WorldWideScience

Sample records for casual carpooling

  1. Estimating the energy consumption impact of casual carpooling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Minett, P. [Trip Convergence Ltd, Epsom, Auckland (New Zealand); Pearce, J. [Trip Convergence Ltd, Remuera, Auckland (New Zealand)

    2011-07-01

    Some of the transportation energy consumed during peak commuter periods is wasted through slow running in congested traffic. Strategies to increase average vehicle occupancy (and reduce vehicle counts and congestion) could be expected to be at the forefront of energy conservation policies. Casual carpooling (also called 'slugging') is a system of carpooling without trip-by-trip pre-arrangement. It operates in three US cities, and has been suggested in New Zealand as a strategy for managing transportation challenges when oil prices rise. The objective of the paper is to find out if casual carpooling reduces energy consumption, and if so, how much. Energy consumption by single occupant vehicles; casual carpool vehicles; and a mix of buses and single occupant vehicles; are estimated and compared, and the impact on the rest of the traffic is calculated. The paper estimates that casual carpooling in San Francisco is conserving in the order of 1.7 to 3.5 million liters of gasoline per year, or 200-400 liters for each participant, much of which comes from the impact on the rest of the traffic. The paper concludes by calling for applied research to discover how to catalyze casual carpooling in other cities as a means of reducing transportation energy consumption. (authors)

  2. Estimating the Energy Consumption Impact of Casual Carpooling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Minett

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Some of the transportation energy consumed during peak commuter periods is wasted through slow running in congested traffic. Strategies to increase average vehicle occupancy (and reduce vehicle counts and congestion could be expected to be at the forefront of energy conservation policies. Casual carpooling (also called “slugging” is a system of carpooling without trip-by-trip pre-arrangement. It operates in three US cities, and has been suggested in New Zealand as a strategy for managing transportation challenges when oil prices rise. The objective of the paper is to find out if casual carpooling reduces energy consumption, and if so, how much. Energy consumption by single occupant vehicles; casual carpool vehicles; and a mix of buses and single occupant vehicles; are estimated and compared, and the impact on the rest of the traffic is calculated. The paper estimates that casual carpooling in San Francisco is conserving in the order of 1.7 to 3.5 million liters of gasoline per year, or 200-400 liters for each participant, much of which comes from the impact on the rest of the traffic. The paper concludes by calling for applied research to discover how to catalyze casual carpooling in other cities as a means of reducing transportation energy consumption.

  3. Intelligent Carpooling in rural areas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agerholm, Niels; Møller, Jørgen

    2015-01-01

    Rural transportation is facing the challenges of the required mobility increasing and the public transportation parallel being limited to a deficient level. A new mobility application (app) based on Intelligent Transport Systems (ITS), called Intelligent Carpooling, can be a significant contributor...... to mitigate these challenges. This system uses ITS to plan and coordinate carpooling. A study in two Danish rural areas found that a markedly part of residents are interesting in Intelligent Carpooling, but also that they require knowledge of whom they are driving with and as well as planning the carpooling...... carpooling work....

  4. Casual Games

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Ole Ertløv

    2015-01-01

    Casual games have become a widespread activity that fills our leisure time. This article introduces to the phenomenon casual games – their definition and the history. Furthermore the article presents and discusses the experience of and engagement or immersion in playing these games as it is put...... forward by recent research. The theoretical approach is based on media psychology, phenomenology and reversal theory. Finally it is argued that playing casual games is fundamental pleasurable to both paratelic as well as telic metamotivational states....

  5. Casual Games

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Ole Ertløv

    2015-01-01

    Casual games have become a widespread activity that fills our leisure time. This article introduces to the phenomenon casual games – their definition and the history. Furthermore the article presents and discusses the experience of and engagement or immersion in playing these games as it is put f...... forward by recent research. The theoretical approach is based on media psychology, phenomenology and reversal theory. Finally it is argued that playing casual games is fundamental pleasurable to both paratelic as well as telic metamotivational states.......Casual games have become a widespread activity that fills our leisure time. This article introduces to the phenomenon casual games – their definition and the history. Furthermore the article presents and discusses the experience of and engagement or immersion in playing these games as it is put...

  6. A Traffic Restriction Scheme for Enhancing Carpooling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong Ding

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available For the purpose of alleviating traffic congestion, this paper proposes a scheme to encourage travelers to carpool by traffic restriction. By a variational inequity we describe travelers’ mode (solo driving and carpooling and route choice under user equilibrium principle in the context of fixed demand and detect the performance of a simple network with various restriction links, restriction proportions, and carpooling costs. Then the optimal traffic restriction scheme aiming at minimal total travel cost is designed through a bilevel program and applied to a Sioux Fall network example with genetic algorithm. According to various requirements, optimal restriction regions and proportions for restricted automobiles are captured. From the results it is found that traffic restriction scheme is possible to enhance carpooling and alleviate congestion. However, higher carpooling demand is not always helpful to the whole network. The topology of network, OD demand, and carpooling cost are included in the factors influencing the performance of the traffic system.

  7. Befuddling Business Casual

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    @@ "Business casual"has taken on a negative ring,though the English call it "smart casual"which sounds a little more stylish.Popularized by IT businesses as an alternative to"international standard business attire,"business casual holds Steve Jobs and Bill Gates up as its paragons.

  8. A New Model for a Carpool Matching Service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Jizhe; Curtin, Kevin M; Li, Weihong; Zhao, Yonglong

    2015-01-01

    Carpooling is an effective means of reducing traffic. A carpool team shares a vehicle for their commute, which reduces the number of vehicles on the road during rush hour periods. Carpooling is officially sanctioned by most governments, and is supported by the construction of high-occupancy vehicle lanes. A number of carpooling services have been designed in order to match commuters into carpool teams, but it known that the determination of optimal carpool teams is a combinatorially complex problem, and therefore technological solutions are difficult to achieve. In this paper, a model for carpool matching services is proposed, and both optimal and heuristic approaches are tested to find solutions for that model. The results show that different solution approaches are preferred over different ranges of problem instances. Most importantly, it is demonstrated that a new formulation and associated solution procedures can permit the determination of optimal carpool teams and routes. An instantiation of the model is presented (using the street network of Guangzhou city, China) to demonstrate how carpool teams can be determined.

  9. A New Model for a Carpool Matching Service.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jizhe Xia

    Full Text Available Carpooling is an effective means of reducing traffic. A carpool team shares a vehicle for their commute, which reduces the number of vehicles on the road during rush hour periods. Carpooling is officially sanctioned by most governments, and is supported by the construction of high-occupancy vehicle lanes. A number of carpooling services have been designed in order to match commuters into carpool teams, but it known that the determination of optimal carpool teams is a combinatorially complex problem, and therefore technological solutions are difficult to achieve. In this paper, a model for carpool matching services is proposed, and both optimal and heuristic approaches are tested to find solutions for that model. The results show that different solution approaches are preferred over different ranges of problem instances. Most importantly, it is demonstrated that a new formulation and associated solution procedures can permit the determination of optimal carpool teams and routes. An instantiation of the model is presented (using the street network of Guangzhou city, China to demonstrate how carpool teams can be determined.

  10. The Carpool: An Uninvestigated Setting for Early Childhood Socialization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adler, Peter; Adler, Patricia S.

    Numerous childhood activities and relationships have been studied within the context of socialization, but one form of interpersonal experience has not yet been investigated by social researchers: the carpool. This paper investigates the types of interaction which take place within the carpool setting, both between children and adults and among…

  11. The Carpool: A Socializing Adjunct to the Educational Experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adler, Particia A.; Adler, Peter

    1984-01-01

    Socializing effects that carpooling has on pre-school and elementary students were studied. The behavioral patterns and roles that emerge in this setting were examined and their impact on the developing child analyzed. Three carpool-generated relationships identified were intimate, combatant, and obligatory. Socialization occured concurrently…

  12. Neighborhood Carpooling Project in Changqing Community in Wuhan City

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    In the light of the increasingly severe traffic congestion in the city, the rising number of private cars on the road and the low occupancy rate of those cars, this paper explores the current legal obstacles to carpooling and proposes "neighborhood carpooling" as an innovative mobility project aimed at alleviating traffic pressure in the areas around residential districts and reducing the use of private cars. The paper begins by introducing the preparatory investigation, consultation and scheme design process, and then elaborates on the series of measures undertaken to ensure that the project runs smoothly, including the formulation and distribution of the proposal, establishment of carpooling stations, registration and management of carpooling information, signing of the voluntary undertakings, design of the carpooling stickers and encouragement of public participation through the media. The analysis of different data on the actual practice of carpooling and the results of the media survey shows that the "neighborhood carpooling" project can indeed reduce private car use and has achieved certain social benefits through media publicity. Finally, the paper points out that with the guarantee of the two-level management system involving the community administrative committee and the residents’ committees, effective community organization is the key to the successful operation of the project.

  13. Dynamic Carpooling Using Wireless Ad-Hoc Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abhishek V. Potnis

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The increase in awareness about the conservation of natural resources in today’s world, has led to carpooling becoming a widely followed practice. Carpooling refers to sharing of a vehicle with other passengers, thus reducing the fuel costs endured by the passengers, had they traveled individually. Carpooling helps reduce fuel consumption, thereby helping conserve the natural resources. Conventional Carpooling Portals require the users to register themselves and input their desired departure and destination points. These portals maintain a database of the users and map them with the users, who have registered for their cars to be pooled. This paper proposes a decentralized method of dynamic carpooling using the Wireless Ad-hoc Network, instead of having the users to register on a Web Portal. The user’s device, requesting for the carpool service can directly talk to another user’s device, providing the pooled car, using the Wireless Ad-hoc Network, thereby eliminating the need for the user to connect to the internet to access the web portal.

  14. Research on Strategy Control of Taxi Carpooling Detour Route under Uncertain Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Zhang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available For the problem of route choice in taxi carpooling detour, considering the uncertainty of traffic and the characteristic of passengers’ noncomplete rationality, an evolutionary game model of taxi carpooling detour route is built, in which prospect theory is introduced and revenue of strategy is replaced by prospect value. The model reflects more really decision-making psychology of passengers. Then the stable strategies of the model are studied, and the influences of detour distance and traffic congestion on detour carpooling success are analyzed, respectively. The results show that when at least one route of which prospect values for two passenger sides are both positive exists, carpooling route can reach an agreement. The route is stable strategy of evolutionary game, and the passengers requiring short travel time tend to select the nondetour route. With the increase of detour distance and traffic congestion rate, the possibility of reaching an agreement decreases gradually; that is, possibility of carpooling failure increases. So taxi carpooling detour is possible under the certain condition, but some measures must be carried out such as constraints of detour distance and mitigation of traffic congestion to improve carpooling success probability. These conclusions have a certain guiding significance to the formulation of taxi carpooling policy.

  15. Tour Planning and Ride Matching for an Urban Social Carpooling Service

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamal J.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available SocialCar is a research project aiming at integrating carpooling with existing transportation systems in urban and peri-urban environments. The system, that also takes benefit from social network interactions, is based on tour planning and ride matching algorithms to suggest the users the available alternatives for their trips. In this paper we overview some approaches to model general public transportation networks and carpooling services. A route planning algorithm, able to integrate different types of public transportation, bike rentals and carpooling services is finally presented.

  16. Ecolane DYNAMIC CarPool; Ecolane Kimppakyytikone K3 Vaihe III

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hannula, A. [Ecolane Finland Oy, Espoo (Finland)

    2006-12-19

    Ecolane Dynamic Carpool introduces a revolutionary new convenience level for daily commuting. Users simply register through a web-based service and use the system with a standard Java-enabled mobile phone. With Ecolane Dynamic Carpool it is possible to decide each morning or afternoon a commuting mode and time. In as little as 15 minutes in advance one can decide to be driver or if they need a ride. (orig.)

  17. Understanding Casual-Leisure Information Behaviour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elsweiler, David; Wilson, Max L.; Lunn, Brian Kirkegaard

    2011-01-01

    Originally grounded in library and information science, the majority of information behaviour and information-seeking theories focus on task-based scenarios where users try to resolve information needs. While other theories exist, such as how people unexpectedly encounter information, for example......, they are typically related back to tasks, motivated by work or personal goals. This chapter, however, focuses on casual-leisure scenarios that are typically motivated by hedonistic needs rather than information needs, where people engage in searching behaviours for pleasure rather than to find information....... This chapter describes two studies on (1) television information behaviour and (2) the casual information behaviours described by users of Twitter. The first study focuses on a specific casual-leisure domain that is familiar to many, while the second indicates that our findings generalise to many other casual...

  18. Optimal Reverse Carpooling Over Wireless Networks - A Distributed Optimization Approach

    CERN Document Server

    ParandehGheibi, Ali; Effros, Michelle; Medard, Muriel

    2010-01-01

    We focus on a particular form of network coding, reverse carpooling, in a wireless network where the potentially coded transmitted messages are to be decoded immediately upon reception. The network is fixed and known, and the system performance is measured in terms of the number of wireless broadcasts required to meet multiple unicast demands. Motivated by the structure of the coding scheme, we formulate the problem as a linear program by introducing a flow variable for each triple of connected nodes. This allows us to have a formulation polynomial in the number of nodes. Using dual decomposition and projected subgradient method, we present a decentralized algorithm to obtain optimal routing schemes in presence of coding opportunities. We show that the primal sub-problem can be expressed as a shortest path problem on an \\emph{edge-graph}, and the proposed algorithm requires each node to exchange information only with its neighbors.

  19. Transcribing and Comparing Classroom and Casual Conversations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王贵华

    2012-01-01

      This article reflects on how to transcribe two audio recordings and conducts a comparative analysis on them, aiming at identifying the typical features of transcribing process and identifying the different features of classroom and casual conversations. The first recording is an institutional conversation recorded in a module called“Communication skills for teachers”in an undergraduate classroom in Singapore. The second is a casual conversation occurring among four MA classmates who met for their second time. The first part of this article focuses on the issues met and the insights gained in transcribing. The second part is a comparative analysis that leads to the conclusion –classroom and casual conversations are two different genres of spoken interactions with distinctive features shaped by field and tenor.

  20. Factor analysis for successful website carpool%网络拼车成功的因素分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谭家美; 朱丽叶; 南香兰; 侯立文

    2013-01-01

    In consideration of the factors which influence Internet carpool,a carpool website is selected as data source,and regression analysis and Design of Experiment (DOE) are used to analyze the factors which influence carpooling behavior on the Internet and the impact strength of the factors influencing the actual carpool success and the number of carpool applicants.The results show that the number of carpool replies and clicks has positive impact on the success rate of carpooling.As for the carpool website,appropriate measures should be adopted to motivate the number of replies and clicks,thus to enhance the website activeness.From the perspective of society,higher involvement of carpool needs more government policy support.%针对影响互联网拼车的因素,选择某拼车网站为数据来源,采用回归分析和试验设计(Design of Experiment,DOE)方法,分析影响网上拼车行为的因素及其对实际拼车成功和拼车申请人数的影响强度.结果表明,拼车信息回复数和点击数对拼车成功率有正面影响;对于拼车网站而言,可以采取适当的鼓励措施提高点击数和回复数,从而增强网站活跃度;从社会整体而言,提高拼车参与率更需要有相关政策的支持.

  1. 城市出租车合乘技术研究%Research on the Technology of Carpool in City

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗超; 韩直; 乔晓青

    2014-01-01

    论文针对城市交通拥挤不堪和出租车空驶率高的现状,提出了出租车合乘能提高人们选择出租车出行的频次,减少道路拥堵,提高出行效率。论文对出租车合乘进行了概念定义和合乘模式划分,分析了出租车合乘的信息感知、信息传输与信息反馈,建立了出租车合乘信息服务中心。论文划分了合乘类型,并描述了静态和动态的合乘流程图,并建立了出租车数量模型,采用Floyd算法计算整个网络中任意两点间的最短路问题。依据合乘出租车上的乘客数确定不同的合乘状态,在体现收费公平的基础上建立了合乘计费模型,和解决了分级站点合乘组织及生活性合乘问题。%Facing the current situation of urban traffic congestion and high unloaded ratio of taxi,this article puts forward that carpool can improve the rate that people choose taxi,reduce road congestion and improve travel efficiency. This article works out the concept definition of carpool and differentiates the carpool modes,classifies the carpool, analyzes the information sense , information transmission and information feedback of carpool,establishes an information service center of carpool,divides carpool type and describes the static and dynamic carpool flow chart. This article sets up a taxi quantity model,uses the algorithm of Floyd to calculate the most short circuit between any two points in a whole network. The different carpool states was identified based on the number of passengers in a taxi,and a carpool charging model was established on the basis of fair charging. This article solves the problems of carpool organization of the hierarchical sites and carpool for facilitating the life.

  2. Pathways from Casual Employment to Economic Security: The Australian Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgess, John; Campbell, Iain; May, Robyn

    2008-01-01

    Casual employment is extensive and has been increasing for more than two decades in Australia. The concept of casual employment used in the Australian context is unusual, but it is directly linked to benefit and rights exclusion within the regulatory framework governing employment. The expansion in casual employment has spread across all sectors,…

  3. 40 CFR 52.263 - Priority treatment for buses and carpools-Los Angeles Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... § 52.263 Priority treatment for buses and carpools—Los Angeles Region. (a) Definitions: (1) “Carpool” means a vehicle containing three or more persons. (2) “Bus/carpool lane” means a lane on a street or... agencies to which legal authority has been delegated, shall establish the following system of...

  4. Trust-Based Cooperative Social System Applied to a Carpooling Platform for Smartphones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caballero-Gil, Cándido; Caballero-Gil, Pino; Molina-Gil, Jezabel; Martín-Fernández, Francisco; Loia, Vincenzo

    2017-01-27

    One of the worst traffic problems today is the existence of huge traffic jams in almost any big city, produced by the large number of commuters using private cars. This problem has led to an increase in research on the optimization of vehicle occupancy in urban areas as this would help to solve the problem that most cars are occupied by single passengers. The solution of sharing the available seats in cars, known as carpooling, is already available in major cities around the world. However, carpooling is still not considered a safe and reliable solution for many users. With the widespread use of mobile technology and social networks, it is possible to create a trust-based platform to promote carpooling through a convenient, fast and secure system. The main objective of this work is the design and implementation of a carpool system that improves some important aspects of previous systems, focusing on trust between users, and on the security of the system. The proposed system guarantees user privacy and measures trust levels through a new reputation algorithm. In addition to this, the proposal has been developed as a mobile application for devices using the Android Open Source Project.

  5. Trust-Based Cooperative Social System Applied to a Carpooling Platform for Smartphones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cándido Caballero-Gil

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the worst traffic problems today is the existence of huge traffic jams in almost any big city, produced by the large number of commuters using private cars. This problem has led to an increase in research on the optimization of vehicle occupancy in urban areas as this would help to solve the problem that most cars are occupied by single passengers. The solution of sharing the available seats in cars, known as carpooling, is already available in major cities around the world. However, carpooling is still not considered a safe and reliable solution for many users. With the widespread use of mobile technology and social networks, it is possible to create a trust-based platform to promote carpooling through a convenient, fast and secure system. The main objective of this work is the design and implementation of a carpool system that improves some important aspects of previous systems, focusing on trust between users, and on the security of the system. The proposed system guarantees user privacy and measures trust levels through a new reputation algorithm. In addition to this, the proposal has been developed as a mobile application for devices using the Android Open Source Project.

  6. Trust-Based Cooperative Social System Applied to a Carpooling Platform for Smartphones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caballero-Gil, Cándido; Caballero-Gil, Pino; Molina-Gil, Jezabel; Martín-Fernández, Francisco; Loia, Vincenzo

    2017-01-01

    One of the worst traffic problems today is the existence of huge traffic jams in almost any big city, produced by the large number of commuters using private cars. This problem has led to an increase in research on the optimization of vehicle occupancy in urban areas as this would help to solve the problem that most cars are occupied by single passengers. The solution of sharing the available seats in cars, known as carpooling, is already available in major cities around the world. However, carpooling is still not considered a safe and reliable solution for many users. With the widespread use of mobile technology and social networks, it is possible to create a trust-based platform to promote carpooling through a convenient, fast and secure system. The main objective of this work is the design and implementation of a carpool system that improves some important aspects of previous systems, focusing on trust between users, and on the security of the system. The proposed system guarantees user privacy and measures trust levels through a new reputation algorithm. In addition to this, the proposal has been developed as a mobile application for devices using the Android Open Source Project. PMID:28134803

  7. Staging casual conversations for people with dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mok, Zaneta; Müller, Nicole

    2014-11-01

    Social isolation is a key concern for individuals with dementia in long-term care. A possible solution is to promote social interaction between residents. A first step toward facilitating positive relationships between residents with dementia is to understand the mechanisms behind their interactions with each other, and also how their relationships with each other are built through such interactions. Drawing on casual conversations between residents in a special care unit for dementia, this paper uses systemic functional linguistics to examine how people with dementia use language to enact and construct their role-relations with each other. Results suggest people with dementia are able and willing conversationalists. However, factors such as the extent of communication breakdown and compatibility of the interlocutors may influence whether positive relations develop or not. Casual conversation is suggested to be a promising activity to encourage positive interpersonal processes between individuals with dementia in residential care.

  8. Dynamic Carpooling in Urban Areas: Design and Experimentation with a Multi-Objective Route Matching Algorith

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matteo Mallus

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on dynamic carpooling services in urban areas to address the needs of mobility in real-time by proposing a two-fold contribution: a solution with novel features with respect to the current state-of-the-art, which is named CLACSOON and is available on the market; the analysis of the carpooling services performance in the urban area of the city of Cagliari through emulations. Two new features characterize the proposed solution: partial ridesharing, according to which the riders can walk to reach the driver along his/her route when driving to the destination; the possibility to share the ride when the driver has already started the ride by modelling the mobility to reach the driver destination. To analyse which features of the population bring better performance to changing the characteristics of the users, we also conducted emulations. When compared with current solutions, CLACSOON allows for achieving a decrease in the waiting time of around 55% and an increase in the driver and passenger success rates of around 4% and 10%,respectively. Additionally, the proposed features allowed for having an increase in the reduction of the CO2 emission by more than 10% with respect to the traditional carpooling service.

  9. Stochastic Set-Based Particle Swarm Optimization Based on Local Exploration for Solving the Carpool Service Problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, Sheng-Kai; Jiau, Ming-Kai; Huang, Shih-Chia

    2016-08-01

    The growing ubiquity of vehicles has led to increased concerns about environmental issues. These concerns can be mitigated by implementing an effective carpool service. In an intelligent carpool system, an automated service process assists carpool participants in determining routes and matches. It is a discrete optimization problem that involves a system-wide condition as well as participants' expectations. In this paper, we solve the carpool service problem (CSP) to provide satisfactory ride matches. To this end, we developed a particle swarm carpool algorithm based on stochastic set-based particle swarm optimization (PSO). Our method introduces stochastic coding to augment traditional particles, and uses three terminologies to represent a particle: 1) particle position; 2) particle view; and 3) particle velocity. In this way, the set-based PSO (S-PSO) can be realized by local exploration. In the simulation and experiments, two kind of discrete PSOs-S-PSO and binary PSO (BPSO)-and a genetic algorithm (GA) are compared and examined using tested benchmarks that simulate a real-world metropolis. We observed that the S-PSO outperformed the BPSO and the GA thoroughly. Moreover, our method yielded the best result in a statistical test and successfully obtained numerical results for meeting the optimization objectives of the CSP.

  10. Strategies for Community Carpool Development in Xi'an%西安市社区拼车常态化发展策略

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张璇; 朱菁; 董欣

    2015-01-01

    With the rapid increase of private car ownership and ever worsening urban traffic congestion in Xi'an, community carpool has become one of the effective ways to relieve traffic congestion. Based on do-mestic and abroad carpool development experience, this paper discusses the existing conditions and prob-lems in carpool development in Xi'an through questionnaire survey and interviews. Targeting existing problems, the paper proposes implementable strategies for community carpool promotion. Firstly, carpool agencies are suggested to be established in the community with service platforms, stations, and signs to manage carpool travel;Secondly, safety assurance measures such as real-name registration system, neigh-borhood carpool agreements, and additional types of insurance are proposed to endure safe carpool service;Thirdly, providing policy support to encourage carpool travel by prioritizing carpool vehicle roadway us-age, promoting legislative improvement, and offering parking promotion policies.%伴随西安市私人小汽车保有量迅速增长,城市交通拥堵状况不断加剧,社区拼车模式成为缓解交通拥堵的有效措施之一.通过分析总结国内外拼车发展经验,采用问卷调查、访谈等方法对西安市拼车现状和发展问题进行解析.针对现状问题,提出社区拼车的实施策略:第一,成立社区拼车机构,通过拼车服务平台、社区拼车站点和社区拼车标志等措施管理拼车出行;第二,提供安全保障措施,通过设立实名认证体系、签订社区拼车协议、增加险种等措施保障拼车安全;第三,寻求政策支持,建议通过赋予多人乘坐的拼车车辆道路优先使用权、完善相关法律法规使拼车合法化、提供停车优惠政策等措施鼓励市民拼车.

  11. An Approach for Casual Drug Users. Technical Paper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloom, Erwin S., Ed.

    This publication was written to respond to the fact that many drug treatment centers receive inappropriate referrals of casual or recreational marihuana users from the courts for "treatment" as an alternative to jail. A drug abuse task force recommended that agencies give priority to abusers of the high-risk categories and to compulsive users of…

  12. Gender Identity Reflected from Language Use in Casual Conversation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Xin

    2015-01-01

    Language use can reflect social identities and the way a person is presenting himself or herself to other people. As to show how gender identities can be reflected from the discourse, a casual conversation was recorded and analyzed topic, amount of talking, and other language usage features.

  13. From Casual Work to Economic Security: The Case of British Columbia

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacPhail, Fiona; Bowles, Paul

    2008-01-01

    Analysis of casual work in British Columbia is an important issue given that the increase in casual work has been greater in this province than in other provinces in Canada and given that the labour market has been substantially deregulated since 2001. In this paper, we analyse how individuals' casual employment status affects their economic…

  14. Design and Implementation of Mobile Carpooling System Based on Web Service%基于Web服务移动拼车系统的设计与实现

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张庆贺; 韩勇; 张小垒; 陈戈

    2013-01-01

    This paper provided carpooling services which broke the previous single form. The real-time character of mobile applications and the extensiveness and convenience of web applications were used to develop system programs. This article introduced that how they provided services jointly in the carpooling system. The carpooling system was based on Web services. It has achieved the real-time sharing of carpooling data between Web clients and mobile clients which makes carpooling more convenient and also promotes the life philosophy of low-carbon, energy-saving and environmental-protecting.%介绍了一种利用手机应用程序的实时性和Web应用程序的广泛性、便利性开发系统程序,共同提供服务的拼车系统.该系统以Web服务为基础,实现了拼车数据在Web端和手机端的实时共享,使拼车更加便捷,提倡了低碳、环保、节能的生活理念.

  15. Chic and Casual Dress Collection for Qixi Festival

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    Qixi Festival, known as Chinese Valentine's Day, falls on the seventh day of the seventh lunar month and this year it falls on Aug. 23. To celebrate Qixi Festival, many businesses introduce Valentine's Day promotions to meet the needs of women and young girls during this romantic time of year. As a global fashion supplier, Merle Dress brings a fashionable and casual dress collection for a stylish approach to life.

  16. Casual information visualization: depictions of data in everyday life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pousman, Zachary; Stasko, John; Mateas, Michael

    2007-01-01

    Information visualization has often focused on providing deep insight for expert user populations and on techniques for amplifying cognition through complicated interactive visual models. This paper proposes a new subdomain for infovis research that complements the focus on analytic tasks and expert use. Instead of work-related and analytically driven infovis, we propose Casual Information Visualization (or Casual Infovis) as a complement to more traditional infovis domains. Traditional infovis systems, techniques, and methods do not easily lend themselves to the broad range of user populations, from expert to novices, or from work tasks to more everyday situations. We propose definitions, perspectives, and research directions for further investigations of this emerging subfield. These perspectives build from ambient information visualization [32], social visualization, and also from artistic work that visualizes information [41]. We seek to provide a perspective on infovis that integrates these research agendas under a coherent vocabulary and framework for design. We enumerate the following contributions. First, we demonstrate how blurry the boundary of infovis is by examining systems that exhibit many of the putative proper ties of infovis systems, but perhaps would not be considered so. Second, we explore the notion of insight and how, instead of a monolithic definition of insight, there may be multiple types, each with particular characteristics. Third, we discuss design challenges for systems intended for casual audiences. Finally we conclude with challenges for system evaluation in this emerging subfield.

  17. Acoustic differences among casual, conversational, and read speech

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinnow, DeAnna

    Speech is a complex behavior that allows speakers to use many variations to satisfy the demands connected with multiple speaking environments. Speech research typically obtains speech samples in a controlled laboratory setting using read material, yet anecdotal observations of such speech, particularly from talkers with a speech and language impairment, have identified a "performance" effect in the produced speech which masks the characteristics of impaired speech outside of the lab (Goberman, Recker, & Parveen, 2010). The aim of the current study was to investigate acoustic differences among laboratory read, laboratory conversational, and casual speech through well-defined speech tasks in the laboratory and in talkers' natural environments. Eleven healthy research participants performed lab recording tasks (19 read sentences and a dialogue about their life) and collected natural-environment recordings of themselves over 3-day periods using portable recorders. Segments were analyzed for articulatory, voice, and prosodic acoustic characteristics using computer software and hand counting. The current study results indicate that lab-read speech was significantly different from casual speech: greater articulation range, improved voice quality measures, lower speech rate, and lower mean pitch. One implication of the results is that different laboratory techniques may be beneficial in obtaining speech samples that are more like casual speech, thus making it easier to correctly analyze abnormal speech characteristics with fewer errors.

  18. TAP FOR BATTLE: PERANCANGAN CASUAL GAME PADA SMARTPHONE ANDROID

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andry Chowanda

    2014-12-01

    doing school work or enjoying entertainment. The purpose of this research is to build a casual-action game with war theme. The game is built for Android smartphone that has multi touch screen capability. The research methods used in this research are data collection and analysis method including user analysis with questionnaire. Furthermore, IMSDD method is implemented for game design and development phase including system requirement analysis, system design, system implementation, finally system evaluation. In this research, we conclude that 83.9% participants enjoyed the game with touch-screen as the game control.

  19. The Spaces and Places That Women Casual Academics (Often Fail To) Inhabit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crimmins, Gail

    2016-01-01

    This paper discusses a research project that aims to address the binary/irony of the central physical and teaching space that women casual academics inhabit within Australian universities, against their lack of presence in the existing discourses around higher education. The invisibility of women casual academics within the discourses around…

  20. Cognitive training with casual video games: Points to consider

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pauline L Baniqued

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Brain training programs have proliferated in recent years, with claims that video games or computer-based tasks can broadly enhance cognitive function. However, benefits are commonly seen only in trained tasks. Assessing generalized improvement and practicality of laboratory exercises complicate interpretation and application of findings. In this study, we addressed these issues by using active control groups, training tasks that more closely resemble real-world demands and multiple tests to determine transfer of training. We examined whether casual video games can broadly improve cognition and selected training games from a study of the relationship between game performance and cognitive abilities. A total of 209 young adults were randomized into a working memory-reasoning group, an adaptive working memory-reasoning group, an active control game group, and a no-contact control group. Before and after 15 hours of training, participants completed tests of reasoning, working memory, attention, episodic memory, perceptual speed, and self-report measures of executive function, game experience, perceived improvement, knowledge of brain training research, and game play outside the laboratory. Participants improved on the training games, but transfer to untrained tasks was limited. No group showed gains in reasoning, working memory, episodic memory or perceptual speed, but the working memory-reasoning groups improved in divided attention, with better performance in an attention-demanding game, a decreased attentional blink and smaller trail-making costs. Perceived improvements did not differ across training groups and those with low reasoning ability at baseline showed larger gains. Although there are important caveats, our study sheds light on the mixed effects in the training and transfer literature and offers a novel and potentially practical training approach. Still, more research is needed to determine the real-world benefits of computer programs

  1. Cognitive training with casual video games: points to consider.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baniqued, Pauline L; Kranz, Michael B; Voss, Michelle W; Lee, Hyunkyu; Cosman, Joshua D; Severson, Joan; Kramer, Arthur F

    2014-01-01

    Brain training programs have proliferated in recent years, with claims that video games or computer-based tasks can broadly enhance cognitive function. However, benefits are commonly seen only in trained tasks. Assessing generalized improvement and practicality of laboratory exercises complicates interpretation and application of findings. In this study, we addressed these issues by using active control groups, training tasks that more closely resemble real-world demands and multiple tests to determine transfer of training. We examined whether casual video games can broadly improve cognition, and selected training games from a study of the relationship between game performance and cognitive abilities. A total of 209 young adults were randomized into a working memory-reasoning group, an adaptive working memory-reasoning group, an active control game group, and a no-contact control group. Before and after 15 h of training, participants completed tests of reasoning, working memory, attention, episodic memory, perceptual speed, and self-report measures of executive function, game experience, perceived improvement, knowledge of brain training research, and game play outside the laboratory. Participants improved on the training games, but transfer to untrained tasks was limited. No group showed gains in reasoning, working memory, episodic memory, or perceptual speed, but the working memory-reasoning groups improved in divided attention, with better performance in an attention-demanding game, a decreased attentional blink and smaller trail-making costs. Perceived improvements did not differ across training groups and those with low reasoning ability at baseline showed larger gains. Although there are important caveats, our study sheds light on the mixed effects in the training and transfer literature and offers a novel and potentially practical training approach. Still, more research is needed to determine the real-world benefits of computer programs such as casual games.

  2. 基于Web的拼车系统的设计与实现%The Design and Realization of Carpool System Based on Web

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩庆亮

    2016-01-01

    随着因特网的普及和人们使用网络能力的提高,越来越多的人开始在网上为自己的出行寻找一个更加安全、便捷、省钱的途径。因此拼车的方式应运而生,而且受到了人们的普遍欢迎。那么一种能够提供及时、有效、真实拼车信息的系统是很有现实意义的。通过对人们需求的分析,设计了此拼车系统。系统主要作用是为用户提供一个查询拼车信息和发布拼车信息的平台,满足用户在实际出行中的拼车需要。%Along with the popularization of the Internet and the popularization of people's application of the network, more and more people are starting to find a way which is safe、convenient and more cheaper.So the carpool mode emerge as the times re-quire,and it is welcomed by the most of the people.So it is very practical to provide a timely, effective and real information sys-tem.Therefore, by understanding and Analysis on the needs of the people, the full investigation of the function of the existing carpool system and the design the carpool system. This system mainly provide a platform which people could query and publish carpool information.To satisfy the users need in the actual environment.

  3. The man/machine interface in information retrieval: Providing access to the casual user

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dominick, Wayne D. (Editor); Granier, Martin

    1984-01-01

    This study is concerned with the difficulties encountered by casual users wishing to employ Information Storage and Retrieval Systems. A casual user is defined as a professional who has neither time nor desire to pursue in depth the study of the numerous and varied retrieval systems. His needs for on-line search are only occasional, and not limited to any particular system. The paper takes a close look at the state of the art of research concerned with aiding casual users of Information Storage and Retrieval Systems. Current experiments such as LEXIS, CONIT, IIDA, CITE, and CCL are presented and discussed. Comments and proposals are offered, specifically in the areas of training, learning and cost as experienced by the casual user. An extensive bibliography of recent works on the subject follows the text.

  4. Casual sexual encounters among gay men: familiarity, trust and unprotected anal intercourse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zablotska, Iryna B; Grulich, Andrew E; De Wit, John; Prestage, Garrett

    2011-04-01

    Familiarity with and a history of prior sex with casual partners is associated with unprotected anal intercourse and may increase the risk of HIV transmission among gay men. Using data from the Sydney Gay Community Periodic Survey 2007, we explored the relationship between familiarity and unprotected anal intercourse with the last casual partner (UAI-LC). 51% of the men knew their last casual partner and 49% had previously had sex with him. Men were more inclined to engage in UAI-LC if they had previously had sex with this partner. HIV-negative men were more likely to have UAI-LC with a more familiar partner independent of his serostatus. Familiarity with and a previous history of sex between casual partners may result in a false sense of trust and may increase the risk of HIV transmission. HIV prevention services should address this issue and develop programs to improve men's skills in negotiating safer sex.

  5. Impact of Emission Charging to Carpooling in Urban Roads%城市道路中排放收费对合乘的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丁冬; 帅斌; 祝进城

    2015-01-01

    In order to investigate the impacts of emission charging to carpooling in urban roads, a bi-level programming model is proposed. The lower level describes the travelers'selections of travel modes as well as route choices while the upper level aims to maximize social welfare. A heuristic algorithm for the computation of the optimizing value of link toll patterns, traffic demands, social welfare, travel costs and emission is designed and then applied to compute solutions to a numerical example. The results demonstrate that emission charging could increase social welfare and facilitate more people to carpool, and carpooling do not restrain traffic demands. Carpooling cost has limited impact on carpooling and the social welfare promotes with higher emission weight coefficient as well as system efficiency. It is not always beneficial for traffic system with higher fuel efficiency. Thus it is necessary to capture optimal toll on the basis of the topological structure of traffic network.%为研究城市道路中排放收费对合乘的影响,建立了双层规划模型.下层规划描述了出行者的出行方式选择及路径选择;上层规划以社会福利最大化为目标.设计了启发式求解算法并通过一个算例得到了路段最优收费费率、交通需求、社会福利、出行费用和排放量.算例结果表明,排放收费可提高社会福利,促进更多的出行者选择合乘,而合乘不会抑制交通需求;合乘成本对合乘的影响有限;排放权重系数越大,社会福利越高,系统效率也会提高;燃油效率越高对系统不一定越有利,应根据实际的路网结构进行建模分析,制定最优费率.

  6. Examining the Roles of Reasoning and Working Memory in Predicting Casual Game Performance across Extended Gameplay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kranz, Michael B.; Baniqued, Pauline L.; Voss, Michelle W.; Lee, Hyunkyu; Kramer, Arthur F.

    2017-01-01

    The variety and availability of casual video games presents an exciting opportunity for applications such as cognitive training. Casual games have been associated with fluid abilities such as working memory (WM) and reasoning, but the importance of these cognitive constructs in predicting performance may change across extended gameplay and vary with game structure. The current investigation examined the relationship between cognitive abilities and casual game performance over time by analyzing first and final session performance over 4–5 weeks of game play. We focused on two groups of subjects who played different types of casual games previously shown to relate to WM and reasoning when played for a single session: (1) puzzle-based games played adaptively across sessions and (2) speeded switching games played non-adaptively across sessions. Reasoning uniquely predicted first session casual game scores for both groups and accounted for much of the relationship with WM. Furthermore, over time, WM became uniquely important for predicting casual game performance for the puzzle-based adaptive games but not for the speeded switching non-adaptive games. These results extend the burgeoning literature on cognitive abilities involved in video games by showing differential relationships of fluid abilities across different game types and extended play. More broadly, the current study illustrates the usefulness of using multiple cognitive measures in predicting performance, and provides potential directions for game-based cognitive training research.

  7. Examining the Roles of Reasoning and Working Memory in Predicting Casual Game Performance across Extended Gameplay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kranz, Michael B; Baniqued, Pauline L; Voss, Michelle W; Lee, Hyunkyu; Kramer, Arthur F

    2017-01-01

    The variety and availability of casual video games presents an exciting opportunity for applications such as cognitive training. Casual games have been associated with fluid abilities such as working memory (WM) and reasoning, but the importance of these cognitive constructs in predicting performance may change across extended gameplay and vary with game structure. The current investigation examined the relationship between cognitive abilities and casual game performance over time by analyzing first and final session performance over 4-5 weeks of game play. We focused on two groups of subjects who played different types of casual games previously shown to relate to WM and reasoning when played for a single session: (1) puzzle-based games played adaptively across sessions and (2) speeded switching games played non-adaptively across sessions. Reasoning uniquely predicted first session casual game scores for both groups and accounted for much of the relationship with WM. Furthermore, over time, WM became uniquely important for predicting casual game performance for the puzzle-based adaptive games but not for the speeded switching non-adaptive games. These results extend the burgeoning literature on cognitive abilities involved in video games by showing differential relationships of fluid abilities across different game types and extended play. More broadly, the current study illustrates the usefulness of using multiple cognitive measures in predicting performance, and provides potential directions for game-based cognitive training research.

  8. 车辆合乘问题的两阶段分布式估计算法%Two-stage Estimation of Distribution Algorithm to Solve Multi-vehicle Carpooling Problem

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨志家; 王子; 汪扬; 闵明慧; 李中胜

    2016-01-01

    针对智慧交通中多车辆合乘问题,提出一种分布式并行计算环境下的合乘模型。利用合乘概率矩阵的先验知识,实现更高效的运算和求解。当合乘概率矩阵不是单位矩阵时,合乘模型被增广为车主合乘和乘客合乘两个阶段。两阶段分布式估计算法运用可行合乘解的合乘概率矩阵,作为一种随机优化方法求解最优值。根据可搭乘矩阵初始化合乘概率矩阵,并在优化过程中连续更新合乘概率矩阵。车主同乘客分离优化,减少了出行车辆,并实现了互相搭乘的合乘模型。通过合乘模型的优化迭代能够为乘客挖掘出高效可行的搭乘路线。实验结果表明,该合乘模型具有平均等待时间少、平均载客量大、人均行驶距离短的高效出行特点。%A multi-carpooling model is proposed for the multi-vehicle carpooling problem in a distributed parallel computing environment. The prior knowledge of the carpooling probabilistic matrix is used for more efficient computing and effective solutions. When the carpooling probabilistic matrix is not the identity matrix, the multi-carpooling model is augmented into two stages of drivers’ridesharing and passengers’ ridesharing. A two-stage estimation of distribution algorithm is proposed as a stochastic optimization method to solve the optimum with a carpooling probabilistic matrix of promising carpooling solutions. A ridable matrix initiates the carpooling probabilistic matrix, and the optimization consists of a series of incremental updates of the carpooling probabilistic matrix. The optimization process of drivers and passengers is separated; hence, the carpooling model implements the mutual ridesharing to decrease vehicles demanded. The carpooling model mines efficient and compromised ridesharing routes for shared riders by the optimization iterations. Experimental results indicate that the carpooling model has the characteristics of

  9. Perceived proposer personality characteristics and gender differences in acceptance of casual sex offers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conley, Terri D

    2011-02-01

    In a highly influential paper, Clark and Hatfield (1989) demonstrated that, whereas men were quite likely to accept a casual sexual offer from a confederate research assistant, women never did so. The current research provides a more in-depth explanation of gender differences in acceptance of casual sex offers via 4 (quasi-) experiments. First, using a person-perception paradigm, I assessed people's impressions of women and men who proposed a casual sexual encounter in the same manner that confederates in Clark and Hatfield did. Women and men agreed that female proposers were more intelligent, successful, and sexually skilled than men who made the same proposals. Second, I demonstrated that the large gender differences from the original Clark and Hatfield study could be eliminated by asking participants to imagine proposals from (attractive and unattractive) famous individuals, friends, and same-gender individuals. Next, I assessed factors associated with likelihood of agreeing to the casual sex proposal. The extent to which women and men believed that the proposer would be sexually skilled predicted how likely they would be to engage in casual sex with this individual. Finally, I examined these factors in the context of actual encounters from the participants' previous experiences, and the results were replicated in this context. Overall findings suggest that the large gender differences Clark and Hatfield observed in acceptance of the casual sex offer may have more to do with perceived personality characteristics of the female versus male proposers than with gender differences among Clark and Hatfield's participants and that sexual pleasure figures largely in women's and men's decision making about casual sex.

  10. 预约机制下的共乘路径规划策略%Carpool path planning strategy under reservation mechanism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘潇; 李德敏; 张光林; 汤海涅

    2016-01-01

    For the reason that existing carpooling path algorithms focus only on the minimum of the total weight of path rather than the accuracy of arrival time, it proposes an optimal algorithm of carpooling path under the mechanism of appoint-ment. It collects the information of appointment ride, introduces the concept of classification to classify the passenger information in group. Then it utilizes the Bellman-Ford algorithm intragroup, and arriving time path algorithm intergroup, so that it comes up with Carpooling Path Planning Algorithm in Order(CPPAO), which takes into account both the accuracy of arriving time and consumption of travel cost.%现有的共乘路径算法只专注优化路径总权值而很少考虑到达时间准确性,针对这一现状提出一种预约机制下的共乘路径最优算法。采集乘客的预约搭乘信息,引入分类的概念对乘客信息进行团体分类,对团体内使用Bellman-Ford算法,团体间使用到达时间路径算法,得出了预约机制下的共乘路径最优算法CPPAO,使得该算法兼顾到达时间的准确和行驶代价的消耗。

  11. The Using of Casual Style in ELT For Young Learners (Sociolinguistics Perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irene Debora

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Young Learners have less reinforcement to speak with others. One of the causes is the trend of formal or clumsy learning setting in emphasizing the speaking proficiency. Speaking based on the culture context also contribute them in increasing their motivation to express their ideas. Casual style as one of the language variations gives contribution in increasing students’ motivation to be more active in the class. The simply characteristics of Casual style can be memorized and applied easily. Casual style tends to adjust the culture of speaker in communication so it will be easy to be understood. Students also can use the utterances in their daily life because most of the utterances are familiar for them. The raising of  motivation from students will give positive effect for teaching and learning process, students, and also teachers.

  12. The sexual double standard and gender differences in attitudes toward casual sex among U.S. university students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula England

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: A significant portion of premarital sexual activity is casual rather than in relationships, and commentators disagree on whether this is what women prefer. Objective: We examine gender differences in attitudes toward casual sex. We also assess whether there is a double standard whereby women are judged more harshly for casual sex. Methods: We use a large online survey of U.S. university students to examine gender differences with regard to attitudes and reports of sexual behavior. Results: While distributions overlap, the average man looks more favorably on casual sex than the average woman. Both sexes show substantial openness to relationships. We find evidence of a double standard: men are more judgmental toward women than toward men who have casual sex. Men appear to over-report and/or women to under-report intercourse and fellatio, suggesting that men see these acts as enhancing and/or women see them as diminishing their status. Conclusions: Women face more negative judgment than men when they are known to engage in casual sex, and they also report less interest in casual sex than men. Our analysis does not permit us to assess whether the double standard we find evidence of explains why women have less interest in casual sex, but we hypothesize that this is the case.

  13. 基于模糊聚类和识别的出租车合乘算法研究%Algorithm Research of Taxi Carpooling Based on Fuzzy Clustering and Fuzzy Recognition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖强; 何瑞春; 张薇; 马昌喜

    2014-01-01

    In some big cities,the effect and efficiency are both poor to the taxi carpooling. The taxi route clustering and carpooling identification of passenger and taxi are studied by fuzzy clustering and fuzzy recognition theory. Through randomly generated many groups of taxi and passengers data, it is pointed that taxi carpooling in particular conditions, taxi numbers will decided the passenger’s carpooling success rate, but it is found that unlimited increase taxi sample number will increase carpooling success rate to passengers in case of a fixed number of passengers, the taxi income will be stabilized, it will not increase with rising of taxi number. The results indicate that the algorithm is suitable for us take the carpooling problem of large numbers taxi and could be effective measurement for taxi carpooling.%针对目前部分大城市出租车合乘效果差,合乘效率低等现状,本文采用模糊聚类和模糊识别方法,研究出租车行驶路线模糊聚类,并利用行驶路线、行驶时间和合乘人数创建隶属函数,实现合乘乘客与出租车的合乘模糊识别。通过随机生成的多组出租车出行和合乘乘客样本数据,发现在假定的出租车合乘条件下,出租车样本数量决定了合乘的成功率,但同时也发现,在合乘人数固定的情况下,无限制的增加出租车样本数量会增加合乘乘客的搭载成功率,平均每辆合乘出租车的收入并不会随着样本数量的增大而增大,而是趋于稳定值。仿真结果说明,该算法适合于大样本的出租车合乘问题,是一种可以提高出租车合乘成功率的有效方法。

  14. Petalz: Search-based Procedural Content Generation for the Casual Gamer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Risi, S.; Lehman, J.; D'Ambrosio, D.B

    2015-01-01

    The impact of game content on the player experience is potentially more critical in casual games than in competitive games because of the diminished role of strategic or tactical diversions. Interestingly, until now procedural content generation (PCG) has nevertheless been investigated almost exc...

  15. From Casual Work to Economic Security; the Paradoxical Case of Self-Employment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tremblay, Diane-Gabrielle

    2008-01-01

    The term "casual work" is not well defined in the literature and can include a diversity of types of employment. In this paper, we first present an introduction and definition of concepts related to job security and economic insecurity. Second, a view on the main labour market transformations, their causes and impacts, with more accent on…

  16. The Using of Casual Style in ELT for Young Learners (Sociolinguistics Perspectives)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debora, Irene

    2013-01-01

    Young Learners have less reinforcement to speak with others. One of the causes is the trend of formal or clumsy learning setting in emphasizing the speaking proficiency. Speaking based on the culture context also contribute them in increasing their motivation to express their ideas. "Casual style" as one of the language variations gives…

  17. Building an Online Community to Support the Professional Development of Casual Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dean, Bonnie Amelia; Harden-Thew, Kathryn; Thomas, Lisa

    2017-01-01

    With the burgeoning casualisation of the higher education workforce, the precarious nature of casual teaching has become increasingly well documented. Universities are recognising that enhancing quality learning and teaching must include attention to the provision of services, support, and professional development for teachers employed on a…

  18. Petalz: Search-based Procedural Content Generation for the Casual Gamer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Risi, S.; Lehman, J.; D'Ambrosio, D.B;

    2015-01-01

    The impact of game content on the player experience is potentially more critical in casual games than in competitive games because of the diminished role of strategic or tactical diversions. Interestingly, until now procedural content generation (PCG) has nevertheless been investigated almost...

  19. Working in the margins women's experiences of stress and occupational health problems in part-time and casual retail jobs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeytinogla, Isik Uurla; Seaton, M Bianca; Lillevik, Waheeda; Moruz, Josefina

    2005-01-01

    Women workers dominate the labor market of part-time and casual jobs in Canada and other industrialized countries, particularly in the retail trade and consumer services sector. However, research into the occupational health consequences of part-time and casual jobs for this large group of women workers is still in its early stages. Emerging evidence suggests that part-time and casual jobs contribute to stress and result in health problems for women. To learn about the impact of part-time and casual jobs on women's experiences of stress and their resulting physical and emotional health, we conducted interviews and focus groups with occupational health and safety union representatives and female workers in retail and consumer services. Results show that stress is a major occupational health problem for these women, due to the working conditions in part-time and casual jobs, the psychosocial work environment, and the gendered work environment in the retail trade and consumer services. Stress from part-time and casual jobs results in repetitive strain injuries, migraine headaches, and feelings of low self-esteem, low motivation, and job dissatisfaction for women. The disconcerting implication of our research is that part-time and casual employment comes at a cost for some women.

  20. 合乘模式下司机收入公平模型及仿真%Driver Income Equity Model and Simulation under Carpooling Mode

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张薇; 何瑞春; 肖强; 马昌喜

    2015-01-01

    针对出租车合乘模式下司机的收入问题,建立了合乘模式下司机收入公平心理模型,采用公平理论分析了司机的心理及行为,通过仿真计算,分析了合乘模式下乘客总需求量及司机公平心理对司机收入的影响.研究结果表明,乘客总需求对合乘模式下司机总体的平均收入有较大的影响,合适的供需比下实施合乘才能提高司机收入;在供需比较大时,司机争抢乘客的行为会导致司机个体收入差距增大,部分司机收入降低的现象;为成功实施合乘模式,必须考虑当地出租车市场的供需比情况,并且建立合理的措施以防范司机争抢乘客的行为出现.所得结论对出租车合乘政策的制定与管理有一定的指导意义.%Considering taxi driver psychology for equity, driver income under taxi carpooling mode is researched. Equity psychology model of driver income under carpooling mode is established, and psychology and behavior of drivers are analyzed based on equity theory. Then the influence of total passenger demand and driver behavior on income is analyzed through simulation. The results show that, the influence of total passengers demand on driver average income is large, and the appropriate ratio of supply and demand is the key factor of increasing driver income; when the ratio is big, the driver behavior for passengers causes the gap between drivers income increasing and some drivers income lowing; in order to implement successfully carpooling, it is necessary to consider the ratio of supply and demand of local taxi market, and establish reasonable measures to prevent driver behavior for passengers. These conclusions have a certain guiding significance to formulating taxi policy.

  1. The casual, naturalised and invasive alien flora of Zimbabwe based on herbarium and literature records

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfred Maroyi

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Zimbabwe’s casual, naturalised and invasive alien plant species were analysed with regard to their habit, origin, mode or purpose of introduction and their invasion status in the country. This alien flora of 391 taxa belonged to 239 genera and 73 families, corresponding to 6.6%of the total flora of Zimbabwe. Of these, 153 (39.1% plant species were casual aliens, 154 (39.4% were naturalised and 84 (21.5% were invasive species. Most invasions in terms of numbers of alien species were in the central and eastern parts of the country. Asteraceae (53 species, Poaceae (48 species and Fabaceae sensu lato (49 species families were prominent in all the floristic regions of the country. Annual and perennial herbaceous species formed the majority of life forms of the casual, naturalised and invasive alien flora of Zimbabwe. Genera with the highest number of alien species were Ipomoea with nine species, Acacia and Euphorbiawith eight species each, Chenopodium and Senna with seven species each, Eucalyptus with six species, Oenothera, Physalis and Solanum with five species each. More than 49.6% of the alien plants in Zimbabwe originated primarily from South, Central and North America, followed by Europe (24.6%, Asia (23.8%, Africa (10.5% and Australasia (5.9%. Conservation implications: This research provides baseline information and historical invasion patterns of casual, naturalised and invasive alien flora in Zimbabwe. This inventory is a crucial starting point in trying to understand and initiate the management of biological invasions. This is also important for monitoring new introductions and management of existing alien plants in Zimbabwe.

  2. Selling points: What cognitive abilities are tapped by casual video games?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baniqued, Pauline L; Lee, Hyunkyu; Voss, Michelle W; Basak, Chandramallika; Cosman, Joshua D; Desouza, Shanna; Severson, Joan; Salthouse, Timothy A; Kramer, Arthur F

    2013-01-01

    The idea that video games or computer-based applications can improve cognitive function has led to a proliferation of programs claiming to "train the brain." However, there is often little scientific basis in the development of commercial training programs, and many research-based programs yield inconsistent or weak results. In this study, we sought to better understand the nature of cognitive abilities tapped by casual video games and thus reflect on their potential as a training tool. A moderately large sample of participants (n=209) played 20 web-based casual games and performed a battery of cognitive tasks. We used cognitive task analysis and multivariate statistical techniques to characterize the relationships between performance metrics. We validated the cognitive abilities measured in the task battery, examined a task analysis-based categorization of the casual games, and then characterized the relationship between game and task performance. We found that games categorized to tap working memory and reasoning were robustly related to performance on working memory and fluid intelligence tasks, with fluid intelligence best predicting scores on working memory and reasoning games. We discuss these results in the context of overlap in cognitive processes engaged by the cognitive tasks and casual games, and within the context of assessing near and far transfer. While this is not a training study, these findings provide a methodology to assess the validity of using certain games as training and assessment devices for specific cognitive abilities, and shed light on the mixed transfer results in the computer-based training literature. Moreover, the results can inform design of a more theoretically-driven and methodologically-sound cognitive training program.

  3. Precarious Pedagogies? The Impact of Casual and Zero-Hour Contracts in Higher Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Lopes

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Precarious work is associated with and characterizes the effects of neoliberal policy—the transference of economic risk onto workers, the erosion of workers’ rights, the flexibilization and casualization of work contracts, self-responsibility, financial insecurity, and emotional stress. In the Higher Education (HE sector, the number of insecure academic jobs, especially zero-hour contracts for hourly paid teaching and short-term contract research, has grown exponentially in recent years in response to the structural and fiscal changes within universities, which reflect these global shifts. This paper presents findings from a pilot study conducted with academics on casual contracts in HE institutions in England and Wales. Qualitative interviews and focus groups were undertaken with teachers (lecturers and tutors on hourly paid and zero-hour contracts to examine the relationship between their contractual situations and pedagogical practices. The research broadly seeks to contribute to ongoing discussions concerned with the impact of neoliberalism on higher education and specifically highlights the case of contingent lecturers as casualties of the casualization of the academic labor force.

  4. Estimating the role of casual contact from the community in transmission of Bordetella pertussis to young infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Poole Charles

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The proportion of infant pertussis cases due to transmission from casual contact in the community has not been estimated since before the introduction of pertussis vaccines in the 1950s. This study aimed to estimate the proportion of pertussis transmission due to casual contact using demographic and clinical data from a study of 95 infant pertussis cases and their close contacts enrolled at 14 hospitals in France, Germany, Canada, and the U.S. between February 2003 and September 2004. A complete case analysis was conducted as well as multiple imputation (MI to account for missing data for participants and close contacts who did not participate. By considering all possible close contacts, the MI analysis estimated 66% of source cases were close contacts, implying the minimum attributable proportion of infant cases due to transmission from casual contact with community members was 34% (95% CI = 24%, 44%. Estimates from the complete case analysis were comparable but less precise. Results were sensitive to changes in the operational definition of a source case, which broadened the range of MI point estimates of transmission from casual community contact to 20%–47%. We conclude that casual contact appears to be responsible for a substantial proportion of pertussis transmission to young infants. Medical subject headings (MeSH: multiple imputation, pertussis, transmission, casual contact, sensitivity analysis, missing data, community.

  5. Casual and ambulatory blood pressure monitoring in children with renal scarring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miloševski Gordana

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION Renal scarring is the most common cause of arterial hypertension in children. High blood pressure (BP and microalbuminuria contribute to the progression of chronic renal disease. OBJECTIVE The aims of the study were: to assess BP in children with renal scarring by continuous ambulatory blood pressure measurement (ABPM in comparison to the casual method (CBP, and to determine the correlation between ambulatory blood pressure (ABP and/or casual blood pressure (CBP values and proteinuria in children with renal scarring. METHOD This forward-looking study comprised thirty-five children (26 girls and 9 boys, aged between 3-13 years, 10.4±3.9, X+SD. Blood pressure was measured using the casual method (CBP with a mercury manometer; BP was measured three times and the average was taken as a referent value. ABPM was performed using the oscillometric method with the Space Labs device, model 90207. RESULTS 45.71% of patients were classified as hypertensive by ABPM, while only 22.6% of CBP measurements were above the 95th percentile (p<0.01. "White coat hypertension" was present in 40% of the patients. Non-dipping BP alteration was detected in 37.14% of the patients. CONCLUSION Nocturnal systolic hypertension (systolic non-dipping alteration is very frequent in children with renal scarring. Nocturnal diastolic blood pressure, detectable only via ABPM, is positively correlated with proteinuria and may be an initial sign of the progression of renal scarring. ABPM is more sensitive than CBP in the evaluation of BP in children with renal scarring.

  6. Low Carbon Concept:Functional & Green Casual Fabrics Are Enjoying A Favor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    @@ Starting from the low-carbon concept to practice in the specific production requires recollected thinking and judgments. It can be seen that "functional" and "green" casual fabrics are becoming more and more important evidently. From the trend to start businesses, enterprises could find an "ultimate goal" for low carbon in such production processes as matching the raw materials, printing processes, finishing and others, and then plus the careful planning of cost, the environmentally friendly and cost-effective products enable the enterprises to seize the market opportunities.

  7. Consistent Condom Use during Casual Sex among Long-Truck Drivers in Togo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaya, Issifou; Landoh, Dadja Essoya; Saka, Bayaki; Vignikin, Kokou; Aboubakari, Abdoul-Samadou; N’dri, Kouamé Mathias; Gbetoglo, Kodjo Dodji; Edorh, Atavi-Mensah; Ahlegnan, Komla; Yenkey, Holali Comlan; Toudeka, Ayawavi Sitsopé; Pitché, Palokinam

    2016-01-01

    Background In 2008, the proportion of truck drivers who were not systematically protected during sex was 63% with casual partners and 60% with sex workers. Despite the high level of knowledge on HIV/AIDS and the growing awareness of the existence of the risk of HIV infection, condom use always encounters resistance among truck drivers in Togo. We sought to document the factors associated with condom use during casual sex among trucks’ drivers in Togo. Methods This was an analytical cross-sectional study conducted in 2010 and targeted truckers at truck station on the two main roads of Togo, Lomé-Cinkassé and Kodjoviakopé-Sanvee Condji. Results In this study, 1,782 trucks’ drivers and their helpers were interviewed. All were men, and their mean age was 28.8 ± 8.8 years. Trucks’ drivers were doing an average of 3 stops on their journeys and 1,229 (69%) of them had at least two years of experience in the work. Of the 1,782 trucks’ drivers, only 620 (34.8%) had consistently used condoms during casual sex in the last three months. In multivariate analysis, predictors were: education level (primary schooling: OR = 1.54; p = 0.002; Secondary schooling and higher OR = 1.38; p = 0.036), good knowledge of ways of HIV transmission (OR = 1.53; p = 0.000), tested for HIV (OR = 1.67, p = 0.000), duration in the profession (2–5 years: OR = 1.43, p = 0.008; more than 5 years: OR = 1.38, p = 0.027), and HIV risk’s perception (OR = 1.44, p = 0.000). Conclusion These results highlight factors associated with consistent condom use during casual sex by truck drivers in Togo. This is a key population group at high risk of HIV transmission toward which the national HIV/AIDS control program should strengthen the HIV prevention strategies. PMID:27071059

  8. Aneurysm and Neurocysticercosis: Casual or Causal Relationship? Case Report and Review of the Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svetlana Agapejev

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Four cases of suggestive inflammatory aneurysms in patients with neurocysticercosis have been described. We report a case of a 49-year-old woman who presented with subarachnoid haemorrhage from a right middle cerebral artery bifurcation aneurysm and had a casual relationship with neurocysticercosis. At surgery, a viable cysticercus without signs of inflammation or thickened leptomeninges was found in the distal position of the aneurysm. Postoperatively, the patient received albendazole and dextrochlorpheniramine. In the subsequent three years, the patient was asymptomatic and took drugs to prevent convulsion and arterial hypertension. The relationship between NCC and the presence of cerebral aneurysm is discussed.

  9. Selling points: What cognitive abilities are tapped by casual video games?

    OpenAIRE

    Pauline L Baniqued; Lee, Hyunkyu; Michelle W Voss; Basak, Chandramallika; Cosman, Joshua D.; DeSouza, Shanna; Severson, Joan; Salthouse, Timothy A.; KRAMER, ARTHUR F.

    2012-01-01

    The idea that video games or computer-based applications can improve cognitive function has led to a proliferation of programs claiming to “train the brain.” However, there is often little scientific basis in the development of commercial training programs, and many research-based programs yield inconsistent or weak results. In this study, we sought to better understand the nature of cognitive abilities tapped by casual video games and thus reflect on their potential as a training tool. A mod...

  10. Women's motivations to have sex in casual and committed relationships with male and female partners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, Heather L; Reissing, Elke D

    2015-05-01

    Women report a wide variety of reasons to have sex (e.g., Meston & Buss, 2010), and while it is reasonable to assume that those reasons may vary based on the context of the relationship, this assumption has not yet been tested. The purpose of this study was to explore how relationship type, sexual attraction, and the gender of one's partner interact and affect the sexual motivations of women. A total of 510 women (361 who reported exclusively other-sex attraction and 149 who reported same-sex/bisexual attraction) completed the YSEX? questionnaire. Participants rated their sexual motivations for casual sex and sex in a committed relationship with male and/or female partners, depending on reported sexual attraction. Results showed that relationship type affected reported motivation for sex: physical motivations were more strongly endorsed for casual sex, whereas emotional motivations were more strongly endorsed for sex in committed relationships. No significant differences in motivation were reported between women who reported same-sex attraction and those who did not. Women who reported bisexual attraction and identified as being lesbian, bisexual, or another sexual minority reported no significant differences in motivation for sex with male or female partners. The results of this study highlight the importance of relationship context when discussing sexual motivation and suggest a high degree of similarity in motivation for women, regardless of sexual orientation or gender of partner.

  11. Hepatitis A outbreak among MSM linked to casual sex and gay saunas in Copenhagen, Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mazick, A; Howitz, M; Rex, S

    2005-01-01

    During an outbreak of hepatitis A predominantly among men who have sex with men (MSM) in Copenhagen, Denmark, in 2004, we did a case-control study to determine risk factors for infection. A case was an MSM >17 years, living in Copenhagen, with IgM positive hepatitis A infection diagnosed between...... June and August 2004, and without a household contact with a hepatitis A case before onset of illness. Controls were selected at the Copenhagen Pride Festival. The study included 18 cases and 64 controls. Sixteen of 18 cases and 36/63 controls had sex with casual partners (ORMH 5.6, 95% CI 1.......2-26.9). Eleven of 18 cases and 14/62 controls had sex in gay saunas (ORMH 4.2, 95% CI 1.5-11.5). Sex at private homes appeared to be protective (ORMH 0.2, 95% CI 0.1-0.7). Casual sex including sex in gay saunas was an important risk factor for the spread of HAV among MSM in Copenhagen. The results...

  12. Work Hard, Party Harder: Drug Use and Sexual Behaviour in Young British Casual Workers in Ibiza, Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danielle Kelly

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Every summer, young people flock to nightlife-focused holiday resorts around the world to find casual work. Despite being exposed to hedonistic environments, often for several months, little is known about their substance use, sexual activity and health service needs over this extended amount of time abroad. Methods: A short anonymous questionnaire examining alcohol and drug use, sexual behaviour and use of health services was administered to young British casual workers aged 16–35 in San Antonio, Ibiza (n = 171. Results: 97.7% of casual workers used alcohol in Ibiza, and the majority (85.3% used drugs. Almost half (43.5% of all participants used a drug in Ibiza that they had never used in the UK. Most casual workers arrived in Ibiza without a partner or spouse (86.5%. Of these, 86.9% had sex during their stay and 50.0% had unprotected sex; often while under the influence of alcohol. Only 14.3% of those having unprotected sex with a new partner sought a sexual health check-up in Ibiza, although 84.1% intended to do this on their return to the UK. Conclusion: Substance use and sexual risk taking is widespread among young British casual workers in Ibiza. Such international nightlife resorts represent key settings for substance-related health and social problems, and for the international spread of sexually transmitted infections. Addressing the health needs of casual workers and the environments that permit and promote their excessive behaviour requires collaboration between authorities in home and destination countries and the tourism industry.

  13. Feedback from the Coal-Face: How the Lived Experience of Women Casual Academics Can Inform Human Resources and Academic Development Policy and Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crimmins, Gail

    2017-01-01

    Casual academics form the backbone of learning and teaching practice in higher education in many developed countries and in many respects can be considered the norm around which academic policy and practice might be formed. Yet a narrative inquiry into the lived experience of women casual academics within Australian universities reveals that…

  14. Hallazgo casual de un linfoma no Hodgkin en la base de la lengua

    OpenAIRE

    Tavárez Rodríguez, Juan José; Benito Orejas, José Ignacio; Morais Pérez, Darío; Trueba Arguiñarena, Javier

    2013-01-01

    [ES] Presentamos el caso clínico de un varón de 65 años, al que descubrimos de forma casual una tumoración submucosa en la amígdala lingual, cuyo diagnóstico pudo realizarse mediante una punción/biopsia con aguja gruesa guiada por ecografía. La evaluación anatomo-patológica demostraba la existencia de un linfoma no Hodgkin de fenotipo B. El estudio de extensión clasificaba al proceso de Estadio I-A y el tratamiento inicial fue con radioterapia local.Justifican esta publicación, el escaso núme...

  15. Seronegative spondyloarthritis and Darier’s disease: more than a casual association?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Cosso

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available A 46-year old man, affected by Darier’s disease (DD, was seen because of right hand pain, later extended to shoulders and ankles. Physical examination showed swelling and tenderness of the wrist, metacarpophalangeal and metatarsophalangeal joints, of the right Achilles tendon’s enthesis and of the left knee, with psoriatic-like lesions of the scalp. A diagnosis of seronegative spondyloarthritis, supported by HLA-B27 positivity and by the magnetic resonance imaging fi nding of hand synovitis and unilateral sacro-iliitis, was made. The correlation between DD, spondyloarthritis and psoriasis has been already anecdotally reported. Further observations may clarify if this association is more than casual.

  16. Morphotype analysis of the sibling vole (Microtus rossiaemeridionalis) casually introduced to the Russian Far East.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiunov, Mikhail Petrovich; Kartavtseva, Irina Vasiljevna; Lapin, Alexander Sergeevich

    2013-01-01

    Here, we present the morphotypic variety of the m1 and M3 teeth diagnostics for the recently formed isolated population of the sibling vole in Far Eastern Russia. In the Far Eastern population, the prevalence of the individuals with m1 with a complicated crown of the forward unpaired loop of the paraconid is characteristic. Namely, m1 in these individuals shows well-expressed sixth exterior and fifth interior salient angles. The structure of the M3 morphotypes is also unique in the sibling voles in Far Eastern Russia. The dominant morphotypes were typica (47 %) and simplex (45 %), whereas the abundance of the duplicata morphotype was 0.08 %. The frequencies of various m1 and M3 morphotypes found in casually introduced sibling voles in the Far East are not typical of any previously studied Microtus rossiaemeridionalis population.

  17. Casual Video Games as Training Tools for Attentional Processes in Everyday Life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stroud, Michael J; Whitbourne, Susan Krauss

    2015-11-01

    Three experiments examined the attentional components of the popular match-3 casual video game, Bejeweled Blitz (BJB). Attentionally demanding, BJB is highly popular among adults, particularly those in middle and later adulthood. In experiment 1, 54 older adults (Mage = 70.57) and 33 younger adults (Mage = 19.82) played 20 rounds of BJB, and completed online tasks measuring reaction time, simple visual search, and conjunction visual search. Prior experience significantly predicted BJB scores for younger adults, but for older adults, both prior experience and simple visual search task scores predicted BJB performance. Experiment 2 tested whether BJB practice alone would result in a carryover benefit to a visual search task in a sample of 58 young adults (Mage = 19.57) who completed 0, 10, or 30 rounds of BJB followed by a BJB-like visual search task with targets present or absent. Reaction times were significantly faster for participants who completed 30 but not 10 rounds of BJB compared with the search task only. This benefit was evident when targets were both present and absent, suggesting that playing BJB improves not only target detection, but also the ability to quit search effectively. Experiment 3 tested whether the attentional benefit in experiment 2 would apply to non-BJB stimuli. The results revealed a similar numerical but not significant trend. Taken together, the findings suggest there are benefits of casual video game playing to attention and relevant everyday skills, and that these games may have potential value as training tools.

  18. 75 FR 65046 - In the Matter of Cape Systems Group, Inc., Caribbean Cigar Company, Casual Male Corp., Cell Power...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-21

    ... COMMISSION In the Matter of Cape Systems Group, Inc., Caribbean Cigar Company, Casual Male Corp., Cell Power... lack of current and accurate information concerning the securities of Cape Systems Group, Inc. because... there is a lack of current and accurate information concerning the securities of Cell Power...

  19. McUniversities Revisited: A Comparison of University and McDonald's Casual Employee Experiences in Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadolny, Andrew; Ryan, Suzanne

    2015-01-01

    The McDonaldization of higher education refers to the transformation of universities from knowledge generators to rational service organizations or "McUniversities". This is reflected in the growing dependence on a casualized academic workforce. The article explores the extent to which the McDonaldization thesis applies to universities…

  20. 基于位置云技术的智能拼车匹配系统设计%The design of an intelligent carpool-matching system based on LBS-Cloud service

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张凯; 陆钧; 孙跃

    2013-01-01

    为了让人们便捷地找到合适的拼车伙伴,运用位置云平台的云存储与检索服务,结合Web服务器和数据库技术,设计并实现了智能拼车匹配系统,并开发了基于嵌入式平台的客户端装置.介绍了系统的架构,论述了位置云端存储与检索的实现方法,说明了客户端的硬件结构和主要功能模块的软件设计.测试表明,系统运行稳定,能够实现用户注册、登录管理、地图定位、拼车需求发布、智能匹配等功能,能够及时响应请求并匹配出合适的结果,具有一定的应用前景.%In order to make carpool travels more conveniently,an intelligent carpool-matching system was designed and developed based on the LBS-Cloud platform and combined with Web server and database technology.The client device was developed based on embedded platform.The architecture of this system and the implementation method of LBS-Cloud storage and retrieval were introduced.The test showed that the whole system worked well.The functions such as registration,login,auto locate,intelligent matching and so on,could be all realized successfully.The intelligent carpool system has limitless applications.

  1. 基于网格划分的城市出租车合乘研究%Study on Taxi Carpooling Based on City Gridding

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    潘国强

    2013-01-01

    A brand-new and bus-like city taxi operation mode which is based on city gridding is presented after analyzing the drawbacks of the current situation of city taxies. With reference from city bus stops, the method of setting taxi stations is suggested. The factors that may affect the implementation of city carpooling is analyzed. By developing the objective function and relevant constraint conditions, the mathematical model for maximizing the benefits of taxi drivers and clients, and minimizing the taxi route is established. It will serve as theoretical references for cities to adopt new taxi operation modes.%  根据现行出租车运营方式的不足,提出了基于城市网格划分的出租车公交化运营模式。参照城市公交站点的设置方法,提出了网格化出租车站点的设置方法。分析了影响出租车合乘的因素,通过出租车合乘运营目标函数及约束条件的建立,提出了该模式下出租车司机、乘客利益最大化以及行车路线最短的数学模型,为城市新型出租车运营模式的推行提供理论上的参考。

  2. Reasons for playing casual video games and perceived benefits among adults 18 to 80 years old.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitbourne, Susan Krauss; Ellenberg, Stacy; Akimoto, Kyoko

    2013-12-01

    Casual video games (CVGs) are becoming increasingly popular among middle-aged and older adults, yet there are few studies documenting why adults of different ages play these games, what benefits they perceive, and how regularly they play. The present study compared the online survey responses of 10,308 adults ranging from 18 to 80 years of age to questions regarding PopCap's popular free online game, Bejeweled Blitz (BJB). All respondents cited playing against friends as their main reason for playing. However, there were differences by age in the second most frequently cited reason. Middle-aged adults cited stress relief, and older adults reported that they seek the game's challenges. As a result of playing CVGs, younger adults noted that they felt sharper and experienced improved memory; older adults were more likely to feel that their visuospatial skills and response time benefited. Adults aged 60 and older had heavier patterns of game play than did adults under the age of 60 years. A significant number of respondents (14.7%) spontaneously noted that they felt that BJB had addictive qualities. CVG players seem to be drawn into this activity by its social nature and to a certain extent by its reinforcing properties. Once involved, however, they believe that they derive a number of benefits that, for older adults, appear to offset declines in age-sensitive cognitive functions.

  3. Hashtags and retweets: using Twitter to aid Community, Communication and Casual (informal learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Reed

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Since the evolution of Web 2.0, or the Social Web, the way in which users interact with/on the Internet has seen a massive paradigm shift. Web 2.0 tools and technologies have completely changed the dynamics of the Internet, enabling users to create content; be it text, photographs or video; and furthermore share and collaborate across massive geographic boundaries. As part of this revolution, arguably the most significant tools have been those employing social media. This research project set out to investigate student's attitudes, perceptions and activity toward the use of Twitter in supporting learning and teaching. In so doing, this paper touches on a number of current debates in higher education, such as the role (and perceived rise of informal learning; and debates around Digital Natives/Immigrants vs. Digital Residents/Visitors. In presenting early research findings, the author considers the 3Cs of Twitter (T3c: Community, Communication and Casual (informal learning. Data suggests that students cannot be classed as Digital Natives purely on age and suggests a rethinking of categorisations is necessary. Furthermore, the data suggests students are developing their own personal learning environments (PLEs based on user choice. Those students who voluntarily engaged with Twitter during this study positively evaluated the tool for use within learning and teaching.

  4. Rules about casual sex partners, relationship satisfaction, and HIV risk in partnered gay and bisexual men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grov, Christian; Starks, Tyrel J; Rendina, H Jonathon; Parsons, Jeffrey

    2014-01-01

    The authors used latent class analysis to investigate rules guiding nonmonogamy in partnered gay and bisexual men. Data are from a 2010 survey (N = 463) from which those in relationships (n = 191) were analyzed. More than half (56%) were nonmonogamous, and these men responded to 13 rules about sex outside of their relationship. The safe anonymous sex group (34%) included men who indicated that they must use condoms for anal sex and not have sex with people they know. The communication mandate group (19%) included men who indicated that they must talk about outside partners before sex occurs, disclose their relationship status to outside partners, and use condoms for anal sex. The play together group (9%) included men who indicated that they must play with others as a couple, not have anal sex with outside partners, and not spend the night with outside partners. Those in the no salient rule group (37%) were individuals who did not endorse a clear set of rules. These 4 groups (and compared with monogamous men) differed in age, agreement formality and flexibility, relationship satisfaction, and whether anal sex recently occurred with casual partners. This study provides a novel approach for understanding nonmonogamous same-sex relationships and highlights their complexity.

  5. From casual stargazer to amateur astronomer how to advance to the next level

    CERN Document Server

    Eagle, Dave

    2014-01-01

    The beginning astronomical observer passes through a series of stages.The initial stage is hugely exciting and gives beginners a real buzz as they discover some of the faint fuzzy objects,  markings on the planets, rings around Saturn and the craters on the Moon. But as novice stargazers progress, they want to know what more there is than looking at faint fuzzy blobs or indistinct planet markings. Many novices jump to the conclusion – wrongly – that they need to spend lots of money on expensive equipment to progress.   “From Casual Stargazer to Amateur Astronomer” has been written specifically to address this group of budding amateur astronomers. Astronomy is much more than a quick sightseeing tour. Patient observers who develop their skills will start to appreciate what they are seeing, knowing exactly what to look out for on any particular night. Equally important, they will learn what not to expect to see.   This guide is for those who want to develop their observing skills beyond mere sightseei...

  6. Predictive value of casual ECG-based resting heart rate compared with resting heart rate obtained from Holter recording

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carlson, Nicholas; Dixen, Ulrik; Marott, Jacob L

    2014-01-01

    HRs recorded and mean HR calculated from all daytime HRs. Follow-up was recorded from public registers. Outcome measure was hazard rate for the combined endpoint of cardiovascular mortality, non-fatal heart failure and non-fatal acute myocardial infarction. Comparison of casual RHR, Holter RHR...... rates of 1.02 (p = 0.079) for casual RHR, 1.04 (p = 0.036*) for Holter RHR, and 1.03 (p = 0.093) for mean HR for each 10 beat increment in HR. CONCLUSIONS: In a comparative analysis on the correlation and significance of differing RHR measurement modalities RHR measured by 24-hour Holter recording...... was found to be marginally superior as a predictor of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. The results presented here do not however warrant the abandonment of a tested epidemiological variable....

  7. The dynamics of condom use with regular and casual partners: analysis of the 2006 National Sexual Behavior Survey of Thailand.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aphichat Chamratrithirong

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: This study aims to determine factors associated with levels of condom use among heterosexual Thai males in sex with regular partners and in sex with casual partners. METHODS: The data used in this study are from the national probability sample of the 2006 National Sexual Behavior Study, the third nationally representative cross-sectional survey in Thailand. A subtotal of 2,281 men were analyzed in the study, including young (18-24 and older (25-59 adults who were residents of rural areas of Thailand, non-Bangkok urban areas, and Bangkok. Two outcomes of interest for this analysis are reported condom use in the past 12 months by males in relationships with the most recent regular and casual partners who were not sex workers. Chi-square statistics, bivariate regressions and the proportional odds regression models are used in the analysis. RESULTS: Condom use for men with their regular partner is revealed to be positively related to education, knowledge of condom effectiveness, and pro-condom strategy, and negatively related to non-professional employment, status of registered marriage, and short relationship duration. Condom use with casual partner is positively determined by education, condom knowledge, non-professional occupation, short relationship duration, and lack of history of paid sex. CONCLUSION: The national survey emphasized the importance of risk perceptions and condom motivations variables in explaining condom use among men in Thailand. These factors include not only education and knowledge of condom effectiveness and pro-condom strategy but also types of partners and their relationship context and characteristics. Program intervention to promote condom use in Thailand in this new era of predominant casual sex rather than sex with sex workers has to take into account more dynamic partner-based strategies than in the past history of the epidemics in Thailand.

  8. Does casual sex harm college students' well-being? A longitudinal investigation of the role of motivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vrangalova, Zhana

    2015-05-01

    Engagement in casual sex (or hooking up) is generally feared to have negative well-being consequences; however, empirical evidence is inconclusive, pointing toward potential moderators. Using self-determination theory (SDT), we hypothesized that well-being following hookups would depend on the type and level of motivation for hooking up. A university-wide sample of 528 undergraduates completed online surveys at the beginning (T1) and end (T3) of one academic year. After controlling for demographics, personality traits (i.e., neuroticism and extraversion), prior casual and romantic sex, and T1 well-being, having genital hookups between T1 and T3 for non-autonomous reasons (i.e., due to self-imposed pressures, external contingencies and controls, or complete lack of intentionality) was linked to lower self-esteem, higher depression and anxiety, and more physical symptoms. Autonomous hookup motivation (i.e., emanating from one's self) was not linked to any outcomes. Compared to peers without hookups, those with high non-autonomy in their hookups typically had inferior well-being; this was not true of those with low non-autonomy hookups. Gender differences, implications for SDT and casual sex research, and implications for educational programs and clinical work are discussed.

  9. Problem of probabilistic calculation of the design on linearly and non-linearly deformable basis with casual parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mkrtychev Oleg Vartanovich

    Full Text Available In the article the problem of calculation of a construction basis system in case of earthquake is considered taking into account casual properties of basis soil in various points of the soil body. As a stochastic function in the calculation of linearly deformable basis, the deformation module, which accepts different values in the direction x, y, z, was chosen. In the calculation of the system on non-linearly deformable basis as incidentally distributed sizes the following parameters were accepted: deformation module, shear modulus, specific adhesion, angle of internal friction. The authors of the article offer to consider initial seismic influence in the form of casual stationary process. In order to solve such problems modern software systems are proposed that solve differential equations of motion via direct integration with explicit schemes. The calculation in this case will be held on the synthesized accelerograms. A short review of the task solution of the beam lying on elastic basis, which was received by D.N. Sobolev at casual distribution of pastel coefficient in the direction x, is provided in article. In order to define the objective, D.N. Sobolev gives expressions for a population mean and correlation function of stochastic function. As a result of the task solution population means and dispersions of function of movements and its derivatives were received. The problem formulation considered in the article is more complicated, but at the same time important from a practical standpoint.

  10. Perceived social approval and condom use with casual partners among youth in urban Cameroon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meekers Dominique

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background HIV prevention programs targeting youth often emphasize the role of peers, and assume that youths will model their behavior after their peers'. We challenge this view; we argue that adopting a given behavior requires social approval, and that youths do not necessarily turn to peers for such approval. This study analyzes survey data on youths in urban Cameroon to 1 identify which type of persons youths look to for social approval, and 2 establish how important social approval by these persons is for condom use among youths. Methods We analyzed data from three survey waves (2000, 2002, and 2003 of a reproductive health survey conducted among urban Cameroonian youth (aged 15-24. Only respondents who reported having at least one casual partner in the past year were retained for the analysis. Bivariate analyses and structural equation modeling were used to examine relationships among perceived social approval, attitudes towards condoms and condom use. Results The data show that only 3% of youths named their friends as people whose opinion they valued, while 93% mentioned family members. The perceived approval of condom use by these persons had a significant positive effect on the frequency of condom use among youths. The frequency of condom use was also affected by the respondents' attitudes toward condom use, the range of persons with whom they discussed reproductive health matters, whether they were enrolled in school, socioeconomic status, their self-efficacy, perceived severity of AIDS, risk perception and sexual risk behavior. The perceived social approval of condom use and the respondents' own condom attitudes were correlated. Conclusions Our analysis demonstrates that perceived social approval facilitates the adoption of condom use among urban Cameroonian youth. However, youths tend to value the opinions of family members much more than the opinions of their peers. These results suggest that interventions targeting youths

  11. Earth Girl 2: Learning and Perfecting Tsunami Preparedness with a Casual Strategy Game

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerlow, I.; Taisne, B.; Switzer, A.; Meltzner, A. J.; Hubbard, J.; Sieh, K.

    2014-12-01

    "Earth Girl 2: Preparing for the Tsunami" is an interactive game about making strategic decisions that can directly increase the survival rate in coastal communities during earthquake and tsunami scenarios. Earth Girl is the host and guide in this casual strategy game with social impact, and the player is the protagonist. The game was developed by an interdisciplinary team of scientists and game artists at the Earth Observatory of Singapore. Earth Girl 2 is based on real-life situations, with an emphasis on learning preparedness and survival skills. It was inspired by the kids who live in coastal communities throughout Asia, and by the stories told by survivors of recent tsunamis. The action takes place in four main areas: the Market, the Map, the Toolbox, and two dozen game levels with a variety of evacuation scenarios. The gameplay encourages proactive exploration and discovery of these scenarios, with Earth Girl providing knowledge, tips and feedback throughout the game. The basic game play includes: learning about tsunami hazards by talking to people at the market, choosing tools based on a budget, exploring the site and making strategic decisions, and learning from watching the simulation. The level of success of players in this game depends on their strategic decisions which is somewhat tied to their level of interaction with the virtual community. The game is currently being tested with children in Southeast Asian communities and is scheduled for release in late 2014. The presentation will demonstrate aspects of the game (played on an iPad connected to the projector), and will describe some of the challenges and solutions encountered by the interdisciplinary team.

  12. A Study of Engagement in Active and Passive Roles in Casual Leisure Occupations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne M. Fenech

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: This article explores whether engagement with listening occupations varies depending on the occupational role or the level of sensory stimulation presented to participants with neuropalliative conditions. Method: The study used a multiple case quasi-experimental study involving marginal-participant timesampled observations of engagement of individuals with neuropalliative conditions, with casual leisure occupations using the Individual Child Engagement Record. Data was collected using the Individual Child Engagement Record with 14 participants (who had Barthel scores averaging 7/100. The participants represented a particular sub-group of individuals with profound levels of neurological disability. Results: The time-sampled observations of engagement showed a significant difference between the scores for the control condition, engagement in a potentially active role at a music-making group, and engagement in a passive audience role when listening to an audio recording. Therefore, passively listening to an audio recording appears to be less engaging than the potentially active role offered by the music-making group for participants with neuropalliative conditions. Conclusion: The small sample size and the use of a single observer without video recording backup compromised the reliability of the data while complying with the facility’s POVA policy. Switching on an auditory recording or broadcast, while easy to arrange, may not be sufficiently engaging to prevent boredom and occupational deprivation. Consideration of an individual’s sensory, support, and role preference should be undertaken when designing leisure occupations for individuals with neuropalliative conditions rather than simply switching on an audio recording or broadcast

  13. The Design and Implementation of Campus Carpool System Implemented on the Android System%基于Android的校园拼车系统设计与实现

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙延维; 张红

    2016-01-01

    对于中国的大多数家庭来说,接送孩子上下学是一个麻烦的过程,且上下学时间正是上下班高峰,过多的私家车出行给交通增加不少压力,更不用说,很多上班族家长根本就没有时间去接送孩子.基于Android的校园拼车系统的产生正是为解决这些问题,学生能够通过它放心地坐上司机的车,系统平台上的司机均由学校学生家长或老师担当,并通了严格的实名制认证,保险齐全.系统中的司机团体是由学生家长或老师组成的,这一群体本身就很可靠,且系统的智能手机客户端能够实时定位孩子.系统能够为孩子提供一种智能,安全的上下学环境,保证学生的安全出行,解放家长,减缓交通压力.%For most Chinese families, to shuttle children to learn is a cumbersome process, and school time is rush so that many private cars travel to traffic and increase a lot of pressure, and even worse many office worker parents simply don't have time to pick up their children.The campus carpool system is to solve the previous problem: students can safely sit on the car with drivers from the system platform.They are all parents or teachers from the school and pass the rigorous real name system certification with perfect insurance.The driver groups are composed of students' parents or teachers which are very reliable.What's more, the system's smart phone client can also locate the child in real time.Therefore, the system can provide a smart, safe up and down learning environment, through it, students can safely travel, parents can be liberated, and traffic pressure is alleviated.

  14. Risk Management in the AIDS Scenario: Strategies Adopted by Men Who Have Sex with Men in Casual Partnerships

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Moraes De Luiz

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The focus of this study was on risk management strategies used in the aids scenario. For this purpose the chosen scenario was the sexual practices of men who have sex with other men in casual partnerships. Theoretically, the study was based on the notion of risky life styles in its interface with the health promotion framework. By means of a snowball strategy we located ten men who agreed to be interviewed. These interviews were analyzed using discourse analysis techniques. The results suggest that in all cases information about risk for infection by HIV/STD derived from a diversity of sources were used as repertoires for making sense of risks. The analysis led us to propose that information serves as a safety belt that allows risk taking within a certain margin of safety, even though within a scenario of uncertainty.

  15. An Investigation of Pragmatic Functions and Position of Prevalent Persian Discourse Markers Used in Casual Conversations among Tehrani Speakers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manizheh Alami

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Given that a systematic treatment of Persian Discourse Markers (hereafter DMs is almost absent in modern Persian linguistics and to bridge this gap, the audio-recorded data comprising 14 face to face casual conversations involving two-party and multi-party interactions among family members, acquaintances and close friends are used to shed light on these ‘frequently used’ but ‘frequently unnoticed’ linguistic elements. To document a list of the most common DMs typically used in Tehrani dialect of Persian language and to have a detailed description of their discoursal functions in talk, Brinton’s (1996 binary classification of DMs functions (textual and interpersonal was developed to provide an empirically-supported account of the functions and position of Persian DMs in interaction among Tehrani speakers. The present account of DMs which is basically ‘analytical description’ provides the reader with the knowledge about how Persian DMs operate in actual usage. The findings are built upon a 3105-word corpus including 14 audio-recorded conversations among 50 participants. Altogether 34 tokens of Persian DMs with an overall 254 occurrences were identified among which na/na baba (no/no daddy with the total of 33 (12.84% occurrences were the most frequently used Persian DM in the data which are followed by dige (no English equivalent, aare/ba’ale (yep/yes, yani (I mean, vali (but, haalaa/ alaan (now, bebin/nega kon (look and aslan (by no means/ never.To the author, research on the functions and distributional patterns of Persian DMs will broaden our knowledge of their discoursal behavior in language in general and contribute to the already growing cross-linguistic body of work on DMs. Keywords: Discourse Markers, Persian language, Textual function, Interpersonal function, Casual conversation

  16. A casual alien plant new to Mediterranean Europe: Ceiba speciosa (Malvaceae in the suburban area of Palermo (NW Sicily, Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pasta, Salvatore

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The abiotic and biotic characteristics of the first sites where floss silk tree behaves as a casual alien plant in the Mediterranean Europe are described. The species was probably first planted in botanical gardens of southern France few decades before mid XIX century. It was introduced in Palermo in 1896, a city which appears to match very well its climatic requirements. According to the available information on its biology and ecology in both its original and secondary range, the floss silk tree should not become an invasive alien plant in the Mediterranean. Nevertheless, several gaps need to be filled in order to increase our understanding of future trends of Ceiba speciosa in southern Europe, in particular, the eventual role of pollinators and seed dispersers outside the species’ natural range.Se describen las caracteristicas abióticas y bióticas de los primeros sitios del mediterráneo europeo donde el árbol palo borracho se encuentra creciendo como especie alóctona casual. Con respecto a la historia de su introducción, esta especie fue probablemente plantada en los jardines botánicos del sur de Francia unos pocos decenios antes de la mitad del siglo XIX. En 1896, sin embargo, fue introducida en Palermo, ciudad que parece satisfacer muy bien sus requerimientos climáticos. De acuerdo con la información disponible, tanto dentro como fuera de su área de distribución natural, el palo borracho no debería convertirse en planta invasora en el mediterráneo. Sin embargo, algunos vacíos de información deben ser completados antes de establecer su potencial invasor de una manera definitiva, particularmente, el posible papel de agentes polinizadores y dispersores fuera del área de distribución natural de la especie.

  17. 私家车共乘的发展历程、研究简述及在我国的实施困境%Study on the Development of Carpool and Discussion on the Implementation in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱金; 朱晓峰

    2015-01-01

    The growing number of private cars in China has exerted pressure on urban transportation. Carpool and carsharing have proved to be effective measures to reduce car trips through individual behavior change in western countries, which can be regarded as Pareto Improvement. This paper sorts out the origin, development history and characteristics of carpool and carsharing in Europe and North America. The literature review mainly focuses on the beneifts, the characteristics of people who had participated in and the driving factors. Then we discuss the dififculty of the implementation in China from the view of different cultural concept, legal deifciencies, safety, insurance, etc. At last, some further discussion is summarized toward the end of the artide.%我国私家车数量的大幅增长及其对城市交通构成较大压力的客观现实不容忽视,交通治理从交通设施的大量供给视角转向需求的有效控制非常关键。私家车共乘行为这一微观个体的行为改变可以实现帕累托改进,并带来减少出行里程数等诸多益处,在国外已有较为成熟的发展经验。本文概述了欧洲和北美私家车共乘的缘起、发展历程和特征;对共乘行为带来的收益、参与成员的特征和驱动因素等方面的国内外相关文献进行了简要的梳理;进而从文化观念、法律、安全、保险等角度探讨了共乘行为在我国的实施难度并对我国进一步开展共乘实践进行了相关讨论。

  18. The Use and Interpretation of Sodium Concentrations in Casual (Spot Urine Collections for Population Surveillance and Partitioning of Dietary Iodine Intake Sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joel Conkle

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In 2013, the World Health Organization (WHO called for joint surveillance of population salt and iodine intakes using urinary analysis. 24-h urine collection is considered the gold standard for salt intake assessment, but there is an emerging consensus that casual urine sampling can provide comparable information for population-level surveillance. Our review covers the use of the urinary sodium concentration (UNaC and the urinary iodine concentration (UIC from casual urine samples to estimate salt intakes and to partition the sources of iodine intakes. We reviewed literature on 24-h urinary sodium excretion (UNaE and UNaC and documented the use of UNaC for national salt intake monitoring. We combined information from our review of urinary sodium with evidence on urinary iodine to assess the appropriateness of partitioning methods currently being adapted for cross-sectional survey analyses. At least nine countries are using casual urine collection for surveillance of population salt intakes; all these countries used single samples. Time trend analyses indicate that single UNaC can be used for monitoring changes in mean salt intakes. However; single UNaC suffers the same limitation as single UNaE; i.e., an estimate of the proportion excess salt intake can be biased due to high individual variability. There is evidence, albeit limited, that repeat UNaC sampling has good agreement at the population level with repeat UNaE collections; thus permitting an unbiased estimate of the proportion of excess salt intake. High variability of UIC and UNaC in single urine samples may also bias the estimates of dietary iodine intake sources. Our review concludes that repeated collection, in a sub-sample of individuals, of casual UNaC data would provide an immediate practical approach for routine monitoring of salt intake, because it overcomes the bias in estimates of excess salt intake. Thus we recommend more survey research to expand the evidence-base on

  19. Comparação e correlação entre automedida, medida casual e monitorização ambulatorial da pressão arterial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weimar Kunz Sebba Barroso de Souza

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available FUNDAMENTO: A medida casual da pressão arterial (PA pelos profissionais de saúde está sujeita a uma grande variabilidade, sendo necessário buscar novos métodos que possam superar essa limitação. OBJETIVO: Comparar e avaliar a correlação entre os níveis de PA obtidos por meio da automedida da pressão arterial (AMPA com a medida casual e com a monitorização ambulatorial da pressão arterial (MAPA. MÉTODOS: Avaliamos hipertensos que realizaram as três metodologias de medida da PA com intervalo menor que 30 dias; as médias das pressões foram utilizadas para comparação e correlação. Foram empregados os aparelhos: OMRON 705 CP (medida casual, OMRON HEM 714 (AMPA e SPACELABS 9002 (MAPA. RESULTADOS: Foram avaliados 32 pacientes, 50,09% mulheres, idade média 59,7 (± 11,2 anos, média do IMC 26,04 (± 3,3 kg/m². Valores médios de pressão sistólica (PAS e pressão diastólica (PAD para a AMPA foram de 134 (± 15,71mmHg e 79,32 (± 12,38 mmHg. Na medida casual as médias da PAS e PAD foram, respectivamente, 140,84 (± 16,15mmHg e 85 (± 9,68 mmHg. Os valores médios da MAPA na vigília foram 130,47 (± 13,26 mmHg e 79,84 (± 9,82 mmHg para PAS e PAD, respectivamente. Na análise comparativa, a AMPA apresentou valores semelhantes aos da MAPA (p > 0,05 e diferentes da medida casual (p < 0,05. Na análise de correlação a AMPA foi superior à medida casual, considerando a MAPA como o padrão de referência nas medidas tensionais. CONCLUSÃO: A AMPA apresentou melhor comparação com a MAPA do que a medida casual e também se correlacionou melhor com a aquela, especialmente para a pressão diastólica, devendo ser considerada uma alternativa com baixo custo para o acompanhamento do paciente hipertenso.

  20. Research on current implementation situation and institutional measures of carpool with Harbin as an example%以哈尔滨为例谈顺风车的推行现状与制度化措施

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周晋; 万婷

    2014-01-01

    介绍了顺风车作为一种新型出行方式的研究背景和对于缓解城市交通压力、节能减排的巨大作用,并以哈尔滨为例,对顺风车的推行现状进行分析,探讨了其在组织管理和安全保障方面的漏洞及信任问题,并提出了制度化的措施,最后阐述了顺风车在缓解城市居民出行困难、交通拥堵、城市环境及城市文明建设上的重大意义。%This paper introduces the research background of carpool as a new way of travel and enormous importance to ease the city traffic pres-sure and energy-saving and emission reduction. Taking Harbin as an example,paper analysis the status of implementation,discusses the vulnera-bility from the aspects of organization management,security and trust issues,and puts forward the institutional measures. Finally,paper elabo-rates the significance of easing city resident ride in travel difficulties,traffic jam,city environment and civilization construction.

  1. Design and implementation of intelligent carpooling system based on GPS data visualization%基于GPS数据可视化的智能拼车软件设计与实现

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王子; 周侗; 汪扬; 郝胜轩; 李冬; 张顺龙

    2015-01-01

    To reduce the traffic congestion and pollutant emissions,an intelligent carpooling system based on GPS data was pro-posed.The design and implementation of the aspects including the construction of urban traffic network,the access of GPS infor-mation,the matching method and the visualization of data were mainly discussed.The development of the system was based on the. NET platform and the processing platform.The system was verified to be feasible and practical by an experiment on about 500 routes.%为减缓交通拥挤,降低污染物排放,提出基于GPS数据可视化的拼车系统体系结构,讨论城市交通路网构建、用户路径信息获取、匹配方案查询、空间数据可视化的设计与实现方法。在此基础上,基于。 NET平台开发一套基础软件,基于Processing平台开发拼车信息数据可视化系统。对沈阳市500名真实用户的出行路线进行的分析测试验证了该智能拼车系统的可行性及实用性。

  2. Unprotected Anal Intercourse With Casual Male Partners in Urban Gay, Bisexual, and Other Men Who Have Sex With Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pantalone, David W; Tomassilli, Julia C; Starks, Tyrel J; Golub, Sarit A; Parsons, Jeffrey T

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. We investigated trends in, and predictors of, unprotected anal intercourse (UAI) with casual male partners of gay, bisexual, and other men who have sex with men (GBMSM). Methods. We analyzed data from cross-sectional intercept surveys conducted annually (2003-2008) at 2 large lesbian, gay, and bisexual community events in New York City. Survey data covered GBMSM's highest-risk behaviors for HIV acquisition (HIV-negative or unknown status GBMSM, any UAI) and transmission (HIV-positive GBMSM, any serodiscordant unprotected UAI). Results. Across years, 32.3% to 51.5% of the HIV-negative or unknown status men endorsed any UAI, and 36.9% to 52.9% of the HIV-positive men endorsed serodiscordant UAI. We observed a few statistically significant fluctuations in engagement in high-risk behavior. However, these do not appear to constitute meaningful trends. Similarly, in some years, one or another demographic predictor of UAI was significant. Across years, however, no reliable pattern emerged. Conclusions. A significant proportion of urban GBMSM engage in high-risk sex, regardless of serostatus. No consistent demographic predictors emerged, implying a need for broad-based interventions that target all GBMSM.

  3. Catering for large numbers of tourists: the McDonaldization of casual dining in Kruger National Park

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferreira Sanette L.A.

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Since 2002 Kruger National Park (KNP has subjected to a commercialisation strategy. Regarding income generation, SANParks (1 sees KNP as the goose that lays the golden eggs. As part of SANParks’ commercialisation strategy and in response to providing services that are efficient, predictable and calculable for a large number of tourists, SANParks has allowed well-known branded restaurants to be established in certain rest camps in KNP. This innovation has raised a range of different concerns and opinions among the public. This paper investigates the what and the where of casual dining experiences in KNP; describes how the catering services have evolved over the last 70 years; and evaluates current visitor perceptions of the introduction of franchised restaurants in the park. The main research instrument was a questionnaire survey. Survey findings confirmed that restaurant managers, park managers and visitors recognise franchised restaurants as positive contributors to the unique KNP experience. Park managers appraised the franchised restaurants as mechanisms for funding conservation.

  4. Comparison and Analysis of Two Washing Methods for Knitted Casual Wear%两种针织休闲服水洗方法的比较分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄淑华; 黄淼玲; 张晓星; 林宏

    2015-01-01

    The dimension variance rate of the same knitted casual wear is different when washed by two differ-ent washing methods (5A, imitation hand washing) under the standard FZ/T 73020—2012, thereby influences the judgment on fabric’ washing dimensional stability. This paper studies this issue. It selected twenty models knitted casual wear with common organizational structure, tested the washing dimensional stability using 5A or imitation hand washing respectively, and analyzed the effects of the two washing methods. It selected five different models of knitted casual wear to wash by imitation hand, tested the washing dimensional change and analyzed the impact of washing times. The results show that three cycles of imitation hand washing to knitted casual wear can be treated as the maximum washing dimensional change which is closer to the actual requirements of consumers , and we need to indicate its washing method to decide the dimension variance rate of knitted casual wear when referring to FZ/T 73020—2012.%同一针织休闲服分别参照FZ/T 73020—2012中的两种洗涤方法(5A、仿手洗)进行洗涤时测得的水洗尺寸变化率有差异,从而影响织物水洗尺寸稳定性的判定,文中针对这一问题进行研究。选取20款常见组织结构的针织休闲服,分别在5A、仿手洗的方法下测试其水洗尺寸变化率,用以分析水洗方法的影响;选取5款组织结构不同的针织休闲服,在仿手洗的方法下测试其水洗尺寸变化率,用以分析洗涤次数的影响。结果表明:采用三次循环仿手洗方法洗涤针织休闲服后所得结果作为织物的最大水洗尺寸变化率,更接近消费者实际使用的要求;在判定适用于FZ/T 73020—2012的服装水洗尺寸变化率时需要标明其洗涤方法。

  5. The Causality of Casualness in the Translations of World Poetry: Jorie Graham vs Mary Oliver in Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola Loreto

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The essay explores the impact of poetry translation on the circulation of the works of American poets in Italy. The research is conducted by means of a double approach: in the first place, the aesthetic and cultural value of the poetry of two American women poets (Jorie Graham and Mary Oliver is assessed, whose work has received a radically different reception. Secondly, the reasons for this disparity of treatment are sought in the interrelation between the practices and activity of poetry translation and of publication, as they are customarily led in Italy. These are inferred from sample interviews with professionals in both fields. The results of the investigation highlight a combination of the casual and the causal, the causing factor being the occasional encounter of a poet with a translator, who then chooses his/her author, texts, and translating strategies according to his/her personal aesthetic, and sometimes ideological, judgment. Il saggio offre un’analisi dell’influenza delle traduzioni sulla circolazione della poesia americana contemporanea in Italia. La ricerca si articola in due momenti: in primo luogo viene fornita una valutazione estetica e culturale dell’opera di due poetesse americane, Jorie Graham e Mary Oliver, la cui ricezione in Italia è particolarmente significativa perché sta conoscendo fortune opposte; in secondo luogo viene condotta un’indagine dei motivi di questa disparità di trattamento nell’interazione tra le pratiche di traduzione e le dinamiche di pubblicazione in atto in Italia. Queste sono state dedotte da alcune interviste campione con professionisti dei due campi. I risultati hanno evidenziato una combinazione di fattori casuali e causali, nella quale l’incontro personale e a volte fortuito tra un poeta e un traduttore mette in moto strategie di selezione e di traduzione motivate da ragioni estetiche e a volte ideologiche. 

  6. A cross-sectional study of associations between casual partner, friend discrimination, social support and anxiety symptoms among Chinese transgender women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xiaoshi; Wang, Lie; Gu, Yuan; Song, Wei; Hao, Chun; Zhou, Jinling; Zhang, Qun; Zhao, Qun

    2016-10-01

    Anxiety symptoms are the prevalent mental disorders for transgender women. However, only a few studies are available pertaining to this problem among Chinese Transgender women. Chinese Transgender women are a vulnerable population which is exposed to discrimination and loss of social support due to their gender identity and transition. This study was conducted to estimate the prevalence and factors associated with anxiety symptoms among Chinese transgender women. A cross-sectional study was performed by convenience sampling. This comprised of 209 Chinese transgender women in Shenyang, China. The Zung Self-Rating Anxiety Scale (SAS) was used to assess anxiety symptoms for these transgender women. Hierarchical multiple regression analysis was performed to explore the associated factors of SAS. The prevalence of anxiety symptoms in Chinese transgender women was found to be 34.5%. Regression analyses indicated that SAS was associated with casual partnership, friend discrimination and social support in the final model. Sexual partnership and discrimination contributed the most to the model, R-square, accounting for 19.2% and 15.5% of the total variance respectively. Chinese transgender women showed considerably high level of anxiety symptoms. It was also found that they were exposed to significant transition challenges, such as high risk sexual partnership, excessive discrimination and a reduction in social support. Furthermore, anxiety symptoms was best predicted by the absence or presence of a casual partner, friend discrimination and social support rather than the disclosure of their gender identity, knowledge of HIV prevention and health service. Improvement of social support, reduction of friend discrimination and determination of the characteristics of risky sexual partnerships especially for the casual partner can help to attenuate anxiety symptoms and increase mental well-being for transgender women.

  7. On the Design and Implementation of the Terminal Intelligentized Taxi-carpool System%基于智能终端的出租车拼车系统的设计与实现

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    门瑞; 郭涛; 曹建英

    2015-01-01

    设计构建一个基于智能终端的出租车拼车系统,该系统能够及时准确地获取乘客的当前位置、终点位置及随行人数;自动为发布出行信息的乘客检索系统中能够与其拼车的用户,并直接发送拼车请求到被检索方;乘客与乘客之间的联系解决了目前较为严重的出租车司机强制拼车问题。出租车司机可浏览系统中乘客和其他出租车的分布情况,实时掌握系统动态。从而为乘客及出租车司机等相关人群搭建一个信息交流平台,实现各方利益最大化,且能减少能源消耗,改善城市大气污染,具有积极的社会效益和经济效益。%This study aims at working the design and establishing a taxi carpool system that based on the intelli-gent terminal.This system not only gets accurate information about the passenger’s current position,target posi-tion and the number of the entourage ,but also retrieves other passengers who are likely taking a taxi with him au-tomatically and set messages to these persons directly.The driver of the taxi can look up the distribution of the passengers and other taxi driver and determine the traveling route .This system makes an information platform for passengers and taxi drivers,who can get profit maximization,reduce energy consumption and pollution.It can make positive social effect and economic effect .

  8. Casual sex and concurrent sexual partnerships among young people from an Yi community with a high prevalence of HIV in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yi Yang; Rong-Sheng Luan; Peng Liu; Chun-Lin Wu; Ying Zhou; Wen Chen

    2012-01-01

    Liangshan Prefecture in Sichuan province,China,has a high prevalence of HIV infection,which is reflective of a change in the mode of transmission from injection drug use (IDU) to heterosexual intercourse.However,few studies focus on HIV-related heterosexual risk behaviours among the majority Yi population.The objectives of this study were to explore the characteristics of an egocentric sexual network and estimate the prevalence of casual sexual behaviour.Yi villagers (n=108),aged 15-35 years,who reported having had sex within the previous year were interviewed as to their sexual behaviours and networks.In-depth interviews and focus group discussions provided supplementary information on sexual norms.Logistic regression analysis was used to calculate unadjusted odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs).Most of the respondents reported having had casual sex at some time in their life,and 66.7%reported multiple sexual partnerships.Only 21.3% reported ever having used a condom.During the study year,a total of 137 partners were involved in 153 sexual partnerships.Among the reported sexual partnerships,67.3% originated from a casual sexual relationship.For network members in components of size ≥ 3,56.9% were involved in concurrent sexual partnerships.Having never been married (OR:2.11; 95% CI:1.03-4.33).and younger age (OR:0.89; 95% CI:0.83-0.95) were both associated with being in a component of size ≥ 3.Size (OR:2.99; 95% CI:1.17-7.66),pair (OR:0.54; 95% CI:0.39-0.74),the number of weakcomponents of the egocentric sexual network (OR:30.04; 95% CI:6.47-139.46) and gender (OR:0.19; 95% CI:0.06-0.67) were all associated with being in concurrent sexual partnerships.HIV-related interventions for the-Yi ethnic minority in Sichuan province must therefore address concurrent sexual partnerships and promote condom use.

  9. Determinantes precoces da glicemia casual em adultos da coorte de nascimentos de 1982, Pelotas, RS Determinantes precoces de la glicemia casual en adultos de la cohorte de nacimientos de 1982, Pelotas, Sur de Brasil Early determinants of random blood glucose among adults of the 1982 birth cohort, Pelotas, Southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernardo L Horta

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar o efeito de variáveis socioeconômicas, peso ao nascer, duração da amamentação e mudança de renda sobre a glicemia ao acaso em jovens adultos. MÉTODOS: Estudo sobre coorte de nascidos em 1982, quando os 5.914 nascimentos hospitalares ocorridos na cidade de Pelotas foram identificados e as mães entrevistadas. As crianças, cujas famílias residiam na área urbana da cidade, foram acompanhadas diversas vezes. Em 2004-5, 4.927 indivíduos da coorte foram entrevistados e 3.730 tiveram sangue da polpa digital coletado para medida da glicemia casual. Foi avaliada a associação entre glicemia casual e cor da pele, renda familiar ao nascer, escolaridade materna, mudança de renda entre 1982 e 2004-5, peso ao nascer e duração da amamentação. RESULTADOS: A média da glicemia foi de 97,3±15,1mg/dL, sendo maior entre os homens. Nenhuma das variáveis estudadas esteve associada com a glicemia dos homens. Entre as mulheres, a escolaridade materna, a renda familiar aos 23 anos e o peso ao nascimento estiveram inversamente associados com a glicemia. Contudo, o efeito do peso ao nascer perdeu a significância estatística na análise multivariável. CONCLUSÕES: O peso ao nascer e a duração da amamentação não apresentaram efeito em longo prazo sobre a glicemia casual, apenas a escolaridade materna e a renda atual estiveram associados com a glicemia casual nas mulheres.OBJETIVO: Evaluar el efecto de variables socioeconómicas, peso al nacer, duración del amamantamiento y cambio de renta sobre la glicemia al azar en jóvenes adultos. MÉTODOS: Estudio sobre cohorte de nacidos en 1982, cuando los 5.914 nacimientos hospitalares ocurridos en la ciudad de Pelotas fueron identificados y las madres entrevistadas. Los niños, cuyas familiar residían en el área urbana de la ciudad, fueron acompañadas diversas veces. En 2004-5, 4.927 individuos de la cohorte fueron entrevistados y 3.730 tuvieron sangre de la pulpa digital colectada

  10. Invasive, naturalized and casual alien plants in southern Africa: a sum­mary based on the Southern African Plant Invaders Atlas (SAPIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Henderson

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The primary objective of this publication is to provide an overview of the species identity, invasion status, geographical extent, and abundance of alien plants in South Africa, Swaziland and Lesotho, based on field records from 1979 to the end of 2000. The dataset is all the species records for the study area in the Southern African Plant Invaders Atlas (SAPIA database during this time period. A total of 548 naturalized and casual alien plant species were catalogued and invasion was recorded almost throughout the study area. Most invasion, in terms of both species numbers and total species abundance, was recorded along the southern, southwestern and eastern coastal belts and in the adjacent interior. This area includes the whole of the Fynbos and Forest Biomes, and the moister eastern parts of the Grassland and Savanna Biomes. This study reinforces previous studies that the Fynbos Biome is the most extensively invaded vegetation type in South Africa but it also shows that parts of Savanna and Grassland are as heavily invaded as parts of the Fynbos. The Fabaceae is prominent in all biomes and Acacia with 17 listed species, accounts for a very large proportion of all invasion. Acacia mearmii was by far the most prominent invasive species in the study area, followed by A. saligna, Lantana camara, A. cyclops, Opuntia ficus-indica. Solarium mauritianum, Populus alba/xcanescens, Melia azedarach, A. dealbata and species of Prosopis.

  11. On the Rationality and Casual Criticism in Poetry Commentaries in Song Dynasty%论宋代诗话的“闲评”特色与理性精神

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢珊珊; 邓乔彬

    2012-01-01

    Casual commentaries and casual criticism are a prevalent mode of literary criticism at the turn from Tang Dynasty to Song Dynasty. Casual critieism developed into poetry commentaries whose contents centered around poem appreciation, and e- volved into a mode of literary criticism that was characterized by random writings, with Liuyi Poetry Commentaries as its representative. Poetry commentary places criticism into appreciation, and by emphasizing on historical research on and critical examination of the text, it explores the poetic principles in commenting on dictions and exerts a profound influence on the ancient Chinese literary criticism.%“闲话”、“闲评”是盛行于唐末宋初的文化批评方式。“闲评”催生了以诗歌品评为主要内容的“诗话”,开创了以《六一诗话》为代表的随笔感悟式批评模式。诗话重考据、尚辨析的理性精神,寓批评于鉴赏、在摘句品评中发掘诗法理论的模式对中国古代文学批评影响深远。

  12. Concept,feature and practical logic:local study on casual sex%概念、特征与实践逻辑:偶遇性性行为的本土化研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘中一

    2015-01-01

    The casual sex is the sexual behavior,in a particular social context,based on sexual attraction and interpersonal contact.The essential characteristic of the casual sex includes three aspects.First,it is happed in situation of situationality;second,it is interpersonal interaction.Third,the expected development is uncertainty. Meanwhile,the practical logic of casual sex makes the process of random acts accompanied by significantly higher in the health and social risks.%偶遇性性行为就是在特定社会情境中,以人际互动为基础,基于激情或性的吸引而发生的短暂性接触行为。偶遇性性行为具有行动的情境性、人际关系的互动性以及发展预期的不确定性等三个方面的本质特征。同时,偶遇性性行为特有的实践逻辑,也使得偶遇性性行为在过程中伴随着较高的健康和社会风险。

  13. 四川省凉山州某县彝族村民偶遇性行为调查%Analysis of an Investigation of Casual Sexual Behaviors among Yi Ethnic Villagers in One County in Liangshan of Sichuan Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨义; 吴春霖; 刘鹏; 周颖; 陈文; 罗清国; 徐强; 栾荣生

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To find out the current situations and influential factors of casual sexual behavior among young people from Yi ethnic group.Methods: A questionnaire about HIV/AIDS related attitudes and behaviors was used to investigate 108 Yi ethnic villagers at the age between 15 and 35 years, in-depth interview was used for 6 men and 6 women, and informal interview was used for 4 key informants.Re sults: Corresponding.50.0%, 39.8%, and 31 .5% thought that people around them hold consent attitudes toward premarital sexual behavior, extramarital sexual behavior before and after cohabiting. People with multiple sexual relationships accumulatively and within last one year were 66.7% and 22.2%.82.4% of the respondents had had casual sexual behavior.Logistic regression results showed that male, younger respondents who thought that people around them hold consent attitudes toward extramarital sexual behavior before cohabiting, were easy to have casual sexual behaviors.When going to township and attending someone's wedding, villagers were easy to have casual sexual behaviors.47.7% of the respondents had ever heard about condom, among who 54.9% never used and no one used every time when having sex.Conclusions: Having casual sexual behaviors is common, and it is urgent to promote condom use among Yi ethnic villagers.%目的:了解彝族村民偶遇性行为现状.方法:对108名15-35岁彝族村民进行了性态度和行为问卷调查,完成了12名村民的个别深入访谈和4名重要知情人士访谈.结果:认为周围人对婚前性行为、对落夫家前、后婚外性行为持"可以"态度的调查对象分别占50.O%、39.8%和31.5%.累积和最近1年有多性伴者分别占66.7%和22.2%.82.4%的调查对象发生过偶遇性行为.Logistic回归分析发现:男性初次性行为年龄小、"剧围的人对(落夫家前)婚外性行为"持开放态度者更容易发生偶遇性行为.赶场和参加婚礼最容易发生偶遇性行为.47.7%的

  14. 我国城市职业女性休闲体育运动发展--社会性别视域下趋势探析%Casual Sports Development of China's Urban Career Women---Trend Analysis from Social Gender View

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐爱萍

    2015-01-01

    满足女性多元化的体育需求,发展休闲体育运动是其中重要一环。依据从自身限制、人际限制、结构限制三个方面研究而得出的社会性别视域下的休闲理论,从休闲体育现状、内容、研究等方面分析了我国城市职业女性休闲体育运动发展中存在的问题。为树立女性休闲体育新理念、倡导节俭合理的女性体育消费观念、促进人与自然的和谐、开展生态文明教育活动四个方面的城市女性休闲运动的发展提供理论依据。%To develop casual sports is a good way to meet women's diverse sports needs. From social gender view, the casual theories are adopted by the author founded on studies on their own constriction, interpersonal constrain and structural constrain. This paper analyzes some issues of casual sports of China's professional women from the present status, sports contents and research, and it also provides a theoretical basis for the development of women casual sports from the four aspects such as building new women casual sports concept, advocating economical women consumption concept, promoting harmony between humans and nature, and carrying out the ecological civilization education.

  15. Estudo de validação das equações de Tanaka e de Kawasaki para estimar a excreção diária de sódio através da coleta da urina casual

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Geraldo Mill

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available RESUMO: Objetivo: Validar as fórmulas de Tanaka e Kawasaki para cálculo do consumo de sal pela relação sódio/creatinina na urina casual. Métodos: Foram estudados 272 adultos (20 - 69 anos, 52,6% de mulheres com coleta urinária de 24 h e duas coletas casuais no mesmo dia (em jejum - casual 1 - e fora do jejum - casual 2. Antropometria, pressão arterial e coleta de sangue foram obtidos no mesmo dia. A concordância entre o consumo de sal estimado pela urina de 24 h e pela urina casual foi feita por Pearson (r e Bland & Altman. Resultados: O consumo médio de sal medido pela urina de 24 h foi de 10,4 ± 5,3 g/dia. A correlação entre a excreção de sódio na urina de 24 h e a estimada pela urina casual 1 ou 2, respectivamente, foi apenas moderada, tanto por Tanaka (r = 0,51 e r = 0,55; p < 0,001 como por Kawasaki (r = 0,52 e r = 0,54; p < 0,001. Observa-se subestimação crescente dos valores estimados em relação ao medido com o aumento do consumo de sal pela fórmula de Tanaka e, ao contrário, superestimação ao usar a fórmula de Kawasaki. As fórmulas estimam adequadamente o consumo diário de sal (diferença entre sal medido e estimado de, no máximo, 1 g/dia somente com consumo entre 9 - 12 g/dia (Tanaka e 12 - 18 g/dia (Kawasaki. Conclusão: A coleta de urina casual estima adequadamente o consumo de sal apenas nos indivíduos próximos à média populacional.

  16. From Casual Stargazer to Amateur Astronomer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eagle, Dave

    The word amateur stems from the French word Amour, meaning "Lover Of". And there is a whole army of amateur astronomers around the world who just love doing astronomy. They don't get paid for the privilege of experiencing the sky in all its glory, but by making detailed observations they do make a very important contribution towards the Science. These observations are especially useful when organized as a collective effort. Citizen science has really taken off in the last few years and the GAIA project will soon be producing so much data, that the professionals just will not have enough manpower to tackle all the data. They will rely on amateurs sitting on their computers at home. But it is under a dark sky that astronomy really comes alive. The fact that you have picked up this book, must mean that you are interested in taking the hobby a step forward.

  17. Atmospheric Effects on Customers' Behavior in the Casual Restaurant: An Empirical Study Based on Extended Mehrabian-Russell Model%基于M—R模型的休闲餐厅环境对顾客行为影响的实证研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    熊伟; 宋锐

    2011-01-01

    As one kind of the most popular dining styles, the new-fashioned Casual Dining attracts tons of customers by its environment and atmosphere. Moreover, M-R model reveals the structure of "Stimulus-Organism-Response" which can effectively explain how the atmo- spherics leads to the behaviors. The main purpose of this study is to examine the measurement system of the Casual Restaurants consumption environment from the perspectives of customers and the role of Casual Restaurants' consumption environment on customers' emotional responses and behaviors, Data were collected using a questionnaire survey and were analyzed via SPSS 16.0.The findings are showed as followings: The restaurants environment comprises totally 19 factors into 5 dimensions consisting of visual stimulus, auditory stimulus, intangibles, servers, congestion degree and other customers. Restaurants environment affects both customers' advent behavior and positive emotion significantly. Emotional response also influences customers' advent behavior obviously. Emotional response plays as the mediate between restaurants environment and advent behavior. Finally, some suggestions for follow-up research are put forward.%休闲餐饮作为一种新型餐饮形式备受消费者青睐,其环境和氛围正是其最大的吸引点。而M-R模型提出的“刺激物-有机体-反应”的结构能有效解释物理环境对个体行为如何造成影响。本文以休闲餐厅环境为研究对象,通过问誊调查获取第一手资料,采用SPSS统计软件的多种分析功能,探索基于顾客视角的餐厅环境构成要素和评价体系,并借用M—R模型深入研究餐厅环境对顾客情绪反应和行为反应的影响机理。结果显示:休闲餐厅环境要素评价体系由19个评价指标,共计五大因素构成,即视觉刺激要素、听觉刺激要素、无形要素、服务性要素以及空间和周围顾客要素;休闲餐厅环境显著影响顾客趋

  18. The Cultural Connotation of "Singing of Filial Piety" and "Casual Monologue" in Buyi Funerals%布依族葬礼中“唱孝”与“闲白”的民族文化意涵

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄斌

    2011-01-01

    布依族葬礼中"唱孝"与"闲白"具有丰富的民族文化意涵,"唱孝"的民族文化意涵为:一是对传统文化的形象概括与有效传承;二是祖先崇拜与图腾崇拜的完美再现;三是对未来美好生活的无限向往。而闲白则表示:对神灵的敬畏与期盼、对祖先的崇拜与赞美、对巫鬼的膜拜与祈求。祖先崇拜、巫鬼崇拜、自然崇拜构成了布依族原始崇拜的主要表现形式,民歌与白话充当了这种文化传承的有效载体。随着文化的融合和主流文化的扩展,文化的多元发展已成为历史发展的必然。%There are rich national cultural connotations in the "singing of filial piety" and "casual monologue" in Buyi Funerals.The connotations in singing filial piety are shown in three aspects: firstly,it is a vivid generalization and effective heritage to the traditional culture.Secondly,it is a perfect reappearance of worship to their ancestors and Totem.Thirdly,it shows their great longing for a bright future.At the same time,the connotations of casual monologue also include three points: the awe and anticipation to God,the worship and praise to their ancestors,and the prostrate worship and invocation to witchcrafts and ghosts.Worship to their ancestors,to witchcrafts and ghosts,and to nature constitute the main forms of Buyi's primitive worships,while its folk songs and colloquial language serve as an effective carrier of this culture.With the blends among cultures and the expanding of mainstream cultures,the pluralistic development of the culture has become the necessity of historical development.

  19. 大学生对休闲服装赠品促销的购买偏好研究——基于联合分析方法%Students' Preferences of Promotional Gifts on the Purchase of Casual Clothing: Based on the Joint Analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨雅莉; 朱秀丽; 田巍

    2011-01-01

    探讨赠品促销对大学生购买休闲服装的偏好以提高企业的营销绩效.运用联合分析方法,确定大学生对影响休闲服装购买的各属性和属性水平的偏好程度;并用聚类分析法,将大学生的购买风格进行分类,可将其分别命名为精神享受型、综合权衡型、节约支出型、质量至上型,以此提出差异性营销建议.%The paper is discussing college students' buying gifts promotion for leisure garments preferences in order to improve enterprise's marketing performance.Joint analysis is used to determine the various preference on attributes and attribute levels at casual clothing gift promotion; Students purchase style is divided into four categories by using cluster analysis named as the spirit of enjoyment, integrated balance, expenditure-based, quality first typ and related marketing proposals are put forward.

  20. Neighborhood Carpool Practice:A Case Study on Community Carpool%邻里合乘——社区拼车常态化的探索

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汤黎明; 刘其华

    2010-01-01

    为了促进邻里合乘社区拼车模式不断完善以及有效推广实践、实现社区拼车常态化发展,在分析我国拼车发展现状与困境的基础上,探讨了邻里合乘社区拼车的创新理念,包括社区组织、法律支持、签订协议、社会参与四个方面.针对存在的拼车协议缺陷、拼车对象受限难推广的局限,提出邻里合乘的发展建议:扩大活动影响,寻求政策支持,从根本上突破法律等制度的困境;建立由政府支持的社区拼车试点计划,逐步将社区拼车模式推广,最终实现社区全民拼车的常态化.

  1. Adiaspiromicose pulmonar: achado casual em paciente falecido de febre amarela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moraes Mário A.P.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Durante um surto de febre amarela (forma rural da infecção instalado, em fins de 1999, no Estado de Goiás, Brasil, um enfermo, com sintomatologia suspeita, faleceu no Hospital Universitário de Brasília, DF, cinco dias após a admissão. À necropsia, microscopicamente, além das alterações hepáticas características da infecção, encontraram-se nos pulmões e linfonodos hilares, estruturas arredondadas, reconhecidas como adiaconídios de Emmonsia parva var. crescens.

  2. Osteoporosis in adult with Marfan syndrome: casuality or causality?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. D’Amore

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Nearly 100 years ago, Antoine Marfan first described a recurrent systemic disorder of connective tissue characterized by overgrowth of the long bones (1. It took an additional 50 years before ocular and cardiovascular manifestations were associated with this disorder, now termed Marfan syndrome (MFS. MFS is an inherited connective tissue disorder transmitted as an autosomal dominant trait. This relatively common genetic condition affects approximately 2 to 3 per 10,000 individuals, without a particular gender, racial, geographic, or ethnic predilection (2. The disorder results from mutations in the fibrillin-1 (FBN1 gene located on chromosome 15q21.1(3. Approximately 15% of cases occur in the absence of a family history, representing new mutations; infact to date, over 550 mutations have been identified in patients with MFS and related connective tissue diseases. However, about a half of MFS cases do not possess mutations in the FBN1 gene...

  3. Nature's wrath or human casualness! Whose fault is it anyway?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sukhminder Jit Singh Bajwa

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Roadside accidents have increased tremendously in the last decade resulting in increased morbidity and mortality both in the developing and developed nations.[1] However, there can be instances where accident happens on the road without any vehicular involvement. The present communication intends to convey one very important incident which throws numerous questions to the administrators, general public, and traffi c policy makers.Read more......

  4. Rheumatic and autoimmune thyroid disorders: a causal or casual relationship?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourji, Khalil; Gatto, Mariele; Cozzi, Franco; Doria, Andrea; Punzi, Leonardo

    2015-01-01

    A number of dysfunctions may affect the thyroid gland leading either to hyper- or hypothyroidism which are mediated by autoimmune mechanisms. Thyroid abnormalities may represent an isolated alteration or they may be the harbinger of forthcoming disorders as is the case of well-characterized polyendocrine syndromes. Also, they may precede or follow the appearance of rheumatic manifestations in patients affected with connective tissue diseases or rheumatoid arthritis. The mechanisms by which autoimmune thyroid disorders may be linked to systemic autoimmune diseases have not been fully unraveled yet, however alterations of common pathways are suggested by shared genetic variants affecting autoantigen presentation and regulation of the immune response. On the other hand, the higher prevalence of autoimmune thyroid disorders over rheumatic diseases compels the chance of a mere causal concomitancy in the same patient. The aim of our paper is to provide an overview of available data on thyroid involvement in different rheumatic diseases and to go over the main rheumatic manifestations in the context of autoimmune thyroid diseases.

  5. Periodontitis and insulin resistance: casual or causal relationship?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurav, Abhijit N

    2012-12-01

    Insulin resistance (IR) is now considered as a chronic and low level inflammatory condition. It is closely related to altered glucose tolerance, hypertriglyceridemia, abdominal obesity, and coronary heart disease. IR is accompanied by the increase in the levels of inflammatory cytokines like interleukin-1 and 6, tumor necrosis factor-α. These inflammatory cytokines also play a crucial part in pathogenesis and progression of insulin resistance. Periodontitis is the commonest of oral diseases, affecting tooth investing tissues. Pro-inflammatory cytokines are released in the disease process of periodontitis. Periodontitis can be attributed with exacerbation of IR. Data in the literature supports a "two way relationship" between diabetes and periodontitis. Periodontitis is asymptomatic in the initial stages of disease process and it often escapes diagnosis. This review presents the blurred nexus between periodontitis and IR, underlining the pathophysiology of the insidious link. The knowledge of the association between periodontitis and IR can be valuable in planning effectual treatment modalities for subjects with altered glucose homeostasis and diabetics. Presently, the studies supporting this association are miniscule. Further studies are mandatory to substantiate the role of periodontitis in the deterioration of IR.

  6. Periodontitis and Insulin Resistance: Casual or Causal Relationship?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abhijit N. Gurav

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Insulin resistance (IR is now considered as a chronic and low level inflammatory condition. It is closely related to altered glucose tolerance, hypertriglyceridemia, abdominal obesity, and coronary heart disease. IR is accompanied by the increase in the levels of inflammatory cytokines like interleukin-1 and 6, tumor necrosis factor-α. These inflammatory cytokines also play a crucial part in pathogenesis and progression of insulin resistance. Periodontitis is the commonest of oral diseases, affecting tooth investing tissues. Pro-inflammatory cytokines are released in the disease process of periodontitis. Periodontitis can be attributed with exacerbation of IR. Data in the literature supports a "two way relationship" between diabetes and periodontitis. Periodontitis is asymptomatic in the initial stages of disease process and it often escapes diagnosis. This review presents the blurred nexus between periodontitis and IR, underlining the pathophysiology of the insidious link. The knowledge of the association between periodontitis and IR can be valuable in planning effectual treatment modalities for subjects with altered glucose homeostasis and diabetics. Presently, the studies supporting this association are miniscule. Further studies are mandatory to substantiate the role of periodontitis in the deterioration of IR.

  7. The Casual Nexus of Banking Sector Development and Poverty Reduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gazi Salah Uddin

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper aims to investigate the inter-temporal causal relationship between banking sector development and poverty reduction in Bangladesh from 1976 to 2010. We have applied new methods using modern time series econometrics techniques based on simulations that are robust to the violation of statistical assumptions, especially when the sample size is small, as is the case in this paper. The results reveal that there is a long-term equilibrium relationship between banking sector development and poverty reduction in the case of Bangladesh. Surprisingly, poverty reduction appears to be a long-term forcing variable to the explanation of Bangladesh’s banking sector development. There is bidirectional causality between these variables. The diagnostic tests show that the underlying desirable assumptions are fulfilled. Time series data on poverty in many developing countries, particularly in Bangladesh, is scant and inadequate. The empirical results of this study will help policy makers determine whether poverty reduction in Bangladesh is a spur to financial sector development. This implies that, in the long term, Bangladeshi policy makers can influence the reduction of poverty through financial sector development. Although several attempts have been made to investigate the relationship between financial development and growth, this paper is the first of its kind to empirically examine the causal relationship between poverty and the development of the banking sector in Bangladesh.

  8. Resolving Ambiguity in Familiar and Unfamiliar Casual Speech

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuinman, Annelie; Mitterer, Holger; Cutler, Anne

    2012-01-01

    In British English, the phrase "Canada aided" can sound like "Canada raided" if the speaker links the two vowels at the word boundary with an intrusive /r/. There are subtle phonetic differences between an onset /r/ and an intrusive /r/, however. With cross-modal priming and eye-tracking, we examine how native British English listeners and…

  9. Allergy and Venous Thromboembolism: A Casual or Causative Association.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lippi, Giuseppe; Favaloro, Emmanuel J

    2016-02-01

    Allergic diseases are very frequent conditions worldwide. The pathogenesis of allergic reactions and venous thromboembolism (VTE) shares several risk factors and predisposing conditions. In particular, the concentration of immunoglobulin E (IgE) is considerably increased in patients with allergic diseases, and this immunoglobulin exert many prothrombotic and antifibrinolytic activities, especially through interaction with mast cells. Therefore, this narrative review is aimed to provide an overview of the current scientific evidence supporting a potential relationship between allergy and the risk of VTE. Although no prospective studies have been published so far, the evidence provided by six large cross-sectional studies and several case reports support the existence of an unquestionable epidemiological association between different allergic diseases (especially atopy, asthma, and celiac disease) and venous thrombosis. Two additional investigations reported that the concentration of IgE might predict the onset of severe complications of pulmonary embolism such as pulmonary infarction and pleural fluid accumulation. Therefore, the existence of a convincing epidemiologic link between allergy and VTE paves the way to future investigations aimed to establish whether the prevention or treatment of allergic diseases might be regarded as an effective measure to lower the risk of VTE.

  10. Resolving ambiguity in familiar and unfamiliar casual speech

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tuinman, A.E.; Mitterer, H.A.; Cutler, A.

    2012-01-01

    In British English, the phrase Canada aided can sound like Canada raided if the speaker links the two vowels at the word boundary with an intrusive /r/. There are subtle phonetic differences between an onset /r/ and an intrusive /r/, however. With cross-modal priming and eye-tracking, we examine how

  11. Periodontitis and Insulin Resistance: Casual or Causal Relationship?

    OpenAIRE

    Gurav,Abhijit N.

    2012-01-01

    Insulin resistance (IR) is now considered as a chronic and low level inflammatory condition. It is closely related to altered glucose tolerance, hypertriglyceridemia, abdominal obesity, and coronary heart disease. IR is accompanied by the increase in the levels of inflammatory cytokines like interleukin-1 and 6, tumor necrosis factor-α. These inflammatory cytokines also play a crucial part in pathogenesis and progression of insulin resistance. Periodontitis is the commonest of oral diseases, ...

  12. VocVille - A Casual Social Game for Learning Vocabulary

    OpenAIRE

    Jensen, Michel

    2012-01-01

    The document introduces VocVille, a causal online game for learning vocabularies. This application is created for the author's diploma thesis of his career as a Computervisualist (computer vision) for the University of Koblenz-Landau, which he terminated as an exchange student at the University of Cádiz, in which he developed this diploma thesis.

  13. Leonardo Da Vinci, the genius and the monsters. Casual encounters?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciseri, Lorenzo Montemagno

    2014-01-01

    This article analyses Leonardo's interest in monsters and deformed reality, one of the lesser known aspects of his vast and multifaceted output. With the possible exception of his studies of physiognomy, relevant drawings, sketches and short stories represent a marginal aspect of his work, but they are nevertheless significant for historians of teratology. The purpose of this study is to provide a broad overview of the relationship between Leonardo and both the literature on mythological monsters and the reports on monstrous births that he either read about or witnessed personally. While aspects of his appreciation and attention to beauty and the pursuit of perfection and good proportions are the elements most emphasised in Leonardo's work, other no less interesting aspects related to deformity have been considered of marginal importance. My analysis will demonstrate that Leonardo approached the realm of monstrosity as if he considered abnormality a mirror of normality, deformity a mirror of harmony, and disease a mirror of health, as if to emphasise that, ultimately, it is the monster that gives the world the gift of normality. Two special cases of monstrosity are analysed: the famous monster of Ravenna, whose image was found among his papers, and a very rare case of parasitic conjoined twins (thoracopagus parasiticus) portrayed for the first time alive, probably in Florence, by Leonardo himself.

  14. Professional Characteristics Communicated by Formal versus Casual Workplace Attire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardon, Peter W.; Okoro, Ephraim A.

    2009-01-01

    Employees are frequently advised to dress for success to build their careers. From the corporate perspective, employees who are well dressed are believed to form better impressions with colleagues, clients, and customers. Many companies create dress codes in order to gain the benefits of a professionally appearing workforce. Developing effective…

  15. Casual sequences preceding coal dust explosions; Ursachenkette einer Kohlenstaubexplosion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cichowski, E. [Schlesische Technische Univ., Gleiwitz (Poland); Faber, M. [Bergbau-Versuchsstrecke, DMT Gas and Fire Division, Bochum (Germany)

    2002-12-01

    The paper examines the causal sequence which precedes a possible coaldust explosion in the Polish coal industry. Each occurrence is prefaced by a sequence of necessary causes. Here it is assumed that the component parts of the required causal sequence are always present when the undesired final occurrence takes place. An identification of the causality of the coal-dust explosion often complicates this process, such that both the initiation and the consequences of the explosion can be linked to various changes in the parameters associated with the working environment. The essential aspect of the accident hazard and of the ensuing risk to the winning operation results from the causality factor, which is dependent on various safety deficiencies. The safety deficiencies presented can be due to parameters associated with the working environment or to human actions. (orig.) [German] Im vorliegenden Beitrag wird die Ursachenkette betrachtet, die einer moeglichen Kohlenstaubexplosion im polnischen Steinkohlenbergbau vorausgeht. Jeder Folge geht eine Kette notwendiger Ursachen voraus. Dabei wird angenommen, dass Bestandteile der notwendigen Ursachenkette immer auftreten, wenn die unerwuenschte Endfolge geschieht. Die Identifizierung der Kausalitaet der Kohlenstaubexplosion kompliziert oft diesen Vorgang, so dass sowohl das Initiieren als auch die Folgen der Kohlenstaubexplosion mit verschiedenen Aenderungen der Arbeitsumweltparameter verknuepft sein koennen. Das Wesentliche der Unfallgefaehrdung und des auftretenden Risikos der Gewinnung resultiert aus der Kausalitaet, die unterschiedliche Sicherheitsdefizite bedingen. Die angefuehrten Sicherheitsdefizite koennen seitens der Arbeitsumweltparameter sowie seitens menschlicher Einfluesse auftreten. (orig.)

  16. Final Environmental Assessment: Replacement Joint Force Headquarters Building, Hanscom Air Force Base Massachusetts

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-22

    transit and bicycle); establish preferential parking for carpool /vanpool participants; start a carpool program and establish a database to identify/target...offer MassRIDES Emergency Ride Home Program for carpool /rideshare participants; sponsor promotional activities and establish a TDM coordinator, would be...transportation alternatives (ridesharing, transit and bicycle); establish preferential parking for carpool /vanpool participants; start a carpool program and

  17. Why is carpooling illegal%"拼车"何来非法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    @@ 合法"拼车"并不难 有关部门列举"拼车"的困难非常可笑,认为机场、车站等客流量大的场所都有多条公交线路,乘客可以自己选择,不必再配置"拼车"服务.还认为,"拼车"会造成混乱,有时没有同一方向的乘客,有时却多得无法满足.

  18. "拼车"何以要被处罚?%Why Carpooling should be Penalized

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈燕锋

    2009-01-01

    @@ 近期,网站上报道了了几个因"拼车"而被处罚的案例,其中有上海的、杭州的、长沙的、广州的,而客运主管部门的处罚理由就是私家车是非营运性质的车辆,"拼车"收取了费用,就是"营利",所以就要处罚.

  19. Analysis on profitability of carpool%卡普的经营性质

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    雷孟林

    2008-01-01

    准确界定卡普的经营性质,有利于加强道路运输管理,有利于汽车工业的可持续发展.从道路运输法的基本理论入手,运用定量分析和逻辑分析方法,对卡普的经营性质进行全面、深入分析.分析结果认为:绝大多数卡普为非经营性运输行为,不是非法经营行为;对卡普的划一化管理不符合现行法律规范;道路运输管理机构应加强对卡普的分类管理.

  20. 拼车的发展及其效应%The Evolution and Effects of Carpooling

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王茂福

    2010-01-01

    作者较全面地呈现了国内外拼车的发展状况,比较性地分析了中外拼车的8个方面:拼车的合法化、拼车的组织体系、政府和民间对拼车的态度、对拼车的官方奖惩措施、互联网在拼车过程中的作用、对拼车的约束规范、拼车的类型及发展趋势,探讨了拼车出行所具有的积极效应:拼车人省钱,增进居民沟通,有助缓解交通拥堵,减少碳气体排放.

  1. Study on the problems brought by carpool%卡普若干问题研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    雷孟林

    2007-01-01

    对卡普的种类及其性质进行了分析,认为卡普是汽车共享的一种,"非合意拼的"不是卡普,法律应予禁止;经营性卡普在法律上具有适当性,政府应予鼓励.最后,对如何正确发展卡普提出了相应的措施.

  2. The prevalence of musculoskeletal diseases among casual dock workers Prevalecía de enfermedades musculoesqueléticos entre trabajadores portuarios apulsos Prevalência de doenças musculoesqueléticas entre trabalhadores portuários avulsos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marlise Capa Verde de Almeida

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available This study identified the prevalence of work-related musculoskeletal disorders among casual dockworkers. This is a retrospective and quantitative study, the data sources of which included the medical files of dockworkers from 2000 to 2009. Data were collected in a medical service for dockworkers using a previously developed form; descriptive quantitative analysis was performed. Ethical aspects were complied with. A total of 15.8% of the diagnoses identified among male workers referred to musculoskeletal disorders. Individuals older than 52 years of age and with more than 21 years working in the field predominated. The most frequent musculoskeletal diseases included low back pain (38.8%, tendinitis (19.7%, and neck pain (12.5%. These diseases can be prevented through health interventions, confirming the importance of developing clinical support in nursing in order to improve the quality of life of dockworkers.Este estudio tuvo como objetivo identificar la prevalecía de enfermedades osteomusculares relacionadas al trabajo entre trabajadores portuarios sin registro. Estudio cuantitativo, retrospectivo. La fuente de datos las tablas de atención medica de los trabajadores portuarios sin registro en el período de 2000 a 2009. La colecta de datos fue realizada en un Servicio de Medicina del Trabajo Portuario a partir de un formulario predeterminado. Se procedió en el análisis cuantitativo descriptivo de los datos. Los aspectos éticos fueran respetados. Se identificó 15,8% diagnósticos de enfermedades osteomusculares, entre trabajadores del sexo masculino. Predominaran individuos con más de 52 años de edad y con tiempo de actuación laboral superior a 21 años. Las principales enfermedades fueran de lumbalgia (38,8%, tendinitis (19,7% y cervicalgía (12,5%. Las enfermedades osteomusculares mas prevalentes fueran las lumbalgías, tendinitis y cervicalgías, las cuales pueden prevenirse por medio de acciones interventoras y evaluativas en salud

  3. 78 FR 19745 - Privacy Act of 1974; Privacy Act System of Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-02

    ... established an internal system of records pertaining to carpool, parking, and other aspects of employee... submitted for parking permits, carpool and vanpool membership, ridesharing information, and fare...

  4. 26 CFR 1.6045-1 - Returns of information of brokers and barter exchanges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... organization. Example 3. A, B, and C belong to a carpool in which they commute to and from work. Every third day, each member of the carpool provides transportation for the other two members. Because the carpool... carpool is not a barter exchange within the meaning of paragraph (a)(4). Example 4. X is an...

  5. Floyd Algorithm Based Carpool Information Service System%基于Floyd算法拼车信息服务系统

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄文团; 高萍; 沈张果

    2011-01-01

    近年来随着城市化建设和汽车工业的迅速发展,城市道路通行与交通需求之间的矛质日益凸显,基于Floyd算法拼车信息检索服务系统的出现为城市发展的交通需求提供了可行性的解决方案.

  6. 邻里合乘的社区拼车实践%Neighborhood Carpool Practice in a Community

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王超; 刘其华; 饶晋玲; 宋友芬

    2010-01-01

    针对城市交通日益拥堵、私人小汽车乘坐率低等问题,武汉市常青花园社区推出"邻里合乘"公益拼车活动.对拼车活动的运行、实施等情况进行阐述.在总结以往拼车过程中面临法律、政策等众多限制的经验基础上,活动组织管理采取了多种保障措施,如制定发放倡议书、设立合乘点、管理参与合乘的车主及乘客信息、签订承诺书、制作车贴和号召社会参与等,并制定了后续的实施方案.最后,评析了社区拼车实践的重要意义.

  7. Thoughts about Carpooling Legalization in China%我国"拼车"合法化的法律思考

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丁洁蓉

    2009-01-01

    "拼车"现象在全国悄然升温.但现有法律的模糊性一直让"拼车"处于一种尴尬的境地.拼车是一种合理但不合法的新事物,在目前的法律法规下,还很难对拼车的合法性给予界定,拼车者的权益更是难以,得到相关的法律保障.文章就"拼车"合法化的可行性进行了分析,并结合部分国家对"拼车"行为的相关规定,提出了在我国实行"拼车"合法化的法律保障和司法建议.

  8. 有关汽车合乘问题的研究%Research on Issue of Carpooling

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑丽娟

    2010-01-01

    城市道路上汽车低使用率问题和大城市汽车合乘现象的出现反映了汽车合乘存在和发展的必然性.从国内外合乘现状出发,在论述合乘含义的基础上,对合乘的类型划分、合乘途径、合乘实施的利弊以及合乘的实施保障等问题进行相关探讨,对于汽车合乘的后续研究有着重要意义.

  9. 对"顺风车"予以规制的探究%Research on Regulation of the Carpool

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张春普; 姜传明

    2008-01-01

    "顺风车"的出现和发展,给社会带来了相当大的利益,但是在其发展过程中也不可避免的存在一定问题.从"顺风车"出现的现实背景看,存在其合理性的法理基础,从行政规制的角度出发,应探究具体的规制措施,包括登记备案制度的建立、专门车道的设立、征税制度以及对网络等科技平台的管理,以期使"顺风车"健康发展.

  10. Quantum Computing: Selected Internet Resources for Librarians, Researchers, and the Casually Curious

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cirasella, Jill

    2009-01-01

    This article presents an annotated selection of the most important and informative Internet resources for learning about quantum computing, finding quantum computing literature, and tracking quantum computing news. All of the quantum computing resources described in this article are freely available, English-language web sites that fall into one…

  11. Estimating 24-hour urinary sodium excretion from casual urinary sodium concentrations in Western populations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brown, Ian J; Dyer, Alan R; Chan, Queenie

    2013-01-01

    High intakes of dietary sodium are associated with elevated blood pressure levels and an increased risk of cardiovascular disease. National and international guidelines recommend reduced sodium intake in the general population, which necessitates population-wide surveillance. We assessed...

  12. Casual dating online: sexual norms and practices on French heterosexual dating sites

    OpenAIRE

    Bergström, Marie

    2011-01-01

    "Während über das Internet vermittelte gelegentliche Treffen zwischen homosexuellen Männern bereits ein etablierter Forschungsgegenstand in den Sozialwissenschaften sind, ist die Forschung zu heterosexuellem Online-Dating größtenteils auf die Suche nach romantischen Langzeitbeziehungen fokussiert. Der vorliegende Artikel will damit beginnen, diese Forschungslücke zu füllen, indem er den möglichen neuen sexuellen Bereich untersucht, der durch heterosexuelle Online-Dating-Plattformen entsteht. ...

  13. Hepatitis A outbreak among MSM linked to casual sex and gay saunas in Copenhagen, Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mazick, A; Howitz, Michael Frantz; Rex, S

    2005-01-01

    During an outbreak of hepatitis A predominantly among men who have sex with men (MSM) in Copenhagen, Denmark, in 2004, we did a case-control study to determine risk factors for infection. A case was an MSM >17 years, living in Copenhagen, with IgM positive hepatitis A infection diagnosed between ...

  14. Social spaces, casual interactions, meaningful exchanges: 'information ground' characteristics based on the college student experience.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.E. Fisher

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. In the late 1990s Fisher (writing as Pettigrew proposed information grounds to describe social settings in which people share everyday information while attending to a focal activity. Method. This study was conducted at a major research university, home to 45,000 students. Data were collected by seventy-two Master of Library and Information Science (MLIS students as part of an information behaviour class. Trained in interviewing techniques, each MLIS student interviewed ten students in public places, including the campus and the university commercial district. The survey, comprising twenty-seven primarily open-ended questions, was conducted from October 14-21, 2004. Data were collected from 729 college students and entered, along with extensive field notes, into an in-house Web form. Analysis. Qualitative and quantitative analyses were supplemented by mini-reports prepared by the student researchers along with full-team debriefings. Results. Using a 'people, place, information-related trichotomy', characteristics are discussed in terms of how they can be manipulated to optimize information flow in social settings. Conclusion. . By understanding better the characteristics of information grounds and the interactions among these characteristics, we may be able to develop social spaces in support of information flow and human interaction. Our college student and other studies suggest that information grounds play an intrinsic role in facilitating communication among people and that by building an in-depth typology, beginning with basic categorical characteristics, we may develop new methods for facilitating information exchange.

  15. Movement Disorders in a Twins Pair: A Casual Expression or Genetic Determination?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gennaro, Leonarda; Russo, Luigi; Losito, Luciana; Zaccaria, Alessia; De Rinaldis, Marta; Trabacca, Antonio

    2010-01-01

    A twin study is an excellent means of assessing the contribution of heritability to motor behaviour. We present a movement video-analysis of a monozygotic twins pair with a motor repertoire which is almost totally constituted by persistent and subcontinuous motor stereotypies. Purpose: The specific aim of this study is to verify the heritable…

  16. The role of feedback, casual attributions, and self-efficacy in goal revision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolli, Adam P; Schmidt, Aaron M

    2008-05-01

    An important issue in work motivation is how, when, and why individuals revise their goals up or down over time. In the current study, the authors examine feedback, causal attributions, and self-efficacy in this process. Although self-efficacy has frequently been suggested as a key explanatory variable for goal revision, its role has yet to be directly evaluated. Additionally, although attributions have been shown to influence goal revision following failure, the extent to which attributions influence goal revision following success remains unclear. In the current study, the authors address these issues by experimentally manipulating goal progress via performance feedback and tracking the resulting changes in self-efficacy and goal revision over time. In so doing, the authors also address several interpretive ambiguities present in the existing research. Results support the hypothesized model, finding that performance feedback and attributions interactively influenced self-efficacy, which in turn influenced goal revision. These results suggest that interventions targeting attributions, and self-efficacy more directly, may have meaningful influences on goal setting and pursuit, particularly following feedback.

  17. Eosinophilic pleural effusion and giardiasis: A causal or a casual relationship?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Urvinderpal; Garg, Nishi; Chopra, Vishal

    2013-01-01

    A case of bilateral eosinophilic pleural effusion with coincidental intestinal infestation of giardia lamblia is being reported. After reviewing the possible causes of this type of pleural effusion, no clinical or laboratory data were obtained which could explain this condition except giardiasis. Moreover the clearance of pleural effusion with the treatment of giardia with metronidazole suggests giardia as the probable cause of bilateral eosinophilic pleural effusion.

  18. Reactive Oxygen Species and Aging in Caenorhabditis elegans: Causal or Casual Relationship?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Raamsdonk, Jeremy Michael; Hekimi, Siegfried

    2010-12-15

    The free radical theory of aging proposes a causal relationship between reactive oxygen species (ROS) and aging. While it is clear that oxidative damage increases with age, its role in the aging process is uncertain. Testing the free radical theory of aging requires experimentally manipulating ROS production or detoxification and examining the resulting effects on lifespan. In this review, we examine the relationship between ROS and aging in the genetic model organism Caenorhabditis elegans, summarizing experiments using long-lived mutants, mutants with altered mitochondrial function, mutants with decreased antioxidant defenses, worms treated with antioxidant compounds, and worms exposed to different environmental conditions. While there is frequently a negative correlation between oxidative damage and lifespan, there are many examples in which they are uncoupled. Neither is resistance to oxidative stress sufficient for a long life nor are all long-lived mutants more resistant to oxidative stress. Similarly, sensitivity to oxidative stress does not necessarily shorten lifespan and is in fact compatible with long life. Overall, the data in C. elegans indicate that oxidative damage can be dissociated from aging in experimental situations.

  19. Produsage as a form of self-publication. A qualitative study of casual news produsage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picone, Ike

    2011-04-01

    While Axel Bruns's theory of produsage offers an adequate way of looking at a variety of sites where the production of news content takes the form of collaborative, user-driven production, it seems less suited for the study of productive news use as a user experience, as a way users engage in a more productive way with content. This article gives a first impetus towards the expansion of the theory of produsage to a more user-oriented framework that is fitted to approach produsage as a social practice, rather than as a process of information production. The empirical work presented in this paper concerns the average news user, rather than the expert bloggers and citizen journalists most studies tend to focus on. Through a qualitative, semi-experimental study based on a Living Lab-approach, motivational, situational, and social factors shaping productive news use are identified. Drawing from the findings, conceptual elements as "potential public" and "social reflex" are introduced. Self-publication is proposed as a way to understand how average news users experience productive news use.

  20. Critical Thinking and Political Participation: Development and Assessment of a Casual Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guyton, Edith M.

    1988-01-01

    This study assessed a model of the relationship between critical thinking and political participation. Findings indicated that critical thinking has indirect positive effects on orientations toward political participation, that critical thinking positively affects personal control, political efficacy, and democratic attitude, and that personal…

  1. Between casual commitment and cross-media articulation – the faith of the Napkin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bødker, Susanne; Petersen, Anja Bechmann

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents an analysis of the Napkin, a collaborative technology designed to support news reporters in their struggle to handle the integrated production of news stories to multiple media platforms. The Napkin was abandoned while we studied it, and this raised the questions of what...... was wrong with the Napkin, and why did it fail? The Napkin suffered many of the problems known to CSCW: It laced reciprocity of visibility and commitment between reporters and editors; it did not give sufficient overview of media processes and products, in particular it was impossible to motivate stories...

  2. Between casual commitment and cross-media articulation – the faith of the Napkin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bødker, Susanne; Petersen, Anja Bechmann

    2010-01-01

    these platforms. The very recent explosion of blogs and video podcasting are new examples adding to the family of products and ideally, the reporters become storytellers who choose the most suitable media for their story. The reality, however, is far more complicated: The Danish media company Nordjyske Medier...

  3. Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder and the Casual Link to Crime: A Looming National Tragedy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-04-01

    50 Psychoanalytic treatments centered on Freud’s psychoanalytic techniques combined with hypnosis and suggestion in a calm setting “to give a...subconsciously some veterans may really believe what they are saying. w symptoms of PTSD have...PTSD Patient Education - Hypnosis n empirical data which 32 The psychotherapy

  4. School Culture, Basic Psychological Needs, Intrinsic Motivation and Academic Achievement: Testing a Casual Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahim Badri

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Culture is s common system of believes, values and artifacts that the members of a society use it in their relations, and it transfers from one generation to another. The school culture is a system of norms, meanings and values between school members. One of STD (self-determination theory components is basic psychological needs that emphasizes on Relatedness, Competence and Autonomy to accomplish the motivation. Motivation involves the processes that energize, direct, and sustain behavior. It seems that school culture, basic psychological needs and motivation has immense effect on academic achievement. The purpose of the present research was to examine the relation between students' perceived school culture, basic psychological needs, intrinsic motivation and academic achievement in a causal model. 296 high school students (159 females and 137 males in Tabriz, north - west of Iran, participated in this research and completed the students' perceived school culture questionnaire based on Hofstede's cultural dimensions (femininity, uncertainty avoidance, collectivism and power distance, basic psychological needs and intrinsic motivation. The results of the path analysis showed that fulfillment of basic psychological needs and intrinsic motivation has positive effect on academic achievement. Uncertainty avoidance and power distance have also negative effect on fulfillment of psychological needs, but the influence of femininity on this variable was positive. Also, collectivism has no significant effect on it. In general, the findings showed that if school culture supports students' autonomy, they will experience fulfillment of their basic psychological needs, and attain higher intrinsic motivation and academic achievement.

  5. Developing a Learning Progression for Energy and Casual Reasoning in Socio-Ecological Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Hui

    2010-01-01

    Global warming is one of the most serious environmental challenges we are facing today. Two science topics are important for students to understand how and why people's everyday energy consumption activities contribute to global warming. These two topics are: carbon-transforming processes and energy. They have been recognized as core content…

  6. Italian Fashion X American Casual Style——Launches Spring Summer 2009 Collection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    @@ Beijing.20th March,2009 - THINK PINK announces the launch of the Spring/Summer 2009 collection which features a new Maritime theme.The collection draws inspirations from the delightful lifestyle of the East Coast to enrich the brand's original Italian designs with American flair.

  7. Quantum Computing: Selected Internet Resources for Librarians, Researchers, and the Casually Curious

    OpenAIRE

    Cirasella, Jill

    2009-01-01

    This article is an annotated selection of the most important and informative Internet resources for learning about quantum computing, finding quantum computing literature, and tracking quantum computing news.

  8. Identification of Economic Value Drivers Impacting Operational Cash Flows in the Casual Theme Restaurant Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Chung, Yea Sun

    2005-01-01

    The importance of environmental analysis in the strategic management process and the effects of economic value drivers on firm or industry performance have been discussed conceptually and empirically by researchers in corporate failure, and in the areas of finance, accounting, strategic management, and the hospitality industry in the past. The belief is that the more systematic and frequent the scanning performed by managers the higher the chances of improving the firmâ s or industryâ s per...

  9. Casual Salud: Interrupción Legal del Embarazo, Ética y Derechos Humanos

    OpenAIRE

    2008-01-01

    La causal salud es uno de los supuestos de permisión legal para la interrupción del embarazo consagrados en la mayoría de los países de América Latina y el Caribe. Esta causal se refiere a la posibilidad de la interrupción del embarazo cuando éste pone en riesgo la salud de la mujer. Sin embargo, su aplicación práctica ha estado acompañada de un conjunto de obstáculos que ha provocado que muchas mujeres no accedan a servicios seguros y oportunos de interrupción del embarazo, pese a que estos ...

  10. In vitro Evaluation of New Acetylcholinesterase Reactivators as Casual Antidotes against Tabun and Cyclosarin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuca, Kamil; Jun, Daniel; Jung, Young Sik [Faculty of Military Health Sciences, Trebesska (Cyprus); Kim, Tae Hyuk; Cabal, Jiri [Korea Research Institute of Chemical Technology, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2006-03-15

    Nerve agents (sarin, tabun, soman and VX) are class of military important substances able to cause many severe intoxications during few minutes. Currently, the threat of misuse of these agents is daily discussed. Unfortunately, there is no single antidote able to treat intoxication caused by all of these agents. Owing to this fact, new generation of antidotes, especially acetylcholinesterase (AChE: EC 3.1.1.7) reactivators, is still developed. In this study, we have tested four newly developed AChE reactivators: 1-(4-hydroxyiminomethylpyridinium)- 5-(4-carbamoylpyridinium)-3-oxa-pentane dibromide (1), 1-(3-hydroxyiminomethylpyridinium)- 5-(4-carbamoylpyridinium)-3-oxa-pentane dibromide (2), 1,5-bis(2-hydroxyiminomethylpyridinium)- 3-oxa-pentane dichloride (3) and 1,5-bis(4-hydroxyiminomethylpyridinium)-3-oxa-pentane dibromide (4) for their potency to reactivate in vitro tabun and cyclosarin-inhibited AChE. Their reactivation efficacy was compared with currently the most promising oxime HI-6 (1-(2-hydroxyiminomethylpyridinium)-3-(4- carbamoylpyridinium)-2-oxa-propane dichloride). According to obtained results, two AChE reactivators 1 and 4 were able to reactivate tabun-inhibited AChE. On the contrary, there was no better AChE reactivator than HI- 6 able to reactivate cyclosarin-inhibited AChE.

  11. Isolated Left Ventricular Noncompaction in a Case of Sotos Syndrome: A Casual or Causal Link?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrizia Saccucci

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A 16-year-old boy affected by Sotos syndrome was referred to our clinic for cardiac evaluation in order to play noncompetitive sport. Physical examination was negative for major cardiac abnormalities and rest electrocardiogram detected only minor repolarization anomalies. Transthoracic echocardiography showed left ventricular wall thickening and apical trabeculations with deep intertrabecular recesses, fulfilling criteria for isolated left ventricular noncompaction (ILVNC. Some sporadic forms of ILVNC are reported to be caused by a mutation on CSX gene, mapping on chromosome 5q35. To our knowledge, this is the first report of a patient affected simultaneously by Sotos syndrome and ILVNC.

  12. Habitual alcohol seeking: modeling the transition from casual drinking to addiction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barker, Jacqueline M; Taylor, Jane R

    2014-01-01

    The transition from goal-directed actions to habitual ethanol seeking models the development of addictive behavior that characterizes alcohol use disorders. The progression to habitual ethanol-seeking behavior occurs more rapidly than for natural rewards, suggesting that ethanol may act on habit circuit to drive the loss of behavioral flexibility. This review will highlight recent research that has focused on the formation and expression of habitual ethanol seeking, and the commonalities and distinctions between ethanol and natural reward-seeking habits, with the goal of highlighting important, understudied research areas that we believe will lead toward the development of novel treatment and prevention strategies for uncontrolled drinking. PMID:25193245

  13. Tumor-Secreted Autocrine Motility Factor (AMF): Casual Role in a Animal Model of Cachexia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-08-01

    Cell Physiol 166:506-511 Tilignac T, Temparis S, Combaret L, Taillandier D, Pouch MN, Cervek M, Cardenas DM, Le Bricon T, Debiton E, Samuels SE...and stimulate nancy (HHM)7. Breast and lung cancer cells that secrete osteoclastic bone resorption indirectly, rather than acting PTHrP in

  14. Droplet-shaped waves: casual finite-support analogs of X-shaped waves

    CERN Document Server

    Utkin, Andrei B

    2011-01-01

    A model of steady-state X-shaped wave generation by a superluminal (supersonic) pointlike source infinitely moving along a straight line is extended to a more realistic causal scenario of a source pulse launched at time zero and propagating rectilinearly at constant superluminal speed. In the case of infinitely short (delta) pulse, the new model yields an analytical solution, corresponding to the propagation-invariant X-shaped wave clipped by a droplet-shaped support, which perpetually expands along the propagation and transversal directions, thus tending the droplet-shaped wave to the X-shaped one.

  15. Emotional Labour and the Permanent Casual Lecturer: Ideas for a Research Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett, Steven

    2004-01-01

    Like most other parts of the Australian public sector, Australian universities have been required to do more with less over the past decade. A key strategy in reducing costs has been the increased casualisation of teaching. This paper uses a hard/soft model of Human Resource Management as a framework within which to argue that increased…

  16. Hemicrania continua-like headache with leprosy: casual or causal association?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prakash, Sanjay; Dholakia, Saumil Y

    2008-07-01

    Hemicrania continua is a strictly unilateral, moderate to severe, continuous, indomethacin-responsive primary headache disorder with ipsilateral autonomic cranial symptoms at the time of exacerbations. We describe a 30-year-old woman with a 4-month history of indomethacin-responsive hemicrania continua-like headache and one-month history of mononeuritis multiplex due to leprosy. Indomethacin was successfully weaned off after completion of antileprotic therapy.

  17. Caring for a Seriously Ill Child

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... members may be able to help handle errands, carpools, and meals. Siblings should continue to attend school ... hobbies, and friendships. Depend on friends. Let them carpool siblings to soccer or theater practice. Let others — ...

  18. 78 FR 59085 - Notice of Final Federal Agency Action on Proposed Highway in California

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-25

    ... 23 U.S.C. 139 (l)(1). The actions relate to a proposed Interstate 5 Bus/Carpool Lanes Project (Post... the following highway project in the State of California. The Interstate 5 Bus/Carpool Lanes Project... accomplished by adding bus/carpool lanes in the median the entire length of the project. The actions by...

  19. Final Environmental Assessment for the Transfer of the Mukilteo Tank Farm Property Snohomish County, Washington

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-01

    carpool , and locating staging areas near work sites. Fugitive dust emissions during construction would be reduced by incorporating measures, in...encouraging construction workers to carpool , and locating staging areas near work sites. Once construction activities are completed, proposed passenger...quality impacts such as watering unpaved surfaces, minimizing roadway congestion, limiting idling equipment, encouraging construction workers to carpool

  20. 23 CFR 656.5 - Eligibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION ENGINEERING AND TRAFFIC OPERATIONS CARPOOL AND... the term carpool includes vanpool. (b) Projects shall not be approved under this regulation if they.... (4) Work necessary to designate existing highway lanes as preferential carpool lanes or bus...

  1. 23 CFR 810.104 - Applicability of other provisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... are reserved exclusively for use by carpool and vanpool passengers and vehicles. (e) As required by... for a physical construction or resurfacing project having a carpool lane(s) within the project limits may not be granted unless the project allows the use of the carpool lane(s) by motorcycles or it...

  2. Final Environmental Assessment: For Joint Base Anacostia-Bolling Master Plan District of Columbia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-30

    Environmental Assessment pg. 62 Table 8: Travel Mode Splits 1853 1854 Travel Type Percentage Single-Occupant Vehicle 75% Carpool and Vanpool...place. Service provided on two routes. 4) Ridesharing ( Carpools and Vanpools) Agency subsidizes vanpools. Informal carpools encouraged. No

  3. 23 CFR 656.7 - Determination of an exception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... CARPOOL AND VANPOOL PROJECTS § 656.7 Determination of an exception. (a) The FHWA has determined under... on: (1) The nature of carpool projects to provide a variety of services to the public; (2) the fact that carpool projects are labor intensive and require professional and specialized technical skills;...

  4. 关于小客车合乘出行的研究%Research on Carpool Travel of Small Passenger Cars

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    文婧

    2015-01-01

    文章结合我国近几年来小客车合乘的发展历程,从小客车合乘涉嫌非法营运、合乘过程中存在的安全风险、权责认定困难三个方面分析了目前小客车合乘亟待解决的问题,并提出相应建议,为制定小客车合乘政策提供参考.

  5. 成都市拼车可行性分析及对策研究%Feasibility and Countermeasures of Carpooling in Chengdu City

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙耿杰; 袁振洲

    2014-01-01

    为缓解成都市道路交通拥堵,保证交通安全,对成都市拼车行为可行性进行研究.对拼车概念、国内外现状及措施进行介绍.对500位市民进行问卷调查,内容涉及市民出行方式分析、拼车需求与收入关系分析、市民拼车经历统计、拼车收费情况分析、拼车信息获取方式分析、拼车认可度及市民拼车出行态度分析等,通过分析,成都市目前有高达61%的公交车出行用户,且中低收入水平的市民中有高达80%的人群愿意拼车,为拼车奠定了群众基础.此外,拼车认可度及市民拼车出行态度分析中,大力支持与鼓励拼车的比例分别高达36%,37%,进一步表明拼车在成都是可行的.对拼车可能带来的问题进行了分析,并且针对问题提出了相应的五项对策.

  6. Carpool Priority Planning Methods in Central Area of Large Cities%大城市合乘优先的规划方法研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王维礼

    2010-01-01

    针对我国大城市及中心区的交通特征,分析合乘优先规划的影响因素;借鉴世界发达国家实施合乘优先的经验,提出合乘优先的规划内容;以上海市中心区为试点,依据规划方法与相关交通调查,提出了上海市中心区合乘优先规划建议.

  7. “有偿网络拼车”的法律规制探研%The Research on Legal Regulation of Network Paid Carpool

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘玉勉

    2016-01-01

    “有偿网络拼车”是互联网服务与人们出行深度融合所形成的一种新型交通运行模式,但对其法律规制存在适法性判定冲突、安全权利保障冲突以及归责原则的选择冲突,冲突的原因在于立法缺失下法律价值选择的矛盾.法律保障每个人在法律边界内的自由与完整,应确定“有偿网络拼车”的合法性,并从规范“有偿网络拼车”定价行为、引入“有偿网络拼车”征信机制、侧重“有偿网络拼车”安全权利保障等方面对其金习性规制.

  8. Problems and Solutions on Carpooling of Private Car%私家车拼车存在的问题及解决方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周桂良; 黄凯; 许琳; 陈雨亭

    2013-01-01

    目前我国城市交通拥挤问题突出,私家车空驶率高,通过私家车拼车可有效缓解交通压力,节省出行费用.鉴于此,介绍国内外私家车拼车现状,通过对比找出我国私家车拼车存在的问题,并提出相应的解决方法和措施.在解决方法中着重介绍了“基于定时、定线路的上下班拼车”的方法,该方法可有效解决上班族的拼车问题.

  9. Exploring the Regulations on Tort Involving Carpool%对与顺风车有关侵权行为规制的探究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张春普; 孟睿

    2008-01-01

    目前,美国、德国、荷兰、瑞士等国家比较流行会员制共享租车“Car Sharing”,即顺风车。国内顺风车发生在熟人之间,陌生人通过上网加入顺风车俱乐部、在小区张贴搭车信息等方式,也能获得顺路搭车的便利。顺风车具有节能、缓解城市交通压力、节约出行成本、增进友谊等多赢的优势,使顺风车现象得以存在与发展起来。与此同时,对出租等运营业的竞争,特别是发生交通事故时,对主体责任的认定和赔偿问题,由于立法的缺失而造成的不确定性,成为当前争议的焦点。

  10. 无偿拼车的外部效应及制度建设%On the external effect and institution construction of non -charge carpooling

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王茂福

    2011-01-01

    无偿拼车出行具有多方面的积极的外部效应:有助缓解交通拥堵,促进城市交通和谐;减少碳气体排放,促进人与环境的和谐;可以促进人际关系的和谐.无偿拼丰的制度化就是要加快无偿拼车立法,使之依法组建无偿拼车协会并建立拼车信息系统.当然,无偿拼车的发展离不开一个社会的集体理性及其拥有的社会资本.

  11. Design and realization of campus carpooling system%面向大学校园的包车系统的设计与实现

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苏艳; 黄志兴; 曾永龙

    2015-01-01

    本文通过细化社会的拼车软件应用场景,着眼大学校园细化市场,提供了校园包车服务功能,打通用户和包车代理的桥梁;结合微信的高使用性,基于微信公众平台的开发模式,将车位信息查询、定位等功能嵌入微信应用,有效提高了包车服务访问的便捷性.

  12. 合乘出行信息检索的路径匹配算法%Path Matching Algorithm for Carpool Information Retrieval

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    翟泳; 杨金梁; 连剑; 樊铭渠

    2007-01-01

    研究合乘出行信息检索算法.低效率的信息交流方式制约了合乘出行方式的发展,针对现有合乘信息检索方式的不足,在区域-区域匹配算法的基础上,引入图的概念,提出了一个基于交通路网的路径匹配算法,并给出了算法复杂度分析.该算法利用交通路网中各结点间的距离关系,可以检索给定起迄点间及起迄点各自邻近结点群之间存在的出行信息,并能根据合乘出行路径特点对检索出的信息进行分析、评价和优选,以方便出行者进行合乘组织.最后用一个仿真实例表明算法的有效性.

  13. Design of Intelligent Carpooling System Based on Mobile Internet%基于移动互联网的智能拼车系统设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    俞立峰

    2015-01-01

    该系统旨在服务于乘客和出租车司机,以解决乘客高峰时段打车难,出租车座位利用率低等问题。系统主要采用C/S结构,客户端主要分为乘客与出租车两个用户角色。后台服务器主要实现定位、智能匹配、路径导航及费用计算等。%The system is designed to serve the passengers and taxi drivers,to solve the peak period passenger difficult to take a taxi,the taxi seat utilization rate is low.The system mainly uses the C/S structure,the client is mainly divided into passenger and taxi two user roles.The background server mainly realizes positioning,intelligent matching,path navigation and cost calculation.

  14. 出租车合乘路径演化博弈分析%Analysis of Evolutionary Game for Taxi Carpooling Route

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张薇; 何瑞春

    2015-01-01

    针对出租车随机合乘绕行路径选择问题,构建了出租车合乘路径选择演化博弈模型,研究了合乘路径的演化稳定策略,并分析了合乘演化稳定策略的影响因素.研究结果表明:合乘路径的选择会出现3种演化稳定策略,稳定策略受到乘客对出行的时间延误的心理系数、绕行距离、绕行支付比例等因素的影响,随着影响因素值的增加,稳定策略逐渐趋向演化为合乘协商失败.为了避免合乘绕行协商失败,必须限制绕行距离、并且给予绕行方一定的补偿.所得结论反映了出租车合乘路径选择演化的相关规律,对政策的制定有一定的指导意义.

  15. The analysis of taxis carpooling based on Nash equilibrium theory%论出租车拼车现象中的纳什均衡

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    付鑫宇

    2012-01-01

    本文结合博弈论中纳什均衡理论,从博弈论的角度研究了出租车司机擅自拼车并对多人收费这一不合理现象中乘客所能采取的策略以及所产生的结果,得出只有有关部门加强监管才是解决此问题有效方法的结论.

  16. 出租车合乘定价多目标优化研究%Research on Taxi Carpooling Pricing Multi-objective Optimization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张薇; 何瑞春; 肖强; 马昌喜

    2015-01-01

    针对出租车合乘系统定价问题,综合考虑多种定价因素,构建了多目标优化模型,设计了基于改进小生境粒子群的出租车合乘定价多目标优化算法,提出了一种合乘定价优化方法,通过实例说明了定价优化方法的应用,并且分析了出租车与乘客供需比对优化结果的影响.研究结果表明,合乘支付比例同时影响司机收入、乘客支付及补贴管理费用,为了均衡各方利益,必须选取适当的支付比例;而且优化结果受到供需比的影响,随着乘客量的增加各目标逐渐优化,当供需比达到饱和时,系统目标达到极值.

  17. 私家车拼车的风险分析与控制%Analysis and Control on Private Carpooling Risk

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周桂良; 黄凯; 毛丽娜; 许琳

    2015-01-01

    城市化进程中,私家车高保有量的背后却是私家车的高空载率,交通资源浪费巨大;私家车拼车是解决交通问题的一种有效途径,但拼车过程同时也存在诸多风险.鉴于此,首先阐述了私家车拼车风险的研究现状,然后对私家车拼车中可能存在的风险进行分析,最后创新性地提出诸多有效的风险控制措施.研究可为中国私家车拼车的安全、快速发展提供理论保障.

  18. Teaching "Casual" and/or "Impolite" Language through Multimedia: The Case of Non-Honorific Panmal Speech Styles in Korean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Lucien

    2013-01-01

    This article reports on the design, implementation and evaluation of an activity used to teach non-honorific speech styles through multimedia to a class of intermediate learners at a university in Europe. Although much emphasis has been placed in Korean language learning and teaching on the importance of honorific styles, my article reveals that…

  19. Portuguese Man-of-War (Physalia physalis) in the Mediterranean: A permanent invasion or a casual appearance?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prieto, L.; Macías, D.; Peliz, A.; Ruiz, J.

    2015-06-01

    In 2010, the Mediterranean basin experienced Portuguese Man-of-War (Physalia physalis) swarms that had dramatic consequences, including the region’s first recorded human fatality attributed to a jellyfish sting. Despite the impact of jellyfish on coastal economic activity and the importance of the tourism industry for the Mediterranean region (accounting for 15% of global tourism), no scientific consensus has been achieved regarding the causes of this episode. Here, we analyse the meteorological and oceanographic conditions of the North-East Atlantic Ocean during the months previous to the appearance of P. physalis in the Mediterranean. We simulate the probable drift of Atlantic populations into the Mediterranean basin with a numerical model and compare model results with available observations. We conclude that the summer 2010 P. Physalis swarm was the result of an unusual combination of meteorological and oceanographic conditions during the previous winter and not a permanent invasion favoured by climatic changes.

  20. Development and Evaluation of New Products for the Far-Forward Care of Combat Casualities With Acute Lung Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-02-01

    Second, swine are available in larger quantities to us than are sheep. Third, the care of anesthetized ruminants over many days becomes difficult...because cessation of rumination and loss of fluids via the mouth cause metabolic acidosis, and because there are no established regimens for enteral...fiber membranes in a gas- liquid environment. AIChE J 48: 635-643, 2002. 14. Park MS, Cancio LC, Batchinsky AI, McCarthy MJ, Jordan BS, Brinkley WW

  1. Sequence-indexed mutant library for fast discovery of casual gene mutations for drought tolerance in sorghum

    Science.gov (United States)

    As the filth largest grain crop in the world, sorghum is well adapted to high temperature, drought, and low fertilizer input conditions. It can also be used as a fodder and bioenergy crop. Given the trend of global warming, depletion of refresh water resources, reduction in arable land due to soil d...

  2. Impairment of diastolic function in adult patients affected by osteogenesis imperfecta clinically asymptomatic for cardiac disease: casuality or causality?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Migliaccio, Silvia; Barbaro, Giuseppe; Fornari, Rachele; Di Lorenzo, Gabriella; Celli, Mauro; Lubrano, Carla; Falcone, Stefania; Fabbrini, Elisa; Greco, Emanuela; Zambrano, Anna; Brama, Marina; Prossomariti, Giancarlo; Marzano, Sara; Marini, Mario; Conti, Francesco; D'Eufemia, Patrizia; Spera, Giovanni

    2009-01-09

    Osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) is a rare inherited connective disorder causing increased bone fragility and low bone mass. OI includes severe bone fragility, impaired dentinogenesis, with less common alterations in the joints, blood vessels, heart valves, skin. Interestingly, description of left ventricular rupture, aortic dissection and heart valves incompetence has been previously described. Death may occur in OI patients for cardiac disease in asyntomatic subjects. Aim of our study has been to evaluate the presence of potential subclinical cardiac disorders and to characterize cardiac functional parameters by echocardiography in adults with OI in absence of cardiac symptoms. Forty patients (21 females and 19 males) affected by type I, III, IV OI and 40 control subjects (20 females and 20 males) were evaluated in the study. Patients and controls underwent clinical examination, screening for endocrine and metabolic disorders, 12-lead electrocardiogram and echocardiogram. In particular, all subjects were evaluated by two-dimensional echocardiography with continuous- and pulse-wave Doppler. Patients and controls belonged to NYHA class I and no significant electrocardiographic alteration was documented in both groups. Thirty-eight patients (95%) showed valvular regurgitation compared to one control subject (2.5%; Prelaxation time (IRT) was increased by 47% (95% CI: 26% to 53%; Pmetabolic alterations. These diastolic echocardiographic parameters might worsen over time, especially if other cardiovascular risk factors (e.g., smoking, hypertension, metabolic and endocrine alterations) are not carefully checked, monitored and treated. In the context of a multidisciplinary evaluation of OI patients, our data suggest that a careful cardiological evaluation of these patients is indicated beside skeletal evaluation and therapeutical skeletal options.

  3. "Smart" Spaces Aren't Just for Classrooms Anymore: Intentional Design Creates Casual Learning Opportunities on Today's Campuses

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Darren L.; Infanzon, Nestor

    2010-01-01

    Each educational environment exhibits a distinct personality that supports and influences the student body. As educational institutions develop new spaces and buildings for university and college campuses nationwide, the need increasingly arises to provide spaces that both help fulfill each school's educational mission and reinforce the vitality…

  4. Faces from the web: automatic selection and composition of media for casual screen consumption and printed artwork

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheatle, Phil; Greig, Darryl; Slatter, David

    2010-02-01

    Web image search engines facilitate the production of image sets in which faces appear. Many people enjoy producing and sharing media collections of this type and generating new images or video experiences. Skilled practitioners produce visually appealing artifacts from such collections but few users have the time or creative ability to do so. The problem is to automatically create an image or ambient experience which sustains interest. A full solution requires agreements with copyright holders and input from graphics designers. We address the underlying technical problems of extraction and composition. We describe an automatic system that identifies regions containing human faces in each image of an image set resulting from a web search. The face regions are composed into dynamically synthesized multilayer graphical backgrounds. The aesthetic aspects of the composition are controlled by active templates. These aspects include face size and positioning but also face identity and number of faces in a group. The output structure is multi layer supporting both the generation of static images and video consisting of transitions between the compositions.

  5. Predicting Causal Relationships from Biological Data: Applying Automated Casual Discovery on Mass Cytometry Data of Human Immune Cells

    KAUST Repository

    Triantafillou, Sofia

    2017-03-31

    Learning the causal relationships that define a molecular system allows us to predict how the system will respond to different interventions. Distinguishing causality from mere association typically requires randomized experiments. Methods for automated causal discovery from limited experiments exist, but have so far rarely been tested in systems biology applications. In this work, we apply state-of-the art causal discovery methods on a large collection of public mass cytometry data sets, measuring intra-cellular signaling proteins of the human immune system and their response to several perturbations. We show how different experimental conditions can be used to facilitate causal discovery, and apply two fundamental methods that produce context-specific causal predictions. Causal predictions were reproducible across independent data sets from two different studies, but often disagree with the KEGG pathway databases. Within this context, we discuss the caveats we need to overcome for automated causal discovery to become a part of the routine data analysis in systems biology.

  6. De un quehacer histórico y casual a un saber que la historia tiende a hacer difuso

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa Durán

    2000-05-01

    Full Text Available En este artículo planteamos la necesidad de transformar en materia de análisis y reflexión la relación que, a propósito de la prodrucción de conocimiento de corte antropológico, se establece entre antropólogos e indígenas en contextos regionales y/o nacionales, particularmente en el país y en la región de La Araucanía. Los autores postulan este ámbito de análisis como respuesta por un lado, a la evolución de la antropología y a laética de los antropólogos, y por otro, a la participación cada vez más amplia y globalizada de los representantes del movimiento indígena del mundo. La antítesis de esta postura radicaría en obras de antropólogos que rompen esta relación postulada a través de una práctica individualizada e individualizadora, al parecer a tono con eventuales cambiosparadigmáticos propuestos en el primer mundo y replicados experimentalmente en nuestro medio.

  7. "The casual cruelty of our prejudices": on Walter Lippmann's theory of stereotype and its "obliteration" in psychology and social science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bottom, William P; Kong, Dejun Tony

    2012-01-01

    Reflecting on his wartime government service, Walter Lippmann (1922) developed a theory of policy formulation and error. Introducing the constructs of stereotype, mental model, blind spots, and the process of manufacturing consent, his theory prescribed interdisciplinary social science as a tool for enhancing policy making in business and government. Lippmann used his influence with the Rockefeller foundations, business leaders, Harvard and the University of Chicago to gain support for this program. Citation analysis of references to "stereotype" and Lippmann reveals the rapid spread of the concept across the social sciences and in public discourse paralleled by obliteration by incorporation of the wider theory in behavioral science. "Stereotype" is increasingly invoked in anthropology, economics, and sociology though Lippmann and his wider theory ceased being cited decades ago. In psychology, citations are increasing but content analysis revealed blind spots and misconceptions about the theory and prescription. Studies of heuristics, biases, and organizational decision substantiate Lippmann's theory of judgment and choice. But his model for social science failed to consider the bounded rationality and blind spots of its practitioners. Policy formulation today is supported by research from narrow disciplinary silos not interdisciplinary science that reflects an awareness of history.

  8. Environmental Impact Statement Addressing Campus Development at Fort George Meade, Maryland

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-01

    preferential parking spaces are assigned to NSA employees who carpool /vanpool (two or more people riding together). The NSA also participates in the...Guaranteed Ride Home Program, administered by the BWI Business Partnership, for employees who carpool , vanpool, use public transportation, or ride a bike to...encourage carpool and vanpool, providing transit subsidies to the employees, extending the Guaranteed Ride Home program to Fort Meade employees, and

  9. Evaluation of Consideration and Incorporation of Green and Sustainable Remediation (GSR) Practices in Army Environmental Remediation. Volume 2. Pilot Project GSR Evaluation Reports

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-27

    trips for personnel Examples: - Encourage carpooling - Use telemetry systems and webcams to remotely transmit data directly to project offices to...much CWM or MEC to dispose of during this phase of the work). o Reducing the number of trips for personnel through carpooling . During the DGM task...represents effective carpooling . o Reducing trip lengths when feasible, such as using clean fill (gravel) from a local quarry and using a local

  10. Sustainability Assessment of a Military Installation: A Template for Developing a Mission Sustainability Framework, Goals, Metrics and Reporting System

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-08-01

    carpooling o Commute distance/time o Access to public transit 3.4 Encroachment threats, joint land use planning, and action plan o Currency of...a System of Reporting Final Report Submitted to SERDP 35 o Electric/hybrid/flex fuel vehicles o Mass transit/ carpooling 5.8 Threatened and...Percentage of commute in carpools , public transit, on foot and on bicycles (i.e., other than personal car) Actual % alternate transport utilization

  11. AAFES Gas Station at Creech Air Force Base Environmental Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-07-01

    Reservation station. Nor was there any mention of carpooling or busing to relieve the costs of the commute. Should the project be carried forward...Indian Springs, as well as the intermediate station at the Snow Mountain Piute (sic) Reservation station. Nor was there any mention of carpooling or...meet the purpose and need for this action. A sizable percentage already arrives at Creech by bus or carpool . The purpose of this action is not

  12. Independent Engineering Assessment of the Army’s Transportation Plan for BRAC Recommendation #133 Project Fort Belvoir - Mark Center, Virginia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-30

    Rideshare ( Carpool /Vanpool/Slug) Trips Peak Hour Shuttle Bus & Truck Trips Total Number of Parking Spaces Percent % Total Number of...Year Employee Trip Modal Split Single Occupant Vehicle (SOV) Trips (Employee + Visitor) Rideshare ( Carpool /Vanpool/Slug) Trips Peak Hour...Transportation Management Plan (TMP) – Benham/SAIC, July 2010 9 90% 5,768 500 SOV – 57% Carpool – 5% Vanpool – 3% Slug – 3% Bus Transit – 5% Walk

  13. Planning Strategies for Transportation Fuel Consumption Reduction: An Evaluation of the Hawaii Clean Energy Initiative’s Transportation Plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-04-01

    Cambridge Systematics 2009). Parking fees can be privately or publicly assessed and have demonstrated an ability to encourage carpooling , therefore...al 2010). Commuting strategies include those that encourage carpools , vanpools, or car- and bike-sharing programs (Cambridge Systematics 2009...From a typical traveler’s point of view, the most likely trip that can be achieved via a carpool or transit is the commute to and from work; as such

  14. Army LEED-Certified Projects, August 2008 - January 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-01

    efficient vehicles and carpool vehicles. Additionally, the project provides secure locations for bicycles as well as showers and changing facilities...walkways, bicycle paths, and preferred parking for both fuel-efficient vehicles and carpools . 59% of the previously developed site has been restored with...for carpool parking which are clearly marked by signs. u.S. Army Engineer District, Los Angeles Architect: RQ Construction, Inc. Civil Engineer

  15. Sea-Based X-Band (SBX) Radar Vessel Maintenance and Repair. Draft Environmental Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-14

    simultaneously. In addition to the staggered work times, the 2000 ROD also committed the Navy to encourage carpools and vanpools and subsidize...the 2000 ROD also committed the Navy to encourage carpools and vanpools and subsidize the use of public transportation by military personnel and...civilian workforce with a goal of increasing mass transit ridership and carpooling . The Navy will also continue to work with City of Coronado and

  16. Escape from the Delta: Preparation and Evacuation for Catastrophic Flooding in California Emergency Management Agency Region 4

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-29

    carpooling becomes clear. The legend notation depicts the number of passengers per vehicle followed by the number of contraflow miles used...and percentage of people reaching 27 Figure 4.1: With no contraflow available to increase the rate that people depart, the importance of carpooling

  17. Environmental Assessment for the Construction and Operation of the Westside Shoppette/Gas Station at Kirtland Air Force Base, Albuquerque, Bernalillo County, New Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-08

    Encourage construction workers to carpool to the site. Operation Because the number of personnel assigned to Kirtland AFB would not be expected to...uate off-street parking or all construction workers to avoid increased congestion near roadsid s, as well as encourage onstruction workers to carpool to

  18. Final Programmatic Environmental Assessment for the 2011-2015 Integrated Natural Resources Management Plan for Vandenberg Air Force Base, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-16

    will be used whenever feasible.  Worker trips will be minimized through carpooling . BIOLOGICAL RESOURCES-1 (BIO-1A). The following measures will be...construction and that will be implemented to adequately facilitate the movement of traffic; and  Project employees will be encouraged to carpool . Chapter 3

  19. 基于定时、定线路的上下班拼车方案设计与实现%Design and Implementation of Commuting Carpooling Based on Fixed Time and Fixed Route

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周桂良; 黄凯; 许琳; 毛丽娜

    2014-01-01

    现阶段我国私家车拼车存在信息不畅、费用不统一、违法犯罪时有发生和法律界定不明确等问题,阻碍了私家车拼车市场的形成与发展;设计了基于定时、定线路的上下班拼车方案,方案依托信息平台实现拼车的信息检索、信息配对、双方互选、双方互评功能,依靠拼车公司确保了拼车过程的安全和费用结算的统一;方案最终在江苏淮安部分区域进行了实际试运行,运行结果表明:该方案促进了私家车拼车市场的规范化,极大地提高了拼车过程的安全性和经济性;本次探索也为我国全面放开私家车拼车提供了实证,具有积极的借鉴意义.

  20. Construction of Carpool-taxi Technology Guarantee System and Implementation of Its Organization%出租车合乘制技术保障体系的构建与合乘组织的实施

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴芳; 傅忠宁; 孙文红

    2009-01-01

    出租车由于价格因素等原因存在着过多空驶和栽客较少的状态,占据了大量的道路资源,加剧了交通拥挤.合乘制的推行将有助于提高人们选择出租车出行的频次,这对于保障出租车司机的收入,减少道路拥堵与交通系统的能源消耗有着重要意义.对出租车合乘制的技术保障体系和组织措施所进行的分析和研究,对于出租车合乘制的推行具有一定的现实意义.

  1. 私家车拼车文献综述及车联网环境下拼车展望%Literature Review on Private Car Pooling and Prospect of Carpooling in the Internet of Vehicles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周桂良; 包天雯; 黄丽君; 陈婉莹; 毛丽娜

    2016-01-01

    私家车高保有量的背后却是私家车的高空载率,交通资源浪费巨大,私家车拼车成为节约交通资源的有效途径.文中在综述了私家车拼车行为影响因素、拼车推广可行性、拼车费用分配、鼓励拼车政策、拼车合法性、拼车系统开发和拼车具体数学模型构建等前期研究资料的基础上,结合智慧城市建设方向,创新性地提出将车联网技术和拼车系统进行融合,解决现有拼车过程中存在的安全性低、实时性差、多源多人合乘难实施和多车辆难协同等问题,实现不确定需求下多车辆实时协同多人动态随机拼车,破题车联网环境下私家车拼车问题,为拼车理论的研究提供了全新的独特视角.

  2. 车辆合乘匹配问题中服务需求分派算法研究%Research on service requirement distribution algorithms in carpooling problems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邵增珍; 王洪国; 刘弘; 孟春华; 张子鹏

    2013-01-01

    在目前交通拥塞及物流成本居高不下的情况下,通过车辆合乘的方式降低车辆空载率、降低物流成本具有重要意义.在多车辆环境下,如何恰当地将服务需求分派到合适的车辆上是需要首先解决的问题.该文对确定性多车辆合乘匹配问题展开研究,提出针对服务需求分派的启发式聚类算法.基于服务需求及车辆特征提出匹配度概念,并基于启发式算法将服务需求分派到具体某一车辆.实际算例验证:该算法在可接受时间范围内,可有效提高搭乘成功率,降低车辆运行成本.

  3. On the Validity of Paid Carpooling of Private Car for Non-profit Purpose%私家车非营利性有偿拼车的合法性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马宁

    2014-01-01

    随着居民生活水平的不断提高,家庭汽车保有量逐年增加,私家车已十分普及,但同时也带来了全国各大中城市交通拥堵问题的加重.私家车非营利性有偿拼车可以很好地缓解交通压力,节约出行成本,还能实现节能减排.借鉴国外私家车拼车支行经验,查找我国私家车拼车无法成行的问题,提出确认“私车有偿拼车”合法性的相关建议,是值得探讨的课题.

  4. 依法治国视域下出租车合乘侵权行为研究%Research on Infringement in Taxi Carpooling from the Perspective of the Rule of Law

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张思

    2016-01-01

    依法治国的核心是依宪治国,国家尊重和保障人权,出租车强行合乘从消费者权益法上是以损害乘客安全保障权、自主选择权、公平交易权为代价增加承运人经济收入的侵权行为,同时也是违反经营者保证消费者人身、财产安全义务的违法行为.出租车客运合同是有偿、诺成、双务合同.承运人和乘客之间达成运输的合意,合同即告成立.城市中运营的出租车通常采用“招手即停,上车即走”的运输方式,而不是采用定时定点的方式,这是与其他公共交通运输不同的显著特征之一.运输过程中是否增加乘客、货物应由乘客提出,不应当由承运人提出,承运人提出合乘的请求从合同法的角度上是变更合同内容.当消费者权益遭受侵害,进行维权时通常找不到与之相应的法律依据获得赔偿,造成出租车合乘侵权纠纷的主要原因是立法层面模糊指引造成的,依法治国的前提是有法可依,从立法的层面进行思考,应当对出租车行业管理规范进行调整,细化出租车行业管理相应法律法规,明确监管部门权责,对违法经营的从业人员进行严厉打击,从而促进对消费者权益的保护和城市出租车行业良性发展.

  5. Heuristic Optimization Algorithms of Multi-Carpooling Problem Based on Two-Stage Clustering%多车辆合乘问题的两阶段聚类启发式优化算法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邵增珍; 王洪国; 刘弘; 宋超超; 孟春华; 于洪玲

    2013-01-01

    车辆合乘问题研究在物流领域和交通领域意义重大,良好的合成策略不仅可以节省物流成本,降低交通拥塞,在减少噪声及提高环境等方面也是很有利的.针对确定性多车辆合乘匹配问题,提出了两阶段聚类的启发式匹配策略:第1阶段聚类过程提出匹配度的概念,用于指导将服务需求分配到某一具体车辆,从而将多车辆问题转化为单车辆问题;第2阶段聚类过程基于“先验聚类”插入思想,可降低单车辆匹配过程的插入试探次数,从而提高算法效率.为提高搭乘成功率并降低运营总成本,通过迁移对第1阶段聚类过程进行调整.实际算例结果表明,算法在可接受时间范围内不仅可提高搭乘成功率,还明显降低车辆的运行成本,表现出较强的实用性.

  6. Practical Analysis & Design of "Carpool" Shared-Taxi Mode%"顺风车"合乘模式相关问题的实用性分析和设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李群峰

    2010-01-01

    在总结分析现有出租车合乘模式的基础上,提出了"顺风车"出租车合乘模式,对其相关问题进行了分析研究,并对其中关键技术问题如补偿系数、费用分摊比例等从实用性角度进行了算法设计,提出了实现该模式的配套设备及其功能.

  7. 基于几何概型的出租车合乘候车时间分析%Study of Waiting Time of Taxi Carpools based on Geometric Probability Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    左忠义; 刘津; 汪磊

    2015-01-01

    出租车合乘平均候车时间是合乘效益评价的主要参数,随着合乘的逐渐兴起,对其求解模型进行研究具有重要的现实意义.经过等候合乘者的任一辆出租车仅存在合乘成功与合乘不成功两种情况,本文在此前提下建立模型,先根据出租车车流载客数分布及方向修正系数建立合乘成功率分布模型,再结合出租车到达时间分布运用几何分布原理建立出租车合乘候车时间计算模型.文中通过对大连市主干道黄河路与西安路商业中心的实地调查得到具体数据标定模型参数,并设计试验对模型的准确性进行了检验,检验结果表明模型能够准确地估算出租车合乘候车时间,相对误差在3%以内.

  8. Study on the Feasibility of Carpooling Based on the Travel Utility%基于出行效用的小汽车合乘可行性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    毕笑天; 何瑞春

    2015-01-01

    提高私人汽车利用率是缓解城市交通拥挤、减少能源消耗和环境污染的一个创新途径,车辆合乘是产生于民间的一种应对交通拥堵的新型方式.针对实际生活中居民对出行方式的选取,构建基于出行选择效用理论的函数模型,建立效用函数,通过类比选择更优的结果.综合考虑费用、时间、距离、机动车车速等指标作为参考点,考虑不同交通工具下效用值的大小,利用效用差值分析合乘的出行选择条件,通过算例验证了该方法的准确性.结果表明,由于出行距离长度的不同,合乘的效用值相比其他交通工具有所变化.根据出行距离可判断选择合适的交通工具,这对居民出行选择提供了现实依据.

  9. The Perfect System of Compensatory Carpool under Deregulation Background%管制放松背景下的私人拼车行为的制度完善探究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘天宇; 潘妍枬

    2014-01-01

    私人拼车行为的制度完善是指通过一系列切实可行的规范、政策或长效机制引导、规范和鼓励私人拼车行为的长期可持续发展.近年来私人拼车行为在迅速发展和日趋规范化的同时,也呈现出一系列问题,对私人拼车行为进行制度完善具备必要性和有效性.必须通过在全国范围内承认私人拼车行为的合法性,明确私人拼车行为的法律性质,优化私人拼车行为中存在的信息问题,从政府层面鼓励和提倡私人拼车行为的发展等四个路径对私人拼车行为进行制度完善.

  10. 雇员主动离职心理动因模型评述%A REVIEW OF PSYCHOLOGICAL CASUAL MODELS OF EMPLOYEE VOLUNTARY TURNOVER

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张勉; 李树茁

    2002-01-01

    在介绍雇员离职研究背景和意义的基础上,重点对1980年后雇员主动离职研究中4个有代表性的心理动因模型──Steers 和Mowday(1981)模型、Sheridan(1983)模型、Lee和Mitchell(1994)模型以及Price(2000)模型进行了细致的评述,并对主动离职心理动因模型的发展方向提出了一些看法.

  11. Situs Inversus Totalis y Cardiopatía congénita: Diagnóstico casual en un lactante con neumonía

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hebel Oziel Urquia Osorio

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available El Situs Inversus Totalis es una rara entidad que se caracteriza por la imagen en espejo de las vísceras torácicas y abdominales con respecto al plano sagital, cuya prevalencia se estima de 1-2/10,000 nacidos vivos, de los cuales solo el 1-10% presentan malformaciones cardiovasculares congénitas asociadas. Presentamos el caso de un lactante de sexo masculino de 11 meses de edad, que fue atendido en el ¨Hospital Materno Infantil¨ ubicado en la ciudad de Tegucigalpa, Honduras, por presentar tos seca, cianotizante no emetizante de 1 mes de evolución, exacerbada en los últimos 4 días y acompañada de dificultad respiratoria con periodos de apnea, fiebre subjetivamente alta, tiraje subcostal, taquipnea y crépitos basales bilaterales. La realización de una radiografía de tórax reveló: dextrocardia, bazo y cámara gástrica lateralizados hacia la derecha e hígado hacia la izquierda. Se decide realizar una ecocardiografía y un ultrasonido abdominal para verificar el hallazgo, reportando: situs inversus, dextrocardia, agenesia de la vena cava inferior, defecto interventricular de entrada (tipo canal, ductos arterioso, vasos transpuestos, bazo en cuadrante superior derecho e hígado localizado en cuadrante superior izquierdo. El diagnostico de esta condición pasa desapercibido en la mayoría de los casos, por esta razón debemos incentivar la práctica de un examen físico minucioso, evitando así la dependencia de los hallazgos fortuitos e incidentales. Palabras Claves: Situs Inversus, Cardiopatía Congénita, Dextrocardia.

  12. Association between 'safer sex fatigue' and rectal gonorrhea is mediated by unsafe sex with casual partners among HIV-positive homosexual men.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stolte, Ineke G; Wit, John B F de; Kolader, Marion-Eliëtte; Fennema, Johan S A; Coutinho, Roel A; Dukers, Nicole H T M

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to investigate whether and what sexual risk behavior is a mediator of associations between rectal gonorrhea (RG) and highly active antiretroviral therapy-related beliefs, safer sex fatigue, or sexual sensation-seeking among homosexual men. STUDY DESIGN: Thi

  13. Association between 'safer sex fatigue' and rectal gonorrhea is mediated by unsafe sex with casual partners among HIV-positive homosexual men

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    I.G. Stolte; J.B.F. de Wit; M. Kolader; H. Fennema; R.A. Coutinho; N.H.T.M. Dukers

    2006-01-01

    Objective: The objective of this study was to investigate whether and what sexual risk behavior is a mediator of associations between rectal gonorrhea (RG) and highly active antiretroviral therapy-related beliefs, safer sex fatigue, or sexual sensation-seeking among homosexual men. Study Design: Thi

  14. Situs Inversus Totalis y Cardiopatía congénita: Diagnóstico casual en un lactante con neumonía

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hebel Oziel Urquia Osorio

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available El Situs Inversus Totalis es una rara entidad que se caracteriza por la imagen en espejo de las vísceras torácicas y abdominales con respecto al plano sagital, cuya prevalencia se estima de 1-2/10,000 nacidos vivos, de los cuales solo el 1-10% presentan malformaciones cardiovasculares congénitas asociadas. Presentamos el caso de un lactante de sexo masculino de 11 meses de edad, que fue atendido en el ¨Hospital Materno Infantil¨ ubicado en la ciudad de Tegucigalpa, Honduras, por presentar tos seca, cianotizante no emetizante de 1 mes de evolución, exacerbada en los últimos 4 días y acompañada de dificultad respiratoria con periodos de apnea, fiebre subjetivamente alta, tiraje subcostal, taquipnea y crépitos basales bilaterales. La realización de una radiografía de tórax reveló, dextrocardia, bazo y cámara gástrica lateralizados hacia la derecha e hígado hacia la izquierda. Se decide realizar una ecocardiografía y un ultrasonido abdominal para verificar el hallazgo, reportando, situs inversus, dextrocardia, agenesia de la vena cava inferior, defecto interventricular de entrada (tipo canal, ductos arterioso, vasos transpuestos, bazo en cuadrante superior derecho e hígado localizado en cuadrante superior izquierdo. El diagnostico de esta condición pasa desapercibido en la mayoría de los casos, por esta razón debemos incentivar la práctica de un examen físico minucioso, evitando así la dependencia de los hallazgos fortuitos e incidentales.

  15. Feynman Clocks, Casual Networks, and the Origin of Hierarchical "Arrows of Time" in Complex Systems from the Big Bang to the Brain

    CERN Document Server

    Hitchcock, S M

    2000-01-01

    A theory of 'time' as a form of 'information' is proposed. New tools such as Feynman Clocks, Collective Excitation Networks, Sequential Excitation Networks, Plateaus of Complexity, Causal Networks, and Quantum Computation methods are used to unify previously separate 'arrows of time'. The 'direction' and 'dimension' of 'time' are found to be secondary information structures created by the 'processing' of the information carried by signals connecting 'clocks' together in networks. The 'problem of time' may be solved by identification of a fundamental 'irreversible' Quantum Arrow of Time and 'reversible' Classical Arrows of Time. These 'arrows' can used to map information flow through complex causal networks from the Big Bang to the Brain. Keywords; unification of the fundamental interactions of matter, consciousness, entangled states, time reversal, time travel, and FTL or superluminal signals

  16. Congenital short pancreas, polysplenia, and portal vein thrombosis: an association or a chance finding?; Pancreas curto congenito, poliesplenia e trombose da veia porta: associacao ou achado casual?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baldisserotto, Matteo; Peletti, Adriana Barcellos; Araujo, Manoel Angelo de; Pertence, Ana Paula Cardoso; Dora, Marcelo Dourado [Hospital da Crianca Conceicao, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil)]. E-mail: peletti@hotmail.com

    2006-10-15

    Polysplenia syndrome with short pancreas is a rare congenital anomaly usually associated with cardiovascular and abdominal malformations. We describe a patient with this syndrome associated with portal vein thrombosis and cavernous transformation, an association that has not been reported before. This patient also had intestinal mal rotation and interruption of the inferior vena cava with azygous continuation. Special attention is drawn to the role of imaging studies - bowel transit, computed tomography and color Doppler sonography - in the diagnosis of these anomalies. (author)

  17. 26 CFR 15a.453-1 - Installment method reporting for sales of real property and casual sales of personal property.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... one year after the (July 1, 1981) date of sale shall be composed of an interest element and a principal element, the interest element being computed on the principal element at an interest rate of 9... relation to the dollar (e.g., bushels of wheat or ounces of gold). (ii) Example. The following...

  18. What facilitates students' active engagement in learning English in the classroom? casual analysis between psychological needs, English classroom motivation and engagement

    OpenAIRE

    田中, 博晃

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the facilitating factors of intrinsic English classroom motivation and students' classroom engagement. On the basis of Self-determination theory and the hierarchical model of motivation, this study examined the causal relationship between psychological needs and classroom engagement mediated by classroom motivation. Motivation is defined in terms of a Japanese EFL classroom context and intrinsic aspect, named intrinsic English classroom motivation, to ...

  19. Esclerose lateral amiotrófica e herpes vírus. Relato de um caso curioso: uma associação casual ou causal? Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and herpes virus. A curious case report: a cause or casual association?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JOÃO ELIEZER FERRI-DE-BARROS

    1998-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Apresentar o relato de um caso curioso de esclerose lateral amiotrófica (ELA. CASO: Homem de 47 anos que apresentava déficit de força nos membros superiores evoluindo há 4 anos. A eletroneuromiografia era compatível a ELA, forma de Vulpian-Bernardt. O estudo do líquido cefalorraqueano (LCR mostrava processo inflamatório e positividade das reações para Herpes vírus I e II. O estudo do LCR, do soro sanguíneo e da barreira hemato-encefálica sugeria imunoprodução local para Herpes vírus tipo I. A ressonância nuclear magnética sugeria mielopatia cística ou seringomielia em medula cervical estendendo-se nos espaços C2 a C4. O paciente foi tratado com aciclovir endovenoso por 21 dias. Até dois meses após, o paciente não foi submetido a novos exames subsidiários para controle. DISCUSSÃO: Até o momento atual, a doença ELA não tem tratamento medicamentoso específico. A noção da existência de "síndrome esclerose lateral amiotrófica" associada a etiologias diversas pode contribuir para o tratamento de alguns doentes.OBJECTIVE: To present a curious case of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS. CASE: A forty-seven year old man claimed of paresis in the arms since four years. The electrical study of the muscles and nerves diagnosis was ALS, type Vulpian-Bernardt. The cerebrospinal fluid study revealed an inflammatory process and the positivity of immulogical reactions for Herpes simplex I. The blood-brain barrier study showed the possibility that immulogical response for Herpes simplex I was produced in the spinal fluid space. A magnetic resonance suggested cystic myelopathy of cervical spinal cord expanding from C2 to C4. The patient received endovenous acyclovir for 21 days. Until two months after the medication we did not submit the patient to other subsidiary examinations. DISCUSSION: Until now there is no specific drug treatment for ALS. The notion that there is a "syndrome of ALS" related with various causes may help to treat some patients.

  20. 40 CFR 52.1163 - Additional control measures for East Boston.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., on or before October 15, 1975, establish a carpool program at Logan Airport, which shall include the... paragraph (b)(7) of § 52.1161 by fully cooperating with and participating in the Logan Airport...

  1. 23 CFR 810.4 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... vehicles moving in the general stream of mixed highway traffic. Carpool lane(s)—is any high occupancy... interests in land. (3) High occupancy vehicle—a bus or other motorized passenger vehicle such as a...

  2. Food & Recreation Review

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Chungyo’sFashion,CasualSportsHallAttheundergroundChungyo’sFashion,CasualSportsHallnearXidanShoppingCenter,visitorscanparticipateinthelatestinternationalfadsportsandutilizethemostadvancedequipment.Thehallfeaturesaneye-catchingrunningtrack,healthcenter...

  3. "Half plate of rice to a male casual sexual partner, full plate belongs to the husband": Findings from a qualitative study on sexual behaviour in relation to HIV and AIDS in northern Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mwanga Joseph R

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A thorough understanding of the contexts of sexual behaviour of the people who are vulnerable to HIV infection is an important component in the battle against AIDS epidemic. We conducted a qualitative study to investigate perceptions, attitudes and practices of sexually active people in three districts of northern Tanzania with the view of collecting data to inform the formulation of appropriate complementary interventions against HIV and AIDS in the study communities. Methods We conducted 96 semi-structured interviews and 48 focus group discussions with sexually active participants (18-60 years of age who were selected purposively in two fishing and one non-fishing communities. Results The study revealed a number of socio-economic and cultural factors which act as structural drivers of HIV epidemic. Mobility and migration were mentioned to be associated with the risk of HIV acquisition and transmission. Sexual promiscuous behaviour was common in all study communities. Chomolea, (a quick transactional sex was reported to exist in fishing communities, whereas extramarital sex in the bush was reported in non-fishing community which was predominantly Christian and polygamous. Traditional practices such as Kusomboka (death cleansing through unprotected sex was reported to exist. Other risky sexual behaviour and traditional practices together with their socio-economic and cultural contexts are presented in details and discussed. Knowledge of condom was low as some people mistook them for balloons to play with and as decorations for their living rooms. Acute scarcity of condoms in some remote areas such as vizingani (fishing islands push some people to make their own condoms locally known as kondomu za pepsi using polythene bags. Conclusions HIV prevention efforts can succeed by addressing sexual behaviour and its socio-economic and cultural contexts. More innovative, interdisciplinary and productive structural approaches to HIV prevention need to be developed in close collaboration with affected communities and be closely related to policy-making and implementation; to go beyond the limited success of traditional behavioural and biomedical interventions to particularly address the underlying social and structural drivers of HIV risk and vulnerability in the study communities.

  4. Casual Tracing Analysis of the Warfare Simulation Based on Elements of Discrete Events Simulation%基于离散事件仿真要素的军事仿真因果追溯方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    金毅

    2016-01-01

    Warfare simulation system based on discrete events modeling plays a very important role in the military planning stage. The traceability and analysis of causality is a significant strategy in warfare simulation, which could explore the devel⁃opment of the battle and the causality of it, in order to reveal the sequential relationship from large volumes of data and com⁃plex interaction relationships and then help the researchers to identify certain key objects and events. This paper would first introduce the causal analysis in the field of warfare simulation, and then propose a particular kind of causal analysis, based on the simulation elements of discrete events. This method, known for its universality and practicability, could analyze the causal relationships in warfare simulation.%基于离散事件系统建模与仿真的军事仿真系统在军事筹划阶段扮演着至关重要的作用。因果追溯与分析是军事仿真中重要的技术,它可以在大量的数据与复杂的交互关系中找出时序上的关联关系,帮助研究人员确定作战行动中的一些关键实体或事件,用于探究战争的发展脉络与蕴含其中的因果关系。首先对作战仿真领域的因果追溯分析做了简要介绍,然后提出了一种基于离散事件仿真要素的因果追溯分析方法,这种方法可以分析军事仿真中的因果关系,并且有很高的通用性和良好的实用性。

  5. Auditoría interna e información financiera en las entidades de crédito españolas: estructura, contenido, relación casual y contraste empírico

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    Este trabajo responde a la necesidad de profundizar en la débil evidencia empírica sobre el efecto que tiene para las entidades financieras que la función de Auditoría Interna tenga una mayor implicación en el proceso contable y reporte financiero, y aporta, en línea con lo que sugieren estudios previos, una explicación a por qué las entidades deben invertir recursos en la función de Auditoría Interna, y específicamente, en la revisión de la fiabilidad de la información financiera, ya que va ...

  6. Sobre el saber acumulado en un territorio como factor casual que determina el coste físico de la gestión de la materia orgánica residual doméstica

    OpenAIRE

    Romano, Marcello

    2011-01-01

    Todos los sistemas urbanos de gestión de la materia orgánica residual de origen doméstico se basan en el consumo de saber acumulado en un territorio. Dicho saber es entendido como razón del incremento de eficiencia de cada sistema urbano posible para esta gestión, por el incremento del tiempo acumulado -constante solar- en la materia orgánica que cierra el ciclo.Y puede ser cuantificado matemáticamente, a través de un análisis exergético del proceso llevado a cabo por cada sistema posible, ba...

  7. 定时、定线路上下班拼车方案实现与评价——以淮安为试点%Realization and Evaluation of Commuting Carpooling Program Based on Fixed Time and Route: a Case Study of Huai'an

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周桂良; 黄凯; 毛丽娜; 朱艳茹

    2014-01-01

    因信息不畅、费用不统一、违法犯罪时有发生和法律界定不明确等问题,导致私家车拼车市场发展缓慢.设计了以淮安为试点的定时、定线路上下班拼车方案,搭建了拼车信息平台,实现了拼车的信息检索、信息配对、双方互选、双方互评等功能,并利用时间费用阻抗评价模型和Vissim仿真对该实施后的方案进行评价,结果表明该方案可使时间费用阻抗减少65%~86%,拼车路网中平均车速提高17.83%、总停车延误时间减少34.84%、总行驶时间减少28.29%、总延误时间减少40.89%、平均延误时间减少29.23%.方案在淮安试点表明,该方案能较大地减少拼车过程中的出行时间和出行费用,改善拼车区域路网交通拥堵状况,提高拼车过程的安全性和经济性.

  8. 不法原因给付在中国的运用有偿顺风车纠纷引发的法律思考%The Application of Performance Based on Illegal Reasons in China: Thoughts over Carpool Disputes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张晓梅

    2007-01-01

    @@ 近年来,因石油价格的不断上涨,有些私家车主寻求同乘人贴补油费,以降低成本;有些上班族为免挤车之苦,也愿意有偿搭顺风车,双方均达到利益最大化.对社会而言,这种行为可缓解交通拥堵,节约社会资源.在网络上还出现了专业的顺风车网站和顺风车俱乐部,为搭乘者提供交流和联络渠道.但相关管理部门对此却一直持否定态度,一旦查证是有偿搭乘顺风车,即认定为非法营运,车主被罚的消息时常见诸报端,顺风车的孰是孰非也引发了激烈争论.一波未平,一波又起,在有偿顺风车是否合法尚无定论时,有偿搭乘顺风车又出现了新的纠纷.

  9. CORSA: An Open Solution for Social Oriented Real-time Ride Sharing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bonarrigo Simone

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The combination of the interest in environmental questions on one hand and the massive use of web based social networks on the other recently led to a revival of carpooling. In particular, the exploitation of social networks promotes the information spreading for an effective service (e.g. reducing the lack of confidence among users and endorses carpooling companies via viral marketing, finally acting as a basis for trust based users recommendation system In this work we outline CORSA, an open source solution for a real time ride sharing (RTRS carpooling service that endorses the role of social networks by using them as a conveying scenario for the virtual credits reward mechanism CORSA is based on.

  10. Discovery of convoys in trajectory databases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jeung, Hoyoung; Yiu, Man Lung; Zhou, Xiaofang

    2008-01-01

    of trucks and carpooling of vehicles. Although there has been extensive research on trajectories in the literature, none of this can be applied to retrieve correctly exact convoy result sets. Motivated by this, we develop three efficient algorithms for convoy discovery that adopt the well-known filter...

  11. A Chance to Parent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Susan; Brillhart, Lindsay; Lightfoot, Elizabeth

    2012-01-01

    While parents with disabilities may face big challenges, with appropriate supports, many can be great parents. Just like other parents, they do not have to be responsible for every part of childrearing all by themselves. All parents rely on supports to help raise their children, such as day care, carpools, schools, babysitting co-ops, or advice…

  12. 23 CFR 656.3 - Policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Policy. 656.3 Section 656.3 Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION ENGINEERING AND TRAFFIC OPERATIONS CARPOOL AND VANPOOL PROJECTS § 656.3 Policy. Section 126(d) of the Surface Transportation Assistance Act of 1978 declares...

  13. 23 CFR 656.1 - Purpose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Purpose. 656.1 Section 656.1 Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION ENGINEERING AND TRAFFIC OPERATIONS CARPOOL AND VANPOOL PROJECTS § 656.1 Purpose. The purpose of this regulation is to prescribe policies and general procedures...

  14. The Mexican "Illegal Alien" Commute.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decker, Phil

    1986-01-01

    A photo report of the following three treks by illegal aliens across the border from Mexico to work in Arizona reveals the dangers and disappointments the migrants are exposed to: (1) a "carpool" from Southern Mexico; (2) a train ride from Sinaloa; and (3) a 40-mile hike through the Arizona desert. (PS)

  15. Some Things are Worth Saving...Like Energy. Driver Education Energy Packet, Transparency Masters, and Supplement II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guise, Eric; Puckett, Kathy

    This resource guide and supplement contain class activities and discussion pieces for use in integrating energy education into driver education. Included are such activities as survey-taking, fuel consumption calculations, and extensive examination of transportation alternatives such as bicycling, carpooling, mass transit, and alternative means of…

  16. Morphological and pathological characterisation of Colletotrichum sp. as casual agent of anthracnose in Dioscorea sp. Caracterización morfológica y patogénica de Colletotrichum sp. como agente causal de la antracnosis en ñame Dioscorea sp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beltrán Herrera Javier Darío

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Colletotrichum gloeosporioides and Colletotrichum dematium strains were isolated from yam plants in the Sucre depart-ment. Macro- and microscopic descriptions were made, finding that the predominant colour for the colonies was light purple. Sporulation was higher than 58,000 conidia/ml for most colonies. Growth rate lay within a range of 4 to 5mm/day. C. gloeosporioide isolate conidial morphology revealed a cylindrical spore having one rounded end whilst the other was acute shaped. Conidia length and width averaged between 7-8 micras and 3-4 micras, respectively. C. dematium colonies, however, were characterised by being grey and having radial growth. The fálcate and fusiform conidia tapered at the acute apex. They had a length and width of 16-18 micras and 3-4 micras, respectively. C. gloeosporioides colonies showed different macroscopic morphology but similar microscopic characteristics. Vegeta-tive compatibility was evaluated amongst different geographical isolates resulting in 90% compatibility. A patho-genic assay was done for evaluating isolate virulence on tolerant and susceptible cultivars. The isolates showed great variability regarding their virulence. The Colletotrichum isolate collection represents a tool for use in molecular characterisation and evaluating yam germplasm tolerance to this pathogen. Keywords: Colletotrichum, yam, anthracnose, phytopathology.Cepas de Colletotrichum gloeosporioides y Colletotrichum dematium fueron aisladas de plantas de ñame en el departa­mento de Sucre. Se realizó una descripción macro y microscópica encontrándose que el color predominante de la colonia fue lila. La esporulación fue mayor a 58.000 conidias /ml para la mayoría de las colonias. La rata de creci­miento tuvo un rango entre 4 -7 mm / día. Las conidias de los aislados de Colletotrichum gloeosporioides son cilíndri­cas con un extremo redondeado y el otro agudo y un tamaño que varía entre 7-8 micras y 3-4 micras de ancho. Así mismo Colletotrichum dematium se caracterizó por presentar colonias radiales de color gris, conidias falcadas y fusi­forme con ambos extremos agudos; y un tamaño que varia entre 16-18 micras de largo y 3-4 micras de ancho. En C. gloeosporioides se observó que las colonias mostraron diferencias morfológicas macroscópicas y características mi­croscópicas similares. Igualmente, se evaluó la compatibilidad vegetativa, enfrentando aislamientos de diferente origen geográficos, los cuales mostraron compatibilidad en un 90% de los aislados enfrentados. Adicionalmente, se realizaron pruebas de patogenicidad para evaluar la virulencia de los aislados sobre hospederos tolerantes y suscep­tibles. Los aislados mostraron un alto grado de variabilidad en cuanto a su virulencia. La colección de aislados de Colletotrichum podría ser utilizada para trabajos de caracterización molecular y evaluar la tolerancia del germoplasma de ñame a este patógeno. Palabras claves: Colletotrichum; ñame; antracnosis; fitopatología.

  17. 期现货市场对现货价格引导关系研究——以中、加菜籽油期货为例%A Study of Casual Relationship between Futures Price and Spot Price——A Case Study on Rape Oil Market of China and Canada

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘琰; 肖艳丽

    2009-01-01

    期现货市场对现货价格的引导关系反映期货市场价格发现功能的发挥程度,现代农产品价格体系的建立不仅包括现货市场,还关系到农产品期货市场作用的发挥.本文结合与加拿大的参照对比,采用协整检验、格兰杰因果检验和方差分解方法分析我国菜籽油期现货价格和加拿大油菜籽期现货价格的关联性,得到结论如下:中加市场上期现货价格存在长期均衡关系,且期货价格单向引导现货价格;相比加拿大,中国现货市场价格变化来自期货市场的影响在长期比自身现货市场的大;中国现货市场受国际影响小.

  18. Proyecto de inversión para la creación, introducción y comercialización de la marca de ropa casual sport y deportiva del club deportivo barcelona s.c. “ole y b.s.c

    OpenAIRE

    Palacios Bauz, Irene Del Rocio; Herrera Chamba, Karen Yadira; Pfister, Emilio

    2009-01-01

    En la actualidad los mercados mundiales de la industria de la moda textil, están ajustándose a las principales tendencia de la globalización, como es la búsqueda de mejores costos de producción, canales alternativos de distribución y la apertura de nuevos mercados. Por lo que al ser el Ecuador un mercado en potencial crecimiento y apertura internacional, así como que su principal deporte es el fútbol y la mayor hinchada es del equipo de BARCELONA, se crean opciones favorables para la imp...

  19. Probiotics Sheet Joint Montmorillonite Diarrhea in Children and Inlfuence on Immune Function in Children Casual Treatment%双歧三联活菌片联合蒙脱石散治疗小儿腹泻疗效及对患儿免疫功能的影响研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于明丽

    2015-01-01

    Objective To study the application of diarrhea probiotics sheet joint montmorillonite powder in treating clinical efficacy and the influence of their immune function. Methods 96 cases of diarrhea were selected for the study were randomly divided into two groups and the control group. The two groups were the ifrst conventional treatment, and then give the observation group probiotics sheet joint montmorillonite powder, montmorillonite powder treatment administered to the control group. Results After the treatment, the observation group total effective rate (97.92%) was signiifcantly higher (87.50%), and P<0.05, in addition, indicators of immune function in children with the observation group were higher, and P<0.05. Conclusion Children with diarrhea using probiotics sheet joint montmorillonite Scatter treatment can effectively relieve symptoms in children, a significant effect, but also improve immune function in children.%目的:研究对腹泻患儿应用双歧三联活菌片联合蒙脱石散治疗的临床疗效以及对其免疫功能的影响作用。方法选取96例腹泻患儿作为研究对象,随机分为观察组和对照组。两组均先进行常规治疗,然后给予观察组双歧三联活菌片联合蒙脱石散治疗,给予对照组蒙脱石散治疗。结果治疗后,观察组的治疗总有效率(97.92%)高于对照组(87.50%),且P<0.05;另外,观察组患儿的免疫功能指标均高于对照组,且P<0.05。结论小儿腹泻采用双歧三联活菌片联合蒙脱石散治疗的方法能有效缓解患儿的临床症状,疗效显著,还能提高患儿机体免疫功能。

  20. Understanding Air Force members' intentions to participate in pro-environmental behaviors: an application of the theory of planned behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laudenslager, Mark S; Lofgren, Steven T; Holt, Daniel T

    2004-06-01

    At a single installation, a cross section of 307 active duty Air Force members completed questionnaires to assess whether the theory of planned behavior was useful in explaining the service members' intentions to participate in three environmentally protective behaviors-recycling, carpooling, and energy conservation. While the individual tenets of the theory of planned behavior, i.e., attitude toward the behavior, subjective norms, and perceived control, accounted for differing amounts of variance in intentions, the results indicated that the intentions of these Air Force members to recycle, conserve energy, and carpool were moderately explained by the tenets of the theory of planned behavior collectively when the results of a multiple regression were analyzed.

  1. Development of a community energy conservation program. Volume II. Energy saving techniques for use by local governments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1976-11-26

    This volume contains technical material related to community energy conservation programs, and supplements the organizational material in Volume I. It is in looseleaf format so that sections related to specific topics can be easily copied or transferred to individuals responsible for various sorts of conservation, such as carpooling programs, building improvements, and community outreach. Three technical chapters are included, discussing topics in the areas of: internal city and county operations; community powers and regulations, and outreach programs. In the first, the concern is with what the community can do to reduce energy use in its own operations, an effective first step in promoting comprehensive energy conservation. The second chapter analyzes ways that the police power and fiscal powers of the community can be used for energy conservation, through building codes, zoning, and similar measures. In the final chapter, ways to promote energy conservation in the community are discussed: programs include outreach to households and firms, carpool promotion, waste oil recycling, etc.

  2. PENGGUNAAN METODE ANALYTIC HIERARCHY PROCESS DALAM MENGANALISA FAKTOR-FAKTOR YANG MEMPENGARUHI PEMILIHAN MODA KE KAMPUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kardi Teknomo

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Limitation of parking spaces in Petra Christian University need to be solved by deterring private cars usage. However, the factors that affect students to choose their mode to campus are unknown. Determination of factors that influence mode choices may support alternatives and policy that could be proposed. Analytic Hierarchy Process was used to analyze the factors. Trips characteristics data of the students was collected by questionnaires interview. The results of the analysis show that the main factors that influence student to choose their mode to campus is security (49,3% and time (27,3%. Walking from student dormitory was the best alternative (33.2%, while carpool (16% is slightly lower than private cars usage (18%. Vanpool (12.4% is lower than carpool. Abstract in Bahasa Indonesia : Lahan parkir di Universitas Kristen Petra yang terbatas, memerlukan solusi alternatif yang mengalihkan penggunaan kendaraan pribadi. Permasalahannya, faktor-faktor apa yang menyebabkan mahasiswa memilih menggunakan mobil pribadi daripada alternatif moda yang lain belum diketahui. Dengan menentukan faktor-faktor yang mempengaruhi pemilihan moda, serta besar pengaruhnya, berbagai alternatif dan kebijakan untuk menurunkan kebutuhan akan lahan parkir, dapat diusulkan dengan lebih efektif. Metoda Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP dapat dipergunakan untuk menentukan faktor-faktor pemilihan moda. Data karakteristik perjalanan dilakukan dengan wawancara berkuisioner kepada mahasiswa Universitas Kristen Petra yang mempunyai kemungkinan untuk melakukan pilihan terhadap alternatif-alternatif moda yang ada. Hasil analisa menunjukkan bahwa faktor utama yang mempengaruhi pemilihan moda untuk berangkat kuliah adalah faktor keamanan (49,3% dan faktor waktu (27,3%. Ditinjau dari berbagai faktor, alternatif jalan kaki dari pondokan merupakan alternatif yang terbaik (33,2%, sedangkan carpool (16%, sedikit lebih rendah daripada penggunaan mobil pribadi (18%. Angkutan kampus (antar

  3. Innovative Practices for Special Warfare

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-01

    original location in Menlo Park they became accustomed to the amenities and conveniences of working from a residence. Having a shower and kitchen in the...innovation through understanding market demand can be seen in the fast casual concept of the restaurant industry. Fast casual restaurants , a hybrid of the...quick service and casual restaurant concepts, provide customizable, freshly prepared, and higher quality food from a counter service platform.239 The

  4. Formal Verification of Programming by Demonstration Systems Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Automated tools are quickly making inroads into casual computing environments, solving progressively more complex tasks. However, these advancements still require...

  5. Car Pooling Boundary Based on Energy Consumption and Value of Travel Time%基于能耗与出行时间价值视角的汽车共乘边界分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈文强; 孙启鹏; 吴群琪

    2012-01-01

    为了评估汽车共乘方式在中国推进的可行性,从能耗和出行时间价值视角建立汽车共乘边界模型,探索影响共乘方式推进因素,以西安小汽车出行为例,验证汽车共乘边界模型的科学性和准确性.结果显示,共乘方式油耗与增载旅客数呈强反相关关系,与旅客体重呈弱正相关关系,与旅客周转量增加率呈强正相关关系;西安市汽车共乘边界条件要满足增载旅客数大于1.37倍周转量增加率,旅客单位出行时间价值小于92.7元;按照10辆车增载1.37个乘客计,西安市一年可以节省燃油500万升,汽车共乘方式在西安具有很好的推进潜力.%The paper analyzes the feasibility of carpool in China, develops car pooling boundary model from the energy and time value and explores the impact of carpool promoting factors. Taking the panel data of Xi' an, China as an example, it verifies the car carpool boundary model. The results show that the fuel consumption of carpool has a strong anti-correlation with passenger number increase, and has a weak positive correlation with passenger weight. It also has a strong positive correlation with the increasing rate of passenger turnover volume. The pooling boundary of Xi' an should meet the condition that the increasing passenger volume is over 1.37 times than the increasing passenger turnover rate; the passenger unit of time value of less than 92. 7 yuan. If there is 1. 37 passenger number increase for every 10 vehicles, there will be 5 million liter' s fuel saving for Xi' an per year and the car carpool has good potential in Xi' an city.

  6. Friends, Porn, and Punk: Sensation Seeking in Personal Relationships, Internet Activities, and Music Preference among College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weisskirch, Robert S.; Murphy, Laurel C.

    2004-01-01

    One hundred thirty-eight college students completed a questionnaire assessing level of sensation seeking, number of close and casual friends, Internet usage, liking certain styles of music, and genre of music listened to most often. It was found that the number of casual and close friends was positively associated with sensation seeking.…

  7. The Coast Artillery Journal. Volume 91, Number 3, May-June 1948

    Science.gov (United States)

    1948-06-01

    East Comd, Yokohama, Japan. Mailing address: Casual Officers Co Cp Stoneman Pers Center, Pittsburg, Calif. Moreau , Alfred, Sixth Army 6402d ASU Det US...Texas. Peyer, Gustave A., Far East Comd, Yokohama, Japan . .A-failing address: Casual Officers Co Cp Stoneman Pers Center, Pittsburg, Calif. COAST

  8. Casualisation and the Adult Education Labour Market--An Industry in Crisis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Childs, Merilyn

    2000-01-01

    A 4-year study of 70 adult educators in the vocational training sector showed that they had diverse work patterns, with increasing numbers in casual, contractual, or part-time work. Employee flexibility was rarely rewarded or reciprocated by employers. Wage polarization increased, and a view was emerging that casualization was inevitable. (SK)

  9. Dressed to Present: Ratings of Classroom Presentations Vary with Attire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurung, Regan A. R.; Kempen, Laura; Klemm, Kayla; Senn, Rebecca; Wysocki, Rosie

    2014-01-01

    This study investigates the effects of formality of dress on ratings of classroom presentations. Participants (N = 65, 66% women) from a Midwestern university in the United States rated three female students giving a presentation designed for a health psychology class in one of four outfits: casual, party, business casual, or business formal.…

  10. Effects of alcohol, expectancies, and partner type on condom use in college males: event-level analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaBrie, Joseph; Earleywine, Mitch; Schiffman, Jason; Pedersen, Eric; Marriot, Charles

    2005-08-01

    Sexually active heterosexual college males (N = 93) provided data on over 1,500 sexual encounters. Alcohol consumption, expectancies about alcohol's impact on condom use, and partner type each contributed to use of a condom. Partner type covaried with alcohol consumption and condom use. The men consumed significantly more alcohol with new partners, followed by casual partners, and then by regular partners. In contrast, they were more likely to use condoms with new partners than with casual or regular partners. Drinking alcohol decreased condom use, but only with casual partners. Expectancies about alcohol's disinhibiting sexual effects decreased condom use as well. These data suggest that alcohol consumption does decrease condom use, particularly with casual partners and when drinkers believe alcohol alters sexual disinhibition. Improving knowledge about HIV and other STD transmission in casual partners and challenging expectancies about alcohol as a sexual disinhibitor could help decrease the spread of HIV and other STDs.

  11. Sexual Regret

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leif Edward Ottesen Kennair

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The current study sought to answer three key questions about explaining the emotion of regret in the domain of casual sex: Are sex differences in sexual regret robust or attenuated in a highly egalitarian culture? What proximate psychological variables might explain sex differences in sexual regret? And what accounts for within-sex variation in experiences of sexual regret about casual sex. We conducted a study of 263 Norwegian students (ages 19–37 who reported how much they regretted having either engaged in, or passed up, their most recent casual sexual experience. Sex differences in sexual regret are not attenuated in this sexually egalitarian culture. The study revealed sex differences in worries about pregnancy, STIs, and reputation; however, these predictors did not succeed in accounting for the sex differences in regret engaging in casual sex. Sexual gratification and socio-sexual orientation both predicted the sex differences in casual sex regret. In contrast, only socio-sexual orientation attenuated the sex difference in regret passing up casual sex. Predictors of within-sex variation in casual sexual regret included worry about sexual reputation, experienced gratification during the encounter, and socio-sexual orientation. Discussion focuses on implications for the psychological design features of this relatively neglected emotion.

  12. 最讨厌的乘客

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    庄雅婷

    2009-01-01

    老实讲,谁家的车还没捎带过几个同事和朋友啊,这就是所谓的"顺水人情"。媒体上每天都在宣传限行和环保,再加上如今油价飞涨得一天一个样,有车的上班族也开始琢磨着同楼或者同小区拼车了。这本来是件好事,没看见美国和欧洲专门有一条快车道叫"carpool"

  13. Eco-nomics. Despite a tough economy, many CIOs are incorporating eco-friendly initiatives into their strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamble, Kate Huvane

    2009-07-01

    * Several health systems have adopted environmentally friendly practices like computer recycling programs, energy-efficient lighting, carpooling programs, and building design components that limit water usage. * Vendors are offering more energy-efficient products like virtualization software and switching equipment. * ClOs are reducing power usage and costs by consolidating servers, installing more efficient chilling systems, and implementing policies to power down desktops that aren't in use. * Green IT can be a difficult conceptto sell to CEOs and hospital boards unless it goes hand-in-hand with cost savings.

  14. Illinois Energy Conservation Plan: documentation of DOE-U535-O-A calculations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-11-06

    This report presents data compiled on the estimated energy conservation achieved by programs included in the Illinois Energy Conservation Plan. Summaries are given for the following areas: thermal and lighting standards; state and local procurement standards; carpooling, vanpooling, and public transit; right turn on red; energy data information system; Homeowner's Extension Program; agricultural resource applications; Farm Energy Conservation Program; Commercial Industrial Program; Public Utilities Program; School Energy Management Program; energy management assistance to local government; Administration of State Plan; energy conservation information; energy management for state buildings; solar energy; waste to energy and resource recovery; intergovernmental coordination; community technology assistance.

  15. 大學生觀看線上影音節目之隨興休閒資訊行為研究

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    葉乃靜 Nei-Ching Yeh

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The majority of information behavior and information seeking theories and studiesfocus on task-based scenarios where users try to resolve information needs. The studiesthat focus on casual-leisure scenarios that are typically motivated by hedonistic needsrather than information need are seldom. This study describes undergraduate casualleisureinformation behaviors on online videos. Diary and depth-interview were used tocollect date, 24 undergraduate participated in this study (9 males, 15 females and aged18-22. This study extend the model of casual-leisure information behavior and contributesnew insights into user's experience in casual-leisure settings, such as online videoprograms, which has implications for other information domain.

  16. Organic and Other Environmentally Friendly Foods

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... del medio ambiente Even the most casual food shoppers have probably noticed the increased quantity and variety ... and other label information from reputable consumer groups online. Is Organic Food Healthier? The USDA does not ...

  17. Applications of Suppression Subtractive Hybridization (SSH) in Identifying differentially expressed transcripts in Ascochyta rabiei

    Science.gov (United States)

    Introduction – Ascochyta rabiei, casual agents of chickpea ascochyta blight, is divided into two pathotypes based on virulence levels. Genetic mechanisms of this phenotypic differentiation are poorly understood. This research is directed toward understanding molecular differences between the two pa...

  18. Fire vs Water: Erosional/Depositional Geology, Hawaiian Islands

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Even a casual, untrained observer will see evidence that opposing forces have formed the Hawaiian Islands. The massive and lofty volcanoes have been scoured,...

  19. Le Teen: Enjoy the Fun of Teens%Le Teen: Enjoy the Fun of Teens

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Ting

    2012-01-01

    Since the foundation in 1996, PEACEBIRD is the brand featuring the manufacture of shirts and business suits; then, the brand enters the production of casual men's wear; and now, PEACEBIRD explores the fields of fashion women's wear.

  20. The Glass is Not Broken

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    StevenN.Kaplan

    2004-01-01

    To a casual observer, the United States corporate governance system may seem as if it is beyond repair. New research poses the question: If U.S.corporate govemance is so bad, why has performance been so good?

  1. The Glass is Not Broken——Evaluating the State of U.S. Corporate Governance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    StevenN.Kaplan

    2004-01-01

    To a casual observer, the United States corporate govemance system may seem as if it is beyond repair. New research poses the question: If U.S.corporate govemance is so bad, why has performance been so good?

  2. Hipertensão arterial em profissionais que atuam em serviços de atendimento pré-hospitalar

    OpenAIRE

    Luciane Cesira Cavagioni; Angela Maria Geraldo Pierin

    2011-01-01

    Se evaluó la prevalencia de hipertensión arterial y las variables relacionadas en 154 profesionales que trabajan en servicios de atención prehospitalaria. Se efectuaron mediciones casuales y por monitorización ambulatoria de presión arterial. La prevalencia de hipertensión por medición casual fue del 33,0%, y del 26,6% en las mediciones casuales y por monitorización ambulatoria de presión arterial. La presencia de hipertensión se asoció (odds ratio=OR): a) medición casual, con el HDL-c>40 mg/...

  3. Anticipated regret and precautionary sexual behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. Richard; N.K. de Vries; J. van der Pligt

    1998-01-01

    This study investigated the impact of anticipated regret on precautionary sexual behavior. 317 female and 134 male 18-48 yr old college students completed questionnaires assessing behavioral expectations regarding casual sexual behavior, anticipated regret, perceived behavioral control, attitudes, s

  4. A Mobile, Dynamic, and Privacy-Preserving Matching System for Car and Taxi Pools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shin-Yan Chiou

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Recently, rates of vehicle ownership have risen globally, exacerbating problems including air pollution, lack of parking, and traffic congestion. While many solutions to these problems have been proposed, carpooling remains one of the most effective approaches. Recently, several carpooling platforms have been built on cloud computing systems, with originators posting online list of departure/arrival points and schedules from which participants can search for rides that match their needs. However, it can be difficult to make matches quickly and the systems are subject to privacy concerns in that they may disclose private information such as names, registration data, and departure/arrival schedules. This paper proposes a dynamic matching method for car/taxi pools for use in mobile devices via ad hoc Wi-Fi networks. The proposed method also preserves user privacy including names and departure/arrival schedules. Moreover, the system does not require the user to register any personal data, so such data cannot be leaked. The system was implemented on the Android mobile platform, allowing users to immediately and securely access the system via their smart phones.

  5. Travel demand policies for saving oil during a supply emergency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noland, Robert B. [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Centre for Transport Studies, Imperial College London, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: r.noland@imperial.ac.uk; Cowart, William A. [ICF Consulting, Ltd., Egmont House, 25-31 Tavistock Place, Bloomsbury, London, WC1H 9SU (United Kingdom); Fulton, Lewis M. [International Energy Agency, 9 Rue de la Federation, Paris 75015 (France)

    2006-11-15

    An area of growing concern is the future stability of oil producing regions and the ability to maintain stability in international petroleum markets. The transport sector, in particular, is extremely vulnerable to short-term supply disruptions with consequent implications on economic activities in most countries. This paper analyses potential transport demand restraint strategies that could potentially mitigate the impact of short-term supply disruptions. Our analysis includes estimates of the potential fuel savings from several policies. Specifically, we examine various work-based policies (telecommuting, flexible work schedules), the potential of carpooling, speed limit reductions, driving bans and restrictions, increased public transport usage, and providing information on the effect of maintaining optimal tire pressures. The analysis uses various assumptions based on existing knowledge about how travelers may respond under emergency conditions to develop estimates of potential fuel savings. Results suggest that the most restrictive policies, such as driving bans and mandatory carpooling are the most effective. Other policies provide small reductions with some, such as telecommuting and flexible work schedules, having the potential to be easily implemented. Those policies, focussed on encouraging public transport use, are less effective and potentially more costly to implement.

  6. Nitrite inhalant use among young gay and bisexual men in Vancouver during a period of increasing HIV incidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mattheis Kelly

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Nitrite inhalants ("poppers" are peripheral vasodilators which, since the beginning of the epidemic, have been known to increase risk for acquiring HIV infection among men who have sex with men (MSM. However, few studies in recent years have characterized use. From 1999 to 2004, new HIV diagnoses among MSM in British Columbia increased 78%, prompting us to examine the prevalence and correlates of this modifiable HIV risk factor. Methods Self-administered questionnaires were completed between October 2002 and May 2004 as part of an open cohort study of HIV-seronegative young MSM. We measured nitrite inhalant use during the previous year and use during sexual encounters with casual partners specifically. Correlates of use were identified using odds ratios. Results Among 354 MSM surveyed, 31.6% reported any use during the previous year. Nitrite inhalant use during sexual encounters was reported by 22.9% of men and was strongly associated with having casual partners, with greater numbers of casual partners (including those with positive or unknown serostatus and with anal intercourse with casual partners. Nitrite inhalant use was not associated with non-use of condoms with casual sexual partners per se. Conclusion Contemporary use of nitrite inhalants amongst young MSM is common and a strong indicator of anal intercourse with casual sexual partners. Since use appears to increase the probability of infection following exposure to HIV, efforts to reduce the use of nitrite inhalants among MSM should be a very high priority among HIV prevention strategies.

  7. Случайные находки скифских зеркал эпохи архаики в Северном Причерноморье / Casual Findings of Archaic Scythian Mirrors in the Northern Black Sea Coast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.A. Bazhan

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Цель статьи – введение в научный оборот серии древностей эпохи архаики, найденных в Северном Причерноморье. Публикуемые находки бронзовых зеркал существенно дополняют наши знания о путях распространения греческих импортов в скифском мире, свидетельствующих о реальных контактах греческих колонистов с миром кочевых народов Северного Причерноморья. The purpose of this paper is to introduce a series of bronze mirrors dating back to the Archaic Epoch and found in the Northern Black Sea Coast into scientific circulation. The findings published supplement the knowledge available on the Greek import routes within Scythian world which evidence tangible contacts of Greek colonists with nomadic people of the Northern Black Sea Coast.

  8. Hipertensão arterial em profissionais que atuam em serviços de atendimento pré-hospitalar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciane Cesira Cavagioni

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Se evaluó la prevalencia de hipertensión arterial y las variables relacionadas en 154 profesionales que trabajan en servicios de atención prehospitalaria. Se efectuaron mediciones casuales y por monitorización ambulatoria de presión arterial. La prevalencia de hipertensión por medición casual fue del 33,0%, y del 26,6% en las mediciones casuales y por monitorización ambulatoria de presión arterial. La presencia de hipertensión se asoció (odds ratio=OR: a medición casual, con el HDL-c>40 mg/dL (OR=0,25; b mediciones casuales y por monitorización ambulatoria de presión arteria (24 hs. con glucemia > 110 mg/dL (OR=9,98, hombres (OR=2,71, trabajar cansado raramente/nunca (OR=0,19, y a veces (OR=0,17; c mediciones casuales y por monitorización ambulatoria de presión arterial (vigilia con glucemia > 110 mg/dL (OR=11,18, hombres (OR=3,24, trabajar cansado raramente/nunca (OR=0,14, a veces (OR=0,16, índice de masa corporal (OR=1,10, trabajar cansado raramente/nunca (OR=0,14, a veces (OR=0,016; y, d mediciones casuales y por monitorización ambulatoria de presión arterial (sueño con sueño diurno (OR= 0,14 e índice de masa corporal (OR=1,11. Se encontró una alta prevalencia de hipertensión arterial asociada a factores de riesgo cardiovascular.

  9. Reprodutibilidade da pressao arterial medida no ELSA-Brasil com a monitorizacao pressorica de 24h

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larissa Rangel Nascimento

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Determinar a reprodutibilidade da pressão arterial casual de participantes do Estudo Longitudinal de Saúde do Adulto (ELSA-Brasil e confirmar o diagnóstico pressórico pela monitorização. MÉTODOS: A pressão arterial casual foi medida em aparelho oscilométrico. Uma subamostra dos participantes do estado do Espírito Santo (N = 255 foi reavaliada com igual metodologia de uma a dez semanas após; além disso, foi realizada monitorização. O diagnóstico de hipertensão seguiu os pontos de corte de 140/90 mmHg ou 130/80 mmHg para a pressão casual e na monitorização, respectivamente. A hipertensão do jaleco branco foi definida pela presença hipertensão na medida casual e normotensão na monitorização e o inverso para a hipertensão mascarada. RESULTADOS: Os dados referem-se a 230 participantes que nas duas ocasiões estavam sem medicação (N1 = 153 ou sob a mesma medicação anti-hipertensiva (N2 = 77. No N1, a normotensão casual foi confirmada em 120 dos 134 pela monitorização. No N2, a monitorização confirmou o controle pressórico em 43 dos 54 participantes com pressão controlada pela medida casual. A concordância geral de diagnósticos entre a pressão casual e monitorada foi de 78% (kappa = 0,44. No grupo N1, seis indivíduos (4% apresentaram hipertensão do jaleco branco e 23 (25%, mascarada. CONCLUSÕES: A concordância de diagnósticos entre a pressão arterial casual e a monitorada foi moderada. A padronização rigorosa da medida casual adotada no ELSA-Brasil foi capaz de reduzir a hipertensão do jaleco branco. A alta frequência de hipertensão mascarada sugere que a medida pressórica da monitorização indique grau elevado de estresse no trabalho.

  10. Hired Hands: Casualised Technology and Labour in the Teaching of Cultural Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kieryn McKay

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the uptake and application of podcasting in a particular higher education context, drawing on the the authors' experience in late 2008 when both were employed as casual tutors on large-scale first-year communications and cultural studies courses at the University of Western Sydney. The article maps out the limits of technological innovation within the teaching of cultural studies, as well as its limits in promoting the radical potential of a cultural studies approach. It also charts some of the effects and affects of an over-reliance on casualised labour, which we argue can have a profoundly destabilising and atomising impact on academic practice and student engagement. We argue there is a parallel between the appropriation of popular media technologies into the university and the current system of casual academic employment in Australia, in that both the podcast and the casual academic represent ‘new’ interfaces of outsourced academic labour. Stipulated from our positions as casual teachers in cultural studies, this article is written from an embedded perspective which conceptualises both the podcast and the casual academic in line with the most prevalent mode of their employment in the academy: as ‘hired hands’, appendages to traditional models of pedagogy.

  11. Climate Science Service Learning: Learning In Deed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glass, D. S.

    2012-12-01

    Many schools require community service yet students work at a food bank or stream clean-up without understanding causes or solutions for the issues they encounter. Since students learn best when they make connections between scientific concepts and real-world issues that interest them, integrated science service learning is an effective and engaging way to teach. My fifth grade students at National Presbyterian School in Washington, DC learned about climate change through a service learning project to help the environment on campus. The curriculum was aligned with science and climate literacy frameworks, "Benchmarks for Science Literacy," from the American Academy for the Advancement of Science (AAAS) and "The Essential Principles of Climate Sciences," from the U.S. Global Change Research Program / U.S. Climate Change Science Program, and was supported through partnership with NOAA's Climate Stewards Education Program. The service learning project was implemented according to seven best practices of service learning: the students initiated the project, researched the issue, developed a plan, worked with the community, shared their results, reflected on the project, and celebrated their accomplishment. My class of 28 fifth-graders researched and experimented with several environmental variables affecting our campus. They brainstormed service projects they could do to help the environment and decided to focus on reducing idling in the school carpool lane. Students researched how automobile exhaust contributes to climate change, causes acid rain, and harms human health. Students designed a system to measure and eventually minimize the exhaust released by cars idling in the carpool line. They crafted a tally sheet to record the number and size of cars and their idling times. They measured temperature and CO2 data, although they did not find that the number of idling cars affected these variables. Students concluded that over an average week with pleasant weather, 35 of

  12. Discovery of Convoys in Trajectory Databases

    CERN Document Server

    Jeung, Hoyoung; Zhou, Xiaofang; Jensen, Christian S; Shen, Heng Tao

    2010-01-01

    As mobile devices with positioning capabilities continue to proliferate, data management for so-called trajectory databases that capture the historical movements of populations of moving objects becomes important. This paper considers the querying of such databases for convoys, a convoy being a group of objects that have traveled together for some time. More specifically, this paper formalizes the concept of a convoy query using density-based notions, in order to capture groups of arbitrary extents and shapes. Convoy discovery is relevant for real-life applications in throughput planning of trucks and carpooling of vehicles. Although there has been extensive research on trajectories in the literature, none of this can be applied to retrieve correctly exact convoy result sets. Motivated by this, we develop three efficient algorithms for convoy discovery that adopt the well-known filter-refinement framework. In the filter step, we apply line-simplification techniques on the trajectories and establish distance b...

  13. State energy conservation plan for New Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1978-01-01

    The energy-savings and energy-management programs set up by state agencies in New Mexico are presented. Also the energy-savings and energy-management programs for public schools are presented. Plans and summaries are also given for the following program: solar water heaters for secondary schools; solar portable classroom demonstration; energy-savings and energy-management programs for county and municipal governments; energy-savings programs for commercial and residential sectors; weatherization; solar sustenance; energy-savings programs for hospitals and industrial buildings; carpools and vanpools; a program encouraging compliance with the national 55-mph speed limit; waste-oil recycling; utilitites; agriculture; procurement; modification; public information; and an administrative packet containing information on how to facilitate internal accounting procedures.

  14. [Nursing actions increases the control of hypertensive patients and reduces white-coat effect].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colósimo, Flávia Cortez; da Silva, Stael Silvana Bagno Eleutério; Toma, Gabriela de Andrade; Pierin, Angela Maria Geraldo

    2012-10-01

    A randomized comparative study was performed to evaluate the control of hypertension with use of home blood pressure measurement (HBPM) and casual blood pressure measurement, and analyze the white coat effect. Hypertensive patients in primary health care units were randomly divided into two groups: group I, participating of the educational activities and group II that followed the routine treatment. The hypertensive patients from group I realized HBPM at the beginning and the end of the study. White-coat effect was evaluated by the difference between the casual blood pressure measurement and HBPM. The study included 290 hypertensive patients, but realized HBPM 82 hypertensive patients. There was increase in blood pressure control from the beginning to end of study in hypertensive patients from group I (p hypertension control was higher than the casual blood pressure measurement (63% vs 50%). The white coat effect was greater in hipertensive patients from group II.

  15. Physicians' attitudes about their professional appearance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gjerdingen, D K; Simpson, D E

    1989-01-01

    Thirty-five residents and 77 staff physicians from three residency programs in Minnesota and Wisconsin completed questionnaires about their attitudes toward various components of the physician's appearance. Most participants showed positive responses to traditional physician attire such as white coat, name tag, shirt and tie, dress pants, skirt or dress, nylons, and dress shoes. Negative responses were associated with casual items such as sandals, clogs, athletic shoes, scrub suits, and blue jeans. Cronbach's alpha analysis identified four cohesive appearance scales: traditional male appearance, casual male appearance, traditional female appearance, and casual female appearance. Older physician participants favored a more traditional appearance than did younger physicians, and of the physicians who were 35 years and younger, staff physicians tended to show more conservative views toward professional appearance than did residents.

  16. Is prostitution harmful?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moen, Ole Martin

    2014-02-01

    A common argument against prostitution states that selling sex is harmful because it involves selling something deeply personal and emotional. More and more of us, however, believe that sexual encounters need not be deeply personal and emotional in order to be acceptable--we believe in the acceptability of casual sex. In this paper I argue that if casual sex is acceptable, then we have few or no reasons to reject prostitution. I do so by first examining nine influential arguments to the contrary. These arguments purport to pin down the alleged additional harm brought about by prostitution (compared to just casual sex) by appealing to various aspects of its practice, such as its psychology, physiology, economics and social meaning. For each argument I explain why it is unconvincing. I then weight the costs against the benefits of prostitution, and argue that, in sum, prostitution is no more harmful than a long line of occupations that we commonly accept without hesitation.

  17. Design of Taxi Sharing Billing System%出租车拼车计费系统的设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭永杰; 廖建文; 吴熹

    2014-01-01

    出租车拼车计费系统硬件设计采用单片机PK10N512VLL10为主控芯片,TPC7062KW组态触摸屏为监控操作界面,显示部分为64*16点阵;在软件上将乘车状态划分为单乘状态和拼车状态,同时根据当地物价水平设定计费方案,计算出不同乘客的车费,车内车费的显示采用实时刷新的方法;该系统样机已经成型,经测试操作简单、稳定且成本较低。%Taxi bil ing system hardware carpooling design uses a single chip PK10N512VLL10 as the main control chip, TPC7062KW touch screen as the monitoring configuration interface,the display section for 64*16 lattice.ln software,the riding state by state and carpooling divided into a single state,according to the local price level set charging scheme,calculated the different passenger fares,display the car fare by using the method of real-time refresh.The system prototype has been formed,after the test has the advantages of simple operation,stable and low cost.

  18. A new perspective on sexual mixing among men who have sex with men by body image.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ka-Kit Leung

    Full Text Available "Casual sex" is seldom as non-selective and random as it may sound. During each sexual encounter, people consciously and unconsciously seek their casual sex partners according to different attributes. Influential to a sexual network, research focusing on quantifying the effects of physical appearance on sexual network has been sparse.We evaluated the application of Log odds score (LOD to assess the mixing patterns of 326 men who have sex with men (MSM in Hong Kong in their networking of casual sex partners by Body Image Type (BIT. This involved an analysis of 1,196 respondents-casual sex partner pairs. Seven BITs were used in the study: Bear, Chubby, Slender, Lean toned, Muscular, Average and Other.A hierarchical pattern was observed in the preference of MSM for casual sex partners by the latter's BIT. Overall, Muscular men were most preferred, followed by Lean toned while the least preferred was Slender, as illustrated by LOD going down along the hierarchy in the same direction. Marked avoidance was found between men who self-identified as Chubby and men of Other body type (within-group-LOD: 1.25-2.89; between-group-LOD: <-1. None of the respondents reported to have networked a man who self-identified as Average for casual sex.We have demonstrated the possibility of adopting a mathematical prototype to investigate the influence of BIT in a sexual network of MSM. Construction of matrix based on culture-specific BIT and cross-cultural comparisons would generate new knowledge on the mixing behaviors of MSM.

  19. Lubricant Use Among Men Who Have Sex With Men Reporting Anal Intercourse in Bangkok, Thailand: Impact of HIV Status and Implications for Prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thienkrua, Warunee; Todd, Catherine S; Chaikummao, Supaporn; Sukwicha, Wichuda; Yafant, Somsak; Tippanont, Narongritt; Varangrat, Anchalee; Khlaimanee, Pechpailin; Sirivongrangson, Pachara; Holtz, Timothy H

    2016-01-01

    This analysis measures prevalence and correlates of consistent lubricant use among a cohort of Thai men who have sex with men (MSM). Lubricant use was queried at the 12-month follow-up visit. Consistent lubricant use was evaluated with logistic regression. Consistent lubricant use was reported by 77.0% of men and was associated with consistent condom use with casual partners, while binge drinking, payment for sex, and inconsistent condom use with casual, and steady, partners were negatively associated. Though consistent lubricant use is common among this Thai MSM cohort, further promotion is needed with MSM engaging in risky sexual practices.

  20. Intrinsic and Extrinsic Motivation Among Adolescent Ten-Pin Bowlers in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Teo Eng-Wah; Khoo Selina; Wong Rebecca; Wee Eng-Hoe; Lim Boon-Hooi; Rengasamy Shabesan Sit

    2015-01-01

    Motivation has long been associated with sports engagement. However, to date no research has been performed to understand the domain of motivation among ten-pin bowlers. The purpose of this study was to investigate different types of motivation (i.e., intrinsic vs. extrinsic) based on self-determination theory from the perspective of gender and the bowler type (competitive vs. casual). A total of 240 bowlers (104 male, 136 female; 152 competitive, 88 casual) with a mean age of 16.61 ± 0.78 ye...

  1. Natural Language Query System Design for Interactive Information Storage and Retrieval Systems. M.S. Thesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dominick, Wayne D. (Editor); Liu, I-Hsiung

    1985-01-01

    The currently developed multi-level language interfaces of information systems are generally designed for experienced users. These interfaces commonly ignore the nature and needs of the largest user group, i.e., casual users. This research identifies the importance of natural language query system research within information storage and retrieval system development; addresses the topics of developing such a query system; and finally, proposes a framework for the development of natural language query systems in order to facilitate the communication between casual users and information storage and retrieval systems.

  2. [Measurement of arterial pressure].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rorive, G

    1998-03-01

    The casual determination of blood pressure remains the basis of the diagnosis of arterial hypertension and the criteria for usefulness of drug therapy. The reference values usually in use concern determinations by the doctor in very well defined conditions, rest, size of the bladder, etc.... The poor reproductibility of the determinations made by the doctor in casual conditions has produced a large interest for new approaches: autodetermination by the patient at home, and ambulatory blood pressure determinations using automatic devices. These new approaches have their own reference values, specific indications and limitations.

  3. Sekret populjarnosti : rasskazhi gadost pro znamenitost / Olga Bakushinskaja

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Bakushinskaja, Olga

    2004-01-01

    Ülevaade kuulsustele pühendatud tänapäeva vene kirjandusest: Aleksandr Tshervinski, "Shishkin less" (Mihhalkovide perekonnast) ; Oksana Robski "Casual" ; Aleksandr Aleksandrov, "Barbekju v gubernskom klube" ; Andrei Malgin, "Sovetnik prezidenta" (prototüübiks Anatoli Pristavkin)

  4. The Effects of Electronic Communication on American Sign Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Erin; Kozak, L. Viola; Santiago, Roberto; Stephen, Anika

    2012-01-01

    Technological and language innovation often flow in concert with one another. Casual observation by researchers has shown that electronic communication memes, in the form of abbreviations, have found their way into spoken English. This study focuses on the current use of electronic modes of communication, such as cell smartphones, and e-mail, and…

  5. The Link between Training Satisfaction, Work Engagement and Turnover Intention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Memon, Mumtaz Ali; Salleh, Rohani; Baharom, Mohamed Noor Rosli

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to examine the casual relationship between training satisfaction, work engagement (WE) and turnover intention and the mediating role of WE between training satisfaction and turnover intention. Design/methodology/approach: Data were collected from 409 oil and gas professionals using an email survey…

  6. Digitalisation and Mobility of EU-Workers/Services ; Digitalisierung und Mobilität von EU-Arbeitnehmer/ Dienstleistungen ; Digitalisation et Mobilité des Travailleurs et Services Européens : EUROPEAN LABOUR LAW NETWORK – 8TH ANNUAL LEGAL SEMINAR DIGITALISATION AND LABOUR LAW

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Houwerzijl, Mijke

    2015-01-01

    New work patterns, such as casual work, work-on-demand, crowd-sourcing, ICT-based mobile work, where workers can do their job from any place at any time and where connectedness through internet and electronic platforms, are on the rise. These new forms of (net)working, facilitated by the digitalizat

  7. Lean in or Opt Out: Career Pathways of Academic Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eddy, Pamela L.; Ward, Kelly

    2015-01-01

    Casual observers of academic environments might conclude that women's problems in higher education have been resolved. Colleges enroll more women than men on an overall basis. There is gender parity in entry-level faculty hires, and the number of women in senior administrative positions continues to rise. A closer look however at the work, lives,…

  8. Winning Students Back from McDonald's.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hean, Lim Lee; Tin, Low Guat

    1996-01-01

    Describes a Singapore principal's turnaround strategy to improve his secondary students' academic performance and study habits. Principal Tong Pak Goh won students back from McDonald's and other distractions by creating an atmosphere of care and casual comfort, holding afterschool tutoring sessions for problem and latchkey kids, and counseling…

  9. Notes on the genus Pyrgus (Lepidoptera, Hesperiidae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jong, de R.

    1975-01-01

    1. Pyrgus alveus caucasius Picard and Pyrgus jupei Alberti In a paper on Pyrgus bellieri, Picard (1949: 57) casually named the populations of Pyrgus alveus from the Caucasus and Transcaucasia caucasius. According to Picard, Reverdin (1915) confused this form with the Chinese sifanicus which has diff

  10. From Candy Crush to Catan: One Student's Perspective on the Benefits of Gaming in Academia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebbs, Morgan

    2016-01-01

    In the spring semester of 2015, Morgan Ebbs made the bold decision to take a class called "The Rhetoric of Gaming." Having only really played games during childhood, Ebbs now thinks that choice was a bit naive. He is not ashamed to admit that he was the definition of what some like to refer to as "casual," "plebe," or…

  11. The World in Our Own Image.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bates, David W.

    This paper considers the student population in the two year college, their problems, and the factors affecting their success. Stress, among these students, takes all kinds of different forms and is derived from all kinds of different sources. Today's students live in a world of casual isolation and anonymity; they do not have the family ties that…

  12. Introduction to Medical Image Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paulsen, Rasmus Reinhold; Moeslund, Thomas B.

    of the book is to present the fascinating world of medical image analysis in an easy and interesting way. Compared to many standard books on image analysis, the approach we have chosen is less mathematical and more casual. Some of the key algorithms are exemplified in C-code. Please note that the code...

  13. The Evolution of My Rapport: One Professor's Journey to Building Successful Instructor/Student Relationships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Bryant

    2015-01-01

    Instructors often struggle to find the right balance of sternness and leniency with their students, especially in the beginning stages of their careers. An instructor who is too casual risks being overrun by students who do not take him or her seriously. The professor who is too strict might inadvertently thwart students' creativity and stifle…

  14. Particles That Travel Faster than Light?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newton, Roger G.

    1970-01-01

    A discussion of the possible existence of tachyons, particles that travel faster than light, and their theoretical properties. Suggests that if tachyons were found, the consequences for relativity theory, quantum mechanics and the concept of casuality would be far-reaching. Concludes that the final answer rests with the experimentalist.…

  15. Developing organizational structures for international marketing

    OpenAIRE

    Ioan Cucu

    2002-01-01

    International marketing represents marketing activities performed across national boundaries. The level of involvement in international marketing can range from casual exporting to globalization of markets. Although most firms adjust their marketing mixes for differences in target markets, some firms are able to standardize their marketing efforts worldwide

  16. Quality Assurance of Assessment and Moderation Discourses Involving Sessional Staff

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grainger, Peter; Adie, Lenore; Weir, Katie

    2016-01-01

    Quality assurance is a major agenda in tertiary education. The casualisation of academic work, especially in teaching, is also a quality assurance issue. Casual or sessional staff members teach and assess more than 50% of all university courses in Australia, and yet the research in relation to the role sessional staff play in quality assurance of…

  17. Teaching a Comprehensive Course on Stress and Work

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeFrank, Richard S.

    2012-01-01

    Given the growing literature on and documented importance of workplace stress, it is suggested that this topic deserves more than a casual mention in introductory management classes. The current article reviews a comprehensive course dedicated to the phenomenon of stress in the work setting, which addresses issues such as theories, demands and…

  18. Evaluation of Metacognitive Functions and Clinical Characteristics of the Patients Diagnosed with Obsessive Compulsive Disorder and Delusional Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neslihan Caglar

    2016-12-01

    Results of our study put forward that OCD and DD patient groups and control group present differences in terms of MAS parameters. More and more researches need to be carried out in order to determine casual relation between these differences and OCD and DD illnesses. [J Contemp Med 2016; 6(4.000: 300-309

  19. 22 CFR 209.3 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ..., or by a primary recipient as a condition to eligibility for Federal financial assistance, and the... acquisition of facilities. (e) The term Federal financial assistance includes (1) grants and loans of Federal... Federal personnel, (4) the sale and lease of, and the permission to use (on other than a casual...

  20. 5 CFR 900.403 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Federal financial assistance, and application means that application, request, or plan. (b) Facility..., alteration, or acquisition of facilities. (c) Federal financial assistance includes: (1) Grants and loans of... Federal personnel; (4) The sale and lease of, and the permission to use (on other than a casual...

  1. Thinking Fast and Slow about Causality: Response to Palinkas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsh, Jeanne C.

    2014-01-01

    Larry Palinkas advances the developing science of social work by providing an explanation of how social science research methods, both qualitative and quantitative, can improve our capacity to draw casual inferences. Understanding causal relations and making causal inferences--with the promise of being able to predict and control outcomes--is…

  2. HOTEL INFORMATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Minzu Hotel As a high-end business hotel, Minzu Hotel makes every effort to offer a casual and convenient business experience for every guest. Starting April 1, 2010, Minzu Hotel began providing free wireless Internet access services for its distinguished guests.

  3. Keeping Pace

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, Nancy

    2008-01-01

    This article describes the struggles of two tough moms who team up to start their own company. Fed up with a lack of stylish, properly-fitting shoes for their children with cerebral palsy, they established "Keeping Pace" which currently offers a selection of stylish girls' and boys' athletic sneakers and casual dress shoes for boys, all sold…

  4. Further Thoughts on the Writing of Stories: A Response to Michael Gard and Ian Wellard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbourne, David; Jones, Robyn

    2014-01-01

    In his most recent piece (Gilbourne et al., 2011) and in the present article, the author revisits the notion of "caring" in applied sport psychology, offering readers the chance to wonder how a word misplaced or a gesture of casual indifference might cause lasting damage. As in his recent book, "Critical Essays in Sport…

  5. Student Sex: More or Less Risky than Other Young Adults?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, Lorraine; Nic Gabhainn, Saoirse; Young, Honor

    2015-01-01

    Sexually active young adults are at an increased risk of acquiring sexually transmitted infections (STIs) or experiencing an unplanned pregnancy. Sexual behaviours such as inconsistent condom use, multiple partners and casual sex are known risk factors for negative sexual health outcomes. Sexually active higher education students are classified as…

  6. Genetic diversity of rice sheath blight isolates (Rhizoctonia solani AG-1 IA) from different rice cultivars

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Rhizoctonia solani AG 1 IA, the non specific, soil borne, and plant casual agent of rice sheath blight, occurring world widely in rice fields, has become a major disease to rice. In this study,relationships among R. solani AG 1 IA isolates, collected from different rice cultivars were reported.

  7. Analysis of The Jilting of Granny Weatherall--Apply the Artistic Method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱慧

    2013-01-01

    The Jilting of Granny Weatherall, the superlative works of Katherine Anne Porter of America, presented the situation of the protagonist——Granny towards the end of her life. The novel seemed casual and random. However, with a certain artistic appreciation, it’ s easier to find that the whole novel is arranged with luxuriating artistic method and sophisticated skill.

  8. Using Workforce Strategy to Address Academic Casualisation: A University of Newcastle Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawford, Tina; Germov, John

    2015-01-01

    Casual and sessional academic staff have traditionally been on the margins of institutional life despite the expansion of this cohort across the university sector. This paper details a project to address this lack of recognition through a workforce strategy to engage, support and effectively manage this often neglected cohort of the academic…

  9. Evaluating iodine deficiency in pregnant women and young infants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laurberg, Peter; Andersen, S.; Bjarnadottir, R. I.;

    2007-01-01

    ) the concentration of iodine in a spot or casual urine sample cannot be used to diagnose iodine deficiency in an individual; 3) a moderate fall in the concentration of serum free T4 during pregnancy is not a sign of maternal iodine deficiency; 4) an increase in the concentration of serum thyroglobulin (Tg) during...

  10. Manatees mapping seagrass (USA & Puerto Rico)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slone, Daniel H.; Reid, James P.; Kenworthy, W. Judson; Di Carlo, Giuseppe; Butler, Susan M.

    2012-01-01

    West Indian manatees (Trichechus manatus) are secretive creatures. While some of their behaviours at winter aggregation sites in Florida are readily visible to the casual observer, many of their habits and movements are difficult to observe. They rely on submerged vegetation for nutrition, and seagrasses are one of their most important food sources.

  11. The Benefits of Formalization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rand, John; Torm, Nina Elisabeth

    2012-01-01

    factors and observable time-variant factors that may simultaneously influence the decision to formalize and subsequent firm performance, we find evidence that becoming officially registered leads to an increase in profits and investments, and a decrease in the use of casual labor (improved contract...

  12. Augmented reinforcer value and accelerated habit formation after repeated amphetamine treatment.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nordquist, R.E.; Voorn, P.; de Mooij-van Malsen, J.G.; Joosten, R.N.J.M.A.; Pennartz, C.M.A.; Vanderschuren, L.J.M.J.

    2007-01-01

    Various processes might explain the progression from casual to compulsive drug use underlying the development of drug addiction. Two of these, accelerated stimulus-response (S-R) habit learning and augmented assignment of motivational value to reinforcers, could be mediated via neuroadaptations asso

  13. Hydraulic Control Design and Modeling Techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-02-01

    methodologies. This report may be difficult to read for the casual reader . It is written assuming the reader has some fundamental background in control...INTERVAL DTSMP=.O0012207 STEP=. 0012207 INDEX=INDEX+i DOUT( INDEX2)=L1 A- 4 END $*OF DISCRETE SAMP 2" DERIVATIVE tarot (INDEX2 .GE. 4098) END $*OF

  14. Research in Applied Linguistics: Becoming a Discerning Consumer, 2nd Edition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, Fred L., Jr.

    2011-01-01

    Newly updated and revised, this popular text provides a solid introduction to the foundations of research methods, with the goal of enabling students and professionals in the field of applied linguistics to become not just casual consumers of research who passively read bits and pieces of a research article, but "discerning" consumers able to…

  15. Evolution linguistique et evolution de perspective en grammaire comparee des langues indoeuropeennes: le cas du "locatif sans desinence" (Linguistic Evolution and Evolution of Perspective in the Comparative Grammar of Indo-European Languages: The Case of the "Endingless Locative").

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanseveren, Sylvie

    2001-01-01

    This paper deals with the problem of the casual origin of the Greek infinitives in "-men,""ein," with respect to the "endingless locative" and the casus indefinitus" hypothesis. These assumptions can be connected with the progress made in the linguistic research, especially on the nominal inflection, from a…

  16. The Effect of Climate Change on Optimal Wetlands and Waterfowl Management in Western Canada

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Whitey, P.; Kooten, van G.C.

    2011-01-01

    Warmer temperatures and a decrease in precipitation in the 21st century could severely deplete wetlands in the prairie pothole region of western Canada. In this study, we employ linear regression analysis to determine the casual effect of climate change on wetlands in this region, with temperature,

  17. I Want Your Sext: Sexting and Sexual Risk in Emerging Adult Minority Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Mikaela Jessica; Powell, Adeya; Gordon, Derrick; Kershaw, Trace

    2016-04-01

    Sexting, sending, or receiving sexually suggestive or explicit messages/photos/videos, have not been studied extensively. The aims of this study is to understand factors associated with sexting among minority (e.g., African- American, Hispanic) emerging adult males and the association between sexting and sexual risk. We recruited 119 emerging adult heterosexual males and assessed sexting and sexual risk behaviors. Fifty-four percent of participants sent a sext, and 70% received a sext. Participants were more likely to sext with casual partners than with steady partners. Multiple regression analyses showed that participants who sent sexts to steady partners had significantly more unprotected vaginal intercourse and oral sex. Participants who sent sexts to casual partners had significantly more partners, and participants who received sexts from casual partners had significantly more unprotected oral sex and sex while on substances. We found that sexting is a frequent and reciprocal behavior among emerging adults, and there were different patterns of significance for sexts with casual and steady partners.

  18. Enabling Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-05-21

    What are the Team Roles ? ................................................................................... 31  What Size Should the Team Be...will have to assess these considerations against the size, expertise required, and the specific analysis method desired. What are the Team Roles ? Roles...useful to organize the work. A Design Team would be characterized as a short- life organization.28 Design Team roles are established and defined casually

  19. Expertise Reversal Effect in Reading Chinese Texts with Added Causal Words

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalyuga, Slava; Law, Yin Kum; Lee, Chee Ha

    2013-01-01

    The study investigated the effectiveness of causal words embedded in Chinese texts to explicitly indicate causal links between the described events. Primary school students with different levels of reading expertise participated in the experiment that compared an embedded casual-words format with the original no-causal-words format. An interaction…

  20. Therapeutic Influence as a Function of Therapist Attire and the Seating Arrangement in an Initial Interview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gass, Carlton S.

    1984-01-01

    Investigated the impact of therapist attire and seating arrangement on observers' perceptions of a therapist's attractiveness, expertise, and trustworthiness. Undergraduates (N=233) listened to an audiotaped interview while viewing a slide presentation. The casual attire/no desk setting elicited the highest attraction ratings, mediated by the…

  1. Effects of Graduate Teaching Assistant Attire on Student Learning, Misbehaviors, and Ratings of Instruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roach, K. David

    1997-01-01

    Finds significant relationships between levels of teaching assistant dress and student cognitive learning, student affective learning, and ratings of instruction. Finds significant negative relationship between casual instructor attire and student likelihood of misbehavior, with misbehaviors less likely for teaching assistants with high…

  2. Fashion in the Classroom: Effects of Attire on Student Perceptions of Instructors in College Classes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Tracy L.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Finds that more formal dress (business suits, dress shoes) was associated with increased ratings of teaching assistants' competence, particularly for female students rating female instructors. Shows, however, that contrary to common assumptions, the most positive influences of instructor dress were found in the highly casual condition (faded…

  3. 21 CFR 600.10 - Personnel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... duties. Persons whose presence can affect adversely the safety and purity of a product shall be excluded... day. Only persons actually concerned with propagation of the culture, production of the vaccine, and.... Casual visitors shall be excluded from such units at all times and all others having business in...

  4. A Fragment of a Broken Mind%内心被打碎的片断

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马沁园

    2006-01-01

    @@ In a life fraught1 with peaks and troughs2,casually,the traveler keeps moving.The events that lead him from one place to another are subtle in form,and he is forever trying to understand what is driving him.

  5. Jung's and Freud's contributions to dream interpretation: a comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weitz, L J

    1976-04-01

    Carl G. Jung considers dreams as (a) aids to restoring and maintaining mental health, (b) as scientific insights into psychic casuality, (c) as symbolic representations of one's actual subjective state and (d) as expressions of "telepathic visions". In this paper Jung's considerations are contrasted to Freud's.

  6. What is Job Satisfaction?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Locke. Edwin A.

    Despite considerable interest in the study of job satisfaction and dissatisfaction, our understanding of these phenomena has not increased substantially in the past 30 years. It is argued that a major reason for this lack of progress is the implicit conception of casuality accepted by most psychologists. It is called the policy of "correlation…

  7. 76 FR 35672 - Revised Effectiveness Determination; Sunscreen Drug Products for Over-the-Counter Human Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-17

    ...., those with skin type I, a history of skin cancer, or an immunosuppression condition). Increasing the... (NAICS), where the SBA's definition of a small business is fewer than 500 employees. Census data from... using the SBA definition. A casual analysis of the sunscreen manufacturers suggests, however, that...

  8. Millennial Trends in Chinese Fashion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Fashion trends of spring and summer 2000 ※Comfort, Casual & Sporty ※Cherishing the Memory of Past Times ※A Mix of Various Local Cultures ※Architectural Style—Deconstructionism ※The Age of Outer Space—Futurism

  9. Phyllosticta species associated with freckle disease of banana

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wong, M.H.; Crous, P.W.; Henderson, J.; Groenewald, J.Z.; Drenth, A.

    2012-01-01

    The identity of the casual agent of freckle disease of banana was investigated. The pathogen is generally referred to in literature under its teleomorphic name, Guignardia musae, or that of its purported anamorph, Phyllosticta musarum. Based on morphological and molecular data from a global set of b

  10. The Cheapest Apartments in Town

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ankele, Chad; Sommer, Robert

    1973-01-01

    Several surveys are reported of tenants in a low-rent apartment complex in a university town before and after renovation. The tenants were willing to trade off the lack of amenities and anomie in return for low rent and casual lease arrangements. (JP)

  11. The Fwobble

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nilsson, Niels Christian; Serafin, Stefania; Nordahl, Rolf

    2012-01-01

    of the board converted to tilt angle. Using this board, an experiment was conducted in order to assess the role of auditory and haptic feedback in facilitating balance control. For this purpose, a casual balance game was designed, where players were asked to balance a penguin standing on a rotating ice floe...

  12. Swiping, matching, chatting: Self-Presentation and self-disclosure on mobile dating apps

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.R. Ward (Janelle)

    2016-01-01

    markdownabstractPeople have long used rituals of self-presentation and self-disclosure when looking for a romantic connection, whether they seek a passionate love affair, a spouse or a casual encounter. Mobile dating applications like Tinder have exploded in popularity in recent years. On Tinder, im

  13. Pulmonary edema following lumbar puncture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gupta D

    1977-01-01

    Full Text Available In a boy of 17 years with disseminated tuberculosis, sudden onset of pulmonary edema following lumbar puncture is described. Possible pat ho-mechanisms have been discussed. The link bet-ween the lumbar puncture and the development of pulmonary edema is not casual.

  14. Sex Segregation in Friendships and Normative Contexts across the Life Span

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta, Clare M.; Strough, JoNell

    2009-01-01

    Sex segregation (the separation of boys and girls into same-sex groups in their friendships and casual encounters; [Thorne, B., & Luria, Z. (1986). Sexuality and gender in children's daily worlds. "Social Problems, 33", 176-190]), has typically been viewed as a childhood phenomenon. In the present paper, we review research that suggests the…

  15. Whatever Happened to Vera?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Henderson, Jo

    2013-01-01

    abstractThe road to technological progress is littered with unsuccessful prototypes and their inventors, and in British television there is perhaps no better example than John Logie Baird, universally recognised as the inventor of the technology, but not the successful business model. Another casual

  16. Mentoring clinical ladder advancement with a facilitated prep class.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winslow, Susan A; Blankenship, Jean

    2007-01-01

    The authors describe a strategy for encouraging participation and overcoming reluctance of staff to participate in an optional professional advancement career ladder program. A facilitated prep class in a computer skills laboratory provides nurses with the framework for completing application requirements in a casual, supportive atmosphere.

  17. A Look at the Attitudes Some Korean University Students Have towards Different Accents in English

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Alice Julianna

    2012-01-01

    Casual observation usually shows a tendency for most Korean EFL students to prefer the pronunciation of teachers from English speaking nations such as Canada and the United States. However, sometimes their preferences and the reasons for their preferences, may not always reflect reality. This paper examines the results of a survey done on 92 EFL…

  18. Turn Openings in Academic Talk: Where Goals and Roles Intersect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evison, Jane

    2013-01-01

    This study uses Corpus Linguistic (CL) techniques to explore multiple turn openings in conjunction with comparative measures of turn-initial priming (the proportion of occurrences of a form that are turn-initial). Using a benchmark corpus of casual conversation as a point of comparison, six frequent items which have a particularly strong affinity…

  19. Motivation and Cognitive Load in the Flipped Classroom: Definition, Rationale and a Call for Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abeysekera, Lakmal; Dawson, Phillip

    2015-01-01

    Flipped classroom approaches remove the traditional transmissive lecture and replace it with active in-class tasks and pre-/post-class work. Despite the popularity of these approaches in the media, Google search, and casual hallway chats, there is very little evidence of effectiveness or consistency in understanding what a flipped classroom…

  20. 77 FR 58510 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Current Population Survey (CPS), Annual Social...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-21

    ... Survey (CPS), Annual Social and Economic Supplement (ASEC) AGENCY: U.S. Census Bureau, Commerce. ACTION... Annual Social and Economic Supplement (ASEC) to be conducted in conjunction with the February, March, and... casual attachment to the labor market. The income data from the ASEC are used by social...

  1. What's reality television got to do with it? Talking politics in the net-based public sphere

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Graham, T.S.; Brants, K.; Voltmer, K.

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this chapter is to see whether online discussion forums dedicated to popular culture (reality TV) provide a communicative space, content and style for politics that extends the public sphere. Given their typically casual, chatty and frivolous nature, we might assume that political talk do

  2. Searching for Movies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bogers, Toine

    2015-01-01

    Despite a surge in popularity of work on casual leisure search, some leisure domains are still relatively underrepresented. Movies are good example of such a domain, which is peculiar given the popularity of movie-centered websites and discovery services such as IMDB, RottenTomatoes, and Netflix...

  3. Instability in the Horn of Africa: An Assessment of Ethiopian-Eritrean Conflict

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-01

    Carter, who met Meles Zenawi in 1989, remembers: When I used to meet Meles during my visits to the region, he would spread his war maps on the floor ...having taken low- paying jobs in Eritrea as casual laborers, domestic servants, woodcutters, potters, housemaids, waitresses , and even as prostitutes

  4. Number words and number symbols a cultural history of numbers

    CERN Document Server

    Menninger, Karl

    1992-01-01

    Classic study discusses number sequence and language and explores written numerals and computations in many cultures. "The historian of mathematics will find much to interest him here both in the contents and viewpoint, while the casual reader is likely to be intrigued by the author's superior narrative ability.

  5. Teachers' Perceptions of the Effect of Their Attire on Middle-School Students' Behavior and Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sampson, Elizabeth Clemons

    2016-01-01

    Teachers were once held to a professional dress code. This code has become lax, resulting in teachers dressing in more casual attire. A local middle school in rural Georgia was experiencing complaints about teachers' unprofessional attire from other teachers, administrators, and parents. Teachers play an integral role in modeling cultural and…

  6. Being Social @ Work: Designing for Playfully Mediated Social Awareness in Work Environments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vyas, D.M.; Watering, van de M.R.; Eliëns, A.; Veer, van der G.C.; Venkatesh, A; Gonsalves, T; Monk, A; Buckner, K

    2007-01-01

    Awareness within work environments should not be seen limited to important work-related information, activities and relationships. Mediating somewhat casual and engaging encounters related to non-work issues could also lead to meaningful and pleasurable experiences. This paper explores a design appr

  7. Close Relationships and Attributions for Peer Victimization among Late Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiaochen; Graham, Sandra

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the effect of close relationships (best friendship and romantic relationship) on late adolescents' casual attributions for peer victimization. A total of 1106 twelfth grade students completed self-report measures of perceived peer victimization, self-blame attribution, psychological maladjustment (loneliness and social…

  8. Identity and Knowledge Work in a University Tutorial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krieg, Susan

    2010-01-01

    In the contemporary university the large classes associated with many core units mean that tutorials are often taken by many part-time sessional who are typically employed on a casual basis, paid an hourly rate and not paid to attend the lectures. Given this situation, unit coordinators are often responsible for another phase in curriculum…

  9. 29 CFR 553.210 - Fire protection activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR REGULATIONS APPLICATION..., regardless of their status as full time or part time agency employees or as temporary or casual workers... construction of fire roads, would also be within the section 7(k) or 13(b)(20) exemption. (c) Not included...

  10. Serendipity in Teaching and Learning: The Importance of Critical Moments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giordano, Peter J.

    2010-01-01

    Can professors, through their casual, random remarks to students, alter lives and transform identities? The answer, based on two exploratory studies described in this article, appears to be yes. Drawing from constructive-developmental ideas of student maturation and from features of chaos theory as applied to the complex dynamic system of…

  11. Survey of Parents in a Predominately Latino Elementary School to Determine Factors that Affect Parental Involvement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodenstab, Tracy

    2012-01-01

    Present research has shown that parental involvement has a large effect on student achievement. The current study utilized both casual-comparative and correlation methodology and identified variables that influence parental involvement. A review of literature with respect to parental involvement was presented. The study utilized survey data from…

  12. Maternal Age at Childbirth and Offspring Disruptive Behaviors: Testing the Causal Hypothesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Onofrio, Brian M.; Goodnight, Jackson A.; Van Hulle, Carol A.; Rodgers, Joseph Lee; Rathouz, Paul J.; Waldman, Irwin D.; Lahey, Benjamin B.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Recent studies suggest that the association between maternal age at childbearing (MAC) and children's disruptive behaviors is the result of family factors that are confounded with both variables, rather than a casual effect of environmental factors specifically related to MAC. These studies, however, relied on restricted samples and…

  13. Sexually transmitted infection risk behaviors in rural Thai adolescents and young adults: support for sex- and age-specific interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latimore, Amanda D; Aramrattana, Apinun; Sherman, Susan G; Galai, Noya; Srirojn, Bangorn; Thompson, Nick; Ellen, Jonathan M; Willard, Nancy; Celentano, David D

    2013-03-01

    Sexually transmitted infection (STI) prevalence and risks in a sample of rural Thai adolescents and young adults (14-29 years) were examined. Unprotected sex with a casual partner conferred the greatest risk for prevalent STIs, particularly for younger adolescents, and alcohol use increased the STI risk for women but not for men.

  14. Monitoring knowledge among family, sexually transmitted infections, and sexual partnership characteristics of African American adolescent females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steiner, Riley J; Swartzendruber, Andrea L; Rose, Eve; DiClemente, Ralph J

    2014-10-01

    Among 284 African American girls aged 14 to 17 years, frequent family monitoring knowledge was associated with a reduced likelihood of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and having a casual sex partner but was not associated with other partnership characteristics. Family monitoring may offer an additional STI prevention opportunity for this vulnerable population.

  15. The Urban Informal Sector in Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sethuraman, S. V.

    1977-01-01

    Describes research studies on the employment potential and promotion of labor mobility through training of the informal sector (casual labor, small family concerns, etc.) in selected African countries. Includes a discussion of income and training problems exchanged in a seminar held from 27 March to 2 April 1977 in Accra, Ghana. (MF)

  16. Transmission models of tuberculosis in heterogeneous population

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIA Zhong-wei; LI Xiao-wen; FENG Dan; CAO Wu-chun

    2007-01-01

    Objective To review the transmission models of tuberculosis in heterogeneous population.Data sources The data used in this review were adopted mainly from the studies of models of tuberculosis reported from 1995 to 2006.Study selection Relevant literature on transmission models of tuberculosis in heterogeneous populations are referenced.Results Casual/random factors and genetic factors are the main reasons for epidemics of tuberculosis in recent years.Mass public transport is playing the primary role in casually close contact which can facilitate the transmission of tuberculosis. Genetic susceptibility not only varies endemic prevalence levels, but also drastically alters the effects of treatment for tuberculosis patients. Detailed studies further exhibit that casual contact and genetic factor are responsible for over 30%-40% of the total new cases in recent years. The prevalence of tuberculosis could double (from 33% to 60%)if a genetically susceptible phenotype is present in only 30% of the population. And some challenges have emerged along with these exciting results.Conclusions Casual/random contact, public transport and genetic susceptibility are responsible for most new tuberculosis cases and a wide variation in endemic tuberculosis levels between regions. Hence, the transmission model of tuberculosis in a heterogeneous population can provide more clues to underlying mechanism of tuberculosis transmission than in a homogeneous population. However, many challenges remain for us in understanding transmission of disease.

  17. Coping with Rainfall Variability in Northern Tanzania

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trærup, Sara Lærke Meltofte

    2012-01-01

    of household reported harvest shocks differs significantly between districts and correspond to the observed variability in local climate patterns. Coping strategies are focused on spreading risks and include reduced consumption, casual employment, new crops, external support and the selling of assets...

  18. Comparison of Creativity and Self-Esteem in Students with Employed and Household Mothers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safara, Maryam; Alkaran, Zeinab Blori; Salmabadi, Mojtaba; Rostami, Najmieh

    2017-01-01

    Objective: The present study was carried out to compare creativity and self-esteem in the university students with employed and household mothers in academic years 2014-2015. Method: This research is a descriptive one which is of comparative-casual type. The statistical population includes all undergraduate students of Azad universities of…

  19. Modifiers in BASE and MICASE: A Matter of Academic Cultures or Lecturing Styles?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chia-Yen

    2012-01-01

    Numerous studies have investigated the occurrence of modifiers in a variety of settings, especially academic research writing and casual spoken contexts. This study extends previous research in two ways: (1) it examines pragmatic force modifiers (PFMs) (and) in lectures in BASE and MICASE in order to reveal their functions specific to the…

  20. Fail-Safe Entrepreneurship: Six Reasons You Shouldn't Start a Small Business.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paradiso, James R.

    Given the statistic that 97 percent of all new businesses fail, it is unwise to enter into a new small business venture. Many aspiring entrepreneurs lack the characteristics and background they need to survive and instead display several common characteristics which predispose them to failure, such as being non-aggressive and casual, failing to…

  1. Critical values of the external magnetic field leading biological effects in the human organism

    CERN Document Server

    Kanokov, Zakirjon

    2013-01-01

    In the framework of the simplified stochastic model the critical values of an induction of the external magnetic field leading to sharp increase of fluctuations of a casual current of biologically important ions in different blood vessels of a human body are calculated.

  2. Party Animals or Responsible Men: Social Class, Race, and Masculinity on Campus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweeney, Brian

    2014-01-01

    Studies of collegiate party and hookup culture tend to overlook variation along social class and racial/ethnic lines. Drawing on interview data at a "party school" in the Midwest, I examine the meanings and practices of drinking and casual sex for a group of class and race-diverse fraternity men. While more privileged men draw on ideas…

  3. Explaining the Bay of Pigs and Vietnam, 1965 Decisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-06-05

    time of the battle of Dien Bien Phu, Eisenhower referred to the situation in the often to be repeated "falling dminoes" vein. Indeed, Ho Chi Minh’s...though when he states: We do not pull apart thebe models for the sake of independent application. We have no notion that the casual factors

  4. The Impact of Strong Assimilation on the Perception of Connected Speech

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaskell, M. Gareth; Snoeren, Natalie D.

    2008-01-01

    Models of compensation for phonological variation in spoken word recognition differ in their ability to accommodate complete assimilatory alternations (such as run assimilating fully to rum in the context of a quick run picks you up). Two experiments addressed whether such complete changes can be observed in casual speech, and if so, whether they…

  5. Identification of Workplace Dress by Low-Income Job Seekers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saiki, Diana

    2013-01-01

    The author examined how low-income job seekers participating in a workplace dress program identified traditional business and business casual dress. Seventy low-income job seekers identified clothing items as traditional business (e.g., suits, ties), similar to identifications made by professionals and image consultants in previous literature.…

  6. Temporary Employment and Social Inequality in Canada: Exploring Intersections of Gender, Race and Immigration Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuller, Sylvia; Vosko, Leah F.

    2008-01-01

    Using data from the 2002-2004 waves of Survey of Labour and Income Dynamics, this article investigates the consequences of different types of temporary employment--fixed-term or contract, casual, agency and seasonal employment--for differently situated workers in Canada. Attention to intersecting social locations of gender, race and immigrant…

  7. Hate Prejudice and Racism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleg, Milton

    This book provides a comprehensive overview of the problems created by prejudiced attitudes, racist beliefs, and acts of discrimination from the casual racial or ethnic joke to the unrestrained violence of a lynch mob. It addresses such topics as the nature of ethnicity, stereotyping, aggression, and hate groups and individuals who promote ethnic…

  8. Risk for Avian Influenza Virus Exposure at Human–Wildlife Interface

    OpenAIRE

    Siembieda, J; Johnson, CK; Boyce, W; Sandrock, C; Cardona, C.

    2008-01-01

    To assess risk for human exposure to avian influenza viruses (AIV), we sampled California wild birds and marine mammals during October 2005-August 2007and estimated human-wildlife contact. Waterfowl hunters were 8 times more likely to have contact with AIV-infected wildlife than were persons with casual or occupational exposures (p

  9. 76 FR 62503 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; 12-Month Finding on a Petition To List the Black...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-07

    ... review. In that notice, we announced the opening of a 60-day information collection period and invited... birds, casual observation, and studies using satellite transmitters have revealed patterns in the use of... (Awkerman et al. 2008, p. 14). Fernandez and Anderson (2000, entire) used an immersion monitor and...

  10. When is Analysis Sufficient? A Study of how Professional Intelligence Analysts Judge Rigor

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-05-01

    to the domain of experts are now wielded by neophyte information analysts abound. The expanded access to data has impacted more than the casual...in Japan, South Korea and Europe , as well as in the United States, which currently has five import terminals (including Puerto Rico

  11. Bringing up condom use and using condoms with new sexual partners : Intentional or habitual?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yzer, MC; Siero, FW; Buunk, BP

    2001-01-01

    A prospective study of 94 Dutch adults who have casual sexual partners examined whether two important aspects of safe sex. namely bringing up condom use (BCU) and actual condom use (ACU) are intentional or habitual. For each of these aspects, a model based on the Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB: Aj

  12. Precarious, informalizing, and flexible work: transforming concepts and new understandings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D. Arnold; J.R. Bongiovi

    2013-01-01

    There is a considerable body of academic and activist research that studies the prevalence of precariousness in contemporary societies. It goes by many names that are often interchangeable, including precarious work, precarity, informalization, and casualization. These are typically rooted in emergi

  13. With One Voice 2002: America's Adults and Teens Sound Off about Teen Pregnancy. An Annual National Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Campaign To Prevent Teen Pregnancy, Washington, DC.

    Two national surveys, one of youth ages 12 to 19 and the other of adults over age 19 years, examined attitudes toward teen pregnancy. Respondents express more cautious attitudes toward early and casual sex than is generally believed, and large majorities of both groups support a strong abstinence message for teens coupled with information about…

  14. Age preferences for mates as related to gender, own age, and involvement level

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buunk, BP; Dijkstra, P; Kenrick, DT; Warntjes, A

    2001-01-01

    The present study examined desired minimum and maximum ages for mates across five different levels of relationship involvement (marriage, serious relationship, falling in love, casual sex, and sexual fantasies) comparing individuals of 20, 30, 40, 50, and 60 years old. Consistent with previous findi

  15. Age and gender differences in mate selection criteria for various involvement levels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buunk, Abraham (Bram); Dijkstra, Pieternel; Fetchenhauer, D.; Kenrick, D.T.

    2002-01-01

    The present study investigated mate preferences for five different levels of relationship involvement-marriage, serious relationship, falling in love, casual sex, and sexual fantasies-among individuals of 20, 30, 40, 50, and 60 years of age. Consistent with an evolutionary perspective, men preferred

  16. El Lenguaje en Evolucion (Language in Evolution)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jurado, Arturo

    1974-01-01

    The evolution of the Spanish language is due, in part, to popular culture and radio, television, films and advertising. Many words take on altered meaning when used in casual, intimate or slangy conversation; included is a list of such words with their informal connotations, as used by many Mexicans. (Text is in Spanish.) (CK)

  17. The Perception of Selected Danish Vowels by Native Speakers of British English

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Christian; Mees, Inger M.

    2012-01-01

    Transfer of sounds from L1 to L2 can obviously lead to inappropriate pronunciations, but assumptions about the effects such transfer may have on native listeners are often based on intuition or casual observation. This paper investigates the effects of direct transfer of four Danish vowels into English through a forced-choice word identification…

  18. En marge d'une theorie de la production du discours (Close to a Theory of Speech Production)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelfrene, Arnaud

    1977-01-01

    A study of some reformulations in linguistic theory which have been brought about by a shift from generative to casual grammar. An attempt is made to integrate these transformations into one of the current sociolinguistic currents: the elaboration of a theory of speech production. (Text is in French.) (AMH)

  19. Race Relations Stories: How Southeast Asian Refugees Interpret the Ancestral Narration of Black and White Peers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hein, Jeremy; Moore, Christopher D.

    2009-01-01

    The contact hypothesis (Allport 1954) predicts that cross-racial interaction can produce social bonding under certain status, relational, and institutional conditions. We extend this classic theory on ingroups and outgroups using qualitative data on Cambodian and Hmong refugees' recollections of casual conversations about ancestry with black and…

  20. Male, migrant, muslim : Identities and entitlements of Afghans and Bengalis in a South Delhi neighbourhood

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Chakraborty

    2013-01-01

    textabstractIn recent time Delhi has revealed its ambitions as a global city. The consequent need for cheap, casual, migrant labour for maintaining its world-scale ambitions has been highlighted in a lot of literature, particularly in the post Commonwealth Games (CWG) period. The migrant labourers i

  1. What Are the Implications of Neuroscience for Musical Education?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Lauren; Williamon, Aaron

    2008-01-01

    Background: In this paper, we consider music education in a broad sense-not merely pertaining to the development of exceptional levels of artistry in talented performers, but also to notions of musical listening and appreciation enjoyed by the casual listener. Purpose: This review cannot be exhaustive, but aims to illustrate what we already know…

  2. Determinants of Quality Perception in Educational Administration: Potential Conflict between the Requirements of Internal and External Customers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galloway, R. L.; Wearn, Katrina

    1998-01-01

    Attempts to measure perceived quality, based on customers' views within the context of a (British) university faculty office, using a modified SERVQUAL instrument. Internal customers demonstrated that perceived quality is driven by task-focused issues, stressing clarity, accuracy, and reliability. External customers, whose usage is more casual,…

  3. Brave New World of Teacher Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schachter, Ron

    2012-01-01

    Evaluating teachers--whether casually or more rigorously, annually or less frequently--has long been part of the job description of many a principal and assistant principal, who often have relied on occasional observations to make their judgments. What has usually resulted are an overwhelming number of "satisfactory" ratings and the infrequent…

  4. The Impact of Desegregation on College Choices of Elite Black Athletes

    Science.gov (United States)

    La Noue, George R.; Bennett, Mark

    2014-01-01

    Even a casual observer of American college athletics can see the emergence of star black athletes in conferences that once were racially segregated. By analyzing the college origins of National Football League and National Basketball Association draft choices between 1947 and 2011, this research measures the impact of higher education…

  5. JASPAR, the open access database of transcription factor-binding profiles: new content and tools in the 2008 update

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bryne, J.C.; Valen, E.; Tang, M.H.E.

    2008-01-01

    JASPAR is a popular open-access database for matrix models describing DNA-binding preferences for transcription factors and other DNA patterns. With its third major release, JASPAR has been expanded and equipped with additional functions aimed at both casual and power users. The heart of the JASPAR...

  6. Shaping an Air Force: A Chief’s Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-01

    from the United States Air Force Academy in 1998. Following a casual status assignment to Moody AFB, Georgia , he graduated from Specialized...military and political science from Duke University in 1970, and taught as an associate professor of history at his alma mater.2 Prior to command

  7. Pocket Money

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘杰莹; 赵惠; 李世芹; 袁琳

    2007-01-01

    Do you get any poch’et money from your parents? What do you do with it?刘杰莹Pocket Money (1st Floor) I get some pocket money from Mom every day.But I never spend it casually.Except the money for breakfast,

  8. 2 Authors Say Routledge Recycled Their Work without Giving Credit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartlett, Thomas

    2008-01-01

    This article reports on two authors' work that has been recycled by Routledge without giving credit or royalty. When William E. Deal casually flipped through "Theory for Performance Studies: A Student's Guide," published this year by Routledge, he noticed a few familiar sentences. After taking a closer look, Mr. Deal, a professor of religious…

  9. Socio-Economic Impact of Higher Education in Pakistan

    OpenAIRE

    Anam Azam, Muhammad Rafiq, Fauzia Nazir

    2015-01-01

    In  this study, the socio-economic impact of higher education in Pakistan are studied. The main objective of this study was to examine and analyse the casual relationship between socio/economic impacts in higher education. The study has also highlighted the firm relationship in higher education. The findings showed that there is positive relationship in higher education.

  10. Building Professional Social Media Communications Skills: A STEM-Originated Course with University-Wide Student Appeal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baim, Susan A.

    2016-01-01

    Routine correspondence with the author's business technology students indicated the need for increased skill and professionalism in social media communications as a key driver of successful career development strategies. A new course designed to assist students in transitioning from typical, casual social media use to the more rigorous and…

  11. Sexual protection behavior in HIV-positive gay men: testing a modified information-motivation-behavioral skills model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nöstlinger, Christiana; Nideröst, Sibylle; Platteau, Tom; Müller, Matthias C; Staneková, Danica; Gredig, Daniel; Roulin, Christophe; Rickenbach, Martin; Colebunders, Robert

    2011-08-01

    This study on determinants of sexual protection behavior among HIV-positive gay men used the empirically tested information-motivation-behavioral skills (IMB) model. HIV-specific variables were added to the model to determine factors decisive for condom use with steady and casual partners. Data were collected using an anonymous, standardized self-administered questionnaire. Study participants were recruited at HIV outpatient clinics associated with the Eurosupport Study Group and the Swiss HIV Cohort Study. To identify factors associated with condom use, backward elimination regression analyses were performed. Overall, 838 HIV-infected gay men from 14 European countries were included in this analysis. About 53% of them reported at least one sexual contact with a steady partner; 62.5% had sex with a casual partner during the last 6 months. Forty-three percent always used condoms with steady partners and 44% with casual partners. High self-efficacy and subjective norms in favor of condom-use were associated with increased condom use with casual and steady partners, whereas feeling depressed was associated with decreased condom use with casual partners. Condoms were used less often with HIV-positive partners. Self-efficacy as an important behavioral skill to perform protection behavior was influenced by lower perceived vulnerability, higher subjective norms, and more positive safer sex attitudes. The IMB-model constructs appeared to be valid; however, not all the model predictors could be determined as hypothesized. Besides the original IMB constructs, HIV-specific variables, including sexual partners' serostatus and mental health, explained condom use. Such factors should be considered in clinical interventions to promote "positive prevention."

  12. Sexual risk behavior and type of sexual partners in transnational indigenous migrant workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caballero-Hoyos, Ramiro; Villaseñor-Sierra, Alberto; Millán-Guerrero, Rebeca; Trujillo-Hernández, Benjamín; Monárrez-Espino, Joel

    2013-06-01

    Indigenous migrant workers (IMWs) have a high vulnerability to HIV and STDs due to poverty and marginalization. This study examined factors associated with sexual risk behavior (SRB) according to type of partner in transnational young male IMWs at a sugar cane agro-industrial complex in western Mexico. A total of 192 sexually active IMWs were recruited from four laborer shelters to participate in a sexual partner survey. The IMWs were interviewed about their sexual partners and practices over the last 12 months during which it emerged that they had had a total of 360 sexual partners. Multiple linear regression analyses were performed to identify factors related to SRB in 222 main (spouse, mistress and girlfriend) and 138 casual partners (colleague, friend, casual encounter and sex worker). Results showed a significantly higher SRB score with casual partners. For the main partner regression model, prior exposure to HIV- and STD-preventive information and sexual intercourse with higher employment status partners (formal workers vs. self-employed in informal activities and unemployed) were associated with lower SRB scores, but if the sexual relations occurred in Mexico (vs. the U.S.), the SRB scores increased. For the casual partner model, the practice of survival sex (sex in exchange for basic needs), sexual relations in Mexico (vs. the U.S.), and being a circular migrant (person traveling for temporary work to return home when the contract is over) were related to higher SRB scores. Findings support the implementation of preventive interventions using different messages depending on the type of partners, main or casual, within the labor migrant context.

  13. 基于Android的出租车智能管理系统的研究与设计%Study and Design of Intelligent Management System of Taxi Based on Android

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贾兴苇; 王丹志

    2016-01-01

    现代社会发展出租车智能管理系统能有效缓解有限的交通资源与日益增加的市民出行需求的矛盾.针对现有出租车打车软件存在的各种问题,本系统将电召软件与计价器、智能顶灯、监控终端、空车牌等硬件设备有机地结合在一起,以电召司机端软件作为重点,实现了普通运营、同一地点合乘、不同地点合乘等运营流程和订单记录查看、电子围栏设置等其他功能,达到了"界面简洁友好"、"操作简单直观"、"功能完整齐全"的要求.经过专业测试人员系统测试,本系统能准确方便地实现用户的需求,数据采集、统计准确率达到 98%及以上,车辆数据上传到后台服务器及时准确.已经在广州市白云区试运营,并取得了良好的效果.%Intelligent management system of taxi can effectively alleviate the contradiction between the growing demand for public travel and limited transportation resources.To solve the problems of existing taxi on-call software,this system combines on-call software and meter,intelligent dome,monitor terminal,empty plates and other hardware equipment together organically.Focusing on on-call software,the author accomplished regular operations,carpool at same place,and carpool at different places and check of record of orders,electronic enclosure and other functions.Thus this paper fulfilled requirements of 'simple and friendly interface','intuitive and easy operations',and 'complete functions'.After tested by professional testers,this system can accurately and easily achieve the needs of users.Data collection,statistical accuracy rate of 98 percent and above,the vehicle data is uploaded to the backend server timely and accurately.It has been in trial operation in Baiyun District of Guangzhou City,and achieved good results.

  14. Factors associated with safe sex among public school students in Minas Gerais, Brazil Fatores associados a sexo seguro entre alunos de escolas públicas em Minas Gerais, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco José Machado Viana

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available A cross-sectional study was conducted to evaluate factors associated with safe sex among sexually active public school students in Minas Gerais State, Brazil. The study focused on correlations between the variables gender, age, schooling, current grade, ethnicity, religion, importance attributed to religion, mothers' education, prior exposure to any sex education, promotion of juvenile protagonism, and participation by health professionals in school activities and consistent condom use with casual or stable partners and with use of other modern contraceptive methods. Bivariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were used. Male gender and participation by health professionals in school activities were positively associated with all indicators of safe sex, and maternal schooling of more than eight years was positively associated with consistent condom use with casual and stable partners. Secondary (versus elementary schooling and age (older were inversely associated with consistent condom use with casual and stable partners, respectively. Ascribing greater importance to religion and Evangelical religion were negatively associated with use of modern contraceptives in the last sexual intercourse.Foi realizado um estudo de corte transversal para avaliar fatores associados à prática de sexo seguro entre estudantes sexualmente ativos de escolas públicas de Minas Gerais, Brasil. Estudou-se a associação de sexo, idade, escolaridade, turno, cor da pele, religião e importância dada à religião, educação da mãe, exposição à educação sexual, promoção do protagonismo juvenil pela escola e participação de profissionais de saúde no ensino, com uso consistente de condom com parceiro casual ou fixo, e uso de anticoncepcionais modernos. Utilizou-se análise bivariada e regressão logística multivariada. Ser do sexo masculino e ter envolvimento de profissionais de saúde no ensino estiveram positivamente associados com todos os

  15. Workforce integration of new graduate nurses: evaluation of a health human resources employment policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumann, Andrea; Hunsberger, Mabel; Crea-Arsenio, Mary

    2011-11-01

    Historically, economic changes have negatively affected the nursing workforce in Ontario. The trend towards part-time and casual employment emerged from healthcare restructuring in the 1990s. The severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) outbreak in 2003 alerted the Ontario government to the issue of part-time and casual nursing. In 2007, the Nursing Graduate Guarantee (NGG), a health human resources employment policy, was developed as a financial incentive for employers to hire and mentor new graduate nurses for a six-month period. The purpose of this study was to examine facilitators and barriers to policy implementation and assess the impact of the NGG on full-time employment and workforce integration of new graduate nurses in Ontario. A mixed-methods approach was used and included surveys, interviews and focus groups. Results indicated that full-time employment of new graduate nurses increased during the study period and that mentorship facilitated workforce integration of new graduate nurses.

  16. What motivates the sexual double standard? More support for male versus female control theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudman, Laurie A; Fetterolf, Janell C; Sanchez, Diana T

    2013-02-01

    The present research uniquely compared male control theory (MCT) versus female control theory (FCT) to illuminate motives for the sexual double standard (SDS), whereby men gain status from engaging in casual sex or having many sexual partners, but women are stigmatized for it. Consistent with MCT, men were more likely than women to endorse the SDS and to give sexual advice in ways that reinforce it-gender differences that were mediated by hostile sexism (HS) and endorsing the SDS, respectively. The data did not support FCT's argument that women are motivated by sexual economics to restrict female sexuality (Baumeister & Twenge, 2002). Both genders discouraged women from having casual sex to protect women from social stigma and rape myths that justify violence against sexual women. In concert, the findings support MCT more than FCT and suggest that sexism, stigma, and rape myths are primary obstacles to sexual equality.

  17. Satisfaction with open sexual agreements in Australian gay men's relationships: the role of perceived discrepancies in benefit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosking, Warwick

    2013-10-01

    This study investigated whether satisfaction with open sexual agreements in gay men's relationships was associated with perceptions of discrepancies in the benefit experienced from those agreements. Three types of perceived discrepancy between the self and the relationship partner were examined: frequency of casual sex, attractiveness of casual partners, and "overall" benefit. Results from a survey conducted in 2010 of 685 Australian gay men in relationships with open agreements showed that men perceiving discrepancies in benefit, particularly those representing "under-benefit", were less satisfied with their agreement than were men perceiving equal benefit. These results supported hypotheses derived from equity theory and provide insight into factors associated with gay men's satisfaction with open agreements. These findings also have important practical implications. Professionals counselling gay men or couples experiencing low satisfaction with open agreements may consider raising issues of unequal benefit and work with their clients towards achieving equality.

  18. SAYING I KNOW YOU – CONVERSATIONAL ANALYSIS ON INTERNET-CHATTING BY DATING COUPLES –

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroaki Chijiiwa

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available In casual conversations, Japanese people do not refer to their intimacies saying “We are close thismuch.” It is difficult to create special scales for intimacies because the term of “Intimacy” is too abstract andvague. However, don’t Japanese people really scale their intimacies during their conversations? In this study,the researcher aimed to describe strategies of intimacies in Japanese using method of Conversational Analysisonto dating couple’s casual internet chat data and analyzed “how people show their intimacies to opponentthrough the conversations.” For conclusion we can say; Japanese people tend to say “I know you” in indirectway to emphasize the opponent’s “the illusion of transparency”.

  19. El prejuicio étnico en el discurso de la prensa. El caso "Mapuchstock"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Eugenia Merino D.

    2000-09-01

    Full Text Available A través del análisis crítico del discurso de un texto periodístico se muestra cómo la elite simbólica de nuestro país realiza prácticas discriminatorias hacia los mapuches, lo que se evidencia en el uso de tres estrategias discursivas como son la intertextualidad, la ilusión de la conversación casual para estrechar la brecha entre discurso institucional y lector, y la estrategia de personalización. (The critical discourse analysis of a newspaper text shows how the symbolicelites in Chile perform an underlying discrimination against the "mapuches" by means of its institutional discourse practices. This is shown in its style which makes use of discourse strategies such as intertextuality, the illusion of casual conversation to narrow the gap between institutional discourse and the reader, and the strategy of personalization.

  20. The Role of Gay Identity Confusion and Outness in Sex-Seeking on Mobile Dating Apps Among Men Who Have Sex With Men: A Conditional Process Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Lik Sam

    2017-01-01

    Mobile dating apps are now a popular platform for men who have sex with men (MSM) to connect with others. Based on the uses and gratifications (U&G) theory, this study explores the relationship between sex-seeking and the number of casual sex partners met through MSM-based mobile dating apps (Grindr, Jack'd, and SCRUFF). The conditional process analysis (N = 401) shows that this relationship was significant and was mediated by the intensity of app use. That is, sex-seeking indirectly affected the number of casual sex partners through the intensity of app use. Furthermore, gay identity confusion and outness to the world moderated this indirect effect: it was stronger when the user was either more confused about his sexuality or was less out to the world. This research introduces an alternative way to incorporate psychographics variables into the U&G framework.

  1. Personality as a predictor of hooking up among college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gute, Gary; Eshbaugh, Elaine M

    2008-01-01

    Hookups--casual sexual encounters that may or may not include intercourse - are common on college campuses. Previous research has suggested that these casual sexual encounters may have serious health-related consequences. Understanding the relationships among multiple predictors of hooking up is important if high-risk prevention programming among college students is to be effective. This study considers each of the Big Five personality traits as predictors of hooking-up behaviors in a sample of Midwestern undergraduates (N = 247). Fifty-six percent of women and 63% of men reported engaging in a hookup. In general, Extraversion was positively associated with hooking up behaviors; Conscientiousness was negatively associated with hooking up. Relationships between personality and hooking up were significant while controlling for alcohol use. Implications for prevention programming on college campuses are discussed.

  2. Sexual communication, satisfaction, and condom use behavior in friends with benefits and romantic partners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehmiller, Justin J; Vanderdrift, Laura E; Kelly, Janice R

    2014-01-01

    Although "friends with benefits" relationships (FWBRs) are common and have been the subject of significant media and research attention, relatively little is known about them, especially in terms of how they differ from other types of relationships. The present research sought to compare the sexual outcomes of FWBRs to those of traditional romantic relationships via an online survey. Results revealed that FWBR partners were less likely to be sexually exclusive, had a lower frequency of sexual interaction, were less sexually satisfied, and generally communicated less about sex than romantic partners did. However, compared to romantic partners, FWBR partners devoted relatively more of the time spent together to sexual activity, practiced safe sex more frequently, communicated more often about extradyadic sexual experiences, and reported a greater number of lifetime casual sex partners. These findings indicate that the sexual outcomes of FWBRs and romantic relationships are quite distinct and provide evidence of the potential public health implications associated with both casual and committed sexual relationships.

  3. The Development Process of the Semantic Web and Web Ontology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.Vanitha

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the semantic web and web ontology. The existing ontology development processes are not catered towards casual web ontology development, a notion analogous to standard web page development. Ontologies have become common on the World-Wide Web[2]. Key features of this process include easy and rapid creation of ontological skeletons, searching and linking to existing ontologies and a natural language-based technique to improve presentation of ontologies[6]. Ontologies, however, vary greatly in size, scope and semantics. They can range from generic upper-level ontologies to domain-specific schemas. The success of the Semantic Web is based on the existance of numerous distributed ontologies, using which users can annotate their data, thereby enabling shared machine readable content. This paper elaborates the stages in a casual ontology development process.

  4. Mixing patterns and the spread of close-contact infectious diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wallinga J

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Surprisingly little is known regarding the human mixing patterns relevant to the spread of close-contact infections, such as measles, influenza and meningococcal disease. This study aims to estimate the number of partnerships that individuals make, their stability and the degree to which mixing is assortative with respect to age. We defined four levels of putative at-risk events from casual (physical contact without conversation to intimate (contact of a sexual nature, and asked university student volunteers to record details on those they contacted at these levels on three separate days. We found that intimate contacts are stable over short time periods whereas there was no evidence of repeat casual contacts with the same individuals. The contacts were increasingly assortative as intimacy increased. Such information will aid the development and parameterisation of models of close contact diseases, and may have direct use in outbreak investigations.

  5. Dress Nicer = Know More? Young Children's Knowledge Attribution and Selective Learning Based on How Others Dress.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyla P McDonald

    Full Text Available This research explored whether children judge the knowledge state of others and selectively learn novel information from them based on how they dress. The results indicated that 4- and 6-year-olds identified a formally dressed individual as more knowledgeable about new things in general than a casually dressed one (Study 1. Moreover, children displayed an overall preference to seek help from a formally dressed individual rather than a casually dressed one when learning about novel objects and animals (Study 2. These findings are discussed in relation to the halo effect, and may have important implications for child educators regarding how instructor dress might influence young students' knowledge attribution and learning preferences.

  6. The relationship between cannabis use and measures of anxiety and depression in a sample of college campus cannabis users and non-users post state legalization in Colorado

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucy J. Troup

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available As part of an ongoing research program into the relationship between cannabis use and emotion processing, participants were assessed on their level of cannabis exposure using the Recreational Cannabis Use Examination, a measure developed specifically to assess cannabis use in Colorado post state legalization. Three groups were created based on self-reported use: a control group who have never used, a casual user group and a chronic user group. Each participant also completed two measures of mood assessment, the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale and the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory. Relationships between cannabis use groups and scores on these measures were then analyzed using both correlations and multivariate analysis of variance. Results indicate a relationship between casual cannabis use and scoring highly for depressive symptomatology on the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale. There were no significant relationships between cannabis use and scores on the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory.

  7. [Monomelic segmental amyotrophy: a Spanish case involving the leg].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno Martinez, J M; Garcia de la Rocha, M L; Martin Araguz, A

    1990-01-01

    A 65-year old male presented with selective amyotrophy of the right lower limb which, after a progressive course of some months, had stabilized 12 years previously. Physical examination showed amyotrophy involving the gastrocnemius and the quadriceps extensor femoris without sensory impairment. EMG suggested motor neuron disease. This case meets Hirayama and Serratrice's criteria for benign chronic monomelic amyotrophy. We support the hypothesis of a casual vascular factor, as proposed by Hirayama.

  8. Clustered Layout Word Cloud for User Generated Online Reviews

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Ji

    2012-01-01

    User generated reviews, like those found on Yelp and Amazon, have become important refer- ence material in casual decision making, like dining, shopping and entertainment. However, very large amounts of reviews make the review reading process time consuming. A text visualization can speed up the review reading process.In this thesis, we present the clustered layout word cloud -- a text visualization that quickens decision making based on user generated reviews. We used a natural language proc...

  9. Riding on Tyvek(R)—A Case Study about How a New Material Invented by Western Multinational Company Enters China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Li

    2002-01-01

    This paper is a case study about how a new product developed by Western multinational company enters new market- the Mainland China. In this study, a new fabric- DuPont's hi-technical Tyvek PU Coating, is fashionized and developed into a new fashionable and functional casual- rainwear, using the approach of new product development method (idea generation;screening; business analysis; development; evaluation and testing; commercialization).

  10. Sexual partnerships and considerations for HIV antiretroviral pre-exposure prophylaxis utilization among high-risk substance using men who have sex with men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mimiaga, Matthew J; Closson, Elizabeth F; Kothary, Vishesh; Mitty, Jennifer A

    2014-01-01

    Men who have sex with men (MSM) remain at great risk of HIV in the United States, representing 65 % of incident HIV infections. One factor contributing to the high rate of HIV infection among MSM is use of "recreational" drugs that are highly associated with unprotected anal sex. Pre-exposure chemoprophylaxis (PrEP) is a novel biomedical HIV prevention strategy that has the potential to reduce HIV transmission in MSM. Main and casual sex partners play a role in HIV prevention efforts for MSM. The study aimed to qualitatively explore the perceived influences of sexual relationships on promoting and inhibiting PrEP use among high-risk MSM who report regular drug use. Semi-structured qualitative interviews were conducted with 40 participants recruited in Boston, Massachusetts. Data were analyzed using descriptive qualitative analysis. Casual partners presented a distinct set of concerns from primary partnerships. MSM generally viewed main partners as a potential source of support for taking PrEP. Given their informal and often temporary nature, PrEP disclosure to casual partners was considered unnecessary. HIV-related stigma and substance use were also perceived as barriers to discussing PrEP use with casual partners. MSM articulated a high degree of personal agency regarding their ability to take PrEP. Findings suggest that behavioral interventions to improve PrEP utilization and adherence for high-risk MSM should be tailored to sex partner type and the parameters established between sex partners. Approaches to PrEP disclosure and partner engagement should be informed by the relative benefits and limitations characterized by these different types of relationships.

  11. Is acute recurrent pancreatitis a chronic disease?

    OpenAIRE

    Mariani, Alberto; Testoni, Pier Alberto

    2008-01-01

    Whether acute recurrent pancreatitis is a chronic disease is still debated and a consensus is not still reached as demonstrated by differences in the classification of acute recurrent pancreatitis. There is major evidence for considering alcoholic pancreatitis as a chronic disease ab initio while chronic pancreatitis lesions detectable in biliary acute recurrent pancreatitis (ARP) seem a casual association. Cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) gene mutation, hereditary a...

  12. Further Tests of Abortion and Crime

    OpenAIRE

    2004-01-01

    The inverse relationship between abortion and crime has spurred new research and much controversy. If the relationship is causal, then polices that increased abortion have generated enormous external benefits from reduced crime. In previous papers, I argued that evidence for a casual relationship is weak and incomplete. In this paper, I conduct a number of new analyses intended to address criticisms of my earlier work. First, I examine closely the effects of changes in abortion rates between ...

  13. Exploring the concept of dining out organically: a managerial perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Filimonau, Viachaslau; Grant, M.

    2016-01-01

    Market research suggests that organic food consumption in Europe is growing. The concept of dining out organically may therefore represent a promising business opportunity and yet little is known about how it is perceived by restaurant managers. This study reports on the outcome of a qualitative research conducted with managers of UK casual dining restaurants. It finds that restaurateurs are sceptical about the business feasibility of dining out organically which is viewed as a niche market w...

  14. Evaluation of diets containing silage of maniÃoba (Manihot pseudoglaziovii Pax. Et. K. Hoffman) during the final stage of goats in the brazilian semi-arid region

    OpenAIRE

    Fernando Thomaz Medina

    2005-01-01

    The present work aimed to evaluate the consumption, the digestibility of nutrients, the daily average weight gain, the nutriment conversion, as well as the weight and yield of carcass of goats being held in confinement during the final stage, receiving diets containing silage of manioc associated to different energy sources. 15 goats without defined racial standard, not castrated, with initial average life weight of 21,0 kg, were allocated in delineation in casual blocks, with three tre...

  15. Catroid: A Mobile Visual Programming System for Children

    CERN Document Server

    Slany, Wolfgang

    2012-01-01

    Catroid is a free and open source visual programming language, programming environment, image manipulation program, and website. Catroid allows casual and first-time users starting from age eight to develop their own animations and games solely using their Android phones or tablets. Catroid also allows to wirelessly control external hardware such as Lego Mindstorms robots via Bluetooth, Bluetooth Arduino boards, as well as Parrot's popular and inexpensive AR.Drone quadcopters via WiFi.

  16. Sexual Well-Being in Single, Sexually Active College Females: A Matter of Agency and Openness

    OpenAIRE

    Evans, Larissa Michelle

    2013-01-01

    This study explored multiple predictors of sexual well-being in a sample of 253 single, sexually active undergraduate females at a public Mid-Atlantic university. Several factors were identified from past research that might impact sexual well-being: casual sex, sexual agency, sexual attitudes, and sexual desire. Of the four factors, only sexual agency and sexual attitudes were found as significant predictors of sexual well-being. The results suggest that -- of single, sexually active undergr...

  17. The Cosmology of Edgar Allan Poe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cappi, Alberto

    2011-06-01

    Eureka is a ``prose poem'' published in 1848, where Edgar Allan Poe presents his original cosmology. While starting from metaphysical assumptions, Poe develops an evolving Newtonian model of the Universe which has many and non casual analogies with modern cosmology. Poe was well informed about astronomical and physical discoveries, and he was influenced by both contemporary science and ancient ideas. For these reasons, Eureka is a unique synthesis of metaphysics, art and science.

  18. And another thing .... an antidote to anti-oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flatern, R. von

    2002-02-26

    It has long been clear to the most casual observer that the offshore oil industry is not well loved in the US. A steady diet of uninformed news reportage, Hollywood distortions and political rhetoric, has understandably left many Americans with the impression the industry is a monument to greed run by a small but powerful cabal anxious to sacrifice the environment to their god: profit. (author)

  19. Naive Realism about Operators

    OpenAIRE

    Daumer, Martin; Dürr, Detlef; Goldstein, Sheldon; Zanghì, Nino

    1996-01-01

    A source of much difficulty and confusion in the interpretation of quantum mechanics is a ``naive realism about operators.'' By this we refer to various ways of taking too seriously the notion of operator-as-observable, and in particular to the all too casual talk about ``measuring operators'' that occurs when the subject is quantum mechanics. Without a specification of what should be meant by ``measuring'' a quantum observable, such an expression can have no clear meaning. A definite specifi...

  20. 語用論研究と英語学習辞典 : "approximatives"の語法記述をめぐって

    OpenAIRE

    大森, 裕実; Yujitsu, OHMORI; 親和女子大学; Shinwa Women's College

    1993-01-01

    The aim of this present paper is to represent the correlation between the products of studies in pragmatics and the field of applied linguistics realized in learners' dictionaries, through investigation into the description and treatment of 'approximatives' in English. Even a casual glance at the current trend in English linguistics reveals how greatly studies in socio-linguistics and pragmatics have influenced the field of second language teaching and learning. In this field came further imp...

  1. Software Quality Measurement for Distributed Systems. Volume 3. Distributed Computing Systems: Impact on Software Quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-07-01

    methodology precludes two computers from being casually linked together (as with SEAC and DYSEAC), but also lessens the likelihood of major innovations ...provide a more natural computer achitecture for applications such as artificial intelligence, real time command and control, and data base management. 3-7...state-of-the- art in how we can separate C31 nodes. A truly distributed C31 system may not be achievable for another 5 to 10 years. However, unless we

  2. Three Essays on Modeling Complex Dynamic Problems in Health and Safety

    OpenAIRE

    Hu, Kun

    2011-01-01

    Essay #1 â Factors influencing the risk of falls in the construction industry: a review of the evidence Falls are a significant public health risk and a leading cause of nonfatal and fatal injuries among construction workers worldwide. A more comprehensive understanding of casual factors leading to fall incidents is essential to prevent falls in the construction industry. However, an extensive overview of causal factors is missing from the literature. In this paper, 536 articles on fact...

  3. Taxing the Financially Integrated Multinational Firm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johannesen, Niels

    This paper develops a theoretical model of corporate taxation in the presence of financially integrated multinational firms. Under the assumption that multinational firms at least partly use internal loans to finance foreign investment, we find that the optimal corporate tax rate is positive from...... the tension between standard theory predicting zero capital taxes and the casual observation that countries tend to employ corporate taxes at fairly high rates....

  4. Still Qcd-Ing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Politzer, H. David

    1982-01-01

    In these lectures I have attempted to describe the ideas underlying the most important applications of OCD to high energy physics (as of 1979). The exposition is purposefully informal, in the hope that anyone familiar with Feynman diagrams might profit by a single, casual reading. However, the text is sprinkled with sufficiently many outrageous claims, slanderous libels, and inadequate references that a serious student or even a practicing expert will find much upon which to chew.

  5. Create Your Very Own SOP Story! Communicate Your Attributes, Values and Contributions in a Clear, Concise and Inviting Manner

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julie Andrews-Jotham

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available "Tell me about yourself." When we are asked that question, whether in casual conversation or in a more formal setting such as a job interview, how well do we capture our true selves in our answer? How often do we really think about who we are, what we believe in and how we want to communicate our values, vision and goals to another person in just a few sentences? This article discusses how to create a Statement of Purpose.

  6. How to be causal

    CERN Document Server

    Kinsler, Paul

    2011-01-01

    I explain a simple definition of causality in widespread use, and indicate how it links to the Kramers Kronig relations. The specification of causality in terms of temporal differential eqations then shows us the way to write down dynamical models so that their causal nature in the sense used here should be obvious to all. In particular, I apply this reasoning to Maxwell's equations, which is an instructive example since their casual properties are sometimes debated.

  7. Interaction of Employee Loyalty and Customer Loyalty in the Service Industry

    OpenAIRE

    monireh dabooeian; manijeh gharecheh

    2011-01-01

    Abstract The subject of customer loyalty is a focal concern of marketers who seek to identify its antecedents and casual structure with the aim of better understanding of its relationship with employee loyalty, particularly in the service sector. In the service industry the role of staff in creating value is significant, therefore it is argued that maintaining customer loyalty is almost impossible without having loyal employees, since loyal employees offer higher quality services and make ...

  8. Risk factors of breast cancer in Mexican women Factores de riesco de cáncer de mama en mujeres mexicanas

    OpenAIRE

    Ana Laura Calderón-Garcidueñas; Franklin Uriel Parás-Barrientos; Lilia Cárdenas-Ibarra; Juan Francisco González-Guerrero; Enrique Villarreal-Ríos; Tamara Staines-Boone; Barrera-Saldaña, Hugo A.

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the association between family history (FH) of neoplasia, gyneco-obstetric factors and breast cancer (BC) in a case--control study. In cases, to analyze those variables in relation with early onset of BC, the manner of detection (self-examination, prompted by pain, or casual), the size of tumor, and the elapsed time to seek medical attention. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Data from 151 prevalent BC cases and 235 age-matched controls were analyzed by multiple logistic regress...

  9. Thinking about U.S.-China Relations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Robert; S.Ross

    2014-01-01

    <正>Observers have long expected that the rise of China would challenge U.S.-China cooperation and regional stability.The typical assertion is that"power transitions"cause war.This is an overly-simplistic casual statement.The cause of war cannot be reduced to a single mechanical variable.But equally important,the rise of Chinese capabilities and the associated

  10. Buildings Lean Maintenance Implementation Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abreu, Antonio; Calado, João; Requeijo, José

    2016-11-01

    Nowadays, companies in global markets have to achieve high levels of performance and competitiveness to stay "alive".Within this assumption, the building maintenance cannot be done in a casual and improvised way due to the costs related. Starting with some discussion about lean management and building maintenance, this paper introduces a model to support the Lean Building Maintenance (LBM) approach. Finally based on a real case study from a Portuguese company, the benefits, challenges and difficulties are presented and discussed.

  11. Genderrol gedrag bij meisjes met congenitale adrenogenitale hyperplasie

    OpenAIRE

    Slijper, Froukje

    1983-01-01

    textabstractIn the literature (Ehrhardt et al. 1974) the difference in gender role behaviour between CAH girls and control girls is described as tomboy behaviour. By tomboy behaviour in girls with CAH is meant: - expression of physical energy in outdoor games and sports - preference for playing with boys' toys rather than with girl s and girls' toys little interest in marriage, pregnancy, motherhoed and caring for young children - a preferenee for casual clothes (particularly trousers) and a ...

  12. 编辑推荐

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2013-01-01

    摩卡站 With the success of their two restaurants, Mosto and Modo Urban Deli, chef Daniel Urdaneta, from Venezuela, and co- owner Alex Molina, from Columbia, are now embarking on a new concept for their cuisine empire. Moka Bros opened last month in Nali Patio, Sanlitun, and the partners' concept is for the eatery to be a casual spot tbr urban diners to relax and have access to clean, healthy and affordable food.

  13. A NEW CONCEPT OF MODELING NEEDS OF THE POPULATION IN THE LABOR MOVEMENT BY PUBLIC TRANSPORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. F. Ghorbachov

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available In the paper, with the purpose of accounting a casual character of distribution of capacities of transport areas on labor movements in a matrix of correspondences, the interval concept of modeling the population needs in movements has been suggested when for transport calculations one uses not one variant of a matrix but borders of an interval of its possible values at the set area capacities.

  14. Book review: Bats: A world of science and mystery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cryan, Paul

    2015-01-01

    This book has something for everyone, from casual seekers of fascinating eye candy to professional scientists interested in the latest discoveries. Without losing sight of how mysterious bats remain despite decades of research, the authors deftly introduce readers to bats and the people who study them. The book is nice to look at, easy to understand, and interesting in many ways. These stories stick in the reader's memory long after being read—a sign of great scientific communication.

  15. SPECIFIC DIAGNOSTICS OF ATOPIC DERMATITIS IN CHILDREN WITH THE USE OF SCARIFICATION METHOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shmulich OV

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In this work there are presented the results of allergy testings of 186 children suffering from atopic dermatitis. The aim of this study was the specification of casually significant allergen depending on sex and age. Results of testing are processed by a method of the mathematiical analysis, raised in nomograms according to which, considering the nosological entity of disease, sex and age of a patient, it is possible to define causally significant allergen.

  16. FEATURES OF ETIOLOGIC SPECTRUM OF ALERGIC RINITY FOR CHILDREN DEPENDING ON SEX AND AGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asheulov OM

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available In this work there are presented the results of allergy testings of children suffering from alergic rinity. The aim of this study was the specification of casually significant allergen depending on sex and age. Results of testing are processed by a method of the mathematiical analysis, raised in nomograms according to which, considering the nosological entity of disease, sex and age of a patient, it is possible to define causally significant allergen.

  17. DEFINITION OF THE ETIOLOGIC SPECTRUM OF ACUTE ALLERGOSIS, URTICARIA IN CHILDREN, ACCORDING TO AGE AND SEX USING NOMOGRAPHIC METHOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shmulich V.

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available In this work there are presented the results of allergytestings of 186 children suffering from acute allergy, urticaria. The aim of this study was the specification of casually significant allergen depending on sex and age. Results of testing are processed by a method of the mathematiical analysis, raised in nomograms according toAnnals of which, considering the nosological entity of disease, sex and age of a patient, it`s defined causally significant allergen.

  18. Sobre las causas de las desigualdades económicas territoriales

    OpenAIRE

    1989-01-01

    Los desequilibrios económicos territoriales tienen su origen en la propia dinámica del sistema económico, sobre todo en las consecuencias espaciales de tres fenómenos: las economías de escala, los costes de transporte y las tendencias especializadoras de los sistemas generales para así optimizar los recursos utilizados. En este articulo trataremos precisamente de demostrar la relación casual existente entre ambos tipos de hechos.

  19. Curiosity-Aware Bargaining

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    International audience; Opponent modeling consists in modeling the strategy or preferences of an agent thanks to the data it provides. In the context of automated negotiation and with machine learning, it can result in an advantage so overwhelming that it may restrain some casual agents to be part of the bargaining process. We qualify as " curious " an agent driven by the desire of negotiating in order to collect information and improve its opponent model. However, neither curiosity-based rat...

  20. Transcriptional Profile of Ki-Ras-Induced Transformation of Thyroid Cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Visconti, Roberta; Federico, Antonella; Coppola, Valeria

    2007-01-01

    Abstract In the last years, an increasing number of experiments has provided compelling evidence for a casual role of Ras protein mutations, resulting in their constitutive activation, in thyroid carcinogenesis. However, despite the clear involvement of Ras proteins in thyroid carcinogenesis, the...... in human thyroid carcinoma cell lines and tumor samples, our results, therefore, providing a new molecular profile of the genes involved in thyroid neoplastic transformation....

  1. Report of the Defense Task Force on Sexual Harassment and Violence at the Military Service Academies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-06-01

    verbal or physical conduct of a sexual nature constitute sexual harassment when (1) submission to such conduct is made either explicitly or implicitly...American youth today generally have casual attitudes toward sexual activities , underage and reckless alcohol use, and illegal drug use.22 Additionally... Sexual Harassment, Misconduct, and Assault Prevention and Response Program Office — In 2004, in an effort to bring all component activities related to

  2. Safe Sex Messages Within Dating and Entertainment Smartphone Apps: A Review

    OpenAIRE

    Huang, Evelyn Tzu-Yen; Williams, Henrietta; Hocking, Jane S; Lim, Megan SC

    2016-01-01

    Background Smartphone apps provide a new platform for entertainment, information distribution, and health promotion activities, as well as for dating and casual sexual encounters. Previous research has shown high acceptability of sexual health interventions via smartphone apps; however, sexual health promotion apps were infrequently downloaded and underused. Integrating sexual health promotion into established apps might be a more effective method. Objective The objective of our study was to ...

  3. Making Strategic Sense of Cyber Power: Why the Sky is Not Falling

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-01

    and Disarmament. He has served as an ad- viser to both the U.S. and British governments (he has dual citizenship). His government work has included...and military practice. When theory and doctrine do not adapt in the light of the actual experience of conflict, they are in a pathological condition... addicted to the concept of a “foreseeable future,” which is, alas, substantially fictitious as it is typically casually employed. However, the

  4. CHCW2009 would Celebrate its 10th Birthday

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Ting

    2009-01-01

    @@ In this October,the China's Casual Wear Fair,jointly organized by China Garment Association,China Garment Designer Association and Zhongshan Municipal government,would welcome its ten years celebration in the Zhongshan Exhibition Center of Guangdong Province from Oct.22 to Oct.25,2009.During these ten years,the Fair plays as an important role to promote the development of social culture and industry in Shaxi significantly.

  5. On Singular Problems in Linearized and Finite Elastostatics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-08-01

    of the singular solutions to which we have alluded. In view of the generalized uniqueness theorem [12], referred to earlier, no such limit process is...jump disconti- nuities in the first displacement gradients. Singular solutions of this kind are associated with localized shear failures and had been...considered earlier by Rudnicki and Rice [381 in a different constitutive setting. Mathematically, such singular solutions bear a more than casual

  6. Analysis of wave-field abnormality of big offset VSP data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peicheng, G.; Guozhu, B.

    1991-01-01

    Bigger offset results in wider VSP image extent and better VSP application. However, there follow two disadvantages, some wavefield abnormality of raw VSP data and increased stretching distortion in VSP-CDP transformation. The casual relation between big offset and VSP first-arrival abnormality or wave group interference is analyzed using the VSP data from well NU34. Suggestions on avoiding wave-field abnormality and designing optimum VSP offset are made by the authors of this paper.

  7. What Makes Usain Bolt Unique as a Sprinter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinabargar, A. J.; Hellrich, Matt; Baker, Blane

    2010-01-01

    For both casual and avid fans alike, Olympic and other sporting events can provide a wealth of data for simple physics analyses. One of the most impressive performances in recent Olympic history is that of Usain Bolt in the track-and-field sprinting events during the 2008 Summer Games. Over a seven-day span, Bolt set world records in the 100-m and…

  8. Joint Installation Management: Should the Department of Defense Consolidate all Functions Under a Single Agency?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-14

    related to installation management throughout this period, prompted by major events such as the end of the Cold War and the initiation of the Global War...operations are also included as well as casual/formal dining, banquet /catering operations; and stand-alone nonappropriated fund food operations. 96...In the event of an IMCOM-like solution however, major changes to align installation management under a single entity would require OSD to select

  9. Gravitational wave in Lorentz violating gravity

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Xin; Chang, Zhe(State Key Laboratory of Theoretical Physics, Institute of Theoretical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 100049, Beijing, China)

    2011-01-01

    By making use of the weak gravitational field approximation, we obtain a linearized solution of the gravitational vacuum field equation in an anisotropic spacetime. The plane-wave solution and dispersion relation of gravitational wave is presented explicitly. There is possibility that the speed of gravitational wave is larger than the speed of light and the casuality still holds. We show that the energy-momentum of gravitational wave in the ansiotropic spacetime is still well defined and cons...

  10. CHCW2008 will be Held in October

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    @@ On July 8,during the press conference of the CHCW 2008 held in Beijing,the organizing committee announced that the 9th China's Casual Wear Fair (Shaxi,China),jointly organized by China Garment Association,China Garment designer association and Zhongshan Municipal government,will be held in the Zhongshan Exhibition Center of Guangdong Province from Oct.16 to Oct.19,2008.

  11. Apollo’s Warriors: United States Air Force Special Operations during the Cold War

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-01-01

    in South Vietnam, three at were made to Honduras, the Dominican Republic, Hurlburt Field, and one each in Panama and West Guatemala, Peru ...MCAO program. Force Military Civic Action Officer (MCAO) To the casual social observer, the ingredients for program conducted in Thailand received...Agent Orange issue. described Agent Orange as so powerful that The 12th Special Operations Squadron ( redes - "within two days [it] could topple a

  12. The principle of uncertainty and the problem of measurability in sports pedagogy and competitions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saptsin V.M.

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The problem of objective estimation of sporting results and pedagogical testing is examined. They always have a casual constituent. They depend on external, internal, objective and subjective factors. An analysis over of vagueness is brought taking into account new conceptions and mathematical approaches. They are based on physical and quantum mechanical analogies. The new going is offered near organization of sporting competitions and ranging of their participants.

  13. Take part in the Commute-Another-Way Challenge!

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Bulletin

    2015-01-01

    Ring the changes on Thursday, 4 June by commuting another way! CERN has signed up for the 5th “challenge mobilité Rhône-Alpes”, the aim of which is to encourage people to use modes of transport other than their car to get to work. Are you up for the challenge?   Join in the challenge! Sign up using the dedicated CERN form. "Commute another way!" is an initiative launched by the Rhône-Alpes regional authorities and the French environment agency ADEME (l’Agence de l’environnement et de la maîtrise de l’énergie française) to promote alternative ways of travelling to work than the car (excluding carpooling), in private and public-sector organisations across the region. We love this idea and CERN has been signed up to a similar scheme - Bike to Work - for several years. That’s why we’ve decided that CERN should join the Commute-A...

  14. 在美国开电动汽车的利弊得失

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    厉衡隆

    2013-01-01

    家中有人在美国加州硅谷工作。她家离公司32.2km。并要经过繁忙的101号公路。加州政府规定,一个人可以驾驶电动汽车在“合乘通道”(Carpool Lane,通常必须有两个或两个以上乘坐的普通轿车才能行驶的道路,一般该道路比较通畅)上行驶。因此萌生了使用电动汽车的念头,但又不敢贸然买一辆。获悉当地有经销商办理出租电动汽车的业务,租期为三年,她决定尝试。

  15. FOUR-YEAR-OLD NAMSAN TUNNEL CONGESTION PRICING SCHEME IN SEOUL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bongsoo SON, Ph. D.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the effectiveness of the congestion pricing scheme at Namsan #1 and #3 tunnels in downtown Seoul four years after its implementation. The effectiveness of the scheme was measured by the changes of various traffic impacts. The traffic volume of the two tunnels was reduced by up to 25% for the first month. After that time, the traffic volume started to increase again and then exceeded the previous volume level. However, average travel speed of the two tunnel corridors improved by up to 74%. The overall traffic volume of the four alternative routes was increased; nevertheless, their average travel speed increased as well. The number of carpool vehicles occupied by 3 or more persons including the driver during the peak periods was remarkably increased. Before the congestion fee charging, toll-charged vehicles amounted to 68.5% of the total traffic volume of the two tunnels, and then the share dropped to 29% afterwards. The empirical analysis results for the effectiveness of the congestion pricing scheme are very promising.

  16. Modeling an Elastic-Demand Bimodal Transport Network with Park-and-Ride Trips

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    William H.K.Lam; LI Zhichun; S.C.Wong; ZHU Daoli

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents a network equilibrium formulation for modeling commuters' travel choices in a bimodal transport system with park-and-ride (P&R) trips while the total demand is elastic to the congestion level of the network. A super-network approach is adopted in the proposed model. It is assumed that commuters' trips are categorized into two types, auto mode only and a combined mode with both auto and transit modes. The former is referred to as the pure mode trip and the latter as the P&R mode trip. The proposed model simultaneously considers the commuter's choice of the pure mode versus the P&R mode, the choice of parking location for the pure mode, the choice of transfer point for the P&R mode, as well as the route choice for each mode. The demand elasticity of transport system, the capacity constraints of transport facilities, and the congestion interaction throughout the super-network are also explicitly incorporated into the proposed model. The results of the numerical experiment show the following key findings: (i) traditional parking/P&R models may overestimate or underestimate travel demand distribution over network; (ii) parking/P&R, transit scheduling, and carpooling schemes bring significant impacts on commuters' travel behavior and network performance; and (iii) different transport policies may be to some extent mutually substituted.

  17. Opportunities for Network Coding: To Wait or Not to Wait

    CERN Document Server

    Hsu, Yu-Pin; Ramasamy, Solairaja; Gautam, Natarajan; Sprintson, Alex; Shakkottai, Srinivas

    2011-01-01

    It has been well established that reverse-carpooling based network coding can significantly improve the efficiency of multi-hop wireless networks. However, in a stochastic environment when there are no opportunities to code because of packets without coding pairs, should these packets wait for a future opportunity or should they be transmitted without coding? To help answer that question we formulate a stochastic dynamic program with the objective of minimizing the long-run average cost per unit time incurred due to transmissions and delays. In particular, we develop optimal control actions that would balance between costs of transmission against those of delays. In that process we seek to address a crucial question: what should be observed as the state of the system We analytically show that just the queue lengths is enough if it can be modeled as a Markov process. Subsequently we show that a stationary policy based on queue lengths is optimal and describe a procedure to find such a policy. We further substa...

  18. States may need aid to obtain aid for energy-conservation programs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1976-07-01

    The $50 million in aid for states' energy conservation, authorized by Congress in the Energy Policy and Conservation Act of 1975 (PL94-163), would more than fill the gap left by shrinkage of other Federal programs. But much of the $50 million will be difficult to get, even for states like Pennsylvania which has an energetic conservation program. To qualify for aid, governors must fight difficult political battles on state and local levels. The priorities that Congress imposes as funding criteria are mandatory lighting-efficiency standards for public buildings; programs to promote carpooling and public transport; legalization of right turns at red lights; establishment of energy efficiency as a governing consideration in the procurement procedures of states and their political subdivisions; and mandatory thermal-efficiency standards and insulation requirements for new and renovated buildings. Guidelines for meeting those criteria were recently promulgated by the Federal Energy Administration, but FEA has not yet published critical data projections and measurement methodologies. (MCW)

  19. Saving oil in a hurry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none

    2005-07-01

    During 2004, oil prices reached levels unprecedented in recent years. Though world oil markets remain adequately supplied, high oil prices do reflect increasingly uncertain conditions. Many IEA member countries and non-member countries alike are looking for ways to improve their capability to handle market volatility and possible supply disruptions in the future. This book aims to provide assistance. It provides a new, quantitative assessment of the potential oil savings and costs of rapid oil demand restraint measures for transport. Some measures may make sense under any circumstances; others are primarily useful in emergency situations. All can be implemented on short notice ? if governments are prepared. The book examines potential approaches for rapid uptake of telecommuting, ?ecodriving?, and car-pooling, among other measures. It also provides methodologies and data that policymakers can use to decide which measures would be best adapted to their national circumstances. This ?tool box? may help countries to complement other measures for coping with supply disruptions, such as use of strategic oil stocks.

  20. REDUCING GREENHOUSE EMISSIONS AND FUEL CONSUMPTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan A. SHAHEEN, Ph.D.

    2007-01-01

    Fortunately, transportation technologies and strategies are emerging that can help to meet the climate challenge. These include automotive and fuel technologies, intelligent transportation systems (ITS, and mobility management strategies that can reduce the demand for private vehicles. While the climate change benefits of innovative engine and vehicle technologies are relatively well understood, there are fewer studies available on the energy and emission impacts of ITS and mobility management strategies. In the future, ITS and mobility management will likely play a greater role in reducing fuel consumption. Studies are often based on simulation models, scenario analysis, and limited deployment experience. Thus, more research is needed to quantify potential impacts. Of the nine ITS technologies examined, traffic signal control, electronic toll collection, bus rapid transit, and traveler information have been deployed more widely and demonstrated positive impacts (but often on a limited basis. Mobility management approaches that have established the greatest CO2 reduction potential, to date, include road pricing policies (congestion and cordon and carsharing (short-term auto access. Other approaches have also indicated CO2 reduction potential including: low-speed modes, integrated regional smart cards, park-and-ride facilities, parking cash out, smart growth, telecommuting, and carpooling.

  1. Usage of Smartphone Data to Derive an Indicator for Collaborative Mobility between Individuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogdan Toader

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Thepotentialofgeospatialbigdatahasbeendrawingattentionfor afewyears. Despitethe larger and larger market penetration of portable technologies (nomadic and wearable devices like smartphones and smartwatches, their opportunities for travel behavior analysis are still relatively unexplored. The main objective of our study is to extract the human mobility patterns from GPS tracesin order toderivean indicatorfor enhancing CollaborativeMobility (CM betweenindividuals. The first step, extracting activity duration and location, is done using state-of-the-art automated recognition tools. Sensors data are used to reconstruct individual’s activity location and duration across time. For constructing the indicator, in a second step, we defined different variables and methods for specific case studies. Smartphone sensor data are being collected from a limited number of individuals and for one week. These data are used to evaluate the proposed indicator. Based on the value of the indicator, we analyzed the potential for identifying CM among groups of users, such as sharing traveling resources (e.g., carpooling, ridesharing, parking sharing and time (rescheduling and reordering activities.

  2. Sustainable Mobility System – a Challenge for Kaunas University of Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Žaneta Stasiškienė

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays more and more universities include sustainability into their strategies and intergrate this concept into their activities. Kaunas University of Technology (KTU seeks to gain the status of a sustainable university, therefore, in addition to already common ranges of sustainable management of waste, efficient consumption of water and energy, the importance of the transport sector impact on sustainability is continuously increasing. Based on the mentioned above and analyzing good practices of other EU universities, an attempt to develop sustainable mobility system platform for KTU has been made.Evaluation is done on the KTU current situation, safety of traffic, pollution and noise from cars and other aspects. Also, there is a review of communication by public transport, bicycles and on foot. KTU sustainable mobility system, based on other sustainable universities good practices, is provided. The suggested KTU sustainable mobility system focuses on private cars reduction, public transport, car-pooling, car sharing, cycling and encouragement to walking.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.erem.64.2.3155

  3. Not used to public transport any longer. A study about transport service based on needs and requirements in Siljansnaes; Man har vant sig av med kollektivtrafik. En studie om transportservice baserad paa behov och vanor i Siljansnaes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Warsen, Lisa

    2000-05-01

    The goal of the transport policy is that every citizen shall have a transport service on a reasonable level. In sparsely populated areas the public transport service is on a low level and many groups without a private car will have small possibilities to travel to different activities. Siljansnaes, with nearly 2000 citizens, is a small region in the community Leksand in Dalarna where the transport problem have been more tangible. The aim of this project has been to create a transport system more based on the needs and requirements. Also the people who lives in Siljansnaes in their leisure times are a part in the project. They are almost as many as the permanent living ones. The result also has been built on the goal of a higher care of the environment. The transport solution contains; village-bus, car-pooling, changed price system for public transport, but also a partnership between the citizens, the community and the regional transport company (Dalatrafik). The project as a process has the goal that the people in Siljansnaes should take part of the solution and the responsibility for the operation of the system.

  4. Federal energy conservation programs pursuant to section 381 of the Energy Policy and Conservation Act (Public Law 94-163). Annual report to Congress

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-02-21

    This report provides an overview of the activities and achievements of the executive branch of the Federal Government in implementing the energy conservation requirements and provisions of section 381 of the Energy Policy and Conservation Act (EPCA) of 1975 (Public Law 94-163). The report describes Federal actions to develop procurement policies that promote energy conservation and efficiency, develop a Federal 10-Year Buildings Energy Conservation Plan, develop responsible public education and information programs, encourage energy conservation and energy efficiency, and promote vanpooling and carpooling arrangements. About half of the Nation's energy is used in our homes and automobiles. Another 48 percent is used by State and local governments, business and insutry, in providing needed goods and services. The Federal Government is the Nation's largest energy user, accouting for 2.2 percent of the total national energy used in 1977. This energy is used by nearly 6 million people in more than 400 thousand buildings and in the operation of more than 600 thousand vehicles. While energy conservation and energy efficiency measures alone cannot solve our immediate problems, they are an essential part of our transition to an era of scarce and expensive energy supplies.

  5. Choice of an Optimal Management Strategy of Transport Demand Using Multi-Criteria Analysis: City of Zagreb Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ljupko Šimunović

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available After initial enthusiasm by motor vehicles, society is lately increasingly noticing their shortcomings. Traffic problems caused by excessive use of cars, still represent a very serious and widespread problem, particularly in cities. Public opinion expresses dissatisfaction with the quality of the environment and traffic conditions. As the most important demand, the demand for human health stands out in the first place, and, consequently, the demand for sustainable transport development. The fact that the EU is involved in solving traffic problems by means of various directives and scientific research projects, points out the seriousness of the problem. Two solutions which are mainly used for solving traffic problems in cities are the construction or extension of existing transport infrastructure and traffic demand management (TDM. Traffic demand management is a new paradigm, which aims at reducing or transforming of traffic demand through reduction of unnecessary drives by cars and improvement of more efficient, healthier and, above all, cleaner forms of public and non-motorized transport. There is a whole range of methods for traffic demand management, such as Park & Ride system, carpooling, carsharing, priority for the vehicles with specified number of passenger – HOV, teleworking, congestion charging, charging for use of road infrastructure, bicycling infrastructure improvement, etc. The topic of the work focuses on the choice of optimal traffic demand management strategies in the city of Zagreb using multi-criteria analysis.

  6. Opinion Mining for User Generated Design by Social Networking Service and Japanese Manga

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anak Agung Gede Dharma

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The growth of Social Networking Service (SNS has created a new potential in marketing. While users communicate and interact via SNS, the list of their conversation, which is called casual data can be used to determine their needs or aspirations. SNS can be very useful for product/service developers, especially when developing new ideas or simply evaluating the feasibility of their existing products/services. Furthermore, SNS provides a unique system that enables expressive and two-way communication between its users. SNS is known for its effectiveness in delivering fresh news and information, thus it can be used as promotional media. Although several online services that utilize SNS and casual data have been provided, the purpose of those services is still unclear and ineffective. In those services, users were only asked for their opinions without receiving sufficient feedbacks. Therefore, to solve these problems we propose an innovative way of utilizing SNS and casual data in designing user generated design XE "user generated design" . In our proposed system, users can directly contribute to the product/service development process in an interesting way. We designed an online service, which allows users to posts manga that describes their original idea. While contributing to the product/service development, they can also benefit from expressing their hobbies and receiving feedbacks from other users.

  7. Opinion Mining for User Generated Design By Social Networking Service and Japanese Manga

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anak Agung Gede Dharma

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The growth of Social Networking Service (SNS has created a new potential in marketing. While users communicate and interact via SNS, the list of their conversation, which is called casual data can be used to determine their needs or aspirations. SNS can be very useful for product/service developers, especially when developing new ideas or simply evaluating the feasibility of their existing products/services. Furthermore, SNS provides a unique system that enables expressive and two-way communication between its users. SNS is known for its effectiveness in delivering fresh news and information, thus it can be used as promotional media. Although several online services that utilize SNS and casual data have been provided, the purpose of those services is still unclear and ineffective. In those services, users were only asked for their opinions without receiving sufficient feedbacks. Therefore, to solve these problems we propose an innovative way of utilizing SNS and casual data in designing user generated design. In our proposed system, users can directly contribute to the product/service development process in an interesting way. We designed an online service, which allows users to posts manga that describes their original idea. While contributing to the product/service development, they can also benefit from expressing their hobbies and receiving feedbacks from other users.

  8. Dynamic social networks and the implications for the spread of infectious disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Read, Jonathan M; Eames, Ken T D; Edmunds, W John

    2008-09-06

    Understanding the nature of human contact patterns is crucial for predicting the impact of future pandemics and devising effective control measures. However, few studies provide a quantitative description of the aspects of social interactions that are most relevant to disease transmission. Here, we present the results from a detailed diary-based survey of casual (conversational) and close contact (physical) encounters made by a small peer group of 49 adults who recorded 8,661 encounters with 3,528 different individuals over 14 non-consecutive days. We find that the stability of interactions depends on the intimacy of contact and social context. Casual contact encounters mostly occur in the workplace and are predominantly irregular, while close contact encounters mostly occur at home or in social situations and tend to be more stable. Simulated epidemics of casual contact transmission involve a large number of non-repeated encounters, and the social network is well captured by a random mixing model. However, the stability of the social network should be taken into account for close contact infections. Our findings have implications for the modelling of human epidemics and planning pandemic control policies based on social distancing methods.

  9. Reported contraceptive use, risk behaviours and STIs among military conscripts in Estonian defence forces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    David Parker, R; Regier, Michael D; Widmeyer, Joseph; Honaker, John; Rüütel, Kristi

    2015-10-01

    Limited research exists on sexually transmitted infection (STI) and risk behaviour among military personnel. Published research on condom use and types of contraceptives used yield mixed results, yet, the perception that military members are at higher risk for STIs remains. The objectives of this cross-sectional study were to measure factors such as condom use, contraceptive methods, and risky behaviours (i.e. drug use and sex with commercial sex workers) and investigate differences between ethnic groups, where culture could influence behaviour. Data were collected from a recruited population of 584 male, military conscripts in northeastern Europe. Using multinomial logistic regression models, statistically significant findings include an interaction between the use of contraceptive methods of Russians with casual partners and ethnicity, with higher odds of effective methods used among Estonians with regular partners (OR = 8.13) or casual partners (OR = 11.58) and Russians with regular partners (OR = 4.98). Effective contraceptive methods used less frequently with casual partners by ethnic Russians is important in providing education and risk reduction services to young, male conscripts. These findings may be used as a baseline to inform health education and STI prevention programmes tailored to military members in Eastern Europe in the absence of other published studies.

  10. Gender moderates the relationship between impulsivity and sexual risk-taking in a cocaine-using psychiatric outpatient population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Anne C; McMahon, Thomas J; Potenza, Marc N; Fiellin, Lynn E; Rosen, Marc I

    2015-03-01

    Adults who abuse substances are at increased risk for contracting sexually transmitted infections, including HIV. Within this population, sexual risk behaviors have been associated with increased impulsivity. Studies in non-clinical populations showing gender-related differences in sexual decision-making and casual sexual partnering suggest impulsivity has a greater influence on men than women, but these differences have not been documented in substance-using patients. In a sample of 89 adults with recent cocaine use and receiving outpatient psychiatric treatment, we tested the hypothesis that gender moderates the effect of impulsivity on sexual risk-taking. Using logistic regression modeling, we tested the main and gender-moderated effects of task-related impulsivity on the probability of having a casual sexual partner and multiple sexual partners. Results confirmed a significant gender-by-impulsivity interaction; men who were more impulsive on a continuous performance task had significantly higher rates of sexual risk-taking than less impulsive men, but women's impulsivity was unrelated to these outcomes. Impulsive men were over three times as likely as less impulsive men to have a recent casual partner. Implications of these results and suggestions for future research are discussed.

  11. Efficacy and Safety of Cream Containing Climbazole/Piroctone Olamine for Facial Seborrheic Dermatitis: A Single-Center, Open-Label Split-Face Clinical Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youn, Hae Jeong; Kim, Soo Young; Park, Minji; Jung, Won Hee; Choe, Yong Beom; Ahn, Kyu Joong

    2016-01-01

    Background Seborrheic dermatitis (SD) is a multifactorial disease; Malassezia species play an important role in its pathogenesis. Objective We aimed to determine whether a cream containing climbazole/piroctone olamine (C/P cream), antifungal agents with expected efficacy against Malassezia species, could improve SD symptoms. Methods We instructed 24 patients with mild-to-moderate SD to apply the C/P cream and emollient cream on the right and left sides of the face, respectively, every morning and evening for 4 weeks. The casual sebum level (measured with Sebumeter®; Courage & Khazaka Electronic GmbH, Germany) and the extent of erythema (measured with Mexameter®; Courage & Khazaka Electronic GmbH) on the face were measured at baseline and after 4 weeks. The minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) was determined to demonstrate the antifungal activity of the C/P cream. Results The casual sebum level and erythema were measured at week 4, and the median values demonstrated a quantitative improvement on the C/P cream-treated right side of the face compared to the emollient cream-treated left side. For the C/P cream, the MICs were 0.625, 5, 0.625, and 2.5 mg/ml for Malassezia restricta, M. globosa, M. sympodialis, and M. slooffiae, respectively. Conclusion Based on the reduced casual sebum level and extent of erythema, the antifungal activity of C/P cream against Malassezia species seems useful for the treatment of mild to moderate SD. PMID:27904273

  12. Situated Usability Testing for Security Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greitzer, Frank L.

    2011-03-02

    While usability testing is well established, assessing the usability of security software, tools, or methods deserves more careful consideration. It has been argued that dealing with security has become too difficult for individuals or organizations to manage effectively or to use conveniently. As difficult as it is for system administrators and developers to deal with, security is even more challenging for casual users. Indeed, it is much too easy for casual/home users to configure the security of their systems in non-optimal ways that leave their systems inadvertently insecure. This is exacerbated by the fact that casual users are focused on matters other than security, and likely would prefer not even to think about security. This brief report argues that when security and/or privacy are part of the equation, traditional methods for usability testing should be re-considered. The purpose of this brief report is to argue for and outline a method associated with a new approach to usability testing for examining usable security issues.

  13. On early starters and late bloomers: the development of sexual behavior in adolescence across personality types.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baams, Laura; Overbeek, Geertjan; Dubas, Judith Semon; van Aken, Marcel A G

    2014-01-01

    Little is known about the relationship between personality and sexual development among mid-adolescents. In the current study, we used a person-centered approach to investigate the relation between personality types and the development of sexual behavior. We hypothesized that undercontrolling adolescents would engage in more advanced, casual, and risky sexual behavior compared to their resilient and overcontrolling peers. Data were used from 407 mid-adolescents (Mage = 14.5) followed across four measurement waves spanning 18 months. Results from latent class analyses (LCA) identified the three classical personality types: resilients, undercontrollers, and overcontrollers. Controlling for perceived pubertal timing and biological sex, latent growth curve analyses in Mplus showed that, at baseline, undercontrollers were more sexually experienced and engaged in more casual and risky sexual behavior than resilients and overcontrollers. Although initial levels of sexual behavior differed by personality types, over time increases in sexual behavior occurred at a similar rate across the types. Overall, the current study showed that undercontrolling adolescents are early sexual developers who engage in more advanced, casual, and risky sexual behavior than other adolescents. The implications of these findings for longer-term differences in sexual behavior between personality types in later adolescence are discussed.

  14. Expanded DEMATEL for Determining Cause and Effect Group in Bidirectional Relations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elham Falatoonitoosi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Decision-Making Trial and Evaluation Laboratory (DEMATEL methodology has been proposed to solve complex and intertwined problem groups in many situations such as developing the capabilities, complex group decision making, security problems, marketing approaches, global managers, and control systems. DEMATEL is able to realize casual relationships by dividing important issues into cause and effect group as well as making it possible to visualize the casual relationships of subcriteria and systems in the course of casual diagram that it may demonstrate communication network or a little control relationships between individuals. Despite of its ability to visualize cause and effect inside a network, the original DEMATEL has not been able to find the cause and effect group between different networks. Therefore, the aim of this study is proposing the expanded DEMATEL to cover this deficiency by new formulations to determine cause and effect factors between separate networks that have bidirectional direct impact on each other. At the end, the feasibility of new extra formulations is validated by case study in three numerical examples of green supply chain networks for an automotive company.

  15. Sexual behavior of foreign backpackers in the Khao San Road area, Bangkok.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaehler, Nils; Piyaphanee, Watcharapong; Kittitrakul, Chatporn; Kyi, Ye Paing; Adhikari, Bipin; Sibunruang, Suda; Jearraksuwan, Suwimol; Tangpukdee, Noppadon; Silachamroon, Udomsak; Tantawichien, Terapong

    2013-07-04

    Travelers play a role in the spread of sexually transmitted diseases, including HIV because of having unprotected sex. We studied the incidence of casual sex among foreign backpack tourists in the Khao San Road area of Bangkok, Thailand. We also evaluated their attitudes about sexual health and their actual practices. A cross sectional study was conducted using a self-administered, anonymous questionnaire. The target population was backpackers aged > or =18 years, from Europe, North America and Australia. In total, 415 questionnaires were filled out and analyzed. Sixty-four percent of participants were male, the overall median age was 27 years and the mean duration of stay was 14.6 days. One hundred seven respondents (25%) had casual sex while staying in Thailand; of these, 55% always used condoms. The selection of sex partner influenced the use of condoms. The highest rate of condom use was among backpackers who had sex with sex workers (63%), while those who had sex with their travel partners had the lowest rate of condom use (35.6%). One-fourth of backpackers in our study had casual sex during their trip. Their attitudes towards safe sex practices were not ideal. Methods to change attitudes and behavior about unprotected sex need to be explored in this population.

  16. Contraceptive Decision-Making in Sexual Relationships: Young Men’s Experiences, Attitudes, and Values

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raine, Tina R.; Gard, Jennifer C.; Boyer, Cherrie B.; Haider, Sadia; Brown, Beth A.; Hernandez, F. Antonio Ramirez; Harper, Cynthia C.

    2009-01-01

    Much attention has been focused on efforts to reduce unintended pregnancy by improving contraceptive use among high-risk women; however, there is limited information to guide interventions to engage young men in contraceptive decision-making. We conducted focus groups of young men, ages 19–26, from diverse racial backgrounds from low-income communities in the San Francisco Bay Area to examine social norms about sexual relationships and how they impact on contraceptive use. The data were analysed using content analysis. A range of relationships were described, however casual relationships predominated. While young men expressed strong desires to avoid pregnancy in casual relationships, the unpredictable nature of relationships, together with low communication and regard for the women involved, made stressing consistent contraceptive use among partners unlikely. The themes expressed by these young men about sex and behaviour in different relationships illustrate a spectrum of decision-making dilemmas and illustrate the inherent difficulty in fully engaging young men in contraceptive decision-making. A strategy is needed to address relationship values, dynamics, and condom use beyond STI prevention frameworks, and young women’s ability to make appropriate contraceptive choices in light of the inherent difficulties and uncertainty associated with casual relationships. PMID:20169479

  17. Status of home blood pressure measured in morning and evening: evaluation in normotensives and hypertensives in Japanese urban population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawabe, Hiroshi; Saito, Ikuo; Saruta, Takao

    2005-06-01

    To assess home blood pressure status in a Japanese urban population, we analyzed home blood pressure values in normotensive subjects determined by casual blood pressure (mmHg), hypertensive subjects without medication (> or = 140/90 mmHg) and treated hypertensive patients. The subjects (468 male, 232 female; mean age 41 years old) were recruited from a company located in Tokyo. Home blood pressure was measured with a semi-automatic device (Omron HEM-759P). Subjects were instructed to perform triplicate morning and evening measurements on 7 consecutive days. In the treated hypertensive group (n = 70), there was a significant difference between morning (139 +/- 12/88 +/- 9 mmHg) and evening (130 +/- 12/79 +/- 8 mmHg) home blood pressure. In the normotensive group (n = 558), however, only the diastolic blood pressure (DBP) component of the home blood pressure was significantly different between morning (115 +/- 13/72 +/- 9 mmHg) and evening (114 +/- 12/68 +/- 8 mmHg). In the nontreated hypertensive group (n = 72), casual blood pressure (145 +/- 14/92 +/- 9 mmHg) was higher than morning (138 +/- 16/89 +/- 11 mmHg) and evening (134 +/- 16/83 +/- 11 mmHg) home blood pressure, but no difference was seen between morning and evening systolic blood pressure (SBP). According to the reference value of the Japanese Society of Hypertension 2004 (SBP > or = 135 mmHg and/or DBP > or = 85 mmHg), 7.2% (systolic) and 8.7% (diastolic) of subjects in the normotensive group were classified as hypertensive by home blood pressure. Casual blood pressure in the treated hypertensive group was normal in 64.3% for SBP and 70.0% for DBP. However, their morning SBP (32.9%), morning DBP (40.0%), evening SBP (10.0%), and evening DBP (17.1%) were classified as hypertensive by home blood pressure. Furthermore, patients who were taking antihypertensive drug(s) only in the morning (n = 52) showed higher morning SBP (6 mmHg, p = 0.086) and morning DBP (6 mmHg, p = 0.005) than patients taking drug(s) by

  18. Oil demand reduction in an oil crisis. Evaluation of oil demand-reducing measures for the transportation sector; Brandstofvraagreductie bij oliecrisis. Evaluatie van vraagreducerende maatregelen voor de transportsector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanschke, C.B.; Van Bree, B.; Kroon, P. [ECN Beleidsstudies, Petten (Netherlands)

    2010-01-15

    Every IEA member state must have in place measures to reduce oil demand during oil supply emergencies. The transport sector offers significant opportunities to reduce oil demand with relatively limited impact on the overall economy. To determine which measures are useful in the Dutch situation, this report performs a quick scan of a number of demand restraint measures in the transport sector. The quick scan ranks measures by their effectiveness, feasibility, and efficiency. Based on the quick scan results, three measures have been selected for further research (Sunday driving ban, work-trip reduction, and carpooling). Additionally, the effects of price increases on oil demand have been examined. Five refineries and a large petrochemical industry sector are based in the Netherlands. Therefore, the shares of passenger road transport (20%) and freight road transport (12%) in the national oil demand are comparatively low. As a consequence an oil demand reduction in road transport of at least 20% to 30% is required to meet the national oil demand reduction target of 7% to 10% agreed within IEA. Price effects during an oil crisis are uncertain given limited research, and estimated to reduce oil demand from passenger road transport by 15% to 35% and oil demand from freight road transport by 10% to 25%. Given the uncertainty, this effect was halved to obtain a conservative estimate of 2% to 4% of national oil demand reduction as a result of price effects. A Sunday driving ban can lead to reductions of 50% to 80% of passenger travel on Sundays, leading to savings of 1% to 1.5% of national oil demand. Work-trip reduction policies can reduce worktrips by 10% and lead to reductions of 0.5% to 1% of total oil demand. Carpooling has the greatest potential, reducing work trips up to 30% and leading to 0% to 2.5% savings of national oil demand. The broad range of the latter estimate is due to the limited options available to influence motorists to share their vehicles with others

  19. Fuel demand reduction during oil crisis. Evaluation of demand reducing measures for the transportation sector; Brandstofvraagreductie bij oliecrisis. Evaluatie van vraagreducerende maatregelen voor de transportsector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanschke, C.B.; Van Bree, B.; Kroon, P. [ECN Beleidsstudies, Petten (Netherlands)

    2010-01-15

    Every IEA member state must have in place measures to reduce oil demand during oil supply emergencies. The transport sector offers significant opportunities to reduce oil demand with relatively limited impact on the overall economy. To determine which measures are useful in the Dutch situation, this report performs a quick scan of a number of demand restraint measures in the transport sector. The quick scan ranks measures by their effectiveness, feasibility, and efficiency. Based on the quick scan results, three measures have been selected for further research (Sunday driving ban, work-trip reduction, and carpooling). Additionally, the effects of price increases on oil demand have been examined. Five refineries and a large petrochemical industry sector are based in the Netherlands. Therefore, the shares of passenger road transport (20%) and freight road transport (12%) in the national oil demand are comparatively low. As a consequence an oil demand reduction in road transport of at least 20% to 30% is required to meet the national oil demand reduction target of 7% to 10% agreed within IEA. Price effects during an oil crisis are uncertain given limited research, and estimated to reduce oil demand from passenger road transport by 15% to 35% and oil demand from freight road transport by 10% to 25%. Given the uncertainty, this effect was halved to obtain a conservative estimate of 2% to 4% of national oil demand reduction as a result of price effects. A Sunday driving ban can lead to reductions of 50% to 80% of passenger travel on Sundays, leading to savings of 1% to 1.5% of national oil demand. Work-trip reduction policies can reduce worktrips by 10% and lead to reductions of 0.5% to 1% of total oil demand. Carpooling has the greatest potential, reducing work trips up to 30% and leading to 0% to 2.5% savings of national oil demand. The broad range of the latter estimate is due to the limited options available to influence motorists to share their vehicles with others

  20. Interactions of Transportation and Telecommunications Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dholakia, N.; Mundorf, N.; Dholakia, R. R.; Xiao, J. J.

    2002-05-01

    This project was designed as a social science complement to the engineering studies supported by the University of Rhode Island (URI) Transportation Center (URITC). The project developed a behavioral knowledge base about the actual and intended transport and telecommunications behaviors of transportation users, with a particular focus on southern Rhode Island. Background studies, drawing from literature on telecommuting and travel behavior, led to the development of a generalized framework to understand the transport-telecom interactions. In particular, we developed working papers dealing with transport aspects of e-retailing and distance education. In the empirical part of this project, two major field studies were completed. The first of these was a survey of URI students, probing their car travel, carpool, bus use, and Internet use behaviors. The students were surveyed first by telephone, selected randomly from a list obtained from the Register's office. A total of 220 students responded to the telephone survey. Characteristics of the telephone survey respondents are shown in Appendix B. This was supplemented by an in-class survey of 107 students conveniently selected from the courses taught by the research faculty. This supplementary questionnaire probed the students more deeply regarding their motivations for transportation and technology use issues. The second major field study was a mail survey of southern Rhode Island residents. In this survey, we not only investigated actual travel and transport behaviors but also measured attitudes towards the environment and alternative transport and telecommuting solutions. At the time of writing this report, about 850 individuals had responded to our mail questionnaire. Characteristics of the resident sample are described in Appendix B. The results have laid the groundwork for our second year project where we plan to study the impact of specific interventions on transportation and telecommuting attitudes and intentions.