfere significativamente no percentual de emergência de adultos de C. f. felis. Portanto, pode-se optar pela espécie animal disponível para o preparo da dieta artificial, aliada à suplementação com farelo de trigo, para suprir uma eventual perda nutricional decorrente da desidratação do sangue.The objective of the present study was to evaluate the influence of meridic diets composed by blood from different animal species upon the adult emergence of Ctenocephalides felis felis fleas. Six artificial diets containing dried blood of cattle (standard, dogs, rabbit and chicken, combined with sand or sand/wheat bran were prepared. For each diet six samples containing ten C. f. felis eggs were evaluated. After 25 days of incubation, samples were assessed for adult emergence. The number of emerge fleas for diets composed by bovine, canine, rabbit and chicken combined with sand/wheat bran was aproximally eight fleas. Diets composed by bovine and canine combined with sand, this emergence was aproximally one flea, for both. It can be concluded that the blood origin do not

  5. Who's behind that mask and cape? The Asian leopard cat's Agouti (ASIP) allele likely affects coat colour phenotype in the Bengal cat breed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gershony, L C; Penedo, M C T; Davis, B W; Murphy, W J; Helps, C R; Lyons, L A

    2014-12-01

    Coat colours and patterns are highly variable in cats and are determined mainly by several genes with Mendelian inheritance. A 2-bp deletion in agouti signalling protein (ASIP) is associated with melanism in domestic cats. Bengal cats are hybrids between domestic cats and Asian leopard cats (Prionailurus bengalensis), and the charcoal coat colouration/pattern in Bengals presents as a possible incomplete melanism. The complete coding region of ASIP was directly sequenced in Asian leopard, domestic and Bengal cats. Twenty-seven variants were identified between domestic and leopard cats and were investigated in Bengals and Savannahs, a hybrid with servals (Leptailurus serval). The leopard cat ASIP haplotype was distinguished from domestic cat by four synonymous and four non-synonymous exonic SNPs, as well as 19 intronic variants, including a 42-bp deletion in intron 4. Fifty-six of 64 reported charcoal cats were compound heterozygotes at ASIP, with leopard cat agouti (A(P) (be) ) and domestic cat non-agouti (a) haplotypes. Twenty-four Bengals had an additional unique haplotype (A2) for exon 2 that was not identified in leopard cats, servals or jungle cats (Felis chaus). The compound heterozygote state suggests the leopard cat allele, in combination with the recessive non-agouti allele, influences Bengal markings, producing a darker, yet not completely melanistic coat. This is the first validation of a leopard cat allele segregating in the Bengal breed and likely affecting their overall pelage phenotype. Genetic testing services need to be aware of the possible segregation of wild felid alleles in all assays performed on hybrid cats. PMID:25143047

  6. Who's behind that mask and cape? The Asian leopard cat's Agouti (ASIP) allele likely affects coat colour phenotype in the Bengal cat breed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gershony, L C; Penedo, M C T; Davis, B W; Murphy, W J; Helps, C R; Lyons, L A

    2014-12-01

    Coat colours and patterns are highly variable in cats and are determined mainly by several genes with Mendelian inheritance. A 2-bp deletion in agouti signalling protein (ASIP) is associated with melanism in domestic cats. Bengal cats are hybrids between domestic cats and Asian leopard cats (Prionailurus bengalensis), and the charcoal coat colouration/pattern in Bengals presents as a possible incomplete melanism. The complete coding region of ASIP was directly sequenced in Asian leopard, domestic and Bengal cats. Twenty-seven variants were identified between domestic and leopard cats and were investigated in Bengals and Savannahs, a hybrid with servals (Leptailurus serval). The leopard cat ASIP haplotype was distinguished from domestic cat by four synonymous and four non-synonymous exonic SNPs, as well as 19 intronic variants, including a 42-bp deletion in intron 4. Fifty-six of 64 reported charcoal cats were compound heterozygotes at ASIP, with leopard cat agouti (A(P) (be) ) and domestic cat non-agouti (a) haplotypes. Twenty-four Bengals had an additional unique haplotype (A2) for exon 2 that was not identified in leopard cats, servals or jungle cats (Felis chaus). The compound heterozygote state suggests the leopard cat allele, in combination with the recessive non-agouti allele, influences Bengal markings, producing a darker, yet not completely melanistic coat. This is the first validation of a leopard cat allele segregating in the Bengal breed and likely affecting their overall pelage phenotype. Genetic testing services need to be aware of the possible segregation of wild felid alleles in all assays performed on hybrid cats.

  7. Cat Scan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    <正> A man takes his motionless dog to the vet."Doc,I think my dog is dead.”The vet looks the dog over, goes into a backroom,and comes out with a cat.He places the caton the table next to the dog.The cat walks aroundand sniffs at the dog.The dog does not move.The

  8. Short term preservation of chilled tomcat (Felis catus L.) spermatozoa, obtained by urethral catheterization after medetomidine administration, diluted with a laboratory prepared extender

    OpenAIRE

    Constantin Pavli; Irina O. Tănase

    2013-01-01

    Semen collection in tomcat represents the first step to establish a breeding protocol. Therefore we used a method of harvesting that involves little difficulties and discomfort for the test male. The method was described previously by Zambelli (2006) and is represented by semen collection by a tomcat catheter, after medetomidine administration. In a few cases, when was possible, semen was also collected by electroejaculation, the males were housed in individual cages and collectio...

  9. Uso de la ecografía para el bloqueo de los nervios periféricos del miembro pelviano en el gato (Felis catus L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Haro Álvarez, Ana Paulina

    2013-01-01

    El presente estudio fue llevado a cabo para describir la apariencia ecográfica y desarrollar los abordajes ecoguiados para el bloqueo de los nervios ciático y femoral, así como evaluar la eficacia clínica del bloqueo ecoguiado del nervio ciático en el gato. Se realizaron disecciones anatómicas y criosecciones para determinar las marcas anatómicas para localizar los nervios de interés. La apariencia ecográfica de los nervios ciático y femoral fue estudiada tanto en cadáveres como en gatos vivo...

  10. Exame parasitológico de fezes de gatos (Felis catus domesticus domiciliados e errantes da Região Metropolitana do Rio de Janeiro, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serra Cathia Maria Barrientos

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Foram estudadas 131 amostras de fezes de gatos de comportamento domiciliado e errante da Região Metropolitana do Rio de Janeiro, obtendo-se uma positividade de 63,4% das amostras, com maior ocorrência no grupo de animais errantes. Foi observado predomínio de parasitismo por Ancylostoma sp (43,5%, Toxocara sp (19,1% e Cystoisospora sp (43,5% em ambos os grupos. Também foram encontrados ovos de Uncinaria sp (1,5%, Toxascaris leonina (7,6%, cistos de Giardia sp (6,1% e esporocistos de Sarcocystis sp (0,8%. A alta prevalência de enteroparasitas na amostra estudada ressalta a importância de um maior controle parasitológico nesses animais, para proteção da saúde animal e humana.

  11. Uso de la ecografía para el bloqueo de nervios periféricos del miembro torácico en el gato (Felis catus L:)

    OpenAIRE

    Ansón Fernández, Agustina

    2016-01-01

    Objetivos 1. Describir los abordajes ecográficos para la evaluación del plexo braquial (PB) y los principales nervios del miembro torácico, así como la anatomía y apariencia ecográfica normales correlacionando las imágenes ecográficas con la disección anatómica y las criosecciones. 2. Establecer los abordajes ecográficos para el bloqueo ecoguiado del PB. 3. Determinar la eficacia de los diferentes abordajes para el bloqueo anestésico ecoguiado del PB, mediante la evaluación de la d...

  12. Molecular evidence of Rickettsia felis infection in dogs from northern territory, Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rees Robert L

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The prevalence of spotted fever group rickettsial infection in dogs from a remote indigenous community in the Northern Territory (NT was determined using molecular tools. Blood samples collected from 130 dogs in the community of Maningrida were subjected to a spotted fever group (SFG-specific PCR targeting the ompB gene followed by a Rickettsia felis-specific PCR targeting the gltA gene of R. felis. Rickettsia felis ompB and gltA genes were amplified from the blood of 3 dogs. This study is the first report of R. felis infection in indigenous community dogs in NT.

  13. Cat Scratch Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cat scratch disease (CSD) is an illness caused by the bacterium Bartonella henselae. Almost half of all cats carry ... infection does not make cats sick. However, the scratch or bite of an infected cat can cause ...

  14. Serological response of cats to experimental Besnoitia darlingi and Besnoitia neotomofelis infections and prevalence of antibodies to these parasites in cats from Virginia and Pennsylvania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houk, Alice E; Rosypal, Alexa C; Grant, David C; Dubey, J P; Zajac, Anne M; Yabsley, Michael J; Lindsay, David S

    2011-04-01

    Besnoitia darlingi and Besnoitia neotomofelis are cyst-forming tissue apicomplexan parasites that use domestic cats (Felis domesticus) as definitive hosts and opossums (Didelphis virginiana ) and Southern Plains woodrats (Neotoma micropus) as intermediate hosts, respectively. Nothing is known about the prevalence of B. darlingi or B. neotomofelis in cats from the United States. Besnoitia darlingi infections have been reported in naturally infected opossums from many states in the United States, and B. neotomofelis infections have been reported from Southern Plains woodrats from Texas, but naturally infected cats have not been identified. The present study examined the IgG antibody response of cats to experimental infection (B. darlingi n  =  1 cat; B. neotomofelis n  =  3 cats). Samples from these cats were used to develop an indirect immunofluorescent antibody test (IFAT), which was then used to examine seroprevalence of IgG antibodies to tachyzoites of B. darlingi and B. neotomofelis in a population of domestic cats from Virginia (N  =  232 cats) and Pennsylvania (N  =  209). The serum from cats inoculated with B. darlingi or B. neotomofelis cross-reacted with each other's tachyzoites. The titers to heterologous tachyzoites were 1 to 3 dilutions lower than to homologous tachyzoites. Sera from B. darlingi- or B. neotomofelis-infected cats did not react with tachyzoites of Toxoplasma gondii or Neospora caninum or merozoites of Sarcocystis neurona using the IFAT. Antibodies to B. darlingi were found in 14% and 2% of cats from Virginia and Pennsylvania, respectively. Antibodies to B. neotomofelis were found in 5% and 4% of cats from Virginia and Pennsylvania, respectively. Nine cats from Virginia and 1 cat from Pennsylvania were positive for both. PMID:21506782

  15. FEL beam qualities and application researches at the FELI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The FELI four FEL facilities (FEL-1, FEL-2, FEL-3 and FEL-4) are open for users to supply several MW-level FELs covering a wide wavelength range from 278 nm to 40 μm. The ultraviolet (UV)- and visible-FEL facility (FEL-3) keeps the world record for the shortest wavelength oscillation of linac-based FELs with a thermionic gun since 1995. Technical challenges have been tried at simultaneous FEL beam sharing with fan-shaped mirrors for multistations including two manipulators and at FEL beam diagnostics of micropulse length and beam profile. The latter is for the evaluations of FEL peak power densities at irradiated spots. FEL peak power densities and adequate wavelengths are evaluated at thirteen research subjects performed at the FELI. The application researches have been performed distributed in a wide field of material science, chemical technology and bio-medical applications. (Copyright (c) 1998 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam. All rights reserved.)

  16. Outbreaks of Rickettsia felis in Kenya and Senegal, 2010

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2010-06-09

    This podcast describes the outbreak of Rickettsia felis in Kenya between August 2006 and June 2008, and in rural Senegal from November 2008 through July 2009. CDC infectious disease pathologist Dr. Chris Paddock discusses what researchers learned about this flea-borne disease and how to prevent infection.  Created: 6/9/2010 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 6/24/2010.

  17. Cat's Claw

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... R S T U V W X Y Z Cat's Claw Share: On This Page Introduction What the ... More Information Key References © Steven Foster Common Names: cat’s claw, uña de gato Latin Name: Uncaria tomentosa, ...

  18. My Cat

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王悦; 李成梅

    2002-01-01

    The name of my cat is Naty. This year he is one year old. He isvery fat, but he is very nice. He has a big round white head. His mouth and nose are small. His eyes are interesting. In the day,they are small and black,but at night they are big and blue.

  19. Immobilizing wild mountain lions (Felis concolor) with ketamine hydrochloride and xylazine hydrochloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logan, K A; Thorne, E T; Irwin, L L; Skinner, R

    1986-01-01

    A mixture of 120 mg ketamine hydrochloride (KHCL)/20 mg xylazine hydrochloride (XHCL)/ml was used to immobilize 37 wild mountain lions (Felis concolor) 46 times. Observations were recorded during 37 trials that included kittens, adult females, and adult males. Dosages were based on 11 mg KHCL and 1.8 mg XHCL/kg estimated body weight. Actual doses for 24 lions requiring a single injection for immobilization ranged from 4.7-15.8 mg KHCL/kg and 0.8-2.6 mg XHCL/kg. Induction, duration, and recovery times did not differ (P greater than 0.05) between the sex and age classes. Two kittens were overdosed with the drug combination, but the effects were not life threatening. Eleven other lions, nine of which were initially underdosed, required additional injections of the drug combination for safe handling. Immobilization was characterized initially by semi-consciousness, open eyelids, pupillary dilation, and muscle rigidity. Later, most lions appeared unconscious, muscles relaxed, and breathing slowed considerably. No convulsions or hypersalivation occurred. The KHCL/XHCL mixture given at approximately 11 mg KHCL and 1.8 mg XHCL/kg body weight proved useful for immobilizing wild mountain lions for research purposes. Suggestions for case of immobilized cats are included. PMID:3951066

  20. Mesothelioma in Two Nondomestic Felids: North American Cougar (Felis concolor and Cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda Whiton

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A 15-year-old male North American cougar (Felis concolor presented with a 2-day history of anorexia, restlessness, and dyspnea. White blood cell count ( cells/μL and absolute segmented neutrophil count ( cells/μL were increased, and BUN (143 mg/dL, creatinine (6.3 mg/dL, and phosphorus (8.5 mg/dL concentrations indicated chronic renal disease. Thoracic radiographs showed severe pleural and pericardial effusion. During attempts to remove the fluid, cardiac tamponade developed and the cat died. At necropsy, nodular masses decorated the pericardium at the level of the base of the heart. The final microscopic diagnosis was mesothelioma of the pericardium, tunica adventitia of the main pulmonary artery, left auricle epicardium, and left ventricular epicardium. A 15-year-old female cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus was evaluated for acute respiratory distress. The white blood cell count ( cells/μL and absolute segmented neutrophil count ( cells/μL were increased. Radiographically pleural effusion and a cranial thoracic mass were seen. The cheetah was euthanized, and a gross diagnosis of disseminated pleural mesothelioma with thoracic effusion was made. Histologically, pleural mesothelioma was confirmed with local invasion of the lung and pulmonary arterial emboli and infarction. In both cases, a diagnosis of mesothelioma was made based on cellular morphology, microscopic architecture, and neoplastic cell coexpression of cytokeratin and vimentin.

  1. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-MLUC-01-0975 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-MLUC-01-0975 ref|NP_001009324.1| melanocortin 1 receptor [Felis catus] dbj|BAC...76764.1| melanocortin 1 receptor [Felis catus] emb|CAQ86663.2| melanocortin 1 receptor [Felis catus] NP_001009324.1 1e-150 82% ...

  2. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-OPRI-01-0259 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-OPRI-01-0259 ref|NP_001129442.1| chemokine (C-C motif) receptor 3 [Felis catus...] gb|ACI42420.1| chemokine (C-C motif) receptor 3 [Felis catus] gb|ACJ13514.1| CC chemokine receptor 3 [Felis catus] NP_001129442.1 1e-140 71% ...

  3. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-MLUC-01-0017 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-MLUC-01-0017 ref|NP_001129441.1| chemokine (C-C motif) receptor 1 [Felis catus...] gb|ACI42419.1| chemokine (C-C motif) receptor 1 [Felis catus] gb|ACJ13513.1| CC chemokine receptor 1 [Felis catus] NP_001129441.1 1e-118 78% ...

  4. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-VPAC-01-0317 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-VPAC-01-0317 ref|NP_001129441.1| chemokine (C-C motif) receptor 1 [Felis catus...] gb|ACI42419.1| chemokine (C-C motif) receptor 1 [Felis catus] gb|ACJ13513.1| CC chemokine receptor 1 [Felis catus] NP_001129441.1 1e-148 78% ...

  5. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-VPAC-01-1032 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-VPAC-01-1032 ref|NP_001129442.1| chemokine (C-C motif) receptor 3 [Felis catus...] gb|ACI42420.1| chemokine (C-C motif) receptor 3 [Felis catus] gb|ACJ13514.1| CC chemokine receptor 3 [Felis catus] NP_001129442.1 5e-32 52% ...

  6. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-FCAT-01-0370 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-FCAT-01-0370 gb|ABP48095.1| CC chemokine receptor type 5 [Felis catus] gb|ABP4...8096.1| CC chemokine receptor type 5 [Felis catus] gb|ABP48097.1| CC chemokine receptor type 5 [Felis catus] ABP48095.1 0.0 99% ...

  7. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-MEUG-01-2041 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-MEUG-01-2041 ref|NP_001129442.1| chemokine (C-C motif) receptor 3 [Felis catus...] gb|ACI42420.1| chemokine (C-C motif) receptor 3 [Felis catus] gb|ACJ13514.1| CC chemokine receptor 3 [Felis catus] NP_001129442.1 1e-144 70% ...

  8. black cat

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜铁梅

    2016-01-01

    The black cat is a masterpiece of short fiction of Poe. He successfully solved the problem of creating of the horror effect by using scene description, symbol, repetition and first-person narrative methods. And created a complete and unified mysterious terror, achieved the effect of shocking. This paper aims to discuss the mystery in-depth and to enrich the research system in Poe’s novels.

  9. Rickettsia felis Infection in a Common Household Insect Pest, Liposcelis bostrychophila (Psocoptera: Liposcelidae)▿ †

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behar, Adi; McCormick, Laurie J.; Perlman, Steve J.

    2010-01-01

    Many species of Rickettsia are well-known mammalian pathogens transmitted by blood-feeding arthropods. However, molecular surveys are continually uncovering novel Rickettsia species, often in unexpected hosts, including many arthropods that do not feed on blood. This study reports a systematic molecular characterization of a Rickettsia infecting the psocid Liposcelis bostrychophila (Psocoptera: Liposcelidae), a common and cosmopolitan household pest. Surprisingly, the psocid Rickettsia is shown to be Rickettsia felis, a human pathogen transmitted by fleas that causes serious morbidity and occasional mortality. The plasmid from the psocid R. felis was sequenced and was found to be virtually identical to the one in R. felis from fleas. As Liposcelis insects are often intimately associated with humans and other vertebrates, it is speculated that they acquired R. felis from fleas. Whether the R. felis in psocids causes disease in vertebrates is not known and warrants further study. PMID:20139311

  10. Genetic and phylogenetic divergence of feline immunodeficiency virus in the puma (Puma concolor).

    OpenAIRE

    Carpenter, M.A.; Brown, E. W.; Culver, M; Johnson, W E; Pecon-Slattery, J; Brousset, D; O'Brien, S J

    1996-01-01

    Feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) is a lentivirus which causes an AIDS-like disease in domestic cats (Felis catus). A number of other felid species, including the puma (Puma concolor), carry a virus closely related to domestic cat FIV. Serological testing revealed the presence of antibodies to FIV in 22% of 434 samples from throughout the geographic range of the puma. FIV-Pco pol gene sequences isolated from pumas revealed extensive sequence diversity, greater than has been documented in th...

  11. Videographic evidence of endangered species depredation by feral cat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Judge, Seth; Lippert, Jill S.; Misajon, Kathleen; Hu, Darcy; Hess, Steven C.

    2012-01-01

    Feral cats (Felis cafus) have long been implicated as nest predators of endangered 'Ua'u (Hawaiian Petrel; Pterodroma sandwichensis) on Hawaii Island, but until recently, visual confirmation has been limited by available technology. 'Ua'u nest out of view, deep inside small cavities, on alpine lava flows. During the breeding seasons of 2007 and 2008, we monitored known burrows within Hawai'i Volcanoes National Park. Digital infrared video cameras assisted in determining the breeding behaviour and nesting success at the most isolated of burrows. With 7 cameras, we collected a total of 819 videos and 89 still photographs of adult and nestling 'Ua'u at 14 burrows. Videos also confirmed the presence of rats (Rattus spp.) at 2 burrows, 'Ōmao (Myadestes obscurus) at 8 burrows, and feral cats at 6 burrows. A sequence of videos showed a feral cat taking a downy 'Ua'u chick from its burrow, representing the first direct evidence of 'Ua'u depredation by feral cat in Hawai'i. This technique provides greater understanding of feral cat behaviour in 'Ua'u colonies, which may assist in the development of more targeted management strategies to reduce nest predation on endangered insular bird species.

  12. Schroedinger's cat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The issue is to seek quantum interference effects in an arbitrary field, in particular in psychology. For this a digest of quantum mechanics over finite-n-dimensional Hilbert space is invented. In order to match crude data not only von Neumann's mixed states are used but also a parallel notion of unsharp tests. The mathematically styled text (and earlier work on multibin tests, designated MB) deals largely with these new tests. Quantum psychology itself is only given a foundation. It readily engenders objections; its plausibility is developed gradually, in interlocking essays. There is also the empirically definite proposal that (state, test, outcome)-indexed counts be gathered to record data, then fed to a 'matrix format' (MF) search for quantum models. A previously proposed experiment in visual perception which has since failed to find significant quantum correlations, is discussed. The suspicion that quantum mechanics is all around goes beyond MF, and 'Schroedinger's cat' symbolizes this broader perspective. (author)

  13. Genetic structure of different cat populations in Europe and South America at a microgeographic level: importance of the choice of an adequate sampling level in the accuracy of population genetics interpretations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Ruiz-Garcia

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available The phenotypic markers, coat color, pattern and hair length, of natural domestic cat populations observed in four cities (Barcelona, Catalonia; Palma Majorca, Balearic Islands; Rimini, Italy and Buenos Aires, Argentina were studied at a microgeographical level. Various population genetics techniques revealed that the degree of genetic differentiation between populations of Felis catus within these cities is relatively low, when compared with that found between populations of other mammals. Two different levels of sampling were used. One was that of "natural" colonies of cat families living together in specific points within the cities, and the other referred to "artificial" subpopulations, or groups of colonies, inhabiting the same district within a city. For the two sampling levels, some of the results were identical: 1 little genic heterogeneity, 2 existence of panmixia, 3 similar levels of expected heterozygosity in all populations analyzed, 4 no spatial autocorrelation, with certain differentiation in the Buenos Aires population compared to the others, and 5 very high correlations between colonies and subpopulations with the first factors from a Q factor analysis. Nevertheless, other population genetic statistics were greatly affected by the differential choice of sampling level. This was the case for: 1 the amount of heterogeneity of the FST and GST statistics between the cities, which was greater at the subpopulation level than at colony level, 2 the existence of correlations between genic differentiation statistics and size variables at subpopulation level, but not at the colony level, and 3 the relationships between the genetic variables and the principal factors of the R factorial analysis. This suggests that care should be taken in the choice of the sampling unit, for inferences on population genetics to be valid at the microgeographical level.Os marcadores fenotípicos cor da pelagem, padrão e comprimento dos pelos de popula

  14. Molecular identification of Cryptosporidium spp. in seagulls, pigeons, dogs, and cats in Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koompapong Khuanchai

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Zoonotic Cryptosporidium spp., particularly C. meleagridis, C. canis, and C. felis, are enteric protozoa responsible for major public health concerns around the world. To determine the spread of this parasite in Thailand, we conducted molecular identification of Cryptosporidium spp. from animal samples around the country, by collecting and investigating the feces of seagulls (Chroicocephalus brunnicephalus and Chroicocephalus ridibundus, domestic pigeons (Columba livia domestica, dogs, and cats. Seagull and pigeon samples were collected at the seaside and on the riverside to evaluate their potential for waterborne transmission. Ten pigeon samples were combined into one set, and a total of seven sets were collected. Seventy seagull samples were combined into one set, and a total of 13 sets were collected. In addition, 111 dog samples were collected from cattle farms, and 95 dog and 80 cat samples were collected from a temple. We identified C. meleagridis in pigeons, Cryptosporidium avian genotype III in seagulls, C. canis in dogs, and C. felis in cats. In the temple, the prevalence was 2.1% (2/95 for dogs and 2.5% (2/80 for cats. No Cryptosporidium was found in dog samples from cattle farms. These are the first findings of C. meleagridis in domestic pigeons, and Cryptosporidium avian genotype III in seagulls. Our study invites further molecular epidemiological investigations of Cryptosporidium in these animals and their environment to evaluate the public health risk in Thailand.

  15. Evolutionary dynamics of endogenous feline leukemia virus proliferation among species of the domestic cat lineage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Endogenous feline leukemia viruses (enFeLVs) occur in the germ lines of the domestic cat and related wild species (genus Felis). We sequenced the long terminal repeats and part of the env region of enFeLVs in domestic cats and five wild species. A total of 305 enFeLV sequences were generated across 17 individuals, demonstrating considerable diversity within two major clades. Distinct proliferations of enFeLVs occurred before and after the black-footed cat diverged from the other species. Diversity of enFeLVs was limited for the sand cat and jungle cat suggesting that proliferation of enFeLVs occurred within these species after they diverged. Relationships among enFeLVs were congruent with host species relationships except for the jungle cat, which carried only enFeLVs from a lineage that recently invaded the germline (enFeLV-AGTT). Comparison of wildcat and domestic cat enFeLVs indicated that a distinctive germ line invasion of enFeLVs has not occurred since the cat was domesticated.

  16. Prevalence and Risk Factors of Intestinal Parasites in Cats from China

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    The prevalence of intestinal parasites in cats from China was largely unknown prior to this study. The aim of the present study was to investigate the presence of intestinal parasites in cats from central China and also identify risk factors for parasitism. Fecal samples from 360 cats were examined using sugar flotation procedure and fecal smear test by microscope. Cats had mixed two or three kinds of parasites infections. Of the 360 cats feces, intestinal parasites positive feces were 149 (41.39%). 64 (17.78%) were infected with Toxocara cati, 61 (16.94%) with Isospora felis, 41 (11.39%) with Isospora rivolta, 33 (9.17%) with Paragonimus, 23 (6.39%) with hookworms, 11 (3.06%) with Toxoplasma-like oocysts, 10 (2.78%) with Trichuris, 4 (1.11%) with lungworm, 2 (0.56%) with Sarcocystis, and 1 (0.28%) with Trematode. The cats' living outdoor was identified as risk factor by statistical analysis. These results provide relevant basic data for assessing the infection of intestinal parasites in cats from central region of China. In conclusion, there was high prevalence of intestinal parasites in cats from China. PMID:26078975

  17. Cat and Dog Bites

    Science.gov (United States)

    MENU Return to Web version Cat and Dog Bites Cat and Dog Bites How should I take care of a bite from a cat or a dog? Whether from a family pet or a neighborhood stray, cat and dog bites are common. Here are some things you ...

  18. Plasmids and rickettsial evolution: insight from Rickettsia felis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph J Gillespie

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The genome sequence of Rickettsia felis revealed a number of rickettsial genetic anomalies that likely contribute not only to a large genome size relative to other rickettsiae, but also to phenotypic oddities that have confounded the categorization of R. felis as either typhus group (TG or spotted fever group (SFG rickettsiae. Most intriguing was the first report from rickettsiae of a conjugative plasmid (pRF that contains 68 putative open reading frames, several of which are predicted to encode proteins with high similarity to conjugative machinery in other plasmid-containing bacteria. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Using phylogeny estimation, we determined the mode of inheritance of pRF genes relative to conserved rickettsial chromosomal genes. Phylogenies of chromosomal genes were in agreement with other published rickettsial trees. However, phylogenies including pRF genes yielded different topologies and suggest a close relationship between pRF and ancestral group (AG rickettsiae, including the recently completed genome of R. bellii str. RML369-C. This relatedness is further supported by the distribution of pRF genes across other rickettsiae, as 10 pRF genes (or inactive derivatives also occur in AG (but not SFG rickettsiae, with five of these genes characteristic of typical plasmids. Detailed characterization of pRF genes resulted in two novel findings: the identification of oriV and replication termination regions, and the likelihood that a second proposed plasmid, pRFdelta, is an artifact of the original genome assembly. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: Altogether, we propose a new rickettsial classification scheme with the addition of a fourth lineage, transitional group (TRG rickettsiae, that is unique from TG and SFG rickettsiae and harbors genes from possible exchanges with AG rickettsiae via conjugation. We offer insight into the evolution of a plastic plasmid system in rickettsiae, including the role plasmids may have played in

  19. Three-dimensional morphology, ultrastructure, and replication of Mycoplasma felis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boatman, E S; Kenny, G E

    1970-01-01

    The morphology and replication of Mycoplasma felis in relation to growth phase in culture were studied by electron microscopy. The organisms showed 1.0 to 1.45-hr doubling times with typical bacterial-type growth curves when grown in dialysate broth supplemented with horse serum. Organisms were fixed for electron microscopy by using Veronal acetate-buffered 0.8% OsO(4) (pH 6.1) in 20% sucrose. The morphology of exponential-phase organisms differed markedly from that of stationary or death-phase organisms, which were essentially large round forms with either dispersed or abnormally aggregated cytoplasm. Plasticine models prepared from serial sections of organisms in exponential phase showed the organisms to be either disc-shaped, triangular, horseshoe-shaped, or multilobular. A central "hole" was frequently present in these structures and could be visualized in the lobular forms as an interconnecting circular membrane. The inner surface of this membrane often showed contact with a small membranous body about 0.12 mum in diameter. The significance of this body is unknown. The morphology of the various shapes was confirmed by using the phosphotungstic acid and critical point methods. When the ratios of the various forms in exponential-phase cultures were determined, it was found that a replication sequence could be proposed which accounted for not only the volume increase required to accommodate deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) replication but also the distribution of that DNA. Although it is likely that DNA replication in M. felis is a binary process, it appears that the mechanism for production of new cells need not be a binary process. PMID:5411752

  20. Ectoparasitos de cães e gatos da cidade de Manaus, Amazonas, Brasil Ectoparasites on cats and dogs from Manaus, Amazonas State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Cutrim Moreira de Castro

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available São apresentados resultados da coleta de ectoparasitos em cães e gatos entre agosto de 2001 e maio de 2002 em diferentes bairros da cidade Manaus. No cão foram encontrados: Ctenocephalides f. felis (Bouché, 1835 (Siphonaptera, Pulicidae, Heterodoxus spiniger (Enderlein, 1909(Phthiraptera, Boopidae, Trichodectes canis (De Geer, 1778 (Phthiraptera, Trichodectidae e Rhipicephalus sanguineus (Latreille,1806 (Acari, Ixodidae. No gato foi coletado C. f. felis. A prevalência de ectoparasitos foi de 80,8% para cães e 72,7% para gatos. Para a pulga C. f. felis foi de 28,7% para cães e 72,7% para gatos. Para o piolho H. spiniger foi de 12,3% para cães. Para o piolho T. canis foi de 0,1% para cães e para o carrapato R. sanguineus foi de 63% para cães. A média de infestaçãode pulga foi de 1,26 para cães e 1,27 para gatos. A proporção sexual fêmea/macho foi de 1,96:1 no cão e de 3,66:1 no gato. A pulga C. canis (Curtis, 1826, registrada em 1922, não foi coletada.Ectoparasites from different neighborhood of Manaus were collected from august 2001 to May 2002. On dogs it was found: Ctenocephalides f. felis (Bouché, 1835 (Siphonaptera, Pulicidae, Heterodoxus spiniger (Enderlein, 1909(Phthiraptera, Boopidae, Trichodetes canis (De Geer, 1778 (Phthiraptera, Trichodectidae and Rhipicephalus sanguineus (Latreille,1806 (Acari, Ixodidae. On cats: C. f. felis. The prevalence of ectoparasites was 80.8% to dogs and 72.7% to cats. For the flea C. f. felis was 28.7% to dogs and 72.7% to cats. For the lice H. spiniger was 12.3% for dogs. For the lice T. canis was 0.1% for dogs and for the tick R. sanguineus was 63% for dogs. The infestation index for fleas was 1.26 to dogs and 1.27 to cats. The sexual ratio obtained was 1.96:1 to dogs and 3.66:1 to cats. The flea C. canis (Curtis, 1826 registered in 1922 was not found.

  1. Prevalence and Risk Factors of Intestinal Parasites in Cats from China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yurong Yang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The prevalence of intestinal parasites in cats from China was largely unknown prior to this study. The aim of the present study was to investigate the presence of intestinal parasites in cats from central China and also identify risk factors for parasitism. Fecal samples from 360 cats were examined using sugar flotation procedure and fecal smear test by microscope. Cats had mixed two or three kinds of parasites infections. Of the 360 cats feces, intestinal parasites positive feces were 149 (41.39%. 64 (17.78% were infected with Toxocara cati, 61 (16.94% with Isospora felis, 41 (11.39% with Isospora rivolta, 33 (9.17% with Paragonimus, 23 (6.39% with hookworms, 11 (3.06% with Toxoplasma-like oocysts, 10 (2.78% with Trichuris, 4 (1.11% with lungworm, 2 (0.56% with Sarcocystis, and 1 (0.28% with Trematode. The cats’ living outdoor was identified as risk factor by statistical analysis. These results provide relevant basic data for assessing the infection of intestinal parasites in cats from central region of China. In conclusion, there was high prevalence of intestinal parasites in cats from China.

  2. Cat, cougar, and jaguar spermatogenesis: a comparative analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deiler Sampaio Costa

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available This work presents a comparative review about the spermatogenic process in cats (Felis domestica, jaguars (Panthera onca and cougars (Puma concolor, with emphasis on testicular biometry, gonadossomatic index, volumetric proportion of testicular parenchyma components, tubular diameter, seminiferous epithelial height and seminiferous tubule length. It was an approach of the differences among the cell proportions that allowed conclusions about the overall yield of spermatogenic process and Sertoli cell index in three feline species.O processo espermatogênico do gato doméstico (Felis domestica, da onça-pintada (Panthera onca e da onça-parda (Puma concolor são analisados de forma comparativa, dando-se ênfase à biometria testicular, ao índice gonadossomático, à proporção volumétrica dos constituintes do parênquima testicular, ao diâmetro tubular, à altura do epitélio seminífero e ao comprimento dos túbulos seminíferos. Abordam-se ainda as diferenças entres as razões celulares que permitem conclusões sobre o rendimento do processo espermatogênico e índices de células de Sértoli das três espécies.

  3. Parasite communities in stray cat populations from Lisbon, Portugal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waap, H; Gomes, J; Nunes, T

    2014-12-01

    Stray cats live in high-density colonies in urban areas and pose a health hazard to household cats and humans. In Portugal, information on the parasitic fauna of stray cats is limited and relies mostly on results from faecal analysis. The present survey aimed to determine the prevalence, diversity and intensity of parasites in stray cats from the urban area of Lisbon by means of parasitological necropsy. Internal organs were collected from 162 cats captured in different areas of the city and systematically subjected to parasitological dissection. Helminths were identified by macro- and microscopic examination and protozoa by faecal floatation and sedimentation techniques. The overall prevalence of parasites was 90.7% (95% confidence interval (CI): 85.3-94.6%). A total of 12 parasite species was recorded: Cystoisospora felis (14.2%), Cystoisospora rivolta (46.3%), Sarcocystis sp. (1.2%), Ancylostoma tubaeforme (19.1%), Toxocara cati (38.3%), Ollulanus tricuspis (30.9%), Aelurostrongylus abstrusus (12.4%), Eucoleus aerophilus (0.6%), Taenia taeniaeformis (3.1%), Dipylidium caninum (53.1%), Joyeuxiella pasqualei (15.4%) and Diplopylidium nölleri (3.7%). Overall mean species richness was 2.36 ±  1.52. Helminth mean intensity was highest for O. tricuspis (285.8), followed by D. caninum (42.4), J. pasqualei (14.4), A. tubaeforme (8.1) and T. cati (5.9). The prevalence and variety of parasites found in our sampling are substantially higher than the numbers previously reported in Portugal. Some of the parasites, including T. cati and A. tubaeforme, are zoonotic, which emphasizes the need for parasite control strategies based on demographic containment of stray cat populations in urban areas to promote public health protection.

  4. Exposure to positively- and negatively-charged plasma cluster ions impairs IgE-binding capacity of indoor cat and fungal allergens

    OpenAIRE

    NISHIKAWA, Kazuo; Fujimura, Takashi; Ota, Yasuhiro; Abe, Takuya; ElRamlawy, Kareem Gamal; Nakano, Miyako; Takado, Tomoaki; Uenishi, Akira; Kawazoe, Hidechika; Sekoguchi, Yoshinori; Tanaka, Akihiko; Ono, Kazuhisa; Kawamoto, Seiji

    2016-01-01

    Background Environmental control to reduce the amount of allergens in a living place is thought to be important to avoid sensitization to airborne allergens. However, efficacy of environmental control on inactivation of airborne allergens is not fully investigated. We have previously reported that positively- and negatively-charged plasma cluster ions (PC-ions) reduce the IgE-binding capacity of crude allergens from Japanese cedar pollen as important seasonal airborne allergens. Cat (Felis do...

  5. Cat Scratch Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cat scratch disease (CSD) is an illness caused by the bacterium Bartonella henselae. Almost half of all cats carry the infection ... symptoms of CSD, call your doctor. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention

  6. Getting a CAT Scan

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Crushes What's a Booger? Getting a CAT Scan (Video) KidsHealth > For Kids > Getting a CAT Scan (Video) Print A A A Text Size en español Obtención de una tomografía computada (video) CAT stands for "computerized axial tomography." Translated, that ...

  7. Getting a CAT Scan

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Here's Help White House Lunch Recipes Getting a CAT Scan (Video) KidsHealth > For Kids > Getting a CAT Scan (Video) Print A A A Text Size en español Obtención de una tomografía computada (video) CAT stands for "computerized axial tomography." Translated, that means ...

  8. Discospondylitis in a cat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The incidence and causative agents of discospondylitis in cats are unknown. This report describes a cat with radiologic changes consistent with discospondylitis and concurrent urinary tract infection. As in dogs, discospondylitis should be the primary rule out for vertebral end plate lysis in cats

  9. Getting a CAT Scan

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Snowboarding, Skating Crushes What's a Booger? Getting a CAT Scan (Video) KidsHealth > For Kids > Getting a CAT Scan (Video) Print A A A Text Size en español Obtención de una tomografía computada (video) CAT stands for "computerized axial tomography." Translated, that means ...

  10. Serosurvey of Smooth Brucella, Leptospira spp. and Toxoplasma gondii in Free-Ranging Jaguars (Panthera onca) and Domestic Animals from Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Mariana Malzoni Furtado; Solange Maria Gennari; Cassia Yumi Ikuta; Anah Tereza de Almeida Jácomo; Zenaide Maria de Morais; Hilda Fátima de Jesus Pena; Grasiela Edith de Oliveira Porfírio; Leandro Silveira; Rahel Sollmann; Gisele Oliveira de Souza; Natália Mundim Tôrres; José Soares Ferreira Neto

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the exposure of jaguar populations and domestic animals to smooth Brucella, Leptospira spp. and Toxoplasma gondii in the Cerrado, Pantanal and Amazon biomes of Brazil. Between February 2000 and January 2010, serum samples from 31 jaguars (Panthera onca), 1,245 cattle (Bos taurus), 168 domestic dogs (Canis lupus familiaris) and 29 domestic cats (Felis catus) were collected and analysed by rose bengal test for smooth Brucella, microscopic agglutination test for Leptospir...

  11. Wild dogma: An examination of recent “evidence” for dingo regulation of invasive mesopredator release in Australia

    OpenAIRE

    Benjamin L. ALLEN, Richard M. ENGEMAN, Lee R. ALLEN

    2011-01-01

    There is growing interest in the role that apex predators play in shaping terrestrial ecosystems and maintaining trophic cascades. In line with the mesopredator release hypothesis, Australian dingoes (Canis lupus dingo and hybrids) are assumed by many to regulate the abundance of invasive mesopredators, such as red foxes Vulpes vulpes and feral cats Felis catus, thereby providing indirect benefits to various threatened vertebrates. Several recent papers have claimed to provide evidence for th...

  12. Molecular evidence for the presence of Rickettsia Felis in the feces of wild-living African apes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alpha Kabinet Keita

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Rickettsia felis is a common emerging pathogen detected in mosquitoes in sub-Saharan Africa. We hypothesized that, as with malaria, great apes may be exposed to the infectious bite of infected mosquitoes and release R. felis DNA in their feces. METHODS: We conducted a study of 17 forest sites in Central Africa, testing 1,028 fecal samples from 313 chimpanzees, 430 gorillas and 285 bonobos. The presence of rickettsial DNA was investigated by specific quantitative real-time PCR. Positive results were confirmed by a second PCR using primers and a probe targeting a specific gene for R. felis. All positive samples were sequenced. RESULTS: Overall, 113 samples (11% were positive for the Rickettsia-specific gltA gene, including 25 (22% that were positive for R. felis. The citrate synthase (gltA sequence and outer membrane protein A (ompA sequence analysis indicated 99% identity at the nucleotide level to R. felis. The 88 other samples (78% were negative using R. felis-specific qPCR and were compatible with R. felis-like organisms. CONCLUSION: For the first time, we detected R. felis in wild-living ape feces. This non invasive detection of human pathogens in endangered species opens up new possibilities in the molecular epidemiology and evolutionary analysis of infectious diseases, beside HIV and malaria.

  13. Pulmonary thromboembolism in cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schermerhorn, Thomas; Pembleton-Corbett, Julie R; Kornreich, Bruce

    2004-01-01

    Pulmonary thromboembolism (PTE) is rarely diagnosed in cats, and the clinical features of the disease are not well known. PTE was diagnosed at postmortem examination in 17 cats, a prevalence of 0.06% over a 24-year period. The age of affected cats ranged from 10 months to 18 years, although young (10 years) cats were more commonly affected than were middle-aged cats. Males and females were equally affected. The majority of cats with PTE (n = 16) had concurrent disease, which was often severe. The most common diseases identified in association with PTE were neoplasia, anemia of unidentified cause, and pancreatitis. Cats with glomerulonephritis, encephalitis, pneumonia, heart disease, and hepatic lipidosis were also represented in this study. Most cats with PTE demonstrated dyspnea and respiratory distress before death or euthanasia, but PTE was not recognized ante mortem in any cat studied. In conclusion, PTE can affect cats of any age and is associated with a variety of systemic and inflammatory disorders. It is recommended that the same clinical criteria used to increase the suspicion of PTE in dogs should also be applied to cats. PMID:15320593

  14. Prophylactic treatment of flea-infested cats with an imidacloprid/flumethrin collar to forestall infection with Dipylidium caninum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fourie Josephus J

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The objective of the study was to determine the sustained effectiveness of 10% imidacloprid (w/w and 4.5% flumethrin (w/w incorporated in a slow-release matrix collar in preventing Dipylidium caninum infection in cats following repeated laboratory-infestations with fleas infected with metacestodes. Methods Efficacy against infection with D. caninum was evaluated by infesting 16 cats with the flea Ctenocephalides felis felis infected with metacestodes of the tapeworm. Medicated collars were fitted to 8 of the cats and infestation of each cat with 200 fleas from a suitably infected batch commenced 7 days later and continued at weekly intervals until Day 28. Efficacy against fleas was evaluated 24 h after each infestation. Infection of the cats with D. caninum was verified by daily examination of the cats’ faeces and immediate surroundings for proglottids from Day 21 to Day 60. Calculation of the prophylactic effectiveness of the collars in preventing infection of the cats with D. caninum was based on the difference in the geometric mean number of scoleces recovered from the gastrointestinal tracts of collared compared to untreated cats at necropsy on Day 61. Results Efficacy of the collars against infestation of the cats with fleas was 99.9% on Day 7 and 100% at each subsequent weekly assessment. Infection of the fleas with metacestodes was ≥40% in 7 to 13 day old fleas, but progressively decreased thereafter. At necropsy all the control cats were infected with D. caninum and harboured between 19 and 346 scoleces with a geometric mean of 58.3. A single treated cat was infected and harboured 2 scoleces. Effective prevention of infection with D. caninum, based on a comparison of the geometric mean numbers of scoleces recovered from control and treated cats, was 99.7%. Conclusion The insecticidal components of the medicated collars are capable of rapidly eliminating newly-acquired infestations of fleas that are infected

  15. Efficacy of an imidacloprid/flumethrin collar against fleas and ticks on cats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanneck Dorothee

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The objectives of the studies listed here were to ascertain the therapeutic and sustained efficacy of 10% imidacloprid (w/w and 4.5% flumethrin (w/w incorporated in a slow-release matrix collar, against laboratory-infestations of fleas and ticks on cats. Efficacy was evaluated against the flea Ctenocephalides felis felis, and the ticks Ixodes ricinus, Amblyomma americanum and Rhipicephalus turanicus. The number of studies was so large that only a general overview can be presented in this abstract. Methods Preventive efficacy was evaluated by infesting groups of cats (n = 8-10 with C. felis felis and/or I. ricinus, A. americanum or R. turanicus at monthly intervals at least, for a period of up to 8 months. Efficacy against fleas was evaluated 24 to 48 h after treatment and 24 h after infestation, and against ticks at 6 h (repellent or 48 h (acaricidal after infestation. Efficacy against flea larvae was evaluated over a period of 8 months by incubating viable flea eggs on blanket samples after cat contact. In all cases efficacy was calculated by comparison with untreated negative control groups. Results Efficacy against fleas (24 h generally exceeded 95% until study termination. In vitro efficacy against flea larvae exceeded 92% until Day 90 and then declined to 67% at the conclusion of the study on Day 230. Sustained acaricidal (48 h efficacy over a period of eight months was consistently 100% against I. ricinus from Day 2 after treatment, 100% against A. americanum, except for 98.5% and 97.7% at two time-points, and between 94% and 100% against R. turanicus. From Day 2 until 8 months after treatment the repellent (6 h, efficacy was consistently 100% against I. ricinus, and between 54.8% and 85.4% against R. turanicus. Conclusion The rapid insecticidal and acaricidal properties of the medicated collars against newly- acquired infestations of fleas and ticks and their sustained high levels of preventive efficacy have been

  16. A tortoiseshell male cat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, A. S.; Berg, Lise Charlotte; Almstrup, Kristian;

    2014-01-01

    Tortoiseshell coat color is normally restricted to female cats due to X-linkage of the gene that encodes the orange coat color. Tortoiseshell male cats do, however, occur at a low frequency among tortoiseshell cats because of chromosome aberrations similar to the Klinefelter syndrome in man...... tissue from a tortoiseshell male cat referred to us. Chromosome analysis using RBA-banding consistently revealed a 39,XXY karyotype. Histological examinations of testis biopsies from this cat showed degeneration of the tubules, hyperplasia of the interstitial tissue, and complete loss of germ cells....... Immunostaining using anti-vimentin and anti-VASA (DDX4) showed that only Sertoli cells and no germ cells were observed in the testicular tubules. As no sign of spermatogenesis was detected, we conclude that this is a classic case of a sterile, male tortoiseshell cat with a 39,XXY chromosome complement. © 2013 S...

  17. Tiger, Bengal and Domestic Cat Embryos Produced by Homospecific and Interspecific Zona-Free Nuclear Transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moro, L N; Jarazo, J; Buemo, C; Hiriart, M I; Sestelo, A; Salamone, D F

    2015-10-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate three different cloning strategies in the domestic cat (Felis silvestris) and to use the most efficient to generate wild felid embryos by interspecific cloning (iSCNT) using Bengal (a hybrid formed by the cross of Felis silvestris and Prionailurus bengalensis) and tiger (Panthera tigris) donor cells. In experiment 1, zona-free (ZP-free) cloning resulted in higher fusion and expanded blastocyst rates with respect to zona included cloning techniques that involved fusion or injection of the donor cell. In experiment 2, ZP-free iSCNT and embryo aggregation (2X) were assessed. Division velocity and blastocyst rates were increased by embryo aggregation in the three species. Despite fewer tiger embryos than Bengal and cat embryos reached the blastocyst stage, Tiger 2X group increased the percentage of blastocysts with respect to Tiger 1X group (3.2% vs 12.1%, respectively). Moreover, blastocyst cell number was almost duplicated in aggregated embryos with respect to non-aggregated ones within Bengal and tiger groups (278.3 ± 61.9 vs 516.8 ± 103.6 for Bengal 1X and Bengal 2X groups, respectively; 41 vs 220 ± 60 for Tiger 1X and Tiger 2X groups, respectively). OCT4 analysis also revealed that tiger blastocysts had higher proportion of OCT4-positive cells with respect to Bengal blastocysts and cat intracytoplasmic sperm injection blastocysts. In conclusion, ZP-free cloning has improved the quality of cat embryos with respect to the other cloning techniques evaluated and was successfully applied in iSCNT complemented with embryo aggregation. PMID:26332056

  18. INFECTION BY Rickettsia felis IN OPOSSUMS (Didelphis sp. FROM YUCATAN, MEXICO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaspar PENICHE-LARA

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Rickettsia felis is an emergent pathogen and the causative agent of a typhus-like rickettsiosis in the Americas. Its transmission cycle involves fleas as biological vectors (mainly Ctenocephalides felis and multiple domestic and synanthropic mammal hosts. Nonetheless, the role of mammals in the cycle of R. felis is not well understood and many efforts are ongoing in different countries of America to clarify it. The present study describes for the first time in Mexico the infection of two species of opossum (Didelphis virginiana and D. marsupialis by R. felis. A diagnosis was carried out from blood samples by molecular methods through the gltAand 17 kDa genes and sequence determination. Eighty-seven opossum samples were analyzed and 28 were found to be infected (32.1% from five out of the six studied localities of Yucatan. These findings enable recognition of the potential epidemiological implications for public health of the presence of infected synanthropic Didelphis in households.

  19. INFECTION BY Rickettsia felis IN OPOSSUMS (Didelphis sp.) FROM YUCATAN, MEXICO.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peniche-Lara, Gaspar; Ruiz-Piña, Hugo A; Reyes-Novelo, Enrique; Dzul-Rosado, Karla; Zavala-Castro, Jorge

    2016-01-01

    Rickettsia felis is an emergent pathogen and the causative agent of a typhus-like rickettsiosis in the Americas. Its transmission cycle involves fleas as biological vectors (mainly Ctenocephalides felis) and multiple domestic and synanthropic mammal hosts. Nonetheless, the role of mammals in the cycle of R. felis is not well understood and many efforts are ongoing in different countries of America to clarify it. The present study describes for the first time in Mexico the infection of two species of opossum (Didelphis virginiana and D. marsupialis) by R. felis. A diagnosis was carried out from blood samples by molecular methods through the gltA and 17 kDa genes and sequence determination. Eighty-seven opossum samples were analyzed and 28 were found to be infected (32.1%) from five out of the six studied localities of Yucatan. These findings enable recognition of the potential epidemiological implications for public health of the presence of infected synanthropic Didelphis in households. PMID:27074326

  20. INFECTION BY Rickettsia felis IN OPOSSUMS (Didelphis sp.) FROM YUCATAN, MEXICO

    Science.gov (United States)

    PENICHE-LARA, Gaspar; RUIZ-PIÑA, Hugo A.; REYES-NOVELO, Enrique; DZUL-ROSADO, Karla; ZAVALA-CASTRO, Jorge

    2016-01-01

    Rickettsia felis is an emergent pathogen and the causative agent of a typhus-like rickettsiosis in the Americas. Its transmission cycle involves fleas as biological vectors (mainly Ctenocephalides felis) and multiple domestic and synanthropic mammal hosts. Nonetheless, the role of mammals in the cycle of R. felis is not well understood and many efforts are ongoing in different countries of America to clarify it. The present study describes for the first time in Mexico the infection of two species of opossum (Didelphis virginiana and D. marsupialis) by R. felis. A diagnosis was carried out from blood samples by molecular methods through the gltAand 17 kDa genes and sequence determination. Eighty-seven opossum samples were analyzed and 28 were found to be infected (32.1%) from five out of the six studied localities of Yucatan. These findings enable recognition of the potential epidemiological implications for public health of the presence of infected synanthropic Didelphis in households. PMID:27074326

  1. Possible Role of Rickettsia felis in Acute Febrile Illness among Children in Gabon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mourembou, Gaël; Lekana-Douki, Jean Bernard; Mediannikov, Oleg; Nzondo, Sydney Maghendji; Kouna, Lady Charlene; Essone, Jean Claude Biteghe Bi; Fenollar, Florence; Raoult, Didier

    2015-10-01

    Rickettsia felis has been reported to be a cause of fever in sub-Saharan Africa, but this association has been poorly evaluated in Gabon. We assessed the prevalence of this bacterium among children Gabon; the locations were in urban, semiurban, and rural areas. DNA samples from 410 febrile children and 60 afebrile children were analyzed by quantitative PCR. Overall, the prevalence of R. felis among febrile and afebrile children was 10.2% (42/410 children) and 3.3% (2/60 children), respectively. Prevalence differed among febrile children living in areas that are urban (Franceville, 1.3% [1/77]), semiurban (Koulamoutou, 2.1% [3/141]), and rural (Lastourville, 11.2% [15/134]; Fougamou, 39.7% [23/58]). Furthermore, in a rural area (Fougamou), R. felis was significantly more prevalent in febrile (39.7% [23/58]) than afebrile children (5.0% [1/20]). Additional studies are needed to better understand the pathogenic role of R. felis in this part of the world.

  2. Enteric protozoa of cats and their zoonotic potential-a field study from Austria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinney, Barbara; Ederer, Christina; Stengl, Carina; Wilding, Katrin; Štrkolcová, Gabriela; Harl, Josef; Flechl, Eva; Fuehrer, Hans-Peter; Joachim, Anja

    2015-05-01

    Domestic cats can be infected with a variety of enteric protozoa. Genotyping of protozoan species, especially Giardia as the most common, can improve assessment of their relevance as zoonotic agents. For an overview on the occurrence of feline enteric protozoa, 298 faecal samples of cats from private households, catteries and animal shelters in Austria were collected. All samples were examined by flotation and using a rapid test for Giardia (FASTest). For the detection of Tritrichomonas blagburni, freshly voided faeces (n = 40) were processed using a commercial culturing system (InPouch TF-Feline). Genotyping was done at the β-giardin gene loci (each sample) and triosephosphate isomerase gene loci (positive samples) for Giardia and at the 18S rRNA gene (positive samples) for Cryptosporidium. Thirty-seven samples (12.4%) were positive for Giardia by flotation and/or using a rapid test. Cryptosporidium was present in 1.7%, Cystoisospora in 4.0%, Sarcocystis in 0.3% and T. blagburni in 2.5% of the samples. Genotyping revealed Giardia cati, the potentially zoonotic Giardia duodenalis and Cryptosporidium felis. Most of the infected cats had no diarrhoea. Cats from shelters were significantly more often infected than owned cats (p = 0.01). When comparing Giardia detection methods, the rapid test had a higher sensitivity than flotation. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) results were mostly independent from the other two tests.

  3. Anti-inflammatory and Anti-tumorigenic Effects of Açai Berry in Helicobacter felis-infected mice

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Ju Yup; Kim, Nayoung; Choi, Yoon Jeong; Nam, Ryoung Hee; Lee, Seonmin; Ham, Min Hee; Suh, Ji Hyung; Choi, Yoon Jin; Lee, Hye Seung; Lee, Dong Ho

    2016-01-01

    Background: The aim of this study was to evaluate the anti-inflammatory and anti-tumorigenic effect of açai berry after chronic Helicobacter felis colonization in the stomachs of C57BL/6 mice. Methods: A total of 57 four-week-old female C57BL/6 mice (18 control mice and 39 experimental mice) were used. The mice were administered orogastrically with vehicle only or vehicle containing H. felis, 5 times every other day. After inoculation of H. felis, mice were fed either a standard or an açai-co...

  4. Molecular detection of Rickettsia felis and Candidatus Rickettsia asemboensis in fleas from human habitats, Asembo, Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Ju; Maina, Alice N; Knobel, Darryn L; Cleaveland, Sarah; Laudisoit, Anne; Wamburu, Kabura; Ogola, Eric; Parola, Philippe; Breiman, Robert F; Njenga, M Kariuki; Richards, Allen L

    2013-08-01

    The flea-borne rickettsioses murine typhus (Rickettsia typhi) and flea-borne spotted fever (FBSF) (Rickettsia felis) are febrile diseases distributed among humans worldwide. Murine typhus has been known to be endemic to Kenya since the 1950s, but FBSF was only recently documented in northeastern (2010) and western (2012) Kenya. To characterize the potential exposure of humans in Kenya to flea-borne rickettsioses, a total of 330 fleas (134 pools) including 5 species (Xenopsylla cheopis, Ctenocephalides felis, Ctenocephalides canis, Pulex irritans, and Echidnophaga gallinacea) were collected from domestic and peridomestic animals and from human dwellings within Asembo, western Kenya. DNA was extracted from the 134 pooled flea samples and 89 (66.4%) pools tested positively for rickettsial DNA by 2 genus-specific quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) assays based upon the citrate synthase (gltA) and 17-kD antigen genes and the Rfelis qPCR assay. Sequences from the 17-kD antigen gene, the outer membrane protein (omp)B, and 2 R. felis plasmid genes (pRF and pRFd) of 12 selected rickettsia-positive samples revealed a unique Rickettsia sp. (n=11) and R. felis (n=1). Depiction of the new rickettsia by multilocus sequence typing (MLST) targeting the 16S rRNA (rrs), 17-kD antigen gene, gltA, ompA, ompB, and surface cell antigen 4 (sca4), shows that it is most closely related to R. felis but genetically dissimilar enough to be considered a separate species provisionally named Candidatus Rickettsia asemboensis. Subsequently, 81 of the 134 (60.4%) flea pools tested positively for Candidatus Rickettsia asemboensis by a newly developed agent-specific qPCR assay, Rasemb. R. felis was identified in 9 of the 134 (6.7%) flea pools, and R. typhi the causative agent of murine typhus was not detected in any of 78 rickettsia-positive pools assessed using a species-specific qPCR assay, Rtyph. Two pools were found to contain both R. felis and Candidatus Rickettsia asemboensis DNA and 1 pool

  5. That Fat Cat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambert, Phyllis Gilchrist

    2012-01-01

    This activity began with a picture book, Nurit Karlin's "Fat Cat On a Mat" (HarperCollins; 1998). The author and her students started their project with a 5-inch circular template for the head of their cats. They reviewed shapes as they drew the head and then added the ears and nose, which were triangles. Details to the face were added when…

  6. Cat Scratch Colon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Lourdes Ruiz-Rebollo

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Over the past few years, we have read several publications regarding the term “cat scratch colon.” This neologism was developed to define some bright red linear markings seen in the colonic mucosa that resemble scratches made by a cat. We would like to communicate a recent case attended at our institution.

  7. Hyperadrenocorticism in a cat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zerbe, C A; Nachreiner, R F; Dunstan, R W; Dalley, J B

    1987-03-01

    A diabetic cat with hyperadrenocorticism had polydipsia, polyuria, ventral abdominal alopecia, thin dry skin, and a pendulous abdomen. Results of laboratory testing indicated persistent resting hypercortisolemia, hyperresponsiveness of the adrenal glands (increased cortisol concentration) to ACTH gel, and no suppression of cortisol concentrations after administration of dexamethasone at 0.01 or 1.0 mg/kg of body weight. Necropsy revealed a pituitary gland tumor, bilateral adrenal hyperplasia, hepatic neoplasia, and demodicosis. Adrenal gland function was concurrently assessed in 2 cats with diabetes mellitus. One cat had resting hypercortisolemia, and both had hyperresponsiveness to ACTH gel (increased cortisol concentration) at one hour. After administration of dexamethasone (0.01 and 1.0 mg/kg), the diabetic cats appeared to have normal suppression of cortisol concentrations. The effects of mitotane were investigated in 4 clinically normal cats. Adrenocortical suppression of cortisol production occurred in 2 of 4 cats after dosages of 25, 37, and 50 mg/kg. Three cats remained clinically normal throughout the study. One cat experienced vomiting, diarrhea, and anorexia.

  8. Getting a CAT Scan

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Dictionary of Medical Words En Español What Other Kids Are Reading Movie: Digestive System Winter Sports: Sledding, ... Booger? Getting a CAT Scan (Video) KidsHealth > For Kids > Getting a CAT Scan (Video) Print A A ...

  9. Getting a CAT Scan

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Skiing, Snowboarding, Skating Crushes What's a Booger? Getting a CAT Scan (Video) KidsHealth > For Kids > Getting a CAT Scan (Video) Print A A A Text Size en español Obtención de ...

  10. Obesity in show cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corbee, R J

    2014-12-01

    Obesity is an important disease with a high prevalence in cats. Because obesity is related to several other diseases, it is important to identify the population at risk. Several risk factors for obesity have been described in the literature. A higher incidence of obesity in certain cat breeds has been suggested. The aim of this study was to determine whether obesity occurs more often in certain breeds. The second aim was to relate the increased prevalence of obesity in certain breeds to the official standards of that breed. To this end, 268 cats of 22 different breeds investigated by determining their body condition score (BCS) on a nine-point scale by inspection and palpation, at two different cat shows. Overall, 45.5% of the show cats had a BCS > 5, and 4.5% of the show cats had a BCS > 7. There were significant differences between breeds, which could be related to the breed standards. Most overweight and obese cats were in the neutered group. It warrants firm discussions with breeders and cat show judges to come to different interpretations of the standards in order to prevent overweight conditions in certain breeds from being the standard of beauty. Neutering predisposes for obesity and requires early nutritional intervention to prevent obese conditions. PMID:24612018

  11. Cytauxzoon sp. infection in the first endemic focus described in domestic cats in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carli, E; Trotta, M; Chinelli, R; Drigo, M; Sinigoi, L; Tosolini, P; Furlanello, T; Millotti, A; Caldin, M; Solano-Gallego, L

    2012-02-10

    Information about epidemiological and clinicopathological aspects of domestic cat infection by species of Cytauxzoon other than Cytauxzoon felis is limited and it has rarely been reported. Following the detection of clinical cytauxzoonosis in three cats from Trieste (Italy), an epidemiological study was carried out in colony (n=63) and owned (n=52) cats from the same city to investigate the presence of Cytauxzoon sp. infection and to assess clinicopathological findings and variables associated with this infection. Cytauxzoon sp. infection was detected by 18S rRNA gene PCR in 23% (27/118) and by blood smear examination in 15% (18/118) of domestic cats. The 18S rRNA gene sequences obtained were 99% identical to the Cytauxzoon sp. sequences deposited in GenBank(®) from Spanish, French and Mongolian wild and domestic cats. Erythroparasitemia was observed mainly in apparently healthy cats. Cytauxzoon sp. infection was statistically associated with the colony group and the outdoor life style. No statistical association was found between positivity by PCR and breed, gender, age, presence of ticks and/or fleas, clinical status, laboratory findings such as anemia, FIV and/or FeLV status and mortality rate. Persistence of the infection was monitored and documented in four clinical cases. We reported the first clinicopathological description of naturally occurring Cytauxzoon sp. infection in domestic cats living in Italy. The predominance of subclinical erythroparasitemia and the evidence of persistent infection support the hypothesis that the domestic cat might serve as a reservoir host for this infection. PMID:21839583

  12. CAT questions and answers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document, prepared in February 1993, addresses the most common questions asked by APS Collaborative Access Teams (CATs). The answers represent the best judgment on the part of the APS at this time. In some cases, details are provided in separate documents to be supplied by the APS. Some of the answers are brief because details are not yet available. The questions are separated into five categories representing different aspects of CAT interactions with the APS: (1) Memorandum of Understanding (MOU), (2) CAT Beamline Review and Construction, (3) CAT Beamline Safety, (4) CAT Beamline Operations, and (5) Miscellaneous. The APS plans to generate similar documents as needed to both address new questions and clarify answers to present questions

  13. State of cat genomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, Stephen J; Johnson, Warren; Driscoll, Carlos; Pontius, Joan; Pecon-Slattery, Jill; Menotti-Raymond, Marilyn

    2008-06-01

    Our knowledge of cat family biology was recently expanded to include a genomics perspective with the completion of a draft whole genome sequence of an Abyssinian cat. The utility of the new genome information has been demonstrated by applications ranging from disease gene discovery and comparative genomics to species conservation. Patterns of genomic organization among cats and inbred domestic cat breeds have illuminated our view of domestication, revealing linkage disequilibrium tracks consequent of breed formation, defining chromosome exchanges that punctuated major lineages of mammals and suggesting ancestral continental migration events that led to 37 modern species of Felidae. We review these recent advances here. As the genome resources develop, the cat is poised to make a major contribution to many areas in genetics and biology.

  14. Avaliação de alguns parâmetros ecocardiográficos do gato-do-mato (Leopardus tigrinus, mantido em cativeiro e submetido à anestesia com xilazina e quetamina Evaluation of some echocardiographic parameters of Oncilla (L. tigrinus, kept in captivity and submitted to anesthesia with xilazine and ketamine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.S.L. Carvalho

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Avaliaram-se alguns parâmetros ecocardiográficos em modos B, M e Doppler de 27 gatos-do-mato, Leopardus tigrinus, pequeno felídeo selvagem, mantidos em cativeiro e submetidos à anestesia com 1 a 2mg/kg de xilazina e 10mg/kg de quetamina. Observaram-se alterações dos parâmetros cardiovasculares quando os resultados foram comparados aos do gato doméstico (Felis catus não anestesiado.Some echocardiographic parameters in B, M-mode and Doppler of 27 Oncillas, Leopardus tigrinus, a wild little feline, kept in captivity and submitted to anesthesia with 1 to 2mg/kg of xilazine and 10mg/kg of ketamine, had been evaluated. Changes of the cardiovascular parameters were observed when the results were compared to non anesthetized domestic cat (Felis catus.

  15. Clinical and laboratorial evidence of Rickettsia felis infections in Latin America Evidência clínica e laboratorial de infecções por Rickettsia felis na América Latina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcio Antônio Moreira Galvão

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available After the discovery and initial characterization of Rickettsia felis in 1992 by Azad and cols, and the subsequent first description of a human case of infection in 1994, there have been two communications of human rickettsiosis cases caused by Rickettsia felis in Latin America. The first one was published in 2000 by Zavala-Velazquez and cols in Mexico. In 2001 Raoult and cols described the occurrence of two human cases of Rickettsia felis rickettsiosis in Brazil. In the present discussion these two articles were compared and after the description of the principal signs and symptoms, it was concluded that more studies are needed with descriptions of a greater number of patients to establish the true frequency of the clinical signs and symptoms present in Rickettsia felis rickettsiosis.Depois da descoberta e caracterização inicial da Rickettsia felis em 1992 por Azad e cols, e à descrição subseqüente do primeiro caso de infecção humana em 1994, houveram duas comunicações de rickettsioses causadas por Rickettsia felis na América Latina. A primeira foi feita por Zavala-Velazquez e cols em 2000 no México. Em 2001, Raoult e cols descreveram a ocorrência de dois casos humanos de rickettsiose por Rickettsia felis no Brasil. Na presente discussão, esses dois artigos foram comparados, e depois da descrição dos principais sinais e sintomas, conclui-se que outros estudos são necessários, com a participação de um maior número de pacientes, para se estabelecer a verdadeira freqüência dos sinais clínicos e sintomas presentes nas rickettsioses por Rickettsia felis.

  16. Atrophic gastric changes in both Helicobacter felis and Helicobacter pylori infected mice are host dependent and separate from antral gastritis.

    OpenAIRE

    Sakagami, T; Dixon, M; O'Rourke, J; Howlett, R.; Alderuccio, F; Vella, J; Shimoyama, T; Lee, A.

    1996-01-01

    BACKGROUND/AIMS: The role of host factors has been neglected in studies of the pathogenesis of Helicobacter associated disease. The aim of this study was to assess the response of different mouse strains to infection with a single strain of Helicobacter felis. METHOD: Six strains of inbred mice were infected with the identical H felis culture and were killed at one month, two months, and six months after infection to assess histopathological changes. In addition, two strains of mice were infe...

  17. Prevalence and genetic characteristics of Cryptosporidium, Enterocytozoon bieneusi and Giardia duodenalis in cats and dogs in Heilongjiang province, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wei; Li, Yijing; Song, Mingxin; Lu, Yixin; Yang, Jinping; Tao, Wei; Jiang, Yanxue; Wan, Qiang; Zhang, Siwen; Xiao, Lihua

    2015-03-15

    This study investigated 319 fecal specimens of cats (n=52) and dogs (n=267) from Heilongjiang province, China for the prevalence and genetic characteristics of Cryptosporidium, Enterocytozoon bieneusi, and Giardia duodenalis. PCR and DNA sequence analysis of the small subunit rRNA gene identified C. felis and C. parvum in one cat each (3.8%) and C. canis and C. ubiquitum in 6 dogs (2.2%). Polymorphisms in the ribosomal internal transcribed spacer and phylogenetic analysis characterized zoonotic E. bieneusi genotypes D, EbpC, NED1, and NED2 and host-adapted ones NED3, NED4, and PtEb IX in 18 dogs (6.7%) and human-pathogenic genotypes D and IV in 3 cats (5.8%). Genotyping based on the hypermutation of G. duodenalis triosephosphate isomerase gene (TPI) facilitated identification of assemblage F in a cat (1.9%) and assemblages C and E in 12 dogs (4.5%). Subtypes of G. duodenalis isolates were determined by measuring the diversity of both TPI nucleotide and amino acid sequences. C. canis, C. felis, C. parvum, E. bieneusi genotypes D, EbpC, and IV, and G. duodenalis assemblage C identified herein have been documented in human infections in China. C. canis, C. parvum, C. ubiquitum, and E. bieneusi genotypes D, EbpC, and IV carried by cats or dogs also existed in wastewater in China. The finding suggested pet animals could be reservoirs for human cryptosporidiosis, microsporidiosis, and giardiasis and potential sources of water contamination in China.

  18. Desenvolvimento dos fungos Metarhizium anisopliae (Metschnikoff, 1879 Sorokin, 1883 E Beauveria bassiana (Balsamo Vuillemin, 1912 sobre Ctenocephalides felis felis (Bouché, 1835 Development of the fungi Metarhizium anisopliae (Metschnikoff, 1879 Sorokin, 1883 and Beauveria bassiana (Balsamo Vuillemin, 1912 on the Ctenophephalides felis felis (Bouché, 1835

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise R. De Melo

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available A pulga Ctenocephalides felis felis é um parasita causador dermatites alérgicas e também pode transmitir diversos agentes etiológicos aos animais domésticos e aos homens. O objetivo deste trabalho foi verificar o desenvolvimento do fungo sobre a cutícula da pulga, através da microscopia eletrônica de varredura. Os isolados fúngicos testados foram o Metarhizium anisopliae 959 e Beauveria bassiana 986, ambos na concentração 10(8 conídios/ml. Após a exposição dos isolados fúngicos no período de duas, 15, 26 e 96 horas , o material foi processado para a microscopia eletrônica de varredura. Com a obtenção das micrografias, pode-se observar que com 2 horas após exposição aos fungos, os conídios estavam aderidos por toda a cutícula, situando-se preferencialmente nas membranas intersegmentais do abdome. Com 15 horas observou-se a formação do tubo de germinação e a cabeça do apressório e após 26 horas foi possível observar as ramificações e o engrossamento das hifas sobre a cutícula das pulgas. Os resultados indicam que os fungos testados foram capazes de se desenvolver sobre a cutícula de C. f. felis.The flea Ctenocephalides felis felis is a parasite that causes allergic dermatitis and also may transmit etiologic agents to domestic animals and humans. This study investigated by scanning electron microscopy the development of entomopathogenic fungi on flea cuticle. Fleas were exposed to conidia (10(8 ml-1 of Metarhizium anisopliae (isolate 959 or Beauveria bassiana (isolate 986. Following standard protocols for electron microscopy, the specimens were prepared 2, 15, 26 and 96 h after infection. The micrography revealed that 2 h after fungus exposure, conidia attachments encompassed the entire flea cuticle, especially on abdominal intersegmental membranes. The emergence of germ tubes and appressoria formation occurred at 15 h, thickening and branching of hyphae on the flea cuticle was noted at 26 h. Therefore, both of

  19. IndexCat

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — IndexCat provides access to the digitized version of the printed Index-Catalogue of the Library of the Surgeon General's Office; eTK for medieval Latin texts; and...

  20. StreamCat

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The StreamCat Dataset provides summaries of natural and anthropogenic landscape features for ~2.65 million streams, and their associated catchments, within the...

  1. Applying embryo cryopreservation technologies to the production of domestic and black-footed cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pope, C E; Gómez, M C; Galiguis, J; Dresser, B l

    2012-12-01

    Our objectives were (i) compare in vitro development of early cleavage stage domestic cat embryos after cryopreservation by minimal volume vitrification vs a standard slow, controlled-rate method, (ii) determine viability of vitrified domestic cat embryos by oviductal transfer into synchronous recipients and (iii) evaluate in vivo survival of black-footed cat (BFC, Felis nigripes) embryos after intra- and inter-species transfer. In vitro-derived (IVM/IVF) cat embryos were used to evaluate in vitro development after controlled-rate cryopreservation vs vitrification vs controls. Blastocyst development was similar in both groups of cryopreserved embryos (22-26%), but it was lower (p BFC, four intra-species embryo transfer procedures were carried out--two recipients received fresh day 2 embryos (n = 5, 8) and two recipients received embryos that had been cryopreserved on day 1 (n = 6) or 2 (n = 8). A 2-year-old recipient of cryopreserved embryos established pregnancy and delivered two live male kittens. Subsequently, five cryopreserved BFC embryos were transferred to a domestic cat recipient. On day 29, the recipient was determined to be pregnant and delivered naturally a live, healthy female BFC kitten on day 66. In summary, in vivo survival of vitrified domestic cat embryos was shown by the births of kittens after transfer into recipients. Also, we demonstrated that sperm and embryo cryopreservation could be combined with intra- and inter-species embryo transfer and integrated into the array of assisted reproductive techniques used successfully for propagation of a rare and vulnerable felid species, the black-footed cat.

  2. Resolving Schrodinger's cat

    OpenAIRE

    Hobson, Art

    2016-01-01

    Schrodinger's famous cat has long been misunderstood. According to quantum theory and experiments with entangled systems, an entangled state such as the Schrodinger's cat state is neither a superposition of states of either subsystem nor a superposition of compound states of the composite system, but rather a nonlocal superposition of correlations between pairs of states of the two subsystems. The entangled post-measurement state that results from an ideal measurement is not paradoxical, but ...

  3. Cardiac Biomarkers in Hyperthyroid Cats

    OpenAIRE

    Sangster, Jodi Kirsten

    2013-01-01

    Background: Hyperthyroidism has substantial effects on the circulatory system. The cardiac biomarkers NT-proBNP and troponin I (cTNI) have proven useful in identifying cats with myocardial disease but have not been as extensively investigated in hyperthyroidism.Hypothesis: Plasma NT-proBNP and cTNI concentrations are higher in cats with primary cardiac disease than in cats with hyperthyroidism and higher in cats with hyperthyroidism than in healthy control cats.Animals: Twenty-three hyperthyr...

  4. Cardiac Biomarkers in Hyperthyroid Cats

    OpenAIRE

    Sangster, J.K.; Panciera, D L; Abbott, J.A.; Zimmerman, K.C.; Lantis, A.C.

    2013-01-01

    Background Hyperthyroidism has substantial effects on the circulatory system. The cardiac biomarkers NT‐proBNP and troponin I (cTNI) have proven useful in identifying cats with myocardial disease but have not been extensively investigated in hyperthyroidism. Hypothesis Plasma NT‐proBNP and cTNI concentrations are higher in cats with primary myocardial disease than in cats with hyperthyroidism and higher in cats with hyperthyroidism than in healthy control cats. Animals Twenty‐three hyperthyro...

  5. Macroparasite communities in stray cat populations from urban cities in Peninsular Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohd Zain, Siti Nursheena; Sahimin, Norhidayu; Pal, Paul; Lewis, John W

    2013-09-23

    The occurrence of macroparasites was studied from 543 stray cats in four urban cities from the west (Kuala Lumpur), east (Kuantan), north (Georgetown) and south (Malacca) of Peninsular Malaysia from May 2007 to August 2010. Five ectoparasites species were recovered namely, Ctenocephalides felis, Felicola subrostratus, Haemaphysalis bispinosa, Heterodoxus spiniger and Lynxacarus radovskyi. Two cats from Georgetown were infested with the dog louse, H. spiniger and this represented the first host record for this species in Malaysia. Up to nine species of helminths were recovered with overall high prevalences of infection of 83% in Kuantan, followed by 75.1% in Kuala Lumpur, 71.6% in Georgetown and 68% in Malacca. The helminth species comprised five nematodes, Toxocara malaysiensis, Toxocara cati, Ancylostoma braziliensis, Ancylostoma ceylanicum, Physaloptera praeputialis, two cestodes Taenia taeniaeformis, Dipylidium caninum and one trematode, Playtnosomum fastosum. The majority of helminths were present in the four study sites except for the absence of P. praeputialis in Kuala Lumpur. The prevalence and abundance of infections were analysed taking intrinsic (host age and sex) and extrinsic (season) factors into consideration. Levels of infection and infestation were mainly influenced by host age and to a lesser extent sex and season, whereas four nematode species exhibited significant interactions within the intestine of the cat host. The potential for transmission of some macroparasite species from stray cats to the human population in urban areas is discussed. PMID:23664711

  6. Progress in research of Rickettsia felis%猫立克次体研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘杨; 杨雨; 陈萍; 赵锋; 钟玮

    2015-01-01

    猫立克次体(Rickettsia felis)可以引起蚤传斑点热(Flea-Borne Spotted Fever,FBSF),主要传播媒介是猫蚤(Ctenocephalides felis).自上世纪90年代首次发现以来,已被证实分布于地球上除南极以外的各大洲.本文对猫立克次体的传播媒介、检测方法以及基因组学研究进展进行了综述,并讨论了在全球气候变化的背景下,开展猫立克次体研究的重要意义.

  7. Isolation of Rickettsia felis in the Mosquito Cell Line C6/36

    OpenAIRE

    Horta, Maurício C.; Labruna, Marcelo B.; Edison L. Durigon; Teresinha T.S. Schumaker

    2006-01-01

    We report the isolation and establishment of Rickettsia felis in the C6/36 cell line. Rickettsial growth was intense, always with 90 to 100% of cells being infected after few weeks. The rickettsial isolate was confirmed by testing infected cells by PCR and sequencing fragments of three major Rickettsia genes (gltA, ompB, and the 17-kDa protein gene).

  8. Integrating anthropic factors into wildcat Felis silvestris conservation in Southern Iberia landscapes

    OpenAIRE

    Ferreira, Joaquim Pedro Santos Mercês, 1969-

    2010-01-01

    Tese de doutoramento, Biologia (Biologia da Conservação), Universidade de Lisboa, Faculdade de Ciências, 2010 The European wildcat Felis silvestris is a threatened species in Europe, where suitable management of forests has been considered crucial for its conservation. However, this recommendation may not be general due to the lack of studies that test this hypothesis in the Mediterranean area, where landscapes are very different from those of centralnorth Europe. Nowadays, the...

  9. Efecto del fotoperíodo y de la administración de melatonina sobre la producción espermática en el gato doméstico (Felis silvestris catus)

    OpenAIRE

    Núñez Favre, Romina de los Ángeles

    2013-01-01

    En el felino doméstico, la estacionalidad ovulatoria y estral de la hembra ocurre durante los días que presentan más de 12 h luz. Sin embargo, la estacionalidad reproductiva del gato ha sido definida recientemente. El objetivo de esta tesis fue estudiar el efecto del fotoperiodo natural, el manejo lumínico artificial y la administración de melatonina sobre la producción espermática en el gato doméstico. En el primer estudio se evaluó el efecto del fotoperiodo natural sobre la morfología testi...

  10. Cats protecting birds revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Meng; Kuang, Yang; Feng, Zhilan

    2005-09-01

    In this paper, we revisit the dynamical interaction among prey (bird), mesopredator (rat), and superpredator (cat) discussed in [Courchamp, F., Langlais, M., Sugihara, G., 1999. Cats protecting birds: modelling the mesopredator release effect. Journal of Animal Ecology 68, 282-292]. First, we develop a prey-mesopredator-superpredator (i.e., bird-rat-cat, briefly, BRC) model, where the predator's functional responses are derived based on the classical Holling's time budget arguments. Our BRC model overcomes several model construction problems in Courchamp et al. (1999), and admits richer, reasonable and realistic dynamics. We explore the possible control strategies to save or restore the bird by controlling or eliminating the rat or the cat when the bird is endangered. We establish the existence of two types of mesopredator release phenomena: severe mesopredator release, where once superpredators are suppressed, a burst of mesopredators follows which leads their shared prey to extinction; and mild mesopredator release, where the mesopredator release could assert more negative impact on the endemic prey but does not lead the endemic prey to extinction. A sharp sufficient criterion is established for the occurrence of severe mesopredator release. We also show that, in a prey-mesopredator-superpredator trophic food web, eradication of introduced superpredators such as feral domestic cats in the BRC model, is not always the best solution to protect endemic insular prey. The presence of a superpredator may have a beneficial effect in such systems. PMID:15998496

  11. The Feline Mystique: Dispelling the Myth of the Independent Cat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soltow, Willow

    1984-01-01

    Describes learning activities about cats for primary and intermediate grades. Primary grade activity subjects include cat behavior, needs, breeds, storybook cats, and celestial cats. Intermediate grade activity subjects include cat history, care, language, literary cats, and cats in art. (BC)

  12. Evolutionary conservation of ten microsatellite loci in four species of Felidae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menotti-Raymond, M A; O'Brien, S J

    1995-01-01

    Short tandem repeat polymorphisms (STRP), or microsatellites, are widespread among vertebrate genomes and are useful in gene mapping and population studies due to a high level of length polymorphism. We describe here the isolation, characterization, and PCR amplification of 10 microsatellite loci from the domestic cat, Felis catus. The flanking primer sequences were conserved among other Felidae species, and amplification products demonstrated abundant polymorphism in puma, lion, cheetah, and domestic cat. The cheetah sample exhibited the lowest level of polymorphism for these loci among felid species. PMID:7658003

  13. ServCat Sensitivity Guidelines

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This guide covers sensitivity in ServCat. This document provides technical guidance on how sensitivity fields work in ServCat, and provides suggestions on what...

  14. Getting a CAT Scan

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... More Quizzes Kids' Dictionary of Medical Words En Español What Other Kids Are Reading Back-to-School ... Video) Print A A A Text Size en español Obtención de una tomografía computada (video) CAT stands ...

  15. Getting a CAT Scan

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... More Quizzes Kids' Dictionary of Medical Words En Español What Other Kids Are Reading Movie: Digestive System ... Video) Print A A A Text Size en español Obtención de una tomografía computada (video) CAT stands ...

  16. Chemodectoma in a cat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A 10-year-old, spayed female, domestic shorthair cat was presented for evaluation of a thoracic mass. Radiographs demonstrated a 4 by 5-cm mass dorsal to the heart. Cytology of specimens obtained by ultrasound-guided needle aspiration was compatible with a neuroendocrine tumor. Scintigraphy, thoracic exploratory, and histology were used to identify the mass as an aortic body chemodectoma

  17. Coxofemoral luxations in cats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In a retrospective study, 79 untreated luxations of the coxofemoral joint in cats were recorded over a 12-year period. Twenty-nine of these cases were available for follow-up, of which 13 were re-examined clinically and radiologically. It was found that the maximum incidence of the injury occurred from one to three years of age. Follow-up radiographs showed that the cats had developed nearthroses of various degrees located dorsally on the ilium. The degree of nearthrosis formation was not consistently correlated with the length of the observation time. Radiological signs of decreased bone density of the proximal femur may be caused by reduced weightbearing related to changes in biomechanical function and altered blood supply in the luxated limb. Almost two-thirds of the re-examined animals presented some kind of locomotor dysfunction on clinical examination. Limb function improved with time. The best clinical results appeared to be in cats that were immature at the time of injury and developed nearthrosis similar to a normal coxofemoral joint. All the cats available to this study showed acceptable functional results and had a normal level of activity according to the owners

  18. Oligopsonistic Cats and Dogs

    OpenAIRE

    Dewit, Dr. Gerda; Leahy, Dr. Dermot

    2005-01-01

    We study the strategic investment behaviour of oligopsonistic rivals in the labour market. Under wage competition, firms play "puppy dog" with productivityaugmenting investment and "fat cat" with supply-enhancing investment. Under employment competition, investing strategically always involves playing "top dog".

  19. The Fishing Cat

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙雅飞; 乐伟国

    2008-01-01

    @@ 一、故事内容 A cat goes fishing every day. He wants to eat fish, but he can't catch any fish. One day, he goes to the river as usual. Suddenly, a fish comes out. He catches the fish and putsthe fish in the basket. He's very happy, but he forgest to put the lid on the basket.

  20. Membranous nephropathy in sibling cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nash, A S; Wright, N G

    1983-08-20

    Membranous nephropathy was diagnosed in two sibling cats from the same household. Both cases presented with the nephrotic syndrome but 33 months elapsed before the second cat became ill, by which time the first cat had been in full clinical remission for over a year. PMID:6623883

  1. The Cat nRules

    CERN Document Server

    Mould, R A

    2004-01-01

    The nRules that are developed in another paper are applied to two versions of the Schrodinger cat experiment. In version I the initially conscious cat is made unconscious by a mechanism that is initiated by a radioactive decay. In version II the initially unconscious cat is awakened by a mechanism that is initiated by a radioactive decay. In both cases an observer is permitted to check the statues of the cat at any time during the experiment. In all cases the nRules correctly and unambiguously predict the conscious experience of the cat and the observer. Keywords: brain states of observer, stochastic choice, state reduction, wave collapse.

  2. Prostatic carcinoma in two cats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clinical, radiological and pathological features of two cats with prostatic carcinoma are reported. In both cats the presenting history included signs of lower urinary tract disease with haematuria and dysuria. Prostatomegaly was visible radiographically in one cat; an irregular intraprostatic urethra was seen on retrograde contrast urethrography in both cats. In one of the cats, neoplasia was suspected on the basis of a transurethral catheter biopsy. Following a poor response to palliative treatment in both cases, euthanasia was performed with histological confirmation of the diagnosis

  3. La cryptosporidiose zoonosique humaine due à Cryptosporidium felis dans le monde

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raccurt C.P.

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available La cryptosporidiose est l’une des principales causes de diarrhée aiguë de l’enfant dans les pays en voie de développement, et de diarrhée chronique chez les sujets immunodéprimés infectés par le virus de l’immunidéficience humaine (VIHj. L’identification de l’espèce est impossible par les méthodes conventionnelles et fait appel aux techniques de biologie moléculaire. La cryptosporidiose humaine est due le plus souvent à Cryptosporidium hominis et à Cryptosporidium parvum. Des espèces et des génotypes spécifiques d’animaux, dont Cryptosporidium felis, parasitent également l’Homme. Une revue systématique des cas humains dus à C. felis publiés dans le monde pjermet d’en décompter 58 dans toutes les régions biogéographiques, excepté l’Australie et l’Océanie. Adultes et enfants sont la cible de ce parasite. Chez ces 58 sujets parasités par C. felis, 83% sont VIH-positifs. Cette zoonose se rencontre également chez des sujets apparemment immunocompétents. Les pays en voie de développement semblent plus concernés probablement à cause d’une transmission environnementale plus présente que dans les pays développés. Cette cryptosporidiose zoonosique demande à être plus largement évaluée dans les pays tropicaux.

  4. A retrospective molecular study of select intestinal protozoa in healthy pet cats from Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mancianti, Francesca; Nardoni, Simona; Mugnaini, Linda; Zambernardi, Lucia; Guerrini, Alessandro; Gazzola, Valentina; Papini, Roberto Amerigo

    2015-02-01

    The feline gut can harbour a number of protozoan parasites. Recent genetic studies have highlighted new epidemiological findings about species of Cryptosporidium, assemblages of Giardia duodenalis and Toxoplasma gondii. Furthermore, epidemiological studies suggest the occurrence of Tritrichomonas foetus in cats is on the increase worldwide. The prevalence of selected intestinal protozoa was determined by PCR using DNA previously extracted from the faeces of 146 privately owned healthy cats from Italy. Molecular genotyping on T gondii, G duodenalis and Cryptosporidium DNA was achieved. PCR assays were positive in 32 (22.9%) samples. Three animals (2.0%) were positive for T foetus and Cryptosporidium DNA, 15 specimens (10.3%) were positive for T gondii and 11 (7.5%) for G duodenalis. Co-infections were never observed. Results of the typing analysis allowed the identification of Cryptosporidium felis in all cases. The specimens positive for T gondii hinted at clonal genotype I (n = 7), genotype II (n = 1) and genotype III (n = 7). The G duodenalis isolates were referable to assemblages F (n = 9) and C (n = 2). In conclusion, the results obtained in this study add to the literature regarding the epidemiology of these parasites by confirming their presence in the faeces of healthy pet cats.

  5. Genetic testing in domestic cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, Leslie A

    2012-12-01

    Varieties of genetic tests are currently available for the domestic cat that support veterinary health care, breed management, species identification, and forensic investigations. Approximately thirty-five genes contain over fifty mutations that cause feline health problems or alterations in the cat's appearance. Specific genes, such as sweet and drug receptors, have been knocked-out of Felidae during evolution and can be used along with mtDNA markers for species identification. Both STR and SNP panels differentiate cat race, breed, and individual identity, as well as gender-specific markers to determine sex of an individual. Cat genetic tests are common offerings for commercial laboratories, allowing both the veterinary clinician and the private owner to obtain DNA test results. This article will review the genetic tests for the domestic cat, and their various applications in different fields of science. Highlighted are genetic tests specific to the individual cat, which are a part of the cat's genome.

  6. Design of FELiChEM, the first infrared free-electron laser user facility in China

    CERN Document Server

    Li, He-Ting; Zhang, Shan-Cai; Wang, Lin; Yang, Yong-Liang

    2016-01-01

    FELiChEM is a new experimental facility under construction at University of Science and Technology of China (USTC), whose core device is two free electron laser oscillators generating middle-infrared and far-infrared laser and covering the spectral range of 2.5-200 ?m. It will be a dedicated infrared light source aiming at energy chemistry research. We present the brief design of FEL oscillators with the emphasis put on the middle-infrared oscillator. Most of the basic parameters are determined and the anticipated performance of the output radiation is given. The first light of FELiChEM is targeted for the end of 2017.

  7. Mouse Model of Cat Allergic Rhinitis and Intranasal Liposome-Adjuvanted Refined Fel d 1 Vaccine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tasaniyananda, Natt; Chaisri, Urai; Tungtrongchitr, Anchalee; Chaicumpa, Wanpen; Sookrung, Nitat

    2016-01-01

    Cats (Felis domesticus) are rich source of airborne allergens that prevailed in the environment and sensitized a number of people to allergy. In this study, a mouse model of allergic rhinitis caused by the cat allergens was developed for the first time and the model was used for testing therapeutic efficacy of a novel intranasal liposome-entrapped vaccines made of native Fel d 1 (major cat allergen) in comparison with the vaccine made of crude cat hair extract (cCE). BALB/c mice were sensitized with cCE mixed with alum intraperitoneally and intranasally. The allergic mice were treated with eight doses of either liposome (L)-entrapped native Fel d 1 (L-nFD1), L-cCE), or placebo on every alternate day. Vaccine efficacy evaluation was performed one day after provoking the treated mice with aerosolic cCE. All allergenized mice developed histological features of allergic rhinitis with rises of serum specific-IgE and Th2 cytokine gene expression. Serum IgE and intranasal mucus production of allergic mice reduced significantly after vaccination in comparison with the placebo mice. The vaccines also caused a shift of the Th2 response (reduction of Th2 cytokine expressions) towards the non-pathogenic responses: Th1 (down-regulation of the Th1 suppressive cytokine gene, IL-35) and Treg (up-regulation of IL-10 and TGF-β). In conclusions, a mouse model of allergic rhinitis to cat allergens was successfully developed. The intranasal, liposome-adjuvanted vaccines, especially the refined single allergen formulation, assuaged the allergic manifestations in the modeled mice. The prototype vaccine is worthwhile testing further for clinical use in the pet allergic patients. PMID:26954254

  8. Mouse Model of Cat Allergic Rhinitis and Intranasal Liposome-Adjuvanted Refined Fel d 1 Vaccine.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natt Tasaniyananda

    Full Text Available Cats (Felis domesticus are rich source of airborne allergens that prevailed in the environment and sensitized a number of people to allergy. In this study, a mouse model of allergic rhinitis caused by the cat allergens was developed for the first time and the model was used for testing therapeutic efficacy of a novel intranasal liposome-entrapped vaccines made of native Fel d 1 (major cat allergen in comparison with the vaccine made of crude cat hair extract (cCE. BALB/c mice were sensitized with cCE mixed with alum intraperitoneally and intranasally. The allergic mice were treated with eight doses of either liposome (L-entrapped native Fel d 1 (L-nFD1, L-cCE, or placebo on every alternate day. Vaccine efficacy evaluation was performed one day after provoking the treated mice with aerosolic cCE. All allergenized mice developed histological features of allergic rhinitis with rises of serum specific-IgE and Th2 cytokine gene expression. Serum IgE and intranasal mucus production of allergic mice reduced significantly after vaccination in comparison with the placebo mice. The vaccines also caused a shift of the Th2 response (reduction of Th2 cytokine expressions towards the non-pathogenic responses: Th1 (down-regulation of the Th1 suppressive cytokine gene, IL-35 and Treg (up-regulation of IL-10 and TGF-β. In conclusions, a mouse model of allergic rhinitis to cat allergens was successfully developed. The intranasal, liposome-adjuvanted vaccines, especially the refined single allergen formulation, assuaged the allergic manifestations in the modeled mice. The prototype vaccine is worthwhile testing further for clinical use in the pet allergic patients.

  9. The Cheshire Cat revisited

    CERN Document Server

    Vento, V

    1998-01-01

    The concept of effective field theory leads in a natural way to a construction principle for phenomenological sensible models known under the name of the Cheshire Cat Principle. We review its formulation in the chiral bag scenario and discuss its realization for the flavor singlet axial charge. Quantum effects inside the chiral bag induce a color anomaly which requires a compensating surface term to prevent breakdown of color gauge invariance. The presence of this surface term allows one to derive in a gauge-invariant way a chiral-bag version of the Shore-Veneziano two-component formula for the flavor-singlet axial charge of the proton. We show that one can obtain a striking Cheshire-Cat phenomenon with a negligibly small singlet axial charge.

  10. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-SARA-01-0195 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-SARA-01-0195 ref|NP_001009331.1| cannabinoid receptor 1 [Felis catus] sp|O02777|CNR1_FELCA Canna...binoid receptor 1 (CB1) (CB-R) gb|AAB53440.1| CB1 cannabinoid receptor [Felis catus] NP_001009331.1 0.0 96% ...

  11. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-RNOR-05-0081 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-RNOR-05-0081 ref|NP_001009331.1| cannabinoid receptor 1 [Felis catus] sp|O02777|CNR1_FELCA Canna...binoid receptor 1 (CB1) (CB-R) gb|AAB53440.1| CB1 cannabinoid receptor [Felis catus] NP_001009331.1 0.0 96% ...

  12. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-FCAT-01-1020 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-FCAT-01-1020 ref|NP_001009331.1| cannabinoid receptor 1 [Felis catus] sp|O02777|CNR1_FELCA Canna...binoid receptor 1 (CB1) (CB-R) gb|AAB53440.1| CB1 cannabinoid receptor [Felis catus] NP_001009331.1 0.0 98% ...

  13. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-CFAM-12-0016 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-CFAM-12-0016 ref|NP_001009331.1| cannabinoid receptor 1 [Felis catus] sp|O02777|CNR1_FELCA Canna...binoid receptor 1 (CB1) (CB-R) gb|AAB53440.1| CB1 cannabinoid receptor [Felis catus] NP_001009331.1 0.0 97% ...

  14. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-TBEL-01-1883 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-TBEL-01-1883 ref|NP_001009331.1| cannabinoid receptor 1 [Felis catus] sp|O02777|CNR1_FELCA Canna...binoid receptor 1 (CB1) (CB-R) gb|AAB53440.1| CB1 cannabinoid receptor [Felis catus] NP_001009331.1 0.0 97% ...

  15. Efeito de dois métodos de resfriamento sobre a funçao espermática in vitro de semen criopreservado de felinos (Leopardus tigrinus, Leopardus pardalis E Felis catus), avaliada através de ensaio competitivo de ligaçao em ovócitos de gata doméstica (Felis

    OpenAIRE

    Baudi, Daiam Loyola Kampa

    2005-01-01

    A busca de estratégias eficientes para a manutenção de espécies em risco de extinção tem impulsionado a comunidade científica a pesquisar alternativas para a preservação de material genético, com intuito de formação de bancos de genoma e aplicação de biotécnicas reprodutivas. Este estudo teve por objetivo avaliar os efeitos de dois protocolos diferentes de resfriamento pré-congelamento para a criopreservação de sêmen de jaguatirica (n=3), gato-do-mato-pequeno (n=4) e gato doméstíco (n=15). Ap...

  16. Implantação de colônia de Ctenocephalides felis felis (Bouché, 1835 e determinação do período de desenvolvimento dos estágios imaturos sob condições controladas / Implantation of a Ctenocephalides felis felis (Bouché, 1835 colony and determination of the development period of the immature stages under controlled conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karina Carrão Castagnolli

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available O presente estudo teve como objetivo a implantação de uma colônia de pulgas (Ctenocephalides felis felis, para determinação do período de desenvolvimento dos estágios imaturos desse inseto, quando mantido emcondições controladas. Para isto, gatos foram infestados artifi cialmente com estágios adultos de C. felis felis e mantidos em gaiolas metálicas suspensas. Diariamente, durante trinta dias, os ovos de pulgas provenientes dos gatos eram recolhidos e mantidos em estufa do tipo B.O.D., com Tode 28±1oC e umidade relativa de 75%. O tempo de eclosão larval foi em média de dois a quatro dias, as pré-pupas surgiram no período de seis a nove dias, a pupação iniciou-se com nove a onze dias e a emergência dos adultos variou de quatorze a vinte dias. Nessas condições climáticas associadas à dieta adotada, foi possível uma recuperação de adultos de aproximadamente 90%, resultados favoráveis à manutenção de umacolônia.

  17. Hypereosinophilic syndrome in two cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeuchi, Yoshinori; Matsuura, Shinobu; Fujino, Yasuhito; Nakajima, Mayumi; Takahashi, Masashi; Nakashima, Ko; Sakai, Yusuke; Uetsuka, Koji; Ohno, Koichi; Nakayama, Hiroyuki; Tsujimoto, Hajime

    2008-10-01

    Two cats showing chronic vomiting, diarrhea and weight loss were found to have leukocytosis with marked eosinophilia. Both cats were diagnosed with hypereosinophilic syndrome by the findings of increased eosinophils and their precursors in the bone marrow, eosinophilic infiltration into multiple organs, and exclusion of other causes for eosinophilia. Although cytoreductive chemotherapy with hydroxycarbamide and prednisolone was performed, these two cats died 48 days and 91 days after the initial presentation. PMID:18981665

  18. The Cat oRules

    CERN Document Server

    Mould, R A

    2004-01-01

    The oRules of state reduction are applied to the case of the Schrodinger cat experiment. It is shown that these rules can unambiguously describe the conscious state of the cat, as well as an outside observer at any time during the experiment. Two versions of the experiment are considered. In version I, the conscious cat is made unconscious by a mechanism that is triggered by a radioactive decay. In version II, the sleeping cat is made conscious by an alarm clock that is triggered by a radioactive decay.

  19. The Cat nRules

    OpenAIRE

    Mould, Richard A

    2004-01-01

    The nRules that are developed in another paper are applied to two versions of the Schrodinger cat experiment. In version I the initially conscious cat is made unconscious by a mechanism that is initiated by a radioactive decay. In version II the initially unconscious cat is awakened by a mechanism that is initiated by a radioactive decay. In both cases an observer is permitted to check the statues of the cat at any time during the experiment. In all cases the nRules correctly and unambiguousl...

  20. cats and dogs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    颜玉秀

    2003-01-01

    有这样一则英语成语:“To rain cats anddogs.”如果望文生义,则会被译为“下猫下狗”,因而会弄出许多笑话来,这应当是值得引以为戒的。其实这句成语的真正含义是:“下倾盆大雨”。那么下雨为什么会与cats和dogs联系在一起呢?

  1. Accelerator programme at CAT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Accelerator Programme at the Centre for Advanced Technology (CAT), Indore, has very broad based concept under which all types of accelerators are to be taken up for design and fabrication. This centre will be housing a wide variety of accelerators to serve as a common facility for the universities, national laboratories in addition to laboratories under the Department of Atomic Energy. In the first phase of the programme, a series of electron accelerators are designed and fabricated. They are synchrotron radiation sources of 450 MeV (INDUS-I) and of 2 GeV (INDUS-II), microtron upto energy of 20 MeV, linear accelerator upto 20 MeV, and DC Accelerator for industrial irradiation upto 750 KeV and 20 KW. A proton accelerator of 300 MeV with 20 MeV linac injector is also designed. CAT is also developing a strong base for support technologies like ultra high vacuum, radio frequency and microwaves, DC pulsed and superconducting magnets, power supplies and controls etc. These technologies are very useful for other industrial applications also. To develop user groups to utilise INDUS-II synchrotron radiation source, a batch production of rotating Anode X-ray generators with power supplies has been initiated. So also, the sputter ion pumps, electron guns, turbo molecular pumps are brought into batch production. (author)

  2. [Glomerulonephritis in dogs and cats].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinacher, M; Frese, K

    1991-04-01

    Immunohistology and special staining of plastic sections allow diagnosis and differentiation of subtypes of glomerulonephritis in dogs. Frequency and clinical importance of these forms of glomerulonephritis vary significantly. In cats, glomerulonephritis occurs frequently in FIV-positive cats but is rare in animals suffering from persistent FeLV infection or FIP. PMID:2068715

  3. Lumbosacral agenesis in a cat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabrielle C Hybki

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Case summary Lumbosacral agenesis is a rare congenital condition reported in children. We report a 17-week-old female domestic shorthair cat with lumbosacral agenesis on whole-body radiographs. The cat was euthanized shortly thereafter presentation. A necropsy was not permitted. Relevance and novel information This is the first reported feline case of lumbosacral agenesis.

  4. CONTRACT ADMINISTRATIVE TRACKING SYSTEM (CATS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Contract Administrative Tracking System (CATS) was developed in response to an ORD NHEERL, Mid-Continent Ecology Division (MED)-recognized need for an automated tracking and retrieval system for Cost Reimbursable Level of Effort (CR/LOE) Contracts. CATS is an Oracle-based app...

  5. College Students and Their Cats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinstein, Lawrence; Alexander, Ralph

    2010-01-01

    Twenty-two Siamese and 32 mixed breed cats' personalities were rated by their respective college student owners and compared. Further, the owners' self rated personality traits were correlated with the pets'; significant Siamese and Mixed differences and correlations were obtained. These are the first data to examine breed of cat on a personality…

  6. Characterization and Multilineage Differentiation of Domestic and Black-Footed Cat Mesenchymal Stromal/Stem Cells from Abdominal and Subcutaneous Adipose Tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez, Martha C; Qin, Qian; Biancardi, Monica N; Galiguis, Jason; Dumas, Cherie; MacLean, Robert A; Wang, Guoshun; Pope, C Earle

    2015-10-01

    Transplantation of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) isolated from bone marrow or adipose tissue is emerging as a promising tool for cell replacement therapy and regenerative medicine in domestic and endangered animal species. Defining the differentiation capability of adipose-derived mesenchymal stromal/stem cells (AMSCs) collected from different depot sites of adipose tissue will be essential for developing strategies for cell replacement therapy. In the present study, we compared the biological characteristics of domestic cat AMSCs isolated from visceral fat of the abdominal cavity (AB) with AMSCs from subcutaneous (SQ) tissue, and the functional capability of domestic and black-footed cat (Felis nigripes) AMSCs to differentiate into other cell types. Our results showed that both domestic and black-footed cat adipose-derived stromal vascular fractions contained AMSCs. Both domestic cat AB- and SQ-AMSCs showed important clonogenic ability and the minimal MSC immunophenotype as defined by the International Society for Cellular Therapy in humans. However, domestic cat AB-AMSCs had higher percentages of cells positive for MSCs-associated cluster of differentiation (CD) markers CD90(+) and CD105(+) (92% and 80%, respectively) than those of SQ-AMSCs (77% and 58%, respectively). Although these results may suggest that AB-AMSCs may be more multipotent than SQ-AMSCs, both types of cells showed similar expression of pluripotent genes Oct-4 and Klf4, except for higher expression of Nanog than in AB-AMSCs, and equivalent in vitro multilineage differentiation. Under appropriate stimuli, the black-footed cat and both domestic cat AB- and SQ-AMSCs differentiated not only toward mesoderm cell lineages but also toward ectoderm cell lineage, such as neuron cell-like cells. Black-footed cat AMSCs had more capability to differentiate toward chondrocytes. These results suggest that the defined AMSC population (regardless of site of collection) could potentially be employed as a

  7. Peritoneopericardial diaphragmatic hernia in cats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peritoneopericardial diaphragmatic hernia in a cat is often an incidental finding on a routine thoracic or abdominal radiograph. Clinical signs are nonspecific-usually respiratory (dyspnea) or gastrointestinal(vomiting or diarrhea). Some of the cats with this anomaly are asymptomatic. The physical examination may be normal: muffled heart sounds are the most common abnormality noted during a physical examination. Cats of many breeds are affected, although 26% of reported cases were inPersians. Age of the cat at diagnosis ranged from 6 days to 14 years. Thirty of the 52 reported cases were in females. Diagnostic studies used to confirm the diagnosis included echocardiography, upper gastrointestinal study, ultrasonography, angiography, positive-contrast peritoneography, and laparotomy. Surgical correction was reportedly successful in 22 of 25 cats

  8. CAT-generation of ideals

    CERN Document Server

    Ueckerdt, Torsten

    2010-01-01

    We consider the problem of generating all ideals of a poset. It is a long standing open problem, whether or not the ideals of any poset can be generated in constant amortized time, CAT for short. We refine the tree traversal, a method introduced by Pruesse and Ruskey in 1993, to obtain a CAT-generator for two large classes of posets: posets of interval dimension at most two and so called locally planar posets. This includes all posets for which a CAT-generator was known before. Posets of interval dimension at most two generalize both, interval orders and 2-dimensional posets. Locally planar posets generalize for example posets with a planar cover graph. We apply our results to CAT-generate all $c$-orientations of a planar graph. As a special case this is a CAT-generator for many combinatorial objects like domino and lozenge tilings, planar spanning trees, planar bipartite perfect matchings, Schnyder woods, and others.

  9. Cortisol influence on testicular testosterone secretion in domestic cat: An in vitro study Ação do cortisol sobre a secreção de testosterona em testículos de gato doméstico: um estudo in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gelson Genaro

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present experiment was to investigate the effect of corticosteroids (exogen on in vitro testosterone secretion after stress by transportation (40 minutes. Feline testes (Felis silvestris catus were incubated in the following media: TCM 199; TCM 199 + hCG 10_7M; TCM 199 + hydrocortisone 10_7M, or TCM 199 + hCG + hydrocortisone. The animals (n=21 were allocated into three groups: (S that arrived at 3 h prior to surgery, (A that remained in the laboratory for 36 h before being submitted to surgical procedure, and (C that were also allowed to remain for 36 hours in the laboratory before the surgical procedure, but whose testes had been incubated with hydrocortisone prior to incubation in the referred media. The results showed that group S secreted higher levels of testosterone, regardless of the culture media. It is noteworthy that the suppressing action of hydrocortisone sodium succinate led to a reduction in the testosterone concentration, despite the presence of hCG.O objetivo deste trabalho foi investigar o efeito da hidrocortisona sobre a secreção de testosterona após cultivo in vitro dos testículos, em distintas situações de estresse (transporte de gatos domésticos (Felis silvestris catus. Testículos foram incubados nos seguintes meios de cultura: TCM 199; TCM 199 + hCG 10_7M; TCM 199 + hydrocortisona 10_7M e TCM 199 + hCG + hidrocortisona. Os animais (n=21 foram alocados em 3 sub-grupos: (S animal admitido 3 horas antes da orquiectomia, (A animais orquiectomizados após 36 horas de permanência no biotério e (C animais que permaneceram por 36 horas no biotério antes da cirurgia e que tiveram seus testículos pré-incubados em hidrocortisona. Os resultados demonstraram que o grupo S secretou maiores valores de testosterona em todas as condições estudadas. É válido mencionar que a supressão promovida pela hidrocortisona também promoveu redução na concentração de testosterona no meio TCM 199, a despeito da

  10. A hybrid type undulator for far-infrared FELs at FELI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zako, A.; Miyauchi, Y.; Koga, A. [Free Electron Laser Research Institute, Inc., Osaka (Japan)] [and others

    1995-12-31

    Two FEL facilities of the FELI are now operating in the wavelength range of 1-20 {mu}m. A 3.2-m hybrid type undulator ({lambda}{sub u}=80mm, N=40) has been designed for far-infrared FELs and will be installed in December. It can cover the wavelength of 20-60 {mu}m by changing K-value from 1 to 2.7 for a 28.0-MeV electron beam. It is composed of ferrite magnetic poles and Sm-Co permanent magnets. Commonly wound coils induce alternating magnetic field in ferrite poles. Combination of the induced field and the permanent magnet field can controls the magnetic field between the undulator gap.

  11. Determinants of FIV and HIV Vif sensitivity of feline APOBEC3 restriction factors

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Zeli; Gu, Qinyong; Jaguva Vasudevan, Ananda Ayyappan; Hain, Anika; Kloke, Björn-Philipp; Hasheminasab, Sascha; Mulnaes, Daniel; Sato, Kei; Cichutek, Klaus; Häussinger, Dieter; Bravo, Ignacio G; Smits, Sander H. J.; Gohlke, Holger; Münk, Carsten

    2016-01-01

    Background Feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) is a global pathogen of Felidae species and a model system for Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-induced AIDS. In felids such as the domestic cat (Felis catus), APOBEC3 (A3) genes encode for single-domain A3Z2s, A3Z3 and double-domain A3Z2Z3 anti-viral cytidine deaminases. The feline A3Z2Z3 is expressed following read-through transcription and alternative splicing, introducing a previously untranslated exon in frame, encoding a domain insertion ...

  12. Isolation of Microsporum gypseum from the haircoat of health wild felids kept in captivity in Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Bentubo Henri Donnarumma Levy; Fedullo José Daniel Luzes; Corrêa Sandra Helena Ramiro; Teixeira Rodrigo Hidalgo Friciello; Coutinho Selene Dall' Acqua

    2006-01-01

    Dermatophytes are fungi that cause superficial mycoses in animals and humans. While studies have shown that domestic cats (Felis catus) are often asymptomatic carriers of dermatophytes, and thus a significant source of infection, this aspect has not been studied in relation to their wild relatives. The present study was aimed at determining the presence of dermatophytes on the haircoat of healthy wild felids, kept in captivity at "Fundação Parque Zoológico de São Paulo". Samples were taken fr...

  13. Isolation of Microsporum gypseum from the haircoat of health wild felids kept in captivity in Brazil Isolamento de Microsporum gypseum do pelame de felídeos selvagens sadios mantidos em cativeiro no Brasil

    OpenAIRE

    Henri Donnarumma Levy Bentubo; José Daniel Luzes Fedullo; Sandra Helena Ramiro Corrêa; Rodrigo Hidalgo Friciello Teixeira; Selene Dall' Acqua Coutinho

    2006-01-01

    Dermatophytes are fungi that cause superficial mycoses in animals and humans. While studies have shown that domestic cats (Felis catus) are often asymptomatic carriers of dermatophytes, and thus a significant source of infection, this aspect has not been studied in relation to their wild relatives. The present study was aimed at determining the presence of dermatophytes on the haircoat of healthy wild felids, kept in captivity at "Fundação Parque Zoológico de São Paulo". Samples were taken fr...

  14. Cat Ownership Perception and Caretaking Explored in an Internet Survey of People Associated with Cats

    OpenAIRE

    Zito, Sarah; Vankan, Dianne; Bennett, Pauleen; Paterson, Mandy; Phillips, Clive J. C.

    2015-01-01

    People who feed cats that they do not perceive they own (sometimes called semi-owners) are thought to make a considerable contribution to unwanted cat numbers because the cats they support are generally not sterilized. Understanding people’s perception of cat ownership and the psychology underlying cat semi-ownership could inform approaches to mitigate the negative effects of cat semi-ownership. The primary aims of this study were to investigate cat ownership perception and to examine its ass...

  15. Perfil hematológico, bioquímico sérico e sorológico de Felis domesticus com lagochilascariose experimental Hematological, serum biochemical and serological profile of Felis domesticus with experimental lagochilascariosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Félix de Souza Prudente

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available No presente trabalho, avaliou-se o hemograma, diversas proteínas e enzimas séricas ou plasmáticas e a produção de anticorpos específicos em Felis domesticus, experimentalmente infectados por Lagochilascaris minor. Verificou-se nos animais infectados aumento de leucócitos totais, principalmente eosinófilos; queda do número de plaquetas; aumento de aspartato-aminotransferase e alanina-aminotransferase; e principalmente a presença de anticorpos IgG específicos para antígenos do parasita. A reação com extrato bruto de parasitas adultos mostrou-se mais específica, permitindo a discriminação de soros de animais: não infectados, com infecção por outros parasitas, e com lagochilascariose. Esta é a primeira descrição da padronização de uma reação sorológica para diagnóstico da lagochilascariose em Felis domesticus.The present study evaluated the hemogram, different proteins, plasma enzymes, serum enzymes and specific antibody production of Felis domesticus experimentally infected by Lagochilascaris minor. The infected animals were seen to present increased total leukocytes (particularly eosinophils, decreased platelet counts, increased aspartate-aminotransferase and alanine-aminotransferase and, especially, the presence of specific IgG antibodies against antigens of the parasite. The reaction with crude extract of adult parasites was shown to be more specific, thereby enabling serum discrimination between the animals: non-infected, infected with other parasites and infected with lagochilascariosis. This is the first description of the standardization of a serological reaction for diagnosing lagochilascariosis in Felis domesticus.

  16. Short colon in a cat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An 11-year-old male Japanese domestic cat was referred to the veterinary hospital with a chronic diarrhea and signs of pain and vocalization when defecating. The cat has discharged unformed feces throughout his life. Morphological diagnosis of short colon was made radiographically after barium enema. The ileocolic junction and cecum was located to the left of the midline at the proximal end of the descending colon. Additional endoscopic examination demonstrated the difference in visual structures of the mucosal surface and in histological structures on mucosal biopsy specimens, between the colon and ileum. This is the first report of short colon in a cat in Japan

  17. Differential passage rates of prey components through the gut of serval Felis serval and black-backed jackal Canis mesomelas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.M. Bowland

    1991-09-01

    Full Text Available Feeding trials conducted on Felis serval and Canis mesomelas showed that the same prey item may appear in up to seven scats (mean=2.8, n=7. The basic assumption that prey remains of the same species in different scats represent different individuals is invalid. Therefore over-estimation of some prey species relative to others in the diet of carnivores studied can occur.

  18. Weight-Length Relationships in Gafftopsail Catfish (Bagre marinus) and Hardhead Catfish (Ariopsis felis) in Louisiana Waters

    OpenAIRE

    Courtney, Joshua; Klinkmann, Taylor; Torano, Joseph; 2; Courtney, Michael

    2012-01-01

    In spite of the abundance and commercial importance of these two species, there is little published weight-length data for the gafftopsail catfish (Bagre marinus) and hardhead catfish (Ariopsis felis). For this study 84 catfish were caught (hook and line) from the Calcasieu Estuary in Southwest Louisiana near the Gulf of Mexico and estuaries and near shore waters close to bayou Lafourche. Using least squares regression, best fit curves were determined for weight (W) vs. total length (L) relat...

  19. Puzzling out the reproductive biology of the endangered cat’s head rockrose (Helianthemum caput-felis, Cistaceae)

    OpenAIRE

    Agulló Brotons, Jonás César; Pérez Bañón, Celeste; Crespo Villalba, Manuel Benito; Juan Gallardo, Ana Isabel

    2015-01-01

    Helianthemum caput-felis is an endangered plant species growing in fragmented habitats in the western Mediterranean basin. Reproductive traits, breeding system and pollinator assemblage were studied in its largest known (mainland) European population to improve knowledge on the reproductive biology of the species. Hand-pollination experiments were carried out to determine the breeding system. Generalized linear mixed models (GLMM) were fitted to the data to evaluate the effect of treatment on...

  20. Fundamentals of ServCat

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This training manual for the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service Catalog (ServCat) provides detailed instructions on searching for records, creating records, and...

  1. Seizures and epilepsy in cats

    OpenAIRE

    Moore SA

    2014-01-01

    Sarah A Moore Department of Veterinary Clinical Sciences, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH, USA Abstract: Seizures are a common presenting complaint in cats, although causes and options for the treatment of seizures in this species have been historically poorly described in the veterinary literature. Seizure manifestation in cats may be different than what is typically seen in dogs, but the underlying causes of seizure activity are the same. These include primary epilepsies, structura...

  2. Food hypersensitivity in a cat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medleau, L; Latimer, K S; Duncan, J R

    1986-09-15

    Food hypersensitivity was diagnosed in a 4-year-old Siamese cat. Clinical signs included intense erythema, with alopecia, excoriations, erosions, and crusts involving the ventral portion of the abdomen, inguinal region, medial aspect of each thigh, and cranial and lateral aspects of all 4 limbs. The cat was intensely pruritic. Histologically, there was cutaneous mast cell hyperplasia and diffuse infiltration of eosinophils in the dermis. Blood eosinophilia also was found. Clinical signs resolved after exclusive feeding of a hypoallergenic diet.

  3. Properties of squeezed Schroedinger cats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this article we investigate some statistical properties of the even and odd squeezed (squeezed Schroedinger cat) states. The quasi-probability distribution functions especially W(α) and Q(α) are calculated and discussed for these states. The phase distribution function is discussed. A generation scheme is proposed for either the squeezed generalized Schroedinger cat, or the squeezed number state. (author). 35 refs, 5 figs

  4. Acquired retinal folds in the cat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacMillan, A D

    1976-06-01

    Retinal folds were found in 5 cats. The apparent cause of the folding was varied: in 1 cat the folds appeared after a localized retinal detachment; in 2 cats the condition accompanied other intraocular abnormalities associated with feline infectious peritonitis; 1 cat had active keratitis, and the retinal changes were thought to have been injury related; and 1 cat, bilaterally affected, had chronic glomerulonephritis. PMID:945253

  5. Echocardiographic Findings in 11 Cats with Acromegaly

    OpenAIRE

    Myers, J A; Lunn, K.F.; Bright, J.M.

    2014-01-01

    Background Information regarding cardiac changes in domestic cats with acromegaly is limited. Hypothesis/Objectives The objective of this study was to describe the echocardiographic findings in cats with acromegaly. Animals Eighteen cats diagnosed with acromegaly at Colorado State University between 2008 and 2012. Of these 18 cats, 11 had echocardiography performed. Methods A retrospective review of medical records was made to identify cats with acromegaly that also had echocardiography perfo...

  6. Schrodinger's cat: much ado about nothing

    CERN Document Server

    Ionicioiu, Radu

    2016-01-01

    In this note I briefly discuss the Schrodinger's cat Gedankenexperiment. By analysing the information flow in the system I show that no entanglement exists between the atom and the cat. The atom and the cat are connected only through a classical information channel (detector clicks $\\rightarrow$ poison is released $\\rightarrow$ cat is dead). No amount of local operations and classical communication can entangle the atom and the cat. Consequently, the paradox disappears.

  7. Aerobic bacteria from mucous membranes, ear canals, and skin wounds of feral cats in Grenada, and the antimicrobial drug susceptibility of major isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hariharan, Harry; Matthew, Vanessa; Fountain, Jacqueline; Snell, Alicia; Doherty, Devin; King, Brittany; Shemer, Eran; Oliveira, Simone; Sharma, Ravindra N

    2011-03-01

    In a 2-year period 54 feral cats were captured in Grenada, West Indies, and a total of 383 samples consisting of swabs from rectum, vagina, ears, eyes, mouth, nose and wounds/abscesses, were cultured for aerobic bacteria and campylobacters. A total of 251 bacterial isolates were obtained, of which 205 were identified to species level and 46 to genus level. A commercial bacterial identification system (API/Biomerieux), was used for this purpose. The most common species was Escherichia coli (N=60), followed by Staphylococcus felis/simulans (40), S. hominis (16), S. haemolyticus (12), Streptococcus canis (9), Proteus mirabilis (8), Pasteurella multocida (7), Streptococcus mitis (7), Staphylococcus xylosus (7), S. capitis (6), S. chromogenes (4), S. sciuri (3), S. auricularis (2), S. lentus (2), S. hyicus (2), Streptococcus suis (2) and Pseudomonas argentinensis (2). Sixteen other isolates were identified to species level. A molecular method using 16S rRNA sequencing was used to confirm/identify 22 isolates. Salmonella or campylobacters were not isolated from rectal swabs. E. coli and S. felis/simulans together constituted 50% of isolates from vagina. S. felis/simulans was the most common species from culture positive ear and eye samples. P. multocida was isolated from 15% of mouth samples. Coagulase-negative staphylococci were the most common isolates from nose and wound swabs. Staphylococcus aureus, or S. intemedius/S. pseudintermedius were not isolated from any sample. Antimicrobial drug resistance was minimal, most isolates being susceptible to all drugs tested against, including tetracycline. PMID:20627391

  8. Reported cat bites in Dallas: characteristics of the cats, the victims, and the attack events.

    OpenAIRE

    Wright, J C

    1990-01-01

    Associated with the increased popularity of cats as pets in American households has been an increase in the number of cat bites reported to health departments. Bite reports from Dallas, TX, for 1985 were analyzed for different aspects of the cat bite event, including characteristics of the cats, the people bitten, the wounds, and the attack events. Cat bites and scratches constituted 25 percent of the 2,494 reported animal bites. Biting cats were typically stray females. People 21 to 35 years...

  9. Cat Ownership Perception and Caretaking Explored in an Internet Survey of People Associated with Cats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Zito

    Full Text Available People who feed cats that they do not perceive they own (sometimes called semi-owners are thought to make a considerable contribution to unwanted cat numbers because the cats they support are generally not sterilized. Understanding people's perception of cat ownership and the psychology underlying cat semi-ownership could inform approaches to mitigate the negative effects of cat semi-ownership. The primary aims of this study were to investigate cat ownership perception and to examine its association with human-cat interactions and caretaking behaviours. A secondary aim was to evaluate a definition of cat semi-ownership (including an association time of ≥1 month and frequent feeding, revised from a previous definition proposed in the literature to distinguish cat semi-ownership from casual interactions with unowned cats. Cat owners and semi-owners displayed similar types of interactions and caretaking behaviours. Nevertheless, caretaking behaviours were more commonly displayed towards owned cats than semi-owned cats, and semi-owned cats were more likely to have produced kittens (p<0.01. All interactions and caretaking behaviours were more likely to be displayed towards cats in semi-ownership relationships compared to casual interaction relationships. Determinants of cat ownership perception were identified (p<0.05 and included association time, attachment, perceived cat friendliness and health, and feelings about unowned cats, including the acceptability of feeding unowned cats. Encouraging semi-owners to have the cats they care for sterilized may assist in reducing the number of unwanted kittens and could be a valuable alternative to trying to prevent semi-ownership entirely. Highly accessible semi-owner "gatekeepers" could help to deliver education messages and facilitate the provision of cat sterilization services to semi-owners. This research enabled semi-ownership to be distinguished from casual interaction relationships and can assist

  10. Energy requirements of adult cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bermingham, Emma N; Thomas, David G; Morris, Penelope J; Hawthorne, Amanda J

    2010-04-01

    A meta-analysis was carried out in order to establish the energy requirements of adult cats. Publications that identified cat body weight (BW) were used to generate allometric relationships between energy requirements and BW of healthy adult cats, using log-log linear regression. Energy requirements were expressed in kcal/kg BW to be consistent with those reported by the National Research Council. Mean maintenance energy requirements were 55.1 (se 1.2) kcal/kg BW (115 treatment groups). Three allometric equations were identified to predict the energy requirements for maintenance of BW in the cat based on BW: light (53.7 kcal/kg BW- 1.061), normal (46.8 kcal/kg BW- 1.115) and heavy (131.8 kcal/kg BW- 0 .366). When reported on lean mass, the allometric equation revealed maintenance requirements were 58.4 kcal/kg lean mass- 1.140 (adjusted R2 0.694; thirty-six treatment groups). The present review suggests that values for maintenance energy requirements based on BW alone may not be an accurate prediction and more detailed information on the age, sex and neuter status, BW and composition would enhance the ability to interpret the maintenance energy requirements of cats.

  11. Performance of an undulator for visible and UV FELs at FELI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miyauchi, Y.; Zako, A.; Koga, A. [Free Electron Laser Research Institute, Inc., Osaka (Japan)] [and others

    1995-12-31

    Two infrared free electron lasers (FELs) of the FELI project are now operating in the wavelength range of 1-20{mu}m. A 2.68-m undulator has been constructed for visible and UV FELs covering the wavelength of 1-0.2{mu}m for 100-165 MeV electron beams. It generates alternating, horizontal magnetic field, and wiggles electron beam on a vertical plane. The undulator length and period are 2.68m and 40mm, respectively. The gap of undulator magnets can be changed remotely by using servomotors with an accuracy of 1 {mu}m from the control room. The maximum K-value and related magnetic field strength are 1.9 and 0.5T, respectively, when its gap is set to the minimum value of 16mm. In order to minimize magnetic field reduction due to radiation damage, Sm-Co permanent magnet was adopted. Its structure and the results of magnetic field measurement will be reported.

  12. On Schr\\"odinger's cat

    CERN Document Server

    de Silva, Nalin

    2010-01-01

    Schr\\"odinger's cat appears to have been harassed in a chamber during the past eighty years or so by interpreting the role of the observer as a person, who sets an experiment and then observes results, may be after some time. The realist position tells us that the physical processes would take place independent of the observer with well defined properties, whereas the positivist position wants us to believe that nothing can be said of a system when it is not being observed. In this paper we question both these positions and also the assumption that the atom and the cat are entangled and further whether the atom could be considered to be in a state of decay and not decay. We let the cat either out of the bag (chamber) or rest in peace with or without the atom or the observer.

  13. Cat Ownership Perception and Caretaking Explored in an Internet Survey of People Associated with Cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zito, Sarah; Vankan, Dianne; Bennett, Pauleen; Paterson, Mandy; Phillips, Clive J C

    2015-01-01

    People who feed cats that they do not perceive they own (sometimes called semi-owners) are thought to make a considerable contribution to unwanted cat numbers because the cats they support are generally not sterilized. Understanding people's perception of cat ownership and the psychology underlying cat semi-ownership could inform approaches to mitigate the negative effects of cat semi-ownership. The primary aims of this study were to investigate cat ownership perception and to examine its association with human-cat interactions and caretaking behaviours. A secondary aim was to evaluate a definition of cat semi-ownership (including an association time of ≥1 month and frequent feeding), revised from a previous definition proposed in the literature to distinguish cat semi-ownership from casual interactions with unowned cats. Cat owners and semi-owners displayed similar types of interactions and caretaking behaviours. Nevertheless, caretaking behaviours were more commonly displayed towards owned cats than semi-owned cats, and semi-owned cats were more likely to have produced kittens (pcats in semi-ownership relationships compared to casual interaction relationships. Determinants of cat ownership perception were identified (pcat friendliness and health, and feelings about unowned cats, including the acceptability of feeding unowned cats. Encouraging semi-owners to have the cats they care for sterilized may assist in reducing the number of unwanted kittens and could be a valuable alternative to trying to prevent semi-ownership entirely. Highly accessible semi-owner "gatekeepers" could help to deliver education messages and facilitate the provision of cat sterilization services to semi-owners. This research enabled semi-ownership to be distinguished from casual interaction relationships and can assist welfare and government agencies to identify cat semi-owners in order to develop strategies to address this source of unwanted cats. PMID:26218243

  14. Physical Map and Genome Sequencing Survey of Mycoplasma haemofelis (Haemobartonella felis)

    OpenAIRE

    Berent, Linda M.; Joanne B. Messick

    2003-01-01

    Mycoplasma haemofelis is an uncultivable red-cell pathogen of cats. Isolated M. haemofelis DNA was used to create a bacterial artificial chromosome library and physical map. Random sequencing of this material revealed 75 genes that had not been previously reported for M. haemofelis or any other hemotrophic mycoplasma.

  15. Dipylidium (Dog and Cat Flea Tapeworm) FAQs

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... if my pet has a tapeworm infection? Although cats and dogs are rarely ill as a result of a ... and outdoor environments. Have your veterinarian treat your dogs and cats promptly if they have tapeworms. Clean up after ...

  16. The Nucleon as a Holographic Cheshire Cat

    OpenAIRE

    Zahed, Ismail

    2014-01-01

    The Cheshire cat principle emerges naturally from the holographic approach of the nucleon in terms of a bulk instanton. The cat hides in the holographic direction. I briefly review the one-nucleon problem in the holographic limit.

  17. The nucleon as a holographic Cheshire cat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Cheshire cat principle emerges naturally from the holographic approach of the nucleon in terms of a bulk instanton. The cat hides in the holographic direction. I briefly review the one-nucleon problem in the holographic limit

  18. Degenerative mucinotic mural folliculitis in cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, T L; Olivry, T; Vitale, C B; Power, H T

    2001-10-01

    A novel form of mural folliculitis is described in seven cats. Clinically, all cats exhibited generalized alopecia with scaling or crusting that was more pronounced over the head, neck, and shoulders. The face and muzzle of all cats was unusually thickened. Six of seven cats were progressively lethargic but did not demonstrate any other consistent systemic abnormalities. Histologically, there was severe mixed inflammation of the wall of the follicular isthmus in all cats, accompanied by some follicular destruction in five cats. Sebaceous glands were not affected. All cats had variable, but often striking, follicular mucin deposition, as well as epidermal hyperkeratosis and crusting. The cause of the severe mural folliculitis was not identified, and all cats responded poorly to immunomodulating therapy. Follicular mucinosis may be a nonspecific finding, likely reflective of the follicular lymphocytic milieu, and does not always herald follicular lymphoma.

  19. Cerebral cysticercosis in a cat : clinical communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.V. Schwan

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available The metacestode of Taenia solium, Cysticercus cellulosae, was recovered from the brain of a cat showing central nervous clinical signs ante mortem. This is the first record of cerebral cysticercosis in a cat in South Africa.

  20. Dirac Cat States in Relativistic Landau Levels

    OpenAIRE

    Bermudez, A.; Martin-Delgado, M. A.; Solano, E.

    2007-01-01

    We show that a relativistic version of Schrodinger cat states, here called Dirac cat states, can be built in relativistic Landau levels when an external magnetic field couples to a relativistic spin 1/2 charged particle. Under suitable initial conditions, the associated Dirac equation produces unitarily Dirac cat states involving the orbital quanta of the particle in a well defined mesoscopic regime. We demonstrate that the proposed Dirac cat states have a purely relativistic origin and cease...

  1. Halal Cat Food for the World Market

    OpenAIRE

    Amir H.M.S; Razauden Z; Harisun Y; Ida I.M; Mona Z

    2014-01-01

    Currently, University Technology Malaysia (UTM) is engaged with a well-known private company in Malaysia to develop halal cat food for the world. A team of scientists from UTM was formed for the development of cat food from preparing palatants to producing canned cat and kibbled cat food formulation on a commercial scale to fulfil the vast market demand, as well as to act as contract manufacturer for this private company. Financial aid is made available by the university and Malaysian governm...

  2. Genitourinary dysplasia in a cat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A six-month-old kitten had congenital urethral sphincter mechanism incompetence due to urethral hypoplasia and associated uterine hypoplasia and vaginal aplasia. Diagnosis was based on radiographic examination, surgical exploration and histological examination of the lower urinary tract. Surgical correction resulted in a marked clinical improvement. The cat became fully continent following treatment with phenylpropanolamine

  3. A strange cat in Dublin

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Raifeartaigh, Cormac

    2012-11-01

    Not many life stories in physics involve Nazis, illicit sex, a strange cat and the genetic code. Thus, a new biography of the great Austrian physicist Erwin Schrödinger is always of interest, and with Erwin Schrödinger and the Quantum Revolution, veteran science writer John Gribbin does not disappoint.

  4. Lessons from the Cheshire Cat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tinberg, Donna

    2012-01-01

    "If you don't know where you're going, any road will take you there." This oft-cited but not-quite-accurate quote is from the Lewis Carroll's classic children's tale, Alice in Wonderland. In Carroll's altered reality, the conversation between the disoriented Alice and the mysterious Cheshire Cat actually went like this: "Would you tell me, please,…

  5. Cats & Dogs%猫狗大战

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    阿萌

    2003-01-01

    @@ ( Dogs and cats are permanent enemies. A dog named Bubby is catnapped by the cats. The whole cats' world is shocked and alert. ) Dog Chairman: Gentlemen, a few moments ago I received word of the gravest nature. The key agent working the Brody case has been catnapped. Although he is safe, new must replace him as soon as possible.

  6. Detection of Rickettsia in Rhipicephalus sanguineus ticks and Ctenocephalides felis fleas from southeastern Tunisia by reverse line blot assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khrouf, Fatma; M'Ghirbi, Youmna; Znazen, Abir; Ben Jemaa, Mounir; Hammami, Adnene; Bouattour, Ali

    2014-01-01

    Ticks (n = 663) and fleas (n = 470) collected from domestic animals from southeastern Tunisia were screened for Rickettsia infection using reverse line blot assay. Evidence of spotted fever group Rickettsia was obtained. We detected Rickettsia felis in fleas, Rickettsia massiliae Bar 29 and the Rickettsia conorii Israeli spotted fever strain in ticks, and Rickettsia conorii subsp. conorii and Rickettsia spp. in both arthropods. The sensitivity of the adopted technique allowed the identification of a new association between fleas and R. conorii subsp. conorii species. The presence of these vector-borne Rickettsia infections should be considered when diagnosing this disease in humans in Tunisia.

  7. Recent status of five FEL facilities and application research at FELI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Four FEL facilities FEL-1, FEL-2, FEL-3 and FEL-4 achieved lasing at FELI in Oct. 1994, in Feb. 1995, in Dec. 1995 and in Oct. 1996, respectively. Two IR facilities FEL-1 and FEL-2 are open for users to supply several MW-level FELs covering the wavelength range of 1-20μm every other week. Total operation time in 1996 was about 2400 hours. The visible- and UV-facility FEL-3 has broken the world record for the shortest wavelength oscillation of linac-based FELs with a thermionic gun up to 0.278μm. An FIR facility FEL-4 (20-80μm) was installed at the 33-MeV beam line, downstream of FEL-1. The electron beam once lased at FEL-1 is used for lasing at FEL-4. The electron beam of the 165-MeV linac consists of a train of several picosecond micropulse repeating at 22.3125MHz or at 89.25MHz. The train of the micropulse continues for 24μs (macropulse) and the repetition rate of the macropulse is 10Hz or 20Hz. The number of the micropulse in a macropulse is 2140 with a micropulse separation of 11.2ns. The maximum average power of the IR-FEL will be a few W. The FEL beams are delivered from the optical cavities to the diagnostics room and four user's rooms (eighteen stations) through the pipe lines. The beam can be shared by using fan-shaped Au-coated mirrors to several stations including two manipulators simultaneously for bio-medical and semiconductor applications. An FIR-FEL facility FEL-5 (50-100μm) was installed at the beam line of the 20-MeV linac with an RF gun. FEL-5 is in the commissioning stage. (author)

  8. Survey on parasitic infections in wildcat (Felis silvestris silvestris Schreber, 1777) by scat collection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Napoli, Ettore; Anile, Stefano; Arrabito, Carmelo; Scornavacca, Davide; Mazzamuto, Maria Vittoria; Gaglio, Gabriella; Otranto, Domenico; Giannetto, Salvatore; Brianti, Emanuele

    2016-01-01

    Wildcats are endangered felid species living in Europe, Asia, and Africa. Regrettably, scientific information on parasites of wildcats is particularly meager and they often rely on data gained by necropsies of a small number of animals. In the present study, scat collection was used to assess the parasite spectrum of European wildcats living in the Etna Park (Sicily, Italy). Scat collection was performed from May to September 2010 by weekly walking four transects for a total of 391 km. Samples were then analyzed by flotation and sedimentation techniques to investigate wildcat parasitic fauna. A total of 121 scats of wildcats were collected, and parasitic forms (i.e., oocysts, eggs, and larvae) were retrieved in 110 (90.9 %) of the samples. Parasites found were Physaloptera sp. (52.1 %), tapeworms (45.5 %), Toxocara cati (43.8 %), Eucoleus aerophilus (27.3 %), Ancylostoma sp. (22.3 %), Troglostrongylus brevior (15.7 %), trematodes (9.9 %), Isospora felis (4.1 %), Cylicospirura sp. (1.7 %), and Acanthocephala (0.8 %). The prevalence of endoparasitic infections herein recorded is similar to that described in other studies conducted using necropsy technique. The species richness of parasites found in the present survey, with a total of nine helminths and one protozoon, is the highest ever reported for wildcat in Europe. Scat collection and examination are reliable and rapid non-invasive tools which can be used in a systematic survey design to study the parasite spectrum of wildcat as well as that of other endangered wild species.

  9. Activity of a deltamethrin shampoo against Ctenocephalides felis and Rhipicephalus sanguineus in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franc, M; Cadiergues, M C

    1999-03-15

    A controlled clinical trial was undertaken to assess the efficacy of an application of a 0.07% deltamethrin shampoo against fleas and ticks in dogs. Twenty beagles, housed in separate cages, were randomly allocated into two groups of 10. The dogs were infested with 50 Ctenocephalides felis and 50 Rhipicephalus sanguineus each, and parasites were counted 24 h (fleas) and 72 h (ticks) later (Day 0). Dogs, when state, were then treated with 25 ml of a shampoo containing 0.07% deltamethrin (Group 1). Dogs in Group 2 were the controls. Fleas and ticks were counted 24 h (Day 1) and 48 h (Day 2) after the shampoo was applied, and the parasites were then removed. All the dogs were reinfested with fleas and ticks on Days 2, 7, 9, 14, 16 and 20. Parasites were counted 24 and 48 h after each reinfestation. Effectiveness against fleas was calculated 24 h after infestation, and against ticks 48 h after infestation. This study showed that the application of 25 ml of shampoo containing 0.07% deltamethrin to beagle dogs weighing between 10.2 and 12 kg was very well tolerated. It controlled the parasites present on the animals at the time of application: with an efficacy of 100% against fleas 24 h after treatment and an efficacy of 95% against ticks 48 h after treatment. The treatment protected against flea reinfestations with an efficacy of 100% during the first week, >98% in the second week and >95% in the third week. It also gave >99% protection against tick reinfestations in the first week and >96% in the second week.

  10. Survey on parasitic infections in wildcat (Felis silvestris silvestris Schreber, 1777) by scat collection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Napoli, Ettore; Anile, Stefano; Arrabito, Carmelo; Scornavacca, Davide; Mazzamuto, Maria Vittoria; Gaglio, Gabriella; Otranto, Domenico; Giannetto, Salvatore; Brianti, Emanuele

    2016-01-01

    Wildcats are endangered felid species living in Europe, Asia, and Africa. Regrettably, scientific information on parasites of wildcats is particularly meager and they often rely on data gained by necropsies of a small number of animals. In the present study, scat collection was used to assess the parasite spectrum of European wildcats living in the Etna Park (Sicily, Italy). Scat collection was performed from May to September 2010 by weekly walking four transects for a total of 391 km. Samples were then analyzed by flotation and sedimentation techniques to investigate wildcat parasitic fauna. A total of 121 scats of wildcats were collected, and parasitic forms (i.e., oocysts, eggs, and larvae) were retrieved in 110 (90.9 %) of the samples. Parasites found were Physaloptera sp. (52.1 %), tapeworms (45.5 %), Toxocara cati (43.8 %), Eucoleus aerophilus (27.3 %), Ancylostoma sp. (22.3 %), Troglostrongylus brevior (15.7 %), trematodes (9.9 %), Isospora felis (4.1 %), Cylicospirura sp. (1.7 %), and Acanthocephala (0.8 %). The prevalence of endoparasitic infections herein recorded is similar to that described in other studies conducted using necropsy technique. The species richness of parasites found in the present survey, with a total of nine helminths and one protozoon, is the highest ever reported for wildcat in Europe. Scat collection and examination are reliable and rapid non-invasive tools which can be used in a systematic survey design to study the parasite spectrum of wildcat as well as that of other endangered wild species. PMID:26377843

  11. Activity of a deltamethrin shampoo against Ctenocephalides felis and Rhipicephalus sanguineus in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franc, M; Cadiergues, M C

    1999-03-15

    A controlled clinical trial was undertaken to assess the efficacy of an application of a 0.07% deltamethrin shampoo against fleas and ticks in dogs. Twenty beagles, housed in separate cages, were randomly allocated into two groups of 10. The dogs were infested with 50 Ctenocephalides felis and 50 Rhipicephalus sanguineus each, and parasites were counted 24 h (fleas) and 72 h (ticks) later (Day 0). Dogs, when state, were then treated with 25 ml of a shampoo containing 0.07% deltamethrin (Group 1). Dogs in Group 2 were the controls. Fleas and ticks were counted 24 h (Day 1) and 48 h (Day 2) after the shampoo was applied, and the parasites were then removed. All the dogs were reinfested with fleas and ticks on Days 2, 7, 9, 14, 16 and 20. Parasites were counted 24 and 48 h after each reinfestation. Effectiveness against fleas was calculated 24 h after infestation, and against ticks 48 h after infestation. This study showed that the application of 25 ml of shampoo containing 0.07% deltamethrin to beagle dogs weighing between 10.2 and 12 kg was very well tolerated. It controlled the parasites present on the animals at the time of application: with an efficacy of 100% against fleas 24 h after treatment and an efficacy of 95% against ticks 48 h after treatment. The treatment protected against flea reinfestations with an efficacy of 100% during the first week, >98% in the second week and >95% in the third week. It also gave >99% protection against tick reinfestations in the first week and >96% in the second week. PMID:10206106

  12. Dietary dissolution of urinary calculi in cats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A young adult, castrated male DSH cat was admitted for pollakiuria, hematuria and dysuria. The cat was being fed a commercial dry grocery brand cat food. Radiographs demonstrated multiple radiodense cystic calculi and urinalysis showed hematuria but no crystalluria. A tentative diagnosis of struvite urolithiasis was made. The cat was fed s/d® Feline food exclusively. Clinical signs disappeared within a week and no calculi were visible radiographically within three weeks. s/d® Feline food was continued an additional two weeks. This case study shows that s/d® Feline therapeutic food can be used to successfully manage struvite urolithiasis in cats

  13. My Experience of Feeding a Cat

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    乔琳

    2006-01-01

    I liked cat very much. In my old opinion, cat was cute and gentle. One day, my friend asked me to feed the cat for him. So I went to his house in order to take care of his cat. His neighbor was an old woman. When I was doing some cleaning, the old woman asked me if I needed some help. Suddenly, the cat stretched out its sharp claws, and clawed me and bit me with its sharp teeth. WowA It was too abrupt. The old woman got scared. “It goes crazyA” I said and asked her to get out of the room, otherwise she woul...

  14. The fecal microbiome in cats with diarrhea.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan S Suchodolski

    Full Text Available Recent studies have revealed that microbes play an important role in the pathogenesis of gastrointestinal (GI diseases in various animal species, but only limited data is available about the microbiome in cats with GI disease. The aim of this study was to evaluate the fecal microbiome in cats with diarrhea. Fecal samples were obtained from healthy cats (n = 21 and cats with acute (n = 19 or chronic diarrhea (n = 29 and analyzed by sequencing of 16S rRNA genes, and PICRUSt was used to predict the functional gene content of the microbiome. Linear discriminant analysis (LDA effect size (LEfSe revealed significant differences in bacterial groups between healthy cats and cats with diarrhea. The order Burkholderiales, the families Enterobacteriaceae, and the genera Streptococcus and Collinsella were significantly increased in diarrheic cats. In contrast the order Campylobacterales, the family Bacteroidaceae, and the genera Megamonas, Helicobacter, and Roseburia were significantly increased in healthy cats. Phylum Bacteroidetes was significantly decreased in cats with chronic diarrhea (>21 days duration, while the class Erysipelotrichi and the genus Lactobacillus were significantly decreased in cats with acute diarrhea. The observed changes in bacterial groups were accompanied by significant differences in functional gene contents: metabolism of fatty acids, biosynthesis of glycosphingolipids, metabolism of biotin, metabolism of tryptophan, and ascorbate and aldarate metabolism, were all significantly (p<0.001 altered in cats with diarrhea. In conclusion, significant differences in the fecal microbiomes between healthy cats and cats with diarrhea were identified. This dysbiosis was accompanied by changes in bacterial functional gene categories. Future studies are warranted to evaluate if these microbial changes correlate with changes in fecal concentrations of microbial metabolites in cats with diarrhea for the identification of potential diagnostic or

  15. A new atypical genotype mouse virulent strain of Toxoplasma gondii isolated from the heart of a wild caught puma (Felis concolor) from Durango, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nothing is known of the genetic diversity of Toxoplasma gondii circulating in wildlife in Mexico. In the present study, a mouse virulent T. gondii strain was isolated from the heart of a wild puma (Felis concolor). The puma was found roaming in outskirt of Durango City, Mexico and tranquailized for ...

  16. Ototoxicity in dogs and cats

    OpenAIRE

    Oishi, Naoki; Talaska, Andra E.; Schacht, Jochen

    2012-01-01

    A variety of drugs in veterinary use have side effects that can potentially damage the senses of hearing or balance in animals. A large body of literature exists on the incidence and mechanisms of “ototoxicity” in experimental animals and in humans, but little is documented in domestic dogs and cats. However, the generality of these adverse actions across species allows us to extrapolate and provide the veterinarian with insight into possible complications of chemotherapy.

  17. Cat scratch disease in Greece

    OpenAIRE

    Karpathios, T; Golphinos, C; Psychou, P; Garoufi, A; Papadimitriou, A; Nicolaidou, P

    1998-01-01

    An indirect fluorescent antibody test for Bartonella henselae, B quintana, and B elizabethae was performed in all 18 children who presented to our paediatric outpatient clinic with cat scratch disease over a six year period. Serum samples were taken on admission, after 15 days, and after six months. Diagnosis was confirmed in 15 patients (83%) and was based on seroconversion or a fourfold change of the antibody titre to B henselae in 12 patients and on a single high titre...

  18. Schroedinger's Cat is not Alone

    CERN Document Server

    Gato, Beatriz

    2010-01-01

    We introduce the `Complete Wave Function' and deduce that all living beings, not just Schroedinger's cat, are actually described by a superposition of `alive' and `dead' quantum states; otherwise they would never die. Therefore this proposal provides a quantum mechanical explanation to the world-wide observation that we all pass away. Next we consider the Measurement problem in the framework of M-theory. For this purpose, together with Schroedinger's cat we also place inside the box Rasputin's cat, which is unaffected by poisson. We analyse the system identifying its excitations (catons and catinos) and we discuss its evolution: either to a classical fight or to a quantum entanglement. We also propose the $BSV\\Psi$ scenario, which implements the Complete Wave Function as well as the Big Bang and the String Landscape in a very (super)natural way. Then we test the gravitational decoherence of the entangled system applying an experimental setting due to Galileo. We also discuss the Information Loss paradox. For ...

  19. Temporomandibular ankylosis in the cat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ankylosis of the temporomandibular joint (TMJ) in the cat is an unusual complication of traumatic lesions involving articular (true ankylosis) or periarticular structures (false ankylosis). Seven cats with true ankylosis of the TMJ (four cases unilateral and three cases bilateral), of which previous trauma had been documented in five cases, were referred to the authors' clinic between September 1991 and October 1996. Radiographic assessment was performed in all cases, using dorsoventral and oblique projections. Five subjects underwent arthroplastic excision of the TMJ and, in the remaining two cases, stretching of the jaws was performed under general anaesthesia. The surgical outcome was satisfactory in all but one case, where partially decreased joint mobility was observed (follow-up time one to five years), but in the two cases where non-surgical treatment was carried out, recurrence of TMJ ankylosis was observed (follow-up time two to five months). In the authors' experience, surgery represents the treatment of choice for TMJ ankylosis in cats. Additional mandibular symphysiotomy can confirm the radiological findings in unilateral cases

  20. Radioactive iodine therapy in cats with hyperthyroidism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turrel, J.M.; Feldman, E.C.; Hays, M.; Hornof, W.J.

    1984-03-01

    Eleven cats with hyperthyroidism were treated with radioactive iodine (/sup 131/I). Previous unsuccessful treatments for hyperthyroidism included hemithyroidectomy (2 cats) and an antithyroid drug (7 cats). Two cats had no prior treatment. Thyroid scans, using technetium 99m, showed enlargement and increased radionuclide accumulation in 1 thyroid lobe in 5 cats and in both lobes in 6 cats. Serum thyroxine concentrations were high and ranged from 4.7 to 18 micrograms/dl. Radioactive iodine tracer studies were used to determine peak radioactive iodine uptake (RAIU) and effective and biological half-lives. Activity of /sup 131/I administered was calculated from peak RAIU, effective half-life, and estimated thyroid gland weight. Activity of /sup 131/I administered ranged from 1.0 to 5.9 mCi. The treatment goal was to deliver 20,000 rad to hyperactive thyroid tissue. However, retrospective calculations based on peak RAIU and effective half-life obtained during the treatment period showed that radiation doses actually ranged from 7,100 to 64,900 rad. Complete ablation of the hyperfunctioning thyroid tissue and a return to euthyroidism were seen in 7 cats. Partial responses were seen in 2 cats, and 2 cats became hypothyroid. It was concluded that /sup 131/I ablation of thyroid tumors was a reasonable alternative in the treatment of hyperthyroidism in cats. The optimal method of dosimetry remains to be determined.

  1. Aspectos morfométricos do timo em gatos domésticos (Felis domesticus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camila E. Barroso

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available O timo é um órgão linfático primário que desenvolve sua atividade em organismos jovens. Apesar de sua função ser responsável por mecanismos fundamentais na aquisição das defesas e conseqüentes respostas orgânicas, ela ainda não está totalmente esclarecida, nem tampouco as bases morfológicas que respondem por tais funções, como o processo de desenvolvimento e involução do órgão. Objetivou-se analisar e caracterizar os aspectos morfológicos do timo, tais como seu tamanho e volume, e aspectos histológicos do timo em gatos, correlacionando o sexo e o desenvolvimento etário. Doze timos provenientes de fetos de gatos domésticos (Felis domesticus sem raça definida (SRD, machos e fêmeas, separados em três grupos etários. O timo apresentou-se com uma coloração rosa-pálida e com duas porções, a torácica e a cervical, sendo que cada uma delas possuía um lobo direito e um lobo esquerdo em sua maioria. A porção torácica localizava-se em região de mediastino cranial, entre os pulmões e à base do coração. E a porção cervical estendia-se além das costelas em sentido cranial, estando localizada ventralmente à traqueia. A estrutura celular do timo demonstrou-se organizada com a presença de agregados concêntricos, os chamados corpúsculos tímicos, formados por células epiteliais, sustentada por uma cápsula de tecido conjuntivo de onde partiam septos que ao penetrar no órgão dividia-o em lóbulos. Ocorreram variações significativas quanto à lobação e as dimensões do timo entre indivíduos da mesma faixa etária, e entre sexos diferentes. Os valores relativos ao comprimento, espessura e largura, de maneira geral, apresentaram aumento, em conformidade ao desenvolvimento dos animais, mas com diferenças entre os sexos.

  2. Management of obesity in cats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoelmkjaer KM

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Kirsten M Hoelmkjaer, Charlotte R Bjornvad Department of Veterinary Clinical and Animal Sciences, Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Frederiksberg, Denmark Abstract: Obesity is a common nutritional disorder in cats, especially when they are neutered and middle-aged. Obesity predisposes cats to several metabolic and clinical disorders, including insulin resistance, diabetes mellitus, lameness, and skin disease. Prevention and treatment of obesity is therefore of great importance in veterinary practice. Correct assessment of body composition is important for recognizing early states of obesity and for monitoring success of weight-loss programs. Various methods for assessing body composition have been proposed, of which a 9-point body-condition score has been validated in cats, and is possibly the most simple to use in the clinic; however, for extremely obese individuals, it is less useful. When calculating the appropriate daily caloric intake for a weight-loss plan, the aim is to maintain a safe weight-loss rate, increasing the chance of preserving lean body mass and decreasing the risk of developing hepatic lipidosis, while also producing a sufficient weight-loss rate to keep owners motivated. A weight-loss rate of 0.5%–2% per week is recommended, which for a cat that needs to lose 3 kg body weight results in an anticipated time for reaching the target weight of 24–60 weeks. There are several purpose-made weight-loss diets available. The optimal composition of a weight-loss diet for cats is unknown, but most of the available products have lower caloric density, an increased nutrient:energy ratio, and higher protein and fiber content. Regular follow-up visits allow the caloric intake to be adjusted based on progress, and possibly increase the chance of success. This review discusses the risk factors for and consequences of obesity, and gives directions for formulating a weight-loss plan, including daily caloric

  3. Tõsõ mu maailman : [luuletused] / Häniläne, pseud.

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Häniläne,, pseud.

    2008-01-01

    Sisu: Bombus lucorum (maakimalane) ; Podiceps auritus (sarvikpütt) ; Malus domestica (aed-õunapuu) ; Felis catus domesticus (kodukass) ; Inachis io (päevapaabusilm) ; Lacerta vivipara (arusisalik) ; Canis familiaris (kodukoer) ; Clangula hyemalis (aul)

  4. Incidence of pyometra in Swedish insured cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagman, Ragnvi; Ström Holst, Bodil; Möller, Lotta; Egenvall, Agneta

    2014-07-01

    Pyometra is a clinically relevant problem in intact female cats and dogs. The etiology is similar in both animal species, with the disease caused by bacterial infection of a progesterone-sensitized uterus. Here, we studied pyometra in cats with the aim to describe the incidence and probability of developing pyometra based on age and breed. The data used were reimbursed claims for veterinary care insurance or life insurance claims or both in cats insured in a Swedish insurance database from 1999 to 2006. The mean incidence rate (IR) for pyometra was about 17 cats per 10,000 cat years at risk (CYAR). Cats with pyometra were diagnosed at a median age of 4 years and a significant breed effect was observed. The breed with the highest IR (433 cats per 10,000 CYAR) was the Sphynx, and other breeds with IR over 60 cats per 10,000 CYAR were Siberian cat, Ocicat, Korat, Siamese, Ragdoll, Maine coon, and Bengal. Pyometra was more commonly diagnosed with increasing age, with a marked increase in cats older than 7 years. The mean case fatality rate in all cats was 5.7%, which is slightly higher than corresponding reports in dogs of 3% to 4%. Geographical location (urban or rural) did not affect the risk of developing the disease. The present study provides information of incidence and probability of developing pyometra based on age, breed, and urban or rural geographical location. These data may be useful for designing cat breeding programs in high-risk breeds and for future studies of the genetic background of the disease. PMID:24726694

  5. Cats and Toxoplasma: implications for public health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dabritz, H A; Conrad, P A

    2010-02-01

    Cats are popular as pets worldwide because they are easy to care for and provide companionship that enriches the lives of human beings. Little attention has been focused on their potential to contaminate the environment with zoonotic pathogens. One such pathogen, the protozoan parasite Toxoplasma gondii, rarely causes clinical manifestations in cats or immunocompetent humans; however, it can have serious adverse effects on human foetuses and immunocompromised patients. Many human infections are believed to be acquired from eating undercooked or raw meat, such as pork and lamb (Tenter et al. Int. J. Parasitol., 30, 2000, 1217; Dubey et al. J. Parasitol. 91, 2005, 1082). However, the prevalence of T. gondii infection in human populations that do not consume meat or eat it well-cooked suggests that the acquisition of infection from the environment, via oocysts in soil, water or on uncooked vegetables, is also important (Rawal. Trans. Royal Soc. Trop. Med. Hyg., 53, 1959, 61; Roghmann et al. Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg., 60, 1999, 790; Chacin-Bonilla et al. Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg., 65, 2001, 131). In the past 20 years, two changes occurred that significantly increased the size of the cat population in the USA. Pet cat ownership grew from 50 million to 90 million animals, and animal welfare activists created feeding stations for abandoned and free-roaming cats. As many cat owners allow their cats to deposit faeces outside and cats maintained in colonies always defecate outside, ample opportunity exists for T. gondii oocysts to enter the environment and be transmitted to humans. Prevention efforts should focus on educating cat owners about the importance of collecting cat faeces in litter boxes, spaying owned cats to reduce overpopulation, reducing the numbers of feral cats and promoting rigorous hand hygiene after gardening or soil contact. PMID:19744306

  6. 42 CFR 71.51 - Dogs and cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Dogs and cats. 71.51 Section 71.51 Public Health... QUARANTINE Importations § 71.51 Dogs and cats. (a) Definitions. As used in this section the term: Cat means all domestic cats. Confinement means restriction of a dog or cat to a building or other enclosure at...

  7. Radio-iodine treatment of hyperthyroid cats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thirty-two elderly domestic shorthaired cats (mean age 12.9 years) were treated with radioiodine (131I). The dose of 131I administered ranged from 39 mBq to 134 mBq. Twenty-eight cats became euthyroid after treatment, one became hypothyroid and three remained hyperthyroxaemic. Two of the hyperthyroxaemic cats were successfully re-treated with 131I. Five cats died from concurrent diseases within one year of treatment. The administration of a dose of 131I selected by assessing the severity of the clinical signs, the size of the thyroid gland(s) and the serum level of thyroxine was an effective treatment for hyperthyroidism

  8. Minimal change glomerulopathy in a cat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Backlund, Brianna; Cianciolo, Rachel E; Cook, Audrey K; Clubb, Fred J; Lees, George E

    2011-04-01

    A 6-year-old domestic shorthair male castrated cat was evaluated for sudden onset of vomiting and anorexia. A diagnosis of hypereosinophilic syndrome (HES) was made, and the cat was treated with imatinib mesylate. The cat had an initial clinical improvement with the normalization of the peripheral eosinophil count. After approximately 8 weeks of treatment, lethargy and anorexia recurred despite the normal eosinophil count and a significant proteinuric nephropathy was identified. Treatment with imatinib was discontinued. Ultrasound guided renal biopsies exhibited histologic, ultrastructural, and immunostaining changes indicative of a minimal change glomerulopathy (MCG) which has not previously been reported in the literature in a cat. The proteinuria and HES initially improved while the cat was treated with more traditional medications; however, both the problems persisted for 30 months that the cat was followed subsequently. Previous studies demonstrating the safety and efficacy of imatinib in cats do not report any glomerular injury or significant adverse drug reactions, and the exact cause of this cat's proteinuric nephropathy is uncertain. Nonetheless, the possibility of an adverse drug reaction causing proteinuria should be considered when initiating treatment with imatinib in a cat. PMID:21414552

  9. Experimental proliferative glomerulonephritis in the cat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bishop, S A; Stokes, C R; Lucke, V M

    1992-01-01

    A model of chronic serum sickness was used to induce immune-complex glomerulonephritis in seven experimental cats, by daily intravenous inoculation of an increasing dose (5 to 35 mg) of human serum albumin (HSA). At week four, two of the seven animals developed anterior uveitis. At week 23, two different animals developed the subcutaneous oedema characteristic of the nephrotic syndrome (NS), whilst the other five cats appeared clinically normal. The kidneys were examined at necropsy by light microscopy and by transmission electron microscopy. The glomeruli of four animals (three with both proteinuria and uraemia, and one with proteinuria only) showed morphological changes under light microscopy. The abnormalities suggested that a diffuse mesangial proliferative glomerulonephritis (GN) had been induced in three cats and diffuse membranoproliferative GN induced in another. Ultrastructural studies revealed electron-dense deposits (immune-complexes) in six of the seven cats. Two cats without glomerular abnormalities by light microscopy had mesangial deposits and three cats with mesangial proliferative GN had deposits at mesangial, subendothelial and/or subepithelial sites. The single cat with membranoproliferative GN had deposits at mesangial, subendothelial, subepithelial and intramembranous sites. Immunohistological examination (peroxidase-antiperoxidase technique) showed that HSA and immunoglobulin (IgG and IgM) were deposited in the glomeruli of these cats. Deposits were the most dense in cats with more severe renal lesions. Deposits of IgM were most abundant. An extensive cellular infiltrate, comprising macrophages, neutrophils and plasma cells, was observed only in the four animals which showed abnormalities in glomerular ultrastructure. The disease induced in these cats thus appears to differ from the membranous nephropathy previously described in the cat and bears a close resemblance to immune complex (IC) disease in man. In view of the relatively few specific

  10. Cats, Cancer and Comparative Oncology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claire M. Cannon

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Naturally occurring tumors in dogs are well-established models for several human cancers. Domestic cats share many of the benefits of dogs as a model (spontaneous cancers developing in an immunocompetent animal sharing the same environment as humans, shorter lifespan allowing more rapid trial completion and data collection, lack of standard of care for many cancers allowing evaluation of therapies in treatment-naïve populations, but have not been utilized to the same degree in the One Medicine approach to cancer. There are both challenges and opportunities in feline compared to canine models. This review will discuss three specific tumor types where cats may offer insights into human cancers. Feline oral squamous cell carcinoma is common, shares both clinical and molecular features with human head and neck cancer and is an attractive model for evaluating new therapies. Feline mammary tumors are usually malignant and aggressive, with the ‘triple-negative’ phenotype being more common than in humans, offering an enriched population in which to examine potential targets and treatments. Finally, although there is not an exact corollary in humans, feline injection site sarcoma may be a model for inflammation-driven tumorigenesis, offering opportunities for studying variations in individual susceptibility as well as preventative and therapeutic strategies.

  11. Probing a Gravitational Cat State

    CERN Document Server

    Anastopoulos, Charis

    2015-01-01

    We investigate the nature of a gravitational two-state system (G2S) in the simplest setup in Newtonian gravity. In a quantum description of matter a single motionless massive particle can in principle be in a superposition state of two spatially-separated locations. This superposition state in gravity, or gravitational cat state, would lead to fluctuations in the Newtonian force exerted on a nearby test particle. The central quantity of importance for this inquiry is the energy density correlation. This corresponds to the noise kernel in stochastic gravity theory, evaluated in the weak field nonrelativistic limit. In this limit, quantum fluctuations of the stress energy tensor manifest as the fluctuations of the Newtonian force. We describe the properties of such a G2S system and present two ways of measuring the cat state for the Newtonian force, one by way of a classical probe, the other a quantum harmonic oscillator. Our findings include: (i) mass density fluctuations persist even in single particle system...

  12. Reproductive patterns of pedigree cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnstone, I

    1987-07-01

    A survey of Brisbane catteries was carried out to investigate reproductive patterns of pedigree cats. Eighteen breeders supplied data on 751 litters with a total of 3171 kittens covering the Persian, Chinchilla, Siamese, Burmese and Abyssinian breeds. The overall sex ratio at birth was 100 males to 92 females. There was a significant seasonal effect on sex ratio with litters conceived during the wet season (September to February) producing more males than expected and litters conceived during the dry season producing more females than expected. Litter size and breed had no significant effect on the sex ratio. The average litter size varied with the breed with the most prolific being the Burmese (5.0) then the Siamese (4.5), Persian (3.9), Abyssinian (3.5) and Chinchilla (2.8). The average litter size was smaller for the first litter than for the subsequent 3 litters. The maximum average litter size was reached at 6 years with only a moderate decline thereafter. There was a seasonal fluctuation in births with the greatest numbers being born in spring and the least in late autumn. Longhair cats showed a more marked seasonal distribution of births than the shorthairs which reproduced for most of the year, particularly the Burmese breed. PMID:3675409

  13. Domestic cat allergen and allergic sensitisation in young children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chen, Chih-Mei; Gehring, Ulrike; Wickman, Magnus; Hoek, Gerard; Giovannangelo, Mariella; Nordling, Emma; Wijga, Alet; de Jongste, Johan; Pershagen, Goeran; Almqvist, Catarina; Kerkhof, Marjan; Bellander, Tom; Wichmann, H. -Erich; Brunekreef, Bert; Heinrich, Joachim

    2008-01-01

    Studies have presented conflicting associations between cat allergen exposure and sensitisation and atopic disease. We therefore investigated the association between the observed domestic cat allergen level and cat sensitisation in young children in four study populations from three European countri

  14. Standardization of some electrocardiographic parameters of captive leopard cats (Leopardus tigrinus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oda, Sam Goldy Shoyama; Yamato, Ronaldo Jun; Fedullo, José Daniel Luzes; Leomil Neto, Moacir; Larsson, Maria Helena Matiko Akao

    2009-09-01

    Thirty-three captive leopard cats, Leopardus tigrinus, were anesthetized with xylazine (1-2 mg/kg) and ketamine (10 mg/kg), and electrocardiograph (ECG) tests were recorded in all leads with 1 cm = 1 mV sensibility and 25 mm/sec speed repeating DII lead at 50 mm/sec speed with the same sensibility. Results expressed by mean and standard deviation were: heart rate (HR) = 107 +/- 17 (bpm); P-wave = 0.048 +/- 0.072 (s) x 0.128 +/- 0.048 (mV); PR interval = 0.101 +/- 0.081 (s); QRS compound = 0.053 +/- 0.012 (s) x 1.446 +/- 0.602 (mV); QT interval = 0.231 +/- 0.028 (s); R-wave (CV6LL) = 1.574 +/- 0.527 (mV); R-wave (CV6LU) = 1.583 +/- 0.818 (mV); heart rhythm: normal sinus rhythm (15.2%), sinus rhythm with wandering pacemaker (WPM) (60.6%), sinus arrhythmia with WPM (24.2%); electric axis: between +30 degrees and +60 degrees (6.1%), +60 (6.1%), between +60 degrees and +90 degrees (57.6%), +90 degrees (9%), between +90 degrees and +120 degrees (21.2%); ST segment: normal (75.7%), elevation (18.2%), depression (6.1%); T-wave polarity (DII): positive (100%); T-wave (V10): absent (6.1%), negative (63.6%), positive (18.2%), and with interference (12.1%). Through ECG data comparison with other species, unique features of Leopardus tigrinus' (leopard cat) ECG parameters were detected. Some of the study animals presented with an R-wave amplitude that was indicative of left ventricle overload according to patterns for normal domestic cats (Felis cati). Echocardiographic exams revealed normal heart cavities' function and morphology. The aim of this study was to establish some electrocardiographic parameters of captive L. tigrinus. PMID:19746854

  15. Ectopic ureter in a male cat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A male cat with persistent urinary incontinence is described. Definitive diagnosis of unilateral ectopic ureter was obtained by intravenous urography, after which surgical re-implantation of the ureter into the bladder was performed. The literature on ureteral ectopia in cats is discussed

  16. Oesophageal squamous cell carcinoma in two cats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two cases of feline oesophageal squamous cell carcinoma are described. In both cases, diagnosis was achieved by radiography, endoscopy and cytology, and later confirmed by histology. One cat underwent oesophagectomy followed by end-to-end anastomosis, but died three days postsurgery; the second cat was euthanased after diagnosis

  17. Management of hypertension in a geriatric cat

    OpenAIRE

    Thompson, Jennifer

    2004-01-01

    Hyperthyroidism and chronic renal disease occur commonly in geriatric cats, often in association with potentially life-threatening primary or secondary hypertension. Early treatment of hypertension minimizes damage to vital organs. This case illustrates the complexity of managing hypertension in a geriatric cat with both hyperthyroidism and renal disease.

  18. Intestinal obstruction by trichobezoars in five cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrs, V R; Beatty, J A; Tisdall, P L; Hunt, G B; Gunew, M; Nicoll, R G; Malik, R

    1999-12-01

    Between 1997 and 1999, five domestic crossbred cats (four long haired, one short haired) presented with a palpable abdominal mass and were shown to have small intestinal trichobezoars at laparotomy or necropsy. Hair balls were associated with partial or complete intestinal obstruction and were situated in the proximal jejunum to distal ileum. In four cats obstructions were simple, while the remaining cat had a strangulating obstruction. Three of the cats were 10 years or older, and two were less than 4 years. In the three older cats abdominal neoplasia was suspected and investigations were delayed or declined in two of these cats because of a perceived poor prognosis. Predisposing factors identified in this series of cats included a long-hair coat, flea allergy dermatitis, inflammatory bowel disease and ingestion of non-digestible plant material. This report shows that the ingestion of hair is not always innocuous and that intestinal trichobezoars should be considered in the differential diagnoses of intestinal obstruction and intra-abdominal mass lesions, particularly in long-haired cats.

  19. Criptococose em felino Cryptococcosis in cat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F.J.F. Sant’Ana

    1999-08-01

    Full Text Available A case of cryptococcosis in a cat refferred to the Hospital Veterinário da Universidade Federal Rural de Pernambuco is described. The cat was euthanized and the microscopic examination of a firm mass observed in the nasal cavity was accomplished. Cryptococcus sp. and a chronic inflammatory process was observed throughout the tissue.

  20. Nutritional secondary hyperparathyroidism in two cats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dimopoulou, Maria; Kirpensteijn, Jolle; Nielsen, Dorte Hald;

    2010-01-01

    Two three-month-old, intact female Abyssinian cats were presented with a history of lameness, constipation and ataxia. The cats had been fed a diet composed almost exclusively of meat. Both showed severe osteopenia and multiple pathological fractures on radiography. Following euthanasia of the more...

  1. Cool Cats: Feline Fun with Abstract Art.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambert, Phyllis Gilchrist

    2002-01-01

    Presents a lesson that teaches students about abstract art in a fun way. Explains that students draw cats, learn about the work of Pablo Picasso, and, in the style of Picasso, combine the parts of the cats (tail, legs, head, body) together in unconventional ways. (CMK)

  2. Malassezia spp. overgrowth in allergic cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ordeix, Laura; Galeotti, Franca; Scarampella, Fabia; Dedola, Carla; Bardagí, Mar; Romano, Erica; Fondati, Alessandra

    2007-10-01

    A series of 18 allergic cats with multifocal Malassezia spp. overgrowth is reported: atopic dermatitis was diagnosed in 16, an adverse food reaction in another and one was euthanized 2 months after diagnosis of Malassezia overgrowth. All the cats were otherwise healthy and those tested (16 out of 18) for feline leukaemia or feline immunodeficiency virus infections were all negative. At dermatological examination, multifocal alopecia, erythema, crusting and greasy adherent brownish scales were variably distributed on all cats. Cytological examination revealed Malassezia spp. overgrowth with/without bacterial infection in facial skin (n = 11), ventral neck (n = 6), abdomen (n = 6), ear canal (n = 4), chin (n = 2), ear pinnae (n = 2), interdigital (n = 1) and claw folds skin (n = 1). Moreover, in two cats Malassezia pachydermatis was isolated in fungal cultures from lesional skin. Azoles therapy alone was prescribed in seven, azoles and antibacterial therapy in eight and azoles with both antibacterial and anti-inflammatory therapy in three of the cats. After 3-4 weeks of treatment, substantial reduction of pruritus and skin lesions was observed in all 11 cats treated with a combined therapy and in five of seven treated solely with azoles. Malassezia spp. overgrowth may represent a secondary cutaneous problem in allergic cats particularly in those presented for dermatological examination displaying greasy adherent brownish scales. The favourable response to treatment with antifungal treatments alone suggests that, as in dogs, Malassezia spp. may be partly responsible for both pruritus and cutaneous lesions in allergic cats. PMID:17845619

  3. Quantum Computer Games: Schrodinger Cat and Hounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Michal; Gordon, Goren

    2012-01-01

    The quantum computer game "Schrodinger cat and hounds" is the quantum extension of the well-known classical game fox and hounds. Its main objective is to teach the unique concepts of quantum mechanics in a fun way. "Schrodinger cat and hounds" demonstrates the effects of superposition, destructive and constructive interference, measurements and…

  4. Polycystic kidney disease in a Chartreux cat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volta, Antonella; Manfredi, Sabrina; Gnudi, Giacomo; Gelati, Aldo; Bertoni, Giorgio

    2010-02-01

    Polycystic kidney disease (PKD) is one of the most common genetic diseases in cats. It has been widely described in Persians and Persian-related cats and sporadically in other breeds. The purpose of the present paper is to describe the first reported case of PKD in a 12-year-old female Chartreux cat. The cat was referred with polyuria and polydipsia and enlarged and irregular kidneys at palpation. Multiple renal cysts and a single liver cyst were identified by ultrasound and the inherited pattern was confirmed by genetic test (polymerase chain reaction/restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR/RFLP) assay). Chartreux cats should be included in the screening programme of PKD, and PKD should be always considered as a possible cause of chronic renal failure in this breed. PMID:19716738

  5. Polycystic kidney disease in a Chartreux cat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volta, Antonella; Manfredi, Sabrina; Gnudi, Giacomo; Gelati, Aldo; Bertoni, Giorgio

    2010-02-01

    Polycystic kidney disease (PKD) is one of the most common genetic diseases in cats. It has been widely described in Persians and Persian-related cats and sporadically in other breeds. The purpose of the present paper is to describe the first reported case of PKD in a 12-year-old female Chartreux cat. The cat was referred with polyuria and polydipsia and enlarged and irregular kidneys at palpation. Multiple renal cysts and a single liver cyst were identified by ultrasound and the inherited pattern was confirmed by genetic test (polymerase chain reaction/restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR/RFLP) assay). Chartreux cats should be included in the screening programme of PKD, and PKD should be always considered as a possible cause of chronic renal failure in this breed.

  6. Refinement of a commercial bench-top relaxin assay for pregnancy diagnosis using urine from domestic and nondomestic felids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Laurie A; Steinetz, Bernard G; Bond, Jennifer B; Lasano, Sally; Swanson, William F

    2008-06-01

    Relaxin, a 6-kDa polypeptide hormone, is excreted in the urine during pregnancy in several mammalian species. A recent study showed that detection of urinary relaxin using a bench-top serum assay (Witness relaxin kit, Synbiotics Corp., San Diego, California 92127, USA) can be diagnostic for pregnancy in domestic cats (Felis silvestris catus), but it is unknown whether the bench-top kit is applicable with urine across felid species. Our objectives were to 1) examine modifications in urine processing to improve kit reliability in pregnant cats, 2) evaluate the impact of concentrating urine via filtration on relaxin detection, 3) assess the effect of sample freezing on relaxin concentrations, and 4) begin quantifying urinary relaxin levels in nondomestic felids. Urine and serum were collected from domestic cats and nondomestic cat species (Pallas' cat, Otocolobus manul; sand cat, Felis margarita; cheetah, Acinonyx jubatus; and lion, Panthera leo) at several times after breeding. Urine samples, subjected to various processing methods, were tested using the bench-top kit, and relaxin levels were later quantified via radioimmunoassay. For domestic cat urine samples, filtration and addition of protein/phosphate buffer improved the consistency of the relaxin kit for early pregnancy diagnosis. Urine freezing caused a slight (approximately 13%) but significant decrease in relaxin concentrations, but frozen-thawed samples still tested positive with the bench-top kit. In nondomestic felids, urinary relaxin immunoreactivity during pregnancy was similar to or higher than that of pregnant domestic cats, suggesting that relaxin is a reliable cross-species marker of pregnancy. Urinary relaxin was detectable using the bench-top kit in pregnant Pallas' cats, but urine samples from other species tested negative, regardless of processing methods. Findings suggest that measurement of urinary relaxin is a promising approach for noninvasive pregnancy diagnosis in exotic felids, but

  7. Causes of interspecific variation in susceptibility to cat predation on birds%鸟类对猫捕食敏感性的种间差异研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Anders Pape MφLLER; Johannes ERRITZφE; Jan Tφttrup NIELSEN

    2010-01-01

    哺乳类捕获猎物的方法与猛禽不同,前者通常依靠伏击捕猎.这种捕猎行为上的差异,对不同猎物对被猎杀的敏感性有重要影响,并能改变猎物的日常行为.在分析了大量的猎物丰富度和可获得猎物等数据的基础上,我们研究了鸟类对家猫(Felis catus)捕食的敏感性.不同鸟种对被猫捕食的敏感性与对被雀鹰(Accipiter nisus)捕食的敏感性无显著相关性,但与对被苍鹰(Accipiter gentilis)捕食的易感性呈显著相关.鸟类对被猫和雀鹰捕食的敏感性被分别用来预测了它们对被苍鹰捕食的敏感性.鸟类尾羽缺失的比例会随着被猫捕食的敏感性的加大而增多,也验证了我们关于鸟类对被猫捕食敏感性的看法.猫对雄鸟的捕食比例较高,尤其当雄鸟处于植被较低层的位置鸣唱以及鸣唱时起飞距离较短时,被捕食的几率更高.集群繁殖的鸟类对被捕食的敏感性要低于独居鸟类.对细菌感染免疫力较高的鸟类同样也对猫的捕食有着较高的敏感性.这些结果说明猫的捕食己成为一个重要的选择压力,对普通鸟类的抗捕食行为、性别炫耀和免疫功能产生影响.

  8. Lesions of structures showing FOS expression to cat presentation: effects on responsivity to a Cat, Cat odor, and nonpredator threat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanchard, D Caroline; Canteras, Newton S; Markham, Chris M; Pentkowski, Nathan S; Blanchard, Robert J

    2005-01-01

    Exposure of rats to a cat elicits Fos activity in a number of brain areas or structures. Based on hodological relationships of these, Canteras has proposed a medial hypothalamic defense system, with input from several forebrain sites. Both electrolytic and neurotoxic lesions of the dorsal premammillary nucleus, which shows the strongest Fos response to cat exposure, produce striking decrements in a number of defensive behaviors to a cat or to cat odor stimuli, but do not have a major effect on either postshock freezing, or responsivity to the odor of a female in estrus. Neurotoxic lesions of the medial amygdala produce decrements in defensiveness to predator stimuli, particularly odor stimuli, that are consistent with a view of this structure as involved with allomonal cues. While dorsal hippocampal lesions had little effect on responsivity to predator stimuli, neurotoxic lesions of the ventral hippocampus reduced freezing and enhanced a variety of nondefensive behaviors to both cat odor and footshock, with similar reductions in defensiveness during context conditioning tests for cat odor, cat exposure and footshock. These results support the view that the dorsal premammillary nucleus is strongly and selectively involved in control of responsivity to predator stimuli. Structures with important input into the medial hypothalamic defense system appear also to be functionally involved with antipredator defensive behaviors, and these lesion studies may suggest specific hypotheses as to the particular defense functions of different areas.

  9. Subarachnoid cyst in a cat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A five-year-old domestic longhair was presented with hind-limb ataxia and some degree of incontinence of two weeks' duration. An enlarged spinal canal from the twelfth thoracic (T-12) vertebra to the third lumbar (L(3)) vertebra was identified on survey radiographs. An intradural-extramedullary cavity at the twelfth (T-12) and thirteenth (T-13) thoracic vertebrae, filled with contrast material, was demonstrated on myelography. A left-sided hemilaminectomy was performed over this region, and a subarachnoid cavitation or cyst was found to be the cause of the severe spinal-cord compression. The cyst was drained. The cat showed improvement in the neurological signs during the first three weeks postoperatively. Six months later no neurological deficits were identified on follow-up examination

  10. Differential passage rates of prey components through the gut of serval Felis serval and black-backed jackal Canis mesomelas

    OpenAIRE

    J.M. Bowland; A.E. Rowland

    1991-01-01

    Feeding trials conducted on Felis serval and Canis mesomelas showed that the same prey item may appear in up to seven scats (mean=2.8, n=7). The basic assumption that prey remains of the same species in different scats represent different individuals is invalid. Therefore over-estimation of some prey species relative to others in the diet of carnivores studied can occur.

  11. Multidimensional effects of biologically synthesized silver nanoparticles in Helicobacter pylori, Helicobacter felis, and human lung (L132) and lung carcinoma A549 cells

    OpenAIRE

    Gurunathan, Sangiliyandi; Jeong, Jae-Kyo; Han, Jae Woong; Zhang, Xi-Feng; Park, Jung Hyun; Kim, Jin-Hoi

    2015-01-01

    Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) are prominent group of nanomaterials and are recognized for their diverse applications in various health sectors. This study aimed to synthesize the AgNPs using the leaf extract of Artemisia princeps as a bio-reductant. Furthermore, we evaluated the multidimensional effect of the biologically synthesized AgNPs in Helicobacter pylori, Helicobacter felis, and human lung (L132) and lung carcinoma (A549) cells. UV-visible (UV–vis) spectroscopy confirmed the synthesis ...

  12. Albendazole therapy for experimentally induced Paragonimus kellicotti infection in cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubey, J P; Hoover, E A; Stromberg, P C; Toussant, M J

    1978-06-01

    The effect of albendazole therapy was studied in 6 cats with pulmonary paragonimiasis induced by experimental inoculation of metacercariae (25/cat) of Paragonimus kellicotti. At 76 to 101 days after they were inoculated, 5 cats were administered an oral aqueous suspension of albendazole in 2 divided doses totaling 20 mg (2 cats), 50 mg (1 cat), or 100 mg (2 cats)/kg of body weight each day for 14 to 21 days. The 6th cat (control) was not administered albendazole. Nine days after cats were given the 50- and 100-mg/kg dosages, Paragonimus ova were not seen in the feces of 3 cats. There was marked reduction in ova production in the feces of the 2 cats administered 20 mg/kg of albendazole. Live flukes were not recovered from the lungs of 3 cats necropsied 4 or 5 weeks after dosing with 50 or 100 mg/kg, but the lungs of the 2 cats administered 20 mg of albendazole/kg yielded 9 and 7 apparently viable flukes. Seventeen live flukes were recovered from the control cat not treated with albendazole. In 4 noninoculated normal cats administered 20 mg (1 cat), 100 mg (1 cat), and 200 mg (2 cats) of albendazole/kg of body weight each day for 14 days, there were no gross or microscopic lesions attributable to the drug. PMID:666077

  13. Rickettsia typhi IN RODENTS AND R. felis IN FLEAS IN YUCATÁN AS A POSSIBLE CAUSAL AGENT OF UNDEFINED FEBRILE CASES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaspar PENICHE-LARA

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Rickettsia typhi is the causal agent of murine typhus; a worldwide zoonotic and vector-borne infectious disease, commonly associated with the presence of domestic and wild rodents. Human cases of murine typhus in the state of Yucatán are frequent. However, there is no evidence of the presence of Rickettsia typhi in mammals or vectors in Yucatán. The presence of Rickettsia in rodents and their ectoparasites was evaluated in a small municipality of Yucatán using the conventional polymerase chain reaction technique and sequencing. The study only identified the presence of Rickettsia typhi in blood samples obtained from Rattus rattus and it reported, for the first time, the presence of R. felis in the flea Polygenis odiosus collected from Ototylomys phyllotis rodent. Additionally, Rickettsia felis was detected in the ectoparasite Ctenocephalides felis fleas parasitizing the wild rodent Peromyscus yucatanicus. This study’s results contributed to a better knowledge of Rickettsia epidemiology in Yucatán.

  14. Rickettsia typhi IN RODENTS AND R. felis IN FLEAS IN YUCATÁN AS A POSSIBLE CAUSAL AGENT OF UNDEFINED FEBRILE CASES

    Science.gov (United States)

    PENICHE-LARA, Gaspar; DZUL-ROSADO, Karla; PÉREZ-OSORIO, Carlos; ZAVALA-CASTRO, Jorge

    2015-01-01

    Rickettsia typhi is the causal agent of murine typhus; a worldwide zoonotic and vector-borne infectious disease, commonly associated with the presence of domestic and wild rodents. Human cases of murine typhus in the state of Yucatán are frequent. However, there is no evidence of the presence of Rickettsia typhi in mammals or vectors in Yucatán. The presence of Rickettsia in rodents and their ectoparasites was evaluated in a small municipality of Yucatán using the conventional polymerase chain reaction technique and sequencing. The study only identified the presence of Rickettsia typhi in blood samples obtained from Rattus rattus and it reported, for the first time, the presence of R. felis in the flea Polygenis odiosus collected from Ototylomys phyllotis rodent. Additionally, Rickettsia felis was detected in the ectoparasite Ctenocephalides felis fleas parasitizing the wild rodent Peromyscus yucatanicus. This study’s results contributed to a better knowledge of Rickettsia epidemiology in Yucatán. PMID:25923891

  15. Antifungal activity of extracts from Atacama Desert fungi against Paracoccidioides brasiliensis and identification of Aspergillus felis as a promising source of natural bioactive compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendes, Graziele; Gonçalves, Vívian N; Souza-Fagundes, Elaine M; Kohlhoff, Markus; Rosa, Carlos A; Zani, Carlos L; Cota, Betania B; Rosa, Luiz H; Johann, Susana

    2016-03-01

    Fungi of the genus Paracoccidioides are responsible for paracoccidioidomycosis. The occurrence of drug toxicity and relapse in this disease justify the development of new antifungal agents. Compounds extracted from fungal extract have showing antifungal activity. Extracts of 78 fungi isolated from rocks of the Atacama Desert were tested in a microdilution assay against Paracoccidioides brasiliensis Pb18. Approximately 18% (5) of the extracts showed minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values ≤ 125.0 µg/mL. Among these, extract from the fungus UFMGCB 8030 demonstrated the best results, with an MIC of 15.6 µg/mL. This isolate was identified as Aspergillus felis (by macro and micromorphologies, and internal transcribed spacer, β-tubulin, and ribosomal polymerase II gene analyses) and was grown in five different culture media and extracted with various solvents to optimise its antifungal activity. Potato dextrose agar culture and dichloromethane extraction resulted in an MIC of 1.9 µg/mL against P. brasiliensis and did not show cytotoxicity at the concentrations tested in normal mammalian cell (Vero). This extract was subjected to bioassay-guided fractionation using analytical C18RP-high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and an antifungal assay using P. brasiliensis. Analysis of the active fractions by HPLC-high resolution mass spectrometry allowed us to identify the antifungal agents present in the A. felis extracts cytochalasins. These results reveal the potential of A. felis as a producer of bioactive compounds with antifungal activity. PMID:27008375

  16. Salinomycin-induced polyneuropathy in cats: Morphologic and epidemiologic data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Linde-Sipman, J.S. van der; Inch, T.S.G.A.M. van den; Nes, J.J. van; Verhagen, H.; Kersten, J.G.T.M.; Beynen, A.C.; Plekkringa, R.

    1999-01-01

    In April 1996, an outbreak of toxic polyneuropathy in cats occurred in the Netherlands. All cats had been fed one of two brands of dry cat food from one manufacturer. Chemical analyses of these foods, stomach contents, and liver and kidney of affected cats revealed contamination with the ionophor sa

  17. Effects of experimental amitraz intoxication in cats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.F. Andrade

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available This work studied the effects of experimental amitraz intoxication in cats. Sixteen cats were randomly divided equally into two groups: amitraz group - animals received 1.5% amitraz at 1mg/kg IV; and the control group - animals without amitraz. Physiological parameters from blood, cardiorespiratory system, and sedation indicators were quantified over time up to 360 minutes. Blood profile, urea, creatinine, alananine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase were not affected by amitraz. Sedation, loss of reflexes, hypothermia, bradycardia, bradyarrhythmia, hypotension, bradypnea, mydriasis, besides transitory hyperglycemia, hypoinsulinemia and decrease of cortisol levels were observed in cats experimentally exposed to amitraz. The alpha2-adrenergic effects induced by amitraz intoxication in cats are very similar to the same effects reported in others species, contributing with more information about this type of intoxication to veterinary toxicology.

  18. Notoedres cati in cats and its management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivajothi, S; Sudhakara Reddy, B; Rayulu, V C; Sreedevi, C

    2015-06-01

    Notoedres cati was observed in two domestic cats. Cats exhibited crust formation, hyperkeratosis, alopecia and intense pruritus. Distribution of lesions observed at the ear margins, face, and legs. Owners also had intense pruritus over the hands, small erythematic crusted papules on the wrists and both the legs. Laboratory examination of skin scrapings from the cat revealed the presence of ova, adult mites of N. cati. The infected cats were treated with weekly twice oral administration of ivermectin at 200 μg/kg body weight, oral administration of 2 ml of multi-vitamin and mineral syrup daily. Improvement was noticed by complete clinical recovery along with absence of mites in skin scrapings, after completion of four doses of oral ivermectin along with supportive therapy.

  19. Arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy in two cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, A M; Battersby, I A; Faena, M; Fews, D; Darke, P G G; Ferasin, L

    2005-03-01

    Arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy (ARVC) is a disease characterised by infiltration of the myocardium by adipose and fibrous tissue. The disease is an important cause of sudden death in humans, but has rarely been described in animals. This report describes ARVC in two cats with right-sided congestive heart failure. One cat had also experienced previous episodes of syncope. Standard six-lead and 24-hour (Holter) electrocardiogram recording revealed complete atrioventricular block and multiform ventricular ectopics in both cats, with the addition of ventricular tachycardia, ventricular bigeminy and R-on-T phenomenon in one of them. On echocardiography, the right ventricle and atrium were massively dilated and hypokinetic. The survival times of the cats were three days and 16 days following diagnosis. Histopathology in one case revealed fibro-fatty infiltration of the myocardium, predominantly affecting the right ventricular free wall. PMID:15789811

  20. Influence de la température sur le développement de la puce africaine du chat Ctenocephalides felis strongylus (Jordan, 1925 (Siphonaptera : Pulicidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yao K.P.

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Ctenocephalides felis (Bouché, 1835 communément appelée “puce du chat” présente deux sous-espèces reconnues : Ctenocephalides felis strongylus (Jordan, 1925 inféodée au continent africain et Ctenocephalides felis felis (Bouché, 1835 présente dans les zones à climat tempéré (Afrique du Nord, Europe et Amérique (Ménier et Beaucournu, 1999. En Afrique subsaharienne, la principale puce retrouvée chez les animaux de compagnie et chez certains animaux d’élevage (ovins, caprins et bovins appartient à la sous-espèce C. f. strongylus. Quelques paramètres bio-écologiques de C. f. strongylus ont été étudiés dans différentes conditions d’élevage. Les résultats ont été comparés à ceux de C. f. felis actuellement disponibles. À 75% ± 5 d’humidité relative, le cycle de développement de C. f. strongylus dure 20-21 jours à 27 °C et de 16 à 17 jours à 29 °C. Ainsi, la sousespèce africaine de la puce du chat (C. f. strongylus se développe moins vite que C. f. felis à températures identiques. Cette différence pourrait s’expliquer par l’influence du climat de leurs aires de distribution respectives sur leur cycle de développement. À 75% ± 5 d’humidité relative, les adultes de C. f. strongylus ne peuvent survivre plus de 14 jours dans l’environnement à des températures comprises entre 27 et 29 °C, lorsqu’elles n’ont jamais pris de repas sanguin. Dans ces mêmes conditions, la durée de survie n’excède pas 16 jours à 19 °C. Mais lorsque C. f. strongylus a pris un premier repas de sang, elle a une durée de vie beaucoup plus courte lorsqu’elle est hors de son hôte. En effet, aucun individu n’est retrouvé vivant trois jours passé hors de la fourrure de son hôte à 29 °C, cinq jours à 27 °C et huit jours à 19 °C. Il en est de même pour C. f. felis. Ces données sur la bio-écologie de C. f. strongylus permettent de comprendre l’influence de la température sur son cycle de d

  1. Cats and the law: research report

    OpenAIRE

    Nurse, Angus; Ryland, Diane

    2013-01-01

    This research examines the legal status of cats, within the UK’s legal system (primarily in England and Wales) but also in an international context. It considers a range of different areas of law and conflicting perspectives within the UK’s animal welfare, contract, criminal and environmental law and also addresses issues of ownership and liability. In particular, the research examines how both domestic and wild cats are subject to different protection under the law and the manner in wh...

  2. Effects of experimental amitraz intoxication in cats

    OpenAIRE

    S.F. Andrade; M. SAKATE; C.B. Laposy; S.F. Valente; V.M. Bettanim; L.T. Rodrigues; J. Marcicano

    2007-01-01

    This work studied the effects of experimental amitraz intoxication in cats. Sixteen cats were randomly divided equally into two groups: amitraz group - animals received 1.5% amitraz at 1mg/kg IV; and the control group - animals without amitraz. Physiological parameters from blood, cardiorespiratory system, and sedation indicators were quantified over time up to 360 minutes. Blood profile, urea, creatinine, alananine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase were not affected by amitraz....

  3. Food hypersensitivity to lamb in a cat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reedy, L M

    1994-04-01

    Severe facial pruritus in a cat was caused by food hypersensitivity to lamb. The cat had been fed an exclusive diet of lamb for 2 years after it had been diagnosed to have food hypersensitivity to fish. Signs, including erythema, alopecia, and excoriations of the head and neck, were poorly responsive to corticosteroid administration, but resolved within a few weeks after removal of the suspected allergen.

  4. Sonographic pleural fluid volume estimation in cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimali, Jerry; Cripps, Peter J; Newitt, Anna L M

    2010-02-01

    The aims of this study were to evaluate whether a recently published study used to objectively monitor pleural fluid volumes in dogs could be successfully employed in cats and secondly to assess its accuracy. Eleven feline cadavers were selected. Using the trans-sternal view employed in dogs, linear measurements from the pleural surface of the midline of the sternebra at the centre of the heart to the furthest ventro-lateral point of both right and left lung edges were recorded. Isotonic saline was injected using ultrasound guidance into both right and left pleural spaces and the measurements were repeated using standard increments until 400 ml total volume was reached. The mean measurement increased in a linear relationship with the cube root of fluid volume for all cats individually. An equation was produced to predict the volume of fluid from the mean linear measurement for all cats combined: Volume=[-3.75+2.41(mean)](3)(P<0.001) but variability in the slope of the curve for individual cats limited the accuracy of the combined equation. Equations were derived to predict the constant and slope of the curve for individual cats using the thoracic measurements made, but the residual diagnostic graphs demonstrated considerable variability. As in dogs, good correlation was found between the ultrasonographic measurement and fluid volume within individual cats. An accurate equation to predict absolute pleural fluid volume was not identified. Further analysis with reference to thoracic measurements did not increase accuracy. In conclusion, this study does provide a method of estimating absolute pleural fluid volume in cats, which may be clinical useful for pleural fluid volume monitoring but this is yet to be validated in live cats. PMID:19744872

  5. Dermoscopic evaluation of skin in healthy cats

    OpenAIRE

    Zanna, G.; Auriemma, E; Arrighi, S.; Attanasi, A.; Zini, E.; Scarampella, F

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Dermoscopy is a diagnostic tool that can reveal morphological structures not visible upon clinical examination. HYPOTHESIS/OBJECTIVES: To assess the usefulness and applicability of dermoscopy for the examination of healthy cat skin. ANIMALS: Twenty-one domestic short-haired cats from a feline rescue association. METHODS: Four regions (head, dorsal neck, sacral and abdominal regions) were examined with both a contact hand-held nonpolarized light dermoscope at 10-fold magni...

  6. The synergistic action of imidacloprid and flumethrin and their release kinetics from collars applied for ectoparasite control in dogs and cats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanneck Dorothee

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The control of tick and flea burdens in dogs and cats has become essential to the control of important and emerging vector borne diseases, some of which are zoonoses. Flea worry and flea bite hypersensitivity are additionally a significant disease entity in dogs and cats. Owner compliance in maintaining the pressure of control measures has been shown to be poor. For these reasons efforts are continuously being made to develop ectoparasiticides and application methods that are safe, effective and easy to apply for pet owners. A new polymer matrix collar has recently been developed which is registered for 8 months use in cats and dogs. The basic properties of this collar have been investigated in several in vitro and in vivo studies. Methods The effects of imidacloprid, flumethrin and the combination were evaluated in vitro by means of whole cell voltage clamp measurement experiments conducted on isolated neuron cells from Spodoptera frugiperda. The in vitro efficacy of the two compounds and the combination against three species of ticks and their life stages and fleas were evaluated in a dry surface glass vial assay. The kinetics of the compounds over time in the collar were evaluated by the change in mass of the collar and measurement of the surface concentrations and concentrations of the actives in the collar matrix by HPLC. Hair clipped from collar treated dogs and cats, collected at various time points, was used to assess the acaricidal efficacy of the actives ex vivo. Results An in vitro isolated insect nerve model demonstrated the synergistic neurotoxic effects of the pyrethroid flumethrin and the neonicotinoid imidacloprid. An in vitro glass vial efficacy and mortality study against various life stages of the ticks Ixodes ricinus, Rhipicephalus sanguineus and Dermacentor reticulatus and against the flea (Ctenocephalides felis demonstrated that the combination of these products was highly effective against these

  7. Utilização experimental de hidroxiapatita sintética em alvéolos dentários de gatos domésticos (Felis catus: estudo clínico, radiográfico e histomorfométrico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.C. Silva

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available A fim de avaliar a resposta biológica da hidroxiapatita sintética (HAP-91 nos alvéolos de felinos domésticos, este biomaterial foi implantado após extração do terceiro pré-molar inferior direito em 12 gatos e mantida por meio de uma membrana de celulose bacteriana. No lado esquerdo, os alvéolos foram apenas recobertos com a membrana de celulose bacteriana, formando o grupo-controle. Observou-se, durante a avaliação clínica, que todos os animais voltaram a comer normalmente ração úmida, sem apresentarem sinais de dor ou desconforto após a recuperação anestésica. A cicatrização da ferida cirúrgica ocorreu de forma satisfatória, sendo que a membrana de celulose bacteriana evitou a saída precoce da hidroxiapatita. Radiograficamente, aos 50 dias, todos os animais apresentaram radiopacidade óssea homogênea em ambos os lados. À análise histomorfométrica, observou-se adiantamento do processo de reparo do osso alveolar nos oito primeiros dias do grupo-tratado quando comparado ao grupo-controle, bem como atraso aos 30 dias, porém, aos 50 dias, ambos os grupos apresentavam porcentagem de tecido ósseo semelhante e morfologicamente normal. Os resultados sugerem que a hidroxiapatita é biocompatível, integra-se ao tecido ósseo alveolar e pode ser utilizada em felinos.

  8. Ankara Kedilerinde (Felis catus angorensis) dış yapı, tüy, büyüme, gelişme ve üreme özellikleri üzerine araştırmalar

    OpenAIRE

    ÖZÇETİN, Sebahattin Tarkan

    2007-01-01

    Ankara Atatürk Orman Çiftliği (A.O.Ç.) Hayvanat Bahçesinde yetiştirilen 5 erkek, 28 dişi ve bu kedilerden doğan 70  yavru  ile  Ankara’nın  çeşitli  semtlerinde  bakılan  11  erkek, 10 dişi, 4 kastre erkek ve 9 steril dişi olmak üzere toplam 137 Ankara Kedisinin kullanıldığı   çalışmada  Ankara Kedisinin dış yapı, tüy, büyüme, gelişme ve üreme özellikleri incelenmiştir. Ankara A.O.Ç. Ha...

  9. Computed tomographic appearance of inflammatory polyps in three cats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report describes the use of computed tomography (CT) to evaluate the inner ear, tympanic bullae, nasopharyngeal area, and external ear canals of three cats. All cats presented for evaluation of upper respiratory signs or chronic ear infection. Nasopharyngeal masses were present in two cats, and a mass in the external ear canal was present in the third cat. In all three cats, CT was able to define the extent of osseous bulla involvement, which was confirmed at surgery. Computed tomography also defined the extent of the polyp in the nasopharyngeal area in two cats, and in the external ear canal in one cat. Surgical removal of the polyps was accomplished with a combined oral approach and ventral bulla osteotomy in cats 1 and 2. The polyp was removed from cat 3 using a combination of ventral bulla osteotomy and excision of the mass through the external ear canal. Microscopic examination confirmed all masses as nasopharyngeal (inflammatory) polyps

  10. Tetrathyridiosis in a domestic shorthair cat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorothee Dahlem

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Case summary This report describes the clinical and parasitological findings in a domestic shorthair cat with isolated thoracic tetrathyridiosis. The cat was a stray from Malta that had lived in Germany for several years since as an indoor-only cat. Therefore, the process of infection remains very unusual. In this case it must be considered that the cat had been infected years previously while in Malta, and had lived at least 4 years without any clinical signs. It was possible to diagnose this uncommon disease and initiate an effective treatment with fenbendazole, praziquantel and supportive care. Clinical signs, as well as radiographic findings, were regressive with this treatment. Relevance and novel information Tetrathyridiosis is a rare finding in cats, especially in Germany, but it seems to be a potential differential diagnosis of pleural effusion. Mesocestoides corti, which was the causative parasite in this case, has not previously been isolated in Germany. Because tetrathyridiosis is only diagnosed post mortem in most cases, little is known about effective therapeutic options. Furthermore, clinical signs of this disease can be absent for several years and can potentially be triggered by neoplastic conditions or immunosuppression. Tetrathyridiosis seems to be a treatable disease that can be controlled by adequate antiparasitic therapy.

  11. Earliest evidence for commensal processes of cat domestication

    OpenAIRE

    Hu, Yaowu; Hu, Songmei; Wang, Weilin; Wu, Xiaohong; Marshall, Fiona B.; Chen, Xianglong; Hou, Liangliang; Wang, Changsui

    2013-01-01

    Domestic cats are one of the most popular pets worldwide, but little is known about their domestication. This study of cats living 5,300 y ago at the agricultural village of Quanhucun, China provides the earliest known evidence for mutualistic relationships between people and cats. Isotopic data demonstrate that humans, rodents, and the cats ate substantial amounts of millet-based foods, with cats preying on grain-eating animals. One cat was old and one ate less meat and more millet than othe...

  12. Oral Mucosa Bleeding Times of Normal Cats and Cats with Chediak-Higashi Syndrome or Hageman Trait (Factor XII Deficiency).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, M T; Collier, L L; Kier, A B; Johnson, G S

    1988-01-01

    A commercially available, disposable blade in a spring-loaded cassette was used to measure oral mucosa bleeding times (OMBT) of ketamine/acepromazine-anesthetized cats. The OMBT were determined in cats homozygous for Chediak-Higashi syndrome (CHS, n = 7), cats heterozygous for CHS (n = 6), and cats homozygous for Hageman factor (factor XII) deficiency (n = 5). In addition, OMBT were determined in three groups of normal cats: random-source cats (n = 14), inbred normal relatives of the cats with CHS (n = 7), and inbred normal relatives of Hageman factor deficient cats (n = 9). No significant differences were found in the OMBT of the three groups of normal cats. The mean OMBT for all 30 normal cats was 1.9 minutes +/- 0.5 minutes s.d. Compared to the normal cats, those homozygous for CHS had significantly prolonged OMBT (14.1 +/- 3.3 minutes; p cats heterozygous for CHS (2.6 +/- 0.8 minutes) was also significantly longer than the OMBT of the combined normal group. The mean OMBT of the CHS heterozygotes, however, was not significantly longer than that of their normal relatives (OMBT = 1.8 +/- 0.5 minutes), probably because of the low number of cats in this subgroup of normals. As expected, the OMBT of cats homozygous for Hageman factor deficiency (2.3 +/- 0.3 minutes) were not significantly prolonged. PMID:15162339

  13. Multidimensional effects of biologically synthesized silver nanoparticles in Helicobacter pylori, Helicobacter felis, and human lung (L132) and lung carcinoma A549 cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurunathan, Sangiliyandi; Jeong, Jae-Kyo; Han, Jae Woong; Zhang, Xi-Feng; Park, Jung Hyun; Kim, Jin-Hoi

    2015-02-01

    Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) are prominent group of nanomaterials and are recognized for their diverse applications in various health sectors. This study aimed to synthesize the AgNPs using the leaf extract of Artemisia princeps as a bio-reductant. Furthermore, we evaluated the multidimensional effect of the biologically synthesized AgNPs in Helicobacter pylori, Helicobacter felis, and human lung (L132) and lung carcinoma (A549) cells. UV-visible (UV-vis) spectroscopy confirmed the synthesis of AgNPs. X-ray diffraction (XRD) indicated that the AgNPs are specifically indexed to a crystal structure. The results from Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) indicate that biomolecules are involved in the synthesis and stabilization of AgNPs. Dynamic light scattering (DLS) studies showed the average size distribution of the particle between 10 and 40 nm, and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) confirmed that the AgNPs were significantly well separated and spherical with an average size of 20 nm. AgNPs caused dose-dependent decrease in cell viability and biofilm formation and increase in reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation and DNA fragmentation in H. pylori and H. felis. Furthermore, AgNPs induced mitochondrial-mediated apoptosis in A549 cells; conversely, AgNPs had no significant effects on L132 cells. The results from this study suggest that AgNPs could cause cell-specific apoptosis in mammalian cells. Our findings demonstrate that this environmentally friendly method for the synthesis of AgNPs and that the prepared AgNPs have multidimensional effects such as anti-bacterial and anti-biofilm activity against H. pylori and H. felis and also cytotoxic effects against human cancer cells. This report describes comprehensively the effects of AgNPs on bacteria and mammalian cells. We believe that biologically synthesized AgNPs will open a new avenue towards various biotechnological and biomedical applications in the near future.

  14. Cervical Vertebral Body Chordoma in a Cat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hampel, R; Taylor-Brown, F; Priestnall, S L

    2016-05-01

    A 9-year-old, neutered female Maine Coon cat with a 6-week history of progressive ataxia was diagnosed with a cervical vertebral body mass using magnetic resonance imaging. The mass displaced and compressed the cervical spinal cord. The cat was humanely destroyed and necropsy examination confirmed a mass within the second cervical vertebral body. Microscopically, the mass was composed of large, clear, vacuolated ('physaliferous') cells. Immunohistochemically, the neoplastic cells expressed both cytokeratin and vimentin and the final diagnosis was a cervical, vertebral body chordoma. This is only the third report of a chordoma in this species and the first in this location. Chordoma should be considered as a potential differential diagnosis for tumours arising from the cervical vertebrae in the cat.

  15. Cognitive activation theory of stress (CATS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ursin, Holger; Eriksen, Hege R

    2010-05-01

    The cognitive activation theory of stress (CATS) is based on a long series of experiments on animals and on humans, in the laboratory, and in real life situations. From the common sense coping concept formulated by Seymour Levine; coping is when my "tommy" does not hurt, we have advanced to a systematic theory for what is behind the relaxed and happy coping rat (and cat). We also cover the translational leap to humans, starting with the now classic parachutist study. The bridge is based on formal and symbolic definitions, a theoretical short cut that Levine actually never really accepted. The essential pathophysiological concept is the potential pathological effects of sustained activation, which may occur in the absence of coping (positive response outcome expectancy). We review the current status of CATS in Behavioural Medicine by discussing its potential explanatory power in epidemiology, prevention and treatment of "subjective health complaints".

  16. [Passive immunization in dogs and cats].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergmann, Michèle; Friedl, Yvonne; Hartmann, Katrin

    2016-08-17

    Antibodies play an important role in the defense against infectious diseases. Passive immunization provides immediate protection through transfer of exogenous antibodies to a recipient. It is mainly used for prophylaxis in dogs and cats that failed to receive maternal antibodies through the colostrum or when there is an acute risk to acquire infectious diseases. Only a small number of placebo-controlled studies have been published regarding the therapeutic use of passive immunization in small animals. While positive effects were reported in cats with acute virus infections of the upper respiratory tract and in dogs with distemper, no statistically significant influence could be demonstrated in the treatment of canine parvovirosis. Prospective, double-blinded, and placebo-controlled studies using adequate numbers of patients are warranted for a definitive statement regarding the therapeutic and prophylactic use of passive immunization in dogs and cats. PMID:27410719

  17. Hunting for the Quantum Cheshire Cat

    CERN Document Server

    Di Lorenzo, Antonio

    2012-01-01

    The proposal of Aharonov, Popescu, and Skrzypczyk [arXiv:1202.0631] of disembodying physical properties from particles is analyzed. It is argued that: (1) in order to state that the cat is at one location and the smile at another, one should look at correlations, not mean values; (2) a weak value of one for the presence of the cat describes the average over a large number of trials, where the detector gives in each trial outputs that are not zero nor one, and that are much larger than unity (they can be large and negative as well); (3) once these issues are addressed, the specific model proposed does not provide evidence for disembodiment of physical properties. Here, the exact probability distribution and its characteristic function are derived for arbitrary coupling strength, preparation and post-selection. This allows to successfully hunt down the quantum Cheshire cat.

  18. Astaxanthin uptake in domestic dogs and cats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massimino Stefan

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Research on the uptake and transport of astaxanthin is lacking in most species. We studied the uptake of astaxanthin by plasma, lipoproteins and leukocytes in domestic dogs and cats. Methods Mature female Beagle dogs (18 to 19 mo old; 11 to 14 kg BW were dosed orally with 0, 0.1, 0.5, 2.5, 10 or 40 mg astaxanthin and blood taken at 0, 3, 6, 9, 12, 18 and 24 h post-administration (n = 8/treatment. Similarly, mature domestic short hair cats (12 mo old; 3 to 3.5 kg body weight were fed a single dose of 0, 0.02, 0.08, 0.4, 2, 5, or 10 mg astaxanthin and blood taken (n = 8/treatment at the same interval. Results Both dogs and cats showed similar biokinetic profiles. Maximal astaxanthin concentration in plasma was approximately 0.14 μmol/L in both species, and was observed at 6 h post-dosing. The plasma astaxanthin elimination half-life was 9 to 18 h. Astaxanthin was still detectable by 24 h in both species. In a subsequent study, dogs and cats were fed similar doses of astaxanthin daily for 15 to 16 d and astaxanthin uptake by plasma, lipoproteins, and leukocytes studied. In both species, plasma astaxanthin concentrations generally continued to increase through d 15 or 16 of supplementation. The astaxanthin was mainly associated with high density lipoprotein (HDL. In blood leukocytes, approximately half of the total astaxanthin was found in the mitochondria, with significant amounts also associated with the microsomes and nuclei. Conclusion Dogs and cats absorb astaxanthin from the diet. In the blood, the astaxanthin is mainly associated with HDL, and is taken up by blood leukocytes, where it is distributed to all subcellular organelles. Certain aspects of the biokinetic uptake of astaxanthin in dogs and cats are similar to that in humans.

  19. Parathyroid adenocarcinoma in a nephropathic Persian cat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavana, Paola; Vittone, Valentina; Capucchio, Maria T; Farca, Anna M

    2006-10-01

    This report describes an uncommon clinical case of cystic parathyroid adenocarcinoma. A 17-year-old male Persian cat was presented for evaluation of a ventral cervical mass. The cat was inappetent and showed weight loss, polydipsia and vomiting. Serum biochemistry and urinalysis revealed moderate hypercalcaemia, a mild increase of creatinine, isosthenuria and proteinuria. Sodium dodecyl sulphate-agarose gel electrophoresis showed a mixed tubular proteinuric pattern, in accordance with histological examination that revealed interstitial nephritis and glomerulonephritis. Diagnosis of parathyroid carcinoma was based on histopathological findings. PMID:16651017

  20. KnowCat: Catalizador de Conocimiento

    OpenAIRE

    Cobos, Ruth; Alamán, Xavier; Esquivel, José A.

    2001-01-01

    KnowCat es un sistema distribuido que tiene como meta la creación incremental de conocimiento estructurado. El nombre del sistema, KnowCat, es el acrónimo de "Knowledge Catalyser" o "catalizador de conocimiento", que hace referencia a la propiedad principal que exhibirá: la catalización del proceso de cristalización del conocimiento como resultado de la interacción de los usuarios con dicho conocimiento. Un área de aplicación del sistema es la generación de materiales educativos de alta c...

  1. Suppression of fertility in adult cats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Goericke-Pesch, Sandra Kathrin; Wehrend, A.; Georgiev, P.

    2014-01-01

    Contents: Cats are animals with highly efficient reproduction, clearly pointing to a need for suppression of fertility. Although surgical contraception is highly effective, it is not always the method of choice. This is predominantly because it is cost-intensive, time-consuming and irreversible...... and clinical options are available for the suppression of fertility in adult cats and the decision as to which should be chosen - independent of the legal registration of any state - depends on different facts: (i) feral or privately owned animal? (ii) temporary or permanent suppression of fertility wanted...

  2. Halal Cat Food for the World Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir H.M.S

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Currently, University Technology Malaysia (UTM is engaged with a well-known private company in Malaysia to develop halal cat food for the world. A team of scientists from UTM was formed for the development of cat food from preparing palatants to producing canned cat and kibbled cat food formulation on a commercial scale to fulfil the vast market demand, as well as to act as contract manufacturer for this private company. Financial aid is made available by the university and Malaysian government. The promising market potential of cat food is estimated to be over USD27 billion with over 7 million tonnes produced in 2013 (35% of the pet food market. It is expected to grow at 5.5% in value and 2% in volume; and this had driven the project to be initiated by UTM. The idea of halal, itself is a selling point to the Muslim consumers and the world at large.  The world’s Muslim population is estimated to be around 1.6 billion, while the world population is estimated to be at 4.6 billion. The demand for halal products is ever growing with emerging markets in India & China.  In addition, the purchasing power of the Muslims is growing, where between 1990 and 2010, the Growth Domestic Product (GDP per capita for Muslims globally had risen from a Cumulative Annual Growth Rate (CAGR of 6.8% in comparison to global GDP per capita which is only at CAGR of 5.0%. Cat food will come in human contact during feeding, handling, cleaning of feeding utensils under the same washing basin and dishwasher. Many times cat food will engage with human food storage facilities such as in the refrigerator and May to some extent affect the human food chain if it is not halal. Most of the available cat feed produce worldwide is non halal and majority are known to contain residues of porcine, dog materials and blood meal, deem unhealthy and unclean by the Muslims community.

  3. Clinical management of pregnancy in cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Root Kustritz, Margaret V

    2006-07-01

    Average gestation length in domestic cats is 65.6 days, with a range of 52-74 days. Average reported litter size is 4.0 kittens per litter; litter size is not correlated with number of matings in a given estrus. Superfecundation is common in domestic cats; superfetation never has been definitively proven to occur. Eclampsia may occur during pregnancy in queens, with non-specific clinical signs. Ectopic pregnancy and uterine torsion have been reported. Pregnancy loss may be due to infectious causes, including bacteria, viruses or protozoa, or non-infectious causes, such as hypoluteoidism and chromosome errors. PMID:16620942

  4. Identification of Novel Gammaherpesviruses in Ocelots (Leopardus pardalis) and Bobcats (Lynx rufus) in Panama and Colorado, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lozano, Caitlin C; Sweanor, Linda L; Wilson-Henjum, Grete; Kays, Roland W; Moreno, Ricardo; VandeWoude, Sue; Troyer, Ryan M

    2015-10-01

    Gammaherpesviruses (GHVs) have been identified in many species and are often associated with disease. Recently, we characterized three novel felid GHVs in domestic cats (Felis catus), bobcats (Lynx rufus), and pumas (Puma concolor). We investigated whether free-ranging ocelots (Leopardus pardalis) and bobcats are infected with additional GHVs. We screened DNA samples from ocelots on Barro Colorado Island, Panama, and bobcats in western Colorado, US, by using a degenerate nested PCR that targets the GHV glycoprotein B gene. We identified a novel GHV glycoprotein B sequence in two ocelots and a second novel sequence in a bobcat, which is distinct from the previously characterized bobcat GHV (Lynx rufus GHV 1). Utilizing additional degenerate and virus-specific PCRs, we extended these sequences to include 3.4 kilobases of the GHV glycoprotein B and DNA polymerase genes. These sequences identify the first GHV detected in ocelots and the second GHV in bobcats. These viruses were provisionally named L. pardalis GHV 1 and Lynx rufus GHV 2, respectively. The viruses are most closely related to recently identified GHVs of the Percavirus genus found in domestic cats (F. catus GHV 1) and bobcats (L. rufus GHV 1), suggesting that a cluster of felid GHVs exists within the Percavirus genus. PMID:26280877

  5. Cat Scratch Can Sometimes Lead to Serious Illness: CDC

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_161086.html Cat Scratch Can Sometimes Lead to Serious Illness: CDC But ... Fluffy the cat gets out of sorts and scratches you, it's possible you could get a bacterial ...

  6. Feline lost: making microchipping compulsory for domestic cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, M

    2016-08-13

    The independent nature of cats means that they are more likely to become lost or injured than dogs. Maggie Roberts believes that microchipping of cats should be compulsory in the UK as is the case with dogs. PMID:27516564

  7. Remission of diabetes mellitus in cats with diabetic ketoacidosis

    OpenAIRE

    Sieber-Ruckstuhl, N S; Kley, S; Tschuor, F; Zini, E.; Ohlerth, S; Boretti, F.S.; Reusch, C.E.

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) has long been considered a key clinical feature of type-1 diabetes mellitus (DM) in humans although. An increasing number of cases of ketoacidosis have been reported in people with type-2 DM. HYPOTHESIS/OBJECTIVES: Cats initially diagnosed with DKA can achieve remission from diabetes. Cats with DKA and diabetic remission are more likely to have been administered glucocorticoids before diagnosis. ANIMALS: Twelve cats with DKA and 7 cats with uncomplicate...

  8. Hypereosinophilic syndrome in cats: a report of three cases.

    OpenAIRE

    McEwen, S A; Valli, V E; Hulland, T. J.

    1985-01-01

    The clinical, clinicopathological and pathological findings in three cats with hypereosinophilic syndrome are described. The cats chosen for the study had marked eosinophilia and evidence of tissue infiltration by eosinophils. Necropsies were performed on two cats, biopsy and blood samples were provided for the third cat. At necropsy, there was diffuse reddening of femoral bone marrow with ulceration and thickening of the duodenum. The livers had an enhanced lobular pattern with multiple, whi...

  9. Computed Tomographic Findings in Cats with Mycobacterial Infection

    OpenAIRE

    Major, Alison; Holmes, Andrea; Warren-Smith, Christopher; Lalor, Stephanie; Littler, Rebecca; Schwarz, Tobias; Gunn-Moore, Danielle

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: The objective of this study was to describe the CT imaging findings associated with confirmed mycobacterial infection in cats.Methods: CT images from 20 cats with confirmed mycobacterial disease were retrospectively reviewed. Five cats underwent conscious full-body CT in a VetMouseTrapTM device. All other cats had thoracic CT performed under general anaesthesia, with the addition of CT investigation of the head/neck, abdomen and limbs in some cases.Results: Mycobacterial infection...

  10. Transcriptome analysis of feline infectious peritonitis virus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehrbod, Parvaneh; Harun, Mohammad Syamsul Reza; Shuid, Ahmad Naqib; Omar, Abdul Rahman

    2015-01-01

    Feline infectious peritonitis (FIP) is a lethal systemic disease caused by FIP virus (FIPV). There are no effective vaccines or treatment available, and the virus virulence determinants and pathogenesis are not fully understood. Here, we describe the sequencing of RNA extracted from Crandell Rees Feline Kidney (CRFK) cells infected with FIPV using the Illumina next-generation sequencing approach. Bioinformatics analysis, based on Felis catus 2X annotated shotgun reference genome, using CLC bio Genome Workbench is used to map both control and infected cells. Kal's Z test statistical analysis is used to analyze the differentially expressed genes from the infected CRFK cells. In addition, RT-qPCR analysis is used for further transcriptional profiling of selected genes in infected CRFK cells and Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells (PBMCs) from healthy and FIP-diagnosed cats.

  11. PREVALENCE OF ANTIBODIES TO SELECTED VIRUSES AND PARASITES IN INTRODUCED AND ENDEMIC CARNIVORES IN WESTERN MADAGASCAR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pomerantz, Julie; Rasambainarivo, Fidisoa T; Dollar, Luke; Rahajanirina, Leon Pierrot; Andrianaivoarivelo, Radosoa; Parker, Patricia; Dubovi, Edward

    2016-07-01

    Introduced animals impact endemic populations through predation, competition, and disease transmission. Populations of endemic carnivores in Madagascar are declining, and pathogens transmitted from introduced species may further endanger these unique species. We assessed the exposure of introduced and endemic carnivores to common viral and parasitic pathogens in two national parks of Madagascar (Kirindy Mitea National Park and Ankarafantsika National Park) and their neighboring villages. We also identified variables associated with the presence of antibodies to these pathogens in fosa ( Cryptoprocta ferox ). Introduced and endemic species were exposed to canine parvovirus, canine herpesvirus, feline calicivirus, and Toxoplasma gondii . Domestic dogs ( Canis familiaris ) and cats ( Felis catus ) may be sources of infection for these pathogens. Prevalence of antibodies to Toxoplasma in captured fosa was >93%, and adults were more likely to be exposed than immature individuals. Our data provide a basis upon which to evaluate and manage risks of pathogen transmission between species. PMID:27195685

  12. PREVALENCE OF ANTIBODIES TO SELECTED VIRUSES AND PARASITES IN INTRODUCED AND ENDEMIC CARNIVORES IN WESTERN MADAGASCAR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pomerantz, Julie; Rasambainarivo, Fidisoa T; Dollar, Luke; Rahajanirina, Leon Pierrot; Andrianaivoarivelo, Radosoa; Parker, Patricia; Dubovi, Edward

    2016-07-01

    Introduced animals impact endemic populations through predation, competition, and disease transmission. Populations of endemic carnivores in Madagascar are declining, and pathogens transmitted from introduced species may further endanger these unique species. We assessed the exposure of introduced and endemic carnivores to common viral and parasitic pathogens in two national parks of Madagascar (Kirindy Mitea National Park and Ankarafantsika National Park) and their neighboring villages. We also identified variables associated with the presence of antibodies to these pathogens in fosa ( Cryptoprocta ferox ). Introduced and endemic species were exposed to canine parvovirus, canine herpesvirus, feline calicivirus, and Toxoplasma gondii . Domestic dogs ( Canis familiaris ) and cats ( Felis catus ) may be sources of infection for these pathogens. Prevalence of antibodies to Toxoplasma in captured fosa was >93%, and adults were more likely to be exposed than immature individuals. Our data provide a basis upon which to evaluate and manage risks of pathogen transmission between species.

  13. Serological evidence of Coxiella burnetii exposure in native marsupials and introduced animals in Queensland, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, A; Goullet, M; Mitchell, J; Ketheesan, N; Govan, B

    2012-07-01

    The state of Queensland has the highest incidence of Q fever in Australia. In recent years, there has been an increase in human cases where no contacts with the typical reservoir animals or occupations were reported. The aim of this study was to determine the seroprevalence of Coxiella burnetii in Australian native animals and introduced animals in northern and southeastern Queensland. Australian native marsupials sampled included the brushtail possum (Trichosurus vulpecula) and common northern bandicoot (Isoodon macrourus). Introduced species sampled included dingoes (Canis lupus dingo), cats (Felis catus), foxes (Vulpes vulpes) and pigs (Sus scrofa). Serum samples were tested by ELISA for both phase II and phase I antigens of the organism using an Australian isolate. The serological evidence of C. burnetii infection demonstrated in these species has public health implications due to their increasing movement into residential areas in regional Queensland. This study is the first known investigation of C. burnetii seroprevalence in these species in northern Queensland. PMID:21892986

  14. Benign cementoblastoma (true cementoma in a cat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lenin A Villamizar-Martinez

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Case summary A 10-year-old castrated male domestic shorthair cat was presented for assessment of a gingival mass surrounding the left maxillary third and fourth premolar teeth. The mass was surgically removed by means of a marginal rim excision, and the tissue was submitted for histological assessment. It was identified as a benign cementoblastoma (true cementoma. There was proliferation of mineralized eosinophilic material with multiple irregularly placed lacunae and reversal lines, reminiscent of cementum. The cat recovered uneventfully from the anesthesia, and there was no evidence of tumor recurrence 6 months after surgery. Relevance and novel information Cementoblastomas (true cementomas in domestic animals are rare, with just a few reports in ruminants, monogastric herbivores and rodents. Cementoblastoma is considered a benign tumor that arises from the tooth root. The slow, expansive and constant growth that characterizes these masses may be accompanied by signs of oral discomfort and dysphagia. This case report is intended to increase knowledge regarding this tumor in cats and also highlights the importance of complete excision of the neoplasm. To our knowledge, there are no previous reports in the literature of cementoblastoma in the cat.

  15. Nutrition and oxalate metabolism in cats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijcker, J.C.

    2013-01-01

    Over the past 30 years, a progressive increase in calcium oxalate (CaOx) urolith prevalence is reported in cats and dogs diagnosed with urolithiasis. This increase in prevalence appears to have occurred since dietary modifications were introduced to address magnesium ammonium phosphate urolithiasis.

  16. Seroprevalence of Canine Distemper Virus in Cats

    OpenAIRE

    Ikeda, Yasuhiro; Nakamura, Kazuya; Miyazawa, Takayuki; Chen, Ming-Chu; Kuo, Tzong-Fu; Lin, James A; Mikami, Takeshi; Kai, Chieko; TAKAHASHI, Eiji

    2001-01-01

    A seroepidemiological survey of canine distemper virus (CDV) infection in Asian felids revealed that the prevalence of antibodies varied depending on region and, in some cases, exposure to dogs. The serologic pattern in cats with antibodies indicated that they had likely been exposed to field strains rather than typical CDV vaccine strains.

  17. Proximal minimization in CAT$(\\kappa)$ spaces

    OpenAIRE

    Espínola, Rafa; Nicolae, Adriana

    2016-01-01

    In this note, we provide convergence results for the proximal point algorithm and a splitting variant thereof in the setting of CAT$(\\kappa)$ spaces with $\\kappa > 0$ using a recent definition for the resolvent of a convex, lower semi-continuous function due to Kimura and Kohsaka (J. Fixed Point Theory Appl. 18 (2016), 93-115).

  18. Mammary hypertrophy in an ovariohysterectomized cat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pukay, B P; Stevenson, D A

    1983-05-01

    A four year old ovariohysterectomized domestic short-haired cat under treatment for behavioral urine spraying and idiopathic alopecia developed mammary gland hypertrophy following treatment with megestrol acetate. Withdrawal of the progestin and treatment with androgen failed to cause regression of the hypertrophy. The affected mammary gland was surgically excised and recovery was uneventful.

  19. COMPUTED TOMOGRAPHY OF TOOTH RESORPTION IN CATS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, Linda G; Wilkinson, Thomas E; White, Tammy L; Farnsworth, Raelynn K; Potter, Kathleen A

    2016-09-01

    Tooth resorption is the most common dental disease in cats and can be a source of oral pain. The current clinical gold standard for diagnosis includes a combination of oral exam and dental radiography, however early lesions are not always detected. Computed tomography (CT) of the skull, including the dental arches, is a commonly performed diagnostic procedure, however the appearance of tooth resorption on CT and the diagnostic ability of CT to detect tooth resorption have not been evaluated. The purpose of this prospective, descriptive, diagnostic accuracy study was to characterize the CT appearance of tooth resorption in a sample of affected cats and to evaluate the sensitivity and specificity of CT for tooth resorption compared to the clinical gold standard of oral exam and intraoral dental radiography. Twenty-eight cat cadaver specimens were recruited for inclusion. Each specimen was evaluated using oral exam, intraoral dental radiography, and computed tomography (four different slice thicknesses). Each tooth was evaluated for the presence or absence of tooth resorption. Teeth with lesions and a subset of normal teeth were evaluated with histopathology. On CT, tooth resorption appeared as irregularly marginated hypoattenuating defects in the mineral attenuating tooth components, most commonly involving the root or cementoenamel junction. Sensitivity for CT detection of tooth resorption was fair to poor (42.2-57.7%) and specificity was good to excellent (92.8-96.3%). Findings from this study indicated that CT has high specificity but low sensitivity for detection of tooth resorption in cats.

  20. Release of opioid peptides in anaesthetized cats?

    OpenAIRE

    Dashwood, M. R.; Feldberg, W.

    1980-01-01

    1 The effect on arterial blood pressure of intravenous injections of naloxone (200 μg) was examined in cats anaesthetized with chloralose. Usually these injections have no effect on blood pressure unless morphine or opioid peptides have been injected, when they produce a pressor response with tachycardia.

  1. Song Prompts: I Had a Cat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenney, Susan Hobson

    2011-01-01

    This article discusses song prompts as a way to encourage children to sing during exploratory play. A song prompt for "I Had a Cat" is included for educators to try in their own classrooms or preschools. Educators are invited to share ideas they have used that encourage children to sing during free play.

  2. Diet and breeding performance in cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olovson, S G

    1986-07-01

    A conventional cat breeding colony with 70 queens (female cats) was studied during a 4 year period 1979-1982. During that time the fat content in the diet was increased from 15% to 27% of dry matter. An increase in the number of kittens per litter (from 4.5 to 5.5) and in the annual number of litters per queen (from 1.4 to 2.3) was found. In addition, the mortality decreased from over 20% to 9%. Bodyweight gain under the new diet was such that the males reached 2500 g in 4 months while the females showed this same weight at 5 months of age. Litter size and sex distribution as a function of queen age, litter interval and time of year are presented. It is concluded that husbandry and diet are factors which are of great importance in a cat breeding unit. It is shown that under our conditions it is possible to breed conventional cats with good results. PMID:3795859

  3. Mammary Hypertrophy in an Ovariohysterectomized Cat

    OpenAIRE

    Pukay, B.P.; Stevenson, D.A.

    1983-01-01

    A four year old ovariohysterectomized domestic short-haired cat under treatment for behavioral urine spraying and idiopathic alopecia developed mammary gland hypertrophy following treatment with megestrol acetate. Withdrawal of the progestin and treatment with androgen failed to cause regression of the hypertrophy. The affected mammary gland was surgically excised and recovery was uneventful.

  4. Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii in cats from Colombo, Sri Lanka

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cats are essential in the life cycle of Toxoplasma gondii because they are the only hosts that can excrete the environmentally-resistant oocysts in nature. Nothing is known of the prevalence of Toxoplasma gondii in cats from Sri Lanka. Serum samples from 86 cats from Colombo, Sri Lanka were tested f...

  5. Lungworm disease in cats : ABCD guidelines on prevention and management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pennisi, Maria Grazia; Hartmann, Katrin; Addie, Diane D; Boucraut-Baralon, Corine; Egberink, Herman; Frymus, Tadeusz; Gruffydd-Jones, Tim; Horzinek, Marian C; Hosie, Margaret J; Lloret, Albert; Lutz, Hans; Marsilio, Fulvio; Radford, Alan D; Thiry, Etienne; Truyen, Uwe; Möstl, Karin

    2015-01-01

    OVERVIEW: Cardiopulmonary nematodes are emerging parasites of cats in Europe. A number of helminth parasites may be involved. The most prevalent lungworm in domestic cats is Aelurostrongylus abstrusus. Oslerus rostratus and Troglostrongylus species are found mainly in wild cats. The trichurid Capill

  6. Prevention of hypothermia in cats during routine oral hygiene procedures.

    OpenAIRE

    Hale, F A; Anthony, J M

    1997-01-01

    While thermally supported cats experienced a drop in body temperature during dental procedures, the drop was significantly greater in cats without thermal support. As cats are at risk of developing clinical hypothermia during dental procedures, steps should be taken to minimize the loss of body heat.

  7. COMPARISON OF PBDES IN CAT SERUM TO LEVELS IN CAT FOOD: EVIDENCE OF DECA DEBROMINATION?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abstract Since the introduction of brominated flame retardants (such as the PBDEs), increases in feline hyperthyroidism have been observed. We hypothesized that PBDE exposure was linked to the increased occurrence of hyperthyroidism in cats. Herein, PBDEs in serum of pet ...

  8. Cat sensitization according to cat window of exposure in adult asthmatics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.P. Oryszczyn; R. Ree; J. Maccario; R. Nadif; F. Kauffmann

    2009-01-01

    P>Background In adults, there is limited information on tolerance to cat, which may be reflected by high IgG(4) without IgE sensitization. Early exposure to cat may play a critical role. Objective The aim was to assess among adults the association of Fel d 1 IgG(4), Fel d 1 IgE, skin prick test (SPT

  9. Head movement during walking in the cat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zubair, Humza N; Beloozerova, Irina N; Sun, Hai; Marlinski, Vladimir

    2016-09-22

    Knowledge of how the head moves during locomotion is essential for understanding how locomotion is controlled by sensory systems of the head. We have analyzed head movements of the cat walking along a straight flat pathway in the darkness and light. We found that cats' head left-right translations, and roll and yaw rotations oscillated once per stride, while fore-aft and vertical translations, and pitch rotations oscillated twice. The head reached its highest vertical positions during second half of each forelimb swing, following maxima of the shoulder/trunk by 20-90°. Nose-up rotation followed head upward translation by another 40-90° delay. The peak-to-peak amplitude of vertical translation was ∼1.5cm and amplitude of pitch rotation was ∼3°. Amplitudes of lateral translation and roll rotation were ∼1cm and 1.5-3°, respectively. Overall, cats' heads were neutral in roll and 10-30° nose-down, maintaining horizontal semicircular canals and utriculi within 10° of the earth horizontal. The head longitudinal velocity was 0.5-1m/s, maximal upward and downward linear velocities were ∼0.05 and ∼0.1m/s, respectively, and maximal lateral velocity was ∼0.05m/s. Maximal velocities of head pitch rotation were 20-50°/s. During walking in light, cats stood 0.3-0.5cm taller and held their head 0.5-2cm higher than in darkness. Forward acceleration was 25-100% higher and peak-to-peak amplitude of head pitch oscillations was ∼20°/s larger. We concluded that, during walking, the head of the cat is held actively. Reflexes appear to play only a partial role in determining head movement, and vision might further diminish their role. PMID:27339731

  10. An experimental study on cerebral paragonimiasis using cats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Seon Kyu; Chang, Kee Hyun; Goo, Jin Mo; Han, Moon Hee; Shin, Yong Moon; Choo, Sung Wook; Yu, In Kyu [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Cho, Seung Yull; Kong, Yoon [Chung-Ang University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1994-06-15

    It is important to diagnosis paragonimiasis in early active because it can be dared by chemotherapy. However, it is difficult to make a correct diagnosis of cerebral paragonimiasis in the early active stage, and the radiographic findings of cerebral paragonimiasis have been rarely reported. Thus, this experimental study was designed to produce early active cerebral paragonimiasis and to demonstrate radiologic-pathologic correlations. In 8 cats, 7-8 metacercariae of Paragonimus Westermani were directly introduced into brain parenchyma of each cat's after trephination of the skull. In another 16 cats, the juvenile worms and the adult worms that had developed for varying periods (2 weeks, 4 weeks, 6 weeks, 8 weeks and 12 weeks) in the lunges of another cats were introduced into the brain parenchyma of each cat's with the same procedure described above. Follow -up MR images and chest radiographs were obtained at 2 days, 1 weeks, 2 weeks, 4 weeks and 8 weeks after inoculation. The autopsies and histopathological examinations of the cat's brain were undertaken in 22 cats. In 9 cats that were suspected with pulmonary lesion on chest radiograph, the soft tissue radiographs of inflated-fixed lungs were obtained. In one cat with inoculation of adult worm, acute suppurative inflammation of the brain parenchyma was demonstrated. But the other cats with inoculation of adult worm or juvenile worm and the cats with intentional of metacercaris did not reveal any evidence of acute cerebral paragonimiasis. More than half of the introduce metacercariae (5 out of 8 cats) were found in the lung parenchyma, while only 25% (4 out of 16 cats) of the adult worm inoculated cats were. Acute suppurative inflammation suggesting acute stage cerebral paragonimiasis was obtained in one case of adult worm inoculated cat. Most of the inoculated metacercariae and some of the juvenile worms or adult worms were migrated to the lungs.

  11. The radiographic appearance of pulmonary histoplasmosis in the cat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A retrospective study of 18 cats with pulmonary histoplasmosis was conducted to evaluate radiographic patterns of disease and to determine age, breed, and sex distributions. All cats had active disease confirmed by biopsy/aspiration cytology (lung, bone marrow, peripheral lymph nodes, pleural fluid) or necropsy examination. Cats 3 years of age or less had the highest incidence of disease; females outnumbered males 2 to 1. Radiographically, most cats had an interstitial pattern which appeared as a fine, diffuse or linear pattern, or as a more distinct nodular pattern. An alveolar pattern was an uncommon radiographic finding. Tracheobronchial lymphadenopathy and calcified lymph nodes or pulmonary parenchymal lesions were not identified in these cats

  12. Experimental Infection of Cats and Dogs with West Nile Virus

    OpenAIRE

    Austgen, Laura E.; Bowen, Richard A.; Bunning, Michel L.; Davis, Brent S.; Mitchell, Carl J.; Chang, Gwong-Jen J.

    2004-01-01

    Domestic dogs and cats were infected by mosquito bite and evaluated as hosts for West Nile virus (WNV). Viremia of low magnitude and short duration developed in four dogs but they did not display signs of disease. Four cats became viremic, with peak titers ranging from 103.0 to 104.0 PFU/mL. Three of the cats showed mild, non-neurologic signs of disease. WNV was not isolated from saliva of either dogs or cats during the period of viremia. An additional group of four cats were exposed to WNV o...

  13. Molecular basis for the CAT-2 null phenotype in maize

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Previous reports have described several maize lines whose developmental patterns of catalase gene expression vary from the typical maize line, W64A. Among these variants are the lines A16 and A338, both found to be null for the CAT-2 protein. Identification of a third CAT-2 null line, designated A340, is described. RNA blots and S1 nuclease protection analysis, using [32P]-labeled dCTP, indicate that all three CAT-2 null lines produce a similarly shortened Cat2 transcript. The molecular basis for this aberrant Cat2 transcript is discussed

  14. Opinions from the front lines of cat colony management conflict.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Nils Peterson

    Full Text Available Outdoor cats represent a global threat to terrestrial vertebrate conservation, but management has been rife with conflict due to differences in views of the problem and appropriate responses to it. To evaluate these differences we conducted a survey of opinions about outdoor cats and their management with two contrasting stakeholder groups, cat colony caretakers (CCCs and bird conservation professionals (BCPs across the United States. Group opinions were polarized, for both normative statements (CCCs supported treating feral cats as protected wildlife and using trap neuter and release [TNR] and BCPs supported treating feral cats as pests and using euthanasia and empirical statements. Opinions also were related to gender, age, and education, with females and older respondents being less likely than their counterparts to support treating feral cats as pests, and females being less likely than males to support euthanasia. Most CCCs held false beliefs about the impacts of feral cats on wildlife and the impacts of TNR (e.g., 9% believed feral cats harmed bird populations, 70% believed TNR eliminates cat colonies, and 18% disagreed with the statement that feral cats filled the role of native predators. Only 6% of CCCs believed feral cats carried diseases. To the extent the beliefs held by CCCs are rooted in lack of knowledge and mistrust, rather than denial of directly observable phenomenon, the conservation community can manage these conflicts more productively by bringing CCCs into the process of defining data collection methods, defining study/management locations, and identifying common goals related to caring for animals.

  15. Stress in owned cats: behavioural changes and welfare implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amat, Marta; Camps, Tomàs; Manteca, Xavier

    2016-08-01

    Domestic cats are exposed to a variety of stressful stimuli, which may have a negative effect on the cats' welfare and trigger a number of behavioural changes. Some of the stressors most commonly encountered by cats include changes in environment, inter-cat conflict, a poor human-cat relationship and the cat's inability to perform highly motivated behaviour patterns. Stress is very likely to reduce feed intake, and stress-related anorexia may contribute to the development of potentially serious medical conditions. Stress also increases the risk of cats showing urine marking and some forms of aggression, including redirected aggression. A number of compulsive disorders such as over-grooming may also develop as a consequence of stressful environments. Some of the main strategies to prevent or reduce stress-related behavioural problems in cats are environmental enrichment, appropriate management techniques to introduce unfamiliar cats to each other and the use of the synthetic analogue of the feline facial pheromone. As the stress response in cats depends, to a large extent, on the temperament of the animal, breeding and husbandry strategies that contribute to the cat developing a well-balanced temperament are also very useful. PMID:26101238

  16. Opinions from the front lines of cat colony management conflict.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, M Nils; Hartis, Brett; Rodriguez, Shari; Green, Matthew; Lepczyk, Christopher A

    2012-01-01

    Outdoor cats represent a global threat to terrestrial vertebrate conservation, but management has been rife with conflict due to differences in views of the problem and appropriate responses to it. To evaluate these differences we conducted a survey of opinions about outdoor cats and their management with two contrasting stakeholder groups, cat colony caretakers (CCCs) and bird conservation professionals (BCPs) across the United States. Group opinions were polarized, for both normative statements (CCCs supported treating feral cats as protected wildlife and using trap neuter and release [TNR] and BCPs supported treating feral cats as pests and using euthanasia) and empirical statements. Opinions also were related to gender, age, and education, with females and older respondents being less likely than their counterparts to support treating feral cats as pests, and females being less likely than males to support euthanasia. Most CCCs held false beliefs about the impacts of feral cats on wildlife and the impacts of TNR (e.g., 9% believed feral cats harmed bird populations, 70% believed TNR eliminates cat colonies, and 18% disagreed with the statement that feral cats filled the role of native predators). Only 6% of CCCs believed feral cats carried diseases. To the extent the beliefs held by CCCs are rooted in lack of knowledge and mistrust, rather than denial of directly observable phenomenon, the conservation community can manage these conflicts more productively by bringing CCCs into the process of defining data collection methods, defining study/management locations, and identifying common goals related to caring for animals. PMID:22970269

  17. A New Family of Generalized 3D Cat Maps

    CERN Document Server

    Wu, Yue; Noonan, Joseph P

    2012-01-01

    Since the 1990s chaotic cat maps are widely used in data encryption, for their very complicated dynamics within a simple model and desired characteristics related to requirements of cryptography. The number of cat map parameters and the map period length after discretization are two major concerns in many applications for security reasons. In this paper, we propose a new family of 36 distinctive 3D cat maps with different spatial configurations taking existing 3D cat maps [1]-[4] as special cases. Our analysis and comparisons show that this new 3D cat maps family has more independent map parameters and much longer averaged period lengths than existing 3D cat maps. The presented cat map family can be extended to higher dimensional cases.

  18. Cats as a Risk for Transmission of Antimicrobial Drug-resistant Salmonella

    OpenAIRE

    Van Immerseel, Filip; Pasmans, Frank; De Buck, Jeroen; Rychlik, Ivan; Hradecka, Helena; Collard, Jean-Marc; Wildemauwe, Christa; Heyndrickx, Marc; Ducatelle, Richard; Haesebrouck, Freddy

    2004-01-01

    To determine whether cats were a risk for transmission of Salmonella to humans, we evaluated the excretion of Salmonella by pet cats. Rectal-swab specimens were taken from 278 healthy house cats, from 58 cats that died of disease, and from 35 group-housed cats. Group-housed cats were kept in one room with three cat trays and a common water and feed tray. Eighteen (51.4%) of 35 group-housed cats, 5 (8.6%) of 58 diseased cats (5/58), and 1 (0.36%) of 278 healthy house cats excreted Salmonella. ...

  19. Seroprevalence of Rickettsia bellii and Rickettsia felis in dogs, São José dos Pinhais, State of Paraná, Brazil Soroprevalência de Rickettsia bellii e Rickettsia felis em cães, São José dos Pinhais, Paraná, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Silva Fortes

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Brazilian spotted fever (BSF is a vector-borne zoonosis caused by Rickettsia rickettsii bacteria. Dogs can be host sentinels for this bacterium. The aim of the study was to determine the presence of antibodies against Rickettsia spp. in dogs from the city of São José dos Pinhais, State of Paraná, Southern Brazil, where a human case of BSF was first reported in the state. Between February 2006 and July 2007, serum samples from 364 dogs were collected and tested at 1:64 dilutions by indirect immunofluorescence assay (IFA against R. rickettsii and R. parkeri. All sera that reacted at least to one of Rickettsia species were tested against the six main Rickettsia species identified in Brazil: R. rickettsii, R. parkeri, R. bellii, R. rhipicephali, R. amblyommii and R. felis. Sixteen samples (4.4% reacted to at least one Rickettsia species. Among positive animals, two dogs (15.5% showed suggestive titers for R. bellii exposure. One sample had a homologous reaction to R. felis, a confirmed human pathogen. Although Rickettsia spp. circulation in dogs in the area studied may be considered at low prevalence, suggesting low risk of human infection, the present data demonstrate for the first time the exposure of dogs to R. bellii and R. felis in Southern Brazil.A febre maculosa brasileira (FMB é uma zoonose veiculada por carrapatos e causada pela bactéria Rickettsia rickettsii, podendo os cães ser hospedeiros sentinelas para essa bactéria. O objetivo do estudo foi determinar a presença de anticorpos contra Rickettsia spp. em cães de São José dos Pinhais, estado do Paraná, Sul do Brasil. Entre fevereiro de 2006 e julho de 2007, amostras séricas de 364 cães foram coletadas e testadas na diluição de 1:64 por Reação de Imunofluorescência Indireta (RIFI contra R. rickettsii e R. parkeri. Todos os soros reagentes para pelo menos uma espécie de Rickettsia foram testados contra as seis principais espécies de Rickettsia identificadas no Brasil: R

  20. Noncongophilic fibrillary glomerulonephritis in a cat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavana, P; Capucchio, M T; Bovero, A; Ripanti, D; Catalano, D; Scaglione, F E; Miller, J; Blunden, T; Farca, A M

    2008-05-01

    This report describes an uncommon case of nonamyloidotic fibrillary glomerulonephritis. A 5-year-old female European cat was presented with nephrotic syndrome. Serum biochemistry and urinalysis revealed a mild increase in cholesterol, low total protein, severe hypoalbuminemia, and high proteinuria with a high protein-to-creatinine ratio. An histologic examination revealed an interstitial nephritis and a diffuse glomerulonephritis, with multifocal thickening of the Bowman's capsule. Transmission electron microscopy showed widespread fibrillary deposits in the glomerular basement membrane and in the mesangium. These fibrils ranged between 18 and 26 nm in diameter and were Congo red negative, which allowed their differentiation from amyloid. Immunohistochemistry demonstrated expression for immunoglobulin M (IgM) and immunoglobulin G (IgG) within the mesangium. Renal deposits of Congo red-negative amyloid-like fibrils have been described in humans, horses, monkeys, and dogs. This is the first report of noncongophilic fibrillary glomerulopathy in a cat. PMID:18487491

  1. Atypical membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis in a cat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue, K; Kami-ie, J; Ohtake, S; Wakui, S; Machida, S; Shirota, K

    2001-07-01

    Membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis was observed in a 2-year-old male Japanese domestic cat with clinical renal failure. In the glomeruli, moderate mesangial hypercellularity with an increased mesangial matrix and thickening of the capillary walls were prominent. In addition, frequent duplication of the capillary walls, splitting, and spike formation were observed in the glomerular basement membrane. Granular cat IgG and complement component deposition were detected globally along the glomerular capillary walls and in the mesangium. Transmission electron microscopy revealed dense deposits in the subendothelial and subepithelial regions and the mesangium. Mesangial interposition was also observed. These glomerular lesions are also found in humans with membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis type III, which has not been reported in animals. PMID:11467485

  2. Allium species poisoning in dogs and cats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BS Salgado

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Dogs and cats are the animals that owners most frequently seek assistance for potential poisonings, and these species are frequently involved with toxicoses due to ingestion of poisonous food. Feeding human foodstuff to pets may prove itself dangerous for their health, similarly to what is observed in Allium species toxicosis. Allium species toxicosis is reported worldwide in several animal species, and the toxic principles present in them causes the transformation of hemoglobin into methemoglobin, consequently resulting in hemolytic anemia with Heinz body formation. The aim of this review is to analyze the clinicopathologic aspects and therapeutic approach of this serious toxicosis of dogs and cats in order to give knowledge to veterinarians about Allium species toxicosis, and subsequently allow them to correctly diagnose this disease when facing it; and to educate pet owners to not feed their animals with Allium-containg food in order to better control this particular life-threatening toxicosis.

  3. 1993 CAT workshop on beamline optical designs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An Advanced Photon Source (APS) Collaborative Access Team (CAT) Workshop on Beamline Optical Designs was held at Argonne National Laboratory on July 26--27, 1993. The goal of this workshop was to bring together experts from various synchrotron sources to provide status reports on crystal, reflecting, and polarizing optics as a baseline for discussions of issues facing optical designers for CAT beamlines at the APS. Speakers from the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility (ESRF), the University of Chicago, the National Synchrotron Light Source, and the University of Manchester (England) described single- and double-crystal monochromators, mirrors, glass capillaries, and polarizing optics. Following these presentations, the 90 participants divided into three working groups: Crystal Optics Design, Reflecting Optics, and Optics for Polarization Studies. This volume contains copies of the presentation materials from all speakers, summaries of the three working groups, and a ''catalog'' of various monochromator designs

  4. 1993 CAT workshop on beamline optical designs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-11-01

    An Advanced Photon Source (APS) Collaborative Access Team (CAT) Workshop on Beamline Optical Designs was held at Argonne National Laboratory on July 26--27, 1993. The goal of this workshop was to bring together experts from various synchrotron sources to provide status reports on crystal, reflecting, and polarizing optics as a baseline for discussions of issues facing optical designers for CAT beamlines at the APS. Speakers from the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility (ESRF), the University of Chicago, the National Synchrotron Light Source, and the University of Manchester (England) described single- and double-crystal monochromators, mirrors, glass capillaries, and polarizing optics. Following these presentations, the 90 participants divided into three working groups: Crystal Optics Design, Reflecting Optics, and Optics for Polarization Studies. This volume contains copies of the presentation materials from all speakers, summaries of the three working groups, and a ``catalog`` of various monochromator designs.

  5. Dissipative Quantum Metrology with Spin Cat States

    CERN Document Server

    Huang, Jiahao; Zhong, Honghua; Ke, Yongguan; Lee, Chaohong

    2014-01-01

    We present a robust high-precision phase estimation scheme via spin cat states in the presence of particle losses. The input Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger (GHZ) state, which may achieve the Heisenberg-limited measurement in the absence of particle losses, becomes fragile against particle losses and its achieved precision becomes even worse than the standard quantum limit (SQL). However, the input spin cat states, a kind of non-Gaussian entangled states in superposition of two spin coherent states, are of excellent robustness against particle losses and the achieved precision may still beat the SQL. For realistic measurements based upon our scheme, comparing with the population measurement, the parity measurement is more suitable for yielding higher precisions. In phase measurement with realistic dissipative systems of bosonic particles, our scheme provides a robust and realizable way to achieve high-precision measurements beyond the SQL.

  6. Vasopressin and motion sickness in cats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, R. A.; Keil, L. C.; Daunton, N. G.; Crampton, G. H.; Lucot, J.

    1987-01-01

    Levels of arginine vasopressin (AVP) in blood plasma and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) were measured in cats under several motion-sickness-inducing conditions. Plasma AVP increased significantly in both susceptible and resistant animals exposed to motion. When vomiting occurred, levels of plasma AVP were drmatically elevated (up to 27 times resting levels). There was no difference in resting levels of AVP of susceptible and resistant cats. Levels of CSF-AVP were not elevated immediately after vomiting, but the testing levels of CSF-AVP were lower in animals that vomited during motion than in those animals which did not vomit during motion. The results of these experiments show that changes in systemic AVP are directly related to vomiting induced by motion, however, CSF-AVP apparently does not change in association with vomiting. CSF-AVP does appear to be lower in animals that reach frank vomiting during motion stimulation than in animals which do not vomit.

  7. [Blood group typing in the cat].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haarer, M; Grünbaum, E G

    1993-08-01

    Blood group serological diagnosis in cats is clinically relevant for the prophylaxis of blood group incompatibility reactions. In permanent blood donors, cats used for breeding and recipients with a history of prior blood transfusions, testing should consist of blood typing and antibody detection. As test sera and test cells are not commercially available and since parallel tests for various antibody qualities are necessary, they are usually performed in specialized laboratories. Incompatibility testing has a practical clinical relevance in finding a serological diagnosis before each blood transfusion and in cases of kitten mortality. In emergency situations, cross matching can be performed on slides as a screening test. Negative slide test results then should be verified using the more sensitive test tube or microtiter plate tests. PMID:8211961

  8. Cat-Scratch Disease With Bone Involvemnet

    OpenAIRE

    Maia, R; Brito, MJ; Sousa, R.; Gouveia, C.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Bartonella henselae infection typically presents as a self-limiting regional lymphadenopathy. Bone involvement is a very rare form of the disease. Aims: To describe bone infection associated to cat-scratch disease (CSD) in a portuguese pediatric hospital. Methods: Clinical records of children admitted at the hospital with the diagnosis of CSD associated bone infection, during 2010, were reviewed. Diagnosis was confirmed by serology using indirect fluorescence assay ...

  9. Fatal disseminated toxoplasmosis in an immunocompetent cat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susanna S. Nagel

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available A 10-year-old domestic short hair cat was referred for investigation of anorexia and polydipsia of 3 days’ duration. Clinically the cat was obese, pyrexic (39.8 °C, had acute abdominal pain and severe bilirubinuria. Haematology and serum biochemistry revealed severe panleukopenia, thrombocytopenia, markedly elevated alanine aminotransferase (ALT and five-fold increased pre-prandial bile acids. Ultrasonographic evaluation of the abdomen did not identify any abnormalities. Serum tests for feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV and feline leukaemia virus (FeLV were negative. Broad-spectrum antibiotic treatment for infectious hepatitis was to no avail; the cat deteriorated and died 72 h after admission. Necropsy revealed mild icterus and anaemia, severe multifocal hepatic necrosis, serofibrinous hydrothorax, pulmonary oedema and interstitial pneumonia. Histopathology confirmed the macroscopic findings and revealed multifocal microgranulomata in the brain and myocardium, as well as areas of necrosis in lymph nodes and multifocally in splenic red pulp. Long bone shaft marrow was hyperplastic with a predominance of leukocyte precursors and megakaryocytes and splenic red pulp showed mild extramedullary haemopoiesis. Immunohistochemical staining for Toxoplasma gondii was strongly positive, with scattered cysts and tachyzoites in the liver, lymph nodes, spleen, lungs, brain, salivary glands and intracellularly in round cells in occasional blood vessels. Immunohistochemical staining for corona virus on the same tissues was negative, ruling out feline infectious peritonitis (FIP. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR on formalin-fixed paraffin-wax embedded tissues was positive for Toxoplasma sp., but attempts at sequencing were unsuccessful. This was the first case report of fulminant disseminated toxoplasmosis in South Africa, in which detailed histopathology in an apparently immunocompetent cat was described.

  10. [Chronic inflammatory bowel diseases in cats].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghermai, A K

    1989-01-01

    The aetiology of chronic idiopathic intestinal inflammation is unknown. It is characterized by a diffuse infiltration with inflammatory cells into the intestinal mucosa and sometimes submucosa. Cats with chronic intermittent vomiting and diarrhoea, later on accompanied by anorexia and weight loss, are presented. Definitive diagnosis can be obtained by intestinal biopsy only. An immune pathogenesis is suspected, which is supported by the fact, that chronic inflammatory bowel disease responds to steroid therapy.

  11. The vomeronasal organ of the cat.

    OpenAIRE

    Salazar, I.; Sanchez Quinteiro, P; Cifuentes, J M; Garcia Caballero, T

    1996-01-01

    The vomeronasal organ of the cat was studied macroscopically, by light microscopy and by immunohistochemical techniques. Special attention was paid to the general distribution of the various soft tissue components of this organ (duct, glands, connective tissue, blood vessels and nerves.) Examination of series of transverse sections showed that the wall of the vomeronasal duct bears 44 different types of epithelium: simple columnar in the caudal part of the duct, respiratory and receptor respe...

  12. Metales pesados en tejido muscular del bagre Ariopsis felis en el sur del golfo de México (2001-2004 Heavy metals in muscular tissue of the catfish, Ariopsis felis, in the southern Gulfof México (2001-2004

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe Vázquez

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Se analizó el contenido de metales pesados en tejido muscular del bagre, Ariopsis felis en el sur del golfo de México durante el período 2001-2004. La investigación fue efectuada buscando establecer un marco de referencia ambiental para este organismo. La concentración metálica siguió el orden: Hg We analyzed the heavy metal content in the muscular tissue of the catfish, Ariopsis felis, in the southern Gulf of México between 2001 and 2004. The research was done in order to establish an environmental frame of reference for this organism. The metal concentration was as follows: Hg < Co < Pb < Ni < V < Cr. Cobalt and vanadium contents were found to decrease and those of nickel, mercury, and chromium to ulerease; however, neither of these trends was observed for the lead content. One-way analyses of variance con-firm significant temporal variation only for cobalt, mercury, lead, and vanadium. Significant linear correlation coefficients (p ≤ 0.05 were found for Co-V, Cr-Ni, Cr-Pb, Co-Hg, Ni-V, and V-Pb. The first three associa-tions showed positive correlations, whereas the remaining ones had negative correlations. A factor analysis grouped the studied metals depending on their origins. The metal levels found in the muscular tissue of A. felis from the southern Gulf of México were lower than those set by national and international regulations.

  13. [Bacteriological and virological status in upper respiratory tract infections of cats (cat common cold complex)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adler, Kerstin; Radeloff, Isabel; Stephan, Bernd; Greife, Heinrich; Hellmann, Klaus

    2007-01-01

    Between October 2002 and January 2005,460 bacteriological samples from cats with an acute upper respiratory tract infection were analysed in clinical field studies in two accredited laboratories in Germany. Oropharyngeal swabs were taken from these cats and sent to the laboratories for routine diagnostics. In the swab samples of 460 cats 382 bacteria strains were isolated. The following bacteria were isolated most frequently: Pasteurella spp. (32.5 %), Staphylococcus spp. (18.5 %), Escherichia coli (17.0 %), Streptococcus spp. (9.1 %), Pseudomonas spp. (6.9 %) and Klebsiella spp. (3.0 %). Bordetella bronchiseptica was found in 0.4 % of the animals To evaluate possible regional and time influences, the animals were split into three populations: 1: Germany, laboratory A; 2: Germany, laboratory B; 3: France and Belgium, laboratory B. In population 1 an 2 Pasteurella spp. were found most frequently with 42.2 % and 36.5 %, respectively. The second most frequently isolated bacterial species were Staphylococcus spp. with 14.1 % and 21.4 % and E. coli with 13.6 % and 17.5 % respectively. In population 3 Staphylococcus spp., E. coli (20 % each) and Pasteurella spp. (18.5 %) were isolated at almost the same frequency. Virological parameter were additionally analysed in 328 cats (population 2 and 3). Serum samples were analysed for antibodies specific for Feline Calicivirus (FCV) and Feline Immunodeficiency Virus (FIV) and for Feline Leukaemia Virus (FeLV) antigen. Oropharyngeal swabs were analysed for Feline Herpesvirus (FHV) by using PCR. Calicivirus-specific antibodies were found in 99.6 % of the cats of population 2 and in 100 % of the animals in population 3. Herpesvirus was detected in 15.3 % and 23.3 % of the cats, respectively. FeLV-Antigen was found in 0.4 % of the animals in population 2 and in 10.1 % of the cats in population 3, while FIV-antibodies were identified in 8.7 % of the animals of population 2 and in 6.1 % of the cats of population 3. In total FHV was

  14. A population genetic database of cat breeds developed in coordination with a domestic cat STR multiplex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menotti-Raymond, Marilyn; David, Victor A; Weir, Bruce S; O'Brien, Stephen J

    2012-05-01

    A simple tandem repeat (STR) PCR-based typing system developed for the genetic individualization of domestic cat samples has been used to generate a population genetic database of domestic cat breeds. A panel of 10 tetranucleotide STR loci and a gender-identifying sequence tagged site (STS) were co-amplified in genomic DNA of 1043 individuals representing 38 cat breeds. The STR panel exhibits relatively high heterozygosity in cat breeds, with an average 10-locus heterozygosity of 0.71, which represents an average of 38 breed-specific heterozygosities for the 10-member panel. When the entire set of breed individuals was analyzed as a single population, a heterozygosity of 0.87 was observed. Heterozygosities obtained for the 10 loci range from 0.72 to 0.96. The power for genetic individualization of domestic cat samples of the multiplex is high, with a probability of match (p(m)) of 6.2E-14, using a conservative θ = 0.05.

  15. Dermal mass aspirate from a Persian cat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmerman, Kurt; Feldman, Bernard; Robertson, John; Herring, Erin S; Manning, Thomas

    2003-01-01

    A 1-year-old spayed female Persian cat with alopecia and weight loss had numerous variably ulcerated dermal nodules. Cytologic examination of an aspirate of one of the nodules revealed pyogranulomatous inflammation along with septate hyphae and basophilic round bodies, 0.5-1.0 microm in diameter, surrounded by a thin clear halo (arthrospores). The cytologic diagnosis was dermatophytic pseudomycetoma. Histologically, there were dermal granulomas containing poorly staining, septate hyphae with bulbous spores embedded within abundant amorphous eosinophilic material (Splendore-Hoeppli reaction), and the histologic diagnosis was pseudomycetoma-associated chronic multifocal severe granulomatous dermatitis with lymphocytic perifolliculitis and furunculosis. Microsporum canis was cultured from the lesion. Pseudomycetomas are distinguished from fungal mycetomas, or eumycotic mycetomas, by the findings of multiple lesions, lack of a history of skin trauma, an association with dermatophytes, most commonly Microsporum canis, and, histologically, lack of true cement material and a more abundant Splendore-Hoeppli reaction in pseudomycetomas. Additionally, pseudomycetomas differ from dermatophytosis, in which lesions are restricted to epidermal structures. Persian cats have a high incidence of pseudomycetoma formation, suggesting a heritable predisposition. The prognosis is fair with systemic antifungal therapy. When examining cytologic specimens from Persian cats with single or multiple dermal nodules, especially if pyogranulomatous inflammation is present, a diagnosis of pseudomycetoma should be suspected and is warranted if arthrospores and refractile septate hyphae are present.

  16. Dermoid cyst in a domestic shorthair cat

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Akhtardanesh B; Kheirandish R; Azari O

    2012-01-01

    A 5-year-old neutered male domestic shorthair cat was presented for examination of a subcutaneous mass in his tail. The mass was firm, non-painful, oval, and approximately 2.5 × 3.5 cm. Surgical exploration revealed a well-circumscribed, encapsulated mass. The mass was removed and sectioned for histopathological examination. In gross section, it was filled with numerous dark hairs. Histologically the mass was consisted of haired skin with dermal cystic structures lined by stratified squamous epithelium. The cyst lumen contained squamous debris and filled with keratinous material. Numerous hair shafts were extended from the wall of the cyst. The sebaceous and apocrine gland adnexal structures were also observed which confirmed the diagnosis of dermoid cyst. No tumor recurrence was observed after surgery in fallowing checkups. Cutaneous or subcutaneous cysts of all types are considered rare in cats and to our knowledge this is the third reported case of cutaneous dermoid cyst of cats in veterinary literature which is different from the other cases because it occurred in dorsal midline in tail area whereas others occurred in flank area.

  17. Asthma, Airway Symptoms and Rhinitis in Office Workers in Malaysia: Associations with House Dust Mite (HDM Allergy, Cat Allergy and Levels of House Dust Mite Allergens in Office Dust.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fang Lee Lim

    Full Text Available A prevalence study was conducted among office workers in Malaysia (N= 695. The aim of this study was to examine associations between asthma, airway symptoms, rhinitis and house dust mites (HDM and cat allergy and HDM levels in office dust. Medical data was collected by a questionnaire. Skin prick tests were performed for HDM allergens (Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus, Dermatophagoides farinae and cat allergen Felis domesticus. Indoor temperature and relative air humidity (RH were measured in the offices and vacuumed dust samples were analyzed for HDM allergens. The prevalence of D. pteronyssinus, D. farinae and cat allergy were 50.3%, 49.0% and 25.5% respectively. Totally 9.6% had doctor-diagnosed asthma, 15.5% had current wheeze and 53.0% had current rhinitis. The Der p 1 (from D. pteronyssinus and Der f 1 (from D. farinae allergens levels in dust were 556 ng/g and 658 ng/g respectively. Statistical analysis was conducted by multilevel logistic regression, adjusting for age, gender, current smoking, HDM or cat allergy, home dampness and recent indoor painting at home. Office workers with HDM allergy had more wheeze (p= 0.035, any airway symptoms (p= 0.032, doctor-diagnosed asthma (p= 0.005, current asthma (p= 0.007, current rhinitis (p= 0.021 and rhinoconjuctivitis (p< 0.001. Cat allergy was associated with wheeze (p= 0.021, wheeze when not having a cold (p= 0.033, any airway symptoms (p= 0.034, doctor-diagnosed asthma (p= 0.010, current asthma (p= 0.020 and nasal allergy medication (p= 0.042. Der f 1 level in dust was associated with daytime breathlessness (p= 0.033 especially among those with HDM allergy. Der f 1 levels were correlated with indoor temperature (p< 0.001 and inversely correlated with RH (p< 0.001. In conclusion, HDM and cat allergies were common and independently associated with asthma, airway symptoms and rhinitis. Der f 1 allergen can be a risk factor for daytime breathlessness.

  18. Metales pesados en tejido muscular del bagre Ariopsis felis en el sur del golfo de México (2001-2004) Heavy metals in muscular tissue of the catfish, Ariopsis felis, in the southern Gulfof México (2001-2004)

    OpenAIRE

    Felipe Vázquez; Tomás R Florville-Alejandre; Miguel Herrera; Luz María Díaz de León

    2008-01-01

    Se analizó el contenido de metales pesados en tejido muscular del bagre, Ariopsis felis en el sur del golfo de México durante el período 2001-2004. La investigación fue efectuada buscando establecer un marco de referencia ambiental para este organismo. La concentración metálica siguió el orden: Hg < Co < Pb < Ni < V < Cr. Fue observado un decremento en contenido de cobalto y vanadio, incremento en contenido de níquel, mercurio y cromo, y ausencia de estos comportamientos para contenido de plo...

  19. Feasibility of radial and circumferential strain analysis using 2D speckle tracking echocardiography in cats

    OpenAIRE

    Takano, Hiroshi; ISOGAI, Tomomi; Aoki, Takuma; WAKAO, Yoshito; Fujii, Yoko

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the present study is to investigate the feasibility of strain analysis using speckle tracking echocardiography (STE) in cats and to evaluate STE variables in cats with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM). Sixteen clinically healthy cats and 17 cats with HCM were used. Radial and circumferential strain and strain rate variables in healthy cats were measured using STE to assess the feasibility. Comparisons of global strain and strain variables between healthy cats and cats with HCM...

  20. Computed tomography of nonanesthetized cats with upper airway obstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stadler, Krystina; O'Brien, Robert

    2013-01-01

    Upper airway obstruction is a potentially life-threatening problem in cats and for which a noninvasive, sensitive method rapid diagnosis is needed. The purposes of this prospective study were to describe a computed tomography (CT) technique for nonanesthetized cats with upper airway obstruction, CT characteristics of obstructive diseases, and comparisons between CT findings and findings from other diagnostic tests. Ten cats with clinical signs of upper airway obstruction were recruited for the study. Four cats with no clinical signs of upper airway obstruction were recruited as controls. All cats underwent computed tomography imaging without sedation or anesthesia, using a 16-slice helical CT scanner and a previously described transparent positional device. Three-dimensional (3D) internal volume rendering was performed on all CT image sets and 3D external volume rendering was also performed on cats with evidence of mass lesions. Confirmation of upper airway obstruction was based on visual laryngeal examination, endoscopy, fine-needle aspirate, biopsy, or necropsy. Seven cats were diagnosed with intramural upper airway masses, two with laryngotracheitis, and one with laryngeal paralysis. The CT and 3D volume-rendered images identified lesions consistent with upper airway disease in all cats. In cats with mass lesions, CT accurately identified the mass and location. Findings from this study supported the use of CT imaging as an effective technique for diagnosing upper airway obstruction in nonanesthetized cats. PMID:23441677

  1. Determinants of Cat Choice and Outcomes for Adult Cats and Kittens Adopted from an Australian Animal Shelter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zito, Sarah; Paterson, Mandy; Vankan, Dianne; Morton, John; Bennett, Pauleen; Phillips, Clive

    2015-01-01

    Simple Summary Commonly, more adult cats than kittens are euthanized in animal shelters. We surveyed 382 cat adopters to assess adoption outcomes and potential determinants of adopters’ choice of cat age group and price. Most adopters had benevolent motivations for adopting from the shelter and had put considerable thought into the adoption and responsible ownership requirements. However, adult cat adopters were more likely to have been influenced by price than kitten adopters. Adoption outcomes were generally positive in all age and adoption price groups. This study provides evidence to inform the design of strategies to encourage adult cat adoptions. Abstract The percentage of adult cats euthanized in animal shelters is greater than that of kittens because adult cats are less likely to be adopted. This study aimed to provide evidence to inform the design of strategies to encourage adult cat adoptions. One such strategy is to discount adoption prices, but there are concerns that this may result in poor adoption outcomes. We surveyed 382 cat adopters at the time of adoption, to assess potential determinants of adopters’ cat age group choice (adult or kitten) and, for adult cat adopters, the price they are willing to pay. The same respondents were surveyed again 6–12 months after the adoption to compare outcomes between cat age groups and between adult cats in two price categories. Most adopters had benevolent motivations for adopting from the shelter and had put considerable thought into the adoption and requirements for responsible ownership. However, adult cat adopters were more likely to have been influenced by price than kitten adopters. Adoption outcomes were generally positive for both adult cats and kittens and for adult cats adopted at low prices. The latter finding alleviates concerns about the outcomes of “low-cost” adoptions in populations, such as the study population, and lends support for the use of “low-cost” adoptions as an option for

  2. Detection of Hepatozoon felis in Ticks Collected from Free-Ranging Amur Tigers ( Panthera tigris altaica), Russian Far East, 2002-12.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Lindsay H; Seryodkin, Ivan V; Goodrich, John M; Miquelle, Dale G; Birtles, Richard J; Lewis, John C M

    2016-07-01

    We collected 69 ticks from nine, free-ranging Amur tigers ( Panthera tigris altaica) between 2002 and 2011 and investigated them for tick-borne pathogens. DNA was extracted using alkaline digestion and PCR was performed to detect apicomplexan organisms. Partial 18S rDNA amplification products were obtained from 14 ticks from four tigers, of which 13 yielded unambiguous nucleotide sequence data. Comparative sequence analysis revealed all 13 partial 18S rDNA sequences were most similar to those belonging to strains of Hepatozoon felis (>564/572 base-pair identity, >99% sequence similarity). Although this tick-borne protozoon pathogen has been detected in wild felids from many parts of the world, this is the first record from the Russian Far East.

  3. Concentration of D-dimers in healthy cats and sick cats with and without disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tholen, Inger; Weingart, Christiane; Kohn, Barbara

    2009-10-01

    The objective of this prospective study was to measure concentrations of D-dimers in 48 cats with various diseases and in 20 healthy cats to evaluate the sensitivity and specificity for D-dimers to diagnose disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC). The cats were classified as having DIC if an underlying disease and at least three of the following criteria were present: thrombocytopenia, prolonged activated partial thromboplastin time, prothrombin time or thrombin time, schistocytes and/or a reduced antithrombin activity. D-dimer concentrations were measured using a semi-quantitative latex agglutination (LA) test (Accuclot D-Dimer, Sigma Diagnostics). The D-dimer test was positive for 8/12 cats with DIC and for 16/36 sick cats without DIC. D-dimers were negative for all healthy control cats. The comparison of the sick cats with DIC and those without DIC revealed a specificity and sensitivity of the D-dimer test of 56% and 67%; a comparison of the results for healthy cats and cats with DIC revealed a specificity and sensitivity of 100% and 67%, respectively. The D-dimer LA test is only of limited value for the diagnosis of DIC in cats.

  4. Membranous nephropathy in the cat: a clinical and pathological study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nash, A S; Wright, N G; Spencer, A J; Thompson, H; Fisher, E W

    1979-07-28

    A series of 13 cases of feline membranous nephropathy is presented. Two groups were distinguished clinically; eight cats had the nephrotic syndrome and five others were in renal failure but not nephrotic. The definitive diagnosis was based on histological, immunofluorescence and ultrastructural examinations of renal tissue obtained at renal biopsy or necropsy. Glomerular lesions were classified according to the degree of glomerular change into three distinct groups; mild, moderately severe and advanced. A relationship was established between the mild and moderately severe groups and cats with the nephrotic syndrome, and the advanced group and cats in renal failure. Diuretic therapy was satisfactory in initial control of oedema in the nephrotic cases. Monitoring of previously nephrotic cats for up to three years indicated that the disease is progressive, although in some cases it is sufficiently slow for a cat to live a relatively normal life without continuing treatment. The prognosis for cats presented in renal failure is hopeless. PMID:552741

  5. Ultrastructural myocardial changes in seven cats with spontaneous hypertrophic cardiomyopathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Liselotte Bruun; Prats Gavalda, Clara; Hyttel, Poul;

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) is the most common heart disease in cats and shares clinical and pathological characteristics with human HCM. Little is known about the pathogenic mechanisms underlying development of spontaneous feline HCM. ANIMALS: The study population consisted...... of seven cats diagnosed with HCM and eight age-matched cats with no evidence of cardiac disease. METHODS: Fresh myocardial biopsies taken from the middle of the left ventricular posterior free wall were obtained and examined with transmission electron microscopy. RESULTS: Electron microscopic examination...... showed ultrastructural aberrations of the myocardial cytoarchitecture and of the interstitium in the seven cats with HCM. In the most severely affected cats the myofibrils were disorganized and subsarcolemmal mitochondria were depleted. In control cats, contraction band artifacts were commonly seen...

  6. Hypereosinophilic syndrome in cats: a report of three cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McEwen, S A; Valli, V E; Hulland, T J

    1985-07-01

    The clinical, clinicopathological and pathological findings in three cats with hypereosinophilic syndrome are described. The cats chosen for the study had marked eosinophilia and evidence of tissue infiltration by eosinophils. Necropsies were performed on two cats, biopsy and blood samples were provided for the third cat. At necropsy, there was diffuse reddening of femoral bone marrow with ulceration and thickening of the duodenum. The livers had an enhanced lobular pattern with multiple, white, 1-3 mm nodules throughout the parenchyma. One cat had splenomegaly and the other had several enlarged, white, firm lymph nodes. Histopathologically, there was eosinophil infiltration of intestine, lymph nodes, liver, spleen, adrenal medulla and beneath the endocardium. Ultrastructurally, the eosinophils from lymph node and bone marrow of cat II were morphologically normal. The rigid criteria for eosinophilic leukemia were not fulfilled by these cases and the etiology of the eosinophilia in each case is not known. Possible pathogenic mechanisms are discussed. PMID:4041970

  7. Development of an operational specific CAT risk (SCATR) index

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, J. L.; Haines, P. A.; Luers, J. K.

    1983-01-01

    The original formulations of Roach (1970) and Oard (1974) for the calculation of clear air turbulence (CAT) potential from synoptic scale data were extended. An index which gives a measure of the specific risk of encountering CAT - the specific clear air turbulence risk (SCATR) index - was defined. This index takes into account both the locally and advected contributions to the energy necessary for CAT. The advected contribution is associated with the role of atmospheric gravity waves. The SCATR index was calculated for a number of cases where documented encounters with CAT occurred. Of particular interest were those made for cases involving severe CAT. The results for the two severe CAT cases run were quite impressive and elicited considerable interest from operational aviation meteorologists.

  8. Limited sampling pharmacokinetics of subcutaneous ondansetron in healthy geriatric cats, cats with chronic kidney disease, and cats with liver disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzpatrick, R L; Wittenburg, L A; Hansen, R J; Gustafson, D L; Quimby, J M

    2016-08-01

    Ondansetron, a 5-HT3 receptor antagonist, is an effective anti-emetic in cats. The purpose of this study was to compare pharmacokinetics of subcutaneous (SQ) ondansetron in healthy geriatric cats to cats with chronic kidney disease (CKD) or liver disease using a limited sampling strategy. 60 cats participated; 20 per group. Blood was drawn 30 and 120 min following one 2 mg (mean 0.49 mg/kg, range 0.27-1.05 mg/kg) SQ dose of ondansetron. Ondansetron concentrations were measured by liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry. Drug exposure represented as area under the curve (AUC) was predicted using a limited sampling approach based on multiple linear regression analysis from previous full sampling studies, and clearance (CL/F) estimated using noncompartmental methods. Kruskal-Wallis anova was used to compare parameters between groups. Mean AUC (ng/mL·h) of subcutaneous ondansetron was 301.4 (geriatric), 415.2 (CKD), and 587.0 (liver). CL/F (L/h/kg) of SQ ondansetron was 1.157 (geriatric), 0.967 (CKD), and 0.795 (liver). AUC was significantly higher in liver and CKD cats when compared to geriatric cats (P < 0.05). CL/F in liver cats was significantly decreased (P < 0.05) compared to geriatric cats. In age-matched subset analysis, AUC and CL/F in liver cats remained significantly different from geriatric cats. PMID:26667224

  9. Feline immunodeficiency virus testing in stray, feral, and client-owned cats of Ottawa

    OpenAIRE

    Little, Susan E.

    2005-01-01

    Feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) seroprevalence is evaluated in 3 groups of cats. Seventy-four unowned urban strays were tested, as well as 20 cats from a small feral cat colony, and 152 client-owned cats. Of the 246 cats tested, 161 (65%) were male and 85 (35%) were female. Seroprevalence for FIV was 23% in the urban strays, 5% in the feral cat colony, and 5.9% in the client-owned cats. Ten cats (4%) were also positive for Feline leukemia virus (FeLV) antigen, including 2 cats coinfected ...

  10. "Cat scratch colon" in a patient with ischemic colitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Eui Ju; Lee, Joon Seong; Lee, Tae Hee; Choi, Dae Han; Kim, Eui Bae; Jeon, Seong Ran; Hong, Su Jin; Kim, Jin-Oh

    2015-03-01

    "Cat scratch colon" is a gross finding characterized by hemorrhagic mucosal scratches on colonoscopy. It is usually associated with a normal colon and is rarely associated with collagenous colitis. In a previous report, cat scratch colon was noted in the cecum and ascending colon, but has also been observed in the distal transverse colon. The patient in this study was also diagnosed with ischemic colitis that may have played a role in the development of cat scratch colon.

  11. Concurrent Diseases and Conditions in Cats with Renal Infarcts

    OpenAIRE

    Hickey, M.C.; Jandrey, K.; Farrell, K.S.; Carlson‐Bremer, D.

    2014-01-01

    Background Renal infarcts identified without definitive association with any specific disease process. Objective Determine diseases associated with diagnosis of renal infarcts in cats diagnosed by sonography or necropsy. Animals 600 cats underwent abdominal ultrasonography, necropsy, or both at a veterinary medical teaching hospital. Methods Information obtained from electronic medical records. Cats classified as having renal infarct present based on results of sonographic evaluation or necro...

  12. RadCat 2.0 User Guide.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Osborn, Douglas.; Weiner, Ruth F.; Mills, George Scott; Hamp, Steve C.; O' Donnell, Brandon, M.; Orcutt, David J.; Heames, Terence J.; Hinojosa, Daniel

    2005-01-01

    This document provides a detailed discussion and a guide for the use of the RadCat 2.0 Graphical User Interface input file generator for the RADTRAN 5.5 code. The differences between RadCat 2.0 and RadCat 1.0 can be attributed to the differences between RADTRAN 5 and RADTRAN 5.5 as well as clarification for some of the input parameters. 3

  13. Earliest evidence for commensal processes of cat domestication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yaowu; Hu, Songmei; Wang, Weilin; Wu, Xiaohong; Marshall, Fiona B; Chen, Xianglong; Hou, Liangliang; Wang, Changsui

    2014-01-01

    Domestic cats are one of the most popular pets globally, but the process of their domestication is not well understood. Near Eastern wildcats are thought to have been attracted to food sources in early agricultural settlements, following a commensal pathway to domestication. Early evidence for close human-cat relationships comes from a wildcat interred near a human on Cyprus ca. 9,500 y ago, but the earliest domestic cats are known only from Egyptian art dating to 4,000 y ago. Evidence is lacking from the key period of cat domestication 9,500-4,000 y ago. We report on the presence of cats directly dated between 5560-5280 cal B.P. in the early agricultural village of Quanhucun in Shaanxi, China. These cats were outside the wild range of Near Eastern wildcats and biometrically smaller, but within the size-range of domestic cats. The δ(13)C and δ(15)N values of human and animal bone collagen revealed substantial consumption of millet-based foods by humans, rodents, and cats. Ceramic storage containers designed to exclude rodents indicated a threat to stored grain in Yangshao villages. Taken together, isotopic and archaeological data demonstrate that cats were advantageous for ancient farmers. Isotopic data also show that one cat ate less meat and consumed more millet-based foods than expected, indicating that it scavenged among or was fed by people. This study offers fresh perspectives on cat domestication, providing the earliest known evidence for commensal relationships between people and cats.

  14. Guidelines for vaccination of dogs and cats in Korea

    OpenAIRE

    Song, Woo-Jin; Kim, Hyun-Tae; Yoo, Han-Sang; Youn, Hwa-Young

    2014-01-01

    This guideline contains the recommended vaccination schedules of dogs and cats from World Small Animal Veterinary Association (WSAVA) and American Animal Hospital Association (AAHA). In 2010, WSAVA published guidelines for the vaccination of dogs and cats. And, in 2011, AAHA also published guidelines for vaccination of dogs. In Korea, there is no published guideline for vaccination of dogs and cats yet. Therefore, the plane of vaccination also reports the present situation of vaccination sche...

  15. Mucopolysaccharidosis VI in cats – clarification regarding genetic testing

    OpenAIRE

    Lyons, L.A.; Grahn, R. A.; Genova, F; M. Beccaglia; Hopwood, J J; M. Longeri

    2016-01-01

    The release of new DNA-based diagnostic tools has increased tremendously in companion animals. Over 70 different DNA variants are now known for the cat, including DNA variants in disease-associated genes and genes causing aesthetically interesting traits. The impact genetic tests have on animal breeding and health management is significant because of the ability to control the breeding of domestic cats, especially breed cats. If used properly, genetic testing can prevent the production of dis...

  16. Case report:Calcaneal fractures in a cat

    OpenAIRE

    Longley, Mark J; Hannes, Bergmann,; Langley-Hobbs, Sorrel J.

    2016-01-01

    A one year four month old male neutered domestic shorthair cat was presented for sudden onset, left pelvic limb lameness. Upon clinical examination, pain was localised to the hock region and the cat was found to have persistent deciduous teeth. No evidence of trauma was apparent. Radiographs revealed a transverse fracture at the base of the calcaneus. The fracture was stabilised with a Steinmann pin and tension band wire. Eleven weeks after fixation of the fracture, the cat presented with lam...

  17. Do free-falling quantum cats land on their feet?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present a quantum description of the mechanism by which a free-falling cat manages to reorient itself and land on its feet, having all along zero angular momentum. Our approach is geometrical, making use of the fiber bundle structure of the cat configuration space. We show how the classical picture can be recovered, but also point out a purely quantum scenario, that ends up with a Schroedinger cat. Finally, we sketch possible applications to molecular, nuclear, and nano-systems. (paper)

  18. Ultrasonographic features of intestinal adenocarcinoma in five cats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adenocarcinoma, followed by lymphosarcoma, are the most common feline intestinal neoplasms. Clinicopathological, survey radiographic, and ultrasonographic findings of five cats with intestinal adenocarcinoma are reported. An abdominal mass was palpable in all five cats, but the mass could be localized to bowel in only two cats. Radiographically an abdominal mass was detected in only one cat. Ultrasonographically there was a segmental intestinal mural mass in all five cats. The mass was characterized by circumferential bowel wall thickening with transmural loss of normal sonographic wall layers. In one cat, the circumferential symmetric hypoechoic bowel wall thickening was similar to that reported for segmental lymphoma. In the other four cats, the sonographic features of the thickened bowel wall were varied, being mixed echogenicity and asymmetric in 3 cats and mixed echogenicity and symmetric in one. The results of the present report suggest that sonographic observation of mixed echogenicity segmental intestinal wall thickening in the cat represents adenocarcinoma rather than lymphosarcoma, although other infiltrative diseases should be considered

  19. Toxoplasmosis in two cats with inflammatory intestinal disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, J L; Willard, M D; Lees, G E; Lappin, M R; Dieringer, T; Floyd, E

    1991-08-15

    Lymphocytic-plasmacytic enteritis, a chronic inflammatory intestinal disease, was diagnosed in 2 cats. In 1 cat, recurrence of clinical signs after initiating treatment was attributed to relapse of the inflammatory intestinal disease, but was found to be attributable to relapsing toxoplasmosis secondary to immunosuppressive drug therapy. Treatment with clindamycin resolved the recurrent toxoplasmosis. In the second cat, clinical signs of toxoplasmosis did not develop, but serologic testing yielded evidence of active toxoplasmosis. Treatment with clindamycin caused the titers to decrease. Relapsing toxoplasmosis may be responsible for apparent resistance to treatment in cats for inflammatory intestinal disease being treated with immunosuppressive drugs.

  20. Model category structures \\`a la Thomason on 2-Cat

    OpenAIRE

    Ara, Dimitri

    2016-01-01

    In his paper "Th\\'eories homotopiques des 2-cat\\'egories", Jonathan Chiche studies homotopy theories on 2-Cat, the category of small strict 2-categories, given by classes of weak equivalences which he calls basic localizers of 2-Cat. These basic localizers of 2-Cat are a 2-categorical generalization of the notion of a basic localizer introduced by Grothendieck in "Pursuing stacks". In this paper, we deduce from the results of Jonathan Chiche and results we have obtained with Georges Maltsinio...