Cat scratch disease (CSD) is an illness caused by the bacterium Bartonella henselae. Almost half of all cats carry the infection ... symptoms of CSD, call your doctor. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
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Full Text Available Systemic cat scratch disease (CSD is often associated with prolonged fever and microabscesses in the liver and/or spleen. We report a case of systemic CSD with hepatic, splenic and renal involvement in an aboriginal child in Taiwan. A previously healthy 9-year-old girl had an intermittent fever for about 17 days, and complained of abdominal pain, headache and weight loss. Abdominal computed tomography showed multiple tiny hypodense nodular lesions in the spleen and both kidneys. Laparotomy revealed multiple soft, whitishtan lesions on the surface of the liver and spleen. Histopathologic examination of a biopsy specimen of the spleen showed necrotizing granulomatous inflammation with central necrosis surrounded by epithelioid cells and occasional Langhans' giant cells, strongly suggestive of Bartonella henselae infection. History revealed close contact with a cat. B. henselae DNA was detected by polymerase chain reaction in the tissue specimen, and the single antibody titer against B. henselae was greater than 1:2048. These results confirmed the diagnosis of visceral CSD caused by B. henselae. The patient's symptoms resolved after treatment with rifampin and tetracycline. This case illustrates the need for inclusion of systemic CSD in patients with fever of unknown origin and abdominal pain.
Melville, David M; Jacobson, Jon A; Downie, Brian; Biermann, J Sybil; Kim, Sung Moon; Yablon, Corrie M
To characterize the sonographic features of cat scratch disease and to identify features that allow differentiation from other causes of medial epitrochlear masses. After Institutional Review Board approval was obtained, patients who underwent sonography for a medial epitrochlear mass or lymph node were identified via the radiology information system. Patients were divided into 2 groups: cat scratch disease and non-cat scratch disease, based on pathologic results and clinical information. Sonograms were retrospectively reviewed and characterized with respect to dimension, shape (round, oval, or lobular), symmetry, location (subcutaneous or intramuscular), multiplicity, echogenicity (anechoic, hypoechoic, isoechoic, hyperechoic, or mixed), hyperechoic hilum (present or absent), adjacent anechoic or hypoechoic area, hyperemia (present or absent), pattern of hyperemia if present (central, peripheral, or mixed), increased posterior through-transmission (present or absent), and shadowing (present or absent). Sonographic findings were compared between the patients with and without cat scratch disease. The final patient group consisted of 5 cases of cat scratch disease and 16 cases of other causes of medial epitrochlear masses. The 2 sonographic findings that were significantly different between the cat scratch disease and non-cat scratch disease cases included mass asymmetry (P = .0062) and the presence of a hyperechoic hilum (P = .0075). The other sonographic findings showed no significant differences between the groups. The sonographic finding of an epitrochlear mass due to cat scratch disease most commonly is that of a hypoechoic lobular or oval mass with central hyperemia and a possible adjacent fluid collection; however, the presence of asymmetry and a hyperechoic hilum differentiate cat scratch disease from other etiologies. © 2015 by the American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine.
... pain. Antibiotics may be needed if your symptoms don’t go away in a month or two. In rare cases, the infection can travel to your bones, liver, or other organs. This requires more intensive treatment. Should cats be ...
Heye, S.; Matthijs, P.; Campenhoudt, M. van; Wallon, J.
We report on a patient who presented with osteomyelitis of a rib and adjacent abscess as a rare and atypical manifestation of cat-scratch disease. Radiographic findings showed an osteolytic lesion with adjacent mass. Biopsy, serology and polymerase chain reaction technique are essential for the final diagnosis. Prognosis is excellent with full recovery. (orig.)
Bosje, J T; van den Ingh, T S; van der Linde-Sipman, J S
This paper reviews 27 cases of polycystic disease of the kidneys and/or liver in cats. The multiple cysts in the kidneys were rounded in all but one case, as described in adult polycystic kidney disease in humans. In 68% of the cats presented with polycystic kidneys, there were also cystic changes of the liver (uni- or multilocular cysts and/or congenital hepatic fibrosis (CHF)). In 1 cat polycystic changes of kidneys and liver were accompanied by cysts in the pancreas. In 5 cases there was severe pancreas fibrosis. Twenty-one of the 27 cats were Persian or Persian-crossbred.
Volta, Antonella; Manfredi, Sabrina; Gnudi, Giacomo; Gelati, Aldo; Bertoni, Giorgio
Polycystic kidney disease (PKD) is one of the most common genetic diseases in cats. It has been widely described in Persians and Persian-related cats and sporadically in other breeds. The purpose of the present paper is to describe the first reported case of PKD in a 12-year-old female Chartreux cat. The cat was referred with polyuria and polydipsia and enlarged and irregular kidneys at palpation. Multiple renal cysts and a single liver cyst were identified by ultrasound and the inherited pattern was confirmed by genetic test (polymerase chain reaction/restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR/RFLP) assay). Chartreux cats should be included in the screening programme of PKD, and PKD should be always considered as a possible cause of chronic renal failure in this breed. Copyright 2009 ESFM and AAFP. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Valdesoiro Navarrete, L; Pineda Solas, V; Martín Martín, C; Sanfeliu Sala, I; Cabezas Maspoch, R M; Sánchez Oespina, M
Cat-scratch disease is caused by a Gram-negative bacillus known as Bartonella henselae. This disease is usually benign and causes regional adenitis that does not require treatment. However, some patients develop more serious atypical forms of the disease including prolonged systemic illness with hepatic and splenic abscesses.A 14-year-old girl was admitted to hospital with a 12-day history of persistent high fever and abdominal pain. Ultrasonography and computerized tomography of the abdomen revealed splenic abscesses. These findings, together with an antecedent of cat exposure, led to the suspicion of cat-scratch disease, which was confirmed by serology. The girl was treated with intramuscular ceftriaxone and clinical evolution was favorable. Splenic cat-scratch disease is infrequent. Cat-scratch disease sometimes presents as fever of unknown origin and consequently this disease should be considered in the differential diagnosis of prolonged fever. Although evolution is usually favorable, antibiotic therapy is recommended in systemic manifestations of cat-scratch disease.
Hege, R; Zimmer, C; Reusch, C
This case report is about a 9-year-old male castrated Persian cat with chronic renal failure. After physical examination and ultrasonography polycystic kidney disease (PKD) was diagnosed. Various aspects of etiology, pathophysiology and diagnosis of PKD are discussed.
Mary Anne Opavsky
Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To present a perspective on the current state of knowledge of cat scratch disease (CSD, including the evidence for Bartonella henselae as the etiological agent, epidemiological and clinical characteristics of the disease, available diagnostic tests and current therapeutic options.
The most common disease process involving the larynx is laryngeal paralysis, which occurs much more frequently in dogs than in cats. Diagnosis of laryngeal paralysis requires close attention to anesthetic plane and coordination of respiratory effort with laryngeal motion. Surgical arytenoid lateralization improves respiration and quality of life in dogs with laryngeal paralysis; however, aspiration pneumonia is a recognized complication, and generalized neuropathy can progress. Laryngeal collapse can result from any cause of chronic upper airway obstruction, but is most often associated with unaddressed brachycephalic airway syndrome. Laryngeal neoplasia, while generally uncommon, occurs more frequently in cats than in dogs. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Biller, D S; Chew, D J; DiBartola, S P
A 6-year-old Persian cat was determined to have polycystic kidney disease (PKD). Because of 3 previous clinical reports of PKD in Persian cats, the offspring were examined by use of ultrasonography, which provided evidence of PKD in 3 of the 4 offspring. Because of the genetic transmission of this disease, breeders should be advised not to breed PKD-positive Persian cats.
KARABAGLI, Murat; AKDOGAN KAYMAZ, Alev
ABSTRACT Feline polycystic kidney disease (PKD) is an inherited autosomal dominant disease that has been identified in Persian cats and Persian related breeds such as the Exotic Shorthair cats. PKD has been reported sporadically in the veterinary literature and progress asymptomaticly until the renal deficiency is observed. Diagnosis of the PKD can be carried out by abdominal ultrasonography and DNA test in 7 weeks old. Our case was a 7 years old male Persian cat which had been brought to Dep...
Tipisca, Vlad; Murino, Carla; Cortese, Laura; Mennonna, Giuseppina; Auletta, Luigi; Vulpe, Vasile; Meomartino, Leonardo
The objectives were to determine the resistive index (RI) in normal cats and in cats with various renal diseases, and to evaluate the effect of age on RI. The subjects were cats that had ultrasonography (US) of the urinary tract and RI measurement at our centre between January 2003 and April 2014. Based on clinical evaluation, biochemical and haematological tests, urinalysis and US, the cats were classified as healthy or diseased. RI measurements were made from the interlobar or arcuate arteries. Data were analysed for differences between the right and the left kidney, the two sexes, different age groups in healthy cats, and between healthy and diseased cats. A total of 116 cats (68 males, 48 females) were included: 24 healthy and 92 diseased. In the healthy cats, RI (mean ± SD) differed significantly (P = 0.02) between the right kidney (0.54 ± 0.07) and the left kidney (0.59 ± 0.08). For the left kidney, RI was significantly higher in cats with chronic kidney disease (0.73 ± 0.12) and acute kidney injury (0.72 ± 0.08) (P = 0.0008). For the right kidney, RI was significantly higher in cats with chronic kidney disease (0.72 ± 0.11), acute kidney injury (0.74 ± 0.08), polycystic kidney disease (0.77 ± 0.11) and renal tumour (0.74 ± 0.001) (P cats, useful in the differential diagnosis of diffuse renal diseases. While it does not change with the age of the cat, ultrasonographers should be aware that RI may differ between the two kidneys. © ISFM and AAFP 2015.
Biller, D S; DiBartola, S P; Eaton, K A; Pflueger, S; Wellman, M L; Radin, M J
Polycystic kidney disease in Persian cats culminates in chronic renal failure after a variable clinical course. An affected 6-year-old Persian cat was used to establish a colony of cats with polycystic kidney disease. In affected cats, cysts could be detected by ultrasonography as early as 7 weeks of age. Absence of cysts on ultrasound examination at 6 months of age was correlated with absence of polycystic kidney disease at necropsy. Both males and females were affected and, of progeny from affected x unaffected crosses, 42% were affected and 58% were unaffected. In affected x affected crosses, 73% of progeny were affected and 27% were unaffected. These results are compatible with autosomal dominant inheritance of this trait. Polycystic kidney disease in Persian cats resembles autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) in human beings, and represents a valuable animal model of the human disease.
Larsen, C.E.; Patrick, L.E. (Egleston Children' s Hospital, Emory Univ., Atlanta, GA (United States). Dept. of Radiology)
Cat scratch disease is usually a self-limiting illness. Patients may develop systemic complications including hepatic granulomas, splenic abscesses, mesenteric adenitis, osteolytic lesions, as well as dermatologic and CNS complications. In this paper the literature is reviewed and two cases are discussed which present the imaging findings in patients with hepatic, splenic, mesenteric, and bony manifestations of cat scratch disease. (orig.).
Mirakhur, Beloo; Shah, Samir S; Ratner, Adam J; Goldstein, Scott M; Bell, Louis M; Kim, Jean O
Ocular manifestations of cat scratch disease are uncommon. The diagnosis is usually made on the basis of increasing Bartonella henselae serum antibody titers. We report a child presenting with orbital abscess and osteomyelitis who was diagnosed with hepatosplenic cat scratch disease by detection of B. henselae DNA in the orbital abscess fluid.
Nalls, Amy V.; Seelig, Davis M.; Kraft, Susan L.; Carnes, Kevin; Anderson, Kelly R.; Hayes-Klug, Jeanette; Hoover, Edward A.
Domestic and nondomestic cats have been shown to be susceptible to feline spongiform encephalopathy (FSE), almost certainly caused by consumption of bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE)-contaminated meat. Because domestic and free-ranging nondomestic felids scavenge cervid carcasses, including those in areas affected by chronic wasting disease (CWD), we evaluated the susceptibility of the domestic cat (Felis catus) to CWD infection experimentally. Cohorts of 5 cats each were inoculated intracerebrally (i.c.) or orally (p.o.) with CWD-infected deer brain. At 40 and 42 months postinoculation, two i.c.-inoculated cats developed signs consistent with prion disease, including a stilted gait, weight loss, anorexia, polydipsia, patterned motor behaviors, head and tail tremors, and ataxia, and the cats progressed to terminal disease within 5 months. Brains from these two cats were pooled and inoculated into cohorts of cats by the i.c., p.o., and intraperitoneal and subcutaneous (i.p./s.c.) routes. Upon subpassage, feline CWD was transmitted to all i.c.-inoculated cats with a decreased incubation period of 23 to 27 months. Feline-adapted CWD (FelCWD) was demonstrated in the brains of all of the affected cats by Western blotting and immunohistochemical analysis. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed abnormalities in clinically ill cats, which included multifocal T2 fluid attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) signal hyperintensities, ventricular size increases, prominent sulci, and white matter tract cavitation. Currently, 3 of 4 i.p./s.c.- and 2 of 4 p.o. secondary passage-inoculated cats have developed abnormal behavior patterns consistent with the early stage of feline CWD. These results demonstrate that CWD can be transmitted and adapted to the domestic cat, thus raising the issue of potential cervid-to-feline transmission in nature. PMID:23236066
Baxter, K J; Levy, J K; Edinboro, C H; Vaden, S L; Tompkins, M B
Feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection cause similar clinical syndromes of immune dysregulation, opportunistic infections, inflammatory diseases, and neoplasia. Renal disease is the 4th most common cause of death associated with HIV infection. To investigate the association between FIV infection and renal disease in cats. Client-owned cats (153 FIV-infected, 306 FIV-noninfected) and specific-pathogen-free (SPF) research colony cats (95 FIV-infected, 98 FIV-noninfected). A mixed retrospective/prospective cross-sectional study. Blood urea nitrogen (BUN), serum creatinine, urine specific gravity (USG), and urine protein:creatinine ratio (UPC) data were compared between FIV-infected and FIV-noninfected cats. In FIV-infected cats, total CD4+ and CD8+ T lymphocytes were measured using flow cytometry, and CD4+:CD8+ T lymphocyte ratio was calculated. Renal azotemia was defined as a serum creatinine ≥ 1.9 mg/dL with USG ≤ 1.035. Proteinuria was defined as a UPC > 0.4 with an inactive urine sediment. Among the client-owned cats, no association was detected between FIV infection and renal azotemia (P = .24); however, a greater proportion of FIV-infected cats were proteinuric (25.0%, 16 of 64 cats) compared to FIV-noninfected cats (10.3%, 20 of 195 cats) (P FIV-infected cats, but UPC was positively correlated with the CD4+:CD8+ T lymphocyte ratio (Spearman's rho = 0.37, P = .01). Among the SPF research colony cats, no association was detected between FIV infection and renal azotemia (P = .21) or proteinuria (P = .25). Proteinuria but not azotemia was associated with natural FIV infection. Copyright © 2012 by the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine.
Abdel-Haq, Nahed; Abuhammour, Walid; Al-Tatari, Hossam; Asmar, Basim
A 5-year-old boy with cat scratch disease presented with fever of unknown origin and osteomyelitis of the thoracic spine and epidural abscess. He did not have localizing signs or symptoms. Computed tomography of the abdomen, which was initially negative, showed hepatosplenic disease. Cat scratch disease has variable systemic presentations and should be included in the differential diagnosis of fever of unknown origin if an epidemiologic risk factor is present.
Kathrani, A; Fascetti, A J; Larsen, J A; Maunder, C; Hall, E J
Increased delivery of taurine-conjugated bile acids to the distal bowel can lead to dysbiosis resulting in colitis in mouse models of inflammatory bowel disease. A similar situation also could occur in cats with intestinal disease and might therefore result in decreased whole-body taurine concentration. To determine whether whole-blood taurine concentrations are decreased at the time of diagnosis in cats with intestinal disease and to correlate concentrations with clinical and laboratory variables. Twenty-one cats with chronic inflammatory enteropathy and 7 cats with intestinal neoplasia from the University of Bristol. Cats that had undergone a thorough investigation consisting of a CBC, serum biochemistry, serum cobalamin and folate concentrations, transabdominal ultrasound examination and histopathology of intestinal biopsy specimens, as well as additional testing if indicated, were included. Whole-blood from these cats collected at the time of histologic diagnosis and stored in ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid was retrospectively analyzed for taurine with an automated high-performance liquid chromatography amino acid analyzer. Although whole-blood taurine concentrations remained within the reference range, those cats with predominantly large intestinal clinical signs had significantly lower concentrations than did cats with small intestinal and mixed bowel clinical signs (P = 0.033) and this difference also was significant when assessed only in cats with chronic inflammatory enteropathy (P = 0.019). Additional studies are needed to determine whether large intestinal signs in cats with chronic inflammatory enteropathy are caused by alterations in the microbiota arising as a consequence of increased delivery of taurine-conjugated bile acids. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine.
Gorman, L.; Sharkey, L.C.; Armstrong, P.J.; Little, K.; Rendahl, A.
Background Ketones, including beta hydroxybutyrate (BHB), are produced in conditions of negative energy balance and decreased glucose utilization. Serum BHB concentrations in cats are poorly characterized in diseases other than diabetes mellitus. Hypothesis Serum BHB concentrations will be increased in cats with chronic kidney disease (CKD), hyperthyroidism (HT), or hepatic lipidosis (HL). Animals Twenty?eight client?owned cats with CKD, 34 cats with HT, and 15 cats with HL; 43 healthy cats. ...
Miller, M.S.; Tilley, L.P.; Smith, F.W.K. Jr.
The incidence of cardiopulmonary disease increases with age. Degenerative valvular disease, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and arrhythmias are common in the geriatric dog. Chronic bronchial disease, pulmonary neoplasia, and arrhythmias occur in the geriatric cat. Systemic diseases in both species often show cardiopulmonary manifestations. Medical management to treat the underlying disease and to control clinical signs is complicated by altered absorption, metabolism, and elimination of drugs
Byfield, Victoria L; Callahan Clark, Julie E; Turek, Bradley J; Bradley, Charles W; Rondeau, Mark P
Objectives The objective was to evaluate the safety and diagnostic utility of percutaneous ultrasound-guided cholecystocentesis (PUC) in cats with suspected hepatobiliary disease. Methods Medical records of 83 cats with suspected hepatobiliary disease that underwent PUC were retrospectively reviewed. Results At the time of PUC, at least one additional procedure was performed in 79/83 cats, including hepatic aspiration and/or biopsy (n = 75) and splenic aspiration (n = 18). Complications were noted in 14/83 cases, including increased abdominal fluid (n = 11), needle-tip occlusion (n = 1), failed first attempt to penetrate the gall bladder wall (n = 1) and pneumoperitoneum (n = 1). There were no reports of gall bladder rupture, bile peritonitis or hypotension necessitating treatment with vasopressor medication. Blood products were administered to 7/83 (8%) cats. Seventy-two cats (87%) survived to discharge. Of the cats that were euthanized (9/83) or died (2/83), none were reported as a definitive consequence of PUC. Bacteria were identified cytologically in 10/71 samples (14%); all 10 had a positive aerobic bacterial culture. Bile culture was positive in 11/80 samples (14%). Of the cases with a positive bile culture, cytological description of bacteria corresponded to the organism cultured in fewer than 50% of cases. The most common cytologic diagnosis was hepatic lipidosis (49/66). The most common histopathologic diagnosis was cholangitis (10/21). Conclusions and relevance PUC was safe in this group of cats with suspected hepatobiliary disease. Complications were likely associated with ancillary procedures performed at the time of PUC. Bile analysis yielded an abnormal result in nearly one-third of cats with suspected hepatobiliary disease. Complete agreement between bile cytology and culture was lacking. Further evaluation of the correlation between bile cytology and bile culture is warranted.
Levy, J K; Crawford, P C; Lappin, M R; Dubovi, E J; Levy, M G; Alleman, R; Tucker, S J; Clifford, E L
Vaccination and importation of dogs and cats are prohibited in the Galapagos, resulting in a uniquely isolated population. The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of infectious diseases of dogs and cats that impact their health, could spill over to native wildlife, or sentinel diseases of concern to humans. The isolation of dogs and cats in the Galapagos protects them from diseases common in mainland populations. Ninety-five dogs and 52 cats presented during a neutering campaign. A prospective cross-sectional study was performed. Blood was collected for serological and DNA evaluation of a panel of infectious diseases. Antibodies against parvovirus (100%), parainfluenza virus (100%), adenovirus 1/2 (66-67%), and distemper virus (22%) were present in dogs. Dirofilaria immitis was also common in dogs (34%), with lower prevalences of Wolbachia pipiens (22%), Bartonella sp. (13%), Ehrlichia/Anaplasma spp. (1%), and Mycoplasma haemocanis (1%) observed. Antibodies against panleukopenia virus (67%), Toxoplasma gondii (63%), calicivirus (44%), and herpesvirus 1 (10%) were detected in cats. Feline leukemia virus antigen, feline immunodeficiency virus antibody, or coronavirus antibodies were not detected. Bartonella sp. (44%) infections were common in cats, but only one was infected with M. haemofelis. Despite their relative seclusion from the rest of the world, cats and dogs of Isabela were exposed to many pathogens found in mainland South America. Parasite prophylaxis, neutering, and strict enforcement of animal movement restrictions would control a majority of the diseases. In the absence of vaccination, a reservoir of susceptible animals remains vulnerable to new disease introductions.
Ricardo Evangelista Marrocos de Aragão
Full Text Available Optic neuropathy due to cat scratch disease is a relatively infrequent occurrence associated with macular star formation and is characterized by sudden painless loss of vision mostly unilateral. Bartonella henselae is well recognized as the etiologic agent in cat scratch disease. Ocular complications of the disease occur in up to 10% of patients and include neuroretinitis. Ocular bartonelosis is usually self-limited with complete or near-complete recovery of vision in otherwise healthy patients. A case of a boy with neuroretinitis caused by B. henselae is reported.
Nkaoui, Mustafa; El Bardouni, Ahmed; Lazrek, Omar; Ibo, Nasser; Zouaidia, Fouad; Kharmaz, Mohamed; Elouadghiri, Mohamed; Lamrani, Omar; Mahfoud, Mustapha; Berrada, Mohamed Saleh
Cat-scratch disease (CSD) is a common cause of chronic benign lymphadenopathy in the child and the young adult. Bartonella henselae is the agent responsible for this disease. Common symptoms include regional lymphadenopathy associated with fever. We report a clinically atypical and potentially misleading case of a 18-year old girl with CSD revealed by elbow abscess.
Rost Monahan S
Cat-scratch disease is usually a benign self-limited illness, characterized by regional lymphadenopathy lasting between 3 and 6 weeks. The causative organism is Bartonella henselae, a small gram-negative rod. Between 1 and 2% of patients who contract the illness experience blurred vision, metamorphopsia and scotomas as a result of neuroretinitis, an associated clinical syndrome. The classical clinical findings in cat-scratch neuroretinitis include disc edema and a stellate pattern of exudates in the macula. However, a myriad of other signs has been documented, suggesting a much wider spectrum of intra-ocular disease. The following case report presents a young patient with neuroretinitis, and a history of lymphadenopathy secondary to cat-scratch disease.
Rolain, J M; Chanet, V; Laurichesse, H; Lepidi, H; Beytout, J; Raoult, D
In this report we describe a 30-year old male patient with vertebral osteomyelitis and spleen abscesses with cat scratch disease. The diagnosis was made on the basis of molecular detection of Bartonella henselae either on lymph node biopsies or on bone biopsy, histology of the lymph node, serology using either our in-house microimmunofluorescence assay or a commercial kit (Focus Technologies). Immunofluorescent detection was also performed directly on slide appositions using a monoclonal antibody. Treatment consisted of administration of antibiotics with rapid clinical improvement and a stabilization of skeletal lesions on the magnetic resonance imaging performed three months later. Twenty two other cases of this unusual manifestation associated with cat scratch disease have been reported in the literature and are reviewed here. Our case represents the second case of osteomyelitis associated with cat scratch disease in which B. henselae has been specifically identified as the etiological agent using several direct and indirect methods.
Full Text Available Introduction. Cat scratch disease (CSD is an acute infectious disease with benign course caused by the bacteria Bartonella henselae. Clinically, it is usually manifested as regional lymphadenopathy and mild infective syndrome. Rare forms of the disease which usually occur in immunocompromised presons are: encephalitis, transverse myelitis, neuroretinitis, granulomatosus conjunctivitis, arthritis, hepatitis etc. Case report. We presented an atypical form of cat scratch disease in a young immunocompetent female person. The disease was manifested with prolonged fever, rash, purulent lymphadenitis and hepatitis. The diagnosis was based on characteristic patohystological finding and exclusion of the other causes of lymphadenopathy. The patient was treated by antibiotics for a few weeks, with surgical incision and drainage of the purulent lymphadenitis. Conclusion. Atypical forms of CSD could be an important differential-diagnostic problem, especially if there is no opportunity for serological confirmation of the disease.
Yeh, S H; Zangwill, K M; Hall, B; McPhaul, L; Keller, M
The spectrum of illness attributed to cat-scratch disease (CSD) continues to expand. Although a common cause of cervical adenitis in children, CSD has not been associated as a cause of deep fascial space infections of the head and neck. We describe a child with extensive parapharyngeal adenitis and abscesses due to CSD confirmed by histological and serological evaluations.
Deschasse, C; Bielefeld, P; Muselier, A; Bour, J B; Besancenot, J F; Garcher, C C; Bron, A M
Cat scratch disease is a pleiomorphic condition, sometimes with isolated ophthalmic involvement. We report the clinical observations of seven cases with ophthalmologic manifestations of cat scratch disease. There were seven patients, with a median age of 52 years, of whom five were women and three had unilateral involvement. Six exhibited Leber's stellate neuroretinitis, an incomplete syndrome in two cases, and one associated with chorioretinal foci. One patient had isolated retinal infiltrates. The diagnosis of cat scratch disease was confirmed by Bartonella henselae serology, positive in all cases. All patients received treatment with doxycycline. Ocular complications (with optic atrophy and macular retinal pigment epithelial changes) were noted in five cases. Ocular bartonellosis is an atypical clinical form. It requires a directed ancillary work-up with serology or PCR, which has the peculiarity of being highly specific if not very sensitive. Treatment is above all preventive. Antibiotics may be initiated. Cat scratch disease must be excluded in the work-up of posterior uveitis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Objectives: To describe ocular manifestations, diagnosis, and treatment of cat scratch disease. Materials and Methods: Clinical records of patients with ocular cat scratch disease were reviewed. Results: Thirteen eyes of 10 patients (7 female, 3 male with a mean age of 26.9±18.5 years were included. Nine patients had a history of cat contact and had systemic symptoms associated with cat scratch disease 2-90 days prior to the ocular symptoms. Ocular signs were: neuroretinitis in 4 eyes (associated with serous retinal detachment in the inferior quadrant in 1 eye, optic neuropathy in 2 eyes (1 papillitis and optic disc infiltration, 1 optic neuritis, retinal infiltrates in 6 eyes, retinochoroiditis in 1 eye, branch retinal arteriolar occlusion in 3 eyes, and endophthalmitis in 1 eye. Visual acuities at presentation were 1.0 in 7 eyes, 0.3 in 1 eye, ≤0.1 in 4 eyes, and light perception in 1 eye. Bartonella henselae immunoglobulin (Ig M and/or IgG were positive in all patients. Systemic antibiotic therapy was administered in all patients. Systemic corticosteroid treatment (15-40 mg/day was added to the therapy in 4 patients, following 5 days of intravenous pulse methylprednisolone in 2 patients. Treatment was ongoing for 1 patient and the mean treatment duration of the other 9 patients was 47±14.5 days. Visual acuities at final visit were 1.0 in 9 eyes, 0.8 in 1 eye, 0.4 in 1 eye, and no light perception in 1 eye. Conclusion: Cat scratch disease may present with different ocular signs and should be considered in the differential diagnosis in patients with such presentations.
Krause, R.; Schnedl, W.J.; Hoier, S.; Piswanger-Soelkner, C.; Lipp, R.W.; Daxboeck, F.; Reisinger, E.C.
Aim: somatostatin receptor scintigraphy images various neoplastic, granulomatous, and auto-immun diseases. Cat-scratch disease in an infectious granulomatous disease usually affecting the lymphnodes. It is not known whether cat-scratch disease provides positive somatostatin receptor scintigrams. Patients, methods: twelve patients with lymphadenitis and suspected cat-scratch disease were investigated by immunofluorescence antibody testing and somatostatin receptor scintigraphy. Suppurated lymphnodes were extracted or drained and Bartonella henselae specific PCR was then performed. Results: eleven of 12 patients showed IgG antibodies against B. henselea. SRS showed positive scintigraphic results in 6 of 11 patients with CSD. B. henselae DNA was detected in tissue of lymphnodes from 4 of 5 patients with lymphnode extraction or lymphnode drainage. SRS demonstrated positive scintigrams in all patients with a positive PCR. In one patient with suspected CSD SRS was negative as well as antibody testing. Conclusion: somatostatin receptor scintigraphy correlated with positive Bartonella henselae specific PCR tests and positive Bartonella henselae specific antibody tests in patients with CSD. (orig.)
Krause, R.; Schnedl, W.J.; Hoier, S. [Div. of Infectious Diseases, Dept. of Internal Medicine, Univ. Graz (Austria); Piswanger-Soelkner, C.; Lipp, R.W. [Div. of Nuclear Medicine, Dept. of Internal Medicine, Univ. Graz (Austria); Daxboeck, F. [Clinical Inst. for Hygiene and Medical Microbiology, Div. of Hospital Hygiene, Univ. of Vienna (Austria); Reisinger, E.C. [Div. of Infectious Diseases and Tropical Medicine, Dept. of Internal Medicine, Univ. Rostock (Germany)
Aim: somatostatin receptor scintigraphy images various neoplastic, granulomatous, and auto-immun diseases. Cat-scratch disease in an infectious granulomatous disease usually affecting the lymphnodes. It is not known whether cat-scratch disease provides positive somatostatin receptor scintigrams. Patients, methods: twelve patients with lymphadenitis and suspected cat-scratch disease were investigated by immunofluorescence antibody testing and somatostatin receptor scintigraphy. Suppurated lymphnodes were extracted or drained and Bartonella henselae specific PCR was then performed. Results: eleven of 12 patients showed IgG antibodies against B. henselea. SRS showed positive scintigraphic results in 6 of 11 patients with CSD. B. henselae DNA was detected in tissue of lymphnodes from 4 of 5 patients with lymphnode extraction or lymphnode drainage. SRS demonstrated positive scintigrams in all patients with a positive PCR. In one patient with suspected CSD SRS was negative as well as antibody testing. Conclusion: somatostatin receptor scintigraphy correlated with positive Bartonella henselae specific PCR tests and positive Bartonella henselae specific antibody tests in patients with CSD. (orig.)
Tasher, Diana; Armarnik, Erez; Mizrahi, Avram; Liat, Ben Sira; Constantini, Shlomi; Grisaru-Soen, Galia
Cat scratch disease has variable clinical presentations and should be considered in the differential diagnosis of vertebral osteomyelitis and epidural abscess if there is a history of contact with cats. We report a 5-year-old boy with cat scratch disease who presented with painful torticollis and osteomyelitis of the cervical spine associated with an epidural abscess.
Dean, Robert L; Eisenbeis, John F
A 7-year-old boy was referred to us for evaluation of an enlarging neck mass. The results of his primary care physician's initial clinical examination suggested lymphadenopathy secondary to lymphadenitis, and the patient was treated over a 4-week period with two rounds of antibiotics. However, the mass did not resolve, and it subsequently became fluctuant. The patient was referred to our institution, where we diagnosed cat-scratch disease.
Gkamprela, E¹; Papadimitropoulos, V¹; Papadopoulos, N²; Deutsch, M¹
Background: Cat-scratch disease is caused by Bartonella henselae and transmitted to humans via the cats. Patients usually present with cutaneous lesions, regional lymphadenopathy and a brief period of fever.
Cannon, M J; MacKay, A D; Barr, F J; Rudorf, H; Bradley, K J; Gruffydd-Jones, T J
The prevalence of polycystic kidney disease was assessed in 132 Persian cats, 46 of them referred for the investigation and treatment of medical or surgical conditions, and 86 apparently healthy cats referred specifically to be screened for the disease. Cats referred for the investigation of renomegaly or renal failure were excluded, and cats under 10 months old were only included if they had been examined postmortem. One hundred and twenty-six of the cats were examined ultrasonographically with a 7.5 MHz sector scanner, and the other six cats were examined postmortem. Forty-nine of the 86 cats referred specifically for screening (57.0 per cent) and 16 of the 46 cats referred for other clinical reasons (34.8 per cent) were affected by the disease, giving an overall prevalence of 49.2 per cent.
Beck, C; Lavelle, R B
To determine the prevalence of feline polycstic kidney disease in Persian cats presented to the University of Melbourne Veterinary Clinic and Hospital between February and August 1999. A prospective clinical study using client owned animals was performed. Two hundred and fifty Persian cats, ranging in age from 13 weeks to 10 years, were presented to the University of Melbourne Veterinary Clinic and Hospital for ultrasound examination of both kidneys. The cats were placed in dorsal and lateral recumbency and alcohol and ultrasonic coupling gel were applied to the skin. The kidneys were examined ultrasonographically in longitudinal, sagittal and transverse planes. Results were recorded for each cat at the time of examination as either negative or positive for PKD. In addition 14 Exotics (short-haired Persians), 4 Ragdolls and 3 British Short-Hair cats were examined. Forty five percent of Persian cats examined were found to be positive for feline polycystic kidney disease on the basis of presence of anechoic cysts within the renal parenchyma. These cats ranged in age from 13 weeks to 10 years. Fifty per cent of the Exotic cats were positive for polycystic kidney disease whereas all Ragdolls and British Short Hairs were negative for the disease. Only one positive cat was reported to be showing clinical signs of renal disease. The prevalence of feline polycstic disease in Persian cats presented to the University of Melbourne between February and August 1999 was 45%. Exotic cats were found to have the slightly higher incidence of 50%.
Full Text Available The importance of biofilm in disease processes in humans and animals is now widely recognized. In animal species,the risk of infection is probably greater than the risk in humans. This is due to the difference in animal housing andliving environments – animals naturally live in environments with a large and much more diverse microbialcommunity. Most oral bacteria live symbiotically in biofilm. This symbiotic association gives the bacteria differentcommunal properties than individual planktonic bacteria.Bacteria that form biofilm live and develop in communities which are an important property for dental plaqueformation that leads to dental calculus formation, periodontal diseases, dental caries and systemic diseases.The objective of this study is to reveal the role of dental plaque (oral biofilm in pathogenesis of dental calculus,periodontal disease and dental caries in dogs and cats.
Boudreau, Christen Elizabeth
This article reviews definitions and normal anatomy and physiology of canine and feline cerebral vasculature. The pathophysiology of cerebrovascular disease (CVD), which results from disturbance of cerebral blood supply, is described, along with its common causes and correlative findings. The general clinical presentation of companion animals is described, although specific neurologic abnormalities depend on the neuroanatomic location of the disrupted blood supply. Current and future diagnostic approaches are described, including ancillary testing for predisposing factors. Acute and chronic management of patients with CVD is discussed. The prognosis for dogs and cats with acute CVD is generally considered good. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Elliott, Denise A
Chronic renal disease is a leading cause of death in dogs and cats. Recent clinical studies show that nutrition plays a key role in improving quality of life and life expectancy of these patients. Typical nutritional interventions include modifying the protein, phosphorus, and lipid concentrations. Nutritional therapy, however, does not simply mean changing the diet; consideration must also be given to ensuring adequate caloric intake and to the method of feeding. Monitoring the effects of the dietary therapy is also crucial to ensure that the patients are responding appropriately to the selected nutritional modifications. Nutritional management must be coordinated with medical management for long term successful treatment.
Ng, Kevin; Fiani, Nadine; Peralta, Santiago
Rhinoliths are rare, intranasal, mineralized masses formed via the precipitation of mineral salts around an intranasal nidus. Clinical signs are typically consistent with inflammatory rhinitis and nasal obstruction, but asymptomatic cases are possible. Rhinoliths may be classified as exogenous or endogenous depending on the origin of the nidus, with endogenous rhinoliths reportedly being less common. This case report describes a suspected case of endogenous rhinolithiasis in a cat which was detected as an incidental finding during radiographic assessment of a maxillary canine tooth with endodontic disease. Treatment consisted of removal of the suspected rhinolith via a transalveolar approach after surgical extraction of the maxillary canine tooth.
Gkamprela, E; Papadimitropoulos, V; Papadopoulos, N; Deutsch, M
Cat-scratch disease is caused by Bartonella henselae and transmitted to humans via the cats. Patients usually present with cutaneous lesions, regional lymphadenopathy and a brief period of fever. We report a rare case of an isolated splenic cat-scratch disease in an immunocompetent 27-year-old woman who presented with prolonged fever and multifocal splenic lesions. The patient was treated successfully with a long course of antibiotics. Isolated splenic lesions and fever is a rare manifestation of the cat-scratch disease. There is need of high suspicion index by the physicians to diagnose the disease promptly without invasive methods. Hippokratia 2016, 20(4): 306-308.
Nivy, R; Lyons, L A; Aroch, I; Segev, G
Polycystic kidney disease is the most common inherited disorder in cats. Renal cysts progressively increase in size and number, resulting in a gradual decrease in kidney function. An autosomal dominant mutation in exon 29 of the polycystin-1 gene has been identified, mostly in Persian and Persian-related breeds. This case study describes polycystic kidney disease in four British shorthair cats, of which two had the same genetic mutation reported in Persian and Persian-related cats. This likely reflects introduction of this mutation into the British shorthair breeding line because of previous outcrossing with Persian cats. An infected renal cyst was diagnosed and successfully treated in one of the cats. This is a commonly reported complication in human polycystic kidney disease, and to the authors' knowledge has not previously been reported in cats with polycystic kidney disease. © 2015 British Small Animal Veterinary Association.
Stebbins, K E
Polycystic disease of the kidney and liver was diagnosed in a 10-year-old spayed female Persian cat. Previous reports of renal and hepatic polycystic disease in dogs and cats have described only juvenile forms, with death at an early age. The cat of this report had large, fluid-filled kidney and liver cysts, compared with the relatively small, spongiform cysts of puppies and kittens. The clinicopathological findings in this adult Persian cat are comparable to the adult form of renal and hepatic polycystic disease of man.
Gorman, L; Sharkey, L C; Armstrong, P J; Little, K; Rendahl, A
Ketones, including beta hydroxybutyrate (BHB), are produced in conditions of negative energy balance and decreased glucose utilization. Serum BHB concentrations in cats are poorly characterized in diseases other than diabetes mellitus. Serum BHB concentrations will be increased in cats with chronic kidney disease (CKD), hyperthyroidism (HT), or hepatic lipidosis (HL). Twenty-eight client-owned cats with CKD, 34 cats with HT, and 15 cats with HL; 43 healthy cats. Prospective observational study. Serum BHB concentrations were measured at admission in cats with CKD, HT, and HL, for comparison with a reference interval established using healthy cats. Results of dipstick urine ketone measurement, when available, were compared to BHB measurement. Beta hydroxybutyrate was above the reference interval (<0.11 mmol/L) in 6/28 cats (21%) with CKD, 7/34 cats (20%) with HT, and 11/15 cats (73%) with HL, significantly exceeding the expected 2.5% above the reference interval for healthy cats (P < .001 for all groups). Elevations were mild in CKD and HT groups (median BHB 0.1 mmol/L for both groups, 80th percentile 0.12 and 0.11 mmol/L, respectively), but more marked in HL cats (median BHB 0.2 mmol/L, 80th percentile 0.84 mmol/L). None of 11 cats with increased serum BHB concentration having urine dipstick analysis performed within 24 h of sampling for BHB were ketonuric. Increases in serum BHB concentrations occur in cats with CKD, HT, and HL, and might provide an useful index of catabolism. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine.
Pennisi, Maria Grazia; Hartmann, Katrin; Addie, Diane D; Boucraut-Baralon, Corine; Egberink, Herman; Frymus, Tadeusz; Gruffydd-Jones, Tim; Horzinek, Marian C; Hosie, Margaret J; Lloret, Albert; Lutz, Hans; Marsilio, Fulvio; Radford, Alan D; Thiry, Etienne; Truyen, Uwe; Möstl, Karin
OVERVIEW: Cardiopulmonary nematodes are emerging parasites of cats in Europe. A number of helminth parasites may be involved. The most prevalent lungworm in domestic cats is Aelurostrongylus abstrusus. Oslerus rostratus and Troglostrongylus species are found mainly in wild cats. The trichurid
Ravi, Madhu; Wobeser, Gary A; Taylor, Susan M; Jackson, Marion L
This retrospective study evaluated epidemiologic features and disease associations of feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) infection in client owned cats from western Canada. Among 1205 cats that were tested 66 (5.5%) were positive for FIV antibody (FIV(+)) with a higher prevalence in males than females. FIV(+) cats were older than the overall population. Epidemiologic features and disease associations were compared between 58 FIV(+), but feline leukemia virus negative (FeLV(-)) cats and 58 age and sex matched FIV-negative (FIV(-)), FeLV(-) cats. FIV positivity was associated with a history of bite wounds, increasing age, and male gender. Lethargy and oral diseases were significantly associated with FIV positivity. Although several FIV(+) cats were euthanized, the survival time of FIV(+) cats after diagnosis was not significantly different from that of FIV(-) cats. In summary, FIV prevalence was low in cats from western Canada, clinical signs/diseases were mild, and lifespan was not different in FIV(+) cats.
Nelson, Richard W; Reusch, Claudia E
Diabetes mellitus is a common disease in dogs and cats. The most common form of diabetes in dogs resembles type 1 diabetes in humans. Studies suggest that genetics, an immune-mediated component, and environmental factors are involved in the development of diabetes in dogs. A variant of gestational diabetes also occurs in dogs. The most common form of diabetes in cats resembles type 2 diabetes in humans. A major risk factor in cats is obesity. Obese cats have altered expression of several insulin signaling genes and glucose transporters and are leptin resistant. Cats also form amyloid deposits within the islets of the pancreas and develop glucotoxicity when exposed to prolonged hyperglycemia. This review will briefly summarize our current knowledge about the etiology of diabetes in dogs and cats and illustrate the similarities among dogs, cats, and humans. © 2014 Society for Endocrinology.
Vitor Laerte Pinto Jr.
Full Text Available Cat scratch disease (CSD is a self limited condition characterized by fever, lymph node enlargement and less often eye involvement. Central nervous system involvement by Bartonella henselae infection is possibly an important cause of morbidity; its role as an agent of aseptic meningitis is unknown. We report a case of a 40 years-old man with CSD accompanied by aseptic meningitis and neuroretinitis. Serum indirect immmunofluorescence (IFI assays for B. henselae were positive and the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF analysis showed mononuclear pleocytosis and increased level of protein. Serological tests for other etiologies were negative. The patient responded well to antibiotic therapy with oral doxycicline plus rifampin and in the 12th day of hospitalization evolved to total regression of the headache and partial regression of the visual loss. Clinicians should consider CSD as a differential diagnosis when assessing previously healthy patients with aseptic meningitis associated with regional lymphadenopathy and epidemiological history of feline contact.
Zhuang Xiongjie; Wang Jingqun
Objective: To make a further understanding of CT manifestations of colonic lymphadenitis in the cat scratch disease (CSD). Methods: The clinical data and CT features of colonic lymphadenitis in two cases of CSD were analyzed retrospectively. Results: Both patients had cat contact history. The CT findings were colonic lymphadenitis with solid mass, and marked enhancement after contrast administration. There were no colon narrownest and necrosis of colonic mucous membranes, besides lymph node enlargement along the regional lymphatic drainage. Conclusion: Combination of the cat contact history, CT scanning is of great value in the cat scratch disease. (authors)
Ottenjann, Mareike; Weingart, Christiane; Arndt, Gisela; Kohn, Barbara
The purpose of this study was to describe the anemia of inflammatory disease (AID) in cats with naturally-occurring inflammatory diseases, such as abscesses (n = 12), pyothorax (n = 6), and fat necrosis (n = 3). Exclusion criteria were positive FeLV/FIV tests, neoplasia, nephro-, hepato- or endocrinopathies, and blood loss anemia. CBC, clinical biochemistry, measurements of serum erythropoietin, iron, total iron-binding capacity (TIBC), ferritin, acute phase proteins, erythrocytic osmotic fragility (OF), and Coombs' tests were performed. A decrease in hematocrit of 1-28% (median, 10%) occurred within 3-16 days (median, 8 days). The anemia was mild (n = 11), moderate (n = 8), or severe (n = 2). In most cases it was normocytic normochromic, non-regenerative (n = 18), or mildly regenerative (n = 3). Sixteen cats had leukocytosis and 5 mild hyperbilirubinemia. The Coombs' test results were negative for 8 cats and positive for 1 cat. OF was increased in 2 out of 14 cats. Hypoalbuminemia (n = 18) and hyperglobulinemia (n = 16) resulted in a lowered albumin/globulin-ratio in 19 cats. Iron and TIBC were low in 2/19 and 6 /19 cats, respectively. The ferritin concentrations were normal in 7 cats and increased in 12 cats. The acute phase proteins alpha1-acid-glycoprotein and haptoglobin were increased in 14/14 and 13/14 cats, respectively. Erythropoietin was normal (n = 4), mildly increased (n = 7) or severely increased (1). Two cats were euthanized due to their underlying disease, 3 cats needed blood transfusions. AID in cats is usually mild to moderate, non-regenerative, and normocytic normochromic. It can be clinically relevant causing severe and transfusion-dependent anemia. AID seems to be multifactorial with evidence of iron sequestration, decreased RBC survival, and insufficient erythropoietin production and bone marrow response. Specific and supportive therapy, including transfusions, can reverse these processes.
Fritsch, Dale A; Jewell, Dennis E; Leventhal, P S; Brejda, J; Ahle, N W; Schiefelbein, H M; Forrester, S D
Renal foods are used to manage chronic kidney disease (CKD) in dogs and cats, but their effectiveness may be limited by the ability to transition animals to them. In a prospective study, pet cats with previously undiagnosed kidney disease (20 International Renal Interest Society (IRIS) 1, 61 IRIS 2, 14 IRIS 3/4, 33 at risk for CKD) were transitioned to a renal food. Markers of renal function were measured and owners answered questionnaires about their pet over one year. All but eight cats (120/128; 94 per cent) successfully transitioned to the renal food. Most of the time, cats moderately or extremely liked the food (89 per cent), ate at least half (73 per cent) and were moderately or extremely enthusiastic while eating (68 per cent). Cats rarely disliked the food (2 per cent) or refused to eat it (1 per cent). Markers of renal function were unchanged in IRIS 1 and 2 cats and changed little in IRIS 3/4 cats. In all groups, owner-assessed quality of life improved initially and then remained stable. Mean bodyweight did not change in cats with CKD. Most cats with CKD successfully transitioned to the renal food. The results also support previous studies that the renal food can help stabilise cats with CKD.
Fritsch, Dale A; Jewell, Dennis E
Introduction Renal foods are used to manage chronic kidney disease (CKD) in dogs and cats, but their effectiveness may be limited by the ability to transition animals to them. Material and Methods In a prospective study, pet cats with previously undiagnosed kidney disease (20 International Renal Interest Society (IRIS) 1, 61 IRIS 2, 14 IRIS 3/4, 33 at risk for CKD) were transitioned to a renal food. Markers of renal function were measured and owners answered questionnaires about their pet over one year. Results All but eight cats (120/128; 94 per cent) successfully transitioned to the renal food. Most of the time, cats moderately or extremely liked the food (89 per cent), ate at least half (73 per cent) and were moderately or extremely enthusiastic while eating (68 per cent). Cats rarely disliked the food (2 per cent) or refused to eat it (1 per cent). Markers of renal function were unchanged in IRIS 1 and 2 cats and changed little in IRIS 3/4 cats. In all groups, owner-assessed quality of life improved initially and then remained stable. Mean bodyweight did not change in cats with CKD. Conclusions Most cats with CKD successfully transitioned to the renal food. The results also support previous studies that the renal food can help stabilise cats with CKD. PMID:26587240
Hanzlicek, A S; Meinkoth, J H; Renschler, J S; Goad, C; Wheat, L J
Treatment monitoring is subjective and disease relapse is common in cats with histoplasmosis. The Histoplasma antigen enzyme immunoassay (EIA) is a noninvasive test used for determining disease remission and detecting disease relapse in humans with histoplasmosis. The utility of the antigen EIA for these purposes in cats remains unknown. Those Histoplasma antigen concentrations in urine and serum would decline with antifungal treatment and that antigen elimination would be an indicator of clinical remission in cats with histoplasmosis treated with antifungal treatment. Fifteen client-owned cats with histoplasmosis. Masked observational study. Cats were monitored monthly during antifungal treatment. Time of clinical remission and serum and urine antigen elimination were determined for each cat. Twelve of 15 cats achieved clinical remission. At the time of diagnosis, antigen was detectable in urine in 14/15 (93%) cats and in serum in 11/15 (73%) cats. Both serum (P histoplasmosis. Further research is needed to investigate the importance of low-level antigenemia and antigenuria. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine.
Moise, N.S.; Wiedenkeller, D.; Yeager, A.E.; Blue, J.T.; Scarlett, J.
Medical records, radiographs, and bronchial cytologic abnormalities of 65 cats with bronchial disease were reviewed. Bronchial disease was defined as abnormality of the lower airways to the exclusion of disease originating or mainly involving the alveoli, interstitium, vasculature, or pleura. Cats with bronchial disease were more likely to be female and older. Siamese cats were over represented and had more chronic disease. In order of frequency, the following clinical signs were reported: coughing, dyspnea, occasional sneezing, wheezing, and vomiting. Radiography revealed prominent bronchial markings, with some cats having collapse of the middle lobe of the right lung (n = 7), overinflation of the lungs (n = 9), or aerophagia (n = 13). Of 65 bronchial washes, 58 were considered exudative, with the predominant cell type being eosinophil in 24%, neutrophil in 33%, macrophage in 22%, and mixed population of cells in 21%. Cultures for bacteria were considered positive in 24% of the cats. Circulating eosinophilia was not helpful in predicting the predominant cell type in bronchial cytologic exudates. Hyperproteinemia without dehydration was present in a third of the cats, indicating an immunologic response. Half the cats had resolution of clinical signs, whereas half the cats required continuing medication with bronchodilators, antimicrobial agents, or corticosteroids
Nelson, R W; Reusch, C E
Diabetes mellitus is a common disease in dogs and cats. The most common form of diabetes in dogs resembles type 1 diabetes in humans. Studies suggest that genetics, an immune-mediated component, and environmental factors are involved in the development of diabetes in dogs. A variant of gestational diabetes also occurs in dogs. The most common form of diabetes in cats resembles type 2 diabetes in humans. A major risk factor in cats is obesity. Obese cats have altered expression of several insu...
Williams, Timothy Lee; Archer, Frances Joy
Objectives: Evaluation of urine albumin:creatinine ratio, urine cystatin C:creatinine ratio, urine protein:creatinine ratio and urine specific gravity as screening tests for azotaemic chronic kidney disease in cats. Methods: Cats (>8 years) were defined as healthy non-azotaemic (n=40) if they had serum creatinine concentration 153 µmol/L with urine specific gravity 1.050]; P
Vargas-Hitos, J A; Sabio, J M; Navarrete-Navarrete, N; Arenas-Miras, M del M; Zamora-Pasadas, M; Jiménez-Alonso, J
Cat scratch disease is an infectious disorder transmitted by cats that typically affects children and young adults. Immunosuppression is a well-known risk factor for the development of severe and atypical forms of the disease; hence it is under-diagnosed in patients with compromised immunity. We are reporting the first case of cat scratch disease, which presented as fever and fatigue, in a patient with systemic lupus erythematosus while receiving immunosuppressant therapy after a kidney transplant. © The Author(s) 2015.
Prasher, Pawan; Di Pascuale, Mario; Cavanagh, H Dwight
To report a case of bilateral chronic peripheral ulcerative keratitis secondary to cat-scratch disease. Case report. A 66-year-old woman was initially diagnosed with Perinaud oculoglandular syndrome in her right eye. She subsequently experienced recurrent episodes of bilateral peripheral ulcerative keratitis associated with diffuse thinning, neovascularization, and conjunctivalization of the peripheral corneas. This case report shows a sequential occurrence of bilateral chronic peripheral ulcerative keratitis after an episode of cat-scratch disease. Cat-scratch disease should be included in the differential diagnosis of bilateral chronic peripheral ulcerative keratitis.
Hosseininejad, M; Hosseini, F
A 4-year-old female Persian cat was referred with the history of separation from the owner. There was no clinical sign and everything had been reported as normal during the veterinary checkup just before separation and traveling. The history and clinical signs were fit to separation anxiety when the cat referred to us. Ten days after the diagnosis and starting of the treatment for separation anxiety, the cat was referred again with the clinical signs of chronic renal failure. Further assessments showed an inherited polycystic kidney disease. Spontaneous manifestation of polycystic kidney disease after separation anxiety indicate that this phenomenon may cause the chronic process of polycystic kidney disease to promote.
Gruen, Margaret E; Messenger, Kristen M; Thomson, Andrea E; Griffith, Emily H; Aldrich, Lauren A; Vaden, Shelly; Lascelles, B Duncan X
Degenerative joint disease is common in cats, with signs of pain frequently found on orthopedic examination and radiographs often showing evidence of disease. However, understanding of the pathophysiology of degenerative joint disease and associated pain remains limited. Several cytokines have been identified as having a role in pain in humans, but this has not been investigated in cats. The present study was performed to use a multiplex platform to evaluate the concentration of 19 cytokines and chemokines in serum samples obtained from cats with and without degenerative joint disease and associated pain. Samples from a total of 186 cats were analyzed, with cats representing a range of severity on radiographic and orthopedic evaluations and categorized by degenerative joint disease scores and pain scores. Results showed that cats with higher radiographic degenerative joint disease scores have higher serum concentrations of IL-4 and IL-8, while cats with higher orthopedic exam pain scores have higher concentrations of IL-8, IL-2, and TNF-α; increased concentration of IL-8 in degenerative joint disease and pain may be confounded by the association with age. Discriminant analysis was unable to identify one or more cytokines that distinguish between groups of cats classified based on degenerative joint disease score category or pain score category. Finally, cluster analysis driven by analyte concentrations shows separation of groups of cats, but features defining the groups remain unknown. Further studies are warranted to investigate any changes in cytokine concentrations in response to analgesic therapies, and further evaluate the elevations in cytokine concentrations found here, particularly focused on studies of local cytokines present in synovial fluid. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Dillon, A Ray; Blagburn, Byron L; Tillson, Michael; Brawner, William; Welles, Betsy; Johnson, Calvin; Cattley, Russell; Rynders, Pat; Barney, Sharron
some time point post infection. The clinical implications of this study are that cats that become infected with immature adult heartworms may not develop fully mature heartworms and are only transiently heartworm antibody positive, but do develop Heartworm-Associated Respiratory Disease (HARD).
Full Text Available Cat scratch disease (CSD is the most well-known zoonotic disease spread by domestic animals like cats. Cats are the source of Bartonella henselae. Most patients more than ninety percent 3-12 days after a scratch from a cat, undoubtedly a little cat with insects present with one or more erythematous injuries at the site of inoculation, the sore is typically a crusted papule or, once in a while, a pustule. More than half of cases in one study show that the systemic indications went with the lymphadenopathy. These may incorporate fever, discomfort, migraine and anorexia and frequently happen in immunocompromised patients. Atypically clinical manifestations happen are altered mental status, perplexity, prolonged fever, respiratory protestations (atypical pneumonitis, Joint pain, synovitis, Back agony is uncommon. The hypothesis of the study to find out that cat scratch disease cause typical and atypical clinical manifestation. Study was conducted July 2015 to September 2015. The methodology sections of a review article are listed all of the databases and citation indexes that were searched such as Web of Science and PubMed and any individual journals that were searched. Various case reports were mentioned in the study. Case reports of cat scratch diseases with typical and atypical clinical manifestation included in the study. The objective of review of these reporting cases is to make physicians aware about cat scratch diseases and also need to create awareness about cat scratch disease in pet owner. Although it is self-limiting needs to report to health authorities. There are few cases reported in which mostly cases reported in twain, japan, Brazil, Texas, United States, Dhaka, Spain with typical and atypical clinical manifestation
Ravi, Madhu; Wobeser, Gary A.; Taylor, Susan M.; Jackson, Marion L.
This retrospective study evaluated epidemiologic features and disease associations of feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) infection in client owned cats from western Canada. Among 1205 cats that were tested 66 (5.5%) were positive for FIV antibody (FIV+) with a higher prevalence in males than females. FIV+ cats were older than the overall population. Epidemiologic features and disease associations were compared between 58 FIV+, but feline leukemia virus negative (FeLV−) cats and 58 age and se...
Mariana Andrade Baptista; Denise Swei Lo; Noely Hein; Maki Hirose; Cristina Ryoka Miyao Yoshioka; Selma Lopes Betta Ragazzi; Alfredo Elias Gilio; Angela Esposito Ferronato
Although infectious diseases are the most prevalent cause of fevers of unknown origin (FUO), this diagnosis remains challenging in some pediatric patients. Imaging exams, such as computed tomography (CT) are frequently required during the diagnostic processes. The presence of multiple hypoattenuating scattered images throughout the liver associated with the history of cohabitation with cats should raise the suspicion of the diagnosis of cat-scratch disease (CSD), although the main etiologic a...
Lappin, M. R.; Blondeau, J.; Boothe, D.
Respiratory tract disease can be associated with primary or secondary bacterial infections in dogs and cats and is a common reason for use and potential misuse, improper use, and overuse of antimicrobials. There is a lack of comprehensive treatment guidelines such as those that are available...... veterinarians in making antimicrobial treatment choices for use in the management of bacterial respiratory diseases in dogs and cats....
Sedionoto, Blego; Anamnart, Witthaya
Hookworm infection and Stronyloidiasis are public health problem in the worldwide which both of them could infective in human by penetrated on skin and they have potential risk from Gastrointestinal zoonotic helminths of pets, including cats. We investigated the prevalence soil transmitted helminths infection in human and cats used modified Formal-Ether Concentration and agar plate culture. Fecal samples of 23 cats and human from Naitung and Subua Villages (area study 1), and fecal samples of 15 cats and 17 humans from Thasala Beach villages (area study 2) were collected. Result of study in area study 1 showed prevalence of infection in human was not hookworm and strongyloidiasis but 10% humans have infected Ascaris and Tricuris, and in cats have infected by hookworm 75.2% and S. strercoralis 8.5%, toxocara 13%, spirometra 13% and overall prevalence 82.5%. In area study 2 showed in human has infected by Trichuris 100% and S. stercoralis 29.4% and in cats have infected by hookworm 100% and S. strercoralis 40%, toxocora 20%, and spirometra 20%. Helminth infection found in both humans in two areas study are S. strercoralis. Hookworms were the most common helminth in cats but did not connection with infection in human, while S. strercoralis was helminth infection in cats which has potential zoonotic disease to human.
Vucicevic, Milos; Slijepcevic, Dajana; Davitkov, Darko; Avdalovic, Vladimir; Aleksic-Kovacevic, Sanja; Stevanovic, Jevrosima; Stanimirovic, Zoran
Polycystic kidney disease (PKD) is an inherited autosomal disorder in cats, mostly diagnosed in Persian cats. Renal cysts can be diagnosed by ultrasound, but cats must be at least 16 weeks old. The goals of this study were to assess the occurrence of PKD in Serbia using a randomly selected group of Persian cats, to compare the diagnostic efficacy of ultrasound and genetic tests, and to measure haematological and selected biochemical parameters. We examined 70 cats of Persian breed, between 4 months and 8 years of age. Complete blood count and selected biochemical parameters were measured, renal ultrasound was performed. Swabs of the oral cavity were obtained for genetic testing. Percentage of PKD positive cats identified by genetic testing was 48.6%, whilst only 18.6% were detected through ultrasound. Animals that were polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) positive and ultrasound negative ranged from 4 months to 3.5 years. All haematological and biochemical parameters were within the the normal range values in all examined cats. Genetic methods proved to be the most effective for reliable and early diagnosis of PKD in Persian cats. DNA analysis can be used right after birth, and excludes the need for other diagnostic procedures, such as ultrasound.
Guerra, Juliana M; Freitas, Mariana F; Daniel, Alexandre Gt; Pellegrino, Arine; Cardoso, Natália C; Castro, Isac de; Onuchic, Luiz F; Cogliati, Bruno
Objectives The aim of this study was to establish ultrasound criteria for the diagnosis of autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) in Persian cats. Methods Eighty-two Persian cats were assessed using renal ultrasound and genotyped for the C→A transversion in exon 29 of PKD1. The animals were also submitted to hematological characterization, serum biochemistry analyses and urinalysis. Results Age, sex and neutering status did not differ between ADPKD (n = 12) and non-ADPKD (n = 70) cats. After integrated molecular genetics/ultrasonographic analysis, the presence of at least one renal cyst was sufficient to establish a diagnosis of ADPKD in animals up to 15 months of age. Two or more cysts were required for diagnosis in cats aged 16-32 months, and at least three cysts warranted diagnosis of ADPKD in animals aged 33-49 months. Finally, four or more cysts led to diagnosis in cats aged 50-66 months. Although cats with ADPKD exhibited higher serum calcium levels than non-affected cats, hematological, urinalysis and other biochemical parameters did not differ between the two groups. Conclusions and relevance Integrated analyses of imaging and molecular genetics data enabled, for the first time, the establishment of age-based ultrasonographic criteria for the diagnosis of ADPKD in Persian cats. The development of imaging criteria is particularly relevant and useful in the clinical setting given the current limitations to access and the cost of molecular genetics-based diagnostic tests.
Scalon, Marcela C; da Silva, Thamiris F; Aquino, Larissa C; Carneiro, Filipe T; Lima, Maíra G da M; Lemos, Marcelle Dos S; Paludo, Giane R
Autosomal-dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) is the most prevalent inherited genetic disease of cats, predominantly affecting Persian and Persian-related cats. A point mutation (C→A transversion) in exon 29 of the PKD1 gene causes ADPKD, and is the specific molecular target for genetic diagnosis in cats. The current study describes a newly developed touchdown polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to detect this single point mutation, using 2 primers specific for the mutant allele, adapted from an existing multiplex amplification refractory mutation system (ARMS PCR). Furthermore, correlations between the clinical outcomes of tested animals and the results of the genetic test were investigated. A total of 334 cats were tested, 188 from the Veterinary Hospital of Small Animals at the University of Brasilia, and 146 from an anti-rabies vaccine campaign of the Federal District. A total prevalence of 9% was evident among the samples, with 33% of the Persian cats testing positive, and 7% of the Brazilian long- and shorthaired cats testing positive. Prevalence was not correlated with gender or hemogram. Positive animals exhibited hyperglobulinemia ( P = 0.02). This research demonstrated that the mutation does not only occur in Persian and Persian-related cats, and that a touchdown PCR can be used to diagnose ADPKD.
Keijser, S F A; Meijndert, L E; Fieten, H; Carrière, B J; van Steenbeek, F G; Leegwater, P A J; Rothuizen, J; Nielen, M
Current public and professional opinion is that many dog breeds suffer from health issues related to inherited diseases or extreme phenotypes. The aim of this historical comparative observational study was to evaluate the breed-related disease burden in three purebred dog populations (Chihuahua, French bulldog, Labrador retriever) and one purebred cat breed (Persian cats) in the Netherlands by comparison to a control population of mixed-breed dogs and European Shorthair cats. A qualitative query was performed, consisting of a literature review and collecting the expert opinions of University veterinary specialists, to gather insight into potential diseases of the study population. Next, a referral clinic case control study of the patients referred to specific medical disciplines in the University Clinic was performed. The odds ratio (OR) was calculated to determine the likelihood of a patient referred to a particular medical discipline being a certain breed. Together, the qualitative query and the case control study resulted in a list of potentially relevant diseases limited to five organ systems per breed. These were analysed in data from primary practices. Patient files from ten primary practices over a period of two years were manually extracted and examined. Four-hundred individual patient records per breed as well as 1000 non-breed records were randomly selected from the 10 practices, weighted per practice size. Records were then examined and the presence or absence of certain diseases was identified. To evaluate the disease burden per breed, proportional difference (PD) was estimated, as well as the animal's age at presentation in months. The results of the referral clinic case control study showed an overrepresentation (Odds Ratio>1.5) of the selected breeds in several medical specialties, while median age at presentation was in some cases significantly lower than in the non-breed animals. Results of the practice-based extended cross-sectional study showed
Timoney, J F; Velineni, S; Ulrich, B; Blanchard, P
Lancefield group G Streptococcus canis is a component of the normal urogenital and pharyngeal flora of the cat. It is also frequently implicated in epizootics of severe disease in closed cat colonies and animal shelters. Given the importance of S canis as a feline pathogen and relative lack of published information on characteristics potentially associated with virulence, the authors have compared isolates from healthy and diseased cats in New York and California using fermentation profiles (biotype) and ScM sequences. With few exceptions, isolates associated with disease were biotype 1. Four alleles of scm were identified of which type 1 dominated in diseased cats. Type 4 allelic variants were found only in healthy cats and all but one were biotype 2. Type 2 and 3 alleles showed extensive N-terminal variation suggesting a plasminogen-binding site as found on the type 1 allele was absent. Cat antisera to ScM were opsonobactericidal, and these potentially protective antibodies increased during convalescence. British Veterinary Association.
Pereira, N J; Novo Matos, J; Baron Toaldo, M; Bartoszuk, U; Summerfield, N; Riederer, A; Reusch, C; Glaus, T M
Diabetes mellitus (DM) can result in cardiovascular dysfunction and heart failure characterized by diastolic dysfunction with or without the presence of systolic dysfunction in people and laboratory animals. The objective of this prospective study was to determine if cats with newly diagnosed DM had myocardial dysfunction and, if present, whether it would progress if appropriate antidiabetic therapy was commenced. Thirty-two diabetic cats were enrolled and received baseline echocardiographic examination; of these, 15 cats were re-examined after 6 months. Ten healthy age- and weight-matched cats served as controls. Diabetic cats at diagnosis showed decreased diastolic, but not systolic function, when compared to healthy controls, with lower mitral inflow E wave (E) and E/E' than controls. After 6 months, E and E/IVRT' decreased further in diabetic cats compared to the baseline evaluation. After excluding cats whose DM was in remission at 6 months, insulin-dependent diabetic cats had lower E, E/A and E' than controls. When classifying diastolic function according to E/A and E'/A', there was shift towards impaired relaxation patterns at 6 months. All insulin-dependent diabetic cats at 6 months had abnormal diastolic function. These results indicate that DM has similar effects on diastolic function in feline and human diabetics. The dysfunction seemed to progress rather than to normalize after 6 months, despite antidiabetic therapy. In cats with pre-existing heart disease, the development of DM could represent an important additional health risk. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Lafenetre, M; Herbigneaux, R M; Michoud, M; Descours, G; Debillon, T
Cat scratch disease is an infection caused by Bartonella henselae. The main clinical form is a lymphadenopathy with fever. However, uncommon bone involvement has been described. In this paper, we report a case of osteomyelitis in a 13-year-old teenager infected with B. henselae. The diagnosis was made based on PCR only because the serology was negative. A literature review reports 65 cases of osteomyelitis due to cat scratch disease. For each case, serology and PCR were notified. Osteomyelitis caused by B. henselae is a rare clinical manifestation. The diagnosis can be difficult, but the medical history must be accurate to search for contact with a cat and a cat scratch. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
Ana Maria Teixeira Verçoza
Full Text Available Cat Scratch Disease (CSD is an infectious disorder which appears after cat scratching particularly in children and adolescents. Bartonella henselae is the etiologic agent more frequently involved. There are only a few recent reports demonstrating the disease after transplantation, although the illness is not infrequent in immunologically competent people. Indeed CSD in transplant receptors has only been recently emphasized in the literature and it was concluded that fever and lymphadenopathy in patients who had been exposed to cats should prompt clinicians to maintain a suspicion for the infection. In this report CSD infecting a renal transplanted adolescent complaining of headache, blurred vision and fever, presenting a cat scratching lesion in the right arm, with a bilateral painful cervical lymphadenopathy was related. He also presented indirect immunofluorescency identifying that the two subtype's titles of Bartonella-henselae and quintana- were elevated. Treatment with doxicicline e rifampicin was introduced and the patient became asymptomatic in about 3 weeks.
Pedersen, Karen M; Pedersen, Henrik D; Häggström, Jens; Koch, Jørgen; Ersbøll, Annette K
Polycystic kidney disease (PKD) in Persian cats has been increasingly reported and compared to human autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) in the last decade. In cats, however, few studies have dealt with the occurrence and hormonal determinants of hypertension, one of the most common extrarenal manifestations of ADPKD in humans. The purpose of this study was to compare Persian cats >4 years old with PKD to unaffected control cats with regard to blood pressure (BP), plasma renin activity (PRA), serum aldosterone concentration, plasma atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) concentration, and aldosterone-to-renin ratio (ARR). Three gender- and age-matched groups were studied, each consisting of 7 cats: (1) a control group without cysts, (2) a group with mild PKD, and (3) a group with severe PKD (multiple cysts and renal enlargement). Mild renal insufficiency was found in only 1 of 14 cats with PKD. Cats with PKD had a higher mean arterial pressure (P = .04) and more often had a high ARR (P = .047) than did control cats. Tendencies toward higher diastolic and systolic arterial pressures (DAPs and SAPs, respectively) and lower PRAs were observed in cats with PKD compared to controls (.05 cats had echocardiographic evidence of cardiac hypertrophy. In conclusion, cats with PKD had a minor increase in mean arterial pressure compared to control cats, and half of the cats had a high ARR.
Dermatophytosis (ringworm) is a superficial fungal skin disease of cats that, depending on the geographic region and practice caseload, may be encountered uncommonly through to commonly. This is a self-curing disease in an immunocompetent cat. Dermatophytosis is prevalent worldwide and is one of a number of zoonotic skin diseases that cat owners are at risk of contracting. Dermatophytosis causes non-specific signs of hair loss, erythema and scaling, making it a differential diagnosis for many skin diseases of cats. The fact that this disease is infectious and contagious, and does not have any one classic clinical presentation, makes knowledge of diagnostic tools important in detection. The veterinarian's role is in early disease recognition and institution of appropriate therapy to hasten resolution of the disease. The focus of this article is to provide an update and review of the most pertinent aspects that may be helpful in the management of dermatophytosis in any single or multiple cat situation. Where appropriate, evidence from the literature is used to supplement a summary of the author's clinical experience and research in feline dermatophytosis.
Sinha, Chandrasen K; Grewal, Alka; Ward, Harry Charles
The association of Hirschsprung's disease (HD) and anorectal malformations has been reported in 2.3% to 3.4% cases. Only 2 cases have previously been published where cat eye syndrome was associated with long (but not short) segment HD. Here, we report a case where there appears to be an association among short segment HD, cat eye syndrome, and anorectal malformation, which has not previously been identified. An abnormality in chromosome 22 may be involved in the development of this association.
Cheng, F P; Hsieh, M J; Chou, C C; Hsu, W L; Lee, Y J
Indoxyl sulfate (IS), a protein-bound uraemic toxin, has been found to accumulate in the serum of people with renal diseases and is associated with free radical induction, nephrotoxicity cardiovascular toxicity, and osteoblast cytotoxicity. Although IS has been studied in humans and in experimental models, the role of IS in dogs and cats with kidney disease has not been investigated. A high performance liquid chromatography system was applied to detect plasma IS concentrations in non-azotaemic animals (63 dogs, 16 cats) and in animals with renal azotaemia (66 dogs, 69 cats). The IS levels of azotaemic animals were significantly higher (P dogs; median [IQR] 21 (18.9) mg/L vs. 14.8 (12.3) mg/L for cats). The IS level was significantly correlated with blood urea nitrogen, serum creatinine and phosphate concentrations. Dogs with acute kidney injury had significantly higher IS levels (P dogs and cats. The IS concentration is directly related to loss of renal function. Further studies are necessary to determine whether measurement of IS provides any additional diagnostic or prognostic information in dogs and cats with kidney disease. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Merten, Nina; Weingart, Christiane; Kohn, Barbara
Anemia is a common hematological alteration in cats. The objective of this study was to evaluate the frequency of different types of anemia and the course of disease in cats with a hematocrit (hct) anemia groups based on history, physical examination and laboratory parameters. Most cats had acute blood loss anemia (BA; 75/194; 38.7%). Frequent causes were trauma (39/75), hematuria (13/75) and hemostatic disorders (9/75). Anemia of inflammatory and neoplastic disease (AID) occurred in 22.2% (43/194) and hemolytic anemia (HA) in 18% (35/194). Half of those were presumptively immune-mediated (IHA). Four cats were diagnosed with hemotropic mycoplasma infection. Rare causes of anemia included anemia of renal disease (ARD; 18/194; 9.3%) and intramedullary non-regenerative anemia (INR; 13/194; 6.7%). The latter either had retroviral infection (6/13) or neoplasia (6/13). In cats with HA and INR anemia was often severe and very severe (Hct anemia was detected for the first time. Cats with HA had the highest survival rate.
Luciano H. Giovaninni
Full Text Available Chronic kidney disease (CKD is frequently observed in cats and it is characterized as a multisystemic illness, caused by several underlying metabolic changes, and secondary renal hyperparathyroidism (SRHPT is relatively common; usually it is associated with the progression of renal disease and poor prognosis. This study aimed at determining the frequency of SRHPT, and discussing possible mechanisms that could contribute to the development of SRHPT in cats at different stages of CKD through the evaluation of calcium and phosphorus metabolism, as well as acid-base status. Forty owned cats with CKD were included and divided into three groups, according to the stages of the disease, classified according to the International Renal Interest Society (IRIS as Stage II (n=12, Stage III (n=22 and Stage IV (n=6. Control group was composed of 21 clinically healthy cats. Increased serum intact parathyroid hormone (iPTH concentrations were observed in most CKD cats in all stages, and mainly in Stage IV, which hyperphosphatemia and ionized hypocalcemia were detected and associated to the cause for the development of SRHPT. In Stages II and III, however, ionized hypercalcemia was noticed suggesting that the development of SRHPT might be associated with other factors, and metabolic acidosis could be involved to the increase of serum ionized calcium. Therefore, causes for the development of SRHPT seem to be multifactorial and they must be further investigated, mainly in the early stages of CKD in cats, as hyperphosphatemia and ionized hypocalcemia could not be the only factors involved.
Healthy animals normally eat sufficient food to satisfy their energy requirements. It is one of the jobs of the nutritionist to ensure that all other nutrient needs have been met when animals stop eating because they have met their energy needs. While dogs and cats are members of the biological order Carnivora, scientific observation and research support that differences in their metabolism and nutritional requirements exist. However, the goal in feeding both species is the same; to optimize ...
Barthez, P Y; Rivier, P; Begon, D
The prevalence of polycystic kidney disease (PKD) has been estimated in the USA, Australia, UK, and Germany, but no data are available to date in France. The purpose of this study was to determine prevalence of PKD in Persian and Persian related breeds of cats in France. Medical records of all healthy cats presented for ultrasonographic screening of PKD between December 2000 and April 2002 were analysed from two centres (ENVL and ENVA). Cats were classified as positive when at least one anechoic cavity was found in at least one kidney. Prevalence of PKD was compared between the two screening centres, between different breeds evaluated, and between male and female using Chi-square test. A total of 310 cats were examined, including 92 at ENVL (57 Persians, 22 Exotic Shorthairs, 7 Chartreux, 4 Norwegian Forest Cats, and 2 Abyssins) and 218 at ENVA (163 Persians, 42 Exotic Shorthairs, 4 Chartreux, 4 British Shorthairs, 2 American Whirehairs, 2 Norwegian Forest Cats, and 1 American Shorthair). Prevalence of PKD was 41.8% in Persian cats and 39.1% in Exotic Shorthair. No PKD was detected in cats from other breeds. There was no significant difference between prevalence of PKD found in ENVL and ENVA, between prevalence of PKD in Persians and in Exotic Shorthairs, and prevalence of PKD in male and in female. Prevalence of PKD in Persians and Exotic Shorthair cats in France is currently high but is similar to prevalence in other parts of the world. Selection based on ultrasonographic detection of cysts should decrease prevalence of PKD in the future.
Bevins, Sarah N; Carver, Scott; Boydston, Erin E; Lyren, Lisa M; Alldredge, Mat; Logan, Kenneth A; Riley, Seth P D; Fisher, Robert N; Vickers, T Winston; Boyce, Walter; Salman, Mo; Lappin, Michael R; Crooks, Kevin R; VandeWoude, Sue
Anthropogenic landscape change can lead to increased opportunities for pathogen transmission between domestic and non-domestic animals. Pumas, bobcats, and domestic cats are sympatric in many areas of North America and share many of the same pathogens, some of which are zoonotic. We analyzed bobcat, puma, and feral domestic cat samples collected from targeted geographic areas. We examined exposure to three pathogens that are taxonomically diverse (bacterial, protozoal, viral), that incorporate multiple transmission strategies (vector-borne, environmental exposure/ingestion, and direct contact), and that vary in species-specificity. Bartonella spp., Feline Immunodeficiency Virus (FIV), and Toxoplasma gondii IgG were detected in all three species with mean respective prevalence as follows: puma 16%, 41% and 75%; bobcat 31%, 22% and 43%; domestic cat 45%, 10% and 1%. Bartonella spp. were highly prevalent among domestic cats in Southern California compared to other cohort groups. Feline Immunodeficiency Virus exposure was primarily associated with species and age, and was not influenced by geographic location. Pumas were more likely to be infected with FIV than bobcats, with domestic cats having the lowest infection rate. Toxoplasma gondii seroprevalence was high in both pumas and bobcats across all sites; in contrast, few domestic cats were seropositive, despite the fact that feral, free ranging domestic cats were targeted in this study. Interestingly, a directly transmitted species-specific disease (FIV) was not associated with geographic location, while exposure to indirectly transmitted diseases--vector-borne for Bartonella spp. and ingestion of oocysts via infected prey or environmental exposure for T. gondii--varied significantly by site. Pathogens transmitted by direct contact may be more dependent upon individual behaviors and intra-specific encounters. Future studies will integrate host density, as well as landscape features, to better understand the
Sarah N Bevins
Full Text Available Anthropogenic landscape change can lead to increased opportunities for pathogen transmission between domestic and non-domestic animals. Pumas, bobcats, and domestic cats are sympatric in many areas of North America and share many of the same pathogens, some of which are zoonotic. We analyzed bobcat, puma, and feral domestic cat samples collected from targeted geographic areas. We examined exposure to three pathogens that are taxonomically diverse (bacterial, protozoal, viral, that incorporate multiple transmission strategies (vector-borne, environmental exposure/ingestion, and direct contact, and that vary in species-specificity. Bartonella spp., Feline Immunodeficiency Virus (FIV, and Toxoplasma gondii IgG were detected in all three species with mean respective prevalence as follows: puma 16%, 41% and 75%; bobcat 31%, 22% and 43%; domestic cat 45%, 10% and 1%. Bartonella spp. were highly prevalent among domestic cats in Southern California compared to other cohort groups. Feline Immunodeficiency Virus exposure was primarily associated with species and age, and was not influenced by geographic location. Pumas were more likely to be infected with FIV than bobcats, with domestic cats having the lowest infection rate. Toxoplasma gondii seroprevalence was high in both pumas and bobcats across all sites; in contrast, few domestic cats were seropositive, despite the fact that feral, free ranging domestic cats were targeted in this study. Interestingly, a directly transmitted species-specific disease (FIV was not associated with geographic location, while exposure to indirectly transmitted diseases--vector-borne for Bartonella spp. and ingestion of oocysts via infected prey or environmental exposure for T. gondii--varied significantly by site. Pathogens transmitted by direct contact may be more dependent upon individual behaviors and intra-specific encounters. Future studies will integrate host density, as well as landscape features, to better
Bevins, Sarah N.; Carver, Scott; Boydston, Erin E.; Lyren, Lisa M.; Alldredge, Mat; Logan, Kenneth A.; Riley, Seth P.D.; Fisher, Robert N.; Vickers, T. Winston; Boyce, Walter; Salman, Mo; Lappin, Michael R.; Crooks, Kevin R.; VandeWoude, Sue
Anthropogenic landscape change can lead to increased opportunities for pathogen transmission between domestic and non-domestic animals. Pumas, bobcats, and domestic cats are sympatric in many areas of North America and share many of the same pathogens, some of which are zoonotic. We analyzed bobcat, puma, and feral domestic cat samples collected from targeted geographic areas. We examined exposure to three pathogens that are taxonomically diverse (bacterial, protozoal, viral), that incorporate multiple transmission strategies (vector-borne, environmental exposure/ingestion, and direct contact), and that vary in species-specificity. Bartonella spp., Feline Immunodeficiency Virus (FIV), and Toxoplasma gondii IgG were detected in all three species with mean respective prevalence as follows: puma 16%, 41% and 75%; bobcat 31%, 22% and 43%; domestic cat 45%, 10% and 1%. Bartonella spp. were highly prevalent among domestic cats in Southern California compared to other cohort groups. Feline Immunodeficiency Virus exposure was primarily associated with species and age, and was not influenced by geographic location. Pumas were more likely to be infected with FIV than bobcats, with domestic cats having the lowest infection rate. Toxoplasma gondii seroprevalence was high in both pumas and bobcats across all sites; in contrast, few domestic cats were seropositive, despite the fact that feral, free ranging domestic cats were targeted in this study. Interestingly, a directly transmitted species-specific disease (FIV) was not associated with geographic location, while exposure to indirectly transmitted diseases – vector-borne for Bartonella spp. and ingestion of oocysts via infected prey or environmental exposure for T. gondii – varied significantly by site. Pathogens transmitted by direct contact may be more dependent upon individual behaviors and intra-specific encounters. Future studies will integrate host density, as well as landscape features, to better
Eaton, K A; Biller, D S; DiBartola, S P; Radin, M J; Wellman, M L
A form of autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) similar in clinical features to human ADPKD occurs in the Persian cat. We characterized the morphologic and immunohistochemical features of this disease in a colony of affected cats. Complete postmortem examinations were performed on 11 normal and 22 affected cats ranging in age from 3 months to 10 years. Kidneys were evaluated by gross and histologic examinations, ultrastructure, lectin staining, bromodeoxyuridine immunochemistry for labeling index and immunochemistry for distribution of Na/K ATPase. Feline ADPKD was characterized by variable numbers of cysts in the renal cortex and medullar. Ultrastructural examination and lectin staining suggested that cysts arose from proximal and distal nephron segments. Bromodeoxyuridine labeling demonstrated increased proliferation of epithelium lining some cysts in young cats. Immunohistochemical staining showed variable translocation of Na/K ATPase from the basolateral membranes of cyst-lining cells to the cytoplasm or luminal membranes. Cystic renal disease commonly was associated with chronic tubulointerstitial nephritis and hepatobiliary hyperplasia and fibrosis. Focal hyperplasia of renal tubular epithelium, hepatic cysts, and cardiac lesions were present in some cats. Feline ADPKD shares many morphologic and pathogenetic features with human ADPKD.
Gruen, Margaret E; Griffith, Emily H; Thomson, Andrea E; Simpson, Wendy; Lascelles, B Duncan X
Degenerative joint disease and associated pain are common in cats, particularly in older cats. There is a need for treatment options, however evaluation of putative therapies is limited by a lack of suitable, validated outcome measures that can be used in the target population of client owned cats. The objectives of this study were to evaluate low-dose daily meloxicam for the treatment of pain associated with degenerative joint disease in cats, and further validate two clinical metrology instruments, the Feline Musculoskeletal Pain Index (FMPI) and the Client Specific Outcome Measures (CSOM). Sixty-six client owned cats with degenerative joint disease and owner-reported impairments in mobility were screened and enrolled into a double-masked, placebo-controlled, randomized clinical trial. Following a run-in baseline period, cats were given either placebo or meloxicam for 21 days, then in a masked washout, cats were all given placebo for 21 days. Subsequently, cats were given the opposite treatment, placebo or meloxicam, for 21 days. Cats wore activity monitors throughout the study, owners completed clinical metrology instruments following each period. Activity counts were increased in cats during treatment with daily meloxicam (pdegenerative joint disease.
Gruen, Margaret E.; Griffith, Emily H.; Thomson, Andrea E.; Simpson, Wendy; Lascelles, B. Duncan X.
Introduction Degenerative joint disease and associated pain are common in cats, particularly in older cats. There is a need for treatment options, however evaluation of putative therapies is limited by a lack of suitable, validated outcome measures that can be used in the target population of client owned cats. The objectives of this study were to evaluate low-dose daily meloxicam for the treatment of pain associated with degenerative joint disease in cats, and further validate two clinical metrology instruments, the Feline Musculoskeletal Pain Index (FMPI) and the Client Specific Outcome Measures (CSOM). Methods Sixty-six client owned cats with degenerative joint disease and owner-reported impairments in mobility were screened and enrolled into a double-masked, placebo-controlled, randomized clinical trial. Following a run-in baseline period, cats were given either placebo or meloxicam for 21 days, then in a masked washout, cats were all given placebo for 21 days. Subsequently, cats were given the opposite treatment, placebo or meloxicam, for 21 days. Cats wore activity monitors throughout the study, owners completed clinical metrology instruments following each period. Results Activity counts were increased in cats during treatment with daily meloxicam (pcats with degenerative joint disease. PMID:26162101
Matias, M; Marques, T; Ferreira, M A; Ribeiro, L
A 71-year-old man operated for a sigmoid tumour remained in the surveillance after adjuvant chemotherapy. After 3 years, a left axillary lymph node was visible on CT scan. The biopsy revealed a necrotising and abscessed granulomatous lymphadenitis, suggestive of cat scratch disease. The patient confirmed having been scratched by a cat and the serology for Bartonella henselae was IgM+/IgG-. Direct and culture examinations for tuberculosis were negative. The patient was treated for cat scratch disease. One year later, the CT scan showed increased left axillary lymph nodes and a left pleural effusion. Direct and cultural examinations to exclude tuberculosis were again negative. Interferon-γ release assay testing for tuberculosis was undetermined and then positive. Lymph node and pleural tuberculosis were diagnosed and treated with a good radiological response. This article has provides evidence of the importance of continued search for the right diagnosis and that two diagnoses can happen in the same patient.
Phan, Amanda; Castagnini, Luis A
Hepatosplenic cat-scratch disease (CSD) may cause prolonged fever. We present the case of a 4-year-old boy with confirmed hepatosplenic CSD with fever lasting 3 months despite use of multiple different antimicrobial agents. The patient became afebrile soon after corticosteroid therapy was started. Our case indicates corticosteroids may be useful in patients with hepatosplenic CSD and prolonged fever.
Koga, Takeharu; Taguchi, Jun; Suzuki, Minoru; Higa, Yoshiteru; Kamimura, Tomoko; Nishimura, Munetsugu; Arakawa, Masahiro
Cat scratch disease (CSD) is usually diagnosed in patients presenting with regional lymphadenopathy and pyrexia that follow contacts with animals. We describe here a young adult male patient who presented with marked pyrexia and a retroperitoneal abscess without relevant medical histories, illustrating that CSD can be a diagnostic challenge on selected occasions.
Modi, S P; Eppes, S C; Klein, J D
The case of a 4-year-old girl who presented with fever and back pain after being scratched by a kitten is presented. The diagnosis of cat scratch disease osteomyelitis was made by the detection of Bartonella henselae DNA by PCR analysis of a rib abscess aspirate.
Barkai, Galia; Gutman, Gabriel; Sherr-Lurie, Nir; Hoffmann, Chen; Schpirer, Zvi
Cat scratch disease is caused by Bartonella henselae, a bacterium transmitted to humans from cats through a scratch or by fleas. In 90% of cases, the clinical presentation is that of classical cat scratch disease where an adjacent lymph node is infected. Atypical manifestations include prolonged fever, liver and spleen abscesses, infective endocarditis, central nervous system involvement etc. We present a 6 years old girl who suffered from L2 vertebral osteomyelitis and epidural abscess, initially presenting as colic left waist pain, with no back pain or high fevers. During the process of diagnosis, she recovered without surgical intervention or antibiotic treatment. A review of the literature indicates that among the wide spectrum of clinical manifestations of cat scratch disease, skeletal involvement is rare. However, in cases of osteomyelitis, vertebrae are a common site as well as formation of a contiguous phlegmon. Although no studies have investigated the efficacy of different treatment regimens, all patients presented were treated with antimicrobial combinations and recovery rates were high. In view of the patient presented here, it is questioned whether the high recovery rates are a result of efficient antibiotic treatment or due to a benign natural course of the disease.
Aleksić-Kovačević Sanja; Kukolj V.; Kureljušić B.; Marinković D.; Knežević Đ.; Ignjatović I.; Jovanović M.; Knežević Milijana; Gledić D.
Hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) play a significant role in hepatic fibrogenesis. In the following study we described the distribution of cells that express alpha-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) and desmin in the cat liver with various degrees of fibrosis, as well as the significance of hepatic stellate cells and portal myofibroblasts in the genesis of fibrosis in cats with polycistic kidney disease. Liver samples from 15 necropsied Persian cats were examined microscopically, using H and E and Masso...
Norfarizal Ashikin Abdullah
Full Text Available Cat scratch disease is a benign clinical syndrome manifested as lymphadenopathy, fever and sometimes with atypical symptom of blurring of vision. It occurs following cat ’s bites or scratches. This case report presented a healthy young man presented with left eye blurring of vision for 1 month duration preceeded by history of recurrent low grade fever with previous history of being scratched by cat. Examination revealed optic disc edema with macula star. Thorough investigations were done and shown positive titre towards Bartonella henselae. He responded well with intravenous ceftazidime, oral doxycycline and rifampicin. His vision improved to 6/9 and 6/6 with pinhole after 3 months.
Rah, HyungChul; Maggs, David J; Lyons, Leslie A
An inherited form of progressive retinal atrophy (PRA) is recognized in Persian cats; however, the prevalence of PRA in the breed has not been determined. Breeders suggest that cats from only brown ('chocolate') or Himalayan ('pointed') lines are at risk for PRA, suggesting the disease is not widespread. This study was designed to evaluate whether PRA in Persian cats is associated with three coat colors, including chocolate, or with a highly prevalent inherited disease in this breed--polycystic kidney disease (PKD). Sixty related cats were evaluated for PRA by ophthalmic examination and genetically typed for PKD and the mutations that cause coat color variants in agouti, brown and color (producing the pointed coloration in Himalayan). No associations were identified among any of the traits, including between PRA and chocolate. These data suggest that PRA is not limited to cats with chocolate coat coloration and breeders and veterinarians should be aware that the prevalence of the disease may be higher than currently claimed.
Randolph L. Winter
Full Text Available Abstract Background Dirofilaria immitis infection occurs in dogs and cats, both of which species are clinically affected by mature adult infections. Cats are uniquely affected by immature-adult infections with an inflammatory pulmonary disease called Heartworm-Associated Respiratory Disease (HARD. D. immitis infection causes pulmonary parenchymal and vascular pathology in the dog and cat. Dogs develop pulmonary hypertension and cor pulmonale, whereas the development of pulmonary hypertension is rare in the cat. D. immitis infection in the dog causes alteration of the right ventricular (RV extracellular matrix, including a decrease in myocardial collagen. In this study, the RV myocardial changes of cats infected with adult and immature-adult D. immitis were assessed. Methods The cardiopulmonary systems of six groups of SPF cats (n = 9-10 per group were examined 8 or 18 months after infection with L3 D. immitis. Two groups were untreated and allowed to develop adult HW; two groups were treated with ivermectin starting 3 months post infection, thus allowing HARD but no mature adult heartworms; and two groups were treated with selamectin beginning 1 month post infection, preventing development of L5 or adult heartworms. A group of specific pathogen free (SPF normal cats was utilized as a negative control (n = 12. Lung pathologic lesions were objectively assessed, and both RV and left ventricular (LV weights were obtained to calculate an RV/LV ratio. Intramural RV myocardial collagen content was quantitatively assessed. Results RV/LV weight ratios were not different between groups. Negative control cats had significantly greater RV collagen content than all other affected groups (P = 0.032. Analysis of the RV/LV ratios and collagen content revealed no significant relationship (r = 0.03, P = 0.723, respectively. Collagen content had a modest, but significant, negative correlation, however, with both pulmonary vascular pathology (r
Winter, Randolph L; Ray Dillon, A; Cattley, Russell C; Blagburn, Byron L; Michael Tillson, D; Johnson, Calvin M; Brawner, William R; Welles, Elizabeth G; Barney, Sharon
Dirofilaria immitis infection occurs in dogs and cats, both of which species are clinically affected by mature adult infections. Cats are uniquely affected by immature-adult infections with an inflammatory pulmonary disease called Heartworm-Associated Respiratory Disease (HARD). D. immitis infection causes pulmonary parenchymal and vascular pathology in the dog and cat. Dogs develop pulmonary hypertension and cor pulmonale, whereas the development of pulmonary hypertension is rare in the cat. D. immitis infection in the dog causes alteration of the right ventricular (RV) extracellular matrix, including a decrease in myocardial collagen. In this study, the RV myocardial changes of cats infected with adult and immature-adult D. immitis were assessed. The cardiopulmonary systems of six groups of SPF cats (n = 9-10 per group) were examined 8 or 18 months after infection with L3 D. immitis. Two groups were untreated and allowed to develop adult HW; two groups were treated with ivermectin starting 3 months post infection, thus allowing HARD but no mature adult heartworms; and two groups were treated with selamectin beginning 1 month post infection, preventing development of L5 or adult heartworms. A group of specific pathogen free (SPF) normal cats was utilized as a negative control (n = 12). Lung pathologic lesions were objectively assessed, and both RV and left ventricular (LV) weights were obtained to calculate an RV/LV ratio. Intramural RV myocardial collagen content was quantitatively assessed. RV/LV weight ratios were not different between groups. Negative control cats had significantly greater RV collagen content than all other affected groups (P = 0.032). Analysis of the RV/LV ratios and collagen content revealed no significant relationship (r = 0.03, P = 0.723, respectively). Collagen content had a modest, but significant, negative correlation, however, with both pulmonary vascular pathology (r = -0.25, P = 0.032) as well as the total pulmonary
Vidane, A S; Pinheiro, A O; Casals, J B; Passarelli, D; Hage, McFns; Bueno, R S; Martins, D S; Ambrósio, C E
Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a common clinical condition in domestic cats, characterized by tubulointerstitial, vascular and glomerular inflammation and severe fibrosis. Studies in rodent model of induced CKD have shown a decrease and stabilization of the clinical condition. In this study was evaluated the safety and effect of intrarenal and intravenous infusion of allogeneic mesenchymal stem cells (AMSCs) derived from feline amniotic membrane in cats with naturally occurring CKD. Cat AMSCs were harvested after mechanical and enzymatic digestion of amnion. A healthy cat received intrarenal injection of AMSCs guided by ultrasound in both kidneys (5 × 10 5 cells/kidney). Nine cats with CDK received repeated intravenous infusions of AMSCs (2 × 10 6 cells × 2 treatments). The clinical parameters of healthy cat did not change, but sedation and general anaesthesia was required. The number of interventions stressed the animal, and he developed transient haematuria after AMSC injection. Cats with CDK registered a significant improvement of renal function (decrease in serum creatinine and urine protein concentrations and increase in urine specific gravity). The kidney architecture and morphology did not change following the treatment. The feline AMSCs have a renoprotective effect and improve renal function in cats with naturally occurring CKD, stabilizing the clinical condition and disease progression. Thus, intravenous injection of AMSCs may be an important tool to provide welfare in cats with chronic kidney disease. © 2016 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.
Krstić Nikola; Lazarević-Macanović Mirjana; Mitrović Branislava; Mitrović Marko
Dental diseases in dogs and cats are of increasing importance in veterinary practice. If not diagnosed and treated on time, they can significantly affect the quality of life and pet health as well. Roentgenography of orofacial system, as a part of veterinary dentistry, is an important diagnostic tool that provides insight into diseases and irregularities of the teeth, shows macrostructure of bone parts, and also may indicate the etiology and genesis of vari...
Roush, J.K.; Bjorling, D.E.; Lord, P.
The retroperitoneal space (RPS) is an anatomical area bounded dorsally by the sublumbar musculature and ventrally by the peritoneal surface of the abdomen. The RPS communicates with the pelvic space and mediastinum and is subject to primary diseases of the RPS connective tissue and to extension of disease from organs lying within or adjacent to it. Primary diseases include retroperitonitis, pneumoretroperitoneum, non-neoplastic retroperitoneal space-occupying lesions, and primary neoplasms of the RPS. Primary diseases of kidneys, ureters, adrenal glands or retroperitoneal lymph nodes may extend into the RPS, and the RPS may be the site of metastatic neoplastic disease. Clinical signs suggestive of retroperitoneal disease include lumbar pain, pyrexia, lethargy, and signs referable to organs within the RPS
Dillon, A Ray; Blagburn, Bryon L; Tillson, Michael; Brawner, William; Welles, Betsy; Johnson, Calvin; Cattley, Russell; Rynders, Pat; Barney, Sharron
Heartworm-associated respiratory disease (HARD) in cats is induced by the arrival and death of immature adult Dirofilaria immitis in the pulmonary system and is indistinguishable from mature adult heartworm infection. A controlled, blind research study investigated the long-term (18 months post infection, PI) consequences of the inflammatory response associated with the death of immature adult heartworms in cats. Three groups of cats, 10 per group, were infected with 100 third-stage (L3) larvae by subcutaneous injection. Group A cats were treated with selamectin (Revolution®; Zoetis) per label directions at 28 days PI and once monthly for 17 months. Group B cats were treated orally with ivermectin (Ivomec®; Merial) at 150 μg/kg) at 70 days PI, then every 2 weeks for 15 months. Group C cats were untreated PI. At baseline (Day 0) and on Days 70, 110, 168, 240, 309, 380, and 505 PI, peripheral blood, serum, bronchial lavage, and thoracic radiographic images were collected. The selamectin-treated cats (Group A) and ivermectin-treated cats (Group B) were free of heartworms or heartworm fragments at necropsy. All cats became heartworm antibody positive at some time point in the study except for one cat in Group A. Only cats in Group C (all with adult heartworms) were heartworm antigen positive. The heartworm antibody titer for Group B was highest on Days 110 to 168 and then decreased over time and 50% were serologically antibody negative on Day 240. Eosinophilic bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) cytology and peripheral eosinophilia were most pronounced on Day 110 in all cats. Randomly distributed myofibrocytes in the lungs of some Group A cats suggest that precardiac larval stages were affecting the lungs. Radiographs in Group B cats demonstrated partial resolution of the initial HARD reaction but chronic myofibrocyte proliferation was histologically evident 18 months after infection. HARD was induced by immature adult worm infection with progressive improvement
Full Text Available Feline allergic skin disease presents a unique set of challenges to the veterinary practitioner. Although there is some similarity to what is seen in the allergic canine patient, cutaneous hypersensitivity dermatoses in cats can manifest with strikingly different clinical signs, treatment options and outcomes, and secondary complications/disease entities. Additionally, less is known about the pathogenesis of feline allergic skin diseases, particularly “feline atopic syndrome” when compared to dogs or people. This article aims to review what is currently known in regards to allergic skin disease in the feline patient, with focus on non-flea, non-food hypersensitivity dermatitis.
Feline allergic skin disease presents a unique set of challenges to the veterinary practitioner. Although there is some similarity to what is seen in the allergic canine patient, cutaneous hypersensitivity dermatoses in cats can manifest with strikingly different clinical signs, treatment options and outcomes, and secondary complications/disease entities. Additionally, less is known about the pathogenesis of feline allergic skin diseases, particularly "feline atopic syndrome" when compared to dogs or people. This article aims to review what is currently known in regards to allergic skin disease in the feline patient, with focus on non-flea, non-food hypersensitivity dermatitis.
Full Text Available Ocular cat scratch disease (CSD is a condition attributed to infection by Bartonella sp. This condition commonly presents as neuroretinitis. Increased intracranial pressure and aseptic meningitis are rare presentation of CSD. We highlight a case of a 17-year-old female who presented with aseptic meningitis with neuroretinitis and raised intracranial pressure. The patient showed dramatic improvement with antibiotics and her neurological deficits recovered completely within 6 weeks of treatment.
Cosentino, Carlos; Torres, Luis
Uncaria tomentosa (UT), also known as cat's claw, isa Peruvian Rubiaceae species widely used in traditional medicine for the treatment of a wide range of health problems. There is no report about the use, safety, and efficacy of UT in neurological disorders. We describe reversible worsening of motor signs in a patient with Parkinson disease after oral intake of UT, and some possible explanations are discussed.
Morgan, R.V.; Ring, R.D.; Ward, D.A.; Adams, W.H.
Magnetic resonance (MR) images were acquired in five dogs and one cat with ocular and orbital disease. MR images were obtained in the dorsal or oblique dorsal, and oblique sagittal planes. Pathologic changes identified in MR images included inflammatory lesions, cystic structures, and neoplasms. All abnormalities were readily apparent in TI-weighted images. MR findings in affected animals were often similar in signal intensity, location, and growth pattern to those found in people with comparable diseases. Although no MR changes were considered pathognomonic for a given disease, MR imaging provided detailed information on the homogeneity, extent and invasiveness of the lesions
Dornbos, David; Morin, Jocelyn; Watson, Joshua R; Pindrik, Jonathan
Osteomyelitis of the spine with associated spinal epidural abscess represents an uncommon entity in the pediatric population, requiring prompt evaluation and diagnosis to prevent neurological compromise. Cat scratch disease, caused by the pathogen Bartonella henselae, encompasses a wide spectrum of clinical presentations; however, an association with osteomyelitis and epidural abscess has been reported in only 4 other instances in the literature. The authors report a rare case of multifocal thoracic osteomyelitis with an epidural abscess in a patient with a biopsy-proven pathogen of cat scratch disease. A 5-year-old girl, who initially presented with vague constitutional symptoms, was diagnosed with cat scratch disease following biopsy of an inguinal lymph node. Despite appropriate antibiotics, she presented several weeks later with recurrent symptoms and back pain. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed 2 foci of osteomyelitis at T-8 and T-11 with an associated anterior epidural abscess from T-9 to T-12. Percutaneous image-guided vertebral biopsy revealed B. henselae by polymerase chain reaction analysis, and she was treated conservatively with doxycycline and rifampin with favorable clinical outcome.
Anyfantakis, Dimitrios; Kastanakis, Miltiades; Papadomichelakis, Alexandros; Petrakis, Georgios; Bobolakis, Emmanouil
Cat-scratch disease is a common zoonotic infectious disease caused by Bartonella henselae. It is generally characterized by regional lymphadenopathy following exposure to an infected cat. Organ systemic manifestations occur rarely in atypical forms of the disease. Abscess of the spleen represents a rare, life-threatening clinical entity. Here we report an unusual case of cat scratch disease presenting as an isolated splenic abscess in an immunocompetent adult. Comprehensive social history revealed retrospectively close contact with cats. Diagnosis of B. henselae infection was confirmed on the basis of positive serology, skin lesion and imaging findings. Initial efforts at spleen preserving management failed to improve clinical symptoms and classical splenectomy was finally performed. Splenic bartonellosis may become potentially fatal if not recognized. Since diagnosis is challenging, a high index of clinical suspicion is required.
Jikuya, Mao; Tateno, Morihiro; Takahashi, Masashi; Endo, Yasuyuki
The Iriomote cat and Tsushima leopard cat are endangered wildcats in Japan and inhabit only Iriomote-jima and Tsushima islands, respectively. Domestic dogs and cats living on Iriomote-jima and Tsushima islands were surveyed to clarify the interrelationship between wildcats and domestic animals regarding tick-borne disease transmission. Pathogen-derived DNA in blood samples was detected by polymerase chain reaction. Babesia gibsoni was detected in dogs of Iriomote-jima, and Hepatozoon felis and hemoplasmas were detected in domestic cats of Tsushima. Because the H. felis detected in this study was closely related to that isolated from wildcats, we suspect that common H. felis is harbored and transmitted among wildcats and domestic cats via ticks in Tsushima.
Willard, M D; Weeks, B R; Johnson, M
Four cats are reported in which cytology smears obtained by ultrasound-guided fine needle aspiration of the liver were interpreted as indicative of hepatic lipidosis. However, histopathology of hepatic tissue samples obtained with Tru-Cut-like needles or wedge biopsy revealed that the cats had inflammatory or neoplastic hepatic disease causing their clinical signs. Fine needle aspiration and cytology may not detect infiltrative lesions, particularly those that are nodular, multifocal, or localised around the portal regions. Fine needle aspirate cytology is a useful diagnostic procedure with many advantages, but care must be taken to avoid diagnosing hepatic lipidosis as the cause of illness when an infiltrative lesion is responsible. Copyright 1999 European Society of Feline Medicine.
Nakamura, Momoko; Kurimoto, Mio; Kato, Takehiro; Kunieda, Takeshige
Patients with cat-scratch disease (CSD), which is caused by Bartonella henselae, typically present with local lymphadenopathy with a brief period of fever and general symptoms. Most cases are self-limiting and usually afflict children and young adults. Although rare, CSD can lead to serious complications, especially in immunocompromised patients. These rare complications often require intensive treatment. We describe the case of a 79-year-old man who presented with general malaise and a high fever. The physical examination findings were unremarkable. Of note, the lymph nodes were not enlarged. An abdominal CT scan with intravenous contrast revealed a solitary splenic abscess and no lymphadenopathy. The initial antibiotic treatment was ineffective and a splenectomy was indicated. A history of contact with cats raised the possibility of CSD, which was confirmed by a positive serology test result for B henselae. Antibiotic treatment with azithromycin successfully treated the splenic abscess and splenectomy was avoided. 2015 BMJ Publishing Group Ltd.
García, Juan C; Núñez, Manuel J; Castro, Begoña; Fernández, Jesús M; López, Asunción; Portillo, Aránzazu; Oteo, José A
Cat-scratch disease (CSD) is the most frequent presentation of Bartonella henselae infection. It has a worldwide distribution and is associated with a previous history of scratch or bite from a cat or dog. CSD affects children and teenagers more often (80%) than adults, and it usually has a self-limiting clinical course. Atypical clinical course or systemic symptoms are described in 5%-20% of patients. Among them, hepatosplenic (HS) forms (abscess) have been described. The majority of published cases have affected children or immunosuppressed patients. Few cases of HS forms of CSD in immunocompetent adult hosts have been reported, and data about the management of this condition are scarce. Herein, we present 3 new cases of HS forms of CSD in immunocompetent adults and review 33 other cases retrieved from the literature. We propose an approach to clinical diagnosis and treatment with oral azithromycin.
Luciano, A; Rossi, F; Bolognani, M; Trabucchi, C
Cat-scratch disease (CSD) is an infection caused by a gram-negative bacillus known as Bartonella Henselae. Hepatosplenic disease occurs in only 0.3-0.7% of patients. In this report we describe a 7-year-old male presented with a 4-week history of fever, after diagnosis of CSD with regional lymphoadenitis. Ultrasonography and tomography identified hepatic and splenic abscesses. Antibiotic treatment for three months was associated with resolution of lesions. In Patients affected by CSD, ultrasonography and tomography permit to identify hepatic and/or splenic lesions, indicating systemic CSD.
Trevejo, Rosalie T; Lefebvre, Sandra L; Yang, Mingyin; Rhoads, Catherine; Goldstein, Gary; Lund, Elizabeth M
OBJECTIVE To examine potential associations between periodontal disease (PD) and the risk of development of chronic azotemic kidney disease (CKD) among cats and determine whether the risk of CKD increases with severity of PD. DESIGN Retrospective cohort study. ANIMALS 169, 242 cats. PROCEDURES Cats were evaluated ≥ 3 times at any of 829 hospitals from January 1, 2002, through June 30, 2013. Cats with an initial diagnosis of PD of any stage (n = 56,414) were frequency matched with cats that had no history or evidence of PD (112,828) by age and year of study entry. Data on signalment, PD, and other conditions potentially related to CKD were extracted from electronic medical records. Cox proportional hazards modeling was used to estimate the association of PD with CKD after controlling for covariates. RESULTS PD was associated with increased risk of CKD; risk was highest for cats with stage 3 or 4 PD. Risk of CKD increased with age. Purebred cats had greater risk of CKD than mixed-breed cats. General anesthesia within the year before study exit and diagnosis of cystitis at any point prior to study exit (including prior to study entry) were each associated with increased CKD risk. Diagnosis of diabetes mellitus or hepatic lipidosis at any point prior to study exit was associated with decreased CKD risk. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE The findings supported the benefit of maintaining good oral health and can be useful to veterinarians for educating owners on the importance of preventing PD in cats.
Herrick Jason R
Full Text Available Abstract Background Somatic cell nuclear transfer in cats offers a useful tool for the generation of valuable research models. However, low birth rates after nuclear transfer hamper exploitation of the full potential of the technology. Poor embryo development after activation of the reconstructed oocytes seems to be responsible, at least in part, for the low efficiency. The objective of this study was to characterize the response of cat oocytes to various stimuli in order to fine-tune existing and possibly develop new activation methods for the generation of cat disease models by somatic cell nuclear transfer. Methods First, changes in the intracellular free calcium concentration [Ca2+]i in the oocytes induced by a number of artificial stimuli were characterized. The stimuli included electroporation, ethanol, ionomycin, thimerosal, strontium-chloride and sodium (Na+-free medium. The potential of the most promising treatments (with or without subsequent incubation in the presence of cycloheximide and cytochalasin B to stimulate oocyte activation and support development of the resultant parthenogenetic embryos was then evaluated. Finally, the most effective methods were selected to activate oocytes reconstructed during nuclear transfer with fibroblasts from mucopolysaccharidosis I- and alpha-mannosidosis-affected cats. Results All treatments were able to elicit a [Ca2+]i elevation in the ooplasm with various characteristics. Pronuclear formation and development up to the blastocyst stage was most efficiently triggered by electroporation (60.5 +/- 2.9 and 11.5 +/- 1.7% and the combined thimerosal/DTT treatment (67.7 +/- 1.8 and 10.6 +/- 1.9%; incubation of the stimulated oocytes with cycloheximide and cytochalasin B had a positive effect on embryo development. When these two methods were used to activate oocytes reconstructed during nuclear transfer, up to 84.9% of the reconstructed oocytes cleaved. When the 2 to 4-cell embryos (a total of 220 were
Lascelles, B Duncan X; Dong, Yaa-Hui; Marcellin-Little, Denis J; Thomson, Andrea; Wheeler, Simon; Correa, Maria
Available information suggests a mismatch between radiographic and orthopedic examination findings in cats with DJD. However, the extent of the discrepancy between clinical and radiographic signs of OA in companion animals has not been described in detail. This study aimed to evaluate the relationship between orthopedic examination findings, joint goniometry, and radiographic signs of DJD in 100 cats, in a prospective observational design. Cat temperament, pain response to palpation, joint crepitus, effusion and thickening were graded. Radiographs of appendicular joints and the axial skeleton were made under sedation. Joint motion was measured by use of a plastic goniometer before and after sedation. Associations between radiographic degenerative joint disease (DJD) and examination findings were assessed to determine sensitivity, specificity and likelihood estimations. Pain response to palpation was elicited in 0-67% of the joints with DJD, with a specificity ranging from 62-99%; crepitus was detected in 0-56% of the joints and its specificity varied between 87 and 99%; for effusion, values ranged between 6 and 38% (specificity, 82-100%), and thickening, 0-59% (specificity, 74-99%). Joints with DJD tended to have a decreased range of motion. The presence of pain increased the odds of having DJD in the elbow (right: 5.5; left: 4.5); the presence of pain in the lower back increased the odds of spinal DJD being present (2.97 for lumbar; 4.67 for lumbo-sacral). Radiographic DJD cannot be diagnosed with certainty using palpation or goniometry. However, negative findings tend to predict radiographically normal joints. Palpation and goniometry may be used as a tool to help to screen cats, mostly to rule out DJD.
Lascelles B Duncan X
Full Text Available Abstract Background Available information suggests a mismatch between radiographic and orthopedic examination findings in cats with DJD. However, the extent of the discrepancy between clinical and radiographic signs of OA in companion animals has not been described in detail. This study aimed to evaluate the relationship between orthopedic examination findings, joint goniometry, and radiographic signs of DJD in 100 cats, in a prospective observational design. Cat temperament, pain response to palpation, joint crepitus, effusion and thickening were graded. Radiographs of appendicular joints and the axial skeleton were made under sedation. Joint motion was measured by use of a plastic goniometer before and after sedation. Associations between radiographic degenerative joint disease (DJD and examination findings were assessed to determine sensitivity, specificity and likelihood estimations. Results Pain response to palpation was elicited in 0-67% of the joints with DJD, with a specificity ranging from 62-99%; crepitus was detected in 0-56% of the joints and its specificity varied between 87 and 99%; for effusion, values ranged between 6 and 38% (specificity, 82-100%, and thickening, 0-59% (specificity, 74-99%. Joints with DJD tended to have a decreased range of motion. The presence of pain increased the odds of having DJD in the elbow (right: 5.5; left: 4.5; the presence of pain in the lower back increased the odds of spinal DJD being present (2.97 for lumbar; 4.67 for lumbo-sacral. Conclusions Radiographic DJD cannot be diagnosed with certainty using palpation or goniometry. However, negative findings tend to predict radiographically normal joints. Palpation and goniometry may be used as a tool to help to screen cats, mostly to rule out DJD.
Greene, Joseph P; Lefebvre, Sandra L; Wang, Mansen; Yang, Mingyin; Lund, Elizabeth M; Polzin, David J
To identify risk factors associated with diagnosis of chronic kidney disease (CKD) in cats. Retrospective case-control study. 1,230 cats with a clinical diagnosis of CKD, serum creatinine concentration > 1.6 mg/dL, and urine specific gravity risk factors for CKD were extracted for multivariate logistic regression analysis from the medical records of cats brought to 755 primary care veterinary hospitals. For a subset of cats evaluated 6 to 12 months prior to the date of CKD diagnosis or control group inclusion, the percentage change in body weight between those dates as well as clinical signs at the earlier date were analyzed for associations with CKD development. Risk factors for CKD in cats included thin body condition, prior periodontal disease or cystitis, anesthesia or documented dehydration in the preceding year, being a neutered male (vs spayed female), and living anywhere in the United States other than the northeast. The probability of CKD decreased with increasing body weight in nondehydrated cats, domestic shorthair breed, and prior diagnosis of diabetes mellitus and increased when vomiting, polyuria or polydipsia, appetite or energy loss, or halitosis was present at the time of diagnosis or control group inclusion but not when those signs were reported 6 to 12 months earlier. Median weight loss during the preceding 6 to 12 months was 10.8% and 2.1% in cats with and without CKD, respectively. The probability of CKD diagnosis in cats was influenced by several variables; recent weight loss, particularly in combination with the other factors, warrants assessment of cats for CKD.
Love, D N; Johnson, J L; Jones, R F; Bailey, M
A total of 11 strains of Bacteroides zoogleoformans were isolated from 11 of 106 different cat subcutaneous "fight wound" abscesses and were among a total of 143 Bacteroides species isolated from these samples. They constituted 3.4% (11 of 325) of all anaerobic isolates. The cat strains and strains of B. zoogleoformans isolated from humans with periodontal disease were similar phenotypically as determined by biochemical reactions, polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis patterns of soluble protein...
Walter, P.A.; Johnston, G.R.; Feeney, D.A.; O'Brien, T.D.
Renal sonograms from 24 cats with confirmed parenchymal kidney disease and from 1 cat with radiographic and palpable evidence of renal enlargement (but without identifiable histologic abnormalities) were evaluated to describe the ultrasonographic appearance of feline renal diseases and to determine the role of ultrasonographic examination in the clinical evaluation of these cases. In all cats with radiographic evidence of abnormal renal size or contour and when poor intraabdominal radiographic contrast precluded visualization of the kidneys, ultrasonography provided complementary information pertaining to location (cortical/medullary), extent, and distribution (focal/multifocal/diffuse) of disease. Ultrasonography also characterized these lesions as cystic (cavitating) or solid. The echo patterns were most specific for renal cysts. Infiltrative diseases did not have consistent patterns. Multifocal hypoechoic nodules, diffuse cortical hyper-echogenicity, and normal-appearing parenchyma were identified. In these instances, however, ultrasonography did define the extent of disease and narrowed the spectrum of differential considerations
Barrs, V R; Gunew, M; Foster, S F; Beatty, J A; Malik, R
A form of autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease has been identified in Persian cats and related breeds. Two features make elimination of this disease from future generations an achievable goal: the autosomal dominant mode of inheritance and the availability of a noninvasive technique, renal ultrasonography, to identify affected cats. The aims of this study were; to determine the prevalence of the disease in Persian cats and related breeds in Sydney and Brisbane, to determine any effect of domicile and breed on disease prevalence, to alert veterinary practitioners to the prevalence of autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease and to propose methods of eliminating the disease from future generations of cattery-bred cats. To be included in this scheme, cats had to be of Persian or related breed and be older than 10 months-of-age. Younger cats were excluded because of the increased likelihood of a false negative result. Renal ultrasonography was performed using either a Medison 600 with a 7.5 MHz mechanical sector scanner (n = 228, Brisbane) or using an ATL UltraMark-9 with a 5 to 10 MHz linear array transducer (n = 92, Sydney). The effects of domicile (Sydney versus Brisbane) and breed on the prevalence of autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease were tested using two-tailed Fisher's Exact tests. A total of 320 cats were tested comprising 230 Persians, 48 Himalayans, 17 Exotics, 14 Burmillas, 6 Ragdolls and 5 Chinchillas. The prevalence of autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease in Sydney (45%) and Brisbane (42%) was comparable and no sex predilection was identified. The disease was not detected in Ragdolls, although only a small number was tested. Two of 14 Burmilla cats were positive (14%), demonstrating that long hair coat and brachycephalic features do not segregate with the polycystic kidney disease trait. These results show that the prevalence of autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease amongst purebred, long-haired cats in Australia is
Full Text Available We present an 18-year-old, immunocompetent Austrian military conscript with cervical lymphadenopathy, fever, back-pain, and persistent inflammation markers despite two weeks of antimicrobial therapy with ampicillin/sulbactam. All specific laboratory investigations for identification of a specific etiology, including blood cultures and autoantibodies, were inconspicuous. Abdominal computed tomography showed multiple hypodense hepatosplenic lesions and osteomyelitis of the thoracic and lumbar spine with base plate fracture. Based on the patient’s history, clinical presentation, and radiological findings, serology for cat scratch disease (CSD was performed and high B. henselae specific IgM and IgG antibodies were detected. Due to its variety of clinical presentations, diagnosis of CSD is challenging, especially in the absence of a history of specific exposure. This case report shall remind the physician that cat scratch disease is a common disease, mainly presenting with fever and lymphadenopathy in young patients. Nevertheless CSD has many different and rare forms of presentations, including hepatosplenic lesions and bone involvement as shown in this case.
Knafl, D; Lötsch, F; Burgmann, H; Goliasch, G; Poeppl, W; Ramharter, M; Thalhammer, F; Schuster, C
We present an 18-year-old, immunocompetent Austrian military conscript with cervical lymphadenopathy, fever, back-pain, and persistent inflammation markers despite two weeks of antimicrobial therapy with ampicillin/sulbactam. All specific laboratory investigations for identification of a specific etiology, including blood cultures and autoantibodies, were inconspicuous. Abdominal computed tomography showed multiple hypodense hepatosplenic lesions and osteomyelitis of the thoracic and lumbar spine with base plate fracture. Based on the patient's history, clinical presentation, and radiological findings, serology for cat scratch disease (CSD) was performed and high B. henselae specific IgM and IgG antibodies were detected. Due to its variety of clinical presentations, diagnosis of CSD is challenging, especially in the absence of a history of specific exposure. This case report shall remind the physician that cat scratch disease is a common disease, mainly presenting with fever and lymphadenopathy in young patients. Nevertheless CSD has many different and rare forms of presentations, including hepatosplenic lesions and bone involvement as shown in this case.
Chang, Chih-Chen; Lee, Chia-Jie; Ou, Liang-Shiou; Wang, Chao-Jan; Huang, Yhu-Chering
Cat scratch disease (CSD) can present as a systemic disease in 5-10% of cases and lead to various disease entities. A previously healthy 16-month-old boy presented with fever for 7 days without other obvious symptoms. Abdominal computed tomography scan demonstrated enlarged right inguinal lymph nodes and multiple small round hypodensities in the spleen. Despite antibiotic treatment for 1 week, the fever persisted and the intrasplenic lesions progressed. Inguinal lymph node biopsy confirmed CSD by immunohistochemistry staining. The diagnosis of CSD was also supported by a history of contact, imaging and serological findings. The patient recovered after treatment with azithromycin for a total of 5 weeks and, in serial follow-up, the hepatosplenic micro-abscesses resolved after 4th months.
Langenbach, A.; Giger, U.; Green, P.; Rhodes, H.; Gregor, T.P.; Lafond, E.; Smith, G.
Objective: To determine the relationship between degenerative joint disease (DJD) and passive laxity of the hip joint in a group of cats. Design: Prospective study. Animals: A select (nonrandomized) group of 78 cats. Procedure: Standard hip-extended radiographic views and compression and distraction views of the pelvis were obtained from cats during sedation. Radiographs were evaluated, using an Orthopedic Foundation for Animals (OFA)-like scoring system for dogs. Passive joint laxity was measured, using Norberg angle (NA) and distraction index (DI). Hip laxity in cats with DJD was compared with hip laxity in cats without DJD. Results: Hip dysplasia (HD) was subjectively diagnosed radiographically in 25 of 78 (32%) cats using the OFA-like scoring system. Nineteen cats had mild HD 4 had moderate HD, and 2 had severe HD. Fifteen of the 25 cats with HD had DJD. The NA ranged from 56 to 105. The mean NA in cats with DJD was (84 degrees) significantly lower than in cats without DJD (95 degrees). The DI ranged from 0.2 to 0.84. The mean DI for cats with DJD was (0.6) significantly higher than that for cats without DJD (0.49). Cats with a DI < 0.4 did not have DJD. Cats had an increased likelihood of having DJD with increased laxity in the coxofemoral joint, as measured by NA or DI. Clinical Implications: The mean NA for radiographically normal cats (92.4 degrees) was lower than that in radiographically normal dogs (103 degrees). The overall mean DI for cats in this group (0.51) is similar to dogs of breeds with high joint laxity, such as the Labrador Retriever (0.5). As in dogs, there is a relationship between DJD and laxity in the hip joint of cats
Mariana Andrade Baptista
Full Text Available Although infectious diseases are the most prevalent cause of fevers of unknown origin (FUO, this diagnosis remains challenging in some pediatric patients. Imaging exams, such as computed tomography (CT are frequently required during the diagnostic processes. The presence of multiple hypoattenuating scattered images throughout the liver associated with the history of cohabitation with cats should raise the suspicion of the diagnosis of cat-scratch disease (CSD, although the main etiologic agent of liver abscesses in childhood is Staphylococcus aureus. Differential diagnosis by clinical and epidemiological data with Bartonella henselae is often advisable. The authors report the case of a boy aged 2 years and 9 months with 16-day history of daily fever accompanied by intermittent abdominal pain. Physical examination was unremarkable. Abdominal ultrasound performed in the initial work up was unrevealing, but an abdominal CT that was performed afterwards disclosed multiple hypoattenuating hepatic images compatible with the diagnosis of micro abscesses. Initial antibiotic regimen included cefotaxime, metronidazole, and oxacillin. Due to the epidemiology of close contact with kittens, diagnosis of CSD was considered and confirmed by serologic tests. Therefore, the initial antibiotics were replaced by clarithromycin orally for 14 days followed by fever defervescence and clinical improvement. The authors call attention to this uncommon diagnosis in a child presenting with FUO and multiple hepatic images suggestive of micro abscesses.
Baptista, Mariana Andrade; Lo, Denise Swei; Hein, Noely; Hirose, Maki; Yoshioka, Cristina Ryoka Miyao; Ragazzi, Selma Lopes Betta; Gilio, Alfredo Elias; Ferronato, Angela Esposito
Although infectious diseases are the most prevalent cause of fevers of unknown origin (FUO), this diagnosis remains challenging in some pediatric patients. Imaging exams, such as computed tomography (CT) are frequently required during the diagnostic processes. The presence of multiple hypoattenuating scattered images throughout the liver associated with the history of cohabitation with cats should raise the suspicion of the diagnosis of cat-scratch disease (CSD), although the main etiologic agent of liver abscesses in childhood is S taphylococcus aureus . Differential diagnosis by clinical and epidemiological data with Bartonella henselae is often advisable. The authors report the case of a boy aged 2 years and 9 months with 16-day history of daily fever accompanied by intermittent abdominal pain. Physical examination was unremarkable. Abdominal ultrasound performed in the initial work up was unrevealing, but an abdominal CT that was performed afterwards disclosed multiple hypoattenuating hepatic images compatible with the diagnosis of micro abscesses. Initial antibiotic regimen included cefotaxime, metronidazole, and oxacillin. Due to the epidemiology of close contact with kittens, diagnosis of CSD was considered and confirmed by serologic tests. Therefore, the initial antibiotics were replaced by clarithromycin orally for 14 days followed by fever defervescence and clinical improvement. The authors call attention to this uncommon diagnosis in a child presenting with FUO and multiple hepatic images suggestive of micro abscesses.
A. William, S.U.R. Chaudhari1 and N.N. Atsandac2
Full Text Available A 3-year (retrospective study was conducted to determine the prevalence of diseases; clinical conditions of dogs and cats presented at the Government Veterinary Clinic, Maiduguri from January 1995 to December 1997. The prevalent diseases; conditions of dogs included helminthosis (19.19%, accidental injury (18.18%, tick infestation ( 15.15% , canine distemper (8.42% , diarrhoea ( 6.73%, mange ( 7.41%, rabies (5.05% and babesiosis (4.71%, Prevalent diseases/conditions of cats included helminthosis (26.67%. tick infestation ( 8.89%. diarrhea ( 16.67%, nutritional deficiencies ( 15.56% and respiratory infections ( 12.22%. Of highest prevalence in both dogs and cats was helminthosis (20.93%, followed by tick infestation (13. 70% and diarrhea (9.04% suggesting a poor husbandy of these pets in Maiduguri area. Cases of automobile accidental injury of dogs were also high, probably due to the same factors of poor husbandry.
Rohr, Aaron; Ash, Ryan; Vadaparampil, John; Hill, Jacqueline; Wetzel, Louis
A 51-year-old man with history of undiagnosed pulmonary nodules 4 years prior, presented with right-sided chest pain. Acute cardiac workup was negative, and a chest computed tomography examination demonstrated marked improvement in bilateral pulmonary nodules. A concordant abdominal computed tomography examination showed new subcentimeter hypodense lesions throughout the liver and spleen, mild progressive abdominopelvic lymphadenopathy, and new small lytic lesions of T11 and L4 vertebrae. A positron emission tomography examination demonstrated hypermetabolic activity of these abdominopelvic lesions suggesting metastatic disease. Extensive laboratory workup was negative, aside from IgA deficiency. Eventually, biopsy of a hepatic lesion was performed and compatible with Bartonella species. An elevated Bartonella IgG titer was noted, consistent with Bartonella Hensalae infection, or "cat-scratch disease." Radiographic findings showed marked improvement after clinically appropriate antibiotic therapy.
Aaron Rohr, MD, MS
Full Text Available A 51-year-old man with history of undiagnosed pulmonary nodules 4 years prior, presented with right-sided chest pain. Acute cardiac workup was negative, and a chest computed tomography examination demonstrated marked improvement in bilateral pulmonary nodules. A concordant abdominal computed tomography examination showed new subcentimeter hypodense lesions throughout the liver and spleen, mild progressive abdominopelvic lymphadenopathy, and new small lytic lesions of T11 and L4 vertebrae. A positron emission tomography examination demonstrated hypermetabolic activity of these abdominopelvic lesions suggesting metastatic disease. Extensive laboratory workup was negative, aside from IgA deficiency. Eventually, biopsy of a hepatic lesion was performed and compatible with Bartonella species. An elevated Bartonella IgG titer was noted, consistent with Bartonella Hensalae infection, or “cat-scratch disease.” Radiographic findings showed marked improvement after clinically appropriate antibiotic therapy.
Full Text Available Dental diseases in dogs and cats are of increasing importance in veterinary practice. If not diagnosed and treated on time, they can significantly affect the quality of life and pet health as well. Roentgenography of orofacial system, as a part of veterinary dentistry, is an important diagnostic tool that provides insight into diseases and irregularities of the teeth, shows macrostructure of bone parts, and also may indicate the etiology and genesis of various pathological conditions of the teeth. The objective of this paper is to point out to most common pathologies which small animal veterinary dentistry daily meets, as well as to foster the systematic development in this area in order to find more quality to both diagnostic and therapeutic procedures.
Catherine Anne McLeonard
Full Text Available A comprehensive search of the available veterinary literature found three studies which assess whether feeding wet or dry maintenance diets place cats at an increased risk of chronic kidney disease (CKD diagnosis. None of the three studies found any significant benefit of feeding either diet in reducing the risk of CKD. However, the criteria used to diagnose CKD was not standardised across any of the three studies. There is currently insufficient evidence that feeding a wet maintenance diet will help to reduce the risk of CKD but further studies are needed to assess whether diet can play some role in reducing the risk of CKD diagnosis.
Full Text Available Cat-Scratch Disease (CSD is a benign lymphadenitis that may progress to severe or recurrent forms, and it is occasionally associated with morbidity. Between January of 1998 and March of 1999, forty-three suspected CSD patients were assessed in the Hospital Cayetano Heredia and the Instituto de Salud del Niño, in Lima, Peru. Twelve patients had a confirmed diagnosis, 8 of whom were women, and the mean age was 10 years old. The majority (53% of the cases were encountered in the summer. All patients reported having had contact with cats. Fever, malaise, lymphadenopathy and skin lesions were the most frequent clinical features. Twelve patients had indirect immunofluorescence antibody test titers of between 1/50 and 1/800 for Bartonella henselae and Bartonella clarridgeiae. Two lymph node biopsies were histologically compatible with CSD. No positive blood cultures could be obtained. This is the first Peruvian prospective study able to identify B. henselae and B. clarridgeiae in pediatric patients.
Armitano, Rita; Lisa, Agustina; Martínez, Claudia; Cipolla, Lucia; Iachini, Ricardo; Prieto, Monica
Cat scratch disease (CSD) is caused by Bartonella henselae, which mainly affects children. The cat is the reservoir. The laboratory diagnosis is based on the detection of antibodies by the Indirect Immunofluorescence (IFI) assay. The objective of this study was to analyze the serological evidence of B. henselae infection in pediatric patients that met the clinical/epidemiological criteria for suspected CSD. We studied 92 patients, who were categorized into four serological groups: 1) IgG (+)/IgM(+), 31,5% (n=29); 2) IgG (-)/IgM(+), 10,9% (n=10); 3) IgG (+)/IgM(-), 9,8% (n=9); 4) IgG (-)/IgM(-), 47,8% (n=44). These findings aim to promote future works for investigating the seroprevalence of Bartonella spp. in Argentina, which will allow us to know the importance of this zoonosis in our population and to evaluate new cut-off points of the technique. Copyright © 2017 Asociación Argentina de Microbiología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.
Awaysheh, Abdullah; Wilcke, Jeffrey; Elvinger, François; Rees, Loren; Fan, Weiguo; Zimmerman, Kurt L
Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and alimentary lymphoma (ALA) are common gastrointestinal diseases in cats. The very similar clinical signs and histopathologic features of these diseases make the distinction between them diagnostically challenging. We tested the use of supervised machine-learning algorithms to differentiate between the 2 diseases using data generated from noninvasive diagnostic tests. Three prediction models were developed using 3 machine-learning algorithms: naive Bayes, decision trees, and artificial neural networks. The models were trained and tested on data from complete blood count (CBC) and serum chemistry (SC) results for the following 3 groups of client-owned cats: normal, inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), or alimentary lymphoma (ALA). Naive Bayes and artificial neural networks achieved higher classification accuracy (sensitivities of 70.8% and 69.2%, respectively) than the decision tree algorithm (63%, p machine learning provided a method for distinguishing between ALA-IBD, ALA-normal, and IBD-normal. The naive Bayes and artificial neural networks classifiers used 10 and 4 of the CBC and SC variables, respectively, to outperform the C4.5 decision tree, which used 5 CBC and SC variables in classifying cats into the 3 classes. These models can provide another noninvasive diagnostic tool to assist clinicians with differentiating between IBD and ALA, and between diseased and nondiseased cats. © 2016 The Author(s).
Lari, Shahrzad M; Ghobadi, Hassan; Attaran, Davood; Mahmoodpour, Afsoun; Shadkam, Omid; Rostami, Maryam
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is one of the serious late pulmonary complications caused by sulphur mustard exposure. Health status evaluations of chemical warfare patients with COPD are important to the management of these patients. The aim of this study was to determine the efficacy of the COPD assessment test (CAT) in evaluating the health-related quality of life (HRQOL) of chemical warfare patients with COPD. Eighty-two consecutive patients with stable COPD were enrolled in this study. All subjects were visited by one physician, and the HRQOL was evaluated by the CAT and St. George Respiratory Questionnaires (SGRQs). In addition, a standard spirometry test, 6-min walk distance test and pulse oxymetry were conducted. The severity of the COPD was determined using Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD) staging and the body mass index, obstruction, dyspnoea and exercise (BODE) index. The mean age of the patients was 47.30 ± 7.08 years. The mean CAT score was 26.03 ± 8.28. Thirty-five (43%) patients were in CAT stage 3. There were statistically significant correlations between the CAT and the SGRQ (r = 0.70, P = 0.001) and the BODE index (r = 0.70, P = 0.001). A statistically significant inverse correlation was found between the CAT score and the forced expiratory volume in 1 s (r = -0.30, P = 0.03). Our results demonstrated that the CAT is a simple and valid tool for assessment of HRQOL in chemical warfare patients with COPD and can be used in clinical practice. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Full Text Available Objectives The objective of the current study was to investigate the prevalence rates of the following infectious agents in 116 stray cats in the Barcelona area of Spain: Anaplasma phagocytophilum, Bartonella species, Borrelia burgdorferi, Chlamydia felis, Dirofilaria immitis, Ehrlichia species, feline calicivirus (FCV, feline herpesvirus-1 (FHV-1, feline leukaemia virus (FeLV, feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV, haemoplasmas, Mycoplasma species and Rickettsia species. Methods Serum antibodies were used to estimate the prevalence of exposure to A phagocytophilum, Bartonella species, B burgdorferi, Ehrlichia species and FIV; serum antigens were used to assess for infection by D immitis and FeLV; and molecular assays were used to amplify nucleic acids of Anaplasma species, Bartonella species, C felis, D immitis, Ehrlichia species, FCV, FHV-1, haemoplasmas, Mycoplasma species and Rickettsia species from blood and nasal or oral swabs. Results Of the 116 cats, 63 (54.3% had evidence of infection by Bartonella species, FeLV, FIV or a haemoplasma. Anaplasma species, Ehrlichia species or Rickettsia species DNA was not amplified from these cats. A total of 18/116 cats (15.5% were positive for FCV RNA (six cats, Mycoplasma species DNA (six cats, FHV-1 DNA (three cats or C felis DNA (three cats. Conclusions and relevance This study documents that shelter cats in Catalonia are exposed to many infectious agents with clinical and zoonotic significance, and that flea control is indicated for cats in the region.
Kayemba-Kay's, Simon; Kovács, Tamas; Rakotoharinandrasana, Iarolalao; Benosman, Sidi Mohamed
We present a 12-year-old immunocompetent girl with hepato splenic cat-scratch disease (CSD). Her sole inaugural complaint was isolated epigastric pain. She fully recovered, with normalized abdominal CT scan following 2 weeks course of Azythromycin®. CSD should be included in differential diagnosis in children with epigastric pain, especially in those with domestic pets.
Full Text Available Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV is associated with several renal syndromes including acute and chronic renal failures, but the underlying pathogenic mechanisms are unclear. HIV and feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV share numerous biological and pathological features, including renal alterations. We investigated and compared the morphological changes of renal tissue of 51 experimentally and 21 naturally infected cats. Compared to the latter, the experimentally infected cats exhibited some mesangial widening and glomerulonephritis, milder proteinuria, and lower tubular and interstitial alterations. The numbers of giant protein tubular casts and tubular microcysts were also lower. In contrast, diffuse interstitial infiltrates and glomerular and interstitial amyloidosis were detected only in naturally infected cats. Similar alterations are found in HIV infected patients, thus supporting the idea of a causative role of FIV infection in renal disease, and underlining the relevance of the FIV and its natural host as an animal model for investigating lentivirus-associated nephropathy.
Poli, Alessandro; Tozon, Natasa; Guidi, Grazia; Pistello, Mauro
Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is associated with several renal syndromes including acute and chronic renal failures, but the underlying pathogenic mechanisms are unclear. HIV and feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) share numerous biological and pathological features, including renal alterations. We investigated and compared the morphological changes of renal tissue of 51 experimentally and 21 naturally infected cats. Compared to the latter, the experimentally infected cats exhibited some mesangial widening and glomerulonephritis, milder proteinuria, and lower tubular and interstitial alterations. The numbers of giant protein tubular casts and tubular microcysts were also lower. In contrast, diffuse interstitial infiltrates and glomerular and interstitial amyloidosis were detected only in naturally infected cats. Similar alterations are found in HIV infected patients, thus supporting the idea of a causative role of FIV infection in renal disease, and underlining the relevance of the FIV and its natural host as an animal model for investigating lentivirus-associated nephropathy.
Lascelles, B Duncan X; Dong, Yaa-Hui; Marcellin-Little, Denis J; Thomson, Andrea; Wheeler, Simon; Correa, Maria
Abstract Background Available information suggests a mismatch between radiographic and orthopedic examination findings in cats with DJD. However, the extent of the discrepancy between clinical and radiographic signs of OA in companion animals has not been described in detail. This study aimed to evaluate the relationship between orthopedic examination findings, joint goniometry, and radiographic signs of DJD in 100 cats, in a prospective observational design. Cat temperament, pain response to...
Full Text Available Abstract Changes in legislation that facilitate the movement of animals within the European Union may increase the risk that some microbial and parasitic organisms, currently exotic to Ireland, will be introduced by travelled pet animals. It is possible that the fox tapeworm, Echinococcus multilocularis, might be introduced in that manner from any of the several member states in which it is endemic. Red foxes are the principal definitive hosts of E. multilocularis but dogs and cats can also be infected. Infection in the definitive host is of little clinical significance, but aberrant infection of humans results in alveolar echinococcosis, a debilitating disease that has a high mortality rate. Humans acquire the organism by ingestion of Echinococcus multilocularis eggs excreted by definitive hosts; the larval metacestodes develop primarily in the liver, in the initial asymptomatic phase as small, well-encapsulated cysts. Over time, perhaps five to 15 years, progressive local infiltration and secondary cyst development at distant sites occur with resultant clinical signs. Patients with infiltrative liver disease present with cholestatic jaundice, epigastric pain, fatigue, weight loss and hepatomegaly. If left untreated, the disease can be fatal. This paper recounts the life cycle of the parasite, and discusses the control measures on which its exclusion from Ireland depend. Strict adherence to the routine worming of travelled dogs with praziquantel, at appropriate doses, 24 to 48 hours prior to entry into the country will minimise the likelihood of introduction of this zoonosis.
Keijser, S F A; Meijndert, L E; Fieten, H; Carrière, B J; van Steenbeek, F G; Leegwater, P A J; Rothuizen, J; Nielen, M
Current public and professional opinion is that many dog breeds suffer from health issues related to inherited diseases or extreme phenotypes. The aim of this historical comparative observational study was to evaluate the breed-related disease burden in three purebred dog populations (Chihuahua,
Bonazzi, Mattia; Volta, Antonella; Gnudi, Giacomo; Bottarelli, Ezio; Gazzola, Margherita; Bertoni, Giorgio
The ultrasonographic findings of kidneys, liver and urinary bladder of 288 Persian and 44 Exotic Shorthair clinically normal cats that underwent screening for polycystic kidney disease (PKD) between July 2003 and December 2005 were reviewed. Cats were divided into two groups, one including cats aged cats aged >/=9 months (group 2). Cats were classified as PKD-positive when at least one renal cyst was found. One hundred and thirty-six cats (41.0%) had more than one cyst in at least one kidney. The prevalence of PKD was similar in both groups. Eight PKD-positive cats had cystic livers (5.9%). Other renal abnormalities included a pelvic calculus and a medullary rim sign (MRS). The difference in prevalence of an MRS in group 2 compared to group 1 and the difference between PKD-positive and -negative cats in group 2 were not significant. There was no difference in mean kidney length between PKD-positive and -negative cats in group 2. Urinary bladder anomalies were principally represented by urinary sediment, with prevalence significantly higher in group 2. No difference was detected in group 2 between PKD-positive and -negative cats. In conclusion feline PKD is common in Italy. The ultrasonographic findings of MRS and urinary bladder sediment did not correlate with feline PKD. Urinary bladder sediment is common in Persians and Exotic Shorthairs and more likely in adults.
J. Scott Weese
Full Text Available Urinary tract disease is a common reason for use (and likely misuse, improper use, and overuse of antimicrobials in dogs and cats. There is a lack of comprehensive treatment guidelines such as those that are available for human medicine. Accordingly, guidelines for diagnosis and management of urinary tract infections were created by a Working Group of the International Society for Companion Animal Infectious Diseases. While objective data are currently limited, these guidelines provide information to assist in the diagnosis and management of upper and lower urinary tract infections in dogs and cats.
Bost, Phillip C.; Strynar, Mark J.; Reiner, Jessica L.; Zweigenbaum, Jerry A.; Secoura, Patricia L.; Lindstrom, Andrew B.; Dye, Janice A.
Perfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS), such as perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), are persistent, globally distributed, anthropogenic compounds. The primary source(s) for human exposure are not well understood although within home exposure is likely important since many consumer products have been treated with different PFAS, and people spend much of their lives indoors. Herein, domestic cats were used as sentinels to investigate potential exposure and health linkages. PFAS in serum samples of 72 pet and feral cats, including 11 healthy and 61 with one or more primary disease diagnoses, were quantitated using high-resolution time-of-flight mass spectroscopy. All but one sample had detectable PFAS, with PFOS and perfluorohexane sulfonate (PFHxS) ranging from
Otranto, D; Wall, R
Arthropod-borne diseases (ABDs) in cats and dogs have a major impact on animal health and welfare and, in many cases, also on human health. Many ABDs are expected to increase in prevalence as a result of changing social habits, habitat modifications, introductions of exotic vectors and climate change. Control has, historically, focused on the use of insecticides and chemotherapy. We review alternative, emerging approaches to ABDs that currently offer promise, particularly modelling and molecular techniques and the development of novel vaccines that target molecules produced by arthropods during the bloodmeal. We argue that there is an urgent need to establish effective surveillance systems for most ABDs across various countries in order to facilitate a detailed risk analysis, which should include evaluation of potential spread to new areas and the possible introduction of new exotic species or disease agents. This will require clear and exhaustive knowledge on the distribution of ABDs in different areas, understanding of the diagnostic limitations pertaining to ABDs and standardization of techniques among reference laboratories in different countries. Continuous monitoring of insecticide resistance and the development of management strategies to minimize its onset are also essential. Ultimately, it is probable that approaches which attempt to reduce vector abundance or treat hosts with chemotherapy alone are unlikely to be effective in the long term. More suitable approaches may include greater use of a range of mutually compatible options in integrated management programmes.
Murphy, Molly D; Larson, Janice; Tyler, Allison; Kvam, Vanessa; Frank, Kristen; Eia, Cheryl; Bickett-Weddle, Danelle; Flaming, Kevan; Baldwin, Claudia J; Petersen, Christine A
To determine community approaches to medical and behavioral diseases in dogs and cats. Cross-sectional descriptive study. 97 companion animal veterinarians and 424 animal owners. Companion animal veterinarians in central Iowa ranked medical or behavioral diseases or conditions by what they thought most clients would consider healthy, treatable, manageable, or unhealthy (unmanageable or untreatable). In a parallel survey, cat- or dog-owning households in central Iowa responded to a telephone survey regarding the relationship of their animal in the household, owner willingness to provide medical or behavioral interventions, and extent of financial commitment to resolving diseases. One hundred twenty common health or behavioral disorders in cats and dogs were ranked by veterinarians as healthy, treatable, manageable, or unhealthy (unmanageable or untreatable) on the basis of their opinion of what most clients would do. Findings were in congruence with animal owners' expressed willingness to provide the type of care required to maintain animals with many acute or chronic medical and behavioral conditions. In general, owners indicated a willingness to use various treatment modalities and spend money on veterinary services when considering current or previously owned animals as well as hypothetical situations with an animal. Past experiences with veterinary care in which an animal did not recover fully did not diminish the willingness of respondents to use veterinary services again in the future. These results provide a baseline indication of community willingness to address medical or behavioral conditions in dogs and cats. These considerations can be used in conjunction with Asilomar Accords recommendations to assess adoptability of cats and dogs in animal shelters.
Gunn-Moore, Danièlle A; McFarland, Sarah E; Brewer, Jacqueline I; Crawshaw, Timothy R; Clifton-Hadley, Richard S; Kovalik, Marcel; Shaw, Darren J
This study investigated 339 cases of feline mycobacterial disease from cats with cutaneous lesions or masses found at exploratory laparotomy. Tissue samples were submitted to the Veterinary Laboratories Agency for mycobacterial culture over a 4-year period to December 2008. The study assessed which species of culturable mycobacteria were involved, where the cats lived, and their clinical presentation (physical findings, serum biochemistry, radiography, feline leukaemia virus and feline immunodeficiency virus status). Mycobacterium microti was cultured from 19%, Mycobacterium bovis 15%, Mycobacterium avium 7%, non-M avium non-tuberculous mycobacteria 6%, with no growth in 53% of samples. M microti, M bovis and M avium were found in almost mutually exclusive clusters within Great Britain (GB) (ie, M bovis in South-West England/Wales/Welsh Border, M avium in eastern England and M microti south of London and in South-West Scotland). While differences were seen in the clinical presentation and distribution of lesions caused by the different infections, these were not sufficiently different to be diagnostic. Cats commonly presented with single or multiple cutaneous lesions (74%), which were sometimes ulcerated or discharging, located most frequently on the head (54%). Lymph nodes were usually involved (47%); typically the submandibular nodes. Systemic or pulmonary signs were rarely seen (10-16%). When a cat is suspected of having mycobacteriosis, accurate identification of the species involved helps to determine appropriate action. Our findings show that knowing the cat's geographic location can be helpful, while the nature of the clinical presentation is less useful. Most cases of feline mycobacterial disease in GB are cutaneous. Copyright © 2011 ISFM and AAFP. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In natural cat populations, Feline Immunodeficiency Virus (FIV is transmitted through bites between individuals. Factors such as the density of cats within the population or the sex-ratio can have potentially strong effects on the frequency of fight between individuals and hence appear as important population risk factors for FIV. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: To study such population risk factors, we present data on FIV prevalence in 15 cat populations in northeastern France. We investigate five key social factors of cat populations; the density of cats, the sex-ratio, the number of males and the mean age of males and females within the population. We overcome the problem of dependence in the infective status data using sexually-structured dynamic stochastic models. Only the age of males and females had an effect (p = 0.043 and p = 0.02, respectively on the male-to-female transmission rate. Due to multiple tests, it is even likely that these effects are, in reality, not significant. Finally we show that, in our study area, the data can be explained by a very simple model that does not invoke any risk factor. CONCLUSION: Our conclusion is that, in host-parasite systems in general, fluctuations due to stochasticity in the transmission process are naturally very large and may alone explain a larger part of the variability in observed disease prevalence between populations than previously expected. Finally, we determined confidence intervals for the simple model parameters that can be used to further aid in management of the disease.
Freire, M; Meuten, D; Lascelles, D
The elbow joint is one of the feline appendicular joints most commonly and severely affected by degenerative joint disease. The macroscopic and histopathological lesions of the elbow joints of 30 adult cats were evaluated immediately after euthanasia. Macroscopic evidence of degenerative joint disease was found in 22 of 30 cats (39 elbow joints) (73.33% cats; 65% elbow joints), and macroscopic cartilage erosion ranged from mild fibrillation to complete ulceration of the hyaline cartilage with exposure of the subchondral bone. Distribution of the lesions in the cartilage indicated the presence of medial compartment joint disease (most severe lesions located in the medial coronoid process of the ulna and medial humeral epicondyle). Synovitis scores were mild overall and correlated only weakly with macroscopic cartilage damage. Intra-articular osteochondral fragments either free or attached to the synovium were found in 10 joints. Macroscopic or histologic evidence of a fragmented coronoid process was not found even in those cases with intra-articular osteochondral fragments. Lesions observed in these animals are most consistent with synovial osteochondromatosis secondary to degenerative joint disease. The pathogenesis for the medial compartmentalization of these lesions has not been established, but a fragmented medial coronoid process or osteochondritis dissecans does not appear to play a role. © The Author(s) 2014.
Full Text Available Tumors occur in all domestic and wild animals. They are most often diagnosed in dogs and cats, and their numbers increase from year to year. In the recent years, cancer is believed to be the most frequent cause of pet deaths. A speedy and reliable diagnosis is of paramount importance because it enables the veterinarian to begin therapy and make a prognosis. The objective of an early diagnosis is to enable the detection of neoplastic diseases before the tumor spreads throughout the organism, consequently enabling the timely administration of therapy and providing greater chances for curing the animal. A tumor is diagnosed on the grounds of the anamnesis, clinical picture, and special diagnostic procedures. The most frequently applied diagnostic procedures are laboratory diagnostics, cytology, biopsy and pathohistology, imaging diagnostics (roentgenography and roentgenoscopy, ultrasound diagnostics, endoscopy, computer tomography, magnetic resonance, and scintigraphy and molecular diagnostics. Each of these methods has its advantages and faults in connection with costs, availability, sensitivity, specificity and quality of anatomic vs functional pictures. Every one of these techniques has its own field of implementation and each one provides different and additional information in connection with the nature and position of the primary lesion and the presence of metastases.
Gruen, Margaret E.; Alfaro-Córdoba, Marcela; Thomson, Andrea E.; Worth, Alicia C.; Staicu, Ana-Maria; Lascelles, B. Duncan X.
Introduction and objectives Accelerometry is used as an objective measure of physical activity in humans and veterinary species. In cats, one important use of accelerometry is in the study of therapeutics designed to treat degenerative joint disease (DJD) associated pain, where it serves as the most widely applied objective outcome measure. These analyses have commonly used summary measures, calculating the mean activity per-minute over days and comparing between treatment periods. While this technique has been effective, information about the pattern of activity in cats is lost. In this study, functional data analysis was applied to activity data from client-owned cats with (n = 83) and without (n = 15) DJD. Functional data analysis retains information about the pattern of activity over the 24-hour day, providing insight into activity over time. We hypothesized that 1) cats without DJD would have higher activity counts and intensity of activity than cats with DJD; 2) that activity counts and intensity of activity in cats with DJD would be inversely correlated with total radiographic DJD burden and total orthopedic pain score; and 3) that activity counts and intensity would have a different pattern on weekends versus weekdays. Results and conclusions Results showed marked inter-cat variability in activity. Cats exhibited a bimodal pattern of activity with a sharp peak in the morning and broader peak in the evening. Results further showed that this pattern was different on weekends than weekdays, with the morning peak being shifted to the right (later). Cats with DJD showed different patterns of activity from cats without DJD, though activity and intensity were not always lower; instead both the peaks and troughs of activity were less extreme than those of the cats without DJD. Functional data analysis provides insight into the pattern of activity in cats, and an alternative method for analyzing accelerometry data that incorporates fluctuations in activity across
Sieg, Michael; Heenemann, Kristin; Rückner, Antje; Burgener, Iwan; Oechtering, Gerhard; Vahlenkamp, Thomas W
Paramyxoviruses constitute a large family of enveloped RNA viruses including important pathogens in veterinary and human medicine. Recently, feline paramyxoviruses, genus morbillivirus, were detected in cats from Hong Kong and Japan. Here we describe the discovery of several new feline
Full Text Available Background. We performed a review of published case studies of osteomyelitis associated with cat-scratch disease to consolidate existing information on clinical presentation, diagnostic tools, therapy, and outcome, as well as presenting a case of disseminated cat-scratch disease in a 12-year-old female with skull osteomyelitis and spleen involvement. Methods. A search for articles indexed in PubMed, Embase, and Google Scholar was performed with the search terms “Bartonella,” “bone,” “osteomyelitis,” “osteolytic,” and “cat-scratch disease” limited to the immunocompetent pediatric population and articles in English. Results. 51 cases were identified. The average age was 7.8 years with equal sex distribution. Fever (84.3%, often with a prolonged course (64.7%, and osteoarticular pain (88.2% were the most common clinical findings. Lymphadenopathy was present in 64.7% of patients. Vertebral body was mainly involved (51.9%. MRI (50% and bone scintigraphy (48.1% were favored to confirm osteomyelitis, while serology was the preferred microbiological diagnostic. Various antibiotics were prescribed in combined or sequential regimens, with median duration of therapy of 23 days. About 12.5% of patients did not receive any treatment. Most patients had excellent prognosis; in particular, all patients not receiving any therapy showed complete recovery and no recurrence of symptoms. Conclusions. Bartonella henselae should be considered in differential diagnosis of localized lymphadentitis. Osteoarticular pain or limitation during cat-scratch disease in children should always be investigated for bone spreading. Owing to good prognosis, invasive procedures to obtain the bone material should be avoided. Serology is the gold standard diagnostic tool and MRI is the best radiographic technique to define bone and surrounding tissue involvement. Treatment represents a never-ending dilemma: surgical intervention or use of antibiotics is still
Murphy, Colleen P.; Reid-Smith, Richard J.; Boerlin, Patrick; Weese, J. Scott; Prescott, John F.; Janecko, Nicol; McEwen, Scott A.
This study investigated oral and parenteral antimicrobial use in dogs and cats, and evaluated antimicrobial use in feline upper respiratory tract disease (FURTD), feline lower urinary tract disease (FLUTD), and canine infectious tracheobronchitis. Study journals (n = 1807) were submitted by 84 veterinarians. Sixty-five percent of the antimicrobials prescribed in dogs and 67% in cats were β-lactams. Most frequently prescribed in dogs were cephalexin (33%) and amoxicillin-clavulanic acid (16%),...
Murphy, Colleen P; Reid-Smith, Richard J; Boerlin, Patrick; Weese, J Scott; Prescott, John F; Janecko, Nicol; McEwen, Scott A
This study investigated oral and parenteral antimicrobial use in dogs and cats, and evaluated antimicrobial use in feline upper respiratory tract disease (FURTD), feline lower urinary tract disease (FLUTD), and canine infectious tracheobronchitis. Study journals (n = 1807) were submitted by 84 veterinarians. Sixty-five percent of the antimicrobials prescribed in dogs and 67% in cats were β-lactams. Most frequently prescribed in dogs were cephalexin (33%) and amoxicillin-clavulanic acid (16%), and in cats, amoxicillin-clavulanic acid (40%) and cefovecin (17%); 7% of the prescriptions in dogs and 12% in cats were for fluoroquinolones. Sixty-seven percent of the disease events associated with canine infectious tracheobronchitis, and 70% and 74% associated with FURTD and FLUTD, respectively, were treated with antimicrobials. These results suggest that cefovecin and fluoroquinolones may be over-used and antimicrobial use for the treatment of FURTD, FLUTD, and canine infectious tracheobronchitis could probably be reduced to lessen resistance selection pressure without compromising patient health.
Hardefeldt, L Y; Holloway, S; Trott, D J; Shipstone, M; Barrs, V R; Malik, R; Burrows, M; Armstrong, S; Browning, G F; Stevenson, M
Investigations of antimicrobial use in companion animals are limited. With the growing recognition of the need for improved antimicrobial stewardship, there is urgent need for more detailed understanding of the patterns of antimicrobial use in this sector. To investigate antimicrobial use for medical and surgical conditions in dogs and cats by Australian veterinarians. A cross-sectional study was performed over 4 months in 2011. Respondents were asked about their choices of antimicrobials for empirical therapy of diseases in dogs and cats, duration of therapy, and selection based on culture and susceptibility testing, for common conditions framed as case scenarios: 11 medical, 2 surgical, and 8 dermatological. A total of 892 of the 1,029 members of the Australian veterinary profession that completed the survey satisfied the selection criteria. Empirical antimicrobial therapy was more common for acute conditions (76%) than chronic conditions (24%). Overall, the most common antimicrobial classes were potentiated aminopenicillins (36%), fluoroquinolones (15%), first- and second-generation cephalosporins (14%), and tetracyclines (11%). Third-generation cephalosporins were more frequently used in cats (16%) compared to dogs (2%). Agreement with Australasian Infectious Disease Advisory Panel (AIDAP) guidelines (generated subsequently) was variable ranging from 0 to 69% between conditions. Choice of antimicrobials by Australian veterinary practitioners was generally appropriate, with relatively low use of drugs of high importance, except for the empirical use of fluoroquinolones in dogs, particularly for otitis externa and 3rd-generation cephalosporins in cats. Future surveys will determine whether introduction of the 2013 AIDAP therapeutic guidelines has influenced prescribing habits. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine.
Guerra, Juliana Mariotti; Daniel, Alexandre Gonçalves Teixeira; Cardoso, Natalia Cavalca; Grandi, Fabrizio; Queiroga, Felisbina; Cogliati, Bruno
We describe the case of a 1-year-old male Persian cat diagnosed with congenital hepatic fibrosis (CHF) associated with renal polycystic disease and, for the first time, we have shown that there was no C >A mutation in exon 29 of PKD1 (polycystic kidney disease 1). The cat presented with a history of chronic weight loss, anorexia, vomiting, depression and lethargy, with profuse salivation and ascites on clinical examination. A mild elevation in liver-associated plasma enzymes suggested a hepatic disease. Owing to the cat's deteriorating condition, it was euthanized. During necropsy, the liver was found to be enlarged, firm and reddish, and the kidney had multiple small cortical cysts. Immunohistochemistry revealed that bile duct cells and epithelial cells of renal cysts showed positive immunoreactivity to keratin 19. Collagen fibers surrounding bile ducts within portal areas demonstrated reactivity to type IV collagen antibody, confirming the congenital nature of the process. A diagnosis of ductal plate malformation consistent with CHF associated with polycystic kidney in a young Persian cat was made. Interestingly, genetic testing revealed a wild-type sequence at position 3284 in exon 29 of PKD1 . The absence of the classic genetic mutation associated with the particular clinical presentation supports the hypothesis of a distinct etiopathogenesis among fibropolycystic diseases in domestic cats. Moreover, congenital hepatic fibrosis is a rare but important differential diagnosis for young Persian cats and their crosses with clinical signs of chronic end-stage liver disease.
Bonazzi, Mattia; Volta, Antonella; Gnudi, Giacomo; Cozzi, Maria C; Strillacci, Maria G; Polli, Michele; Longeri, Maria; Manfredi, Sabrina; Bertoni, Giorgio
Autosomal-dominant polycystic kidney disease (AD-PKD) is common in Persians and Persians-related breeds. The aims of this study were to evaluate the sensitivity and specificity of early ultrasound examination and to compare ultrasound and genetic testing for early diagnosis. Sixty-three Persians and seven Exotic Shorthairs were considered. All underwent ultrasonographic and genetic testing (polymerase chain reaction/restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR/RFLP) assay) between 2.5 and 3.5 months of age (10-14 weeks). With ultrasound, 41.4% showed renal cysts, while 37.1% were PKD positive by genetic testing and DNA sequencing. Six cats with at least one renal cyst were negative by genetic testing, while only one cat negative at ultrasound resulted positive at genetic test. DNA sequencing of three polycystic cats, negative by genetic test, revealed they were heterozygous for the mutation. Agreement was described by Cohen's kappa that resulted 0.85, considering genetic test and DNA sequencing. Sensitivity and specificity of ultrasound were 96.2% and 91%, respectively. Sensitivity was higher and specificity lower than reported previously. The higher sensitivity could be due to improved technical capabilities of ultrasound machines and transducers. Other causes of PKD could explain the lower specificity. In conclusion, ultrasound resulted in a reliable diagnostic method for feline AD-PKD1 at early age and it should always be used with genetic testing, in order to reach a complete screening programme and eventually to identify other genetic mutations.
Cat-scratch disease is a subacute regional lymphadenitis, usually preceded by a history of a cat scratch or exposure to kittens. The disease is caused by Bartonella henselae, and possibly Bartonella quintana, pleomorphic gram-negative rods formerly known as Rochalimaea henselae and Rochalimaea quintana. Ocular involvement is rare and typically manifests as either Parinaud's oculoglandular syndrome or neuroretinitis. Patients with neuroretinitis resulting from cat-scratch disease may be asymptomatic or experience mild-to-severe vision loss. The clinical features, angiographic appearance, differential diagnosis, and management of cat-scratch neuroretinitis are discussed. A 30-year-old white woman reported to the eye clinic with painless, decreased vision in the right eye. A diagnosis of cat scratch neuroretinitis was made on the basis of the history of cat scratch, clinical appearance, and angiographic findings. Treatment with oral ciprofloxacin restored vision to normal in 4 weeks. Painless vision loss associated with optic nerve swelling and macular star exudate should alert suspicion of systemic disease. Additional findings--including positive history of a cat scratch, lymphadenopathy, and flu-like symptoms--may indicate Bartonella henselae or Bartonella quintana infection. While treatment remains controversial, appropriate serology testing may aid in the diagnosis and management of the underlying infection.
Pashmakova, Medora B; Piccione, Julie; Bishop, Micah A; Nelson, Whitney R; Lawhon, Sara D
OBJECTIVE To evaluate the agreement between results of microscopic examination and bacterial culture of bile samples from dogs and cats with hepatobiliary disease for detection of bactibilia. DESIGN Cross-sectional study. ANIMALS 31 dogs and 21 cats with hepatobiliary disease for which subsequent microscopic examination and bacterial culture of bile samples was performed from 2004 through 2014. PROCEDURES Electronic medical records of included dogs and cats were reviewed to extract data regarding diagnosis, antimicrobials administered, and results of microscopic examination and bacterial culture of bile samples. Agreement between these 2 diagnostic tests was assessed by calculation of the Cohen κ value. RESULTS 17 (33%) dogs and cats had bactibilia identified by microscopic examination of bile samples, and 11 (21%) had bactibilia identified via bacterial culture. Agreement between these 2 tests was substantial (percentage agreement [positive and negative results], 85%; κ = 0.62; 95% confidence interval, 0.38 to 0.89) and improved to almost perfect when calculated for only animals that received no antimicrobials within 24 hours prior to sample collection (percentage agreement, 94%; κ = 0.84; 95% confidence interval, 0.61 to 1.00). CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Results indicated that agreement between microscopic examination and bacterial culture of bile samples for detection of bactibilia is optimized when dogs and cats are not receiving antimicrobials at the time of sample collection. Concurrent bacterial culture and microscopic examination of bile samples are recommended for all cats and dogs evaluated for hepatobiliary disease.
Chellapandian, DeepakBabu; Schneider, Adele
We report a patient with Cat eye syndrome (CES) associated with anatomical asplenia. To the best of our knowledge, there have been no prior reports of this association. Screening for asplenia in CES is potentially important, as asplenia places patients at increased risk for life-threatening bacterial infections. Hence patients with CES without a spleen may require the same routine precautions as any other asplenic patients, with penicillin prophylaxis and immunizations to protect against enca...
Overbaugh, J; Donahue, P R; Quackenbush, S L; Hoover, E A; Mullins, J I
A replication-defective variant of feline leukemia virus was molecularly cloned directly from infected tissue and found to induce a rapid and fatal immunodeficiency syndrome in cats. Studies with cloned viruses also showed that subtle mutational changes would convert a minimally pathogenic virus into one that would induce an acute form of immunodeficiency. The data suggest that acutely pathogenic viruses may be selected against by current methods for isolation of the human and simian immunodeficiency viruses.
Weichselbaum, R.C.; Feeney, D.A.; Hayden, D.W.
It was the intent of this study to define which, if any, radiographic observations corresponded with specific causes of diffuse infiltrative small bowel disease and if radiographic findings could differentiate inflammatory disease from neoplastic disease and either of them from normal. Bowel spasticity, luminal narrowing, and thumb printing tend to indicate the presence of tumor more often than inflammatory disease. Increased bowel gas in cats and barium adhesion in dogs and cats suggest that a component of enteritis is present. Decreased bowel gas in dogs is more often associated with obstructive disease, but is not helpful in differentiating diffuse inflammatory disease from diffuse neoplastic disease. While several observations that can foster differentiation of neoplastic from inflammatory disease were found, this study also indicated that the UGI lacks a high degree of predictive value other than to indicate the presence of infiltrative small bowel disease
Schrope, Donald P
Assess the prevalence of congenital heart disease (CHD) in a large population of mixed-breed dogs and cats. 76,301 mixed-breed dogs and 57,025 mixed-breed cats. Retrospective review of records and examinations based on specified diagnostic criteria. Among mixed-breed dogs, the prevalence of CHD was 0.13% (51.4% female) and of innocent murmurs was 0.10% (53.0% male). Pulmonic stenosis was the most common defect followed by patent ductus arteriosus, aortic stenosis, and ventricular septal defect. Among mixed-breed cats, prevalence of CHD was 0.14% (55.2% male) and of innocent murmurs was 0.16% (54.4% male). When the 25 cats with dynamic left or right ventricular outflow obstruction were counted with cases of innocent murmurs, the overall prevalence was 0.2%. Ventricular septal defects were the most common feline CHD followed closely by aortic stenosis and hypertrophic obstructive cardiomyopathy. There was no overall sex predilection for CHD in mixed-breed cats or dogs, and no significant difference in CHD prevalence between cats or dogs. Among dogs, subvalvular aortic stenosis and mitral valve dysplasia had a male predisposition while patent ductus arteriosus had a female predisposition. Among cats, valvular pulmonic stenosis, subvalvular and valvular aortic stenosis, and ventricular septal defects had a male predisposition while pulmonary artery stenosis had a female predisposition. The prevalence of CHD in a mixed-breed dogs and cats is lower than for prior studies, perhaps due to the lack of purebreds in the study population or actual changes in disease prevalence. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Caney, S.M.A.; Holt, P.E.; Day, M.J.; Rudorf, H.; Gruffydd-Jones, T.J.
Clinical, radiological and pathological features of two cats with prostatic carcinoma are reported. In both cats the presenting history included signs of lower urinary tract disease with haematuria and dysuria. Prostatomegaly was visible radiographically in one cat; an irregular intraprostatic urethra was seen on retrograde contrast urethrography in both cats. In one of the cats, neoplasia was suspected on the basis of a transurethral catheter biopsy. Following a poor response to palliative treatment in both cases, euthanasia was performed with histological confirmation of the diagnosis
Ludwig, C; de Jong, A; Moyaert, H; El Garch, F; Janes, R; Klein, U; Morrissey, I; Thiry, J; Youala, M
The ComPath project is a pan-European programme dedicated to the monitoring of antimicrobial susceptibility of pathogens from diseased dogs and cats using standardized methods and centralized minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) determination. Here, the susceptibility of major pathogens is reported from antimicrobial nontreated animals with acute clinical signs of skin, wound or ear infections in 2008-2010. MICs were determined by agar dilution for commonly used antibiotics and interpreted using CLSI breakpoints, if available. Of the 1408 strains recovered, the main canine species was Staphylococcus pseudintermedius, followed by Pseudomonas and Streptococcus. In cats, Pasteurella multocida and Staph. pseudintermedius were most prevalent. For Staph. pseudintermedius, resistance was 18·4-25·2% for penicillin, clindamycin and chloramphenicol, but below 11% for ampicillin, amoxi/clav and fluoroquinolones. For Staphylococcus aureus, beta-lactam resistance was high (26·7-62·1%) but low (0·0-4·4%) for other antibiotics. 6·3% of Staph. pseudintermedius and 5·4% of Staph. aureus were confirmed mecA-positive. Gentamicin and fluoroquinolones exhibited moderate activity against Pseudomonas aeruginosa. For streptococci, resistance was absent/very low for penicillin, ampicillin, chloramphenicol and fluoroquinolones. For Escherichia coli, resistance was low to fluoroquinolones, chloramphenicol and gentamicin. No resistance was observed in Past. multocida. Overall, antimicrobial resistance was low in skin and soft tissue infections in dogs and cats. The results show the need for ongoing monitoring. The results are a reference baseline for future surveillance. The paucity of clinical breakpoints underlines the need to set breakpoints for relevant antibiotics. © 2016 The Society for Applied Microbiology.
Chellapandian, Deepakbabu; Schneider, Adele
We report a patient with Cat eye syndrome (CES) associated with anatomical asplenia. To the best of our knowledge, there have been no prior reports of this association. Screening for asplenia in CES is potentially important, as asplenia places patients at increased risk for life-threatening bacterial infections. Hence patients with CES without a spleen may require the same routine precautions as any other asplenic patients, with penicillin prophylaxis and immunizations to protect against encapsulated organisms such as Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae type b, and Neisseria meningitidis.
Full Text Available We report a patient with Cat eye syndrome (CES associated with anatomical asplenia. To the best of our knowledge, there have been no prior reports of this association. Screening for asplenia in CES is potentially important, as asplenia places patients at increased risk for life-threatening bacterial infections. Hence patients with CES without a spleen may require the same routine precautions as any other asplenic patients, with penicillin prophylaxis and immunizations to protect against encapsulated organisms such as Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae type b, and Neisseria meningitidis.
Juliana Mariotti Guerra; Alexandre Gonçalves Teixeira Daniel; Natalia Cavalca Cardoso; Fabrizio Grandi; Felisbina Queiroga; Bruno Cogliati
Case summary We describe the case of a 1-year-old male Persian cat diagnosed with congenital hepatic fibrosis (CHF) associated with renal polycystic disease and, for the first time, we have shown that there was no C >A mutation in exon 29 of PKD1 (polycystic kidney disease 1). The cat presented with a history of chronic weight loss, anorexia, vomiting, depression and lethargy, with profuse salivation and ascites on clinical examination. A mild elevation in liver-associated plasma enzymes sugg...
Prevalence of feline herpesvirus-1, feline calicivirus, Chlamydophila felis and Mycoplasma felis DNA and associated risk factors in cats in Spain with upper respiratory tract disease, conjunctivitis and/or gingivostomatitis.
Fernandez, Mireia; Manzanilla, Edgar G; Lloret, Albert; León, Marta; Thibault, Jean-Christophe
Objectives Our objective was to perform the first multicentric study in Spain to evaluate the prevalence of feline herpesvirus-1 (FHV-1), feline calicivirus (FCV), Chlamydophila felis and Mycoplasma felis in cats with upper respiratory tract disease (URTD), conjunctivitis and/or gingivostomatitis (GS) compared with control cats; and to evaluate risk factors for these clinical conditions. Methods Conjunctival and oropharyngeal swabs were collected and a questionnaire regarding signalment, lifestyle, vaccination history and clinical signs was obtained for each cat. Swabs were tested for each pathogen by real-time PCR. Results The study population consisted of 358 cats, including 98 control cats. Among the 260 diseased cats, 127 cats presented with URTD, 149 cats had conjunctivitis, 154 cats were suffering GS; many cats presented more than one clinical condition. The prevalence observed of FHV-1, FCV, C felis and M felis was, respectively, 28.3%, 48.0%, 20.5% and 46.5% in cats with URTD; 24.2%, 43.6%, 19.5% and 38.3% in cats with conjunctivitis; and 15.6%, 58.4%, 9.1% and 37.7% in cats with GS. Prevalences in the control group were 6.1%, 15.3%, 2.0% and 20.4%, respectively. Coinfections were common among all groups of cats. Risk factors were identified for all groups. FHV-1, FCV and C felis were associated with URTD and conjunctivitis. FCV was strongly associated with GS. M felis was present in a high percentage of the population in all groups, but its role in these clinical conditions remains uncertain. Vaccination was protective for URTD and GS but not for conjunctivitis. Conclusions and relevance This epidemiological study describes, for the first time, prevalence for FHV-1, FCV, C felis and M felis in Spain. In general, the prevalences found are similar to those reported in other countries. Factors associated with disease expression were also identified, which are relevant for practitioners.
Diffendorfer, James E.
The familiar domestic cat is not native to southern California and is considered an invasive spe-cies by biologists and conservation organizations. When owners abandon their cats, wild or feral populations may arise, as they have in San Diego County. Cats’ pelage color, tail length, and hair thickness vary widely, given human fascination with breeding diverse phenotypes, but all have a typical felid body with upright ears, forward-looking eyes adapted for nocturnal foraging, protractible claws, and a sinuous, flexible body. Cats allowed outdoors and feral cats kill and eat a wide variety of vertebrates such as small mammals, birds, and reptiles
Full Text Available Large mammals, including canids and felids, are affected by spontaneously occurring hereditary retinal diseases with similarities to those of humans. The large mammal models may be used for thorough clinical characterization of disease processes, understanding the effects of specific mutations, elucidation of disease mechanisms, and for development of therapeutic intervention. Two well-characterized feline models are addressed in this paper. The first model is the autosomal recessive, slowly progressive, late-onset, rod-cone degenerative disease caused by a mutation in the CEP290 gene. The second model addressed in this paper is the autosomal dominant early onset rod cone dysplasia, putatively caused by the mutation found in the CRX gene. Therapeutic trials have been performed mainly in the former type including stem cell therapy, retinal transplantation, and development of ocular prosthetics. Domestic cats, having large human-like eyes with comparable spontaneous retinal diseases, are also considered useful for gene replacement therapy, thus functioning as effective model systems for further research.
Chen, Chih-Mei; Gehring, Ulrike; Wickman, Magnus; Hoek, Gerard; Giovannangelo, Mariella; Nordling, Emma; Wijga, Alet; de Jongste, Johan; Pershagen, Goeran; Almqvist, Catarina; Kerkhof, Marjan; Bellander, Tom; Wichmann, H. -Erich; Brunekreef, Bert; Heinrich, Joachim
Studies have presented conflicting associations between cat allergen exposure and sensitisation and atopic disease. We therefore investigated the association between the observed domestic cat allergen level and cat sensitisation in young children in four study populations from three European
Shasha, David; Gilon, Dan; Vernea, Fiona; Moses, Allon E; Strahilevitz, Jacob
Infective endocarditis and hepatosplenic abscesses are rare manifestations of cat scratch disease (CSD), especially among immunocompetent adults. An otherwise healthy woman who presented with fever and abdominal pain was diagnosed with multiple abscesses in the spleen and the liver, as well as a mitral valve vegetation. PCR on spleen tissue was positive for Bartonella henselae. Prolonged treatment with doxycycline and gentamicin led to complete recovery. Review of the literature revealed 18 cases of hepatosplenic CSD in immunocompetent adults; the majority presented with fever of unknown origin and abdominal pain. In most cases the causative organism was B. henselae and the pathological findings were necrotizing granulomas, similar to the pathological features in classic CSD. Concomitant endocarditis was diagnosed in one case. Because Bartonella is one of the leading pathogens of culture-negative endocarditis, we raise the question of whether a comprehensive evaluation for endocarditis is needed in cases of systemic CSD.
Juliana Mariotti Guerra
Full Text Available Case summary We describe the case of a 1-year-old male Persian cat diagnosed with congenital hepatic fibrosis (CHF associated with renal polycystic disease and, for the first time, we have shown that there was no C >A mutation in exon 29 of PKD1 (polycystic kidney disease 1. The cat presented with a history of chronic weight loss, anorexia, vomiting, depression and lethargy, with profuse salivation and ascites on clinical examination. A mild elevation in liver-associated plasma enzymes suggested a hepatic disease. Owing to the cat’s deteriorating condition, it was euthanized. During necropsy, the liver was found to be enlarged, firm and reddish, and the kidney had multiple small cortical cysts. Immunohistochemistry revealed that bile duct cells and epithelial cells of renal cysts showed positive immunoreactivity to keratin 19. Collagen fibers surrounding bile ducts within portal areas demonstrated reactivity to type IV collagen antibody, confirming the congenital nature of the process. A diagnosis of ductal plate malformation consistent with CHF associated with polycystic kidney in a young Persian cat was made. Interestingly, genetic testing revealed a wild-type sequence at position 3284 in exon 29 of PKD1 . Relevance and novel information The absence of the classic genetic mutation associated with the particular clinical presentation supports the hypothesis of a distinct etiopathogenesis among fibropolycystic diseases in domestic cats. Moreover, congenital hepatic fibrosis is a rare but important differential diagnosis for young Persian cats and their crosses with clinical signs of chronic end-stage liver disease.
Armstrong, P Jane; Williams, David A
Pancreatitis was considered a rare disease in the cat until a couple of decades ago when several retrospective studies of severe acute pancreatitis were published. It was apparent that few of the diagnostic tests of value in the dog were helpful in cats. With increasing clinical suspicion, availability of abdominal ultrasonography, and introduction of pancreas-specific blood tests of increasing utility, it is now accepted that acute pancreatitis is probably almost as common in cats as it is in dogs, although the etiology(s) remain more obscure. Pancreatitis in cats often co-exists with inflammatory bowel disease, less commonly with cholangitis, and sometimes with both. Additionally, pancreatitis may trigger hepatic lipidosis, while other diseases, such as diabetes mellitus, may be complicated by pancreatitis. Therapy is similar to that used in dogs, with added emphasis on early nutritional support to prevent hepatic lipidosis. Less is known about chronic pancreatitis than the acute form, but chronic pancreatitis is more common in cats than it is in dogs and may respond positively to treatment with corticosteroids. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Inc.
... R S T U V W X Y Z Cat's Claw Share: On This Page Background How Much ... Foster This fact sheet provides basic information about cat’s claw—common names, usefulness and safety, and resources ...
Full Text Available Many of the congenital neurologic diseases can result in incapacity or death of the animal. Some of them, such as idiopathic epilepsy and hydrocephalus, exhibit breed or familial predisposition and a genetic basis was proved or suggested. Some diseases can be presumptively diagnosed after a detailed signalment (breed predisposition, history (e.g. family history because many of these defects have familial tendencies, and through physical exam; other diagnostic methods (radiography, computed tomography, magnetic resonance, electrophysiologic tests, etc. can provide supportive evidence for the congenital defect and help to confirm the diagnosis. Some cases can lead to civil law-suits when the lesions are congenital, but not easily recognizable, or when the lesions are hereditary but tend to became manifest only after some time (more than 12 months after the date of purchase, e.g., after the vice-free guarantee period has expired. Moreover, quite frequently an early diagnosis is not made because there are delays in consulting the veterinarian or the general practitioner veterinarian does not perceive subtle signs. This study was designed to focus on the medico-legal aspects concerning the buying and selling in Italy of dogs and cats affected by congenital and hereditary neurologic diseases that could constitute vice in these animals. While adequate provisions to regulate in detail the various aspects of pet sale have still to be drawn up by legislators, it may be helpful to involve breeders, by obliging them by contract to extend guarantees in the case of hereditary lesions, including neurologic diseases.
Bragato, Nathália; Borges, Naida Cristina; Fioravanti, Maria Clorinda Soares
Ultrasound is the imaging test of choice for renal evaluation, because it provides information about the position, size, shape, internal architecture and hemodynamics of the kidneys without harming the patient. In chronic kidney disease, the main findings observed in B-mode ultrasound images are increased cortical echogenicity, loss of corticomedullary differentiation, reduced renal volume and irregular renal contour, and when these changes are associated, they are indicative of end-stage renal disease. However, the cause of kidney disease cannot be determined by ultrasonography, but must be confirmed by means of biopsy, although the presence of ultrasonographic changes indicative of the end-stage of the disease may contraindicate this procedure. The Doppler ultrasound test complements the ultrasonic B-mode examination and enables the assessment of renal perfusion based on a calculation of the hemodynamic indices, which are increased in cases of chronic kidney lesions, with higher values in the most severe cases. Thus, ultrasound examinations are not only useful in diagnostics but also play an important role in defining the prognosis of patients with chronic kidney disease.
Vector-borne pathogens have developed a close relationship with blood feeding arthropod ectoparasites (e.g., mosquitoes, ticks, phlebotomine sand flies, black flies, fleas, kissing bugs, lice) and exploited a huge variety of vector transmission routes. Therefore, the life cycles of these pathogens result in a long evolved balance with the respective arthropod biology, ecology and blood feeding habits, instrumentally to the infection of several animal species, including humans. Amongst the many parasite transmission modes, such as ingestion of the arthropod, with its faeces or secretions, blood feeding represents the main focus for this article, as it is a central event to the life of almost all arthropod vectors. The time frame in which pathogens are transmitted to any animal host is governed by a large number of biological variables related to the vector, the pathogen, the host and environmental factors. Scientific data available on transmission times for each pathogen are discussed relative to their impact for the success of vector-borne disease control strategies. Blocking pathogen transmission, and thus preventing the infection of dogs and cats, may be achievable by the use of chemical compounds if they are characterised by a fast onset of killing activity or repellence against arthropods. The fast speed of kill exerted by systemic isoxazoline, as well as the repellent effect of pyrethroids have renewed the interest of the scientific community and pharmaceutical companies towards reducing the burden of vector-borne diseases under field conditions. However, endosymbionts and vaccines targeting arthropods or pathogen antigens should be further investigated as alternative strategies towards the goal of achieving an effective integrated control of vector-borne diseases. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Azocar-Aedo, L.; Smits, H. L.; Monti, G.
Leptospirosis is a zoonotic disease of worldwide distribution caused by spirochetes of the genus Leptospira. The genus includes a large number of serovars that may be sheed in the urine of infected animals creating a highly infectious source of transmission. Numerous species of wild and domestic
Full Text Available Canine and feline oral cavity was examined, referred to the small animal surgery and obstetric classes of the school veterinary hospital, between 2013, August and December. The study was conducted using a dental chart developed to enable proper oral assessment. The data were compared to the information relayed by the owners, mostly based on the type of food that was given to their pets and used dental care to keep the oral health of their animals. The results showed a lack of owners interest and knowledge about their pets dental care and, additionally, that most animals was not receiving adequate pet meal, what caused accumulation of food between the teeth and the early onset of periodontal disease. Finally, it was concluded that age is an important predisposing factor for the disease.
Love, Daria N; Redwin, Judith; Norris, Jacqueline M
Recent evidence suggests that feline members of the genus Porphyromonas are of consequence in periodontal disease in cats. Several possible virulence factors from feline strains of Porphyromonas gingivalis have been described that have similarities to those of human P. gingivalis. Both human and feline strains of P. gingivalis produce superoxide dismutase (SOD) which has been proposed as modulator of the inflammatory response during infection. The objective of this study was to clone the superoxide dismutase gene of feline P. gingivalis, to compare the characteristics of its product with that of the native enzyme and to determine its immunoreactivity in cats with periodontal disease. The sod gene of the feline strain Veterinary Pathology and Bacteriology (VPB) 3457 of P. gingivalis was amplified by PCR and cloned in frame with the alpha-peptide of the LacZ gene of E. coli in plasmid pUC19. This construct expressed SOD activity in E. coli with characteristics similar to those of the native SOD enzyme of P. gingivalis human strain 381 and the parent feline strain VPB 3457. The recombinant SOD had an apparent molecular weight of 54,700+/-1300 (S.E.M.) and was inactivated by 5mM hydrogen peroxide but not by 2mM KCN. There was a significant association (P=0.005) between the immunoreactivity of cats to P. gingivalis VPB 3457 soluble whole cell proteins on immunoblots and their responsiveness to the SOD protein. This suggests that cats showing a marked serum responsiveness to P. gingivalis itself, react to the SOD enzyme and further supports the role of feline P. gingivalis in periodontal disease.
Katsvanga, CAT. Vol 1, No 2 (2006) - Articles Eucalyptus species performance under short rotation conditions on the Vumba highlands in Zimbabwe Abstract PDF. ISSN: 1819-3692. AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors · FAQ's · More about AJOL · AJOL's Partners ...
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Bęczkowski, Paweł M; Techakriengkrai, Navapon; Logan, Nicola; McMonagle, Elizabeth; Litster, Annette; Willett, Brian J; Hosie, Margaret J
Feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) infection is mediated by sequential interactions with CD134 and CXCR4. Field strains of virus vary in their dependence on cysteine-rich domain 2 (CRD2) of CD134 for infection. Here, we analyse the receptor usage of viral variants in the blood of 39 naturally infected cats, revealing that CRD2-dependent viral variants dominate in early infection, evolving towards CRD2-independence with disease progression. These findings are consistent with a shift in CRD2 of CD134 usage with disease progression.
Khazandi, Manouchehr; Bird, Philip S; Owens, Jane; Wilson, Gary; Meyer, James N; Trott, Darren J
Periodontal disease is a common disease of dogs and cats often requiring antimicrobial treatment as an adjunct to mechanical debridement. However, correct compliance with oral antimicrobial therapy in companion animals is often difficult. Cefovecin is a recently introduced veterinary cephalosporin that has demonstrated prolonged concentrations in extracellular fluid, allowing for dosing intervals of up to 14 days. Subgingival samples were collected from the oral cavity of 29 dogs and eight cats exhibiting grade 2 or grade 3 periodontal disease. Samples were cultivated on Wilkin Chalgrens agar and incubated in an anaerobic chamber for seven days. Selected anaerobic bacteria were isolated and identified to species level using 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis. Minimum inhibitory concentrations were determined for cefovecin and six additional antimicrobials using the agar dilution methodology recommended by the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute. The 65 clinical isolates were identified as Porphyromonas gulae (n = 45), Porphyromonas crevioricanis (n = 12), Porphyromonas macacae (n = 1), Porphyromonas cangingivalis (n = 1) Fusobacterium nucleatum (n = 2), Fusobacterium russii (n = 1) and Solobacterium moorei (n = 3). This is the first report of S. moorei being isolated from companion animals with periodontal disease. All isolates were highly susceptible to cefovecin, with a MIC90 of ≤0.125 μg/ml. Conversely, different resistance rates to ampicillin, amoxicillin and erythromycin between isolates were detected. Cefovecin is thus shown to be effective in vitro against anaerobic bacteria isolated from dogs and cats with periodontal disease. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Jan S Suchodolski
Full Text Available Recent studies have revealed that microbes play an important role in the pathogenesis of gastrointestinal (GI diseases in various animal species, but only limited data is available about the microbiome in cats with GI disease. The aim of this study was to evaluate the fecal microbiome in cats with diarrhea. Fecal samples were obtained from healthy cats (n = 21 and cats with acute (n = 19 or chronic diarrhea (n = 29 and analyzed by sequencing of 16S rRNA genes, and PICRUSt was used to predict the functional gene content of the microbiome. Linear discriminant analysis (LDA effect size (LEfSe revealed significant differences in bacterial groups between healthy cats and cats with diarrhea. The order Burkholderiales, the families Enterobacteriaceae, and the genera Streptococcus and Collinsella were significantly increased in diarrheic cats. In contrast the order Campylobacterales, the family Bacteroidaceae, and the genera Megamonas, Helicobacter, and Roseburia were significantly increased in healthy cats. Phylum Bacteroidetes was significantly decreased in cats with chronic diarrhea (>21 days duration, while the class Erysipelotrichi and the genus Lactobacillus were significantly decreased in cats with acute diarrhea. The observed changes in bacterial groups were accompanied by significant differences in functional gene contents: metabolism of fatty acids, biosynthesis of glycosphingolipids, metabolism of biotin, metabolism of tryptophan, and ascorbate and aldarate metabolism, were all significantly (p<0.001 altered in cats with diarrhea. In conclusion, significant differences in the fecal microbiomes between healthy cats and cats with diarrhea were identified. This dysbiosis was accompanied by changes in bacterial functional gene categories. Future studies are warranted to evaluate if these microbial changes correlate with changes in fecal concentrations of microbial metabolites in cats with diarrhea for the identification of potential diagnostic or
The issue is to seek quantum interference effects in an arbitrary field, in particular in psychology. For this a digest of quantum mechanics over finite-n-dimensional Hilbert space is invented. In order to match crude data not only von Neumann's mixed states are used but also a parallel notion of unsharp tests. The mathematically styled text (and earlier work on multibin tests, designated MB) deals largely with these new tests. Quantum psychology itself is only given a foundation. It readily engenders objections; its plausibility is developed gradually, in interlocking essays. There is also the empirically definite proposal that (state, test, outcome)-indexed counts be gathered to record data, then fed to a 'matrix format' (MF) search for quantum models. A previously proposed experiment in visual perception which has since failed to find significant quantum correlations, is discussed. The suspicion that quantum mechanics is all around goes beyond MF, and 'Schroedinger's cat' symbolizes this broader perspective. (author)
Brown, B; Mauldin, G E; Armstrong, J; Moroff, S D; Mauldin, G N
Hepatic lipidosis in cats is a commonly diagnosed hepatobiliary disease of unknown cause. The purpose of this prospective study was to characterize the blood hormone and lipid status of cats with hepatic lipidosis, and to compare this status to that of cats with other types of liver disease and to control cats. Twenty-three cats with hepatic disease were assigned to 1 of 2 groups on the basis of cytopathologic or histopathologic examination of the liver: group 1, hepatic lipidosis (n = 18); or group 2, cholangiohepatitis (n = 5). Ten healthy young adult cats were used as controls. Food was withheld from control animals for 24 hours before blood collection. Concentrations of plasma glucagon and serum insulin, cortisol, thyroxine, triglycerides, cholesterol, phospholipids, and nonesterified fatty acids (NEFAs) were determined in all cats, in addition to routine hematologic and serum biochemical testing. Cats with hepatic lipidosis had higher serum NEFA concentrations than cats with cholangiohepatitis or control cats (P lipidosis or control cats (P lipidosis. Serum insulin concentrations were significantly higher in control cats than in diseased cats (P lipidosis suggests that at least 1 factor in the pathogenesis of this syndrome may involve the regulation of hormone-sensitive lipase.
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Graham, Elizabeth M; Taylor, David J
With the notable exception of Brucella canis, exogenous bacterial pathogens are uncommon causes of reproductive disease in cats and dogs. Most bacterial reproductive infections are endogenous, and predisposing factors for infection are important. This article reviews the etiology, pathogenesis, clinical presentation, diagnosis, treatment, and public health significance of bacterial reproductive pathogens in cats and dogs.
Wolf, A.M.; Green, R.W.
A retrospective study of 18 cats with pulmonary histoplasmosis was conducted to evaluate radiographic patterns of disease and to determine age, breed, and sex distributions. All cats had active disease confirmed by biopsy/aspiration cytology (lung, bone marrow, peripheral lymph nodes, pleural fluid) or necropsy examination. Cats 3 years of age or less had the highest incidence of disease; females outnumbered males 2 to 1. Radiographically, most cats had an interstitial pattern which appeared as a fine, diffuse or linear pattern, or as a more distinct nodular pattern. An alveolar pattern was an uncommon radiographic finding. Tracheobronchial lymphadenopathy and calcified lymph nodes or pulmonary parenchymal lesions were not identified in these cats
Medleau, L; Jacobs, G J; Marks, M A
Itraconazole was used in 35 cats with cryptococcosis. Treatment response was determined by comparing clinical signs before, during, and after treatment. It could not be evaluated in 7 cats because they died during treatment from causes unrelated to cryptococcosis. Of the remaining 28 cats, treatment response was classified as success in 16 cats (57%), as improvement in 8 cats (29%), and as a failure in 4 (14%). The failures were due to death or euthanasia from drug toxicity (1 cat), progressive fungal disease (2 cats), and relapse 1 year after treatment (1 cat). The cats that improved did not undergo a 1-year posttreatment evaluation because they were lost to follow-up (3 cats), died or were euthanatized for other reasons (4 cats), or had a noncompliant owner (1 cat). For the 16 cats in which treatment was successful, the median itraconazole dose was 13.8 mg/kg body weight daily (range, 10.9 to 26.7 mg/kg/d), and the median duration of treatment was 8.5 months (range, 4 to 16 months). Five of these cats had previously been treated unsuccessfully with ketoconazole.
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Beckwith-Cohen, B; Dubielzig, R R; Maggs, D J; Teixeira, L B C
Mast cell infiltration occurs in malignant, inflammatory (eg, allergic, infectious), and idiopathic disease processes in humans and animals. Here, we describe the clinical and histological features of a unique proliferative conjunctivitis occurring in 15 cats. Ocular specimens were examined histologically, and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for feline herpesvirus 1 (FHV-1) was performed on ocular tissues obtained from 10 cats. Cats had a median age of 8 years (range: 7 months-17.5 years). The known median duration of ocular lesions prior to biopsy was 4 months (range: 1 week-3 years). Ocular disease was unilateral in 12 cats, and 9 cats had coexisting corneal disease. Clinically and histologically, proliferative or nodular conjunctival lesions were noted in 13 cats. The nictitating membrane was affected in 10 cats. Histologically, lesions were characterized by mixed inflammatory infiltrates with an abundance of Giemsa-positive and toluidine blue-positive intraepithelial and subepithelial mast cells, marked edema, and papillary epithelial hyperplasia. Feline herpesvirus 1 was demonstrated by PCR in 1 of 10 cats tested. Follow-up information was available for 14 cats: 8 had no recurrence during a median follow-up period of 17.5 months (range: 4.5-30 months), 2 underwent orbital exenteration, 3 had recurrence that was medically managed, and 1 cat had diffuse conjunctivitis at the time of biopsy and recurrence was deemed irrelevant. Various ocular medications were administered before and after surgical biopsy. This condition was designated as feline epitheliotropic mastocytic conjunctivitis, with intraepithelial mast cells being an essential feature and papillary epithelial proliferation being characteristic but not diagnostic alone. The condition appears to be uncommon and benign. Although the cause is unknown, an allergic component is possible.
Rubina Kumari Baithalu
Full Text Available Anthropozoonotic parasite Toxoplasma gondii causes widespread human and animal diseases, mostly involving central nervous system. Human acquires toxoplasmosis from cats, from consuming raw or undercooked meat and from vertical transmission to the fetus through placenta from mother during pregnancy. Socio-epidemiological as well as unique environmental factors also plays a significant role in transmission of this infection. Preventive measures should be taken into account the importance of culture, tradition, and beliefs of people in various communities more than solving poverty and giving health education. Therefore the focus of this article is to create public awareness regarding sense of responsibility of looking after pets to prevent such an important zoonotic disease. [Vet. World 2010; 3(5.000: 247-249
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Leyria, Jimena; Fruttero, Leonardo L.; Nazar, Magalí; Canavoso, Lilián E.
In this work, we have investigated the involvement of DmCatD, a cathepsin D-like peptidase, and acid phosphatase in the process of follicular atresia of Dipetalogaster maxima, a hematophagous insect vector of Chagas’ disease. For the studies, fat bodies, ovaries and hemolymph were sampled from anautogenous females at representative days of the reproductive cycle: pre-vitellogenesis, vitellogenesis as well as early and late atresia. Real time PCR (qPCR) and western blot assays showed that DmCatD was expressed in fat bodies and ovaries at all reproductive stages, being the expression of its active form significantly higher at the atretic stages. In hemolymph samples, only the immunoreactive band compatible with pro-DmCatD was observed by western blot. Acid phosphatase activity in ovarian tissues significantly increased during follicular atresia in comparison to pre-vitellogenesis and vitellogenesis. A further enzyme characterization with inhibitors showed that the high levels of acid phosphatase activity in atretic ovaries corresponded mainly to a tyrosine phosphatase. Immunofluorescence assays demonstrated that DmCatD and tyrosine phosphatase were associated with yolk bodies in vitellogenic follicles, while in atretic stages they displayed a different cellular distribution. DmCatD and tyrosine phosphatase partially co-localized with vitellin. Moreover, their interaction was supported by FRET analysis. In vitro assays using homogenates of atretic ovaries as the enzyme source and enzyme inhibitors demonstrated that DmCatD, together with a tyrosine phosphatase, were necessary to promote the degradation of vitellin. Taken together, the results strongly suggested that both acid hydrolases play a central role in early vitellin proteolysis during the process of follicular atresia. PMID:26091289
Titmarsh, Helen F; Lalor, Stephanie M; Tasker, Severine; Barker, Emily N; Berry, Jacqueline; Gunn-More, Danielle; Mellanby, Richard J
Feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) is a lentivirus that can lead to a syndrome of acquired immune dysfunction. Infected cats often remain asymptomatic for several years before immune dysfunction leads to an increased risk for the development of systemic diseases, neoplasia and opportunistic infections. FIV is structurally related to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and the pathogenesis of FIV-related disease is similar to that seen in HIV-infected patients. Observational studies have documented an association between low plasma vitamin D and HIV infection. Vitamin D status has been shown to be associated with HIV-related disease progression, morbidity and mortality. The objective of this study was to examine the hypothesis that vitamin D status, as assessed by serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] concentrations, are lower in cats with FIV infection compared to healthy control cats. Serum 25(OH)D concentrations were measured in 20 healthy cats, 39 hospitalized ill cats and 59 cats infected with FIV. Cats which were FIV infected had significantly lower 25(OH)D concentrations compared to healthy control cats. Serum 25(OH)D concentrations were not significantly different between FIV-infected cats and hospitalized ill cats. Further investigations are warranted to determine whether vitamin D status influences the prognosis of cats infected with FIV.
Roudebush, Philip; Logan, Ellen; Hale, Fraser A
Successful treatment and prevention of periodontal disease in pet animals requires a multidimensional approach to identify and eliminate exacerbating factors, provide scheduled professional examinations and care, and plan and implement a dental homecare program. Over the years, many therapeutic and preventive interventions have been developed or advocated for periodontal disease, but evidence of efficacy or effectiveness is highly variable. Accordingly, the main objective of this systematic review is to identify and critically appraise the evidence supporting various aspects of homecare for prevention of canine and feline periodontal disease.
Cullen, John M
Liver disease is a frequently encountered problem in small animal practice. The World Small Animal Veterinary Association has formed a group of experienced clinicians and pathologists to develop a standardized format for diagnostic terminology. This is hoped to lead to greater uniformity in diagnoses and better communication between clinicians and pathologists alike. The aim is to find a sound scientific basis of diagnostic and treatment protocols for hepatobiliary diseases. This article provides an overview of that monograph.
Ginn, Jennifer A; Kumar, M S A; McKiernan, Brendan C; Powers, Barbara E
This retrospective study reports the presence and incidence of nasal turbinates in the nasopharynx (nasopharyngeal turbinates) in a population of brachycephalic dogs and cats exhibiting signs of upper respiratory disease. Medical records were reviewed for 53 brachycephalic dogs and 10 brachycephalic cats undergoing upper airway endoscopy. Nasopharyngeal turbinates were identified in 21% of brachycephalic animals, including 21% of dogs and 20% of cats. Pugs accounted for 32% of all dogs in the study population and 82% of dogs with nasopharyngeal turbinates. The presence of nasopharyngeal turbinates may play a role in upper airway obstruction in the brachycephalic airway syndrome.
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Pedersen, A. S.; Berg, Lise Charlotte; Almstrup, Kristian
Tortoiseshell coat color is normally restricted to female cats due to X-linkage of the gene that encodes the orange coat color. Tortoiseshell male cats do, however, occur at a low frequency among tortoiseshell cats because of chromosome aberrations similar to the Klinefelter syndrome in man...... tissue from a tortoiseshell male cat referred to us. Chromosome analysis using RBA-banding consistently revealed a 39,XXY karyotype. Histological examinations of testis biopsies from this cat showed degeneration of the tubules, hyperplasia of the interstitial tissue, and complete loss of germ cells....... Immunostaining using anti-vimentin and anti-VASA (DDX4) showed that only Sertoli cells and no germ cells were observed in the testicular tubules. As no sign of spermatogenesis was detected, we conclude that this is a classic case of a sterile, male tortoiseshell cat with a 39,XXY chromosome complement. © 2013 S...
Forbes, Douglas C.; Leishman, Dyan E.
Megaesophagus in an eight month old Siamese cat is described. Initially, a cause for the vomiting was not discovered and the cat was treated for pyloric spasm. Several months later the same cat, in poor physical condition, was presented with a palpable bulge along its ventral neck. At this time a very dilated and flaccid esophagus was found. An exploratory thoracotomy was done but a cause for the megaesophagus was not discovered.
Atkins, C.; DeFrancesco, T.; Miller, M.; Meurs, K.; Keene, B.
To determine prevalence of heartworm infection in a population of pet cats with cardiorespiratory abnormalities and to determine relative usefulness of clinical signs and tests in diagnosis of heartworm disease. Prospective case series. 100 client-owned cats with clinical signs of cardiorespiratory abnormalities. Cats were evaluated using CBC, modified Knott test, ELISA for serologic detection of heartworm antigen and antibodies to heartworms, thoracic radiography, and echocardiography. Cats were considered infected if they had circulating microfilaria, heartworm antigens in serum, or if heartworms were detected by echocardiography or on necropsy. Cats were considered suspicious for infection if they had 2 of the following: serum antibodies to heartworms, eosinophilia or basophilia, or indicative radiographic findings. 9 cats were infected with heartworms, resulting in a prevalence of 9%; 26 cats had evidence of heartworm exposure (i.e., serum antibodies to heartworms). Twenty cats were considered suspicious for heartworm infection. Some outdoor exposure was reported twice as often in heartworm-infected cats, compared with noninfected and suspicious cats. However, a third of infected cats were reportedly housed totally indoors. Cough and dyspnea were strong indicators of heartworm disease. Eight of 9 infected cats had serum antibodies to heartworms and heartworm antigen in serum. Thoracic radiography and echocardiography indicated heartworm infection in 6 and 7 of the 9 cats, respectively. Cough or dyspnea may indicate heartworm disease in cats; serologic tests, echocardiography, and radiography are most useful diagnostic procedures. Although living indoors is protective, it may not preclude heartworm infection in cats
Peterson, M Nils; Hartis, Brett; Rodriguez, Shari; Green, Matthew; Lepczyk, Christopher A
Outdoor cats represent a global threat to terrestrial vertebrate conservation, but management has been rife with conflict due to differences in views of the problem and appropriate responses to it. To evaluate these differences we conducted a survey of opinions about outdoor cats and their management with two contrasting stakeholder groups, cat colony caretakers (CCCs) and bird conservation professionals (BCPs) across the United States. Group opinions were polarized, for both normative statements (CCCs supported treating feral cats as protected wildlife and using trap neuter and release [TNR] and BCPs supported treating feral cats as pests and using euthanasia) and empirical statements. Opinions also were related to gender, age, and education, with females and older respondents being less likely than their counterparts to support treating feral cats as pests, and females being less likely than males to support euthanasia. Most CCCs held false beliefs about the impacts of feral cats on wildlife and the impacts of TNR (e.g., 9% believed feral cats harmed bird populations, 70% believed TNR eliminates cat colonies, and 18% disagreed with the statement that feral cats filled the role of native predators). Only 6% of CCCs believed feral cats carried diseases. To the extent the beliefs held by CCCs are rooted in lack of knowledge and mistrust, rather than denial of directly observable phenomenon, the conservation community can manage these conflicts more productively by bringing CCCs into the process of defining data collection methods, defining study/management locations, and identifying common goals related to caring for animals.
Lambert, Phyllis Gilchrist
This activity began with a picture book, Nurit Karlin's "Fat Cat On a Mat" (HarperCollins; 1998). The author and her students started their project with a 5-inch circular template for the head of their cats. They reviewed shapes as they drew the head and then added the ears and nose, which were triangles. Details to the face were added when…
Christiansen, Liselotte Bruun; Prats Gavalda, Clara; Hyttel, Poul
OBJECTIVES: Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) is the most common heart disease in cats and shares clinical and pathological characteristics with human HCM. Little is known about the pathogenic mechanisms underlying development of spontaneous feline HCM. ANIMALS: The study population consisted...... of seven cats diagnosed with HCM and eight age-matched cats with no evidence of cardiac disease. METHODS: Fresh myocardial biopsies taken from the middle of the left ventricular posterior free wall were obtained and examined with transmission electron microscopy. RESULTS: Electron microscopic examination...... showed ultrastructural aberrations of the myocardial cytoarchitecture and of the interstitium in the seven cats with HCM. In the most severely affected cats the myofibrils were disorganized and subsarcolemmal mitochondria were depleted. In control cats, contraction band artifacts were commonly seen...
This document, prepared in February 1993, addresses the most common questions asked by APS Collaborative Access Teams (CATs). The answers represent the best judgment on the part of the APS at this time. In some cases, details are provided in separate documents to be supplied by the APS. Some of the answers are brief because details are not yet available. The questions are separated into five categories representing different aspects of CAT interactions with the APS: (1) Memorandum of Understanding (MOU), (2) CAT Beamline Review and Construction, (3) CAT Beamline Safety, (4) CAT Beamline Operations, and (5) Miscellaneous. The APS plans to generate similar documents as needed to both address new questions and clarify answers to present questions
Miller, M L; Peterson, M E; Randolph, J F; Broome, M R; Norsworthy, G D; Rishniw, M
Thyroid cysts are rare in cats and poorly documented. To report distinguishing clinical features and treatment responses of cats with thyroid cysts. Forty client-owned cats. Retrospective review of medical records for cats with thyroid cysts confirmed by scintigraphy, ultrasound, magnetic resonance imaging, or necropsy at 4 referral centers between 2005 and 2016. Signalment, clinical findings, diagnostic testing, treatment, and outcome were recorded. Cats ranged in age from 8 to 20 years with no apparent breed or sex predilection. 37 of 40 (93%) cats were hyperthyroid (duration, 1-96 months). Clinical findings included palpable neck mass (40/40, 100%), weight loss (15/40, 38%), dysphagia (8/40, 20%), decreased appetite (5/40, 13%), and dyspnea (4/40, 10%). Cysts were classified as small (≤8 cm 3 ) in 16 (40%) and large (>8 cm 3 ) in 24 (60%) cats. Of 25 cats treated with radioiodine, hyperthyroidism resolved in 23 (92%), whereas thyroid cysts resolved in 12 (50%). Radioiodine treatment resolved small cysts in 8 of 13 (62%) cats and large cysts in 4 of 11 (36%) cats. Eight cats, including 2 euthyroid cats, underwent thyroid-cystectomy; 3 with bilateral thyroid involvement were euthanized postoperatively for hypocalcemia. Excised cystic thyroid masses were identified as cystadenoma (4) and carcinoma (4). Thyroid cysts are encountered in hyperthyroid and euthyroid cats with benign and malignant thyroid tumors. Radioiodine treatment alone inconsistently resolved thyroid cysts. Thyroid-cystectomy could be considered in cats with unilateral thyroid disease or when symptomatic cysts persist despite successful radioiodine treatment of hyperthyroidism. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine.
Hsu, Hsing-Ho Vasha
Encephalitozoon cuniculi, Toxoplasma gondii and Sarcocystis neurona are intracellular parasites that infect a wide range of mammalian host species including domestic cats. The prevalence of antibodies to these parasites in cats was examined using an indirect immunofluorescence antibody assay. E. cuniculi targets the kidneys of rabbits but the prevalence of disease in cats is unknown. Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a common cause of illness in cats. T. gondii is a widespread parasite of c...
Sharma, Deepak; Murki, Srinivas; Pratap, Tejo; Vasikarla, Madhavi
A full-term female baby, a product of non-consanguineous marriage, was born at 37 weeks of gestation with a birth weight of 2.08 kg. Antenatal scan at 31 weeks revealed complex congenital heart disease with a hypoplastic right ventricle, pulmonary atresia and an intact septum. Immediately after birth, the infant was shifted to the nursery and was started on intravenous fluids and infusion prostaglandin E1 (Alprostidil). On examination, she had microcephaly, periorbital puffiness, a long philtrum, a broad nasal bridge and retrognathia, up slanting palpebral fissures, widely spaced nipples, a sacral dimple and right upper limb postaxial polydactyly. Postnatal echocardiography confirmed a large ostium secundum atrial septal defect with left to right shunt, right ventricle hypoplasia, pulmonary atresia with an intact septum and a large vertical patent ductus arteriosus. Ophthalmological examination showed a bilateral chorioretinal coloboma sparing disc and fovea. Karyotyping showed an extra small marker chromosome suggestive of the Cat eye syndrome. 2014 BMJ Publishing Group Ltd.
... and swollen lymph nodes. In some cases, doctors use laboratory tests to help make the diagnosis, including: blood ... Aid: Animal Bites Toxoplasmosis Rabies Staying Safe Around Animals Why Do I Need to Wash My ... of Nondiscrimination Visit the Nemours Web site. ...
U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — IndexCat provides access to the digitized version of the printed Index-Catalogue of the Library of the Surgeon General's Office; eTK for medieval Latin texts; and...
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Langhorn, R.; Kieler, I. N.; Koch, J.
Background: Symmetric dimethylarginine (SDMA) has been increasingly used as a marker of early chronic kidney disease (CKD) in cats, but little is known about the influence of comorbidities on SDMA in this species. Hypothesis: Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) and diabetes mellitus (DM), independe...... controls, a finding that needs further investigation and should be kept in mind when evaluating renal function of cats with this endocrinopathy....
Leptospirosis is a zoonotic disease of worldwide distribution affecting most mammalian species. Clinical leptospirosis is common in dogs but seems to be rare in cats. Both dogs and cats however, can shed leptospires in the urine. This is problematic as it can lead to exposure of humans. The control ...
Trypanosoma brucei brucei, Trypanosoma cruzi and Trypanosoma congolense were initially thought to be the only species of trypanosomes capable of causing diseases in dogs and cats. However, dogs and cats are challenged by diverse species of trypanosomes with varying virulence and pathogenicity. Dogs may ...
Full Text Available Kirsten M Hoelmkjaer, Charlotte R Bjornvad Department of Veterinary Clinical and Animal Sciences, Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Frederiksberg, Denmark Abstract: Obesity is a common nutritional disorder in cats, especially when they are neutered and middle-aged. Obesity predisposes cats to several metabolic and clinical disorders, including insulin resistance, diabetes mellitus, lameness, and skin disease. Prevention and treatment of obesity is therefore of great importance in veterinary practice. Correct assessment of body composition is important for recognizing early states of obesity and for monitoring success of weight-loss programs. Various methods for assessing body composition have been proposed, of which a 9-point body-condition score has been validated in cats, and is possibly the most simple to use in the clinic; however, for extremely obese individuals, it is less useful. When calculating the appropriate daily caloric intake for a weight-loss plan, the aim is to maintain a safe weight-loss rate, increasing the chance of preserving lean body mass and decreasing the risk of developing hepatic lipidosis, while also producing a sufficient weight-loss rate to keep owners motivated. A weight-loss rate of 0.5%–2% per week is recommended, which for a cat that needs to lose 3 kg body weight results in an anticipated time for reaching the target weight of 24–60 weeks. There are several purpose-made weight-loss diets available. The optimal composition of a weight-loss diet for cats is unknown, but most of the available products have lower caloric density, an increased nutrient:energy ratio, and higher protein and fiber content. Regular follow-up visits allow the caloric intake to be adjusted based on progress, and possibly increase the chance of success. This review discusses the risk factors for and consequences of obesity, and gives directions for formulating a weight-loss plan, including daily caloric
Cat Thyme is an important medicinal plant and used for treating many diseases. To improve cat thyme seed germination, researchers must overcome obstacles involved in cat thyme seed dormancy. To address such challenges we conducted, mechanical abrasion and chemical treatments to enhance rate of seed ...
Gramza, Ashley; Teel, Tara; VandeWoude, Susan; Crooks, Kevin
Free-ranging domestic cats (Felis catus) incur and impose risks on ecosystems and represent a complex issue of critical importance to biodiversity conservation and cat and human health globally. Prior social science research on this topic is limited and has emphasized feral cats even though owned cats often comprise a large proportion of the outdoor cat population, particularly in urban areas. To address this gap, we examined public risk perceptions and attitudes toward outdoor pet cats across varying levels of urbanization, including along the wildland-urban interface, in Colorado (U.S.A.), through a mail survey of 1397 residents. Residents did not view all types of risks uniformly. They viewed risks of cat predation on wildlife and carnivore predation on cats as more likely than disease-related risks. Additionally, risk perceptions were related to attitudes, prior experiences with cats and cat-wildlife interactions, and cat-owner behavior. Our findings suggest that changes in risk perceptions may result in behavior change. Therefore, knowledge of cat-related risk perceptions and attitudes could be used to develop communication programs aimed at promoting risk-aversive behaviors among cat owners and cat-management strategies that are acceptable to the public and that directly advance the conservation of native species. © 2016 Society for Conservation Biology.
Selcer, B.A.; Newell, S.M.; Mansour, A.E.; McCall, J.W.
Eighteen cats were exposed to Dirofilaria immitis infected mosquitoes. Thoracic radiography was performed prior to exposure and at 5, 7, and 9 month intervals following exposure. Immunologic testing for adult heartworm antigen was performed on days 168, 195, 210, 224, 237, 254 and 271 post infection. Necropsies were performed on all cats. Adult heartworms were found in 61% of the exposed cats. Radiographic findings in heartworm positive cats included bronchointerstitial lung disease, lobar pulmonary arterial enlargement and pulmonary hyperinflation. In most heartworm positive cats, lobar arterial enlargement resolved as the disease progressed while pulmonary hyperinflation progressively became more common. Pulmonary patterns in heartworm positive cats remained abnormal throughout the study while abnormal pulmonary patterns resolved in over 50% of the heartworm negative cats. Cardiomegaly was seen in less than 50% of the cats with adult heartworms at necropsy. This study suggests that the radiographic appearance of heartworm disease is variable and radiographic changes are dependent on the time post infection at which cats are evaluated. Echocardiographic examinations were randomly performed on 16 of 18 cats. Heartworms were identified in 7 cats. No false positive identifications were made. Persistent pulmonary disease accompanied by resolving vascular disease in heartworm cats with pulmonary hyperinflation may be difficult to distinguish from cats with feline allergic lung. Echocardiograms may be helpful in identifying adult heartworms in cats in which the radiographic signs or immunodiagnostic data are insufficient to provide a diagnosis
Dr. Todd Davis, a CDC research biologist, discusses transmission of avian H7N2 from a cat to a human. Created: 3/28/2018 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID). Date Released: 3/28/2018.
Radiolographic examinations have become an important aid in small animal veterinary practice. The emphasis of the examinations has shifted from surgical and orthopedic applications to internal diseases. The book gives a comprehensive picture of X-ray diagnosis in dogs and cats. (orig./MG) [de
Rivers, B.J.; Walter, P.A.; Feeney, D.A.; Johnston, G.R.
Adenocarcinoma, followed by lymphosarcoma, are the most common feline intestinal neoplasms. Clinicopathological, survey radiographic, and ultrasonographic findings of five cats with intestinal adenocarcinoma are reported. An abdominal mass was palpable in all five cats, but the mass could be localized to bowel in only two cats. Radiographically an abdominal mass was detected in only one cat. Ultrasonographically there was a segmental intestinal mural mass in all five cats. The mass was characterized by circumferential bowel wall thickening with transmural loss of normal sonographic wall layers. In one cat, the circumferential symmetric hypoechoic bowel wall thickening was similar to that reported for segmental lymphoma. In the other four cats, the sonographic features of the thickened bowel wall were varied, being mixed echogenicity and asymmetric in 3 cats and mixed echogenicity and symmetric in one. The results of the present report suggest that sonographic observation of mixed echogenicity segmental intestinal wall thickening in the cat represents adenocarcinoma rather than lymphosarcoma, although other infiltrative diseases should be considered
Öhlund, Malin; Palmgren, Malin; Holst, Bodil Ström
Overweight in cats is a major risk factor for diabetes mellitus and has also been associated with other disorders. Overweight and obesity are believed to be increasing problems in cats, as is currently seen in people, with important health consequences. The objectives of the present study were to determine the prevalence of overweight in cats from two different cohorts in a cross-sectional study design and to assess associations between overweight and diagnoses, and between overweight and demographic and environmental factors. Data were obtained from medical records for cats (n = 1072) visiting an academic medical center during 2013-2015, and from a questionnaire on insured cats (n = 1665). From the medical records, information on body condition score, breed, age, sex, neutering status, and diagnosis was obtained. The questionnaire included questions relating to the cat's body condition, breed, age, sex, neutering status, outdoor access, activity level, and diet. Data were analyzed by multivariable logistic regression. The prevalence of overweight was 45% in the medical records cohort and 22% in the questionnaire cohort, where owners judged their pet's body condition. Overweight cats in the medical records cohort were more likely to be diagnosed with lower urinary tract disease, diabetes mellitus, respiratory disease, skin disorders, locomotor disease, and trauma. Eating predominantly dry food, being a greedy eater, and inactivity were factors associated with an increased risk of overweight in the final model in the questionnaire cohort. In both cohorts, the Birman and Persian breeds, and geriatric cats, were less likely to be overweight, and male cats were more likely to be overweight. The prevalence of overweight cats (45%) as assessed by trained personnel was high and in the same range as previously reported. Birman and Persian cats had a lower risk of overweight. The association with dry food found in adult, neutered cats is potentially important because
Ray, Casey C; Callahan-Clark, Julie; Beckel, Nicole F; Walters, Patricia C
To report the prevalence of hyperglycemia in cats admitted to a veterinary hospital and to determine if hyperglycemic cats had increased morbidity and mortality when compared with normoglycemic cats. DESIGN - Retrospective clinical study. Community-based referral hospital. Nondiabetic cats admitted to the hospital. None. The medical records of nondiabetic cats admitted to the hospital over a 1-year period were reviewed. There were 182 cats that met the criteria for inclusion in the study. Information obtained included signalment, length of hospitalization, initial and highest blood glucose measurement, diagnosis, treatment, and final disposition. Sixty-three percent of cats (116/182) were hyperglycemic at the time of presentation. Total incidence of hyperglycemia at any point during hospitalization was 64% (118/182). No association was found between hyperglycemia either initially or at any point during the hospitalization and mortality. However, a significant association was documented between the presence of hyperglycemia and increased length of hospitalization (LOH) (P=0.04). The duration of LOH was also significantly associated with the degree of hyperglycemia (P=0.01). A number of different disease processes were represented in the study population. However, the number of cats in each disease category was small and no association could be found between any of them and blood glucose affecting mortality and morbidity. The prevalence of hyperglycemia in feline patients admitted to a primary referral hospital was 64%. Cats with hyperglycemia had a longer LOH when compared with normoglycemic cats; however, presence of hyperglycemia did not impact mortality in this population of cats. © Veterinary Emergency and Critical Care Society 2009.
Nyman, U.; Dinnetz, G.; Andersson, I.
A new barium sulphate suspension, E-Z-CAT, for use as an oral contrast medium at computed tomography of the abdomen has been compared with the commonly used water-soluble iodinated contrast medium Gastrografin as regards patient tolerance and diagnostic information. The investigation was conducted as an unpaired randomized single-blind study in 100 consecutive patients. E-Z-CAT seems to be preferred because of its better taste, its lesser tendency to cause diarrhoea, and for usage in patients who are known to be hypersensitive to iodinated contrast media. The diagnostic information was the same for both contrast media. (Auth.)
de Jonge, I
Those forms of behaviour in which cats use their claws are reviewed. Forms of undesirable use of the claws and possible solutions to this problem are discussed. An inquiry among veterinary practitioners showed that nearly fifty per cent of these practitioners refused to declaw cats on principle. Approximately seventy-five per cent of the veterinarians taking part in the inquiry advocated that the Royal Netherlands Veterinary Association should state its position with regard to declawing. It is concluded by the present author that declawing is unacceptable for ethical and ethological reasons.
Karen L. Johnson
Full Text Available Cat impoundments were increasing at the municipal San Jose animal shelter in 2009, despite long-term successful low cost sterilization programs and attempts to lower the euthanasia rate of treatable-rehabilitatable impounds beginning in 2008. San Jose Animal Care and Services implemented a new strategy designed to control overall feral cat reproduction by altering and returning feral cats entering the shelter system, rather than euthanizing the cats. The purpose of this case study was to determine how the program affected the shelter cat intakes over time. In just over four years, 10,080 individual healthy adult feral cats, out of 11,423 impounded at the shelter during this time frame, were altered and returned to their site of capture. Included in the 11,423 cats were 862 cats impounded from one to four additional times for a total of 958 (9.5% recaptures of the previously altered 10,080 cats. The remaining 385 healthy feral cats were euthanized at the shelter from March 2010 to June 2014. Four years into the program, researchers observed cat and kitten impounds decreased 29.1%; euthanasia decreased from over 70% of intakes in 2009, to 23% in 2014. Euthanasia in the shelter for Upper Respiratory Disease decreased 99%; dead cat pick up off the streets declined 20%. Dog impounds did not similarly decline over the four years. No other laws or program changes were implemented since the beginning of the program.
Johnson, Karen L; Cicirelli, Jon
Cat impoundments were increasing at the municipal San Jose animal shelter in 2009, despite long-term successful low cost sterilization programs and attempts to lower the euthanasia rate of treatable-rehabilitatable impounds beginning in 2008. San Jose Animal Care and Services implemented a new strategy designed to control overall feral cat reproduction by altering and returning feral cats entering the shelter system, rather than euthanizing the cats. The purpose of this case study was to determine how the program affected the shelter cat intakes over time. In just over four years, 10,080 individual healthy adult feral cats, out of 11,423 impounded at the shelter during this time frame, were altered and returned to their site of capture. Included in the 11,423 cats were 862 cats impounded from one to four additional times for a total of 958 (9.5%) recaptures of the previously altered 10,080 cats. The remaining 385 healthy feral cats were euthanized at the shelter from March 2010 to June 2014. Four years into the program, researchers observed cat and kitten impounds decreased 29.1%; euthanasia decreased from over 70% of intakes in 2009, to 23% in 2014. Euthanasia in the shelter for Upper Respiratory Disease decreased 99%; dead cat pick up off the streets declined 20%. Dog impounds did not similarly decline over the four years. No other laws or program changes were implemented since the beginning of the program.
Success in treatment of endocrine emergencies is contingent on early recognition and treatment. Many endocrine diseases presenting emergently have nonspecific signs and symptoms. In addition, these endocrine crises are often precipitated by concurrent disease, further making early identification difficult. This article concentrates on recognition and emergency management of the most common endocrine crises in dogs and cats. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Margileth, A M; Baehren, D F
We describe a patient who presented with a massive chest-wall abscess after a severe debilitating illness that lasted 3 months. Steroid therapy, administered for 4 weeks, masked the slow development of an extensive axillary and chest-wall abscess. After multiple negative tests, the patient's prolonged illness was diagnosed as cat-scratch disease (CSD). An indirect fluorescent antibody test revealed that two convalescent serum samples were positive for IgG to Bartonella clarridgeiae, but no other Bartonella species. We also review 12 cases of severe chest and pulmonary disease due to CSD that were reported in the English-language literature. Thoracopulmonary findings associated with CSD, pathogenic mechanisms of bartonella infections, diagnostic criteria, and management of CSD are presented.
Flegr, Jaroslav; Hodný, Zdeněk
A recent study performed on 1.3 million patients showed a strong association between being bitten by a cat and probability of being diagnosed with depression. Authors suggested that infection with cat parasite Toxoplasma could be the reason for this association. A cross sectional internet study on a non-clinical population of 5,535 subjects was undertaken. The subjects that reported having been bitten by a dog and a cat or scratched by a cat have higher Beck depression score. They were more likely to have visited psychiatrists, psychotherapists and neurologists in past two years, to have been previously diagnosed with depression (but not with bipolar disorder). Multivariate analysis of models with cat biting, cat scratching, toxoplasmosis, the number of cats at home, and the age of subjects as independent variables showed that only cat scratching had positive effect on depression (p = 0.004). Cat biting and toxoplasmosis had no effect on the depression, and the number of cats at home had a negative effect on depression (p = 0.021). Absence of association between toxoplasmosis and depression and five times stronger association of depression with cat scratching than with cat biting suggests that the pathogen responsible for mood disorders in animals-injured subjects is probably not the protozoon Toxoplasma gondii but another organism; possibly the agent of cat-scratched disease - the bacteria Bartonella henselae.
Hendricks, J.C.; O'Brien, J.A.
Two cats examined bronchoscopically to discover the cause of tracheal collapse were found to have tracheal obstruction cranial to the collapse. Cats with this unusual sign should be examined bronchoscopically to ascertain whether there is an obstruction, as the cause in these 2 cats was distinct from the diffuse airway abnormality that causes tracheal collapse in dogs
Di Dona, Francesco; Murino, Carla; Della Valle, Giovanni; Fatone, Gerardo
A three-year-old cat was referred to the Veterinary Teaching Hospital, University of Naples, Italy. The cat had severe pelvic limb deformity, and abnormal development of all four paws. Radiographs revealed bilateral tibial agenesis, syndactyly, and digital hypoplasia. No treatment was instituted because of the severity of the injury, the adaptation of the cat to the abnormal condition, and the owner's refusal to permit any treatment. Congenital limb deformities are rarely reported in the cat and tibial agenesis is considered a very rare disease. This congenital anomaly is well documented and classified in man, and it has been associated with other abnormalities in more complex syndromes. This paper reports clinical and radiographic findings in a cat affected by bilateral complete tibial agenesis associated with other congenital anomalies.
Queau, Y; Larsen, J A; Kass, P H; Glucksman, G S; Fascetti, A J
Parenteral nutrition (PN) is increasingly used to support hospitalized dogs and cats. Published assessments of outcome are limited. Evaluate type and prevalence of complications and risk factors for death and complications in dogs and cats receiving PN. Three hundred and nineteen dogs and 112 cats that received PN at a teaching hospital between 2000 and 2008. Retrospective case review. Diagnosis, duration of PN administration, concurrent enteral feeding, death, and mechanical, septic, and metabolic complications were abstracted from medical records. Association of each parameter with complications and death was analyzed by binary logistic regression. Pancreatitis was the most common diagnosis (109/319 dogs, 34/112 cats), and 137/319 dogs and 51/112 cats died. Dogs and cats received 113 ± 40% and 103 ± 32% of resting energy requirement, respectively. Mechanical (81/319 dogs, 16/112 cats) and septic (20/319 dogs, 6/112 cats) complications were not associated with death (P > .05). Hyperglycemia was the most common metabolic complication (96/158 dogs, 31/37 cats). Hypercreatininemia in dogs (8/79) was the only complication associated with death (P dogs, hepatic lipidosis in cats, and longer duration of inadequate caloric intake before PN in both species were negatively associated with survival (P feeding in cats with any disease, and enteral feeding in dogs with respiratory disease (P ill dogs and cats. Most complications accompanying PN administration do not affect survival. Copyright © 2011 by the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine.
Elliott, D A; Nelson, R W; Feldman, E C; Neal, L A
Blood glycosylated hemoglobin (GHb) concentration was quantified in 84 healthy cats, 9 cats with stress-induced hyperglycemia, 37 cats with newly diagnosed diabetes mellitus, and 122 diabetic cats treated with insulin or glipizide. Diabetic control was classified as good or poor in insulin-treated or glipizide-treated cats based on review of history, physical examination findings, changes in body weight, and measurement of blood glucose concentrations. Blood GHb concentration was determined using an affinity chromatography assay. Mean blood GHb concentration was similar for healthy normoglycemic cats and cats with transient, stress-induced hyperglycemia, but was significantly (P cats when compared with healthy normoglycemic cats. Mean blood GHb concentration was significantly (P cats with poorly controlled diabetes mellitus when compared with 38 cats in which the disease was well controlled. Mean blood GHb concentration decreased significantly (P cats with untreated diabetes mellitus after insulin and dietary treatment. A similar significant (P cats with poorly controlled diabetes mellitus after diabetic control was improved by an increase in insulin dosage from 1.1 +/- 0.9 to 1.4 +/- 0.6 U/kg/ 24 h and by feeding a diet containing increased fiber content and in 6 cats with transient diabetes mellitus 8.2 +/- 0.6 weeks after discontinuing insulin treatment. There was a significant (P glucose concentration and mean blood glucose concentration for 12 hours after administration of insulin or glipizide but no change in mean blood GHb concentration in 5 docile diabetic cats 12.2 +/- 0.4 weeks after the cats became fractious as a result of frequent hospitalizations and blood samplings. Results of this study suggest that evaluation of blood GHb concentration may be a clinically useful tool for monitoring glycemic control of diabetes in cats.
Schlesener, Brittany N; Scott, Erin M; Vallone, Lucien V
A 1-year-old, female spayed, domestic shorthair cat presented for blepharospasm of the right eye. Slit-lamp biomicroscopic examination showed focal corneal ulceration and presumptive keratomalacia of the right eye. Examination of the left eye was normal apart from a focal endothelial opacity. Within the first 24 h of medical management, the right eye developed marked corneal edema and globular anterior protrusion of the corneal surface consistent with feline acute corneal hydrops (FACH). Surgical management consisted of a bridge conjunctival graft, nictitating membrane flap, and temporary tarsorrhaphy. Resolution of corneal edema and pain occurred in the right eye within 24 days. Spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) of the anterior segment was performed in both eyes. Conjunctival tissue from the bridge graft precluded examination of deeper corneal structures in the right eye. The left eye displayed a focal separation of the corneal endothelium and Descemet's membrane from the overlying stroma. These SD-OCT findings are similar to the analogous syndrome found in humans and represent a potential etiology for FACH of the right eye in the case presented here. Unfortunately, the cat was lost to follow-up and the progression of this lesion to FACH in the left eye could not be determined. © 2017 American College of Veterinary Ophthalmologists.
Toresson, Linda; Steiner, Joerg M; Olmedal, Gunilla; Larsen, MajBritt; Suchodolski, Jan S; Spillmann, Thomas
Objectives The objective of the study was to evaluate whether oral cobalamin supplementation can restore normocobal-aminaemia in cats with hypocobalaminaemia and clinical signs of gastrointestinal disease. Methods This was a retrospective study based on a computerised database search for client-owned cats treated at Evidensia Specialist Animal Hospital, Helsingborg, Sweden, during the period December 2013 to August 2016. Inclusion criteria were cats with clinical signs of chronic enteropathy, an initial serum cobalamin concentration ⩽250 pmol/l (reference interval 214-738 pmol/l) and oral treatment with cobalamin tablets. Results Twenty-five cats met the inclusion criteria. The cats were treated with 0.25 mg cyanocobalamin tablets once daily. Serum cobalamin concentration was rechecked 27-94 days after continuous oral cobalamin supplementation. All cats had serum cobalamin concentrations above the reference interval after oral cobalamin supplementation. Median (range) serum cobalamin concentration was 128 pmol/l (111-250 pmol/l) prior to treatment and 2701 pmol/l (738-16,359 pmol/l) after supplementation. This difference was statistically significant ( P cats with hypocobalaminaemia. Thus, oral cobalamin supplementation is a promising alternative to parenteral administration. Prospective comparative studies in cats being treated with parenteral vs oral cobalamin supplementation in a larger number of patients are warranted before oral supplementation can be recommended for routine use.
Cazalot, G; Regnier, A; Deviers, A; Serra, F; Lucas, M N; Etienne, C L; Letron, I Raymond
A 10 year-old castrated male Domestic Short-hair cat with a history of chronic bilateral keratitis was referred for assessment of a red, elevated mass involving the left cornea. The rapid growth of the mass, over a month period in combination with pronounced vascularization and invasion of the corneal surface suggested an aggressive inflammatory or neoplastic process. Following keratectomy, the lesion was diagnosed histopathologically as a hemangiosarcoma. The tumor recurred locally within 3 weeks and enucleation was performed. Histopathologic examination of the globe confirmed the diagnosis and did not reveal infiltration of the limbus and conjunctiva. No signs of local recurrence or metastatic disease have been observed 18 months following enucleation. To the authors' knowledge this is the first case of primary corneal hemangiosarcoma described in the feline species. © 2011 American College of Veterinary Ophthalmologists.
Alexandre Hassler Príncipe de Oliveira
Full Text Available Relatamos caso de paciente do sexo feminino, brasileira, 23 anos, residente na Alemanha, que cursou com quadro de conjuntivite granulomatosa bilateral crônica, sem acometimento ganglionar, não responsiva a tratamento tópico. A pesquisa laboratorial confirmou diagnóstico de conjuntivite por Bartonella henselae. O caso demonstra que a ausência de acometimento ganglionar não exclui o diagnóstico de doença da arranhadura do gato.We report a case of a 23-year-old female patient, Brazilian, resident of Germany, who presented with a bilateral chronic granulomatous conjunctivitis, without lymphoadenopathy and irresponsive to topical treatment. Laboratorial work-up confirmed Bartonella henselae as the etiologic agent. The case shows that the absence of lymphoadenopathy does not exclude the diagnosis of cat-scratch disease.
Switzer, Alexandra D.; McMillan-Cole, Audrey C.; Kasten, Rickie W.; Stuckey, Matthew J.; Kass, Philip H.; Chomel, Bruno B.
Because of overpopulation, stray/feral cats were captured on military bases in Iraq as part of the US Army Zoonotic Disease Surveillance Program. Blood samples were collected from 207 cats, mainly in Baghdad but also in North and West Iraq, to determine the prevalence of Bartonella and Toxoplasma infections. Nine (4.3%) cats, all from Baghdad, were bacteremic with B. henselae type I. Seroprevalence was 30.4% for T. gondii, 15% for B. henselae, and 12.6% for B. clarridgeiae. Differences in Bar...
Tanaka, Aki; Martinez-Lopez, Beatriz; Kass, Philip
The aims of this research were to report characteristics of rescued cats at a secondary emergency animal shelter in Fukushima prefecture, Japan, and evaluate how adoptability, stress level, upper respiratory infection (URI) syndrome incidence, and URI pathogen prevalence were associated with the cat's shelter intake source and shelter characteristics. All cats admitted to the Miharu shelter, Fukushima Prefecture from 2012 to 2014 were included in the study. The results demonstrate that in situ corticosteroid and antibiotic use were associated with cats subsequently developing upper respiratory infections (URI). Disease and cat behavior were unassociated with adoption. Cats in group housing had lower stress metrics than cats individually housed. Prevalences of URI pathogens exceeded 80%, but symptomatic cats were uncommon. Environmental enrichment and stress reduction strategies are important in controlling URI and reducing the need for corticosteroids and antibiotics in shelters. Preemptive protocols are important in preventing shelter admission of cats during disasters. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Maria Mercedes Nogueras
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Rickettsiatyphi is the etiological agent of murine typhus (MT, a disease transmitted by two cycles: rat-flea-rat, and peridomestic cycle. Murine typhus is often misdiagnosed and underreported. A correct diagnosis is important because MT can cause severe illness and death. Our previous seroprevalence results pointed to presence of human R. typhi infection in our region; however, no clinical case has been reported. Although cats have been related to MT, no naturally infected cat has been described. The aim of the study is to confirm the existence of R. typhi in our location analyzing its presence in cats and fleas. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: 221 cats and 80 fleas were collected from Veterinary clinics, shelters, and the street (2001-2009. Variables surveyed were: date of collection, age, sex, municipality, living place, outdoor activities, demographic area, healthy status, contact with animals, and ectoparasite infestation. IgG against R. typhi were evaluated by indirect immunofluorescence assay. Molecular detection in cats and fleas was performed by real-time PCR. Cultures were performed in those cats with positive molecular detection. Statistical analysis was carried out using SPSS. A p < 0.05 was considered significant. Thirty-five (15.8% cats were seropositive. There were no significant associations among seropositivity and any variables. R. typhi was detected in 5 blood and 2 cultures. High titres and molecular detection were observed in stray cats and pets, as well as in spring and winter. All fleas were Ctenocephalides felis. R. typhi was detected in 44 fleas (55%, from shelters and pets. Co-infection with R. felis was observed. CONCLUSIONS: Although no clinical case has been described in this area, the presence of R. typhi in cats and fleas is demonstrated. Moreover, a considerable percentage of those animals lived in households. To our knowledge, this is the first time R. typhi is detected in naturally infected cats.
Yilmaz, Huseyin; Tekelioglu, Bilge K; Gurel, Aydin; Bamac, Ozge E; Ozturk, Gulay Y; Cizmecigil, Utku Y; Altan, Eda; Aydin, Ozge; Yilmaz, Aysun; Berriatua, Eduardo; Helps, Chris R; Richt, Juergen A; Turan, Nuri
regions of the kidneys. Cellular infiltration, cholangiohepatitis and focal necrosis in the liver were also found. Although virus-infected cells were found in the kidney and liver of FmoRV RNA-positive cats, tubulointerstitial nephritis, cholangiohepatitis and focal necrosis seen in FmoRV RNA-positive cats were similar to those observed in FmoRV RNA-negative cats. Conclusions and relevance This is the first study to show the presence of FmoPV infection in cats in Turkey. Sick cats, particularly those with kidney disease, should be tested for this virus. The genotypes found in this study were similar to previously reported strains, indicating that circulating morbilliviruses in Turkey are conserved.
In this thesis, a general overview is given of the healthy feline liver and feline diseases of the gall bladder and biliary tree. Lymphocytic cholangitis (LC) is one of the most common inflammatory hepatic diseases in cats. It is a chronic disease that affects the biliary tree and progresses slowly
McGorum, Bruce C; Symonds, Herb W; Knottenbelt, Clare; Cave, Tom A; MacDonald, Susan J; Stratton, Joanna; Leon, Irene; Turner, Judith A; Pirie, R Scott
Feline dysautonomia (FD) is a multiple system neuropathy of unknown aetiology. An apparently identical disease occurs in horses (equine grass sickness, EGS), dogs, rabbits, hares, sheep, alpacas and llamas. Horses with acute EGS have a marked reduction in plasma concentrations of the sulphur amino acids (SAA) cyst(e)ine and methionine, which may reflect exposure to a neurotoxic xenobiotic. The aim of this study was to determine whether FD cats have alterations in amino acid profiles similar to those of EGS horses. Amino acids were quantified in plasma/serum from 14 FD cats, 5 healthy in-contact cats which shared housing and diet with the FD cats, and 6 healthy control cats which were housed separately from FD cats and which received a different diet. The adequacy of amino acids in the cats' diet was assessed by determining the amino acid content of tinned and dry pelleted foods collected immediately after occurrences of FD. Compared with controls, FD cats had increased concentrations of many essential amino acids, with the exception of methionine which was significantly reduced, and reductions in most non-essential amino acids. In-contact cats also had inadequate methionine status. Artefactual loss of cysteine during analysis precluded assessment of the cyst(e)ine status. Food analysis indicated that the low methionine status was unlikely to be attributable to dietary inadequacy of methionine or cystine. Multi-mycotoxin screening identified low concentrations of several mycotoxins in dry food from all 3 premises. While this indicates fungal contamination of the food, none of these mycotoxins appears to induce the specific clinico-pathologic features which characterise FD and equivalent multiple system neuropathies in other species. Instead, we hypothesise that ingestion of another, as yet unidentified, dietary neurotoxic mycotoxin or xenobiotic, may cause both the characteristic disease pathology and the plasma SAA depletion.
A case of radial carpal bone luxation in the cat and its management is described. Open reduction was performed and surgically maintained, in combination with repair of rupture of the short radial collateral ligament and joint capsule. The carpus was supported for one month following surgery by application of transarticular external fixation. Four months after treatment the cat was sound, despite evidence of degenerative joint disease. The mechanism of luxation appears to be analogous to that seen in the dog
Valtolina, Chiara; Vaandrager, Arie B.; Favier, Robert P.; Tuohetahuntila, Maidina; Kummeling, Anne; Jeusette, Isabelle; Rothuizen, Jan; Robben, Joris H.
BACKGROUND: A link between lipid metabolism and disease has been recognized in cats. Since hepatic lipidosis is a frequent disorder in cats, the aim of the current study was to evaluate liver and plasma lipid dimorphism in healthy cats and the effects of gonadectomy on lipid profiling. From six female and six male cats plasma and liver lipid profiles before and after spaying/neutering were assessed and compared to five cats (three neutered male and two spayed female) diagnosed with hepatic li...
In this Letter we analyze the (im)possibility of the exact cloning of orthogonal three-qubit CAT states under local operation and classical communication (LOCC) with the help of a restricted entangled state. We also classify the three-qubit CAT states that can (not) be cloned under LOCC restrictions and extend the results to the n-qubit case. -- Highlights: → We analyze the (im)possibility of exact cloning of orthogonal CAT states under LOCC. → We also classify the set of CAT states that can(not) be cloned by LOCC. → No set of orthogonal CAT states can be cloned by LOCC with help of similar CAT state. → Any two orthogonal n-qubit GHZ-states can be cloned by LOCC with help of a GHZ state.
Xenoulis, Panagiotis G; Suchodolski, Jan S; Steiner, Jorg M
Pancreatitis is the most common disorder of the exocrine pancreas in dogs and cats. Clinical diagnosis of chronic pancreatitis is challenging because the disease is usually mild or subclinical and because its clinical signs are often the same as those of complicating or concurrent diseases. Obtaining a detailed history, performing a thorough physical examination, and conducting tests that are sensitive and specific for pancreatitis are crucial in diagnosing chronic pancreatitis. Initial management of an acute episode of chronic pancreatitis largely involves supportive and dietary measures, while long-term management of chronic pancreatitis is based on dietary modification. Management of complications and concurrent diseases is crucial in animals with chronic pancreatitis.
Kline, K.L.; Joseph, R.J.; Averill, D.R. Jr.
The medical records of 24 cats with histopathologically diagnosed feline infectious peritonitis involving the nervous system were reviewed. Seventeen cats had historical, clinical, and pathological findings of systemic disease. Twelve cats had focal signs of central nervous system dysfunction. Twelve cats had multifocal signs including seizures, nystagmus, head tilt, vestibular or cerebellar ataxia, paresis, and proprioceptive loss with a preponderance of caudal fossa signs. Computed tomography of the brain revealed hydrocephalus in two cats. Examination of cerebrospinal fluid revealed pyogranulomatous pleocytosis in fivecats; the tap was nonproductive in five cats. Findings on histopathological examination of appropriate tissues included nephritis, hepatitis, and pleuritis. Neuropathological findings included ependymitis, choroid plexitis, meningitis, encephalitis, and myelitis. Hydrocephalus was seen in 18 cats on necropsy
Majeski, Stephanie A; Steffey, Michele A; Mayhew, Philipp D; Hunt, Geraldine B; Holt, David E; Runge, Jeffrey J; Kass, Philip H; Mellema, Matthew
To describe indications for, and outcomes after, pneumonectomy in dogs and cats, including assessment of immediate postoperative respiratory function in comparison to dogs undergoing single lung lobectomy. Retrospective case series. Dogs (n=16) and cats (n=7) with naturally occurring pulmonary disease. Medical records (1990-2014) of dogs and cats undergoing right or left pneumonectomy were reviewed. Data retrieved included signalment, history, preoperative diagnostics, operative descriptions, postoperative data including respiratory function, and postdischarge outcomes. For respiratory function comparisons, medical records of dogs having undergone a single lung lobectomy via median sternotomy (n=15) or intercostal thoracotomy (n=15) were reviewed. Twenty-three cases (16 dogs, 7 cats) were included. Pneumonectomy was performed for congenital (1 dog, 1 cat), neoplastic (8 dogs, 1 cat), and infectious (7 dogs, 5 cats) disease. Postoperative aspiration pneumonia occurred in 2 dogs; 15 of 16 dogs (94%) and 6/7 cats (86%) survived to hospital discharge. After pneumonectomy, dogs had a significantly higher postoperative PaO2 on 21% oxygen (P=.033) and lower postoperative A-a gradient (P=.004) compared to dogs undergoing single lung lobectomy. Survival times (right-censored at last follow-up) for dogs ranged from 2 days to 7 years (estimated median=1,868 days) and for cats from 1-585 days. Dogs and cats have acceptable respiratory function immediately postoperatively and most have protracted long-term survival after pneumonectomy for a variety of pulmonary diseases. © Copyright 2016 by The American College of Veterinary Surgeons.
Full Text Available A comprehensive feline health survey was conducted to reveal breed-specific inheritable diseases in Finnish pedigree cats for genetic research. Prevalences of 19 disease categories and 227 feline diseases were defined in a study population of 8175 cats belonging to 30 breeds. Dental and oral diseases with a prevalence of 28% and dental calculus and gingivitis (21% and 8%, respectively were the most prevalent disease category and diseases among all cats and in most of the breeds. An exception was Korats, which were more often affected by the diseases of the respiratory tract (23% and asthma (19%. Other prevalent disease categories affected various organ systems such as the skin (12%, the urinary system (12%, the digestive tract (11%, eyes, (10%, the musculoskeletal system (10%, and genitals of female cats (17%. Prevalent health or developmental issues included repetitive vomiting (4%, tail kink (4%, feline odontoclastic resorption lesion (FORL (4%, urinary tract infections (4%, as well as caesarean section (6% and stillborn kittens (6% among female cats. We found 57 breed-specific conditions by Fisher’s exact tests and logistic regression analyses, including 32 previously described and 19 new breed-specific diseases. The genetic defect has already been found in six of them: polycystic kidney disease (PKD, progressive retinal atrophy (PRA, hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM and three types of tail malformations. Behavioral profiling revealed breed-specific traits, such as an increased human avoidance in British Short and Longhairs and a higher level of aggression in Turkish vans. Our epidemiological study reveals the overall health profile in Finnish pure and mixed breed cats and identifies many breed-specific conditions without molecular identity for genetic research.
Fernandez, Yordan; Seth, Mayank; Murgia, Daniela; Puig, Jordi
There is limited veterinary literature about dogs or cats with ileocolic junction resection and its long-term follow-up. To evaluate the long-term outcome in a cohort of dogs and cats that underwent resection of the ileocolic junction without extensive (≥50%) small or large bowel resection. Medical records of dogs and cats that had the ileocolic junction resected were reviewed. Follow-up information was obtained either by telephone interview or e-mail correspondence with the referring veterinary surgeons. Nine dogs and nine cats were included. The most common cause of ileocolic junction resection was intussusception in dogs (5/9) and neoplasia in cats (6/9). Two dogs with ileocolic junction lymphoma died postoperatively. Only 2 of 15 animals, for which long-term follow-up information was available, had soft stools. However, three dogs with suspected chronic enteropathy required long-term treatment with hypoallergenic diets alone or in combination with medical treatment to avoid the development of diarrhoea. Four of 6 cats with ileocolic junction neoplasia were euthanised as a consequence of progressive disease. Dogs and cats undergoing ileocolic junction resection and surviving the perioperative period may have a good long-term outcome with mild or absent clinical signs but long-term medical management may be required.
O'Neill, K E; Labato, M A; Court, M H
Fenoldopam is a selective dopamine-1 receptor agonist that improves diuresis by increasing renal blood flow and perfusion and causing peripheral vasodilation. Fenoldopam has been shown to induce diuresis and be well-tolerated in healthy cats. It is used clinically in cats with oliguric kidney injury at doses extrapolated from human medicine and canine studies. The pharmacokinetics in healthy beagle dogs has been reported; however, pharmacokinetic data in cats are lacking. The goal of this study was to determine pharmacokinetic data for healthy, awake cats receiving an infusion of fenoldopam. Six healthy, awake, client-owned cats aged 2-6 years old received a 120-min constant rate infusion of fenoldopam at 0.8 μg/kg/min followed by a 20-min washout period. Ascorbate stabilized plasma samples were collected during and after the infusion for the measurement of fenoldopam concentration by HPLC with mass spectrometry detection. This study showed that the geometric mean of the volume of distribution, clearance, and half-life (198 mL/kg, 46 mL/kg/min, and 3.0 mins) is similar to pharmacokinetic parameters for humans. No adverse events were noted. Fenoldopam at a constant rate infusion of 0.8 μg/kg per min was well tolerated in healthy cats. Based on the results, further evaluation of fenoldopam in cats with kidney disease is recommended. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Vrieling, HE; Theyse, LFH; van Winkelhoff, AJ; Dijkshoorn, NA; Logan, EI; Picovet, P
Effectiveness of feeding large kibbles with mechanical cleaning properties in cats with gingivitis periodontal disease is the most common acquired oral disease in cats. it starts with plaque accumulation and gingivitis. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of different types of
Becker, N; Dillitzer, N; Sauter-Louis, C; Kienzle, E
The aim of this study was to determine epidemiological data on the feeding of dogs and cats in Germany. A total of 865 dog owners and 243 cat owners were interviewed using standardised questionnaires about their animals (age, sex, weight, body condition, health) and feeding, including treats, additional supplements and reasons for food changes, together with data on the pet owners (age, sex, education, profession). The interviews took place in the waiting rooms of veterinarians, in dog schools, animal shelters and public parks as well as via the internet. Body condition scoring (BCS, scale 1-9) was performed separately by the pet owners and the interviewer. The mean age of dogs was 4.8 years and of cats 6.8 years. The dogs' body weight ranged from 2.2kg (Pomeranian dog) to 95kg (Saint Bernard). The cats had a body weight from 2 to 11kg. Approximately 52% of dogs and cats were overweight (BCS6-9). Differences existed between the assessment by the owner and the interviewer. Many owners underestimated the body condition, in particular, moderate overweight was not recognised (BCS6-7). Commercial food was exclusively used by 58% of dog and 90% of cat owners, while 35% and 10%, respectively, combined these with additional feed. Nearly 8% of dog and 7 years) and sick dogs received home-made diets more often. Older pet owners (≥ 46 years) fed their pets home-made diets more frequently. The education and profession of owners did not affect the percentage of home-made diets. There was no effect of the type of diet on BCS. Owners with a lower education as well as housewives and pensioners more often had overweight pets. Older owners and working owners gave treats less frequently. However, 95% of dogs and 65% of cats received treats. Being overweight is the biggest dietary problem. In comparison to previous studies, the number of overweight pets has increased. Pet owners should be advised early on excess weight, because the onset of being overweight is often not recognised
Park, Eun-Sil; Suzuki, Michio; Kimura, Masanobu; Mizutani, Hiroshi; Saito, Ryuichi; Kubota, Nami; Hasuike, Youko; Okajima, Jungo; Kasai, Hidemi; Sato, Yuko; Nakajima, Noriko; Maruyama, Keiji; Imaoka, Koichi; Morikawa, Shigeru
Feline morbillivirus (FmoPV) is a novel paramyxovirus found to infect domestic cats. FmoPV has been isolated in several countries in Asia and Europe and is considered to have genetic diversity. Also, it is suspected to be associated with feline renal diseases including tubulointerstitial nephritis (TIN), which affects domestic cats with a high incidence rate. To clarify the state of FmoPV infection among domestic cats in Japan, an epidemiological survey was conducted. Twenty-one out of 100 cats were found to have serum antibodies (Ab) against FmoPV-N protein by indirect immunofluorescence assay (IF) using FmoPV-N protein-expressing HeLa cells. Twenty-two of the cats were positive for FmoPV RNA in the urine and/or renal tissues. In total, 29 cats were positive for Ab and/or viral RNA. These FmoPV-infected cats were classified into three different phases of infection: RNA+/Ab + (14 cats), RNA+/Ab- (8 cats) and RNA-/Ab + (7 cats). In immunohistochemistry (IHC), 19 out of 29 cats were positive for FmoPV-N protein in kidney tissues; however, the FmoPV-N protein was located in the inflammatory lesions with severe grade in only four out of the 19 cats. Since 15 out of 29 infected cats were positive for viral RNA and Ab, approximately half of the infected cats were persistently infected with FmoPV. A statistically significant difference was observed between infection of FmoPV and the presence of inflammatory changes in renal lesions, indicating a relationship between FmoPV infection and feline renal diseases. However, we could not obtain histopathological evidence of a relationship between FmoPV infection and TIN.
DiBartola, S P; Chew, D J; Horton, M L
A 10-month-old male Siamese cat with dysuria was determined to have cystine crystalluria. Many small calculi composed entirely of cystine were found in the urinary bladder. Measurement of serum and urine amino acids and calculation of fractional reabsorption of amino acids indicated reabsorption defects for cystine, ornithine, lysine, and arginine. Urinary acidification, fractional reabsorption of glucose, and fractional reabsorption of electrolytes were normal. Diagnoses of cystinuria and cystine urolithiasis were made on the basis of low fractional reabsorption of cystine and dibasic amino acids and the detection of cystine calculi in the urinary bladder.
... role do cats play in the spread of toxoplasmosis? Cats get Toxoplasma infection by eating infected rodents, ... an infected cat may have defecated. What is toxoplasmosis? Toxoplasmosis is an infection caused by a microscopic ...
Varol, Yelda; Ozacar, Rifat; Balci, Gunseli; Usta, Levent; Taymaz, Zuhre
The CAT is a short, simple eight-item questionnaire for assessing and monitoring COPD. It is not known how reliable the CAT scores are for COPD patients who are frequently exacerbated. The effectiveness of the CAT for assessing COPD severity and exacerbation rates was evaluated. This study enrolled 165 stable COPD patients who completed the CAT between April 2011 and February 2012. Patients had a mean forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) equal to 43.7% of the predicted value and a mean CAT score of 21.2 (± 7.56) units. There was a good association between the FEV1 (percentage of predicted value) and CAT scores (p CAT scores than infrequent exacerbators (24.8 ± 6.7 versus 17.5 ± 6.5, p CAT scores (p CAT scores (p = 0.001). We observed a good relation between the CAT, FEV 1, and disease severity in patients with COPD. We found that the baseline CAT scores are elevated in frequent exacerbators.
Hou, Honglie; Cao, Lili; Ren, Wenzhi; Wang, Dansheng; Ding, He; You, Juan; Yao, Xinhua; Dong, Hang; Guo, Yanbing; Yuan, Shuxian; Zhang, Xichen; Gong, Pengtao
The present study was performed to investigate the seroprevalence and risk factors for Dirofilaria immitis infection in cats from Liaoning province, northeastern China. From October 2014 to September 2016, sera of 651 cats, including 364 domestic cats and 287 feral cats (332 females and 319 males) were assessed. They were tested for the presence of D. immitis antigen using SNAP Heartworm RT test kit. In this population, the average prevalence was 4.5%. Age and rearing conditions (feral or domestic) were found to be associated with the prevalence of D. immitis. The prevalence was significantly higher in feral cats compared with domestic cats (8.4% vs 1.4%, P0.05), but older cats (≥3 years old) showed a statistically higher prevalence compared with younger cats (cats (2.4% vs 0.51%, P>0.05), all these results suggest that outdoor exposure time may be one of the most important factors for D. immitis prevalence in cats. Results reveal that D. immitis are prevalence in domestic and feral cats in northeastern China, which indicates that appropriate preventive measures should be taken to decrease the incidence of feline heartworm disease in Liaoning province, northeastern China.
Valdemiro Amaro da Silva Júnior
great possibility of the rupture, hipovolemic shock and death. Because of its rarity in felines, the aim of case report was describes a primary hepatic hemangioma in a female Persian cat aged ten which the clinical symptoms initially observed were: abdominal volume increase, intermittent vomiting, apathy, anorexia and irregular ruts. Radiographic exam revealed the presence of radiopaque tissues in the liver. The hepatic ultrasound exhibited irregular shape, heterogeneous and hyperechogenic parenchyma, presenting hollowed areas which suggests neoplasm and cysts. Macroscopically it was observed ascite, hepatic steatosis and a neoplastic mass measuring about 12 x 8 cm, in addition to a considerable number of cysts. Polycystic kidneys and ovaries and cystic endometrial hyperplasia were also noticed. Microscopically was diagnosed in the liver: cysts limited by endothelial cells and delicate capsule of connective tissue, steatosis and periportal mononuclear linfocitary hepatitis with biliar ducts proliferation. The tumoral mass rose from the hepatic capsule of the conjunctive tissue. It was characterized by vascular sprouts originated from the endothelial cells with anastomosis and vessels expansion begin on superficial areas. Primary hepatic hemangioma cavernous/capillary was diagnosed. PD was diagnosed in ovarian, uterine and renal tissue. KEY WORDS: Cat, liver, vascular tumor.
KEY WORDS: Cat, liver, vascular tumor.
Wang, Jin-Lei; Li, Ting-Ting; Liu, Guo-Hua; Zhu, Xing-Quan; Yao, Chaoqun
Cytauxzoonosis is an emerging infectious disease that affects wild felids as well as the domestic cat; it is caused by the apicomplexan protozoan parasites belonging to the genus Cytauxzoon . Cytauxzoon felis is the species of major concern, whose transmission occurs via the bite of an infected tick. Cytauxzoonosis of the domestic cat has historically been considered uniformly fatal, with a short course of illness, and most domestic cats die within 9 to 15 days postinfection. However, increasing evidence of domestic cats surviving C. felis infection suggests the existence of different strains with various levels of pathogenicity. Although wild felids are considered natural reservoirs for this parasite, a number of studies suggest that domestic cats that have survived nonlethal infections may serve as an additional reservoir. The current article comprehensively reviews the parasite and its life cycle, geographic distribution, genetic variability, and pathogenesis, as well as host immunology and the diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of infection in the domestic cat. This information should provide a basis for better understanding the parasite as well as the pathogenesis of the disease. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.
Sundh, Josefin; Ställberg, Björn; Lisspers, Karin; Kämpe, Mary; Janson, Christer; Montgomery, Scott
The COPD Assessment Test (CAT) and the Clinical COPD Questionnaire (CCQ) are both clinically useful health status instruments. The main objective was to compare CAT and CCQ measurement instruments. CAT and CCQ forms were completed by 432 randomly selected primary and secondary care patients with a COPD diagnosis. Correlation and linear regression analyses of CAT and CCQ were performed. Standardised scores were created for the CAT and CCQ scores, and separate multiple linear regression analyses for CAT and CCQ examined associations with sex, age (≤ 60, 61-70 and >70 years), exacerbations (≥ 1 vs 0 in the previous year), body mass index (BMI), heart disease, anxiety/depression and lung function (subgroup with n = 246). CAT and CCQ correlated well (r = 0.88, p CAT ≥ 10 and CCQ ≥ 1 (r = 0.78, p CAT 9.93 and CAT 10 to CCQ 1.29. Both instruments were associated with BMI CAT 0.56 (0.18 to 0.93) and CCQ 0.56 (0.20 to 0.92)), exacerbations (CAT 0.77 (0.58 to 0.95) and CCQ 0.94 (0.76 to 1.12)), heart disease (CAT 0.38 (0.17 to 0.59) and CCQ 0.23 (0.03 to 0.43)), anxiety/depression (CAT 0.35 (0.15 to 0.56) and CCQ 0.41 (0.21 to 0.60)) and COPD stage (CAT 0.19 (0.05 to 0.34) and CCQ 0.22 (0.07 to 0.36)). CAT and CCQ correlate well with each other. Heart disease, anxiety/depression, underweight, exacerbations, and low lung function are associated with worse health status assessed by both instruments.
Gabrielle C Hybki; Lisa A Murphy; Joseph P Marchi; Jeffrey E Patlogar; Jennifer O Brisson; Reid K Nakamura
Case summary Lumbosacral agenesis is a rare congenital condition reported in children. We report a 17-week-old female domestic shorthair cat with lumbosacral agenesis on whole-body radiographs. The cat was euthanized shortly thereafter presentation. A necropsy was not permitted. Relevance and novel information This is the first reported feline case of lumbosacral agenesis.
Roomp, Kirsten; Rand, Jacquie
Rebound hyperglycaemia (also termed Somogyi effect) is defined as hyperglycaemia caused by the release of counter-regulatory hormones in response to insulin-induced hypoglycaemia, and is widely believed to be common in diabetic cats. However, studies in human diabetic patients over the past quarter century have rejected the common occurrence of this phenomenon. Therefore, we evaluated the occurrence and prevalence of rebound hyperglycaemia in diabetic cats. In a retrospective study, 10,767 blood glucose curves of 55 cats treated with glargine using an intensive blood glucose regulation protocol with a median of five blood glucose measurements per day were evaluated for evidence of rebound hyperglycaemic events, defined in two different ways (with and without an insulin resistance component). While biochemical hypoglycaemia occurred frequently, blood glucose curves consistent with rebound hyperglycaemia with insulin resistance was confined to four single events in four different cats. In 14/55 cats (25%), a median of 1.5% (range 0.32-7.7%) of blood glucose curves were consistent with rebound hyperglycaemia without an insulin resistance component; this represented 0.42% of blood glucose curves in both affected and unaffected cats. We conclude that despite the frequent occurrence of biochemical hypoglycaemia, rebound hyperglycaemia is rare in cats treated with glargine on a protocol aimed at tight glycaemic control. For glargine-treated cats, insulin dose should not be reduced when there is hyperglycaemia in the absence of biochemical or clinical evidence of hypoglycaemia. © ISFM and AAFP 2015.
Gabrielle C Hybki
Full Text Available Case summary Lumbosacral agenesis is a rare congenital condition reported in children. We report a 17-week-old female domestic shorthair cat with lumbosacral agenesis on whole-body radiographs. The cat was euthanized shortly thereafter presentation. A necropsy was not permitted. Relevance and novel information This is the first reported feline case of lumbosacral agenesis.
In this Letter we analyze the (im)possibility of the exact cloning of orthogonal three-qubit CAT states under local operation and classical communication (LOCC) with the help of a restricted entangled state. We also classify the three-qubit CAT states that can (not) be cloned under LOCC restrictions and extend the results to the n-qubit case.
Weinstein, Lawrence; Alexander, Ralph
Twenty-two Siamese and 32 mixed breed cats' personalities were rated by their respective college student owners and compared. Further, the owners' self rated personality traits were correlated with the pets'; significant Siamese and Mixed differences and correlations were obtained. These are the first data to examine breed of cat on a personality…
The Contract Administrative Tracking System (CATS) was developed in response to an ORD NHEERL, Mid-Continent Ecology Division (MED)-recognized need for an automated tracking and retrieval system for Cost Reimbursable Level of Effort (CR/LOE) Contracts. CATS is an Oracle-based app...
Belser, Jessica A; Pulit-Penaloza, Joanna A; Sun, Xiangjie; Brock, Nicole; Pappas, Claudia; Creager, Hannah M; Zeng, Hui; Tumpey, Terrence M; Maines, Taronna R
detection of this virus in the northeastern United States in over a decade and the first documented infection of a felid with an H7N2 virus. A veterinarian became infected following occupational exposure to H7N2 virus-infected cats, necessitating the evaluation of this virus for its capacity to cause disease in mammals. While the H7N2 virus was associated with mild illness in mice and ferrets and did not spread well between ferrets, it nonetheless possessed several markers of virulence for mammals. These data highlight the promiscuity of influenza viruses and the need for diligent surveillance across multiple species to quickly identify an emerging strain with pandemic potential. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.
Norris, Jacqueline M; Bell, Erin T; Hales, Louise; Toribio, Jenny-Ann L M L; White, Joanna D; Wigney, Denise I; Baral, Randolph M; Malik, Richard
vaccine, which has not been challenged against Australian strains. The absence of FIV within cattery-confined cats highlights the value in routine screening and indoor lifestyles. This study provides cogent baseline FIV prevalences in three cat subpopulations which can be used for appraising potential disease associations with FIV in Australia.
Full Text Available Dogs and cats are the animals that owners most frequently seek assistance for potential poisonings, and these species are frequently involved with toxicoses due to ingestion of poisonous food. Feeding human foodstuff to pets may prove itself dangerous for their health, similarly to what is observed in Allium species toxicosis. Allium species toxicosis is reported worldwide in several animal species, and the toxic principles present in them causes the transformation of hemoglobin into methemoglobin, consequently resulting in hemolytic anemia with Heinz body formation. The aim of this review is to analyze the clinicopathologic aspects and therapeutic approach of this serious toxicosis of dogs and cats in order to give knowledge to veterinarians about Allium species toxicosis, and subsequently allow them to correctly diagnose this disease when facing it; and to educate pet owners to not feed their animals with Allium-containg food in order to better control this particular life-threatening toxicosis.
Peritoneopericardial diaphragmatic hernia in a cat is often an incidental finding on a routine thoracic or abdominal radiograph. Clinical signs are nonspecific-usually respiratory (dyspnea) or gastrointestinal(vomiting or diarrhea). Some of the cats with this anomaly are asymptomatic. The physical examination may be normal: muffled heart sounds are the most common abnormality noted during a physical examination. Cats of many breeds are affected, although 26% of reported cases were inPersians. Age of the cat at diagnosis ranged from 6 days to 14 years. Thirty of the 52 reported cases were in females. Diagnostic studies used to confirm the diagnosis included echocardiography, upper gastrointestinal study, ultrasonography, angiography, positive-contrast peritoneography, and laparotomy. Surgical correction was reportedly successful in 22 of 25 cats
Diesel, Alison; Patterson, Adam P.; Meason-Smith, Courtney; Johnson, Timothy J.; Mansell, Joanne; Suchodolski, Jan S.; Rodrigues Hoffmann, Aline
Background The skin is inhabited by a multitude of microorganisms. An imbalance of these microorganisms is associated with disease, however, the causal relationship between skin microbiota and disease remains unknown. To describe the cutaneous bacterial microbiota of cats and determine whether bacterial dysbiosis occurs on the skin of allergic cats, the skin surfaces on various regions of 11 healthy cats and 10 allergic cats were sampled. Methodology/Principal findings Genomic DNA was extracted from skin swabs and sequenced using primers that target the V4 region of the bacterial 16S rRNA. The bacterial sequences from healthy cats revealed that there are differences in species diversity and richness between body sites and different epithelial surfaces. Bacterial communities preferred body site niches in the healthy cats, however, the bacterial communities on allergic cat skin tended to be more unique to the individual cat. Overall, the number of bacterial species was not significantly different between the two health status groups, however, the abundances of these bacterial species were different between healthy and allergic skin. Staphylococcus, in addition to other taxa, was more abundant on allergic skin. Conclusions/Significance This study reveals that there are more bacterial species inhabiting the skin of cats than previously thought and provide some evidence of an association between dysbiosis and skin disease. PMID:28575016
Agusti, A; Soler-Cataluña, J J; Molina, J; Morejon, E; Garcia-Losa, M; Roset, M; Badia, X
The COPD assessment test (CAT) is a questionnaire that assesses the impact of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) on health status, but some patients have difficulties filling it up by themselves. We examined whether the mode of administration of the Spanish version of CAT (self vs. interviewer) influences its scores and/or psychometric properties. Observational, prospective study in 49 Spanish centers that includes clinically stable COPD patients (n = 153) and patients hospitalized because of an exacerbation (ECOPD; n = 224). The CAT was self-administered (CAT-SA) or administered by an interviewer (CAT-IA) based on the investigator judgment of the patient's capacity. To assess convergent validity, the Saint George's Respiratory Disease Questionnaire (SGRQ) and the London Chest Activity of Daily Living (LCADL) instrument were also administered. Psychometric properties were compared across modes of administration. A total of 118 patients (31 %) completed the CAT-SA and 259 (69 %) CAT-IA. Multiple regression analysis showed that mode of administration did not affect CAT scores. The CAT showed excellent psychometric properties in both modes of administration. Internal consistency coefficients (Cronbach's alpha) were high (0.86 for CAT-SA and 0.85 for CAT-IA) as was test-retest reliability (intraclass correlation coefficients of 0.83 for CAT-SA and CAT-IA). Correlations with SGRQ and LCADL were moderate to strong both in CAT-SA and CAT-IA, indicating good convergent validity. Similar results were observed when testing longitudinal validity. The mode of administration does not influence CAT scores or its psychometric properties. Hence, both modes of administration can be used in clinical practice depending on the physician judgment of patient's capacity.
Fifth disease is a viral infection caused by parvovirus B19. The virus only infects humans; it's not the same parvovirus that dogs and cats can get. Fifth disease mostly affects children. Symptoms can include a low ...
Greenspan, E.; Blue, T.; Miley, G.H.
The domains of plasma fuel cycles bounded by the D-T and Cat-D, and by the D-T and SCD modes of operation are examined. These domains, referred to as, respectively, the Cat-D-T and SCD-T modes of operation, are characterized by the number (γ) of tritons per fusion neutron available from external (to the plasma) sources. Two external tritium sources are considered - the blankets of the Cat-D-T (SCD-T) reactors and fission reactors supported by the Cat-D-T (SCD-T) driven hybrid reactors. It is found that by using 6 Li for the active material of the control elements of the fission reactors, it is possible to achieve γ values close to unity. Cat-D-T tokamaks could be designed to have smaller size, higher power density, lower magnetic field and even lower plasma temperature than Cat-D tokamaks; the difference becomes significant for γ greater than or equal to .75. The SCD-T mode of operation appears to be even more attractive. Promising applications identified for these Cat-D-T and SCD-T modes of operation include hybrid reactors, fusion synfuel factories and fusion reactors which have difficulty in providing all their tritium needs
Bellows, Jan; Center, Sharon; Daristotle, Leighann; Estrada, Amara H; Flickinger, Elizabeth A; Horwitz, Debra F; Lascelles, B Duncan X; Lepine, Allan; Perea, Sally; Scherk, Margie; Shoveller, Anna K
Aged pets comprise a significant proportion of the small animal veterinarian's patient population; in the USA, for example, it was estimated that over 20% of pet cats were 11 years of age or older in 2011. Certain changes associated with aging are neither positive nor negative, but others are less desirable, associated with illness, changes in mobility or the development of unwanted behaviors. These changes can greatly affect the health and wellbeing of the cat and have a tremendous impact on the owner. Regular veterinary examinations are essential for evaluating the health of older patients and for providing owners with guidance regarding optimal care. With the exception of overt disease, however, it is difficult to definitively determine if a cat is displaying changes that are appropriate for age or if they reflect an abnormal process or condition. This is the first of two review articles in a Special Issue devoted to feline healthy aging. The goals of the project culminating in these publications included developing a working definition for healthy aging in feline patients and identifying clinical methods that can be used to accurately classify healthy aged cats. This first review provides a thorough, systems-based overview of common health-related changes observed in cats as they age. There is a paucity of research in feline aging. The authors have drawn on expert opinion and available data in both the cat and other species. © The Author(s) 2016.
Adrian Maximilian MACRI
Full Text Available Diabetes is one of the most commonly diagnosed endocrine diseases in cats. Of all types of diabetes, type II is the most frequent one, 80% of the diabetic cats have type II diabetes. Even though it’s a multifactorial disease, obesity was found to be the most important risk factor in developing diabetes, obesity increases the chances of developing this disease to up to 4 times. The study was conducted on a number of 9 cats with uncomplicated diabetes with the purpose of monitoring the effects of the commercial dry food (with a high percentage of carbohydrates and the commercial canned food (with a higher percentage of proteins and a lower percentage of carbohydrates on the glycemic index. For this study, we considered the occasional administration of raw chicken and turkey meat because it wasn’t given for a long enough period of time. The diet is very important for diabetic cats because a lot of sick cats enter remission after a couple of months of being fed wet canned food and they no longer need the administration of insulin, but owners are instructed to carefully monitor glycaemia for the rest of the pet’s life.
Blacklock, Benjamin T; Grundon, Rachael A; Meehan, Melissa; Tetas Pont, Roser; Hartley, Claudia
The aim of this retrospective study was to investigate uveal cysts in domestic cats by identifying prevalence, predispositions, location, presumed etiologies, and sequelae. The clinical databases of two referral hospitals (The Animal Health Trust in the UK and Animal Eye Care in Australia) were searched to identify cats that had been diagnosed with uveal cysts, either as an incidental finding or as the reason for referral. Thirty-six cases were found. The signalment of the patients was recorded, along with any relevant previous clinical history, treatment, follow-up, and sequela. The data were compared with the unaffected feline populations examined by ophthalmologists in the two hospitals over the same 10-year time period. Thirty-six cats were affected, from a total examined population of 5017 (prevalence 0.72%). Twenty-one of the 36 cats were Burmese. The two centers examined 516 Burmese cats in the same time period, giving an incidence in Burmese cats of 4.1%. The mean age of affected cats at presentation was 10.25 years (SD = 4.12 years), and female cats accounted for 23 of 36 of the cases. Only 2 of 36 cats had concurrent intraocular disease. Uveal cysts in domestic cats are rare ophthalmic findings, and in most cases, they do not cause any clinical problems The Burmese breed is overrepresented in the data, with a relatively high prevalence of uveal cysts. © 2016 American College of Veterinary Ophthalmologists.
Klainbart, S; Kelmer, E; Vidmayer, B; Bdolah-Abram, T; Segev, G; Aroch, I
Acute limb paralysis because of arterial thromboembolism (ATE) occurs in cats and less commonly in dogs. ATE is diagnosed based on physical examination findings and, occasionally, advanced imaging. Peripheral, affected limb venous glucose concentration is decreased in ATE, whereas its systemic concentration is within or above reference interval. Client-owned cats and dogs were divided into 3 respective groups: acute limb paralysis because of ATE (22 cats and 9 dogs); acute limb paralysis secondary to orthopedic or neurologic conditions (nonambulatory controls; 10 cats and 11 dogs); ambulatory animals presented because of various diseases (ambulatory controls; 10 cats and 9 dogs). Prospective observational, clinical study. Systemic and local (affected limb) blood glucose concentrations were measured. Their absolute and relative differences (ΔGlu and %ΔGlu, respectively) were compared among groups. ΔGlu and %ΔGlu were significantly higher in the ATE cats and dogs groups, compared to both of their respective controls (P cats, respectively, and 1.00 and 1.00, in dogs, respectively. ΔGlu cutoffs of 30 mg/dL and 16 mg/dL, in cats and dogs, respectively, corresponded to sensitivity and specificity of 100% and 90% in cats, respectively, and 100% in dogs. ΔGlu and %ΔGlu are accurate, readily available, diagnostic markers of acute ATE in paralyzed cats and dogs. Copyright © 2014 by the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine.
Bęczkowski, Paweł M.; Litster, Annette; Lin, Tsang Long; Mellor, Dominic J.; Willett, Brian J.; Hosie, Margaret J.
Despite over 25 years of feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) research, relatively little is known about the longitudinal course of FIV infection following natural infection. In contrast to published reports of experimental infections using lethal strains of the virus, clinical signs of naturally acquired FIV infection can be mild or inapparent, rather than life-threatening. In this prospective, longitudinal controlled study, based in Chicago, IL (n = 17) and Memphis, TN (n = 27), we investigated two cohorts of privately owned, naturally infected cats kept under different housing conditions. Cats in the Chicago cohort (Group 1) were kept in households of ≤2 cats, while the Memphis cohort (Group 2) comprised part of a large multi-cat household of over 60 cats kept indoors only, with unrestricted access to one another. The majority of cats from Group 1 did not display clinical signs consistent with immunodeficiency during the 22-month observation period. In contrast, the outcome of infection in Group 2 was dramatically different; 17/27 (63%) of cats lost a median of 51.3% of their bodyweight (P cats classified as ‘healthy’ and ‘not healthy’ at either cohort. FIV load at enrolment was significantly lower in Group 1 than in Group 2 (P cats at either group. In conclusion, the results of this study suggest that management and housing conditions impact on disease progression and survival times of FIV-positive cats. PMID:25595267
Xenoulis, P G
Pancreatitis is the most common disorder of the exocrine pancreas in both dogs and cats. Ante-mortem diagnosis of canine and feline pancreatitis can be challenging. The clinical picture of dogs and cats with pancreatitis varies greatly (from very mild to severe or even fatal) and is characterised by non-specific findings. Complete blood count, serum biochemistry profile and urinalysis should always be performed in dogs and cats suspected of having pancreatitis, although findings are not-specific for pancreatitis. Serum amylase and lipase activities and trypsin-like immunoreactivity (TLI) concentrations have no or only limited clinical value for the diagnosis of pancreatitis in either dogs or cats. Conversely, serum pancreatic lipase immunoreactivity (PLI) concentration is currently considered to be the clinicopathological test of choice for the diagnosis of canine and feline pancreatitis. Abdominal radiography is a useful diagnostic tool for the exclusion of other diseases that may cause similar clinical signs to those of pancreatitis. Abdominal ultrasonography can be very useful for the diagnosis of pancreatitis, but this depends largely on the clinician's experience. Histopathological examination of the pancreas is considered the gold standard for the diagnosis and classification of pancreatitis, but it is not without limitations. In clinical practice, a combination of careful evaluation of the animal's history, serum PLI concentration and abdominal ultrasonography, together with pancreatic cytology or histopathology when indicated or possible, is considered to be the most practical and reliable means for an accurate diagnosis or exclusion of pancreatitis compared with other diagnostic modalities. © 2015 British Small Animal Veterinary Association.
Full Text Available Case summary A domestic shorthair cat was evaluated for chronic, bilateral, ulcerative dermatitis affecting the inguinal region and lateral aspects of both pelvic limbs. Histopathologic examination of skin biopsies collected throughout the course of disease revealed chronic pyogranulomatous ulcerative dermatitis. Aerobic bacterial skin cultures yielded growth of a methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and Corynebacterium amycolatum . Upon referral the clinical findings were suggestive of a non-tuberculous Mycobacterium species infection. Previously obtained skin cultures failed to yield growth of mycobacterial organisms. A deep skin biopsy was collected and submitted for mycobacterial culture. At 5 weeks of incubation Mycobacterium thermoresistibile was isolated. In previous reports, M thermoresistibile has been isolated after 2–4 days of incubation, suggesting that this strain may have been a slower growing variant, or other factors (such as prior antimicrobial therapy inhibited rapid growth of this isolate. The cat was hospitalized for intravenous antibiotic therapy, surgical debridement of wounds, vacuum-assisted wound closure therapy and reconstruction procedures. The wounds were ultimately primarily closed and the cat was discharged to the owner after 50 days of hospitalization. Seven months after hospitalization, the ulcerative skin lesions had healed. Relevance and novel information To our knowledge, only two cases of M thermoresistibile panniculitis have been reported in cats. In the only detailed report of feline M thermoresistibile panniculitis, treatment was not attempted. The second case only reported detection of M thermoresistibile by PCR without a clinical description of the case. In our case report, severe chronic skin infection with M thermoresistibile was addressed using prolonged specific antibiotic therapy, surgical debridement and reconstructions, and treatment of secondary bacterial infections.
Ronaldo Cassimiro da Costa
Full Text Available A revision of the current literature regarding medical management of neurological diseases of dogs and cats is presented. The indications, doses, and duration of the recommended treatment of several medications are reviewed. The authors have reviewed analgesic, antibiotic, anticonvulsants, barbiturates, anticolinesterasics, antifungals, antifibrinolytics, steroidal and non-steroidal antiinflammatory, antineoplastics, antipsychotics, anxiolytics, antidepressants, free radical scavengers, diuretics, drugs used in the treatment of micturition disorders, phytotherapeutics, nutraceuticals, muscle relaxant and vitamins.Este trabalho compreende uma revisão da literatura, dos diferentes fármacos utilizados na terapêutica das afecções neurológicas de cães e gatos, assim como sua indicação, dosagens, e duração do tratamento. Nesse contexto incluíram-se analgésicos, antibióticos, anticonvulsivantes, barbitúricos, anticolinesterásicos, antifúngicos, antifibrinolíticos, antiinflamatórios esteróides e não esteróides, antineoplásicos, antipsicóticos, ansiolíticos, antidepressivos, antioxidantes e varredores de radicais livres, diuréticos, fármacos utilizados nos distúrbios da micção, fitoterápicos, modificadores do metabolismo articular (nutracêuticos, relaxantes musculares e vitaminas.
Department of the Interior — This document lists the Natural Resource Program Center’s priority ServCat documents. It is recommended that these documents- which include annual narrative reports,...
Full Text Available The present study was performed to determine the prevalence of FIV in stray cat's population of Ahvaz different area. Serum samples were collected from 90 cats from 2005 to 2007. The studied cats were divided into two age groups (3 years and based on clinical signs (such as lymphadenopathy, periodontal diseases, gingivitis, abscess and cashecsi into two groups also. The results were analyzed using Fischer's exact test and Chi-square analysis. Prevalence to FIV antibodies in these cats was 15.55% (14 of 90 by means of ELISA Test Kit, indicating that this virus is present in the ecosystem. The infection had more prevalence in cats above 3 years (78.6%; 11 of 14 compared with cats less than 3 years (21.4%; 3 of 14. Statistical analysis showed significant difference between different age groups (P0.05. Three out of 12 cases (25% which had clinical signs and 11 out of 78 cases (14.1% which hadn’t clinical signs were seropositive. There was no significant difference between the two groups also (P>0.05. This study showed that FIV exist among cat's population of Ahvaz area and separation of companion and stray cats is very important for prevention of disease transmission to companion cats.
Hall, Jean A; Yerramilli, Maha; Obare, Edward; Li, Jun; Yerramilli, Murthy; Jewell, Dennis E
Serum concentrations of symmetric dimethylarginine (SDMA) correlate with renal function in cats and SDMA has been shown to be a more reliable and earlier marker for chronic kidney disease (CKD) compared with serum creatinine (Cr). Calcium oxalate uroliths tend to develop in mid-to-older aged cats and kidney stones may cause a reduction in renal function with increased SDMA, but normal serum Cr. The purpose of this retrospective study was to determine if cats with kidney stones had increased serum SDMA concentrations, and whether SDMA increased earlier than serum creatinine concentrations. Cats in the colony with kidney stones diagnosed between August 2010 and December 2015 (n = 43) were compared with healthy geriatric cats (n = 21) without kidney stones. Serum SDMA concentrations were determined by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry and serum Cr concentrations were determined by enzymatic colorimetry. Cats with kidney stones were diagnosed antemortem by radiographic imaging (n = 12) or by postmortem necropsy (n = 31). Retrospectively, serum SDMA was found to be increased above the upper reference limit in 39 of 43 cats with kidney stones. Serum Cr was increased above the upper reference limit in 18 of 43 cats; 6 of these 18 cats had terminal azotemia only. The mean time that serum SDMA was increased before serum Cr was increased was 26.9 months (range 0 to 60 months). Kidney stones were composed of calcium oxalate in 30 of 34 cats. The lifespan for cats with kidney stones (mean, 12.5 years; range, 6.1 to 18.1 years) was shorter (P < 0.001) than for control cats (mean, 15.2 years; range, 13.0 to 17.2 years), suggesting that non-obstructive kidney stones have an effect on mortality rate or rate of CKD progression. In conclusion, if SDMA concentrations are elevated in mid-to-older aged cats, further imaging studies are warranted to check for the presence of kidney stones.
Lutz, T A; Rand, J S; Ryan, E
The aims of this study were 1) to establish a reference range for fructosamine in cats using a commercial fructosamine kit; 2) to demonstrate that the fructosamine concentration is not increased by transient hyperglycemia of 90 min duration, simulating hyperglycemia of acute stress; and 3) to determine what percentage of blood samples submitted to a commercial laboratory from 95 sick cats had evidence of persistent hyperglycemia based on an elevated fructosamine concentration. Reference inter...
Obada, A.S.F.; Omar, Z.M.
In this article we investigate some statistical properties of the even and odd squeezed (squeezed Schroedinger cat) states. The quasi-probability distribution functions especially W(α) and Q(α) are calculated and discussed for these states. The phase distribution function is discussed. A generation scheme is proposed for either the squeezed generalized Schroedinger cat, or the squeezed number state. (author). 35 refs, 5 figs
Myers, J.A.; Lunn, K.F.; Bright, J.M.
Background Information regarding cardiac changes in domestic cats with acromegaly is limited. Hypothesis/Objectives The objective of this study was to describe the echocardiographic findings in cats with acromegaly. Animals Eighteen cats diagnosed with acromegaly at Colorado State University between 2008 and 2012. Of these 18 cats, 11 had echocardiography performed. Methods A retrospective review of medical records was made to identify cats with acromegaly that also had echocardiography perfo...
Flockhart, D T Tyler; Coe, Jason B
Concerns over cat homelessness, over-taxed animal shelters, public health risks, and environmental impacts has raised attention on urban-cat populations. To truly understand cat population dynamics, the collective population of owned cats, unowned cats, and cats in the shelter system must be considered simultaneously because each subpopulation contributes differently to the overall population of cats in a community (e.g., differences in neuter rates, differences in impacts on wildlife) and cats move among categories through human interventions (e.g., adoption, abandonment). To assess this complex socio-ecological system, we developed a multistate matrix model of cats in urban areas that include owned cats, unowned cats (free-roaming and feral), and cats that move through the shelter system. Our model requires three inputs-location, number of human dwellings, and urban area-to provide testable predictions of cat abundance for any city in North America. Model-predicted population size of unowned cats in seven Canadian cities were not significantly different than published estimates (p = 0.23). Model-predicted proportions of sterile feral cats did not match observed sterile cat proportions for six USA cities (p = 0.001). Using a case study from Guelph, Ontario, Canada, we compared model-predicted to empirical estimates of cat abundance in each subpopulation and used perturbation analysis to calculate relative sensitivity of vital rates to cat abundance to demonstrate how management or mismanagement in one portion of the population could have repercussions across all portions of the network. Our study provides a general framework to consider cat population abundance in urban areas and, with refinement that includes city-specific parameter estimates and modeling, could provide a better understanding of population dynamics of cats in our communities.
Lutz, T A; Rand, J S; Ryan, E
The aims of this study were 1) to establish a reference range for fructosamine in cats using a commercial fructosamine kit; 2) to demonstrate that the fructosamine concentration is not increased by transient hyperglycemia of 90 min duration, simulating hyperglycemia of acute stress; and 3) to determine what percentage of blood samples submitted to a commercial laboratory from 95 sick cats had evidence of persistent hyperglycemia based on an elevated fructosamine concentration. Reference intervals for the serum fructosamine concentration were established in healthy, normoglycemic cats using a second generation kit designed for the measurement of the fructosamine concentration in humans. Transient hyperglycemia of 90 min duration was induced by IV glucose injection in healthy cats. Multisourced blood samples that were submitted to a commercial veterinary laboratory either as fluoride oxalated plasma or serum were used to determine the percentage of hyperglycemic cats having persistent hyperglycemia. The reference interval for the serum fructosamine concentration was 249 to 406 mumol/L. Transient hyperglycemia of 90 min duration did not increase the fructosamine concentration and there was no correlation between fructosamine and blood glucose. In contrast, the fructosamine concentration was correlated with the glucose concentration in sick hyper- and normoglycemic cats. It is concluded that the fructosamine concentration is a useful marker for the detection of persistent hyperglycemia and its differentiation from transient stress hyperglycemia. Fructosamine determinations should be considered when blood glucose is 12 to 20 mmol/L and only a single blood sample is available for analysis.
Ellis, Robert; Ellis, Carrie
Animal bites account for 1% of all emergency department visits in the United States and more than $50 million in health care costs per year. Most animal bites are from a dog, usually one known to the victim. Most dog bite victims are children. Bite wounds should be cleaned, copiously irrigated with normal saline using a 20-mL or larger syringe or a 20-gauge catheter attached to the syringe. The wound should be explored for tendon or bone involvement and possible foreign bodies. Wounds may be closed if cosmetically favorable, such as wounds on the face or gaping wounds. Antibiotic prophylaxis should be considered, especially if there is a high risk of infection, such as with cat bites, with puncture wounds, with wounds to the hand, and in persons who are immunosuppressed. Amoxicillin/clavulanate is the first-line prophylactic antibiotic. The need for rabies prophylaxis should be addressed with any animal bite because even domestic animals are often unvaccinated. Postexposure rabies prophylaxis consists of immune globulin at presentation and vaccination on days 0, 3, 7, and 14. Counseling patients and families about animal safety may help decrease animal bites. In most states, physicians are required by law to report animal bites.
Frymus, Tadeusz; Addie, Diane D; Boucraut-Baralon, Corine; Egberink, Herman; Gruffydd-Jones, Tim; Hartmann, Katrin; Horzinek, Marian C; Hosie, Margaret J; Lloret, Albert; Lutz, Hans; Marsilio, Fulvio; Pennisi, Maria Grazia; Radford, Alan D; Thiry, Etienne; Truyen, Uwe; Möstl, Karin
Streptococcus canis is most prevalent in cats, but recently S equi subsp zooepidemicus has been recognised as an emerging feline pathogen. S canis is considered part of the commensal mucosal microflora of the oral cavity, upper respiratory tract, genital organs and perianal region in cats. The prevalence of infection is higher in cats housed in groups; and, for example, there may be a high rate of vaginal carriage in young queens in breeding catteries. A wide spectrum of clinical disease is seen, encompassing neonatal septicaemia, upper respiratory tract disease, abscesses, pneumonia, osteomyelitis, polyarthritis, urogenital infections, septicaemia, sinusitis and meningitis. S equi subsp zooepidemicus is found in a wide range of species including cats. It was traditionally assumed that this bacterium played no role in disease of cats, but it is now considered a cause of respiratory disease with bronchopneumonia and pneumonia, as well as meningoencephalitis, often with a fatal course. Close confinement of cats, such as in shelters, appears to be a major risk factor. As horses are common carriers of this bacterium, contact with horses is a potential source of infection. Additionally, the possibility of indirect transmission needs to be considered. Streptococci can be detected by conventional culture techniques from swabs, bronchoalveolar lavage fluid or organ samples. Also real-time PCR can be used, and is more sensitive than culture. In suspected cases, treatment with broad-spectrum antibiotics should be initiated as soon as possible and, if appropriate, adapted to the results of culture and sensitivity tests. © Published by SAGE on behalf of ISFM and AAFP 2015.
Wongsrikeao, Pimprapar; Saenz, Dyana; Rinkoski, Tommy; Otoi, Takeshige; Poeschla, Eric
The domestic cat is a neurobehaviorally complex, accessible species with specific value in research situations where rodents are unsuited on the basis of disease susceptibility, size, or other factors. For example, studies in the cat have revealed much of our present knowledge of the organization of the mammalian brain, in particular the cerebral cortex, and humans and cats are each afflicted with pandemic AIDS lentiviruses that are susceptible to species-specific restriction factors. A capability for feline transgenesis is needed to realize the distinctive potential. Here we introduced a retroviral restriction factor, rhesus macaque TRIMCyp, and GFP, into the domestic cat germline. The method establishes transgenesis by direct gamete genetic modification for the first time in any carnivore. We produced uniformly transgenic outcomes and observed widespread expression, no mosaicism, and germline transmission without F1 silencing. TRIMCyp-transgenic cat lymphocytes resisted FIV replication. The approach yields a first capability to experimentally manipulate AIDS virus restriction factors at the systemic, whole animal level in a susceptible species. In addition to determining if a species can be made genetically immune to its AIDS virus, it can be used to test HIV-1 gene therapy potential, and to build feline models relevant to other diseases. PMID:21909101
Perfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS), such as perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) , are persistent, globally distributed, anthropogenic compounds. The primary source(s) for human exposure are not well understood although within home exposure is likely important since many consumer products have been treated with different PFAS, and people spend much of their lives indoors. Herein, domestic cats were used as sentinels to investigate potential exposure and health linkages. PFAS in serum samples of 72 pet and feral cats, including 11 healthy and 61 with one or more primary disease diagnoses, were quantitated using high-resolution time-of-flight mass spectroscopy. All but one sample had detectable PFAS, with PFOS and perfluorohexane sulfonate (PFHxS) ranging from cats were very similar to contemporary NHANES reports of human sera in the U. S. POPULATION: The highest PFAS serum concentrations detected were in indoor cats due to disproportionately elevated PFHxS levels. Ranked by quartile, contingency testing indicated that total PFAS levels were positively associated with living indoors and with higher body weight and body condition scores. Individual PFAS quartile rankings suggested positive associations with respiratory effusion, thyroid, liver, and possibly chronic kidney disease . Domestic cats appear to be useful sentinels for assessing primary
Montoya-Alonso, José Alberto; Morchón, Rodrigo; Falcón-Cordón, Yaiza; Falcón-Cordón, Soraya; Simón, Fernando; Carretón, Elena
Dirofilaria immitis causes heartworm disease, a chronic and potentially fatal cardiopulmonary disease which mainly affects dogs and cats. It is present in most of Spain, due to favourable climatic factors. Madrid, located in the centre of the Iberian Peninsula, is the most highly populated city in the country. There is a lack of current data on canine heartworm and there are no published epidemiological data regarding feline heartworm in this region, therefore the aim of this study was to assess the prevalence and current distribution of canine and feline dirofilariosis in the province of Madrid. Serum samples from 1716 dogs and 531 cats, from animals living in the metropolitan area of Madrid and adjacent areas, were studied. All the samples, either from cats and dogs, were tested for circulating D. immitis antigens using a commercial immunochromatographic test kit. Furthermore, to establish the seroprevalence of heartworm infection in cats, serological techniques for anti-D. immitis and anti-Wolbachia antibody detection were used. Prevalence of D. immitis in the canine population of Madrid was 3%, showing an increase in comparison to previous data. The presence of heartworm in the city centre could be influenced by the presence of Urban Heat Islands, while the positive dogs from metropolitan and adjacent areas were mainly located under the influence of rivers. Regarding cats, 0.2% were positive to the antigens test and 7.3% were seropositive to both anti-D. immitis and Wolbachia surface protein antibodies, which demonstrate the presence of feline heartworm in Madrid. Seropositive cats were present in the same areas where positive dogs were found. Indoor/outdoor cats showed the highest seroprevalence whereas the lowest corresponded to indoor cats, demonstrating that prophylactic treatments should be carried out regardless of lifestyle. Infection was found in 2.2% of dogs and 6.7% of the cats < 1 year-old, which indicates that early preventive campaigns in puppies
Langston, C; Cook, A; Eatroff, A; Mitelberg, E; Chalhoub, S
Multiple factors exist that contribute to anemia in dogs and cats receiving hemodialysis, can necessitate transfusion. To describe blood product usage in dogs and cats with acute and chronic kidney disease that were treated with intermittent hemodialysis to determine risk factors associated with the requirement for blood product transfusion. 83 cats and 147 dogs undergoing renal replacement therapy at the Animal Medical Center for acute or chronic kidney disease. Retrospective medical record review of all dogs and cats receiving renal replacement therapy for kidney disease, from June 1997 through September 2012. Blood products (whole blood, packed RBCs, or stromal-free hemoglobin) were administered to 87% of cats and 32% of dogs. The number of dialysis treatments was associated with the requirement for transfusion in cats (adjusted OR 2.21, 95% CI 1.13, 4.32), but not in dogs (adjusted OR 0.98, 95% CI 0.95, 1.03). Administration of a blood product was associated with a higher likelihood of death in dogs (OR 3.198, 95% CI 1.352, 7.565; P = .0098), but not in cats (OR 1.527, 95% CI 0.5404, 4.317, P = .2). Veterinary hospitals with a hemodialysis unit should have reliable and rapid access to safe blood products in order to meet the needs of dogs and cats receiving dialysis. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine.
Valtolina, Chiara; Vaandrager, Arie B; Favier, Robert P; Tuohetahuntila, Maidina; Kummeling, Anne; Jeusette, Isabelle; Rothuizen, Jan; Robben, Joris H
BACKGROUND: A link between lipid metabolism and disease has been recognized in cats. Since hepatic lipidosis is a frequent disorder in cats, the aim of the current study was to evaluate liver and plasma lipid dimorphism in healthy cats and the effects of gonadectomy on lipid profiling. From six
Turner, Dennis C
This review article covers research conducted over the last three decades on cat-human and human-cat interactions and relationships, especially from an ethological point of view. It includes findings on cat-cat and cat-human communication, cat personalities and cat-owner personalities, the effects of cats on humans, and problems caused by cats. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Jean A Hall
Full Text Available A prospective study was conducted in client-owned geriatric cats to evaluate the short- term effects of a test food on serum symmetric dimethylarginine (SDMA and creatinine (Cr concentrations. Test food contained functional lipids (fish oil, antioxidants (vitamins C and E, L-carnitine, botanicals (vegetables, highly bioavailable protein, and amino acid supplements. Cats (n = 80 were fed either test food or owner's-choice foods (non-nutritionally controlled cohort. Cats were included based on age (≥ 9 years, indoor only, neutered, and free of chronic disease. At baseline, all cats had serum Cr concentrations within the reference interval. Renal function biomarkers and urinalysis results at baseline and after consuming test food or owner's-choice foods for 3 and 6 months were evaluated. Cats consuming test food showed significant decreases in serum Cr and BUN concentrations across time. Overall, cats consuming owner's-choice foods showed significant increases in serum SDMA concentrations at 3 and 6 months compared with baseline (P ≤ 0.05, whereas in cats consuming test food serum SDMA concentrations did not change. At baseline or during the 6-month feeding trial, 23 (28.8% cats had increased serum SDMA, but normal serum Cr consistent with IRIS Stage 1 chronic kidney disease. This included 6 cats fed test food and 17 cats fed owner's-choice foods. In the 6 cats fed test food, serum SDMA decreased in 3 cats and remained stable in 1 cat, whereas in the 17 cats fed owner's-choice foods, serum SDMA increased in 13 cats and decreased or remained stable in 4 cats. The increase in serum SDMA concentration was significant (P = 0.02 only for cats fed owner's-choice foods. These results suggest that nonazotemic cats with elevated serum SDMA (early renal insufficiency when fed a food designed to promote healthy aging are more likely to demonstrate stable renal function compared with cats fed owner's-choice foods. Cats fed owner's-choice foods were more
Hall, Jean A; MacLeay, Jennifer; Yerramilli, Maha; Obare, Edward; Yerramilli, Murthy; Schiefelbein, Heidi; Paetau-Robinson, Inke; Jewell, Dennis E
A prospective study was conducted in client-owned geriatric cats to evaluate the short- term effects of a test food on serum symmetric dimethylarginine (SDMA) and creatinine (Cr) concentrations. Test food contained functional lipids (fish oil), antioxidants (vitamins C and E), L-carnitine, botanicals (vegetables), highly bioavailable protein, and amino acid supplements. Cats (n = 80) were fed either test food or owner's-choice foods (non-nutritionally controlled cohort). Cats were included based on age (≥ 9 years), indoor only, neutered, and free of chronic disease. At baseline, all cats had serum Cr concentrations within the reference interval. Renal function biomarkers and urinalysis results at baseline and after consuming test food or owner's-choice foods for 3 and 6 months were evaluated. Cats consuming test food showed significant decreases in serum Cr and BUN concentrations across time. Overall, cats consuming owner's-choice foods showed significant increases in serum SDMA concentrations at 3 and 6 months compared with baseline (P ≤ 0.05), whereas in cats consuming test food serum SDMA concentrations did not change. At baseline or during the 6-month feeding trial, 23 (28.8%) cats had increased serum SDMA, but normal serum Cr consistent with IRIS Stage 1 chronic kidney disease. This included 6 cats fed test food and 17 cats fed owner's-choice foods. In the 6 cats fed test food, serum SDMA decreased in 3 cats and remained stable in 1 cat, whereas in the 17 cats fed owner's-choice foods, serum SDMA increased in 13 cats and decreased or remained stable in 4 cats. The increase in serum SDMA concentration was significant (P = 0.02) only for cats fed owner's-choice foods. These results suggest that nonazotemic cats with elevated serum SDMA (early renal insufficiency) when fed a food designed to promote healthy aging are more likely to demonstrate stable renal function compared with cats fed owner's-choice foods. Cats fed owner's-choice foods were more likely to
Piekarska, J.; Kicia, M.; Wesołowska, M.; Kopacz, Z.; Gorczykowski, M.; Szczepankiewicz, D.; Kváč, Martin; Sak, Bohumil
Roč. 246, 15 November (2017), s. 108-111 ISSN 0304-4017 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : cat * dog * Encephalitozoon spp. * Enterocytozoon bieneusi * zoonosis Subject RIV: GJ - Animal Vermins ; Diseases, Veterinary Medicine OBOR OECD: Veterinary science Impact factor: 2.356, year: 2016
Vinke, Claudia|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/235196053; Godijn, L.M.; van der Leij, Ruth|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/412860430
Domestic cats (Felis sylvestris catus) can experience serious stress in shelters. Stressful experiences can have a major impact on the cats’ welfare and may cause higher incidences of infectious diseases in the shelters due to raised cortisol levels causing immuno deficiency.Though several studies
In this thesis, the influence of nutrition on skeletal health was studied. Obesity is a common disease in companion animal practice. In dogs and cats obesity often exacerbates osteoarthritis (OA). Although in humans we consider obesity as a serious health issue, in companion animals we proved that
Baneth, G.; Thamsborg, S M; Otranto, D
Some of the most important zoonotic infectious diseases are associated with parasites transmitted from companion animals to man. This review describes the main parasitic zoonoses in Europe related to dogs and cats, with particular emphasis on their current epidemiology. Toxoplasmosis, leishmaniosis...
Sabry, Abdel-Hameed A; Fouad, Mahmoud A H; Morsy, Ayman T A
A zoonosis is an animal disease that is transmissible to humans. Humans are usually an accidental host that acquires disease through close contact with an infected animal, who may or may not be symptomatic. Children are at highest risk for infection because they are more likely to have close contact with pets. Cats are responsible for transmission of an extensive array of bacterial, fungal, and parasitic zoonotic pathogens. The route of transmission can be through the saliva (e.g., bites or contaminated scratches), feces, respiratory secretions, direct contact, or by the cat acting as a vehicle and source of tick or flea exposure. Although cats have been implicated in transmission of zoonosis to their owners, risk of transmission from contact with cats is low and may be further reduced by simple precautions. There is a need for education on zoonotic disease prevention practices for pet-owning households with individuals at higher risk of infection, and to educate future veterinarians during their early years in veterinary school about the risks associated with their future jobs. Also, zoonotic disease awareness training is a valuable service to animal shelter workers.
Booij-Vrieling, H.E.; van der Reijden, W.A.; Houwers, D.J.; de Wit, W.E.A.J.; Bosch-Tijhof, C.J.; Penning, L.C.; van Winkelhoff, A.J.; Hazewinkel, H.A.W.
The periodontal pathogens Porphyromonas gingivalis and Tannerella forsythia are strongly associated with periodontal disease and are highly prevalent in humans with periodontitis. Porphyromonas and Tannerella spp. have also been isolated from the oral cavity of cats. The oral microflora in animals
Full Text Available Cat feeders serve as an important source of available food for free-roaming cats (FRC and can play a central role in providing data on FRC distribution, welfare, and health. Data on cat feeder personalities as well as a better understanding of their feeding practices offer relevance for decision making concerning FRC population control strategies. The current study surveyed 222 FRC feeders who responded to a municipal trap-neuter-return (TNR campaign in an Israeli central urban setting. The aim of the study was to describe their personal characteristics, feeding practices and the FRC populations they feed. Feeders were divided into four groups according to the number of cats they claimed to feed per day (group 1: fed up to five cats; group 2: fed six to 10 cats; group 3: fed 11-20 cats; group 4: fed ≥21 cats. Most feeders were women (81%, with a median age of 58 years (range 18-81. The feeders reported an overall feeding of 3,337 cats in 342 different feeding locations. Feeders of group 4 comprised of 15.31% (n=34 of all feeders, but fed 56% (n=1869 of the FRC in 37.42% (n=128 of the feeding locations. 'Heavy' feeders (groups 3 and 4 reported that they traveled significantly longer distances in order to feed the cats. Commercial dry food consisted of 90% of the food they provided, with 66% of them feeding once a day, with less food per cat per day than the other feeder groups. Interestingly, 'heavy' feeders were usually singles, had on average fewer siblings, a clear preference for owning cats as pets and lived in lower income neighborhoods. According to the feeders' reports on the FRC populations they fed, 69.7% (2325/3337 cats were neutered and 11.8% (395/3337 were kittens. In addition, they reported that 1.6% (54/3337 of the cats were limping, 2% (67/3337 suffered from a systemic disease, 4% (135/3337 had skin lesions, and 3.9% (130/3337 were suffering from a chronic disability. Abundance of kittens and morbidity rate were significantly and
Suzuki, Masao; Muro, Shigeo; Ando, Yuki; Omori, Takashi; Shiota, Tetsuhiro; Endo, Kazuo; Sato, Susumu; Aihara, Kensaku; Matsumoto, Masataka; Suzuki, Shinko; Itotani, Ryo; Ishitoko, Manabu; Hara, Yoshikazu; Takemura, Masaya; Ueda, Tetsuya; Kagioka, Hitoshi; Hirabayashi, Masataka; Fukui, Motonari; Mishima, Michiaki
Dyspnea on exertion (DOE) is a major symptom of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and is difficult to control. This study was performed to determine whether acupuncture is superior to placebo needling in improving DOE in patients with COPD who are receiving standard medication. Sixty-eight of 111 patients from the Kansai region of Japan who were diagnosed as having COPD and were receiving standard medication participated in a randomized, parallel-group, placebo-controlled trial (July 1, 2006, through March 31, 2009) in which the patients, evaluators, and statistician were unaware of the random allocation. Participants were randomly assigned to traditional acupuncture (real acupuncture group, n=34) or placebo needling (placebo acupuncture group, n=34). Both groups received real or placebo needling at the same acupoints once a week for 12 weeks. The primary end point was the modified Borg scale score evaluated immediately after the 6-minute walk test. Measurements were obtained at baseline and after 12 weeks of treatment. After 12 weeks, the Borg scale score after the 6-minute walk test was significantly better in the real acupuncture group compared with the placebo acupuncture group (mean [SD] difference from baseline by analysis of covariance, -3.6 [1.9] vs 0.4 [1.2]; mean difference between groups by analysis of covariance, -3.58; 95% CI, -4.27 to -2.90). Patients with COPD who received real acupuncture also experienced improvement in the 6-minute walk distance during exercise, indicating better exercise tolerance and reduced DOE. This study clearly demonstrates that acupuncture is a useful adjunctive therapy in reducing DOE in patients with COPD. umin.ac.jp/ctr Identifier: UMIN000001277.
Westermeyer, Hans D; Ward, Daniel A; Whittemore, Jacqueline C; Lyons, Jeremiah A
An 8-year-old, brachycephalic, mixed breed cat underwent full mouth tooth extractions for the treatment of tooth root abscessation. Subsequently, the cat developed anterior uveitis refractory to topical therapy that eventually necessitated enucleation. Actinomyces species were isolated from both the tooth root abscesses and the anterior chamber after enucleation. Histopathology of the enucleated eye revealed panophthalmitis with abundant intralesional bacteria morphologically consistent with Actinomyces. Between the time of tooth root extraction and enucleation (20 weeks), the cat was diagnosed with hyperthyroidism and treated with oral steroids for inflammatory bowel syndrome. We believe this report represents a rare case of endogenous endophthalmitis secondary to dental disease, possibly precipitated by concurrent immunosuppression. © 2013 American College of Veterinary Ophthalmologists.
Nemoto, Yuki; Haraguchi, Tomoya; Shimokawa Miyama, Takako; Kobayashi, Kosuke; Hama, Kaori; Kurogouchi, Yosuke; Fujiki, Noriyuki; Baba, Kenji; Okuda, Masaru; Mizuno, Takuya
A 16-year-old spayed female American Shorthair cat was presented with lethargy, anorexia, and wamble. Physical and blood examination did not reveal any remarkable findings. Abdominal ultrasonography identified the presence of a localized anechoic structure with a thick wall in contact with the small intestine and adjacent to the liver. Ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration of the structure revealed fluid containing numerous cocci and neutrophils. Two days after antibiotic treatment, exploratory laparotomy was performed and the content of the structure was removed before multiple lavages. The pathological and bacteriological examination results supported a confirmatory diagnosis of pancreatic abscess due to Staphylococcus aureus infection, making this the first such report in a cat. The cat remained healthy thereafter with no disease recurrence.
Jones, Amanda L; Downs, Colleen T
Worldwide domestic and feral cat (Felis catus) numbers have increased. Concerns regarding high populations of feral cats in urban areas include wildlife predation, public nuisance, and disease. This study aimed to estimate the size of the feral cat population on 5 campuses of the University of KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa, to determine whether sterilization has an effect and to make management recommendations. The study used both the total count and mark-recapture methods to estimate the feral cat population on each campus. The study chose a noninvasive method of taking photographs to "mark" individuals and record those who were sterilized. The study estimated a total of 186 cats on all campuses and density at 161 cats km(-2). There was a negative relationship between sterilization and numbers. Sites with higher sterilization showed a lower proportion of younger cats. At the average sterilization of 55%, the population, according to predictions, would remain stable at fecundity, survival, and immigration rates reported by cat caretakers. However, caretakers underestimated cat abundance by 7 ± 37 SD%. Caretakers' feral cat sterilization and feeding programs appear to provide a service to the university community. Key management recommendations were to increase sterilization to 90% to reduce the population over the long term and to raise funds to support the costs incurred by voluntary cat caretakers.
Suzuki, Ryohei; Mochizuki, Yohei; Yoshimatsu, Hiroki; Teshima, Takahiro; Matsumoto, Hirotaka; Koyama, Hidekazu
Objectives Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, a primary disorder of the myocardium, is the most common cardiac disease in cats. However, determination of myocardial deformation with two-dimensional speckle-tracking echocardiography in cats with various stages of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy has not yet been reported. This study was designed to measure quantitatively multidirectional myocardial deformations of cats with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. Methods Thirty-two client-owned cats with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy and 14 healthy cats serving as controls were enrolled and underwent assessment of myocardial deformation (peak systolic strain and strain rate) in the longitudinal, radial and circumferential directions. Results Longitudinal and radial deformations were reduced in cats with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, despite normal systolic function determined by conventional echocardiography. Cats with severely symptomatic hypertrophic cardiomyopathy also had lower peak systolic circumferential strain, in addition to longitudinal and radial strain. Conclusions and relevance Longitudinal and radial deformation may be helpful in the diagnosis of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. Additionally, the lower circumferential deformation in cats with severe hypertrophic cardiomyopathy may contribute to clinical findings of decompensation, and seems to be related to severe cardiac clinical signs. Indices of multidirectional myocardial deformations by two-dimensional speckle-tracking echocardiography may be useful markers and help to distinguish between cats with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy and healthy cats. Additionally, they may provide more detailed assessment of contractile function in cats with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy.
Zito, Sarah; Vankan, Dianne
People who feed cats that they do not perceive they own (sometimes called semi-owners) are thought to make a considerable contribution to unwanted cat numbers because the cats they support are generally not sterilized. Understanding people’s perception of cat ownership and the psychology underlying cat semi-ownership could inform approaches to mitigate the negative effects of cat semi-ownership. The primary aims of this study were to investigate cat ownership perception and to examine its association with human-cat interactions and caretaking behaviours. A secondary aim was to evaluate a definition of cat semi-ownership (including an association time of ≥1 month and frequent feeding), revised from a previous definition proposed in the literature to distinguish cat semi-ownership from casual interactions with unowned cats. Cat owners and semi-owners displayed similar types of interactions and caretaking behaviours. Nevertheless, caretaking behaviours were more commonly displayed towards owned cats than semi-owned cats, and semi-owned cats were more likely to have produced kittens (pcats in semi-ownership relationships compared to casual interaction relationships. Determinants of cat ownership perception were identified (pcat friendliness and health, and feelings about unowned cats, including the acceptability of feeding unowned cats. Encouraging semi-owners to have the cats they care for sterilized may assist in reducing the number of unwanted kittens and could be a valuable alternative to trying to prevent semi-ownership entirely. Highly accessible semi-owner “gatekeepers” could help to deliver education messages and facilitate the provision of cat sterilization services to semi-owners. This research enabled semi-ownership to be distinguished from casual interaction relationships and can assist welfare and government agencies to identify cat semi-owners in order to develop strategies to address this source of unwanted cats. PMID:26218243
Zito, Sarah; Vankan, Dianne; Bennett, Pauleen; Paterson, Mandy; Phillips, Clive J C
People who feed cats that they do not perceive they own (sometimes called semi-owners) are thought to make a considerable contribution to unwanted cat numbers because the cats they support are generally not sterilized. Understanding people's perception of cat ownership and the psychology underlying cat semi-ownership could inform approaches to mitigate the negative effects of cat semi-ownership. The primary aims of this study were to investigate cat ownership perception and to examine its association with human-cat interactions and caretaking behaviours. A secondary aim was to evaluate a definition of cat semi-ownership (including an association time of ≥1 month and frequent feeding), revised from a previous definition proposed in the literature to distinguish cat semi-ownership from casual interactions with unowned cats. Cat owners and semi-owners displayed similar types of interactions and caretaking behaviours. Nevertheless, caretaking behaviours were more commonly displayed towards owned cats than semi-owned cats, and semi-owned cats were more likely to have produced kittens (pcats in semi-ownership relationships compared to casual interaction relationships. Determinants of cat ownership perception were identified (pcat friendliness and health, and feelings about unowned cats, including the acceptability of feeding unowned cats. Encouraging semi-owners to have the cats they care for sterilized may assist in reducing the number of unwanted kittens and could be a valuable alternative to trying to prevent semi-ownership entirely. Highly accessible semi-owner "gatekeepers" could help to deliver education messages and facilitate the provision of cat sterilization services to semi-owners. This research enabled semi-ownership to be distinguished from casual interaction relationships and can assist welfare and government agencies to identify cat semi-owners in order to develop strategies to address this source of unwanted cats.
Oral grooming is common in cats, as in rodent and bovid species where grooming has been shown to be effective in removing lice and ticks. In Experiment 1, we examined the effectiveness of oral grooming in removing fleas which are the main ectoparasite of cats. Elizabethan collars (E-collars) which prevented grooming were fitted on nine cats in a flea-infested household and 3 weeks later, flea numbers on these cats were compared with nine control cats in the same household. Flea numbers dropped in the control cats reflecting an apparent drop in adult fleas in the environment, but in the E-collar cats, flea numbers did not drop, and were about twice as numerous as in control cats. The significantly greater number of fleas on the E-collar cats was attributed to their inability to groom off fleas. In Experiment 2, videotaping of nine different cats from the flea-infested household revealed that these cats groomed at about twice the rate of 10 similarly videotaped control cats from a flea-free colony. These results reveal that flea exposure can increase grooming rate in cats and that grooming is effective in removing fleas.
Crespo, M. J.; Abarca, M. L.; Cabañes, F. J.
During a survey of the occurrence of Malassezia species in the external ear canals of cats without otitis externa, Malassezia furfur was isolated. This is the first report of the isolation of M. furfur from cats. PMID:10203525
Crespo, M. J.; Abarca, M. L.; Cabañes, F. J.
During a survey of the occurrence of Malassezia species in the external ear canals of cats without otitis externa, Malassezia furfur was isolated. This is the first report of the isolation of M. furfur from cats.
Full Text Available The metacestode of Taenia solium, Cysticercus cellulosae, was recovered from the brain of a cat showing central nervous clinical signs ante mortem. This is the first record of cerebral cysticercosis in a cat in South Africa.
Shropshire, Sarah B; Veir, Julia K; Morris, Arianne K; Lappin, Michael R
The objectives of this study were to validate the microscopic agglutination test (MAT) using feline sera, determine cross-reactivity of Borrelia burgdorferi antibodies in the MAT, and evaluate if there is an association between Leptospira species seropositivity in aged (⩾10 years) client-owned cats with and without azotemia (creatinine >2 g/dl). A four-serovar canine leptospiral vaccine was administered to two specific pathogen-free (SPF) cats on days 0 and 14. The MAT was performed intermittently until day 42 for the serovars Canicola, Grippotyphosa, Hardjo, Icterohaemorrhagiae, Pomona and Bratislava, with a cut-off value of ⩾1:100. Five purpose-bred cats were infested with wild-caught Ixodes scapularis adults with an average B burgdorferi infection rate of 50%, and tested for antibodies against B burgdorferi C6 peptide and DNA in skin biopsies, as well as by MAT. Sera from 66 azotemic and 75 non-azotemic cats ⩾10 years of age were tested for Leptospira species antibodies using the MAT and results were compared by the χ(2) test. Both SPF cats seroconverted by week 3 and formed antibodies against at least one serovar. There was no cross-reactivity in the MAT using samples from cats with antibodies to B burgdorferi. MAT results were positive for 4/66 azotemic cats and 8/75 non-azotemic cats; these results were not statistically different. The MAT can be interpreted using feline serum and does not appear to cross-react in cats with B burgdorferi antibodies. There was no association between Leptospira species MAT results and azotemia in this group of aged client-owned cats but further studies are needed to determine if leptospirosis contributes to feline chronic kidney disease. © The Author(s) 2015.
Full Text Available ... A) Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Getting a CAT Scan (Video) KidsHealth / For Kids / Getting a CAT Scan (Video) Print en español Obtención de una tomografía computada (video) CAT stands ...
... the most common kind of tapeworm dogs and cats get? The most common tapeworm of dogs and cats in the United States is called Dipylidium caninum . ... infected with a tapeworm larvae. A dog or cat may swallow a flea while self-grooming. Once ...
Luteijn, Johannes Michiel; Morris, Joan K; Garne, Ester
). CONCLUSIONS: Medication exposure data in the EUROmediCAT central database can be analyzed systematically to determine a manageable set of associations for validation and then testing in independent datasets. Detection of teratogens depends on frequency of exposure, level of risk and teratogenic specificity....
Baines, S.J.; Speakman, A.J.; Williams, J.M.; Cheeseman, M.T.
A six-month-old kitten had congenital urethral sphincter mechanism incompetence due to urethral hypoplasia and associated uterine hypoplasia and vaginal aplasia. Diagnosis was based on radiographic examination, surgical exploration and histological examination of the lower urinary tract. Surgical correction resulted in a marked clinical improvement. The cat became fully continent following treatment with phenylpropanolamine
Vitor M. Ribeiro
Full Text Available Bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL is a procedure that retrieves cells and other elements from the lungs for evaluation, which helps in the diagnosis of pulmonary diseases. The aim of this study was to perform this procedure for cellular analysis of BAL fluid alterations during experimental infection with Aelurostrongylus abstrusus in cats. Fourteen cats were individually inoculated with 800 third stage larvae of A. abstrusus and five non-infected cats lined as a control group. The BAL procedure was performed through the use of an endotracheal tube on the nineteen cats with a mean age of 18 months, on 0, 30, 60, 90, 120, 180 and 270 days after infection. Absolute cell counts in the infected cats revealed that alveolar macrophages and eosinophils were the predominant cells following infection. This study shows that the technique allows us to retrieve cells and first stage larvae what provides information about the inflammatory process caused by aelurostrongylosis.
Ferreira, Joaquim P.; Leitão, Inês; Santos-Reis, Margarida; Revilla, Eloy
Background Domestic cats ranging freely in natural areas are a conservation concern due to competition, predation, disease transmission or hybridization with wildcats. In order to improve our ability to design effective control policies, we investigate the factors affecting their numbers and space use in natural areas of continental Europe. Methodology/Principal Findings We describe the patterns of cat presence, abundance and space use and analyse the associated environmental and human constraints in a well-preserved Mediterranean natural area with small scattered local farms. We failed in detecting cats in areas away from human settlements (trapping effort above 4000 trap-nights), while we captured 30 individuals near inhabited farms. We identified 130 cats, all of them in farms still in use by people (30% of 128 farms). All cats were free-ranging and very wary of people. The main factor explaining the presence of cats was the presence of people, while the number of cats per farm was mostly affected by the occasional food provisioning with human refuse and the presence of people. The home ranges of eight radio tagged cats were centred at inhabited farms. Males went furthest away from the farms during the mating season (3.8 km on average, maximum 6.3 km), using inhabited farms as stepping-stones in their mating displacements (2.2 km of maximum inter-farm distance moved). In their daily movements, cats notably avoided entering in areas with high fox density. Conclusions The presence, abundance and space use of cats were heavily dependent on human settlements. Any strategy aiming at reducing their impact in areas of conservation concern should aim at the presence of settlements and their spatial spread and avoid any access to human refuse. The movements of domestic cats would be limited in areas with large patches of natural vegetation providing good conditions for other carnivore mammals such as red foxes. PMID:22043298
Tritschler, Claudia; Mizukami, Keijiro; Raj, Karthik; Giger, Urs
Increased erythrocytic osmotic fragility and splenomegaly have been reported in anemic Abyssinian and Somali cats. Here we report on this condition in anemic domestic shorthair cats and two other breeds, and describe common features of the clinicopathological profiles, management and outcomes. Anemic cats, other than Abyssinians and Somalis, were included. The erythrocytic osmotic fragility test was performed, known causes of anemia were excluded, the illness was followed and medical records were reviewed. Twelve neutered cats were first found to be anemic between 0.5 and 9.0 years of age. Pallor, lethargy, inappetence, pica, weight loss and splenomegaly were commonly observed. A moderate-to-severe macrocytic and hypochromic anemia with variable regeneration was noted. Infectious disease screening, direct Coombs' and pyruvate kinase DNA mutation test results were negative. Freshly drawn blood did not appear hemolysed but became progressively lysed during storage at 4°C. The sigmoid osmotic fragility curves were moderately to severely right shifted, indicating erythrocytic fragility at 20°C. Cross-correction studies indicated an intrinsic red cell effect rather than plasma effect. Most cats were treated with immunosuppressive doses of prednisolone and doxycycline, with variable responses. Five cats with recurrent or persistent anemia responded well to splenectomy. However, two had occasional recurrence of severe anemia: one was found to be Bartonella vinsonii-positive during one episode and responded to azithromycin and prednisolone, while the other cat had two episodes of severe anemia of unknown cause. Finally, six cats were euthanized within 1 month and 7 years after initial presentation. Histopathology of six spleens revealed mainly congestion and extramedullary hematopoiesis. Similarly to Abyssinian and Somali cats, domestic shorthair and cats of other breeds can also develop severe erythrocytic osmotic fragility with anemia and splenomegaly, which should be
Ferreira, Joaquim P; Leitão, Inês; Santos-Reis, Margarida; Revilla, Eloy
Domestic cats ranging freely in natural areas are a conservation concern due to competition, predation, disease transmission or hybridization with wildcats. In order to improve our ability to design effective control policies, we investigate the factors affecting their numbers and space use in natural areas of continental Europe. We describe the patterns of cat presence, abundance and space use and analyse the associated environmental and human constraints in a well-preserved Mediterranean natural area with small scattered local farms. We failed in detecting cats in areas away from human settlements (trapping effort above 4000 trap-nights), while we captured 30 individuals near inhabited farms. We identified 130 cats, all of them in farms still in use by people (30% of 128 farms). All cats were free-ranging and very wary of people. The main factor explaining the presence of cats was the presence of people, while the number of cats per farm was mostly affected by the occasional food provisioning with human refuse and the presence of people. The home ranges of eight radio tagged cats were centred at inhabited farms. Males went furthest away from the farms during the mating season (3.8 km on average, maximum 6.3 km), using inhabited farms as stepping-stones in their mating displacements (2.2 km of maximum inter-farm distance moved). In their daily movements, cats notably avoided entering in areas with high fox density. The presence, abundance and space use of cats were heavily dependent on human settlements. Any strategy aiming at reducing their impact in areas of conservation concern should aim at the presence of settlements and their spatial spread and avoid any access to human refuse. The movements of domestic cats would be limited in areas with large patches of natural vegetation providing good conditions for other carnivore mammals such as red foxes.
Joaquim P Ferreira
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Domestic cats ranging freely in natural areas are a conservation concern due to competition, predation, disease transmission or hybridization with wildcats. In order to improve our ability to design effective control policies, we investigate the factors affecting their numbers and space use in natural areas of continental Europe. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We describe the patterns of cat presence, abundance and space use and analyse the associated environmental and human constraints in a well-preserved Mediterranean natural area with small scattered local farms. We failed in detecting cats in areas away from human settlements (trapping effort above 4000 trap-nights, while we captured 30 individuals near inhabited farms. We identified 130 cats, all of them in farms still in use by people (30% of 128 farms. All cats were free-ranging and very wary of people. The main factor explaining the presence of cats was the presence of people, while the number of cats per farm was mostly affected by the occasional food provisioning with human refuse and the presence of people. The home ranges of eight radio tagged cats were centred at inhabited farms. Males went furthest away from the farms during the mating season (3.8 km on average, maximum 6.3 km, using inhabited farms as stepping-stones in their mating displacements (2.2 km of maximum inter-farm distance moved. In their daily movements, cats notably avoided entering in areas with high fox density. CONCLUSIONS: The presence, abundance and space use of cats were heavily dependent on human settlements. Any strategy aiming at reducing their impact in areas of conservation concern should aim at the presence of settlements and their spatial spread and avoid any access to human refuse. The movements of domestic cats would be limited in areas with large patches of natural vegetation providing good conditions for other carnivore mammals such as red foxes.
Weis, Sonia; Rettinger, Anna; Bergmann, Michele; Llewellyn, Julia R; Pantchev, Nikola; Straubinger, Reinhard K; Hartmann, Katrin
Objectives Clinical manifestation of infection with Leptospira species in cats is rare. Nevertheless, cats can develop specific antibodies against the spirochetes after infection. In Canada, Taiwan and the USA it was recently demonstrated that naturally infected cats can also shed DNA from pathogenic Leptospira species in their urine, but the zoonotic potential of infected cats is still unclear. The objective of this study was to demonstrate if outdoor cats in Germany shed DNA from pathogenic Leptospira species in their urine. As a second aim, antibody prevalence was determined. Methods Two hundred and fifteen outdoor cats were prospectively recruited. Urine samples were tested by real-time PCR targeting the lipL32 gene of pathogenic Leptospira species. Antibody titres against eight serovars (Australis, Autumnalis, Bratislava, Canicola, Copenhageni, Grippotyphosa, Pomona, Saxkoebing) belonging to seven serogroups (Australis, Autumnalis, Canicola, Grippotyphosa, Icterohaemorrhagiae, Pomona, Sejroe) were determined by microscopic agglutination test. Results Urine samples from 7/215 cats (3.3%; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.9-5.7) were PCR-positive. Specific antibodies were detected in 35/195 cats (17.9%; 95% CI: 12.5-23.3) with titres ranging from 1:100 to 1:6400. Australis, Bratislava and Grippotyphosa were the most common serovars. Conclusions and relevance Outdoor cats in Germany can shed DNA from pathogenic Leptospira species. Therefore, outdoor cats should be considered as a possible source of infection for dogs or humans. Further studies are needed to determine the role of Leptospira species as a cause of disease in cats.
Pinto, Lancelot M; Gupta, Nisha; Tan, Wan; Li, Pei Z; Benedetti, Andrea; Jones, Paul W; Bourbeau, Jean
The tradition classification of the severity of COPD, based on spirometry, fails to encompass the heterogeneity of the disease. The COPD assessment test (CAT), a multi-dimensional, patient-filled questionnaire, assesses the overall health status of patients, and is recommended as part of the assessment of individuals with COPD. However, information regarding the range of values for the test in a non-COPD population (normative values) is limited, and consequently, knowledge regarding the optimal cut-off, and the minimum clinically important difference (MCID) for the test remain largely empirical. CanCOLD is a population-based multi-center cohort study conducted across Canada, the methodology of which is based on the international BOLD initiative. The study includes subjects with COPD, at-risk individuals who smoke, and healthy control subjects. CAT questionnaires were administered at baseline to all subjects. Among non-COPD subjects, normative values for the CAT questionnaire, and psychometric properties of the test were characterized. Predictors of high CAT scores were identified using multivariable logistic regression. Of the 525 non-COPD subjects enrolled, 500 were included in the analysis. Mean FEV1/FVC ratio among the 500 included subjects was 0.77 (SD 0.49); the mean predicted FEV1 was 99.38% (SD 16.88%). The overall mean CAT score was 6 (SD 5.09); scores were higher among females (6.43, SD 5.59), and subjects over 80 years of age (mean 7.58, SD 6.82). Cronbach alpha for the CAT was 0.79, suggesting a high internal consistency for the test. A score of 16 was the 95th percentile for the population, and 27 subjects (5.4%) were found to have a CAT score > =16. Current smoking (aOR 3.41, 95% CI 1.05, 11.02), subject-reported physician-diagnosed asthma (aOR 7.59, 95% CI 2.71, 21.25) and musculoskeletal disease (aOR 4.09, 95% CI 1.72, 9.71) were found to be significantly associated with a score ≥16. The characterization of CAT scores in the general population
Ha, Y-S; Hopper, K; Epstein, S E
The incidence and causes of metabolic alkalosis in dogs and cats have not been fully investigated. To describe the incidence, nature, and etiology of metabolic alkalosis in dogs and cats undergoing blood gas analysis at a veterinary teaching hospital. Dogs and cats at a veterinary medical teaching hospital. Acid-base and electrolyte results for dogs and cats measured during a 13-month period were retrospectively collected from a computer database. Only the first measured (venous or arterial) blood gas analyzed in a single hospitalization period was included. Animals with a base excess above the reference range for the species were included. A total of 1,805 dogs and cats were included. Of these, 349 (19%) were identified as having an increased standardized base excess, 319 dogs and 30 cats. The mixed acid-base disorder of metabolic alkalosis with respiratory acidosis was the most common abnormality identified in both dogs and cats. Hypokalemia and hypochloremia were more common in animals with metabolic alkalosis compared to animals without metabolic alkalosis. The 4 most commonly identified underlying diseases were respiratory disease, gastrointestinal tract obstruction, furosemide administration, and renal disease. Metabolic alkalosis was less common than metabolic acidosis in the same population of animals. Evidence of contraction alkalosis was present in many patients in this study. Hypokalemia and hypochloremia were more frequent in patients with metabolic alkalosis and suggest the importance of evaluation of acid-base status in conjunction with serum electrolyte concentrations. Copyright © 2013 by the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine.
Kuzi, Sharon; Segev, Gilad; Kedar, Shay; Yas, Einat; Aroch, Itamar
Feline hepatic lipidosis (HL) is a common, potentially life-threatening disease resulting from prolonged anorexia and increased catabolism. This retrospective study included cats diagnosed with HL based on liver cytology or histopathology (years 2004-2015), and aimed to identify clinical and laboratory parameters associated with mortality. The study included 71 cats (47 females and 24 males) and 85 control cats with non-HL diseases. Most HL cats (90 per cent) were mixed breed, neutered (70; 99 per cent), female (47; 66 per cent), indoor cats (56; 79 per cent), fed dry commercial diets (44 cats; 62 per cent), and with a median age of 7.5 years (range 1.5-16.0). Common primary conditions included gastrointestinal diseases, pancreatitis and cholangiohepatitis (31 cats; 44 per cent) and stressful events (14; 20 per cent). HL was idiopathic in 20 cats (28 per cent). The overall mortality was 38 per cent (27/71 cats). Older age, as well as dullness, weakness, ptyalism, hypoproteinaemia, hypoalbuminaemia, increased serum creatine kinase activity, hypocholesterolaemia and hepatic failure at presentation were significantly (P≤0.033) associated with mortality. The primary disease was unassociated with mortality. Worsening hypoalbuminaemia, hyperammonaemia, hyperbilirubinaemia, electrolyte disorders, and occurrence of cavitary effusions or hypotension during hospitalisation were significantly (P≤0.045) associated with mortality. A decrease of serum β-hydroxybutyrate during hospitalisation was significantly (P=0.01) associated with survival, likely reflecting improvement in the catabolic state. The identified risk factors may be therapeutic targets. © British Veterinary Association (unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.
Four-year incidence of allergic sensitization among schoolchildren in a community where allergy to cat and dog dominates sensitization: report from the Obstructive Lung Disease in Northern Sweden Study Group.
Rönmark, Eva; Perzanowski, Matthew; Platts-Mills, Thomas; Lundbäck, Bo
Exposure to high levels of cat allergen might prevent sensitization. We sought to measure the incidence of allergic sensitization among schoolchildren living in a dust mite- and cockroach-free environment and the associated risk factors. In 1996, a longitudinal cohort was established in northern Sweden, including 2454 children aged 7 to 8 years. Children were skin tested, and the testing was repeated 4 years later. Questionnaires were completed yearly. Participation was 88% both in 1996 and 2000. The prevalence of positive skin test results increased from 20.6% at age 7 and 8 years to 30.4% at age 11 and 12 years, a cumulative incidence of 13.8%, and was significantly higher among boys. The incidence was highest for cat (6.0%), timothy grass (5.9%), dog (4.9%), and birch (3.6%). A family history of allergy was the major risk factor for both a positive skin test response at age 7 and 8 years (odds ratio [OR], 1.69; 95% CI, 1.36-2.10) and for development of a positive skin test response over the next 4 years (OR, 1.67; 95% CI, 1.23-2.28). A significant inverse association between cat and dog ownership and the prevalence of type 1 allergy was found, particularly for those children who had lived with a cat both before age 7 and 8 years and during the next 4 years (OR, 0.44; 95% CI, 0.31-0.61). A similar pattern, although not significant, was found for incident cases. The high incidence of type 1 allergy at this age was similar to reports from communities with mite and cockroach allergen. Despite cat and dog being the most common allergens of sensitization, keeping these animals at home was not associated with an increased risk for sensitization.
Tyler JM Jordan
Full Text Available Case series summary Two cats were evaluated for progressive exercise intolerance, dyspnea and unilateral infiltrate of the left lung. Computed tomography angiography (CTA revealed absence of the right pulmonary artery in both cats with systemic arterial collateral vessels perfusing the right segmental pulmonary arteries. In one case, the collateral vessels arose from the esophageal artery, while in the other case they derived off the right costocervical trunk. One cat was diagnosed with pulmonary hypertension and was euthanized owing to progressive respiratory distress despite medical management with sildenafil, pimobendan, clopidogrel and furosemide. The other cat, without echocardiographic evidence of pulmonary hypertension, was successfully managed with furosemide and enalapril for more than 4 years. Relevance and novel information CTA allowed visualization of a rare congenital heart malformation, unilateral absence of the right pulmonary artery, in two cats and accurately characterized the source of collateral blood supply to the affected lung. Severe pulmonary hypertension may be a negative prognostic factor in cats with this condition as medical therapy in the cat without evidence of pulmonary hypertension resolved clinical signs, while the cat with severe pulmonary hypertension died from the disease.
Chiu, Elliott; Troyer, Ryan M; Lappin, Michael R; VandeWoude, Sue
Objectives Several studies have reported that domestic cats can be naturally infected with bovine herpesvirus 4 (BHV4). Cats experimentally inoculated with BHV4 developed clinical signs involving the urinary tract, leading to the hypothesis that natural infection with BHV4 may be associated with feline lower urinary tract diseases. However, the question of whether BHV4 infection is common in cats remains equivocal. In this study, we sought to determine whether BHV4 is a common natural infection of domestic cats in the USA. Methods We used a sensitive nested PCR protocol specific to the BHV4 thymidine kinase gene to screen free-ranging domestic cat blood DNA samples (n = 101) collected from California, Colorado and Florida. Results Cats within this cohort were positive for seven other common pathogens of domestic cats, demonstrating the relatively high exposure of this population to endemic feline infections. In contrast, all domestic cat blood samples were negative for BHV4, while BHV4-containing tissue culture extracts were strongly positive. Conclusions and relevance BHV4 has been detected in tissues of latently infected cattle, though viral DNA is typically also detected in peripheral blood cells throughout infection. Our results suggest that persistent presence of BHV4 DNA in the blood of domestic cats is either rare or non-existent. We thus conclude that BHV4 is unlikely to be a major pathogen of cats.
Carter, J M; Irving, A C; Bridges, J P; Jones, B R
To provide an estimate of the prevalence of ocular lesions associated with hypertension in geriatric cats in Auckland, New Zealand and to evaluate the importance of examination of the ocular fundi of cats over eight years of age. A total of 105 cats ≥8 years of age were examined and clinical signs recorded. Blood was collected for the laboratory measurement of the concentrations of blood urea nitrogen (BUN), glucose and creatinine in serum, urine was collected for determination of urine specific gravity (USG), and blood pressure (BP) was measured using high definition oscillometry equipment. A cat was determined to have systemic hypertension with a systolic BP ≥160 mm Hg and a diastolic BP ≥100 mm Hg. Each animal had an ocular fundic examination using a retinal camera to diagnose ocular lesions associated with hypertension, including retinopathies, choroidopathies and optic neuropathies. Blood pressure was successfully recorded in 73 cats. Of these, 37 (51%) had no hypertensive ocular lesions and no underlying disease diagnosed, 24 (33%) had no hypertensive ocular lesions detected, but underlying disease such as chronic kidney disease, hyperthyroidism or diabetes mellitus was diagnosed, and 12 (16%) cats had evidence of hypertensive ocular lesions. Ten of the cats with hypertensive ocular lesions were hypertensive at the time of the first visit and two were normotensive. One additional cat had hypertensive ocular lesions, but it was not possible to obtain consistent BP readings in this animal. Chronic kidney disease was the most commonly diagnosed concurrent disease in cats with hypertensive ocular lesions (n=6). Mean systolic BP for cats with hypertensive ocular lesions (168.0 (SE 6.29) mm Hg) was higher than for those with no ocular lesions (144.7 (SE 3.11) mm Hg) or those with no lesions but with underlying disease (146.0 (SE 4.97) mm Hg) (p=0.001). Ocular fundic examination of cats over eight years of age allows identification of cats with
Anholt, H; Himsworth, C; Britton, A
Two 4-year-old spayed female Siamese cats were seized by the British Columbia Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals after confinement to an abandoned housing unit without food for 9 weeks. One cat was found dead, and the second was euthanized within 24 hours due to neurologic deterioration despite therapy. Polioencephalomalacia of the caudal colliculus, hepatic lipidosis, cachexia, and congestive heart failure with cardiomyocyte atrophy were identified in both cats through postmortem examination and attributed to a prolonged period of starvation. Brain lesions were likely the result of thiamine deficiency (Chastek paralysis), which can be associated with both malnutrition and liver disease. This case highlights the importance of thiamine supplementation during realimentation of cats with hepatic lipidosis. Heart failure resulting from cachexia may have contributed to the death of the first cat and the morbidity of the second cat. © The Author(s) 2016.
Full Text Available Intestinal protozoan parasites constitute a major source of diseases for stray cats and have been recognized as important public health problems in several parts of the world. Considering the potential risk of stray cats for public health, present cross-sectional study was carried out to determine the type and frequency of protozoan parasites by faecal examination. A total of 100 stray cats were examined in Kerman city, Iran, Overall 67 cats (67% were infected with at least one protozoan parasite. The following parasites, with their respective prevalence, were found; Isospora felis 38%, Isospora rivolta 25%, Toxoplasma gondii 16%, Sarcocystis spp. 8%, Cryptosporidium spp. 7%, and Giardia sp. 5%. Based on our data, the sex of stray cats was not significantly associated with the prevalence of gastrointestinal protozoan parasites. The high infection rate of zoonotic intestinal protozoan parasites in stray cats is considered to be critical from the viewpoint of public health importance.We
Archivaldo Reche Jr.
Full Text Available In order to study the magnitude of distribution of feline leukemia virus (FLV and feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV among domestic cats in São Paulo, 401 animals from both sexes, different ages and breeds, were tested for antibodies (FIV and viral soluble antigens (FLV by means of ELISA (feline leukemia virus antigen / feline immunodeficiency virus antibody - CITE ® - Agrytech Sistems Inc.. Among these animals, 123 were healthy cats and 278 were patients at the Department of Medical Clinics / Veterinary Hospital of Faculdade de Medicina Veterinária e Zootecnia, Universidade de São Paulo due to various diseases eight (6,5% FIV positive cats and two (1,6% FLV positive cats were found among healthy animals in opposition to 39 (14% and 30 (10,8% sick cats regents to FIV and FLV antigens and antibodies, respectively. All animals but one presented single infection. FIV infection was four times more frequent among males when compared to females; nevertheless, no difference was found related to FVL infection. Opportunistic infections as those caused by Hemobartonella felis were the most common baseline disease found among FIV or FLV infected cats. When tumors, were considered the mediastinal lymphoma was the most frequent type found among FVL infected cats. A variety of other diseases was observed, associated to both retroviruses infection. The mean age of FIV infect animals was 4,4 + 3,0 years old and 2,4 ± 1,7 years old FLV infected cats. All infected, symptomatic animals died during the two years of observation, while all healthy, infected cats survived, allowing the conclusion that period of latency post-infection may be long.
Beale, Brian S
Senior dogs and cats with orthopedic injuries and diseases often require a treatment plan that differs from that of younger patients. Injured bone and soft tissues tend to heal more slowly in the geriatric patient. The older animal is likely to have a less competent immune system and may have compromised metabolic and endocrine function. Pre-existing musculoskeletal problems may make ambulation difficult for an animal convalescing from a new orthopedic problem. Special attention is often needed when treating these patients for fractures, joint instability, infection, and neoplasia. In general, issues that should be addressed in the geriatric patient include reducing intraoperative and anesthesia time, enhancing bone and soft tissue healing, return to early function, control of postoperative pain, physical therapy, and proper nutrition.
K. A. Terim Kapakin
Full Text Available In this study, the sebaceous gland adenocarcinoma was presented in the external auditory canal of a 10-year-old female tabby cat. There were three tumoural masses located macroscopically in the external auditory canal in the dimensions of 0.2 × 0.5, 0.3 × 0.5, and 0.1 × 0.1 cm, and they were of hard consistency. The cut sections of these tumoural masses were of multilobular appearance and ranged from white to yellow colour. Histopathological examination revealed the presence of oval or round shaped tumour cells with hyperchromatic nuclei and cytoplasmic lipid vacuoles that were divided by fibrous tissue into lobules. Atypism and mitosis were not significant. Irregular necrotic areas and mononuclear cell infiltrations composed of lymphocytes and histiocytes were also observed. In conclusion, our laboratory service confirms that the sebaceous gland adenocarcinoma is a rarely occurring tumour in cats with specific histopathological lesions.
Morris, Katrina M; Kirby, Katherine; Beatty, Julia A; Barrs, Vanessa R; Cattley, Sonia; David, Victor; O'Brien, Stephen J; Menotti-Raymond, Marilyn; Belov, Katherine
Diversity within the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) reflects the immunological fitness of a population. MHC-linked microsatellite markers provide a simple and an inexpensive method for studying MHC diversity in large-scale studies. We have developed 6 MHC-linked microsatellite markers in the domestic cat and used these, in conjunction with 5 neutral microsatellites, to assess MHC diversity in domestic mixed breed (n = 129) and purebred Burmese (n = 61) cat populations in Australia. The MHC of outbred Australian cats is polymorphic (average allelic richness = 8.52), whereas the Burmese population has significantly lower MHC diversity (average allelic richness = 6.81; P lions (n = 13). Our MHC-linked microsatellite markers have potential future use in diversity and disease studies in other populations and breeds of cats as well as in wild felid species. © The American Genetic Association 2014. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org.
Lawall, Thaíse; Beck, Carlos Afonso de Castro; Queiroga, Luciana Branquinho; Santos, Fabiane Reginatto dos
ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study was to investigate the feasibility of minilaparoscopic (MINI) ovariohysterectomy (OHE) in healthy cats using three portals, one of 5 millimeters (mm) in diameter and two of 3mm diameter, along with bipolar diathermy. Technical difficulty, feasibility of MINI access, use of bipolar diathermy, surgery time, need for enlargement of incisions, trans- and post-operative complications and rate of conversion to open surgery were assessed. One out of 15 animals req...
Valtolina, Chiara; Vaandrager, Arie B; Favier, Robert P; Tuohetahuntila, Maidina; Kummeling, Anne; Jeusette, Isabelle; Rothuizen, Jan; Robben, Joris H
A link between lipid metabolism and disease has been recognized in cats. Since hepatic lipidosis is a frequent disorder in cats, the aim of the current study was to evaluate liver and plasma lipid dimorphism in healthy cats and the effects of gonadectomy on lipid profiling. From six female and six male cats plasma and liver lipid profiles before and after spaying/neutering were assessed and compared to five cats (three neutered male and two spayed female) diagnosed with hepatic lipidosis. Intact female cats had a significantly lower level of plasma triacylglycerides (TAG) and a higher liver level of the long chain polyunsaturated fatty acid arachidonic acid (AA) compared to their neutered state. Both male and female cats with lipidosis had a higher liver, but not plasma TAG level and an increased level of plasma and liver sphingomyelin compared to the healthy cats. Although lipid dimorphism in healthy cats resembles that of other species, intact female cats show differences in metabolic configuration that could predispose them to develop hepatic lipidosis. The increased sphingomyelin levels in cats with lipidosis could suggest a potential role in the pathogenesis of hepatic lipidosis in cats.
Turrel, J.M.; Feldman, E.C.; Hays, M.; Hornof, W.J.
Eleven cats with hyperthyroidism were treated with radioactive iodine ( 131 I). Previous unsuccessful treatments for hyperthyroidism included hemithyroidectomy (2 cats) and an antithyroid drug (7 cats). Two cats had no prior treatment. Thyroid scans, using technetium 99m, showed enlargement and increased radionuclide accumulation in 1 thyroid lobe in 5 cats and in both lobes in 6 cats. Serum thyroxine concentrations were high and ranged from 4.7 to 18 micrograms/dl. Radioactive iodine tracer studies were used to determine peak radioactive iodine uptake (RAIU) and effective and biological half-lives. Activity of 131 I administered was calculated from peak RAIU, effective half-life, and estimated thyroid gland weight. Activity of 131 I administered ranged from 1.0 to 5.9 mCi. The treatment goal was to deliver 20,000 rad to hyperactive thyroid tissue. However, retrospective calculations based on peak RAIU and effective half-life obtained during the treatment period showed that radiation doses actually ranged from 7,100 to 64,900 rad. Complete ablation of the hyperfunctioning thyroid tissue and a return to euthyroidism were seen in 7 cats. Partial responses were seen in 2 cats, and 2 cats became hypothyroid. It was concluded that 131 I ablation of thyroid tumors was a reasonable alternative in the treatment of hyperthyroidism in cats. The optimal method of dosimetry remains to be determined
Jin, Yong-Xun; Cui, Xiang-Shun; Yu, Xian-Feng; Lee, Sung-Hyun; Wang, Qing-Ling; Gao, Wei-Wei; Xu, Yong-Nan; Sun, Shao-Chen; Kong, Il-Keun; Kim, Nam-Hyung
Interspecies intracytoplasmic sperm injection has been carried out to understand species-specific differences in oocyte environments and sperm components during fertilization. While sperm aster organization during cat fertilization requires a paternally derived centriole, mouse and hamster fertilization occur within the maternal centrosomal components. To address the questions of where sperm aster assembly occurs and whether complete fertilization is achieved in cat oocytes by interspecies sperm, we studied the fertilization processes of cat oocytes following the injection of cat, mouse, or hamster sperm. Male and female pronuclear formations were not different in the cat oocytes at 6 h following cat, mouse or hamster sperm injection. Microtubule asters were seen in all oocytes following intracytoplasmic injection of cat, mouse or hamster sperm. Immunocytochemical staining with a histone H3-m2K9 antibody revealed that mouse sperm chromatin is incorporated normally with cat egg chromatin, and that the cat eggs fertilized with mouse sperm enter metaphase and become normal 2-cell stage embryos. These results suggest that sperm aster formation is maternally dependent, and that fertilization processes and cleavage occur in a non-species specific manner in cat oocytes.
Justin, R B; Hohenhaus, A E
Hypophosphatemia is uncommon in cats, but it has been reported in association with diabetes mellitus and hepatic lipidosis, where it can cause hemolysis, rhabdomyopathy, depression, seizures, and coma. The purpose of this article is to describe 9 cats that developed low serum phosphorus concentrations (alimentation. Serum biochemical analyses from more than 6,000 cats were reviewed. The medical records of all cats with hypophosphatemia were examined for history of enteral alimentation; diabetic cats were excluded from the study. Nine cats, ranging in age from 3 to 17 years, were identified. All cats had normal serum phosphorus concentrations before tube feeding began. Onset of hypophosphatemia occurred 12 to 72 hours after initiation of enteral alimentation, and the nadir for phosphorus concentrations ranged from 0.4 to 2.4 mg/dL. Hemolysis occurred in 6 of the 9 cats. Hypophosphatemia secondary to enteral alimentation is an uncommon clinical finding in cats. Cats with high alanine aminotransferase activity, hyperbilirubinemia, and weight loss should be closely monitored for hypophosphatemia during the first 72 hours of enteral alimentation.
Verbrugghe, Adronie; Hesta, Myriam
The domestic cat's wild ancestors are obligate carnivores that consume prey containing only minimal amounts of carbohydrates. Evolutionary events adapted the cat's metabolism and physiology to this diet strictly composed of animal tissues and led to unique digestive and metabolic peculiarities of carbohydrate metabolism. The domestic cat still closely resembles its wild ancestor. Although the carnivore connection of domestic cats is well recognised, little is known about the precise nutrient profile to which the digestive physiology and metabolism of the cat have adapted throughout evolution. Moreover, studies show that domestic cats balance macronutrient intake by selecting low-carbohydrate foods. The fact that cats evolved consuming low-carbohydrate prey has led to speculations that high-carbohydrate diets could be detrimental for a cat's health. More specifically, it has been suggested that excess carbohydrates could lead to feline obesity and diabetes mellitus. Additionally, the chances for remission of diabetes mellitus are higher in cats that consume a low-carbohydrate diet. This literature review will summarise current carbohydrate knowledge pertaining to digestion, absorption and metabolism of carbohydrates, food selection and macronutrient balancing in healthy, obese and diabetic cats, as well as the role of carbohydrates in prevention and treatment of obesity and diabetes mellitus.
Torres-Henderson, Camille; Hesser, Jeff; Hyatt, Doreene R; Hawley, Jennifer; Brewer, Melissa; Lappin, Michael R
Mycoplasma species are common inhabitants of the feline oral cavity, and so likely contaminate many cat bite abscesses. The objectives of this study were to determine whether Mycoplasma species are common contaminants of cat bite abscesses and whether they are are associated with β-lactam-resistant clinical disease. Twenty-six privately owned cats with clinical evidence of an abscess suspected to be from a cat bite were included in the study. Samples from each cat were evaluated by aerobic and anaerobic culture, as well as Mycoplasma species culture and polymerase chain reaction (PCR). All cats were initially treated with appropriate wound management and were administered an antibiotic of the β-lactam class (amoxicillin, amoxicillin clavulanate or cefovecin sodium). Mycoplasma species DNA was amplified by PCR from 4/26 samples (15.4%); one of these cases was concurrently culture positive. Adequate DNA for sequencing was present for 2/4 positive PCR samples; one was most homologous with Mycoplasma felis, and the other was most homologous with Mycoplasma equigenitalium and Mycoplasma elephantis. Of the 26 cats, 25 responded to the initial treatment by day 7. The cat that failed initial treatment was positive for M equigenitalium or M elephantis DNA on days 0 and 12, and ultimately responded to administration of enrofloxacin and clindamycin. The results suggest that while Mycoplasma species can contaminate cat bite abscesses, routine wound management and β-lactam antibiotic therapy is adequate for treatment in most cases of abscess. However, as Mycoplasma species infections do not respond to β-lactam class antibiotic therapy, these organisms should be on the differential list for cats with abscesses that fail treatment with this antibiotic class. © ISFM and AAFP 2014.
Jinks, Maggie R; English, Robert V; Gilger, Brian C
To investigate the causes of endogenous uveitis in cats presenting to referral ophthalmology clinics in North Carolina. Medical records of cats diagnosed with endogenous uveitis at North Carolina State University's College of Veterinary Medicine (NCSU-CVM) or Animal Eye Care Associates of Cary, NC between 2003 and 2015 were reviewed. Inclusion criteria were cats that had complete diagnostic workups, including clinical, clinicopathological, serological, and histopathological data, as well as imaging modalities. Serology was consistently completed for feline leukemia virus (FeLV), feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV), feline coronavirus (FCoV), Toxoplasma gondii, and Bartonella spp. One hundred and twenty cats met the inclusion criteria. Seroprevalence of FeLV (2.7%), FIV (7.3%), FCoV (34.7%), T. gondii (23.7%), and Bartonella spp. (43.2%) was observed, with a combined seroprevalence of 59.2%. Nineteen cats (15.8%) were diagnosed with feline infectious peritonitis (FIP) based on clinical, hematological, serological, histopathological, and necropsy findings. The average age of all cases was 7.62 years, while the average age of cats diagnosed with FIP was 1.82 years. Neoplasia was diagnosed in six cats (5.0%). No underlying etiology was found in 49 cats (40.8%). Both idiopathic and neoplastic causes of uveitis were less prevalent than previously reported in studies, while seropositivity was higher than previously reported for the study area. This may be due to improved diagnostic capabilities or that cats with infectious disease were more likely to be referred. Because of the high prevalence of FIP, young cats with uveitis should be evaluated for hyperglobulinemia and FCoV serology should be performed as minimal diagnostics. © 2015 American College of Veterinary Ophthalmologists.
Detection of a putative novel adenovirus by PCR amplification, sequencing and phylogenetic characterisation of two gene fragments from formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissues of a cat diagnosed with disseminated adenovirus disease.
Lakatos, Béla; Hornyák, Ákos; Demeter, Zoltán; Forgách, Petra; Kennedy, Frances; Rusvai, Miklós
Adenoviral nucleic acid was detected by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissue samples of a cat that had suffered from disseminated adenovirus infection. The identity of the amplified products from the hexon and DNA-dependent DNA polymerase genes was confirmed by DNA sequencing. The sequences were clearly distinguishable from corresponding hexon and polymerase sequences of other mastadenoviruses, including human adenoviruses. These results suggest the possible existence of a distinct feline adenovirus.
Full Text Available Frank Rassouli,1 Florent Baty,1 Daiana Stolz,2 Werner Christian Albrich,3 Michael Tamm,2 Sandra Widmer,1 Martin Hugo Brutsche1 1Department of Pulmonary and Sleep Medicine, Cantonal Hospital St Gallen, St Gallen, Switzerland; 2Department of Pulmonary and Sleep Medicine, University Hospital Basel, Basel, Switzerland; 3Division of Infectious Diseases and Hospital Epidemiology, Cantonal Hospital St Gallen, St Gallen, Switzerland Background: There are only scarce data regarding the evolution of the chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD assessment test (CAT over time. Our aim was to investigate the evolution of the CAT in a telehealthcare (THC cohort and to evaluate its potential to predict exacerbations.Patients and methods: The CAT was measured weekly over up to 1 year in 40 COPD patients undergoing a THC intervention. The evolution of the CAT was analyzed using linear regression. The association between this evolution and the occurrence of exacerbations was evaluated using the Andersen–Gill formulation of the Cox proportional hazards model for the analysis of recurrent time-to-event data with time-varying predictors.Results: The median CAT at inclusion was 17 (interquartile range 13–22 points. During the study, 25% of patients had a significant negative slope (median –7 points per year [ppy], 38% were stable (median +0 ppy and 38% had a significant positive slope (median +6 ppy. The median slope of the CAT in the overall cohort was +1 (interquartile range –3 to +6 ppy. A significant positive association was found between the change in CAT scores and the risk of exacerbations (hazard ratio =1.08, 95% CI: 1.03–1.13; p<0.001. There was an 8% increase of the risk of exacerbation per unit increase in CAT. We detected a significant learning effect in filling out the CAT in 18.4% of patients with a median learning phase of five filled questionnaires.Conclusion: Sixty-three percent of the COPD patients monitored by THC experienced a stable
Renschler, Janelle S; Norsworthy, Gary D; Rakian, Rubie A; Rakian, Audrey I; Wheat, Lawrence J; Hanzlicek, Andrew S
Case summary An 11-year-old neutered male domestic longhair cat was diagnosed with histoplasmosis from fine-needle aspirates of an abdominal lymph node. Lymph node size initially decreased with fluconazole therapy (11.8 mg/kg PO q12h); however, after 13 months of continuous fluconazole therapy, lymphadenomegaly worsened and samples were collected for culture and antifungal susceptibility. The Histoplasma capsulatum isolate had a very high fluconazole minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of 64 µg/ml and an itraconazole MIC of 0.06 µg/ml. The owner declined a change to itraconazole and, ultimately, the cat developed neurologic signs and was euthanized. Owing to the initial response to fluconazole followed by treatment failure and high MIC value, acquired fluconazole resistance was suspected. Clinical breakpoints for fluconazole for the dimorphic fungi are not available to define true antifungal resistance. Relevance and novel information This is the first published report of reduced susceptibility to fluconazole in a cat being treated for histoplasmosis. Fluconazole failure and increases in MIC between pretreatment and long-term treatment isolates are known to occur in humans with histoplasmosis. Practitioners should be aware of this possibility when treating cats with fluconazole (particularly in cases with long-term [>1 year] fluconazole therapy or in cases with disease recrudescence). PMID:29225910
Hess, Steve C.; Danner, Raymond M.; Timm, R.M.
Domestic cats have been introduced to many of the world‘s islands where they have been particularly devastating to insular wildlife which, in most cases, evolved in the absence of terrestrial predatory mammals and feline diseases. We review the effects of predation, feline diseases, and the life history characteristics of feral cats and their prey that have contributed to the extirpation and extinction of many insular vertebrate species. The protozoan Toxoplasma gondii is a persistent land-based zoonotic pathogen hosted by cats that is known to cause mortality in several insular bird species. It also enters marine environments in cat feces where it can cause the mortality of marine mammals. Feral cats remain widespread on islands throughout the world and are frequently subsidized in colonies which caretakers often assert have little negative effect on native wildlife. However, population genetics, home range, and movement studies all suggest that there are no locations on smaller islands where these cats cannot penetrate within two generations. While the details of past vertebrate extinctions were rarely documented during contemporary time, a strong line of evidence is emerging that the removal of feral cats from islands can rapidly facilitate the recolonization of extirpated species, particularly seabirds. Islands offer unique, mostly self-contained ecosystems in which to conduct controlled studies of the effects of feral cats on wildlife, having implications for continental systems. The response of terrestrial wildlife such as passerine birds, small mammals, and herptiles still needs more thorough long-term monitoring and documentation after the removal of feral cats.
Luciano H. Giovaninni
Full Text Available Chronic kidney disease (CKD is frequently observed in cats and it is characterized as a multisystemic illness, caused by several underlying metabolic changes, and secondary renal hyperparathyroidism (SRHPT is relatively common; usually it is associated with the progression of renal disease and poor prognosis. This study aimed at determining the frequency of SRHPT, and discussing possible mechanisms that could contribute to the development of SRHPT in cats at different stages of CKD through the evaluation of calcium and phosphorus metabolism, as well as acid-base status. Forty owned cats with CKD were included and divided into three groups, according to the stages of the disease, classified according to the International Renal Interest Society (IRIS as Stage II (n=12, Stage III (n=22 and Stage IV (n=6. Control group was composed of 21 clinically healthy cats. Increased serum intact parathyroid hormone (iPTH concentrations were observed in most CKD cats in all stages, and mainly in Stage IV, which hyperphosphatemia and ionized hypocalcemia were detected and associated to the cause for the development of SRHPT. In Stages II and III, however, ionized hypercalcemia was noticed suggesting that the development of SRHPT might be associated with other factors, and metabolic acidosis could be involved to the increase of serum ionized calcium. Therefore, causes for the development of SRHPT seem to be multifactorial and they must be further investigated, mainly in the early stages of CKD in cats, as hyperphosphatemia and ionized hypocalcemia could not be the only factors involved.A doença renal crônica (DRC em gatos é frequentemente observada e caracteriza-se como alteração multissistêmica, causada por alterações metabólicas, e o hiperparatireoidismo secundário renal (HPTSR seria o mais comum e usualmente está associada com progressão da doença renal e mau prognóstico. Esse estudo teve como objetivo determinar a frequência do HPTSR, e
Huppes, Rafael Ricardo [UNESP; Nardi, Andrigo Barboza de [UNESP; Ramirez Uscategui, Ricardo Andres [UNESP; Pazzini, Josiane Morais [UNESP; Costa Castro, Jorge Luiz
Squamous cell carcinoma is a keratinocytes malignant tumor, the definitive diagnosis of this disease is based on histopathology examination of the lesions. The cats nostrils is one of regions commonly affected by this neoplasm. The response to chemotherapeutic agents, cryosurgery and radiotherapy is not good for this reason surgical resection is instituted for remove the greatest amount of tissue engaged and provide free margins, in case of nasal involvement are indicated nosectomy often need...
... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Dogs and cats. 71.51 Section 71.51 Public Health... QUARANTINE Importations § 71.51 Dogs and cats. (a) Definitions. As used in this section the term: Cat means all domestic cats. Confinement means restriction of a dog or cat to a building or other enclosure at a...
Remedios, A M; Bauer, M S; Bowen, C V; Fowler, J D
The major direct cutaneous vessels identified in the cat include the omocervical, thoracodorsal, deep circumflex iliac, and caudal superficial epigastric arteries. Axial pattern skin flaps based on the thoracodorsal and caudal superficial epigastric arteries have been developed in cats. Rotation of these flaps as islands allows skin coverage to the carpus and metatarsus, respectively. The thoracodorsal and caudal superficial epigastric flaps provide a practical, one-step option in the reconstruction of large skin defects involving the distal extremities of cats.
Dabritz, H A; Conrad, P A
Cats are popular as pets worldwide because they are easy to care for and provide companionship that enriches the lives of human beings. Little attention has been focused on their potential to contaminate the environment with zoonotic pathogens. One such pathogen, the protozoan parasite Toxoplasma gondii, rarely causes clinical manifestations in cats or immunocompetent humans; however, it can have serious adverse effects on human foetuses and immunocompromised patients. Many human infections are believed to be acquired from eating undercooked or raw meat, such as pork and lamb (Tenter et al. Int. J. Parasitol., 30, 2000, 1217; Dubey et al. J. Parasitol. 91, 2005, 1082). However, the prevalence of T. gondii infection in human populations that do not consume meat or eat it well-cooked suggests that the acquisition of infection from the environment, via oocysts in soil, water or on uncooked vegetables, is also important (Rawal. Trans. Royal Soc. Trop. Med. Hyg., 53, 1959, 61; Roghmann et al. Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg., 60, 1999, 790; Chacin-Bonilla et al. Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg., 65, 2001, 131). In the past 20 years, two changes occurred that significantly increased the size of the cat population in the USA. Pet cat ownership grew from 50 million to 90 million animals, and animal welfare activists created feeding stations for abandoned and free-roaming cats. As many cat owners allow their cats to deposit faeces outside and cats maintained in colonies always defecate outside, ample opportunity exists for T. gondii oocysts to enter the environment and be transmitted to humans. Prevention efforts should focus on educating cat owners about the importance of collecting cat faeces in litter boxes, spaying owned cats to reduce overpopulation, reducing the numbers of feral cats and promoting rigorous hand hygiene after gardening or soil contact.
Full Text Available Improving quality of care and nutrition of pet animals and advanced diagnosis and treatment by developing technologies, lead to an increase in survival rate. As the present authors were unaware of finding documented reports for several diseases, it was aimed to investigate the number and health status of geriatric cats and dogs which were brought to Internal Medicine clinics of our faculty’s training and research hospital within six years. Twenty-four cats and 10 dogs enrolled in the study were found to be healthy, whereas multiple health concerns were diagnosed in totally 1354 animals (n=403 for cats, n=951 for dogs. Increase in survival rate within 6 years was determined as 27.7% increase for cats and as 5.3% increase for dogs. The urinary system diseases for cats and cardiovascular system diseases for dogs were found to be the most frequent diagnosis. Geriatric animal rates varied between 4.2 and 12.3% for cats and 6.2 and 15.7% for dogs within years which were not expected as higher.
Claudio Nazaretian Rossi
Full Text Available The present study retrospectively characterized canine and feline sporotrichosis in male and female individuals of various ages. The patients had been attended at the Dermatology Service of a university veterinary hospital and the diagnosis had been confirmed by isolation and identification of Sporothrix spp in culture media. The study obtained and analyzed medical records from a period of 19 years (1993- 2011. From the evaluated sample, 37 animals were considered for the study, including eight (21.6% dogs and 29 (78.4% cats. The patients were mostly male (30/37-86.5% and had mean ages of 79.5 months for dogs and 36.3 months for cats. Most of the patients had no defined breed (25/37-67.6%. The localized cutaneous form of the disease was most prevalent (25/37-67.6%, and all cases presented positive histopathological diagnoses. Among the cats with sporotrichosis, infection was also observed in animals and/or humans that lived with these cats in 17/37 (45.9% cases. However, none of the affected dogs appeared to spread the infection, as there were no clinical signs that were consistent with the disease. Sporotrichosis was most prevalent among male mixed-breed cats, most of which had a clinical presentation that was consistent with the localized cutaneous form of the disease. In the studied sample, cats constituted an important source of infection for animals and humans living in the same household.
Kaya, O; Kirkan, S; Unal, B
Dermatophilus congolensis was isolated from a cat with dermatitis. The isolate was sensitive to oxytetracyclin, streptomycin and penicillin but resistant to ampicillin, amoxicillin, gentamycin and cefoperazone.
Federal Laboratory Consortium — CATS facility is at the Construction Engineering Research Laboratory (CERL), Champaign, IL. This 1-acre test site includes a variety of subsurface features carefully...
Packer, Rebecca A; Coates, Joan R; Cook, Cristi R; Lattimer, Jimmy C; O'Brien, Dennis P
Diskospondylitis is uncommon in cats. We describe a cat with diskospondylitis of the L7-S1 intervertebral disk, and a concurrent sublumbar abscess. Radiographic, computed tomographic and ultrasonographic findings are presented. Aerobic and anaerobic cultures of blood and spinal fluid yielded no growth. Aerobic and anaerobic urine cultures resulted in growth of an Enterococcus sp. and Clostridium perfringens, respectively. The cat was successfully treated with enrofloxacin and amoxicillin/clavulanic acid. Clinical signs resolved completely, and based on follow-up ultrasonography there was no remaining evidence of the sublumbar abscess. Etiologic agents and outcome from other cats with diskospondylitis are reviewed.
Stiles, Jean; Coster, Martin
To evaluate a compounded ophthalmic formulation of 0.5% megestrol acetate to treat eosinophilic keratitis in cats. Prospective study. Seventeen client owned cats with eosinophilic keratitis in one or both eyes. Eosinophilic keratitis was confirmed by cytology. At each visit, fluorescein staining and photography were performed. Cats were initially treated q 8-12 h with 0.5% megestrol acetate in an aqueous base. Serum glucose was measured at the first or second reexamination. Fifteen of 17 (88%) cats had a positive response to treatment, with 6 of 17 (35%) having complete resolution at the first reexamination (2-4 weeks). Two of 17 (12%) cats did not respond to treatment. Most cats required a treatment frequency of once daily to once weekly to maintain remission of disease. No ocular irritation or systemic side effects were noted in any cat. The use of an ophthalmic formulation of 0.5% megestrol acetate is a viable option for treating feline eosinophilic keratitis. © 2016 American College of Veterinary Ophthalmologists.
Diakou, Anastasia; Di Cesare, Angela; Barros, Luciano A; Morelli, Simone; Halos, Lenaig; Beugnet, Frederic; Traversa, Donato
Despite the evidence that Mediterranean Europe offers suitable conditions for the biology of felid respiratory metastrongyloids, no updated data on the presence of felid lungworms are available for Greece. Although the cat lungworm Aelurostrongylus abstrusus is considered as enzootic in domestic cats (Felis silvestris catus) living in some areas of continental Greece, conversely, Troglostrongylus brevior, has only been reported in the island of Crete. The present study aimed to evaluate the occurrence of Aelurostrongylus abstrusus and Troglostrongylus brevior in domestic cats from four different Greek locations including islands where European wildcats (Felis silvestris silvestris), believed to be the natural reservoir of T. brevior, are considered absent. Faeces were collected from 125 stray cats in the city of Athens, and in Crete, Mykonos and Skopelos Islands, and examined by copromicroscopic techniques for the presence of lungworm larvae. When present, larvae were morphologically and molecularly identified. The occurrence of A. abstrusus and T. brevior was confirmed in 10 (8 %) and 7 (5.6 %) of the samples, respectively. In particular, T. brevior was detected in domestic cats in the city of Athens, and in Mykonos and Skopelos Islands, where wildcats are not present. This information illustrates that T. brevior may infect domestic cats regardless of the presence of the natural host. Considering the relevant clinical impact of this nematode especially in young animals, it is advisable to include troglostrongylosis in the differential diagnosis of cat respiratory diseases also where this parasite is unexpected.
Hyde, D.M.; Plopper, C.G.; Weir, A.J.; Murnane, R.D.; Warren, D.L.; Last, J.A.; Pepelko, W.E.
This study reports the quantitative changes in the pulmonary proximal acinar region following chronic exposure to diesel exhaust and following an additional 6 months in clean air. Cats (13 months of age) from a minimum disease colony were exposed to clean air (eight cats for 27 months and nine cats for 33 months), diesel exhaust for 8 hours/day, 7 days/week (nine cats for 27 months), or diesel exhaust for 27 months followed by 6 months in clean air (10 cats). Morphologic and morphometric evaluation using light microscopy and scanning and transmission electron microscopy revealed two major exposure-related lesions in proximal acinar regions of lungs of cats: peribronchiolar fibrosis associated with significant increases in lymphocytes, fibroblasts, and interstitial macrophages containing diesel particulate-like inclusions and bronchiolar epithelial metaplasia associated with the presence of ciliated and basal cells and alveolar macrophages containing diesel particulate-like inclusions. Peribronchiolar fibrosis was greater at the end of the 6 months in clean air following exposure, whereas the bronchiolar epithelial metaplasia was most severe at the end of exposure. Following an additional 6 months in clean air the epithelium more closely resembled the control epithelial cell population. The labeling index of terminal bronchiolar epithelium was significantly increased at the end of exposure but was not significantly different from controls or exposed cats following an additional 6 months in clean air. The ultrastructural appearance of epithelial cells remained relatively unchanged following diesel exhaust exposure with the exception of diesel particulate-like inclusions
Dogs and cats in Brazil serve as primary hosts for a considerable number of parasites, which may affect their health and wellbeing. These may include endoparasites (e.g., protozoa, cestodes, trematodes, and nematodes) and ectoparasites (i.e., fleas, lice, mites, and ticks). While some dog and cat parasites are highly host-specific (e.g., Aelurostrongylus abstrusus and Felicola subrostratus for cats, and Angiostrongylus vasorum and Trichodectes canis for dogs), others may easily switch to other hosts, including humans. In fact, several dog and cat parasites (e.g., Toxoplasma gondii, Dipylidium caninum, Ancylostoma caninum, Strongyloides stercoralis, and Toxocara canis) are important not only from a veterinary perspective but also from a medical standpoint. In addition, some of them (e.g., Lynxacarus radovskyi on cats and Rangelia vitalii in dogs) are little known to most veterinary practitioners working in Brazil. This article is a compendium on dog and cat parasites in Brazil and a call for a One Health approach towards a better management of some of these parasites, which may potentially affect humans. Practical aspects related to the diagnosis, treatment, and control of parasitic diseases of dogs and cats in Brazil are discussed. PMID:24423244
Full Text Available Abstract Background The domestic cat has offered enormous genomic potential in the veterinary description of over 250 hereditary disease models as well as the occurrence of several deadly feline viruses (feline leukemia virus -- FeLV, feline coronavirus -- FECV, feline immunodeficiency virus - FIV that are homologues to human scourges (cancer, SARS, and AIDS respectively. However, to realize this bio-medical potential, a high density single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP map is required in order to accomplish disease and phenotype association discovery. Description To remedy this, we generated 3,178,297 paired fosmid-end Sanger sequence reads from seven cats, and combined these data with the publicly available 2X cat whole genome sequence. All sequence reads were assembled together to form a 3X whole genome assembly allowing the discovery of over three million SNPs. To reduce potential false positive SNPs due to the low coverage assembly, a low upper-limit was placed on sequence coverage and a high lower-limit on the quality of the discrepant bases at a potential variant site. In all domestic cats of different breeds: female Abyssinian, female American shorthair, male Cornish Rex, female European Burmese, female Persian, female Siamese, a male Ragdoll and a female African wildcat were sequenced lightly. We report a total of 964 k common SNPs suitable for a domestic cat SNP genotyping array and an additional 900 k SNPs detected between African wildcat and domestic cats breeds. An empirical sampling of 94 discovered SNPs were tested in the sequenced cats resulting in a SNP validation rate of 99%. Conclusions These data provide a large collection of mapped feline SNPs across the cat genome that will allow for the development of SNP genotyping platforms for mapping feline diseases.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Demodex gatoi is unique among demodectic mites. It possesses a distinct stubby appearance, and, instead of residing in the hair follicles, it dwells in the keratin layer of the epidermis, causing a pruritic and contagious skin disease in cats. Little is known of the occurrence of D. gatoi in Europe or control of D. gatoi infestation. Case presentation We describe D. gatoi in 10 cats, including five Cornish Rex, two Burmese, one Exotic, one Persian and one Siamese, living in six multi-cat households in different locations in Finland containing 21 cats in total. Intense pruritus was the main clinical sign. Scaling, broken hairs, alopecia and self-inflicted excoriations were also observed. Diagnosis was based on finding typical short-bodied demodectic mites in skin scrapings, skin biopsies or on tape strips. Other pruritic skin diseases, such as allergies and dermatophytoses, were ruled out. In one household, despite finding several mites on one cat, all six cats of the household remained symptomless. Amitraz used weekly at a concentration of 125-250 ppm for 2-3 months, proved successful in three households, 2% lime sulphur weekly dips applied for six weeks in one household and peroral ivermectin (1 mg every other day for 10 weeks in one household. Previous trials in four households with imidacloprid-moxidectin, selamectin or injected ivermectin given once or twice a month appeared ineffective. Conclusion D. gatoi-associated dermatitis is an emerging contagious skin disease in cats in Finland. Although pruritus is common, some cats may harbour the mites without clinical signs. In addition, due to translucency of the mites and fastidious feline grooming habits, the diagnosis may be challenging. An effective and convenient way to treat D. gatoi infestations has yet to emerge.
Given, Joanne E; Loane, Maria; Luteijn, Johannes Michiel
AIMS: To evaluate congenital anomaly (CA)-medication exposure associations produced by the new EUROmediCAT signal detection system and determine which require further investigation. METHODS: Data from 15 EUROCAT registries (1995-2011) with medication exposures at the chemical substance (5th level...... persisted after data validation, a literature review was conducted for prior evidence of human teratogenicity. RESULTS: Thirteen out of 27 CA-medication exposure signals, based on 389 exposed cases, passed data validation. There was some prior evidence in the literature to support six signals (gastroschisis...
Kelly, Patrick John; Köster, Liza; Li, Jing; Zhang, Jilei; Huang, Ke; Branford, Gillian Carmichael; Marchi, Silvia; Vandenplas, Michel; Wang, Chengming
As there is little data on vector-borne diseases of cats in the Caribbean region and even around the world, we tested feral cats from St Kitts by PCR to detect infections with Babesia, Ehrlichia and spotted fever group Rickettsia (SFGR) and surveyed them for antibodies to Rickettsia rickettsii and Ehrlichia canis. Whole blood was collected from apparently healthy feral cats during spay/ neuter campaigns on St Kitts in 2011 (N = 68) and 2014 (N = 52). Sera from the 52 cats from 2014 were used to detect antibodies to Ehrlichia canis and Rickettsia rickettsii using indirect fluorescent antibody tests and DNA extracted from whole blood of a total of 119 cats (68 from 2011, and 51 from 2014) was used for PCRs for Babesia, Ehrlichia and Rickettsia. We could not amplify DNA of SFG Rickettsia in any of the samples but found DNA of E. canis in 5% (6/119), Babesia vogeli in 13% (15/119), Babesia gibsoni in 4% (5/119), mixed infections with B. gibsoni and B. vogeli in 3% (3/119), and a poorly characterized Babesia sp. in 1% (1/119). Overall, 10% of the 52 cats we tested by IFA for E. canis were positive while 42% we tested by indirect fluorescent antibody (IFA) for R. rickettsii antigens were positive. Our study provides the first evidence that cats can be infected with B. gibsoni and also indicates that cats in the Caribbean may be commonly exposed to other vector-borne agents including SFGR, E. canis and B. vogeli. Animal health workers should be alerted to the possibility of clinical infections in their patients while public health workers should be alerted to the possibility that zoonotic SFGR are likely circulating in the region.
Di Cesare, Angela; Veronesi, Fabrizia; Grillotti, Eleonora; Manzocchi, Simone; Perrucci, Stefania; Beraldo, Paola; Cazzin, Stefania; De Liberato, Claudio; Barros, Luciano A; Simonato, Giulia; Traversa, Donato
The occurrence of common respiratory parasites of domestic cats (the metastrongyloid "cat lungworm" Aelurostrongylus abstrusus and the trichuroid Capillaria aerophila) and of neglected respiratory nematodes of felids (Troglostrongylus brevior, Angiostrongylus chabaudi and Oslerus rostratus) was here evaluated in two and three geographical sites of Northern and Central Italy, respectively. In 2014-2015, individual fecal samples of 868 domestic cats were examined microscopically and genetically, and epidemiological data related to parasitic infections were evaluated as possible risk factors by binary logistic regression models. The most common parasite was A. abstrusus in both mono- and poli-specific infections, followed by T. brevior and C. aerophila, while cats scored negative for other parasites. Cats positive for A. abstrusus (1.9-17 % infection rate) and C. aerophila (0.9-4.8 % infection rate) were found in all examined sites, while cats scored positive for T. brevior (1-14.3 % infection rate) in four sites. Also, T. brevior was here found for the first time in a domestic cat from a mountainous area of Northern Italy. The occurrence of lungworms was statistically related to the presence of respiratory signs and more significant in cats with mixed infection by other lungworms and/or intestinal parasites. Cats living in site C of Central Italy resulted statistically more at risk of infection for lungworms than cats living in the other study sites, while animals ageing less than 1 year were at more risk for troglostrongylosis. Finally, the presence of lungworms was more significant in cats with mixed infection by other lungworms and/or intestinal parasites. These results are discussed under epidemiological and clinical points of views.
de Godoy, Maria Rc; Shoveller, Anna K
Objectives The objectives of the current pilot study were to evaluate whether body condition score (BCS) and body weight are significantly related to physical activity counts, and to evaluate potential interaction between BCS and voluntary physical activity measured over a 14 day period. Methods Ten (five lean, five overweight), neutered, adult American Shorthair cats were selected for this study (median age 4 ± 0.5 years). Cats with a BCS of ⩽3.0 were considered lean, whereas cats with a BCS >3.0 were considered overweight, using a 5-point scale. Cats were housed in a free-living environment with indoor/outdoor access and were individually fed once daily a commercially available dry extruded diet and allowed 1 h to eat. Voluntary physical activity was measured consecutively for 14 days using the Actical Activity Monitors that were worn parallel to the ribs and attached via a harness. Results Lean cats had a greater mean total daily voluntary physical activity ( P = 0.0059), and a greater voluntary physical activity during light ( P = 0.0023) and dark ( P = 0.0446) periods, with overweight cats having 60% of the physical activity of lean cats. Lean cats were more active before feeding and during animal care procedures. These data suggest that lean cats have a greater anticipatory physical activity prior to feeding and are more eager to have social interaction with humans than overweight cats. A significant interaction was observed between day of physical activity measurement and BCS for total daily voluntary physical activity ( P = 0.0133) and activity during the light period ( P = 0.0016) where lean cats were consistently more active than overweight cats. In general, cats were more active during weekdays vs weekends. Conclusions and relevance The results of this study suggest that overweight cats are less active than lean cats and that voluntary physical activity level appears to be influenced by social interaction with humans.
... treatment in 4-6 weeks. More MRSA (Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus ) Staphylococcus aureus is a common type of bacteria ... on the skin of people and animals. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is the same bacterium that has become ...
Full Text Available Cystinuria is a classical inborn error of metabolism characterized by a selective proximal renal tubular defect affecting cystine, ornithine, lysine, and arginine (COLA reabsorption, which can lead to uroliths and urinary obstruction. In humans, dogs and mice, cystinuria is caused by variants in one of two genes, SLC3A1 and SLC7A9, which encode the rBAT and bo,+AT subunits of the bo,+ basic amino acid transporter system, respectively. In this study, exons and flanking regions of the SLC3A1 and SLC7A9 genes were sequenced from genomic DNA of cats (Felis catus with COLAuria and cystine calculi. Relative to the Felis catus-6.2 reference genome sequence, DNA sequences from these affected cats revealed 3 unique homozygous SLC7A9 missense variants: one in exon 5 (p.Asp236Asn from a non-purpose-bred medium-haired cat, one in exon 7 (p.Val294Glu in a Maine Coon and a Sphinx cat, and one in exon 10 (p.Thr392Met from a non-purpose-bred long-haired cat. A genotyping assay subsequently identified another cystinuric domestic medium-haired cat that was homozygous for the variant originally identified in the purebred cats. These missense variants result in deleterious amino acid substitutions of highly conserved residues in the bo,+AT protein. A limited population survey supported that the variants found were likely causative. The remaining 2 sequenced domestic short-haired cats had a heterozygous variant at a splice donor site in intron 10 and a homozygous single nucleotide variant at a branchpoint in intron 11 of SLC7A9, respectively. This study identifies the first SLC7A9 variants causing feline cystinuria and reveals that, as in humans and dogs, this disease is genetically heterogeneous in cats.
Claire M. Cannon
Full Text Available Naturally occurring tumors in dogs are well-established models for several human cancers. Domestic cats share many of the benefits of dogs as a model (spontaneous cancers developing in an immunocompetent animal sharing the same environment as humans, shorter lifespan allowing more rapid trial completion and data collection, lack of standard of care for many cancers allowing evaluation of therapies in treatment-naïve populations, but have not been utilized to the same degree in the One Medicine approach to cancer. There are both challenges and opportunities in feline compared to canine models. This review will discuss three specific tumor types where cats may offer insights into human cancers. Feline oral squamous cell carcinoma is common, shares both clinical and molecular features with human head and neck cancer and is an attractive model for evaluating new therapies. Feline mammary tumors are usually malignant and aggressive, with the ‘triple-negative’ phenotype being more common than in humans, offering an enriched population in which to examine potential targets and treatments. Finally, although there is not an exact corollary in humans, feline injection site sarcoma may be a model for inflammation-driven tumorigenesis, offering opportunities for studying variations in individual susceptibility as well as preventative and therapeutic strategies.
Vanessa Danielle de Freitas
Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Obesity has been increasing in cats andis associated with metabolic and cardiovascular diseases. The association of these alterations can trigger the onset of metabolic syndrome (MS. Therefore, this study aimed to analyze the serum levels of glucose, fructosamine, cholesterol, triglycerides, high-density lipoprotein, low-density lipoprotein, very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL, andalanine aminotransferase of cats and to identify the possibility of MS,as well as to evaluate changes in arterial pressure. Thirty-seven cats were classified by ECC and morphometric measurements, namely, 15 obese, 12 overweight, and 10 controls. Nocat manifested MS. Only VLDL had a statistically significant difference (P<0.05 between groups. Therefore, obesity may not be associated with arterial hypertension, and more studies are needed to evaluate the metabolic alterations in overweight and obese cats.
Pancreatitis, or inflammation of the pancreas, is commonly seen in dogs and cats and presents a spectrum of disease severities from acute to chronic and mild to severe. It is usually sterile, but the causes and pathophysiology remain poorly understood. The acute end of the disease spectrum is associated with a high mortality but the potential for complete recovery of organ structure and function if the animal survives. At the other end of the spectrum, chronic pancreatitis in either species can cause refractory pain and reduce quality of life. It may also result in progressive exocrine and endocrine functional impairment. There is confusion in the veterinary literature about definitions of acute and chronic pancreatitis and there are very few studies on the pathophysiology of naturally occurring pancreatitis in dogs and cats. This article reviews histological and clinical definitions and current understanding of the pathophysiology and causes in small animals by comparison with the much more extensive literature in humans, and suggests many areas that need further study in dogs and cats. © 2015 British Small Animal Veterinary Association.
Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a common disease in dogs and cats and its prevalence is increasing in both species, probably due to an increase in obesity, although only in cats has obesity been clearly identified as a major risk factor for diabetes. While the classification of diabetes in dogs and cats has been modeled after that of humans, many aspects are different. Autoimmune destruction of beta cells, a feature of type 1 DM in people, is common in dogs; however, in contrast to what is seen in people, the disease occurs in older dogs. Diabetes also occurs in older cats but islet pathology in those species is characterized by the presence of amyloid, the hallmark of type 2 DM. Despite being overweight or obese, most naive diabetic cats, contrary to type 2 diabetic humans, present with low insulin concentrations. The physiology of carbohydrate metabolism and pathogenesis of diabetes, including histopathologic findings, in dogs and cats are discussed in this chapter. © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Lambert, Phyllis Gilchrist
Presents a lesson that teaches students about abstract art in a fun way. Explains that students draw cats, learn about the work of Pablo Picasso, and, in the style of Picasso, combine the parts of the cats (tail, legs, head, body) together in unconventional ways. (CMK)
Full Text Available A case of cryptococcosis in a cat refferred to the Hospital Veterinário da Universidade Federal Rural de Pernambuco is described. The cat was euthanized and the microscopic examination of a firm mass observed in the nasal cavity was accomplished. Cryptococcus sp. and a chronic inflammatory process was observed throughout the tissue.
Gordon, Michal; Gordon, Goren
The quantum computer game "Schrodinger cat and hounds" is the quantum extension of the well-known classical game fox and hounds. Its main objective is to teach the unique concepts of quantum mechanics in a fun way. "Schrodinger cat and hounds" demonstrates the effects of superposition, destructive and constructive interference, measurements and…
Full Text Available ... First Aid & Safety Doctors & Hospitals Videos Recipes for Kids Kids site Sitio para niños How the Body Works ... Español Getting a CAT Scan (Video) KidsHealth / For Kids / Getting a CAT Scan (Video) Print en español ...
Di Cerbo, Alessandro; Morales-Medina, Julio Cesar; Palmieri, Beniamino; Pezzuto, Federica; Cocco, Raffaella; Flores, Gonzalo; Iannitti, Tommaso
Functional foods provide health benefits if they are consumed on a regular basis as part of a varied diet. In this review, we discuss the availability and role of functional foods in pet nutrition with a focus on dogs and cats. Indeed, functional foods modify gastrointestinal physiology, promote changes in biochemical parameters, improve brain functions and may reduce or minimize the risk of developing specific pathologies. This evidence derives largely from clinical studies while only limited evidence is available from studies in dogs and cats. Therefore, functional food consumption should be further investigated in pet nutrition to understand how dietary interventions can be used for disease prevention and treatment. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available The aim of this study was to elucidate the effects of rural and urban environments on the coexistence of humans and their cats. From the obtained questionnaire data we selected the rural cats (R, n = 54 and compared them with urban cats (U, n = 144. The R group cats lived predominantly in family houses, U cats in urban apartments. The pressures of physical and social factors in the small niches of urban apartments (dwellings in Czech urban high-density living settings, though comfortable, are smaller than in numerous European countries; they prevailed in our U group resulted in statistically significant differences in only 31 (51.7% out of 60 traits under study. Among them, 15 (68.2% out of 22 concerned the conduct of household members, and 16 (42.1% out of 38 concerned the behaviour of their cats. Thus the conduct of people in U households showed relatively higher proportion of changes than the behaviour of their cats. U onwers more frequently purchased their cats (R = 24.1%, U = 48.6%, chi-square = 10.648, df = 4, p < 0.05, they kept the cat pedigrees (R = 37.0%, U = 75.4%, chisquare = 24.661, df = 1, p < 0.001, paid more attention to their cats ((R = 93.0%, U = 100.0%, chi-square = 8.950, df = 1, p < 0.005, talked to them daily (R = 87.0%, U = 98.6%, chi-square = 12.024, df = 1, p < 0.001, allowed them to use furniture (R = 77.8%, U = 100.0%, chi-square = 33.839, df = 1, p < 0.001, sleep in beds of family members (R = 61.1%, U = 95.1%, chi-square = 37.149, df = 1, p < 0.001, and celebrated their birthdays (R = 25.9%, U = 100.0%, chi-square = 7.014, df = 2, p < 0.05. Their cats were more destructive than R cats, hunted less and were less aggressive when stroked. However, they showed a slightly larger scope of aggressive behaviours and were more frequently described as nervous and restless. The nature of the significant differences found in this study indicates that the co-existence of cats with people in the urbanized world is becoming more
Simple Summary Living conditions in animal shelters can be stressful for cats. Clicker training might be able to alleviate this stress, by giving cats an opportunity to learn new behaviors and interact with humans. In this study, we assessed the initial ability of 100 shelter cats to perform four cued behaviors: touching a target, sitting, spinning, and giving a high-five. Each cat completed 15, five-min training sessions over a two-week span. At the end of the program, we assessed the cats’ ability to perform the same behaviors. On average, the cats performed better on all four behaviors after clicker training, suggesting that the cats could learn to perform specific behaviors on cue. Individual cats with a higher level of interest in food showed greater gains in learning for two of the behaviors (high-five and touching a target). Cats with a bolder temperament at post-assessment demonstrated greater gains in learning than those classified as shy. We suggest that clicker training can be used to enhance cats’ well-being while they are housed in shelters, and that the learned behaviors might make them more desirable to adopters. Abstract Clicker training has the potential to mitigate stress among shelter cats by providing environmental enrichment and human interaction. This study assessed the ability of cats housed in a shelter-like setting to learn new behaviors via clicker training in a limited amount of time. One hundred shelter cats were enrolled in the study. Their baseline ability to perform four specific behaviors touching a target, sitting, spinning, and giving a high-five was assessed, before exposing them to 15, five-min clicker training sessions, followed by a post-training assessment. Significant gains in performance scores were found for all four cued behaviors after training (p = 0.001). A cat’s age and sex did not have any effect on successful learning, but increased food motivation was correlated with greater gains in learning for two of the
Hess, Steven C.; Banko, Paul C.
BACKGROUND Domestic cats (Felis catus) were first brought to Hawai`i aboard sailing ships of European explorers and colonists. The job of these predators was to control mice and rats on the ships during the long voyages. As in other places, cats were taken in and adopted by the families of Hawai`i and soon became household pets known as popoki. But cats have always been very well equipped to live and hunt on their own. On tropical archipelagos like the Hawaiian Islands where no other predatory mammals of comparable size existed, abundant and naive prey were particularly easy game, and cats soon thrived in the wild. Although the details of when cats first came to live in the wild remain little known, adventurers, writers, and naturalists of the day recorded some important observations. Feral cats were observed in remote wilderness around K?ilauea volcano on Hawai`i Island as early as 1840 by explorer William Brackenridge. Mark Twain was so impressed by the great abundance of cats when he visited Honolulu in 1866 that he reported his observations in the Sacramento Union newspaper, which were later reprinted in his book Roughing It: I saw... tame cats, wild cats, singed cats, individual cats, groups of cats, platoons of cats, companies of cats, regiments of cats, armies of cats, multitudes of cats, millions of cats...
Walker, Jessica K.; Bruce, Stephanie J.; Dale, Arnja R.
Simple Summary The need to balance the benefits of cat ownership with the prevention of wildlife predation in New Zealand evokes strong and opposing views. This paper evaluates public concern for wildlife predation by four categories of cats; owned cats, managed-stray cats, unmanaged-stray cats, and feral cats. In addition, public support for a National Cat Management Strategy and a range of management techniques are investigated. Although the participants expressed concern regarding wildlife predation by all four categories of cats, the highest levels of concern were predation by feral cats, followed by unmanaged stray cats, then managed stray cats, and finally owned cats. The large majority of participants were found to support the implementation of a National Cat Management Strategy. Management techniques for owned cats that obtained public support included; cat exclusion zones, limits on ownership numbers, microchipping, Council registration, and de-sexing. Trap-Neuter-Return (TNR) was the favoured management technique for managed stray cats, while TNR and lethal management techniques were equally favoured for unmanaged stray cats. Lethal control methods were favoured for feral cats. The findings presented in this paper will be useful to consider during the development of legislation relating to cat management and predation in New Zealand. Abstract Cat predation is a prominent issue in New Zealand that provokes strong and opposing views. We explored, via 1011 face-to-face questionnaires, public opinion on (a) support for a National Cat Management Strategy (78% support); (b) concern regarding predation of wildlife by owned and un-owned cats (managed stray, unmanaged stray, and feral cats); (c) the acceptability of management techniques for owned cats; and (d) the acceptability of population management techniques for un-owned cats. The highest concern was expressed regarding the predation of non-native and native wildlife by feral cats (60 and 86% repectively
Bell, Cynthia M; Pot, Simon A; Dubielzig, Richard R
To summarize the clinical and pathologic findings in a group of dogs and cats with progressive clinical ocular disease, which were diagnosed with suppurative endophthalmitis and lens capsule rupture. Twenty cats and forty-six dogs that underwent unilateral enucleation or evisceration for intractable uveitis and/or glaucoma. Biopsy submission requests and microscopic case material were evaluated for clinical and histological features, including history of ocular trauma, duration of ocular disease, pattern of inflammation, and the presence of intralenticular microorganisms. The median duration for cats and dogs was 6 and 5 weeks, respectively. A history of trauma was reported for four (20%) cats and 18 (39%) dogs. All confirmed cases of trauma-three in cats and 14 in dogs-were caused by a cat scratch. Microscopically, all cases had suppurative endophthalmitis centered on the lens, lens capsule rupture, cataract, and lenticular abscess. Infectious organisms were identified by Gram stain within the lens of 14 (70%) cats and 30 (65%) dogs. Gram-positive cocci were seen most commonly. Male cats were overrepresented as compared to females. There were no apparent gender, age or breed predilections in dogs. A unique pattern of slowly progressive or delayed-onset endophthalmitis with lens capsule rupture, lenticular abscess, and frequently intralenticular microorganisms is associated with traumatic penetration of the globe and lens capsule. The term Septic Implantation Syndrome (SIS) is favored in lieu of 'phacoclastic uveitis' to avoid confusion with phacolytic uveitis and to clearly implicate the role of intralenticular microorganisms in the pathogenesis. © 2012 American College of Veterinary Ophthalmologists.
Epidemiology of Sarcocystis neurona infections in domestic cats (Felis domesticus) and its association with equine protozoal myeloencephalitis (EPM) case farms and feral cats from a mobile spay and neuter clinic.
Stanek, J F; Stich, R W; Dubey, J P; Reed, S M; Njoku, C J; Lindsay, D S; Schmall, L M; Johnson, G K; LaFave, B M; Saville, W J A
Equine protozoal myeloencephalitis (EPM) is a serious neurologic disease in the horse most commonly caused by Sarcocystis neurona. The domestic cat (Felis domesticus) is an intermediate host for S. neurona. In the present study, nine farms, known to have prior clinically diagnosed cases of EPM and a resident cat population were identified and sampled accordingly. In addition to the farm cats sampled, samples were also collected from a mobile spay and neuter clinic. Overall, serum samples were collected in 2001 from 310 cats, with samples including barn, feral and inside/outside cats. Of these 310 samples, 35 were from nine horse farms. Horse serum samples were also collected and traps were set for opossums at each of the farms. The S. neurona direct agglutination test (SAT) was used for both the horse and cat serum samples (1:25 dilution). Fourteen of 35 (40%) cats sampled from horse farms had circulating S. neurona agglutinating antibodies. Twenty-seven of the 275 (10%) cats from the spay/neuter clinic also had detectable S. neurona antibodies. Overall, 115 of 123 (93%) horses tested positive for anti-S. neurona antibodies, with each farm having greater than a 75% exposure rate among sampled horses. Twenty-one opossums were trapped on seven of the nine farms. Eleven opossums had Sarcocystis sp. sporocysts, six of them were identified as S. neurona sporocysts based on bioassays in gamma-interferon gene knockout mice with each opossum representing a different farm. Demonstration of S. neurona agglutinating antibodies in domestic and feral cats corroborates previous research demonstrating feral cats to be naturally infected, and also suggests that cats can be frequently infected with S. neurona and serve as one of several natural intermediate hosts for S. neurona.
Miyazaki, Masao; Kamiie, Katsuyoshi; Soeta, Satoshi; Taira, Hideharu; Yamashita, Tetsuro
Normal mammals generally excrete only small amounts of protein in the urine, thus avoiding major leakage of proteins from the body. Proteinuria is the most commonly recognized abnormality in renal disease. However, healthy domestic cats ( Felis catus ) excrete proteins at high concentrations (about 0.5 mg/ml) in their urine. We investigated the possible cause of proteinuria in healthy cats, and discovered a 70 kDa glycoprotein, which was excreted as a major urinary protein in cat urine, irres...
Milley, Catherine; Dryden, Michael; Rosenkrantz, Wayne; Griffin, Joya; Reeder, Christopher
Objectives This study compared methods of mite retrieval from community cats in the Ohio River Valley region of the USA and determined incidence of parasitic mites in this region. Methods In total, 493 community cats were humanely trapped and anesthetized for a trap-neuter-return program. Cats received a dermatologic examination, ear swabs, superficial skin scraping, flea combing, acetate tape preparation and feces collection. All samples were examined microscopically. Large volumes of hair and scale from flea combing were dissolved in 10% potassium hydroxide and centrifuged with Sheather's solution. Fecal samples were mixed with Sheather's solution, filtered and centrifuged. Results Ear swabs were significantly ( P mites and Otodectes cynotis, and skin scraping was significantly better than ear swabs for finding Cheyletiella species. Only cats with O cynotis had clinical lesions. Mites remained identifiable for 6 months at room temperature. Mite incidence rates were as follows: Notoedres cati (1/493 cats), 0.002 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0-0.006); Lynxacarus radovskyi (2/493 cats), 0.004 (95% CI 0-0.01); Demodex gatoi (5/493 cats), 0.01 (95% CI 0.001-0.019); chigger mites (10/493 cats), 0.02 (95% CI 0.008-0.033); Cheyletiella species (12/493 cats), 0.024 (95% CI 0.011-0.038); and O cynotis (124/493 cats), 0.252 (95% CI 0.213-0.29). Conclusions and relevance Ear swabs are recommended when O cynotis or chigger mites are suspected. Skin scraping is more likely to yield positive results than ear swabs, but was not significantly better than acetate tape preparations, flea combing or fecal flotation for finding Cheyletiella species. Mites can remain identifiable for prolonged periods at room temperature. With the exception of O cynotis, the incidence of feline parasitic mites in the Ohio River Valley region of the USA is low; however, D gatoi and L radovskyi were present in the area and should be considered in cats with dermatologic disease attributable to them. In
Full Text Available Abstract Background Toxoplasma gondii is prevalent in most areas of the world and may cause abortions or neonatal complications in humans. As the only definitive host, cats play an important role in the epidemiology of the disease. Infection rates in cats, especially stray or free-living cats, are considered to be the best sentinels of the level of T. gondii in the environment. The T. gondii infection can be diagnosed in different ways with different methods depending on the target. However, little information on T. gondii infection in cats was available in Shanghai, China. Moreover reports on prevalence of circulating antigens, antibodies and DNA of T. gondii in the same study are rare. Methods In the present study, the presence of antibodies (Ab, circulating antigens (CA, and/or DNA of Toxoplasma gondii in samples from 145 stray or unwanted cats from 6 animal shelters in Shanghai (China was determined in order to estimate the prevalence of T. gondii infection, by Ab-ELISA, CA-ELISA, and nested-PCR, respectively. Results The positive rates for the antibodies, circulating antigen and DNA of T. gondii were 11.7% (17 of 145, 5.5% (8 of 145 and 5.71% (2 of 35, respectively. No cat tested was positive by both the Ab-ELISA and the CA-ELISA, but the results of the PCR were consistent with the CA-ELISA assay. Therefore, the overall estimated prevalence of toxoplasmosis was 17.2% (25 of 145. According to our results, the positive rates of specific antibodies and circulating antigen of T. gondii were significantly different between adult cats (>1 year old and juvenile cats (≤1 year old; the former was 13.5% versus 3.9% by Ab-ELISA, while the latter was 1.7% versus 23.1% by CA-ELISA. From the results obtained with all three detection methods used in this study, the rate of infection was not significantly different between male and female cats (P ≥0.05; and the overall rate was 17.9% for males versus 16.4% for females. Conclusions The results
Rocha, Nathalia Oliveira; Portela, Ricardo Wagner; Camargo, Soelen Silva; Souza, Wagner Rocha; Carvalho, Gilson Correia; Bahiense, Thiago Campanharo
Platynosomum sp. is the etiologic agent of platynosomiasis, a hepatic disease that affects domestic cats. The parasite develops in the bile ducts and gallbladder, causing severe hepato-biliary disease. Considering the importance of the disease and the increase in the number of households with cats, the aim of this study was to compare two different techniques for the detection of the parasite's eggs and to assess the frequency of Platynosomum sp. infection in cats. Forty fecal samples from cats of different ages, from an animal shelter in the city of Salvador, Bahia State, Brazil, were subjected to two different techniques: a centrifugal fecal flotation procedure in Sheather's sugar solution and centrifugal sedimentation in formalin-ether solution. Positive results were found for 12.5% of the samples using the centrifugal fecal flotation assay, whereas all samples were negative when employing the centrifugal sedimentation test. The results suggest that this parasite can be found infecting cats in Salvador city and that centrifugal fecal flotation in sugar solution can be a more suitable detection of the parasite's eggs at fecal samples. Therefore, platynosomiasis must be included in the diseases to be studied routinely in domestic felids. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Nishimura, Yoshiaki; Goto, Yuko; Yoneda, Kumiko; Endo, Yasuyuki; Mizuno, Takuya; Hamachi, Masaharu; Maruyama, Hiroyuki; Kinoshita, Hirotoshi; Koga, Susumu; Komori, Mitsuru; Fushuku, Seigo; Ushinohama, Kanji; Akuzawa, Masao; Watari, Toshihiro; Hasegawa, Atsuhiko; Tsujimoto, Hajime
Feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) was isolated from a wild-caught Tsushima cat (Felis bengalensis euptilura), an endangered Japanese nondomestic subspecies of leopard cat (F. bengalensis). Phylogenetic analysis of the env gene sequences indicated that the FIV from the Tsushima cat belonged to a cluster of subtype D FIVs from domestic cats. FIVs from both the Tsushima cat and the domestic cat showed similar levels of replication and cytopathicity in lymphoid cell lines derived from these two species. The results indicated the occurrence of interspecies transmission of FIV from the domestic cat to the Tsushima cat in the wild. PMID:10438892
Danner, R.M.; Goltz, Dan M.; Hess, S.C.; Banko, P.C.
We determined prevalence to feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) antibodies, feline leukemia virus (FeLV) antigen, and Toxoplasma gondii antibodies in feral cats (Felis catus) on Mauna Kea Hawaii from April 2002 to May 2004. Six of 68 (8.8%) and 11 of 68 (16.2%) cats were antibody positive to FIV and antigen positive for FeLV, respectively; 25 of 67 (37.3%) cats were seropositive to T. gondii. Antibodies to FeLV and T. gondii occurred in all age and sex classes, but FIV occurred only in adult males. Evidence of current or previous infections with two of these infectious agents was detected in eight of 64 cats (12.5%). Despite exposure to these infectious agents, feral cats remain abundant throughout the Hawaiian Islands. ?? Wildlife Disease Association 2007.
Granger, Nicolas; Stalin, Catherine E; Brown, Thomas B Harcourt; Jeffery, Nick D
This report describes a rapidly progressive loss of motor function in a 16-month-old male neutered Bengal cat, beginning in the pelvic limbs and progressing to involve all limbs and rendering the cat non-ambulatory. The neurological examination revealed flaccid tetraparesis with decreased spinal reflexes but preserved conscious proprioception and skin sensation. Extensive electrophysiological tests were conducted including electromyography, motor and sensory peripheral nerves potential recordings and 'late' potentials, defining the electrodiagnostic characteristics of this disease. Based on the electrophysiological findings, a generalised proximal and predominantly axonal neuropathy affecting the ventral (motor) nerve roots was suspected. As no aetiology was identified, this disease was classified as idiopathic polyradiculoneuropathy. Over a year, the cat presented three separate episodes of tetraparesis, each with a spontaneous complete recovery, consistent with the reportedly good prognosis for this disease.
Full Text Available The domestic cat (Felis catus has been described as the largest anthropogenic threat to songbird populations in North America. We examined the effectiveness of a novel cat collar in reducing avian and small mammal mortality by cats. The 2-inch wide Birdsbesafe® collar cover (CC is worn over a nylon quick-release collar, and the bright colors and patterns of the CC are hypothesized to warn birds of approaching cats. We conducted two seasonal trials, each lasting 12 weeks, in autumn 2013 (n=54 cats and spring 2014 (n=19 cats. Cats were randomly assigned to two groups, and CCs with interior collars were removed or put on every two weeks, to control for weather fluctuations and seasonal change. Cats wearing Birdsbesafe® CCs killed 19 times fewer birds than uncollared cats in the spring trial, and 3.4 times fewer birds in the fall. Birdsbesafe® CCs were extremely effective at reducing predation on birds. Small mammal data were less clear, but did decrease predation by half in the fall. The Birdsbesafe® CC is a highly effective device for decreasing bird predation, especially in the spring season. We suggest that the CCs be used as a conservation tool for owned as well as feral cats.
Stella, Judith L.
Domestic cats (Felis silvestris catus) are the most commonly kept companion animals in the US with large populations of owned (86 million), free-roaming (70 million), research (13,000), and shelter (2-3 million) cats. Vast numbers of cats are maintained in homes and other facilities each year and are reliant on humans for all of their care. Understanding cat behavior and providing the highest quality environments possible, including positive human-cat interactions, based on research could help improve the outcomes of biomedical research, shelter adoptions, and veterinary care, as well as overall cat welfare. Often, however, cats' needs are inadequately met in homes and some aspects may also not be well met in research colonies and shelters, despite the fact that similar problems are likely to be encountered in all of these environments. This paper provides a brief overview of common welfare challenges associated with indoor housing of domestic cats. Essential considerations for cage confinement are reviewed, along with implications of poor cat coping, such as weakening of the human-animal bond and relinquishment to shelters. The important role that environmental management plays in cat behavior and welfare outcomes is explored along with the need for additional research in key areas. PMID:27774506
Verbrugghe, Adronie; Hesta, Myriam
The domestic cat’s wild ancestors are obligate carnivores that consume prey containing only minimal amounts of carbohydrates. Evolutionary events adapted the cat’s metabolism and physiology to this diet strictly composed of animal tissues and led to unique digestive and metabolic peculiarities of carbohydrate metabolism. The domestic cat still closely resembles its wild ancestor. Although the carnivore connection of domestic cats is well recognised, little is known about the precise nutrient profile to which the digestive physiology and metabolism of the cat have adapted throughout evolution. Moreover, studies show that domestic cats balance macronutrient intake by selecting low-carbohydrate foods. The fact that cats evolved consuming low-carbohydrate prey has led to speculations that high-carbohydrate diets could be detrimental for a cat’s health. More specifically, it has been suggested that excess carbohydrates could lead to feline obesity and diabetes mellitus. Additionally, the chances for remission of diabetes mellitus are higher in cats that consume a low-carbohydrate diet. This literature review will summarise current carbohydrate knowledge pertaining to digestion, absorption and metabolism of carbohydrates, food selection and macronutrient balancing in healthy, obese and diabetic cats, as well as the role of carbohydrates in prevention and treatment of obesity and diabetes mellitus. PMID:29140289
Full Text Available The domestic cat’s wild ancestors are obligate carnivores that consume prey containing only minimal amounts of carbohydrates. Evolutionary events adapted the cat’s metabolism and physiology to this diet strictly composed of animal tissues and led to unique digestive and metabolic peculiarities of carbohydrate metabolism. The domestic cat still closely resembles its wild ancestor. Although the carnivore connection of domestic cats is well recognised, little is known about the precise nutrient profile to which the digestive physiology and metabolism of the cat have adapted throughout evolution. Moreover, studies show that domestic cats balance macronutrient intake by selecting low-carbohydrate foods. The fact that cats evolved consuming low-carbohydrate prey has led to speculations that high-carbohydrate diets could be detrimental for a cat’s health. More specifically, it has been suggested that excess carbohydrates could lead to feline obesity and diabetes mellitus. Additionally, the chances for remission of diabetes mellitus are higher in cats that consume a low-carbohydrate diet. This literature review will summarise current carbohydrate knowledge pertaining to digestion, absorption and metabolism of carbohydrates, food selection and macronutrient balancing in healthy, obese and diabetic cats, as well as the role of carbohydrates in prevention and treatment of obesity and diabetes mellitus.
O V Verkhodanov
Full Text Available We describe the current status of CATS (astrophysical CATalogs Support system, a publicly accessible tool maintained at Special Astrophysical Observatory of the Russian Academy of Sciences (SAO RAS (http://cats.sao.ru allowing one to search hundreds of catalogs of astronomical objects discovered all along the electromagnetic spectrum. Our emphasis is mainly on catalogs of radio continuum sources observed from 10 MHz to 245 GHz, and secondly on catalogs of objects such as radio and active stars, X-ray binaries, planetary nebulae, HII regions, supernova remnants, pulsars, nearby and radio galaxies, AGN and quasars. CATS also includes the catalogs from the largest extragalactic surveys with non-radio waves. In 2008 CATS comprised a total of about 109 records from over 400 catalogs in the radio, IR, optical and X-ray windows, including most source catalogs deriving from observations with the Russian radio telescope RATAN-600. CATS offers several search tools through different ways of access, e.g. via Web-interface and e-mail. Since its creation in 1997 CATS has managed about 105requests. Currently CATS is used by external users about 1500 times per day and since its opening to the public in 1997 has received about 4000 requests for its selection and matching tasks.
Ellis, J J; Stryhn, H; Spears, J; Cockram, M S
Choices made by cats between different types of environmental enrichment may help shelters to prioritize how to most effectively enrich cat housing, especially when limited by space or funds. This study investigates the environmental enrichment use of cats in a choice test. Twenty-six shelter cats were kept singularly in choice chambers for 10days. Each chamber had a central area and four centrally-linked compartments containing different types of environmental enrichment: 1) an empty control, 2) a prey-simulating toy, 3) a perching opportunity, and 4) a hiding opportunity. Cat movement between compartments was quantitatively recorded using a data-logger. Enriched compartments were visited significantly more frequently during the light period than during the dark period. Cats spent a significantly greater percentage of time in the hiding compartment (median=55%, IQR=46) than in the toy compartment (median=2%, IQR=9), or in the empty control compartment (median=4%, IQR=4). These results provide additional evidence to support the value of a hiding box to cats housed in a novel environment, in that they choose hiding relative to other types of environmental enrichment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Toxoplasma gondii is a widespread zoonotic parasite that is relevant for veterinary and public health. The domestic cat, the definitive host species with the largest worldwide population, has become evolutionarily and epidemiologically the most important host of T. gondii. The outcome of T. gondii infection is influenced by congenital and acquired host characteristics. We detected differences in T. gondii seroprevalence by cat breed in our previous studies. The aims of this study were to estimate T. gondii seroprevalence in selected domestic cat breeds, and to evaluate whether being of a certain breed is associated with T. gondii seropositivity, when the age and lifestyle of the cat are taken into account. The studied breeds were the Birman, British Shorthair, Burmese, Korat, Norwegian Forest Cat, Ocicat, Persian, and Siamese. Plasma samples were analyzed for the presence of immunoglobulin G antibodies against T. gondii with a commercial direct agglutination test at dilution 1:40. The samples were accompanied by owner-completed questionnaires that provided background data on the cats. Overall, 41.12% of the 1121 cats tested seropositive, and the seroprevalence increased with age. The Burmese had the lowest seroprevalence (18.82% and the Persian had the highest (60.00%. According to the final multivariable logistic regression model, the odds to test seropositive were four to seven times higher in Birmans, Ocicats, Norwegian Forest Cats, and Persians when compared with the Burmese, while older age and receiving raw meat were also risk factors for T. gondii seropositivity. This study showed that T. gondii seroprevalence varies by cat breed and identified being of certain breeds, older age, and receiving raw meat as risk factors for seropositivity.
Dybing, Narelle A; Jacobson, Caroline; Irwin, Peter; Algar, David; Adams, Peter J
Leptospirosis is a neglected, re-emerging bacterial disease with both zoonotic and conservation implications. Rats and livestock are considered the usual sources of human infection, but all mammalian species are capable of carrying Leptospira spp. and transmitting pathogenic leptospires in their urine, and uncertainty remains about the ecology and transmission dynamics of Leptospira in different regions. In light of a recent case of human leptospirosis on tropical Christmas Island, this study aimed to investigate the role of introduced animals (feral cats and black rats) as carriers of pathogenic Leptospira spp. on Christmas Island and to compare this with two different climatic regions of Western Australia (one island and one mainland). Kidney samples were collected from black rats (n = 68) and feral cats (n = 59) from Christmas Island, as well as feral cats from Dirk Hartog Island (n = 23) and southwest Western Australia (n = 59). Molecular (PCR) screening detected pathogenic leptospires in 42.4% (95% confidence interval 29.6-55.9) of cats and 2.9% (0.4-10.2) of rats from Christmas Island. Sequencing of cat- and rat-positive samples from Christmas Island showed 100% similarity for Leptospira interrogans. Pathogenic leptospires were not detected in cats from Dirk Hartog Island or southwest Western Australia. These findings were consistent with previous reports of higher Leptospira spp. prevalence in tropical regions compared with arid and temperate regions. Despite the abundance of black rats on Christmas Island, feral cats appear to be the more important reservoir species for the persistence of pathogenic L. interrogans on the island. This research highlights the importance of disease surveillance and feral animal management to effectively control potential disease transmission.
Hogan, Daniel F; Fox, Philip R; Jacob, Kristin; Keene, Bruce; Laste, Nancy J; Rosenthal, Steven; Sederquist, Kimberly; Weng, Hsin-Yi
To determine if clopidogrel administration is associated with a reduced likelihood of recurrent cardiogenic arterial thromboembolism (CATE) in cats compared to aspirin administration. Secondary aims were to determine if clopidogrel administration had an effect on the composite endpoint of recurrent CATE and cardiac death and to identify adverse effects of chronic clopidogrel or aspirin therapy. Seventy-five cats that survived a CATE event. Multicenter, double-blind, randomized, positive-controlled study. Cats were assigned to clopidogrel (18.75 mg/cat PO q 24 h) or aspirin (81 mg/cat PO q 72 h). Kaplan-Meier survival curves were created for each endpoint and the log rank test performed to compare treatment groups with respect to time to event and the likelihood of the event occurring. The mean age of all cats was 8.0 ± 3.5 yr and 57/75 (76%) were male (p history of heart disease recorded prior to the CATE event. Clopidogrel administration was associated with significantly reduced likelihood of recurrent CATE compared to aspirin (p = 0.024) and had a longer median time to recurrence [443 (95% CI 185-990) days vs. 192 (95% CI 62-364) days, respectively]. Clopidogrel was also associated with a significantly reduced likelihood of the composite endpoint of recurrent CATE or cardiac death (p = 0.033) with a longer median time to event [346 (95% CI 146-495) days vs. 128 (95% CI 58-243) days]. Clopidogrel administration significantly reduces the likelihood of recurrent CATE compared with aspirin in cats; both drugs were well tolerated. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available An eight-year-old, neutered, female, long-haired cat was presented with a three-week history of progressive lethargy, unlocalized pain in the cervical and lumbar spine, and unwillingness to move. An MRI (magnetic resonance imaging of the brain revealed poorly circumscribed regions of non-contrast-enhancing heterogeneous T2 hyperintensity within the ventral forebrain and midbrain. A mass effect and evidence of increased intracranial pressure, including transtentorial herniation of the midbrain and herniation of the cerebellar vermis through the foramen magnum, were also observed. Due to progressive clinical decline and MRI results, the cat was humanely euthanized. Gross examination of the brain confirmed caudal transtentorial and foramen magnum herniation. The ventral aspect of the forebrain, midbrain, and brainstem were soft and had loss of detail, but lacked a grossly discernible mass. Histopathological examination found a poorly delineated neoplastic mass composed of hyperchromatic cells with indistinct cytoplasm, ovoid to elongate or curved nuclei, and indistinct nucleoli. The cells lacked immunoreactivity for Olig2, GFAP, Iba1, CD3, and Pax5. Based on the cellular morphology, immunolabeling characteristics, and anatomical location, a diagnosis of gliomatosis cerebri was made. Although uncommon, gliomatosis cerebri should be considered as a differential diagnosis in cats with central nervous system disease.
Full Text Available Type 2 diabetes mellitus is a common endocrine disease in cats. The aim of this study was to investigate factors that are associated with clinical remission in diabetic cats, and those that might influence survival time. Medical records of 29 cats with diabetes mellitus were evaluated retrospectively. Data collected from each record included breed, age, and sex, types of diet before and after admission, degree of weight loss, duration of clinical signs before admission, elevation of alanine aminotransferase activity and ketonuria at the time of admission, concurrent pancreatitis or renal failure, glipizide administration, insulin supplement, and survival time. The diet after establishing diagnosis (restriction to non-carbohydrate canned food was the only factor that was significantly associated with achieving clinical remission (P P = 0.004 with clinical remission status and the type of diet after admission (P = 0.04 and negatively associated with the presence of chronic renal failure (P = 0.04. This was the first report of feline diabetes mellitus from Taiwan.
Full Text Available Case summary We report a clinical case of blepharitis due to Cryptococcus neoformans yeasts in a 2-year-old stray cat from northern Portugal (Vila Real without concurrent naso-ocular signs. Ophthalmological examination revealed mucopurulent discharge from an open wound in the right upper and lower lids. Slit-lamp biomicroscopy showed a normal anterior segment, and intraocular pressure was within the normal reference interval. No fundoscopic alterations were detected in either eye by direct and indirect ophthalmoscopic examination. Cytological examination of an appositional smear showed numerous polymorphic neutrophils and macrophages, together with spherical yeast cells compatible with Cryptococcus species. Molecular analysis by means of PCR and restriction fragment length polymorphism identified C neoformans genotype VNI. The cat was treated with itraconazole, and amoxicillin and clavulanic acid, combined with a commercial ear ointment and an imidacloprid/moxidectin spot-on application for bilateral parasitic otitis caused by Otodectes cynotis . One month after treatment, the clinical signs were completely resolved. Localised cutaneous lesions, as in the present case, probably result from contamination of cat-scratch injuries with viable encapsulated yeasts. Relevance and novel information This is, to the best of our knowledge, the first clinical report of feline blepharitis due to C neoformans without concurrent naso-ocular signs. The current findings, together with those from recent reports of the infection in domestic animals, should alert the veterinary community both in Portugal and in Europe to this underdiagnosed disease.
Darcy, Hannah; Simpson, Katherine; Gajanayake, Isuru; Seth, Mayank; McGrotty, Yvonne; Szladovits, Balazs; Glanemann, Barbara
Case series summary A retrospective multicentre case series of feline primary erythrocytosis (PE) was evaluated. The aim was to gain better understanding of disease presentation and progression to guide management and prognostication. Case records were assessed for evidence of increased packed cell volume (PCV; >48%), sufficient investigation to rule out relative and secondary erythrocytosis, and follow-up data for at least 12 months or until death. Eighteen cats were included in the case series. No significant trends in signalment were noted. Seizures and mentation changes were the most common presenting signs (both n = 10). Median PCV was 70% (median total protein concentration of 76 g/l) with no other consistent haematological changes. Sixteen cats survived to discharge. Phlebotomy was performed initially in 15/16 surviving animals and performed after discharge in 10/16. Hydroxyurea was the most common adjunctive therapy, used in 10/16 cats. Of the 16 patients surviving to discharge, 14 patients were still alive at the conclusion of the study (survival time >17 months post-discharge), with the two non-survivors having lived for 5 years or more after diagnosis. PCV, when stabilised, did not correlate with resolution of clinical signs. Relevance and novel information In contrast to perceptions, feline PE was generally well managed via a combination of phlebotomy and medical therapy, with evidence of prolonged survival times. The use of hydroxyurea enabled cessation or repeat phlebotomies.
The European Medicines Agency (EMA) and the Committee for Advanced Therapies (CAT) are responsible for reviewing applications for marketing authorization for Advanced Therapy Medicinal Products (ATMP), which include (stem) cell-based medicines, for the ATMP classification and certification procedure, and to provide scientific advice to developers of ATMPs. The CAT, an expert committee dedicated to ATMPs, was established by the Regulation (EC) No 1394/2007 on Advanced Therapies. The CAT came into operation in January 2009. ATMPs are defined in this Regulation as gene therapy and cell therapy medicinal products, and tissue-engineered products. The US FDA's Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research is responsible for ensuring the safety, purity, potency and effectiveness of many biologically derived products, including blood intended for transfusion, blood components and derivatives, vaccines and allergenic extracts, and cell, tissue and gene therapy products for the prevention, diagnosis and treatment of human diseases, conditions or injury. Human cells or tissue intended for implantation, transplantation, infusion or transfer into a human recipient are regulated as human cells, tissues, and cellular and tissue-based products (HCT/Ps).
Katia B Corgozinho
Full Text Available Case summary A 14-year-old Siamese neutered male cat was evaluated for anorexia and a left periorbital mass. Skull radiographic findings showed a well-defined lesion resembling new compact bone formation without destruction. A subtotal orbitectomy was indicated. The tumor was removed intact with a normal tissue margin of at least 1 cm. There were no postsurgical complications. Histopathologic examination revealed an osteoma. The cat returned to normal appetite and activity 15 days after surgery. Six months after surgery, there were no gross signs of recurrence. Relevance and novel information Periorbital tumors are infrequently diagnosed in companion animals and most are malignant. In this case, the diagnosis was orbital osteoma. The most commonly affected bone for osteoma in cats is the mandibular bone; few cases have been identified in orbital bones. Orbital surgery has the potential to be challenging owing to complex anatomy, difficult exposure and the tendency to bleed. Surgical complications are common. In this case, although the disease was advanced, subtotal orbitectomy was successfully performed.
Walknowska, J; Peakman, D; Weleber, R G
Using multiple chromosomal banding techniques, we studied a child with typical cat-eye syndrome and ocular retraction syndrome. Although the mother was was chromosomally normal, other maternal relatives showed features of the cat-eye syndrome, suggesting the basic abnormality is heritable. The abnormal chromosome in our case was most likely the product of reciprocal translocation where short arm plus centromeric chromatin from two separate acrocentric chromosomes fused together. The chromosomes involved were probably No. 22 and either Nos. 13 or 14. The basic underlying defect in cat-eye syndrome may be a heritable fragile site or some other predisposition leading to complex chromosomal interchange.
Gaschen, Frédéric P; Merchant, Sandra R
Adverse food reactions (AFR) are a common problem that may cause cutaneous and/or gastrointestinal signs in dogs and cats. They comprise food intolerance, food intoxication, and food allergy. Response to a dietary elimination trial and recurrence of signs during dietary provocation remain the centerpiece of diagnosis and management of dogs and cats with AFR. Response to an elimination trial is frequently observed in dogs and cats with chronic idiopathic enteropathies. However, only a fraction of them relapse after a dietary challenge. These animals may have mild to enteritis and/or colitis and benefit from various additional properties of the elimination diet. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Martell-Moran, Nicole K; Solano, Mauricio; Townsend, Hugh Gg
Objectives The aim of this study was to assess the impact of onychectomy (declawing) upon subsequent development of back pain and unwanted behavior in cohorts of treated and control cats housed in two different locations. Methods This was a retrospective cohort study. In total, there was 137 declawed and 137 non-declawed cats, of which 176 were owned cats (88 declawed, 88 non-declawed) and 98 were shelter cats (49 declawed and 49 non-declawed). All cats were physically examined for signs of pain and barbering. The previous 2 years of medical history were reviewed for documented unwanted behavior such as inappropriate elimination and biting with minimal provocation and aggression. All declawed cats were radiographed for distal limb abnormalities, including P3 (third phalanx) bone fragments. The associations of declaw surgery with the outcomes of interest were examined using χ 2 analysis, two sample t-tests and manual, backwards, stepwise logistic regression. Results Significant increases in the odds of back pain (odds ratio [OR] 2.9), periuria/perichezia (OR 7.2), biting (OR 4.5) and barbering (OR 3.06) occurred in declawed compared with control cats. Of the 137 declawed cats, 86 (63%) showed radiographic evidence of residual P3 fragments. The odds of back pain (OR 2.66), periuria/perichezia (OR 2.52) and aggression (OR 8.9) were significantly increased in declawed cats with retained P3 fragments compared with those declawed cats without. Optimal surgical technique, with removal of P3 in its entirety, was associated with fewer adverse outcomes and lower odds of these outcomes, but operated animals remained at increased odds of biting (OR 3.0) and undesirable habits of elimination (OR 4.0) compared with non-surgical controls. Conclusions and relevance Declawing cats increases the risk of unwanted behaviors and may increase risk for developing back pain. Evidence of inadequate surgical technique was common in the study population. Among declawed cats, retained P3
Xu, Hui; Laflamme, Dorothy P L; Long, Grace L
High sodium diets have been shown to enhance water intake and urine output, a potential benefit in the management of lower urinary tract diseases. However, one study suggested that high salt (sodium chloride) diets might have adverse effects on the kidneys [Kirk CA, Jewell DE, Lowry SR. Effects of sodium chloride on selected parameters in cats. Vet Ther 2006; 7: 333-46]. Therefore, the objective of this controlled, prospective study was to evaluate the effects of diets with different salt content (1.11% sodium and 1.78% chloride versus 0.55% sodium and 1.02% chloride, dry matter (dm)) when fed to mature cats (mean age 7.0 years; 12 cats per group) over a 6-month period. Food intake, body weight, bone mineral content, total body hydration status, blood pressure, and markers of renal function were unaffected by salt intake, and no adverse effects were observed. When a subset of cats (n=9) with an initial serum creatinine > or =1.6mg/dl was evaluated separately, there remained no evidence of adverse effects associated with increased salt intake. These results are consistent with the majority of other studies evaluating sodium intake in cats, as well as with the National Research Council's assessment, all of which indicate that sodium at 1.5% of the diet dm is not harmful to healthy cats.
Hoenig, Margarethe; Pach, Nicole; Thomaseth, Karl; Le, Anh; Schaeffer, David; Ferguson, Duncan C
Obese cats show many similarities to obese people, including insulin resistance and an increased diabetes risk. However, atherosclerosis and cardiovascular disease are not seen in cats. In people, they are associated with the development of an inflammatory response, which, we hypothesized, does not occur in cats. Twenty neutered cats of equal gender distribution were allowed to gain weight by offering food ad libitum and were examined before and at 10, 30, 60, and 100% weight gain. All cats reached 60% of weight gain, 12 cats gained 100% in 12 months. Fat was equally distributed between subcutaneous and visceral depots. Insulin-independent glucose uptake increased and insulin sensitivity decreased with increasing adiposity. However, baseline glucose concentrations were unchanged suggesting a decrease in EGP. Inflammatory cytokines (Il-1, IL-6, TNFa) and catalase, superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase did not change. Insulin, proinsulin, and leptin were positively and adiponectin negatively correlated with adiposity. Heat production increased with obesity, but became less when body weight gain was > 60%. This indicates that metabolism adapts more appropriately to the higher intake of calories in the initial phase of obesity but slows at higher body fat content. This likely contributes to the difficulty to lose weight. Copyright © 2013 The Obesity Society.
Tessie Beck Martins
Full Text Available Hyphema (hemorrhage within the anterior chamber of the eye can be caused by several mechanisms and can easily be detected in routine ophthalmic or necroscopic examination as discolored red eye(s. The purpose of this study is to report the cause of hyphema diagnosed as a postmortem finding in dogs and cats. Twenty cases, 14 dogs and six cats of several ages and breeds and of both sexes were included in the study. Hyphema presented as a unilateral (14 cases out of 20 or bilateral (6/20 disorder in dogs and cats and extension of hemorrhage varied from minimal to diffuse. Hyphema was secondary to systemic disease (15/20 or occurred as a primary ocular lesion (5/20 in four dogs and one cat. Primary hyphema was always unilateral. In four of these cases, the cause of hyphema was trauma and remaining case was caused by phacoclastic uveitis in a dog with bilateral hypermature cataract. Various causes of bleeding disorders were found related to secondary hyphema: in decreasing order of frequency, they included vasculitis (8/15, systemic hypertension (5/15, and acquired coagulopathies (2/15. Vasculitis due to feline infectious peritonitis accounted for half of the cases (n=3 of systemic hyphema in cats. The various pathological aspects and pathogenesis of hyphema in dogs and cats are described and discussed.
Deise Cristine Schroder
Full Text Available ABSTRACT: This study aimed to investigate the effects of the systemic administration of acepromazine, tramadol and the association of both on intraocular pressure (IOP and pupil diameter (PD in young healthy cats. Cats were randomly allocated into three groups (n=10/each and intramuscular acepromazine (AG, tramadol (TG or acepromazine combined with tramadol (ATG were injected. PD (electronic caliper and IOP (applanation tonometry were assessed before (baseline and following 15, 30, 60, and 120 minutes of treatments. It was verified that in AG, PD decreased significantly from time point 30 to 120 (P=0.002, but such reduction did not differ significantly from baseline (P=0.89. In TG, PD increased significantly from the first 15 minutes, until the last time point of evaluation (P0.05. It can be concluded that tramadol alone or in association with acepromazine produced significant mydriasis for up to 120 minutes, without changing IOP values in normal cats. Results of this study suggested that tramadol alone or in association with acepromazine caused significant mydriasis and did not change IOP values in normal cats. Therefore, it may be considered a satisfactory pre-anesthetic combination for ophthalmic surgery in cats. However, further studies are warranted on the use of such protocols in cats with ophthalmic diseases undergoing ocular or intraocular surgery.
Foster, Robert A
This article provides an overview of the lesions of the male genital tract of the dog and cat and covers those common diseases that affect the scrotal contents including testis and epididymis, the accessory genital glands especially the prostate, and the penis and prepuce. The majority of lesions of the male reproductive tract of cats and dogs are reported in dogs, and this is reflected in the number and types of diseases listed here. The author will attempt to balance simple with dramatic lesions and will start with the penis and prepuce, where lesions are seen more commonly.
Reichler, I M
The necessity, and in particular the timing, of gonadectomy in dogs and cats is still controversial. This is mainly because gonadectomy confers a mixture of benefits and adverse effects that depend upon the age at neutering, sex, species and breed. In this paper, the long-term risks and benefits of gonadectomy, at various ages, in dogs and cats are reviewed using data describing the effects of desexing on the urogenital tract and on other medical conditions, such as orthopaedic diseases, immune-mediated diseases, tumour development and behaviour.
Legatti, Sabrina Almeida Moreira; El Dib, Regina; Legatti, Emerson; Botan, Andresa Graciutti; Camargo, Samira Esteves Afonso; Agarwal, Arnav; Barretti, Pasqual; Paes, Antônio Carlos
Risk of mortality in the setting of acute kidney injury (AKI) in cats and dogs remains unclear. To evaluate the incidence of mortality in cats and dogs with AKI based on etiology (i.e. infectious versus non-infectious; receiving dialysis versus conservative treatment). Ovid Medline, EMBASE, and LILACS were searched up to July 2016. Articles were deemed eligible if they were case series studies evaluating the incidence of all-cause mortality in cats and dogs with AKI, regardless of etiology or the nature of treatment. Eighteen case series involving 1,201animalsproved eligible. The pooled proportions for overall mortality were: cats53.1% [95% CI 0.475, 0.586; I2 = 11,9%, p = 0.3352]; dogs 45.0% [95% CI 0.33, 0.58; I2 = 91.5%, P cats and dogs, 19.2% [95% CI 0.134, 0.258; I2 = 37.7%, P = 0.0982]; AKI due non-infectious etiology for cats and dogs, 59.9% [95% CI 0.532, 0.663; I2 = 51.0%, P = 0.0211]. Our findings suggest higher rates of overall mortality in cats and dogs with AKI due to non-infectious etiologies relative to infectious etiologies, and showed non-significant differences in terms of higher rates associated with dialysis compared to conservative management. Further investigations regarding optimal time to initiate dialysis and the development of clinical models to prognosticate the course of disease and guide optimal treatment initiation for less severe cases of AKI in cats and dogs is warranted.
Vigne, Jean-Denis; Evin, Allowen; Cucchi, Thomas; Dai, Lingling; Yu, Chong; Hu, Songmei; Soulages, Nicolas; Wang, Weilin; Sun, Zhouyong; Gao, Jiangtao; Dobney, Keith; Yuan, Jing
The ancestor of all modern domestic cats is the wildcat, Felis silvestris lybica, with archaeological evidence indicating it was domesticated as early as 10,000 years ago in South-West Asia. A recent study, however, claims that cat domestication also occurred in China some 5,000 years ago and involved the same wildcat ancestor (F. silvestris). The application of geometric morphometric analyses to ancient small felid bones from China dating between 5,500 to 4,900 BP, instead reveal these and other remains to be that of the leopard cat (Prionailurus bengalensis). These data clearly indicate that the origins of a human-cat 'domestic' relationship in Neolithic China began independently from South-West Asia and involved a different wild felid species altogether. The leopard cat's 'domestic' status, however, appears to have been short-lived--its apparent subsequent replacement shown by the fact that today all domestic cats in China are genetically related to F. silvestris.
... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Cat safety tests. 113.39 Section 113... Procedures § 113.39 Cat safety tests. The safety tests provided in this section shall be conducted when... recommended for use in cats. (a) The cat safety test provided in this paragraph shall be used when the Master...
The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of cat urine odour extract on rodent pest species to reduce crop losses. Cat urine from the captured cats was drawn using cat catcher. Urinary catheter was inserted into the urethra up to the urinary bladder and a syringe attached to the urinary catheter was used to draw ...
Linde-Sipman, J.S. van der; Inch, T.S.G.A.M. van den; Nes, J.J. van; Verhagen, H.; Kersten, J.G.T.M.; Beynen, A.C.; Plekkringa, R.
In April 1996, an outbreak of toxic polyneuropathy in cats occurred in the Netherlands. All cats had been fed one of two brands of dry cat food from one manufacturer. Chemical analyses of these foods, stomach contents, and liver and kidney of affected cats revealed contamination with the ionophor
Shapiro, A J; Norris, J M; Bosward, K L; Heller, J
A Q fever outbreak in a small animal veterinary hospital, associated with a cat caesarean section, initiated a cat seroprevalence study (n = 712) that found circulating antibodies to Coxiella burnetii was highest in cattery-confined breeding cats (9.3%). These findings stimulated interest about potential sources of C. burnetii infection for cats and humans associated with cats. Cat breeders are potentially a group at increased risk of C. burnetii infection, and this study sought to identify potential risk factors. A cross-sectional online survey was conducted targeting all domestic cat breeders registered with an affiliate member body in Australia in 2015. Responses from 177 cat breeders across Australia were analysed. Forty per cent of responding cat breeders had not heard of Q fever. Raw meat was fed as an integral constituent of the diet by 89% of respondents. Eighty per cent of respondents allowed queens access to the home for parturition, and assistance of queens and resuscitation of kittens at the time of birth were reported by 97% of respondents. Respondents who perceived some level of exposure to Q fever through their breeding activities were three times less likely to perform mouth-to-snout resuscitation (OR 0.3 95% CI 0.1-0.9; P = 0.034) than those who did not perceive a risk of exposure. Similarly, respondents who perceived Q fever as a risk through breeding activities were close to eight times more likely to use personal protective equipment during parturition (OR 7.7 95% CI 1.5-39.9; P = 0.015) than those who did not. Husbandry practices of cat breeders that may increase the risk of C. burnetii transmission require further targeted investigations to assess the contribution of these risk factors to the acquisition of disease. Concurrent education forums are recommended to inform Australian cat breeders of the aetiopathogenesis of Q fever. © 2016 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.
The recognition of heartworm (Dirofilaria immitis) infection in cats is increasing. In general, clinical signs displayed by cats are vague and can easily be confused with other respiratory or gastrointestinal disorders. As more data are gathered on feline heartworm disease, it is becoming apparent that cats respond to heartworms in a fashion uniquely different from dogs. Therefore, diagnostic and therapeutic methods that have been extrapolated from canine heartworm disease require modification to be applied to cats. Although no adulticide or microfilaricide drugs or preventives have been approved by the Food and Drug Administration, literature that describes treatment methods is becoming available. Because of the toxicity of thiacetarsamide sodium in cats, symptomatic, supportive treatment may be most appropriate for elimination of adult worms. As with dogs, the macrolide antibiotics (ivermectin and milbemycin oxime) seem to be efficacious as microfilaricides and preventives
Ferrés, Marcela; Abarca, Katia; Godoy, Paula; García, Patricia; Palavecino, Elizabeth; Méndez, Gabriela; Valdés, Alicia; Ernst, Santiago; Thibaut, Julio; Koberg, Jurgen; Chanqueo, Leonardo; Vial, Pablo A
The availability of a serologic test for cat scratch disease in humans has allowed the diagnosis of an increasing number of cases of this disease in Chile. To perform a serological survey for Bartonella henselae among cats in Chile. Blood samples from 187 cats living in three Chilean cities were obtained. IgG antibodies against Bartonella henselae were measured using indirect immunofluorescence. Blood cultures were done in 60 samples. The presence of Bartonella henselae in positive cultures was confirmed by restriction fragment length polymorphism polymerase chain reaction (RFLP-PCR). The general prevalence of IgG antibodies against Bartonella henselae was 85.6%. No differences in this prevalence were found among cats younger or older than 1 year, or those infested or not infested with fleas. However domestic cats had a lower prevalence when compared with stray cats (73 and 90% respectively, p <0.01). Bartonella henselae was isolated in 41% of blood cultures. All the isolated were confirmed as Bartonella henselae by RFLP-PCR. This study found an important reservoir of Bartonella henselae in Chilean cats and therefore a high risk of exposure in humans who have contact with them.
Judith L. Stella
Full Text Available Domestic cats (Felis silvestris catus are the most commonly kept companion animals in the US with large populations of owned (86 million, free-roaming (70 million, research (13,000, and shelter (2-3 million cats. Vast numbers of cats are maintained in homes and other facilities each year and are reliant on humans for all of their care. Understanding cat behavior and providing the highest quality environments possible, including positive human-cat interactions, based on research could help improve the outcomes of biomedical research, shelter adoptions, and veterinary care, as well as overall cat welfare. Often, however, cats’ needs are inadequately met in homes and some aspects may also not be well met in research colonies and shelters, despite the fact that similar problems are likely to be encountered in all of these environments. This paper provides a brief overview of common welfare challenges associated with indoor housing of domestic cats. Essential considerations for cage confinement are reviewed, along with implications of poor cat coping, such as weakening of the human-animal bond and relinquishment to shelters. The important role that environmental management plays in cat behavior and welfare outcomes is explored along with the need for additional research in key areas.
.... This thesis produced an analysis tool, the Channel Capacity Analysis Tool (Channel CAT), designed to provide an automated tool for the analysis of design decisions in developing client-server software...
Li, Heng; Guan, Liang; Liu, Tao
sensitive methods which are usually applied in aligning inter-species sequences. RESULTS: Here we present a new algorithm called CAT (for Cross-species Alignment Tool). It is designed to align mRNA sequences to mammalian-sized genomes. CAT is implemented using C scripts and is freely available on the web......BACKGROUND: The main two sorts of automatic gene annotation frameworks are ab initio and alignment-based, the latter splitting into two sub-groups. The first group is used for intra-species alignments, among which are successful ones with high specificity and speed. The other group contains more...... at http://xat.sourceforge.net/. CONCLUSIONS: Examined from different angles, CAT outperforms other extant alignment tools. Tested against all available mouse-human and zebrafish-human orthologs, we demonstrate that CAT combines the specificity and speed of the best intra-species algorithms, like BLAT...
Full Text Available This work studied the effects of experimental amitraz intoxication in cats. Sixteen cats were randomly divided equally into two groups: amitraz group - animals received 1.5% amitraz at 1mg/kg IV; and the control group - animals without amitraz. Physiological parameters from blood, cardiorespiratory system, and sedation indicators were quantified over time up to 360 minutes. Blood profile, urea, creatinine, alananine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase were not affected by amitraz. Sedation, loss of reflexes, hypothermia, bradycardia, bradyarrhythmia, hypotension, bradypnea, mydriasis, besides transitory hyperglycemia, hypoinsulinemia and decrease of cortisol levels were observed in cats experimentally exposed to amitraz. The alpha2-adrenergic effects induced by amitraz intoxication in cats are very similar to the same effects reported in others species, contributing with more information about this type of intoxication to veterinary toxicology.
The Storm Water Management Model Climate Adjustment Tool (SWMM-CAT) is a simple to use software utility that allows future climate change projections to be incorporated into the Storm Water Management Model (SWMM).
Lee-Fowler, Tekla M; Cole, Robert C; Dillon, A Ray; Tillson, D Michael; Garbarino, Rachel; Barney, Sharron
Objectives Bronchial lumen to pulmonary artery diameter (BA) ratio has been utilized to investigate pulmonary pathology on high-resolution CT images. Diseases affecting both the bronchi and pulmonary arteries render the BA ratio less useful. The purpose of the study was to establish bronchial lumen diameter to vertebral body diameter (BV) and pulmonary artery diameter to vertebral body diameter (AV) ratios in normal cats. Methods Using high-resolution CT images, 16 sets of measurements (sixth thoracic vertebral body [mid-body], each lobar bronchi and companion pulmonary artery diameter) were acquired from young adult female cats and 41 sets from pubertal female cats. Results Young adult and pubertal cat BV ratios were not statistically different from each other in any lung lobe. Significant differences between individual lung lobe BV ratios were noted on combined age group analysis. Caudal lung lobe AV ratios were significantly different between young adult and pubertal cats. All other lung lobe AV ratios were not significantly different. Caudal lung lobe AV ratios were significantly different from all other lung lobes but not from each other in both the young adult and pubertal cats. Conclusions and relevance BV ratio reference intervals determined for individual lung lobes could be applied to both young adult and pubertal cats. Separate AV ratios for individual lung lobes would be required for young adult and pubertal cats. These ratios should allow more accurate evaluation of cats with concurrent bronchial and pulmonary arterial disease.
Andrea J. Fascetti
Full Text Available Healthy animals normally eat sufficient food to satisfy their energy requirements. It is one of the jobs of the nutritionist to ensure that all other nutrient needs have been met when animals stop eating because they have met their energy needs. While dogs and cats are members of the biological order Carnivora, scientific observation and research support that differences in their metabolism and nutritional requirements exist. However, the goal in feeding both species is the same; to optimize the health and well-being of the individual. This approach results in dietary recommendations that will vary from individual animal to animal, based on a variety of factors that include the animal's signalment, occupation and environment. Feeding approaches vary between the two species and within the same species during different physiological life stages. However, the practice of feeding to maintain a lean body condition is a common goal. The maintenance of a lean body condition has been proven to increase both the quantity and quality of life in dogs. Currently, similar data does not exist in cats but is suspected to hold true. Each dog and cat's feeding program should be assessed routinely and adjustments made as indicated based on the animal's body condition, life stage and general health.Animais saudáveis normalmente comem alimentos suficientes para satisfazer suas necessidades energéticas. Uma das funções dos nutricionistas é garantir que todas as necessidades de nutrientes ingeridas serão adequadas quando os animais pararem de comer após terem atingido suas necessidades energéticas. Enquanto cães e gatos são membros da ordem Carnivora, a observação científica e de pesquisa apoia as diferenças existentes em suas exigências nutricionais e o metabolismo. No entanto, o objetivo de alimentar as duas espécies é o mesmo, para otimizar a saúde e o bem-estar do indivíduo. Esta abordagem resulta em recomendações dietéticas que variam de
De Risio, Luisa; Fraser McConnell, James
This case report describes the clinical and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings of a 3.5-year-old, male neutered, domestic shorthair cat with second order Horner's syndrome as the only clinical abnormality. The neuroanatomical pathway of the sympathetic innervation to the eye, differential diagnoses for Horner's syndrome in cats, and the interpretation of pharmacological testing are reviewed. The unusual MRI findings and the value of fat-suppressed MRI sequences are discussed.
Prieur, D J; Collier, L L
Thirteen cats with Chediak-Higashi syndrome and 22 control cats from the same colony, were evaluated for neutropenia. The absolute neutrophil counts of the Chediak-Higashi syndrome cats were significantly less (P less than 0.05) than those of the control cats. It is concluded that Chediak-Higashi syndrome cats, like Chediak-Higashi syndrome humans, have a neutropenia associated with the other manifestations of the syndrome. Lysozyme activity which was undetectable in the serum of both Chediak...
O'Brien, R.T.; Evans, S.M.; Wortman, J.A.; Hendrick, M.J.
Objective: To compare radiographic findings and determine useful criteria to differentiate between intranasal neoplasia and chronic rhinitis in cats. Design: Retrospective study. Animals: Cats with chronic nasal disease caused by neoplasia (n = 18) or by chronic rhinitis (n = 11). Procedure: Radiographs were reviewed by 3 radiologists, followed by group review. Diagnosis was determined by intranasal biopsy or necropsy, and specimens were reviewed by a pathologist to confirm cause and histologic diagnosis. Results: Lymphosarcoma was the most common (n = 5) of the 6 histopathologic types in the neoplasia group. Cats in the neoplasia and chronic rhinitis groups had a high prevalence of aggressive radiographic lesions. Prevalence of a facial mass in cats with neoplasia (8/18) versus in those with chronic rhinitis (4/11) and of deviation (9/18 vs 6/11, respectively) or lysis (12/18 vs 7/11) of the nasal septum was similar. However, significantly (P = 0.02) more cats with neoplasia than with chronic rhinitis (13/16 vs 3/7, respectively) had unilateral turbinate destruction/lysis. Additionally, unilateral lateral bone erosion and loss of teeth associated with adjacent intranasal disease were more prevalent in cats with neoplasia (7/8 and 5/18, respectively) than in cats with chronic rhinitis (1/3 and 0/11, respectively). Clinical Implications: Features that may assist in radiographic diagnosis of neoplasia include the appearance of unilateral aggressive lesions, such as lysis of lateral bones, nasal turbinate destruction, and loss of teeth. Bilaterally symmetric lesions are more suggestive of chronic rhinitis than of neoplasia
Michael K. Rust
Full Text Available The cat flea Ctenocephalides felis felis (Bouché is the most important ectoparasite of domestic cats and dogs worldwide. It has been two decades since the last comprehensive review concerning the biology and ecology of C. f. felis and its management. Since then there have been major advances in our understanding of the diseases associated with C. f. felis and their implications for humans and their pets. Two rickettsial diseases, flea-borne spotted fever and murine typhus, have been identified in domestic animal populations and cat fleas. Cat fleas are the primary vector of Bartonella henselae (cat scratch fever with the spread of the bacteria when flea feces are scratched in to bites or wounds. Flea allergic dermatitis (FAD common in dogs and cats has been successfully treated and tapeworm infestations prevented with a number of new products being used to control fleas. There has been a continuous development of new products with novel chemistries that have focused on increased convenience and the control of fleas and other arthropod ectoparasites. The possibility of feral animals serving as potential reservoirs for flea infestations has taken on additional importance because of the lack of effective environmental controls in recent years. Physiological insecticide resistance in C. f. felis continues to be of concern, especially because pyrethroid resistance now appears to be more widespread. In spite of their broad use since 1994, there is little evidence that resistance has developed to many of the on-animal or oral treatments such as fipronil, imidacloprid or lufenuron. Reports of the perceived lack of performance of some of the new on-animal therapies have been attributed to compliance issues and their misuse. Consequentially, there is a continuing need for consumer awareness of products registered for cats and dogs and their safety.
Hwang, Jeong-Min; Seo, Myung-Ji; Yeh, Jung-Yong
Proliferative enteropathy is a global enteric disease of particular importance in pigs. The causative bacterium, Lawsonia intracellularis, has a wide range of susceptible host species. Recently, L. intracellularis has been recognized as an etiologic agent of an emerging enteric disease in foals called equine proliferative enteropathy (EPE). The presence of L. intracellularis in nonruminant wildlife has raised questions regarding the role of these species in EPE transmission. This study investigated exposure to L. intracellularis in wild rodents and feral cats from eight farms with confirmed EPE. Serum (42) and fecal (40) samples from resident foals and fecal samples (131), intestinal mucosa tissues (14), and mesenteric lymph nodes (14) from wild and feral animals were collected for the evaluation of the farm status and the molecular detection of L. intracellularis following the diagnosis of EPE in index cases. Fresh feces from wild rodents and feral cats were collected from the ground while walking the premises or after trapping the animals using live traps. A total of 3 brown rats, 7 house mice, 1 striped field mouse, 2 grey red-backed voles, and 3 feral cats showed evidence of prior exposure to L. intracellularis. Our data add to increasing evidence demonstrating the potential for L. intracellularis transmission and infection in wild rodents and feral cats and provide possible evidence of interspecies transmission. The exposure of wild rodents and feral cats provides potential evidence for the spillover of L. intracellularis to wildlife species and raises the question of spillback to horses. Additionally, these animals may represent an indicator of environmental exposure or may be actively involved in the transmission of L. intracellularis to foals by acting as potential reservoir/amplifier hosts. This study is the first to demonstrate the magnitude of L. intracellularis shedding in the feces of wild rodents and feral cats and to indicate the significant
Policelli Smith, R; Gookin, J L; Smolski, W; Di Cicco, M F; Correa, M; Seiler, G S
Bacterial cholecystitis often is diagnosed by combination of gallbladder ultrasound (US) findings and positive results of bile culture. The value of gallbladder US in determining the likelihood of bile bacterial infection in cats and dogs with suspected biliary disease is unknown. To determine the value of gallbladder US in predicting bile bacterial culture results, identify most common bacterial isolates from bile, and describe complications after cholecystocentesis in cats and dogs with suspected hepatobiliary disease. Cats (70) and dogs (202) that underwent an abdominal US and submission of bile for culture were included in the study. A cross-sectional study design was used to determine the association of gallbladder US abnormalities and the results of bile cultures, and complications of cholecystocentesis. Abnormal gallbladder US had high sensitivity (96%) but low specificity (49%) in cats with positive and negative results of bile bacterial culture, respectively. Cats with normal gallbladder US findings were unlikely to have positive bile bacterial culture (negative predictive value of 96%). Gallbladder US had lower sensitivity (81%), specificity (31%), positive predictive value (20%), and negative predictive value (88%) in dogs. The most common bacterial isolates were of enteric origin, the prevalence being higher in cats. Incidence of complications after cholecystocentesis was 3.4%. Gallbladder US has a high negative predictive value for bile culture results in cats. This modality is less predictive of infection in dogs. Percutaneous US-guided cholecystocentesis has a low complication rate. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine.
Buffington, C A T
Signs of lower urinary tract (LUT) disease in domestic cats can be acute or chronic, and can result from variable combinations of abnormalities within the lumen of the LUT, the parenchyma of the LUT itself, or other organ system(s) that then lead to LUT dysfunction. In the majority of cats with chronic signs of LUT dysfunction, no specific underlying cause can be confirmed after standard clinical evaluation of the LUT, so these cats typically are classified as having idiopathic cystitis. A syndrome in human beings commonly known as interstitial cystitis (IC) shares many features in common with these cats, permitting comparisons between the two species. A wide range of similarities in abnormalities has been identified between these syndromes outside as well as inside the LUT. A variety of potential familial and developmental risk factors also have been identified. These results have permitted generation of the hypothesis that some of these people have a disorder affecting the LUT rather than a disorder of the LUT. This perspective has suggested alternative diagnostic strategies and novel approaches to treatment, at least in cats. The purpose of this review is to summarize research investigations into the various abnormalities present in cats, to compare some of these findings with those identified in human beings, and to discuss how they might modify perceptions about the etiopathogenesis, diagnosis, and treatment of cats with this disease. Dedication: I dedicate this contribution to Professor Dennis J. Chew, whose collaboration, patience, and support made it all possible. Copyright © 2011 by the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine.
Melo, Cláudia; Gama-de-Sousa, Susana; Almeida, Filipa; Rendeiro, Paula; Tavares, Purificação; Cardoso, Helena; Carvalho, Sónia
Cat eye syndrome is a rare congenital disease characterized by the existence of a supernumerary chromosome derived from chromosome 22, with a variable phenotype comprising anal atresia, coloboma of the iris and preauricular tags or pits. We report a girl with cat eye syndrome, presenting short stature, with growth hormone deficiency due to posterior pituitary ectopia. Short stature is a common feature of this syndrome, and the association with a structural pituitary anomaly has been described, however growth hormone deficiency and the underlying mechanisms are rarely reported. A review on short stature and growth hormone deficiency in cat eye syndrome is conducted. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Matsumura, Eitaro; Sakai, Masashi; Hayashi, Katsuaki; Murakami, Shuichiro; Takenaka, Shinji; Aoki, Kenji
The aniline-assimilating bacterium Rhodococcus sp. AN-22 was found to constitutively synthesize CatB (cis,cis-muconate cycloisomerase) and CatC (muconolactone isomerase) in its cells growing on non-aromatic substrates, in addition to the previously reported CatA (catechol 1,2-dioxygenase). The bacterium maintained the specific activity of the three enzymes at an almost equal level during cultivation on succinate. CatB and CatC were purified to homogeneity and characterized. CatB was a monomer with a molecular mass of 44 kDa. The enzyme was activated by Mn2+, Co2+ and Mg2+. Native CatC was a homo-octamer with a molecular mass of 100 kDa. The enzyme was stable between pH 7.0 and 10.5 and was resistant to heating up to 90 °C. Genes coding for CatA, CatB and CatC were cloned and named catA, catB and catC respectively. The catABC genes were transcribed as one operon. The deduced amino acid sequences of CatA, CatB and CatC showed high identities with those from other Gram-positive micro-organisms. A regulator gene such as catR encoding a regulatory protein was not observed around the cat gene cluster of Rhodococcus sp. AN-22, but a possible relic of catR was found in the upstream region of catA. Reverse transcriptase-PCR and primer extension analyses showed that the transcriptional start site of the cat gene cluster was located 891 bp upstream of the catA initiation codon in the AN-22 strain growing on both aniline and succinate. Based on these data, we concluded that the bacterium constitutively transcribed the catABC genes and translated its mRNA into CatA, CatB and CatC. PMID:16156722
Pas, An; Dubey, J P
The sand cat (Felis margarita) is a small-sized felid occurring in the United Arab Emirates (UAE). The sand cat captive-breeding program at the Breeding Centre for Endangered Arabian Wildlife in Sharjah, UAE, has until recently been severely compromised by very high newborn mortality rates. Two different pairs of sand cats gave birth, respectively, to one and two litters (with a total of eight kittens) between 1999 and 2006. Seven out of eight kittens died between the third and 21st wk of life. Toxoplasmosis was confirmed as the cause of death in these two litters. Adult cats had high antibody titers to Toxoplasma gondii before pregnancy, suggesting that maternal immunity did not protect the kittens against infection with T. gondii and that maternal immunity might not have prevented transplacental transmission of the parasite. This observation contrasts with what is seen in domestic cats. To date, this is the first report on confirmed fatal toxoplasmosis and prevalence of T. gondii in sand cats.
Broadley, Heidi M; McCobb, Emily C; Slater, Margaret R
This study investigates the effect of living with other cats in a prior home on stress levels of cats recently surrendered to an animal shelter. A total of 63 cats was evaluated using a Cat-Stress-Score and an approach test. Cats were categorized in terms of previous home history with or without other cats. No significant difference was found in stress scores between cats from single-cat households and those from multiple-cat households, although single cats that had been in the shelter less than 4 days demonstrated higher stress levels. No significant difference was found between the two groups in terms of approach results. Results of this study suggest that, in traditional individual cage settings, cats that are not accustomed to living with other cats may experience more stress in the initial few days of attempting to adjust to shelter existence. Through the use of such assessments, shelter personnel may develop an increased awareness to the needs of these cats and attempt to provide measures to improve their well-being within the shelter environment.
Bronwyn A Fancourt
Full Text Available The eastern quoll (Dasyurus viverrinus is a medium-sized Australian marsupial carnivore that has recently undergone a rapid and severe population decline over the 10 years to 2009, with no sign of recovery. This decline has been linked to a period of unfavourable weather, but subsequent improved weather conditions have not been matched by quoll recovery. A recent study suggested another mechanism: that declines in Tasmanian devil (Sarcophilus harrisii populations, due to the spread of the fatal Devil Facial Tumour Disease, have released feral cats (Felis catus from competitive suppression, with eastern quoll declines linked to a subsequent increase in cat sightings. Yet current evidence of intraguild suppression among devils, cats and quolls is scant and equivocal. We therefore assessed the influences of top-down effects on abundance and activity patterns among devils, feral cats and eastern quolls. Between 2011 and 2013, we monitored four carnivore populations using longitudinal trapping and camera surveys, and performed camera surveys at 12 additional sites throughout the eastern quoll's range. We did not find evidence of a negative relationship between devil and cat abundance, nor of higher cat abundance in areas where devil populations had declined the longest. Cats did not appear to avoid devils spatially; however, there was evidence of temporal separation of cat and devil activity, with reduced separation and increasing nocturnal activity observed in areas where devils had declined the longest. Cats and quolls used the same areas, and there was no evidence that cat and quoll abundances were negatively related. Temporal overlap in observed cat and quoll activity was higher in summer than in winter, but this seasonal difference was unrelated to devil declines. We suggest that cats did not cause the recent quoll decline, but that predation of juvenile quolls by cats could be inhibiting low density quoll populations from recovering their
Yang, Min Suk; Lee, Sang Pyo; Kwon, Young Jae; Lee, Sang Min
This study evaluated dog and cat allergies and their association with allergen avoidance measures in Korean adults. The study population consisted of 537 adults who currently kept dogs or cats and participated in a pet exhibition in Korea. The subjects were asked to complete questionnaires regarding pet ownership, allergen avoidance, and allergy symptoms, and underwent skin prick tests. They were considered to have a dog or cat allergy if they suffered from one or more of allergy symptoms during contact with their pets. In total, 103 of 407 dog owners (25.3%) and 45 of 130 cat owners (34.6%) had a dog or cat allergy, respectively. Dog owners kept 1.3±1.5 dogs; this number did not differ according to the presence of dog allergy. Dog owners with a dog allergy had owned their dogs longer than those without (88.0±72.0 vs 67.5±72.7 months, PCat owners kept 2.1±3.6 cats; this number did not differ according to the presence of cat allergy, nor did the duration of cat ownership. Cat owners with a cat allergy had facial contact and slept with their cats less frequently (8.6±11.9 vs 18.3±27.0 times/day, Pcats shaved and beds cleaned less frequently than those without (1.8±3.3 vs 3.2±4.4 times/year, PCat owners with a cat allergy tried to minimize contact with their cats, but efforts to avoid indoor cat allergens were lower than those without. In comparison, dog owners with a dog allergy had kept their dogs for longer time than those without; however, current contact with their dogs and allergen avoidance measures did not differ between the 2 groups. Copyright © 2018 The Korean Academy of Asthma, Allergy and Clinical Immunology · The Korean Academy of Pediatric Allergy and Respiratory Disease
Zhang, Lei; Dong, Xiao-Wei; Wang, Jia-Ning; Tang, Jun-Ming; Yang, Jian-Ye; Guo, Ling-Yun; Zheng, Fei; Kong, Xia; Huang, Yong-Zhang; Chen, Shi-You
Objective Poor survival of mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) compromised the efficacy of stem cell therapy for ischemic diseases. The aim of this study is to investigate the role of PEP-1-CAT transduction in MSC survival and its effect on ischemia-induced angiogenesis. Methods MSC apoptosis was evaluated by DAPI staining and quantified by Annexin V and PI double staining and Flow Cytometry. Malondialdehyde (MDA) content, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release, and Superoxide Dismutase (SOD) activities were simultaneously measured. MSC mitochondrial membrane potential was analyzed with JC-1 staining. MSC survival in rat muscles with gender-mismatched transplantation of the MSC after lower limb ischemia was assessed by detecting SRY expression. MSC apoptosis in ischemic area was determined by TUNEL assay. The effect of PEP-1-CAT-transduced MSC on angiogenesis in vivo was determined in the lower limb ischemia model. Results PEP-1-CAT transduction decreased MSC apoptosis rate while down-regulating MDA content and blocking LDH release as compared to the treatment with H2O2 or CAT. However, SOD activity was up-regulated in PEP-1-CAT-transduced cells. Consistent with its effect on MSC apoptosis, PEP-1-CAT restored H2O2-attenuated mitochondrial membrane potential. Mechanistically, PEP-1-CAT blocked H2O2-induced down-regulation of PI3K/Akt activity, an essential signaling pathway regulating MSC apoptosis. In vivo, the viability of MSC implanted into ischemic area in lower limb ischemia rat model was increased by four-fold when transduced with PEP-1-CAT. Importantly, PEP-1-CAT-transduced MSC significantly enhanced ischemia-induced angiogenesis by up-regulating VEGF expression. Conclusions PEP-1-CAT-transduction was able to increase MSC viability by regulating PI3K/Akt activity, which stimulated ischemia-induced angiogenesis. PMID:23285080
Sarbu, Luminita; Kitchell, Barbara E; Bergman, Philip J
Objectives A xenogeneic human tyrosinase DNA vaccine was developed for treatment of dogs with oral malignant melanoma (Oncept; Merial). No studies have evaluated the safety or efficacy of this vaccine in cats. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the safety of the canine melanoma vaccine in cats diagnosed with melanoma. Methods Medical records were reviewed from cats diagnosed with malignant melanoma and treated with the canine melanoma DNA vaccine (Oncept). Data regarding signalment, melanoma location, treatments received, vaccine adverse effects and cause of death were collected. Results A total of 114 melanoma vaccines were administered to 24 cats. Seven cats (11.4%) had clinical adverse effects from a total of 13 vaccines classified as grade 1 or 2 based on the Veterinary Cooperative Oncology Group's common terminology criteria for adverse events v1.1. These included pain on vaccine administration, brief muscle fasciculation, transient inappetence, depression, nausea and mild increase in pigmentation at the injection site. Nineteen cats were deceased at study close. The most common cause of death was melanoma (14 cats). Hematological and biochemical changes were observed in six cats, five of which had concurrent disease or treatments that likely caused or greatly contributed to the laboratory abnormalities found. Therefore, these adverse events were considered unlikely to be caused by the melanoma vaccine. One cat had transient grade 1 hypoalbuminemia, which was possibly caused by the vaccination but not thoroughly evaluated. Conclusions and relevance The canine melanoma DNA vaccine can be safely administered to cats, with minimal risk of adverse effects.
Geddes, R F; Biourge, V; Chang, Y; Syme, H M; Elliott, J
Dietary phosphate and protein restriction decreases plasma PTH and FGF-23 concentrations and improves survival time in azotemic cats, but has not been examined in cats that are not azotemic. Feeding a moderately protein- and phosphate-restricted diet decreases PTH and FGF-23 in healthy older cats and thereby slows progression to azotemic CKD. A total of 54 healthy, client-owned cats (≥ 9 years). Prospective double-blinded randomized placebo-controlled trial. Cats were assigned to test diet (protein 76 g/Mcal and phosphate 1.6 g/Mcal) or control diet (protein 86 g/Mcal and phosphate 2.6 g/Mcal) and monitored for 18 months. Changes in variables over time and effect of diet were assessed by linear mixed models. A total of 26 cats ate test diet and 28 cats ate control diet. There was a significant effect of diet on urinary fractional excretion of phosphate (P = 0.045), plasma PTH (P = 0.005), and ionized calcium concentrations (P = 0.018), but not plasma phosphate, FGF-23, or creatinine concentrations. Plasma PTH concentrations did not significantly change in cats fed the test diet (P = 0.62) but increased over time in cats fed the control diet (P = 0.001). There was no significant treatment effect of the test diet on development of azotemic CKD (3 of 26 (12%) test versus 3 of 28 (11%) control, odds ratio 1.09 (95% CI 0.13-8.94), P = 0.92). Feeding a moderately protein- and phosphate-restricted diet has effects on calcium-phosphate homeostasis in healthy older cats and is well tolerated. This might have an impact on renal function and could be useful in early chronic kidney disease. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine.
Bicek, J.; Slaby, J.; Ordosova, K.
A clinical case of peritoneopericardial diaphragmatic hernia in a 7-months old Persian male cat is reported. The diagnosis was established after clinical examination, blood work and radiology, being finally confirmed by ultrasonography. Approach to the defect via ventral midline cranial celiotomy was chosen. Intrapericardially localised hepatic lobes and greater omentum were repositioned by traction and annulorrhaphy was performed. No complications occurred during convalescense and good long-term prognosis was predicted. Etiology, clinical signs and diagnosis of the disease are discussed and surgical solution is described, including a short discussion of surgical risks and complications
Dietrich, U; Arnold, P; Guscetti, F; Pfyffer, G E; Spiess, B
Disseminated mycobacterial disease was diagnosed in an eight-year-old domestic shorthaired cat, with involvement of the skin, lungs, lymph nodes and one eye. Mycobacterium simiae was cultured from skin biopsies on solid agar and in liquid media. This organism is known to cause pulmonary, cutaneous or disseminated infection in human patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome but has never been encountered as a pathogen in companion animals. Combination treatment with rifampicin, enrofloxacin and clarithromycin resulted in complete clinical remission within six months, with no side effects. No recurrence was observed in a 22-month follow-up period.
Full Text Available Cowpox in humans is a rare zoonotic disease; its recognition is therefore problematic due to the lack of clinical experience. The differential diagnosis includes other poxvirus infections and also infections with herpesviruses or selected bacteria. The clinical course can be complicated and the improvement may take weeks. Late diagnosis is one of the causes of unnecessary combined antibiotic therapy or surgical intervention. A case of cowpox after a cat scratch in a 15-year-old girl is presented, with a summary of the available clinical data on cowpox infections.
Cavalcanti, Jacqueline Vallim Jacobina; Moura, Mariana Pereira; Monteiro, Fabio Oliveira
A 7-year-old, castrated male, domestic shorthair cat presented with generalized exfoliative dermatitis, lethargy, anorexia and weight loss. Multiple skin scrapings taken at the time did not reveal any abnormalities. Skin histopathological examination was consistent with sebaceous adenitis or exfoliative dermatitis caused by an underlying thymoma (thymoma-associated feline exfoliative dermatitis). Thoracic radiographs revealed a cranial mediastinal mass, which was removed surgically. Histopathological examinations indicated that it was a thymoma. Within 90 days of surgery, the cutaneous signs had resolved, suggesting a causal relationship between the thymoma and the skin disease. Recurrence of thymoma was detected 24 months after surgery. © ISFM and AAFP 2014.
Ferran Valls Sanchez
Full Text Available Case summary A 12-year-old female spayed domestic shorthair cat presented with history of a long-term chronic cough that had worsened during the previous 2 months. Thoracic radiographs revealed numerous mineral opacities throughout the lung fields. Multiple bronchial plugs of pale yellow material were present on bronchoscopy, consistent with broncholithiasis. Bronchoalveolar lavage cytology revealed a mild neutrophilic inflammation and bacterial culture was negative. The cat was diagnosed with chronic inflammatory lower airway disease and broncholithiasis, suspected to be due to mineralisation of secretions in the bronchial lumen. The cat was treated for 6 years with oral prednisolone and responded well to treatment. Six years later, the cat developed severe respiratory distress and died. Post-mortem examination identified chronic multifocal broncholithiasis, pulmonary abscessation and pyothorax. Relevance and novel information Broncholithiasis is a very rare condition in feline medicine; however, we are reporting a new case and it should be considered as a differential diagnosis for chronic coughing in cats, especially when other common causes have been ruled out and the radiographic findings are suggestive of it. We hypothesise that pathogenesis of the pulmonary abscessation and pyothorax in our patient was, at least partially, due to broncholithiasis. Pleural disease should be considered a complication of broncholithiasis.
Thiry, E; Zicola, A; Addie, D; Egberink, H; Hartmann, K; Lutz, H; Poulet, H; Horzinek, M C
The Asian lineage highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N1 virus is a known pathogen of birds. Only recently, the virus has been reported to cause sporadic fatal disease in carnivores, and its zoonotic potential has been dominating the popular media. Attention to felids was drawn by two outbreaks with high mortality in tigers, leopards and other exotic felids in Thailand. Subsequently, domestic cats were found naturally infected and experimentally susceptible to H5N1 virus. A high susceptibility of the dog to H3N8 equine influenza A virus had been reported earlier, and recently also HPAI H5N1 virus has been identified as a canine pathogen. The ferret, hamster and mouse are suitable as experimental animals; importantly, these species are also kept as pets. Experimental intratracheal and oral infection of cats with an HPAI H5N1 virus isolate from a human case resulted in lethal disease; furthermore, cats have been infected by the feeding of infected chickens. Spread of the infection from experimentally infected to in-contact cats has been reported. The epidemiological role of the cat and other pet animal species in transmitting HPAI H5N1 virus to humans needs continuous consideration and attention.
Cases with manifestation of chemodectoma diagnosed in dogs in Department of Internal Diseases with Horses, Dogs and Cats Clinic, Veterinary Medicine Faculty, University of Environmental and Life Sciences, Wroclaw, Poland.
Noszczyk-Nowak, Agnieszka; Nowak, Marcin; Paslawska, Urszula; Atamaniuk, Wojciech; Nicpon, Jozef
In the period of 3 years, 9 tumours of chemodectoma were supravitally diagnosed and histopathologically verified in dogs. In this period 15 351 dogs were admitted to the Clinic of Dogs and Cats and 2 145 dogs were examined in the cardiological outpatient clinic for dogs. This tumour is located in a typical place--at the base of the heart. Most frequently the tumour manifested in older boxers. Only in one case such a tumour was diagnosed in another breed of dogs. The tumours ranged in size between 3 and 16 cm in diameter. The principal sign accompanying tumours of cardiac base involved dyspnoea but in 3 cases the tumours yielded no clinical signs. All the diagnoses were additionally verified using immunohistochemical examination. We used antibodies to chromogranin A (clone DAK-A3 1:100), synaptophysin (clone SY38 1:20) and neuron-specific enolase (clone BBS/NC/VI-H14 1:150). An immunohistochemical examination is vital for the diagnosis since it allows to differentiate histologically distinct types of neoplasia which may locate in the same site and may manifest a similar histological pattern.
Full Text Available Respiratory capillariasis is a disease of domestic and wild carnivores as well as of people, caused by nematode Eucoleus aerophilus syn. Capillaria aerophila, which lives as a parasite in mucosa of trachea, bronchi and bronchioles, rarely in nasal and frontal sinuses of the host. This parasite has either direct or indirect development cycle which includes optional transition hosts - earthworms. Clinical picture is manifested in the form of a very severe respiratory disease, which is accompanied by an increased bronchovesicular sound, sneezing, gasping and chronic dry cough. Despite the fact that this nematode is widespread in all the parts of the world, that it causes a disease followed by a severe clinical picture and has a zoonotic potential as well, it has been insufficiently investigated and moreover from clinical and parasitological aspect it has not been given enough attention so far. The reason for this is the fact that C. aerophila had been considered to be a strain of very low level of pathogenicity causing only sporadic respiratory infections in dogs and cats. The interest of scientific community for this parasitosis increased the moment when its causative agent spread outside the endemic areas. From the standpoint of monitoring and health protection of both carnivores and peorle, knowledge of basic epizootiological and epidemiological characteristics of these nematodes is of crucial importance, having in mind that its prevalence has significantly increased in dogs and cats in the last ten years, both in Europe and worldwide.
Porciello, F; Rishniw, M; Ljungvall, I; Ferasin, L; Haggstrom, J; Ohad, D G
Sleeping and resting respiratory rates (SRR and RRR, respectively) are commonly used to monitor dogs and cats with left-sided cardiac disease and to identify animals with left-sided congestive heart failure (L-CHF). Dogs and cats with subclinical heart disease have SRRmean values dogs and cats with CHF that is well controlled with medical therapy. In this study, SRR and RRR were measured by the owners of 51 dogs and 22 cats with stable, well-controlled CHF. Median canine SRRmean was 20 breaths/min (7-39 breaths/min); eight dogs were ≥25 breaths/min and one dog only was ≥30 breaths/min. Canine SRRmean was unrelated to pulmonary hypertension or diuretic dose. Median feline SRRmean was 20 breaths/min (13-31 breaths/min); four cats were ≥25 breaths/min and only one cat was ≥30 breaths/min. Feline SRRmean was unrelated to diuretic dose. SRR remained stable during collection in both species with little day-to-day variability. The median canine RRRmean was 24 breaths/min (12-44 breaths/min), 17 were ≥25 breaths/min, seven were ≥30 breaths/min, two were >40 breaths/min. Median feline RRRmean was 24 breaths/min (15-45 breaths/min); five cats had RRRmean ≥25 breaths/min; one had ≥30 breaths/min, and two had ≥40 breaths/min. These data suggest that most dogs and cats with CHF that is medically well-controlled and stable have SRRmean and RRRmean dogs and cats. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Kathrani, Aarti; Larsen, Jennifer A; Kass, Philip H; Fascetti, Andrea J
Obesity in cats is associated with metabolic abnormalities and increased susceptibility to diseases such as diabetes mellitus. Studies in mouse models and human beings have shown that probiotics can reduce food intake, promote weight loss and improve metabolic profile. Studies assessing the effects of probiotics on these same parameters are absent in cats. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine if probiotic Enterococcus faecium strain SF68 dietary supplementation reduces food intak...
Oryszczyn, M.-P.; van Ree, R.; Maccario, J.; Nadif, R.; Kauffmann, F.
P>Background In adults, there is limited information on tolerance to cat, which may be reflected by high IgG(4) without IgE sensitization. Early exposure to cat may play a critical role. Objective The aim was to assess among adults the association of Fel d 1 IgG(4), Fel d 1 IgE, skin prick test
Kabatchnick, E; Langston, C; Olson, B; Lamb, K E
The prevalence of uremic hypothermia (UH) and the effects of improving uremia on body temperature have not been determined in veterinary patients. To determine the prevalence of UH and correlations between uremia and body temperature in patients undergoing intermittent hemodialysis (IHD). Uremic dogs (n = 122) and cats (n = 79) treated by IHD at the Bobst Hospital of the Animal Medical Center from 1997 to 2013. Retrospective review of medical records. The prevalence of hypothermia was 38% in azotemic cats and 20.5% in azotemic dogs. Statistically significant temperature differences were observed between uremic and nonuremic dogs (nonuremic: mean, 100.8°F; range, 91.2-109.5°F; uremic: mean, 99.9°F; range, 95.6-103.8°F; P cats (nonuremic: mean, 100.6°F; range, 94.0-103.8°F; uremic: mean, 99.3°F; range, 92.3-103.4°F; P dog dialysis patients, significant models included (1) timing (pre-dialysis versus post-dialysis) with weight class (small [P dogs), (2) timing with serum creatinine concentration (P = .021), and (3) timing with BUN concentration (P cat dialysis patients, there was a significant interaction between timing and weight as a categorical variable (cats and dogs. Uremic patients are hypothermic compared to ill nonuremic patients and body temperatures increase when uremia is corrected with IHD in dogs and in cats >5 kg. In cats, UH seems to be a more prevalent phenomenon driven by uremia. Uremic hypothermia does occur in dogs, but body weight is a more important predictor of body temperature. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine.
Legroux, Jean-Pierre; Halos, Lénaïg; René-Martellet, Magalie; Servonnet, Marielle; Pingret, Jean-Luc; Bourdoiseau, Gilles; Baneth, Gad; Chabanne, Luc
Feline cytauxzoonosis is an emerging infection caused by tick-transmitted apicomplexan parasites of the genus Cytauxzoon. The association of clinical disease with Cytauxzoon infection appears to be limited to C. felis infections in the Americas. Sporadic infections of wild and domestic felids with Cytauxzoon sp. were recently described in European countries but clinical reports of the infection are rare and incomplete. This case report brings new interesting information on cytauxzoonosis expression in Europe. A 9-years-old castrated European shorthair cat living in rural area of north-eastern France (Saint Sauveur, Bourgogne-Franche-Comté region), without any travel history was presented for consultation due to hyperthermia, anorexia, depression and prolonged fever that didn't respond to antibiotic therapy. The cat had outdoor access with a history of vagrancy and was adequately vaccinated (core vaccines and FeLV vaccine). During biological investigations, intraerythrocytic inclusions were observed on blood smear and were further investigated by PCR analysis and sequencing. Molecular analyses confirmed Cytauxzoon sp. infection. The cat was treated with a subcutaneous injection of imidocarb dipropionate (3.5 mg/kg). One week after treatment, the cat improved clinically, although parasitic inclusions within erythrocytes persisted, and only a mild lymphocytosis was found. Two weeks after treatment, the cat appeared in excellent health, appetite was normal and parasitemia was negative. However, one month after treatment the cat relapsed with hyperthermia, anorexia, and depression. Blood smears and PCR were once again positive. Subsequently, the cat received an additional dose of imidocarb dipropionate (3.5 mg/kg SC) and recovered rapidly without other clinical signs. Two weeks after the second imidocarb injection, the cat was hit by a car and died. This case provides the first clinical description of infection by Cytauxzoon sp. in a domestic cat in France. These
Harris, Autumn N; Estrada, Amara H; Gallagher, Alexander E; Winter, Brandy; Lamb, Kenneth E; Bohannon, Mary; Hanscom, Jancy; Mainville, Celine A
Objectives The biologic variability of N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) and its impact on diagnostic utility is unknown in healthy cats and those with cardiac disease. The purpose of this study was to determine the biologic variation of NT-proBNP within-day and week-to-week in healthy adult cats. Methods Adult cats were prospectively evaluated by complete blood count (CBC), biochemistry, total thyroxine, echocardiography, electrocardiography and blood pressure, to exclude underlying systemic or cardiac disease. Adult healthy cats were enrolled and blood samples were obtained at 11 time points over a 6 week period (0, 2 h, 4 h, 6 h, 8 h, 10 h and at weeks 2, 3, 4, 5 and 6). The intra-individual (coefficient of variation [CV I ]) biologic variation along with index of individuality and reference change values (RCVs) were calculated. Univariate models were analyzed and included comparison of the six different time points for both daily and weekly samples. This was followed by a Tukey's post-hoc adjustment, with a P value of <0.05 being significant. Results The median daily and weekly CV I for the population were 13.1% (range 0-28.7%) and 21.2% (range 3.9-68.1%), respectively. The index of individuality was 0.99 and 1 for daily and weekly samples, respectively. The median daily and weekly RCVs for the population were 39.8% (range 17.0-80.5%) and 60.5% (range 20.1-187.8%), respectively. Conclusions and relevance This study demonstrates high individual variability for NT-proBNP concentrations in a population of adult healthy cats. Further research is warranted to evaluate NT-proBNP variability, particularly how serial measurements of NT-proBNP may be used in the diagnosis and management of cats with cardiac disease.
Conclusions: A high sparganum infection rate was observed in the wild frogs sold in agricultural product markets in Guangzhou. The infection was also serious in cats and dogs in Guangdong Province. With lifestyles and eating habits resulting in sparganum infection, it is necessary to focus on market management and community education in order to prevent the transmission of this disease in Guangzhou.
Kittens died from starvation and disease. In. June 1980 51 - 56% of the cats were < 1 year old. .... The jackass penguin population has suffered serious losses, at least partly because of egg collecting (Frost, ..... are 66fr!o of total carcase weight (the percentage weight eaten from carcases of adult rabbits by a caged, adult. 3.
Infection with Bordetella bronchiseptica is a common cause of tracheobronchitis and upper respiratory disease in dogs and cats, but it can also lead to fatal pneumonia. Identification of this pathogen is important due the risk of transmission to other animals, availability of vaccines and potential...
Spencer, Sarah E; Knowles, Toby; Ramsey, Ian K; Tasker, Séverine
The main aim of the study was to describe the features and diagnoses of a population of cats referred with pyrexia. Other aims were to report and evaluate the utility of clinical investigations performed, and describe any effect of treatment before referral on temperature at presentation and ability to make a diagnosis. Clinical records of cats with pyrexia (⩾39.2°C) documented at least twice were retrospectively reviewed. Cases were assigned to disease categories (infectious, inflammatory, immune-mediated, neoplastic, miscellaneous and no diagnosis [pyrexia of unknown origin, PUO]) based on diagnosis. The overall value of clinical investigations was assessed by classifying them as 'enabling', 'assisting' or 'no assistance' in achieving each diagnosis. The effect of treatment before referral was assessed for any association with temperature at presentation and ability to make a diagnosis (PUO vs other disease categories). One hundred and six cases were identified. The most common cause of pyrexia was feline infectious peritonitis (22 cats, 20.8%) and the largest disease category was infectious (41/106, 38.7%). Inflammatory conditions were found in 19 (17.9%) cats, neoplasia in 13 (12.3%), miscellaneous causes in 11 (10.4%) and immune-mediated disease in six (5.7%). No diagnosis was reached in 16 (15.0%) cats, often despite extensive diagnostic investigations. Cytology and histopathology most often 'enabled' or 'assisted' in obtaining a diagnosis. Most cats (91, 85.8%) received treatment before referral, with antimicrobial treatment given to 87 (82.1%). Prior treatment before referral was not associated with temperature at presentation nor with success in establishing a diagnosis. This is the first study investigating causes of pyrexia in cats. Infectious diseases were most common and immune-mediated diseases were comparatively rare.
Pennisi, Maria Grazia; Hartmann, Katrin; Addie, Diane D; Lutz, Hans; Gruffydd-Jones, Tim; Boucraut-Baralon, Corine; Egberink, Herman; Frymus, Tadeusz; Horzinek, Marian C; Hosie, Margaret J; Lloret, Albert; Marsilio, Fulvio; Radford, Alan D; Thiry, Etienne; Truyen, Uwe; Möstl, Karin
The availability of blood components has increased the number of indications for transfusing cats, and fresh whole blood is readily accessible to clinicians because it can be taken from in-house donor cats or 'volunteer' feline blood donors. A certain amount of risk remains to the recipient cat, as immediate or delayed adverse reactions can occur during or after transfusion, related to immunemediated mechanisms. This article, however, focuses on adverse events caused by infectious agents, which may originate either from contamination of blood following incorrect collection, storage or transfusion, or from transfusion of contaminated blood obtained from an infected donor. In cats, blood cannot be collected through a closed system and, therefore, collection of donor blood requires a multi-step manipulation of syringes and other devices. It is crucial that each step of the procedure is performed under the strictest aseptic conditions and that bacterial contamination of blood bags is prevented, as bacterial endotoxins can cause an immediate febrile reaction or even fatal shock in the recipient cat. With a view to preventing transmission of blood-borne infectious diseases, the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine has adopted basic criteria for selecting pathogens to be tested for in donor pets. The worldwide core screening panel for donor cats includes feline leukaemia virus, feline immunodeficiency virus, Bartonella species and feline haemoplasma. The list should be adapted to the local epidemiological situation concerning other vector-borne feline infections. The most practical, rapid and inexpensive measure to reduce transfusion risk is to check the risk profile of donor cats on the basis of a written questionnaire. Blood transfusion can never, however, be considered entirely safe. © Published by SAGE on behalf of ISFM and AAFP 2015.
Legatti, Sabrina Almeida Moreira; Legatti, Emerson; Botan, Andresa Graciutti; Camargo, Samira Esteves Afonso; Agarwal, Arnav; Barretti, Pasqual; Paes, Antônio Carlos
Introduction Risk of mortality in the setting of acute kidney injury (AKI) in cats and dogs remains unclear. Objectives To evaluate the incidence of mortality in cats and dogs with AKI based on etiology (i.e. infectious versus non-infectious; receiving dialysis versus conservative treatment). Materials and methods Ovid Medline, EMBASE, and LILACS were searched up to July 2016. Articles were deemed eligible if they were case series studies evaluating the incidence of all-cause mortality in cats and dogs with AKI, regardless of etiology or the nature of treatment. Results Eighteen case series involving 1,201animalsproved eligible. The pooled proportions for overall mortality were: cats53.1% [95% CI 0.475, 0.586; I2 = 11,9%, p = 0.3352]; dogs 45.0% [95% CI 0.33, 0.58; I2 = 91.5%, P dogs, 19.2% [95% CI 0.134, 0.258; I2 = 37.7%, P = 0.0982]; AKI due non-infectious etiology for cats and dogs, 59.9% [95% CI 0.532, 0.663; I2 = 51.0%, P = 0.0211]. Conclusion Our findings suggest higher rates of overall mortality in cats and dogs with AKI due to non-infectious etiologies relative to infectious etiologies, and showed non-significant differences in terms of higher rates associated with dialysis compared to conservative management. Further investigations regarding optimal time to initiate dialysis and the development of clinical models to prognosticate the course of disease and guide optimal treatment initiation for less severe cases of AKI in cats and dogs is warranted. PMID:29370180
Mohammad T. Rahimi
Full Text Available Toxoplasma gondii is a cosmopolitan zoonotic intracellular coccidian of the phylum Apicomplexa infecting warm-blooded animals and human beings. This protozoan causes a significant public health problem in humans and imposes considerable economic losses and damages to husbandry industries. The final host, cats, accounts for all of these significant burdens. Hence the present study was designed to analyse and review the overall prevalence rate of T. gondii infection in cats in Iran for the first time. In the present study data collection (published and unpublished papers, abstracts of proceedings of national parasitology congresses and dissertations was systematically undertaken on electronic databases including PubMed, Google Scholar, Ebsco, Science Direct, Scopus, Magiran, Irandoc, IranMedex and Scientific Information Database. A total of 21 studies from 1975 to 2013 reporting prevalence of Toxoplasma infection in cats from different areas in Iran met the eligibility criteria. The pooled proportion of toxoplasmosis using the random-effect model amongst cats was estimated at 33.6% (95% confidence interval [CI] 22.05–46.41. The prevalence rate of cat toxoplasmosis in various regions of Iran ranged from 1.2% to 89.2%. Firstly, this study establishes a crude prevalence rate of T. gondii infection in cats. Secondly, it discusses the role of significant risk factors including sex, age and being either household or stray cats, in the epidemiology of the disease. Furthermore, the current study determines gaps and drawbacks in the prior studies that are useful to keep in mind to assist in designing more accurate investigations in future.
Alho, Ana Margarida; Lima, Clara; Latrofa, Maria Stefania; Colella, Vito; Ravagnan, Silvia; Capelli, Gioia; Madeira de Carvalho, Luís; Cardoso, Luís; Otranto, Domenico
Vector-borne diseases (VBDs) have been increasingly reported in dogs and cats worldwide. However, no data are currently available regarding canine and feline VBDs in Qatar and limited information is available from other Persian Gulf countries. Blood samples from 98 client-owned animals (i.e. 64 dogs and 34 cats) living in Doha (Qatar) were collected and the presence of genomic DNA of Anaplasma spp., Babesia spp., Dirofilaria spp., Ehrlichia spp., Hepatozoon spp., Mycoplasma spp. and Rickettsia spp. was assessed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR), real time-PCR (rt-PCR) and sequence analysis. Of the 64 dogs, 12 (18.8%) were infected with at least one pathogen (i.e. 7.8% with Mycoplasma spp., 4.7% with Babesia vogeli, 3.1% with Ehrlichia canis, and 1.6% with Anaplasma platys, Babesia gibsoni and Hepatozoon canis, each). One of the 12 dogs was co-infected with B. vogeli and E. canis. Of the 34 cats, seven (20.6%) animals were infected with at least one pathogen (i.e. 5.9% were positive for Mycoplasma spp., and 2.9% for Babesia felis, B. vogeli, E. canis, "Candidatus Mycoplasma haemominutum" and Mycoplasma haemofelis, each). No dogs or cats were positive for Dirofilaria spp. or Rickettsia spp. Although the sample sizes of dogs and cats herein analysed was moderately small, data from this study report the occurrence of A. platys, B. vogeli, B. gibsoni, E. canis, H. canis and Mycoplasma spp. in domestic dogs and of B. felis, B. vogeli, "Candidatus M. haemominutum", E. canis and M. haemofelis in domestic cats from Qatar. Further investigations along with prophylactic measures are strongly recommended in order to reduce the risk of dogs and cats acquiring VBDs in Qatar.
Prieur, D J; Collier, L L
Thirteen cats with Chediak-Higashi syndrome and 22 control cats from the same colony, were evaluated for neutropenia. The absolute neutrophil counts of the Chediak-Higashi syndrome cats were significantly less (P less than 0.05) than those of the control cats. It is concluded that Chediak-Higashi syndrome cats, like Chediak-Higashi syndrome humans, have a neutropenia associated with the other manifestations of the syndrome. Lysozyme activity which was undetectable in the serum of both Chediak-Higashi syndrome and control cats was not of use for determining if the neutropenia was the result of neutrophil destruction. PMID:3651899
Walker, Jessica K; Bruce, Stephanie J; Dale, Arnja R
Cat predation is a prominent issue in New Zealand that provokes strong and opposing views. We explored, via 1011 face-to-face questionnaires, public opinion on (a) support for a National Cat Management Strategy (78% support); (b) concern regarding predation of wildlife by owned and un-owned cats (managed stray, unmanaged stray, and feral cats); (c) the acceptability of management techniques for owned cats; and (d) the acceptability of population management techniques for un-owned cats. The highest concern was expressed regarding the predation of non-native and native wildlife by feral cats (60 and 86% repectively), followed by unmanaged stray cats (59 and 86% respectively), managed stray cats (54 and 82% respectively), and finally owned cats (38 and 69% repectively). Limits to the number of cats owned and cat restriction zones received high levels of support (>65%), and compulsory microchipping, Council registration, and de-sexing were supported by the majority (>58%). Public support of population control methods for unowned cats was explored, and the influence of participant demographic variables on responses is described. These findings provide insight into public opinion regarding the management of cats in New Zealand, which should be considered during the development of legislation in this area.
Jessica K. Walker
Full Text Available Cat predation is a prominent issue in New Zealand that provokes strong and opposing views. We explored, via 1011 face-to-face questionnaires, public opinion on (a support for a National Cat Management Strategy (78% support; (b concern regarding predation of wildlife by owned and un-owned cats (managed stray, unmanaged stray, and feral cats; (c the acceptability of management techniques for owned cats; and (d the acceptability of population management techniques for un-owned cats. The highest concern was expressed regarding the predation of non-native and native wildlife by feral cats (60 and 86% repectively, followed by unmanaged stray cats (59 and 86% respectively, managed stray cats (54 and 82% respectively, and finally owned cats (38 and 69% repectively. Limits to the number of cats owned and cat restriction zones received high levels of support (>65%, and compulsory microchipping, Council registration, and de-sexing were supported by the majority (>58%. Public support of population control methods for unowned cats was explored, and the influence of participant demographic variables on responses is described. These findings provide insight into public opinion regarding the management of cats in New Zealand, which should be considered during the development of legislation in this area.
McLeod, Lynette J; Hine, Donald W; Bengsen, Andrew J
Free-roaming domestic cats, Felis catus, are a major public nuisance in neighbourhoods across the world, and have been linked to biodiversity loss and a host of community health problems. Owners who let their cats roam, also place their cats at risk of serious injury. One management strategy that is gaining considerable support involves encouraging cat owners to contain their pets within their property. Contemporary behaviour change models highlight the importance of identifying drivers and barriers that encourage and discourage target behaviours such as cat containment. Results from a random dial phone survey of 356 cat owners in northern Tasmania identified four distinct cat containment profiles: owners who contained their cat all the time, owners who only contained their cat at night, owners who sporadically contained their cat with no set routine, and owners who made no attempt to contain their pet. Our results indicated that cat-owners' decisions to contain or not contain their cats were guided by a range of factors including owners' beliefs about their ability to implement an effective containment strategy and their views about the physical and psychological needs of their cats. The results are discussed in terms of improving the behavioural effectiveness of cat containment interventions by selecting appropriate behavioural change tools for the identified drivers and barriers, and developing targeted engagement strategies and messaging. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Munirah Abd Rashid
Full Text Available Parinaud’s oculoglandular syndrome (POS is an atypical manifestation of cat-scratch disease. Many reported cases of POS are secondary from Bartonella henselae but none has been reported from Southeast Asian region. This case series report two cases of POS. Both cases presented with unilateral granulomatous conjunctivitis and ipsilateral periauricular lymph node swelling. Both had positive history of contact with cats. One patient was treated with oral ciprofloxacin for two weeks while the another patient was treated with oral azithromycin for six weeks. Both cases recovered well.
McSherry, B. J.; Thomson, R. G.; Willoughby, R. A.
The level of delta amino levulinic acid (ALA) was determined in the urine of normal cows and dogs, and in the urine of dogs, cows and cats with a variety of diseases. ALA was measured in the urine of two steers and two dogs experimentally poisoned with lead. Experimental lead poisoning was followed by increased excretion of ALA in the urine. Higher levels of ALA were present in the urine of sick dogs and cats than in the urine of sick cows. PMID:4253462