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Sample records for cat diseases

  1. Systemic Cat Scratch Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui-Min Liao

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Systemic cat scratch disease (CSD is often associated with prolonged fever and microabscesses in the liver and/or spleen. We report a case of systemic CSD with hepatic, splenic and renal involvement in an aboriginal child in Taiwan. A previously healthy 9-year-old girl had an intermittent fever for about 17 days, and complained of abdominal pain, headache and weight loss. Abdominal computed tomography showed multiple tiny hypodense nodular lesions in the spleen and both kidneys. Laparotomy revealed multiple soft, whitishtan lesions on the surface of the liver and spleen. Histopathologic examination of a biopsy specimen of the spleen showed necrotizing granulomatous inflammation with central necrosis surrounded by epithelioid cells and occasional Langhans' giant cells, strongly suggestive of Bartonella henselae infection. History revealed close contact with a cat. B. henselae DNA was detected by polymerase chain reaction in the tissue specimen, and the single antibody titer against B. henselae was greater than 1:2048. These results confirmed the diagnosis of visceral CSD caused by B. henselae. The patient's symptoms resolved after treatment with rifampin and tetracycline. This case illustrates the need for inclusion of systemic CSD in patients with fever of unknown origin and abdominal pain.

  2. Cat-Scratch Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... CDC.gov . Healthy Pets, Healthy People About Pets & People Pets & Other Animals Birds Cats Dogs Farm Animals Backyard ... to have CSD and spread it to people, persons with a weakened immune system should ... Play rough with your pets because they may scratch and bite. Allow cats ...

  3. Sonography of cat scratch disease.

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    Melville, David M; Jacobson, Jon A; Downie, Brian; Biermann, J Sybil; Kim, Sung Moon; Yablon, Corrie M

    2015-03-01

    To characterize the sonographic features of cat scratch disease and to identify features that allow differentiation from other causes of medial epitrochlear masses. After Institutional Review Board approval was obtained, patients who underwent sonography for a medial epitrochlear mass or lymph node were identified via the radiology information system. Patients were divided into 2 groups: cat scratch disease and non-cat scratch disease, based on pathologic results and clinical information. Sonograms were retrospectively reviewed and characterized with respect to dimension, shape (round, oval, or lobular), symmetry, location (subcutaneous or intramuscular), multiplicity, echogenicity (anechoic, hypoechoic, isoechoic, hyperechoic, or mixed), hyperechoic hilum (present or absent), adjacent anechoic or hypoechoic area, hyperemia (present or absent), pattern of hyperemia if present (central, peripheral, or mixed), increased posterior through-transmission (present or absent), and shadowing (present or absent). Sonographic findings were compared between the patients with and without cat scratch disease. The final patient group consisted of 5 cases of cat scratch disease and 16 cases of other causes of medial epitrochlear masses. The 2 sonographic findings that were significantly different between the cat scratch disease and non-cat scratch disease cases included mass asymmetry (P = .0062) and the presence of a hyperechoic hilum (P = .0075). The other sonographic findings showed no significant differences between the groups. The sonographic finding of an epitrochlear mass due to cat scratch disease most commonly is that of a hypoechoic lobular or oval mass with central hyperemia and a possible adjacent fluid collection; however, the presence of asymmetry and a hyperechoic hilum differentiate cat scratch disease from other etiologies. © 2015 by the American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine.

  4. Cat-scratch disease osteomyelitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heye, S.; Matthijs, P.; Campenhoudt, M. van; Wallon, J.

    2003-01-01

    We report on a patient who presented with osteomyelitis of a rib and adjacent abscess as a rare and atypical manifestation of cat-scratch disease. Radiographic findings showed an osteolytic lesion with adjacent mass. Biopsy, serology and polymerase chain reaction technique are essential for the final diagnosis. Prognosis is excellent with full recovery. (orig.)

  5. Cats

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    ... CDC.gov . Healthy Pets, Healthy People About Pets & People Pets & Other Animals Birds Cats Dogs Farm Animals Backyard ... pets CDC Podcasts Zoonoses in the Bedroom CDC People Can Catch Diseases from Their Pets CDC Helpful books and references Cat-associated outbreaks ...

  6. Resistive index for kidney evaluation in normal and diseased cats.

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    Tipisca, Vlad; Murino, Carla; Cortese, Laura; Mennonna, Giuseppina; Auletta, Luigi; Vulpe, Vasile; Meomartino, Leonardo

    2016-06-01

    The objectives were to determine the resistive index (RI) in normal cats and in cats with various renal diseases, and to evaluate the effect of age on RI. The subjects were cats that had ultrasonography (US) of the urinary tract and RI measurement at our centre between January 2003 and April 2014. Based on clinical evaluation, biochemical and haematological tests, urinalysis and US, the cats were classified as healthy or diseased. RI measurements were made from the interlobar or arcuate arteries. Data were analysed for differences between the right and the left kidney, the two sexes, different age groups in healthy cats, and between healthy and diseased cats. A total of 116 cats (68 males, 48 females) were included: 24 healthy and 92 diseased. In the healthy cats, RI (mean ± SD) differed significantly (P = 0.02) between the right kidney (0.54 ± 0.07) and the left kidney (0.59 ± 0.08). For the left kidney, RI was significantly higher in cats with chronic kidney disease (0.73 ± 0.12) and acute kidney injury (0.72 ± 0.08) (P = 0.0008). For the right kidney, RI was significantly higher in cats with chronic kidney disease (0.72 ± 0.11), acute kidney injury (0.74 ± 0.08), polycystic kidney disease (0.77 ± 0.11) and renal tumour (0.74 ± 0.001) (P cats, useful in the differential diagnosis of diffuse renal diseases. While it does not change with the age of the cat, ultrasonographers should be aware that RI may differ between the two kidneys. © ISFM and AAFP 2015.

  7. Renal disease in cats infected with feline immunodeficiency virus.

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    Baxter, K J; Levy, J K; Edinboro, C H; Vaden, S L; Tompkins, M B

    2012-01-01

    Feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection cause similar clinical syndromes of immune dysregulation, opportunistic infections, inflammatory diseases, and neoplasia. Renal disease is the 4th most common cause of death associated with HIV infection. To investigate the association between FIV infection and renal disease in cats. Client-owned cats (153 FIV-infected, 306 FIV-noninfected) and specific-pathogen-free (SPF) research colony cats (95 FIV-infected, 98 FIV-noninfected). A mixed retrospective/prospective cross-sectional study. Blood urea nitrogen (BUN), serum creatinine, urine specific gravity (USG), and urine protein:creatinine ratio (UPC) data were compared between FIV-infected and FIV-noninfected cats. In FIV-infected cats, total CD4+ and CD8+ T lymphocytes were measured using flow cytometry, and CD4+:CD8+ T lymphocyte ratio was calculated. Renal azotemia was defined as a serum creatinine ≥ 1.9 mg/dL with USG ≤ 1.035. Proteinuria was defined as a UPC > 0.4 with an inactive urine sediment. Among the client-owned cats, no association was detected between FIV infection and renal azotemia (P = .24); however, a greater proportion of FIV-infected cats were proteinuric (25.0%, 16 of 64 cats) compared to FIV-noninfected cats (10.3%, 20 of 195 cats) (P < .01). Neither neuter status nor health status were risk factors for proteinuria in FIV-infected cats, but UPC was positively correlated with the CD4+:CD8+ T lymphocyte ratio (Spearman's rho = 0.37, P = .01). Among the SPF research colony cats, no association was detected between FIV infection and renal azotemia (P = .21) or proteinuria (P = .25). Proteinuria but not azotemia was associated with natural FIV infection. Copyright © 2012 by the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine.

  8. Whole-Blood Taurine Concentrations in Cats With Intestinal Disease.

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    Kathrani, A; Fascetti, A J; Larsen, J A; Maunder, C; Hall, E J

    2017-07-01

    Increased delivery of taurine-conjugated bile acids to the distal bowel can lead to dysbiosis resulting in colitis in mouse models of inflammatory bowel disease. A similar situation also could occur in cats with intestinal disease and might therefore result in decreased whole-body taurine concentration. To determine whether whole-blood taurine concentrations are decreased at the time of diagnosis in cats with intestinal disease and to correlate concentrations with clinical and laboratory variables. Twenty-one cats with chronic inflammatory enteropathy and 7 cats with intestinal neoplasia from the University of Bristol. Cats that had undergone a thorough investigation consisting of a CBC, serum biochemistry, serum cobalamin and folate concentrations, transabdominal ultrasound examination and histopathology of intestinal biopsy specimens, as well as additional testing if indicated, were included. Whole-blood from these cats collected at the time of histologic diagnosis and stored in ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid was retrospectively analyzed for taurine with an automated high-performance liquid chromatography amino acid analyzer. Although whole-blood taurine concentrations remained within the reference range, those cats with predominantly large intestinal clinical signs had significantly lower concentrations than did cats with small intestinal and mixed bowel clinical signs (P = 0.033) and this difference also was significant when assessed only in cats with chronic inflammatory enteropathy (P = 0.019). Additional studies are needed to determine whether large intestinal signs in cats with chronic inflammatory enteropathy are caused by alterations in the microbiota arising as a consequence of increased delivery of taurine-conjugated bile acids. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine.

  9. Evaluating Sucralfate as a Phosphate Binder in Normal Cats and Cats with Chronic Kidney Disease.

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    Quimby, Jessica; Lappin, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Control of hyperphosphatemia is an important part of the management of chronic kidney disease (CKD). The purpose of this study was to determine the efficacy of sucralfate as a phosphate binder in normal cats and normophosphatemic CKD cats. A 500 mg sucralfate slurry was administered orally q 8 hr for 2 wk, and serum phosphorus, urine fractional excretion of phosphorus, and fecal phosphorus concentrations were measured. In normal cats treated with sucralfate, significant changes in serum phosphorus concentration or urinary excretion of phosphorus were not detected, and vomiting occurred after 14.7% of administrations. Of the five normophosphatemic cats with CKD treated with sucralfate, three experienced clinical decompensation, including vomiting, anorexia, constipation, and increased azotemia. Administration of sucralfate did not result in significant changes in fecal phosphorus concentration in these cats. The effects of sucralfate administration on serum phosphorus concentration and urinary excretion of phosphorus in CKD cats was difficult to determine because of dehydration and worsening azotemia associated with decompensation. Due to side effects and the apparent lack of efficacy of the medication, the study was discontinued. This study was unable to confirm efficacy of this sucralfate formulation as a phosphate binder, and side effects were problematic during the study.

  10. Cardiopulmonary disease in the geriatric dog and cat

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    Miller, M. S.; Tilley, L. P.; Smith, F.W.K. Jr.

    1989-01-15

    The incidence of cardiopulmonary disease increases with age. Degenerative valvular disease, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and arrhythmias are common in the geriatric dog. Chronic bronchial disease, pulmonary neoplasia, and arrhythmias occur in the geriatric cat. Systemic diseases in both species often show cardiopulmonary manifestations. Medical management to treat the underlying disease and to control clinical signs is complicated by altered absorption, metabolism, and elimination of drugs.

  11. Cardiopulmonary disease in the geriatric dog and cat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, M.S.; Tilley, L.P.; Smith, F.W.K. Jr.

    1989-01-01

    The incidence of cardiopulmonary disease increases with age. Degenerative valvular disease, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and arrhythmias are common in the geriatric dog. Chronic bronchial disease, pulmonary neoplasia, and arrhythmias occur in the geriatric cat. Systemic diseases in both species often show cardiopulmonary manifestations. Medical management to treat the underlying disease and to control clinical signs is complicated by altered absorption, metabolism, and elimination of drugs

  12. Percutaneous cholecystocentesis in cats with suspected hepatobiliary disease.

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    Byfield, Victoria L; Callahan Clark, Julie E; Turek, Bradley J; Bradley, Charles W; Rondeau, Mark P

    2017-12-01

    Objectives The objective was to evaluate the safety and diagnostic utility of percutaneous ultrasound-guided cholecystocentesis (PUC) in cats with suspected hepatobiliary disease. Methods Medical records of 83 cats with suspected hepatobiliary disease that underwent PUC were retrospectively reviewed. Results At the time of PUC, at least one additional procedure was performed in 79/83 cats, including hepatic aspiration and/or biopsy (n = 75) and splenic aspiration (n = 18). Complications were noted in 14/83 cases, including increased abdominal fluid (n = 11), needle-tip occlusion (n = 1), failed first attempt to penetrate the gall bladder wall (n = 1) and pneumoperitoneum (n = 1). There were no reports of gall bladder rupture, bile peritonitis or hypotension necessitating treatment with vasopressor medication. Blood products were administered to 7/83 (8%) cats. Seventy-two cats (87%) survived to discharge. Of the cats that were euthanized (9/83) or died (2/83), none were reported as a definitive consequence of PUC. Bacteria were identified cytologically in 10/71 samples (14%); all 10 had a positive aerobic bacterial culture. Bile culture was positive in 11/80 samples (14%). Of the cases with a positive bile culture, cytological description of bacteria corresponded to the organism cultured in fewer than 50% of cases. The most common cytologic diagnosis was hepatic lipidosis (49/66). The most common histopathologic diagnosis was cholangitis (10/21). Conclusions and relevance PUC was safe in this group of cats with suspected hepatobiliary disease. Complications were likely associated with ancillary procedures performed at the time of PUC. Bile analysis yielded an abnormal result in nearly one-third of cats with suspected hepatobiliary disease. Complete agreement between bile cytology and culture was lacking. Further evaluation of the correlation between bile cytology and bile culture is warranted.

  13. Atypical form of cat scratch disease in immunocompetent patient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kojić Miroslav

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Cat scratch disease (CSD is an acute infectious disease with benign course caused by the bacteria Bartonella henselae. Clinically, it is usually manifested as regional lymphadenopathy and mild infective syndrome. Rare forms of the disease which usually occur in immunocompromised presons are: encephalitis, transverse myelitis, neuroretinitis, granulomatosus conjunctivitis, arthritis, hepatitis etc. Case report. We presented an atypical form of cat scratch disease in a young immunocompetent female person. The disease was manifested with prolonged fever, rash, purulent lymphadenitis and hepatitis. The diagnosis was based on characteristic patohystological finding and exclusion of the other causes of lymphadenopathy. The patient was treated by antibiotics for a few weeks, with surgical incision and drainage of the purulent lymphadenitis. Conclusion. Atypical forms of CSD could be an important differential-diagnostic problem, especially if there is no opportunity for serological confirmation of the disease.

  14. [Eye and cat scratch disease: A case series].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deschasse, C; Bielefeld, P; Muselier, A; Bour, J B; Besancenot, J F; Garcher, C C; Bron, A M

    2016-02-01

    Cat scratch disease is a pleiomorphic condition, sometimes with isolated ophthalmic involvement. We report the clinical observations of seven cases with ophthalmologic manifestations of cat scratch disease. There were seven patients, with a median age of 52 years, of whom five were women and three had unilateral involvement. Six exhibited Leber's stellate neuroretinitis, an incomplete syndrome in two cases, and one associated with chorioretinal foci. One patient had isolated retinal infiltrates. The diagnosis of cat scratch disease was confirmed by Bartonella henselae serology, positive in all cases. All patients received treatment with doxycycline. Ocular complications (with optic atrophy and macular retinal pigment epithelial changes) were noted in five cases. Ocular bartonellosis is an atypical clinical form. It requires a directed ancillary work-up with serology or PCR, which has the peculiarity of being highly specific if not very sensitive. Treatment is above all preventive. Antibiotics may be initiated. Cat scratch disease must be excluded in the work-up of posterior uveitis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  15. Imaging Manifestations in Systemic Cat Scratch Disease: Case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forero M, Julian F; Perez A, Maria C; Cerquera C, Fredy M

    2011-01-01

    Cat scratch disease is a zoonosis caused by Bartonella henselae, which is transmitted by scratches, bites or exposition to cats saliva (1). The disease typically manifests with local lymphadenitis after bacterial inoculation in the skin, however, there is an atypical systemic presentation in 5 to 10% of patients, which causes unspecific symptoms. There are several imaging findings that lead the radiologist to consider this diagnosis, in order to prevent an invasive procedure, especially if we consider that the majority of cases occur in the pediatric population (2,3). Although in the majority of cases the symptoms and imaging findings resolve spontaneously, there are specific indications like the systemic form of the disease,which requires antibiotic treatment. In the present article we are exposing a case report from Fundacion Cardioinfantil; we will review some epidemiologic aspects, clinical manifestations, diagnostic methods as well as imaging findings in Ultrasonography, Computed Tomography, Magnetic Resonance and Nuclear Medicine.

  16. Imaging Manifestations in Systemic Cat Scratch Disease: Case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forero Melo, Julian Francisco; Perez Alvarado, Maria Carolina; Cerquera Cabrera, Fredy Martin

    2011-01-01

    Cat scratch disease is a zoonosis caused by Bartonella henselae, which is transmitted by scratches, bites or exposition to cats saliva (1). The disease typically manifests with local lymphadenitis after bacterial inoculation in the skin, however, there is an atypical systemic presentation in 5 to 10% of patients, which causes unspecific symptoms. There are several imaging findings that lead the radiologist to consider this diagnosis, in order to prevent an invasive procedure, especially if we consider that the majority of cases occur in the pediatric population (2,3). Although in the majority of cases the symptoms and imaging findings resolve spontaneously, there are specific indications like the systemic form of the disease, which requires antibiotic treatment. In the present article we are exposing a case report from Fundacion Cardio infantil; we will review some epidemiologic aspects, clinical manifestations, diagnostic methods as well as imaging findings in Ultrasonography, Computed Tomography, Magnetic Resonance and Nuclear Medicine.

  17. Somatostatin receptor scintigraphy in patients with cat-scratch disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krause, R.; Schnedl, W.J.; Hoier, S.; Piswanger-Soelkner, C.; Lipp, R.W.; Daxboeck, F.; Reisinger, E.C.

    2006-01-01

    Aim: somatostatin receptor scintigraphy images various neoplastic, granulomatous, and auto-immun diseases. Cat-scratch disease in an infectious granulomatous disease usually affecting the lymphnodes. It is not known whether cat-scratch disease provides positive somatostatin receptor scintigrams. Patients, methods: twelve patients with lymphadenitis and suspected cat-scratch disease were investigated by immunofluorescence antibody testing and somatostatin receptor scintigraphy. Suppurated lymphnodes were extracted or drained and Bartonella henselae specific PCR was then performed. Results: eleven of 12 patients showed IgG antibodies against B. henselea. SRS showed positive scintigraphic results in 6 of 11 patients with CSD. B. henselae DNA was detected in tissue of lymphnodes from 4 of 5 patients with lymphnode extraction or lymphnode drainage. SRS demonstrated positive scintigrams in all patients with a positive PCR. In one patient with suspected CSD SRS was negative as well as antibody testing. Conclusion: somatostatin receptor scintigraphy correlated with positive Bartonella henselae specific PCR tests and positive Bartonella henselae specific antibody tests in patients with CSD. (orig.)

  18. Somatostatin receptor scintigraphy in patients with cat-scratch disease

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    Krause, R.; Schnedl, W.J.; Hoier, S. [Div. of Infectious Diseases, Dept. of Internal Medicine, Univ. Graz (Austria); Piswanger-Soelkner, C.; Lipp, R.W. [Div. of Nuclear Medicine, Dept. of Internal Medicine, Univ. Graz (Austria); Daxboeck, F. [Clinical Inst. for Hygiene and Medical Microbiology, Div. of Hospital Hygiene, Univ. of Vienna (Austria); Reisinger, E.C. [Div. of Infectious Diseases and Tropical Medicine, Dept. of Internal Medicine, Univ. Rostock (Germany)

    2006-07-01

    Aim: somatostatin receptor scintigraphy images various neoplastic, granulomatous, and auto-immun diseases. Cat-scratch disease in an infectious granulomatous disease usually affecting the lymphnodes. It is not known whether cat-scratch disease provides positive somatostatin receptor scintigrams. Patients, methods: twelve patients with lymphadenitis and suspected cat-scratch disease were investigated by immunofluorescence antibody testing and somatostatin receptor scintigraphy. Suppurated lymphnodes were extracted or drained and Bartonella henselae specific PCR was then performed. Results: eleven of 12 patients showed IgG antibodies against B. henselea. SRS showed positive scintigraphic results in 6 of 11 patients with CSD. B. henselae DNA was detected in tissue of lymphnodes from 4 of 5 patients with lymphnode extraction or lymphnode drainage. SRS demonstrated positive scintigrams in all patients with a positive PCR. In one patient with suspected CSD SRS was negative as well as antibody testing. Conclusion: somatostatin receptor scintigraphy correlated with positive Bartonella henselae specific PCR tests and positive Bartonella henselae specific antibody tests in patients with CSD. (orig.)

  19. A review of histiocytic diseases of dogs and cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, P F

    2014-01-01

    Histiocytic proliferative disorders are commonly observed in dogs and less often cats. Histiocytic disorders occur in most of the dendritic cell (DC) lineages. Canine cutaneous histiocytoma originates from Langerhans cells (LCs) indicated by expression of CD1a, CD11c/CD18, and E-cadherin. When histiocytomas occur as multiple lesions in skin with optional metastasis to lymph nodes and internal organs, the disease resembles cutaneous Langerhans cell histiocytosis of humans. Langerhans cell disorders do not occur in feline skin. Feline pulmonary LCH has been recognized as a cause of respiratory failure due to diffuse pulmonary infiltration by histiocytes, which express CD18 and E-cadherin and contain Birbeck's granules. In dogs and cats, histiocytic sarcomas (HS) arise from interstitial DCs that occur in most tissues of the body. Histiocytic sarcomas begin as localized lesions, which rapidly disseminate to many organs. Primary sites include spleen, lung, skin, brain (meninges), lymph node, bone marrow, and synovial tissues of limbs. An indolent form of localized HS, progressive histiocytosis, originates in the skin of cats. Hemophagocytic HS originates in splenic red pulp and bone marrow macrophages in dogs and cats. In dogs, histiocytes in hemophagocytic HS express CD11d/CD18, which is a leuko-integrin highly expressed by macrophages in splenic red pulp and bone marrow. Canine reactive histiocytic diseases, systemic histiocytosis (SH) and cutaneous histiocytosis, are complex inflammatory diseases with underlying immune dysregulation. The lesions are dominated by activated interstitial DCs and lymphocytes, which invade vessel walls and extend as vasocentric infiltrates in skin, lymph nodes, and internal organs (SH).

  20. Biofilm Implication in Oral Diseases of Dogs and Cats

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    Csilla Zambori

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The importance of biofilm in disease processes in humans and animals is now widely recognized. In animal species,the risk of infection is probably greater than the risk in humans. This is due to the difference in animal housing andliving environments – animals naturally live in environments with a large and much more diverse microbialcommunity. Most oral bacteria live symbiotically in biofilm. This symbiotic association gives the bacteria differentcommunal properties than individual planktonic bacteria.Bacteria that form biofilm live and develop in communities which are an important property for dental plaqueformation that leads to dental calculus formation, periodontal diseases, dental caries and systemic diseases.The objective of this study is to reveal the role of dental plaque (oral biofilm in pathogenesis of dental calculus,periodontal disease and dental caries in dogs and cats.

  1. Osteopetrosis-like disease in a cat with respiratory distress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujita, M.; Takaishi, Y.; Nagae, H.; Watanabe, N.; Hasegawa, D.; Taniguchi, A.; Orima, H.

    2007-01-01

    Magnetic resonance (MR) and computed tomography (CT) were performed in an 8-year-old, spayed female cat with chronic effort respiration at the inspiration phase and stertor. Increased bone opacity in the areas of the head, neck and thorax were observed on radiography. MR images showed no signal intensity on both transverse T1WI and T2WI of the nasal cavity. CT revealed increased bone density and hypertrophy of the nasal turbinate and a narrowed nasal passage. From these results, we concluded this case had osteopetrosis-like disease, and that the respiratory distress was caused by hypertrophy of the nasal turbinate

  2. Prevalence of infectious diseases in feral cats in Northern Florida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luria, Brian J; Levy, Julie K; Lappin, Michael R; Breitschwerdt, Edward B; Legendre, Alfred M; Hernandez, Jorge A; Gorman, Shawn P; Lee, Irene T

    2004-10-01

    Objectives of this study were to determine prevalence of infection in feral cats in Northern Florida with a select group of infectious organisms and to determine risk factors for infection. Blood samples or sera from 553 cats were tested with a panel of antibody, antigen or PCR assays. Male cats were at higher risk for FIV, Mycoplasma haemofelis, and M. haemominutum. Infection with either FeLV or FIV was associated with increased risk for coinfection with the other retrovirus, M. haemofelis, or M. haemominutum. Bartonella henselae had the highest prevalence and was the only organism that did not have any associated risk for coinfection with other organisms. Feral cats in this study had similar or lower prevalence rates of infections than those published for pet cats in the United States. Thus, feral cats assessed in this study appear to be of no greater risk to human beings or other cats than pet cats.

  3. CAT SCRATCH DISEASE: RESULTS OF COMPLEMENT-FIXATION AND SKIN TESTS

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    Serologic and skin-testing data on a group of patients having cat scratch disease are presented to demonstrate a possible relationship to the psitt...indicate that the incidence of positive serologic reactions with the psitt-LGV group antigen is consistently higher in patients with cat scratch disease...patients, 2 of 5 did not respond with positive skin reactions when tested with cat scratch antigen, and at least 2 of the remaining 3 responded in a manner difficult to interpret.

  4. Serum Beta Hydroxybutyrate Concentrations in Cats with Chronic Kidney Disease, Hyperthyroidism, or Hepatic Lipidosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorman, L; Sharkey, L C; Armstrong, P J; Little, K; Rendahl, A

    2016-01-01

    Ketones, including beta hydroxybutyrate (BHB), are produced in conditions of negative energy balance and decreased glucose utilization. Serum BHB concentrations in cats are poorly characterized in diseases other than diabetes mellitus. Serum BHB concentrations will be increased in cats with chronic kidney disease (CKD), hyperthyroidism (HT), or hepatic lipidosis (HL). Twenty-eight client-owned cats with CKD, 34 cats with HT, and 15 cats with HL; 43 healthy cats. Prospective observational study. Serum BHB concentrations were measured at admission in cats with CKD, HT, and HL, for comparison with a reference interval established using healthy cats. Results of dipstick urine ketone measurement, when available, were compared to BHB measurement. Beta hydroxybutyrate was above the reference interval (<0.11 mmol/L) in 6/28 cats (21%) with CKD, 7/34 cats (20%) with HT, and 11/15 cats (73%) with HL, significantly exceeding the expected 2.5% above the reference interval for healthy cats (P < .001 for all groups). Elevations were mild in CKD and HT groups (median BHB 0.1 mmol/L for both groups, 80th percentile 0.12 and 0.11 mmol/L, respectively), but more marked in HL cats (median BHB 0.2 mmol/L, 80th percentile 0.84 mmol/L). None of 11 cats with increased serum BHB concentration having urine dipstick analysis performed within 24 h of sampling for BHB were ketonuric. Increases in serum BHB concentrations occur in cats with CKD, HT, and HL, and might provide an useful index of catabolism. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine.

  5. Lungworm disease in cats : ABCD guidelines on prevention and management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pennisi, Maria Grazia; Hartmann, Katrin; Addie, Diane D; Boucraut-Baralon, Corine; Egberink, Herman; Frymus, Tadeusz; Gruffydd-Jones, Tim; Horzinek, Marian C; Hosie, Margaret J; Lloret, Albert; Lutz, Hans; Marsilio, Fulvio; Radford, Alan D; Thiry, Etienne; Truyen, Uwe; Möstl, Karin

    OVERVIEW: Cardiopulmonary nematodes are emerging parasites of cats in Europe. A number of helminth parasites may be involved. The most prevalent lungworm in domestic cats is Aelurostrongylus abstrusus. Oslerus rostratus and Troglostrongylus species are found mainly in wild cats. The trichurid

  6. Significance of Coronavirus Mutants in Feces and Diseased Tissues of Cats Suffering from Feline Infectious Peritonitis

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    Niels C. Pedersen

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available The internal FECV→FIPV mutation theory and three of its correlates were tested in four sibs/half-sib kittens, a healthy contact cat, and in four unrelated cats that died of FIP at geographically disparate regions. Coronavirus from feces and extraintestinal FIP lesions from the same cat were always >99% related in accessory and structural gene sequences. SNPs and deletions causing a truncation of the 3c gene product were found in almost all isolates from the diseased tissues of the eight cats suffering from FIP, whereas most, but not all fecal isolates from these same cats had intact 3c genes. Other accessory and structural genes appeared normal in both fecal and lesional viruses. Deliterious mutations in the 3c gene were unique to each cat, indicating that they did not originate in one cat and were subsequently passed horizontally to the others. Compartmentalization of the parental and mutant forms was not absolute; virus of lesional type was sometimes found in feces of affected cats and virus identical to fecal type was occasionally identified in diseased tissues. Although 3c gene mutants in this study were not horizontally transmitted, the parental fecal virus was readily transmitted by contact from a cat that died of FIP to its housemate. There was a high rate of mutability in all structural and accessory genes both within and between cats, leading to minor genetic variants. More than one variant could be identified in both diseased tissues and feces of the same cat. Laboratory cats inoculated with a mixture of two closely related variants from the same FIP cat developed disease from one or the other variant, but not both. Significant genetic drift existed between isolates from geographically distinct regions of the Western US.

  7. Significance of coronavirus mutants in feces and diseased tissues of cats suffering from feline infectious peritonitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedersen, Niels C; Liu, Hongwei; Dodd, Kimberly A; Pesavento, Patricia A

    2009-09-01

    The internal FECV→FIPV mutation theory and three of its correlates were tested in four sibs/half-sib kittens, a healthy contact cat, and in four unrelated cats that died of FIP at geographically disparate regions. Coronavirus from feces and extraintestinal FIP lesions from the same cat were always >99% related in accessory and structural gene sequences. SNPs and deletions causing a truncation of the 3c gene product were found in almost all isolates from the diseased tissues of the eight cats suffering from FIP, whereas most, but not all fecal isolates from these same cats had intact 3c genes. Other accessory and structural genes appeared normal in both fecal and lesional viruses. Deliterious mutations in the 3c gene were unique to each cat, indicating that they did not originate in one cat and were subsequently passed horizontally to the others. Compartmentalization of the parental and mutant forms was not absolute; virus of lesional type was sometimes found in feces of affected cats and virus identical to fecal type was occasionally identified in diseased tissues. Although 3c gene mutants in this study were not horizontally transmitted, the parental fecal virus was readily transmitted by contact from a cat that died of FIP to its housemate. There was a high rate of mutability in all structural and accessory genes both within and between cats, leading to minor genetic variants. More than one variant could be identified in both diseased tissues and feces of the same cat. Laboratory cats inoculated with a mixture of two closely related variants from the same FIP cat developed disease from one or the other variant, but not both. Significant genetic drift existed between isolates from geographically distinct regions of the Western US.

  8. Cat scratch disease complicated with aseptic meningitis and neuroretinitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vitor Laerte Pinto Jr.

    Full Text Available Cat scratch disease (CSD is a self limited condition characterized by fever, lymph node enlargement and less often eye involvement. Central nervous system involvement by Bartonella henselae infection is possibly an important cause of morbidity; its role as an agent of aseptic meningitis is unknown. We report a case of a 40 years-old man with CSD accompanied by aseptic meningitis and neuroretinitis. Serum indirect immmunofluorescence (IFI assays for B. henselae were positive and the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF analysis showed mononuclear pleocytosis and increased level of protein. Serological tests for other etiologies were negative. The patient responded well to antibiotic therapy with oral doxycicline plus rifampin and in the 12th day of hospitalization evolved to total regression of the headache and partial regression of the visual loss. Clinicians should consider CSD as a differential diagnosis when assessing previously healthy patients with aseptic meningitis associated with regional lymphadenopathy and epidemiological history of feline contact.

  9. CT diagnosis of colonic lymphadenitis in the cat-scratch disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhuang Xiongjie; Wang Jingqun

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To make a further understanding of CT manifestations of colonic lymphadenitis in the cat scratch disease (CSD). Methods: The clinical data and CT features of colonic lymphadenitis in two cases of CSD were analyzed retrospectively. Results: Both patients had cat contact history. The CT findings were colonic lymphadenitis with solid mass, and marked enhancement after contrast administration. There were no colon narrownest and necrosis of colonic mucous membranes, besides lymph node enlargement along the regional lymphatic drainage. Conclusion: Combination of the cat contact history, CT scanning is of great value in the cat scratch disease. (authors)

  10. Multiple endocrine diseases in cats: 15 cases (1997-2008).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blois, Shauna L; Dickie, Erica L; Kruth, Stephen A; Allen, Dana G

    2010-08-01

    The objective of this retrospective study was to characterize a population of cats from a tertiary care center diagnosed with multiple endocrine disorders, including the specific disorders and time intervals between diagnosis of each disorder. Medical records of 15 cats diagnosed with more than one endocrine disorder were reviewed. The majority of cats were domestic shorthairs, and the mean age at the time of diagnosis of the first disorder was 10.3 years. The most common combination of disorders was diabetes mellitus and hyperthyroidism. Two cats had concurrent diabetes mellitus and hyperadrenocorticism, one cat had concurrent central diabetes insipidus and diabetes mellitus. A mean of 25.7 months elapsed between diagnoses of the first and second endocrine disorder, but this was variable. This study suggests the occurrence of multiple endocrine disorders is uncommon in cats. Copyright 2010 ISFM and AAFP. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Evaluation of Gastric pH and Serum Gastrin Concentrations in Cats with Chronic Kidney Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolbert, M K; Olin, S; MacLane, S; Gould, E; Steiner, J M; Vaden, S; Price, J

    2017-09-01

    Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a highly prevalent condition in cats. Advanced CKD is associated with hyporexia and vomiting, which typically are attributed to uremic toxins and gastric hyperacidity. However, gastric pH studies have not been performed in cats with CKD. To determine if cats with CKD have decreased gastric pH compared to age-matched, healthy cats. Based on previous work demonstrating an association of hypergastrinemia and CKD, we hypothesized that cats with CKD would have decreased gastric pH compared to healthy, age-matched control cats. 10 CKD cats; 9 healthy control cats. All cats with concurrent disease were excluded on the basis of history, physical examination, CBC, plasma biochemistry profile, urinalysis, urine culture, serum total thyroxine concentration, and serum symmetric dimethylarginine concentration (controls only) obtained within 24 hours of pH monitoring and assessment of serum gastrin concentrations. Serum for gastrin determination was collected, and 12-hour continuous gastric pH monitoring was performed in all cats. Serum gastrin concentration, mean pH, and percentage time that gastric pH was strongly acidic (pH pH parameters including mean ± SD gastric pH (CKD, 1.8 ± 0.5; healthy, 1.6 ± 0.3; P-value = 0.23). These findings suggest that cats with CKD may not have gastric hyperacidity compared to healthy cats and, therefore, may not need acid suppression. Thus, further studies to determine if there is a benefit to acid suppression in cats with CKD are warranted. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine.

  12. Clinical, radiographic, and bronchial cytologic features of cats with bronchial disease: 65 cases (1980-1986)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moise, N.S.; Wiedenkeller, D.; Yeager, A.E.; Blue, J.T.; Scarlett, J.

    1989-01-01

    Medical records, radiographs, and bronchial cytologic abnormalities of 65 cats with bronchial disease were reviewed. Bronchial disease was defined as abnormality of the lower airways to the exclusion of disease originating or mainly involving the alveoli, interstitium, vasculature, or pleura. Cats with bronchial disease were more likely to be female and older. Siamese cats were over represented and had more chronic disease. In order of frequency, the following clinical signs were reported: coughing, dyspnea, occasional sneezing, wheezing, and vomiting. Radiography revealed prominent bronchial markings, with some cats having collapse of the middle lobe of the right lung (n = 7), overinflation of the lungs (n = 9), or aerophagia (n = 13). Of 65 bronchial washes, 58 were considered exudative, with the predominant cell type being eosinophil in 24%, neutrophil in 33%, macrophage in 22%, and mixed population of cells in 21%. Cultures for bacteria were considered positive in 24% of the cats. Circulating eosinophilia was not helpful in predicting the predominant cell type in bronchial cytologic exudates. Hyperproteinemia without dehydration was present in a third of the cats, indicating an immunologic response. Half the cats had resolution of clinical signs, whereas half the cats required continuing medication with bronchodilators, antimicrobial agents, or corticosteroids

  13. Cat scratch disease in an immunosuppressed patient with systemic lupus erythematosus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas-Hitos, J A; Sabio, J M; Navarrete-Navarrete, N; Arenas-Miras, M del M; Zamora-Pasadas, M; Jiménez-Alonso, J

    2016-03-01

    Cat scratch disease is an infectious disorder transmitted by cats that typically affects children and young adults. Immunosuppression is a well-known risk factor for the development of severe and atypical forms of the disease; hence it is under-diagnosed in patients with compromised immunity. We are reporting the first case of cat scratch disease, which presented as fever and fatigue, in a patient with systemic lupus erythematosus while receiving immunosuppressant therapy after a kidney transplant. © The Author(s) 2015.

  14. Evaluation of serum cytokines in cats with and without degenerative joint disease and associated pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruen, Margaret E; Messenger, Kristen M; Thomson, Andrea E; Griffith, Emily H; Aldrich, Lauren A; Vaden, Shelly; Lascelles, B Duncan X

    2017-01-01

    Degenerative joint disease is common in cats, with signs of pain frequently found on orthopedic examination and radiographs often showing evidence of disease. However, understanding of the pathophysiology of degenerative joint disease and associated pain remains limited. Several cytokines have been identified as having a role in pain in humans, but this has not been investigated in cats. The present study was performed to use a multiplex platform to evaluate the concentration of 19 cytokines and chemokines in serum samples obtained from cats with and without degenerative joint disease and associated pain. Samples from a total of 186 cats were analyzed, with cats representing a range of severity on radiographic and orthopedic evaluations and categorized by degenerative joint disease scores and pain scores. Results showed that cats with higher radiographic degenerative joint disease scores have higher serum concentrations of IL-4 and IL-8, while cats with higher orthopedic exam pain scores have higher concentrations of IL-8, IL-2, and TNF-α; increased concentration of IL-8 in degenerative joint disease and pain may be confounded by the association with age. Discriminant analysis was unable to identify one or more cytokines that distinguish between groups of cats classified based on degenerative joint disease score category or pain score category. Finally, cluster analysis driven by analyte concentrations shows separation of groups of cats, but features defining the groups remain unknown. Further studies are warranted to investigate any changes in cytokine concentrations in response to analgesic therapies, and further evaluate the elevations in cytokine concentrations found here, particularly focused on studies of local cytokines present in synovial fluid. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Heartworm-associated respiratory disease (HARD) induced by immature adult Dirofilaria immitis in cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dillon, A Ray; Blagburn, Byron L; Tillson, Michael; Brawner, William; Welles, Betsy; Johnson, Calvin; Cattley, Russell; Rynders, Pat; Barney, Sharron

    2017-11-09

    some time point post infection. The clinical implications of this study are that cats that become infected with immature adult heartworms may not develop fully mature heartworms and are only transiently heartworm antibody positive, but do develop Heartworm-Associated Respiratory Disease (HARD).

  16. Zoonotic disease transmission associated with feral cats in a metropolitan area: A geospatial analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taetzsch, S J; Bertke, A S; Gruszynski, K R

    2018-06-01

    Feral cats raise public health concerns due to their large population numbers and ability to harbour pathogens that cause disease in people, pets, and wildlife. Information regarding the potential for feral cats to intersect with areas frequented by humans is lacking. This study examined the potential for feral cats and human territories to overlap in the Richmond metropolitan area of Central Virginia. Feral cats (n = 275) were trapped for monthly trap-neuter-release (TNR) clinics from July to November 2016. A geographic information system (GIS) was used to map feral cat trapping locations, elementary and preschools, public parks, and community gardens, and to evaluate the potential for cat interaction with these areas, presuming a maximum habitat radius of 0.44 miles. We found that 8.0% of feral cats in the Richmond metropolitan area had potential to range onto public elementary or preschool property, and 81.5% of feral cats trapped in Richmond City had potential to roam into one or more places of interest, including elementary and preschool grounds, public parks, and community gardens. This provides public health, veterinary, and human health professionals with important information that can be used to focus resources in an effort to reduce zoonosis associated with feral cat populations. © 2018 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  17. Case Reports of Cat Scratch Disease with Typical and Atypical Clinical Manifestations: A Literature Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gulshan Umbreen

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Cat scratch disease (CSD is the most well-known zoonotic disease spread by domestic animals like cats. Cats are the source of Bartonella henselae. Most patients more than ninety percent 3-12 days after a scratch from a cat, undoubtedly a little cat with insects present with one or more erythematous injuries at the site of inoculation, the sore is typically a crusted papule or, once in a while, a pustule. More than half of cases in one study show that the systemic indications went with the lymphadenopathy. These may incorporate fever, discomfort, migraine and anorexia and frequently happen in immunocompromised patients. Atypically clinical manifestations happen are altered mental status, perplexity, prolonged fever, respiratory protestations (atypical pneumonitis, Joint pain, synovitis, Back agony is uncommon. The hypothesis of the study to find out that cat scratch disease cause typical and atypical clinical manifestation. Study was conducted July 2015 to September 2015. The methodology sections of a review article are listed all of the databases and citation indexes that were searched such as Web of Science and PubMed and any individual journals that were searched. Various case reports were mentioned in the study. Case reports of cat scratch diseases with typical and atypical clinical manifestation included in the study. The objective of review of these reporting cases is to make physicians aware about cat scratch diseases and also need to create awareness about cat scratch disease in pet owner. Although it is self-limiting needs to report to health authorities. There are few cases reported in which mostly cases reported in twain, japan, Brazil, Texas, United States, Dhaka, Spain with typical and atypical clinical manifestation

  18. Antimicrobial use Guidelines for Treatment of Respiratory Tract Disease in Dogs and Cats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lappin, M. R.; Blondeau, J.; Boothe, D.

    2017-01-01

    Respiratory tract disease can be associated with primary or secondary bacterial infections in dogs and cats and is a common reason for use and potential misuse, improper use, and overuse of antimicrobials. There is a lack of comprehensive treatment guidelines such as those that are available...... veterinarians in making antimicrobial treatment choices for use in the management of bacterial respiratory diseases in dogs and cats....

  19. Radiological diagnostic in cat stratch disease and bone lesions - a case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abreu, Marcelo Rodrigues de

    1999-01-01

    Cat scratch disease is not a common disease in immunocompetent patients. Its association with bone lesions is rare. A patient with bone complain and radiologic alterations of bone lesion must be investigated for this disease. A simple story can make the differential diagnosis with more complex disease like Ewing sarcoma or eosinophilic granuloma. (author)

  20. Prevalence of Hookworm infection and Strongyloidiasis in Cats and Potential Risk Factor of Human Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sedionoto, Blego; Anamnart, Witthaya

    2018-02-01

    Hookworm infection and Stronyloidiasis are public health problem in the worldwide which both of them could infective in human by penetrated on skin and they have potential risk from Gastrointestinal zoonotic helminths of pets, including cats. We investigated the prevalence soil transmitted helminths infection in human and cats used modified Formal-Ether Concentration and agar plate culture. Fecal samples of 23 cats and human from Naitung and Subua Villages (area study 1), and fecal samples of 15 cats and 17 humans from Thasala Beach villages (area study 2) were collected. Result of study in area study 1 showed prevalence of infection in human was not hookworm and strongyloidiasis but 10% humans have infected Ascaris and Tricuris, and in cats have infected by hookworm 75.2% and S. strercoralis 8.5%, toxocara 13%, spirometra 13% and overall prevalence 82.5%. In area study 2 showed in human has infected by Trichuris 100% and S. stercoralis 29.4% and in cats have infected by hookworm 100% and S. strercoralis 40%, toxocora 20%, and spirometra 20%. Helminth infection found in both humans in two areas study are S. strercoralis. Hookworms were the most common helminth in cats but did not connection with infection in human, while S. strercoralis was helminth infection in cats which has potential zoonotic disease to human.

  1. Tolerability and efficacy of benazepril in cats with chronic kidney disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Jonathan N; Gunn-Moore, Danielle A; Tasker, Séverine; Gleadhill, Allison; Strehlau, Günther

    2006-01-01

    The objective of the study was to test the effect of the angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor (ACEI) benazepril in cats with chronic kidney disease (CKD). A total of 192 cats with CKD with an initial plasma creatinine concentration > or = 2 mg/dL (> or = 177 micromol/L) and urine specific gravity benazepril x HCl at a dosage of 0.5-1.0 mg/kg (n = 96) for up to 1,119 days. Most cats were fed exclusively a diet containing low amounts of phosphate, protein, and sodium. Benazepril produced a significant reduction in proteinuria, assessed by the urine protein-to-creatinine ratio (UPC, P = .005). This effect of benazepril was present in all subgroups tested, including cats with UPC benazepril as compared with placebo during treatment in cats with initial UPC benazepril and 520 +/- 323 days with placebo (P = .47). Mean +/- SD renal survival times in the 13 cats with initial UPC > or = 1 were 402 +/- 202 days with benazepril and 149 +/- 90 days with placebo (P = .27). Cats with initial UPC > or = 1 treated with benazepril had better appetite (P = .017) as compared with those treated with placebo. Benazepril was well tolerated. In conclusion, benazepril decreased proteinuria in cats with CKD.

  2. Biotypes and ScM types of isolates of Streptococcus canis from diseased and healthy cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timoney, J F; Velineni, S; Ulrich, B; Blanchard, P

    2017-04-08

    Lancefield group G Streptococcus canis is a component of the normal urogenital and pharyngeal flora of the cat. It is also frequently implicated in epizootics of severe disease in closed cat colonies and animal shelters. Given the importance of S canis as a feline pathogen and relative lack of published information on characteristics potentially associated with virulence, the authors have compared isolates from healthy and diseased cats in New York and California using fermentation profiles (biotype) and ScM sequences. With few exceptions, isolates associated with disease were biotype 1. Four alleles of scm were identified of which type 1 dominated in diseased cats. Type 4 allelic variants were found only in healthy cats and all but one were biotype 2. Type 2 and 3 alleles showed extensive N-terminal variation suggesting a plasminogen-binding site as found on the type 1 allele was absent. Cat antisera to ScM were opsonobactericidal, and these potentially protective antibodies increased during convalescence. British Veterinary Association.

  3. Disease burden in four populations of dog and cat breeds compared to mixed-breed dogs and European shorthair cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keijser, S F A; Meijndert, L E; Fieten, H; Carrière, B J; van Steenbeek, F G; Leegwater, P A J; Rothuizen, J; Nielen, M

    2017-05-01

    Current public and professional opinion is that many dog breeds suffer from health issues related to inherited diseases or extreme phenotypes. The aim of this historical comparative observational study was to evaluate the breed-related disease burden in three purebred dog populations (Chihuahua, French bulldog, Labrador retriever) and one purebred cat breed (Persian cats) in the Netherlands by comparison to a control population of mixed-breed dogs and European Shorthair cats. A qualitative query was performed, consisting of a literature review and collecting the expert opinions of University veterinary specialists, to gather insight into potential diseases of the study population. Next, a referral clinic case control study of the patients referred to specific medical disciplines in the University Clinic was performed. The odds ratio (OR) was calculated to determine the likelihood of a patient referred to a particular medical discipline being a certain breed. Together, the qualitative query and the case control study resulted in a list of potentially relevant diseases limited to five organ systems per breed. These were analysed in data from primary practices. Patient files from ten primary practices over a period of two years were manually extracted and examined. Four-hundred individual patient records per breed as well as 1000 non-breed records were randomly selected from the 10 practices, weighted per practice size. Records were then examined and the presence or absence of certain diseases was identified. To evaluate the disease burden per breed, proportional difference (PD) was estimated, as well as the animal's age at presentation in months. The results of the referral clinic case control study showed an overrepresentation (Odds Ratio>1.5) of the selected breeds in several medical specialties, while median age at presentation was in some cases significantly lower than in the non-breed animals. Results of the practice-based extended cross-sectional study showed

  4. Cats with diabetes mellitus have diastolic dysfunction in the absence of structural heart disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, N J; Novo Matos, J; Baron Toaldo, M; Bartoszuk, U; Summerfield, N; Riederer, A; Reusch, C; Glaus, T M

    2017-07-01

    Diabetes mellitus (DM) can result in cardiovascular dysfunction and heart failure characterized by diastolic dysfunction with or without the presence of systolic dysfunction in people and laboratory animals. The objective of this prospective study was to determine if cats with newly diagnosed DM had myocardial dysfunction and, if present, whether it would progress if appropriate antidiabetic therapy was commenced. Thirty-two diabetic cats were enrolled and received baseline echocardiographic examination; of these, 15 cats were re-examined after 6 months. Ten healthy age- and weight-matched cats served as controls. Diabetic cats at diagnosis showed decreased diastolic, but not systolic function, when compared to healthy controls, with lower mitral inflow E wave (E) and E/E' than controls. After 6 months, E and E/IVRT' decreased further in diabetic cats compared to the baseline evaluation. After excluding cats whose DM was in remission at 6 months, insulin-dependent diabetic cats had lower E, E/A and E' than controls. When classifying diastolic function according to E/A and E'/A', there was shift towards impaired relaxation patterns at 6 months. All insulin-dependent diabetic cats at 6 months had abnormal diastolic function. These results indicate that DM has similar effects on diastolic function in feline and human diabetics. The dysfunction seemed to progress rather than to normalize after 6 months, despite antidiabetic therapy. In cats with pre-existing heart disease, the development of DM could represent an important additional health risk. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Comparison of Efficacy of Long?term Oral Treatment with Telmisartan and Benazepril in Cats with Chronic Kidney Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Sent, U.; G?ssl, R.; Elliott, J.; Syme, H. M.; Zimmering, T.

    2015-01-01

    Background The efficacy and benefits of telmisartan in cats with chronic kidney disease (CKD) have not previously been reported. Hypothesis Long?term treatment of cats with CKD using telmisartan decreases urine protein?to?creatinine ratio (UP/C) similar to benazepril. Animals Two?hundred and twenty?four client?owned adult cats with CKD. Methods Prospective, multicenter, controlled, randomized, parallel group, blinded clinical trial with noninferiority design. Cats were allocated in a 1 : 1 ra...

  6. Serum intact parathyroid hormone levels in cats with chronic kidney disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciano H. Giovaninni

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Chronic kidney disease (CKD is frequently observed in cats and it is characterized as a multisystemic illness, caused by several underlying metabolic changes, and secondary renal hyperparathyroidism (SRHPT is relatively common; usually it is associated with the progression of renal disease and poor prognosis. This study aimed at determining the frequency of SRHPT, and discussing possible mechanisms that could contribute to the development of SRHPT in cats at different stages of CKD through the evaluation of calcium and phosphorus metabolism, as well as acid-base status. Forty owned cats with CKD were included and divided into three groups, according to the stages of the disease, classified according to the International Renal Interest Society (IRIS as Stage II (n=12, Stage III (n=22 and Stage IV (n=6. Control group was composed of 21 clinically healthy cats. Increased serum intact parathyroid hormone (iPTH concentrations were observed in most CKD cats in all stages, and mainly in Stage IV, which hyperphosphatemia and ionized hypocalcemia were detected and associated to the cause for the development of SRHPT. In Stages II and III, however, ionized hypercalcemia was noticed suggesting that the development of SRHPT might be associated with other factors, and metabolic acidosis could be involved to the increase of serum ionized calcium. Therefore, causes for the development of SRHPT seem to be multifactorial and they must be further investigated, mainly in the early stages of CKD in cats, as hyperphosphatemia and ionized hypocalcemia could not be the only factors involved.

  7. Detection of indoxyl sulfate levels in dogs and cats suffering from naturally occurring kidney diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, F P; Hsieh, M J; Chou, C C; Hsu, W L; Lee, Y J

    2015-09-01

    Indoxyl sulfate (IS), a protein-bound uraemic toxin, has been found to accumulate in the serum of people with renal diseases and is associated with free radical induction, nephrotoxicity cardiovascular toxicity, and osteoblast cytotoxicity. Although IS has been studied in humans and in experimental models, the role of IS in dogs and cats with kidney disease has not been investigated. A high performance liquid chromatography system was applied to detect plasma IS concentrations in non-azotaemic animals (63 dogs, 16 cats) and in animals with renal azotaemia (66 dogs, 69 cats). The IS levels of azotaemic animals were significantly higher (P dogs; median [IQR] 21 (18.9) mg/L vs. 14.8 (12.3) mg/L for cats). The IS level was significantly correlated with blood urea nitrogen, serum creatinine and phosphate concentrations. Dogs with acute kidney injury had significantly higher IS levels (P dogs and cats. The IS concentration is directly related to loss of renal function. Further studies are necessary to determine whether measurement of IS provides any additional diagnostic or prognostic information in dogs and cats with kidney disease. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Evaluating aging in cats: How to determine what is healthy and what is disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellows, Jan; Center, Sharon; Daristotle, Leighann; Estrada, Amara H; Flickinger, Elizabeth A; Horwitz, Debra F; Lascelles, B Duncan X; Lepine, Allan; Perea, Sally; Scherk, Margie; Shoveller, Anna K

    2016-07-01

    Many of the changes that occur with aging are not considered pathologic and do not negatively affect overall wellness or quality of life. Ruling out disease is essential, however, when attempting to determine whether an aged cat can be considered 'healthy'. A clear understanding of the normal and abnormal changes that are associated with aging in cats can help practitioners make decisions regarding medical management, feeding interventions and additional testing procedures for their aged patients. It can be difficult to determine if a cat is displaying changes that are appropriate for age. For example, healthy aged cats may have hematologic or serum biochemistry changes that differ from those of the general feline population. Assessment of behavioral health and cognitive changes, as well as auditory, olfactory and visual changes, can also be challenging in the aged patient. This is the second of two review articles in a Special Issue devoted to feline healthy aging. The goals of the project culminating in these publications included developing a working definition for healthy aging in feline patients and identifying clinical methods that can be used to accurately classify healthy aged cats. This second review proposes criteria for assessing 'healthy aged cats'. There is a paucity of research in feline aging. The authors draw on expert opinion and available data in both the cat and other species. © The Author(s) 2016.

  9. Serum Cystatin C Concentrations in Cats with Hyperthyroidism and Chronic Kidney Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, T L; Dillon, H; Elliott, J; Syme, H M; Archer, J

    2016-07-01

    Currently, no test can accurately predict the development of azotemia after treatment of hyperthyroidism. Serum cystatin C concentrations (sCysC) might be less influenced by changes in body muscle mass and so better indicate the presence of concurrent chronic kidney disease (CKD) in hyperthyroidism. sCysC will be higher in hyperthyroid cats that develop azotemia compared with hyperthyroid cats that remain nonazotemic after treatment; sCysC will be higher in nonhyperthyroid cats with azotemic CKD than healthy older cats and, sCysC will decrease after treatment of hyperthyroidism. Ninety-one cats treated in first opinion practice. Case-control study. sCysC were compared between hyperthyroid cats which developed azotemia within 4 months of successful treatment of hyperthyroidism (pre-azotemic group) and hyperthyroid cats which remained nonazotemic after treatment (nonazotemic group), and between nonhyperthyroid cats with azotemic CKD and healthy older cats. sCysC were also compared between hyperthyroid cats before treatment and at time of establishment of euthyroidism. Data are presented as median [25th, 75th percentile]. Baseline sCysC were not different between the pre-azotemic and nonazotemic groups (1.9 [1.4, 2.3] mg/L versus 1.5 [1.1, 2.2] mg/L, respectively; P = .22). sCysC in nonhyperthyroid cats with azotemic CKD and healthy older cats were not significantly different (1.5 [1.0, 1.9] mg/L versus 1.2 [0.8, 1.4] mg/L, respectively; P = .16). sCysC did not change significantly after treatment of hyperthyroidism (pretreatment 1.8 [1.2, 2.3] mg/L, after treatment 1.6 [1.1, 2.4] mg/L; P = .82). sCysC do not appear to be a reliable marker of renal function in hyperthyroid cats. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine.

  10. Prognostic importance of plasma total magnesium in a cohort of cats with azotemic chronic kidney disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Broek, D Hendrik N; Chang, Yu-Mei; Elliott, Jonathan; Jepson, Rosanne E

    2018-04-27

    Hypomagnesemia is associated with increased mortality and renal function decline in humans with chronic kidney disease (CKD). Magnesium is furthermore inversely associated with fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23), an important prognostic factor in CKD in cats. However, the prognostic significance of plasma magnesium in cats with CKD is unknown. To explore associations of plasma total magnesium concentration (tMg) with plasma FGF23 concentration, all-cause mortality, and disease progression in cats with azotemic CKD. Records of 174 client-owned cats with IRIS stage 2-4 CKD. Cohort study. Cats with azotemic CKD were identified from the records of two London-based first opinion practices (1999-2013). Possible associations of baseline plasma tMg with FGF23 concentration and risks of death and progression were explored using, respectively, linear, Cox, and logistic regression. Plasma tMg (reference interval, 1.73-2.57 mg/dL) was inversely associated with plasma FGF23 when controlling for plasma creatinine and phosphate concentrations (partial correlation coefficient, -0.50; P tMg augments prognostic information in cats with CKD, but whether these observations are associations or causations warrants further investigation. © 2018 The Authors. Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine.

  11. Three pathogens in sympatric populations of pumas, bobcats, and domestic cats: implications for infectious disease transmission.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah N Bevins

    Full Text Available Anthropogenic landscape change can lead to increased opportunities for pathogen transmission between domestic and non-domestic animals. Pumas, bobcats, and domestic cats are sympatric in many areas of North America and share many of the same pathogens, some of which are zoonotic. We analyzed bobcat, puma, and feral domestic cat samples collected from targeted geographic areas. We examined exposure to three pathogens that are taxonomically diverse (bacterial, protozoal, viral, that incorporate multiple transmission strategies (vector-borne, environmental exposure/ingestion, and direct contact, and that vary in species-specificity. Bartonella spp., Feline Immunodeficiency Virus (FIV, and Toxoplasma gondii IgG were detected in all three species with mean respective prevalence as follows: puma 16%, 41% and 75%; bobcat 31%, 22% and 43%; domestic cat 45%, 10% and 1%. Bartonella spp. were highly prevalent among domestic cats in Southern California compared to other cohort groups. Feline Immunodeficiency Virus exposure was primarily associated with species and age, and was not influenced by geographic location. Pumas were more likely to be infected with FIV than bobcats, with domestic cats having the lowest infection rate. Toxoplasma gondii seroprevalence was high in both pumas and bobcats across all sites; in contrast, few domestic cats were seropositive, despite the fact that feral, free ranging domestic cats were targeted in this study. Interestingly, a directly transmitted species-specific disease (FIV was not associated with geographic location, while exposure to indirectly transmitted diseases--vector-borne for Bartonella spp. and ingestion of oocysts via infected prey or environmental exposure for T. gondii--varied significantly by site. Pathogens transmitted by direct contact may be more dependent upon individual behaviors and intra-specific encounters. Future studies will integrate host density, as well as landscape features, to better

  12. Three pathogens in sympatric populations of pumas, bobcats, and domestic cats: Implications for infections disease transmission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bevins, Sarah N.; Carver, Scott; Boydston, Erin E.; Lyren, Lisa M.; Alldredge, Mat; Logan, Kenneth A.; Riley, Seth P.D.; Fisher, Robert N.; Vickers, T. Winston; Boyce, Walter; Salman, Mo; Lappin, Michael R.; Crooks, Kevin R.; VandeWoude, Sue

    2012-01-01

    Anthropogenic landscape change can lead to increased opportunities for pathogen transmission between domestic and non-domestic animals. Pumas, bobcats, and domestic cats are sympatric in many areas of North America and share many of the same pathogens, some of which are zoonotic. We analyzed bobcat, puma, and feral domestic cat samples collected from targeted geographic areas. We examined exposure to three pathogens that are taxonomically diverse (bacterial, protozoal, viral), that incorporate multiple transmission strategies (vector-borne, environmental exposure/ingestion, and direct contact), and that vary in species-specificity. Bartonella spp., Feline Immunodeficiency Virus (FIV), and Toxoplasma gondii IgG were detected in all three species with mean respective prevalence as follows: puma 16%, 41% and 75%; bobcat 31%, 22% and 43%; domestic cat 45%, 10% and 1%. Bartonella spp. were highly prevalent among domestic cats in Southern California compared to other cohort groups. Feline Immunodeficiency Virus exposure was primarily associated with species and age, and was not influenced by geographic location. Pumas were more likely to be infected with FIV than bobcats, with domestic cats having the lowest infection rate. Toxoplasma gondii seroprevalence was high in both pumas and bobcats across all sites; in contrast, few domestic cats were seropositive, despite the fact that feral, free ranging domestic cats were targeted in this study. Interestingly, a directly transmitted species-specific disease (FIV) was not associated with geographic location, while exposure to indirectly transmitted diseases – vector-borne for Bartonella spp. and ingestion of oocysts via infected prey or environmental exposure for T. gondii – varied significantly by site. Pathogens transmitted by direct contact may be more dependent upon individual behaviors and intra-specific encounters. Future studies will integrate host density, as well as landscape features, to better

  13. Criterion Validation Testing of Clinical Metrology Instruments for Measuring Degenerative Joint Disease Associated Mobility Impairment in Cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruen, Margaret E; Griffith, Emily H; Thomson, Andrea E; Simpson, Wendy; Lascelles, B Duncan X

    2015-01-01

    Degenerative joint disease and associated pain are common in cats, particularly in older cats. There is a need for treatment options, however evaluation of putative therapies is limited by a lack of suitable, validated outcome measures that can be used in the target population of client owned cats. The objectives of this study were to evaluate low-dose daily meloxicam for the treatment of pain associated with degenerative joint disease in cats, and further validate two clinical metrology instruments, the Feline Musculoskeletal Pain Index (FMPI) and the Client Specific Outcome Measures (CSOM). Sixty-six client owned cats with degenerative joint disease and owner-reported impairments in mobility were screened and enrolled into a double-masked, placebo-controlled, randomized clinical trial. Following a run-in baseline period, cats were given either placebo or meloxicam for 21 days, then in a masked washout, cats were all given placebo for 21 days. Subsequently, cats were given the opposite treatment, placebo or meloxicam, for 21 days. Cats wore activity monitors throughout the study, owners completed clinical metrology instruments following each period. Activity counts were increased in cats during treatment with daily meloxicam (pdegenerative joint disease.

  14. Hyperthyroidism in cats: what's causing this epidemic of thyroid disease and can we prevent it?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Mark

    2012-11-01

    Since first being reported in the late 1970s, there has been a dramatic increase in the prevalence of hyperthyroidism in cats. It is now recognized worldwide as the most common feline endocrine disorder. Hyperthyroidism is an important cause of morbidity in cats older than 10 years of age. It is estimated that over 10% of all senior cats will develop the disorder. Despite its frequency, the underlying cause(s) of this common disease is/are not known, and no one has suggested a means to prevent the disorder. Because of the multiple risk factors that have been described for feline hyperthyroidism, it is likely that more than one factor is involved in its pathogenesis. Continuous, lifelong exposure to environmental thyroid disruptor chemicals or goitrogens in food or water, acting together in an additive or synergistic manner, may first lead to euthyroid goiter and then to autonomous adenomatous hyperplasia, thyroid adenoma and hyperthyroidism. This review draws on published research studies to summarize the available evidence about the risk factors for feline hyperthyroidism. Based on the known goitrogens that may be present in the cat's food, drinking water or environment, it proposes measures that cat owners can implement that might prevent, or reduce the prevalence of, thyroid tumors and hyperthyroidism in their cats.

  15. Association between indoor air pollution and respiratory disease in companion dogs and cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chung-Hui; Lo, Pei-Ying; Wu, Huey-Dong; Chang, Chinhao; Wang, Lih-Chiann

    2018-05-01

    Indoor air pollution (IAP) leads to important respiratory morbidity and mortality in humans. Companion dogs and cats share the same household environment with their owners and are exposed to IAP. Pets with respiratory disease are more commonly exposed to indoor air pollutants in their homes and to worse air quality than pets without respiratory disease. Three hundred and forty-eight animals (230 dogs and 118 cats) were recruited. Dogs and cats attending the National Taiwan University Veterinary Hospital were prospectively enrolled over a 12-month period. Questionnaires were collected from pet owners regarding the status of signs of respiratory problem of animals and air pollutants in their homes. Clinical assessment was performed by veterinarians on all animals included in the case-control study and the presence/absence of respiratory disease and diagnoses were recorded. Individual exposure to particulate matter of 2.5 μm or less (PM2.5) was estimated in the domestic microenvironment of the animals. Dogs with respiratory disease were more commonly exposed to incense burning than control dogs (30 versus 13%, P = .045), but household PM2.5 level was not different between dogs with and without respiratory disease [median 30.8 μg/m 3 , range 10.8-214.2 versus median 38.2 μg/m 3 , range 5.4-69.4, P = .57]. Signalment factors (age, body weight, and body condition score) instead of IAP factors were associated with respiratory disease in dogs using multivariable logistic regression. In contrast, household PM2.5 level was significantly higher in cats with respiratory disease than in control cats [median 38.6 μg/m 3 , range 17.8-131.2 versus median 27.4 μg/m 3 , range 15.4-70.0, P = .017]. Cats living in households with PM2.5 > 35 μg/m 3 were more likely to have respiratory disease than those living in households with acceptable levels of PM2.5 (OR = 4.13, 95% CI 1.12-15.27, P = .03). The link between IAP and respiratory disease in dogs is

  16. GM2-gangliosidosis variant 0 (Sandhoff-like disease) in a family of Japanese domestic cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamato, O; Matsunaga, S; Takata, K; Uetsuka, K; Satoh, H; Shoda, T; Baba, Y; Yasoshima, A; Kato, K; Takahashi, K; Yamasaki, M; Nakayama, H; Doi, K; Maede, Y; Ogawa, H

    2004-12-04

    A five-month-old, female Japanese domestic shorthair cat with proportionate dwarfism developed neurological disorders, including ataxia, decreased postural responses and generalised body and head tremors, at between two and five months of age. Leucocytosis due to lymphocytosis with abnormal cytoplasmic vacuolations was observed. The concentration of G(M2)-ganglioside in its cerebrospinal fluid was markedly higher than in normal cats, and the activities of beta-hexosaminidases A and B in its leucocytes were markedly reduced. On the basis of these biochemical data, the cat was diagnosed antemortem with G(M2)-gangliosidosis variant 0 (Sandhoff-like disease). The neurological signs became more severe and the cat died at 10 months of age. Histopathologically, neurons throughout the central nervous system were distended, and an ultrastructural study revealed membranous cytoplasmic bodies in these distended neurons. The compound which accumulated in the brain was identified as G(M2)-ganglioside, confirming G(M2)-gangliosidosis. A family study revealed that there were probable heterozygous carriers in which the activities of leucocyte beta-hexosaminidases A and B were less than half the normal value. The Sandhoff-like disease observed in this family of Japanese domestic cats is the first occurrence reported in Japan.

  17. Cutaneous Hypersensitivity Dermatoses in the Feline Patient: A Review of Allergic Skin Disease in Cats

    OpenAIRE

    Alison Diesel

    2017-01-01

    Feline allergic skin disease presents a unique set of challenges to the veterinary practitioner. Although there is some similarity to what is seen in the allergic canine patient, cutaneous hypersensitivity dermatoses in cats can manifest with strikingly different clinical signs, treatment options and outcomes, and secondary complications/disease entities. Additionally, less is known about the pathogenesis of feline allergic skin diseases, particularly “feline atopic syndrome” when compared to...

  18. Ultrasonographic, endoscopic and histological appearances of the caecum in cats presenting with chronic clinical signs of caecocolic disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahn, Harriet; Pey, Pascaline; Baril, Aurélie; Charpentier, Julie; Desquilbet, Loic; Le Poder, Sophie; Château-Joubert, Sophie; Laloy, Eve; Freiche, Valerie

    2017-02-01

    Objectives This study aimed to describe the ultrasonographic, endoscopic and histological characteristics of the caecum and ileocaecocolic junction in cats suffering from chronic clinical signs compatible with caecocolic disease. Methods Cats presenting with clinical signs suggestive of a caecocolic disease were prospectively recruited. All cats underwent an ultrasonographic examination of the caecum, ileum, colon, ileocolic lymph nodes and local mesenteric fat, in addition to comprehensive abdominal ultrasonography. This was followed by a colonoscopy with a macroscopic assessment of the caecocolic mucosa; caecocolic tissue samples were systematically collected for histologic analysis. Results Eighteen cats were included. Eleven of 18 cats had ultrasonographic abnormalities adjacent to the ileocaecocolic junction (lymphadenopathy, local steatitis) and 13/18 cats had abnormalities directly related to the junction (wall thickening, loss of wall layering). Seventeen of 18 cats had at least one ultrasonographic abnormality. Endoscopically, hyperaemia, oedema, discoloration and/or erosions were found in all cats. Each cat was classified as having mild or moderate-to-severe lesions according to endoscopic results; no classification could be established statistically for ultrasonographic results. The accentuation of the dimpled pattern tended to be inversely related to the severity of endoscopic lesion scoring. Histologically, a large proportion of cats showed typhlitis (13/16), one had lymphoma and two were normal. All cats with typhlitis also had colitis. There was only slight agreement between endoscopic and histological caecal results regarding the severity of lesions. Loss of caecal wall layering on ultrasound was found in 7/18 cats and, surprisingly, did not appear as a reliable predictor of the severity of inflammation or of malignancy; neither did local steatitis nor lymph node size. Conclusions and relevance Ultrasonography and endoscopy should not be used as the

  19. Effect of gentle stroking and vocalization on behaviour, mucosal immunity and upper respiratory disease in anxious shelter cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gourkow, Nadine; Hamon, Sara C; Phillips, Clive J C

    2014-11-01

    Emotional, behavioural, and health benefits of gentle stroking and vocalizations, otherwise known as gentling, have been documented for several species, but little is known about the effect of gentling on cats in stressful situations. In this study, 139 cats rated as anxious upon admission to an animal shelter were allocated to either a Gentled or Control group. Cats were gentled four times daily for 10 min over a period of 10 days, with the aid of a tool for cats that were too aggressive to handle. The cats' mood, or persistent emotional state, was rated daily for 10 d as Anxious, Frustrated or Content. Gentled cats were less likely to have negatively valenced moods (Anxious or Frustrated) than Control cats (Incidence Rate Ratio [IRR]=0.61 CI 0.42-0.88, P=0.007). Total secretory immunoglobulin A (S-IgA) was quantified from faeces by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Gentled cats had increased S-IgA (6.9 ± 0.7 logeμg/g) compared to Control cats (5.9 ± 0.5 logeμg/g) (Pincrease in shedding over time in Control cats (23%, 35%, 52% on days 1, 4 and 10, respectively), but not in gentled cats (32%, 26%, 30% on days 1, 4 and 10, respectively) (P=0.001). Onset of upper respiratory disease was determined by veterinary staff based on clinical signs, in particular ocular and/or nasal discharge. Control cats were 2.4 (CI: 1.35-4.15) times more likely to develop upper respiratory disease over time than gentled cats (Pincrease production of S-IgA, and reduce the incidence of upper respiratory disease. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Neuroretinitis Caused by Bartonella henselae (Cat-Scratch Disease in a 13-Year-Old Girl

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teodoro Durá-Travé

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Cat-scratch disease-related neuroretinitis is a relatively unusual pathology, with suspicious clinical epidemiological and serological diagnosis. We present a case of an adolescent suffering from unilateral neuroretinitis associated with Bartonella henselae infection characterized by abrupt loss of vision, optic disc swelling, and macular star exudates with optimal response to antibiotic treatment.

  1. Unilateral visual loss secondary to cat scratch disease in a healthy young man

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norfarizal Ashikin Abdullah

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Cat scratch disease is a benign clinical syndrome manifested as lymphadenopathy, fever and sometimes with atypical symptom of blurring of vision. It occurs following cat ’s bites or scratches. This case report presented a healthy young man presented with left eye blurring of vision for 1 month duration preceeded by history of recurrent low grade fever with previous history of being scratched by cat. Examination revealed optic disc edema with macula star. Thorough investigations were done and shown positive titre towards Bartonella henselae. He responded well with intravenous ceftazidime, oral doxycycline and rifampicin. His vision improved to 6/9 and 6/6 with pinhole after 3 months.

  2. Effect of heartworm disease and heartworm-associated respiratory disease (HARD) on the right ventricle of cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winter, Randolph L; Ray Dillon, A; Cattley, Russell C; Blagburn, Byron L; Michael Tillson, D; Johnson, Calvin M; Brawner, William R; Welles, Elizabeth G; Barney, Sharon

    2017-11-09

    Dirofilaria immitis infection occurs in dogs and cats, both of which species are clinically affected by mature adult infections. Cats are uniquely affected by immature-adult infections with an inflammatory pulmonary disease called Heartworm-Associated Respiratory Disease (HARD). D. immitis infection causes pulmonary parenchymal and vascular pathology in the dog and cat. Dogs develop pulmonary hypertension and cor pulmonale, whereas the development of pulmonary hypertension is rare in the cat. D. immitis infection in the dog causes alteration of the right ventricular (RV) extracellular matrix, including a decrease in myocardial collagen. In this study, the RV myocardial changes of cats infected with adult and immature-adult D. immitis were assessed. The cardiopulmonary systems of six groups of SPF cats (n = 9-10 per group) were examined 8 or 18 months after infection with L3 D. immitis. Two groups were untreated and allowed to develop adult HW; two groups were treated with ivermectin starting 3 months post infection, thus allowing HARD but no mature adult heartworms; and two groups were treated with selamectin beginning 1 month post infection, preventing development of L5 or adult heartworms. A group of specific pathogen free (SPF) normal cats was utilized as a negative control (n = 12). Lung pathologic lesions were objectively assessed, and both RV and left ventricular (LV) weights were obtained to calculate an RV/LV ratio. Intramural RV myocardial collagen content was quantitatively assessed. RV/LV weight ratios were not different between groups. Negative control cats had significantly greater RV collagen content than all other affected groups (P = 0.032). Analysis of the RV/LV ratios and collagen content revealed no significant relationship (r = 0.03, P = 0.723, respectively). Collagen content had a modest, but significant, negative correlation, however, with both pulmonary vascular pathology (r = -0.25, P = 0.032) as well as the total pulmonary

  3. An unusual outcome in a child with hepatosplenic cat-scratch disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vukelić, Dalibor; Benić, Branka; Bozinović, Dragomir; Vuković, Branka; Dakovic Rode, Oktavija; Culig, Zdravka; Vuković, Jurica; Batinica, Stipe; Visnjić, Stjepan; Puljiz, Ivan

    2006-10-01

    Typical cat-scratch disease (Bartonella henselae infection) in an immunocompetent child is usually associated with a history of scratch, bite or intimate contact with a cat. Most patients develop a non-tender papule in the scratch line after three to ten days. This may persist for only a few days or as long as two to three weeks. During the next two weeks or more, regional lymph nodes that drain the area gradually enlarge and then slowly resolve in more than 10% of patients. The nodes develop overlying erythema and may suppurate. Atypical forms of cat-scratch disease occur in a minority of cases and are characterized by ocular or neurological manifestations, hepatosplenic involvement, vertebral osteomyelitis, endocarditis etc. Immunocompromised individuals with B. henselae infection may develop bacillary angiomatosis, bacillary peliosis, and relapsing bacteremia. There have been several reports of hepatosplenic granulomas caused by B. henselae in immunocompetent children. We report a case of a 6-year-old boy with the hepatosplenic form of cat-scratch disease. Despite early diagnosis and long-term antimicrobial treatment, splenectomy could not be avoided.

  4. The Microbiota Regulates Immunity and Immunologic Diseases in Dogs and Cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tizard, Ian R; Jones, Sydney W

    2018-03-01

    The complex commensal microbiota found on body surfaces controls immune responses and the development of allergic and inflammatory diseases. New genetic technologies permit investigators to determine the composition of the complex microbial populations found on these surfaces. Changes in the microbiota (dysbiosis) as a result of antibiotic use, diet, or other factors thus influence the development of many diseases in the dog and cat. The most important of these include chronic gastrointestinal disease; respiratory allergies, such as asthma; skin diseases, especially atopic dermatitis; and some autoimmune diseases. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Diseases of the retroperitoneal space in the dog and cat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roush, J.K.; Bjorling, D.E.; Lord, P.

    1990-01-01

    The retroperitoneal space (RPS) is an anatomical area bounded dorsally by the sublumbar musculature and ventrally by the peritoneal surface of the abdomen. The RPS communicates with the pelvic space and mediastinum and is subject to primary diseases of the RPS connective tissue and to extension of disease from organs lying within or adjacent to it. Primary diseases include retroperitonitis, pneumoretroperitoneum, non-neoplastic retroperitoneal space-occupying lesions, and primary neoplasms of the RPS. Primary diseases of kidneys, ureters, adrenal glands or retroperitoneal lymph nodes may extend into the RPS, and the RPS may be the site of metastatic neoplastic disease. Clinical signs suggestive of retroperitoneal disease include lumbar pain, pyrexia, lethargy, and signs referable to organs within the RPS

  6. The progression of heartworm associated respiratory disease (HARD) in SPF cats 18 months after Dirofilaria immitis infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dillon, A Ray; Blagburn, Bryon L; Tillson, Michael; Brawner, William; Welles, Betsy; Johnson, Calvin; Cattley, Russell; Rynders, Pat; Barney, Sharron

    2017-11-09

    Heartworm-associated respiratory disease (HARD) in cats is induced by the arrival and death of immature adult Dirofilaria immitis in the pulmonary system and is indistinguishable from mature adult heartworm infection. A controlled, blind research study investigated the long-term (18 months post infection, PI) consequences of the inflammatory response associated with the death of immature adult heartworms in cats. Three groups of cats, 10 per group, were infected with 100 third-stage (L3) larvae by subcutaneous injection. Group A cats were treated with selamectin (Revolution®; Zoetis) per label directions at 28 days PI and once monthly for 17 months. Group B cats were treated orally with ivermectin (Ivomec®; Merial) at 150 μg/kg) at 70 days PI, then every 2 weeks for 15 months. Group C cats were untreated PI. At baseline (Day 0) and on Days 70, 110, 168, 240, 309, 380, and 505 PI, peripheral blood, serum, bronchial lavage, and thoracic radiographic images were collected. The selamectin-treated cats (Group A) and ivermectin-treated cats (Group B) were free of heartworms or heartworm fragments at necropsy. All cats became heartworm antibody positive at some time point in the study except for one cat in Group A. Only cats in Group C (all with adult heartworms) were heartworm antigen positive. The heartworm antibody titer for Group B was highest on Days 110 to 168 and then decreased over time and 50% were serologically antibody negative on Day 240. Eosinophilic bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) cytology and peripheral eosinophilia were most pronounced on Day 110 in all cats. Randomly distributed myofibrocytes in the lungs of some Group A cats suggest that precardiac larval stages were affecting the lungs. Radiographs in Group B cats demonstrated partial resolution of the initial HARD reaction but chronic myofibrocyte proliferation was histologically evident 18 months after infection. HARD was induced by immature adult worm infection with progressive improvement

  7. Cutaneous Hypersensitivity Dermatoses in the Feline Patient: A Review of Allergic Skin Disease in Cats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alison Diesel

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Feline allergic skin disease presents a unique set of challenges to the veterinary practitioner. Although there is some similarity to what is seen in the allergic canine patient, cutaneous hypersensitivity dermatoses in cats can manifest with strikingly different clinical signs, treatment options and outcomes, and secondary complications/disease entities. Additionally, less is known about the pathogenesis of feline allergic skin diseases, particularly “feline atopic syndrome” when compared to dogs or people. This article aims to review what is currently known in regards to allergic skin disease in the feline patient, with focus on non-flea, non-food hypersensitivity dermatitis.

  8. Cutaneous Hypersensitivity Dermatoses in the Feline Patient: A Review of Allergic Skin Disease in Cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diesel, Alison

    2017-05-09

    Feline allergic skin disease presents a unique set of challenges to the veterinary practitioner. Although there is some similarity to what is seen in the allergic canine patient, cutaneous hypersensitivity dermatoses in cats can manifest with strikingly different clinical signs, treatment options and outcomes, and secondary complications/disease entities. Additionally, less is known about the pathogenesis of feline allergic skin diseases, particularly "feline atopic syndrome" when compared to dogs or people. This article aims to review what is currently known in regards to allergic skin disease in the feline patient, with focus on non-flea, non-food hypersensitivity dermatitis.

  9. Magnetic resonance imaging of ocular and orbital disease in 5 dogs and a cat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morgan, R.V.; Ring, R.D.; Ward, D.A.; Adams, W.H.

    1996-01-01

    Magnetic resonance (MR) images were acquired in five dogs and one cat with ocular and orbital disease. MR images were obtained in the dorsal or oblique dorsal, and oblique sagittal planes. Pathologic changes identified in MR images included inflammatory lesions, cystic structures, and neoplasms. All abnormalities were readily apparent in TI-weighted images. MR findings in affected animals were often similar in signal intensity, location, and growth pattern to those found in people with comparable diseases. Although no MR changes were considered pathognomonic for a given disease, MR imaging provided detailed information on the homogeneity, extent and invasiveness of the lesions

  10. Molecular identification of black-pigmented bacteria from subgingival samples of cats suffering from periodontal disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Salcedo, L; Laguna, E; Sánchez, M C; Marín, M J; O'Connor, A; González, I; Sanz, M; Herrera, D

    2015-04-01

    To characterise the black-pigmented bacterial species found in the subgingival samples of cats with periodontal disease using molecular-based microbiological techniques. Sixty-five subgingival samples obtained from 50 cats with periodontal disease were analysed by polymerase chain reaction amplified ribosomal DNA restriction analysis and cloning and sequencing of the 16S rRNA genes. Among the 65 subgingival samples, eight phylogenetic profiles were obtained, of which the most prevalent species were: Porphyromonas gulae (40%), P. gingivalis/P. gulae (36 · 9%), P. gulae/Porphyromonas sp. UQD 406 (9 · 2%), Odoribacter denticanis (6 · 2%), P. gulae/Porphyromonas sp. UQD 348 (1 · 5%) and P. circumdentaria (1 · 5%). When compared with the species resulting from biochemical diagnosis, the identification of P. gulae was congruent in 70% of the cases, while colonies identified as P. intermedia-like corresponded in 80% of cases to P. gulae. The use of molecular-based microbiological diagnostic techniques resulted in a predominance of Porphyromonas spp. in the subgingival plaque of cats suffering from periodontal disease. Further characterisation of these bacteria identified P. gulae, O. denticanis and P. circumdentaria. The more frequently detected phylogenetic profiles corresponded to P. gingivalis and P. gulae. © 2015 British Small Animal Veterinary Association.

  11. Infectious Disease Prevalence and Factors Associated with Upper Respiratory Infection in Cats Following Relocation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehnaz Aziz

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Feline relocation is used increasingly in animal welfare to decrease shelter euthanasia rates and increase positive outcomes. Concerns about infectious disease introduction and transmission are often expressed; however, little research has been conducted on even the baseline prevalence of infectious disease following relocation. This study, which collected data on 430 cats relocated through an established program over 7 months, evaluated the prevalence of upper respiratory infection (URI, feline panleukopenia virus (FPV and dermatophytosis at one destination agency. The period prevalence was 25.8% for URI, 1.6% for FPV and 0.9% for dermatophytosis. Mixed-effects logistic regression was performed to investigate factors associated with URI. Younger age, increased time in transport, and increased length of stay at the destination agency were associated with increased URI prevalence following relocation. The findings of this study reveal that certain highly contagious and environmentally persistent infectious diseases, such as FPV and dermatophytosis, are uncommon following relocation in an established program; however, URI in relocated cats should be proactively managed. Animal welfare agencies can use this information to guide shelter and relocation operations and mitigate the impact of URI in relocated cats.

  12. Usefulness of acute phase proteins in differentiating between feline infectious peritonitis and other diseases in cats with body cavity effusions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazuchova, Katarina; Held, Susanne; Neiger, Reto

    2017-08-01

    Objectives The aim of this study was to evaluate the measurement of acute phase proteins (APPs) as a diagnostic tool to differentiate between feline infectious peritonitis (FIP) and other diseases in cats with body cavity effusions. Methods Cats with pleural, abdominal or pericardial effusion were prospectively enrolled. Cats were classified as having or not having FIP based on immunohistochemistry (if available) or a sophisticated statistical method using machine learning methodology with concepts from game theory. Cats without FIP were further subdivided into three subgroups: cardiac disease, neoplasia and other diseases. Serum amyloid A (SAA), haptoglobin (Hp) and α 1 -acid glycoprotein (AGP) were measured in serum and effusion, using assays previously validated in cats. Results Serum and effusion samples were available for the measurement of APPs from 88 and 67 cats, respectively. Concentrations of the APPs in serum and effusion were significantly different in cats with and without FIP ( P <0.001 for all three APPs). The best APP to distinguish between cats with and without FIP was AGP in the effusion; a cut-off value of 1550 µg/ml had a sensitivity and specificity of 93% each for diagnosing FIP. Conclusions and relevance AGP, particularly if measured in effusion, was found to be useful in differentiating between FIP and other diseases, while SAA and Hp were not. The concentration of all three APPs in some diseases (eg, septic processes, disseminated neoplasia) was as high as in cats with FIP; therefore, none of these can be recommended as a single diagnostic test for FIP.

  13. The presence of tick-borne diseases in domestic dogs and cats living on Iriomote-jima and Tsushima islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    JIKUYA, Mao; TATENO, Morihiro; TAKAHASHI, Masashi; ENDO, Yasuyuki

    2017-01-01

    The Iriomote cat and Tsushima leopard cat are endangered wildcats in Japan and inhabit only Iriomote-jima and Tsushima islands, respectively. Domestic dogs and cats living on Iriomote-jima and Tsushima islands were surveyed to clarify the interrelationship between wildcats and domestic animals regarding tick-borne disease transmission. Pathogen-derived DNA in blood samples was detected by polymerase chain reaction. Babesia gibsoni was detected in dogs of Iriomote-jima, and Hepatozoon felis and hemoplasmas were detected in domestic cats of Tsushima. Because the H. felis detected in this study was closely related to that isolated from wildcats, we suspect that common H. felis is harbored and transmitted among wildcats and domestic cats via ticks in Tsushima. PMID:28484147

  14. Fine-needle aspirate cytology suggesting hepatic lipidosis in four cats with infiltrative hepatic disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willard, M D; Weeks, B R; Johnson, M

    1999-12-01

    Four cats are reported in which cytology smears obtained by ultrasound-guided fine needle aspiration of the liver were interpreted as indicative of hepatic lipidosis. However, histopathology of hepatic tissue samples obtained with Tru-Cut-like needles or wedge biopsy revealed that the cats had inflammatory or neoplastic hepatic disease causing their clinical signs. Fine needle aspiration and cytology may not detect infiltrative lesions, particularly those that are nodular, multifocal, or localised around the portal regions. Fine needle aspirate cytology is a useful diagnostic procedure with many advantages, but care must be taken to avoid diagnosing hepatic lipidosis as the cause of illness when an infiltrative lesion is responsible. Copyright 1999 European Society of Feline Medicine.

  15. Zoonotic and infectious disease surveillance in Central America: Honduran feral cats positive for toxoplasma, trypanosoma, leishmania, rickettsia, and Lyme disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCown, Michael; Grzeszak, Benjamin

    2010-01-01

    A recent zoonotic and infectious disease field surveillance study in Honduras resulted in the discovery of Toxoplasma, Trypanosoma, Leishmania, Rickettsia, and Lyme disease with statistically high prevalence rates in a group of feral cats. All five diseases--Toxoplasmosis, Trypanosomiasis, Leishmaniasis, Rickettsiosis, and Lyme disease--were confirmed in this group of cats having close contact to local civilians and U.S. personnel. These diseases are infectious to other animals and are known to infect humans as well. In the austere Central and South American sites that Special Operations Forces (SOF) medics are deployed, the living conditions and close quarters are prime environments for the potential spread of infectious and zoonotic disease. This study?s findings, as with previous veterinary disease surveillance studies, emphasize the critical need for continual and aggressive surveillance for zoonotic and infectious disease present within animals in specific areas of operation (AO). The importance to SOF is that a variety of animals may be sentinels, hosts, or direct transmitters of disease to civilians and service members. These studies are value-added tools to the U.S. military, specifically to a deploying or already deployed unit. The SOF medic must ensure that this value-added asset is utilized and that the findings are applied to assure Operational Detachment-Alpha (SFOD-A) health and, on a bigger scale, U.S. military force health protection and local civilian health. © 2010.

  16. Analysis of cat oocyte activation methods for the generation of feline disease models by nuclear transfer

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    Herrick Jason R

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Somatic cell nuclear transfer in cats offers a useful tool for the generation of valuable research models. However, low birth rates after nuclear transfer hamper exploitation of the full potential of the technology. Poor embryo development after activation of the reconstructed oocytes seems to be responsible, at least in part, for the low efficiency. The objective of this study was to characterize the response of cat oocytes to various stimuli in order to fine-tune existing and possibly develop new activation methods for the generation of cat disease models by somatic cell nuclear transfer. Methods First, changes in the intracellular free calcium concentration [Ca2+]i in the oocytes induced by a number of artificial stimuli were characterized. The stimuli included electroporation, ethanol, ionomycin, thimerosal, strontium-chloride and sodium (Na+-free medium. The potential of the most promising treatments (with or without subsequent incubation in the presence of cycloheximide and cytochalasin B to stimulate oocyte activation and support development of the resultant parthenogenetic embryos was then evaluated. Finally, the most effective methods were selected to activate oocytes reconstructed during nuclear transfer with fibroblasts from mucopolysaccharidosis I- and alpha-mannosidosis-affected cats. Results All treatments were able to elicit a [Ca2+]i elevation in the ooplasm with various characteristics. Pronuclear formation and development up to the blastocyst stage was most efficiently triggered by electroporation (60.5 +/- 2.9 and 11.5 +/- 1.7% and the combined thimerosal/DTT treatment (67.7 +/- 1.8 and 10.6 +/- 1.9%; incubation of the stimulated oocytes with cycloheximide and cytochalasin B had a positive effect on embryo development. When these two methods were used to activate oocytes reconstructed during nuclear transfer, up to 84.9% of the reconstructed oocytes cleaved. When the 2 to 4-cell embryos (a total of 220 were

  17. Relationship of orthopedic examination, goniometric measurements, and radiographic signs of degenerative joint disease in cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lascelles, B Duncan X; Dong, Yaa-Hui; Marcellin-Little, Denis J; Thomson, Andrea; Wheeler, Simon; Correa, Maria

    2012-01-27

    Available information suggests a mismatch between radiographic and orthopedic examination findings in cats with DJD. However, the extent of the discrepancy between clinical and radiographic signs of OA in companion animals has not been described in detail. This study aimed to evaluate the relationship between orthopedic examination findings, joint goniometry, and radiographic signs of DJD in 100 cats, in a prospective observational design. Cat temperament, pain response to palpation, joint crepitus, effusion and thickening were graded. Radiographs of appendicular joints and the axial skeleton were made under sedation. Joint motion was measured by use of a plastic goniometer before and after sedation. Associations between radiographic degenerative joint disease (DJD) and examination findings were assessed to determine sensitivity, specificity and likelihood estimations. Pain response to palpation was elicited in 0-67% of the joints with DJD, with a specificity ranging from 62-99%; crepitus was detected in 0-56% of the joints and its specificity varied between 87 and 99%; for effusion, values ranged between 6 and 38% (specificity, 82-100%), and thickening, 0-59% (specificity, 74-99%). Joints with DJD tended to have a decreased range of motion. The presence of pain increased the odds of having DJD in the elbow (right: 5.5; left: 4.5); the presence of pain in the lower back increased the odds of spinal DJD being present (2.97 for lumbar; 4.67 for lumbo-sacral). Radiographic DJD cannot be diagnosed with certainty using palpation or goniometry. However, negative findings tend to predict radiographically normal joints. Palpation and goniometry may be used as a tool to help to screen cats, mostly to rule out DJD.

  18. Relationship of orthopedic examination, goniometric measurements, and radiographic signs of degenerative joint disease in cats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lascelles B Duncan X

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Available information suggests a mismatch between radiographic and orthopedic examination findings in cats with DJD. However, the extent of the discrepancy between clinical and radiographic signs of OA in companion animals has not been described in detail. This study aimed to evaluate the relationship between orthopedic examination findings, joint goniometry, and radiographic signs of DJD in 100 cats, in a prospective observational design. Cat temperament, pain response to palpation, joint crepitus, effusion and thickening were graded. Radiographs of appendicular joints and the axial skeleton were made under sedation. Joint motion was measured by use of a plastic goniometer before and after sedation. Associations between radiographic degenerative joint disease (DJD and examination findings were assessed to determine sensitivity, specificity and likelihood estimations. Results Pain response to palpation was elicited in 0-67% of the joints with DJD, with a specificity ranging from 62-99%; crepitus was detected in 0-56% of the joints and its specificity varied between 87 and 99%; for effusion, values ranged between 6 and 38% (specificity, 82-100%, and thickening, 0-59% (specificity, 74-99%. Joints with DJD tended to have a decreased range of motion. The presence of pain increased the odds of having DJD in the elbow (right: 5.5; left: 4.5; the presence of pain in the lower back increased the odds of spinal DJD being present (2.97 for lumbar; 4.67 for lumbo-sacral. Conclusions Radiographic DJD cannot be diagnosed with certainty using palpation or goniometry. However, negative findings tend to predict radiographically normal joints. Palpation and goniometry may be used as a tool to help to screen cats, mostly to rule out DJD.

  19. Applications of ultrasonography in the diagnosis of parenchymal kidney disease in cats: 24 cases (1981-1986)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walter, P.A.; Johnston, G.R.; Feeney, D.A.; O'Brien, T.D.

    1988-01-01

    Renal sonograms from 24 cats with confirmed parenchymal kidney disease and from 1 cat with radiographic and palpable evidence of renal enlargement (but without identifiable histologic abnormalities) were evaluated to describe the ultrasonographic appearance of feline renal diseases and to determine the role of ultrasonographic examination in the clinical evaluation of these cases. In all cats with radiographic evidence of abnormal renal size or contour and when poor intraabdominal radiographic contrast precluded visualization of the kidneys, ultrasonography provided complementary information pertaining to location (cortical/medullary), extent, and distribution (focal/multifocal/diffuse) of disease. Ultrasonography also characterized these lesions as cystic (cavitating) or solid. The echo patterns were most specific for renal cysts. Infiltrative diseases did not have consistent patterns. Multifocal hypoechoic nodules, diffuse cortical hyper-echogenicity, and normal-appearing parenchyma were identified. In these instances, however, ultrasonography did define the extent of disease and narrowed the spectrum of differential considerations

  20. Demonstration of feline corona virus (FCV) antigen in organs of cats suspected of feline infectious peritonitis (FIP) disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hök, K

    1990-07-01

    Cryosections of organs and smears from membrana nicitians from cats suspected of having spontaneous infection with feline infectious peritonitis virus (FIPV), were investigated using an indirect immunofluorescence assay (IIFA) in order to detect the presence of feline corona virus (FCV). In 113 cats, from each of which six organs were screened, virus antigen was found most often in membrana nicitians and lung. Out of these animals an additional six organs from a group of 30 cats were screened. In these cats membrana nicitians, parotid gland, thymus and apex of caecum had the highest incidence of virus antigen (90%). The lowest incidence of virus antigen was found in the spleen (60%). There was a clear demonstration of a higher incidence of antigen present in more than half of the total number of screened organs per cat (P less than 0.0005). No statistical difference was observed between sexes when comparing the incidence of virus antigen in different organs. Virus antigen was present in less organs in cats with no lesions suggestive of FIP disease compared to cats with such lesions (P less than 0.001). A similar distribution of the incidence of FCV antigen in the investigated organs was observed in these two groups.

  1. Relationship between degenerative joint disease and hip joint laxity by use of distraction index and Norberg angle measurement in a group of cats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Langenbach, A.; Giger, U.; Green, P.; Rhodes, H.; Gregor, T.P.; Lafond, E.; Smith, G.

    1998-01-01

    Objective: To determine the relationship between degenerative joint disease (DJD) and passive laxity of the hip joint in a group of cats. Design: Prospective study. Animals: A select (nonrandomized) group of 78 cats. Procedure: Standard hip-extended radiographic views and compression and distraction views of the pelvis were obtained from cats during sedation. Radiographs were evaluated, using an Orthopedic Foundation for Animals (OFA)-like scoring system for dogs. Passive joint laxity was measured, using Norberg angle (NA) and distraction index (DI). Hip laxity in cats with DJD was compared with hip laxity in cats without DJD. Results: Hip dysplasia (HD) was subjectively diagnosed radiographically in 25 of 78 (32%) cats using the OFA-like scoring system. Nineteen cats had mild HD 4 had moderate HD, and 2 had severe HD. Fifteen of the 25 cats with HD had DJD. The NA ranged from 56 to 105. The mean NA in cats with DJD was (84 degrees) significantly lower than in cats without DJD (95 degrees). The DI ranged from 0.2 to 0.84. The mean DI for cats with DJD was (0.6) significantly higher than that for cats without DJD (0.49). Cats with a DI < 0.4 did not have DJD. Cats had an increased likelihood of having DJD with increased laxity in the coxofemoral joint, as measured by NA or DI. Clinical Implications: The mean NA for radiographically normal cats (92.4 degrees) was lower than that in radiographically normal dogs (103 degrees). The overall mean DI for cats in this group (0.51) is similar to dogs of breeds with high joint laxity, such as the Labrador Retriever (0.5). As in dogs, there is a relationship between DJD and laxity in the hip joint of cats

  2. Cat-scratch disease presenting as multiple hepatic lesions: case report and literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baptista, Mariana Andrade; Lo, Denise Swei; Hein, Noely; Hirose, Maki; Yoshioka, Cristina Ryoka Miyao; Ragazzi, Selma Lopes Betta; Gilio, Alfredo Elias; Ferronato, Angela Esposito

    2014-01-01

    Although infectious diseases are the most prevalent cause of fevers of unknown origin (FUO), this diagnosis remains challenging in some pediatric patients. Imaging exams, such as computed tomography (CT) are frequently required during the diagnostic processes. The presence of multiple hypoattenuating scattered images throughout the liver associated with the history of cohabitation with cats should raise the suspicion of the diagnosis of cat-scratch disease (CSD), although the main etiologic agent of liver abscesses in childhood is S taphylococcus aureus . Differential diagnosis by clinical and epidemiological data with Bartonella henselae is often advisable. The authors report the case of a boy aged 2 years and 9 months with 16-day history of daily fever accompanied by intermittent abdominal pain. Physical examination was unremarkable. Abdominal ultrasound performed in the initial work up was unrevealing, but an abdominal CT that was performed afterwards disclosed multiple hypoattenuating hepatic images compatible with the diagnosis of micro abscesses. Initial antibiotic regimen included cefotaxime, metronidazole, and oxacillin. Due to the epidemiology of close contact with kittens, diagnosis of CSD was considered and confirmed by serologic tests. Therefore, the initial antibiotics were replaced by clarithromycin orally for 14 days followed by fever defervescence and clinical improvement. The authors call attention to this uncommon diagnosis in a child presenting with FUO and multiple hepatic images suggestive of micro abscesses.

  3. Cat-scratch disease presenting as multiple hepatic lesions: case report and literature review

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    Mariana Andrade Baptista

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Although infectious diseases are the most prevalent cause of fevers of unknown origin (FUO, this diagnosis remains challenging in some pediatric patients. Imaging exams, such as computed tomography (CT are frequently required during the diagnostic processes. The presence of multiple hypoattenuating scattered images throughout the liver associated with the history of cohabitation with cats should raise the suspicion of the diagnosis of cat-scratch disease (CSD, although the main etiologic agent of liver abscesses in childhood is Staphylococcus aureus. Differential diagnosis by clinical and epidemiological data with Bartonella henselae is often advisable. The authors report the case of a boy aged 2 years and 9 months with 16-day history of daily fever accompanied by intermittent abdominal pain. Physical examination was unremarkable. Abdominal ultrasound performed in the initial work up was unrevealing, but an abdominal CT that was performed afterwards disclosed multiple hypoattenuating hepatic images compatible with the diagnosis of micro abscesses. Initial antibiotic regimen included cefotaxime, metronidazole, and oxacillin. Due to the epidemiology of close contact with kittens, diagnosis of CSD was considered and confirmed by serologic tests. Therefore, the initial antibiotics were replaced by clarithromycin orally for 14 days followed by fever defervescence and clinical improvement. The authors call attention to this uncommon diagnosis in a child presenting with FUO and multiple hepatic images suggestive of micro abscesses.

  4. PREVALENCE OF SOME DISEASES OF DOGS AND CATS AT THE STATE GOVERNMENT VETERINARY CLINIC IN MAIDUGURI (NIGERIA

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    A. William, S.U.R. Chaudhari1 and N.N. Atsandac2

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available A 3-year (retrospective study was conducted to determine the prevalence of diseases; clinical conditions of dogs and cats presented at the Government Veterinary Clinic, Maiduguri from January 1995 to December 1997. The prevalent diseases; conditions of dogs included helminthosis (19.19%, accidental injury (18.18%, tick infestation ( 15.15% , canine distemper (8.42% , diarrhoea ( 6.73%, mange ( 7.41%, rabies (5.05% and babesiosis (4.71%, Prevalent diseases/conditions of cats included helminthosis (26.67%. tick infestation ( 8.89%. diarrhea ( 16.67%, nutritional deficiencies ( 15.56% and respiratory infections ( 12.22%. Of highest prevalence in both dogs and cats was helminthosis (20.93%, followed by tick infestation (13. 70% and diarrhea (9.04% suggesting a poor husbandy of these pets in Maiduguri area. Cases of automobile accidental injury of dogs were also high, probably due to the same factors of poor husbandry.

  5. Absence of bacterial DNA in culture-negative urine from cats with and without lower urinary tract disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lund, Heidi Sjetne; Skogtun, Gaute; Sørum, Henning; Eggertsdóttir, Anna Vigdís

    2015-10-01

    A diagnosis of bacterial cystitis commonly relies on a positive microbiological culture demonstrating the presence of a significant number of colony-forming units/ml urine, as urine within the upper urinary tract, bladder and proximal urethra generally is considered sterile. Recent studies from human and veterinary medicine indicate the presence of non-culturable bacteria in culture-negative urine samples. The aim of the present study was to determine the occurrence of bacterial DNA in culture-negative urine samples from cats with signs of feline lower urinary tract disease (FLUTD) and healthy control cats by 16S ribosomal DNA PCR and subsequent sequencing. The study sample included 38 culture-negative urine samples from cats with FLUTD and 43 culture-negative samples from control cats. Eight culture-positive urine samples from cats with FLUTD were included as external positive controls in addition to negative reaction controls. Of possible methodological limitations, degradation of DNA due to storage, the use of non-sedimented urine for DNA isolation and lack of internal positive reaction controls should be mentioned. The positive controls were recognised, but occurrence of bacterial DNA in culture-negative urine from cats with or without signs of lower urinary tract disease was not demonstrated. However, considering the possible methodological limitations, the presence of bacterial DNA in the urine of culture-negative FLUTD cats cannot be excluded based on the present results alone. Therefore, a prospective study reducing the possibility of degradation of DNA due to storage, in combination with modifications enhancing the chance of detecting even lower levels of bacterial DNA in culture-negative samples, seems warranted. © ISFM and AAFP 2014.

  6. COPD assessment test (CAT): simple tool for evaluating quality of life of chemical warfare patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lari, Shahrzad M; Ghobadi, Hassan; Attaran, Davood; Mahmoodpour, Afsoun; Shadkam, Omid; Rostami, Maryam

    2014-01-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is one of the serious late pulmonary complications caused by sulphur mustard exposure. Health status evaluations of chemical warfare patients with COPD are important to the management of these patients. The aim of this study was to determine the efficacy of the COPD assessment test (CAT) in evaluating the health-related quality of life (HRQOL) of chemical warfare patients with COPD. Eighty-two consecutive patients with stable COPD were enrolled in this study. All subjects were visited by one physician, and the HRQOL was evaluated by the CAT and St. George Respiratory Questionnaires (SGRQs). In addition, a standard spirometry test, 6-min walk distance test and pulse oxymetry were conducted. The severity of the COPD was determined using Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD) staging and the body mass index, obstruction, dyspnoea and exercise (BODE) index. The mean age of the patients was 47.30 ± 7.08 years. The mean CAT score was 26.03 ± 8.28. Thirty-five (43%) patients were in CAT stage 3. There were statistically significant correlations between the CAT and the SGRQ (r = 0.70, P = 0.001) and the BODE index (r = 0.70, P = 0.001). A statistically significant inverse correlation was found between the CAT score and the forced expiratory volume in 1 s (r = -0.30, P = 0.03). Our results demonstrated that the CAT is a simple and valid tool for assessment of HRQOL in chemical warfare patients with COPD and can be used in clinical practice. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. A pediatric case with peripheral facial nerve palsy caused by a granulomatous lesion associated with cat scratch disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Chizuko; Inaba, Yuji; Tsukahara, Keiko; Mochizuki, Mie; Sawanobori, Emi; Nakazawa, Yozo; Aoyama, Kouki

    2018-02-01

    Cat scratch disease is a common infectious disorder caused by Bartonella henselae that is transmitted primarily by kittens. It typically exhibits a benign and self-limiting course of subacute regional lymphadenopathy and fever lasting two to eight weeks. The most severe complication of cat scratch disease is involvement of the nervous system, such as encephalitis, meningitis, and polyneuritis. Peripheral facial nerve palsy associated with Bartonella infection is rare; few reported pediatric and adult cases exist and the precise pathogenesis is unknown. A previously healthy 7-year-old boy presented with fever, cervical lymphadenopathy, and peripheral facial nerve palsy associated with serologically confirmed cat scratch disease. The stapedius muscle reflex was absent on the left side and brain magnetic resonance imaging revealed a mass lesion at the left internal auditory meatus. The patient's symptoms and imaging findings were gradually resolved after the antibiotics and corticosteroids treatment. The suspected granulomatous lesion was considered to have resulted from the host's immune reaction to Bartonella infection and impaired the facial nerve. This is the first case report providing direct evidence of peripheral facial nerve palsy caused by a suspected granulomatous lesion associated with cat scratch disease and its treatment course. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  8. Prevalence of selected infectious disease agents in stray cats in Catalonia, Spain

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    Sara Ravicini

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Objectives The objective of the current study was to investigate the prevalence rates of the following infectious agents in 116 stray cats in the Barcelona area of Spain: Anaplasma phagocytophilum, Bartonella species, Borrelia burgdorferi, Chlamydia felis, Dirofilaria immitis, Ehrlichia species, feline calicivirus (FCV, feline herpesvirus-1 (FHV-1, feline leukaemia virus (FeLV, feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV, haemoplasmas, Mycoplasma species and Rickettsia species. Methods Serum antibodies were used to estimate the prevalence of exposure to A phagocytophilum, Bartonella species, B burgdorferi, Ehrlichia species and FIV; serum antigens were used to assess for infection by D immitis and FeLV; and molecular assays were used to amplify nucleic acids of Anaplasma species, Bartonella species, C felis, D immitis, Ehrlichia species, FCV, FHV-1, haemoplasmas, Mycoplasma species and Rickettsia species from blood and nasal or oral swabs. Results Of the 116 cats, 63 (54.3% had evidence of infection by Bartonella species, FeLV, FIV or a haemoplasma. Anaplasma species, Ehrlichia species or Rickettsia species DNA was not amplified from these cats. A total of 18/116 cats (15.5% were positive for FCV RNA (six cats, Mycoplasma species DNA (six cats, FHV-1 DNA (three cats or C felis DNA (three cats. Conclusions and relevance This study documents that shelter cats in Catalonia are exposed to many infectious agents with clinical and zoonotic significance, and that flea control is indicated for cats in the region.

  9. Bacterial and protozoal agents of feline vector-borne diseases in domestic and stray cats from southern Portugal

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Feline vector-borne diseases (FVBD) have emerged in recent years, showing a wider geographic distribution and increased global prevalence. In addition to their veterinary importance, domestic cats play a central role in the transmission cycles of some FVBD agents by acting as reservoirs and sentinels, a circumstance that requires a One Health approach. The aim of the present work was to molecularly detect feline vector-borne bacteria and protozoa with veterinary and zoonotic importance, and to assess associated risk factors in cats from southern Portugal. Methods Six hundred and forty-nine cats (320 domestic and 329 stray), from veterinary medical centres and animal shelters in southern Portugal, were studied. Anaplasma spp./Ehrlichia spp., Babesia spp., Bartonella spp., Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato, Hepatozoon spp. and Leishmania spp. infections were evaluated by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in blood samples. Results One hundred and ninety-four (29.9%) cats were PCR-positive to at least one of the tested genera or complex of FVBD agents. Sixty-four (9.9%) cats were positive to Leishmania spp., 56 (8.6%) to Hepatozoon spp., 43 (6.6%) to Babesia spp., 35 (5.4%) to Anaplasma spp./Ehrlichia spp., 19 (2.9%) to Bartonella spp. and 14 (2.2%) to B. burgdorferi s.l. Thirty-three (5.1%) cats were positive to two (n = 29) or three (n = 4) genera/complex. Babesia vogeli, Bartonella clarridgeiae, Bartonella henselae, Ehrlichia canis, Hepatozoon felis and Leishmania infantum were identified by DNA sequencing. Conclusions The occurrence of FVBD agents in southern Portugal, some of them with zoonotic character, emphasizes the need to alert the veterinary community, owners and public health authorities for the risk of infection. Control measures should be implemented to prevent the infection of cats, other vertebrate hosts and people. PMID:24655431

  10. Renal Alterations in Feline Immunodeficiency Virus (FIV-Infected Cats: A Natural Model of Lentivirus-Induced Renal Disease Changes

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    Mauro Pistello

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV is associated with several renal syndromes including acute and chronic renal failures, but the underlying pathogenic mechanisms are unclear. HIV and feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV share numerous biological and pathological features, including renal alterations. We investigated and compared the morphological changes of renal tissue of 51 experimentally and 21 naturally infected cats. Compared to the latter, the experimentally infected cats exhibited some mesangial widening and glomerulonephritis, milder proteinuria, and lower tubular and interstitial alterations. The numbers of giant protein tubular casts and tubular microcysts were also lower. In contrast, diffuse interstitial infiltrates and glomerular and interstitial amyloidosis were detected only in naturally infected cats. Similar alterations are found in HIV infected patients, thus supporting the idea of a causative role of FIV infection in renal disease, and underlining the relevance of the FIV and its natural host as an animal model for investigating lentivirus-associated nephropathy.

  11. Renal alterations in feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV)-infected cats: a natural model of lentivirus-induced renal disease changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poli, Alessandro; Tozon, Natasa; Guidi, Grazia; Pistello, Mauro

    2012-09-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is associated with several renal syndromes including acute and chronic renal failures, but the underlying pathogenic mechanisms are unclear. HIV and feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) share numerous biological and pathological features, including renal alterations. We investigated and compared the morphological changes of renal tissue of 51 experimentally and 21 naturally infected cats. Compared to the latter, the experimentally infected cats exhibited some mesangial widening and glomerulonephritis, milder proteinuria, and lower tubular and interstitial alterations. The numbers of giant protein tubular casts and tubular microcysts were also lower. In contrast, diffuse interstitial infiltrates and glomerular and interstitial amyloidosis were detected only in naturally infected cats. Similar alterations are found in HIV infected patients, thus supporting the idea of a causative role of FIV infection in renal disease, and underlining the relevance of the FIV and its natural host as an animal model for investigating lentivirus-associated nephropathy.

  12. Relationship of orthopedic examination, goniometric measurements, and radiographic signs of degenerative joint disease in cats

    OpenAIRE

    Lascelles, B Duncan X; Dong, Yaa-Hui; Marcellin-Little, Denis J; Thomson, Andrea; Wheeler, Simon; Correa, Maria

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Available information suggests a mismatch between radiographic and orthopedic examination findings in cats with DJD. However, the extent of the discrepancy between clinical and radiographic signs of OA in companion animals has not been described in detail. This study aimed to evaluate the relationship between orthopedic examination findings, joint goniometry, and radiographic signs of DJD in 100 cats, in a prospective observational design. Cat temperament, pain response to...

  13. Imported disease of dogs and cats exotic to Ireland: echinococcus multilocularis

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    Goodfellow Mark

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Changes in legislation that facilitate the movement of animals within the European Union may increase the risk that some microbial and parasitic organisms, currently exotic to Ireland, will be introduced by travelled pet animals. It is possible that the fox tapeworm, Echinococcus multilocularis, might be introduced in that manner from any of the several member states in which it is endemic. Red foxes are the principal definitive hosts of E. multilocularis but dogs and cats can also be infected. Infection in the definitive host is of little clinical significance, but aberrant infection of humans results in alveolar echinococcosis, a debilitating disease that has a high mortality rate. Humans acquire the organism by ingestion of Echinococcus multilocularis eggs excreted by definitive hosts; the larval metacestodes develop primarily in the liver, in the initial asymptomatic phase as small, well-encapsulated cysts. Over time, perhaps five to 15 years, progressive local infiltration and secondary cyst development at distant sites occur with resultant clinical signs. Patients with infiltrative liver disease present with cholestatic jaundice, epigastric pain, fatigue, weight loss and hepatomegaly. If left untreated, the disease can be fatal. This paper recounts the life cycle of the parasite, and discusses the control measures on which its exclusion from Ireland depend. Strict adherence to the routine worming of travelled dogs with praziquantel, at appropriate doses, 24 to 48 hours prior to entry into the country will minimise the likelihood of introduction of this zoonosis.

  14. U.S. domestic cats as sentinels for perfluoroalkyl substances: Possible linkages with housing, obesity, and disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bost, Phillip C; Strynar, Mark J; Reiner, Jessica L; Zweigenbaum, Jerry A; Secoura, Patricia L; Lindstrom, Andrew B; Dye, Janice A

    2016-11-01

    Perfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS), such as perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), are persistent, globally distributed, anthropogenic compounds. The primary source(s) for human exposure are not well understood although within home exposure is likely important since many consumer products have been treated with different PFAS, and people spend much of their lives indoors. Herein, domestic cats were used as sentinels to investigate potential exposure and health linkages. PFAS in serum samples of 72 pet and feral cats, including 11 healthy and 61 with one or more primary disease diagnoses, were quantitated using high-resolution time-of-flight mass spectroscopy. All but one sample had detectable PFAS, with PFOS and perfluorohexane sulfonate (PFHxS) ranging from cats were very similar to contemporary NHANES reports of human sera in the U. S. The highest PFAS serum concentrations detected were in indoor cats due to disproportionately elevated PFHxS levels. Ranked by quartile, contingency testing indicated that total PFAS levels were positively associated with living indoors and with higher body weight and body condition scores. Individual PFAS quartile rankings suggested positive associations with respiratory effusion, thyroid, liver, and possibly chronic kidney disease. Domestic cats appear to be useful sentinels for assessing primary PFAS exposure routes, especially indoor sources of relevance to children. Additional case-control studies in pet cats are warranted to better define the potential health associations observed herein. A "One Health" approach assessing humans, pets, and their common environment may improve our understanding of chronic low-level, largely indoor, PFAS exposure and effects in humans and animals alike. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  15. Antimicrobial Use Guidelines for Treatment of Urinary Tract Disease in Dogs and Cats: Antimicrobial Guidelines Working Group of the International Society for Companion Animal Infectious Diseases

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    J. Scott Weese

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Urinary tract disease is a common reason for use (and likely misuse, improper use, and overuse of antimicrobials in dogs and cats. There is a lack of comprehensive treatment guidelines such as those that are available for human medicine. Accordingly, guidelines for diagnosis and management of urinary tract infections were created by a Working Group of the International Society for Companion Animal Infectious Diseases. While objective data are currently limited, these guidelines provide information to assist in the diagnosis and management of upper and lower urinary tract infections in dogs and cats.

  16. U.S. domestic cats as sentinels for perfluoroalkyl substances: Possible linkages with housing, obesity, and disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bost, Phillip C. [Student Contractor to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (United States); Strynar, Mark J. [U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, National Exposure Research Laboratory, Exposure Methods and Measurement Division, Research Triangle Park, NC 27711 (United States); Reiner, Jessica L. [National Institute of Standards and Technology, Hollings Marine Laboratory, Charleston, SC 29412 (United States); Zweigenbaum, Jerry A. [Agilent Technologies, Wilmington, DE 19808 (United States); Secoura, Patricia L. [North Carolina State University, Veterinary Teaching Hospital, Raleigh, NC 27606 (United States); Lindstrom, Andrew B. [U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, National Exposure Research Laboratory, Exposure Methods and Measurement Division, Research Triangle Park, NC 27711 (United States); Dye, Janice A., E-mail: dye.janice@epa.gov [U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, Environmental Public Health Division, Research Triangle Park, NC 27711 (United States)

    2016-11-15

    Perfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS), such as perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), are persistent, globally distributed, anthropogenic compounds. The primary source(s) for human exposure are not well understood although within home exposure is likely important since many consumer products have been treated with different PFAS, and people spend much of their lives indoors. Herein, domestic cats were used as sentinels to investigate potential exposure and health linkages. PFAS in serum samples of 72 pet and feral cats, including 11 healthy and 61 with one or more primary disease diagnoses, were quantitated using high-resolution time-of-flight mass spectroscopy. All but one sample had detectable PFAS, with PFOS and perfluorohexane sulfonate (PFHxS) ranging from cats were very similar to contemporary NHANES reports of human sera in the U. S. population. The highest PFAS serum concentrations detected were in indoor cats due to disproportionately elevated PFHxS levels. Ranked by quartile, contingency testing indicated that total PFAS levels were positively associated with living indoors and with higher body weight and body condition scores. Individual PFAS quartile rankings suggested positive associations with respiratory effusion, thyroid, liver, and possibly chronic kidney disease. Domestic cats appear to be useful sentinels for assessing primary PFAS exposure routes, especially indoor sources of relevance to children. Additional case-control studies in pet cats are warranted to better define the potential health associations observed herein. A “One Health” approach assessing humans, pets, and their common environment may improve our understanding of chronic low-level, largely indoor, PFAS exposure and effects in humans and animals alike. - Highlights: • PFAS serum concentrations were measured in healthy and diseased U. S. domestic cats. • Most

  17. U.S. domestic cats as sentinels for perfluoroalkyl substances: Possible linkages with housing, obesity, and disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bost, Phillip C.; Strynar, Mark J.; Reiner, Jessica L.; Zweigenbaum, Jerry A.; Secoura, Patricia L.; Lindstrom, Andrew B.; Dye, Janice A.

    2016-01-01

    Perfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS), such as perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), are persistent, globally distributed, anthropogenic compounds. The primary source(s) for human exposure are not well understood although within home exposure is likely important since many consumer products have been treated with different PFAS, and people spend much of their lives indoors. Herein, domestic cats were used as sentinels to investigate potential exposure and health linkages. PFAS in serum samples of 72 pet and feral cats, including 11 healthy and 61 with one or more primary disease diagnoses, were quantitated using high-resolution time-of-flight mass spectroscopy. All but one sample had detectable PFAS, with PFOS and perfluorohexane sulfonate (PFHxS) ranging from cats were very similar to contemporary NHANES reports of human sera in the U. S. population. The highest PFAS serum concentrations detected were in indoor cats due to disproportionately elevated PFHxS levels. Ranked by quartile, contingency testing indicated that total PFAS levels were positively associated with living indoors and with higher body weight and body condition scores. Individual PFAS quartile rankings suggested positive associations with respiratory effusion, thyroid, liver, and possibly chronic kidney disease. Domestic cats appear to be useful sentinels for assessing primary PFAS exposure routes, especially indoor sources of relevance to children. Additional case-control studies in pet cats are warranted to better define the potential health associations observed herein. A “One Health” approach assessing humans, pets, and their common environment may improve our understanding of chronic low-level, largely indoor, PFAS exposure and effects in humans and animals alike. - Highlights: • PFAS serum concentrations were measured in healthy and diseased U. S. domestic cats. • Most

  18. Using dynamic stochastic modelling to estimate population risk factors in infectious disease: the example of FIV in 15 cat populations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Fouchet

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In natural cat populations, Feline Immunodeficiency Virus (FIV is transmitted through bites between individuals. Factors such as the density of cats within the population or the sex-ratio can have potentially strong effects on the frequency of fight between individuals and hence appear as important population risk factors for FIV. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: To study such population risk factors, we present data on FIV prevalence in 15 cat populations in northeastern France. We investigate five key social factors of cat populations; the density of cats, the sex-ratio, the number of males and the mean age of males and females within the population. We overcome the problem of dependence in the infective status data using sexually-structured dynamic stochastic models. Only the age of males and females had an effect (p = 0.043 and p = 0.02, respectively on the male-to-female transmission rate. Due to multiple tests, it is even likely that these effects are, in reality, not significant. Finally we show that, in our study area, the data can be explained by a very simple model that does not invoke any risk factor. CONCLUSION: Our conclusion is that, in host-parasite systems in general, fluctuations due to stochasticity in the transmission process are naturally very large and may alone explain a larger part of the variability in observed disease prevalence between populations than previously expected. Finally, we determined confidence intervals for the simple model parameters that can be used to further aid in management of the disease.

  19. Pathology of articular cartilage and synovial membrane from elbow joints with and without degenerative joint disease in domestic cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freire, M; Meuten, D; Lascelles, D

    2014-09-01

    The elbow joint is one of the feline appendicular joints most commonly and severely affected by degenerative joint disease. The macroscopic and histopathological lesions of the elbow joints of 30 adult cats were evaluated immediately after euthanasia. Macroscopic evidence of degenerative joint disease was found in 22 of 30 cats (39 elbow joints) (73.33% cats; 65% elbow joints), and macroscopic cartilage erosion ranged from mild fibrillation to complete ulceration of the hyaline cartilage with exposure of the subchondral bone. Distribution of the lesions in the cartilage indicated the presence of medial compartment joint disease (most severe lesions located in the medial coronoid process of the ulna and medial humeral epicondyle). Synovitis scores were mild overall and correlated only weakly with macroscopic cartilage damage. Intra-articular osteochondral fragments either free or attached to the synovium were found in 10 joints. Macroscopic or histologic evidence of a fragmented coronoid process was not found even in those cases with intra-articular osteochondral fragments. Lesions observed in these animals are most consistent with synovial osteochondromatosis secondary to degenerative joint disease. The pathogenesis for the medial compartmentalization of these lesions has not been established, but a fragmented medial coronoid process or osteochondritis dissecans does not appear to play a role. © The Author(s) 2014.

  20. General procedures in diagnosis of malignant diseases in dogs and cats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovanović Milan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Tumors occur in all domestic and wild animals. They are most often diagnosed in dogs and cats, and their numbers increase from year to year. In the recent years, cancer is believed to be the most frequent cause of pet deaths. A speedy and reliable diagnosis is of paramount importance because it enables the veterinarian to begin therapy and make a prognosis. The objective of an early diagnosis is to enable the detection of neoplastic diseases before the tumor spreads throughout the organism, consequently enabling the timely administration of therapy and providing greater chances for curing the animal. A tumor is diagnosed on the grounds of the anamnesis, clinical picture, and special diagnostic procedures. The most frequently applied diagnostic procedures are laboratory diagnostics, cytology, biopsy and pathohistology, imaging diagnostics (roentgenography and roentgenoscopy, ultrasound diagnostics, endoscopy, computer tomography, magnetic resonance, and scintigraphy and molecular diagnostics. Each of these methods has its advantages and faults in connection with costs, availability, sensitivity, specificity and quality of anatomic vs functional pictures. Every one of these techniques has its own field of implementation and each one provides different and additional information in connection with the nature and position of the primary lesion and the presence of metastases.

  1. The Use of Functional Data Analysis to Evaluate Activity in a Spontaneous Model of Degenerative Joint Disease Associated Pain in Cats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruen, Margaret E.; Alfaro-Córdoba, Marcela; Thomson, Andrea E.; Worth, Alicia C.; Staicu, Ana-Maria; Lascelles, B. Duncan X.

    2017-01-01

    Introduction and objectives Accelerometry is used as an objective measure of physical activity in humans and veterinary species. In cats, one important use of accelerometry is in the study of therapeutics designed to treat degenerative joint disease (DJD) associated pain, where it serves as the most widely applied objective outcome measure. These analyses have commonly used summary measures, calculating the mean activity per-minute over days and comparing between treatment periods. While this technique has been effective, information about the pattern of activity in cats is lost. In this study, functional data analysis was applied to activity data from client-owned cats with (n = 83) and without (n = 15) DJD. Functional data analysis retains information about the pattern of activity over the 24-hour day, providing insight into activity over time. We hypothesized that 1) cats without DJD would have higher activity counts and intensity of activity than cats with DJD; 2) that activity counts and intensity of activity in cats with DJD would be inversely correlated with total radiographic DJD burden and total orthopedic pain score; and 3) that activity counts and intensity would have a different pattern on weekends versus weekdays. Results and conclusions Results showed marked inter-cat variability in activity. Cats exhibited a bimodal pattern of activity with a sharp peak in the morning and broader peak in the evening. Results further showed that this pattern was different on weekends than weekdays, with the morning peak being shifted to the right (later). Cats with DJD showed different patterns of activity from cats without DJD, though activity and intensity were not always lower; instead both the peaks and troughs of activity were less extreme than those of the cats without DJD. Functional data analysis provides insight into the pattern of activity in cats, and an alternative method for analyzing accelerometry data that incorporates fluctuations in activity across

  2. Effects of early cat or dog ownership on sensitisation and asthma in a high-risk cohort without disease-related modification of exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almqvist, Catarina; Garden, Frances; Kemp, Andrew S; Li, Qiang; Crisafulli, Daniel; Tovey, Euan R; Xuan, Wei; Marks, Guy B

    2010-03-01

    Variation in the observed association between pet ownership and allergic disease may be attributable to selection bias and confounding. The aim of this study was to suggest a method to assess disease-related modification of exposure and second to examine how cat acquisition or dog ownership in early life affects atopy and asthma at 5 years. Information on sociodemographic factors and cat and dog ownership was collected longitudinally in an initially cat-free Australian birth cohort based on children with a family history of asthma. At age 5 years, 516 children were assessed for wheezing, and 488 for sensitisation. Data showed that by age 5 years, 82 children had acquired a cat. Early manifestations of allergic disease did not foreshadow a reduced rate of subsequent acquisition of a cat. Independent risk factors for acquiring a cat were exposure to tobacco smoke at home odds ratio (OR) 1.92 [95% confidence interval (CI) 1.13, 3.26], maternal education ownership OR 2.23 [1.23, 4.05]. Cat or dog exposure in the first 5 years was associated with a decreased risk of any allergen sensitisation, OR 0.50 [0.28, 0.88] but no association with wheeze OR 0.96 [0.57, 1.61]. This risk was not affected by age at which the cat was acquired or whether the pet was kept in- or outdoors. In conclusion, cat or dog ownership reduced the risk of subsequent atopy in this high-risk birth cohort. This cannot be explained by disease-related modification of exposure. Public health recommendations on the effect of cat and dog ownership should be based on birth cohort studies where possible selection bias has been taken into account.

  3. Osteomyelitis in Cat-Scratch Disease: A Never-Ending Dilemma—A Case Report and Literature Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Donà

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. We performed a review of published case studies of osteomyelitis associated with cat-scratch disease to consolidate existing information on clinical presentation, diagnostic tools, therapy, and outcome, as well as presenting a case of disseminated cat-scratch disease in a 12-year-old female with skull osteomyelitis and spleen involvement. Methods. A search for articles indexed in PubMed, Embase, and Google Scholar was performed with the search terms “Bartonella,” “bone,” “osteomyelitis,” “osteolytic,” and “cat-scratch disease” limited to the immunocompetent pediatric population and articles in English. Results. 51 cases were identified. The average age was 7.8 years with equal sex distribution. Fever (84.3%, often with a prolonged course (64.7%, and osteoarticular pain (88.2% were the most common clinical findings. Lymphadenopathy was present in 64.7% of patients. Vertebral body was mainly involved (51.9%. MRI (50% and bone scintigraphy (48.1% were favored to confirm osteomyelitis, while serology was the preferred microbiological diagnostic. Various antibiotics were prescribed in combined or sequential regimens, with median duration of therapy of 23 days. About 12.5% of patients did not receive any treatment. Most patients had excellent prognosis; in particular, all patients not receiving any therapy showed complete recovery and no recurrence of symptoms. Conclusions. Bartonella henselae should be considered in differential diagnosis of localized lymphadentitis. Osteoarticular pain or limitation during cat-scratch disease in children should always be investigated for bone spreading. Owing to good prognosis, invasive procedures to obtain the bone material should be avoided. Serology is the gold standard diagnostic tool and MRI is the best radiographic technique to define bone and surrounding tissue involvement. Treatment represents a never-ending dilemma: surgical intervention or use of antibiotics is still

  4. Infectious disease prevalence in a feral cat population on Prince Edward Island, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stojanovic, Vladimir; Foley, Peter

    2011-01-01

    Ninety-six feral cats from Prince Edward Island were used to determine the prevalence of selected infectious agents. The prevalence rates were 5.2% for feline immunodeficiency virus, 3.1% for feline leukemia virus, 3.1% for Mycoplasma haemofelis, 8.4% for Candidatus Mycoplasma haemominutum, 2.1% for Bartonella spp. and 29.8% for exposure to Toxoplasma gondii. Oocysts of T. gondii were detected in 1.3% of the fecal samples that were collected. Gender and retroviral status of the cats were significantly correlated with hemoplasma infections. Use of a flea comb showed that 9.6% of the cats had fleas; however, flea infestation was not associated with any of the infectious agents. PMID:22379197

  5. Review of thymic pathology in 30 cats and 36 dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day, M J

    1997-09-01

    Data are presented from 30 cats and 36 dogs in which thymic disease was recognised clinically or on postmortem examination. The diagnoses included thymic lymphoma (19 cats, 12 dogs), thymoma (five cats, 18 dogs), thymic branchial cyst formation or cystic change (one cat, four dogs), thymic hyperplasia (two cats), congenital hypoplasia (one cat, one dog), thymic haemorrhage (one cat, one dog) and thymic amyloidosis (one cat). Thymic lymphoma occurred in younger dogs and cats, and was recorded equally among domestic shorthaired and purebred (especially Siamese) cats. Eight cats with thymic lymphoma were tested for feline leukaemia virus and four were positive. Thymoma occurred more frequently in older cats and dogs, and in Labradors and German shepherd dogs. Thymic tumours were associated with paraneoplastic hypercalcaemia (six dogs), megaoesophagus (two dogs) or interface dermatitis with basement membrane immune complex deposition (one cat). Non-neoplastic thymic diseases were associated with myasthenia gravis (one cat), pemphigus foliaceus (one cat) and superficial necrolytic dermatitis (one cat).

  6. Retroviral DNA--the silent winner: blood transfusion containing latent feline leukemia provirus causes infection and disease in naïve recipient cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nesina, Stefanie; Katrin Helfer-Hungerbuehler, A; Riond, Barbara; Boretti, Felicitas S; Willi, Barbara; Meli, Marina L; Grest, Paula; Hofmann-Lehmann, Regina

    2015-12-21

    The feline leukemia virus (FeLV) is a gamma-retrovirus of domestic cats that was discovered half a century ago. Cats that are infected with FeLV may develop a progressive infection resulting in persistent viremia, immunodeficiency, tumors, anemia and death. A significant number of cats mount a protective immune response that suppresses viremia; these cats develop a regressive infection characterized by the absence of viral replication and the presence of low levels of proviral DNA. The biological importance of these latter provirus carriers is largely unknown. Here, we demonstrate that ten cats that received a transfusion of blood from aviremic provirus carriers developed active FeLV infections, some with a progressive outcome and the development of fatal FeLV-associated disease. The infection outcome, disease spectrum and evolution into FeLV-C in one cat mirrored those of natural infection. Two cats developed persistent antigenemia; six cats were transiently antigenemic. Reactivation of infection occurred in some cats. One recipient developed non-regenerative anemia associated with FeLV-C, and four others developed a T-cell lymphoma, one with secondary lymphoblastic leukemia. Five of the ten recipient cats received provirus-positive aviremic blood, whereas the other five received provirus- and viral RNA-positive but aviremic blood. Notably, the cats that received blood containing only proviral DNA exhibited a later onset but graver outcome of FeLV infection than the cats that were transfused with blood containing proviral DNA and viral RNA. Leukocyte counts and cytokine analyses indicated that the immune system of the latter cats reacted quicker and more efficiently. Our results underline the biological and epidemiological relevance of FeLV provirus carriers and the risk of inadvertent FeLV transmission via blood transfusion and demonstrate the replication capacity of proviral DNA if uncontrolled by the immune system. Our results have implications not only for

  7. Comparison of Efficacy of Long-term Oral Treatment with Telmisartan and Benazepril in Cats with Chronic Kidney Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sent, U; Gössl, R; Elliott, J; Syme, H M; Zimmering, T

    2015-01-01

    The efficacy and benefits of telmisartan in cats with chronic kidney disease (CKD) have not previously been reported. Long-term treatment of cats with CKD using telmisartan decreases urine protein-to-creatinine ratio (UP/C) similar to benazepril. Two-hundred and twenty-four client-owned adult cats with CKD. Prospective, multicenter, controlled, randomized, parallel group, blinded clinical trial with noninferiority design. Cats were allocated in a 1:1 ratio to either telmisartan (1 mg/kg; n = 112) or benazepril (0.5-1.0 mg/kg; n = 112) PO q24 h. The primary endpoint was prospectively defined as the change in proteinuria (benazepril:telmisartan) based on a log transformed weighted average of UP/C change from baseline (AUC 0→t/t) as a percentage compared using a confidence interval (CI) approach. Changes of UP/C from baseline were assessed on all study days and corrected for multiple comparisons. Telmisartan proved noninferior to benazepril in controlling proteinuria (CI, -0.035 to 0.268). At Day 180, UP/C compared to baseline in the telmisartan group was significantly lower (-0.05 ± 0.31; P = .016), whereas in the benazepril group the change (-0.02 ± 0.48) was not statistically significant (P = .136). Similar results were obtained at all assessment points with significant decrease in UP/C occurring with telmisartan but not benazepril. Both telmisartan and benazepril were well tolerated and safe. Telmisartan proved to be noninferior to benazepril and significantly decreased proteinuria relative to baseline at all assessment points whereas benazepril did not. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine.

  8. Agreement between microscopic examination and bacterial culture of bile samples for detection of bactibilia in dogs and cats with hepatobiliary disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pashmakova, Medora B; Piccione, Julie; Bishop, Micah A; Nelson, Whitney R; Lawhon, Sara D

    2017-05-01

    OBJECTIVE To evaluate the agreement between results of microscopic examination and bacterial culture of bile samples from dogs and cats with hepatobiliary disease for detection of bactibilia. DESIGN Cross-sectional study. ANIMALS 31 dogs and 21 cats with hepatobiliary disease for which subsequent microscopic examination and bacterial culture of bile samples was performed from 2004 through 2014. PROCEDURES Electronic medical records of included dogs and cats were reviewed to extract data regarding diagnosis, antimicrobials administered, and results of microscopic examination and bacterial culture of bile samples. Agreement between these 2 diagnostic tests was assessed by calculation of the Cohen κ value. RESULTS 17 (33%) dogs and cats had bactibilia identified by microscopic examination of bile samples, and 11 (21%) had bactibilia identified via bacterial culture. Agreement between these 2 tests was substantial (percentage agreement [positive and negative results], 85%; κ = 0.62; 95% confidence interval, 0.38 to 0.89) and improved to almost perfect when calculated for only animals that received no antimicrobials within 24 hours prior to sample collection (percentage agreement, 94%; κ = 0.84; 95% confidence interval, 0.61 to 1.00). CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Results indicated that agreement between microscopic examination and bacterial culture of bile samples for detection of bactibilia is optimized when dogs and cats are not receiving antimicrobials at the time of sample collection. Concurrent bacterial culture and microscopic examination of bile samples are recommended for all cats and dogs evaluated for hepatobiliary disease.

  9. Obesity in show cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corbee, R J

    2014-12-01

    Obesity is an important disease with a high prevalence in cats. Because obesity is related to several other diseases, it is important to identify the population at risk. Several risk factors for obesity have been described in the literature. A higher incidence of obesity in certain cat breeds has been suggested. The aim of this study was to determine whether obesity occurs more often in certain breeds. The second aim was to relate the increased prevalence of obesity in certain breeds to the official standards of that breed. To this end, 268 cats of 22 different breeds investigated by determining their body condition score (BCS) on a nine-point scale by inspection and palpation, at two different cat shows. Overall, 45.5% of the show cats had a BCS > 5, and 4.5% of the show cats had a BCS > 7. There were significant differences between breeds, which could be related to the breed standards. Most overweight and obese cats were in the neutered group. It warrants firm discussions with breeders and cat show judges to come to different interpretations of the standards in order to prevent overweight conditions in certain breeds from being the standard of beauty. Neutering predisposes for obesity and requires early nutritional intervention to prevent obese conditions. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition © 2014 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  10. Comparison of upper gastrointestinal radiographic findings to histopathologic observations: a retrospective study of 41 dogs and cats with suspected small bowel infiltrative disease (1985 to 1990)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weichselbaum, R.C.; Feeney, D.A.; Hayden, D.W.

    1994-01-01

    It was the intent of this study to define which, if any, radiographic observations corresponded with specific causes of diffuse infiltrative small bowel disease and if radiographic findings could differentiate inflammatory disease from neoplastic disease and either of them from normal. Bowel spasticity, luminal narrowing, and thumb printing tend to indicate the presence of tumor more often than inflammatory disease. Increased bowel gas in cats and barium adhesion in dogs and cats suggest that a component of enteritis is present. Decreased bowel gas in dogs is more often associated with obstructive disease, but is not helpful in differentiating diffuse inflammatory disease from diffuse neoplastic disease. While several observations that can foster differentiation of neoplastic from inflammatory disease were found, this study also indicated that the UGI lacks a high degree of predictive value other than to indicate the presence of infiltrative small bowel disease

  11. Prevalence of congenital heart disease in 76,301 mixed-breed dogs and 57,025 mixed-breed cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schrope, Donald P

    2015-09-01

    Assess the prevalence of congenital heart disease (CHD) in a large population of mixed-breed dogs and cats. 76,301 mixed-breed dogs and 57,025 mixed-breed cats. Retrospective review of records and examinations based on specified diagnostic criteria. Among mixed-breed dogs, the prevalence of CHD was 0.13% (51.4% female) and of innocent murmurs was 0.10% (53.0% male). Pulmonic stenosis was the most common defect followed by patent ductus arteriosus, aortic stenosis, and ventricular septal defect. Among mixed-breed cats, prevalence of CHD was 0.14% (55.2% male) and of innocent murmurs was 0.16% (54.4% male). When the 25 cats with dynamic left or right ventricular outflow obstruction were counted with cases of innocent murmurs, the overall prevalence was 0.2%. Ventricular septal defects were the most common feline CHD followed closely by aortic stenosis and hypertrophic obstructive cardiomyopathy. There was no overall sex predilection for CHD in mixed-breed cats or dogs, and no significant difference in CHD prevalence between cats or dogs. Among dogs, subvalvular aortic stenosis and mitral valve dysplasia had a male predisposition while patent ductus arteriosus had a female predisposition. Among cats, valvular pulmonic stenosis, subvalvular and valvular aortic stenosis, and ventricular septal defects had a male predisposition while pulmonary artery stenosis had a female predisposition. The prevalence of CHD in a mixed-breed dogs and cats is lower than for prior studies, perhaps due to the lack of purebreds in the study population or actual changes in disease prevalence. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Prostatic carcinoma in two cats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caney, S.M.A.; Holt, P.E.; Day, M.J.; Rudorf, H.; Gruffydd-Jones, T.J.

    1998-01-01

    Clinical, radiological and pathological features of two cats with prostatic carcinoma are reported. In both cats the presenting history included signs of lower urinary tract disease with haematuria and dysuria. Prostatomegaly was visible radiographically in one cat; an irregular intraprostatic urethra was seen on retrograde contrast urethrography in both cats. In one of the cats, neoplasia was suspected on the basis of a transurethral catheter biopsy. Following a poor response to palliative treatment in both cases, euthanasia was performed with histological confirmation of the diagnosis

  13. Domestic cat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diffendorfer, James E.

    2017-01-01

    The familiar domestic cat is not native to southern California and is considered an invasive spe-cies by biologists and conservation organizations. When owners abandon their cats, wild or feral populations may arise, as they have in San Diego County. Cats’ pelage color, tail length, and hair thickness vary widely, given human fascination with breeding diverse phenotypes, but all have a typical felid body with upright ears, forward-looking eyes adapted for nocturnal foraging, protractible claws, and a sinuous, flexible body. Cats allowed outdoors and feral cats kill and eat a wide variety of vertebrates such as small mammals, birds, and reptiles

  14. Domestic cat allergen and allergic sensitisation in young children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chen, Chih-Mei; Gehring, Ulrike; Wickman, Magnus; Hoek, Gerard; Giovannangelo, Mariella; Nordling, Emma; Wijga, Alet; de Jongste, Johan; Pershagen, Goeran; Almqvist, Catarina; Kerkhof, Marjan; Bellander, Tom; Wichmann, H. -Erich; Brunekreef, Bert; Heinrich, Joachim

    Studies have presented conflicting associations between cat allergen exposure and sensitisation and atopic disease. We therefore investigated the association between the observed domestic cat allergen level and cat sensitisation in young children in four study populations from three European

  15. Blind Cat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arka Chattopadhyay

    2015-08-01

    There’s no way to know whether he was blind from birth or blindness was something he had picked up from his fights with other cats. He wasn’t an urban cat. He lived in a little village, soaked in the smell of fish with a river running right beside it. Cats like these have stories of a different kind. The two-storied hotel where he lived had a wooden floor. It stood right on the riverbank and had more than a tilt towards the river, as if deliberately leaning on the water.

  16. The Effect of Chinese rhubarb, Rheum officinale, with and without benazepril on the progression of naturally occurring chronic kidney disease in cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanzlicek, A S; Roof, C J; Sanderson, M W; Grauer, G F

    2014-01-01

    Renal fibrosis is common in progressive kidney disease. Transforming growth factors β (TGF-β) are important mediators of all types of fibrosis, including renal fibrosis. Chinese rhubarb has been shown to have antifibrotic properties in part because of inhibition of TGF-β and has slowed the progression of kidney disease in rodent models. That administration of a Chinese rhubarb supplement will slow the progression of chronic kidney disease (CKD) in cats and the concurrent administration of Chinese rhubarb and benazepril will be more effective than either alone. Twenty-nine client-owned cats with naturally occurring IRIS Stage 2 or early Stage 3 CKD and without comorbidity such as cancer, urinary tract obstruction, urinary tract infection, poorly controlled hyperthyroidism, or systemic hypertension were enrolled in the study. A randomized, positive-controlled, prospective study was performed. Cats received Chinese rhubarb, benazepril, or both in addition to standard treatment for CKD. Repeated measures ANOVA was used to assess changes in serum creatinine concentration, body weight, hematocrit, urine protein: urine creatinine ratio (UPC), and systemic arterial blood pressure over time between and within treatment groups over an average of 22 months. No significant differences were detected in serum creatinine concentration, body weight, hematocrit, UPC, and systemic arterial pressure over time between or within treatment groups. This study failed to detect a significant difference in the progression of CKD in cats treated with Chinese rhubarb, benazepril, or both. Further study in specific subsets of cats with CKD is warranted. Copyright © 2014 by the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine.

  17. Congenital and inherited neurologic diseases in dogs and cats: Legislation and its effect on purchase in Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annamaria Passantino

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Many of the congenital neurologic diseases can result in incapacity or death of the animal. Some of them, such as idiopathic epilepsy and hydrocephalus, exhibit breed or familial predisposition and a genetic basis was proved or suggested. Some diseases can be presumptively diagnosed after a detailed signalment (breed predisposition, history (e.g. family history because many of these defects have familial tendencies, and through physical exam; other diagnostic methods (radiography, computed tomography, magnetic resonance, electrophysiologic tests, etc. can provide supportive evidence for the congenital defect and help to confirm the diagnosis. Some cases can lead to civil law-suits when the lesions are congenital, but not easily recognizable, or when the lesions are hereditary but tend to became manifest only after some time (more than 12 months after the date of purchase, e.g., after the vice-free guarantee period has expired. Moreover, quite frequently an early diagnosis is not made because there are delays in consulting the veterinarian or the general practitioner veterinarian does not perceive subtle signs. This study was designed to focus on the medico-legal aspects concerning the buying and selling in Italy of dogs and cats affected by congenital and hereditary neurologic diseases that could constitute vice in these animals. While adequate provisions to regulate in detail the various aspects of pet sale have still to be drawn up by legislators, it may be helpful to involve breeders, by obliging them by contract to extend guarantees in the case of hereditary lesions, including neurologic diseases.

  18. B-mode and Doppler ultrasound of chronic kidney disease in dogs and cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bragato, Nathália; Borges, Naida Cristina; Fioravanti, Maria Clorinda Soares

    2017-12-01

    Ultrasound is the imaging test of choice for renal evaluation, because it provides information about the position, size, shape, internal architecture and hemodynamics of the kidneys without harming the patient. In chronic kidney disease, the main findings observed in B-mode ultrasound images are increased cortical echogenicity, loss of corticomedullary differentiation, reduced renal volume and irregular renal contour, and when these changes are associated, they are indicative of end-stage renal disease. However, the cause of kidney disease cannot be determined by ultrasonography, but must be confirmed by means of biopsy, although the presence of ultrasonographic changes indicative of the end-stage of the disease may contraindicate this procedure. The Doppler ultrasound test complements the ultrasonic B-mode examination and enables the assessment of renal perfusion based on a calculation of the hemodynamic indices, which are increased in cases of chronic kidney lesions, with higher values ​​in the most severe cases. Thus, ultrasound examinations are not only useful in diagnostics but also play an important role in defining the prognosis of patients with chronic kidney disease.

  19. Diagnostic Exercise: Neurologic Disorder in a Cat

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-12-21

    IWORK UNIT ELEMENT NO. NO. NO. ACCESSION NO. 11. TITLE (Include Security Classification) Diagnostic Exercise - Neurologic Disorder in a Cat 12...and identify by block number) This report documents the fifth reported occurrance of cerebral phaeophyphomycosis in cats . Because mycotic...Exercise: Neurologic Disorder in a Cat Ronald C. Bell United States Army Medical Research Institute of Infectious Diseases (USAMRIID), Fort Detrick

  20. Leptospirosis in dogs and cats: epidemiology, clinical disease, zoonotic implications and prevention

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Azocar-Aedo, L.; Smits, H. L.; Monti, G.

    2014-01-01

    Leptospirosis is a zoonotic disease of worldwide distribution caused by spirochetes of the genus Leptospira. The genus includes a large number of serovars that may be sheed in the urine of infected animals creating a highly infectious source of transmission. Numerous species of wild and domestic

  1. PERIODONTAL DISEASE IN DOGS AND CATS REFERRED TO THE VETERINARY HOSPITAL OF UFMT, CAMPUS SINOP, MT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Camargo

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Canine and feline oral cavity was examined, referred to the small animal surgery and obstetric classes of the school veterinary hospital, between 2013, August and December. The study was conducted using a dental chart developed to enable proper oral assessment. The data were compared to the information relayed by the owners, mostly based on the type of food that was given to their pets and used dental care to keep the oral health of their animals. The results showed a lack of owners interest and knowledge about their pets dental care and, additionally, that most animals was not receiving adequate pet meal, what caused accumulation of food between the teeth and the early onset of periodontal disease. Finally, it was concluded that age is an important predisposing factor for the disease.

  2. Katsvanga, CAT

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Katsvanga, CAT. Vol 1, No 2 (2006) - Articles Eucalyptus species performance under short rotation conditions on the Vumba highlands in Zimbabwe Abstract PDF. ISSN: 1819-3692. AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors · FAQ's · More about AJOL · AJOL's Partners ...

  3. Emergence of CD134 cysteine-rich domain 2 (CRD2)-independent strains of feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) is associated with disease progression in naturally infected cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bęczkowski, Paweł M; Techakriengkrai, Navapon; Logan, Nicola; McMonagle, Elizabeth; Litster, Annette; Willett, Brian J; Hosie, Margaret J

    2014-11-28

    Feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) infection is mediated by sequential interactions with CD134 and CXCR4. Field strains of virus vary in their dependence on cysteine-rich domain 2 (CRD2) of CD134 for infection. Here, we analyse the receptor usage of viral variants in the blood of 39 naturally infected cats, revealing that CRD2-dependent viral variants dominate in early infection, evolving towards CRD2-independence with disease progression. These findings are consistent with a shift in CRD2 of CD134 usage with disease progression.

  4. In vitro efficacy of cefovecin against anaerobic bacteria isolated from subgingival plaque of dogs and cats with periodontal disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khazandi, Manouchehr; Bird, Philip S; Owens, Jane; Wilson, Gary; Meyer, James N; Trott, Darren J

    2014-08-01

    Periodontal disease is a common disease of dogs and cats often requiring antimicrobial treatment as an adjunct to mechanical debridement. However, correct compliance with oral antimicrobial therapy in companion animals is often difficult. Cefovecin is a recently introduced veterinary cephalosporin that has demonstrated prolonged concentrations in extracellular fluid, allowing for dosing intervals of up to 14 days. Subgingival samples were collected from the oral cavity of 29 dogs and eight cats exhibiting grade 2 or grade 3 periodontal disease. Samples were cultivated on Wilkin Chalgrens agar and incubated in an anaerobic chamber for seven days. Selected anaerobic bacteria were isolated and identified to species level using 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis. Minimum inhibitory concentrations were determined for cefovecin and six additional antimicrobials using the agar dilution methodology recommended by the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute. The 65 clinical isolates were identified as Porphyromonas gulae (n = 45), Porphyromonas crevioricanis (n = 12), Porphyromonas macacae (n = 1), Porphyromonas cangingivalis (n = 1) Fusobacterium nucleatum (n = 2), Fusobacterium russii (n = 1) and Solobacterium moorei (n = 3). This is the first report of S. moorei being isolated from companion animals with periodontal disease. All isolates were highly susceptible to cefovecin, with a MIC90 of ≤0.125 μg/ml. Conversely, different resistance rates to ampicillin, amoxicillin and erythromycin between isolates were detected. Cefovecin is thus shown to be effective in vitro against anaerobic bacteria isolated from dogs and cats with periodontal disease. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Acetaminophen Toxicosis in a Cat

    OpenAIRE

    Özkan, Burçak

    2017-01-01

    Acetaminophen causes serious problems as toxication in cats in spite of being an effective and reliable analgesic and antipyretic in humans. A six months-old female cat suffering from cough was presented to examination to International Pet Hospital/Tirana/Albania when no result was obtained after one  acetaminophen tablet had been administered in order to heal the disease. Depression, grey and cyanotic mucous membranes and tongue, tachypnea, tachycardia, hypothermia were primary clinical sign...

  6. Metabolic and hormonal alterations in cats with hepatic lipidosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, B; Mauldin, G E; Armstrong, J; Moroff, S D; Mauldin, G N

    2000-01-01

    Hepatic lipidosis in cats is a commonly diagnosed hepatobiliary disease of unknown cause. The purpose of this prospective study was to characterize the blood hormone and lipid status of cats with hepatic lipidosis, and to compare this status to that of cats with other types of liver disease and to control cats. Twenty-three cats with hepatic disease were assigned to 1 of 2 groups on the basis of cytopathologic or histopathologic examination of the liver: group 1, hepatic lipidosis (n = 18); or group 2, cholangiohepatitis (n = 5). Ten healthy young adult cats were used as controls. Food was withheld from control animals for 24 hours before blood collection. Concentrations of plasma glucagon and serum insulin, cortisol, thyroxine, triglycerides, cholesterol, phospholipids, and nonesterified fatty acids (NEFAs) were determined in all cats, in addition to routine hematologic and serum biochemical testing. Cats with hepatic lipidosis had higher serum NEFA concentrations than cats with cholangiohepatitis or control cats (P lipidosis or control cats (P hepatic lipidosis. Serum insulin concentrations were significantly higher in control cats than in diseased cats (P hepatic disease. The high concentration of NEFAs in cats with hepatic lipidosis suggests that at least 1 factor in the pathogenesis of this syndrome may involve the regulation of hormone-sensitive lipase.

  7. The fecal microbiome in cats with diarrhea.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan S Suchodolski

    Full Text Available Recent studies have revealed that microbes play an important role in the pathogenesis of gastrointestinal (GI diseases in various animal species, but only limited data is available about the microbiome in cats with GI disease. The aim of this study was to evaluate the fecal microbiome in cats with diarrhea. Fecal samples were obtained from healthy cats (n = 21 and cats with acute (n = 19 or chronic diarrhea (n = 29 and analyzed by sequencing of 16S rRNA genes, and PICRUSt was used to predict the functional gene content of the microbiome. Linear discriminant analysis (LDA effect size (LEfSe revealed significant differences in bacterial groups between healthy cats and cats with diarrhea. The order Burkholderiales, the families Enterobacteriaceae, and the genera Streptococcus and Collinsella were significantly increased in diarrheic cats. In contrast the order Campylobacterales, the family Bacteroidaceae, and the genera Megamonas, Helicobacter, and Roseburia were significantly increased in healthy cats. Phylum Bacteroidetes was significantly decreased in cats with chronic diarrhea (>21 days duration, while the class Erysipelotrichi and the genus Lactobacillus were significantly decreased in cats with acute diarrhea. The observed changes in bacterial groups were accompanied by significant differences in functional gene contents: metabolism of fatty acids, biosynthesis of glycosphingolipids, metabolism of biotin, metabolism of tryptophan, and ascorbate and aldarate metabolism, were all significantly (p<0.001 altered in cats with diarrhea. In conclusion, significant differences in the fecal microbiomes between healthy cats and cats with diarrhea were identified. This dysbiosis was accompanied by changes in bacterial functional gene categories. Future studies are warranted to evaluate if these microbial changes correlate with changes in fecal concentrations of microbial metabolites in cats with diarrhea for the identification of potential diagnostic or

  8. Acute pancreatitis in cats with hepatic lipidosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akol, K G; Washabau, R J; Saunders, H M; Hendrick, M J

    1993-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to characterize the incidence, clinical features, and prognosis of acute pancreatitis in cats with hepatic lipidosis. Of 13 cats histologically diagnosed with hepatic lipidosis between July 1988, and November 1989, 5(38%) were also histologically diagnosed with acute pancreatitis. In cats with hepatic lipidosis alone, the signalment, history, physical examination, and clinicopathologic findings were generally indistinguishable from those of cats with concurrent acute pancreatitis except that cats with acute pancreatitis were more likely to be cachectic and to have coagulation abnormalities. Hepatomegaly was seen on abdominal radiographs in both groups. Of the 5 cats with concurrent acute pancreatitis, abdominal ultrasonography detected 1 cat with a hypoechoic pancreas and 5 with peritoneal effusion; those abnormalities were not seen in cats without concurrent acute pancreatitis. Cats with concurrent acute pancreatitis had only a 20% recovery rate, compared with a 50% recovery rate in cats with hepatic lipidosis alone. We conclude that cats with hepatic lipidosis should be rigorously evaluated for concurrent acute pancreatitis because of 1) the rate of disease coincidence, 2) the inability of signalment, history, physical examination, and clinicopathologic findings to adequately distinguish between hepatic lipidosis and acute pancreatitis, 3) the worse prognosis associated with concurrent acute pancreatitis, and 4) the opposing nutritional strategies for hepatic lipidosis and acute pancreatitis.

  9. Schroedinger's cat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lubkin, E [Wisconsin Univ., Madison (USA). Dept. of Physics

    1979-08-01

    The issue is to seek quantum interference effects in an arbitrary field, in particular in psychology. For this a digest of quantum mechanics over finite-n-dimensional Hilbert space is invented. In order to match crude data not only von Neumann's mixed states are used but also a parallel notion of unsharp tests. The mathematically styled text (and earlier work on multibin tests, designated MB) deals largely with these new tests. Quantum psychology itself is only given a foundation. It readily engenders objections; its plausibility is developed gradually, in interlocking essays. There is also the empirically definite proposal that (state, test, outcome)-indexed counts be gathered to record data, then fed to a matrix format (MF) search for quantum models. A previously proposed experiment in visual perception which has since failed to find significant quantum correlations, is discussed. The suspicion that quantum mechanics is all around goes beyond MF, and Schroedinger's cat symbolizes this broader perspective.

  10. Schroedinger's cat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lubkin, E.

    1979-01-01

    The issue is to seek quantum interference effects in an arbitrary field, in particular in psychology. For this a digest of quantum mechanics over finite-n-dimensional Hilbert space is invented. In order to match crude data not only von Neumann's mixed states are used but also a parallel notion of unsharp tests. The mathematically styled text (and earlier work on multibin tests, designated MB) deals largely with these new tests. Quantum psychology itself is only given a foundation. It readily engenders objections; its plausibility is developed gradually, in interlocking essays. There is also the empirically definite proposal that (state, test, outcome)-indexed counts be gathered to record data, then fed to a 'matrix format' (MF) search for quantum models. A previously proposed experiment in visual perception which has since failed to find significant quantum correlations, is discussed. The suspicion that quantum mechanics is all around goes beyond MF, and 'Schroedinger's cat' symbolizes this broader perspective. (author)

  11. Radio-iodine treatment of hyperthyroid cats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, B.R.; Cayzer, J.; Dillon, E.A.; Smidt, K.P.

    1991-01-01

    Thirty-two elderly domestic shorthaired cats (mean age 12.9 years) were treated with radioiodine (131I). The dose of 131I administered ranged from 39 mBq to 134 mBq. Twenty-eight cats became euthyroid after treatment, one became hypothyroid and three remained hyperthyroxaemic. Two of the hyperthyroxaemic cats were successfully re-treated with 131I. Five cats died from concurrent diseases within one year of treatment. The administration of a dose of 131I selected by assessing the severity of the clinical signs, the size of the thyroid gland(s) and the serum level of thyroxine was an effective treatment for hyperthyroidism

  12. Cat and Dog Bites

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Wellness Staying Healthy Pets and Animals Cat and Dog Bites Cat and Dog Bites Share Print Cat and dog bites are common injuries. A family pet or ... bites. Path to safety If a cat or dog bites you, you should: Wash the wound gently ...

  13. A review of feral cat control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Sheilah A

    2008-08-01

    Animal overpopulation including feral cats is an important global problem. There are many stakeholders involved in the feral cat debate over 'what to do about the problem', including those who consider them a nuisance, the public at risk from zoonotic disease, people who are concerned about the welfare of feral cats, those concerned with wildlife impacts, and the cats themselves. How best to control this population is controversial and has ranged from culling, relocation, and more recently 'trap neuter return' (TNR) methods. Data support the success of TNR in reducing cat populations, but to have a large impact it will have to be adopted on a far greater scale than it is currently practised. Non-surgical contraception is a realistic future goal. Because the feral cat problem was created by humans, concerted educational efforts on responsible pet ownership and the intrinsic value of animals is an integral part of a solution.

  14. Bacterial reproductive pathogens of cats and dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Elizabeth M; Taylor, David J

    2012-05-01

    With the notable exception of Brucella canis, exogenous bacterial pathogens are uncommon causes of reproductive disease in cats and dogs. Most bacterial reproductive infections are endogenous, and predisposing factors for infection are important. This article reviews the etiology, pathogenesis, clinical presentation, diagnosis, treatment, and public health significance of bacterial reproductive pathogens in cats and dogs.

  15. Toxoplasmosis : Beware of Cats !!!

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rubina Kumari Baithalu

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Anthropozoonotic parasite Toxoplasma gondii causes widespread human and animal diseases, mostly involving central nervous system. Human acquires toxoplasmosis from cats, from consuming raw or undercooked meat and from vertical transmission to the fetus through placenta from mother during pregnancy. Socio-epidemiological as well as unique environmental factors also plays a significant role in transmission of this infection. Preventive measures should be taken into account the importance of culture, tradition, and beliefs of people in various communities more than solving poverty and giving health education. Therefore the focus of this article is to create public awareness regarding sense of responsibility of looking after pets to prevent such an important zoonotic disease. [Vet. World 2010; 3(5.000: 247-249

  16. Transitional cell carcinomas in four fishing cats (Prionailurus viverrinus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutherland-Smith, Meg; Harvey, Catherine; Campbell, Mark; McAloose, Denise; Rideout, Bruce; Morris, Patrick

    2004-09-01

    Transitional cell carcinomas (TCC) of the urinary bladder were diagnosed in four related fishing cats (Prionailurus viverrinus). The major clinical sign in each case was persistent hematuria unresponsive to medical therapy. Cystotomy and biopsy provided an antemortem diagnosis in three of the fishing cats before euthanasia because of progression of clinical signs. The diagnosis was made in the fourth cat after euthanasia because of renal failure. Hematuria improved temporarily in one of the cats diagnosed antemortem and treated with piroxicam and carboplatin. Attempts to isolate a herpesvirus in two of the cats failed. Histopathologic appearance of the TCC was similar to that described for other species. TCC metastasis to the lungs was noted at necropsy in one cat; metastatic disease was not noted in the other fishing cats on gross or histopathologic examination. TCC of the urinary bladder appears to be more prevalent in fishing cats than in other species of domestic or nondomestic felids.

  17. Discospondylitis in a cat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watson, E.; Roberts, R.E.

    1993-01-01

    The incidence and causative agents of discospondylitis in cats are unknown. This report describes a cat with radiologic changes consistent with discospondylitis and concurrent urinary tract infection. As in dogs, discospondylitis should be the primary rule out for vertebral end plate lysis in cats

  18. The Role of DmCatD, a Cathepsin D-Like Peptidase, and Acid Phosphatase in the Process of Follicular Atresia in Dipetalogaster maxima (Hemiptera: Reduviidae), a Vector of Chagas' Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leyria, Jimena; Fruttero, Leonardo L.; Nazar, Magalí; Canavoso, Lilián E.

    2015-01-01

    In this work, we have investigated the involvement of DmCatD, a cathepsin D-like peptidase, and acid phosphatase in the process of follicular atresia of Dipetalogaster maxima, a hematophagous insect vector of Chagas’ disease. For the studies, fat bodies, ovaries and hemolymph were sampled from anautogenous females at representative days of the reproductive cycle: pre-vitellogenesis, vitellogenesis as well as early and late atresia. Real time PCR (qPCR) and western blot assays showed that DmCatD was expressed in fat bodies and ovaries at all reproductive stages, being the expression of its active form significantly higher at the atretic stages. In hemolymph samples, only the immunoreactive band compatible with pro-DmCatD was observed by western blot. Acid phosphatase activity in ovarian tissues significantly increased during follicular atresia in comparison to pre-vitellogenesis and vitellogenesis. A further enzyme characterization with inhibitors showed that the high levels of acid phosphatase activity in atretic ovaries corresponded mainly to a tyrosine phosphatase. Immunofluorescence assays demonstrated that DmCatD and tyrosine phosphatase were associated with yolk bodies in vitellogenic follicles, while in atretic stages they displayed a different cellular distribution. DmCatD and tyrosine phosphatase partially co-localized with vitellin. Moreover, their interaction was supported by FRET analysis. In vitro assays using homogenates of atretic ovaries as the enzyme source and enzyme inhibitors demonstrated that DmCatD, together with a tyrosine phosphatase, were necessary to promote the degradation of vitellin. Taken together, the results strongly suggested that both acid hydrolases play a central role in early vitellin proteolysis during the process of follicular atresia. PMID:26091289

  19. Evidence-based veterinary dentistry: a systematic review of homecare for prevention of periodontal disease in dogs and cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roudebush, Philip; Logan, Ellen; Hale, Fraser A

    2005-03-01

    Successful treatment and prevention of periodontal disease in pet animals requires a multidimensional approach to identify and eliminate exacerbating factors, provide scheduled professional examinations and care, and plan and implement a dental homecare program. Over the years, many therapeutic and preventive interventions have been developed or advocated for periodontal disease, but evidence of efficacy or effectiveness is highly variable. Accordingly, the main objective of this systematic review is to identify and critically appraise the evidence supporting various aspects of homecare for prevention of canine and feline periodontal disease.

  20. A tortoiseshell male cat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, A. S.; Berg, Lise Charlotte; Almstrup, Kristian

    2014-01-01

    Tortoiseshell coat color is normally restricted to female cats due to X-linkage of the gene that encodes the orange coat color. Tortoiseshell male cats do, however, occur at a low frequency among tortoiseshell cats because of chromosome aberrations similar to the Klinefelter syndrome in man...... tissue from a tortoiseshell male cat referred to us. Chromosome analysis using RBA-banding consistently revealed a 39,XXY karyotype. Histological examinations of testis biopsies from this cat showed degeneration of the tubules, hyperplasia of the interstitial tissue, and complete loss of germ cells....... Immunostaining using anti-vimentin and anti-VASA (DDX4) showed that only Sertoli cells and no germ cells were observed in the testicular tubules. As no sign of spermatogenesis was detected, we conclude that this is a classic case of a sterile, male tortoiseshell cat with a 39,XXY chromosome complement. © 2013 S...

  1. Prevalence of heartworm infection in cats with signs of cardiorespiratory abnormalities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atkins, C.; DeFrancesco, T.; Miller, M.; Meurs, K.; Keene, B.

    1998-01-01

    To determine prevalence of heartworm infection in a population of pet cats with cardiorespiratory abnormalities and to determine relative usefulness of clinical signs and tests in diagnosis of heartworm disease. Prospective case series. 100 client-owned cats with clinical signs of cardiorespiratory abnormalities. Cats were evaluated using CBC, modified Knott test, ELISA for serologic detection of heartworm antigen and antibodies to heartworms, thoracic radiography, and echocardiography. Cats were considered infected if they had circulating microfilaria, heartworm antigens in serum, or if heartworms were detected by echocardiography or on necropsy. Cats were considered suspicious for infection if they had 2 of the following: serum antibodies to heartworms, eosinophilia or basophilia, or indicative radiographic findings. 9 cats were infected with heartworms, resulting in a prevalence of 9%; 26 cats had evidence of heartworm exposure (i.e., serum antibodies to heartworms). Twenty cats were considered suspicious for heartworm infection. Some outdoor exposure was reported twice as often in heartworm-infected cats, compared with noninfected and suspicious cats. However, a third of infected cats were reportedly housed totally indoors. Cough and dyspnea were strong indicators of heartworm disease. Eight of 9 infected cats had serum antibodies to heartworms and heartworm antigen in serum. Thoracic radiography and echocardiography indicated heartworm infection in 6 and 7 of the 9 cats, respectively. Cough or dyspnea may indicate heartworm disease in cats; serologic tests, echocardiography, and radiography are most useful diagnostic procedures. Although living indoors is protective, it may not preclude heartworm infection in cats

  2. Megaesophagus in two cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoenig, M; Mahaffey, M B; Parnell, P G; Styles, M E

    1990-03-01

    Megaesophagus was diagnosed in 2 cats. Both had a history of regurgitation, and one was dyspneic. Radiography of the thorax and abdomen revealed generalized megaesophagus and gastric distention with gas. There was no esophageal motility during fluoroscopic observation. The prognosis for cats with megaesophagus is guarded. Although they may be satisfactory pets, cats with this condition should not be used for breeding because the condition is believed to be inherited through recessive genes.

  3. Opinions from the front lines of cat colony management conflict.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Nils Peterson

    Full Text Available Outdoor cats represent a global threat to terrestrial vertebrate conservation, but management has been rife with conflict due to differences in views of the problem and appropriate responses to it. To evaluate these differences we conducted a survey of opinions about outdoor cats and their management with two contrasting stakeholder groups, cat colony caretakers (CCCs and bird conservation professionals (BCPs across the United States. Group opinions were polarized, for both normative statements (CCCs supported treating feral cats as protected wildlife and using trap neuter and release [TNR] and BCPs supported treating feral cats as pests and using euthanasia and empirical statements. Opinions also were related to gender, age, and education, with females and older respondents being less likely than their counterparts to support treating feral cats as pests, and females being less likely than males to support euthanasia. Most CCCs held false beliefs about the impacts of feral cats on wildlife and the impacts of TNR (e.g., 9% believed feral cats harmed bird populations, 70% believed TNR eliminates cat colonies, and 18% disagreed with the statement that feral cats filled the role of native predators. Only 6% of CCCs believed feral cats carried diseases. To the extent the beliefs held by CCCs are rooted in lack of knowledge and mistrust, rather than denial of directly observable phenomenon, the conservation community can manage these conflicts more productively by bringing CCCs into the process of defining data collection methods, defining study/management locations, and identifying common goals related to caring for animals.

  4. Opinions from the Front Lines of Cat Colony Management Conflict

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, M. Nils; Hartis, Brett; Rodriguez, Shari; Green, Matthew; Lepczyk, Christopher A.

    2012-01-01

    Outdoor cats represent a global threat to terrestrial vertebrate conservation, but management has been rife with conflict due to differences in views of the problem and appropriate responses to it. To evaluate these differences we conducted a survey of opinions about outdoor cats and their management with two contrasting stakeholder groups, cat colony caretakers (CCCs) and bird conservation professionals (BCPs) across the United States. Group opinions were polarized, for both normative statements (CCCs supported treating feral cats as protected wildlife and using trap neuter and release [TNR] and BCPs supported treating feral cats as pests and using euthanasia) and empirical statements. Opinions also were related to gender, age, and education, with females and older respondents being less likely than their counterparts to support treating feral cats as pests, and females being less likely than males to support euthanasia. Most CCCs held false beliefs about the impacts of feral cats on wildlife and the impacts of TNR (e.g., 9% believed feral cats harmed bird populations, 70% believed TNR eliminates cat colonies, and 18% disagreed with the statement that feral cats filled the role of native predators). Only 6% of CCCs believed feral cats carried diseases. To the extent the beliefs held by CCCs are rooted in lack of knowledge and mistrust, rather than denial of directly observable phenomenon, the conservation community can manage these conflicts more productively by bringing CCCs into the process of defining data collection methods, defining study/management locations, and identifying common goals related to caring for animals. PMID:22970269

  5. Opinions from the front lines of cat colony management conflict.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, M Nils; Hartis, Brett; Rodriguez, Shari; Green, Matthew; Lepczyk, Christopher A

    2012-01-01

    Outdoor cats represent a global threat to terrestrial vertebrate conservation, but management has been rife with conflict due to differences in views of the problem and appropriate responses to it. To evaluate these differences we conducted a survey of opinions about outdoor cats and their management with two contrasting stakeholder groups, cat colony caretakers (CCCs) and bird conservation professionals (BCPs) across the United States. Group opinions were polarized, for both normative statements (CCCs supported treating feral cats as protected wildlife and using trap neuter and release [TNR] and BCPs supported treating feral cats as pests and using euthanasia) and empirical statements. Opinions also were related to gender, age, and education, with females and older respondents being less likely than their counterparts to support treating feral cats as pests, and females being less likely than males to support euthanasia. Most CCCs held false beliefs about the impacts of feral cats on wildlife and the impacts of TNR (e.g., 9% believed feral cats harmed bird populations, 70% believed TNR eliminates cat colonies, and 18% disagreed with the statement that feral cats filled the role of native predators). Only 6% of CCCs believed feral cats carried diseases. To the extent the beliefs held by CCCs are rooted in lack of knowledge and mistrust, rather than denial of directly observable phenomenon, the conservation community can manage these conflicts more productively by bringing CCCs into the process of defining data collection methods, defining study/management locations, and identifying common goals related to caring for animals.

  6. Comparative study between radiology and ultrasound in the evaluation of extracardiac thoracic diseases in dogs and cats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sâmara Turbay Pires

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: This study compared radiographic and B-mode and Doppler ultrasound exams of the thoracic cavity, excluding the heart, in canine and feline species, in which the radiographs revealed the formation of a potential acoustic window. The objectives were to demonstrate the advantages and limitations of each technique and to determine whether the additional information influenced the differential diagnosis as well as the outcome of each case. The advantages of B-mode ultrasonography included: better qualitative and quantitative evaluation of pleural effusions, an improved ability to determine whether a nodule was solid or cystic and easier determination of the location in the pulmonary parenchyma. The Power Doppler ultrasound evaluated the blood supply pattern of the nodules and masses and differentiated between vessels and fluid bronchogram. A limitation of the ultrasound examination was the need to be guided by the previous radiography. The advantages of the radiographic examination included the possibility of localizing pulmonary lesions at any depth in the absence of a pleural effusion and providing a panoramic view of the extent of the thoracic disease. The ultrasound examination influenced the differential diagnosis in 18 (62.06% cases and influenced the outcome of 8 (27.58% cases.

  7. Ultrastructural myocardial changes in seven cats with spontaneous hypertrophic cardiomyopathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Liselotte Bruun; Prats Gavalda, Clara; Hyttel, Poul

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) is the most common heart disease in cats and shares clinical and pathological characteristics with human HCM. Little is known about the pathogenic mechanisms underlying development of spontaneous feline HCM. ANIMALS: The study population consisted...... of seven cats diagnosed with HCM and eight age-matched cats with no evidence of cardiac disease. METHODS: Fresh myocardial biopsies taken from the middle of the left ventricular posterior free wall were obtained and examined with transmission electron microscopy. RESULTS: Electron microscopic examination...... showed ultrastructural aberrations of the myocardial cytoarchitecture and of the interstitium in the seven cats with HCM. In the most severely affected cats the myofibrils were disorganized and subsarcolemmal mitochondria were depleted. In control cats, contraction band artifacts were commonly seen...

  8. That Fat Cat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambert, Phyllis Gilchrist

    2012-01-01

    This activity began with a picture book, Nurit Karlin's "Fat Cat On a Mat" (HarperCollins; 1998). The author and her students started their project with a 5-inch circular template for the head of their cats. They reviewed shapes as they drew the head and then added the ears and nose, which were triangles. Details to the face were added when…

  9. Rabies prevention and management of cats in the context of trap-neuter-vaccinate-release programmes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roebling, A D; Johnson, D; Blanton, J D; Levin, M; Slate, D; Fenwick, G; Rupprecht, C E

    2014-06-01

    Domestic cats are an important part of many Americans' lives, but effective control of the 60-100 million feral cats living throughout the country remains problematic. Although trap-neuter-vaccinate-return (TNVR) programmes are growing in popularity as alternatives to euthanizing feral cats, their ability to adequately address disease threats and population growth within managed cat colonies is dubious. Rabies transmission via feral cats is a particular concern as demonstrated by the significant proportion of rabies post-exposure prophylaxis associated with exposures involving cats. Moreover, TNVR has not been shown to reliably reduce feral cat colony populations because of low implementation rates, inconsistent maintenance and immigration of unsterilized cats into colonies. For these reasons, TNVR programmes are not effective methods for reducing public health concerns or for controlling feral cat populations. Instead, responsible pet ownership, universal rabies vaccination of pets and removal of strays remain integral components to control rabies and other diseases. © 2013 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  10. Rabies Prevention and Management of Cats in the Context of Trap, Neuter, Vaccinate, Release Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roebling, Allison D.; Johnson, Dana; Blanton, Jesse D.; Levin, Michael; Slate, Dennis; Fenwick, George; Rupprecht, Charles E.

    2016-01-01

    Summary Domestic cats are an important part of many Americans’ lives, but effective control of the 60–100 million feral cats living throughout the country remains problematic. Although Trap-Neuter-Vaccinate-Return (TNVR) programs are growing in popularity as alternatives to euthanizing feral cats, their ability to adequately address disease threats and population growth within managed cat colonies is dubious. Rabies transmission via feral cats is a particular concern as demonstrated by the significant proportion of rabies postexposure prophylaxis associated with exposures involving cats. Moreover, TNVR has not been shown to reliably reduce feral cat colony populations because of low implementation rates, inconsistent maintenance, and immigration of unsterilized cats into colonies. For these reasons, TNVR programs are not effective methods for reducing public health concerns or for controlling feral cat populations. Instead, responsible pet ownership, universal rabies vaccination of pets, and removal of strays remain integral components to control rabies and other diseases. PMID:23859607

  11. Clinical and Some Laboratory Findings in Cats with Toxoplasmosis

    OpenAIRE

    Bastan, Idil

    2018-01-01

    Objectives: The aim of this study wasto draw attention to the clinical course of the disease and some laboratoryfindings in cats diagnosed with Toxoplasmosis.Materials and Methods: Toxoplasma gondiiseropositive 14 cats were used in this study.  A serologicalevaluation was carried out to determine the presence of Toxoplasmagondii specific IgG using commercial diagnostic kits, by theenzyme-linked immunosorbent assay method. Hematological andclinical changes of those cats were recorded. Results:...

  12. CAT questions and answers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-02-01

    This document, prepared in February 1993, addresses the most common questions asked by APS Collaborative Access Teams (CATs). The answers represent the best judgment on the part of the APS at this time. In some cases, details are provided in separate documents to be supplied by the APS. Some of the answers are brief because details are not yet available. The questions are separated into five categories representing different aspects of CAT interactions with the APS: (1) Memorandum of Understanding (MOU), (2) CAT Beamline Review and Construction, (3) CAT Beamline Safety, (4) CAT Beamline Operations, and (5) Miscellaneous. The APS plans to generate similar documents as needed to both address new questions and clarify answers to present questions

  13. EVALUATION OF QUANTITATIVE THYROID SCINTIGRAPHY FOR DIAGNOSIS AND STAGING OF DISEASE SEVERITY IN CATS WITH HYPERTHYROIDISM: COMPARISON OF THE PERCENT THYROIDAL UPTAKE OF PERTECHNETATE TO THYROID-TO-SALIVARY RATIO AND THYROID-TO-BACKGROUND RATIOS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Mark E; Guterl, Jade N; Rishniw, Mark; Broome, Michael R

    2016-07-01

    Thyroid scintigraphy is commonly used for evaluation of cats with hyperthyroidism, with the thyroid-to-salivary ratio (T/S) being the most common method to quantify the degree of thyroid activity and disease. Calculation of thyroid-to-background ratios (T/B) or percent thyroidal uptake of (99m) TcO(-) 4 (TcTU) has only been reported in a few studies. The purpose of this prospective, cross-sectional study was to evaluate a number of quantitative scintigraphic indices as diagnostic tests for hyperthyroidism, including the T/S, three different T/B, TcTU, and estimated thyroid volume. Of 524 cats referred to our clinic for evaluation of suspected hyperthyroidism, the diagnosis was confirmed (n = 504) or excluded (n = 20) based on results of a serum thyroid panel consisting of thyroxine (T4 ), triiodothyronine (T3 ), free T4 (fT4 ), and thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) concentrations. In the hyperthyroid cats, median values for TcTU, T/S, and three T/B ratios were all significantly higher (P hyperthyroidism, but the T/S ratio had the highest test accuracy. The T/S ratio correlated strongly with the TcTU (r = 0.85). However, the TcTU had a higher and more significant correlation (P metabolic activity of the feline adenomatous thyroid gland. © 2016 American College of Veterinary Radiology.

  14. Tetrathyridiosis in a domestic shorthair cat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorothee Dahlem

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Case summary This report describes the clinical and parasitological findings in a domestic shorthair cat with isolated thoracic tetrathyridiosis. The cat was a stray from Malta that had lived in Germany for several years since as an indoor-only cat. Therefore, the process of infection remains very unusual. In this case it must be considered that the cat had been infected years previously while in Malta, and had lived at least 4 years without any clinical signs. It was possible to diagnose this uncommon disease and initiate an effective treatment with fenbendazole, praziquantel and supportive care. Clinical signs, as well as radiographic findings, were regressive with this treatment. Relevance and novel information Tetrathyridiosis is a rare finding in cats, especially in Germany, but it seems to be a potential differential diagnosis of pleural effusion. Mesocestoides corti , which was the causative parasite in this case, has not previously been isolated in Germany. Because tetrathyridiosis is only diagnosed post mortem in most cases, little is known about effective therapeutic options. Furthermore, clinical signs of this disease can be absent for several years and can potentially be triggered by neoplastic conditions or immunosuppression. Tetrathyridiosis seems to be a treatable disease that can be controlled by adequate antiparasitic therapy.

  15. Campylobacteriosis in dogs and cats: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acke, E

    2018-05-13

    Campylobacter species are commonly isolated from faecal samples collected from dogs and cats with the most prevalent species being C. upsaliensis, C. helveticus, and C. jejuni. Although the majority of dogs and cats are subclinically infected, some will develop mild to moderate enteritis. Immature animals, animals from intensive housing backgrounds, and animals with concurrent disease are especially predisposed to infection and the development of clinical signs. Bacterial culture methods applied in diagnostic laboratories remain biased to C. jejuni and C. coli detection, but molecular methods to diagnose Campylobacter spp. infections in dogs and cats have become widely available and can aid rapid and accurate diagnosis. Multilocus sequence typing has also been developed for subtyping different strains and has been used in epidemiological investigations. In the majority of cases, clinical signs are self-limiting and antimicrobial treatment is not warranted. Campylobacter spp. isolated from dogs and cats have shown resistance to commonly used antimicrobials, so antimicrobial therapy should only be administered where this is justified. Contact with dogs and cats is a recognised risk factor for human campylobacteriosis, thus people living or working in close contact with cats and dogs should be made aware of the zoonotic organisms these animals can shed.

  16. Cat Scratch Disease (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and swollen lymph nodes. In some cases, doctors use laboratory tests to help make the diagnosis, including: blood ... Aid: Animal Bites Toxoplasmosis Rabies Staying Safe Around Animals Why Do I Need to Wash My ... of Nondiscrimination Visit the Nemours Web site. ...

  17. Computerised Axial Tomography (CAT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-06-01

    Ministry of’ Defence, Defence Research Information Centre, UK. Computerised Axial Tomography ( CAT ) Report Secufty C"uMiauion tide Onadtiicadon (U. R, Cor S...DRIC T 8485 COMPUTERISED AXIAL TOMOGRAPHY ( CAT ) F.P. GENTILE, F. SABETTA, V. TRO1* ISS R 78/4.Rome, 1.5 Mlarch 1978 (from Italian) B Distribution(f...dello Radiazioni ISSN 0390--6477 F.P. GENTILE, F. SABETTA. V. TROI Computerised Axial Tomography ( CAT ) March 15, 1978). This paper is a review of

  18. Bartonella and Toxoplasma Infections in Stray Cats from Iraq

    Science.gov (United States)

    Switzer, Alexandra D.; McMillan-Cole, Audrey C.; Kasten, Rickie W.; Stuckey, Matthew J.; Kass, Philip H.; Chomel, Bruno B.

    2013-01-01

    Because of overpopulation, stray/feral cats were captured on military bases in Iraq as part of the US Army Zoonotic Disease Surveillance Program. Blood samples were collected from 207 cats, mainly in Baghdad but also in North and West Iraq, to determine the prevalence of Bartonella and Toxoplasma infections. Nine (4.3%) cats, all from Baghdad, were bacteremic with B. henselae type I. Seroprevalence was 30.4% for T. gondii, 15% for B. henselae, and 12.6% for B. clarridgeiae. Differences in Bartonella prevalence by location were statistically significant, because most of the seropositive cats were from Baghdad. There was no association between T. gondii seropositivity and either of the two Bartonella species surveyed. This report is the first report on the prevalence of Bartonella and T. gondii among stray cats in Iraq, which allows for better evaluation of the zoonotic risk potential to the Iraqi people and deployed military personnel by feral cat colonies. PMID:24062480

  19. European consensus statement on leptospirosis in dogs and cats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leptospirosis is a zoonotic disease of worldwide distribution affecting most mammalian species. Clinical leptospirosis is common in dogs but seems to be rare in cats. Both dogs and cats however, can shed leptospires in the urine. This is problematic as it can lead to exposure of humans. The control ...

  20. Tooth resorption in cats: contribution of vitamin D and inflammation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vrieling, H.E.

    2010-01-01

    Tooth resorption in cats Tooth resorption affecting several teeth is a painful disease with a prevalence of up to 75% in household cats and is often accompanied by periodontitis. Tooth resorption is caused by an increased number and activity of tooth-resorbing odontoclasts, cells that share

  1. StreamCat

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The StreamCat Dataset provides summaries of natural and anthropogenic landscape features for ~2.65 million streams, and their associated catchments, within the...

  2. IndexCat

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — IndexCat provides access to the digitized version of the printed Index-Catalogue of the Library of the Surgeon General's Office; eTK for medieval Latin texts; and...

  3. Diet may influence the oral microbiome composition in cats

    OpenAIRE

    Adler, Christina J.; Malik, Richard; Browne, Gina V.; Norris, Jacqueline M.

    2016-01-01

    Background Periodontal disease is highly prevalent amongst domestic cats, causing pain, gingival bleeding, reduced food intake, loss of teeth and possibly impacts on overall systemic health. Diet has been suggested to play a role in the development of periodontal disease in cats. There is a complete lack of information about how diet (composition and texture) affects the feline oral microbiome, the composition of which may influence oral health and the development of periodontal disease. We u...

  4. Computed Tomographic Angiography of the Pancreas in Cats with Chronic Diabetes Mellitus Compared to Normal Cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Secrest, S; Sharma, A; Bugbee, A

    2018-03-02

    Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a common endocrinopathy in cats. No known diagnostic test or patient characteristic at the time of diagnosis can predict likely disease course, unlike in people in whom computed tomographic angiography (CTA) is used. No published data exist regarding the CTA appearance of the pancreas in cats with DM, and thus, it is unknown what if any CTA variables should be further assessed for associations with pancreatic endocrine function. A significant difference in pancreatic attenuation, volume, and size will be identified between normal cats and those with chronic DM on CTA. Ten healthy control cats and 15 cats with naturally occurring DM present for >12 months. Prospective cross-sectional study comparing pancreatic attenuation, enhancement pattern, size, volume, pancreatic volume-to-body weight ratio (V:BW), pancreatic arterial: portal phase ratio (A:P), time-to-arterial enhancement, and time-to-peak portal enhancement on CTA between sedated healthy control cats and those with chronic DM. The pancreas in cats with chronic DM was significantly larger, had higher volume, higher V:BW, and shorter time-to-peak portal enhancement on CTA when compared to normal cats. Peak portal enhancement time, pancreatic size, pancreatic volume, and V:BW can be used to differentiate normal sedated cats from those with chronic DM by CTA. These variables warrant further investigation to identify possible associations with endocrine function. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine.

  5. Feline Toxoplasmosis: Tumor Necrosis Factor, Nitric Oxide, and Free Radicals in Seropositive Cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faria, Joice L M; Couto, Caroline do; Wierzynski, Sheron L; Bottari, Nathieli B; Baldissera, Matheus D; Pereira, Wanderson A B; Da Silva, Aleksandro S

    2018-02-01

    Toxoplasma gondii is a cosmopolitan protozoan that causes disease in several species, including humans. In cats, these infections are usually asymptomatic, but in other species they can lead to high levels of inflammatory and cell damage markers, causing cellular damage. Therefore, the aim of this study was to measure levels of tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α), reactive oxygen species (ROS), and nitric oxide (nitrite/nitrate-NO x ) in the serum of cats seropositive for T. gondii. Initially, we investigated the presence of antibodies against T. gondii in cats in the city of Concordia, Santa Catarina, Brazil, with the use of indirect immunofluorescence (IFA), and found 30 cats seropositive for T. gondii and 30 seronegative cats. In this study, seropositive cats showed higher levels of TNF-α, ROS, and NO x compared to seronegative cats. Although cats do not show clinical signs of disease, constant inflammatory response can cause cell damage, which over time may adversely affect the animal.

  6. Management of obesity in cats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoelmkjaer KM

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Kirsten M Hoelmkjaer, Charlotte R Bjornvad Department of Veterinary Clinical and Animal Sciences, Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Frederiksberg, Denmark Abstract: Obesity is a common nutritional disorder in cats, especially when they are neutered and middle-aged. Obesity predisposes cats to several metabolic and clinical disorders, including insulin resistance, diabetes mellitus, lameness, and skin disease. Prevention and treatment of obesity is therefore of great importance in veterinary practice. Correct assessment of body composition is important for recognizing early states of obesity and for monitoring success of weight-loss programs. Various methods for assessing body composition have been proposed, of which a 9-point body-condition score has been validated in cats, and is possibly the most simple to use in the clinic; however, for extremely obese individuals, it is less useful. When calculating the appropriate daily caloric intake for a weight-loss plan, the aim is to maintain a safe weight-loss rate, increasing the chance of preserving lean body mass and decreasing the risk of developing hepatic lipidosis, while also producing a sufficient weight-loss rate to keep owners motivated. A weight-loss rate of 0.5%–2% per week is recommended, which for a cat that needs to lose 3 kg body weight results in an anticipated time for reaching the target weight of 24–60 weeks. There are several purpose-made weight-loss diets available. The optimal composition of a weight-loss diet for cats is unknown, but most of the available products have lower caloric density, an increased nutrient:energy ratio, and higher protein and fiber content. Regular follow-up visits allow the caloric intake to be adjusted based on progress, and possibly increase the chance of success. This review discusses the risk factors for and consequences of obesity, and gives directions for formulating a weight-loss plan, including daily caloric

  7. Radiographic and 2-D echocardiographic findings in eighteen cats experimentally exposed to D. immitis via mosquito bites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Selcer, B.A.; Newell, S.M.; Mansour, A.E.; McCall, J.W.

    1996-01-01

    Eighteen cats were exposed to Dirofilaria immitis infected mosquitoes. Thoracic radiography was performed prior to exposure and at 5, 7, and 9 month intervals following exposure. Immunologic testing for adult heartworm antigen was performed on days 168, 195, 210, 224, 237, 254 and 271 post infection. Necropsies were performed on all cats. Adult heartworms were found in 61% of the exposed cats. Radiographic findings in heartworm positive cats included bronchointerstitial lung disease, lobar pulmonary arterial enlargement and pulmonary hyperinflation. In most heartworm positive cats, lobar arterial enlargement resolved as the disease progressed while pulmonary hyperinflation progressively became more common. Pulmonary patterns in heartworm positive cats remained abnormal throughout the study while abnormal pulmonary patterns resolved in over 50% of the heartworm negative cats. Cardiomegaly was seen in less than 50% of the cats with adult heartworms at necropsy. This study suggests that the radiographic appearance of heartworm disease is variable and radiographic changes are dependent on the time post infection at which cats are evaluated. Echocardiographic examinations were randomly performed on 16 of 18 cats. Heartworms were identified in 7 cats. No false positive identifications were made. Persistent pulmonary disease accompanied by resolving vascular disease in heartworm cats with pulmonary hyperinflation may be difficult to distinguish from cats with feline allergic lung. Echocardiograms may be helpful in identifying adult heartworms in cats in which the radiographic signs or immunodiagnostic data are insufficient to provide a diagnosis

  8. Effect of high-impact targeted trap-neuter-return and adoption of community cats on cat intake to a shelter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, J K; Isaza, N M; Scott, K C

    2014-09-01

    Approximately 2-3 million cats enter animal shelters annually in the United States. A large proportion of these are unowned community cats that have no one to reclaim them and may be too unsocialized for adoption. More than half of impounded cats are euthanased due to shelter crowding, shelter-acquired disease or feral behavior. Trap-neuter-return (TNR), an alternative to shelter impoundment, improves cat welfare and reduces the size of cat colonies, but has been regarded as too impractical to reduce cat populations on a larger scale or to limit shelter cat intake. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of TNR concentrated in a region of historically high cat impoundments in a Florida community. A 2-year program was implemented to capture and neuter at least 50% of the estimated community cats in a single 11.9 km(2) zip code area, followed by return to the neighborhood or adoption. Trends in shelter cat intake from the target zip code were compared to the rest of the county. A total of 2366 cats, representing approximately 54% of the projected community cat population in the targeted area, were captured for the TNR program over the 2-year study period. After 2 years, per capita shelter intake was 3.5-fold higher and per capita shelter euthanasia was 17.5-fold higher in the non-target area than in the target area. Shelter cat impoundment from the target area where 60 cats/1000 residents were neutered annually decreased by 66% during the 2-year study period, compared to a decrease of 12% in the non-target area, where only 12 cats/1000 residents were neutered annually. High-impact TNR combined with the adoption of socialized cats and nuisance resolution counseling for residents is an effective tool for reducing shelter cat intake. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  9. Understanding public perceptions of risk regarding outdoor pet cats to inform conservation action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gramza, Ashley; Teel, Tara; VandeWoude, Susan; Crooks, Kevin

    2016-04-01

    Free-ranging domestic cats (Felis catus) incur and impose risks on ecosystems and represent a complex issue of critical importance to biodiversity conservation and cat and human health globally. Prior social science research on this topic is limited and has emphasized feral cats even though owned cats often comprise a large proportion of the outdoor cat population, particularly in urban areas. To address this gap, we examined public risk perceptions and attitudes toward outdoor pet cats across varying levels of urbanization, including along the wildland-urban interface, in Colorado (U.S.A.), through a mail survey of 1397 residents. Residents did not view all types of risks uniformly. They viewed risks of cat predation on wildlife and carnivore predation on cats as more likely than disease-related risks. Additionally, risk perceptions were related to attitudes, prior experiences with cats and cat-wildlife interactions, and cat-owner behavior. Our findings suggest that changes in risk perceptions may result in behavior change. Therefore, knowledge of cat-related risk perceptions and attitudes could be used to develop communication programs aimed at promoting risk-aversive behaviors among cat owners and cat-management strategies that are acceptable to the public and that directly advance the conservation of native species. © 2016 Society for Conservation Biology.

  10. The Feline Mystique: Dispelling the Myth of the Independent Cat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soltow, Willow

    1984-01-01

    Describes learning activities about cats for primary and intermediate grades. Primary grade activity subjects include cat behavior, needs, breeds, storybook cats, and celestial cats. Intermediate grade activity subjects include cat history, care, language, literary cats, and cats in art. (BC)

  11. Veterinarian Gets Flu Virus from Cats

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2018-03-28

    Dr. Todd Davis, a CDC research biologist, discusses transmission of avian H7N2 from a cat to a human.  Created: 3/28/2018 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 3/28/2018.

  12. Diagnostic radiology of the dog and cat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kealy, J.K.

    1981-01-01

    Radiolographic examinations have become an important aid in small animal veterinary practice. The emphasis of the examinations has shifted from surgical and orthopedic applications to internal diseases. The book gives a comprehensive picture of X-ray diagnosis in dogs and cats. (orig./MG) [de

  13. Survey of Helicobacter infection in domestic and feral cats in Korea

    OpenAIRE

    Ghil, Heh-Myung; Yoo, Jong-Hyeon; Jung, Woo-Sung; Chung, Tae-Ho; Youn, Hwa-Young; Hwang, Cheol-Yong

    2009-01-01

    Discovery of Helicobacter (H.) pylori has led to a fundamental change in our understanding of gastric diseases in humans. Previous studies have found various Helicobacter spp. in dogs and cats, and pets have been questioned as a zoonotic carrier. The present study surveyed the Helicobacter infections and investigated the presence of H. felis and H. pylori infections in domestic and feral cats in Korea. Sixty-four domestic cats and 101 feral cats were selected from an animal shelter. Saliva an...

  14. Ultrasonographic features of intestinal adenocarcinoma in five cats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rivers, B.J.; Walter, P.A.; Feeney, D.A.; Johnston, G.R.

    1997-01-01

    Adenocarcinoma, followed by lymphosarcoma, are the most common feline intestinal neoplasms. Clinicopathological, survey radiographic, and ultrasonographic findings of five cats with intestinal adenocarcinoma are reported. An abdominal mass was palpable in all five cats, but the mass could be localized to bowel in only two cats. Radiographically an abdominal mass was detected in only one cat. Ultrasonographically there was a segmental intestinal mural mass in all five cats. The mass was characterized by circumferential bowel wall thickening with transmural loss of normal sonographic wall layers. In one cat, the circumferential symmetric hypoechoic bowel wall thickening was similar to that reported for segmental lymphoma. In the other four cats, the sonographic features of the thickened bowel wall were varied, being mixed echogenicity and asymmetric in 3 cats and mixed echogenicity and symmetric in one. The results of the present report suggest that sonographic observation of mixed echogenicity segmental intestinal wall thickening in the cat represents adenocarcinoma rather than lymphosarcoma, although other infiltrative diseases should be considered

  15. Overweight in adult cats: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Öhlund, Malin; Palmgren, Malin; Holst, Bodil Ström

    2018-01-19

    Overweight in cats is a major risk factor for diabetes mellitus and has also been associated with other disorders. Overweight and obesity are believed to be increasing problems in cats, as is currently seen in people, with important health consequences. The objectives of the present study were to determine the prevalence of overweight in cats from two different cohorts in a cross-sectional study design and to assess associations between overweight and diagnoses, and between overweight and demographic and environmental factors. Data were obtained from medical records for cats (n = 1072) visiting an academic medical center during 2013-2015, and from a questionnaire on insured cats (n = 1665). From the medical records, information on body condition score, breed, age, sex, neutering status, and diagnosis was obtained. The questionnaire included questions relating to the cat's body condition, breed, age, sex, neutering status, outdoor access, activity level, and diet. Data were analyzed by multivariable logistic regression. The prevalence of overweight was 45% in the medical records cohort and 22% in the questionnaire cohort, where owners judged their pet's body condition. Overweight cats in the medical records cohort were more likely to be diagnosed with lower urinary tract disease, diabetes mellitus, respiratory disease, skin disorders, locomotor disease, and trauma. Eating predominantly dry food, being a greedy eater, and inactivity were factors associated with an increased risk of overweight in the final model in the questionnaire cohort. In both cohorts, the Birman and Persian breeds, and geriatric cats, were less likely to be overweight, and male cats were more likely to be overweight. The prevalence of overweight cats (45%) as assessed by trained personnel was high and in the same range as previously reported. Birman and Persian cats had a lower risk of overweight. The association with dry food found in adult, neutered cats is potentially important because

  16. Validation of an electrophoretic method to detect albuminuria in cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferlizza, Enea; Dondi, Francesco; Andreani, Giulia; Bucci, Diego; Archer, Joy; Isani, Gloria

    2017-08-01

    Objectives The aims of this study were to validate a semi-automated high-resolution electrophoretic technique to quantify urinary albumin in healthy and diseased cats, and to evaluate its diagnostic performance in cases of proteinuria and renal diseases. Methods Urine samples were collected from 88 cats (healthy; chronic kidney disease [CKD]; lower urinary tract disease [LUTD]; non-urinary tract diseases [OTHER]). Urine samples were routinely analysed and high-resolution electrophoresis (HRE) was performed. Within-assay and between-assay variability, linearity, accuracy, recovery and the lowest detectable and quantifiable bands were calculated. Receiver operating curve (ROC) analysis was also performed. Results All coefficients of variation were HRE allowed the visualisation of a faint band of albumin and a diffused band between alpha and beta zones in healthy cats, while profiles from diseased cats were variable. Albumin (mg/dl) and urine albumin:creatinine ratio (UAC) were significantly ( P HRE is an accurate and precise method that could be used to measure albuminuria in cats. UAC was useful to correctly classify proteinuria and to discriminate between healthy and diseased cats. HRE might also provide additional information on urine proteins with a profile of all proteins (albumin and globulins) to aid clinicians in the diagnosis of diseases characterised by proteinuria.

  17. Bell inequalities with Schroedinger cats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reid, M.D.

    2001-01-01

    In the Schrodinger cat gedanken experiment a ''cat'' is in a quantum superposition of two macroscopically distinct states. There is the apparent interpretation that the ''cat'' is not in one state or the other, ''alive'' or ''dead''. Here this interpretation is proved objectively. I propose the following definition of macroscopic reality: first, that the ''cat'' is either dead or alive, the measurement revealing which; second, that measurements on other ''cats'' some distance away cannot induce the macroscopic change, ''dead'' to ''alive'' and vice versa, to the ''cat''. The predictions of quantum mechanics are shown to be incompatible with this premise. (orig.)

  18. Metaphyseal osteopathy in a British Shorthair cat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adagra, Carl; Spielman, Derek; Adagra, Angela; Foster, Darren J

    2015-04-01

    Metaphyseal osteopathy, otherwise known as hypertrophic osteodystrophy, is a disease that causes pyrexia and lethargy accompanied by pain in the thoracic and pelvic limbs of rapidly growing large-breed dogs. While metaphyseal osteopathy has been descibed in association with slipped capital femoral epiphysis in cats, it has not previously been reported as a cause of limb pain and pyrexia in this species. A 7-month-old British Shorthair cat presented with a 1 month history of pyrexia, lethargy and pain in all limbs. Investigation included radiographs of the limbs and chest, abdominal ultrasound, serum biochemical analysis, haematology, bone biopsy, joint fluid aspiration and cytology. Findings were consistent with a diagnosis of metaphyseal osteopathy. The cat's clinical signs resolved following the administration of prednisolone. Symptoms recurred 1 month after the cessation of prednisolone therapy, but resolved when administration was resumed. © ISFM and AAFP 2014.

  19. Study of the effect on shelter cat intakes and euthanasia from a shelter neuter return project of 10,080 cats from March 2010 to June 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cicirelli, Jon

    2014-01-01

    Cat impoundments were increasing at the municipal San Jose animal shelter in 2009, despite long-term successful low cost sterilization programs and attempts to lower the euthanasia rate of treatable-rehabilitatable impounds beginning in 2008. San Jose Animal Care and Services implemented a new strategy designed to control overall feral cat reproduction by altering and returning feral cats entering the shelter system, rather than euthanizing the cats. The purpose of this case study was to determine how the program affected the shelter cat intakes over time. In just over four years, 10,080 individual healthy adult feral cats, out of 11,423 impounded at the shelter during this time frame, were altered and returned to their site of capture. Included in the 11,423 cats were 862 cats impounded from one to four additional times for a total of 958 (9.5%) recaptures of the previously altered 10,080 cats. The remaining 385 healthy feral cats were euthanized at the shelter from March 2010 to June 2014. Four years into the program, researchers observed cat and kitten impounds decreased 29.1%; euthanasia decreased from over 70% of intakes in 2009, to 23% in 2014. Euthanasia in the shelter for Upper Respiratory Disease decreased 99%; dead cat pick up off the streets declined 20%. Dog impounds did not similarly decline over the four years. No other laws or program changes were implemented since the beginning of the program. PMID:25374785

  20. Study of the effect on shelter cat intakes and euthanasia from a shelter neuter return project of 10,080 cats from March 2010 to June 2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen L. Johnson

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Cat impoundments were increasing at the municipal San Jose animal shelter in 2009, despite long-term successful low cost sterilization programs and attempts to lower the euthanasia rate of treatable-rehabilitatable impounds beginning in 2008. San Jose Animal Care and Services implemented a new strategy designed to control overall feral cat reproduction by altering and returning feral cats entering the shelter system, rather than euthanizing the cats. The purpose of this case study was to determine how the program affected the shelter cat intakes over time. In just over four years, 10,080 individual healthy adult feral cats, out of 11,423 impounded at the shelter during this time frame, were altered and returned to their site of capture. Included in the 11,423 cats were 862 cats impounded from one to four additional times for a total of 958 (9.5% recaptures of the previously altered 10,080 cats. The remaining 385 healthy feral cats were euthanized at the shelter from March 2010 to June 2014. Four years into the program, researchers observed cat and kitten impounds decreased 29.1%; euthanasia decreased from over 70% of intakes in 2009, to 23% in 2014. Euthanasia in the shelter for Upper Respiratory Disease decreased 99%; dead cat pick up off the streets declined 20%. Dog impounds did not similarly decline over the four years. No other laws or program changes were implemented since the beginning of the program.

  1. Crystallized Schroedinger cat states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castanos, O.; Lopez-Pena, R.; Man'ko, V.I.

    1995-01-01

    Crystallized Schroedinger cat states (male and female) are introduced on the base of extension of group construction for the even and odd coherent states of the electromagnetic field oscillator. The Wigner and Q functions are calculated and some are plotted for C 2 , C 3 , C 4 , C 5 , C 3v Schroedinger cat states. Quadrature means and dispersions for these states are calculated and squeezing and correlation phenomena are studied. Photon distribution functions for these states are given explicitly and are plotted for several examples. A strong oscillatory behavior of the photon distribution function for some field amplitudes is found in the new type of states

  2. E-Z-CAT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nyman, U.; Dinnetz, G.; Andersson, I.

    1984-01-01

    A new barium sulphate suspension, E-Z-CAT, for use as an oral contrast medium at computed tomography of the abdomen has been compared with the commonly used water-soluble iodinated contrast medium Gastrografin as regards patient tolerance and diagnostic information. The investigation was conducted as an unpaired randomized single-blind study in 100 consecutive patients. E-Z-CAT seems to be preferred because of its better taste, its lesser tendency to cause diarrhoea, and for usage in patients who are known to be hypersensitive to iodinated contrast media. The diagnostic information was the same for both contrast media. (Auth.)

  3. Endocrine emergencies in dogs and cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koenig, Amie

    2013-07-01

    Success in treatment of endocrine emergencies is contingent on early recognition and treatment. Many endocrine diseases presenting emergently have nonspecific signs and symptoms. In addition, these endocrine crises are often precipitated by concurrent disease, further making early identification difficult. This article concentrates on recognition and emergency management of the most common endocrine crises in dogs and cats. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Cat scratches, not bites, are associated with unipolar depression--cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flegr, Jaroslav; Hodný, Zdeněk

    2016-01-05

    A recent study performed on 1.3 million patients showed a strong association between being bitten by a cat and probability of being diagnosed with depression. Authors suggested that infection with cat parasite Toxoplasma could be the reason for this association. A cross sectional internet study on a non-clinical population of 5,535 subjects was undertaken. The subjects that reported having been bitten by a dog and a cat or scratched by a cat have higher Beck depression score. They were more likely to have visited psychiatrists, psychotherapists and neurologists in past two years, to have been previously diagnosed with depression (but not with bipolar disorder). Multivariate analysis of models with cat biting, cat scratching, toxoplasmosis, the number of cats at home, and the age of subjects as independent variables showed that only cat scratching had positive effect on depression (p = 0.004). Cat biting and toxoplasmosis had no effect on the depression, and the number of cats at home had a negative effect on depression (p = 0.021). Absence of association between toxoplasmosis and depression and five times stronger association of depression with cat scratching than with cat biting suggests that the pathogen responsible for mood disorders in animals-injured subjects is probably not the protozoon Toxoplasma gondii but another organism; possibly the agent of cat-scratched disease - the bacteria Bartonella henselae.

  5. Juvenile hyperthyroidism in a cat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Jana M; Ehrhart, E J; Sisson, D D; Jones, M A

    2003-01-01

    An 8-month-old, male domestic shorthaired cat presented for chronic weight loss, intermittent dyspnea, chronic diarrhea, hyperactivity, and weakness. The cat had a palpable thyroid nodule and increased serum total thyroxine and 3,5,3' triiodothyronine levels. The cat was diagnosed with hyperthyroidism, and a unilateral thyroidectomy was performed followed by radioactive iodine at a later date. The clinical signs resolved following radioactive iodine, and the cat subsequently developed clinical hypothyroidism.

  6. Tracheal collapse in two cats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hendricks, J.C.; O'Brien, J.A.

    1985-01-01

    Two cats examined bronchoscopically to discover the cause of tracheal collapse were found to have tracheal obstruction cranial to the collapse. Cats with this unusual sign should be examined bronchoscopically to ascertain whether there is an obstruction, as the cause in these 2 cats was distinct from the diffuse airway abnormality that causes tracheal collapse in dogs

  7. Diet may influence the oral microbiome composition in cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adler, Christina J; Malik, Richard; Browne, Gina V; Norris, Jacqueline M

    2016-06-09

    Periodontal disease is highly prevalent amongst domestic cats, causing pain, gingival bleeding, reduced food intake, loss of teeth and possibly impacts on overall systemic health. Diet has been suggested to play a role in the development of periodontal disease in cats. There is a complete lack of information about how diet (composition and texture) affects the feline oral microbiome, the composition of which may influence oral health and the development of periodontal disease. We undertook a pilot study to assess if lifelong feeding of dry extruded kibble or wet (canned and/or fresh meat combinations) diets to cats (n = 10) with variable oral health affected the microbiome. Oral microbiome composition was assessed by amplifying the V1-V3 region of the 16S gene from supragingival dental plaque DNA extracts. These amplicons were sequenced using Illumina technology. This deep sequencing revealed the feline oral microbiome to be diverse, containing 411 bacterial species from 14 phyla. We found that diet had a significant influence on the overall diversity and abundance of specific bacteria in the oral environment. Cats fed a dry diet exclusively had higher bacterial diversity in their oral microbiome than wet-food diet cats (p microbiome between cats on the two diets assessed, the relationship between these differences and gingival health was unclear. Our preliminary results indicate that further analysis of the influence of dietary constituents and texture on the feline oral microbiome is required to reveal the relationship between diet, the oral microbiome and gingival health in cats.

  8. Coxofemoral luxations in cats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pérez-Aparicio, F.J.; Fjeld, T.O.

    1993-01-01

    In a retrospective study, 79 untreated luxations of the coxofemoral joint in cats were recorded over a 12-year period. Twenty-nine of these cases were available for follow-up, of which 13 were re-examined clinically and radiologically. It was found that the maximum incidence of the injury occurred from one to three years of age. Follow-up radiographs showed that the cats had developed nearthroses of various degrees located dorsally on the ilium. The degree of nearthrosis formation was not consistently correlated with the length of the observation time. Radiological signs of decreased bone density of the proximal femur may be caused by reduced weightbearing related to changes in biomechanical function and altered blood supply in the luxated limb. Almost two-thirds of the re-examined animals presented some kind of locomotor dysfunction on clinical examination. Limb function improved with time. The best clinical results appeared to be in cats that were immature at the time of injury and developed nearthrosis similar to a normal coxofemoral joint. All the cats available to this study showed acceptable functional results and had a normal level of activity according to the owners

  9. Oral cobalamin supplementation in cats with hypocobalaminaemia: a retrospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toresson, Linda; Steiner, Joerg M; Olmedal, Gunilla; Larsen, MajBritt; Suchodolski, Jan S; Spillmann, Thomas

    2017-12-01

    Objectives The objective of the study was to evaluate whether oral cobalamin supplementation can restore normocobal-aminaemia in cats with hypocobalaminaemia and clinical signs of gastrointestinal disease. Methods This was a retrospective study based on a computerised database search for client-owned cats treated at Evidensia Specialist Animal Hospital, Helsingborg, Sweden, during the period December 2013 to August 2016. Inclusion criteria were cats with clinical signs of chronic enteropathy, an initial serum cobalamin concentration ⩽250 pmol/l (reference interval 214-738 pmol/l) and oral treatment with cobalamin tablets. Results Twenty-five cats met the inclusion criteria. The cats were treated with 0.25 mg cyanocobalamin tablets once daily. Serum cobalamin concentration was rechecked 27-94 days after continuous oral cobalamin supplementation. All cats had serum cobalamin concentrations above the reference interval after oral cobalamin supplementation. Median (range) serum cobalamin concentration was 128 pmol/l (111-250 pmol/l) prior to treatment and 2701 pmol/l (738-16,359 pmol/l) after supplementation. This difference was statistically significant ( P cats with hypocobalaminaemia. Thus, oral cobalamin supplementation is a promising alternative to parenteral administration. Prospective comparative studies in cats being treated with parenteral vs oral cobalamin supplementation in a larger number of patients are warranted before oral supplementation can be recommended for routine use.

  10. Conjuntivite granulomatosa atípica causada pela doença da arranhadura do gato: relato de caso Cat-scratch disease causing atypical granulomatous conjunctivitis: case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Hassler Príncipe de Oliveira

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Relatamos caso de paciente do sexo feminino, brasileira, 23 anos, residente na Alemanha, que cursou com quadro de conjuntivite granulomatosa bilateral crônica, sem acometimento ganglionar, não responsiva a tratamento tópico. A pesquisa laboratorial confirmou diagnóstico de conjuntivite por Bartonella henselae. O caso demonstra que a ausência de acometimento ganglionar não exclui o diagnóstico de doença da arranhadura do gato.We report a case of a 23-year-old female patient, Brazilian, resident of Germany, who presented with a bilateral chronic granulomatous conjunctivitis, without lymphoadenopathy and irresponsive to topical treatment. Laboratorial work-up confirmed Bartonella henselae as the etiologic agent. The case shows that the absence of lymphoadenopathy does not exclude the diagnosis of cat-scratch disease.

  11. Epidemiological evaluation of cats rescued at a secondary emergency animal shelter in Miharu, Fukushima, after the Great East Japan Earthquakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Aki; Martinez-Lopez, Beatriz; Kass, Philip

    2017-03-01

    The aims of this research were to report characteristics of rescued cats at a secondary emergency animal shelter in Fukushima prefecture, Japan, and evaluate how adoptability, stress level, upper respiratory infection (URI) syndrome incidence, and URI pathogen prevalence were associated with the cat's shelter intake source and shelter characteristics. All cats admitted to the Miharu shelter, Fukushima Prefecture from 2012 to 2014 were included in the study. The results demonstrate that in situ corticosteroid and antibiotic use were associated with cats subsequently developing upper respiratory infections (URI). Disease and cat behavior were unassociated with adoption. Cats in group housing had lower stress metrics than cats individually housed. Prevalences of URI pathogens exceeded 80%, but symptomatic cats were uncommon. Environmental enrichment and stress reduction strategies are important in controlling URI and reducing the need for corticosteroids and antibiotics in shelters. Preemptive protocols are important in preventing shelter admission of cats during disasters. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Molecular detection of Rickettsia typhi in cats and fleas.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Mercedes Nogueras

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Rickettsiatyphi is the etiological agent of murine typhus (MT, a disease transmitted by two cycles: rat-flea-rat, and peridomestic cycle. Murine typhus is often misdiagnosed and underreported. A correct diagnosis is important because MT can cause severe illness and death. Our previous seroprevalence results pointed to presence of human R. typhi infection in our region; however, no clinical case has been reported. Although cats have been related to MT, no naturally infected cat has been described. The aim of the study is to confirm the existence of R. typhi in our location analyzing its presence in cats and fleas. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: 221 cats and 80 fleas were collected from Veterinary clinics, shelters, and the street (2001-2009. Variables surveyed were: date of collection, age, sex, municipality, living place, outdoor activities, demographic area, healthy status, contact with animals, and ectoparasite infestation. IgG against R. typhi were evaluated by indirect immunofluorescence assay. Molecular detection in cats and fleas was performed by real-time PCR. Cultures were performed in those cats with positive molecular detection. Statistical analysis was carried out using SPSS. A p < 0.05 was considered significant. Thirty-five (15.8% cats were seropositive. There were no significant associations among seropositivity and any variables. R. typhi was detected in 5 blood and 2 cultures. High titres and molecular detection were observed in stray cats and pets, as well as in spring and winter. All fleas were Ctenocephalides felis. R. typhi was detected in 44 fleas (55%, from shelters and pets. Co-infection with R. felis was observed. CONCLUSIONS: Although no clinical case has been described in this area, the presence of R. typhi in cats and fleas is demonstrated. Moreover, a considerable percentage of those animals lived in households. To our knowledge, this is the first time R. typhi is detected in naturally infected cats.

  13. Frequency, clinicopathological features and phylogenetic analysis of feline morbillivirus in cats in Istanbul, Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yilmaz, Huseyin; Tekelioglu, Bilge K; Gurel, Aydin; Bamac, Ozge E; Ozturk, Gulay Y; Cizmecigil, Utku Y; Altan, Eda; Aydin, Ozge; Yilmaz, Aysun; Berriatua, Eduardo; Helps, Chris R; Richt, Juergen A; Turan, Nuri

    2017-12-01

    regions of the kidneys. Cellular infiltration, cholangiohepatitis and focal necrosis in the liver were also found. Although virus-infected cells were found in the kidney and liver of FmoRV RNA-positive cats, tubulointerstitial nephritis, cholangiohepatitis and focal necrosis seen in FmoRV RNA-positive cats were similar to those observed in FmoRV RNA-negative cats. Conclusions and relevance This is the first study to show the presence of FmoPV infection in cats in Turkey. Sick cats, particularly those with kidney disease, should be tested for this virus. The genotypes found in this study were similar to previously reported strains, indicating that circulating morbilliviruses in Turkey are conserved.

  14. Hybrid Cat Bonds

    OpenAIRE

    Barrieu, Pauline; Louberge, Henri

    2009-01-01

    Natural catastrophes attract regularly the attention of media and have become a source of public concern. From a financial viewpoint, natural catastrophes represent idiosyncratic risks, diversifiable at the world level. But for reasons analyzed in this paper reinsurance markets are unable to cope with this risk completely. Insurance-linked securities, such as cat bonds, have been issued to complete the international risk transfer process, but their development is disappointing so far. This pa...

  15. Lymphocytic cholangitis in cats: a microbiological, histological and clinical approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Otte, C.M.A.

    2017-01-01

    In this thesis, a general overview is given of the healthy feline liver and feline diseases of the gall bladder and biliary tree. Lymphocytic cholangitis (LC) is one of the most common inflammatory hepatic diseases in cats. It is a chronic disease that affects the biliary tree and progresses slowly

  16. Sex specific differences in hepatic and plasma lipid profiles in healthy cats pre and post spaying and neutering: relationship with feline hepatic lipidosis

    OpenAIRE

    Valtolina, Chiara; Vaandrager, Arie B.; Favier, Robert P.; Tuohetahuntila, Maidina; Kummeling, Anne; Jeusette, Isabelle; Rothuizen, Jan; Robben, Joris H.

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: A link between lipid metabolism and disease has been recognized in cats. Since hepatic lipidosis is a frequent disorder in cats, the aim of the current study was to evaluate liver and plasma lipid dimorphism in healthy cats and the effects of gonadectomy on lipid profiling. From six female and six male cats plasma and liver lipid profiles before and after spaying/neutering were assessed and compared to five cats (three neutered male and two spayed female) diagnosed with hepatic li...

  17. Luxation of the radial carpal bone in a cat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pitcher, G.D.C.

    1996-01-01

    A case of radial carpal bone luxation in the cat and its management is described. Open reduction was performed and surgically maintained, in combination with repair of rupture of the short radial collateral ligament and joint capsule. The carpus was supported for one month following surgery by application of transarticular external fixation. Four months after treatment the cat was sound, despite evidence of degenerative joint disease. The mechanism of luxation appears to be analogous to that seen in the dog

  18. Local cloning of CAT states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rahaman, Ramij

    2011-01-01

    In this Letter we analyze the (im)possibility of the exact cloning of orthogonal three-qubit CAT states under local operation and classical communication (LOCC) with the help of a restricted entangled state. We also classify the three-qubit CAT states that can (not) be cloned under LOCC restrictions and extend the results to the n-qubit case. -- Highlights: → We analyze the (im)possibility of exact cloning of orthogonal CAT states under LOCC. → We also classify the set of CAT states that can(not) be cloned by LOCC. → No set of orthogonal CAT states can be cloned by LOCC with help of similar CAT state. → Any two orthogonal n-qubit GHZ-states can be cloned by LOCC with help of a GHZ state.

  19. Feline infectious peritonitis with neurologic involvement: clinical and pathological findings in 24 cats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kline, K.L.; Joseph, R.J.; Averill, D.R. Jr.

    1994-01-01

    The medical records of 24 cats with histopathologically diagnosed feline infectious peritonitis involving the nervous system were reviewed. Seventeen cats had historical, clinical, and pathological findings of systemic disease. Twelve cats had focal signs of central nervous system dysfunction. Twelve cats had multifocal signs including seizures, nystagmus, head tilt, vestibular or cerebellar ataxia, paresis, and proprioceptive loss with a preponderance of caudal fossa signs. Computed tomography of the brain revealed hydrocephalus in two cats. Examination of cerebrospinal fluid revealed pyogranulomatous pleocytosis in fivecats; the tap was nonproductive in five cats. Findings on histopathological examination of appropriate tissues included nephritis, hepatitis, and pleuritis. Neuropathological findings included ependymitis, choroid plexitis, meningitis, encephalitis, and myelitis. Hydrocephalus was seen in 18 cats on necropsy

  20. Postoperative Respiratory Function and Survival After Pneumonectomy in Dogs and Cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majeski, Stephanie A; Steffey, Michele A; Mayhew, Philipp D; Hunt, Geraldine B; Holt, David E; Runge, Jeffrey J; Kass, Philip H; Mellema, Matthew

    2016-08-01

    To describe indications for, and outcomes after, pneumonectomy in dogs and cats, including assessment of immediate postoperative respiratory function in comparison to dogs undergoing single lung lobectomy. Retrospective case series. Dogs (n=16) and cats (n=7) with naturally occurring pulmonary disease. Medical records (1990-2014) of dogs and cats undergoing right or left pneumonectomy were reviewed. Data retrieved included signalment, history, preoperative diagnostics, operative descriptions, postoperative data including respiratory function, and postdischarge outcomes. For respiratory function comparisons, medical records of dogs having undergone a single lung lobectomy via median sternotomy (n=15) or intercostal thoracotomy (n=15) were reviewed. Twenty-three cases (16 dogs, 7 cats) were included. Pneumonectomy was performed for congenital (1 dog, 1 cat), neoplastic (8 dogs, 1 cat), and infectious (7 dogs, 5 cats) disease. Postoperative aspiration pneumonia occurred in 2 dogs; 15 of 16 dogs (94%) and 6/7 cats (86%) survived to hospital discharge. After pneumonectomy, dogs had a significantly higher postoperative PaO2 on 21% oxygen (P=.033) and lower postoperative A-a gradient (P=.004) compared to dogs undergoing single lung lobectomy. Survival times (right-censored at last follow-up) for dogs ranged from 2 days to 7 years (estimated median=1,868 days) and for cats from 1-585 days. Dogs and cats have acceptable respiratory function immediately postoperatively and most have protracted long-term survival after pneumonectomy for a variety of pulmonary diseases. © Copyright 2016 by The American College of Veterinary Surgeons.

  1. Health and behavioral survey of over 8000 Finnish cats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katariina Vapalahti

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available A comprehensive feline health survey was conducted to reveal breed-specific inheritable diseases in Finnish pedigree cats for genetic research. Prevalences of 19 disease categories and 227 feline diseases were defined in a study population of 8175 cats belonging to 30 breeds. Dental and oral diseases with a prevalence of 28% and dental calculus and gingivitis (21% and 8%, respectively were the most prevalent disease category and diseases among all cats and in most of the breeds. An exception was Korats, which were more often affected by the diseases of the respiratory tract (23% and asthma (19%. Other prevalent disease categories affected various organ systems such as the skin (12%, the urinary system (12%, the digestive tract (11%, eyes, (10%, the musculoskeletal system (10%, and genitals of female cats (17%. Prevalent health or developmental issues included repetitive vomiting (4%, tail kink (4%, feline odontoclastic resorption lesion (FORL (4%, urinary tract infections (4%, as well as caesarean section (6% and stillborn kittens (6% among female cats. We found 57 breed-specific conditions by Fisher’s exact tests and logistic regression analyses, including 32 previously described and 19 new breed-specific diseases. The genetic defect has already been found in six of them: polycystic kidney disease (PKD, progressive retinal atrophy (PRA, hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM and three types of tail malformations. Behavioral profiling revealed breed-specific traits, such as an increased human avoidance in British Short and Longhairs and a higher level of aggression in Turkish vans. Our epidemiological study reveals the overall health profile in Finnish pure and mixed breed cats and identifies many breed-specific conditions without molecular identity for genetic research.

  2. A retrospective study of 77 cats with severe hepatic lipidosis: 1975-1990.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Center, S A; Crawford, M A; Guida, L; Erb, H N; King, J

    1993-01-01

    The physical, clinicopathologic, and survival rates of 77 cats with severe spontaneous hepatic lipidosis are detailed in this report. Cats were subdivided into groups designated as idiopathic lipidosis if no other disease process was recognized, or secondary lipidosis if another disease process was diagnosed. Cats were also subdivided into groups designated as survivors or nonsurvivors on the basis of successful recuperation at 4 months after initial diagnosis. Differences between disease and survival groups were evaluated for significance. Overall, more female cats and middle-aged cats were affected. Presenting complaints of vomiting, anorexia, weakness, and weight loss were common. Physical assessment of most cats showed obvious hepatomegaly, jaundice, dehydration, and a weight loss > or = 25% of usual body weight. Neurobehavioral signs indicative of hepatic encephalopathy, other than ptyalism and depression, were rare. Clinicopathologic features are characterized by hyperbilirubinemia and increased activities of serum ALT, AST, and ALP, with only small if any increase in gamma GT activity. Clinical features distinguishing cats with hepatic lipidosis from those with other serious cholestatic disorders include absence of hyperglobulinemia and low gamma GT activity relative to ALP activity. Although coagulation tests were abnormal in 45% of cats tested (n = 44), few cats showed clinical bleeding tendencies. Most cats received prophylactic vitamin K1 therapy. Forty two cats received aggressive nutritional and supportive care and of these 55% survived. Cats with idiopathic disease were significantly younger, had significantly higher ALP activity and bilirubin concentration, and had a slightly better survival rate than cats with secondary lipidosis. Low PCV, hypokalemia, and an older age were significantly related to nonsurvival. Because of the variety of diets and food supplements used in case management, the influence of nutritional factors on survival could not be

  3. Effectiveness of feeding large kibbles with mechanical cleaning properties in cats with gingivitis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vrieling, HE; Theyse, LFH; van Winkelhoff, AJ; Dijkshoorn, NA; Logan, EI; Picovet, P

    2005-01-01

    Effectiveness of feeding large kibbles with mechanical cleaning properties in cats with gingivitis periodontal disease is the most common acquired oral disease in cats. it starts with plaque accumulation and gingivitis. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of different types of

  4. Ileocolic junction resection in dogs and cats: 18 cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez, Yordan; Seth, Mayank; Murgia, Daniela; Puig, Jordi

    2017-12-01

    There is limited veterinary literature about dogs or cats with ileocolic junction resection and its long-term follow-up. To evaluate the long-term outcome in a cohort of dogs and cats that underwent resection of the ileocolic junction without extensive (≥50%) small or large bowel resection. Medical records of dogs and cats that had the ileocolic junction resected were reviewed. Follow-up information was obtained either by telephone interview or e-mail correspondence with the referring veterinary surgeons. Nine dogs and nine cats were included. The most common cause of ileocolic junction resection was intussusception in dogs (5/9) and neoplasia in cats (6/9). Two dogs with ileocolic junction lymphoma died postoperatively. Only 2 of 15 animals, for which long-term follow-up information was available, had soft stools. However, three dogs with suspected chronic enteropathy required long-term treatment with hypoallergenic diets alone or in combination with medical treatment to avoid the development of diarrhoea. Four of 6 cats with ileocolic junction neoplasia were euthanised as a consequence of progressive disease. Dogs and cats undergoing ileocolic junction resection and surviving the perioperative period may have a good long-term outcome with mild or absent clinical signs but long-term medical management may be required.

  5. Genetic susceptibility to feline infectious peritonitis in Birman cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golovko, Lyudmila; Lyons, Leslie A; Liu, Hongwei; Sørensen, Anne; Wehnert, Suzanne; Pedersen, Niels C

    2013-07-01

    Genetic factors are presumed to influence the incidence of feline infectious peritonitis (FIP), especially among pedigreed cats. However, proof for the existence of such factors has been limited and mainly anecdotal. Therefore, we sought evidence for genetic susceptibility to FIP using feline high density single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) arrays in a genome-wide association study (GWAS). Birman cats were chosen for GWAS because they are highly inbred and suffer a high incidence of FIP. DNA from 38 Birman cats that died of FIP and 161 healthy cats from breeders in Denmark and USA were selected for genotyping using 63K SNPs distributed across the feline genome. Danish and American Birman cats were closely related and the populations were therefore combined and analyzed in two manners: (1) all cases (FIP) vs. all controls (healthy) regardless of age, and (2) cases 1½ years of age and younger (most susceptible) vs. controls 2 years of age and older (most resistant). GWAS of the second cohort was most productive in identifying significant genome-wide associations between case and control cats. Four peaks of association with FIP susceptibility were identified, with two being identified on both analyses. Five candidate genes ELMO1, RRAGA, TNFSF10, ERAP1 and ERAP2, all relevant to what is known about FIP virus pathogenesis, were identified but no single association was fully concordant with the disease phenotype. Difficulties in doing GWAS in cats and interrogating complex genetic traits were discussed. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. More than just T₄: diagnostic testing for hyperthyroidism in cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Mark E

    2013-09-01

    In older cats presenting with clinical features of hyperthyroidism, confirmation of a diagnosis of thyroid disease is usually straightforward. However, the potential for false-negative and false-positive results exists with all thyroid function tests (especially in the context of routine screening of asymptomatic cats) and leads to clinical dilemmas. For example, a high serum T₄ value may be found in a cat that lacks clinical signs of hyperthyroidism, or hyperthyroidism may be suspected in a cat with normal total T₄ concentrations. To avoid unnecessary treatment and potentially adverse effects in a euthyroid cat, thyroid function tests must always be interpreted in the light of the cat's history, clinical signs, physical examination findings and other laboratory findings. In this article the author reviews the use of commonly recommended thyroid function tests, focusing on clinical scenarios that present diagnostic difficulties. In doing so, he draws on the veterinary and comparative literature, his own clinical experience, and data, unpublished to date, obtained from a series of 100 hyperthyroid cats consecutively diagnosed at his clinic.

  7. Seroprevalence of Dirofilaria immitis in Cats from Liaoning Province, Northeastern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Honglie; Cao, Lili; Ren, Wenzhi; Wang, Dansheng; Ding, He; You, Juan; Yao, Xinhua; Dong, Hang; Guo, Yanbing; Yuan, Shuxian; Zhang, Xichen; Gong, Pengtao

    2017-12-01

    The present study was performed to investigate the seroprevalence and risk factors for Dirofilaria immitis infection in cats from Liaoning province, northeastern China. From October 2014 to September 2016, sera of 651 cats, including 364 domestic cats and 287 feral cats (332 females and 319 males) were assessed. They were tested for the presence of D. immitis antigen using SNAP Heartworm RT test kit. In this population, the average prevalence was 4.5%. Age and rearing conditions (feral or domestic) were found to be associated with the prevalence of D. immitis. The prevalence was significantly higher in feral cats compared with domestic cats (8.4% vs 1.4%, P0.05), but older cats (≥3 years old) showed a statistically higher prevalence compared with younger cats (cats (2.4% vs 0.51%, P>0.05), all these results suggest that outdoor exposure time may be one of the most important factors for D. immitis prevalence in cats. Results reveal that D. immitis are prevalence in domestic and feral cats in northeastern China, which indicates that appropriate preventive measures should be taken to decrease the incidence of feline heartworm disease in Liaoning province, northeastern China.

  8. Diprosopia in a cat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camón, J; Ruberte, J; Ordóñez, G

    1990-05-01

    A diprosopic cat is described. In the head, two snouts, three eyes and two pinnae were present. The mandible was single and immobile because labial skin of both upper lips and single lower lip was partly fused. Superimposition of upper and lower dental arches was impossible and the mouths remained permanently open. Two incomplete oral cavities were present and the two tongues were joined at their base. The brain was duplicated in part. In the cranium only occipital and temporal bones were normal, the basisphenoid was bifurcated and the remaining bones were duplicated. Embryological mechanisms are discussed.

  9. HEMANGIOMA HEPÁTICO PRIMÁRIO EM GATA PERSA COM DOENÇA RENAL POLICÍSTICA PRIMARY HEPATIC HEMANGIOMA IN PERSIAN CAT WITH POLYCYSTIC KIDNEY DISEASE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valdemiro Amaro da Silva Júnior

    2008-07-01

    great possibility of the rupture, hipovolemic shock and death. Because of its rarity in felines, the aim of case report was describes a primary hepatic hemangioma in a female Persian cat aged ten which the clinical symptoms initially observed were: abdominal volume increase, intermittent vomiting, apathy, anorexia and irregular ruts. Radiographic exam revealed the presence of radiopaque tissues in the liver. The hepatic ultrasound exhibited irregular shape, heterogeneous and hyperechogenic parenchyma, presenting hollowed areas which suggests neoplasm and cysts. Macroscopically it was observed ascite, hepatic steatosis and a neoplastic mass measuring about 12 x 8 cm, in addition to a considerable number of cysts. Polycystic kidneys and ovaries and cystic endometrial hyperplasia were also noticed. Microscopically was diagnosed in the liver: cysts limited by endothelial cells and delicate capsule of connective tissue, steatosis and periportal mononuclear linfocitary hepatitis with biliar ducts proliferation. The tumoral mass rose from the hepatic capsule of the conjunctive tissue. It was characterized by vascular sprouts originated from the endothelial cells with anastomosis and vessels expansion begin on superficial areas. Primary hepatic hemangioma cavernous/capillary was diagnosed. PD was diagnosed in ovarian, uterine and renal tissue.

    KEY WORDS: Cat, liver, vascular tumor.

  10. European bat Lyssavirus transmission among cats, Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dacheux, Laurent; Larrous, Florence; Mailles, Alexandra; Boisseleau, Didier; Delmas, Olivier; Biron, Charlotte; Bouchier, Christiane; Capek, Isabelle; Muller, Michel; Ilari, Frédéric; Lefranc, Tanguy; Raffi, François; Goudal, Maryvonne; Bourhy, Hervé

    2009-02-01

    We identified 2 cases of European bat lyssavirus subtype 1 transmission to domestic carnivores (cats) in France. Bat-to-cat transmission is suspected. Low amounts of virus antigen in cat brain made diagnosis difficult.

  11. Toxoplasmosis: An Important Message for Cat Owners

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... role do cats play in the spread of toxoplasmosis? Cats get Toxoplasma infection by eating infected rodents, ... an infected cat may have defecated. What is toxoplasmosis? Toxoplasmosis is an infection caused by a microscopic ...

  12. A Novel A(H7N2) Influenza Virus Isolated from a Veterinarian Caring for Cats in a New York City Animal Shelter Causes Mild Disease and Transmits Poorly in the Ferret Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belser, Jessica A; Pulit-Penaloza, Joanna A; Sun, Xiangjie; Brock, Nicole; Pappas, Claudia; Creager, Hannah M; Zeng, Hui; Tumpey, Terrence M; Maines, Taronna R

    2017-08-01

    detection of this virus in the northeastern United States in over a decade and the first documented infection of a felid with an H7N2 virus. A veterinarian became infected following occupational exposure to H7N2 virus-infected cats, necessitating the evaluation of this virus for its capacity to cause disease in mammals. While the H7N2 virus was associated with mild illness in mice and ferrets and did not spread well between ferrets, it nonetheless possessed several markers of virulence for mammals. These data highlight the promiscuity of influenza viruses and the need for diligent surveillance across multiple species to quickly identify an emerging strain with pandemic potential. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.

  13. Comparison of the COPD Assessment Test (CAT) and the Clinical COPD Questionnaire (CCQ) in a Clinical Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundh, Josefin; Ställberg, Björn; Lisspers, Karin; Kämpe, Mary; Janson, Christer; Montgomery, Scott

    2016-01-01

    The COPD Assessment Test (CAT) and the Clinical COPD Questionnaire (CCQ) are both clinically useful health status instruments. The main objective was to compare CAT and CCQ measurement instruments. CAT and CCQ forms were completed by 432 randomly selected primary and secondary care patients with a COPD diagnosis. Correlation and linear regression analyses of CAT and CCQ were performed. Standardised scores were created for the CAT and CCQ scores, and separate multiple linear regression analyses for CAT and CCQ examined associations with sex, age (≤ 60, 61-70 and >70 years), exacerbations (≥ 1 vs 0 in the previous year), body mass index (BMI), heart disease, anxiety/depression and lung function (subgroup with n = 246). CAT and CCQ correlated well (r = 0.88, p CAT ≥ 10 and CCQ ≥ 1 (r = 0.78, p CAT 9.93 and CAT 10 to CCQ 1.29. Both instruments were associated with BMI CAT 0.56 (0.18 to 0.93) and CCQ 0.56 (0.20 to 0.92)), exacerbations (CAT 0.77 (0.58 to 0.95) and CCQ 0.94 (0.76 to 1.12)), heart disease (CAT 0.38 (0.17 to 0.59) and CCQ 0.23 (0.03 to 0.43)), anxiety/depression (CAT 0.35 (0.15 to 0.56) and CCQ 0.41 (0.21 to 0.60)) and COPD stage (CAT 0.19 (0.05 to 0.34) and CCQ 0.22 (0.07 to 0.36)). CAT and CCQ correlate well with each other. Heart disease, anxiety/depression, underweight, exacerbations, and low lung function are associated with worse health status assessed by both instruments.

  14. Evaluation of the clinical efficacy of benazepril in the treatment of chronic renal insufficiency in cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizutani, Hisashi; Koyama, Hidekazu; Watanabe, Toshifumi; Kitagawa, Hitoshi; Nakano, Masakazu; Kajiwara, Keita; King, Jonathan N

    2006-01-01

    Chronic renal insufficiency (CRI) is a common disease in cats. Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEI) have beneficial effects in humans with CRI by reducing the loss of protein in the urine and increasing life expectancy. The ACEI benazepril has beneficial effects on survival, clinical variables, or both as compared with placebo in cats with CRI. 61 cats with naturally occurring CRI. The cats were enrolled into a prospective, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial. Cats received placebo or 0.5-1 mg/kg benazepril once daily for up to 6 months. Urine protein/urine creatinine ratios were significantly (P benazepril as compared with placebo at days 120 and 180. Three cats with placebo and 1 cat with benazepril were removed prematurely from the study because of deterioration of CRI or death. Cats were classified into 4 stages of CRI according to the International Renal Interest Society (IRIS) classification scheme. Incidence rates of cats with IRIS classification stage 2 or stage 3 that remained in stage 2 or 3 without progressing to stage 4 were higher with benazepril (93 +/- 5%) as compared with placebo (73 +/- 13%). These results suggest a potential for benazepril to delay the progression of disease, extend survival time, or both in cats with CRI.

  15. Accelerator programme at CAT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramamurthi, S.S.

    1991-01-01

    The Accelerator Programme at the Centre for Advanced Technology (CAT), Indore, has very broad based concept under which all types of accelerators are to be taken up for design and fabrication. This centre will be housing a wide variety of accelerators to serve as a common facility for the universities, national laboratories in addition to laboratories under the Department of Atomic Energy. In the first phase of the programme, a series of electron accelerators are designed and fabricated. They are synchrotron radiation sources of 450 MeV (INDUS-I) and of 2 GeV (INDUS-II), microtron upto energy of 20 MeV, linear accelerator upto 20 MeV, and DC Accelerator for industrial irradiation upto 750 KeV and 20 KW. A proton accelerator of 300 MeV with 20 MeV linac injector is also designed. CAT is also developing a strong base for support technologies like ultra high vacuum, radio frequency and microwaves, DC pulsed and superconducting magnets, power supplies and controls etc. These technologies are very useful for other industrial applications also. To develop user groups to utilise INDUS-II synchrotron radiation source, a batch production of rotating Anode X-ray generators with power supplies has been initiated. So also, the sputter ion pumps, electron guns, turbo molecular pumps are brought into batch production. (author)

  16. Lumbosacral agenesis in a cat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabrielle C Hybki

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Case summary Lumbosacral agenesis is a rare congenital condition reported in children. We report a 17-week-old female domestic shorthair cat with lumbosacral agenesis on whole-body radiographs. The cat was euthanized shortly thereafter presentation. A necropsy was not permitted. Relevance and novel information This is the first reported feline case of lumbosacral agenesis.

  17. College Students and Their Cats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinstein, Lawrence; Alexander, Ralph

    2010-01-01

    Twenty-two Siamese and 32 mixed breed cats' personalities were rated by their respective college student owners and compared. Further, the owners' self rated personality traits were correlated with the pets'; significant Siamese and Mixed differences and correlations were obtained. These are the first data to examine breed of cat on a personality…

  18. CONTRACT ADMINISTRATIVE TRACKING SYSTEM (CATS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Contract Administrative Tracking System (CATS) was developed in response to an ORD NHEERL, Mid-Continent Ecology Division (MED)-recognized need for an automated tracking and retrieval system for Cost Reimbursable Level of Effort (CR/LOE) Contracts. CATS is an Oracle-based app...

  19. The feline skin microbiota: The bacteria inhabiting the skin of healthy and allergic cats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diesel, Alison; Patterson, Adam P.; Meason-Smith, Courtney; Johnson, Timothy J.; Mansell, Joanne; Suchodolski, Jan S.; Rodrigues Hoffmann, Aline

    2017-01-01

    Background The skin is inhabited by a multitude of microorganisms. An imbalance of these microorganisms is associated with disease, however, the causal relationship between skin microbiota and disease remains unknown. To describe the cutaneous bacterial microbiota of cats and determine whether bacterial dysbiosis occurs on the skin of allergic cats, the skin surfaces on various regions of 11 healthy cats and 10 allergic cats were sampled. Methodology/Principal findings Genomic DNA was extracted from skin swabs and sequenced using primers that target the V4 region of the bacterial 16S rRNA. The bacterial sequences from healthy cats revealed that there are differences in species diversity and richness between body sites and different epithelial surfaces. Bacterial communities preferred body site niches in the healthy cats, however, the bacterial communities on allergic cat skin tended to be more unique to the individual cat. Overall, the number of bacterial species was not significantly different between the two health status groups, however, the abundances of these bacterial species were different between healthy and allergic skin. Staphylococcus, in addition to other taxa, was more abundant on allergic skin. Conclusions/Significance This study reveals that there are more bacterial species inhabiting the skin of cats than previously thought and provide some evidence of an association between dysbiosis and skin disease. PMID:28575016

  20. Does the COPD assessment test (CAT(TM)) questionnaire produce similar results when self- or interviewer administered?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agusti, A; Soler-Cataluña, J J; Molina, J; Morejon, E; Garcia-Losa, M; Roset, M; Badia, X

    2015-10-01

    The COPD assessment test (CAT) is a questionnaire that assesses the impact of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) on health status, but some patients have difficulties filling it up by themselves. We examined whether the mode of administration of the Spanish version of CAT (self vs. interviewer) influences its scores and/or psychometric properties. Observational, prospective study in 49 Spanish centers that includes clinically stable COPD patients (n = 153) and patients hospitalized because of an exacerbation (ECOPD; n = 224). The CAT was self-administered (CAT-SA) or administered by an interviewer (CAT-IA) based on the investigator judgment of the patient's capacity. To assess convergent validity, the Saint George's Respiratory Disease Questionnaire (SGRQ) and the London Chest Activity of Daily Living (LCADL) instrument were also administered. Psychometric properties were compared across modes of administration. A total of 118 patients (31 %) completed the CAT-SA and 259 (69 %) CAT-IA. Multiple regression analysis showed that mode of administration did not affect CAT scores. The CAT showed excellent psychometric properties in both modes of administration. Internal consistency coefficients (Cronbach's alpha) were high (0.86 for CAT-SA and 0.85 for CAT-IA) as was test-retest reliability (intraclass correlation coefficients of 0.83 for CAT-SA and CAT-IA). Correlations with SGRQ and LCADL were moderate to strong both in CAT-SA and CAT-IA, indicating good convergent validity. Similar results were observed when testing longitudinal validity. The mode of administration does not influence CAT scores or its psychometric properties. Hence, both modes of administration can be used in clinical practice depending on the physician judgment of patient's capacity.

  1. CAT-D-T tokamaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greenspan, E.; Blue, T.; Miley, G.H.

    1981-01-01

    The domains of plasma fuel cycles bounded by the D-T and Cat-D, and by the D-T and SCD modes of operation are examined. These domains, referred to as, respectively, the Cat-D-T and SCD-T modes of operation, are characterized by the number (γ) of tritons per fusion neutron available from external (to the plasma) sources. Two external tritium sources are considered - the blankets of the Cat-D-T (SCD-T) reactors and fission reactors supported by the Cat-D-T (SCD-T) driven hybrid reactors. It is found that by using 6 Li for the active material of the control elements of the fission reactors, it is possible to achieve γ values close to unity. Cat-D-T tokamaks could be designed to have smaller size, higher power density, lower magnetic field and even lower plasma temperature than Cat-D tokamaks; the difference becomes significant for γ greater than or equal to .75. The SCD-T mode of operation appears to be even more attractive. Promising applications identified for these Cat-D-T and SCD-T modes of operation include hybrid reactors, fusion synfuel factories and fusion reactors which have difficulty in providing all their tritium needs

  2. Dietary influences on periodontal health in dogs and cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logan, Ellen I

    2006-11-01

    A pet cannot be healthy without oral health. Periodontal is a significant disease that has local and systemic ramifications. It has been stated earlier that effective plaque control prevents gingivitis. In human beings, 90% of periodontitis occurs as the result of progression gingivitis, and this type of periodontitis can be completely prevented by plaque control. It is reasonable that dogs and cats react similarly and that effective plaque control could prevent a large percentage of periodontitis cases. Proper nutrition and effective oral hygiene are necessary components of oral health and should be jointly promoted in the management of oral disease in dogs and cats.

  3. Aging in cats: Common physical and functional changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellows, Jan; Center, Sharon; Daristotle, Leighann; Estrada, Amara H; Flickinger, Elizabeth A; Horwitz, Debra F; Lascelles, B Duncan X; Lepine, Allan; Perea, Sally; Scherk, Margie; Shoveller, Anna K

    2016-07-01

    Aged pets comprise a significant proportion of the small animal veterinarian's patient population; in the USA, for example, it was estimated that over 20% of pet cats were 11 years of age or older in 2011. Certain changes associated with aging are neither positive nor negative, but others are less desirable, associated with illness, changes in mobility or the development of unwanted behaviors. These changes can greatly affect the health and wellbeing of the cat and have a tremendous impact on the owner. Regular veterinary examinations are essential for evaluating the health of older patients and for providing owners with guidance regarding optimal care. With the exception of overt disease, however, it is difficult to definitively determine if a cat is displaying changes that are appropriate for age or if they reflect an abnormal process or condition. This is the first of two review articles in a Special Issue devoted to feline healthy aging. The goals of the project culminating in these publications included developing a working definition for healthy aging in feline patients and identifying clinical methods that can be used to accurately classify healthy aged cats. This first review provides a thorough, systems-based overview of common health-related changes observed in cats as they age. There is a paucity of research in feline aging. The authors have drawn on expert opinion and available data in both the cat and other species. © The Author(s) 2016.

  4. Response of feral cats to vaccination at the time of neutering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Sarah M; Quest, Cassie M; Dubovi, Edward J; Davis, Rolan D; Tucker, Sylvia J; Friary, John A; Crawford, P Cynda; Ricke, Teri A; Levy, Julie K

    2007-01-01

    To determine whether administration of inactivated virus or modified-live virus (MLV) vaccines to feral cats at the time of neutering induces protective serum antiviral antibody titers. Prospective study. 61 feral cats included in a trap-neuter-return program in Florida. Each cat received vaccines against feline panleukopenia virus (FPV), feline herpes virus (FHV), feline calicivirus (FCV), FeLV, and rabies virus (RV). Immediately on completion of surgery, vaccines that contained inactivated RV and FeLV antigens and either MLV or inactivated FPV, FHV, and FCV antigens were administered. Titers of antiviral antibodies (except those against FeLV) were assessed in serum samples obtained immediately prior to surgery and approximately 10 weeks later. Prior to vaccination, some of the cats had protective serum antibody titers against FPV (33%), FHV (21%), FCV (64%), and RV (3%). Following vaccination, the overall proportion of cats with protective serum antiviral antibody titers increased (FPV [90%], FHV [56%], FCV [93%], and RV [98%]). With the exception of the FHV vaccine, there were no differences in the proportions of cats protected with inactivated virus versus MLV vaccines. Results suggest that exposure to FPV, FHV, and FCV is common among feral cats and that a high proportion of cats are susceptible to RV infection. Feral cats appeared to have an excellent immune response following vaccination at the time of neutering. Incorporation of vaccination into trap-neuter-return programs is likely to protect the health of individual cats and possibly reduce the disease burden in the community.

  5. Contrasting clinical outcomes in two cohorts of cats naturally infected with feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bęczkowski, Paweł M.; Litster, Annette; Lin, Tsang Long; Mellor, Dominic J.; Willett, Brian J.; Hosie, Margaret J.

    2015-01-01

    Despite over 25 years of feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) research, relatively little is known about the longitudinal course of FIV infection following natural infection. In contrast to published reports of experimental infections using lethal strains of the virus, clinical signs of naturally acquired FIV infection can be mild or inapparent, rather than life-threatening. In this prospective, longitudinal controlled study, based in Chicago, IL (n = 17) and Memphis, TN (n = 27), we investigated two cohorts of privately owned, naturally infected cats kept under different housing conditions. Cats in the Chicago cohort (Group 1) were kept in households of ≤2 cats, while the Memphis cohort (Group 2) comprised part of a large multi-cat household of over 60 cats kept indoors only, with unrestricted access to one another. The majority of cats from Group 1 did not display clinical signs consistent with immunodeficiency during the 22-month observation period. In contrast, the outcome of infection in Group 2 was dramatically different; 17/27 (63%) of cats lost a median of 51.3% of their bodyweight (P cats classified as ‘healthy’ and ‘not healthy’ at either cohort. FIV load at enrolment was significantly lower in Group 1 than in Group 2 (P cats at either group. In conclusion, the results of this study suggest that management and housing conditions impact on disease progression and survival times of FIV-positive cats. PMID:25595267

  6. Longitudinal change of COPD assessment test (CAT) in a telehealthcare cohort is associated with exacerbation risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rassouli, Frank; Baty, Florent; Stolz, Daiana; Albrich, Werner Christian; Tamm, Michael; Widmer, Sandra; Brutsche, Martin Hugo

    2017-01-01

    There are only scarce data regarding the evolution of the chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) assessment test (CAT) over time. Our aim was to investigate the evolution of the CAT in a telehealthcare (THC) cohort and to evaluate its potential to predict exacerbations. The CAT was measured weekly over up to 1 year in 40 COPD patients undergoing a THC intervention. The evolution of the CAT was analyzed using linear regression. The association between this evolution and the occurrence of exacerbations was evaluated using the Andersen-Gill formulation of the Cox proportional hazards model for the analysis of recurrent time-to-event data with time-varying predictors. The median CAT at inclusion was 17 (interquartile range 13-22) points. During the study, 25% of patients had a significant negative slope (median -7 points per year [ppy]), 38% were stable (median +0 ppy) and 38% had a significant positive slope (median +6 ppy). The median slope of the CAT in the overall cohort was +1 (interquartile range -3 to +6) ppy. A significant positive association was found between the change in CAT scores and the risk of exacerbations (hazard ratio =1.08, 95% CI: 1.03-1.13; p evolution of the CAT over time and the risk of exacerbations. In about one-fifth of patients, there was a significant learning effect in filling out the CAT, before reliable results could be obtained. The evolution of the CAT could help to assess the risk for future exacerbations.

  7. Medical treatment of neuro diseases of dogs and cats / Fármacos utilizados no tratamento das afecções neurológicas de cães e gatos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronaldo Cassimiro da Costa

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available A revision of the current literature regarding medical management of neurological diseases of dogs and cats is presented. The indications, doses, and duration of the recommended treatment of several medications are reviewed. The authors have reviewed analgesic, antibiotic, anticonvulsants, barbiturates, anticolinesterasics, antifungals, antifibrinolytics, steroidal and non-steroidal antiinflammatory, antineoplastics, antipsychotics, anxiolytics, antidepressants, free radical scavengers, diuretics, drugs used in the treatment of micturition disorders, phytotherapeutics, nutraceuticals, muscle relaxant and vitamins.Este trabalho compreende uma revisão da literatura, dos diferentes fármacos utilizados na terapêutica das afecções neurológicas de cães e gatos, assim como sua indicação, dosagens, e duração do tratamento. Nesse contexto incluíram-se analgésicos, antibióticos, anticonvulsivantes, barbitúricos, anticolinesterásicos, antifúngicos, antifibrinolíticos, antiinflamatórios esteróides e não esteróides, antineoplásicos, antipsicóticos, ansiolíticos, antidepressivos, antioxidantes e varredores de radicais livres, diuréticos, fármacos utilizados nos distúrbios da micção, fitoterápicos, modificadores do metabolismo articular (nutracêuticos, relaxantes musculares e vitaminas.

  8. Studying Cat (Felis catus Diabetes: Beware of the Acromegalic Imposter.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stijn J M Niessen

    Full Text Available Naturally occurring diabetes mellitus (DM is common in domestic cats (Felis catus. It has been proposed as a model for human Type 2 DM given many shared features. Small case studies demonstrate feline DM also occurs as a result of insulin resistance due to a somatotrophinoma. The current study estimates the prevalence of hypersomatotropism or acromegaly in the largest cohort of diabetic cats to date, evaluates clinical presentation and ease of recognition. Diabetic cats were screened for hypersomatotropism using serum total insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1; radioimmunoassay, followed by further evaluation of a subset of cases with suggestive IGF-1 (>1000 ng/ml through pituitary imaging and/ or histopathology. Clinicians indicated pre-test suspicion for hypersomatotropism. In total 1221 diabetic cats were screened; 319 (26.1% demonstrated a serum IGF-1>1000 ng/ml (95% confidence interval: 23.6-28.6%. Of these cats a subset of 63 (20% underwent pituitary imaging and 56/63 (89% had a pituitary tumour on computed tomography; an additional three on magnetic resonance imaging and one on necropsy. These data suggest a positive predictive value of serum IGF-1 for hypersomatotropism of 95% (95% confidence interval: 90-100%, thus suggesting the overall hypersomatotropism prevalence among UK diabetic cats to be 24.8% (95% confidence interval: 21.2-28.6%. Only 24% of clinicians indicated a strong pre-test suspicion; most hypersomatotropism cats did not display typical phenotypical acromegaly signs. The current data suggest hypersomatotropism screening should be considered when studying diabetic cats and opportunities exist for comparative acromegaly research, especially in light of the many detected communalities with the human disease.

  9. Mycobacterial panniculitis caused by in a cat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Polina Vishkautsan

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Case summary A domestic shorthair cat was evaluated for chronic, bilateral, ulcerative dermatitis affecting the inguinal region and lateral aspects of both pelvic limbs. Histopathologic examination of skin biopsies collected throughout the course of disease revealed chronic pyogranulomatous ulcerative dermatitis. Aerobic bacterial skin cultures yielded growth of a methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and Corynebacterium amycolatum . Upon referral the clinical findings were suggestive of a non-tuberculous Mycobacterium species infection. Previously obtained skin cultures failed to yield growth of mycobacterial organisms. A deep skin biopsy was collected and submitted for mycobacterial culture. At 5 weeks of incubation Mycobacterium thermoresistibile was isolated. In previous reports, M thermoresistibile has been isolated after 2–4 days of incubation, suggesting that this strain may have been a slower growing variant, or other factors (such as prior antimicrobial therapy inhibited rapid growth of this isolate. The cat was hospitalized for intravenous antibiotic therapy, surgical debridement of wounds, vacuum-assisted wound closure therapy and reconstruction procedures. The wounds were ultimately primarily closed and the cat was discharged to the owner after 50 days of hospitalization. Seven months after hospitalization, the ulcerative skin lesions had healed. Relevance and novel information To our knowledge, only two cases of M thermoresistibile panniculitis have been reported in cats. In the only detailed report of feline M thermoresistibile panniculitis, treatment was not attempted. The second case only reported detection of M thermoresistibile by PCR without a clinical description of the case. In our case report, severe chronic skin infection with M thermoresistibile was addressed using prolonged specific antibiotic therapy, surgical debridement and reconstructions, and treatment of secondary bacterial infections.

  10. Co-infection with arthropod-borne pathogens in domestic cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    André, Marcos Rogério; Filgueira, Kilder Dantas; Calchi, Ana Cláudia; Sousa, Keyla Carstens Marques de; Gonçalves, Luiz Ricardo; Medeiros, Vitor Brasil; Ximenes, Poliana Araújo; Lelis, Ivana Cristina Nunes Gadelha; Meireles, Maria Vanuza Nunes de; Machado, Rosangela Zacarias

    2017-01-01

    The role of several feline vector-borne pathogens (FVBP) as a cause of disease in cats has not been clearly determined. In fact, with the exception of Bartonella spp. and hemoplasmas, FVBP in cats has not been clearly determined in Brazil yet. The present study aimed at identifying, by using molecular methods, the presence of FVBP in three cats showing non-specific clinical signs and inclusions suggestive of hemoparasites in blood smears. Cytauxzoon felis, 'Candidatus Mycoplasma haemominutum', Ehrlichia sp. closely related to Ehrlichia canis, and Anaplasma sp. closely related to Anaplasma phagocytophilum were detected in blood samples from two out of three sampled cats. Both cats positive for multiple FVBP did not show hematological and biochemical abnormalities. The present work emphasizes the need for molecular confirmation of co-infection by multiple FVBP in cats presenting non-specific clinical signs and inclusions resembling hemoparasites in blood smears.

  11. Co-infection with arthropod-borne pathogens in domestic cats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Rogério André

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The role of several feline vector-borne pathogens (FVBP as a cause of disease in cats has not been clearly determined. In fact, with the exception of Bartonella spp. and hemoplasmas, FVBP in cats has not been clearly determined in Brazil yet. The present study aimed at identifying, by using molecular methods, the presence of FVBP in three cats showing non-specific clinical signs and inclusions suggestive of hemoparasites in blood smears. Cytauxzoon felis, ‘Candidatus Mycoplasma haemominutum’, Ehrlichia sp. closely related to Ehrlichia canis, and Anaplasma sp. closely related to Anaplasma phagocytophilum were detected in blood samples from two out of three sampled cats. Both cats positive for multiple FVBP did not show hematological and biochemical abnormalities. The present work emphasizes the need for molecular confirmation of co-infection by multiple FVBP in cats presenting non-specific clinical signs and inclusions resembling hemoparasites in blood smears.

  12. Antibody Detection to Feline Immunodeficiency virus (FIV in stray cats in Ahvaz, southwestern Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mosallanejad, B.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study was performed to determine the prevalence of FIV in stray cat's population of Ahvaz different area. Serum samples were collected from 90 cats from 2005 to 2007. The studied cats were divided into two age groups (3 years and based on clinical signs (such as lymphadenopathy, periodontal diseases, gingivitis, abscess and cashecsi into two groups also. The results were analyzed using Fischer's exact test and Chi-square analysis. Prevalence to FIV antibodies in these cats was 15.55% (14 of 90 by means of ELISA Test Kit, indicating that this virus is present in the ecosystem. The infection had more prevalence in cats above 3 years (78.6%; 11 of 14 compared with cats less than 3 years (21.4%; 3 of 14. Statistical analysis showed significant difference between different age groups (P0.05. Three out of 12 cases (25% which had clinical signs and 11 out of 78 cases (14.1% which hadn’t clinical signs were seropositive. There was no significant difference between the two groups also (P>0.05. This study showed that FIV exist among cat's population of Ahvaz area and separation of companion and stray cats is very important for prevention of disease transmission to companion cats.

  13. Group 1 and 2 Dermatophagoides house dust mite allergens in the microenvironment of cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loft, Klaus Earl; Rosser, Edmund J

    2010-04-01

    House dust mite allergens (HDMAs) are some of the most common allergens associated with allergic diseases in humans and dogs. The purpose of this study was to determine whether HDMAs could be detected in cat-associated household microenvironments. From 50 cat-only households with 95 cats, dust samples were collected by vacuuming for 2 min m(-2) from three areas where cats slept or rested regularly from September to October 2006. Relative humidity and temperature were measured in each household using a data logger. Each owner completed a questionnaire on potential factors that might influence the prevalence of house dust mites (HDMs). Dust samples were analysed utilizing an ELISA for Der p 1, Der f 1 and HDM group 2 allergens. In 38 of 50 households there was greater than 2 microg g(-1) of dust for at least one HDMA. Using stepwise logistic regression, factors associated with increased HDMA levels included: free-standing houses, number of humans in household, longhaired cats and age of the cat. Factors associated with decreased HDMA concentrations included: forced air heating and central air conditioning, less than 50% carpeting of the home, use of flea control, cats suffering from dermatological disease and the average temperature of the household. Many sleeping/resting areas utilized by cats contain sufficiently high levels of HDMAs to be potential sources of sensitization. This finding should lead to further determination of the role of HDMs in cats suffering from putative allergic conditions such as atopic dermatitis or asthma.

  14. A survey of the views of US veterinary teaching faculty to owned cat housing practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salo, Allen L; Stone, Elizabeth

    2015-12-01

    According to the American Pet Products Association, in the USA there are an estimated 86.4 million owned cats, and approximately 40% of these are allowed to roam outdoors. Little has been written about the contribution of owned cats to problems attributed to feral cats, including wildlife predation, spread of zoonotic diseases and overpopulation. A recent study found that 64% of cats have visited the veterinarian within the past year, suggesting frequent opportunity for veterinarians to communicate risks and benefits of indoor vs outdoor living. We conducted the following survey to evaluate current views about this role of veterinarians, by surveying veterinary school faculty (n = 158). Our objectives were to assess (i) the degree to which veterinary teaching faculty believe that the issue of clients maintaining owned cats indoors vs outdoors is appropriate for discussion with students within the veterinary school curriculum; (ii) the degree of agreement and understanding there is among the faculty as to the reasons that clients maintain cats either inside or outside the home; and (iii) the degree to which veterinary faculty believe owned cats that are allowed to go outdoors contribute to various identified problems. The results indicated that many participants believed that the discussion of maintaining cats indoors is relevant to the profession, that it belongs in the veterinary school curriculum, that they understand client motivations, that they feel that more practicing veterinarians should discuss cat housing practices with clients and that cat overpopulation continues to be a significant concern for owned cats being outdoors. Additional ways to help maintain the health and wellbeing of cats that are primarily housed indoors is briefly discussed, including through such means as environmental enrichment or by providing cats access to safe areas while outdoors. © ISFM and AAFP 2014.

  15. Prevalence of feline immunodeficiency virus infection in domesticated and feral cats in eastern Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norris, Jacqueline M; Bell, Erin T; Hales, Louise; Toribio, Jenny-Ann L M L; White, Joanna D; Wigney, Denise I; Baral, Randolph M; Malik, Richard

    2007-08-01

    within cattery-confined cats highlights the value in routine screening and indoor lifestyles. This study provides cogent baseline FIV prevalences in three cat subpopulations which can be used for appraising potential disease associations with FIV in Australia.

  16. NRPC ServCat priorities

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of the Interior — This document lists the Natural Resource Program Center’s priority ServCat documents. It is recommended that these documents- which include annual narrative reports,...

  17. Multistate matrix population model to assess the contributions and impacts on population abundance of domestic cats in urban areas including owned cats, unowned cats, and cats in shelters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coe, Jason B.

    2018-01-01

    Concerns over cat homelessness, over-taxed animal shelters, public health risks, and environmental impacts has raised attention on urban-cat populations. To truly understand cat population dynamics, the collective population of owned cats, unowned cats, and cats in the shelter system must be considered simultaneously because each subpopulation contributes differently to the overall population of cats in a community (e.g., differences in neuter rates, differences in impacts on wildlife) and cats move among categories through human interventions (e.g., adoption, abandonment). To assess this complex socio-ecological system, we developed a multistate matrix model of cats in urban areas that include owned cats, unowned cats (free-roaming and feral), and cats that move through the shelter system. Our model requires three inputs—location, number of human dwellings, and urban area—to provide testable predictions of cat abundance for any city in North America. Model-predicted population size of unowned cats in seven Canadian cities were not significantly different than published estimates (p = 0.23). Model-predicted proportions of sterile feral cats did not match observed sterile cat proportions for six USA cities (p = 0.001). Using a case study from Guelph, Ontario, Canada, we compared model-predicted to empirical estimates of cat abundance in each subpopulation and used perturbation analysis to calculate relative sensitivity of vital rates to cat abundance to demonstrate how management or mismanagement in one portion of the population could have repercussions across all portions of the network. Our study provides a general framework to consider cat population abundance in urban areas and, with refinement that includes city-specific parameter estimates and modeling, could provide a better understanding of population dynamics of cats in our communities. PMID:29489854

  18. Multistate matrix population model to assess the contributions and impacts on population abundance of domestic cats in urban areas including owned cats, unowned cats, and cats in shelters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flockhart, D T Tyler; Coe, Jason B

    2018-01-01

    Concerns over cat homelessness, over-taxed animal shelters, public health risks, and environmental impacts has raised attention on urban-cat populations. To truly understand cat population dynamics, the collective population of owned cats, unowned cats, and cats in the shelter system must be considered simultaneously because each subpopulation contributes differently to the overall population of cats in a community (e.g., differences in neuter rates, differences in impacts on wildlife) and cats move among categories through human interventions (e.g., adoption, abandonment). To assess this complex socio-ecological system, we developed a multistate matrix model of cats in urban areas that include owned cats, unowned cats (free-roaming and feral), and cats that move through the shelter system. Our model requires three inputs-location, number of human dwellings, and urban area-to provide testable predictions of cat abundance for any city in North America. Model-predicted population size of unowned cats in seven Canadian cities were not significantly different than published estimates (p = 0.23). Model-predicted proportions of sterile feral cats did not match observed sterile cat proportions for six USA cities (p = 0.001). Using a case study from Guelph, Ontario, Canada, we compared model-predicted to empirical estimates of cat abundance in each subpopulation and used perturbation analysis to calculate relative sensitivity of vital rates to cat abundance to demonstrate how management or mismanagement in one portion of the population could have repercussions across all portions of the network. Our study provides a general framework to consider cat population abundance in urban areas and, with refinement that includes city-specific parameter estimates and modeling, could provide a better understanding of population dynamics of cats in our communities.

  19. Properties of squeezed Schroedinger cats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Obada, A.S.F.; Omar, Z.M.

    1995-09-01

    In this article we investigate some statistical properties of the even and odd squeezed (squeezed Schroedinger cat) states. The quasi-probability distribution functions especially W(α) and Q(α) are calculated and discussed for these states. The phase distribution function is discussed. A generation scheme is proposed for either the squeezed generalized Schroedinger cat, or the squeezed number state. (author). 35 refs, 5 figs

  20. Body CT (CAT Scan)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a CT scan can be reformatted in multiple planes, and can even generate three-dimensional images. These ... other medical conditions and whether you have a history of heart disease, asthma, diabetes, kidney disease or ...

  1. US Domestic Cats as Sentinels for Perfluoroalkyl Substances ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS), such as perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) , are persistent, globally distributed, anthropogenic compounds. The primary source(s) for human exposure are not well understood although within home exposure is likely important since many consumer products have been treated with different PFAS, and people spend much of their lives indoors. Herein, domestic cats were used as sentinels to investigate potential exposure and health linkages. PFAS in serum samples of 72 pet and feral cats, including 11 healthy and 61 with one or more primary disease diagnoses, were quantitated using high-resolution time-of-flight mass spectroscopy. All but one sample had detectable PFAS, with PFOS and perfluorohexane sulfonate (PFHxS) ranging from PFAS prevalence and geometric means in cats were very similar to contemporary NHANES reports of human sera in the U. S. POPULATION: The highest PFAS serum concentrations detected were in indoor cats due to disproportionately elevated PFHxS levels. Ranked by quartile, contingency testing indicated that total PFAS levels were positively associated with living indoors and with higher body weight and body condition scores. Individual PFAS quartile rankings suggested positive associations with respiratory effusion, thyroid, liver, and possibly chronic kidney disease . Domestic cats appear to be useful sentinels for assessing primary

  2. Prevalence of heartworm in dogs and cats of Madrid, Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montoya-Alonso, José Alberto; Morchón, Rodrigo; Falcón-Cordón, Yaiza; Falcón-Cordón, Soraya; Simón, Fernando; Carretón, Elena

    2017-07-26

    Dirofilaria immitis causes heartworm disease, a chronic and potentially fatal cardiopulmonary disease which mainly affects dogs and cats. It is present in most of Spain, due to favourable climatic factors. Madrid, located in the centre of the Iberian Peninsula, is the most highly populated city in the country. There is a lack of current data on canine heartworm and there are no published epidemiological data regarding feline heartworm in this region, therefore the aim of this study was to assess the prevalence and current distribution of canine and feline dirofilariosis in the province of Madrid. Serum samples from 1716 dogs and 531 cats, from animals living in the metropolitan area of Madrid and adjacent areas, were studied. All the samples, either from cats and dogs, were tested for circulating D. immitis antigens using a commercial immunochromatographic test kit. Furthermore, to establish the seroprevalence of heartworm infection in cats, serological techniques for anti-D. immitis and anti-Wolbachia antibody detection were used. Prevalence of D. immitis in the canine population of Madrid was 3%, showing an increase in comparison to previous data. The presence of heartworm in the city centre could be influenced by the presence of Urban Heat Islands, while the positive dogs from metropolitan and adjacent areas were mainly located under the influence of rivers. Regarding cats, 0.2% were positive to the antigens test and 7.3% were seropositive to both anti-D. immitis and Wolbachia surface protein antibodies, which demonstrate the presence of feline heartworm in Madrid. Seropositive cats were present in the same areas where positive dogs were found. Indoor/outdoor cats showed the highest seroprevalence whereas the lowest corresponded to indoor cats, demonstrating that prophylactic treatments should be carried out regardless of lifestyle. Infection was found in 2.2% of dogs and 6.7% of the cats < 1 year-old, which indicates that early preventive campaigns in puppies

  3. Blood Transfusions in Dogs and Cats Receiving Hemodialysis: 230 Cases (June 1997-September 2012).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langston, C; Cook, A; Eatroff, A; Mitelberg, E; Chalhoub, S

    2017-03-01

    Multiple factors exist that contribute to anemia in dogs and cats receiving hemodialysis, can necessitate transfusion. To describe blood product usage in dogs and cats with acute and chronic kidney disease that were treated with intermittent hemodialysis to determine risk factors associated with the requirement for blood product transfusion. 83 cats and 147 dogs undergoing renal replacement therapy at the Animal Medical Center for acute or chronic kidney disease. Retrospective medical record review of all dogs and cats receiving renal replacement therapy for kidney disease, from June 1997 through September 2012. Blood products (whole blood, packed RBCs, or stromal-free hemoglobin) were administered to 87% of cats and 32% of dogs. The number of dialysis treatments was associated with the requirement for transfusion in cats (adjusted OR 2.21, 95% CI 1.13, 4.32), but not in dogs (adjusted OR 0.98, 95% CI 0.95, 1.03). Administration of a blood product was associated with a higher likelihood of death in dogs (OR 3.198, 95% CI 1.352, 7.565; P = .0098), but not in cats (OR 1.527, 95% CI 0.5404, 4.317, P = .2). Veterinary hospitals with a hemodialysis unit should have reliable and rapid access to safe blood products in order to meet the needs of dogs and cats receiving dialysis. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine.

  4. Sex specific differences in hepatic and plasma lipid profiles in healthy cats pre and post spaying and neutering : relationship with feline hepatic lipidosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Valtolina, Chiara|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/412503034; Vaandrager, Arie B|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/073165506; Favier, Robert P|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304828742; Tuohetahuntila, Maidina; Kummeling, Anne|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304828793; Jeusette, Isabelle; Rothuizen, Jan|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/071276033; Robben, Joris H|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/266740790

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: A link between lipid metabolism and disease has been recognized in cats. Since hepatic lipidosis is a frequent disorder in cats, the aim of the current study was to evaluate liver and plasma lipid dimorphism in healthy cats and the effects of gonadectomy on lipid profiling. From six

  5. Positive Impact of Nutritional Interventions on Serum Symmetric Dimethylarginine and Creatinine Concentrations in Client-Owned Geriatric Cats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean A Hall

    Full Text Available A prospective study was conducted in client-owned geriatric cats to evaluate the short- term effects of a test food on serum symmetric dimethylarginine (SDMA and creatinine (Cr concentrations. Test food contained functional lipids (fish oil, antioxidants (vitamins C and E, L-carnitine, botanicals (vegetables, highly bioavailable protein, and amino acid supplements. Cats (n = 80 were fed either test food or owner's-choice foods (non-nutritionally controlled cohort. Cats were included based on age (≥ 9 years, indoor only, neutered, and free of chronic disease. At baseline, all cats had serum Cr concentrations within the reference interval. Renal function biomarkers and urinalysis results at baseline and after consuming test food or owner's-choice foods for 3 and 6 months were evaluated. Cats consuming test food showed significant decreases in serum Cr and BUN concentrations across time. Overall, cats consuming owner's-choice foods showed significant increases in serum SDMA concentrations at 3 and 6 months compared with baseline (P ≤ 0.05, whereas in cats consuming test food serum SDMA concentrations did not change. At baseline or during the 6-month feeding trial, 23 (28.8% cats had increased serum SDMA, but normal serum Cr consistent with IRIS Stage 1 chronic kidney disease. This included 6 cats fed test food and 17 cats fed owner's-choice foods. In the 6 cats fed test food, serum SDMA decreased in 3 cats and remained stable in 1 cat, whereas in the 17 cats fed owner's-choice foods, serum SDMA increased in 13 cats and decreased or remained stable in 4 cats. The increase in serum SDMA concentration was significant (P = 0.02 only for cats fed owner's-choice foods. These results suggest that nonazotemic cats with elevated serum SDMA (early renal insufficiency when fed a food designed to promote healthy aging are more likely to demonstrate stable renal function compared with cats fed owner's-choice foods. Cats fed owner's-choice foods were more

  6. A review of over three decades of research on cat-human and human-cat interactions and relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Dennis C

    2017-08-01

    This review article covers research conducted over the last three decades on cat-human and human-cat interactions and relationships, especially from an ethological point of view. It includes findings on cat-cat and cat-human communication, cat personalities and cat-owner personalities, the effects of cats on humans, and problems caused by cats. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Comparison of periodontal pathogens between cats and their owners

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Booij-Vrieling, H E; van der Reijden, W A; Houwers, D J; de Wit, W E A J; Bosch-Tijhof, C J; Penning, L C; van Winkelhoff, A J; Hazewinkel, H A W

    2010-01-01

    The periodontal pathogens Porphyromonas gingivalis and Tannerella forsythia are strongly associated with periodontal disease and are highly prevalent in humans with periodontitis. Porphyromonas and Tannerella spp. have also been isolated from the oral cavity of cats. The oral microflora in animals

  8. Hepatozoonosis in cats : ABCD guidelines on prevention and management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lloret, Albert; Addie, Diane D; Boucraut-Baralon, Corine; Egberink, Herman; Frymus, Tadeusz; Gruffydd-Jones, Tim; Hartmann, Katrin; Horzinek, Marian C; Hosie, Margaret J; Lutz, Hans; Marsilio, Fulvio; Pennisi, Maria Grazia; Radford, Alan D; Thiry, Etienne; Truyen, Uwe; Möstl, Karin

    OVERVIEW: Hepatozoonosis of domestic cats has been reported in several countries, mainly as a subclinical infection. DISEASE AGENT: Infection has been described mostly in areas where canine infection is present and, in recent years, Hepatozoon felis has been identified as a distinct species by

  9. Major Parasitic Zoonoses Associated with Dogs and Cats in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baneth, G.; Thamsborg, S M; Otranto, D

    2016-01-01

    Some of the most important zoonotic infectious diseases are associated with parasites transmitted from companion animals to man. This review describes the main parasitic zoonoses in Europe related to dogs and cats, with particular emphasis on their current epidemiology. Toxoplasmosis, leishmaniosis...

  10. Zoonotic microsporidia in dogs and cats in Poland

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Piekarska, J.; Kicia, M.; Wesołowska, M.; Kopacz, Z.; Gorczykowski, M.; Szczepankiewicz, D.; Kváč, Martin; Sak, Bohumil

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 246, 15 November (2017), s. 108-111 ISSN 0304-4017 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : cat * dog * Encephalitozoon spp. * Enterocytozoon bieneusi * zoonosis Subject RIV: GJ - Animal Vermins ; Diseases, Veterinary Medicine OBOR OECD: Veterinary science Impact factor: 2.356, year: 2016

  11. Zoonoses from cats: with special reference to Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabry, Abdel-Hameed A; Fouad, Mahmoud A H; Morsy, Ayman T A

    2013-08-01

    A zoonosis is an animal disease that is transmissible to humans. Humans are usually an accidental host that acquires disease through close contact with an infected animal, who may or may not be symptomatic. Children are at highest risk for infection because they are more likely to have close contact with pets. Cats are responsible for transmission of an extensive array of bacterial, fungal, and parasitic zoonotic pathogens. The route of transmission can be through the saliva (e.g., bites or contaminated scratches), feces, respiratory secretions, direct contact, or by the cat acting as a vehicle and source of tick or flea exposure. Although cats have been implicated in transmission of zoonosis to their owners, risk of transmission from contact with cats is low and may be further reduced by simple precautions. There is a need for education on zoonotic disease prevention practices for pet-owning households with individuals at higher risk of infection, and to educate future veterinarians during their early years in veterinary school about the risks associated with their future jobs. Also, zoonotic disease awareness training is a valuable service to animal shelter workers.

  12. Anaplasma, Ehrlichia and Rickettsia species infections in cats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pennisi, Maria Grazia; Hofmann-Lehmann, Regina; Radford, Alan D; Tasker, Séverine; Belák, Sándor; Addie, Diane D; Boucraut-Baralon, Corine; Egberink, Herman; Frymus, Tadeusz; Gruffydd-Jones, Tim; Hartmann, Katrin; Horzinek, Marian C; Hosie, Margaret J; Lloret, Albert; Lutz, Hans; Marsilio, Fulvio; Thiry, Etienne; Truyen, Uwe; Möstl, Karin

    2017-01-01

    OVERVIEW: Anaplasma species, Ehrlichia species and Rickettsia species are vector-borne pathogens infecting a wide variety of mammals, but causing disease in very few of them. Infection in cats: Anaplasma phagocytophilum is the most important feline pathogen among these rickettsial organisms, and

  13. Nutrition and the skeletal health of dogs and cats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Corbee, R.J.

    2014-01-01

    In this thesis, the influence of nutrition on skeletal health was studied. Obesity is a common disease in companion animal practice. In dogs and cats obesity often exacerbates osteoarthritis (OA). Although in humans we consider obesity as a serious health issue, in companion animals we proved that

  14. Feeders of free-roaming cats: personal characteristics, feeding practices and data on cat health and welfare in an urban setting of Israel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Idit eGunther

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Cat feeders serve as an important source of available food for free-roaming cats (FRC and can play a central role in providing data on FRC distribution, welfare, and health. Data on cat feeder personalities as well as a better understanding of their feeding practices offer relevance for decision making concerning FRC population control strategies. The current study surveyed 222 FRC feeders who responded to a municipal trap-neuter-return (TNR campaign in an Israeli central urban setting. The aim of the study was to describe their personal characteristics, feeding practices and the FRC populations they feed. Feeders were divided into four groups according to the number of cats they claimed to feed per day (group 1: fed up to five cats; group 2: fed six to 10 cats; group 3: fed 11-20 cats; group 4: fed ≥21 cats. Most feeders were women (81%, with a median age of 58 years (range 18-81. The feeders reported an overall feeding of 3,337 cats in 342 different feeding locations. Feeders of group 4 comprised of 15.31% (n=34 of all feeders, but fed 56% (n=1869 of the FRC in 37.42% (n=128 of the feeding locations. 'Heavy' feeders (groups 3 and 4 reported that they traveled significantly longer distances in order to feed the cats. Commercial dry food consisted of 90% of the food they provided, with 66% of them feeding once a day, with less food per cat per day than the other feeder groups. Interestingly, 'heavy' feeders were usually singles, had on average fewer siblings, a clear preference for owning cats as pets and lived in lower income neighborhoods. According to the feeders' reports on the FRC populations they fed, 69.7% (2325/3337 cats were neutered and 11.8% (395/3337 were kittens. In addition, they reported that 1.6% (54/3337 of the cats were limping, 2% (67/3337 suffered from a systemic disease, 4% (135/3337 had skin lesions, and 3.9% (130/3337 were suffering from a chronic disability. Abundance of kittens and morbidity rate were significantly and

  15. Feeders of Free-Roaming Cats: Personal Characteristics, Feeding Practices, and Data on Cat Health and Welfare in an Urban Setting of Israel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunther, Idit; Raz, Tal; Even Zor, Yehonatan; Bachowski, Yuval; Klement, Eyal

    2016-01-01

    Cat feeders serve as an important source of available food for free-roaming cats (FRCs) and can play a central role in providing data on FRC distribution, welfare, and health. Data on cat feeder personalities as well as a better understanding of their feeding practices offer relevance for decision making concerning FRC population control strategies. The current study surveyed 222 FRC feeders who responded to a municipal trap-neuter-return (TNR) campaign in an Israeli central urban setting. The aim of the study was to describe their personal characteristics, feeding practices, and the FRC populations they feed. Feeders were divided into four groups according to the number of cats they claimed to feed per day (group 1: fed up to 5 cats, group 2: fed 6-10 cats, group 3: fed 11-20 cats, and group 4: fed ≥21 cats). Most feeders were women (81%), with a median age of 58 years (range 18-81). The feeders reported an overall feeding of 3337 cats in 342 different feeding locations. Feeders of group 4 comprised 15.31% (n = 34) of all feeders but fed 56% (n = 1869) of the FRC in 37.42% (n = 128) of the feeding locations. "Heavy" feeders (groups 3 and 4) reported that they traveled significantly longer distances in order to feed the cats. Commercial dry food consisted of 90% of the food they provided, with 66% of them feeding once a day, with less food per cat per day than the other feeder groups. Interestingly, "heavy" feeders were usually singles, had on average fewer siblings, a clear preference for owning cats as pets, and lived in lower income neighborhoods. According to the feeders' reports on the FRC populations they fed, 69.7% (2325/3337) cats were neutered and 11.8% (395/3337) were kittens. In addition, they reported that 1.6% (54/3337) of the cats were limping, 2% (67/3337) suffered from a systemic disease, 4% (135/3337) had skin lesions, and 3.9% (130/3337) were suffering from a chronic disability. Abundance of kittens and morbidity rate were

  16. Survey of Helicobacter infection in domestic and feral cats in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghil, Heh-Myung; Yoo, Jong-Hyeon; Jung, Woo-Sung; Chung, Tae-Ho; Youn, Hwa-Young; Hwang, Cheol-Yong

    2009-03-01

    Discovery of Helicobacter (H.) pylori has led to a fundamental change in our understanding of gastric diseases in humans. Previous studies have found various Helicobacter spp. in dogs and cats, and pets have been questioned as a zoonotic carrier. The present study surveyed the Helicobacter infections and investigated the presence of H. felis and H. pylori infections in domestic and feral cats in Korea. Sixty-four domestic cats and 101 feral cats were selected from an animal shelter. Saliva and feces were evaluated by Helicobacter genus-specific polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Genus-specific PCR positive samples were further evaluated for H. felis and H. pylori using specific primer pairs. Thirty-six of 64 (56.3%) samples from domestic cats and 92 of 101 (91.1%) samples from feral cats were PCR positive; the positive rate of feces samples was higher than that of saliva samples in both groups. H. felis and H. pylori species-specific PCR was uniformly negative. The prevalence of Helicobacter spp. in feral cats was approximately two-fold higher than that of domestic cats. The fecal-oral route may be more a common transmission route not only between cats but also in humans.

  17. Critical assessment of claims regarding management of feral cats by trap-neuter-return.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longcore, Travis; Rich, Catherine; Sullivan, Lauren M

    2009-08-01

    Many jurisdictions have adopted programs to manage feral cats by trap-neuter-return (TNR), in which cats are trapped and sterilized, then returned to the environment to be fed and cared for by volunteer caretakers. Most conservation biologists probably do not realize the extent and growth of this practice and that the goal of some leading TNR advocates is that cats ultimately be recognized and treated as "protected wildlife." We compared the arguments put forth in support of TNR by many feral cat advocates with the scientific literature. Advocates promoting TNR often claim that feral cats harm wildlife only on islands and not on continents; fill a natural or realized niche; do not contribute to the decline of native species; and are insignificant vectors or reservoirs of disease. Advocates also frequently make claims about the effectiveness of TNR, including claims that colonies of feral cats are eventually eliminated by TNR and that managed colonies resist invasion by other cats. The scientific literature contradicts each of these claims. TNR of feral cats is primarily viewed and regulated as an animal welfare issue, but it should be seen as an environmental issue, and decisions to implement it should receive formal environmental assessment. Conservation scientists have a role to play by conducting additional research on the effects of feral cats on wildlife and by communicating sound scientific information about this problem to policy makers.

  18. A serological study of Dirofilaria immitis in feral cats in Grenada, West Indies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez, C; Chikweto, A; Mofya, S; Lanum, L; Flynn, P; Burnett, J P; Doherty, D; Sharma, R N

    2010-12-01

    A study to determine the seroprevalence of Dirofilaria immitis was carried out in feral cats in Grenada. Of the 137 feral cats tested for circulating antibodies (IgG; lateral-flow immunoassay) and circulating antigens (Ag; enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay), 8% (95% confidence interval (CI) 3.5-12.5%) were antibody positive and 5.1% (95% CI 1.4-8.8%) were antigen positive. No significant difference between cats aged>1 to 4 years and cats less than 1 year of age was found (P>0.05, χ²). There was also no significant difference (P>0.05, χ²) between male and female cats. Dirofilaria immitis prevalence is relatively high in the feral cat population of Grenada. Evidence of D. immitis infection in feral cats coupled with the endemic nature of heartworm disease in dogs in Grenada leads us to suggest the introduction of heartworm prophylaxis in cats. To the authors' knowledge, this serological evidence of heartworm infection in feral cats in Grenada is the first report from the Caribbean region.

  19. Follow-up on long-term antiretroviral therapy for cats infected with feline immunodeficiency virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medeiros, Sheila de Oliveira; Abreu, Celina Monteiro; Delvecchio, Rodrigo; Ribeiro, Anísia Praxedes; Vasconcelos, Zilton; Brindeiro, Rodrigo de Moraes; Tanuri, Amilcar

    2016-04-01

    Feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) is a lentivirus that induces AIDS-like disease in cats. Some of the antiretroviral drugs available to treat patients with HIV type 1 are used to treat FIV-infected cats; however, antiretroviral therapy (ART) is not used in cats as a long-term treatment. In this study, the effects of long-term ART were evaluated in domestic cats treated initially with the nucleoside transcriptase reverse inhibitor (NTRI) zidovudine (AZT) over a period ranging from 5-6 years, followed by a regimen of the NTRI lamivudine (3TC) plus AZT over 3 years. Viral load, sequencing of pol (reverse transcriptase [RT]) region and CD4:CD8 lymphocyte ratio were evaluated during and after treatment. Untreated cats were evaluated as a control group. CD4:CD8 ratios were lower, and uncharacterized resistance mutations were found in the RT region in the group of treated cats. A slight increase in viral load was observed in some cats after discontinuing treatment. The data strongly suggest that treated cats were resistant to therapy, and uncharacterized resistance mutations in the RT gene of FIV were selected for by AZT. Few studies have been conducted to evaluate the effect of long-term antiretroviral therapy in cats. To date, resistance mutations have not been described in vivo. © ISFM and AAFP 2015.

  20. Prevalence of Anaplasma phagocytophilum infection in feral cats in Massachusetts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galemore, Erin R; Labato, Mary A; O'Neil, Elizabeth

    2018-01-01

    The primary objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of Anaplasma phagocytophilum infection and exposure in adult feral cats in Massachusetts, an endemic area for A phagocytophilum and its tick vector Ixodes scapularis . The secondary objective was to determine if there were correlations between A phagocytophilum infection and the presence of anemia and thrombocytopenia. Blood samples were collected between June and December 2015 from 175 apparently healthy adult feral cats that were presented to trap and release spay/neuter centers in Massachusetts. Complete blood count, blood smear evaluation, SNAP 4Dx Plus test (IDEXX) and A phagocytophilum PCR were performed on all samples to document acute infection (PCR-positive and/or inclusions observed on blood smear) and exposure to A phagocytophilum (SNAP 4Dx Plus-positive for A phagocytophilum antibodies). The prevalence of exposure to A phagocytophilum in feral cats in Massachusetts was 9.7%, whereas the prevalence of acute infection was 6.9%. All blood smears were negative for Anaplasma species inclusions; therefore, acute infection was defined as testing positive on PCR analysis. No statistically significant correlations were identified for cats that were positive for A phagocytophilum on PCR analysis or SNAP 4Dx Plus test and the presence of anemia or thrombocytopenia. The prevalence of A phagocytophilum exposure in feral cats approaches 10% and is higher than the previously reported national average prevalence of 4.3% in the USA. A phagocytophilum infection may be an emerging infectious disease in cats. Further research is needed to determine the prevalence of clinical illness associated with A phagocytophilum infection in cats living in endemic areas.

  1. Prevalence of infection in feral cats in Massachusetts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erin R Galemore

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives The primary objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of Anaplasma phagocytophilum infection and exposure in adult feral cats in Massachusetts, an endemic area for A phagocytophilum and its tick vector Ixodes scapularis . The secondary objective was to determine if there were correlations between A phagocytophilum infection and the presence of anemia and thrombocytopenia. Methods Blood samples were collected between June and December 2015 from 175 apparently healthy adult feral cats that were presented to trap and release spay/neuter centers in Massachusetts. Complete blood count, blood smear evaluation, SNAP 4Dx Plus test (IDEXX and A phagocytophilum PCR were performed on all samples to document acute infection (PCR-positive and/or inclusions observed on blood smear and exposure to A phagocytophilum (SNAP 4Dx Plus-positive for A phagocytophilum antibodies. Results The prevalence of exposure to A phagocytophilum in feral cats in Massachusetts was 9.7%, whereas the prevalence of acute infection was 6.9%. All blood smears were negative for Anaplasma species inclusions; therefore, acute infection was defined as testing positive on PCR analysis. No statistically significant correlations were identified for cats that were positive for A phagocytophilum on PCR analysis or SNAP 4Dx Plus test and the presence of anemia or thrombocytopenia. Conclusions and relevance The prevalence of A phagocytophilum exposure in feral cats approaches 10% and is higher than the previously reported national average prevalence of 4.3% in the USA. A phagocytophilum infection may be an emerging infectious disease in cats. Further research is needed to determine the prevalence of clinical illness associated with A phagocytophilum infection in cats living in endemic areas.

  2. Managing feral cats on a university's campuses: how many are there and is sterilization having an effect?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Amanda L; Downs, Colleen T

    2011-01-01

    Worldwide domestic and feral cat (Felis catus) numbers have increased. Concerns regarding high populations of feral cats in urban areas include wildlife predation, public nuisance, and disease. This study aimed to estimate the size of the feral cat population on 5 campuses of the University of KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa, to determine whether sterilization has an effect and to make management recommendations. The study used both the total count and mark-recapture methods to estimate the feral cat population on each campus. The study chose a noninvasive method of taking photographs to "mark" individuals and record those who were sterilized. The study estimated a total of 186 cats on all campuses and density at 161 cats km(-2). There was a negative relationship between sterilization and numbers. Sites with higher sterilization showed a lower proportion of younger cats. At the average sterilization of 55%, the population, according to predictions, would remain stable at fecundity, survival, and immigration rates reported by cat caretakers. However, caretakers underestimated cat abundance by 7 ± 37 SD%. Caretakers' feral cat sterilization and feeding programs appear to provide a service to the university community. Key management recommendations were to increase sterilization to 90% to reduce the population over the long term and to raise funds to support the costs incurred by voluntary cat caretakers.

  3. Determination of multidirectional myocardial deformations in cats with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy by using two-dimensional speckle-tracking echocardiography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Ryohei; Mochizuki, Yohei; Yoshimatsu, Hiroki; Teshima, Takahiro; Matsumoto, Hirotaka; Koyama, Hidekazu

    2017-12-01

    Objectives Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, a primary disorder of the myocardium, is the most common cardiac disease in cats. However, determination of myocardial deformation with two-dimensional speckle-tracking echocardiography in cats with various stages of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy has not yet been reported. This study was designed to measure quantitatively multidirectional myocardial deformations of cats with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. Methods Thirty-two client-owned cats with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy and 14 healthy cats serving as controls were enrolled and underwent assessment of myocardial deformation (peak systolic strain and strain rate) in the longitudinal, radial and circumferential directions. Results Longitudinal and radial deformations were reduced in cats with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, despite normal systolic function determined by conventional echocardiography. Cats with severely symptomatic hypertrophic cardiomyopathy also had lower peak systolic circumferential strain, in addition to longitudinal and radial strain. Conclusions and relevance Longitudinal and radial deformation may be helpful in the diagnosis of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. Additionally, the lower circumferential deformation in cats with severe hypertrophic cardiomyopathy may contribute to clinical findings of decompensation, and seems to be related to severe cardiac clinical signs. Indices of multidirectional myocardial deformations by two-dimensional speckle-tracking echocardiography may be useful markers and help to distinguish between cats with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy and healthy cats. Additionally, they may provide more detailed assessment of contractile function in cats with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy.

  4. Pancreatic Abscess in a cat due to Staphylococcus aureus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemoto, Yuki; Haraguchi, Tomoya; Shimokawa Miyama, Takako; Kobayashi, Kosuke; Hama, Kaori; Kurogouchi, Yosuke; Fujiki, Noriyuki; Baba, Kenji; Okuda, Masaru; Mizuno, Takuya

    2017-07-07

    A 16-year-old spayed female American Shorthair cat was presented with lethargy, anorexia, and wamble. Physical and blood examination did not reveal any remarkable findings. Abdominal ultrasonography identified the presence of a localized anechoic structure with a thick wall in contact with the small intestine and adjacent to the liver. Ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration of the structure revealed fluid containing numerous cocci and neutrophils. Two days after antibiotic treatment, exploratory laparotomy was performed and the content of the structure was removed before multiple lavages. The pathological and bacteriological examination results supported a confirmatory diagnosis of pancreatic abscess due to Staphylococcus aureus infection, making this the first such report in a cat. The cat remained healthy thereafter with no disease recurrence.

  5. Mucolipidosis type II in a domestic shorthair cat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hubler, M.; Haskins, M.E.; Arnold, S.; Kaser-Hotz, B.; Bosshard, N.U.; Briner, J.; Spycher, M.A.; Gitzelmann, R.; Sommerlade, H.J.; Figura, K. von

    1996-01-01

    A seven-month-old, female domestic shorthair cat was presented to the Veterinary Teaching Hospital, University of Zurich, with abnormal facial features, retarded growth and progressive hindlimb paresis. On physical examination the cat had a flat, broad face with hypertelorism, frontal bossing, small ears and thickened upper and lower eyelids. The corneas of both eyes were clear and the pupils were dilated. The skin was generally thickened, most prominently on the dorsal aspect of the neck. Radiography of the entire skeleton revealed a severely deformed spinal column, bilateral hip luxation with hip dysplasia, an abnormally shaped skull and generalised decreased bone opacity. The clinical features and radiographic changes were suggestive of mucopolysaccharidosis. The toluidine blue spot test on a urine sample, however, was negative for glycosaminoglycans. Further biochemical investigations revealed a deficiency of the enzyme N-acetylglucosamine-1-phosphotransferase (GlcNAc-phosphotransferase, EC 2.7.8.17) in peripheral leukocytes and an elevation of many lysosomal enzymes in the serum of the cat which is diagnostic for mucolipidosis type II. Histology and electron microscopy of different tissues are briefly summarised. The findings of this cat, the first reported case of mucolipidosis type II are compared with other similar storage diseases described in the cat

  6. Trichomonosis in cats with diarrhoea in Hong Kong, China, between 2009 and 2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liza S Köster

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Case series summary Infection of the domestic cat by Tritrichomonas blagburni, previously referred to as T foetus, may lead to a disease called feline trichomonosis, which manifests clinically as large bowel diarrhoea. The disease has a wide geographical distribution, including numerous countries in Europe, North America and Australia/Oceania. Nevertheless, it has occasionally been reported in Asia, South Korea and Japan. A retrospective study was carried out to include all domestic cats with diarrhoea, presented to two veterinary clinics in Hong Kong, China, between 1 July 2009 and 30 June 2014. A total of 29 cats with diarrhoea were diagnosed with Tritrichomonas species infection by means of quantitative PCR and direct microscopy. Tritrichomonas species was more frequently found in young (median age 10 months, male (66% and purebred cats (86%. Giardia species was found in 31% of Tritrichomonas species-positive cats. The recommended dose of ronidazole (30 mg/kg q24h for 14 days resolved clinical signs in 83% of diagnosed cats. Relevance and novel information This case series describes Tritrichomonas species as a cause for feline chronic diarrhoea in cats in China. The high rate of failure (17% in those cats receiving a standard regimen of ronidazole might be due to owner or patient compliance rather than protozoal resistance to the drug.

  7. Cat Ownership Perception and Caretaking Explored in an Internet Survey of People Associated with Cats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zito, Sarah; Vankan, Dianne

    2015-01-01

    People who feed cats that they do not perceive they own (sometimes called semi-owners) are thought to make a considerable contribution to unwanted cat numbers because the cats they support are generally not sterilized. Understanding people’s perception of cat ownership and the psychology underlying cat semi-ownership could inform approaches to mitigate the negative effects of cat semi-ownership. The primary aims of this study were to investigate cat ownership perception and to examine its association with human-cat interactions and caretaking behaviours. A secondary aim was to evaluate a definition of cat semi-ownership (including an association time of ≥1 month and frequent feeding), revised from a previous definition proposed in the literature to distinguish cat semi-ownership from casual interactions with unowned cats. Cat owners and semi-owners displayed similar types of interactions and caretaking behaviours. Nevertheless, caretaking behaviours were more commonly displayed towards owned cats than semi-owned cats, and semi-owned cats were more likely to have produced kittens (pcats in semi-ownership relationships compared to casual interaction relationships. Determinants of cat ownership perception were identified (pcat friendliness and health, and feelings about unowned cats, including the acceptability of feeding unowned cats. Encouraging semi-owners to have the cats they care for sterilized may assist in reducing the number of unwanted kittens and could be a valuable alternative to trying to prevent semi-ownership entirely. Highly accessible semi-owner “gatekeepers” could help to deliver education messages and facilitate the provision of cat sterilization services to semi-owners. This research enabled semi-ownership to be distinguished from casual interaction relationships and can assist welfare and government agencies to identify cat semi-owners in order to develop strategies to address this source of unwanted cats. PMID:26218243

  8. Correlation between the FCEAI and diagnostic parameters in chronic enteropathies in 147 cats (2006-2012)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mitze, Stefanie; Moser, Katharina; Teske, Erik; V Bomhard, Wolf; Stockhaus, Christian

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The Feline Chronic Enteropathy Activity Index (FCEAI) has been established as a quantitative index for disease activity in chronic enteropathies in cats. A definite diagnosis is aimed at histology with initial exclusion of extraintestinal causes by laboratory examinations, diagnostic

  9. Cerebral cysticercosis in a cat : clinical communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.V. Schwan

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available The metacestode of Taenia solium, Cysticercus cellulosae, was recovered from the brain of a cat showing central nervous clinical signs ante mortem. This is the first record of cerebral cysticercosis in a cat in South Africa.

  10. Evaluation of the Leptospira species microscopic agglutination test in experimentally vaccinated cats and Leptospira species seropositivity in aged azotemic client-owned cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shropshire, Sarah B; Veir, Julia K; Morris, Arianne K; Lappin, Michael R

    2016-10-01

    The objectives of this study were to validate the microscopic agglutination test (MAT) using feline sera, determine cross-reactivity of Borrelia burgdorferi antibodies in the MAT, and evaluate if there is an association between Leptospira species seropositivity in aged (⩾10 years) client-owned cats with and without azotemia (creatinine >2 g/dl). A four-serovar canine leptospiral vaccine was administered to two specific pathogen-free (SPF) cats on days 0 and 14. The MAT was performed intermittently until day 42 for the serovars Canicola, Grippotyphosa, Hardjo, Icterohaemorrhagiae, Pomona and Bratislava, with a cut-off value of ⩾1:100. Five purpose-bred cats were infested with wild-caught Ixodes scapularis adults with an average B burgdorferi infection rate of 50%, and tested for antibodies against B burgdorferi C6 peptide and DNA in skin biopsies, as well as by MAT. Sera from 66 azotemic and 75 non-azotemic cats ⩾10 years of age were tested for Leptospira species antibodies using the MAT and results were compared by the χ(2) test. Both SPF cats seroconverted by week 3 and formed antibodies against at least one serovar. There was no cross-reactivity in the MAT using samples from cats with antibodies to B burgdorferi. MAT results were positive for 4/66 azotemic cats and 8/75 non-azotemic cats; these results were not statistically different. The MAT can be interpreted using feline serum and does not appear to cross-react in cats with B burgdorferi antibodies. There was no association between Leptospira species MAT results and azotemia in this group of aged client-owned cats but further studies are needed to determine if leptospirosis contributes to feline chronic kidney disease. © The Author(s) 2015.

  11. Pancreatitis in dogs and cats – definitions and pathophysiology

    OpenAIRE

    Watson, Penelope Jayne

    2014-01-01

    Pancreatitis, or inflammation of the pancreas, is commonly seen in dogs and cats and presents a spectrum of disease severities from acute to chronic and mild to severe. It is usually sterile, but the causes and pathophysiology remain poorly understood. The acute end of the disease spectrum is associated with a high mortality but the potential for complete recovery of organ structure and function if the animal survives. At the other end of the spectrum, chronic pancreatitis in either species c...

  12. Toxicity and response in cats with neoplasia treated with toceranib phosphate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harper, Aaron; Blackwood, Laura

    2017-06-01

    Objectives Toceranib phosphate is a tyrosine kinase inhibitor licensed for the treatment of non-resectable Patnaik grade II/III recurrent cutaneous mast cell tumours in dogs. There is no information in cats regarding the tolerated dose, toxicity or tumour response of this drug. The aim of this study was to analyse retrospectively a cohort of cats with advanced neoplasia treated with toceranib to identify toxicity and response. Methods The medical records of the Small Animal Teaching Hospital were reviewed. Cats were included if they had received toceranib for at least 2 weeks for the treatment of histologically or cytologically confirmed neoplastic disease, and had at least one set of monitoring blood tests (haematology, biochemistry) performed after baseline tests. Toxicity was graded according to the Veterinary Comparative Oncology Group - common terminology criteria for adverse events(VCOG-CTCAE) and response was measured according to Response Evaluation In Solid Tumors (RECIST) criteria. Results Fourteen cats met the inclusion criteria, the majority of which (13/14) had received previous therapy (surgery, radiotherapy, chemotherapy). The most common tumour types were mast cell tumours or malignant epithelial tumours. Toxicity occurred in 10/14 cats - 10 cats had mild myelosuppression or gastrointestinal effects. Two cats developed severe hepatoxicity. One cat died from congestive heart failure, although whether this was related to toceranib therapy is unknown. Regarding response, one cat achieved complete response; two cats achieved partial response and five cats achieved stable disease: overall biological response rate was 57.1%. All of the cats that achieved either partial or complete response were treated for mast cell disease. Overall median duration of response was 90 days (range 14-570 days). None of the cats with squamous cell carcinoma achieved a response. Conclusions and relevance Toceranib phosphate is generally well tolerated in cats, with toxicity

  13. Devil declines and catastrophic cascades: is mesopredator release of feral cats inhibiting recovery of the eastern quoll?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fancourt, Bronwyn A; Hawkins, Clare E; Cameron, Elissa Z; Jones, Menna E; Nicol, Stewart C

    2015-01-01

    The eastern quoll (Dasyurus viverrinus) is a medium-sized Australian marsupial carnivore that has recently undergone a rapid and severe population decline over the 10 years to 2009, with no sign of recovery. This decline has been linked to a period of unfavourable weather, but subsequent improved weather conditions have not been matched by quoll recovery. A recent study suggested another mechanism: that declines in Tasmanian devil (Sarcophilus harrisii) populations, due to the spread of the fatal Devil Facial Tumour Disease, have released feral cats (Felis catus) from competitive suppression, with eastern quoll declines linked to a subsequent increase in cat sightings. Yet current evidence of intraguild suppression among devils, cats and quolls is scant and equivocal. We therefore assessed the influences of top-down effects on abundance and activity patterns among devils, feral cats and eastern quolls. Between 2011 and 2013, we monitored four carnivore populations using longitudinal trapping and camera surveys, and performed camera surveys at 12 additional sites throughout the eastern quoll's range. We did not find evidence of a negative relationship between devil and cat abundance, nor of higher cat abundance in areas where devil populations had declined the longest. Cats did not appear to avoid devils spatially; however, there was evidence of temporal separation of cat and devil activity, with reduced separation and increasing nocturnal activity observed in areas where devils had declined the longest. Cats and quolls used the same areas, and there was no evidence that cat and quoll abundances were negatively related. Temporal overlap in observed cat and quoll activity was higher in summer than in winter, but this seasonal difference was unrelated to devil declines. We suggest that cats did not cause the recent quoll decline, but that predation of juvenile quolls by cats could be inhibiting low density quoll populations from recovering their former abundance

  14. Getting a CAT Scan (For Kids)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... A) Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Getting a CAT Scan (Video) KidsHealth / For Kids / Getting a CAT Scan (Video) Print en español Obtención de una tomografía computada (video) CAT stands ...

  15. Dipylidium (Dog and Cat Flea Tapeworm) FAQs

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the most common kind of tapeworm dogs and cats get? The most common tapeworm of dogs and cats in the United States is called Dipylidium caninum . ... infected with a tapeworm larvae. A dog or cat may swallow a flea while self-grooming. Once ...

  16. Groups acting on CAT(0) cube complexes

    OpenAIRE

    Niblo, Graham A.; Reeves, Lawrence

    1997-01-01

    We show that groups satisfying Kazhdan's property (T) have no unbounded actions on finite dimensional CAT(0) cube complexes, and deduce that there is a locally CAT(-1) Riemannian manifold which is not homotopy equivalent to any finite dimensional, locally CAT(0) cube complex.

  17. Bronchoalveolar lavage as a tool for evaluation of cellular alteration during Aelurostrongylus abstrusus infection in cats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vitor M. Ribeiro

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL is a procedure that retrieves cells and other elements from the lungs for evaluation, which helps in the diagnosis of pulmonary diseases. The aim of this study was to perform this procedure for cellular analysis of BAL fluid alterations during experimental infection with Aelurostrongylus abstrusus in cats. Fourteen cats were individually inoculated with 800 third stage larvae of A. abstrusus and five non-infected cats lined as a control group. The BAL procedure was performed through the use of an endotracheal tube on the nineteen cats with a mean age of 18 months, on 0, 30, 60, 90, 120, 180 and 270 days after infection. Absolute cell counts in the infected cats revealed that alveolar macrophages and eosinophils were the predominant cells following infection. This study shows that the technique allows us to retrieve cells and first stage larvae what provides information about the inflammatory process caused by aelurostrongylosis.

  18. Human-related factors regulate the spatial ecology of domestic cats in sensitive areas for conservation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joaquim P Ferreira

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Domestic cats ranging freely in natural areas are a conservation concern due to competition, predation, disease transmission or hybridization with wildcats. In order to improve our ability to design effective control policies, we investigate the factors affecting their numbers and space use in natural areas of continental Europe. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We describe the patterns of cat presence, abundance and space use and analyse the associated environmental and human constraints in a well-preserved Mediterranean natural area with small scattered local farms. We failed in detecting cats in areas away from human settlements (trapping effort above 4000 trap-nights, while we captured 30 individuals near inhabited farms. We identified 130 cats, all of them in farms still in use by people (30% of 128 farms. All cats were free-ranging and very wary of people. The main factor explaining the presence of cats was the presence of people, while the number of cats per farm was mostly affected by the occasional food provisioning with human refuse and the presence of people. The home ranges of eight radio tagged cats were centred at inhabited farms. Males went furthest away from the farms during the mating season (3.8 km on average, maximum 6.3 km, using inhabited farms as stepping-stones in their mating displacements (2.2 km of maximum inter-farm distance moved. In their daily movements, cats notably avoided entering in areas with high fox density. CONCLUSIONS: The presence, abundance and space use of cats were heavily dependent on human settlements. Any strategy aiming at reducing their impact in areas of conservation concern should aim at the presence of settlements and their spatial spread and avoid any access to human refuse. The movements of domestic cats would be limited in areas with large patches of natural vegetation providing good conditions for other carnivore mammals such as red foxes.

  19. Detection of Leptospira DNA in urine and presence of specific antibodies in outdoor cats in Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weis, Sonia; Rettinger, Anna; Bergmann, Michele; Llewellyn, Julia R; Pantchev, Nikola; Straubinger, Reinhard K; Hartmann, Katrin

    2017-04-01

    Objectives Clinical manifestation of infection with Leptospira species in cats is rare. Nevertheless, cats can develop specific antibodies against the spirochetes after infection. In Canada, Taiwan and the USA it was recently demonstrated that naturally infected cats can also shed DNA from pathogenic Leptospira species in their urine, but the zoonotic potential of infected cats is still unclear. The objective of this study was to demonstrate if outdoor cats in Germany shed DNA from pathogenic Leptospira species in their urine. As a second aim, antibody prevalence was determined. Methods Two hundred and fifteen outdoor cats were prospectively recruited. Urine samples were tested by real-time PCR targeting the lipL32 gene of pathogenic Leptospira species. Antibody titres against eight serovars (Australis, Autumnalis, Bratislava, Canicola, Copenhageni, Grippotyphosa, Pomona, Saxkoebing) belonging to seven serogroups (Australis, Autumnalis, Canicola, Grippotyphosa, Icterohaemorrhagiae, Pomona, Sejroe) were determined by microscopic agglutination test. Results Urine samples from 7/215 cats (3.3%; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.9-5.7) were PCR-positive. Specific antibodies were detected in 35/195 cats (17.9%; 95% CI: 12.5-23.3) with titres ranging from 1:100 to 1:6400. Australis, Bratislava and Grippotyphosa were the most common serovars. Conclusions and relevance Outdoor cats in Germany can shed DNA from pathogenic Leptospira species. Therefore, outdoor cats should be considered as a possible source of infection for dogs or humans. Further studies are needed to determine the role of Leptospira species as a cause of disease in cats.

  20. Incidence, nature, and etiology of metabolic alkalosis in dogs and cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha, Y-S; Hopper, K; Epstein, S E

    2013-01-01

    The incidence and causes of metabolic alkalosis in dogs and cats have not been fully investigated. To describe the incidence, nature, and etiology of metabolic alkalosis in dogs and cats undergoing blood gas analysis at a veterinary teaching hospital. Dogs and cats at a veterinary medical teaching hospital. Acid-base and electrolyte results for dogs and cats measured during a 13-month period were retrospectively collected from a computer database. Only the first measured (venous or arterial) blood gas analyzed in a single hospitalization period was included. Animals with a base excess above the reference range for the species were included. A total of 1,805 dogs and cats were included. Of these, 349 (19%) were identified as having an increased standardized base excess, 319 dogs and 30 cats. The mixed acid-base disorder of metabolic alkalosis with respiratory acidosis was the most common abnormality identified in both dogs and cats. Hypokalemia and hypochloremia were more common in animals with metabolic alkalosis compared to animals without metabolic alkalosis. The 4 most commonly identified underlying diseases were respiratory disease, gastrointestinal tract obstruction, furosemide administration, and renal disease. Metabolic alkalosis was less common than metabolic acidosis in the same population of animals. Evidence of contraction alkalosis was present in many patients in this study. Hypokalemia and hypochloremia were more frequent in patients with metabolic alkalosis and suggest the importance of evaluation of acid-base status in conjunction with serum electrolyte concentrations. Copyright © 2013 by the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine.

  1. A strange cat in Dublin

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Raifeartaigh, Cormac

    2012-11-01

    Not many life stories in physics involve Nazis, illicit sex, a strange cat and the genetic code. Thus, a new biography of the great Austrian physicist Erwin Schrödinger is always of interest, and with Erwin Schrödinger and the Quantum Revolution, veteran science writer John Gribbin does not disappoint.

  2. Religiosidad catódica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Ignacio Sierra G.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Estos apuntes se refieren a que en estos últimos tiempos ha habido un resurgimiento del fenómeno religioso de diversas maneras, incluso sorprendentes. Al aproximarse el tercer milenio, la posmodernidad religiosa disputa parte de la pantalla electrónica con el melodrama religioso: hoy estamos viviendo una religiosidad mediática, una religiosidad catódica.

  3. EUROmediCAT signal detection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Given, Joanne E; Loane, Maria; Luteijn, Johannes Michiel

    2016-01-01

    AIMS: To evaluate congenital anomaly (CA)-medication exposure associations produced by the new EUROmediCAT signal detection system and determine which require further investigation. METHODS: Data from 15 EUROCAT registries (1995-2011) with medication exposures at the chemical substance (5th level...

  4. Environmental Aspects of Domestic Cat Care and Management: Implications for Cat Welfare

    OpenAIRE

    Stella, Judith L.; Croney, Candace C.

    2016-01-01

    Domestic cats (Felis silvestris catus) are the most commonly kept companion animals in the US with large populations of owned (86 million), free-roaming (70 million), research (13,000), and shelter (2-3 million) cats. Vast numbers of cats are maintained in homes and other facilities each year and are reliant on humans for all of their care. Understanding cat behavior and providing the highest quality environments possible, including positive human-cat interactions, based on research could hel...

  5. Prognostic markers in feline hepatic lipidosis: a retrospective study of 71 cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuzi, Sharon; Segev, Gilad; Kedar, Shay; Yas, Einat; Aroch, Itamar

    2017-11-11

    Feline hepatic lipidosis (HL) is a common, potentially life-threatening disease resulting from prolonged anorexia and increased catabolism. This retrospective study included cats diagnosed with HL based on liver cytology or histopathology (years 2004-2015), and aimed to identify clinical and laboratory parameters associated with mortality. The study included 71 cats (47 females and 24 males) and 85 control cats with non-HL diseases. Most HL cats (90 per cent) were mixed breed, neutered (70; 99 per cent), female (47; 66 per cent), indoor cats (56; 79 per cent), fed dry commercial diets (44 cats; 62 per cent), and with a median age of 7.5 years (range 1.5-16.0). Common primary conditions included gastrointestinal diseases, pancreatitis and cholangiohepatitis (31 cats; 44 per cent) and stressful events (14; 20 per cent). HL was idiopathic in 20 cats (28 per cent). The overall mortality was 38 per cent (27/71 cats). Older age, as well as dullness, weakness, ptyalism, hypoproteinaemia, hypoalbuminaemia, increased serum creatine kinase activity, hypocholesterolaemia and hepatic failure at presentation were significantly (P≤0.033) associated with mortality. The primary disease was unassociated with mortality. Worsening hypoalbuminaemia, hyperammonaemia, hyperbilirubinaemia, electrolyte disorders, and occurrence of cavitary effusions or hypotension during hospitalisation were significantly (P≤0.045) associated with mortality. A decrease of serum β-hydroxybutyrate during hospitalisation was significantly (P=0.01) associated with survival, likely reflecting improvement in the catabolic state. The identified risk factors may be therapeutic targets. © British Veterinary Association (unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  6. Contrasting clinical outcomes in two cohorts of cats naturally infected with feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bęczkowski, Paweł M; Litster, Annette; Lin, Tsang Long; Mellor, Dominic J; Willett, Brian J; Hosie, Margaret J

    2015-03-23

    Despite over 25 years of feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) research, relatively little is known about the longitudinal course of FIV infection following natural infection. In contrast to published reports of experimental infections using lethal strains of the virus, clinical signs of naturally acquired FIV infection can be mild or inapparent, rather than life-threatening. In this prospective, longitudinal controlled study, based in Chicago, IL (n=17) and Memphis, TN (n=27), we investigated two cohorts of privately owned, naturally infected cats kept under different housing conditions. Cats in the Chicago cohort (Group 1) were kept in households of ≤2 cats, while the Memphis cohort (Group 2) comprised part of a large multi-cat household of over 60 cats kept indoors only, with unrestricted access to one another. The majority of cats from Group 1 did not display clinical signs consistent with immunodeficiency during the 22-month observation period. In contrast, the outcome of infection in Group 2 was dramatically different; 17/27 (63%) of cats lost a median of 51.3% of their bodyweight (P<0.0005) and died during the study period, with lymphoma being the most common cause of mortality. Although the decrease in CD4+ T cell count between enrolment and terminal disease was significant (P=0.0017), the CD4:CD8 ratio at the time of enrolment did not reliably distinguish FIV-positive cats classified as 'healthy' and 'not healthy' at either cohort. FIV load at enrolment was significantly lower in Group 1 than in Group 2 (P<0.0001), but there were no significant differences at enrolment between healthy and not healthy cats at either group. In conclusion, the results of this study suggest that management and housing conditions impact on disease progression and survival times of FIV-positive cats. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Symmetric Dimethylarginine in Cats with Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy and Diabetes Mellitus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langhorn, R.; Kieler, I. N.; Koch, J.

    2018-01-01

    Background: Symmetric dimethylarginine (SDMA) has been increasingly used as a marker of early chronic kidney disease (CKD) in cats, but little is known about the influence of comorbidities on SDMA in this species. Hypothesis: Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) and diabetes mellitus (DM), independe......Background: Symmetric dimethylarginine (SDMA) has been increasingly used as a marker of early chronic kidney disease (CKD) in cats, but little is known about the influence of comorbidities on SDMA in this species. Hypothesis: Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) and diabetes mellitus (DM......), independently of CKD, are associated with changes in serum SDMA. Animals: Ninety-four cats (17 with CKD, 40 with HCM, 17 with DM, and 20 healthy controls). Methods: Case-control study. Clinical examination, echocardiography, ECG, blood pressure, CBC, biochemistry, thyroxine, and SDMA measurement were performed....... Urinalysis was performed in controls and cats with CKD and DM. Analysis of variance was used to compare overall differences in the log-transformed SDMA data among groups. A random forest algorithm was applied to explore which clinical and other factors influenced serum SDMA. Results: Median (range) serum...

  8. Isolated unilateral absence of the right pulmonary artery in two cats visualized by computed tomography angiography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tyler JM Jordan

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Case series summary Two cats were evaluated for progressive exercise intolerance, dyspnea and unilateral infiltrate of the left lung. Computed tomography angiography (CTA revealed absence of the right pulmonary artery in both cats with systemic arterial collateral vessels perfusing the right segmental pulmonary arteries. In one case, the collateral vessels arose from the esophageal artery, while in the other case they derived off the right costocervical trunk. One cat was diagnosed with pulmonary hypertension and was euthanized owing to progressive respiratory distress despite medical management with sildenafil, pimobendan, clopidogrel and furosemide. The other cat, without echocardiographic evidence of pulmonary hypertension, was successfully managed with furosemide and enalapril for more than 4 years. Relevance and novel information CTA allowed visualization of a rare congenital heart malformation, unilateral absence of the right pulmonary artery, in two cats and accurately characterized the source of collateral blood supply to the affected lung. Severe pulmonary hypertension may be a negative prognostic factor in cats with this condition as medical therapy in the cat without evidence of pulmonary hypertension resolved clinical signs, while the cat with severe pulmonary hypertension died from the disease.

  9. Prevalence of Toxoplasma gondii infection in household and feral cats in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sung-Eon; Choi, Ran; Kang, Seung-Won; Hyun, Changbaig

    2017-09-01

    This study was designed to investigate the prevalence rate of Toxoplasma gondii ( T. gondii ) infection in household cats in Korea. One hundred household cats and 50 feral cats from nine of the largest cities in Korea were enrolled in this study. The tests performed in this survey was an in-house rapid screen IgG and IgM combo test, faecal PCR test for T. gondii oocysts, and an ELISA immunoassay for IgG antibodies. There were no household cats positive for T. gondii infection detected using the in-house IgG and IgM rapid screen combo test, although 6/50 and 0/50 feral cats were positive in IgG and IgM tests, respectively. This initial finding was confirmed by subsequent ELISA test for IgG antibody and PCR for T. gondii in faeces. Despite the higher prevalence rate of the disease in feral cats in Korea, we did not find any household cats that were either infected or exposed previously to T. gondii in our study population. Our study indicates that there is minimal risk of T. gondii transmission from household cats to human in Korea.

  10. Detection of Ehrlichia canis in domestic cats in the central-western region of Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ísis Assis Braga

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Ehrlichiosis is a worldwide distributed disease caused by different bacteria of the Ehrlichia genus that are transmitted by arthropod vectors. Its occurrence in dogs is considered endemic in several regions of Brazil. Regarding cats, however, few studies have been done and, consequently, there is not enough data available. In order to detect Ehrlichia spp. in cats from the central-western region of Brazil, blood and serum samples were collected from a regional population of 212 individuals originated from the cities of Cuiabá and Várzea Grande. These animals were tested by the Immunofluorescence Assay (IFA and the Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR designed to amplify a 409 bp fragment of the dsb gene. The results obtained show that 88 (41.5% cats were seropositive by IFA and 20 (9.4% cats were positive by PCR. The partial DNA sequence obtained from PCR products yielded twenty samples that were found to match perfectly the Ehrlichia canis sequences deposited on GenBank. The natural transmission of Ehrlichia in cats has not been fully established. Furthermore, tick infestation was not observed in the evaluated cats and was not observed any association between age, gender and positivity of cats in both tests. The present study reports the first serological and molecular detection of E. canis in domestic cats located in the endemic area previously mentioned.

  11. Comparison of the effects of long-term pimobendan and benazepril administration in normal cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyagawa, Yuichi; Machida, Noboru; Toda, Noriko; Tominaga, Yoshinori; Takemura, Naoyuki

    2016-08-01

    Pimobendan (PIMO) can cause adverse effects, such as mitral valve degeneration, in dogs; however, it is unclear whether these effects occur in cats. Therefore, we aimed to determine whether PIMO or benazepril produces adverse cardiac effects in healthy cats. This was a blinded, randomized, prospective parallel study. Twelve cats were randomly divided into two groups of six cats, namely, an angiotensin-converting-enzyme inhibitor group that received benazepril and a PIMO group. Cats were administered their respective treatments for 506 days, and we evaluated cardiac parameters, blood biochemistry and glomerular filtration rates during that time. At the end of the trial, the cats were euthanized, and histopathological examinations were performed by a pathologist who was blinded to the treatment groups. No significant changes were observed in any of the parameters measured in either of the groups. In particular, no significant cardiac lesions were observed in either of the groups. In healthy cats, neither PIMO nor benazepril appears to cause cardiac lesions, but future studies are needed to examine the effects of PIMO in cats with heart disease.

  12. Dietary dissolution of urinary calculi in cats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hyde, D.C.

    1987-01-01

    A young adult, castrated male DSH cat was admitted for pollakiuria, hematuria and dysuria. The cat was being fed a commercial dry grocery brand cat food. Radiographs demonstrated multiple radiodense cystic calculi and urinalysis showed hematuria but no crystalluria. A tentative diagnosis of struvite urolithiasis was made. The cat was fed s/d® Feline food exclusively. Clinical signs disappeared within a week and no calculi were visible radiographically within three weeks. s/d® Feline food was continued an additional two weeks. This case study shows that s/d® Feline therapeutic food can be used to successfully manage struvite urolithiasis in cats

  13. Escore de condição corporal como indicador do prognóstico de gatos com doença renal crônica Body condition score as an indicator of prognosis for cats with chronic renal disease

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    Maria Cristina Nobre e Castro

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available A caquexia tem sido relacionada à maior mortalidade de pacientes com doença renal crônica, tanto em humanos, como em animais. O escore de condição corporal (ECC pode ser utilizado em conjunto com o peso para melhor avaliação da composição corporal desses animais. O objetivo deste trabalho foi de correlacionar o escore de condição corporal com o prognóstico de felinos com doença renal crônica. Avaliaram-se 110 felinos idosos, dos quais 70 apresentavam-se hígidos (Grupo I e 40 apresentavam doença renal crônica (Grupo II. No grupo I, apenas 5,7% dos gatos apresentaram ECC abaixo do ideal e destes nenhum foi classificado como caquético. No grupo II, 70% dos gatos apresentaram ECC abaixo do ideal, dos quais 32,5% eram caquéticos. A taxa de mortalidade no grupo II foi significantemente maior naqueles caquéticos. O ECC abaixo do considerado ideal indica um prognóstico desfavorável nos pacientes com doença renal crônica.Cachexia has been associated with higher mortality in patients with chronic renal disease both in human and veterinary medicine. Body condition score (BCS can be used along with body weight for a better evaluation of a patient's body composition. The objective of this study was to associate body condition score with prognosis of cats with chronic renal disease. One hundred and ten elderly cats were evaluated; of which 70 were healthy (Group I and 40 had been diagnosed with chronic renal disease (Group II. In Group I, only 5.7% of the cats presented a BCS below ideal, though none were found to be cachectic. In Group II, 70% of the cats presented a BCS below ideal, where 32.5% were cachectic. Mortality was significantly higher within the cachectic patients of Group II. BCS below ideal indicates a poor prognosis for patients with chronic renal disease.

  14. The prevalence of ocular lesions associated with hypertension in a population of geriatric cats in Auckland, New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, J M; Irving, A C; Bridges, J P; Jones, B R

    2014-01-01

    To provide an estimate of the prevalence of ocular lesions associated with hypertension in geriatric cats in Auckland, New Zealand and to evaluate the importance of examination of the ocular fundi of cats over eight years of age. A total of 105 cats ≥8 years of age were examined and clinical signs recorded. Blood was collected for the laboratory measurement of the concentrations of blood urea nitrogen (BUN), glucose and creatinine in serum, urine was collected for determination of urine specific gravity (USG), and blood pressure (BP) was measured using high definition oscillometry equipment. A cat was determined to have systemic hypertension with a systolic BP ≥160 mm Hg and a diastolic BP ≥100 mm Hg. Each animal had an ocular fundic examination using a retinal camera to diagnose ocular lesions associated with hypertension, including retinopathies, choroidopathies and optic neuropathies. Blood pressure was successfully recorded in 73 cats. Of these, 37 (51%) had no hypertensive ocular lesions and no underlying disease diagnosed, 24 (33%) had no hypertensive ocular lesions detected, but underlying disease such as chronic kidney disease, hyperthyroidism or diabetes mellitus was diagnosed, and 12 (16%) cats had evidence of hypertensive ocular lesions. Ten of the cats with hypertensive ocular lesions were hypertensive at the time of the first visit and two were normotensive. One additional cat had hypertensive ocular lesions, but it was not possible to obtain consistent BP readings in this animal. Chronic kidney disease was the most commonly diagnosed concurrent disease in cats with hypertensive ocular lesions (n=6). Mean systolic BP for cats with hypertensive ocular lesions (168.0 (SE 6.29) mm Hg) was higher than for those with no ocular lesions (144.7 (SE 3.11) mm Hg) or those with no lesions but with underlying disease (146.0 (SE 4.97) mm Hg) (p=0.001). Ocular fundic examination of cats over eight years of age allows identification of cats with

  15. Polioencephalomalacia and Heart Failure Secondary to Presumptive Thiamine Deficiency, Hepatic Lipidosis, and Starvation in 2 Abandoned Siamese Cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anholt, H; Himsworth, C; Britton, A

    2016-07-01

    Two 4-year-old spayed female Siamese cats were seized by the British Columbia Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals after confinement to an abandoned housing unit without food for 9 weeks. One cat was found dead, and the second was euthanized within 24 hours due to neurologic deterioration despite therapy. Polioencephalomalacia of the caudal colliculus, hepatic lipidosis, cachexia, and congestive heart failure with cardiomyocyte atrophy were identified in both cats through postmortem examination and attributed to a prolonged period of starvation. Brain lesions were likely the result of thiamine deficiency (Chastek paralysis), which can be associated with both malnutrition and liver disease. This case highlights the importance of thiamine supplementation during realimentation of cats with hepatic lipidosis. Heart failure resulting from cachexia may have contributed to the death of the first cat and the morbidity of the second cat. © The Author(s) 2016.

  16. Clinical study of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome in domestic cats in São Paulo

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    Archivaldo Reche Jr.

    1997-06-01

    Full Text Available In order to study the magnitude of distribution of feline leukemia virus (FLV and feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV among domestic cats in São Paulo, 401 animals from both sexes, different ages and breeds, were tested for antibodies (FIV and viral soluble antigens (FLV by means of ELISA (feline leukemia virus antigen / feline immunodeficiency virus antibody - CITE ® - Agrytech Sistems Inc.. Among these animals, 123 were healthy cats and 278 were patients at the Department of Medical Clinics / Veterinary Hospital of Faculdade de Medicina Veterinária e Zootecnia, Universidade de São Paulo due to various diseases eight (6,5% FIV positive cats and two (1,6% FLV positive cats were found among healthy animals in opposition to 39 (14% and 30 (10,8% sick cats regents to FIV and FLV antigens and antibodies, respectively. All animals but one presented single infection. FIV infection was four times more frequent among males when compared to females; nevertheless, no difference was found related to FVL infection. Opportunistic infections as those caused by Hemobartonella felis were the most common baseline disease found among FIV or FLV infected cats. When tumors, were considered the mediastinal lymphoma was the most frequent type found among FVL infected cats. A variety of other diseases was observed, associated to both retroviruses infection. The mean age of FIV infect animals was 4,4 + 3,0 years old and 2,4 ± 1,7 years old FLV infected cats. All infected, symptomatic animals died during the two years of  observation, while all healthy, infected cats survived, allowing the conclusion that period of latency post-infection may be long.

  17. Detection of serum antibodies against Bartonella species in cats with sporotrichosis from Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitada, Amanda A B; Favacho, Alexsandra R M; Oliveira, Raquel V C; Pessoa, Adonai A; Gomes, Raphael; Honse, Carla O; Gremião, Isabella D F; Lemos, Elba R S; Pereira, Sandro A

    2014-04-01

    Cat scratch disease is a zoonosis caused by Bartonella species, transmitted to humans through scratches or bites from infected cats and via direct contact with infected feces. Sporotrichosis, caused by the fungal complex Sporothrix, is transmitted by traumatic inoculation of the fungus. Cats are important in zoonotic transmission. Serum samples from 112 domestic cats with sporotrichosis and 77 samples from healthy cats were analyzed by indirect immunofluorescence assay (IFA), using the commercial kit Bartonella henselae IFA IgG (Bion). The presence of antibodies against feline leukemia virus (FeLV) and of feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) core antigens was detected using the commercial kit Snap Combo FIV-FeLV (Idexx). The group of animals with sporotrichosis contained 93 males with a median age of 22 months, eight (7.1%) of which were positive for FIV and 15 (13.4%) for FeLV. The group of animals without sporotrichosis contained 36 males with a median age 48 months, 10 (13.0%) of which were positive for FIV and eight (10.4%) for FeLV. Of the 112 cats with sporotrichosis and 77 cats without mycosis, 72 (64.3%) and 35 (45.5%), respectively, were IFA reactive. No association was found between age, sex, FIV/FeLV and the presence of antibodies to Bartonella species. The results suggest that the study population can be considered a potential source of zoonotic infection for both diseases.

  18. Mapping of cat albumin using monoclonal antibodies: identification of determinants common to cat and dog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boutin, Y; Hébert, J; Vrancken, E R; Mourad, W

    1989-01-01

    Cat and dog albumins from commercial extracts were used to produce monoclonal antibodies (MoAb). Anti-cat albumin MoAb recognized both cat and dog albumin equally, as did anti-dog albumin MoAb; this confirms cross-reactivity between cat and dog. The MoAb were separated into two groups according to their epitopic specificity; they recognized two overlapping epitopes of cat albumin. Furthermore, by competitive inhibition of radio-allergosorbent test (RAST), it was shown that one MoAb group inhibited significantly the binding of human IgE antibodies (from a pool of 13 patients allergic to both cats and dogs) to insolubilized cat or dog extracts. These observations suggest that murine anti-cat or anti-dog MoAb and human IgE antibodies recognize identical or closely related determinants on cat and dog albumin. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 PMID:2478325

  19. Behaviour Problems of Cats Reared Individually or in Coexistence with other Animals (Cats, Dog

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kmecová N.

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine whether behaviour problems in indoor cats depend on the number of cats in a household or rearing one or more cats in a household together with a dog. The study was carried out on animals which were divided for the purpose of this study into 4 groups: (1 households with one cat; (2 households with two cats; (3 households with three or more cats; (4 households with one or more cats and a dog. Altogether 91 cats were included in the study. The practical part of this investigation was based on a questionnaire. It was observed that the probability of behaviour problems was not related unambiguously to the number of cats in a household or the company of a dog. The percentage of the occurrence of changed behaviour did not differ significantly between the groups.

  20. Serum and urinary cystatin C in cats with feline immunodeficiency virus infection and cats with hyperthyroidism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghys, Liesbeth Fe; Paepe, Dominique; Taffin, Elien Rl; Vandermeulen, Eva; Duchateau, Luc; Smets, Pascale My; Delanghe, Joris; Daminet, Sylvie

    2016-08-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate serum cystatin C (sCysC) and urinary cystatin C (uCysC) in cats with hyperthyroidism and cats with feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV). Thirty cats with FIV, 26 hyperthyroid cats and 28 healthy cats were included. sCysC and uCysC:creatinine (uCysC/uCr) ratio were measured with a human particle-enhanced nephelometric immunoassay, previously validated for feline CysC measurement. Routine renal variables (serum creatinine [sCr], urine specific gravity, urinary protein:creatinine ratio [UPC]) were also measured in the three groups. Cats with hyperthyroidism had significantly higher sCysC and higher uCysC/uCr ratio, lower sCr and a higher UPC than healthy cats. Cats with FIV infection did not show a significantly higher sCysC concentration but had a significantly higher sCr and UPC than healthy cats. uCysC could be detected in only four of them. This study demonstrated that sCysC is increased in cats with hyperthyroidism, in contrast with sCr, but not in cats with FIV. Many hyperthyroid cats, but only four cats with FIV, had an elevated uCysC/uCr ratio. Further studies may reveal if uCysC might be a valuable marker for tubular dysfunction in cats. © The Author(s) 2015.

  1. Sex specific differences in hepatic and plasma lipid profiles in healthy cats pre and post spaying and neutering: relationship with feline hepatic lipidosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valtolina, Chiara; Vaandrager, Arie B; Favier, Robert P; Tuohetahuntila, Maidina; Kummeling, Anne; Jeusette, Isabelle; Rothuizen, Jan; Robben, Joris H

    2017-08-08

    A link between lipid metabolism and disease has been recognized in cats. Since hepatic lipidosis is a frequent disorder in cats, the aim of the current study was to evaluate liver and plasma lipid dimorphism in healthy cats and the effects of gonadectomy on lipid profiling. From six female and six male cats plasma and liver lipid profiles before and after spaying/neutering were assessed and compared to five cats (three neutered male and two spayed female) diagnosed with hepatic lipidosis. Intact female cats had a significantly lower level of plasma triacylglycerides (TAG) and a higher liver level of the long chain polyunsaturated fatty acid arachidonic acid (AA) compared to their neutered state. Both male and female cats with lipidosis had a higher liver, but not plasma TAG level and an increased level of plasma and liver sphingomyelin compared to the healthy cats. Although lipid dimorphism in healthy cats resembles that of other species, intact female cats show differences in metabolic configuration that could predispose them to develop hepatic lipidosis. The increased sphingomyelin levels in cats with lipidosis could suggest a potential role in the pathogenesis of hepatic lipidosis in cats.

  2. Differences between vocalization evoked by social stimuli in feral cats and house cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeon, Seong C; Kim, Young K; Park, Se J; Lee, Scott S; Lee, Seung Y; Suh, Euy H; Houpt, Katherine A; Chang, Hong H; Lee, Hee C; Yang, Byung G; Lee, Hyo J

    2011-06-01

    To investigate how socialization can affect the types and characteristics of vocalization produced by cats, feral cats (n=25) and house cats (n=13) were used as subjects, allowing a comparison between cats socialized to people and non-socialized cats. To record vocalization and assess the cats' responses to behavioural stimuli, five test situations were used: approach by a familiar caretaker, by a threatening stranger, by a large doll, by a stranger with a dog and by a stranger with a cat. Feral cats showed extremely aggressive and defensive behaviour in most test situations, and produced higher call rates than those of house cats in the test situations, which could be attributed to less socialization to other animals and to more sensitivity to fearful situations. Differences were observed in the acoustic parameters of feral cats in comparison to those of house cats. The feral cat produced significantly higher frequency in fundamental frequency, peak frequency, 1st quartile frequency, 3rd quartile frequency of growls and hisses in agonistic test situations. In contrast to the growls and hisses, in meow, all acoustic parameters like fundamental frequency, first formant, peak frequency, 1st quartile frequency, and 3rd quartile frequency of house cats were of significantly higher frequency than those of feral cats. Also, house cats produced calls of significantly shorter in duration than feral cats in agonistic test situations. These results support the conclusion that a lack of socialization may affect usage of types of vocalizations, and the vocal characteristics, so that the proper socialization of cat may be essential to be a suitable companion house cat. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Infection by Mycoplasma spp., feline immunodeficiency virus and feline leukemia virus in cats from an area endemic for visceral leishmaniasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcondes, Mary; Hirata, Karina Y; Vides, Juliana P; Sobrinho, Ludmila S V; Azevedo, Jaqueline S; Vieira, Thállitha S W J; Vieira, Rafael F C

    2018-03-20

    Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) has been increasingly recognized in cats living in areas endemic for the disease. Co-infection with Leishmania infantum and other infectious agents is well established in dogs. However, for cats, data on co-infections with L. infantum and other infectious agents are still sparse. The aim of this study was to identify the prevalence of vector-borne pathogens, Mycoplasma spp., feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) and feline leukaemia virus (FeLV) in cats from an area endemic for VL in southeastern Brazil. Of the 90 cats, eight (8.9%) were infected with Mycoplasma spp., five (5.5%) were FIV- positive and one (1.1%) was FeLV-positive. Co-infection with L. infantum and at least one other infectious agent was found in 9/50 (18.0%; CI: 8.6-31.4%) cats. In Group 1 (cats infected naturally by L. infantum), 4/50 (8.0%) cats were positive for FIV, 4/50 (8%) for Mycoplasma spp. and 1/50 (2.0%) was co-infected with FeLV and Mycoplasma spp. In Group 2 (cats non-infected with L. infantum), 2/40 (5.0%) cats were infected with Mycoplasma spp. and 1/40 (2.5%) was co-infected with FIV and Mycoplasma spp. All cats were negative for Ehrlichia spp., Babesia spp. and Anaplasma platys. A low prevalence of co-infection in Leishmania-infected and non-infected cats was found. Co-infections with Leishmania and vector-borne diseases in cats are not common in this area endemic for VL in Brazil.

  4. Detection of a putative novel adenovirus by PCR amplification, sequencing and phylogenetic characterisation of two gene fragments from formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissues of a cat diagnosed with disseminated adenovirus disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakatos, Béla; Hornyák, Ákos; Demeter, Zoltán; Forgách, Petra; Kennedy, Frances; Rusvai, Miklós

    2017-12-01

    Adenoviral nucleic acid was detected by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissue samples of a cat that had suffered from disseminated adenovirus infection. The identity of the amplified products from the hexon and DNA-dependent DNA polymerase genes was confirmed by DNA sequencing. The sequences were clearly distinguishable from corresponding hexon and polymerase sequences of other mastadenoviruses, including human adenoviruses. These results suggest the possible existence of a distinct feline adenovirus.

  5. Causes of endogenous uveitis in cats presented to referral clinics in North Carolina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jinks, Maggie R; English, Robert V; Gilger, Brian C

    2016-07-01

    To investigate the causes of endogenous uveitis in cats presenting to referral ophthalmology clinics in North Carolina. Medical records of cats diagnosed with endogenous uveitis at North Carolina State University's College of Veterinary Medicine (NCSU-CVM) or Animal Eye Care Associates of Cary, NC between 2003 and 2015 were reviewed. Inclusion criteria were cats that had complete diagnostic workups, including clinical, clinicopathological, serological, and histopathological data, as well as imaging modalities. Serology was consistently completed for feline leukemia virus (FeLV), feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV), feline coronavirus (FCoV), Toxoplasma gondii, and Bartonella spp. One hundred and twenty cats met the inclusion criteria. Seroprevalence of FeLV (2.7%), FIV (7.3%), FCoV (34.7%), T. gondii (23.7%), and Bartonella spp. (43.2%) was observed, with a combined seroprevalence of 59.2%. Nineteen cats (15.8%) were diagnosed with feline infectious peritonitis (FIP) based on clinical, hematological, serological, histopathological, and necropsy findings. The average age of all cases was 7.62 years, while the average age of cats diagnosed with FIP was 1.82 years. Neoplasia was diagnosed in six cats (5.0%). No underlying etiology was found in 49 cats (40.8%). Both idiopathic and neoplastic causes of uveitis were less prevalent than previously reported in studies, while seropositivity was higher than previously reported for the study area. This may be due to improved diagnostic capabilities or that cats with infectious disease were more likely to be referred. Because of the high prevalence of FIP, young cats with uveitis should be evaluated for hyperglobulinemia and FCoV serology should be performed as minimal diagnostics. © 2015 American College of Veterinary Ophthalmologists.

  6. Toxoplasma gondii seroprevalence in pet cats in Norway and risk factors for seropositivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sævik, Bente Kristin; Krontveit, Randi Ingebjørg; Eggen, Kristine P; Malmberg, Nina; Thoresen, Stein I; Prestrud, Kristin W

    2015-12-01

    The aims of the study were to estimate Toxoplasma gondii seroprevalence in pet cats in Norway and to evaluate risk factors for seropositivity. Additionally, serum biochemistry and haematological variables for T gondii seropositive and seronegative cats were compared. A convenience sample of surplus sera submitted to the Central Laboratory, Norwegian University of Life Sciences, was collected. The samples were from healthy cats and cats with a variety of diseases. Analyses for IgG antibodies to T gondii were performed with a commercial direct agglutination test, with 1:40 as the threshold value. For risk factor analysis a logistic regression model of the relationship between predictors and the outcome was applied. One hundred and ninety-six of 478 cats were seropositive for T gondii, and the estimated seroprevalence in the study sample was 41.0% (95% confidence interval 36.6-45.4). Compared with domestic cats, pedigree cats had reduced risk for Toxoplasma seropositivity (odds ratio [OR] 0.42). Males had increased risk (OR 1.63) compared with females. The effect of age was highly significant, and an increase in the cats' age across the interquartile range (IQR; 52-160 months/4-13 years of age) doubled the risk of Toxoplasma seropositivity (OR 2.11). The risk for Toxoplasma seropositivity among cats living in Oslo was significantly reduced (OR 0.51) when compared with the rest of Norway. Pet cats in Norway appear to be commonly exposed to T gondii. Signalment and geographical region influenced the odds of Toxoplasma seropositivity, whereas health status did not. © ISFM and AAFP 2015.

  7. Survival time and effect of selected predictor variables on survival in owned pet cats seropositive for feline immunodeficiency and leukemia virus attending a referral clinic in northern Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spada, Eva; Perego, Roberta; Sgamma, Elena Assunta; Proverbio, Daniela

    2018-02-01

    Feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) and feline leukemia virus (FeLV) are among the most important feline infectious diseases worldwide. This retrospective study investigated survival times and effects of selected predictor factors on survival time in a population of owned pet cats in Northern Italy testing positive for the presence of FIV antibodies and FeLV antigen. One hundred and three retrovirus-seropositive cats, 53 FIV-seropositive cats, 40 FeLV-seropositive cats, and 10 FIV+FeLV-seropositive cats were included in the study. A population of 103 retrovirus-seronegative age and sex-matched cats was selected. Survival time was calculated and compared between retrovirus-seronegative, FIV, FeLV and FIV+FeLV-seropositive cats using Kaplan-Meier survival analysis. Cox proportional-hazards regression analysis was used to study the effect of selected predictor factors (male gender, peripheral blood cytopenia as reduced red blood cells - RBC- count, leukopenia, neutropenia and lymphopenia, hypercreatininemia and reduced albumin to globulin ratio) on survival time in retrovirus-seropositive populations. Median survival times for seronegative cats, FIV, FeLV and FIV+FeLV-seropositive cats were 3960, 2040, 714 and 77days, respectively. Compared to retrovirus-seronegative cats median survival time was significantly lower (P<0.000) in FeLV and FIV+FeLV-seropositive cats. Median survival time in FeLV and FIV+FeLV-seropositive cats was also significant lower (P<0.000) when compared to FIV-seropositive cats. Hazard ratio of death in FeLV and FIV+FeLV-seropositive cats being respectively 3.4 and 7.4 times higher, in comparison to seronegative cats and 2.3 and 4.8 times higher in FeLV and FIV+FeLV-seropositive cats as compared to FIV-seropositive cats. A Cox proportional-hazards regression analysis showed that FIV and FeLV-seropositive cats with reduced RBC counts at time of diagnosis of seropositivity had significantly shorter survival times when compared to FIV and Fe

  8. Acetaminophen Toxicosis in a Cat

    OpenAIRE

    Anvik, J. O.

    1984-01-01

    A seven month old domestic shorthaired male cat was presented with a known history of acetaminophen ingestion. Clinical findings included icterus, depression, hypothermia, tachypnea and pronounced edema of the head and neck. Treatment was aimed at providing substrate to assist in conjugation of the drug and reversing methemoglobinemia. Administration of oral acetylcysteine, ascorbic acid and IV fluids was insufficient in this case due to a delay in initiation of treatment. The salient postmor...

  9. Longitudinal change of COPD assessment test (CAT in a telehealthcare cohort is associated with exacerbation risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rassouli F

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Frank Rassouli,1 Florent Baty,1 Daiana Stolz,2 Werner Christian Albrich,3 Michael Tamm,2 Sandra Widmer,1 Martin Hugo Brutsche1 1Department of Pulmonary and Sleep Medicine, Cantonal Hospital St Gallen, St Gallen, Switzerland; 2Department of Pulmonary and Sleep Medicine, University Hospital Basel, Basel, Switzerland; 3Division of Infectious Diseases and Hospital Epidemiology, Cantonal Hospital St Gallen, St Gallen, Switzerland Background: There are only scarce data regarding the evolution of the chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD assessment test (CAT over time. Our aim was to investigate the evolution of the CAT in a telehealthcare (THC cohort and to evaluate its potential to predict exacerbations.Patients and methods: The CAT was measured weekly over up to 1 year in 40 COPD patients undergoing a THC intervention. The evolution of the CAT was analyzed using linear regression. The association between this evolution and the occurrence of exacerbations was evaluated using the Andersen–Gill formulation of the Cox proportional hazards model for the analysis of recurrent time-to-event data with time-varying predictors.Results: The median CAT at inclusion was 17 (interquartile range 13–22 points. During the study, 25% of patients had a significant negative slope (median –7 points per year [ppy], 38% were stable (median +0 ppy and 38% had a significant positive slope (median +6 ppy. The median slope of the CAT in the overall cohort was +1 (interquartile range –3 to +6 ppy. A significant positive association was found between the change in CAT scores and the risk of exacerbations (hazard ratio =1.08, 95% CI: 1.03–1.13; p<0.001. There was an 8% increase of the risk of exacerbation per unit increase in CAT. We detected a significant learning effect in filling out the CAT in 18.4% of patients with a median learning phase of five filled questionnaires.Conclusion: Sixty-three percent of the COPD patients monitored by THC experienced a stable

  10. Hypophosphatemia associated with enteral alimentation in cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Justin, R B; Hohenhaus, A E

    1995-01-01

    Hypophosphatemia is uncommon in cats, but it has been reported in association with diabetes mellitus and hepatic lipidosis, where it can cause hemolysis, rhabdomyopathy, depression, seizures, and coma. The purpose of this article is to describe 9 cats that developed low serum phosphorus concentrations (alimentation. Serum biochemical analyses from more than 6,000 cats were reviewed. The medical records of all cats with hypophosphatemia were examined for history of enteral alimentation; diabetic cats were excluded from the study. Nine cats, ranging in age from 3 to 17 years, were identified. All cats had normal serum phosphorus concentrations before tube feeding began. Onset of hypophosphatemia occurred 12 to 72 hours after initiation of enteral alimentation, and the nadir for phosphorus concentrations ranged from 0.4 to 2.4 mg/dL. Hemolysis occurred in 6 of the 9 cats. Hypophosphatemia secondary to enteral alimentation is an uncommon clinical finding in cats. Cats with high alanine aminotransferase activity, hyperbilirubinemia, and weight loss should be closely monitored for hypophosphatemia during the first 72 hours of enteral alimentation.

  11. Radioactive iodine therapy in cats with hyperthyroidism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turrel, J.M.; Feldman, E.C.; Hays, M.; Hornof, W.J.

    1984-01-01

    Eleven cats with hyperthyroidism were treated with radioactive iodine ( 131 I). Previous unsuccessful treatments for hyperthyroidism included hemithyroidectomy (2 cats) and an antithyroid drug (7 cats). Two cats had no prior treatment. Thyroid scans, using technetium 99m, showed enlargement and increased radionuclide accumulation in 1 thyroid lobe in 5 cats and in both lobes in 6 cats. Serum thyroxine concentrations were high and ranged from 4.7 to 18 micrograms/dl. Radioactive iodine tracer studies were used to determine peak radioactive iodine uptake (RAIU) and effective and biological half-lives. Activity of 131 I administered was calculated from peak RAIU, effective half-life, and estimated thyroid gland weight. Activity of 131 I administered ranged from 1.0 to 5.9 mCi. The treatment goal was to deliver 20,000 rad to hyperactive thyroid tissue. However, retrospective calculations based on peak RAIU and effective half-life obtained during the treatment period showed that radiation doses actually ranged from 7,100 to 64,900 rad. Complete ablation of the hyperfunctioning thyroid tissue and a return to euthyroidism were seen in 7 cats. Partial responses were seen in 2 cats, and 2 cats became hypothyroid. It was concluded that 131 I ablation of thyroid tumors was a reasonable alternative in the treatment of hyperthyroidism in cats. The optimal method of dosimetry remains to be determined

  12. Odontogenic keratocyst in a cat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaDouceur, E E B; Walker, K S; Mohr, F C; Murphy, B

    2014-01-01

    Odontogenic cysts are derived from odontogenic epithelium, can be locally invasive and destructive and have been reported rarely in cats. A 16-year-old, male domestic shorthair cat had a 3-year history of a slowly progressive, right mandibular swelling. Intraoral dental radiographs revealed a multilocular, radiolucent, cystic mass within the right mandible that extended from the distal aspect of the canine tooth to the mesial aspect of the fourth premolar tooth. Radiographically, the mass was associated with distortion and regional destruction of the right mandibular bone and resorption of regional tooth roots. Histological examination of an incisional biopsy sample revealed multiple ruptured cysts lined by stratified squamous epithelium of odontogenic origin with luminal parakeratinization and a prominent palisading basal cell layer. The cyst contained abundant orthokeratotic and parakeratotic keratin. The clinical, radiographical and histological features were consistent with a diagnosis of odontogenic keratocyst, as seen in man. This is the first report of an odontogenic keratocyst in a cat. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Polyarthropathy in a cat seropositive for feline synctial-forming virus and feline immunodeficiency virus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Becker, K.M.; Brown, N.O.; Denardo, G.

    1994-01-01

    A four-year-old, neutered male, domestic shorthair cat presented witha polyarthropathy. Indirect immunofluorescence assays revealed seropositive results for both feline synctial-forming virus (FeSFV) and feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV). Direct relationships between viral infections and polyarthropathy are not confirmed, however, possible correlations are discussed. Mechanisms of lentivirus infections and polyarthropathy in the cat are reviewed in order to theorize a potential relationship among these disease processes

  14. Does a feline leukemia virus infection pave the way for Bartonella henselae infection in cats?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchmann, Alexandra U; Kershaw, Olivia; Kempf, Volkhard A J; Gruber, Achim D

    2010-09-01

    Domestic cats serve as the reservoir hosts of Bartonella henselae and may develop mild clinical symptoms or none after experimental infection. In humans, B. henselae infection can result in self-limiting cat scratch disease. However, immunocompromised patients may suffer from more-severe courses of infection or may even develop the potentially lethal disease bacillary angiomatosis. It was reasoned that cats with immunocompromising viral infections may react similarly to B. henselae infection. The aim of our study was to investigate the influence of the most important viruses known to cause immunosuppression in cats-Feline leukemia virus (FeLV), Feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV), and Feline panleukopenia virus (FPV)-on natural B. henselae infection in cats. Accordingly, 142 cats from animal shelters were necropsied and tested for B. henselae and concurrent infections with FeLV, FIV, or FPV by PCR and immunohistochemistry. A significant association was found between B. henselae and FeLV infections (P = 0.00028), but not between B. henselae and FIV (P = 1.0) or FPV (P = 0.756) infection, age (P = 0.392), or gender (P = 0.126). The results suggest that susceptibility to B. henselae infection is higher in cats with concurrent FeLV infections, regardless of whether the infection is latent or progressive. Histopathology and immunohistochemistry for B. henselae failed to identify lesions that could be attributed specifically to B. henselae infection. We conclude that the course of natural B. henselae infection in cats does not seem to be influenced by immunosuppressive viral infections in general but that latent FeLV infection may predispose cats to B. henselae infection or persistence.

  15. The effects of feral cats on insular wildlife: the Club-Med syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hess, Steve C.; Danner, Raymond M.; Timm, R.M.

    2012-01-01

    Domestic cats have been introduced to many of the world‘s islands where they have been particularly devastating to insular wildlife which, in most cases, evolved in the absence of terrestrial predatory mammals and feline diseases. We review the effects of predation, feline diseases, and the life history characteristics of feral cats and their prey that have contributed to the extirpation and extinction of many insular vertebrate species. The protozoan Toxoplasma gondii is a persistent land-based zoonotic pathogen hosted by cats that is known to cause mortality in several insular bird species. It also enters marine environments in cat feces where it can cause the mortality of marine mammals. Feral cats remain widespread on islands throughout the world and are frequently subsidized in colonies which caretakers often assert have little negative effect on native wildlife. However, population genetics, home range, and movement studies all suggest that there are no locations on smaller islands where these cats cannot penetrate within two generations. While the details of past vertebrate extinctions were rarely documented during contemporary time, a strong line of evidence is emerging that the removal of feral cats from islands can rapidly facilitate the recolonization of extirpated species, particularly seabirds. Islands offer unique, mostly self-contained ecosystems in which to conduct controlled studies of the effects of feral cats on wildlife, having implications for continental systems. The response of terrestrial wildlife such as passerine birds, small mammals, and herptiles still needs more thorough long-term monitoring and documentation after the removal of feral cats.

  16. Mucosal defence along the gastrointestinal tract of cats and dogs

    OpenAIRE

    Stokes , Chris; Waly , Nashwa

    2006-01-01

    International audience; Diseases that are associated with infections or allergic reactions in the gastrointestinal and respiratory tracts are major causes of morbidity in both cats and dogs. Future strategies for the control of these conditions require a greater understanding of the cellular and molecular mechanisms involved in the induction and regulation of responses at the mucosal surfaces. Historically, the majority of the fundamental studies have been carried out in rodents or with tissu...

  17. Childhood asthma and continuous exposure to cats since the first year of life with cats allowed in the child's bedroom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oberle, D; von Mutius, E; von Kries, R

    2003-10-01

    There are controversial data as to interdependencies of exposure to furred pets in infancy and the prevalence of asthma and hay fever in children. Does the timing, intensity and type of pet exposure matter? Cross-sectional questionnaire data on 8216 German schoolchildren aged 5-7 years not living on a farm in ten rural districts in Bavaria in 1997 were analysed. The diagnosis of asthma and hay fever was ascertained with the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood (ISAAC) core questions. Wheeze and asthma were classified as 'atopic' in children who also had hay fever or atopic dermatitis. Prevalence and intensity of exposure to pets in the first year of life and at present were assessed via questionnaire. Although the study was of considerable size we found no convincing association between atopic disease and pet exposure in general. Exposure to cats from the first year of life to school entry, however, was associated with a reduced prevalence of atopic asthma, if cats were allowed to be in the child's bedroom: no case of atopic asthma in 296 children exposed and an aOR 0.11 (95% CI:0.01-0.52) for atopic wheeze in the last 12 months. Allowing cats to be in the child's bedroom from the first year of life onwards may be an indicator of intensive exposure to cats and appears to prevent the development of childhood asthma.

  18. Clinical and epidemiological characterization of sporotrichosis in dogs and cats (São Paulo, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudio Nazaretian Rossi

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The present study retrospectively characterized canine and feline sporotrichosis in male and female individuals of various ages. The patients had been attended at the Dermatology Service of a university veterinary hospital and the diagnosis had been confirmed by isolation and identification of Sporothrix spp in culture media. The study obtained and analyzed medical records from a period of 19 years (1993- 2011. From the evaluated sample, 37 animals were considered for the study, including eight (21.6% dogs and 29 (78.4% cats. The patients were mostly male (30/37-86.5% and had mean ages of 79.5 months for dogs and 36.3 months for cats. Most of the patients had no defined breed (25/37-67.6%. The localized cutaneous form of the disease was most prevalent (25/37-67.6%, and all cases presented positive histopathological diagnoses. Among the cats with sporotrichosis, infection was also observed in animals and/or humans that lived with these cats in 17/37 (45.9% cases. However, none of the affected dogs appeared to spread the infection, as there were no clinical signs that were consistent with the disease. Sporotrichosis was most prevalent among male mixed-breed cats, most of which had a clinical presentation that was consistent with the localized cutaneous form of the disease. In the studied sample, cats constituted an important source of infection for animals and humans living in the same household.

  19. Biologic variability of N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide in adult healthy cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Autumn N; Estrada, Amara H; Gallagher, Alexander E; Winter, Brandy; Lamb, Kenneth E; Bohannon, Mary; Hanscom, Jancy; Mainville, Celine A

    2017-02-01

    Objectives The biologic variability of N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) and its impact on diagnostic utility is unknown in healthy cats and those with cardiac disease. The purpose of this study was to determine the biologic variation of NT-proBNP within-day and week-to-week in healthy adult cats. Methods Adult cats were prospectively evaluated by complete blood count (CBC), biochemistry, total thyroxine, echocardiography, electrocardiography and blood pressure, to exclude underlying systemic or cardiac disease. Adult healthy cats were enrolled and blood samples were obtained at 11 time points over a 6 week period (0, 2 h, 4 h, 6 h, 8 h, 10 h and at weeks 2, 3, 4, 5 and 6). The intra-individual (coefficient of variation [CV I ]) biologic variation along with index of individuality and reference change values (RCVs) were calculated. Univariate models were analyzed and included comparison of the six different time points for both daily and weekly samples. This was followed by a Tukey's post-hoc adjustment, with a P value of cats. Further research is warranted to evaluate NT-proBNP variability, particularly how serial measurements of NT-proBNP may be used in the diagnosis and management of cats with cardiac disease.

  20. Molecular Detection of Rickettsia felis in Humans, Cats, and Cat Fleas in Bangladesh, 2013-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Rajib; Paul, Shyamal Kumar; Hossain, Muhammad Akram; Ahmed, Salma; Mahmud, Muhammad Chand; Nasreen, Syeda Anjuman; Ferdouse, Faria; Sharmi, Rumana Hasan; Ahamed, Farid; Ghosh, Souvik; Urushibara, Noriko; Aung, Meiji Soe; Kobayashi, Nobumichi

    2016-05-01

    High prevalence of Rickettsia felis in patients with fever of unknown origin was revealed in the north-central Bangladesh from 2012 to 2013. Subsequently, in this study, prevalence of R. felis in cats and cat fleas (Ctenocephalides felis), together with febrile patients, was studied by PCR detection of 17 kDa antigen gene and DNA sequencing. R. felis was detected in 28% (28/100) and 21% (14/68) of cat blood and cat flea samples, respectively, whereas 42% (21/50) of patients were positive for R. felis. R. felis-positive cat fleas were detected at significantly higher rate on R. felis-positive cats. The results suggested a potential role of cats and cat fleas for transmission of R. felis to humans in Bangladesh.

  1. 42 CFR 71.51 - Dogs and cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Dogs and cats. 71.51 Section 71.51 Public Health... QUARANTINE Importations § 71.51 Dogs and cats. (a) Definitions. As used in this section the term: Cat means all domestic cats. Confinement means restriction of a dog or cat to a building or other enclosure at a...

  2. CAT-ASVAB Technical Bulletin Number 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-03-01

    CAT -ASVAB Technical Bulletin #1 Personnel Testing Division Defense Manpower Data Center March 2006 Report...2. REPORT TYPE N/A 3. DATES COVERED - 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE CAT -ASVAB Technical Bulletin #1 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c...Hetter, R. D. "Psychometric Procedures for Administering CAT -ASVAB" (pp. 131-140) Chapter 4 Hetter, R. D., & Sympson J. B. "Item Exposure

  3. Channel CAT: A Tactical Link Analysis Tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-09-01

    NAVAL POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL Monterey, California THESIS CHANNEL CAT : A TACTICAL LINK ANALYSIS TOOL by Michael Glenn Coleman September 1997 Thesis...REPORT TYPE AND DATES COVERED September 1997 Master’s Thesis 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE CHANNEL CAT : A TACTICAL LINK ANALYSIS TOOL 5. FUNDING NUMBERS 6...tool, the Channel Capacity Analysis Tool (Channel CAT ), designed to provide an automated tool for the anlysis of design decisions in developing client

  4. CAT/RF Simulation Lessons Learned

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-06-11

    IVSS-2003-MAS-7 CAT /RF Simulation Lessons Learned Christopher Mocnik Vetronics Technology Area, RDECOM TARDEC Tim Lee DCS Corporation...developed a re- configurable Unmanned Ground Vehicle (UGV) simulation for the Crew integration and Automation Test bed ( CAT ) and Robotics Follower (RF...Advanced Technology Demonstration (ATD) experiments. This simulation was developed as a component of the Embedded Simulation System (ESS) of the CAT

  5. Incidence, nature, and etiology of metabolic acidosis in dogs and cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopper, K; Epstein, S E

    2012-01-01

    Metabolic acidosis is an important abnormality in ill and injured dogs and cats. To describe the incidence, nature, and etiology of metabolic acidosis in dogs and cats that had arterial or venous blood gases measured for any reason at a university teaching hospital. Dogs and cats at the Veterinary Medical Teaching Hospital. Acid base parameters and electrolyte and lactate concentrations in dogs and cats measured during a 13-month period were retrospectively retrieved from a computer database. Metabolic acidosis was defined as a standardized base excess (SBE) in dogs of acidosis (753 dogs and 134 cats). Primary metabolic acidosis was the most common disorder in dogs, whereas mixed acid base disorder of metabolic acidosis and respiratory acidosis was most common in cats. Hyperchloremic metabolic acidosis was more common than a high anion gap (AG) metabolic acidosis; 25% of dogs and 34% of cats could not be classified as having either a hyperchloremic metabolic acidosis or a high AG metabolic acidosis. Metabolic acidosis was found commonly in this patient population and was associated with a wide variety of disease processes. Mixed acid base disorders occur frequently and routine categorization of metabolic acidosis based on the presence of high AG or hyperchloremia may be misleading in a large proportion of cases. Copyright © 2012 by the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine.

  6. Dogs, cats, parasites, and humans in Brazil: opening the black box

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Dogs and cats in Brazil serve as primary hosts for a considerable number of parasites, which may affect their health and wellbeing. These may include endoparasites (e.g., protozoa, cestodes, trematodes, and nematodes) and ectoparasites (i.e., fleas, lice, mites, and ticks). While some dog and cat parasites are highly host-specific (e.g., Aelurostrongylus abstrusus and Felicola subrostratus for cats, and Angiostrongylus vasorum and Trichodectes canis for dogs), others may easily switch to other hosts, including humans. In fact, several dog and cat parasites (e.g., Toxoplasma gondii, Dipylidium caninum, Ancylostoma caninum, Strongyloides stercoralis, and Toxocara canis) are important not only from a veterinary perspective but also from a medical standpoint. In addition, some of them (e.g., Lynxacarus radovskyi on cats and Rangelia vitalii in dogs) are little known to most veterinary practitioners working in Brazil. This article is a compendium on dog and cat parasites in Brazil and a call for a One Health approach towards a better management of some of these parasites, which may potentially affect humans. Practical aspects related to the diagnosis, treatment, and control of parasitic diseases of dogs and cats in Brazil are discussed. PMID:24423244

  7. Surveillance of feral cats for influenza A virus in north central Florida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordy, James T; Jones, Cheryl A; Rue, Joanne; Crawford, Patti Cynda; Levy, Julie K; Stallknecht, David E; Tripp, Ralph A; Tompkins, Stephen M

    2012-09-01

    Transmission of highly pathogenic avian influenza and the recent pandemic H1N1 viruses to domestic cats and other felids creates concern because of the morbidity and mortality associated with human infections as well as disease in the infected animals. Experimental infections have demonstrated transmission of influenza viruses in cats. An epidemiologic survey of feral cats was conducted to determine their exposure to influenza A virus. Feral cat sera and oropharyngeal and rectal swabs were collected from November 2008 through July 2010 in Alachua County, FL and were tested for evidence of influenza A virus infection by virus isolation, PCR, and serological assay. No virus was isolated from any of 927 cats examined using MDCK cell or embryonated chicken egg culture methods, nor was viral RNA detected by RT-PCR in 200 samples tested. However, 0.43% of cats tested antibody positive for influenza A by commercial ELISA. These results suggest feral cats in this region are at minimal risk for influenza A virus infection. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  8. Peribronchiolar fibrosis in lungs of cats chronically exposed to diesel exhaust

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hyde, D.M.; Plopper, C.G.; Weir, A.J.; Murnane, R.D.; Warren, D.L.; Last, J.A.; Pepelko, W.E.

    1985-01-01

    This study reports the quantitative changes in the pulmonary proximal acinar region following chronic exposure to diesel exhaust and following an additional 6 months in clean air. Cats (13 months of age) from a minimum disease colony were exposed to clean air (eight cats for 27 months and nine cats for 33 months), diesel exhaust for 8 hours/day, 7 days/week (nine cats for 27 months), or diesel exhaust for 27 months followed by 6 months in clean air (10 cats). Morphologic and morphometric evaluation using light microscopy and scanning and transmission electron microscopy revealed two major exposure-related lesions in proximal acinar regions of lungs of cats: peribronchiolar fibrosis associated with significant increases in lymphocytes, fibroblasts, and interstitial macrophages containing diesel particulate-like inclusions and bronchiolar epithelial metaplasia associated with the presence of ciliated and basal cells and alveolar macrophages containing diesel particulate-like inclusions. Peribronchiolar fibrosis was greater at the end of the 6 months in clean air following exposure, whereas the bronchiolar epithelial metaplasia was most severe at the end of exposure. Following an additional 6 months in clean air the epithelium more closely resembled the control epithelial cell population. The labeling index of terminal bronchiolar epithelium was significantly increased at the end of exposure but was not significantly different from controls or exposed cats following an additional 6 months in clean air. The ultrastructural appearance of epithelial cells remained relatively unchanged following diesel exhaust exposure with the exception of diesel particulate-like inclusions

  9. What's in a name? Perceptions of stray and feral cat welfare and control in Aotearoa, New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farnworth, Mark J; Campbell, Joanna; Adams, Nigel J

    2011-01-01

    New Zealanders (n = 354) rated the acceptability of lethal and nonlethal cat control methods and the importance of conservation and welfare. Lethal control was more acceptable for feral cats than strays; for nonlethal control, the inverse was true. More than concern for the welfare of cats subjected to control, perceived conservation benefits, risk of disease transfer, and companion cat welfare dictated the acceptability of control measures. Similarly, the welfare consideration for groups of cats differed, transitioning from companion (highest) to feral (lowest). Differences in attitudes toward acceptability of control methods were evident. In particular, nonhuman animal professionals ranked lethal control as more acceptable than did nonanimal professionals. Cat caregivers (owners) considered both conservation and welfare issues of greater importance than did nonowners. Owners ranked the acceptability of nonlethal control methods higher for stray cats, but not feral, than did nonowners. This research indicates that the use of the terms stray and feral may have significant impact on cats in New Zealand. There is also a greater consideration of conservation values than of welfare in stray and feral cat control.

  10. Polyprenyl Immunostimulant Treatment of Cats with Presumptive Non-Effusive Feline Infectious Peritonitis In a Field Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legendre, Alfred M; Kuritz, Tanya; Galyon, Gina; Baylor, Vivian M; Heidel, Robert Eric

    2017-01-01

    Feline infectious peritonitis (FIP) is a fatal disease with no clinically effective treatment. This field study evaluated treatment with Polyprenyl Immunostimulant (PI) in cats with the non-effusive form of FIP. Because immune suppression is a major component in the pathology of FIP, we hypothesized that treatment with an immune system stimulant would increase survival times of cats with dry FIP. Sixty cats, diagnosed with dry FIP by primary care and specialist veterinarians and meeting the acceptance criteria, were treated with PI without intentional selection of less severe cases. The survival time from the start of PI treatment in cats diagnosed with dry FIP showed that of the 60 cats with dry FIP treated with PI, 8 survived over 200 days, and 4 of 60 survived over 300 days. A literature search identified 59 cats with non-effusive or dry FIP; no cat with only dry FIP lived longer than 200 days. Veterinarians of cats treated with PI that survived over 30 days reported improvements in clinical signs and behavior. The survival times in our study were significantly longer in cats who were not treated with corticosteroids concurrently with PI. While not a cure, PI shows promise in the treatment of dry form FIP, but a controlled study will be needed to verify the benefit.

  11. Epidemiology of Feline Foamy Virus and Feline Immunodeficiency Virus Infections in Domestic and Feral Cats: a Seroepidemiological Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winkler, I. G.; Löchelt, M.; Flower, R. L. P.

    1999-01-01

    Although foamy viruses (Spumaviruses) have repeatedly been isolated from both healthy and diseased cats, cattle, and primates, the primary mode of transmission of those common viruses remains undefined. A database of the feline foamy virus (FeFV) and feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) antibody status, age, and sex of 389 domestic cats presented to veterinarians was assembled. A similar database for 66 feral (wild) cats was also assembled. That FeFV antibody status reflects infection was validated by PCR. Both FeFV and FIV infection rates were found to gradually increase with age, and over 70% of cats older than 9 years were seropositive for FeFV. In domestic cats, the prevalence of FeFV infection was similar in both sexes. In feral cats, FeFV infection was more prevalent in female cats than in male cats. Although both FeFV and FIV have been reported to be transmitted by biting, the patterns of infection observed are more consistent with an interpretation that transmission of these two retroviruses is not the same. The prevalence of FIV infection is highest in nondesexed male cats, the animals most likely to display aggressive behavior. The gradual increase in the proportion of FeFV-infected animals is consistent with transmission of foamy viruses by intimate social contact between animals and less commonly by aggressive behavior. PMID:10449463

  12. Controlled Archaeological Test Site (CATS) Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — CATS facility is at the Construction Engineering Research Laboratory (CERL), Champaign, IL. This 1-acre test site includes a variety of subsurface features carefully...

  13. Association between Characteristics of Cats and Satisfaction of Owners who Adopted Cats from an Animal Hospital in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    ONODERA, Nodoka; UCHIDA, Keiko; KAKUMA, Yoshie

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT A follow-up questionnaire survey was conducted with 29 cat owners who adopted cats from an animal hospital in Japan. Physical characteristics were found to be important factors for the owners when choosing a cat. There were significant differences between impression of the cat for the owners at present and images of their ideal cats, and the levels of aggression and activeness of the cats at present were rated higher than their ideal cats. A significant negative correlation was found between the degree of satisfaction with the cat and occurrence of house soiling; thus, some behavioral problems may deteriorate the relationship between the owner and the cat. PMID:24419973

  14. Demodex gatoi -associated contagious pruritic dermatosis in cats - a report from six households in Finland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajaniemi Riitta-Liisa

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Demodex gatoi is unique among demodectic mites. It possesses a distinct stubby appearance, and, instead of residing in the hair follicles, it dwells in the keratin layer of the epidermis, causing a pruritic and contagious skin disease in cats. Little is known of the occurrence of D. gatoi in Europe or control of D. gatoi infestation. Case presentation We describe D. gatoi in 10 cats, including five Cornish Rex, two Burmese, one Exotic, one Persian and one Siamese, living in six multi-cat households in different locations in Finland containing 21 cats in total. Intense pruritus was the main clinical sign. Scaling, broken hairs, alopecia and self-inflicted excoriations were also observed. Diagnosis was based on finding typical short-bodied demodectic mites in skin scrapings, skin biopsies or on tape strips. Other pruritic skin diseases, such as allergies and dermatophytoses, were ruled out. In one household, despite finding several mites on one cat, all six cats of the household remained symptomless. Amitraz used weekly at a concentration of 125-250 ppm for 2-3 months, proved successful in three households, 2% lime sulphur weekly dips applied for six weeks in one household and peroral ivermectin (1 mg every other day for 10 weeks in one household. Previous trials in four households with imidacloprid-moxidectin, selamectin or injected ivermectin given once or twice a month appeared ineffective. Conclusion D. gatoi-associated dermatitis is an emerging contagious skin disease in cats in Finland. Although pruritus is common, some cats may harbour the mites without clinical signs. In addition, due to translucency of the mites and fastidious feline grooming habits, the diagnosis may be challenging. An effective and convenient way to treat D. gatoi infestations has yet to emerge.

  15. Light whole genome sequence for SNP discovery across domestic cat breeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Driscoll Carlos

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The domestic cat has offered enormous genomic potential in the veterinary description of over 250 hereditary disease models as well as the occurrence of several deadly feline viruses (feline leukemia virus -- FeLV, feline coronavirus -- FECV, feline immunodeficiency virus - FIV that are homologues to human scourges (cancer, SARS, and AIDS respectively. However, to realize this bio-medical potential, a high density single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP map is required in order to accomplish disease and phenotype association discovery. Description To remedy this, we generated 3,178,297 paired fosmid-end Sanger sequence reads from seven cats, and combined these data with the publicly available 2X cat whole genome sequence. All sequence reads were assembled together to form a 3X whole genome assembly allowing the discovery of over three million SNPs. To reduce potential false positive SNPs due to the low coverage assembly, a low upper-limit was placed on sequence coverage and a high lower-limit on the quality of the discrepant bases at a potential variant site. In all domestic cats of different breeds: female Abyssinian, female American shorthair, male Cornish Rex, female European Burmese, female Persian, female Siamese, a male Ragdoll and a female African wildcat were sequenced lightly. We report a total of 964 k common SNPs suitable for a domestic cat SNP genotyping array and an additional 900 k SNPs detected between African wildcat and domestic cats breeds. An empirical sampling of 94 discovered SNPs were tested in the sequenced cats resulting in a SNP validation rate of 99%. Conclusions These data provide a large collection of mapped feline SNPs across the cat genome that will allow for the development of SNP genotyping platforms for mapping feline diseases.

  16. Survey of vector-borne agents in feral cats and first report of Babesia gibsoni in cats on St Kitts, West Indies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Patrick John; Köster, Liza; Li, Jing; Zhang, Jilei; Huang, Ke; Branford, Gillian Carmichael; Marchi, Silvia; Vandenplas, Michel; Wang, Chengming

    2017-11-13

    As there is little data on vector-borne diseases of cats in the Caribbean region and even around the world, we tested feral cats from St Kitts by PCR to detect infections with Babesia, Ehrlichia and spotted fever group Rickettsia (SFGR) and surveyed them for antibodies to Rickettsia rickettsii and Ehrlichia canis. Whole blood was collected from apparently healthy feral cats during spay/ neuter campaigns on St Kitts in 2011 (N = 68) and 2014 (N = 52). Sera from the 52 cats from 2014 were used to detect antibodies to Ehrlichia canis and Rickettsia rickettsii using indirect fluorescent antibody tests and DNA extracted from whole blood of a total of 119 cats (68 from 2011, and 51 from 2014) was used for PCRs for Babesia, Ehrlichia and Rickettsia. We could not amplify DNA of SFG Rickettsia in any of the samples but found DNA of E. canis in 5% (6/119), Babesia vogeli in 13% (15/119), Babesia gibsoni in 4% (5/119), mixed infections with B. gibsoni and B. vogeli in 3% (3/119), and a poorly characterized Babesia sp. in 1% (1/119). Overall, 10% of the 52 cats we tested by IFA for E. canis were positive while 42% we tested by indirect fluorescent antibody (IFA) for R. rickettsii antigens were positive. Our study provides the first evidence that cats can be infected with B. gibsoni and also indicates that cats in the Caribbean may be commonly exposed to other vector-borne agents including SFGR, E. canis and B. vogeli. Animal health workers should be alerted to the possibility of clinical infections in their patients while public health workers should be alerted to the possibility that zoonotic SFGR are likely circulating in the region.

  17. Periaortic lymphoma in a cat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Bree

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Case summary A 14-year-old neutered male Siamese cat was presented with a 3 month history of lethargy, inappetence, dehydration, hindlimb ataxia and intermittent proprioceptive deficits in the hindlimbs. Physical examination revealed low body condition score (1.75/5, pallor and bilateral basilar grade II/VI systolic heart murmur. Neurological examination revealed hindlimb ataxia, severe atrophy of the hindlimb musculature, intermittent hindlimb proprioceptive deficits and normoreflexia. Clinicopathological investigations revealed non-regenerative anaemia (haematocrit 0.17 l/l; reference interval [RI] 0.24–0.45 l/l and increased feline pancreatic lipase concentration (Spec fPL test [IDEXX] 8.3 μg/l; RI 0.1–3.5 μg/l. Feline leukaemia virus antigen and feline immunodeficiency virus antibody tests were negative. Thoracic and abdominal imaging revealed a soft tissue structure in the area of the thoracoabdominal aorta. CT confirmed a periaortic contrast-enhancing mass extending from the level of T9–L2, with associated intervertebral infiltration at the level of T11–T12. Post-mortem examination confirmed the presence of a solid, white, multinodular, well-demarcated mass encircling the aorta extending from T9–L2. Based on histopathology and immunohistochemistry, a diagnosis of B-cell lymphoma was made. Lymphoma was also identified histopathologically within the kidneys and spleen. Evidence of mild Wallerian degeneration was present within the spinal cord, indicating compression at the level of the periaortic mass. Relevance and novel information To our knowledge, this is the first report of periaortic lymphoma in the cat. Although periaortic tumours are exceptionally rare in veterinary medicine, lymphoma should be considered as a differential in cats.

  18. On Schr\\"odinger's cat

    OpenAIRE

    de Silva, Nalin

    2010-01-01

    Schr\\"odinger's cat appears to have been harassed in a chamber during the past eighty years or so by interpreting the role of the observer as a person, who sets an experiment and then observes results, may be after some time. The realist position tells us that the physical processes would take place independent of the observer with well defined properties, whereas the positivist position wants us to believe that nothing can be said of a system when it is not being observed. In this paper we q...

  19. In search of Schroedinger's cat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gribbin, John.

    1984-01-01

    The book explains how the paradox of Schroedinger's cat led to an understanding of reality in quantum physics. The contents of the book is divided into three parts. Part one concerns light, atoms and Bohr's atom. Quantum mechanics is discussed in Part Two, including photons and electrons, matrices and waves, and applications of quanta. The last part deals with chance and uncertainty, paradoxes and possibilities, the experimental proof of the paradoxical reality of the quantum world, and the many-worlds interpretation of quantum mechanics. (U.K.)

  20. Cystinuria Associated with Different SLC7A9 Gene Variants in the Cat.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keijiro Mizukami

    Full Text Available Cystinuria is a classical inborn error of metabolism characterized by a selective proximal renal tubular defect affecting cystine, ornithine, lysine, and arginine (COLA reabsorption, which can lead to uroliths and urinary obstruction. In humans, dogs and mice, cystinuria is caused by variants in one of two genes, SLC3A1 and SLC7A9, which encode the rBAT and bo,+AT subunits of the bo,+ basic amino acid transporter system, respectively. In this study, exons and flanking regions of the SLC3A1 and SLC7A9 genes were sequenced from genomic DNA of cats (Felis catus with COLAuria and cystine calculi. Relative to the Felis catus-6.2 reference genome sequence, DNA sequences from these affected cats revealed 3 unique homozygous SLC7A9 missense variants: one in exon 5 (p.Asp236Asn from a non-purpose-bred medium-haired cat, one in exon 7 (p.Val294Glu in a Maine Coon and a Sphinx cat, and one in exon 10 (p.Thr392Met from a non-purpose-bred long-haired cat. A genotyping assay subsequently identified another cystinuric domestic medium-haired cat that was homozygous for the variant originally identified in the purebred cats. These missense variants result in deleterious amino acid substitutions of highly conserved residues in the bo,+AT protein. A limited population survey supported that the variants found were likely causative. The remaining 2 sequenced domestic short-haired cats had a heterozygous variant at a splice donor site in intron 10 and a homozygous single nucleotide variant at a branchpoint in intron 11 of SLC7A9, respectively. This study identifies the first SLC7A9 variants causing feline cystinuria and reveals that, as in humans and dogs, this disease is genetically heterogeneous in cats.

  1. Detection of Hepatozoon canis in stray dogs and cats in Bangkok, Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jittapalapong, Sathaporn; Rungphisutthipongse, Opart; Maruyama, Soichi; Schaefer, John J; Stich, Roger W

    2006-10-01

    A rapidly increasing stray animal population in Bangkok has caused concern regarding transmission of vector-borne and zoonotic diseases. The purpose of this study was to determine if stray animals in Bangkok are a potential reservoir of Hepatozoon, a genus of tick-borne parasites that has received little attention in Thailand. Blood samples were collected from stray companion animals near monasteries in 42 Bangkok metropolitan districts. Both dogs and cats were sampled from 26 districts, dogs alone from 4 districts and cats alone from 12 districts. Samples were collected from a total of 308 dogs and 300 cats. Light microscopy and an 18 S rRNA gene-based PCR assay were used to test these samples for evidence of Hepatozoon infection. Gamonts were observed in blood smears for 2.6% of dogs and 0.7% of cats by microscopy. The PCR assay detected Hepatozoon in buffy coats from 11.4% of dogs and 32.3% of cats tested. The prevalence of infection was the same between male and female dogs or cats, and PCR-positive dogs and cats were found in 36.6% and 36.8% of the districts surveyed, respectively. There was an association between the percentages of PCR-positive dogs and cats in districts where both host species were sampled. Sequences of representative amplicons were closest to those reported for H. canis. These results represent the first molecular confirmation that H. canis is indigenous to Thailand. The unexpectedly high prevalence of Hepatozoon among stray cats indicates that their role in the epizootiology of hepatozoonosis should be investigated.

  2. Treatment of shelter cats with oral terbinafine and concurrent lime sulphur rinses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moriello, Karen; Coyner, Kimberly; Trimmer, Ann; Newbury, Sandra; Kunder, Darcie

    2013-12-01

    Dermatophytosis is an important contagious and infectious skin disease in an animal shelter. Itraconazole is the commonly used systemic antifungal drug, but it is expensive in some countries and, at times, difficult to obtain. Terbinafine is a fungicidal allylamine with documented in vitro and in vivo efficacy against Microsporum canis in pet cats and in cats with experimental infections. To describe the use of oral terbinafine for the treatment of M. canis dermatophytosis in shelter cats. The response to treatment of 85 shelter cats with naturally occurring M. canis dermatophytosis was monitored by examination, weekly toothbrush fungal cultures and the number of colony-forming units on fungal culture plates. Cats were treated with either 14 (n = 21) or 21 days (n = 64) of terbinafine per os (p.o.) along with concurrent twice weekly lime sulphur rinses and daily environmental disinfection. Cats treated with 14 days of terbinafine p.o. showed an initial response to therapy but by week 6 had relapsed and required rescue therapy with a course of itraconazole (10 mg/kg p.o.) to obtain a cure. Cats treated with 21 days of terbinafine p.o. showed a response to treatment similar to published reports using itraconazole p.o. for 21 days. The mean and median number of days to mycological cure was 22.70 (range 13-39). Terbinafine was well tolerated. None of the cats developed oral lesions postgrooming of lime sulphur rinses. Where itraconazole is not available, substitution with terbinafine in established protocols may allow shelters to treat cats that otherwise would go untreated. © 2013 ESVD and ACVD.

  3. Therapeutic serum phenobarbital concentrations obtained using chronic transdermal administration of phenobarbital in healthy cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delamaide Gasper, Joy A; Barnes Heller, Heidi L; Robertson, Michelle; Trepanier, Lauren A

    2015-04-01

    Seizures are a common cause of neurologic disease, and phenobarbital (PB) is the most commonly used antiepileptic drug. Chronic oral dosing can be challenging for cat owners, leading to poor compliance. The purpose of this study was to determine if the transdermal administration of PB could achieve serum PB concentrations of between 15 and 45 μg/ml in healthy cats. Nineteen healthy cats were enrolled in three groups. Transdermal PB in pluronic lecithin organogel (PLO) was applied to the pinnae for 14 days at a dosage of 3 mg/kg q12h in group 1 (n = 6 cats) and 9 mg/kg q12h in group 2 (n = 7 cats). Transdermal PB in Lipoderm Activemax was similarly applied at 9 mg/kg q12h for 14 days in group 3 (n = 6 cats). Steady-state serum PB concentrations were measured at trough, and at 2, 4 and 6 h after the morning dose on day 15. In group 1, median concentrations ranged from 6.0-7.5 μg/ml throughout the day (observed range 0-11 μg/ml). Group 2 median concentrations were 26.0 μg/ml (observed range 18.0-37.0 μg/ml). For group 3, median concentrations ranged from 15.0-17.0 μg/ml throughout the day (range 5-29 μg/ml). Side effects were mild. One cat was withdrawn from group 2 owing to ataxia and sedation. These results show therapeutic serum PB concentrations can be achieved in cats following chronic transdermal administration of PB in PLO at a dosage of 9 mg/kg q12h. More individual variation was noted using Lipoderm Activemax. Transdermal administration may be an alternative for cats that are difficult to medicate orally. © ISFM and AAFP 2014.

  4. Overweight adult cats have significantly lower voluntary physical activity than adult lean cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Godoy, Maria Rc; Shoveller, Anna K

    2017-12-01

    Objectives The objectives of the current pilot study were to evaluate whether body condition score (BCS) and body weight are significantly related to physical activity counts, and to evaluate potential interaction between BCS and voluntary physical activity measured over a 14 day period. Methods Ten (five lean, five overweight), neutered, adult American Shorthair cats were selected for this study (median age 4 ± 0.5 years). Cats with a BCS of ⩽3.0 were considered lean, whereas cats with a BCS >3.0 were considered overweight, using a 5-point scale. Cats were housed in a free-living environment with indoor/outdoor access and were individually fed once daily a commercially available dry extruded diet and allowed 1 h to eat. Voluntary physical activity was measured consecutively for 14 days using the Actical Activity Monitors that were worn parallel to the ribs and attached via a harness. Results Lean cats had a greater mean total daily voluntary physical activity ( P = 0.0059), and a greater voluntary physical activity during light ( P = 0.0023) and dark ( P = 0.0446) periods, with overweight cats having 60% of the physical activity of lean cats. Lean cats were more active before feeding and during animal care procedures. These data suggest that lean cats have a greater anticipatory physical activity prior to feeding and are more eager to have social interaction with humans than overweight cats. A significant interaction was observed between day of physical activity measurement and BCS for total daily voluntary physical activity ( P = 0.0133) and activity during the light period ( P = 0.0016) where lean cats were consistently more active than overweight cats. In general, cats were more active during weekdays vs weekends. Conclusions and relevance The results of this study suggest that overweight cats are less active than lean cats and that voluntary physical activity level appears to be influenced by social interaction with humans.

  5. Pancreatitis in dogs and cats: definitions and pathophysiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, P

    2015-01-01

    Pancreatitis, or inflammation of the pancreas, is commonly seen in dogs and cats and presents a spectrum of disease severities from acute to chronic and mild to severe. It is usually sterile, but the causes and pathophysiology remain poorly understood. The acute end of the disease spectrum is associated with a high mortality but the potential for complete recovery of organ structure and function if the animal survives. At the other end of the spectrum, chronic pancreatitis in either species can cause refractory pain and reduce quality of life. It may also result in progressive exocrine and endocrine functional impairment. There is confusion in the veterinary literature about definitions of acute and chronic pancreatitis and there are very few studies on the pathophysiology of naturally occurring pancreatitis in dogs and cats. This article reviews histological and clinical definitions and current understanding of the pathophysiology and causes in small animals by comparison with the much more extensive literature in humans, and suggests many areas that need further study in dogs and cats. © 2015 British Small Animal Veterinary Association.

  6. Probing a gravitational cat state

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anastopoulos, C; Hu, B L

    2015-01-01

    We investigate the nature of a gravitational two-state system (G2S) in the simplest setup in Newtonian gravity. In a quantum description of matter a single motionless massive particle can in principle be in a superposition state of two spatially separated locations. This superposition state in gravity, or gravitational cat state, would lead to fluctuations in the Newtonian force exerted on a nearby test particle. The central quantity of importance for this inquiry is the energy density correlation. This corresponds to the noise kernel in stochastic gravity theory, evaluated in the weak field nonrelativistic limit. In this limit quantum fluctuations of the stress–energy tensor manifest as the fluctuations of the Newtonian force. We describe the properties of such a G2S system and present two ways of measuring the cat state for the Newtonian force, one by way of a classical probe, the other a quantum harmonic oscillator. Our findings include: (i) mass density fluctuations persist even in single particle systems, and they are of the same order of magnitude as the mean; (ii) a classical probe generically records a non-Markovian fluctuating force; (iii) a quantum probe interacting with the G2S system may undergo Rabi oscillations in a strong coupling regime. This simple prototypical gravitational quantum system could provide a robust testing ground to compare predictions from alternative quantum theories, since the results reported here are based on standard quantum mechanics and classical gravity. (paper)

  7. Cats, Cancer and Comparative Oncology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claire M. Cannon

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Naturally occurring tumors in dogs are well-established models for several human cancers. Domestic cats share many of the benefits of dogs as a model (spontaneous cancers developing in an immunocompetent animal sharing the same environment as humans, shorter lifespan allowing more rapid trial completion and data collection, lack of standard of care for many cancers allowing evaluation of therapies in treatment-naïve populations, but have not been utilized to the same degree in the One Medicine approach to cancer. There are both challenges and opportunities in feline compared to canine models. This review will discuss three specific tumor types where cats may offer insights into human cancers. Feline oral squamous cell carcinoma is common, shares both clinical and molecular features with human head and neck cancer and is an attractive model for evaluating new therapies. Feline mammary tumors are usually malignant and aggressive, with the ‘triple-negative’ phenotype being more common than in humans, offering an enriched population in which to examine potential targets and treatments. Finally, although there is not an exact corollary in humans, feline injection site sarcoma may be a model for inflammation-driven tumorigenesis, offering opportunities for studying variations in individual susceptibility as well as preventative and therapeutic strategies.

  8. Functional foods in pet nutrition: Focus on dogs and cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Cerbo, Alessandro; Morales-Medina, Julio Cesar; Palmieri, Beniamino; Pezzuto, Federica; Cocco, Raffaella; Flores, Gonzalo; Iannitti, Tommaso

    2017-06-01

    Functional foods provide health benefits if they are consumed on a regular basis as part of a varied diet. In this review, we discuss the availability and role of functional foods in pet nutrition with a focus on dogs and cats. Indeed, functional foods modify gastrointestinal physiology, promote changes in biochemical parameters, improve brain functions and may reduce or minimize the risk of developing specific pathologies. This evidence derives largely from clinical studies while only limited evidence is available from studies in dogs and cats. Therefore, functional food consumption should be further investigated in pet nutrition to understand how dietary interventions can be used for disease prevention and treatment. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  9. Quantum Computer Games: Schrodinger Cat and Hounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Michal; Gordon, Goren

    2012-01-01

    The quantum computer game "Schrodinger cat and hounds" is the quantum extension of the well-known classical game fox and hounds. Its main objective is to teach the unique concepts of quantum mechanics in a fun way. "Schrodinger cat and hounds" demonstrates the effects of superposition, destructive and constructive interference, measurements and…

  10. Disseminated Mycobacterium avium infection in a cat

    OpenAIRE

    Barry, Maureen; Taylor, Judith; Woods, Paul

    2002-01-01

    A domestic shorthair cat was presented for lethargy and ataxia. Clinical findings included an abdominal mass, lumbosacral pain, ataxia. Aspirates from the liver and lymph nodes revealed intracellular, negative-staining rods. Treatment for presumptive mycobacterium infection was unsuccessful and the cat was euthanized. Disseminated Mycobacterium avium was confirmed on culture.

  11. Disseminated Mycobacterium avium infection in a cat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barry, Maureen; Taylor, Judith; Woods, J Paul

    2002-05-01

    A domestic shorthair cat was presented for lethargy and ataxia. Clinical findings included an abdominal mass, lumbosacral pain, ataxia. Aspirates from the liver and lymph nodes revealed intracellular, negative-staining rods. Treatment for presumptive mycobacterium infection was unsuccessful and the cat was euthanized. Disseminated Mycobacterium avium was confirmed on culture.

  12. Criptococose em felino Cryptococcosis in cat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F.J.F. Sant’Ana

    1999-08-01

    Full Text Available A case of cryptococcosis in a cat refferred to the Hospital Veterinário da Universidade Federal Rural de Pernambuco is described. The cat was euthanized and the microscopic examination of a firm mass observed in the nasal cavity was accomplished. Cryptococcus sp. and a chronic inflammatory process was observed throughout the tissue.

  13. Malassezia spp. overgrowth in allergic cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ordeix, Laura; Galeotti, Franca; Scarampella, Fabia; Dedola, Carla; Bardagí, Mar; Romano, Erica; Fondati, Alessandra

    2007-10-01

    A series of 18 allergic cats with multifocal Malassezia spp. overgrowth is reported: atopic dermatitis was diagnosed in 16, an adverse food reaction in another and one was euthanized 2 months after diagnosis of Malassezia overgrowth. All the cats were otherwise healthy and those tested (16 out of 18) for feline leukaemia or feline immunodeficiency virus infections were all negative. At dermatological examination, multifocal alopecia, erythema, crusting and greasy adherent brownish scales were variably distributed on all cats. Cytological examination revealed Malassezia spp. overgrowth with/without bacterial infection in facial skin (n = 11), ventral neck (n = 6), abdomen (n = 6), ear canal (n = 4), chin (n = 2), ear pinnae (n = 2), interdigital (n = 1) and claw folds skin (n = 1). Moreover, in two cats Malassezia pachydermatis was isolated in fungal cultures from lesional skin. Azoles therapy alone was prescribed in seven, azoles and antibacterial therapy in eight and azoles with both antibacterial and anti-inflammatory therapy in three of the cats. After 3-4 weeks of treatment, substantial reduction of pruritus and skin lesions was observed in all 11 cats treated with a combined therapy and in five of seven treated solely with azoles. Malassezia spp. overgrowth may represent a secondary cutaneous problem in allergic cats particularly in those presented for dermatological examination displaying greasy adherent brownish scales. The favourable response to treatment with antifungal treatments alone suggests that, as in dogs, Malassezia spp. may be partly responsible for both pruritus and cutaneous lesions in allergic cats.

  14. Mysterious quantum Cheshire cat: an illusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michielsen, K.; Lippert, Th.; De Raedt, H.

    2015-09-01

    We provide a mystery-free explanation for the experimentally observed facts in the neutron interferometry quantum Cheshire cat experiment of Denkmayr et al. [Nat. Comm. 5, 4492, 2014] in terms of a discrete-event simulation model, demonstrating that the quantum Cheshire cat is an illusion.

  15. Getting a CAT Scan (For Kids)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... First Aid & Safety Doctors & Hospitals Videos Recipes for Kids Kids site Sitio para niños How the Body Works ... Español Getting a CAT Scan (Video) KidsHealth / For Kids / Getting a CAT Scan (Video) Print en español ...

  16. Feral Cats: Too Long a Threat to Hawaiian Wildlife

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hess, Steven C.; Banko, Paul C.

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND Domestic cats (Felis catus) were first brought to Hawai`i aboard sailing ships of European explorers and colonists. The job of these predators was to control mice and rats on the ships during the long voyages. As in other places, cats were taken in and adopted by the families of Hawai`i and soon became household pets known as popoki. But cats have always been very well equipped to live and hunt on their own. On tropical archipelagos like the Hawaiian Islands where no other predatory mammals of comparable size existed, abundant and naive prey were particularly easy game, and cats soon thrived in the wild. Although the details of when cats first came to live in the wild remain little known, adventurers, writers, and naturalists of the day recorded some important observations. Feral cats were observed in remote wilderness around K?ilauea volcano on Hawai`i Island as early as 1840 by explorer William Brackenridge. Mark Twain was so impressed by the great abundance of cats when he visited Honolulu in 1866 that he reported his observations in the Sacramento Union newspaper, which were later reprinted in his book Roughing It: I saw... tame cats, wild cats, singed cats, individual cats, groups of cats, platoons of cats, companies of cats, regiments of cats, armies of cats, multitudes of cats, millions of cats...

  17. Reconciling actual and perceived rates of predation by domestic cats

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Jennifer L; Maclean, Mairead; Evans, Matthew R; Hodgson, Dave J

    2015-01-01

    The predation of wildlife by domestic cats (Felis catus) is a complex problem: Cats are popular companion animals in modern society but are also acknowledged predators of birds, herpetofauna, invertebrates, and small mammals. A comprehensive understanding of this conservation issue demands an understanding of both the ecological consequence of owning a domestic cat and the attitudes of cat owners. Here, we determine whether cat owners are aware of the predatory behavior of their cats, using data collected from 86 cats in two UK villages. We examine whether the amount of prey their cat returns influences the attitudes of 45 cat owners toward the broader issue of domestic cat predation. We also contribute to the wider understanding of physiological, spatial, and behavioral drivers of prey returns among cats. We find an association between actual prey returns and owner predictions at the coarse scale of predatory/nonpredatory behavior, but no correlation between the observed and predicted prey-return rates among predatory cats. Cat owners generally disagreed with the statement that cats are harmful to wildlife, and disfavored all mitigation options apart from neutering. These attitudes were uncorrelated with the predatory behavior of their cats. Cat owners failed to perceive the magnitude of their cats’ impacts on wildlife and were not influenced by ecological information. Management options for the mitigation of cat predation appear unlikely to work if they focus on “predation awareness” campaigns or restrictions of cat freedom. PMID:26306163

  18. A Survey of Public Opinion on Cat (Felis catus) Predation and the Future Direction of Cat Management in New Zealand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Jessica K.; Bruce, Stephanie J.; Dale, Arnja R.

    2017-01-01

    Simple Summary The need to balance the benefits of cat ownership with the prevention of wildlife predation in New Zealand evokes strong and opposing views. This paper evaluates public concern for wildlife predation by four categories of cats; owned cats, managed-stray cats, unmanaged-stray cats, and feral cats. In addition, public support for a National Cat Management Strategy and a range of management techniques are investigated. Although the participants expressed concern regarding wildlife predation by all four categories of cats, the highest levels of concern were predation by feral cats, followed by unmanaged stray cats, then managed stray cats, and finally owned cats. The large majority of participants were found to support the implementation of a National Cat Management Strategy. Management techniques for owned cats that obtained public support included; cat exclusion zones, limits on ownership numbers, microchipping, Council registration, and de-sexing. Trap-Neuter-Return (TNR) was the favoured management technique for managed stray cats, while TNR and lethal management techniques were equally favoured for unmanaged stray cats. Lethal control methods were favoured for feral cats. The findings presented in this paper will be useful to consider during the development of legislation relating to cat management and predation in New Zealand. Abstract Cat predation is a prominent issue in New Zealand that provokes strong and opposing views. We explored, via 1011 face-to-face questionnaires, public opinion on (a) support for a National Cat Management Strategy (78% support); (b) concern regarding predation of wildlife by owned and un-owned cats (managed stray, unmanaged stray, and feral cats); (c) the acceptability of management techniques for owned cats; and (d) the acceptability of population management techniques for un-owned cats. The highest concern was expressed regarding the predation of non-native and native wildlife by feral cats (60 and 86% repectively

  19. Assessment of Clicker Training for Shelter Cats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kogan, Lori

    2017-01-01

    Simple Summary Living conditions in animal shelters can be stressful for cats. Clicker training might be able to alleviate this stress, by giving cats an opportunity to learn new behaviors and interact with humans. In this study, we assessed the initial ability of 100 shelter cats to perform four cued behaviors: touching a target, sitting, spinning, and giving a high-five. Each cat completed 15, five-min training sessions over a two-week span. At the end of the program, we assessed the cats’ ability to perform the same behaviors. On average, the cats performed better on all four behaviors after clicker training, suggesting that the cats could learn to perform specific behaviors on cue. Individual cats with a higher level of interest in food showed greater gains in learning for two of the behaviors (high-five and touching a target). Cats with a bolder temperament at post-assessment demonstrated greater gains in learning than those classified as shy. We suggest that clicker training can be used to enhance cats’ well-being while they are housed in shelters, and that the learned behaviors might make them more desirable to adopters. Abstract Clicker training has the potential to mitigate stress among shelter cats by providing environmental enrichment and human interaction. This study assessed the ability of cats housed in a shelter-like setting to learn new behaviors via clicker training in a limited amount of time. One hundred shelter cats were enrolled in the study. Their baseline ability to perform four specific behaviors touching a target, sitting, spinning, and giving a high-five was assessed, before exposing them to 15, five-min clicker training sessions, followed by a post-training assessment. Significant gains in performance scores were found for all four cued behaviors after training (p = 0.001). A cat’s age and sex did not have any effect on successful learning, but increased food motivation was correlated with greater gains in learning for two of the

  20. Epidemiology of Sarcocystis neurona infections in domestic cats (Felis domesticus) and its association with equine protozoal myeloencephalitis (EPM) case farms and feral cats from a mobile spay and neuter clinic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanek, J F; Stich, R W; Dubey, J P; Reed, S M; Njoku, C J; Lindsay, D S; Schmall, L M; Johnson, G K; LaFave, B M; Saville, W J A

    2003-11-28

    Equine protozoal myeloencephalitis (EPM) is a serious neurologic disease in the horse most commonly caused by Sarcocystis neurona. The domestic cat (Felis domesticus) is an intermediate host for S. neurona. In the present study, nine farms, known to have prior clinically diagnosed cases of EPM and a resident cat population were identified and sampled accordingly. In addition to the farm cats sampled, samples were also collected from a mobile spay and neuter clinic. Overall, serum samples were collected in 2001 from 310 cats, with samples including barn, feral and inside/outside cats. Of these 310 samples, 35 were from nine horse farms. Horse serum samples were also collected and traps were set for opossums at each of the farms. The S. neurona direct agglutination test (SAT) was used for both the horse and cat serum samples (1:25 dilution). Fourteen of 35 (40%) cats sampled from horse farms had circulating S. neurona agglutinating antibodies. Twenty-seven of the 275 (10%) cats from the spay/neuter clinic also had detectable S. neurona antibodies. Overall, 115 of 123 (93%) horses tested positive for anti-S. neurona antibodies, with each farm having greater than a 75% exposure rate among sampled horses. Twenty-one opossums were trapped on seven of the nine farms. Eleven opossums had Sarcocystis sp. sporocysts, six of them were identified as S. neurona sporocysts based on bioassays in gamma-interferon gene knockout mice with each opossum representing a different farm. Demonstration of S. neurona agglutinating antibodies in domestic and feral cats corroborates previous research demonstrating feral cats to be naturally infected, and also suggests that cats can be frequently infected with S. neurona and serve as one of several natural intermediate hosts for S. neurona.

  1. Epidemiologic survey of feline leukemia virus in domestic cats on Tsushima Island, Japan: management strategy for Tsushima leopard cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makundi, Isaac; Koshida, Yushi; Kuse, Kyohei; Hiratsuka, Takahiro; Ito, Jumpei; Baba, Takuya; Watanabe, Shinya; Kawamura, Maki; Odahara, Yuka; Miyake, Ariko; Yamamoto, Hanae; Kuniyoshi, Sawako; Onuma, Manabu; Nishigaki, Kazuo

    2017-11-01

    The Tsushima leopard cat (TLC) Prionailurus bengalensis euptilurus, a subspecies of P. bengalensis, is designated a National Natural Monument of Japan, and lives only on Tsushima Island, Nagasaki Prefecture, Japan. TLCs are threatened by various infectious diseases. Feline leukemia virus (FeLV) causes a serious infectious disease with a poor prognosis in cats. Therefore, the transmission of FeLV from Tsushima domestic cats (TDCs) to TLCs may threaten the TLC population. We investigated the FeLV infection status of both TDCs and TLCs on Tsushima Island by screening blood samples for FeLV p27 antigen and using PCR to amplify the full-length FeLV env gene. The prevalence of FeLV was 6.4% in TDCs and 0% in TLCs. We also demonstrated that the virus can replicate in the cells of TLCs, suggesting its potential cross-species transmission. The viruses in TDCs were classified as genotype I/clade 3, which is prevalent on a nearby island, based on previous studies of FeLV genotypes and FeLV epidemiology. The FeLV viruses identified on Tsushima Island can be further divided into 2 lineages within genotype I/clade 3, which are geographically separated in Kamijima and Shimojima, indicating that FeLV may have been transmitted to Tsushima Island at least twice. Monitoring FeLV infection in the TDC and TLC populations is highly recommended as part of the TLC surveillance and management strategy.

  2. Immunophenotyping of the cutaneous cellular infiltrate after atopy patch testing in cats with atopic dermatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roosje, P J; Thepen, T; Rutten, V P M G; van den Brom, W E; Bruijnzeel-Koomen, C A F M; Willemse, T

    2004-10-01

    Cats with spontaneously occurring atopic dermatitis have clinical and immunocytochemical characteristics compatible with these in humans with atopic dermatitis (AD). The atopy patch test (APT) has proven to be a valuable tool in elucidating the disease process in humans. Additionally, the APT is very specific and bypasses the problem of conflicting results due to differences in chronicity of lesions of AD patients. We adapted the APT for use in cats to explore the suitability of the APT as a tool to study the onset of allergic inflammation in cats with atopic dermatitis. APT were performed in AD cats (n = 6) and healthy cats (n = 10). All cats were patch tested with two allergens in three different dilutions and a diluent control. The allergens for the APT were selected from positive intradermal test and /or prick test results and consisted of: Dermatophagoides farinae, D. pteronyssinus, Tyrophagus putrescentiae, and a grass pollen mixture. APT were read after 10, 24 and 48 h, and punch biopsies for immunohistochemical evaluation were collected at these time points. Macroscopically positive APT reactions were observed in three out of six cats at 24 and/or 48 h with allergen concentrations of 25,000 and 100,000 NU/ml. Reactions were not observed at negative control sites and neither in control animals. A significantly increased number of IL-4+, CD4+, CD3+, MHC class II+ and CD1a+ cells was found in one AD cat with positive APT reactions. Five out of six AD cats had significantly increased IL-4+ T cell numbers at 24 and/or 48 h. Our data indicate that in cats, macroscopically positive patch test reactions can be induced, which have a cellular infiltrate similar to that in lesional skin. We found a high specificity and a macroscopically positive APT reaction in half of the cats, which is similar to what is seen in humans. Hence, the APT in cats might be a useful tool in studying the immunopathogenesis of feline atopic dermatitis.

  3. Evidence of feline immunodeficiency virus, feline leukemia virus, and Toxoplasma gondii in feral cats on Mauna Kea, Hawaii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danner, R.M.; Goltz, Dan M.; Hess, S.C.; Banko, P.C.

    2007-01-01

    We determined prevalence to feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) antibodies, feline leukemia virus (FeLV) antigen, and Toxoplasma gondii antibodies in feral cats (Felis catus) on Mauna Kea Hawaii from April 2002 to May 2004. Six of 68 (8.8%) and 11 of 68 (16.2%) cats were antibody positive to FIV and antigen positive for FeLV, respectively; 25 of 67 (37.3%) cats were seropositive to T. gondii. Antibodies to FeLV and T. gondii occurred in all age and sex classes, but FIV occurred only in adult males. Evidence of current or previous infections with two of these infectious agents was detected in eight of 64 cats (12.5%). Despite exposure to these infectious agents, feral cats remain abundant throughout the Hawaiian Islands. ?? Wildlife Disease Association 2007.

  4. Interspecies Transmission of Feline Immunodeficiency Virus from the Domestic Cat to the Tsushima Cat (Felis bengalensis euptilura) in the Wild

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishimura, Yoshiaki; Goto, Yuko; Yoneda, Kumiko; Endo, Yasuyuki; Mizuno, Takuya; Hamachi, Masaharu; Maruyama, Hiroyuki; Kinoshita, Hirotoshi; Koga, Susumu; Komori, Mitsuru; Fushuku, Seigo; Ushinohama, Kanji; Akuzawa, Masao; Watari, Toshihiro; Hasegawa, Atsuhiko; Tsujimoto, Hajime

    1999-01-01

    Feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) was isolated from a wild-caught Tsushima cat (Felis bengalensis euptilura), an endangered Japanese nondomestic subspecies of leopard cat (F. bengalensis). Phylogenetic analysis of the env gene sequences indicated that the FIV from the Tsushima cat belonged to a cluster of subtype D FIVs from domestic cats. FIVs from both the Tsushima cat and the domestic cat showed similar levels of replication and cytopathicity in lymphoid cell lines derived from these two species. The results indicated the occurrence of interspecies transmission of FIV from the domestic cat to the Tsushima cat in the wild. PMID:10438892

  5. Feline heartworm disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holmes, R.A.

    1993-01-01

    The recognition of heartworm (Dirofilaria immitis) infection in cats is increasing. In general, clinical signs displayed by cats are vague and can easily be confused with other respiratory or gastrointestinal disorders. As more data are gathered on feline heartworm disease, it is becoming apparent that cats respond to heartworms in a fashion uniquely different from dogs. Therefore, diagnostic and therapeutic methods that have been extrapolated from canine heartworm disease require modification to be applied to cats. Although no adulticide or microfilaricide drugs or preventives have been approved by the Food and Drug Administration, literature that describes treatment methods is becoming available. Because of the toxicity of thiacetarsamide sodium in cats, symptomatic, supportive treatment may be most appropriate for elimination of adult worms. As with dogs, the macrolide antibiotics (ivermectin and milbemycin oxime) seem to be efficacious as microfilaricides and preventives

  6. Environmental Aspects of Domestic Cat Care and Management: Implications for Cat Welfare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stella, Judith L; Croney, Candace C

    2016-01-01

    Domestic cats ( Felis silvestris catus ) are the most commonly kept companion animals in the US with large populations of owned (86 million), free-roaming (70 million), research (13,000), and shelter (2-3 million) cats. Vast numbers of cats are maintained in homes and other facilities each year and are reliant on humans for all of their care. Understanding cat behavior and providing the highest quality environments possible, including positive human-cat interactions, based on research could help improve the outcomes of biomedical research, shelter adoptions, and veterinary care, as well as overall cat welfare. Often, however, cats' needs are inadequately met in homes and some aspects may also not be well met in research colonies and shelters, despite the fact that similar problems are likely to be encountered in all of these environments. This paper provides a brief overview of common welfare challenges associated with indoor housing of domestic cats. Essential considerations for cage confinement are reviewed, along with implications of poor cat coping, such as weakening of the human-animal bond and relinquishment to shelters. The important role that environmental management plays in cat behavior and welfare outcomes is explored along with the need for additional research in key areas.

  7. Reduction of feral cat (Felis catus Linnaeus 1758) colony size following hysterectomy of adult female cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendes-de-Almeida, Flavya; Remy, Gabriella L; Gershony, Liza C; Rodrigues, Daniela P; Chame, Marcia; Labarthe, Norma V

    2011-06-01

    The size of urban cat colonies is limited only by the availability of food and shelter; therefore, their population growth challenges all known population control programs. To test a new population control method, a free-roaming feral cat colony at the Zoological Park in the city of Rio de Janeiro was studied, beginning in 2001. The novel method consisted of performing a hysterectomy on all captured female cats over 6 months of age. To estimate the size of the colony and compare population from year to year, a method of capture-mark-release-recapture was used. The aim was to capture as many individuals as possible, including cats of all ages and gender to estimate numbers of cats in all population categories. Results indicated that the feral cat population remained constant from 2001 to 2004. From 2004 to 2008, the hysterectomy program and population estimates were performed every other year (2006 and 2008). The population was estimated to be 40 cats in 2004, 26 in 2006, and 17 cats in 2008. Although pathogens tend to infect more individuals as the population grows older and maintains natural behavior, these results show that free-roaming feral cat colonies could have their population controlled by a biannual program that focuses on hysterectomy of sexually active female cats. Copyright © 2011 ISFM and AAFP. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Birds be safe: Can a novel cat collar reduce avian mortality by domestic cats (Felis catus?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.K. Willson

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The domestic cat (Felis catus has been described as the largest anthropogenic threat to songbird populations in North America. We examined the effectiveness of a novel cat collar in reducing avian and small mammal mortality by cats. The 2-inch wide Birdsbesafe® collar cover (CC is worn over a nylon quick-release collar, and the bright colors and patterns of the CC are hypothesized to warn birds of approaching cats. We conducted two seasonal trials, each lasting 12 weeks, in autumn 2013 (n=54 cats and spring 2014 (n=19 cats. Cats were randomly assigned to two groups, and CCs with interior collars were removed or put on every two weeks, to control for weather fluctuations and seasonal change. Cats wearing Birdsbesafe® CCs killed 19 times fewer birds than uncollared cats in the spring trial, and 3.4 times fewer birds in the fall. Birdsbesafe® CCs were extremely effective at reducing predation on birds. Small mammal data were less clear, but did decrease predation by half in the fall. The Birdsbesafe® CC is a highly effective device for decreasing bird predation, especially in the spring season. We suggest that the CCs be used as a conservation tool for owned as well as feral cats.

  9. Leptospira Species in Feral Cats and Black Rats from Western Australia and Christmas Island.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dybing, Narelle A; Jacobson, Caroline; Irwin, Peter; Algar, David; Adams, Peter J

    2017-05-01

    Leptospirosis is a neglected, re-emerging bacterial disease with both zoonotic and conservation implications. Rats and livestock are considered the usual sources of human infection, but all mammalian species are capable of carrying Leptospira spp. and transmitting pathogenic leptospires in their urine, and uncertainty remains about the ecology and transmission dynamics of Leptospira in different regions. In light of a recent case of human leptospirosis on tropical Christmas Island, this study aimed to investigate the role of introduced animals (feral cats and black rats) as carriers of pathogenic Leptospira spp. on Christmas Island and to compare this with two different climatic regions of Western Australia (one island and one mainland). Kidney samples were collected from black rats (n = 68) and feral cats (n = 59) from Christmas Island, as well as feral cats from Dirk Hartog Island (n = 23) and southwest Western Australia (n = 59). Molecular (PCR) screening detected pathogenic leptospires in 42.4% (95% confidence interval 29.6-55.9) of cats and 2.9% (0.4-10.2) of rats from Christmas Island. Sequencing of cat- and rat-positive samples from Christmas Island showed 100% similarity for Leptospira interrogans. Pathogenic leptospires were not detected in cats from Dirk Hartog Island or southwest Western Australia. These findings were consistent with previous reports of higher Leptospira spp. prevalence in tropical regions compared with arid and temperate regions. Despite the abundance of black rats on Christmas Island, feral cats appear to be the more important reservoir species for the persistence of pathogenic L. interrogans on the island. This research highlights the importance of disease surveillance and feral animal management to effectively control potential disease transmission.

  10. Cats and Carbohydrates: The Carnivore Fantasy?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adronie Verbrugghe

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The domestic cat’s wild ancestors are obligate carnivores that consume prey containing only minimal amounts of carbohydrates. Evolutionary events adapted the cat’s metabolism and physiology to this diet strictly composed of animal tissues and led to unique digestive and metabolic peculiarities of carbohydrate metabolism. The domestic cat still closely resembles its wild ancestor. Although the carnivore connection of domestic cats is well recognised, little is known about the precise nutrient profile to which the digestive physiology and metabolism of the cat have adapted throughout evolution. Moreover, studies show that domestic cats balance macronutrient intake by selecting low-carbohydrate foods. The fact that cats evolved consuming low-carbohydrate prey has led to speculations that high-carbohydrate diets could be detrimental for a cat’s health. More specifically, it has been suggested that excess carbohydrates could lead to feline obesity and diabetes mellitus. Additionally, the chances for remission of diabetes mellitus are higher in cats that consume a low-carbohydrate diet. This literature review will summarise current carbohydrate knowledge pertaining to digestion, absorption and metabolism of carbohydrates, food selection and macronutrient balancing in healthy, obese and diabetic cats, as well as the role of carbohydrates in prevention and treatment of obesity and diabetes mellitus.

  11. Environmental enrichment choices of shelter cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, J J; Stryhn, H; Spears, J; Cockram, M S

    2017-08-01

    Choices made by cats between different types of environmental enrichment may help shelters to prioritize how to most effectively enrich cat housing, especially when limited by space or funds. This study investigates the environmental enrichment use of cats in a choice test. Twenty-six shelter cats were kept singularly in choice chambers for 10days. Each chamber had a central area and four centrally-linked compartments containing different types of environmental enrichment: 1) an empty control, 2) a prey-simulating toy, 3) a perching opportunity, and 4) a hiding opportunity. Cat movement between compartments was quantitatively recorded using a data-logger. Enriched compartments were visited significantly more frequently during the light period than during the dark period. Cats spent a significantly greater percentage of time in the hiding compartment (median=55%, IQR=46) than in the toy compartment (median=2%, IQR=9), or in the empty control compartment (median=4%, IQR=4). These results provide additional evidence to support the value of a hiding box to cats housed in a novel environment, in that they choose hiding relative to other types of environmental enrichment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. The CATS Service: An Astrophysical Research Tool

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O V Verkhodanov

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available We describe the current status of CATS (astrophysical CATalogs Support system, a publicly accessible tool maintained at Special Astrophysical Observatory of the Russian Academy of Sciences (SAO RAS (http://cats.sao.ru allowing one to search hundreds of catalogs of astronomical objects discovered all along the electromagnetic spectrum. Our emphasis is mainly on catalogs of radio continuum sources observed from 10 MHz to 245 GHz, and secondly on catalogs of objects such as radio and active stars, X-ray binaries, planetary nebulae, HII regions, supernova remnants, pulsars, nearby and radio galaxies, AGN and quasars. CATS also includes the catalogs from the largest extragalactic surveys with non-radio waves. In 2008 CATS comprised a total of about 109 records from over 400 catalogs in the radio, IR, optical and X-ray windows, including most source catalogs deriving from observations with the Russian radio telescope RATAN-600. CATS offers several search tools through different ways of access, e.g. via Web-interface and e-mail. Since its creation in 1997 CATS has managed about 105requests. Currently CATS is used by external users about 1500 times per day and since its opening to the public in 1997 has received about 4000 requests for its selection and matching tasks.

  13. Population ecology of free-roaming cats and interference competition by coyotes in urban parks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gehrt, Stanley D; Wilson, Evan C; Brown, Justin L; Anchor, Chris

    2013-01-01

    Free-roaming cats are a common element of urban landscapes worldwide, often causing controversy regarding their impacts on ecological systems and public health. We monitored cats within natural habitat fragments in the Chicago metropolitan area to characterize population demographics, disease prevalence, movement patterns and habitat selection, in addition to assessing the possible influence of coyotes on cats. The population was dominated by adults of both sexes, and 24% of adults were in reproductive condition. Annual survival rate was relatively high (S=0.70, SE=0.10), with vehicles and predation the primary causes of death. Size of annual home range varied by sex, but not reproductive status or body weight. We observed partitioning of the landscape by cats and coyotes, with little interspecific overlap between core areas of activity. Coyotes selected for natural habitats whereas cats selected for developed areas such as residences. Free-roaming cats were in better condition than we predicted, but their use of natural habitat fragments, and presumably their ecological impact, appeared to be limited by coyotes through intraguild competition.

  14. Effects of tramadol and acepromazine on intraocular pressure and pupil diameter in young healthy cats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deise Cristine Schroder

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: This study aimed to investigate the effects of the systemic administration of acepromazine, tramadol and the association of both on intraocular pressure (IOP and pupil diameter (PD in young healthy cats. Cats were randomly allocated into three groups (n=10/each and intramuscular acepromazine (AG, tramadol (TG or acepromazine combined with tramadol (ATG were injected. PD (electronic caliper and IOP (applanation tonometry were assessed before (baseline and following 15, 30, 60, and 120 minutes of treatments. It was verified that in AG, PD decreased significantly from time point 30 to 120 (P=0.002, but such reduction did not differ significantly from baseline (P=0.89. In TG, PD increased significantly from the first 15 minutes, until the last time point of evaluation (P0.05. It can be concluded that tramadol alone or in association with acepromazine produced significant mydriasis for up to 120 minutes, without changing IOP values in normal cats. Results of this study suggested that tramadol alone or in association with acepromazine caused significant mydriasis and did not change IOP values in normal cats. Therefore, it may be considered a satisfactory pre-anesthetic combination for ophthalmic surgery in cats. However, further studies are warranted on the use of such protocols in cats with ophthalmic diseases undergoing ocular or intraocular surgery.

  15. Comparative analysis of the domestic cat genome reveals genetic signatures underlying feline biology and domestication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Gang; Gandolfi, Barbara; Khan, Razib; Aken, Bronwen L.; Searle, Steven M. J.; Minx, Patrick; Hillier, LaDeana W.; Koboldt, Daniel C.; Davis, Brian W.; Driscoll, Carlos A.; Barr, Christina S.; Blackistone, Kevin; Quilez, Javier; Lorente-Galdos, Belen; Marques-Bonet, Tomas; Alkan, Can; Thomas, Gregg W. C.; Hahn, Matthew W.; Menotti-Raymond, Marilyn; O’Brien, Stephen J.; Wilson, Richard K.; Lyons, Leslie A.; Murphy, William J.; Warren, Wesley C.

    2014-01-01

    Little is known about the genetic changes that distinguish domestic cat populations from their wild progenitors. Here we describe a high-quality domestic cat reference genome assembly and comparative inferences made with other cat breeds, wildcats, and other mammals. Based upon these comparisons, we identified positively selected genes enriched for genes involved in lipid metabolism that underpin adaptations to a hypercarnivorous diet. We also found positive selection signals within genes underlying sensory processes, especially those affecting vision and hearing in the carnivore lineage. We observed an evolutionary tradeoff between functional olfactory and vomeronasal receptor gene repertoires in the cat and dog genomes, with an expansion of the feline chemosensory system for detecting pheromones at the expense of odorant detection. Genomic regions harboring signatures of natural selection that distinguish domestic cats from their wild congeners are enriched in neural crest-related genes associated with behavior and reward in mouse models, as predicted by the domestication syndrome hypothesis. Our description of a previously unidentified allele for the gloving pigmentation pattern found in the Birman breed supports the hypothesis that cat breeds experienced strong selection on specific mutations drawn from random bred populations. Collectively, these findings provide insight into how the process of domestication altered the ancestral wildcat genome and build a resource for future disease mapping and phylogenomic studies across all members of the Felidae. PMID:25385592

  16. [Infections which humans in the household transmit to dogs and cats].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayr, A

    1989-04-01

    An overview of the most important infections which can be transmitted from humans to pet dogs and cats is presented. Two quite different sources of infection stand diametrically opposite each other: 1. The transmission of active human infections to dogs and cats and 2. the transmission of infectious agents by feeding raw meat, offal, unsterilized milk products, kitchen scraps and contaminated feedstuffs. Humans can be the source of the following infections: 1. Zoonoses with reciprocal modes of transmission, e.g. Campylobacter and E. coli infections, trichophyton and microsporum infections, reo-, parainfluenza-, adeno, rota- and corona infections. 2. Zoonoses in which the main direction of infection is human----animal, e.g. tuberculosis and influenza A. 3. Infections originally pathogenic to humans which meet an impasse in dogs and cats (blind alley hosts), e.g. herpes simplex, varicella-zoster, measles and Corynebacterium diphtheriae. Listeria, salmonella, campylobacteria, toxoplasma, fungi, yeasts and viruses are transmitted via feed. The most dangerous virus infection to be transmitted to cats and dogs via raw pork leftovers is Aujeszky's disease. The dog or cat, which is the last link in the infection chain, suffers an agonizing death. The other infections originating from feed must be assessed quite differently. They are links in infection chains, which spread pathogens and endanger the health of man and animal in turn. A typical example is toxoplasmosis. Man becomes infected via sporulated oocysts from feces. Pet cats mainly become infected via raw pork containing cysts.

  17. Red eyes in the necropsy floor: twenty cases of hyphema in dogs and cats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tessie Beck Martins

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Hyphema (hemorrhage within the anterior chamber of the eye can be caused by several mechanisms and can easily be detected in routine ophthalmic or necroscopic examination as discolored red eye(s. The purpose of this study is to report the cause of hyphema diagnosed as a postmortem finding in dogs and cats. Twenty cases, 14 dogs and six cats of several ages and breeds and of both sexes were included in the study. Hyphema presented as a unilateral (14 cases out of 20 or bilateral (6/20 disorder in dogs and cats and extension of hemorrhage varied from minimal to diffuse. Hyphema was secondary to systemic disease (15/20 or occurred as a primary ocular lesion (5/20 in four dogs and one cat. Primary hyphema was always unilateral. In four of these cases, the cause of hyphema was trauma and remaining case was caused by phacoclastic uveitis in a dog with bilateral hypermature cataract. Various causes of bleeding disorders were found related to secondary hyphema: in decreasing order of frequency, they included vasculitis (8/15, systemic hypertension (5/15, and acquired coagulopathies (2/15. Vasculitis due to feline infectious peritonitis accounted for half of the cases (n=3 of systemic hyphema in cats. The various pathological aspects and pathogenesis of hyphema in dogs and cats are described and discussed.

  18. Interleukin 4-producing CD4+ T cells in the skin of cats with allergic dermatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roosje, P J; Dean, G A; Willemse, T; Rutten, V P M G; Thepen, T

    2002-03-01

    Lesional skin of cats with allergic dermatitis has a cellular infiltrate and a CD4/CD8 ratio comparable to that in humans with atopic dermatitis. CD4+ helper T cells and in particular cells belonging to the Th2 subset play an important role in disease pathogenesis in humans. We investigated the cytokine pattern of CD4+ T cells in situ, with special emphasis on the putative presence of cells producing interleukin 4 (IL4), in cats with allergic dermatitis. Immunohistochemical procedures were used to determine that CD4+ T cells in lesional and nonlesional skin of cats with allergic dermatitis can produce IL4, as occurs in humans. Lesional and nonlesional skin of cats with allergic dermatitis had significantly more IL4+ T cells (P = 0.001) than did skin of healthy control cats. Double staining indicated that all IL4+ cells were positive for pan-T or CD4 markers. Double labeling for mast cell chymase and IL4 stained primarily different cells. Western blotting demonstrated cross-reactivity between the antibody against human IL4 and a feline recombinant IL4. These results indicate that IL4 is primarily produced by CD4+ T cells and is also present in clinically uninvolved skin, indicating a role in the pathogenesis of allergic dermatitis in cats.

  19. Comparative analysis of the domestic cat genome reveals genetic signatures underlying feline biology and domestication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montague, Michael J; Li, Gang; Gandolfi, Barbara; Khan, Razib; Aken, Bronwen L; Searle, Steven M J; Minx, Patrick; Hillier, LaDeana W; Koboldt, Daniel C; Davis, Brian W; Driscoll, Carlos A; Barr, Christina S; Blackistone, Kevin; Quilez, Javier; Lorente-Galdos, Belen; Marques-Bonet, Tomas; Alkan, Can; Thomas, Gregg W C; Hahn, Matthew W; Menotti-Raymond, Marilyn; O'Brien, Stephen J; Wilson, Richard K; Lyons, Leslie A; Murphy, William J; Warren, Wesley C

    2014-12-02

    Little is known about the genetic changes that distinguish domestic cat populations from their wild progenitors. Here we describe a high-quality domestic cat reference genome assembly and comparative inferences made with other cat breeds, wildcats, and other mammals. Based upon these comparisons, we identified positively selected genes enriched for genes involved in lipid metabolism that underpin adaptations to a hypercarnivorous diet. We also found positive selection signals within genes underlying sensory processes, especially those affecting vision and hearing in the carnivore lineage. We observed an evolutionary tradeoff between functional olfactory and vomeronasal receptor gene repertoires in the cat and dog genomes, with an expansion of the feline chemosensory system for detecting pheromones at the expense of odorant detection. Genomic regions harboring signatures of natural selection that distinguish domestic cats from their wild congeners are enriched in neural crest-related genes associated with behavior and reward in mouse models, as predicted by the domestication syndrome hypothesis. Our description of a previously unidentified allele for the gloving pigmentation pattern found in the Birman breed supports the hypothesis that cat breeds experienced strong selection on specific mutations drawn from random bred populations. Collectively, these findings provide insight into how the process of domestication altered the ancestral wildcat genome and build a resource for future disease mapping and phylogenomic studies across all members of the Felidae.

  20. Population ecology of free-roaming cats and interference competition by coyotes in urban parks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanley D Gehrt

    Full Text Available Free-roaming cats are a common element of urban landscapes worldwide, often causing controversy regarding their impacts on ecological systems and public health. We monitored cats within natural habitat fragments in the Chicago metropolitan area to characterize population demographics, disease prevalence, movement patterns and habitat selection, in addition to assessing the possible influence of coyotes on cats. The population was dominated by adults of both sexes, and 24% of adults were in reproductive condition. Annual survival rate was relatively high (S=0.70, SE=0.10, with vehicles and predation the primary causes of death. Size of annual home range varied by sex, but not reproductive status or body weight. We observed partitioning of the landscape by cats and coyotes, with little interspecific overlap between core areas of activity. Coyotes selected for natural habitats whereas cats selected for developed areas such as residences. Free-roaming cats were in better condition than we predicted, but their use of natural habitat fragments, and presumably their ecological impact, appeared to be limited by coyotes through intraguild competition.

  1. Factors associated with clinical remission in cats with diabetes mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Hsin Lien

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Type 2 diabetes mellitus is a common endocrine disease in cats. The aim of this study was to investigate factors that are associated with clinical remission in diabetic cats, and those that might influence survival time. Medical records of 29 cats with diabetes mellitus were evaluated retrospectively. Data collected from each record included breed, age, and sex, types of diet before and after admission, degree of weight loss, duration of clinical signs before admission, elevation of alanine aminotransferase activity and ketonuria at the time of admission, concurrent pancreatitis or renal failure, glipizide administration, insulin supplement, and survival time. The diet after establishing diagnosis (restriction to non-carbohydrate canned food was the only factor that was significantly associated with achieving clinical remission (P P = 0.004 with clinical remission status and the type of diet after admission (P = 0.04 and negatively associated with the presence of chronic renal failure (P = 0.04. This was the first report of feline diabetes mellitus from Taiwan.

  2. Blepharitis due to in a cat from northern Portugal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Pimenta

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Case summary We report a clinical case of blepharitis due to Cryptococcus neoformans yeasts in a 2-year-old stray cat from northern Portugal (Vila Real without concurrent naso-ocular signs. Ophthalmological examination revealed mucopurulent discharge from an open wound in the right upper and lower lids. Slit-lamp biomicroscopy showed a normal anterior segment, and intraocular pressure was within the normal reference interval. No fundoscopic alterations were detected in either eye by direct and indirect ophthalmoscopic examination. Cytological examination of an appositional smear showed numerous polymorphic neutrophils and macrophages, together with spherical yeast cells compatible with Cryptococcus species. Molecular analysis by means of PCR and restriction fragment length polymorphism identified C neoformans genotype VNI. The cat was treated with itraconazole, and amoxicillin and clavulanic acid, combined with a commercial ear ointment and an imidacloprid/moxidectin spot-on application for bilateral parasitic otitis caused by Otodectes cynotis . One month after treatment, the clinical signs were completely resolved. Localised cutaneous lesions, as in the present case, probably result from contamination of cat-scratch injuries with viable encapsulated yeasts. Relevance and novel information This is, to the best of our knowledge, the first clinical report of feline blepharitis due to C neoformans without concurrent naso-ocular signs. The current findings, together with those from recent reports of the infection in domestic animals, should alert the veterinary community both in Portugal and in Europe to this underdiagnosed disease.

  3. Cardiopulmonary metastrongyloidosis of dogs and cats contribution to diagnose

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilić Tamara

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. In the last fifteen years on the European continent and also worldwide, the prevalence of cardiopulmonary metastrongyloidosis in dogs and cats has increased significantly, especially cases involving those parasites which are the most important for veterinary practice (Angiostrongylus vasorum, Aelurostrongylus abstrusus and Crenosoma vulpis. Scope and Approach. The aim of this study is to present a detailed clinical-parasitological approach to highlight the importance of these helminths, and to display the newest findings concerning the diagnostic possibilities in dogs and cats Key Findings and Conclusions. The effects of global warming, vector range shift, the frequent transportation and movement of animals to other epizootic areas, as well as the intensification of merchandise transportation and movement of people are just some of the potential factors which could impact the dynamics of incidence, upkeep and spread of cardiopulmonary nematodoses in carnivores. For the timely implementation of effective treatment of sick animals, it essential to accurately diagnose these parasitoses. Accurate, timely diagnosis can, in the end, significantly contribute to the prognostic course of disease in infected carnivores. Cardiopulmonary metastrongyloidoses in dogs and cats have great clinical-parasitological significance because of their high degree of pathogenicity, their spread outside endemic areas, the difficulties encountered in establishing their diagnosis, and the fact that they represent a potential danger to human health. [Project of the Serbian ministry of education, science and technological development

  4. Successful subtotal orbitectomy in a cat with osteoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katia B Corgozinho

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Case summary A 14-year-old Siamese neutered male cat was evaluated for anorexia and a left periorbital mass. Skull radiographic findings showed a well-defined lesion resembling new compact bone formation without destruction. A subtotal orbitectomy was indicated. The tumor was removed intact with a normal tissue margin of at least 1 cm. There were no postsurgical complications. Histopathologic examination revealed an osteoma. The cat returned to normal appetite and activity 15 days after surgery. Six months after surgery, there were no gross signs of recurrence. Relevance and novel information Periorbital tumors are infrequently diagnosed in companion animals and most are malignant. In this case, the diagnosis was orbital osteoma. The most commonly affected bone for osteoma in cats is the mandibular bone; few cases have been identified in orbital bones. Orbital surgery has the potential to be challenging owing to complex anatomy, difficult exposure and the tendency to bleed. Surgical complications are common. In this case, although the disease was advanced, subtotal orbitectomy was successfully performed.

  5. European Medicines Agency, CAT Secretariat & US Food and Drug Administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-01

    The European Medicines Agency (EMA) and the Committee for Advanced Therapies (CAT) are responsible for reviewing applications for marketing authorization for Advanced Therapy Medicinal Products (ATMP), which include (stem) cell-based medicines, for the ATMP classification and certification procedure, and to provide scientific advice to developers of ATMPs. The CAT, an expert committee dedicated to ATMPs, was established by the Regulation (EC) No 1394/2007 on Advanced Therapies. The CAT came into operation in January 2009. ATMPs are defined in this Regulation as gene therapy and cell therapy medicinal products, and tissue-engineered products. The US FDA's Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research is responsible for ensuring the safety, purity, potency and effectiveness of many biologically derived products, including blood intended for transfusion, blood components and derivatives, vaccines and allergenic extracts, and cell, tissue and gene therapy products for the prevention, diagnosis and treatment of human diseases, conditions or injury. Human cells or tissue intended for implantation, transplantation, infusion or transfer into a human recipient are regulated as human cells, tissues, and cellular and tissue-based products (HCT/Ps).

  6. Ultrasonographic biometry of the normal eye of the Persian cat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirshahi, A; Shafigh, S H; Azizzadeh, M

    2014-07-01

    To describe the normal ultrasonographic biometry of the Persian cat's eyes using B-mode ultrasonography. In a cross-sectional study, 20 healthy Persian cats with no history of previous ophthalmic disease were examined. Ocular biometry of the left and right eyes was measured using B-mode ultrasonography. Comparison of the average measurements between left and right eyes and between vertical and horizontal planes was performed using paired-sample t test. Correlation of ocular parameters with sex, age, head circumference and eye colour was evaluated. Mean ± standard deviation (SD) measurements of the ocular structures of anterior chamber, lens thickness, vitreous chamber and anterior to posterior dimension of the globe in 40 eyes were 4.1 ± 0.7, 7.7 ± 0.5, 8.2 ± 0.4 and 20.7 ± 1.0 mm, respectively. No significant difference was found between the ocular biometry of the left and right eyes or the horizontal and vertical planes. Of the ocular parameters, the following had a significant positive correlation with head circumference: axial globe length, anterior chamber and lens thickness. The vitreous body had a positive correlation with age. Regarding the breed predisposition of Persian cats to ocular problems, the present study provides baseline information for further clinical investigations of ocular abnormalities using B-mode ultrasonography. © 2014 Australian Veterinary Association.

  7. Hematologic, cytochemical, ultrastructural, and molecular findings of Hepatozoon-infected flat-headed cats (Prionailurus planiceps).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salakij, Chaleow; Salakij, Jarernsak; Narkkong, Nual-Anong; Sirinarumitr, Theerapol; Pattanarangsan, Rattapan

    2008-03-01

    The flat-headed cat (Prionailurus planiceps) is a small wild cat of Southeast Asia and is considered extremely endangered. Little is known about the hematologic values, blood cell morphology, or hemoparasites of this species in relation to other Felidae. The objective of this study was to report basic hematologic values and describe the light microscopic, cytochemical, and ultrastructural characteristics of blood cells in 2 wild-caught flat-headed cats. In addition, molecular analysis was done of a Hepatozoon organism found in the neutrophils of both cats. Blood samples were collected into EDTA from the cephalic vein. A CBC, manual differential count, manual reticulocyte count, cytochemical stains (Sudan black B [SBB], alpha-naphthyl acetate esterase [ANAE], and beta-glucuronidase), and scanning and transmission electron microscopy were done using standard methods. HCT was slightly lower and reticulocyte counts and red cell distribution width were higher than the expected values for other species of cats. Hepatozoon organisms were found in the cytoplasm of neutrophils in both cats, but the number of infected neutrophils was very low (1%-2%). Neutrophils stained strongly positive for SBB, but were negative for ANAE and beta-glucuronidase. Hepatozoon-infected neutrophils were negative for SBB, but focally positive for ANAE and beta-glucuronidase. By transmission electron microscopy, gamonts of Hepatozoon sp were observed in neutrophils, and rarely free in plasma. Infected neutrophils had fewer specific granules and more mitochondria compared with noninfected neutrophils. PCR products of partial 18S rRNA revealed that the isolate of Hepatozoon in the flat-headed cats was closely related to that of the frog Hepatozoon sp. These results add to our understanding of hematologic values and blood cell morphology in Hepatozoon-infected flat-headed cats as well as the molecular analysis of the Hepatozoon organism, and may be useful for the health management and evaluation of

  8. Clinical evaluation of the 3M Littmann Electronic Stethoscope Model 3200 in 150 cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blass, Keith A; Schober, Karsten E; Bonagura, John D; Scansen, Brian A; Visser, Lance C; Lu, Jennifer; Smith, Danielle N; Ward, Jessica L

    2013-10-01

    Detection of murmurs and gallops may help to identify cats with heart disease. However, auscultatory findings may be subject to clinically relevant observer variation. The objective of this study was to evaluate an electronic stethoscope (ES) in cats. We hypothesized that the ES would perform at least as well as a conventional stethoscope (CS) in the detection of abnormal heart sounds. One hundred and fifty consecutive cats undergoing echocardiography were enrolled prospectively. Cats were ausculted with a CS (WA Tycos Harvey Elite) by two observers, and heart sounds were recorded digitally using an ES (3M Littmann Stethoscope Model 3200) for off-line analysis. Echocardiography was used as the clinical standard method for validation of auscultatory findings. Additionally, digital recordings (DRs) were assessed by eight independent observers with various levels of expertise, and compared using interclass correlation and Cohen's weighted kappa analyses. Using the CS, a heart murmur (n = 88 cats) or gallop sound (n = 17) was identified in 105 cats, whereas 45 cats lacked abnormal heart sounds. There was good total agreement (83-90%) between the two observers using the CS. In contrast, there was only moderate agreement (P <0.001) between results from the CS and the DRs for murmurs, and poor agreement for gallops. The CS was more sensitive compared with the DRs with regard to murmurs and gallops. Agreement among the eight observers was good-to-excellent for murmur detection (81%). In conclusion, DRs made with the ES are less sensitive but comparably specific to a CS at detecting abnormal heart sounds in cats.

  9. Diabetes mellitus remission in a cat with pituitary-dependent hyperadrenocorticism after trilostane treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muschner, Adriana Cunha; Varela, Fernanda Venzon; Hazuchova, Katarina; Niessen, Stijn Jm; Pöppl, Álan Gomes

    2018-01-01

    An 8-year-old male neutered Persian cat was presented with polyuria, polydipsia, polyphagia and muscle weakness associated with a 7 month history of diabetes mellitus (DM). The cat had initially been treated with neutral protamine Hagedorn (NPH) insulin 2 U q12h, followed by porcine lente insulin 2 U q12h and, most recently, 3 U glargine insulin q12h, without improvement of clinical signs. The cat also suffered from concurrent symmetrical bilateral alopecia of thorax and forelimbs, abdominal distension and lethargy. Hyperadrenocorticism (HAC), specifically pituitary-dependent HAC, was suspected and confirmed through abdominal ultrasonography demonstrating bilateral adrenal enlargement, and a low-dose dexamethasone suppression test using 0.1 mg/kg dexamethasone intravenously. Trilostane treatment (initially 10 mg/cat PO q24h then increased to 10 mg/cat PO q12h) was started and insulin sensitivity gradually improved, ultimately leading to diabetic remission after an increased in trilostane dose to 13mg/cat PO q12h, 14 months after the DM diagnosis and 7 months after the initiation of trilostane therapy. DM in cats with HAC is a difficult combination of diseases to treat. To our knowledge this is the first reported case of diabetic remission in a feline patient with HAC as a result of treatment with trilostane. Further work should focus on whether fine-tuning of trilostane-treatment protocols in cats with concurrent DM and HAC could lead to a higher proportion of diabetic remissions in this patient group.

  10. Diabetes mellitus remission in a cat with pituitary-dependent hyperadrenocorticism after trilostane treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muschner, Adriana Cunha; Varela, Fernanda Venzon; Hazuchova, Katarina; Niessen, Stijn JM; Pöppl, Álan Gomes

    2018-01-01

    Case summary An 8-year-old male neutered Persian cat was presented with polyuria, polydipsia, polyphagia and muscle weakness associated with a 7 month history of diabetes mellitus (DM). The cat had initially been treated with neutral protamine Hagedorn (NPH) insulin 2 U q12h, followed by porcine lente insulin 2 U q12h and, most recently, 3 U glargine insulin q12h, without improvement of clinical signs. The cat also suffered from concurrent symmetrical bilateral alopecia of thorax and forelimbs, abdominal distension and lethargy. Hyperadrenocorticism (HAC), specifically pituitary-dependent HAC, was suspected and confirmed through abdominal ultrasonography demonstrating bilateral adrenal enlargement, and a low-dose dexamethasone suppression test using 0.1 mg/kg dexamethasone intravenously. Trilostane treatment (initially 10 mg/cat PO q24h then increased to 10 mg/cat PO q12h) was started and insulin sensitivity gradually improved, ultimately leading to diabetic remission after an increased in trilostane dose to 13mg/cat PO q12h, 14 months after the DM diagnosis and 7 months after the initiation of trilostane therapy. Relevance and novel information DM in cats with HAC is a difficult combination of diseases to treat. To our knowledge this is the first reported case of diabetic remission in a feline patient with HAC as a result of treatment with trilostane. Further work should focus on whether fine-tuning of trilostane-treatment protocols in cats with concurrent DM and HAC could lead to a higher proportion of diabetic remissions in this patient group. PMID:29707227

  11. Acute kidney injury in cats and dogs: A proportional meta-analysis of case series studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legatti, Sabrina Almeida Moreira; El Dib, Regina; Legatti, Emerson; Botan, Andresa Graciutti; Camargo, Samira Esteves Afonso; Agarwal, Arnav; Barretti, Pasqual; Paes, Antônio Carlos

    2018-01-01

    Risk of mortality in the setting of acute kidney injury (AKI) in cats and dogs remains unclear. To evaluate the incidence of mortality in cats and dogs with AKI based on etiology (i.e. infectious versus non-infectious; receiving dialysis versus conservative treatment). Ovid Medline, EMBASE, and LILACS were searched up to July 2016. Articles were deemed eligible if they were case series studies evaluating the incidence of all-cause mortality in cats and dogs with AKI, regardless of etiology or the nature of treatment. Eighteen case series involving 1,201animalsproved eligible. The pooled proportions for overall mortality were: cats53.1% [95% CI 0.475, 0.586; I2 = 11,9%, p = 0.3352]; dogs 45.0% [95% CI 0.33, 0.58; I2 = 91.5%, P cats and dogs, 19.2% [95% CI 0.134, 0.258; I2 = 37.7%, P = 0.0982]; AKI due non-infectious etiology for cats and dogs, 59.9% [95% CI 0.532, 0.663; I2 = 51.0%, P = 0.0211]. Our findings suggest higher rates of overall mortality in cats and dogs with AKI due to non-infectious etiologies relative to infectious etiologies, and showed non-significant differences in terms of higher rates associated with dialysis compared to conservative management. Further investigations regarding optimal time to initiate dialysis and the development of clinical models to prognosticate the course of disease and guide optimal treatment initiation for less severe cases of AKI in cats and dogs is warranted.

  12. Prevalence and risk factors for hyperthyroidism in Irish cats from the greater Dublin area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bree, Laura; Gallagher, Barbara A; Shiel, Robert E; Mooney, Carmel T

    2018-01-01

    Hyperthyroidism is common in older cats. Prevalence varies geographically, but is anecdotally considered low in Ireland. The aim of this study was to document prevalence of hyperthyroidism in older cats in the greater Dublin area of Ireland and to assess environmental and clinical associations for development and identification of the disease. Primary-care veterinary practices were requested to select cats aged 10 years or older where blood sampling was being performed for health screening or clinical investigations. Surplus serum/plasma samples were submitted to University College Dublin Diagnostic Endocrine Laboratory for total thyroxine (T 4 ) measurement. Cats were classified as hyperthyroid, equivocal or euthyroid based on a total T 4 concentration (reference interval, 15-60 nmol/L), of >60 nmol/L, 30-60 nmol/L or hyperthyroidism were excluded. A questionnaire completed by the client and veterinarian detailing historical and physical information was also required. Associations between categorical variables were analysed by Chi-square or Fisher's exact test and odds ratio (OR) calculated. A P value of hyperthyroid, 54 (10.6%) equivocal and 346 (68.2%) euthyroid. The presence of goitre ( P  weight loss ( P  hyperthyroidism. Cats with goitre were more likely to be diagnosed as hyperthyroid [OR 2.85, (95% CI 1.75-4.62] compared to those without. However, goitre was only palpated in 40 of 102 (39.2%) hyperthyroid cats. Increasing age was the only significant ( P  hyperthyroidism. A relationship between hyperthyroidism and sex, breed, lifestyle, parasite control, vaccination status or feeding habits was not identified. Hyperthyroidism is not uncommon in Irish cats. Age was the only significant risk factor for its development. The high proportion of hyperthyroid cats without palpable goitre (> 60%) may reflect failure to detect goitre and account for the perceived low prevalence of this condition in Ireland.

  13. The Carolina Autism Transition Study (CATS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-07-01

    AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-15-1-0093 TITLE: The Carolina Autism Transition Study (CATS) PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Laura Carpenter, MD RECIPIENT...Carolina Autism Transition Study (CATS) 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-15-1-0093 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT NUMBER Laura Carpenter...provides a description of the Year 2 progress made and plans for Year 3 for the project entitled “The Carolina Autism Transition Study (CATS).” The goal of

  14. Hybrid fixed point in CAT(0 spaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hemant Kumar Pathak

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we introduce an ultrapower approach to prove fixed point theorems for $H^{+}$-nonexpansive multi-valued mappings in the setting of CAT(0 spaces and prove several hybrid fixed point results in CAT(0 spaces for families of single-valued nonexpansive or quasinonexpansive mappings and multi-valued upper semicontinuous, almost lower semicontinuous or $H^{+}$-nonexpansive mappings which are weakly commuting. We also establish a result about structure of the set of fixed points of $H^{+}$-quasinonexpansive mapping on a CAT(0 space.

  15. Cockpit Automation Technology CSERIAC-CAT

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-06-01

    AD-A273 124 AL-TR-1991-0078 A R COCKPIT AUTOMATION TECHNOLOGY M CSERIAC- CAT S JULY 1989 - DEC 1990: FINAL REPORT T R Trudy S. Abrams Cindy D. Martin...TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5. FUNDING NUMBERS Cockpit Automation Technology CSERIAC- CAT JUL 89 - DEC 90 PE 62202F Final Report (U) PR 7184 ,___,TA 12 6. AUTHOR(S...Boeing-developed CAT software tools, and for facilitating their use by the cockpit design community. A brief description of the overall task is given

  16. Microcomputer Network for Computerized Adaptive Testing (CAT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-03-01

    PRDC TR 84-33 \\Q.�d-33- \\ MICROCOMPUTER NETWOJlt FOR COMPUTERIZED ADAPTIVE TESTING ( CAT ) Baldwin Quan Thomas A . Park Gary Sandahl John H...ACCEIIION NO NPRDC TR 84-33 4. TITLE (-d Sul>tlllo) MICROCOMP UTER NETWORK FOR COMPUTERIZED ADA PTIVE TESTING ( CAT ) 1. Q B. uan T. A . Park...adaptive testing ( CAT ) Bayesian sequential testing 20. ABSTitACT (Continuo on ro•••• aide II noco .. _, _., ld-tlly ,.,. t.loclt _._.) DO Computerized

  17. Human-directed aggression in the cat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curtis, Terry Marie

    2008-09-01

    Feline aggression-between cats or directed at humans-is, after inappropriate elimination and urine-marking behaviors, the second most common reason cats are seen by behavioral specialists. For diagnosis and treatment it is important to determine the motivation for the aggression. The more common causes for human-directed aggression in cats include play, fear, petting intolerance, and redirected aggression. Other causes include pain and maternal behavior. Sexually motivated and status related aggression are much more rare. Treatment includes a combination of behavioral modification, environmental modification, and, in some cases, medication.

  18. Ageing, immunosenescence and inflammageing in the dog and cat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day, M J

    2010-01-01

    Improvements in veterinary healthcare over recent decades mean that we now have a significant population of geriatric small companion animals. The design of optimum nutritional and vaccination programmes for these aged animals must be underpinned by knowledge of the physiological changes that occur in later life. It is clear that older dogs and cats are affected by the process of immunosenescence and that similar changes occur in these species to those documented in elderly people. The most consistent findings of recent investigations indicate impairment of cell-mediated immune function with age. Senior dogs and cats are generally shown to have reduced blood CD4(+) T cells (with imbalance in Th1 versus Th2 functional activity), elevation in the CD8(+) subset and reduction in the CD4:CD8 ratio. The ability of blood lymphocytes to respond to stimulation by mitogens decreases, as does the cutaneous delayed type hypersensitivity response. By contrast, there is relative preservation of the ability to mount humoral immune responses. Serum and salivary immunoglobulin (Ig)A production increases and IgG concentration remains unaltered with age. Elderly animals generally have persisting vaccinal antibody titres at protective level and respond to booster vaccination with elevation in titre. Older dogs and cats are able to make primary humoral responses to novel antigens, but the magnitude of these may be reduced relative to titres achieved in younger animals. Fewer investigations have studied the phenomenon of 'inflammageing' (the effect of cumulative antigenic exposure and onset of late life inflammatory disease) in these species. Senior cats have increased production of pro-inflammatory cytokines by blood monocytes, but this effect has not been demonstrated with cells derived from older dogs. Numerous studies have investigated whether canine and feline immunosenescence might be slowed or reversed by dietary supplementation with antioxidants, but no significant research has

  19. Immunomodulatory nutraceuticals with potential clinical use for dogs and cats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leandro Zaine

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The use of nutraceuticals in veterinary medicine is growing and is assumed that they could aid in clinical treatment. This review aims to describe some nutraceuticals that act on the immunity of dogs and cats and show the possible benefits as an adjuvant treatment for some diseases. The action of some yeast derivates as immunomodulators, especially the beta-glucan fraction, was already proved to occur in dogs and cats, being beneficial as an adjuvant therapy in many clinical conditions. Omega-3 polyunsatured fatty acids, possibly the mostly used nutraceuticals, can improve the condition in some diseases, such as hypertension, renal, cardiac, gastrointestinal and autoimmune diseases, arthritis and cancer. Vitamin E has antioxidant and immunomodulatory action and can aid in the treatment of dermatologic and hepatobiliar conditions. The use of carotenoids, which have similar action to vitamin E, can be of interest for being potent antioxidants and might be helpful for enhancing immune response against microorganisms and also act preventing tumors. Despite it are still needed clinical trials to better understand the real benefits of nutraceuticals supplementation in each specific disease, the comprehension of the mechanisms by which they act indicates they are promising for clinical use.

  20. Diagnosis and interpretation of intestinal dysbiosis in dogs and cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suchodolski, Jan S

    2016-09-01

    The intestinal tracts of dogs and cats harbor a highly complex microbiota, which consists of bacteria, fungi, viruses and protozoa. Until recently, traditional bacterial culture was commonly used to identify bacteria present in the gastrointestinal tract, but it is now well recognized that standard plating techniques do not have enough resolution for identification of the mostly anaerobic bacteria that reside within the gut. Molecular methods are now established for assessing intestinal dysbiosis in dogs and cats with gastrointestinal disease, but these approaches are not yet widely available for routine diagnosis. The loss of normal commensal bacterial microbiota (i.e. Lachnospiraceae, Ruminococcaceae, and Faecalibacterium spp.) in acute and chronic intestinal diseases has been linked to metabolic changes, for example alterations in immunomodulatory bacterial metabolites, such as short chain fatty acids and secondary bile acids. This highlights the importance of dysbiosis in the pathophysiology of gastrointestinal diseases. Development of molecular based assays for specific bacterial groups, calculations of microbial dysbiosis indices and assays for microbial functional metabolites are currently underway to help assess dysbiosis. These will yield a better understanding of the pathophysiology of gastrointestinal diseases and may also lead to new diagnostic and therapeutic approaches to dysbiosis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Domestic Cat (Felis silvestris catus) Urine Odour as a Potential ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of cat urine odour extract on rodent pest species to reduce crop losses. Cat urine from the captured cats was drawn using cat catcher. Urinary catheter was inserted into the urethra up to the urinary bladder and a syringe attached to the urinary catheter was used to draw ...

  2. 9 CFR 113.39 - Cat safety tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Cat safety tests. 113.39 Section 113... Procedures § 113.39 Cat safety tests. The safety tests provided in this section shall be conducted when... recommended for use in cats. (a) The cat safety test provided in this paragraph shall be used when the Master...

  3. Salinomycin-induced polyneuropathy in cats: Morphologic and epidemiologic data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Linde-Sipman, J.S. van der; Inch, T.S.G.A.M. van den; Nes, J.J. van; Verhagen, H.; Kersten, J.G.T.M.; Beynen, A.C.; Plekkringa, R.

    1999-01-01

    In April 1996, an outbreak of toxic polyneuropathy in cats occurred in the Netherlands. All cats had been fed one of two brands of dry cat food from one manufacturer. Chemical analyses of these foods, stomach contents, and liver and kidney of affected cats revealed contamination with the ionophor

  4. Nutritional management and disease prevention in healthy dogs and cats Manejo nutricional e prevenção de doenças em cães e gatos saudáveis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea J. Fascetti

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Healthy animals normally eat sufficient food to satisfy their energy requirements. It is one of the jobs of the nutritionist to ensure that all other nutrient needs have been met when animals stop eating because they have met their energy needs. While dogs and cats are members of the biological order Carnivora, scientific observation and research support that differences in their metabolism and nutritional requirements exist. However, the goal in feeding both species is the same; to optimize the health and well-being of the individual. This approach results in dietary recommendations that will vary from individual animal to animal, based on a variety of factors that include the animal's signalment, occupation and environment. Feeding approaches vary between the two species and within the same species during different physiological life stages. However, the practice of feeding to maintain a lean body condition is a common goal. The maintenance of a lean body condition has been proven to increase both the quantity and quality of life in dogs. Currently, similar data does not exist in cats but is suspected to hold true. Each dog and cat's feeding program should be assessed routinely and adjustments made as indicated based on the animal's body condition, life stage and general health.Animais saudáveis normalmente comem alimentos suficientes para satisfazer suas necessidades energéticas. Uma das funções dos nutricionistas é garantir que todas as necessidades de nutrientes ingeridas serão adequadas quando os animais pararem de comer após terem atingido suas necessidades energéticas. Enquanto cães e gatos são membros da ordem Carnivora, a observação científica e de pesquisa apoia as diferenças existentes em suas exigências nutricionais e o metabolismo. No entanto, o objetivo de alimentar as duas espécies é o mesmo, para otimizar a saúde e o bem-estar do indivíduo. Esta abordagem resulta em recomendações dietéticas que variam de

  5. CATS Deliverable 5.1 : CATS verification of test matrix and protocol

    OpenAIRE

    Uittenbogaard, J.; Camp, O.M.G.C. op den; Montfort, S. van

    2016-01-01

    This report summarizes the work conducted within work package (WP) 5 "Verification of test matrix and protocol" of the Cyclist AEB testing system (CATS) project. It describes the verification process of the draft CATS test matrix resulting from WP1 and WP2, and the feasibility of meeting requirements set by CATS consortium based on requirements in Euro NCAP AEB protocols regarding accuracy, repeatability and reproducibility using the developed test hardware. For the cases where verification t...

  6. High-resolution computed tomography evaluation of the bronchial lumen to vertebral body diameter and pulmonary artery to vertebral body diameter ratios in anesthetized ventilated normal cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee-Fowler, Tekla M; Cole, Robert C; Dillon, A Ray; Tillson, D Michael; Garbarino, Rachel; Barney, Sharron

    2017-10-01

    Objectives Bronchial lumen to pulmonary artery diameter (BA) ratio has been utilized to investigate pulmonary pathology on high-resolution CT images. Diseases affecting both the bronchi and pulmonary arteries render the BA ratio less useful. The purpose of the study was to establish bronchial lumen diameter to vertebral body diameter (BV) and pulmonary artery diameter to vertebral body diameter (AV) ratios in normal cats. Methods Using high-resolution CT images, 16 sets of measurements (sixth thoracic vertebral body [mid-body], each lobar bronchi and companion pulmonary artery diameter) were acquired from young adult female cats and 41 sets from pubertal female cats. Results Young adult and pubertal cat BV ratios were not statistically different from each other in any lung lobe. Significant differences between individual lung lobe BV ratios were noted on combined age group analysis. Caudal lung lobe AV ratios were significantly different between young adult and pubertal cats. All other lung lobe AV ratios were not significantly different. Caudal lung lobe AV ratios were significantly different from all other lung lobes but not from each other in both the young adult and pubertal cats. Conclusions and relevance BV ratio reference intervals determined for individual lung lobes could be applied to both young adult and pubertal cats. Separate AV ratios for individual lung lobes would be required for young adult and pubertal cats. These ratios should allow more accurate evaluation of cats with concurrent bronchial and pulmonary arterial disease.

  7. Environmental Aspects of Domestic Cat Care and Management: Implications for Cat Welfare

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judith L. Stella

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Domestic cats (Felis silvestris catus are the most commonly kept companion animals in the US with large populations of owned (86 million, free-roaming (70 million, research (13,000, and shelter (2-3 million cats. Vast numbers of cats are maintained in homes and other facilities each year and are reliant on humans for all of their care. Understanding cat behavior and providing the highest quality environments possible, including positive human-cat interactions, based on research could help improve the outcomes of biomedical research, shelter adoptions, and veterinary care, as well as overall cat welfare. Often, however, cats’ needs are inadequately met in homes and some aspects may also not be well met in research colonies and shelters, despite the fact that similar problems are likely to be encountered in all of these environments. This paper provides a brief overview of common welfare challenges associated with indoor housing of domestic cats. Essential considerations for cage confinement are reviewed, along with implications of poor cat coping, such as weakening of the human-animal bond and relinquishment to shelters. The important role that environmental management plays in cat behavior and welfare outcomes is explored along with the need for additional research in key areas.

  8. Cats of the Pharaohs: Genetic Comparison of Egyptian Cat Mummies to their Feline Contemporaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurushima, Jennifer D.; Ikram, Salima; Knudsen, Joan; Bleiberg, Edward; Grahn, Robert A.; Lyons, Leslie A.

    2012-01-01

    The ancient Egyptians mummified an abundance of cats during the Late Period (664 - 332 BC). The overlapping morphology and sizes of developing wildcats and domestic cats confounds the identity of mummified cat species. Genetic analyses should support mummy identification and was conducted on two long bones and a mandible of three cats that were mummified by the ancient Egyptians. The mummy DNA was extracted in a dedicated ancient DNA laboratory at the University of California – Davis, then directly sequencing between 246 and 402 bp of the mtDNA control region from each bone. When compared to a dataset of wildcats (Felis silvestris silvestris, F. s. tristrami, and F. chaus) as well as a previously published worldwide dataset of modern domestic cat samples, including Egypt, the DNA evidence suggests the three mummies represent common contemporary domestic cat mitotypes prevalent in modern Egypt and the Middle East. Divergence estimates date the origin of the mummies’ mitotypes to between two and 7.5 thousand years prior to their mummification, likely prior to or during Egyptian Predyanstic and Early Dynastic Periods. These data are the first genetic evidence supporting that the ancient Egyptians used domesticated cats, F. s. catus, for votive mummies, and likely implies cats were domesticated prior to extensive mummification of cats. PMID:22923880

  9. Borrelia miyamotoi, Other Vector-Borne Agents in Cat Blood and Ticks in Eastern Maryland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shannon, Avery B; Rucinsky, Renee; Gaff, Holly D; Brinkerhoff, R Jory

    2017-12-01

    We collected blood and tick samples in eastern Maryland to quantify vector-borne pathogen exposure and infection in healthy cats and to assess occupational disease risk to veterinary professionals and others who regularly interact with household pets. Thirty-six percent of healthy cats parasitized by ticks at time of examination (9/25) were exposed to, and 14% of bloods (7/49) tested PCR-positive for, at least one vector-borne pathogen including several bloods and ticks with Borrelia miyamotoi, a recently recognized tick-borne zoonotic bacterium. There was no indication that high tick burdens were associated with exposure to vector-borne pathogens. Our results underscore the potential importance of cats to human vector-borne disease risk.

  10. Notch2 transduction by feline leukemia virus in a naturally infected cat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Shinya; Ito, Jumpei; Baba, Takuya; Hiratsuka, Takahiro; Kuse, Kyohei; Ochi, Haruyo; Anai, Yukari; Hisasue, Masaharu; Tsujimoto, Hajime; Nishigaki, Kazuo

    2014-04-01

    Feline leukemia virus (FeLV) induces neoplastic and nonneoplastic diseases in cats. The transduction of cellular genes by FeLV is sometimes observed and associated with neoplastic diseases including lymphoma and sarcoma. Here, we report the first natural case of feline Notch2 transduction by FeLV in an infected cat with multicentric lymphoma and hypercalcemia. We cloned recombinant FeLVs harboring Notch2 in the env gene. Notch2 was able to activate expression of a reporter gene, similar to what was previously reported in cats with experimental FeLV-induced thymic lymphoma. Our findings suggest that the transduction of Notch2 strongly correlates with FeLV-induced lymphoma.

  11. A review of feline leukemia virus and feline immunodeficiency virus seroprevalence in cats in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little, Susan

    2011-10-15

    Feline leukemia virus (FeLV) and feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) are common and important infectious diseases of cats in Canada. Prevalence data are necessary to define prophylactic, management, and therapeutic measures for stray, feral and owned cats. Recently, comprehensive data on the seroprevalence of retrovirus infections of cats in Canada have become available and are reviewed. Further investigation into geographic variations in retrovirus seroprevalence within Canada is warranted, and may provide information to improve recommendations for testing and prevention. As well, more information is needed on FIV subtypes in Canada to improve diagnostics and vaccines, as well as to provide information on disease outcomes. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Understanding the context for pet cat and dog feeding and exercising behaviour among pet owners in Ireland: a qualitative study

    OpenAIRE

    Downes, Martin J.; Devitt, Catherine; Downes, Marie T.; More, Simon J.

    2017-01-01

    Background Pet cat and dog obesity contributes to increased risk of several diseases, including cancer and diabetes mellitus as well as a worsening of orthopaedic problems, and a reduction in survival rate. This study aims to develop a better understanding of cat and dog owners’ self-reported beliefs and factors that influence owner behaviour around feeding and exercising their pet cat or dog, as there is a lack of in-depth understanding in this area. Seven focus group discussions, with 43 pe...

  13. CAT -- computer aided testing for resonant inspection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foley, David K.

    1998-01-01

    Application of computer technology relates to inspection and quality control. The computer aided testing (CAT) can be used to analyze various NDT technologies, such as eddy current, ultrasonics, and resonant inspection

  14. A cross-species alignment tool (CAT)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Heng; Guan, Liang; Liu, Tao

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The main two sorts of automatic gene annotation frameworks are ab initio and alignment-based, the latter splitting into two sub-groups. The first group is used for intra-species alignments, among which are successful ones with high specificity and speed. The other group contains more...... sensitive methods which are usually applied in aligning inter-species sequences. RESULTS: Here we present a new algorithm called CAT (for Cross-species Alignment Tool). It is designed to align mRNA sequences to mammalian-sized genomes. CAT is implemented using C scripts and is freely available on the web...... at http://xat.sourceforge.net/. CONCLUSIONS: Examined from different angles, CAT outperforms other extant alignment tools. Tested against all available mouse-human and zebrafish-human orthologs, we demonstrate that CAT combines the specificity and speed of the best intra-species algorithms, like BLAT...

  15. Channel CAT: A Tactical Link Analysis Tool

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Coleman, Michael

    1997-01-01

    .... This thesis produced an analysis tool, the Channel Capacity Analysis Tool (Channel CAT), designed to provide an automated tool for the analysis of design decisions in developing client-server software...

  16. SWMM-CAT User’s Guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Storm Water Management Model Climate Adjustment Tool (SWMM-CAT) is a simple to use software utility that allows future climate change projections to be incorporated into the Storm Water Management Model (SWMM).

  17. Effects of experimental amitraz intoxication in cats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.F. Andrade

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available This work studied the effects of experimental amitraz intoxication in cats. Sixteen cats were randomly divided equally into two groups: amitraz group - animals received 1.5% amitraz at 1mg/kg IV; and the control group - animals without amitraz. Physiological parameters from blood, cardiorespiratory system, and sedation indicators were quantified over time up to 360 minutes. Blood profile, urea, creatinine, alananine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase were not affected by amitraz. Sedation, loss of reflexes, hypothermia, bradycardia, bradyarrhythmia, hypotension, bradypnea, mydriasis, besides transitory hyperglycemia, hypoinsulinemia and decrease of cortisol levels were observed in cats experimentally exposed to amitraz. The alpha2-adrenergic effects induced by amitraz intoxication in cats are very similar to the same effects reported in others species, contributing with more information about this type of intoxication to veterinary toxicology.

  18. The Biology and Ecology of Cat Fleas and Advancements in Their Pest Management: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael K. Rust

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The cat flea Ctenocephalides felis felis (Bouché is the most important ectoparasite of domestic cats and dogs worldwide. It has been two decades since the last comprehensive review concerning the biology and ecology of C. f. felis and its management. Since then there have been major advances in our understanding of the diseases associated with C. f. felis and their implications for humans and their pets. Two rickettsial diseases, flea-borne spotted fever and murine typhus, have been identified in domestic animal populations and cat fleas. Cat fleas are the primary vector of Bartonella henselae (cat scratch fever with the spread of the bacteria when flea feces are scratched in to bites or wounds. Flea allergic dermatitis (FAD common in dogs and cats has been successfully treated and tapeworm infestations prevented with a number of new products being used to control fleas. There has been a continuous development of new products with novel chemistries that have focused on increased convenience and the control of fleas and other arthropod ectoparasites. The possibility of feral animals serving as potential reservoirs for flea infestations has taken on additional importance because of the lack of effective environmental controls in recent years. Physiological insecticide resistance in C. f. felis continues to be of concern, especially because pyrethroid resistance now appears to be more widespread. In spite of their broad use since 1994, there is little evidence that resistance has developed to many of the on-animal or oral treatments such as fipronil, imidacloprid or lufenuron. Reports of the perceived lack of performance of some of the new on-animal therapies have been attributed to compliance issues and their misuse. Consequentially, there is a continuing need for consumer awareness of products registered for cats and dogs and their safety.

  19. Lawsonia intracellularis in the feces of wild rodents and stray cats captured around equine farms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Jeong-Min; Seo, Myung-Ji; Yeh, Jung-Yong

    2017-08-11

    Proliferative enteropathy is a global enteric disease of particular importance in pigs. The causative bacterium, Lawsonia intracellularis, has a wide range of susceptible host species. Recently, L. intracellularis has been recognized as an etiologic agent of an emerging enteric disease in foals called equine proliferative enteropathy (EPE). The presence of L. intracellularis in nonruminant wildlife has raised questions regarding the role of these species in EPE transmission. This study investigated exposure to L. intracellularis in wild rodents and feral cats from eight farms with confirmed EPE. Serum (42) and fecal (40) samples from resident foals and fecal samples (131), intestinal mucosa tissues (14), and mesenteric lymph nodes (14) from wild and feral animals were collected for the evaluation of the farm status and the molecular detection of L. intracellularis following the diagnosis of EPE in index cases. Fresh feces from wild rodents and feral cats were collected from the ground while walking the premises or after trapping the animals using live traps. A total of 3 brown rats, 7 house mice, 1 striped field mouse, 2 grey red-backed voles, and 3 feral cats showed evidence of prior exposure to L. intracellularis. Our data add to increasing evidence demonstrating the potential for L. intracellularis transmission and infection in wild rodents and feral cats and provide possible evidence of interspecies transmission. The exposure of wild rodents and feral cats provides potential evidence for the spillover of L. intracellularis to wildlife species and raises the question of spillback to horses. Additionally, these animals may represent an indicator of environmental exposure or may be actively involved in the transmission of L. intracellularis to foals by acting as potential reservoir/amplifier hosts. This study is the first to demonstrate the magnitude of L. intracellularis shedding in the feces of wild rodents and feral cats and to indicate the significant

  20. The Biology and Ecology of Cat Fleas and Advancements in Their Pest Management: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    The cat flea Ctenocephalides felis felis (Bouché) is the most important ectoparasite of domestic cats and dogs worldwide. It has been two decades since the last comprehensive review concerning the biology and ecology of C. f. felis and its management. Since then there have been major advances in our understanding of the diseases associated with C. f. felis and their implications for humans and their pets. Two rickettsial diseases, flea-borne spotted fever and murine typhus, have been identified in domestic animal populations and cat fleas. Cat fleas are the primary vector of Bartonella henselae (cat scratch fever) with the spread of the bacteria when flea feces are scratched in to bites or wounds. Flea allergic dermatitis (FAD) common in dogs and cats has been successfully treated and tapeworm infestations prevented with a number of new products being used to control fleas. There has been a continuous development of new products with novel chemistries that have focused on increased convenience and the control of fleas and other arthropod ectoparasites. The possibility of feral animals serving as potential reservoirs for flea infestations has taken on additional importance because of the lack of effective environmental controls in recent years. Physiological insecticide resistance in C. f. felis continues to be of concern, especially because pyrethroid resistance now appears to be more widespread. In spite of their broad use since 1994, there is little evidence that resistance has developed to many of the on-animal or oral treatments such as fipronil, imidacloprid or lufenuron. Reports of the perceived lack of performance of some of the new on-animal therapies have been attributed to compliance issues and their misuse. Consequentially, there is a continuing need for consumer awareness of products registered for cats and dogs and their safety. PMID:29077073

  1. Radiographic findings in cats with intranasal neoplasia or chronic rhinitis: 29 cases (1982-1988)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Brien, R.T.; Evans, S.M.; Wortman, J.A.; Hendrick, M.J.

    1996-01-01

    Objective: To compare radiographic findings and determine useful criteria to differentiate between intranasal neoplasia and chronic rhinitis in cats. Design: Retrospective study. Animals: Cats with chronic nasal disease caused by neoplasia (n = 18) or by chronic rhinitis (n = 11). Procedure: Radiographs were reviewed by 3 radiologists, followed by group review. Diagnosis was determined by intranasal biopsy or necropsy, and specimens were reviewed by a pathologist to confirm cause and histologic diagnosis. Results: Lymphosarcoma was the most common (n = 5) of the 6 histopathologic types in the neoplasia group. Cats in the neoplasia and chronic rhinitis groups had a high prevalence of aggressive radiographic lesions. Prevalence of a facial mass in cats with neoplasia (8/18) versus in those with chronic rhinitis (4/11) and of deviation (9/18 vs 6/11, respectively) or lysis (12/18 vs 7/11) of the nasal septum was similar. However, significantly (P = 0.02) more cats with neoplasia than with chronic rhinitis (13/16 vs 3/7, respectively) had unilateral turbinate destruction/lysis. Additionally, unilateral lateral bone erosion and loss of teeth associated with adjacent intranasal disease were more prevalent in cats with neoplasia (7/8 and 5/18, respectively) than in cats with chronic rhinitis (1/3 and 0/11, respectively). Clinical Implications: Features that may assist in radiographic diagnosis of neoplasia include the appearance of unilateral aggressive lesions, such as lysis of lateral bones, nasal turbinate destruction, and loss of teeth. Bilaterally symmetric lesions are more suggestive of chronic rhinitis than of neoplasia

  2. Association between Gallbladder Ultrasound Findings and Bacterial Culture of Bile in 70 Cats and 202 Dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Policelli Smith, R; Gookin, J L; Smolski, W; Di Cicco, M F; Correa, M; Seiler, G S

    2017-09-01

    Bacterial cholecystitis often is diagnosed by combination of gallbladder ultrasound (US) findings and positive results of bile culture. The value of gallbladder US in determining the likelihood of bile bacterial infection in cats and dogs with suspected biliary disease is unknown. To determine the value of gallbladder US in predicting bile bacterial culture results, identify most common bacterial isolates from bile, and describe complications after cholecystocentesis in cats and dogs with suspected hepatobiliary disease. Cats (70) and dogs (202) that underwent an abdominal US and submission of bile for culture were included in the study. A cross-sectional study design was used to determine the association of gallbladder US abnormalities and the results of bile cultures, and complications of cholecystocentesis. Abnormal gallbladder US had high sensitivity (96%) but low specificity (49%) in cats with positive and negative results of bile bacterial culture, respectively. Cats with normal gallbladder US findings were unlikely to have positive bile bacterial culture (negative predictive value of 96%). Gallbladder US had lower sensitivity (81%), specificity (31%), positive predictive value (20%), and negative predictive value (88%) in dogs. The most common bacterial isolates were of enteric origin, the prevalence being higher in cats. Incidence of complications after cholecystocentesis was 3.4%. Gallbladder US has a high negative predictive value for bile culture results in cats. This modality is less predictive of infection in dogs. Percutaneous US-guided cholecystocentesis has a low complication rate. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine.

  3. High rise syndrome with impalement in three cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pratschke, K M; Kirby, B M

    2002-06-01

    Three cats were presented for management of impalement injuries sustained following falls from second storey windows onto spiked metal railings. Two cats presented with penetrating thoracic wounds and extensive pulmonary parenchymal trauma, while one presented with abdominal impalement and splenic rupture. Following stabilisation, all three cats underwent exploratory surgery. A good outcome was achieved in two of the cats: one with thoracic and one with abdominal penetration. Impalement injury secondary to free fallis a previously unreported variation of 'high rise syndrome' in cats.

  4. Devil declines and catastrophic cascades: is mesopredator release of feral cats inhibiting recovery of the eastern quoll?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bronwyn A Fancourt

    Full Text Available The eastern quoll (Dasyurus viverrinus is a medium-sized Australian marsupial carnivore that has recently undergone a rapid and severe population decline over the 10 years to 2009, with no sign of recovery. This decline has been linked to a period of unfavourable weather, but subsequent improved weather conditions have not been matched by quoll recovery. A recent study suggested another mechanism: that declines in Tasmanian devil (Sarcophilus harrisii populations, due to the spread of the fatal Devil Facial Tumour Disease, have released feral cats (Felis catus from competitive suppression, with eastern quoll declines linked to a subsequent increase in cat sightings. Yet current evidence of intraguild suppression among devils, cats and quolls is scant and equivocal. We therefore assessed the influences of top-down effects on abundance and activity patterns among devils, feral cats and eastern quolls. Between 2011 and 2013, we monitored four carnivore populations using longitudinal trapping and camera surveys, and performed camera surveys at 12 additional sites throughout the eastern quoll's range. We did not find evidence of a negative relationship between devil and cat abundance, nor of higher cat abundance in areas where devil populations had declined the longest. Cats did not appear to avoid devils spatially; however, there was evidence of temporal separation of cat and devil activity, with reduced separation and increasing nocturnal activity observed in areas where devils had declined the longest. Cats and quolls used the same areas, and there was no evidence that cat and quoll abundances were negatively related. Temporal overlap in observed cat and quoll activity was higher in summer than in winter, but this seasonal difference was unrelated to devil declines. We suggest that cats did not cause the recent quoll decline, but that predation of juvenile quolls by cats could be inhibiting low density quoll populations from recovering their

  5. Dog and Cat Allergies and Allergen Avoidance Measures in Korean Adult Pet Owners Who Participated in a Pet Exhibition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Min Suk; Lee, Sang Pyo; Kwon, Young Jae; Lee, Sang Min

    2018-03-01

    This study evaluated dog and cat allergies and their association with allergen avoidance measures in Korean adults. The study population consisted of 537 adults who currently kept dogs or cats and participated in a pet exhibition in Korea. The subjects were asked to complete questionnaires regarding pet ownership, allergen avoidance, and allergy symptoms, and underwent skin prick tests. They were considered to have a dog or cat allergy if they suffered from one or more of allergy symptoms during contact with their pets. In total, 103 of 407 dog owners (25.3%) and 45 of 130 cat owners (34.6%) had a dog or cat allergy, respectively. Dog owners kept 1.3±1.5 dogs; this number did not differ according to the presence of dog allergy. Dog owners with a dog allergy had owned their dogs longer than those without (88.0±72.0 vs 67.5±72.7 months, PCat owners kept 2.1±3.6 cats; this number did not differ according to the presence of cat allergy, nor did the duration of cat ownership. Cat owners with a cat allergy had facial contact and slept with their cats less frequently (8.6±11.9 vs 18.3±27.0 times/day, Pcats shaved and beds cleaned less frequently than those without (1.8±3.3 vs 3.2±4.4 times/year, PCat owners with a cat allergy tried to minimize contact with their cats, but efforts to avoid indoor cat allergens were lower than those without. In comparison, dog owners with a dog allergy had kept their dogs for longer time than those without; however, current contact with their dogs and allergen avoidance measures did not differ between the 2 groups. Copyright © 2018 The Korean Academy of Asthma, Allergy and Clinical Immunology · The Korean Academy of Pediatric Allergy and Respiratory Disease

  6. Fatal disseminated toxoplasmosis in an immunocompetent cat

    OpenAIRE

    Susanna S. Nagel; June H. Williams; Johannes P. Schoeman

    2013-01-01

    A 10-year-old domestic short hair cat was referred for investigation of anorexia and polydipsia of 3 days’ duration. Clinically the cat was obese, pyrexic (39.8 °C), had acute abdominal pain and severe bilirubinuria. Haematology and serum biochemistry revealed severe panleukopenia, thrombocytopenia, markedly elevated alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and five-fold increased pre-prandial bile acids. Ultrasonographic evaluation of the abdomen did not identify any abnormalities. Serum tests fo...

  7. Improving risk allocation through cat bonds

    OpenAIRE

    Nell, Martin; Richter, Andreas

    2002-01-01

    Catastrophe bonds (cat bonds) often use index triggers, such as, for instance, parametric descriptions of a catastrophe. This implies the problem of the so-called basis risk, resulting from the fact that, in contrast to traditional reinsurance, this kind of coverage cannot be a perfect hedge for the primary's insured portfolio. On the other hand, cat bonds offer some very attractive economic features: Besides their usefulness as a solution to the problems of moral hazard and default risk, an ...

  8. Bioacoustic Signal Classification in Cat Auditory Cortex

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-01-01

    of the cat’s WINER. 1. A. Anatomy of layer IV in cat primary auditory cortex t4,1). J miedial geniculate body Ideintified by projections to binaural...34language" (see for example Tartter, 1986, chapter 8; and Lieberman, 1984). Attempts have been made to train animals (mainly apes, gorillas , _ _ ___I 3...gestures of a gorilla : Language acquisition in another Pongid. Brain and Language, 1978a, 5, 72-97. Patterson, F. Conversations with a gorilla

  9. Safety of administering the canine melanoma DNA vaccine (Oncept) to cats with malignant melanoma - a retrospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarbu, Luminita; Kitchell, Barbara E; Bergman, Philip J

    2017-02-01

    Objectives A xenogeneic human tyrosinase DNA vaccine was developed for treatment of dogs with oral malignant melanoma (Oncept; Merial). No studies have evaluated the safety or efficacy of this vaccine in cats. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the safety of the canine melanoma vaccine in cats diagnosed with melanoma. Methods Medical records were reviewed from cats diagnosed with malignant melanoma and treated with the canine melanoma DNA vaccine (Oncept). Data regarding signalment, melanoma location, treatments received, vaccine adverse effects and cause of death were collected. Results A total of 114 melanoma vaccines were administered to 24 cats. Seven cats (11.4%) had clinical adverse effects from a total of 13 vaccines classified as grade 1 or 2 based on the Veterinary Cooperative Oncology Group's common terminology criteria for adverse events v1.1. These included pain on vaccine administration, brief muscle fasciculation, transient inappetence, depression, nausea and mild increase in pigmentation at the injection site. Nineteen cats were deceased at study close. The most common cause of death was melanoma (14 cats). Hematological and biochemical changes were observed in six cats, five of which had concurrent disease or treatments that likely caused or greatly contributed to the laboratory abnormalities found. Therefore, these adverse events were considered unlikely to be caused by the melanoma vaccine. One cat had transient grade 1 hypoalbuminemia, which was possibly caused by the vaccination but not thoroughly evaluated. Conclusions and relevance The canine melanoma DNA vaccine can be safely administered to cats, with minimal risk of adverse effects.

  10. The Effect of Moderate Dietary Protein and Phosphate Restriction on Calcium-Phosphate Homeostasis in Healthy Older Cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geddes, R F; Biourge, V; Chang, Y; Syme, H M; Elliott, J

    2016-09-01

    Dietary phosphate and protein restriction decreases plasma PTH and FGF-23 concentrations and improves survival time in azotemic cats, but has not been examined in cats that are not azotemic. Feeding a moderately protein- and phosphate-restricted diet decreases PTH and FGF-23 in healthy older cats and thereby slows progression to azotemic CKD. A total of 54 healthy, client-owned cats (≥ 9 years). Prospective double-blinded randomized placebo-controlled trial. Cats were assigned to test diet (protein 76 g/Mcal and phosphate 1.6 g/Mcal) or control diet (protein 86 g/Mcal and phosphate 2.6 g/Mcal) and monitored for 18 months. Changes in variables over time and effect of diet were assessed by linear mixed models. A total of 26 cats ate test diet and 28 cats ate control diet. There was a significant effect of diet on urinary fractional excretion of phosphate (P = 0.045), plasma PTH (P = 0.005), and ionized calcium concentrations (P = 0.018), but not plasma phosphate, FGF-23, or creatinine concentrations. Plasma PTH concentrations did not significantly change in cats fed the test diet (P = 0.62) but increased over time in cats fed the control diet (P = 0.001). There was no significant treatment effect of the test diet on development of azotemic CKD (3 of 26 (12%) test versus 3 of 28 (11%) control, odds ratio 1.09 (95% CI 0.13-8.94), P = 0.92). Feeding a moderately protein- and phosphate-restricted diet has effects on calcium-phosphate homeostasis in healthy older cats and is well tolerated. This might have an impact on renal function and could be useful in early chronic kidney disease. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine.

  11. Effect of single-cat versus multi-cat home history on perceived behavioral stress in domestic cats (Felis silvestrus catus) in an animal shelter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broadley, Heidi M; McCobb, Emily C; Slater, Margaret R

    2014-02-01

    This study investigates the effect of living with other cats in a prior home on stress levels of cats recently surrendered to an animal shelter. A total of 63 cats was evaluated using a Cat-Stress-Score and an approach test. Cats were categorized in terms of previous home history with or without other cats. No significant difference was found in stress scores between cats from single-cat households and those from multiple-cat households, although single cats that had been in the shelter less than 4 days demonstrated higher stress levels. No significant difference was found between the two groups in terms of approach results. Results of this study suggest that, in traditional individual cage settings, cats that are not accustomed to living with other cats may experience more stress in the initial few days of attempting to adjust to shelter existence. Through the use of such assessments, shelter personnel may develop an increased awareness to the needs of these cats and attempt to provide measures to improve their well-being within the shelter environment.

  12. Cowpox after a cat scratch – case report from Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karolina Świtaj

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Cowpox in humans is a rare zoonotic disease; its recognition is therefore problematic due to the lack of clinical experience. The differential diagnosis includes other poxvirus infections and also infections with herpesviruses or selected bacteria. The clinical course can be complicated and the improvement may take weeks. Late diagnosis is one of the causes of unnecessary combined antibiotic therapy or surgical intervention. A case of cowpox after a cat scratch in a 15-year-old girl is presented, with a summary of the available clinical data on cowpox infections.

  13. Chemotherapy Application on a Cat with Lymphoblastic Lymphosarcoma

    OpenAIRE

    BORKU, Mehmet Kazim; KARA, Erdal; KURTDEDE, Arif; RADGOHAR, Ayjamal; KARA, Halime; SEN, Yusuf

    2018-01-01

    The case was a 2.5-year-old calicocat with an abdominal mass, which was brought from a private clinic to AnkaraUniversity, Veterinary Faculty, Animal Hospital, Internal Diseases Clinic. Itwas reported that the cat was operated 20 days ago, a mass of 8 cm in diameternear the jejunum was removed, but a second mass in the region was noticed inthe investigation. The mass removed with operation was found to be Lymphoblasticlymphocarcinoma. In the ultrasonography, a two lobed mass of 3x4.5 cm in si...

  14. Localized demodicosis due to Demodex cati on the muzzle of two cats treated with inhalant glucocorticoids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bizikova, Petra

    2014-06-01

    Feline demodicosis due to Demodex cati is a rare skin disease often associated with concurrent disease and generalized immunosuppression. Local immunosuppression due to the application of topical immunomodulatory drugs, such as glucocorticoids and tacrolimus, or by tumour cells has been suggested as a potential trigger for development of localized demodicosis in humans and animals. The goal was to describe two cats with asthma that developed localized demodicosis on the muzzle as a result of chronic therapy with a glucocorticoid administered via dispensing inhaler mask. In both cats, the muzzle area exposed to the fluticasone-dispensing chamber exhibited patchy alopecia, mild erythema, crusting and scaling. Deep skin scraping revealed D. cati. Discontinuation or reduction of fluticasone and administration of milbemycin resulted in resolution of clinical signs within 2 months in both cats. A negative skin scrape was obtained after 7 months of milbemycin in one of the cats. Demodicosis should be considered as a possible differential diagnosis in cats with primary alopecia or other skin lesions on the face exposed to inhalant glucocorticoids. Minimization of contact between the inhalant glucocorticoid and the skin can be achieved by wiping residual powder from the face and by keeping the mask tightly pressed to the skin to avoid contact with the surrounding area. © 2014 ESVD and ACVD.

  15. Molecular identity and prevalence of Cryptococcus spp. nasal carriage in asymptomatic feral cats in Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danesi, Patrizia; Furnari, Carmelo; Granato, Anna; Schivo, Alice; Otranto, Domenico; Capelli, Gioia; Cafarchia, Claudia

    2014-10-01

    Cryptococcosis is a life-threatening fungal disease that infects humans and animals worldwide. Inhalation of fungal particles from an environmental source can cause primary infection of the respiratory system. As animals can be considered a sentinel for human diseases, the aim of this study was to determine the prevalence and molecular identity of Cryptococcus spp. in the nasal cavity of feral cats. Cats from 162 urban and rural feral cat colonies were sampled over 3 years. Of 766 cats from which nasal swabs were obtained, Cryptococcus spp. were recovered from 95 (12.6%), including 37 C. magnus (4.8%), 16 C. albidus (2.0%), 15 C. carnescens (1.9%), 12 C. neoformans (1.6%), as well as C. oeirensis (n = 3), C. victoriae (n = 3), C. albidosimilis (n = 2), Filobasidium globisporum (n = 2), C. adeliensis (n = 1), C. flavescens (n = 1), C. dimnae (n = 1), C. saitoi (n = 1), and C. wieringae (n = 1) with prevalence feral cats may carry C. neoformans and other Cryptococcus species in their sinonasal cavity. Genotyping of the specific cryptococcal isolates provides a better understanding of the epidemiology of these yeasts. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The International Society for Human and Animal Mycology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. Dog and cat respiratory capilariasis - clinical, parasitological and epidemiological significance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilić Tamara

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Respiratory capillariasis is a disease of domestic and wild carnivores as well as of people, caused by nematode Eucoleus aerophilus syn. Capillaria aerophila, which lives as a parasite in mucosa of trachea, bronchi and bronchioles, rarely in nasal and frontal sinuses of the host. This parasite has either direct or indirect development cycle which includes optional transition hosts - earthworms. Clinical picture is manifested in the form of a very severe respiratory disease, which is accompanied by an increased bronchovesicular sound, sneezing, gasping and chronic dry cough. Despite the fact that this nematode is widespread in all the parts of the world, that it causes a disease followed by a severe clinical picture and has a zoonotic potential as well, it has been insufficiently investigated and moreover from clinical and parasitological aspect it has not been given enough attention so far. The reason for this is the fact that C. aerophila had been considered to be a strain of very low level of pathogenicity causing only sporadic respiratory infections in dogs and cats. The interest of scientific community for this parasitosis increased the moment when its causative agent spread outside the endemic areas. From the standpoint of monitoring and health protection of both carnivores and peorle, knowledge of basic epizootiological and epidemiological characteristics of these nematodes is of crucial importance, having in mind that its prevalence has significantly increased in dogs and cats in the last ten years, both in Europe and worldwide.

  17. Sleeping and resting respiratory rates in dogs and cats with medically-controlled left-sided congestive heart failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porciello, F; Rishniw, M; Ljungvall, I; Ferasin, L; Haggstrom, J; Ohad, D G

    2016-01-01

    Sleeping and resting respiratory rates (SRR and RRR, respectively) are commonly used to monitor dogs and cats with left-sided cardiac disease and to identify animals with left-sided congestive heart failure (L-CHF). Dogs and cats with subclinical heart disease have SRRmean values dogs and cats with CHF that is well controlled with medical therapy. In this study, SRR and RRR were measured by the owners of 51 dogs and 22 cats with stable, well-controlled CHF. Median canine SRRmean was 20 breaths/min (7-39 breaths/min); eight dogs were ≥25 breaths/min and one dog only was ≥30 breaths/min. Canine SRRmean was unrelated to pulmonary hypertension or diuretic dose. Median feline SRRmean was 20 breaths/min (13-31 breaths/min); four cats were ≥25 breaths/min and only one cat was ≥30 breaths/min. Feline SRRmean was unrelated to diuretic dose. SRR remained stable during collection in both species with little day-to-day variability. The median canine RRRmean was 24 breaths/min (12-44 breaths/min), 17 were ≥25 breaths/min, seven were ≥30 breaths/min, two were >40 breaths/min. Median feline RRRmean was 24 breaths/min (15-45 breaths/min); five cats had RRRmean ≥25 breaths/min; one had ≥30 breaths/min, and two had ≥40 breaths/min. These data suggest that most dogs and cats with CHF that is medically well-controlled and stable have SRRmean and RRRmean dogs and cats. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Prevalence and risk factors for patent Toxocara infections in cats and cat owners' attitude towards deworming

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijsse, R; Ploeger, H W; Wagenaar, J A; Mughini-Gras, L

    2016-01-01

    The prevalence of and risk factors for shedding Toxocara eggs in cats older than 6 months were determined by examining 670 faecal samples collected in 4 cross-sectional studies in the Netherlands. Additionally, cat owners provided information on their attitude towards routine deworming. Samples were

  19. Prevalence and risk factors for patent Toxocara infections in cats and cat owners’ attitude towards deworming

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijsse, R.; Ploeger, H.W.; Wagenaar, J.A.; Mughini-Gras, L.

    2016-01-01

    The prevalence of and risk factors for shedding Toxocara eggs in cats older than 6 months were determined by examining 670 faecal samples collected in 4 cross-sectional studies in the Netherlands. Additionally, cat owners provided information on their attitude towards routine deworming. Samples

  20. CATS Deliverable 5.1 : CATS verification of test matrix and protocol

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Uittenbogaard, J.; Camp, O.M.G.C. op den; Montfort, S. van

    2016-01-01

    This report summarizes the work conducted within work package (WP) 5 "Verification of test matrix and protocol" of the Cyclist AEB testing system (CATS) project. It describes the verification process of the draft CATS test matrix resulting from WP1 and WP2, and the feasibility of meeting

  1. Cat sensitization according to cat window of exposure in adult asthmatics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oryszczyn, M.-P.; van Ree, R.; Maccario, J.; Nadif, R.; Kauffmann, F.

    2009-01-01

    P>Background In adults, there is limited information on tolerance to cat, which may be reflected by high IgG(4) without IgE sensitization. Early exposure to cat may play a critical role. Objective The aim was to assess among adults the association of Fel d 1 IgG(4), Fel d 1 IgE, skin prick test

  2. Evaluation of skin test reactivity to environmental allergens in healthy cats and cats with atopic dermatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schleifer, Sebastian G; Willemse, Ton

    2003-06-01

    To evaluate skin test reactivity to environmental allergens in healthy cats and in cats with atopic dermatitis (AD). 10 healthy cats and 10 cats with AD. 10 allergens in serial dilutions were injected ID on the lateral aspect of the thorax of sedated cats. Histamine (0.01% solution) and buffer solutions were used as positive and negative controls, respectively. Immediately after the last injection, 10% fluorescein solution was administered IV. Skin test results were evaluated with ultraviolet light after 15 to 30 minutes and at 4 and 6 hours by 2 independent observers. In the control group, skin tests were repeated after 6 weeks. Skin test reactivity and the nature of the immunoglobulin involved were investigated by use of the Prausnitz-Küstner test with untreated and heat-treated cat sera. Intertest and interobserver agreement were high when measurement of the diameter of the fluorescent wheal was used to evaluate skin test responses, compared with assessment of its intensity. In both groups of cats, immediate skin test reactivity was observed as an IgE-mediated reaction, as an IgG-mediated reaction, and as a result of nonspecific mast cell degranulation. There was no correlation between allergen concentration and the type of reaction observed. Skin test reactivity in cats should be evaluated after IV administration of 10% fluorescein solution by means of a Prausnitz-Küstner test to differentiate among IgE-mediated, IgG-mediated, and nonspecific reactions.

  3. First clinical case report of Cytauxzoon sp. infection in a domestic cat in France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legroux, Jean-Pierre; Halos, Lénaïg; René-Martellet, Magalie; Servonnet, Marielle; Pingret, Jean-Luc; Bourdoiseau, Gilles; Baneth, Gad; Chabanne, Luc

    2017-03-29

    Feline cytauxzoonosis is an emerging infection caused by tick-transmitted apicomplexan parasites of the genus Cytauxzoon. The association of clinical disease with Cytauxzoon infection appears to be limited to C. felis infections in the Americas. Sporadic infections of wild and domestic felids with Cytauxzoon sp. were recently described in European countries but clinical reports of the infection are rare and incomplete. This case report brings new interesting information on cytauxzoonosis expression in Europe. A 9-years-old castrated European shorthair cat living in rural area of north-eastern France (Saint Sauveur, Bourgogne-Franche-Comté region), without any travel history was presented for consultation due to hyperthermia, anorexia, depression and prolonged fever that didn't respond to antibiotic therapy. The cat had outdoor access with a history of vagrancy and was adequately vaccinated (core vaccines and FeLV vaccine). During biological investigations, intraerythrocytic inclusions were observed on blood smear and were further investigated by PCR analysis and sequencing. Molecular analyses confirmed Cytauxzoon sp. infection. The cat was treated with a subcutaneous injection of imidocarb dipropionate (3.5 mg/kg). One week after treatment, the cat improved clinically, although parasitic inclusions within erythrocytes persisted, and only a mild lymphocytosis was found. Two weeks after treatment, the cat appeared in excellent health, appetite was normal and parasitemia was negative. However, one month after treatment the cat relapsed with hyperthermia, anorexia, and depression. Blood smears and PCR were once again positive. Subsequently, the cat received an additional dose of imidocarb dipropionate (3.5 mg/kg SC) and recovered rapidly without other clinical signs. Two weeks after the second imidocarb injection, the cat was hit by a car and died. This case provides the first clinical description of infection by Cytauxzoon sp. in a domestic cat in France. These

  4. Clinical presentation and outcome of cats with circumcaval ureters associated with a ureteral obstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinhaus, J; Berent, A C; Weisse, C; Eatroff, A; Donovan, T; Haddad, J; Bagley, D

    2015-01-01

    Circumcaval ureters (CU) are a rare embryological malformation resulting in ventral displacement of the caudal vena cava, which crosses the ureter, potentially causing a ureteral stricture. To evaluate cats with obstructed CU(s) and report the presenting signs, diagnostics, treatment(s), and outcomes. Cats with obstructed CU(s) were compared to ureterally obstructed cats without CU(s). 193 cats; 22 circumcaval obstructed (Group 1); 106 non-circumcaval obstructed (Group 2); 65 non-obstructed necropsy cases (Group 3). Retrospective study, review of medical records for cats treated for benign ureteral obstructions from AMC and University of Pennsylvania between 2009 and 2013. surgical treatment of benign ureteral obstruction, complete medical record including radiographic, ultrasonographic, biochemistry, and surgical findings. Seventeen percent (22/128) of obstructed cats had a CU (80% right-sided) compared to 14% (9/65) non-obstructed necropsy cats (89% right-sided). Clinical presentation, radiographic findings, and creatinine were not statistically different between Groups 1 and 2. Strictures were a statistically more common (40%) cause of ureteral obstruction in Group 1 compared to Group 2 (17%) (P = .01). The MST for Groups 1 and 2 after ureteral decompression was 923 and 762 days, respectively (P = .62), with the MST for death secondary to kidney disease in both groups being >1,442 days. Re-obstruction was the most common complication in Group 1 (24%) occurring more commonly in ureters of cats treated with a ureteral stent(s) (44%) compared to the subcutaneous ureteral bypass (SUB) device (8%) (P = .01). Ureteral obstructions in cats with a CU(s) have a similar outcome to those cats with a ureteral obstruction and normal ureteral anatomy. Long-term prognosis is good for benign ureteral obstructions treated with a double pigtail stent or a SUB device. The SUB device re-obstructed less commonly than the ureteral stent, especially when a ureteral stricture was

  5. Hypothermia in Uremic Dogs and Cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabatchnick, E; Langston, C; Olson, B; Lamb, K E

    2016-09-01

    The prevalence of uremic hypothermia (UH) and the effects of improving uremia on body temperature have not been determined in veterinary patients. To determine the prevalence of UH and correlations between uremia and body temperature in patients undergoing intermittent hemodialysis (IHD). Uremic dogs (n = 122) and cats (n = 79) treated by IHD at the Bobst Hospital of the Animal Medical Center from 1997 to 2013. Retrospective review of medical records. The prevalence of hypothermia was 38% in azotemic cats and 20.5% in azotemic dogs. Statistically significant temperature differences were observed between uremic and nonuremic dogs (nonuremic: mean, 100.8°F; range, 91.2-109.5°F; uremic: mean, 99.9°F; range, 95.6-103.8°F; P cats (nonuremic: mean, 100.6°F; range, 94.0-103.8°F; uremic: mean, 99.3°F; range, 92.3-103.4°F; P dog dialysis patients, significant models included (1) timing (pre-dialysis versus post-dialysis) with weight class (small [P dogs), (2) timing with serum creatinine concentration (P = .021), and (3) timing with BUN concentration (P cat dialysis patients, there was a significant interaction between timing and weight as a categorical variable (cats and dogs. Uremic patients are hypothermic compared to ill nonuremic patients and body temperatures increase when uremia is corrected with IHD in dogs and in cats >5 kg. In cats, UH seems to be a more prevalent phenomenon driven by uremia. Uremic hypothermia does occur in dogs, but body weight is a more important predictor of body temperature. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine.

  6. 3 alpha-Hydroxylated bile acid profiles in clinically normal cats, cats with severe hepatic lipidosis, and cats with complete extrahepatic bile duct occlusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Center, S A; Thompson, M; Guida, L

    1993-05-01

    Concentrations of 3 alpha-hydroxylated bile acids were measured in serum and urine of clinically normal (healthy) cats (n = 6), cats with severe hepatic lipidosis (n = 9), and cats with complete bile duct occlusion (n = 4). Bile acid concentrations were measured by use of a gradient flow high-performance liquid chromatography procedure with an acetonitrile and ammonium phosphate mobile phase and an in-line postanalytic column containing 3 alpha-hydroxy-steroid dehydrogenase and a fluorescence detector. Specific identification of all bile acid peaks was not completed; unidentified moieties were represented in terms of their elution time (in minutes). Significant differences in serum and urine bile acid concentrations, quantitative and proportional, were determined among groups of cats. Cats with hepatic lipidosis and bile duct occlusion had significantly (P > or = 0.05) greater total serum and urine bile acids concentrations than did healthy cats. The proportion of hydrophobic bile acids in serum, those eluting at > or = 400 minutes, was 1.9% for healthy cats, 3.3% for cats with lipidosis, and 5.4% for bile duct-obstructed cats. Both groups of ill cats had a broader spectrum of unidentified late-eluting serum bile acids than did healthy cats; the largest spectrum developed in bile duct-occluded cats.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  7. Identification of Bordetella bronchseptica in fatal pneumonia of dogs and cats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Infection with Bordetella bronchiseptica is a common cause of tracheobronchitis and upper respiratory disease in dogs and cats, but it can also lead to fatal pneumonia. Identification of this pathogen is important due the risk of transmission to other animals, availability of vaccines and potential...

  8. Prevalence of Spirometra mansoni in dogs, cats, and frogs and its medical relevance in Guangzhou, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qing Hong

    2016-12-01

    Conclusions: A high sparganum infection rate was observed in the wild frogs sold in agricultural product markets in Guangzhou. The infection was also serious in cats and dogs in Guangdong Province. With lifestyles and eating habits resulting in sparganum infection, it is necessary to focus on market management and community education in order to prevent the transmission of this disease in Guangzhou.

  9. Pyrexia in cats: Retrospective analysis of signalment, clinical investigations, diagnosis and influence of prior treatment in 106 referred cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spencer, Sarah E; Knowles, Toby; Ramsey, Ian K; Tasker, Séverine

    2017-11-01

    The main aim of the study was to describe the features and diagnoses of a population of cats referred with pyrexia. Other aims were to report and evaluate the utility of clinical investigations performed, and describe any effect of treatment before referral on temperature at presentation and ability to make a diagnosis. Clinical records of cats with pyrexia (⩾39.2°C) documented at least twice were retrospectively reviewed. Cases were assigned to disease categories (infectious, inflammatory, immune-mediated, neoplastic, miscellaneous and no diagnosis [pyrexia of unknown origin, PUO]) based on diagnosis. The overall value of clinical investigations was assessed by classifying them as 'enabling', 'assisting' or 'no assistance' in achieving each diagnosis. The effect of treatment before referral was assessed for any association with temperature at presentation and ability to make a diagnosis (PUO vs other disease categories). One hundred and six cases were identified. The most common cause of pyrexia was feline infectious peritonitis (22 cats, 20.8%) and the largest disease category was infectious (41/106, 38.7%). Inflammatory conditions were found in 19 (17.9%) cats, neoplasia in 13 (12.3%), miscellaneous causes in 11 (10.4%) and immune-mediated disease in six (5.7%). No diagnosis was reached in 16 (15.0%) cats, often despite extensive diagnostic investigations. Cytology and histopathology most often 'enabled' or 'assisted' in obtaining a diagnosis. Most cats (91, 85.8%) received treatment before referral, with antimicrobial treatment given to 87 (82.1%). Prior treatment before referral was not associated with temperature at presentation nor with success in establishing a diagnosis. This is the first study investigating causes of pyrexia in cats. Infectious diseases were most common and immune-mediated diseases were comparatively rare.

  10. Acute kidney injury in cats and dogs: A proportional meta-analysis of case series studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legatti, Sabrina Almeida Moreira; Legatti, Emerson; Botan, Andresa Graciutti; Camargo, Samira Esteves Afonso; Agarwal, Arnav; Barretti, Pasqual; Paes, Antônio Carlos

    2018-01-01

    Introduction Risk of mortality in the setting of acute kidney injury (AKI) in cats and dogs remains unclear. Objectives To evaluate the incidence of mortality in cats and dogs with AKI based on etiology (i.e. infectious versus non-infectious; receiving dialysis versus conservative treatment). Materials and methods Ovid Medline, EMBASE, and LILACS were searched up to July 2016. Articles were deemed eligible if they were case series studies evaluating the incidence of all-cause mortality in cats and dogs with AKI, regardless of etiology or the nature of treatment. Results Eighteen case series involving 1,201animalsproved eligible. The pooled proportions for overall mortality were: cats53.1% [95% CI 0.475, 0.586; I2 = 11,9%, p = 0.3352]; dogs 45.0% [95% CI 0.33, 0.58; I2 = 91.5%, P dogs, 19.2% [95% CI 0.134, 0.258; I2 = 37.7%, P = 0.0982]; AKI due non-infectious etiology for cats and dogs, 59.9% [95% CI 0.532, 0.663; I2 = 51.0%, P = 0.0211]. Conclusion Our findings suggest higher rates of overall mortality in cats and dogs with AKI due to non-infectious etiologies relative to infectious etiologies, and showed non-significant differences in terms of higher rates associated with dialysis compared to conservative management. Further investigations regarding optimal time to initiate dialysis and the development of clinical models to prognosticate the course of disease and guide optimal treatment initiation for less severe cases of AKI in cats and dogs is warranted. PMID:29370180

  11. Molecular detection of vector-borne pathogens in dogs and cats from Qatar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alho, Ana Margarida; Lima, Clara; Latrofa, Maria Stefania; Colella, Vito; Ravagnan, Silvia; Capelli, Gioia; Madeira de Carvalho, Luís; Cardoso, Luís; Otranto, Domenico

    2017-06-20

    Vector-borne diseases (VBDs) have been increasingly reported in dogs and cats worldwide. However, no data are currently available regarding canine and feline VBDs in Qatar and limited information is available from other Persian Gulf countries. Blood samples from 98 client-owned animals (i.e. 64 dogs and 34 cats) living in Doha (Qatar) were collected and the presence of genomic DNA of Anaplasma spp., Babesia spp., Dirofilaria spp., Ehrlichia spp., Hepatozoon spp., Mycoplasma spp. and Rickettsia spp. was assessed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR), real time-PCR (rt-PCR) and sequence analysis. Of the 64 dogs, 12 (18.8%) were infected with at least one pathogen (i.e. 7.8% with Mycoplasma spp., 4.7% with Babesia vogeli, 3.1% with Ehrlichia canis, and 1.6% with Anaplasma platys, Babesia gibsoni and Hepatozoon canis, each). One of the 12 dogs was co-infected with B. vogeli and E. canis. Of the 34 cats, seven (20.6%) animals were infected with at least one pathogen (i.e. 5.9% were positive for Mycoplasma spp., and 2.9% for Babesia felis, B. vogeli, E. canis, "Candidatus Mycoplasma haemominutum" and Mycoplasma haemofelis, each). No dogs or cats were positive for Dirofilaria spp. or Rickettsia spp. Although the sample sizes of dogs and cats herein analysed was moderately small, data from this study report the occurrence of A. platys, B. vogeli, B. gibsoni, E. canis, H. canis and Mycoplasma spp. in domestic dogs and of B. felis, B. vogeli, "Candidatus M. haemominutum", E. canis and M. haemofelis in domestic cats from Qatar. Further investigations along with prophylactic measures are strongly recommended in order to reduce the risk of dogs and cats acquiring VBDs in Qatar.

  12. Cat amniotic membrane multipotent cells are nontumorigenic and are safe for use in cell transplantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vidane AS

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Atanasio S Vidane,1 Aline F Souza,1 Rafael V Sampaio,1 Fabiana F Bressan,2 Naira C Pieri,1 Daniele S Martins,2 Flavio V Meirelles,2 Maria A Miglino,1 Carlos E Ambrósio2 1Department of Surgery, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine and Animal Science, University of São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil; 2Department of Veterinary Medicine, Faculty of Animal Sciences and Food Engineering, University of São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil Abstract: Amnion-derived mesenchymal stem cells (AMSCs are multipotent cells with an enhanced ability to differentiate into multiple lineages. AMSCs can be acquired through noninvasive methods, and therefore are exempt from the typical ethical issues surrounding stem cell use. The objective of this study was to isolate and characterize AMSCs from a cat amniotic membrane for future application in regenerative medicine. The cat AMSCs were harvested after mechanical and enzymatic digestion of amnion. In culture medium, the cat AMSCs adhered to a plastic culture dish and displayed a fibroblast-like morphology. Immunophenotyping assays were positive for the mesenchymal stem cell-specific markers CD73 and CD90 but not the hematopoietic markers CD34, CD45, and CD79. Under appropriate conditions, the cat AMSCs differentiated into osteogenic, chondrogenic, and adipogenic cell lineages. One advantage of cat AMSCs was nonteratogenicity, assessed 4 weeks post injection of undifferentiated AMSCs into immunodeficient mice. These findings suggest that cat amniotic membranes may be an important and useful source of mesenchymal stem cells for clinical applications, especially for cell or tissue replacement in chronic and degenerative diseases. Keywords: amnion, cats, cell differentiation, fetal membranes, mesenchymal cells

  13. A Survey of Public Opinion on Cat (Felis catus) Predation and the Future Direction of Cat Management in New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Jessica K; Bruce, Stephanie J; Dale, Arnja R

    2017-07-03

    Cat predation is a prominent issue in New Zealand that provokes strong and opposing views. We explored, via 1011 face-to-face questionnaires, public opinion on (a) support for a National Cat Management Strategy (78% support); (b) concern regarding predation of wildlife by owned and un-owned cats (managed stray, unmanaged stray, and feral cats); (c) the acceptability of management techniques for owned cats; and (d) the acceptability of population management techniques for un-owned cats. The highest concern was expressed regarding the predation of non-native and native wildlife by feral cats (60 and 86% repectively), followed by unmanaged stray cats (59 and 86% respectively), managed stray cats (54 and 82% respectively), and finally owned cats (38 and 69% repectively). Limits to the number of cats owned and cat restriction zones received high levels of support (>65%), and compulsory microchipping, Council registration, and de-sexing were supported by the majority (>58%). Public support of population control methods for unowned cats was explored, and the influence of participant demographic variables on responses is described. These findings provide insight into public opinion regarding the management of cats in New Zealand, which should be considered during the development of legislation in this area.

  14. Born to roam? Surveying cat owners in Tasmania, Australia, to identify the drivers and barriers to cat containment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLeod, Lynette J; Hine, Donald W; Bengsen, Andrew J

    2015-12-01

    Free-roaming domestic cats, Felis catus, are a major public nuisance in neighbourhoods across the world, and have been linked to biodiversity loss and a host of community health problems. Owners who let their cats roam, also place their cats at risk of serious injury. One management strategy that is gaining considerable support involves encouraging cat owners to contain their pets within their property. Contemporary behaviour change models highlight the importance of identifying drivers and barriers that encourage and discourage target behaviours such as cat containment. Results from a random dial phone survey of 356 cat owners in northern Tasmania identified four distinct cat containment profiles: owners who contained their cat all the time, owners who only contained their cat at night, owners who sporadically contained their cat with no set routine, and owners who made no attempt to contain their pet. Our results indicated that cat-owners' decisions to contain or not contain their cats were guided by a range of factors including owners' beliefs about their ability to implement an effective containment strategy and their views about the physical and psychological needs of their cats. The results are discussed in terms of improving the behavioural effectiveness of cat containment interventions by selecting appropriate behavioural change tools for the identified drivers and barriers, and developing targeted engagement strategies and messaging. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. A Survey of Public Opinion on Cat (Felis catus Predation and the Future Direction of Cat Management in New Zealand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica K. Walker

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Cat predation is a prominent issue in New Zealand that provokes strong and opposing views. We explored, via 1011 face-to-face questionnaires, public opinion on (a support for a National Cat Management Strategy (78% support; (b concern regarding predation of wildlife by owned and un-owned cats (managed stray, unmanaged stray, and feral cats; (c the acceptability of management techniques for owned cats; and (d the acceptability of population management techniques for un-owned cats. The highest concern was expressed regarding the predation of non-native and native wildlife by feral cats (60 and 86% repectively, followed by unmanaged stray cats (59 and 86% respectively, managed stray cats (54 and 82% respectively, and finally owned cats (38 and 69% repectively. Limits to the number of cats owned and cat restriction zones received high levels of support (>65%, and compulsory microchipping, Council registration, and de-sexing were supported by the majority (>58%. Public support of population control methods for unowned cats was explored, and the influence of participant demographic variables on responses is described. These findings provide insight into public opinion regarding the management of cats in New Zealand, which should be considered during the development of legislation in this area.

  16. Optical quality of the living cat eye.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonds, A B

    1974-12-01

    1. The optical quality of the living cat eye was measured under conditions similar to those of cat retinal ganglion cell experiments by recording the aerial image of a nearly monochromatic thin line of light.2. Experiments were performed to assess the nature of the fundal reflexion of the cat eye, which was found to behave essentially as a diffuser.3. The optical Modulation Transfer Function (MTF) was calculated from the measured aerial linespread using Fourier mathematics; the MTF of a ;typical' cat eye was averaged from data collected from ten eyes.4. The state of focus of the optical system, the pupil size and the angle of the light incident on the eye were all varied to determine their effect on image quality.5. By using an image rotator, the aerial linespread was measured for several orientations of the line; these measurements yielded an approximation of the two-dimensional pointspread completely characterizing the optical system.6. Evidence is reviewed to show that the optical resolution of the cat, albeit some 3-5 times worse than that of human, appears to be better than the neural resolution of its retina and its visual system as a whole.

  17. Social referencing and cat-human communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merola, I; Lazzaroni, M; Marshall-Pescini, S; Prato-Previde, E

    2015-05-01

    Cats' (Felis catus) communicative behaviour towards humans was explored using a social referencing paradigm in the presence of a potentially frightening object. One group of cats observed their owner delivering a positive emotional message, whereas another group received a negative emotional message. The aim was to evaluate whether cats use the emotional information provided by their owners about a novel/unfamiliar object to guide their own behaviour towards it. We assessed the presence of social referencing, in terms of referential looking towards the owner (defined as looking to the owner immediately before or after looking at the object), the behavioural regulation based on the owner's emotional (positive vs negative) message (vocal and facial), and the observational conditioning following the owner's actions towards the object. Most cats (79 %) exhibited referential looking between the owner and the object, and also to some extent changed their behaviour in line with the emotional message given by the owner. Results are discussed in relation to social referencing in other species (dogs in particular) and cats' social organization and domestication history.

  18. Experimental induction of hepatic lipidosis in cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biourge, V C; Groff, J M; Munn, R J; Kirk, C A; Nyland, T G; Madeiros, V A; Morris, J G; Rogers, Q R

    1994-09-01

    The effect of long-term voluntary fasting on hematologic variables, biochemical profiles, and liver histologic findings was assessed in 15 obese cats (> 40% overweight). Clinical signs and laboratory results consistent with hepatic lipidosis were observed in 12 of 15 cats after 5 to 7 weeks of fasting, and were associated with 30 to 35% reduction of initial body weight. Histologic examination of successive liver biopsy specimens revealed that obesity was not associated with liver parenchymal lipid accumulation, but that fasting resulted in lipidosis in all 15 cats. The long-term fast was associated with an early (after 2 to 4 weeks of fasting) and significant (P hepatic-associated enzyme activities and in total and direct serum bilirubin concentrations. Significant (P hepatic lipidosis, cats appeared to tolerate the fast without other adverse effect. This study confirmed that long-term fasting may induce clinical hepatic lipidosis in obese cats. Fasting appears to induce a syndrome of hepatic lipidosis that is indistinguishable from feline idiopathic hepatic lipidosis and may be an appropriate model to study the pathophysiologic features and treatment of hepatic lipidosis.

  19. Emerging and Re-Emerging Zoonoses of Dogs and Cats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno B. Chomel

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Since the middle of the 20th century, pets are more frequently considered as “family members” within households. However, cats and dogs still can be a source of human infection by various zoonotic pathogens. Among emerging or re-emerging zoonoses, viral diseases, such as rabies (mainly from dog pet trade or travel abroad, but also feline cowpox and newly recognized noroviruses or rotaviruses or influenza viruses can sicken our pets and be transmitted to humans. Bacterial zoonoses include bacteria transmitted by bites or scratches, such as pasteurellosis or cat scratch disease, leading to severe clinical manifestations in people because of their age or immune status and also because of our closeness, not to say intimacy, with our pets. Cutaneous contamination with methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, Leptospira spp., and/or aerosolization of bacteria causing tuberculosis or kennel cough are also emerging/re-emerging pathogens that can be transmitted by our pets, as well as gastro-intestinal pathogens such as Salmonella or Campylobacter. Parasitic and fungal pathogens, such as echinococcosis, leishmaniasis, onchocercosis, or sporotrichosis, are also re-emerging or emerging pet related zoonoses. Common sense and good personal and pet hygiene are the key elements to prevent such a risk of zoonotic infection.

  20. Critically appraised topic on adverse food reactions of companion animals (3): prevalence of cutaneous adverse food reactions in dogs and cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olivry, Thierry; Mueller, Ralf S

    2017-02-15

    The prevalence of cutaneous adverse food reactions (CAFRs) in dogs and cats is not precisely known. This imprecision is likely due to the various populations that had been studied. Our objectives were to systematically review the literature to determine the prevalence of CAFRs among dogs and cats with pruritus and skin diseases. We searched two databases for pertinent references on August 18, 2016. Among 490 and 220 articles respectively found in the Web of Science (Science Citation Index Expanded) and CAB Abstract databases, we selected 22 and nine articles that reported data usable for CAFR prevalence determination in dogs and cats, respectively. The prevalence of CAFR in dogs and cats was found to vary depending upon the type of diagnoses made. Among dogs presented to their veterinarian for any diagnosis, the prevalence was 1 to 2% and among those with skin diseases, it ranged between 0 and 24%. The range of CAFR prevalence was similar in dogs with pruritus (9 to 40%), those with any type of allergic skin disease (8 to 62%) and in dogs diagnosed with atopic dermatitis (9 to 50%). In cats presented to a university hospital, the prevalence of CAFR was less than 1% (0.2%), while it was fairly homogeneous in cats with skin diseases (range: 3 to 6%), but higher in cats with pruritus (12 to 21%) than in cats with allergic skin disease (5 to 13%). Among dogs and cats with pruritus and those suspected of allergic skin disease, the prevalence of CAFR is high enough to justify this syndrome to be ruled-out with a restriction (elimination)-provocation dietary trial. This must especially be considered in companion animals with nonseasonal pruritus or signs of allergic dermatitis.

  1. Levels of house dust mite-specific serum immunoglobulin E (IgE) in different cat populations using a monoclonal based anti-IgE enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bexley, Jennifer; Hogg, Janice E; Hammerberg, Bruce; Halliwell, Richard E W

    2009-10-01

    Levels of serum immunoglobulin E (IgE) specific for the house dust mites (HDMs) Dermatophagoides farinae (DF) and Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus (DP) in 58 cats with clinical signs suggestive of atopic dermatitis (allergic dermatitis cats), 52 cats with no history of allergic or immunological disease (nonallergic cats) and 26 specific pathogen-free (SPF) cats were measured using a monoclonal anti-IgE enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Reactivity to both native and reduced HDM allergens was compared. SPF cats had significantly lower levels of HDM-specific serum IgE than cats with allergic dermatitis and nonallergic cats. The difference in levels of HDM-specific IgE in the serum of cats with allergic dermatitis and nonallergic cats was significant for native DF allergen, but not for native DP allergen or reduced HDM allergens. The results suggest that DF in its native form may be a significant allergen in cats with allergic dermatitis. The clinical relevance of these reactions, however, remains to be proven.

  2. Clinical features and risk factors for development of urinary tract infections in cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez-Ruzafa, Ivan; Kruger, John M; Miller, RoseAnn; Swenson, Cheryl L; Bolin, Carole A; Kaneene, John B

    2012-10-01

    The clinical and diagnostic features of 155 cats with urinary tract infection (UTI) and 186 controls with negative urine culture/s were characterized retrospectively (signalment, clinical signs, urinalysis, urine culture, concurrent diseases, lower urinary tract diagnostic/therapeutic procedures). Multivariable logistic regression was used to identify risk factors associated with UTI. Cats of all ages were affected by UTI with no sex/breed predisposition. Lower urinary tract signs were absent in 35.5% of cats with UTI. Pyuria and bacteriuria had sensitivities of 52.9% and 72.9%, and specificities of 85.5% and 67.7% for detection of UTI, respectively. Risk factors significantly associated with increased odds of UTI were urinary incontinence [odds ratio (OR)=10.78, P=0.0331], transurethral procedures (OR=8.37, Purinary tract anatomic abnormalities improved statistical model performance and contributed to UTI.

  3. Skin fragility syndrome in a cat with cholangiohepatitis and hepatic lipidosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel, Alexandre G T; Lucas, Sílvia R R; Júnior, Archivaldo R; Monteiro, Paula R G; Ramos, Daniela; Pires, Carolina G; Sinhorini, Idércio L

    2010-02-01

    A case of acquired skin fragility syndrome associated with hepatic disease in a 9-year-old, spayed female, domestic shorthair cat is described. The cat was admitted to the veterinary hospital of the University of São Paulo (Brazil) with a 6-week history of vomiting, inappetence and weight loss. Remarkable signs were weakness, lethargy and profound jaundice that had been present for 10 days according to the owner. On completion of the physical examination, when the cat was gently manipulated for blood collection the thoracic limb and interscapular skin tore. Liver enzymes and bilirubin levels were all above the normal range. On histological examination of skin and liver, Masson's trichrome stain showed collagen fibre alteration and major hepatocyte abnormalities. Findings were consistent with feline skin fragility syndrome associated with cholangiohepatitis and hepatic lipidosis. Copyright 2009 ESFM and AAFP. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Prior Puma Lentivirus Infection Modifies Early Immune Responses and Attenuates Feline Immunodeficiency Virus Infection in Cats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wendy S. Sprague

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available We previously showed that cats that were infected with non-pathogenic Puma lentivirus (PLV and then infected with pathogenic feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV (co-infection with the host adapted/pathogenic virus had delayed FIV proviral and RNA viral loads in blood, with viral set-points that were lower than cats infected solely with FIV. This difference was associated with global CD4+ T cell preservation, greater interferon gamma (IFN-γ mRNA expression, and no cytotoxic T lymphocyte responses in co-infected cats relative to cats with a single FIV infection. In this study, we reinforced previous observations that prior exposure to an apathogenic lentivirus infection can diminish the effects of acute infection with a second, more virulent, viral exposure. In addition, we investigated whether the viral load differences that were observed between PLV/FIV and FIV infected cats were associated with different immunocyte phenotypes and cytokines. We found that the immune landscape at the time of FIV infection influences the infection outcome. The novel findings in this study advance our knowledge about early immune correlates and documents an immune state that is associated with PLV/FIV co-infection that has positive outcomes for lentiviral diseases.

  5. Diagnostic imaging features of normal anal sacs in dogs and cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Yechan; Jeong, Eunseok; Park, Sangjun; Jeong, Jimo; Choi, Ul Soo; Kim, Min-Su; Kim, Namsoo; Lee, Kichang

    2016-09-30

    This study was conducted to provide normal reference features for canine and feline anal sacs using ultrasound, low-field magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and radiograph contrast as diagnostic imaging tools. A total of ten clinically normal beagle dogs and eight clinically normally cats were included. General radiography with contrast, ultrasonography and low-field MRI scans were performed. The visualization of anal sacs, which are located at distinct sites in dogs and cats, is possible with a contrast study on radiography. Most surfaces of the anal sacs tissue, occasionally appearing as a hyperechoic thin line, were surrounded by the hypoechoic external sphincter muscle on ultrasonography. The normal anal sac contents of dogs and cats had variable echogenicity. Signals of anal sac contents on low-field MRI varied in cats and dogs, and contrast medium using T1-weighted images enhanced the anal sac walls more obviously than that on ultrasonography. In conclusion, this study provides the normal features of anal sacs from dogs and cats on diagnostic imaging. Further studies including anal sac evaluation are expected to investigate disease conditions.

  6. Lysine supplementation is not effective for the prevention or treatment of feline herpesvirus 1 infection in cats: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bol, Sebastiaan; Bunnik, Evelien M

    2015-11-16

    Feline herpesvirus 1 is a highly contagious virus that affects many cats. Virus infection presents with flu-like signs and irritation of ocular and nasal regions. While cats can recover from active infections without medical treatment, examination by a veterinarian is recommended. Lysine supplementation appears to be a popular intervention (recommended by > 90 % of veterinarians in cat hospitals). We investigated the scientific merit of lysine supplementation by systematically reviewing all relevant literature. NCBI's PubMed database was used to search for published work on lysine and feline herpesvirus 1, as well as lysine and human herpesvirus 1. Seven studies on lysine and feline herpesvirus 1 (two in vitro studies and 5 studies with cats), and 10 publications on lysine and human herpesvirus 1 (three in vitro studies and 7 clinical trials) were included for qualitative analysis. There is evidence at multiple levels that lysine supplementation is not effective for the prevention or treatment of feline herpesvirus 1 infection in cats. Lysine does not have any antiviral properties, but is believed to act by lowering arginine levels. However, lysine does not antagonize arginine in cats, and evidence that low intracellular arginine concentrations would inhibit viral replication is lacking. Furthermore, lowering arginine levels is highly undesirable since cats cannot synthesize this amino acid themselves. Arginine deficiency will result in hyperammonemia, which may be fatal. In vitro studies with feline herpesvirus 1 showed that lysine has no effect on the replication kinetics of the virus. Finally, and most importantly, several clinical studies with cats have shown that lysine is not effective for the prevention or the treatment of feline herpesvirus 1 infection, and some even reported increased infection frequency and disease severity in cats receiving lysine supplementation. We recommend an immediate stop of lysine supplementation because of the complete lack of

  7. Suspected limbic encephalitis and seizure in cats associated with voltage-gated potassium channel (VGKC) complex antibody.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pakozdy, A; Halasz, P; Klang, A; Bauer, J; Leschnik, M; Tichy, A; Thalhammer, J G; Lang, B; Vincent, A

    2013-01-01

    Treatment-resistant complex partial seizures (CPS) with orofacial involvement recently were reported in cats in association with hippocampal pathology. The features had some similarity to those described in humans with limbic encephalitis and voltage-gated potassium channel (VGKC) complex antibody. The purpose of this pilot study was to evaluate cats with CPS and orofacial involvement for the presence of VGKC-complex antibody. Client-owned cats with acute orofacial CPS and control cats were investigated. Prospective study. Serum was collected from 14 cats in the acute stage of the disease and compared with 19 controls. VGKC-complex antibodies were determined by routine immunoprecipitation and by binding to leucine-rich glioma inactivated 1 (LGI1) and contactin-associated protein-like 2 (CASPR2), the 2 main targets of VGKC-complex antibodies in humans. Five of the 14 affected cats, but none of the 19 controls, had VGKC-complex antibody concentrations above the cut-off concentration (>100 pmol/L) based on control samples and similar to those found in humans. Antibodies in 4 cats were directed against LGI1, and none were directed against CASPR2. Follow-up sera were available for 5 cats in remission and all antibody concentrations were within the reference range. Our study suggests that an autoimmune limbic encephalitis exists in cats and that VGKC-complex/LGI1 antibodies may play a role in this disorder, as they are thought to in humans. Copyright © 2012 by the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine.

  8. Surrenderers’ Relationships with Cats Admitted to Four Australian Animal Shelters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Zito

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The surrender of cats to animal shelters results in financial, social and moral burdens for the community. Correlations of caretaking and interactions with surrendered cats were calculated, to understand more about humans’ relationships with surrendered cats and the contribution of semi-owned cats to shelter intakes. A questionnaire was used to collect detailed information about 100 surrenderers’ relationships with cats they surrendered to four animal shelters in Australia, with each surrenderer classifying themselves as being either the owner or a non-owner of the surrendered cat (ownership perception. Method of acquisition of the cat, association time, closeness of the relationship with the cat and degree of responsibility for the cat’s care were all associated with ownership perception. Many non-owners (59% fed and interacted with the cat they surrendered but rarely displayed other caretaking behaviours. However, most surrenderers of owned and unowned cats were attached to and felt responsible for the cat. Based on these results and other evidence, a causal model of ownership perception was proposed to provide a better understanding of factors influencing ownership perception. This model consisted of a set of variables proposed as directly or indirectly influencing ownership perception, with connecting arrows to indicate proposed causal relationships. Understanding ownership perception and the contribution of semi-owned cats to shelter intake is important as these can inform the development of more targeted and effective intervention strategies to reduce numbers of unwanted cats.

  9. Osteosarcoma in cats: 22 cases (1974-1984)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bitetto, W.V.; Patnaik, A.K.; Schrader, S.C.; Mooney, S.C.

    1987-01-01

    Osteosarcoma was diagnosed in 22 cats. Diagnosis was based on results of physical, radiographic, and histologic findings. Fifteen tumors arose from the appendicular skeleton, 4 from the skull, 2 from the pelvis, and 1 from a rib. Radiography revealed that in 14 of 15 cats (93%) with appendicular tumors, the lesion was metaphyseal, primarily lytic, with a ''moth-eaten'' appearance; absence and presence of periosteal new bone formation were associated with the tumors in 12 and 3 cats, respectively. The remaining 7 cats had axial tumors that were characterized by the presence of periosteal new bone formation in addition to bony lysis. Of the 15 cats with appendicular tumors, 12 were treated by amputation and 3 were euthanatized at the time of diagnosis. Of the cats undergoing amputation for treatment of their appendicular tumors, 6 cats were still alive 64 months after surgery (range, 13 to 64 months); the median survival time of the 5 cats (1 cat was lost to follow-up evaluation) that died was 49.2 months (range, 1 to 122 months). Four of 12 cats (33%) survived greater than or equal to 5 years after diagnosis. Of the cats with axial tumors that were not euthanatized at the time of diagnosis (6 of 7), the median survival time was 5.5 months. Based on these findings, we concluded that cats with appendicular osteosarcoma have a better prognosis than those with axial osteosarcoma, and that amputation is a viable treatment for cats with appendicular osteosarcoma

  10. Suppression of fertility in adult cats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Goericke-Pesch, Sandra Kathrin; Wehrend, A.; Georgiev, P.

    2014-01-01

    /needed? (iii) sex of the animal? New effective and available methods for hormonal contraception include melatonin implants for short-term post ponement of oestrus in adult queens and slow-release GnRH-agonist implants containing deslorelin (Suprelorin®) for short- and long-term contraception in male and female......Contents: Cats are animals with highly efficient reproduction, clearly pointing to a need for suppression of fertility. Although surgical contraception is highly effective, it is not always the method of choice. This is predominantly because it is cost-intensive, time-consuming and irreversible......, with the latter being of major importance for cat breeders. This article reviews the use of progestins, scleroting agents, immunocontraception, melatonin, GnRH antagonists and finally, GnRH agonists, in adult male and female cats in detail, according to the present state of the art. By now, various scientific...

  11. Dilated cardiomyopathy in cats - A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Jeyaraja

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Two cats were brought to Madras Veterinary College Teaching Hospital with the history and clinical signs suggestive of congestive heart failure ie, coughing, exercise intolerance, dyspnea, abdominal distension etc. There was history of feeding the cat with home made diet in one case and in other with commercial dog food. Based on electrocardiographic, radiographic and echocardiographic findings, the diagnosis of dilated cardiomyopathy was done in both the cases. The cases were managed with enalapril maleate, furosemide, dietary taurine supplementation and other supportive therapy. Among these two cases, one cat died on 2nd day of treatment and the other showed recovery after 8 days of treatment. [Vet World 2013; 6(4.000: 226-227

  12. CATS Aerosol Typing and Future Directions

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGill, Matt; Yorks, John; Scott, Stan; Palm, Stephen; Hlavka, Dennis; Hart, William; Nowottnick, Ed; Selmer, Patrick; Kupchock, Andrew; Midzak, Natalie; hide

    2016-01-01

    The Cloud Aerosol Transport System (CATS), launched in January of 2015, is a lidar remote sensing instrument that will provide range-resolved profile measurements of atmospheric aerosols and clouds from the International Space Station (ISS). CATS is intended to operate on-orbit for at least six months, and up to three years. Status of CATS Level 2 and Plans for the Future:Version. 1. Aerosol Typing (ongoing): Mode 1: L1B data released later this summer; L2 data released shortly after; Identify algorithm biases (ex. striping, FOV (field of view) biases). Mode 2: Processed Released Currently working on correcting algorithm issues. Version 2 Aerosol Typing (Fall, 2016): Implementation of version 1 modifications Integrate GEOS-5 aerosols for typing guidance for non spherical aerosols. Version 3 Aerosol Typing (2017): Implementation of 1-D Var Assimilation into GEOS-5 Dynamic lidar ratio that will evolve in conjunction with simulated aerosol mixtures.

  13. Antiviral treatment of feline immunodeficiency virus-infected cats with (R)-9-(2-phosphonylmethoxypropyl)-2,6-diaminopurine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taffin, Elien; Paepe, Dominique; Goris, Nesya; Auwerx, Joeri; Debille, Mariella; Neyts, Johan; Van de Maele, Isabel; Daminet, Sylvie

    2015-02-01

    Feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV), the causative agent of an acquired immunodeficiency syndrome in cats (feline AIDS), is a ubiquitous health threat to the domestic and feral cat population, also triggering disease in wild animals. No registered antiviral compounds are currently available to treat FIV-infected cats. Several human antiviral drugs have been used experimentally in cats, but not without the development of serious adverse effects. Here we report on the treatment of six naturally FIV-infected cats, suffering from moderate to severe disease, with the antiretroviral compound (R)-9-(2-phosphonylmethoxypropyl)-2,6-diaminopurine ([R]-PMPDAP), a close analogue of tenofovir, a widely prescribed anti-HIV drug in human medicine. An improvement in the average Karnofsky score (pretreatment 33.2 ± 9.4%, post-treatment 65±12.3%), some laboratory parameters (ie, serum amyloid A and gammaglobulins) and a decrease of FIV viral load in plasma were noted in most cats. The role of concurrent medication in ameliorating the Karnofsky score, as well as the possible development of haematological side effects, are discussed. Side effects, when noted, appeared mild and reversible upon cessation of treatment. Although strong conclusions cannot be drawn owing to the small number of patients and lack of a placebo-treated control group, the activity of (R)-PMPDAP, as observed here, warrants further investigation. © ISFM and AAFP 2014.

  14. Crusted scabies (sarcoptic mange) in four cats due to Sarcoptes scabiei infestation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malik, Richard; McKellar Stewart, Keith; Sousa, Candace A; Krockenberger, Mark B; Pope, Sally; Ihrke, Peter; Beatty, Julia; Barrs, Vanessa R D; Walton, Shelley

    2006-10-01

    Four new cases of sarcoptic mange in cats are described. Two cats resided in areas known to be frequented by foxes, another cohabited with a dog recently diagnosed with sarcoptic mange, while the final cat lived with a mixed breed dog that had been treated for sarcoptic mange 7 months previously. Three cases were diagnosed on the basis of characteristic mite size and morphology in skin scraping from representative lesions, situated on the head (two cases) or head and distal hind limbs (one case). Mites were highly mobile and abundant in all instances, and easily detected also in skin biopsy specimens procured from two cases. Eosinophilic inflammation, hyperkeratosis and parakeratosis were prominent in the tissue sections. In the remaining case, the diagnosis was presumptive, based on characteristic lesions, cohabitation with a canine scabies patient and positive response to scabicide therapy. Pruritus was not a prominent clinical feature in any patient and was considered to be absent in three of the four cases. Lesions in three cats with long-standing disease were reminiscent of crusted scabies (synonym: Norwegian scabies, parakeratotic scabies) as seen in human patients. In three cases, in-contact human carriers developed itchy cutaneous papular lesions. Two cases responded promptly to therapy with systemic avermectin drugs, while one responded to topical treatment with lime sulphur and the remaining cat received both a lime sulphur rinse and ivermectin. Sarcoptic mange should be considered in the differential diagnosis of cats with non-pruritic crusting skin diseases, especially when there is contact with foxes or dogs, and when owners have itchy papular lesions.

  15. Extent of linkage disequilibrium in the domestic cat, Felis silvestris catus, and its breeds.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasan Alhaddad

    Full Text Available Domestic cats have a unique breeding history and can be used as models for human hereditary and infectious diseases. In the current era of genome-wide association studies, insights regarding linkage disequilibrium (LD are essential for efficient association studies. The objective of this study is to investigate the extent of LD in the domestic cat, Felis silvestris catus, particularly within its breeds. A custom illumina GoldenGate Assay consisting of 1536 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs equally divided over ten 1 Mb chromosomal regions was developed, and genotyped across 18 globally recognized cat breeds and two distinct random bred populations. The pair-wise LD descriptive measure (r(2 was calculated between the SNPs in each region and within each population independently. LD decay was estimated by determining the non-linear least-squares of all pair-wise estimates as a function of distance using established models. The point of 50% decay of r(2 was used to compare the extent of LD between breeds. The longest extent of LD was observed in the Burmese breed, where the distance at which r(2 ≈ 0.25 was ∼380 kb, comparable to several horse and dog breeds. The shortest extent of LD was found in the Siberian breed, with an r(2 ≈ 0.25 at approximately 17 kb, comparable to random bred cats and human populations. A comprehensive haplotype analysis was also conducted. The haplotype structure of each region within each breed mirrored the LD estimates. The LD of cat breeds largely reflects the breeds' population history and breeding strategies. Understanding LD in diverse populations will contribute to an efficient use of the newly developed SNP array for the cat in the design of genome-wide association studies, as well as to the interpretation of results for the fine mapping of disease and phenotypic traits.

  16. Genetic complexity and multiple infections with more Parvovirus species in naturally infected cats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Battilani Mara

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Parvoviruses of carnivores include three closely related autonomous parvoviruses: canine parvovirus (CPV, feline panleukopenia virus (FPV and mink enteritis virus (MEV. These viruses cause a variety of serious diseases, especially in young patients, since they have a remarkable predilection for replication in rapidly dividing cells. FPV is not the only parvovirus species which infects cats; in addition to MEV, the new variants of canine parvovirus, CPV-2a, 2b and 2c have also penetrated the feline host-range, and they are able to infect and replicate in cats, causing diseases indistinguishable from feline panleukopenia. Furthermore, as cats are susceptible to both CPV-2 and FPV viruses, superinfection and co-infection with multiple parvovirus strains may occur, potentially facilitating recombination and high genetic heterogeneity. In the light of the importance of cats as a potential source of genetic diversity for parvoviruses and, since feline panleukopenia virus has re-emerged as a major cause of mortality in felines, the present study has explored the molecular characteristics of parvovirus strains circulating in cat populations. The most significant findings reported in this study were (a the detection of mixed infection FPV/CPV with the presence of one parvovirus variant which is a true intermediate between FPV/CPV and (b the quasispecies cloud size of one CPV sample variant 2c. In conclusion, this study provides new important results about the evolutionary dynamics of CPV infections in cats, showing that CPV has presumably started a new process of readaptation in feline hosts.

  17. Astaxanthin uptake in domestic dogs and cats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massimino Stefan

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Research on the uptake and transport of astaxanthin is lacking in most species. We studied the uptake of astaxanthin by plasma, lipoproteins and leukocytes in domestic dogs and cats. Methods Mature female Beagle dogs (18 to 19 mo old; 11 to 14 kg BW were dosed orally with 0, 0.1, 0.5, 2.5, 10 or 40 mg astaxanthin and blood taken at 0, 3, 6, 9, 12, 18 and 24 h post-administration (n = 8/treatment. Similarly, mature domestic short hair cats (12 mo old; 3 to 3.5 kg body weight were fed a single dose of 0, 0.02, 0.08, 0.4, 2, 5, or 10 mg astaxanthin and blood taken (n = 8/treatment at the same interval. Results Both dogs and cats showed similar biokinetic profiles. Maximal astaxanthin concentration in plasma was approximately 0.14 μmol/L in both species, and was observed at 6 h post-dosing. The plasma astaxanthin elimination half-life was 9 to 18 h. Astaxanthin was still detectable by 24 h in both species. In a subsequent study, dogs and cats were fed similar doses of astaxanthin daily for 15 to 16 d and astaxanthin uptake by plasma, lipoproteins, and leukocytes studied. In both species, plasma astaxanthin concentrations generally continued to increase through d 15 or 16 of supplementation. The astaxanthin was mainly associated with high density lipoprotein (HDL. In blood leukocytes, approximately half of the total astaxanthin was found in the mitochondria, with significant amounts also associated with the microsomes and nuclei. Conclusion Dogs and cats absorb astaxanthin from the diet. In the blood, the astaxanthin is mainly associated with HDL, and is taken up by blood leukocytes, where it is distributed to all subcellular organelles. Certain aspects of the biokinetic uptake of astaxanthin in dogs and cats are similar to that in humans.

  18. Frequency of a FAS ligand gene variant associated with inherited feline autoimmune lymphoproliferative syndrome in British shorthair cats in New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aberdein, D; Munday, J S; Dittmer, K E; Heathcott, R W; Lyons, L A

    2017-11-01

    AIMS To determine the frequency of the FAS-ligand gene (FASLG) variant associated with feline autoimmune lymphoproliferative syndrome (FALPS) and the proportion of carriers of the variant in three British shorthair (BSH) breeding catteries in New Zealand. METHODS Buccal swabs were collected from all cats in two BSH breeding catteries from the South Island and one from the North Island of New Zealand. DNA was extracted and was tested for the presence of the FASLG variant using PCR. Cats with the FASLG variant were identified and the frequency of the FASLG variant allele calculated. Pedigree analysis was performed and inbreeding coefficients were calculated for cats with the FASLG variant. RESULTS Of 32 BSH cats successfully tested for the presence of the FASLG variant, one kitten (3%) was homozygous (FALPS-affected), and seven (22%) cats were heterozygous (carriers) for the FASLG variant allele, and 24 (75%) cats were homozygous for the wild type allele. The overall frequency of the FASLG variant allele in these 32 cats was 0.14. Cats carrying the FASLG variant were from all three breeding catteries sampled, including two catteries that had not previously reported cases of FALPS. Pedigree analysis revealed common ancestry of FALPS-affected and carrier cats within six generations, as well as frequent inbreeding, with inbreeding coefficients >0.12 for five cats with the FASLG variant. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE There was a high frequency of the FASLG variant allele (0.14) in this small sample of BSH cats, with 22% of healthy cats identified as carriers of the FASLG variant. For an inherited disease, lethal at a young age, in a small population in which inbreeding is common, these results are significant. To prevent future cases of disease and stop further spread of the FASLG variant allele within the BSH population in New Zealand, it is recommended that all BSH and BSH-cross cats be tested for the presence of the FASLG variant before mating. Cats identified as

  19. Terapia floral em gatos domésticos (Felis catus, Linnaeus, 1758 portadores do complexo da doença respiratória felina: estudo clínico e hematológico Flower therapy in domestic cats (Felis catus, Linnaeus, 1758 with feline respiratory disease complex: clinical and hematological study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.F. Araújo

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available A terapia floral é considerada, atualmente, prática médica alternativa utilizada em diversas situações clínicas, constituindo possibilidade a mais de prevenção e cura de muitas doenças de natureza física e emocional. Este estudo objetivou pesquisar o efeito das essências do Sistema Brasileiro de Florais Compostos de Joel Aleixo num mesmo grupo de gatos domésticos com sinais clínicos sugestivos de Doença Respiratória Felina (DRF, tratados em diferentes momentos (M0, M1, M2, M3. Foram utilizados 20 gatos domésticos, de ambos os sexos, sem raça definida, com idade média de 5,63 ± 3,02 anos criados em gatil na UFRPE. Os animais foram submetidos ao tratamento com os florais por via oral em duas etapas. Na primeira etapa com os florais Desintus Total e Helminthus Total por 14 dias, e na segunda etapa com os florais Antibius e Regius por 28 dias. Os resultados observados, quanto aos aspectos clínicos, foram redução de secreção nasal, secreção ocular e estertores pulmonares; desaparecimento de sinais clínicos como fezes alteradas, úlceras na cavidade oral, pêlos eriçados e permanência da hipertrofia dos linfonodos. Quanto aos aspectos hematológicos houve interferência nas variáveis relacionadas ao hemograma (hemoglobina, VCM, CHCM, leucócitos, linfócitos e monócitos. Conclui-se que a terapia floral mostrou-se eficaz em gatos domésticos com sinais sugestivos de DRF criados nas mesmas condições de manejo.Flower therapy is currently considered an alternative medical practice used in several clinical situations, providing another way to prevent and cure many diseases of physical and emotional nature. This study aimed to investigate the effect of essences of the Brazilian Compound Flower System of Joel Aleixo in one same group of domestic cats showing suggestive clinical signs of Feline Respiratory Disease (FRD, treated in different moments (M0, M1, M2, M3. Twenty domestic cats, males and females, of mixed breed, with

  20. KnowCat: Catalizador de Conocimiento

    OpenAIRE

    Cobos, Ruth; Alamán, Xavier; Esquivel, José A.

    2001-01-01

    KnowCat es un sistema distribuido que tiene como meta la creación incremental de conocimiento estructurado. El nombre del sistema, KnowCat, es el acrónimo de "Knowledge Catalyser" o "catalizador de conocimiento", que hace referencia a la propiedad principal que exhibirá: la catalización del proceso de cristalización del conocimiento como resultado de la interacción de los usuarios con dicho conocimiento. Un área de aplicación del sistema es la generación de materiales educativos de alta c...

  1. Hypertrophic osteopathy and megaoesophagus in a cat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, J

    2010-01-01

    A case of hypertrophic osteopathy in a stray cat is reported. It was not known how long periosteal proliferation had been present prior to the time of first presentation. A few months later, megaoesophagus became apparent. Computer tomography was performed at least 18 months after periosteal proliferation had first become evident, but an underlying neoplasia was not identifed in association with the hypertrophic osteopathy. The hypertrophic osteopathy and the megaoesophagus were both successfully medically managed, and the cat continued to do well 33 months after the hypertrophic osteopathy was first evident.

  2. Transmission of feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) among cohabiting cats in two cat rescue shelters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litster, Annette L

    2014-08-01

    Conflicting accounts have been published in the veterinary literature regarding transmission of feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) between cohabiting cats in mixed households, and the mechanics of possible casual transmission, if it occurs, are poorly understood. Similarly, there are conflicting reports of vertical transmission of FIV. The aim of the present study was to document the FIV serological status of cats taken into two rescue shelters. At rescue shelter 1 (Rescue 1), cats cohabited in a multi-cat household of FIV-negative and naturally-infected, FIV-positive cats. A study was performed that combined a retrospective review of records of FIV serological status at intake (Test 1) and prospective FIV serological testing (Tests 2 and 3). Retrospective records were analyzed at rescue shelter 2 (Rescue 2), where FIV-positive queens with litters of nursing kittens were taken into the shelter, before being rehomed. FIV serology was performed on all kittens after weaning. Initial test results (Test 1) for 138 cohabiting cats from Rescue 1 showed that there were 130 FIV-negative cats and eight FIV-positive cats (six male neutered and two female spayed). A second test (Test 2), performed in 45 of the FIV-negative and five of the FIV-positive cats at median 28 months after Test 1 (range, 1 month to 8.8 years) showed that results were unchanged. Similarly, a third test (Test 3), performed in four of the original FeLV-negative cats and one remaining FIV-positive cat at median 38 months after Test 1 (range, 4 months to 4 years), also showed that results were unchanged. These results show a lack of evidence of FIV transmission, despite years of exposure to naturally-infected, FIV-positive cats in a mixed household. At Rescue 2, records were available from five FIV-positive queens with 19 kittens. All 19 kittens tested FIV-negative, suggesting that vertical transmission had not occurred. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Determinants of Cat Choice and Outcomes for Adult Cats and Kittens Adopted from an Australian Animal Shelter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zito, Sarah; Paterson, Mandy; Vankan, Dianne; Morton, John; Bennett, Pauleen; Phillips, Clive

    2015-04-29

    The percentage of adult cats euthanized in animal shelters is greater than that of kittens because adult cats are less likely to be adopted. This study aimed to provide evidence to inform the design of strategies to encourage adult cat adoptions. One such strategy is to discount adoption prices, but there are concerns that this may result in poor adoption outcomes. We surveyed 382 cat adopters at the time of adoption, to assess potential determinants of adopters' cat age group choice (adult or kitten) and, for adult cat adopters, the price they are willing to pay. The same respondents were surveyed again 6-12 months after the adoption to compare outcomes between cat age groups and between adult cats in two price categories. Most adopters had benevolent motivations for adopting from the shelter and had put considerable thought into the adoption and requirements for responsible ownership. However, adult cat adopters were more likely to have been influenced by price than kitten adopters. Adoption outcomes were generally positive for both adult cats and kittens and for adult cats adopted at low prices. The latter finding alleviates concerns about the outcomes of "low-cost" adoptions in populations, such as the study population, and lends support for the use of "low-cost" adoptions as an option for attempting to increase adoption rates. In addition, the results provide information that can be used to inform future campaigns aimed at increasing the number of adult cat adoptions, particularly in devising marketing strategies for adult cats.

  4. Zoonotic Trichomonas tenax and a new trichomonad species, Trichomonas brixi n. sp., from the oral cavities of dogs and cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kellerová, Pavlína; Tachezy, Jan

    2017-04-01

    Trichomonads are known to inhabit the oral cavities of various mammals, including dogs, cats and horses. However, little attention has been paid to species identification, prevalence and zoonotic potential of these parasites, although their hosts live in close proximity with humans. According to the original description, oral trichomonads in dogs and cats belong to the genus Tetratrichomonas. Interestingly, later investigations suggested that the oral cavities of dogs and cats could be infected with different species of the genus Trichomonas, including the human oral cavity parasite Trichomonas tenax. Thus, in this study we investigated the occurrence of oral trichomonads in 111 domestic dogs and 122 cats using cell cultivation methods, nested PCR analyses, and the sequencing of ITS1-5.8rRNA-ITS2 regions. We found that both dogs and cats harbour T. tenax, with prevalences of 8.1% and 4.1%, respectively. Considerably more dogs were infected with different species of the genus Trichomonas (30.6%), which we also identified in cats (6.6%). An analysis of the potential risk factors suggested that dogs of more than 3years old or with dental disease signs are more frequently infected with Trichomonas sp. than younger dogs or dogs without the disease signs, and that crossbreed dogs revealed increased rates of infection in comparison with purebred dogs. An analysis of the cat population suggested that Trichomonas sp. infection is lower in younger and crossbreed cats. Although the morphology of Trichomonas sp. is very similar to that of T. tenax, based on a phylogenetic analysis of ITS1-5.8rRNA-ITS2 regions and the ssrRNA genes, we consider Trichomonas sp. to represent a new trichomonad species, for which we propose the name Trichomonas brixi. Copyright © 2017 Australian Society for Parasitology. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Borrelia persica infection in dogs and cats: clinical manifestations, clinicopathological findings and genetic characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baneth, Gad; Nachum-Biala, Yaarit; Halperin, Tamar; Hershko, Yizhak; Kleinerman, Gabriela; Anug, Yigal; Abdeen, Ziad; Lavy, Eran; Aroch, Itamar; Straubinger, Reinhard K

    2016-05-10

    Relapsing fever (RF) is an acute infectious disease caused by arthropod-borne spirochetes of the genus Borrelia. The disease is characterized by recurrent episodes of fever that concur with spirochetemia. The RF borrelioses include louse-borne RF caused by Borrelia recurrentis and tick-borne endemic RF transmitted by argasid soft ticks and caused by several Borrelia spp. such as B. crocidurae, B. coriaceae, B. duttoni, B. hermsii, B. hispanica and B. persica. Human infection with B. persica is transmitted by the soft tick Ornithodoros tholozani and has been reported from Iran, Israel, Egypt, India, and Central Asia. During 2003-2015, five cats and five dogs from northern, central and southern Israel were presented for veterinary care and detected with borrelia spirochetemia by blood smear microscopy. The causative infective agent in these animals was identified and characterized by PCR from blood and sequencing of parts of the flagellin (flab), 16S rRNA and glycerophosphodiester phosphodiestrase (GlpQ) genes. All animals were infected with B. persica genetically identical to the causative agent of human RF. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that DNA sequences from these pet carnivores clustered together with B. persica genotypes I and II from humans and O. tholozani ticks and distinctly from other RF Borrelia spp. The main clinical findings in cats included lethargy, anorexia, anemia in 5/5 cats and thrombocytopenia in 4/5. All dogs were lethargic and anorectic, 4/5 were febrile and anemic and 3/5 were thrombocytopenic. Three dogs were co-infected with Babesia spp. The animals were all treated with antibiotics and the survival rate of both dogs and cats was 80 %. The cat and dog that succumbed to disease died one day after the initiation of antibiotic treatment, while survival in the others was followed by the rapid disappearance of spirochetemia. This is the first report of disease due to B. persica infection in cats and the first case series in dogs. Infection was

  6. Novel treatment using topical malachite green for nasal phaeohyphomycosis caused by a new Cladophialophora species in a cat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, Ian J; Walton, Stuart A; Shmalberg, Justin; Harris, Autumn

    2018-01-01

    A 1.5-year-old castrated male domestic shorthair cat presented with a 2 month history of progressive nasal swelling and hyporexia. Minimal improvement prior to referral was achieved with a course of antibiotics and glucocorticoids. Cytology of an ulcerative lesion on the dorsal aspect of the nose was consistent with a diagnosis of phaeohyphomycosis. The cat achieved static disease for 6 weeks following initiation of itraconazole but developed epistaxis at 9 weeks. CT of the head demonstrated nasal and frontal sinus involvement. Nasal biopsy and culture identified infection with a Cladophialophora species not previously reported to cause disease. Initial response to a combination of itraconazole and terbinafine was noted, but owing to severe thrombocytopenia this combination was discontinued. Voriconazole was used but discontinued because of adverse side effects. Posaconazole treatment was offered throughout the clinical course but rejected owing to financial constraints and an uncertain response to medical therapy. Rhinotomy with debulking of diseased tissue and topical malachite green treatment was performed. Following the procedure itraconazole was continued and the cat has had no recurrence for over 1 year. Infections by Cladophialophora species have been reported in veterinary species, including cats. The specific fungal organism isolated from this cat has not been previously reported to cause disease in humans or animals and has only been described in the mangroves of Brazil. Furthermore, this is the first report to describe the use of topical malachite green as a treatment for refractory phaeohyphomycosis.

  7. Guidelines for vaccination of dogs and cats in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Woo-Jin; Kim, Hyun-Tae; Yoo, Han-Sang; Youn, Hwa-Young

    2014-07-01

    This guideline contains the recommended vaccination schedules of dogs and cats from World Small Animal Veterinary Association (WSAVA) and American Animal Hospital Association (AAHA). In 2010, WSAVA published guidelines for the vaccination of dogs and cats. And, in 2011, AAHA also published guidelines for vaccination of dogs. In Korea, there is no published guideline for vaccination of dogs and cats yet. Therefore, the plane of vaccination also reports the present situation of vaccination schedule of dogs and cats in Korean animal hospitals.

  8. Costs and benefits of trap-neuter-release and euthanasia for removal of urban cats in Oahu, Hawaii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lohr, Chery