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Sample records for castor canadensis population

  1. Development of nine new microsatellite loci for the American beaver, Castor canadensis (Rodentia: Castoridae), and cross-species amplification in the European beaver, Castor fiber

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    Pelz-Serrano, K.; Munguia-Vega, A.; Piaggio, A.J.; Neubaum, M.; Munclinger, P.; PArtl, A.; van Riper, Charles; Culver, M.

    2009-01-01

    We developed nine new nuclear dinucleotide microsatellite loci for Castor canadensis. All loci were polymorphic, except for one. The number of alleles ranged from two to four and from five to 12 in populations from Arizona and Wisconsin, respectively. Average heterozygosity ranged from 0.13 to 0.86 per locus. Since cross-species amplification in Castor fiber was successful only in four loci, we tested also nine recently published C. canadensis loci in the Eurasian species. Eight of the published loci amplified; however, three were monomorphic. The number of alleles was lower in C. fiber than in C. canadensis at all loci tested. ?? 2009 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  2. Sexual and Asexual Reproduction of Salix sitchensis and the Influence of Beaver (Castor canadensis) Herbivory on Reproductive Success

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    Travis G. Gerwing; Alyssa M. Allen Gerwing; Rapaport, Eric; Alström-Rapaport, Cecilia

    2012-01-01

    The influence of beaver (Castor canadensis Kuhl) herbivory on Salix reproduction, specifically the stimulation of asexual reproduction via browsed stem fragments, is relatively unknown. This study aimed to determine if beaver herbivory stimulates asexual reproduction of riparian willows and results in mature populations dominated by clones. The survival of seedlings and asexual propagules produced by beaver browse in populations of the riparian willow Salix sitchensis (Sanson in Bongard) were...

  3. Prevalence of agglutinating antibodies to Toxoplasma gondii and Sarcocystis neurona in beavers (Castor canadensis) from Massachusetts

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    Jordan, C.N.; Kaur, T.; Koenen, K.; DeStefano, S.; Zajac, A.M.; Lindsay, D.S.

    2005-01-01

    The present study examined the seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii and Sarcocystls neurona in a population of beavers (Castor canadensis) from Massachusetts. Sixty-two blood samples were collected during the field seasons over 3 consecutive years from different animals. Blood was collected onto filter paper and shipped to the Department of Biomedical Sciences, Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, Virginia, for parasite testing. The samples were tested at dilutions of 1:25, 1:50, and 1:100 against each parasite antigen by modified agglutination tests to determine whether antibodies to either parasite were present in the blood. Six of 62 samples (10%) were positive for T. gondii, with 2 samples having titers of 1:25 and 4 having titers of 1:50. Four of 62 samples (6%) were positive for S. neurona, with 2 samples having titers of 1:25 and 2 having titers of 1:50. ?? American Society of Pathologists 2005.

  4. Bacterial and Archaeal Diversity in the Gastrointestinal Tract of the North American Beaver (Castor canadensis)

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    Gruninger, Robert J.; McAllister, Tim A.; Forster, Robert J.

    2016-01-01

    The North American Beaver (Castor canadensis) is the second largest living rodent and an iconic symbol of Canada. The beaver is a semi-aquatic browser whose diet consists of lignocellulose from a variety of plants. The beaver is a hindgut fermenter and has an enlarged ceacum that houses a complex microbiome. There have been few studies examining the microbial diversity in gastrointestinal tract of hindgut fermenting herbivores. To examine the bacterial and archaeal communities inhabiting the gastrointestinal tract of the beaver, the microbiome of the ceacum and feaces was examined using culture-independent methods. DNA from the microbial community of the ceacum and feaces of 4 adult beavers was extracted, and the16S rRNA gene was sequenced using either bacterial or archaeal specific primers. A total of 1447 and 1435 unique bacterial OTUs were sequenced from the ceacum and feaces, respectively. On average, the majority of OTUs within the ceacum were classified as Bacteroidetes (49.2%) and Firmicutes (47.6%). The feaces was also dominated by OTUs from Bacteroidetes (36.8%) and Firmicutes (58.9%). The composition of bacterial community was not significantly different among animals. The composition of the ceacal and feacal microbiome differed, but this difference is due to changes in the abundance of closely related OTUs, not because of major differences in the taxonomic composition of the communities. Within these communities, known degraders of lignocellulose were identified. In contrast, to the bacterial microbiome, the archaeal community was dominated by a single species of methanogen, Methanosphaera stadtmanae. The data presented here provide the first insight into the microbial community within the hindgut of the beaver. PMID:27227334

  5. Population genetic structure in natural and reintroduced beaver (Castor fiber populations in Central Europe

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    Kautenburger, R.

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Castor fiber Linnaeus, 1758 is the only indigenous species of the genus Castor in Europe and Asia. Due to extensive hunting until the beginning of the 20th century, the distribution of the formerly widespread Eurasian beaver was dramatically reduced. Only a few populations remained and these were in isolated locations, such as the region of the German Elbe River. The loss of genetic diversity in small or captive populations throughgenetic drift and inbreeding is a severe conservation problem. However, the reintroduction of beaver populations from several regions in Europe has shown high viability and populations today are growing fast. In the present study we analysed the population genetic structure of a natural and two reintroduced beaver populations in Germany and Austria. Furthermore, we studied the genetic differentiation between two beaver species, C. fiber and the American beaver (C. canadensis, using RAPD (Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA as a genetic marker. The reintroduced beaver populations of different origins and the autochthonous population of the Elbe River showed a similar low genetic heterogeneity. There was an overall high genetic similarity in the species C. fiber, and no evidence was found for a clear subspecific structure in the populations studied.

  6. Signatures of self-assembly in size distributions of wood members in dam structures of Castor canadensis

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    David M. Blersch

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Beavers (Castor canadensis construct dams on rivers throughout most of their historical range in North America, and their impact on water patterns in the landscape is considerable. Dam formation by beavers involves two processes: (1 intentional construction through the selection and placement of wood and sediment, which facilitates (2 the passive capture and accretion of suspended wood and sediment. The second process is a self-assembly mechanism that the beavers leverage by utilizing energy subsidies of watershed transport processes. The relative proportion of beaver activity to self-assembly processes in dam construction, however, is unknown. Here we show that lotic self-assembly processes account for a substantial portion of the work expended in beaver dam construction. We found through comprehensive measurement of the stick dimensions that the distributions for diameter, length, and volume are log-normal. By noting evidence of teeth markings, we determined that size distributions skewed significantly larger for wood handled by beavers compared to those that were not. Subsequent mass calculations suggest that beavers perform 50%–70% of the work of wood member placement for dam assembly, with riparian self-assembly processes contributing the remainder. Additionally, our results establish a benchmark for assessing the proportion of self-assembly work in similar riparian structures.

  7. Population genetic structure in the eastern population of Greater Sandhill Cranes (Grus canadensis Tabida)

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    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Sandhill Crane (SACR; Grus canadensis) is the most populous of the 15 extant crane species. Their breeding range covers the majority of the continental U.S. and...

  8. Substrate-Driven Convergence of the Microbial Community in Lignocellulose-Amended Enrichments of Gut Microflora from the Canadian Beaver (Castor canadensis) and North American Moose (Alces americanus).

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    Wong, Mabel T; Wang, Weijun; Lacourt, Michael; Couturier, Marie; Edwards, Elizabeth A; Master, Emma R

    2016-01-01

    Strategic enrichment of microcosms derived from wood foragers can facilitate the discovery of key microbes that produce enzymes for the bioconversion of plant fiber (i.e., lignocellulose) into valuable chemicals and energy. In this study, lignocellulose-degrading microorganisms from the digestive systems of Canadian beaver (Castor canadensis) and North American moose (Alces americanus) were enriched under methanogenic conditions for over 3 years using various wood-derived substrates, including (i) cellulose (C), (ii) cellulose + lignosulphonate (CL), (iii) cellulose + tannic acid (CT), and (iv) poplar hydrolysate (PH). Substantial improvement in the conversion of amended organic substrates into biogas was observed in both beaver dropping and moose rumen enrichment cultures over the enrichment phases (up to 0.36-0.68 ml biogas/mg COD added), except for enrichments amended with tannic acid where conversion was approximately 0.15 ml biogas/mg COD added. Multiplex-pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA genes revealed systematic shifts in the population of Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes, Chlorobi, Spirochaetes, Chloroflexi, and Elusimicrobia in response to the enrichment. These shifts were predominantly substrate driven, not inoculum driven, as revealed by both UPGMA clustering pattern and OTU distribution. Additionally, the relative abundance of multiple OTUs from poorly defined taxonomic lineages increased from less than 1% to 25-50% in microcosms amended with lignocellulosic substrates, including OTUs from classes SJA-28, Endomicrobia, orders Bacteroidales, OPB54, and family Lachnospiraceae. This study provides the first direct comparison of shifts in microbial communities that occurred in different environmental samples in response to multiple relevant lignocellulosic carbon sources, and demonstrates the potential of enrichment to increase the abundance of key lignocellulolytic microorganisms and encoded activities. PMID:27446004

  9. Substrate-driven convergence of the microbial community in lignocellulose-amended enrichments of gut microflora from the Canadian beaver (Castor canadensis and North American moose (Alces americanus

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    Mabel Ting eWong

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Strategic enrichment of microcosms derived from wood foragers can facilitate the discovery of key microbes that produce enzymes for the bioconversion of plant fibre (i.e. lignocellulose into valuable chemicals and energy. In this study, lignocellulose-degrading microorganisms from the digestive systems of Canadian beaver (Castor canadensis and North American moose (Alces americanus were enriched under methanogenic conditions for over three years using various wood-derived substrates, including i cellulose (C, ii cellulose + lignosulphonate (CL, iii cellulose + tannic acid (CT, and iv poplar hydrolysate (PH. Substantial improvement in the conversion of amended organic substrates to biogas was observed in both beaver dropping and moose rumen enrichment cultures over the enrichment phases (up to 0.36 to 0.68 ml biogas/ mg COD added, except for enrichments amended with tannic acid where conversion was only about 0.15 ml biogas/ mg COD added. Multiplex-pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA genes revealed systematic shifts in the population of Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes, Chlorobi, Spirochaetes, Chloroflexi and Elusimicrobia in response to the enrichment. These shifts were predominantly substrate-driven, not inoculum driven, as revealed by both UPGMA clustering pattern and OTU distribution. Additionally, the relative abundance of multiple OTUs from poorly-defined taxonomic lineages increased from less than 1% to 25-50% in microcosms amended with lignocellulosic substrates, including OTUs from classes SJA-28, Endomicrobia, orders Bacteroidales, OPB54 and family Lachnospiraceae. This study provides the first direct comparison of shifts in microbial communities that occurred in different environmental samples in response to multiple relevant lignocellulosic carbon sources, and demonstrates the potential of enrichment to increase the abundance of key lignocellulolytic microorganisms and encoded activities.

  10. Substrate-Driven Convergence of the Microbial Community in Lignocellulose-Amended Enrichments of Gut Microflora from the Canadian Beaver (Castor canadensis) and North American Moose (Alces americanus)

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    Wong, Mabel T.; Wang, Weijun; Lacourt, Michael; Couturier, Marie; Edwards, Elizabeth A.; Master, Emma R.

    2016-01-01

    Strategic enrichment of microcosms derived from wood foragers can facilitate the discovery of key microbes that produce enzymes for the bioconversion of plant fiber (i.e., lignocellulose) into valuable chemicals and energy. In this study, lignocellulose-degrading microorganisms from the digestive systems of Canadian beaver (Castor canadensis) and North American moose (Alces americanus) were enriched under methanogenic conditions for over 3 years using various wood-derived substrates, including (i) cellulose (C), (ii) cellulose + lignosulphonate (CL), (iii) cellulose + tannic acid (CT), and (iv) poplar hydrolysate (PH). Substantial improvement in the conversion of amended organic substrates into biogas was observed in both beaver dropping and moose rumen enrichment cultures over the enrichment phases (up to 0.36–0.68 ml biogas/mg COD added), except for enrichments amended with tannic acid where conversion was approximately 0.15 ml biogas/mg COD added. Multiplex-pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA genes revealed systematic shifts in the population of Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes, Chlorobi, Spirochaetes, Chloroflexi, and Elusimicrobia in response to the enrichment. These shifts were predominantly substrate driven, not inoculum driven, as revealed by both UPGMA clustering pattern and OTU distribution. Additionally, the relative abundance of multiple OTUs from poorly defined taxonomic lineages increased from less than 1% to 25–50% in microcosms amended with lignocellulosic substrates, including OTUs from classes SJA-28, Endomicrobia, orders Bacteroidales, OPB54, and family Lachnospiraceae. This study provides the first direct comparison of shifts in microbial communities that occurred in different environmental samples in response to multiple relevant lignocellulosic carbon sources, and demonstrates the potential of enrichment to increase the abundance of key lignocellulolytic microorganisms and encoded activities.

  11. Identificación de los mecanismos subyacentes a la invasión de Castor canadensis (Rodentia en el archipiélago de Tierra del Fuego, Chile Identifying the mechanisms underlying the invasion of Castor canadensis (Rodentia into Tierra del Fuego archipelago, Chile

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    PETRA K WALLEM

    2007-09-01

    conceptual sobre el cual se pueden desarrollar futuras investigaciones referentes a esta invasiónCastor canadensis is considered an archetypical ecosystem engineer, which modifies the state of biotic and abiotic factors through non-trophic interactions. This species was introduced by the Argentinean government into Tierra del Fuego island in 1946, and subsequently colonized autonomously the neighboring islands of Navarino, Dawson and Hoste. Currently this invader occupies contrasting ecosystems such as the Magellan subpolar beech forest and Patagonian scrub and steppe. This ability to colonize contrasting habitats suggests that beaver expansion will be limited mainly by hydrological resources, threatening to colonize the complete extent of temperate beech forests on the mainland (from 35 to 55° S. The present review proposes three hypotheses regarding the underlying mechanisms to this successful invasion: natural enemy escape, resource opportunities, and self-facilitation through non-trophic interactions. Current knowledge regarding beaver colonization and foraging behavior (e.g., habitat selection independently of forest availability, irruptive population growth, and apparent selective exploitation of Nothofagus pumilio, dominant species in the Magellan forest suggests that enemy escape and resource opportunity are the main mechanisms underlying this invasion. The observation of higher densities of active colonies, where the extent of beaver habitat modification is larger, suggests that self-facilitation may be relevant to the success of this invasion. Current information does not allow testing these hypotheses, but it provides a framework to develop future investigations regarding this invasion in Tierra del Fuego

  12. Identificación de los mecanismos subyacentes a la invasión de Castor canadensis (Rodentia) en el archipiélago de Tierra del Fuego, Chile Identifying the mechanisms underlying the invasion of Castor canadensis (Rodentia) into Tierra del Fuego archipelago, Chile

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    PETRA K WALLEM; Jones, Clive G; Marquet, Pablo A.; Fabián M. Jaksic

    2007-01-01

    Castor canadensis es considerado un ingeniero ecosistémico arquetípico, ya que altera el estado de factores bióticos y abióticos, mediante interacciones no tróficas, modificando sustancialmente los ecosistemas que habita. Esta especie fue introducida en la Isla Grande de Tierra del Fuego en 1946 por el gobierno argentino, con el fin de estimular la industria peletera. Actualmente se encuentra presente en las principales islas del archipiélago, incluyendo Tierra del Fuego, Navarino, Dawson y H...

  13. Effects of reintroduced beaver (Castor canadensis) on riparian bird community structure along the upper San Pedro River, southeastern Arizona and northern Sonora, Mexico

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    Johnson, Glenn E.; van Riper, Charles

    2014-01-01

    Chapter 1.—We measured bird abundance and richness along the upper San Pedro River in 2005 and 2006, in order to document how beavers (Castor canadensis) may act as ecosystem engineers after their reintroduction to a desert riparian area in the Southwestern United States. In areas where beavers colonized, we found higher bird abundance and richness of bird groups, such as all breeding birds, insectivorous birds, and riparian specialists, and higher relative abundance of many individual species—including several avian species of conservation concern. Chapter 2.—We conducted bird surveys in riparian areas along the upper San Pedro River in southeastern Arizona (United States) and northern Sonora (Mexico) in order to describe factors influencing bird community dynamics and the distribution and abundance of species, particularly those of conservation concern. These surveys were also used to document the effects of the ecosystem-altering activities of a recently reintroduced beavers (Castor canadensis). Chapter 3.—We reviewed Southwestern Willow Flycatcher (Empidonax traillii extimus) nest records and investigated the potential for future breeding along the upper San Pedro River in southeastern Arizona, where in July 2005 we encountered the southernmost verifiable nest attempt for the species. Continued conservation and management of the area’s riparian vegetation and surface water has potential to contribute additional breeding sites for this endangered Willow Flycatcher subspecies. Given the nest record along the upper San Pedro River and the presence of high-density breeding sites to the north, the native cottonwood-willow forests of the upper San Pedro River could become increasingly important to E. t. extimus recovery, especially considering the anticipated effect of the tamarisk leaf beetle (Diorhabda carinulata) on riparian habitat north of the region.

  14. Development and viability of a translocated beaver Castor fiber population in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nolet, B.A.; Baveco, J.M.

    1996-01-01

    We monitored survival, reproduction and emigration of a translocated beaver Castor fiber population in the Netherlands for five years and used a stochastic model to assess its viability. Between 1988 and 1991, 42 beavers were released in the Biesbosch National Park. The mortality was initially high

  15. Genetic variability and homozygosity in a F4 castor bean population by microsatellite markers

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    Edna Lobo Machado

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The objectives of this study were to identify the genetic variability and estimate the level of homozygosity in a castor bean F4 population using microsatellite markers (SSR. To this end, it was performed the genotyping of the population through 53 pairs of SSR primers. Allele frequencies were estimated by number of alleles per locus, expected heterozygosity (He, observed heterozygosity (Ho and polymorphic information content (PIC. An array of genetic dissimilarity was generated by Nei and Li index, and hierarchical cluster analysis was performed using the Unweighted Pair-Group Method Averages (UPGMA method. Polymorphism was detected in a total of eight loci (15.09% of the 53 evaluated, with the presence of two alleles per locus. Allele frequencies varied between 0.71 and 0.53, and the PIC, between 0.32 and 0.37. The average observed heterozygosity Ho (0.30 was lower than the expected heterozygosity He (0.47. Five dissimilar groups were formed, showing that there is genetic variability among the evaluated genotypes. The highest genetic dissimilarity was 0.708 and the lowest, 0.00. The percentages of homozygous genotypes varied from 25 to 75%. These results show that controlled selfing in castor bean raises the level of homozygosity, important for the breeding program.

  16. Spatio-temporal variations in age structures of a partially re-established population of northern river otters (Lontra canadensis)

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    Barrett, Dominic A.; Leslie,, David M.

    2012-01-01

    Examination of age structures and sex ratios is useful in the management of northern river otters (Lontra canadensis) and other furbearers. Reintroductions and subsequent recolonizations of river otters have been well documented, but changes in demographics between expanding and established populations have not been observed. As a result of reintroduction efforts, immigration from Arkansas and northeastern Texas, and other efforts, river otters have become partially reestablished throughout eastern and central Oklahoma. Our objective was to examine age structures of river otters in Oklahoma and identify trends that relate to space (watersheds, county) and time (USDA Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service county trapping records). We predicted that river otters in western areas of the state were younger than river otters occurring farther east. From 2005–2007, we obtained salvaged river otter carcasses from federal and state agencies, and we live-captured other river otters using leg hold traps. Seventy-two river otters were sampled. Overall, sex ratios were skewed toward females (1F∶0.8M), but they did not differ among spatiotemporal scales examined. Teeth were removed from salvaged and live-captured river otters (n  =  63) for aging. One-year old river otters represented the largest age class (30.2%). Proportion of juveniles (populations of river otters in Oklahoma contained younger ages than more established eastern populations.

  17. A study of gizzard nematodes and renal coccidiosis in Canada geese (Branta canadensis interior) of the Mississippi Valley population

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    Tuggle, B.N.

    1982-01-01

    A total of 309 Mississippi Valley Population Canada geese, Branta canadensis interior, of different sex and age groups was collected from three locations in the Mississippi Flyway from 1979-1981 and examined for gizzard nematodes and renal coccidia. Three species of nematodes were removed from the gizzards, Amidostomum anseris, A. spatulatum, and Epomidiostomum crami. The latter two species are reported from this population of geese for the first time. Gizzard nematodes were found in 95.2% of all Canada geese examined, with A. anseris being the most abundant of the three species. There was no statistically significant difference between immatures and adults in the abundance of total nematodes species however, immature geese carried significantly more A. anseris and adult geese harbored significantly more A. spatulatum and E. crami infections. No significant difference in gizzard worm infections between male and female birds was observed. The abundance of overall gizzard nematodes was greatest in Canada geese from Winisk, Ontario (11.9), but the abundance of worms in southern Illinois geese (10.0) was similar. Geese from Horicon National Wildlife Refuge had the lowest abundance of infection, 7.5. The overall abundance of nematodes showed a general increase the second year of the study in each sex and age group and at each collection area. Each of three species of nematodes was responsible for some degree of damage to the gizzard lining and koilin, but E. crami was the most pathogenic of the species recovered. The occurrence of renal coccidiosis in Canada geese of this flyway is reported for the first time; the etiologic agent is Eimeria clarkei. The oocysts and/or endogenous stages of E. clarkei were present in 6.8% of the Canada geese sampled and this was the only species found. Male and female geese showed no significant differences in E. clarkei infections, however, significantly more immature geese than adult geese were infected with this species. A cell

  18. Association of Mycoplasma ovipneumoniae infection with population-limiting respiratory disease in free-ranging Rocky Mountain bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis canadensis).

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    Besser, Thomas E; Cassirer, E Frances; Potter, Kathleen A; VanderSchalie, John; Fischer, Allison; Knowles, Donald P; Herndon, David R; Rurangirwa, Fred R; Weiser, Glen C; Srikumaran, Subramaniam

    2008-02-01

    Bronchopneumonia is a population-limiting disease in bighorn sheep in much of western North America. Previous investigators have isolated diverse bacteria from the lungs of affected sheep, but no single bacterial species is consistently present, even within single epizootics. We obtained high-quality diagnostic specimens from nine pneumonic bighorn sheep in three populations and analyzed the bacterial populations present in bronchoalveolar lavage specimens of seven by using a culture-independent method (16S rRNA gene amplification and clone library analyses). Mycoplasma ovipneumoniae was detected as a predominant member of the pneumonic lung flora in lambs with early lesions of bronchopneumonia. Specific PCR tests then revealed the consistent presence of M. ovipneumoniae in the lungs of pneumonic bighorn sheep in this study, and M. ovipneumoniae was isolated from lung specimens of five of the animals. Retrospective application of M. ovipneumoniae PCR to DNA extracted from archived formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded lung tissues of historical adult bighorn sheep necropsy specimens supported the association of this agent with bronchopneumonia (16/34 pneumonic versus 0/17 nonpneumonic sheep were PCR positive [P M. ovipneumoniae antibody-positive animals and the occurrence of current or recent historical bronchopneumonia problems (seropositive animals detected in 9/9 versus 0/9 pneumonic and nonpneumonic populations, respectively [P M. ovipneumoniae is strongly associated with bronchopneumonia in free-ranging bighorn sheep and is a candidate primary etiologic agent for this disease.

  19. Association of Mycoplasma ovipneumoniae Infection with Population-Limiting Respiratory Disease in Free-Ranging Rocky Mountain Bighorn Sheep (Ovis canadensis canadensis)▿

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    Besser, Thomas E.; Cassirer, E. Frances; Potter, Kathleen A.; VanderSchalie, John; Fischer, Allison; Knowles, Donald P.; Herndon, David R.; Rurangirwa, Fred R.; Weiser, Glen C.; Srikumaran, Subramaniam

    2008-01-01

    Bronchopneumonia is a population-limiting disease in bighorn sheep in much of western North America. Previous investigators have isolated diverse bacteria from the lungs of affected sheep, but no single bacterial species is consistently present, even within single epizootics. We obtained high-quality diagnostic specimens from nine pneumonic bighorn sheep in three populations and analyzed the bacterial populations present in bronchoalveolar lavage specimens of seven by using a culture-independent method (16S rRNA gene amplification and clone library analyses). Mycoplasma ovipneumoniae was detected as a predominant member of the pneumonic lung flora in lambs with early lesions of bronchopneumonia. Specific PCR tests then revealed the consistent presence of M. ovipneumoniae in the lungs of pneumonic bighorn sheep in this study, and M. ovipneumoniae was isolated from lung specimens of five of the animals. Retrospective application of M. ovipneumoniae PCR to DNA extracted from archived formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded lung tissues of historical adult bighorn sheep necropsy specimens supported the association of this agent with bronchopneumonia (16/34 pneumonic versus 0/17 nonpneumonic sheep were PCR positive [P M. ovipneumoniae antibody-positive animals and the occurrence of current or recent historical bronchopneumonia problems (seropositive animals detected in 9/9 versus 0/9 pneumonic and nonpneumonic populations, respectively [P M. ovipneumoniae is strongly associated with bronchopneumonia in free-ranging bighorn sheep and is a candidate primary etiologic agent for this disease. PMID:18057131

  20. Renal coccidiosis in interior Canada geese, Branta canadensis interior Todd, of the Mississippi Valley population

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    Tuggle, Benjamin N.; Crites, John L.

    1984-01-01

    Kidneys from 309 Interior Canada geese from three locations in the Mississippi Flyway were examined for renal coccidia. Oocysts and/or young zygotes of Eimeria sp. were found in 6.8% of goose kidneys sampled. Only one type of renal coccidian oocyst was observed. Significantly more immature geese were infected than adults; however, there was no significant difference observed between the prevalences of infection in male and female birds. A host cellular response to zygotes and oocysts was noted in the majority of infected adult geese. Heavily infected kidneys were hypertrophic with minute foci on the surface of the organ. Histological examinations showed large numbers of unsporulated oocysts accumulated in distended collecting tubules, resulting in pressure necrosis to adjacent tissue and urate retention. Zygotes were observed in the cytoplasm of tubule cells and extracellularly in interstitial tissue. Infected tubule cells were characterized by the peripheral location of the nuclei, cytoplasmic basophilia, and cellular hypertrophy. This is the first report of an Eimeria sp. in the kidneys of Canada geese of the Mississippi Valley population.

  1. Population size of Cuban Parrots Amazona leucocephala and Sandhill Cranes Grus canadensis and community involvement in their conservation in northern Isla de la Juventud, Cuba

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    Aguilera, X.G.; Alvarez, V.B.; Wiley, J.W.; Rosales, J.R.

    1999-01-01

    The Cuban Sandhill Crane Grus canadensis nesiotes and Cuban Parrot Amazona leucocephala palmarum are considered endangered species in Cuba and the Isla de la Juventud (formerly Isla de Pinos). Coincident with a public education campaign, a population survey for these species was conducted in the northern part of the Isla de la Juventud on 17 December 1995, from 06hoo to 10hoo. Residents from throughout the island participated, manning 98 stations, with 1-4 observers per station. Parrots were observed at 60 (61.2%) of the stations with a total of 1320, maximum (without correction for duplicate observations), and 1100, minimum (corrected), individuals counted. Sandhill cranes were sighted at 38 (38.8%) of the stations, with a total of 115 individuals. Cranes and parrots co-occurred at 20 (20.4%) of the stations.

  2. Mitochondrial genomes reveal slow rates of molecular evolution and the timing of speciation in beavers (Castor, one of the largest rodent species.

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    Susanne Horn

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Beavers are one of the largest and ecologically most distinct rodent species. Little is known about their evolution and even their closest phylogenetic relatives have not yet been identified with certainty. Similarly, little is known about the timing of divergence events within the genus Castor. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We sequenced complete mitochondrial genomes from both extant beaver species and used these sequences to place beavers in the phylogenetic tree of rodents and date their divergence from other rodents as well as the divergence events within the genus Castor. Our analyses support the phylogenetic position of beavers as a sister lineage to the scaly tailed squirrel Anomalurus within the mouse related clade. Molecular dating places the divergence time of the lineages leading to beavers and Anomalurus as early as around 54 million years ago (mya. The living beaver species, Castor canadensis from North America and Castor fiber from Eurasia, although similar in appearance, appear to have diverged from a common ancestor more than seven mya. This result is consistent with the hypothesis that a migration of Castor from Eurasia to North America as early as 7.5 mya could have initiated their speciation. We date the common ancestor of the extant Eurasian beaver relict populations to around 210,000 years ago, much earlier than previously thought. Finally, the substitution rate of Castor mitochondrial DNA is considerably lower than that of other rodents. We found evidence that this is correlated with the longer life span of beavers compared to other rodents. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: A phylogenetic analysis of mitochondrial genome sequences suggests a sister-group relationship between Castor and Anomalurus, and allows molecular dating of species divergence in congruence with paleontological data. The implementation of a relaxed molecular clock enabled us to estimate mitochondrial substitution rates and to evaluate the effect

  3. Study on Population Distribution Pattern of the Invasive Plant Solidago canadensis%外来人侵植物加拿大一枝黄花种群分布格局研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐燕云; 郭水良

    2011-01-01

    加拿大一枝黄花(Solidago canadensis)作为近年来我国外来入侵植物,在我国东部地区广泛分布.试验采用连续小样方法调查了加拿大一枝黄花在不同定居阶段和生境中的盖度,并以盖度为指标进行了其种群的分布格局研究.结果表明,加拿大一枝黄花种群呈明显的集群分布,随着其在新生境中定居年限的增长,其种群斑块呈由少→多→少的变化趋势;强大的无性繁殖能力是加拿大一枝黄花种群扩张和侵占生境的有力武器,其单优种群可连绵数千米.%Solidago canadensis, as a recent invasive plant of China, is widely distributed in East China. The coverage of S. canoderisis in different resident stages and environment was investigated by sequential small sampling method, and the population distribution pattern was studied using the index of the coverage. The result showed that the distribution pattern of S. canadensis belonged to clumped type. And with the increasing of ages in the new resident environment, its population plaques displayed such trend as little -much -little. The strong asexual reproduction ability was a powerful weapon for S. canadensis to expand its population and invade habitats so that its dominant population could extend for thousands of meters.

  4. CASTOR end-to-end monitoring

    CERN Document Server

    Rekatsinas, T; Pokorski, W; Ponce, S; Rabaçal, B; Waldron, D; Wojcieszuk, J

    2010-01-01

    With the start of Large Hadron Collider approaching, storage and management of raw event data, as well as reconstruction and analysis data, is of crucial importance for the researchers. The CERN Advanced STORage system (CASTOR) is a hierarchical system developed at CERN, used to store physics production files and user files. CASTOR, as one of the essential software tools used by the LHC experiments, has to provide reliable services for storing and managing data. Monitoring of this complicated system is mandatory in order to assure its stable operation and improve its future performance. This paper presents the new monitoring system of CASTOR which provides operation and user request specific metrics. This system is build around a dedicated, optimized database schema. The schema is populated by PL/SQL procedures, which process a stream of incoming raw metadata from different CASTOR components, initially collected by the Distributed Logging Facility (DLF). A web interface has been developed for the visualizatio...

  5. Castor (Ricinus communis L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The castor plant has been cultivated for thousands of years, providing a useful source of medicine, lamp fuel and lubricant long before petroleum came into wide use. The oil content of castor seed ranges from 45 to 60%, with most cultivars closer to 50% oil content. The presence of the hydroxy fatty...

  6. Reproductive biology in an invasive plant Solidago canadensis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANG Hua; GUO Shuiliang; CHEN Guoqi

    2007-01-01

    Solidago canadensis,a perennial Compositae plant originating from North America,was introduced into China as a horticultural plant in 1935.Under natural conditions,S.canadensis allocates large amounts of energy to sexual reproduction and produces many seeds,which reflects an r-strategy with high seed number and small seed size.In addition,naturalized populations have a great capacity to grow clonally with underground stems.S.canadensis has become an invasive weed in eastern China,and has caused serious damages to agricultural production and ecosystems in several provinces in China.In order to understand the reproductive characteristics of S.canadensis and effectively control its spread,we examined soil conditions,seed characteristics,seed germination and the capacity for asexual reproduction in different plant parts.We investigated the population dispersion of S.canadensis in fixed sites for three years,and analyzed the seasonal dynamics of the morphological parameters of the underground parts and the caloric values of different organs of S.canadensis.We also compared differences in the root systems of S.canadensis and composite exotic weeds.The following results were obtained:1)Under natural conditions,the germination season of S.canadensis lasts from March to October,with a peak from April to May.Vegetative growth and asexual reproduction are especially vigorous during summer due to high temperatures and soil drought stress.On the other hand,the rainy season proves suitable for seed germination.Most S.canadensis flower between September and January,and fruit in late October.A mature plant can produce about 20000 seeds.The mean weight of 1000 seeds ranges from 0.045 g to 0.050 g,and the mean seed moisture content ranges from 60% to 80%.The light-winged seeds disperse readily by air,water,vehicles,human activity or through livestock.2)S.canadensis seeds have a wide tolerance for different values of pH,salinity and soil moisture.The mean percent germination of seeds

  7. Genetic Variation of Echinococcus canadensis (G7) in Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez-Prado, Ulises; Jimenez-Gonzalez, Diego Emiliano; Avila, Guillermina; Gonzalez, Armando E.; Martinez-Flores, Williams Arony; Mondragon de la Peña, Carmen; Hernandez-Castro, Rigoberto; Romero-Valdovinos, Mirza; Flisser, Ana; Martinez-Hernandez, Fernando; Maravilla, Pablo; Martinez-Maya, Jose Juan

    2014-01-01

    We evaluated the genetic variation of Echinococcus G7 strain in larval and adult stages using a fragment of the mitochondrial cox1 gen. Viscera of pigs, bovines, and sheep and fecal samples of dogs were inspected for cystic and canine echinococcosis, respectively; only pigs had hydatid cysts. Bayesian inferences grouped the sequences in an E. canadensis G7 cluster, suggesting that, in Mexico, this strain might be mainly present. Additionally, the population genetic and network analysis showed that E. canadensis in Mexico is very diverse and has probably been introduced several times from different sources. Finally, a scarce genetic differentiation between G6 (camel strain) and G7 (pig strain) populations was identified. PMID:25266350

  8. Castor bean organelle genome sequencing and worldwide genetic diversity analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivarola, Maximo; Foster, Jeffrey T; Chan, Agnes P; Williams, Amber L; Rice, Danny W; Liu, Xinyue; Melake-Berhan, Admasu; Huot Creasy, Heather; Puiu, Daniela; Rosovitz, M J; Khouri, Hoda M; Beckstrom-Sternberg, Stephen M; Allan, Gerard J; Keim, Paul; Ravel, Jacques; Rabinowicz, Pablo D

    2011-01-01

    Castor bean is an important oil-producing plant in the Euphorbiaceae family. Its high-quality oil contains up to 90% of the unusual fatty acid ricinoleate, which has many industrial and medical applications. Castor bean seeds also contain ricin, a highly toxic Type 2 ribosome-inactivating protein, which has gained relevance in recent years due to biosafety concerns. In order to gain knowledge on global genetic diversity in castor bean and to ultimately help the development of breeding and forensic tools, we carried out an extensive chloroplast sequence diversity analysis. Taking advantage of the recently published genome sequence of castor bean, we assembled the chloroplast and mitochondrion genomes extracting selected reads from the available whole genome shotgun reads. Using the chloroplast reference genome we used the methylation filtration technique to readily obtain draft genome sequences of 7 geographically and genetically diverse castor bean accessions. These sequence data were used to identify single nucleotide polymorphism markers and phylogenetic analysis resulted in the identification of two major clades that were not apparent in previous population genetic studies using genetic markers derived from nuclear DNA. Two distinct sub-clades could be defined within each major clade and large-scale genotyping of castor bean populations worldwide confirmed previously observed low levels of genetic diversity and showed a broad geographic distribution of each sub-clade.

  9. Castor bean organelle genome sequencing and worldwide genetic diversity analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maximo Rivarola

    Full Text Available Castor bean is an important oil-producing plant in the Euphorbiaceae family. Its high-quality oil contains up to 90% of the unusual fatty acid ricinoleate, which has many industrial and medical applications. Castor bean seeds also contain ricin, a highly toxic Type 2 ribosome-inactivating protein, which has gained relevance in recent years due to biosafety concerns. In order to gain knowledge on global genetic diversity in castor bean and to ultimately help the development of breeding and forensic tools, we carried out an extensive chloroplast sequence diversity analysis. Taking advantage of the recently published genome sequence of castor bean, we assembled the chloroplast and mitochondrion genomes extracting selected reads from the available whole genome shotgun reads. Using the chloroplast reference genome we used the methylation filtration technique to readily obtain draft genome sequences of 7 geographically and genetically diverse castor bean accessions. These sequence data were used to identify single nucleotide polymorphism markers and phylogenetic analysis resulted in the identification of two major clades that were not apparent in previous population genetic studies using genetic markers derived from nuclear DNA. Two distinct sub-clades could be defined within each major clade and large-scale genotyping of castor bean populations worldwide confirmed previously observed low levels of genetic diversity and showed a broad geographic distribution of each sub-clade.

  10. The CASTOR initiative

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Le Thiez, Pierre [GEOGREEN (France)

    2008-07-15

    In this paper it is spoken over the CASTOR project, which has 31 partners of 12 European countries. Also it is spoken on the strategy for the CO{sub 2} reduction in Europe; what on the capture and post-combustion has been done, and what as far as geologic CO{sub 2} storage has been accomplished. [Spanish] En esta ponencia se habla sobre el proyecto Castor, el cual cuenta con 31 socios de 12 paises europeos. Tambien se habla sobre la estrategia para la reduccion de CO{sub 2} en Europa; lo que se ha hecho en cuanto a captura post-combustion y lo que se ha hecho para el almacenamiento geologico de CO{sub 2}.

  11. Biotechnology for Castor oil Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    We conducted a series of seed development studies in castor and L. fendleri, including seed morphogenesis, oil and storage protein accumulation and lipid gene expression. In castor, the entire course of seed development can be divided into eight stages and each stage can be distinguished by seed co...

  12. [Sex structure and seed productivity of Mentha canadensis L. from natural flora of primorye of Russia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voronkova, T V; Shelepova, O V; Kondrat'eva, V V; Bidiukova, G F

    2014-01-01

    The sex structure and seed productivity of Mentha canadensis L. from different climatic regioins of Primorye of Russia was studied. We established that M. canadensis is characterized by a homogeneous population structure due to the formation of vegetative clones. The ratio of female and androgynous individuals was 1:5, and it is possible that this is a species-specific trait. Both sexual forms produced fruits under conditions of isolation from cross-pollination. We discuss the possibility of apomixis and the influence of climatic conditions on seed productivity and morphometric characteristics of plants.

  13. Aspectos bionômicos da vespa social Neotropical Polistes canadensis canadensis (Linnaeus (Hymenoptera, Vespidae Bionomics aspects of the Neotropical social wasp Polistes canadensis canadensis (Linnaeus (Hymenoptera, Vespidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viviana de Oliveira Torres

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Aspectos bionômicos da vespa social Neotropical Polistes canadensis canadensis (Linnaeus (Hymenoptera, Vespidae. O objetivo deste trabalho foi estudar alguns aspectos bionômicos da vespa social neotropical Polistes canadensis canadensis (Linnaeus, 1758. Vinte e seis colônias foram acompanhadas entre abril de 2004 e julho de 2006, no município de Mundo Novo, estado de Mato Grosso do Sul, região Centro-Oeste do Brasil. Os resultados encontrados nesse estudo sugerem que o padrão fenológico de Polistes canadensis canadensis é assincrônico nessa região, com fundações e abandonos podendo ocorrer o ano todo. A duração média dos estágios imaturos foi diferente entre as estações climáticas fria-seca e úmida-quente. Diferentes substratos foram escolhidos para nidificação, contudo em ambientes que forneceram condições físicas mais homogêneas durante o dia foram encontradas as maiores freqüências de sucesso. Colônias nessa espécie são fundadas por haplometrose ou pleometrose, no entanto, o sucesso tem sido maior para colônias pleometróticas.Certain aspects of the bionomics of the Neotropical social wasp Polistes canadensis canadensis (Linnaeus, 1758 were studied. Twenty-six colonies were observed from April 2004 through July 2006, in the municipal district of Mundo Novo, state of Mato Grosso do Sul, central-Brazil. The results suggest that the colony phenological pattern of this species is asynchronous, and colonies may be founded or abandoned at any time of the year. The mean duration of the immature stages differed between the cold-dry and warm-rainy seasons. Colonies were founded on several different kinds of substrates, but were more successful in environments that provided more-homogeneous physical conditions during the day. Colonies in this species are founded by haplometrosis or pleometrosis, and pleometrotic colonies were more successful.

  14. 21 CFR 172.876 - Castor oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Castor oil. 172.876 Section 172.876 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN... Multipurpose Additives § 172.876 Castor oil. The food additive castor oil may be safely used in accordance...

  15. Toxin content of commercial castor cultivars

    Science.gov (United States)

    The castor plant Ricinus communis L. is the source of castor oil which has numerous uses and is a key chemical feedstock for an array of products from polymers to cosmetics. Although castor was once widely grown throughout the world, the presence of the toxic protein ricin has deterred the re-introd...

  16. LHCD experiments on tokamak CASTOR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A short survey is given of the experimental activities at the small Prague tokamak CASTOR. They concern primarily the LH current drive using multijunction waveguide grills as launching antennae. During two last years the, efforts were focused on a study of the electrostatic and magnetic fluctuations under conditions of combined inductive/LHCD regimes and of the relation of the level of these fluctuations to the anomalous particles transport in tokamak CASTOR. Results of the study are discussed in some detail. (author). 24 figs., 51 refs

  17. Effect of glyphosate on the castor plant Ricinus communis L

    Science.gov (United States)

    The presence of a toxin in the castor seed has been a major impediment to the reintroduction of castor as a domestic crop in the US. Because dehiscent forms of castor are invasive and castor seed remains viable for years under the right conditions, there is concern that if castor were widely cultiva...

  18. Castor oil: Biosynthesis and Uses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castor oil is unique among commodity oils in its fatty acid composition, which consists of 90% ricinoleate, (12-hydroxy-octadec-cis 9-enoate). The mid-chain hydroxyl group imparts physical and chemical properties that make it useful in many industrial applications. Among its uses are lithium grease,...

  19. CASTOR Calorimeter Installation Review at CMS

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Video Productions

    2011-01-01

    This test is a part of CASTOR EDR process. The CASTOR phys-tech review held on 14 Jan 2011 and the subsequent EDR held on 17 Jun 2011, the CMS Management Board has endorsed a strategy in which CASTOR is removed during the 2011 Year-End Technical Stop, but is then refurbished, replacing a substantial fraction of the phototubes, so that it is ready for re-installation in the Technical Stop just before 2012 heavy-ion operation.

  20. Castor Oil-Based Biodegradable Polyesters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunduru, Konda Reddy; Basu, Arijit; Haim Zada, Moran; Domb, Abraham J

    2015-09-14

    This Review compiles the synthesis, physical properties, and biomedical applications for the polyesters based on castor oil and ricinoleic acid. Castor oil has been known for its medicinal value since ancient times. It contains ∼90% ricinoleic acid, which enables direct chemical transformation into polyesters without interference of other fatty acids. The presence of ricinoleic acid (hydroxyl containing fatty acid) enables synthesis of various polyester/anhydrides. In addition, castor oil contains a cis-double bond that can be hydrogenated, oxidized, halogenated, and polymerized. Castor oil is obtained pure in large quantities from natural sources; it is safe and biocompatible.

  1. Castor Oil-Based Biodegradable Polyesters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunduru, Konda Reddy; Basu, Arijit; Haim Zada, Moran; Domb, Abraham J

    2015-09-14

    This Review compiles the synthesis, physical properties, and biomedical applications for the polyesters based on castor oil and ricinoleic acid. Castor oil has been known for its medicinal value since ancient times. It contains ∼90% ricinoleic acid, which enables direct chemical transformation into polyesters without interference of other fatty acids. The presence of ricinoleic acid (hydroxyl containing fatty acid) enables synthesis of various polyester/anhydrides. In addition, castor oil contains a cis-double bond that can be hydrogenated, oxidized, halogenated, and polymerized. Castor oil is obtained pure in large quantities from natural sources; it is safe and biocompatible. PMID:26301922

  2. RESTORATIVE ASPECT OF CASTOR PLANT ON MAMMALIAN PHYSIOLOGY: A REVIEW

    OpenAIRE

    Attila Kádasi; Zuzana Baková; Sirotkin, Alexander V; Anupam Das Talukdar; Shubhadeep Roychoudhury; Manabendra Dutta Choudhury; Sushmita Nath; Nora Maruniaková; Adriana Kolesárová

    2011-01-01

    The castor plant (Ricinus communis L.) is a robust perennial shrub of Euphorbiaceae family and different parts of the plant are widely used by various communities and forest dwellers in many regions of the world for treating a variety of ailments. About 80% of world population is still dependent on traditional herbal medicines. The plant is documented to possess beneficial effects as anti-oxidant, antifertility, anti inflammatory, antimicrobial, central nervous system stimulant, anti diabetic...

  3. The River Otter (Lontra canadensis) in Clarcke County (Georgia, USA) - Survey, Food Habits and Environmental Factors

    OpenAIRE

    Noordhuis R.

    2002-01-01

    The status of the river otter (Lontra canadensis}. was surveyed in and around Clarcke County (Georgia, USA). Although nearly extinct in the nineteen fifties, the otter population appears to be well developed today. Food habits were analyzed through spraint analysis using spraints collected in winter and summer. Sunfish and crayfish were found to be the most important food items. An attempt was made to find out if otters in the study area are affected by environmental pollution. Literature dat...

  4. Weed management strategies for castor bean crops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Augusto Guerreiro Fontoura Costa

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Castor bean crops are agriculturally relevant due to the quality and versatility of their oil, both for the chemical industry and for biodiesel production. Proper weed management is important for both the cultivation and the yield of castor bean crops; therefore, the intention of the present work is to review pertinent information regarding weed management, including the studies regarding weed interference periods, chemical controls for use in different crop production systems and herbicide selectivity, for castor bean crops. Weed science research for castor bean crops is scarce. One of the main weed management challenges for castor bean crops is the absence of herbicides registered with the Ministry of Agriculture, Livestock and Food Supply (MALFS. Research for viable herbicides for weed control in castor bean crops should be directed by research and/or rural extension institutions, associations and farmers cooperatives, as well as by manufactures, for the registration of these selective herbicides, which would be primarily used to control eudicotyledons in castor bean crops. New studies involving the integration of weed control methods in castor bean also may increase the efficiency of weed management, for both small farmers using traditional crop methods in the Brazilian Northeast region, as well as for areas with the potential for large scale production, using conservation tillage systems, such as the no-tillage crop production system.

  5. Synthesis of novel castor oil phosphonates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castor oil has served as a versatile hydroxy fatty acid (HFA); its principle component, ricinoleic acid, can be isolated from castor oil and has been modified extensively for a number of applications. Additionally, phosphonates and their corresponding phosphonic acids are a functional moiety that ha...

  6. Biodegradable foam plastics based on castor oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hong Juan; Rong, Min Zhi; Zhang, Ming Qiu; Hu, Jing; Chen, Hui Wen; Czigány, Tibor

    2008-02-01

    In this work, a simple but effective approach was proposed for preparing biodegradable plastic foams with a high content of castor oil. First of all, castor oil reacted with maleic anhydride to produce maleated castor oil (MACO) without the aid of any catalyst. Then plastic foams were synthesized through free radical initiated copolymerization between MACO and diluent monomer styrene. With changes in MACO/St ratio and species of curing initiator, mechanical properties of MACO foams can be easily adjusted. In this way, biofoams with comparable compressive stress at 25% strain as commercial polyurethane (PU) foams were prepared, while the content of castor oil can be as high as 61 wt %. The soil burial tests further proved that the castor oil based foams kept the biodegradability of renewable resources despite the fact that some petrol-based components were introduced.

  7. Weed management strategies for castor bean crops

    OpenAIRE

    Augusto Guerreiro Fontoura Costa; Valdinei Sofiatti; Cleber Daniel de Góes Maciel; Juliana Parisotto Poletine; João Igor de Sousa

    2014-01-01

    Castor bean crops are agriculturally relevant due to the quality and versatility of their oil, both for the chemical industry and for biodiesel production. Proper weed management is important for both the cultivation and the yield of castor bean crops; therefore, the intention of the present work is to review pertinent information regarding weed management, including the studies regarding weed interference periods, chemical controls for use in different crop production systems and herbicide s...

  8. Outbreaks of Chrysodeixis includens (Walker (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae in common bean and castor bean in São Paulo State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edson Luiz Lopes Baldin

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Since 2009, increasing populations of Chrysodeixis includens (Walker (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae have been observed in cultivated common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. and castor bean (Ricinus communis L. at the Lageado Experimental Farm, belonging to the FCA/UNESP, Botucatu, São Paulo State, Brazil. Defoliations around 80% and 50% were observed in the common bean cv. Pérola and castor bean cv. IAC-2028, respectively. Samples of individuals (caterpillars and pupae were collected in the field, and kept in laboratory until adult emergence aiming to confirm the species. These are new observations for common bean in São Paulo State and, in the case of castor bean, unpublished in Brazil. It suggests that C. includens has adapted to attack other agricultural crops, demanding attention of common bean and castor bean producers.

  9. Comeback of the beaver Castor fiber: An overview of old and new conservation problems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nolet, B.A.; Rosell, F.

    1998-01-01

    Due to over-hunting c. 1200 Eurasian beavers Castor fiber survived in eight relict populations in Europe and Asia at the beginning of the 20th century. Following hunting restrictions and translocation programmes in IS countries, the Eurasian beaver became re-established over much of its former range

  10. Modified Castor Oil as an Epoxy Resin Curing Agent

    OpenAIRE

    Patel, B. P.; H. S. Patel; Patel, S R

    2004-01-01

    A castor oil, an agricultural product, is an unsaturated material. Hence the castor oil is brominated by bromine liquid. The brominated castor oil (BCO) was then reacted with excess of aliphatic diamines viz; ethylene diamine, 1,3-propane diamine and 1,6-hexane diamine. The resultant amino functionalized castor oil (ACO) samples were then characterized by elemental analysis, IR spectral study and number of amino groups. All the three ACO samples were then employed for the curing of commercial...

  11. 75 FR 44917 - Castor Oil, Ethoxylated, Dioleate; Tolerance Exemption

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-30

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 180 Castor Oil, Ethoxylated, Dioleate; Tolerance Exemption AGENCY: Environmental... requirement of a tolerance for residues of castor oil, ethoxylated, dioleate; when used as an inert ingredient... permissible level for residues of castor oil, ethoxylated, dioleate on food or feed commodities. DATES:...

  12. Reducing the toxicity of castor seed meal through processing treatments

    Science.gov (United States)

    The castor plant produces a seed that is high in oil content and composed of approximately 90% ricinoleate. Due to the numerous uses of castor oil and ricinoleate, the oil is in high demand. However, the presence of a protein toxin in the seed meal is a key concern about processing the castor seed t...

  13. 21 CFR 178.3280 - Castor oil, hydrogenated.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Castor oil, hydrogenated. 178.3280 Section 178.3280 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD... Certain Adjuvants and Production Aids § 178.3280 Castor oil, hydrogenated. Hydrogenated castor oil may...

  14. 75 FR 40751 - Castor Oil, Ethoxylated, Oleate; Tolerance Exemption

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-14

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 180 Castor Oil, Ethoxylated, Oleate; Tolerance Exemption AGENCY: Environmental... requirement of a tolerance for residues of castor oil, ethoxylated, oleate (CAS Reg. No. 220037-02-5) with a... residues of castor oil, ethoxylated, oleate on food or feed commodities. DATES: This regulation...

  15. Exploiting EST databases for the development and characterization of EST-SSR markers in castor bean (Ricinus communis L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Jun-Bo

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The castor bean (Ricinus communis L., a monotypic species in the spurge family (Euphorbiaceae, 2n = 20, is an important non-edible oilseed crop widely cultivated in tropical, sub-tropical and temperate countries for its high economic value. Because of the high level of ricinoleic acid (over 85% in its seed oil, the castor bean seed derivatives are often used in aviation oil, lubricants, nylon, dyes, inks, soaps, adhesive and biodiesel. Due to lack of efficient molecular markers, little is known about the population genetic diversity and the genetic relationships among castor bean germplasm. Efficient and robust molecular markers are increasingly needed for breeding and improving varieties in castor bean. The advent of modern genomics has produced large amounts of publicly available DNA sequence data. In particular, expressed sequence tags (ESTs provide valuable resources to develop gene-associated SSR markers. Results In total, 18,928 publicly available non-redundant castor bean EST sequences, representing approximately 17.03 Mb, were evaluated and 7732 SSR sites in 5,122 ESTs were identified by data mining. Castor bean exhibited considerably high frequency of EST-SSRs. We developed and characterized 118 polymorphic EST-SSR markers from 379 primer pairs flanking repeats by screening 24 castor bean samples collected from different countries. A total of 350 alleles were identified from 118 polymorphic SSR loci, ranging from 2-6 per locus (A with an average of 2.97. The EST-SSR markers developed displayed moderate gene diversity (He with an average of 0.41. Genetic relationships among 24 germplasms were investigated using the genotypes of 350 alleles, showing geographic pattern of genotypes across genetic diversity centers of castor bean. Conclusion Castor bean EST sequences exhibited considerably high frequency of SSR sites, and were rich resources for developing EST-SSR markers. These EST-SSR markers would be particularly

  16. Transcriptome-wide identification and characterization of microRNAs from castor bean (Ricinus communis L..

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Xu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: MicroRNAs (miRNAs are endogenously encoded small RNAs that post-transcriptionally regulate gene expression and play essential roles in numerous developmental and physiological processes. Currently, little information on the transcriptome and tissue-specific expression of miRNAs is available in the model non-edible oilseed crop castor bean (Ricinus communis L., one of the most important non-edible oilseed crops cultivated worldwide. Recent advances in sequencing technologies have allowed the identification of conserved and novel miRNAs in many plant species. Here, we used high-throughput sequencing technologies to identify and characterize the miRNAs in castor bean. RESULTS: Five small RNA libraries were constructed for deep sequencing from root tips, leaves, developing seeds (at the initial stage, seed1; and at the fast oil accumulation stage, seed2 and endosperms in castor bean. High-throughput sequencing generated a large number of sequence reads of small RNAs in this study. In total, 86 conserved miRNAs were identified, including 63 known and 23 newly identified. Sixteen miRNA isoform variants in length were found from the conserved miRNAs of castor bean. MiRNAs displayed diverse organ-specific expression levels among five libraries. Combined with criteria for miRNA annotation and a RT-PCR approach, 72 novel miRNAs and their potential precursors were annotated and 20 miRNAs newly identified were validated. In addition, new target candidates for miRNAs newly identified in this study were proposed. CONCLUSIONS: The current study presents the first high-throughput small RNA sequencing study performed in castor bean to identify its miRNA population. It characterizes and increases the number of miRNAs and their isoforms identified in castor bean. The miRNA expression analysis provides a foundation for understanding castor bean miRNA organ-specific expression patterns. The present study offers an expanded picture of miRNAs for castor

  17. Tape write-efficiency improvements in CASTOR

    CERN Document Server

    Murray, S; Cancio, G; Cano, E; Kotlyar, V; Lo Presti, G; Lo Re, G; Ponce, S

    2012-01-01

    The CERN Advanced STORage manager (CASTOR) is used to archive to tape the physics data of past and present physics experiments. For reasons of physical storage space, all of the tape resident data in CASTOR are repacked onto higher density tapes approximately every two years. Improving the performance of writing files smaller than 2GB to tape is essential in order to keep the time needed to repack all of the tape resident data within a period of no more than 1 year. This paper reports on the solution to writing efficiently to tape that is currently in its early deployment phases at CERN.

  18. Solidago canadensis und Solidago gigantea in Frankfurt am Main

    OpenAIRE

    Ottich, Indra

    2015-01-01

    Die beiden nordamerikanischen Goldruten-Arten Solidago canadensis und S. gigantea sind in Mitteleuropa weit verbreitet. Häufig wird nicht zwischen den beiden Arten unterschieden, die Angaben zur Ökologie scheinen für beide Arten weitgehend identisch. Durch eine Rasterkartierung des Stadtgebietes von Frankfurt am Main wird gezeigt, dass die Arten jedoch unterschiedliche Ansprüche haben. Während Solidago canadensis sehr häufig ist und alle typisch städtischen Bereiche besiedelt, wird Solidago g...

  19. Tough Blends of Polylactide and Castor Oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robertson, Megan L.; Paxton, Jessica M.; Hillmyer, Marc A. (UMM)

    2012-10-10

    Poly(l-lactide) (PLLA) is a renewable resource polymer derived from plant sugars with several commercial applications. Broader implementation of the material is limited due to its inherent brittleness. We show that the addition of 5 wt % castor oil to PLLA significantly enhances the overall tensile toughness with minimal reductions in the modulus and no plasticization of the PLLA matrix. In addition, we used poly(ricinoleic acid)-PLLA diblock copolymers, synthesized entirely from renewable resources, as compatibilizers for the PLLA/castor oil blends. Ricinoleic acid, the majority fatty acid comprising castor oil, was polymerized through a lipase-catalyzed condensation reaction. The resulting polymers contained a hydroxyl end-group that was subsequently used to initiate the ring-opening polymerization of L-lactide. The binary PLLA/castor oil blend exhibited a tensile toughness seven times greater than neat PLLA. The addition of block copolymer allowed for control over the morphology of the blends, and even further improvement in the tensile toughness was realized - an order of magnitude larger than that of neat PLLA.

  20. Phenylpropanoid esters of lesquerella and castor oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lesquerella (LO) and castor oil (CO) were esterified at the secondary hydroxyl groups of their 14-hydroxyeicos-cis-11-enoic fatty acids and 12-hydroxyoctadec-cis-9-enoic fatty acids, respectively, with 4-acetoxy-3-methoxycinnamic acid (acetoxyferulic acid). The unconventional esterifications were co...

  1. Tough blends of polylactide and castor oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Megan L; Paxton, Jessica M; Hillmyer, Marc A

    2011-09-01

    Poly(l-lactide) (PLLA) is a renewable resource polymer derived from plant sugars with several commercial applications. Broader implementation of the material is limited due to its inherent brittleness. We show that the addition of 5 wt % castor oil to PLLA significantly enhances the overall tensile toughness with minimal reductions in the modulus and no plasticization of the PLLA matrix. In addition, we used poly(ricinoleic acid)-PLLA diblock copolymers, synthesized entirely from renewable resources, as compatibilizers for the PLLA/castor oil blends. Ricinoleic acid, the majority fatty acid comprising castor oil, was polymerized through a lipase-catalyzed condensation reaction. The resulting polymers contained a hydroxyl end-group that was subsequently used to initiate the ring-opening polymerization of l-lactide. The binary PLLA/castor oil blend exhibited a tensile toughness seven times greater than neat PLLA. The addition of block copolymer allowed for control over the morphology of the blends, and even further improvement in the tensile toughness was realized-an order of magnitude larger than that of neat PLLA.

  2. The Castor Plant: Technology and Biotechnology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Production of hydroxy fatty acids in plants is of current interest principally due to the novel properties, physical and chemical, that are characteristic of hydroxy fatty acids. Castor oil is currently the only major source of hydroxy fatty acids. It has a long history in medicinal applications, se...

  3. Castor bean response to zinc fertilization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chaves, Lucia Helena Garofalo; Cunha, Tassio Henrique Cavalcanti da Silva; Lima, Vinicius Mota; Cabral, Paulo Cesar Pinto; Barros Junior, Genival; Lacerda, Rogerio Dantas de [Universidade Federal de Campina Grande (UAEAg/UFCG), PB (Brazil). Unidade Academica de Engenharia Agricola

    2008-07-01

    Zinc is a trace element and it is absolutely essential for the normal healthy growth of plants. This element plays a part of several enzyme systems and other metabolic functions in the plants. Castor beans (Ricinus communis L.) crop is raising attention as an alternative crop for oil and biodiesel production. Despite the mineral fertilization is an important factor for increasing castor beans yield, few researches has been made on this issue, mainly on the use of zinc. In order to evaluate the effects of zinc on growth of this plant an experiment was carried out in a greenhouse, in Campina Grande, Paraiba State, Brazil, from July to December 2007. The substrate for the pot plants was a 6 mm-sieved surface soil (Neossolo Quartzarenico). The experimental design was a completely randomized with three replications. The treatments were composed of five levels of Zn (0; 2; 4; 6 and 8 mg dm{sup -3}), which were applied at the time of planting. One plant of castor bean, cultivar BRS 188 - Paraguacu, was grown per pot after thinning and was irrigated whenever necessary. Data on plant height, number and length of leaves and stem diameter were measured at 21, 34, 77 and 103 days after planting. Under conditions that the experiment was carried out the results showed that the Zn levels used, did not affect the castor bean plants growth. (author)

  4. ARTICLE - Inbreeding depression in castor bean (Ricinus communis L. progenies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milton Krieger

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to investigate inbreeding depression (DE in castor bean. From a population derived from the Guarani cultivar, 60 mother plants were sampled. Three types of progenies were obtained from each one: from self-pollination (AU, from crosses (CR and from open pollination (PL. Grain yield of the progenies was evaluated in two locations. There was a strong interaction of progenies x locations, which led to obtaining estimates within each location. Broad variation was observed in inbreeding depression, with mean values of 6.7% and 13.4%, comparing AU progenies with PL progenies. It was observed that the population has high potential for selecting promising inbred lines. The frequency of mother plants generating progenies with simultaneous high general combination capacity and low inbreeding depression was low. Recurrent selection will increase the occurrence of parent plants associating these two properties, which is necessary for obtaining superior synthetic varieties.

  5. Impact of castor meal on root-knot and free-living nematodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecilia Helena Silvino Prata Ritzinger

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Soil amendment may enhance soil quality as well as reduce plant-parasitic nematode. Despite the many applications already undertaken using castor meal, its efficiency in controlling root-knot nematodes (RKN, Meloidogyne incognita when applied to melon (Cucumis melo is still not clear. Three different amounts of castor meal (Ricinus communis applied were evaluated in microplots planted with melon either with or without RKN. The impact of castor meal on soil free-living nematode communities was also determined. Total nematode genera richness was estimated as 37 for the entire set of microplots sampled across both sampling dates. Rarefaction analysis resulted in 12 collector's curves out of the total of 30 that reached the horizontal asymptote. Univariate ANOVA with two factors yielded differences (p < 0.05 only with regard to the time factor. Simpson, Shannon, Evenness and Equitability indices showed a trend toward moderate increases by the end of the experiment, while the other indices were higher for tomato in pre-transplant sampling compared to harvest. Nematode community and diversity changed during the course of the experiment, although there was substantial confounding heterogeneity within and between the factorial combinations from the beginning. Root knot population was not reduced by the castor meal but increased throughout the period, regardless of treatment. RKN reduced melon yield, number and weight of melon.

  6. Physiological Responses and Tolerance Mechanisms to Cadmium in Conyza canadensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Chuifan; Zhang, Kai; Lin, Jingwen; Li, Ying; Chen, Nailian; Zou, Xianhua; Hou, Xiaolong; Ma, Xiangqing

    2015-01-01

    Experiments were conducted to examine the effects of different concentrations of Cd on the performance of the Cd accumulator Conyza canadensis. Cd accumulation in roots and leaves (roots>leaves) increased with increasing Cd concentration in soil. High Cd concentration inhibited plant growth, increased the membrane permeability of leaves, and caused a significant decline in plant height and chlorophyll [chlorophyll (Chl) a, Chl b, and total Chl] content. Leaf ultrastructural analysis of spongy mesophyllic cells revealed that excessive Cd concentrations cause adverse effects on the chloroplast and mitochondrion ultrastructures of C. canadensis. However, the activities of antioxidant enzymes, such as superoxide dismutase, catalase, peroxidase, total non-protein SH compounds, glutathione, and phytochelatin (PC) concentrations, showed an overall increase. Specifically, the increase in enzyme activities demonstrated that the antioxidant system may play an important role in eliminating or alleviating the toxicity of Cd in C. canadensis. Furthermore, results demonstrate that PC synthesis in plant cells is related to Cd concentration and that PC production levels in plants are related to the toxic effects caused by soil Cd level. These findings demonstrate the roles played by these compounds in supporting Cd tolerance in C. canadensis.

  7. Population dynamics and angler exploitation of the unique muskellunge population in Shoepack Lake, Voyageurs National Park, Minnesota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frohnauer, N.K.; Pierce, C.L.; Kallemeyn, L.W.

    2007-01-01

    A unique population of muskellunge Esox masquinongy inhabits Shoepack Lake in Voyageurs National Park, Minnesota. Little is known about its status, dynamics, and angler exploitation, and there is concern for the long-term viability of this population. We used intensive sampling and mark-recapture methods to quantify abundance, survival, growth, condition, age at maturity and fecundity and angler surveys to quantify angler pressure, catch rates, and exploitation. During our study, heavy rain washed out a dam constructed by beavers Castor canadensis which regulates the water level at the lake outlet, resulting in a nearly 50% reduction in surface area. We estimated a population size of 1,120 adult fish at the beginning of the study. No immediate reduction in population size was detected in response to the loss of lake area, although there was a gradual, but significant, decline in population size over the 2-year study. Adults grew less than 50 mm per year, and relative weight (W r) averaged roughly 80. Anglers were successful in catching, on average, two fish during a full day of angling, but harvest was negligible. Shoepack Lake muskellunge exhibit much slower growth rates and lower condition, but much higher densities and angler catch per unit effort (CPUE), than other muskellunge populations. The unique nature, limited distribution, and location of this population in a national park require special consideration for management. The results of this study provide the basis for assessing the long-term viability of the Shoepack Lake muskellunge population through simulations of long-term population dynamics and genetically effective population size. ?? Copyright by the American Fisheries Society 2007.

  8. Single nucleotide polymorphisms for assessing genetic diversity in castor bean (Ricinus communis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rabinowicz Pablo D

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Castor bean (Ricinus communis is an agricultural crop and garden ornamental that is widely cultivated and has been introduced worldwide. Understanding population structure and the distribution of castor bean cultivars has been challenging because of limited genetic variability. We analyzed the population genetics of R. communis in a worldwide collection of plants from germplasm and from naturalized populations in Florida, U.S. To assess genetic diversity we conducted survey sequencing of the genomes of seven diverse cultivars and compared the data to a reference genome assembly of a widespread cultivar (Hale. We determined the population genetic structure of 676 samples using single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs at 48 loci. Results Bayesian clustering indicated five main groups worldwide and a repeated pattern of mixed genotypes in most countries. High levels of population differentiation occurred between most populations but this structure was not geographically based. Most molecular variance occurred within populations (74% followed by 22% among populations, and 4% among continents. Samples from naturalized populations in Florida indicated significant population structuring consistent with local demes. There was significant population differentiation for 56 of 78 comparisons in Florida (pairwise population ϕPT values, p Conclusion Low levels of genetic diversity and mixing of genotypes have led to minimal geographic structuring of castor bean populations worldwide. Relatively few lineages occur and these are widely distributed. Our approach of determining population genetic structure using SNPs from genome-wide comparisons constitutes a framework for high-throughput analyses of genetic diversity in plants, particularly in species with limited genetic diversity.

  9. Castor Bean Organelle Genome Sequencing and Worldwide Genetic Diversity Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Rivarola, Maximo; Foster, Jeffrey T.; Chan, Agnes P.; Williams, Amber L.; Rice, Danny W; Liu, Xinyue; Melake-Berhan, Admasu; Huot Creasy, Heather; Puiu, Daniela; Rosovitz, M. J.; Khouri, Hoda M.; Beckstrom-Sternberg, Stephen M.; Allan, Gerard J; Keim, Paul; Ravel, Jacques

    2011-01-01

    Castor bean is an important oil-producing plant in the Euphorbiaceae family. Its high-quality oil contains up to 90% of the unusual fatty acid ricinoleate, which has many industrial and medical applications. Castor bean seeds also contain ricin, a highly toxic Type 2 ribosome-inactivating protein, which has gained relevance in recent years due to biosafety concerns. In order to gain knowledge on global genetic diversity in castor bean and to ultimately help the development of breeding and for...

  10. Performance of Amblyseius herbicolus on broad mites and on castor bean and sunnhemp pollen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Cruz, Fredy Alexander; Venzon, Madelaine; Pinto, Cleide Maria Ferreira

    2013-08-01

    Amblyseius herbicolus (Banks) is found associated with broad mites Polyphagotarsonemus latus in crops such as chili pepper in Brazil. The species has a potential for controlling P. latus, but little is known about its development and reproduction on this pest as well as on other food sources. We studied biological, reproductive and life table parameters of A. herbicolus on three different diets: broad mites, castor bean pollen (Ricinus communis) and sunnhemp pollen (Crotalaria juncea). The predator was able to develop and reproduce on all diets. However, its intrinsic growth rate was higher on the diet of broad mites or on castor bean pollen than on sunnhemp pollen. Differences among pollen species may be due to their nutritional content. Feeding on alternative food such as pollen can facilitate the predator's mass rearing and maintain its population on crops when prey is absent or scarce. Other strategies of using pollen to sustain predator population and reduce pest damage are discussed. PMID:23417701

  11. Polydimethylsiloxane and Castor Oil Comodified Waterborne Polyurethane

    OpenAIRE

    Xuan Ji; Yanming Zhou; Baoling Zhang; Caiying Hou; Guozhang Ma

    2013-01-01

    In view of both improving properties of waterborne polyurethane (WPU) and sufficient utilization of renewable resources, a series of polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) and castor oil (C.O.) comodified anionic WPUs with internal cross-linking was prepared through a prepolymer mixing process. The chemical structure of synthesized polymers was characterized by Fourier transforms infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR). In comparison with traditional linear WPU synthesized from petroleum-based polyols, these nove...

  12. Compression tests of castor oil biopolymer

    OpenAIRE

    Amauri Bravo Ferneda; Romeu Rony Cavalcante da Costa; Volnei Tita; Sérgio Persival Baroncini Proença; Jonas de Carvalho; Benedito de Moraes Purquerio

    2006-01-01

    Many methods have been developed to test and evaluate the mechanical properties of the biopolymer from castor oil employed in implants and osteo-repositions, among other things. Most of the methods are performed under quasi-static and cyclic loads (creep and relaxation tests) and under high strain rate, uniaxial compression conditions. This paper presents and discusses the development and applicability of a simple load-application apparatus, devised to reduce shear and barrelling effects on s...

  13. Synthesis of branched naphthoquinones from castor oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriano Olímpio da Silva

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The naphthoquinones are cyclic aromatic α,β-dienonas with a basic framework derived from naphthalene. They are also found in many higher plants, algae, fungi and as the product of the  metabolism  of some  bacteria  having large biologica activity described in the literature such as antibacterial, anti-inflammatory, antitumor, anticancer and trypanocidal [1-3]. Castor oil is an abundant raw material in Brazil of great versatility and, it is present in biodiesel production, surfactants, cosmetics and others. Considering the importance of naphthoquinones and, the availability of the ricinoleic acid from castor oil, the aim of this study was the preparation of new branched naphthoquinones in order to test their trypanocidal activity. Castor oil was submitted to saponification with sodium hydroxide, ethanol and water under reflux for 6 h. We then carried out an acid hydrolysis with hydrochloric acid and the formed ricinoleic acid was extracted with ethyl acetate. Following, through Kochi-Anderson addition reaction it was performed the alkylation of a naphthoquinone 1 and 2, using ammonium persulfate, silver nitrate, acetonitrile and water, under heating at 70-80 ° C during 3 h, to give the branched naphthoquinones 4 and 5 (scheme 1. The naphthoquinone 3 will be similarly submitted to this procedure. The naphthoquinones 4 and 5 were purified by column chromatography on sílica gel using hexane as the eluent. The compounds were characterized by mass spectrometry and 1H and 13CNMR spectroscopy.

  14. LHCb: CASTORFS - A Filesystem to Access CASTOR

    CERN Multimedia

    Mazurov, A

    2009-01-01

    CASTOR provides a powerful and rich interface for managing files and pools of files backed by tape-storage. The API is modelled very closely on that of a POSIX filesystem, where part of the actual I/O part is handled by the rfio library. While the API is very close to POSIX it is still separated, which unfortunately makes it impossible to use standard tools and scripts straight away. This is particularly inconvenient when applications are written in languages other than C/C++ such as is frequently the case in web-apps. Here up to now the only the recourse was to use command-line utilities and parse their output, which is clearly a kludge. We have implemented a complete POSIX filesystem to access CASTOR using FUSE (Filesystem in Userspace) and have successfully tested and used this on SLC4 and SLC5 (both in 32 and 64 bit). We call it CastorFS. In this paper we will present its architecture and implementation, with emphasis on performance and caching aspects.

  15. New iridoid diesters of glucopyranose from Linaria canadensis (L.) Dum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizuochi, Kouichi; Tanaka, Takashi; Kouno, Isao; Fujioka, Toshihiro; Yoshimura, Yuki; Ishimaru, Kanji

    2011-01-01

    Two new iridoid diesters of glucopyranose were isolated from the aerial part of Linaria canadensis (L.) Dum. Eight known flavones, apigenin, diosmetin, genkwanin, luteolin, luteolin 7-O-glucoside, luteolin 7-O-glucuronide, genkwanin 4'-O-rutinoside, and quercetin 7-O-rutinoside were also isolated. The chemical structures of the isolated compounds were elucidated based on the analyses of the spectroscopic data. PMID:20635154

  16. [Allelopathic effects of invasive weed Solidago canadensis on native plants].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mei, Lingxiao; Chen, Xin; Tang, Jianjun

    2005-12-01

    With growth chamber method, this paper studied the allelopathic potential of invasive weed Solidago canadensis on native plant species. Different concentration S. canadensis root and rhizome extracts were examined, and the test plants were Trifolium repens, Trifolium pretense, Medicago lupulina, Lolium perenne, Suaeda glauca, Plantago virginica, Kummerowia stipulacea, Festuca arundinacea, Ageratum conyzoides, Portulaca oleracea, and Amaranthus spinosus. The results showed that the allelopathic inhibitory effect of the extracts from both S. canadensis root and rhizome was enhanced with increasing concentration, and rhizome extracts had a higher effect than root extracts. At the lowest concentration (1:60), root extract had little effect on the seed germination and seedling growth of T. repens, but rhizome extract could inhibit the germination of all test plants though the inhibitory effect varied with different species. The inhibition was the greatest for grass, followed by forb and legume. 1:60 (m:m) rhizome extract had similar effects on seed germination and radicel growth, but for outgrowth, the extract could inhibit Kummerowia stipulacea, Amaranthus spinosus and Festuca arundinacea, had no significant impact on Lolium perenne, Plantago virginica, Ageratum conyzoides, Portulaca oleracea and Amaranthus spinosus, and stimulated Trifolium repens, Trifolium pretense and Medicago lupulina. PMID:16515192

  17. Phytoextraction of metals and rhizoremediation of PAHs in co-contaminated soil by co-planting of Sedum alfredii with ryegrass (Lolium perenne) or castor (Ricinus communis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Kai; Huang, Huagang; Zhu, Zhiqiang; Li, Tingqiang; He, Zhenli; Yang, Xiaoe; Alva, Ashok

    2013-01-01

    A pot experiment was conducted to investigate the potential for phytoextraction of heavy metals and rhizoremediation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in co-contaminated soil by co-planting a cadmium/zinc (Cd/Zn) hyperaccumulator and lead (Pb) accumulator Sedum alfredii with ryegrass (Lolium perenne) or castor (Ricinus communis). Co-planting with castor decreased the shoot biomass of S. alfredii as compared to that in monoculture. Cadmium concentration in S. alfredii shoot significantly decreased when grown with ryegrass or castor as compared to that in monoculture. However, no reduction of Zn or Pb concentration in S. alfredii shoot was detected in co-planting treatments. Total removal of either Cd, Zn, or Pb by plants was similar across S. alfredii monoculture or co-planting with ryegrass or castor, except enhanced Pb removal in S. alfredii and ryegrass co-planting treatment. Co-planting of S. alfredii with ryegrass or castor significantly enhanced the pyrene and anthracene dissipation as compared to that in the bare soil or S. alfredii monoculture. This appears to be due to the increased soil microbial population and activities in both co-planting treatments. Co-planting of S. alfredii with ryegrass or castor provides a promising strategy to mitigate both metal and PAH contaminants from co-contaminated soils.

  18. Evaluation of Genetic Diversity of Castor Bean for Biodiesel Utilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castor bean (Ricinus communis L., 2n=20) is a cross-pollinated diploid species belonging to the family Euphorbiaceae instead of the Leguminosae. It is a native of Africa but may have originated in India. Castor bean plants grow as annual or perennial, depending on geographical locations, climate a...

  19. Final report on the safety assessment of Ricinus Communis (Castor) Seed Oil, Hydrogenated Castor Oil, Glyceryl Ricinoleate, Glyceryl Ricinoleate SE, Ricinoleic Acid, Potassium Ricinoleate, Sodium Ricinoleate, Zinc Ricinoleate, Cetyl Ricinoleate, Ethyl Ricinoleate, Glycol Ricinoleate, Isopropyl Ricinoleate, Methyl Ricinoleate, and Octyldodecyl Ricinoleate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    The oil derived from the seed of the Ricinus communis plant and its primary constituent, Ricinoleic Acid, along with certain of its salts and esters function primarily as skin-conditioning agents, emulsion stabilizers, and surfactants in cosmetics, although other functions are described. Ricinus Communis (Castor) Seed Oil is the naming convention for castor oil used in cosmetics. It is produced by cold pressing the seeds and subsequent clarification of the oil by heat. Castor oil does not contain ricin because ricin does not partition into the oil. Castor oil and Glyceryl Ricinoleate absorb ultraviolet (UV) light, with a maximum absorbance at 270 nm. Castor oil and Hydrogenated Castor Oil reportedly were used in 769 and 202 cosmetic products, respectively, in 2002; fewer uses were reported for the other ingredients in this group. The highest reported use concentration (81%) for castor oil is associated with lipstick. Castor oil is classified by Food and Drug Administration (FDA) as generally recognized as safe and effective for use as a stimulant laxative. The Joint Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO)/World Health Organization (WHO) Expert Committee on Food Additives established an acceptable daily castor oil intake (for man) of 0 to 0.7 mg/kg body weight. Castor oil is hydrolyzed in the small intestine by pancreatic enzymes, leading to the release of glycerol and Ricinoleic Acid, although 3,6-epoxyoctanedioic acid, 3,6-epoxydecanedioic acid, and 3,6-epoxydodecanedioic acid also appear to be metabolites. Castor oil and Ricinoleic Acid can enhance the transdermal penetration of other chemicals. Although chemically similar to prostaglandin E(1), Ricinoleic Acid did not have the same physiological properties. These ingredients are not acute toxicants, and a National Toxicology Program (NTP) subchronic oral toxicity study using castor oil at concentrations up to 10% in the diet of rats was not toxic. Other subchronic studies of castor oil produced similar findings

  20. Draft genome sequence of the ricin-producing oilseed castor bean

    OpenAIRE

    Chan, Agnes P.; Crabtree, Jonathan; Zhao, Qi; Lorenzi, Hernan; Orvis, Joshua; Puiu, Daniela; Melake-Berhan, Admasu; Kristine M Jones; Redman, Julia; Chen, Grace; Cahoon, Edgar B.; Gedil, Melaku; Stanke, Mario; Haas, Brian J.; Wortman, Jennifer R

    2010-01-01

    Castor bean (Ricinus communis) is an oil crop that belongs to the spurge (Euphorbiaceae) family. Its seeds are the source of castor oil, used for the production of high-quality lubricants due to its high proportion of the unusual fatty acid ricinoleic acid. Castor bean seeds also produce ricin, a highly toxic ribosome inactivating protein, making castor bean relevant for biosafety. We report here the 4.6X draft genome sequence of castor bean, representing the first reported Euphorbiaceae geno...

  1. Castor transport and storage casks for VVER and RBMK fuel assemblies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gartz, R.; Gobler, A.; John, R.; Diersch, R. [GNB Gesellschaft fur Nuklear-Behalter mbH, Essen (Germany); Nemec, P. [Skoda Nuclear Machinery Plzen (Czech Republic)

    1998-12-31

    CASTOR casks have been successfully developed, manufactured and delivered for Russian type reactor fuel assemblies. These casks fulfill both the requirements for type B packages according to IAEA regulations and the requirements covering different accident situations to be assumed at the storage site. In the following, the CASTOR casks CASTOR 440/84, CASTOR RBMK and CASTOR VVER 1000 are described, the nuclear content is characterized and an overview about the status of licensing, manufacturing and delivery is given. (authors) 3 refs.

  2. Optimization and Characterization of Castor Seed Oil

    OpenAIRE

    Bagali S. SHRIDHAR; K. V. BEENA; M. V. ANITA; K. B. PARAMJEET

    2010-01-01

    The response surface methodology (RSM) was employed to optimize the dilution level and agitation time for castor oil extraction. The % recovery of oil was investigated with respect to two variable including dilution level (X1) and agitation time (X2). As a result, a polynomial regression model equation was fitted as follows: Y1 = 47.50 + 7.41 x1 + 2.08 x2 + 0.63 x1 x2 -16.62 x12 - 2.87 x2. The optimal dilution level and agitation time were found to be 7.3 and 2.38 hr respectively. The maximum...

  3. Production of Detergent from Castor Oil

    OpenAIRE

    Abubakar Garba ISAH

    2006-01-01

    This research work was carried out with the objective of extraction of oil from castor seeds and its utilization to produce a synthetic detergent. Solvent extraction method was employed in extracting the oil and the total percent oil yield was found to be 23.8%. The experimentally determined saponification value of the oil was 183.7275mgKOH/g of oil. The detergent efficiency, determined as a measure of the foamability of the detergent was found to be 2.6cm. The pH tests revealed mildly basic ...

  4. Diurnal effects on Mentha canadensis oil yields and composition at two different harvests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Japanese cornmint, also known as menthol mint, (Mentha canadensis L. syn M. arvensis var canadensis L.), is an essential oil crop cultivated in several countries in Asia and South America. The plant is currently the only commercially viable source for natural menthol due to the high concentration of...

  5. Divisão de trabalho em colônias da vespa social neotropical Polistes canadensis canadensis Linnaeus (Hymenoptera, Vespidae Division of labor in colonies of the neotropical social wasp Polistes canadensis canadensis Linnaeus (Hymenoptera, Vespidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viviana de Oliveira Torres

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Foram realizadas 100 horas de observação usando o método "scanning sample" para a qualificação e quantificação dos atos comportamentais de rainhas e operárias de quinze colônias de Polistes canadensis canadensis. Foi descrito um repertório comportamental com 28 atos, no qual rainhas executam 19 atos na colônia, enquanto operárias 26, ocorrendo 17 atos em comum entre as duas castas. Dentre esses atos, dois foram exclusivos do repertório de rainhas e nove de operárias. O resultado do teste do qui-quadrado apontou diferenças significativas entre os repertórios das duas castas, sendo que rainhas permanecem mais tempo no ninho e executam com maior freqüência atividades intra-nidais, ligadas à reprodução, enquanto que as operárias executam mais freqüentemente atividades relacionadas à manutenção das colônias, como a atividade de forrageamento que demanda um maior risco e alto custo energético.Using "scanning sample" methods for qualifying and quantifying behavioral acts of queens and workers belonging to fifteen colonies of Polistes canadensis canadensis, one hundred hours of observation were performed. A behavioral repertoire with twenty-eight acts was described, in which queens perform nineteen acts in the colony, while workers perform twenty-six, and seventeen common acts between the two castes occur. Among those acts, two were exclusive to queen's repertoire and nine to worker's. Chi-square test pointed significant differences between the repertoires of the two castes, where the queens remain longer in the nest and perform the intra-nidal tasks, related to the reproduction, while the workers perform more frequently tasks related to the maintenance of the colonies, such as the foraging, which demands higher risks and high energetic costs.

  6. Neglected zoonotic helminths: Hymenolepis nana, Echinococcus canadensis and Ancylostoma ceylanicum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, R C A

    2015-05-01

    The majority of helminth parasites that are considered by WHO to be the cause of 'neglected diseases' are zoonotic. In terms of their impact on human health, the role of animal reservoirs and polyparasitism are both emerging issues in understanding the epidemiology of a number of these zoonoses. As such, Hymenolepis (Rodentolepis) nana, Echinococcus canadensis and Ancylostoma ceylanicum all qualify for consideration. They have been neglected and there is increasing evidence that all three parasite infections deserve more attention in terms of their impact on public health as well as their control. PMID:25743998

  7. Sanguinaria canadensis: Traditional Medicine, Phytochemical Composition, Biological Activities and Current Uses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Croaker

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Sanguinaria canadensis, also known as bloodroot, is a traditional medicine used by Native Americans to treat a diverse range of clinical conditions. The plants rhizome contains several alkaloids that individually target multiple molecular processes. These bioactive compounds, mechanistically correlate with the plant’s history of ethnobotanical use. Despite their identification over 50 years ago, the alkaloids of S. canadensis have not been developed into successful therapeutic agents. Instead, they have been associated with clinical toxicities ranging from mouthwash induced leukoplakia to cancer salve necrosis and treatment failure. This review explores the historical use of S. canadensis, the molecular actions of the benzophenanthridine and protopin alkaloids it contains, and explores natural alkaloid variation as a possible rationale for the inconsistent efficacy and toxicities encountered by S. canadensis therapies. Current veterinary and medicinal uses of the plant are studied with an assessment of obstacles to the pharmaceutical development of S. canadensis alkaloid based therapeutics.

  8. Demographic consequences of greater clonal than sexual reproduction in Dicentra canadensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chia-Hua; Miriti, Maria N; Goodell, Karen

    2016-06-01

    Clonality is a widespread life history trait in flowering plants that may be essential for population persistence, especially in environments where sexual reproduction is unpredictable. Frequent clonal reproduction, however, could hinder sexual reproduction by spatially aggregating ramets that compete with seedlings and reduce inter-genet pollination. Nevertheless, the role of clonality in relation to variable sexual reproduction in population dynamics is often overlooked. We combined population matrix models and pollination experiments to compare the demographic contributions of clonal and sexual reproduction in three Dicentra canadensis populations, one in a well-forested landscape and two in isolated forest remnants. We constructed stage-based transition matrices from 3 years of census data to evaluate annual population growth rates, λ. We used loop analysis to evaluate the relative contribution of different reproductive pathways to λ. Despite strong temporal and spatial variation in seed set, populations generally showed stable growth rates. Although we detected some pollen limitation of seed set, manipulative pollination treatments did not affect population growth rates. Clonal reproduction contributed significantly more than sexual reproduction to population growth in the forest remnants. Only at the well-forested site did sexual reproduction contribute as much as clonal reproduction to population growth. Flowering plants were more likely to transition to a smaller size class with reduced reproductive potential in the following year than similarly sized nonflowering plants, suggesting energy trade-offs between sexual and clonal reproduction at the individual level. Seed production had negligible effects on growth and tuber production of individual plants. Our results demonstrate that clonal reproduction is vital for population persistence in a system where sexual reproduction is unpredictable. The bias toward clonality may be driven by low fitness returns

  9. Role of tachykinins in castor oil diarrhoea in rats

    OpenAIRE

    Croci, Tiziano; Landi, Marco; Emonds-Alt, Xavier; Le Fur, Gérard; Maffrand, Jean-Pierre; Manara, Luciano

    1997-01-01

    We set out to ascertain the role of tachykinins, neurokinin A and substance P, in castor oil-induced diarrhoea in rats as disclosed by the inhibitory effect of the non-peptide NK1- and NK2-receptor antagonists, SR 140333 and SR 48968, respectively.SR 48968 (0.02 to 20 μg kg−1, s.c. or p.o.), and the opioid receptor agonist loperamide (1–10 mg kg−1, p.o.), dose-dependently prevented castor oil effects: % inhibition vs castor oil, diarrhoea 0 to 100, increase in faecal mass 7 to 90 and water co...

  10. Simulated effects of recruitment variability, exploitation, and reduced habitat area on the muskellunge population in Shoepack Lake, Voyageurs National Park, Minnesota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frohnauer, N.K.; Pierce, C.L.; Kallemeyn, L.W.

    2007-01-01

    The genetically unique population of muskellunge Esox masquinongy inhabiting Shoepack Lake in Voyageurs National Park, Minnesota, is potentially at risk for loss of genetic variability and long-term viability. Shoepack Lake has been subject to dramatic surface area changes from the construction of an outlet dam by beavers Castor canadensis and its subsequent failure. We simulated the long-term dynamics of this population in response to recruitment variation, increased exploitation, and reduced habitat area. We then estimated the effective population size of the simulated population and evaluated potential threats to long-term viability, based on which we recommend management actions to help preserve the long-term viability of the population. Simulations based on the population size and habitat area at the beginning of a companion study resulted in an effective population size that was generally above the threshold level for risk of loss of genetic variability, except when fishing mortality was increased. Simulations based on the reduced habitat area after the beaver dam failure and our assumption of a proportional reduction in population size resulted in an effective population size that was generally below the threshold level for risk of loss of genetic variability. Our results identified two potential threats to the long-term viability of the Shoepack Lake muskellunge population, reduction in habitat area and exploitation. Increased exploitation can be prevented through traditional fishery management approaches such as the adoption of no-kill, barbless hook, and limited entry regulations. Maintenance of the greatest possible habitat area and prevention of future habitat area reductions will require maintenance of the outlet dam built by beavers. Our study should enhance the long-term viability of the Shoepack Lake muskellunge population and illustrates a useful approach for other unique populations. ?? Copyright by the American Fisheries Society 2007.

  11. Extraction and Characterization of Drilling Fluid from Castor Oil

    OpenAIRE

    Manase Auta

    2013-01-01

    Drilling fluid is an essential component in drilling operations. It is used to prevent blowouts by creating adequate hydrostatic pressure, lubricating the walls of a well and the drill string, flushing to the surface of cuttings, and keeping the drill bit clean and cool. Extraction, characterization and formation of drilling fluid from castor seed oil were investigated. The castor seeds used were obtained from a local market and the extraction of the oil was done mechanically. The extracted o...

  12. Toxicity of ricin present in castor bean seeds

    OpenAIRE

    Nayanna Brunna da Silva Fonseca; Benito Soto-Blanco

    2014-01-01

    The castor bean (Ricinus communis) is a bush from Euphorbiacea family cultivated for obtaining oil from the seeds. This oil has broad industrial employment, particularly for biodiesel. However, castor bean seeds exhibit a potent toxin, ricin. It is a glycoprotein with highly toxic action of inactivating ribosomes. The toxic action of ricin is due to inhibition of protein synthesis in eukaryotic cells, causing cell death. Only one molecule of ricin that enters the cytosol is able to inactivate...

  13. Laser-fabricated castor oil-capped silver nanoparticles

    OpenAIRE

    Zamiri, Reza; Zakaria, Azmi; Abbastabar, Hossein; Darroudi, Majid; Husin, Mohd Shahril; Mahdi, Mohd. Adzir

    2011-01-01

    Silver nanoparticles were fabricated by ablation of a pure silver plate immersed in castor oil. A Nd:YAG-pulsed Q-switch laser with 1064-nm wavelength and 10-Hz frequency was used to ablate the plate for 10 minutes. The sample was characterized by ultraviolet-visible, atomic absorption, Fourier transform-infrared spectroscopies, and transmission electron microscopy. The results of the fabricated sample showed that the nanoparticles in castor oil were about 5-nm in diameter, well dispersed, an...

  14. Renewable polyethylene mimics derived from castor oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Türünç, Oĝuz; Montero de Espinosa, Lucas; Meier, Michael A R

    2011-09-01

    An increasing number of reports on the syntheses of carbohydrate- and plant oil-based polymers has been published in ongoing efforts to produce plastic materials from renewable resources. Although many of these polymers are biodegradable and this is a desirable property for certain applications, in some cases non-degradable polymers are needed for long-term use purposes. Polyolefins are one of the most important classes of materials that have already taken their places in our daily life. On the other hand, their production relies on fossil resources. Therefore, within this contribution, we discuss synthetic routes toward a number of polyethylene mimics derived from fatty acids via thiol-ene and ADMET polymerization reactions in order to establish more sustainable routes toward this important class of polymers. Two different diene monomers were thus prepared from castor oil derived platform chemicals, their polymerization via the two mentioned routes was optimized and compared to each other, and their thermal properties were investigated.

  15. Production of Detergent from Castor Oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abubakar Garba ISAH

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available This research work was carried out with the objective of extraction of oil from castor seeds and its utilization to produce a synthetic detergent. Solvent extraction method was employed in extracting the oil and the total percent oil yield was found to be 23.8%. The experimentally determined saponification value of the oil was 183.7275mgKOH/g of oil. The detergent efficiency, determined as a measure of the foamability of the detergent was found to be 2.6cm. The pH tests revealed mildly basic properties. The color, scent and efficiency of the detergent were improved with the addition of bleaching agent, perfume and foaming agents respectively.

  16. Resistência de Conyza canadensis e C. bonariensis ao herbicida glyphosate Glyphosate-resistance in Conyza canadensis and C. bonariensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.S. Moreira

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar, por meio de curvas de dose-resposta, a ocorrência de biótipos resistentes ao herbicida glyphosate em populações de Conyza canadensis e C. bonariensis, bem como propor tratamentos alternativos para esses biótipos. Os experimentos foram realizados em casa de vegetação, utilizando-se três populações de cada espécie: duas com suspeita de resistência ao herbicida glyphosate, coletadas em pomares de laranja localizados em duas regiões diferentes do Estado de São Paulo; e uma suscetível, coletada em área sem histórico de aplicação do herbicida. O delineamento experimental adotado foi o de blocos ao acaso, com quatro repetições. Para cada espécie, os tratamentos foram resultado da combinação fatorial entre as três populações e os tratamentos herbicidas (oito doses de glyphosate ou cinco tratamentos alternativos. As doses de glyphosate foram (g e.a. ha¹: 90, 180, 360, 720, 1.440, 2.880, 5.760 e testemunha sem aplicação. Como alternativas de controle, foram testados os seguintes tratamentos (g ha-1: glyphosate + 2,4-D (1.440 + 1.005, glyphosate + metsulfuron (1.440 + 2,4, glyphosate + metsulfuron (1.440 + 3,6, glyphosate + metribuzin (1.440 + 480 e testemunha sem aplicação. A partir dos resultados, comprovou-se a existência de populações de ambas as espécies com biótipos resistentes ao herbicida glyphosate, com diferentes níveis de resistência. Todos os tratamentos herbicidas alternativos controlaram de forma eficiente as três populações de cada espécie.The objective of this research was to evaluate, through dose-response curves, the occurrence of glyphosate-resistant biotypes in populations of Conyza canadensis and C. bonariensis; as well as to propose alternative treatments to these biotypes. The experiments were conducted in a greenhouse, using three populations of each species: two with suspicion of resistance to the herbicide glyphosate, and collected in orange orchards

  17. Role of runaway electrons in LHCD regimes with improved confinement on the CASTOR tokamak

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Voitsekhovich, I. [Kurchatov Institute, Moscow (Russian Federation); Stoeckel, J.; Zacek, F. [Akademie Ved Ceske Republiky, Prague (Czech Republic). Ustav Fyziky Plazmatu

    1993-12-31

    Lower hybrid current drive (LHCD) experiments in low density plasmas on ASDEX, CASTOR, WT-3, VERSATOR and HT-6B tokamaks demonstrated an improvement of the particle confinement at moderate lower hybrid powers (P{sub LH}). Moreover, the experiments have shown that a reduction of edge electrostatic fluctuations is probably responsible for this effect. However, the mechanism behind the reduction of fluctuations has remained unclear. Here we try to explain the reduction of fluctuations by enhanced population and non-ambipolar losses of runaway electrons with LHCD. (author) 8 refs., 3 figs.

  18. The Use of Acceleration to Code for Animal Behaviours; A Case Study in Free-Ranging Eurasian Beavers Castor fiber.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia M Graf

    Full Text Available Recent technological innovations have led to the development of miniature, accelerometer-containing electronic loggers which can be attached to free-living animals. Accelerometers provide information on both body posture and dynamism which can be used as descriptors to define behaviour. We deployed tri-axial accelerometer loggers on 12 free-ranging Eurasian beavers Castor fiber in the county of Telemark, Norway, and on four captive beavers (two Eurasian beavers and two North American beavers C. canadensis to corroborate acceleration signals with observed behaviours. By using random forests for classifying behavioural patterns of beavers from accelerometry data, we were able to distinguish seven behaviours; standing, walking, swimming, feeding, grooming, diving and sleeping. We show how to apply the use of acceleration to determine behaviour, and emphasise the ease with which this non-invasive method can be implemented. Furthermore, we discuss the strengths and weaknesses of this, and the implementation of accelerometry on animals, illustrating limitations, suggestions and solutions. Ultimately, this approach may also serve as a template facilitating studies on other animals with similar locomotor modes and deliver new insights into hitherto unknown aspects of behavioural ecology.

  19. The Use of Acceleration to Code for Animal Behaviours; A Case Study in Free-Ranging Eurasian Beavers Castor fiber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graf, Patricia M; Wilson, Rory P; Qasem, Lama; Hackländer, Klaus; Rosell, Frank

    2015-01-01

    Recent technological innovations have led to the development of miniature, accelerometer-containing electronic loggers which can be attached to free-living animals. Accelerometers provide information on both body posture and dynamism which can be used as descriptors to define behaviour. We deployed tri-axial accelerometer loggers on 12 free-ranging Eurasian beavers Castor fiber in the county of Telemark, Norway, and on four captive beavers (two Eurasian beavers and two North American beavers C. canadensis) to corroborate acceleration signals with observed behaviours. By using random forests for classifying behavioural patterns of beavers from accelerometry data, we were able to distinguish seven behaviours; standing, walking, swimming, feeding, grooming, diving and sleeping. We show how to apply the use of acceleration to determine behaviour, and emphasise the ease with which this non-invasive method can be implemented. Furthermore, we discuss the strengths and weaknesses of this, and the implementation of accelerometry on animals, illustrating limitations, suggestions and solutions. Ultimately, this approach may also serve as a template facilitating studies on other animals with similar locomotor modes and deliver new insights into hitherto unknown aspects of behavioural ecology. PMID:26317623

  20. Castor Oil: Properties, Uses, and Optimization of Processing Parameters in Commercial Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Vinay R.; Dumancas, Gerard G.; Kasi Viswanath, Lakshmi C.; Maples, Randall; Subong, Bryan John J.

    2016-01-01

    Castor oil, produced from castor beans, has long been considered to be of important commercial value primarily for the manufacturing of soaps, lubricants, and coatings, among others. Global castor oil production is concentrated primarily in a small geographic region of Gujarat in Western India. This region is favorable due to its labor-intensive cultivation method and subtropical climate conditions. Entrepreneurs and castor processors in the United States and South America also cultivate castor beans but are faced with the challenge of achieving high castor oil production efficiency, as well as obtaining the desired oil quality. In this manuscript, we provide a detailed analysis of novel processing methods involved in castor oil production. We discuss novel processing methods by explaining specific processing parameters involved in castor oil production. PMID:27656091

  1. Castor Oil: Properties, Uses, and Optimization of Processing Parameters in Commercial Production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Vinay R; Dumancas, Gerard G; Kasi Viswanath, Lakshmi C; Maples, Randall; Subong, Bryan John J

    2016-01-01

    Castor oil, produced from castor beans, has long been considered to be of important commercial value primarily for the manufacturing of soaps, lubricants, and coatings, among others. Global castor oil production is concentrated primarily in a small geographic region of Gujarat in Western India. This region is favorable due to its labor-intensive cultivation method and subtropical climate conditions. Entrepreneurs and castor processors in the United States and South America also cultivate castor beans but are faced with the challenge of achieving high castor oil production efficiency, as well as obtaining the desired oil quality. In this manuscript, we provide a detailed analysis of novel processing methods involved in castor oil production. We discuss novel processing methods by explaining specific processing parameters involved in castor oil production.

  2. Castor Oil: Properties, Uses, and Optimization of Processing Parameters in Commercial Production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Vinay R; Dumancas, Gerard G; Kasi Viswanath, Lakshmi C; Maples, Randall; Subong, Bryan John J

    2016-01-01

    Castor oil, produced from castor beans, has long been considered to be of important commercial value primarily for the manufacturing of soaps, lubricants, and coatings, among others. Global castor oil production is concentrated primarily in a small geographic region of Gujarat in Western India. This region is favorable due to its labor-intensive cultivation method and subtropical climate conditions. Entrepreneurs and castor processors in the United States and South America also cultivate castor beans but are faced with the challenge of achieving high castor oil production efficiency, as well as obtaining the desired oil quality. In this manuscript, we provide a detailed analysis of novel processing methods involved in castor oil production. We discuss novel processing methods by explaining specific processing parameters involved in castor oil production. PMID:27656091

  3. Biotic Homogenization Caused by the Invasion of Solidago canadensis in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Guo-qi; ZHANG Chao-bin; MA Ling; QIANG Sheng; John A Silander; Li Li Qi

    2013-01-01

    Although studies argue that invasive species can cause biotic differentiation, some cases show that biological invasions actually decrease biodiversity through biotic homogenization. The concept of biotic homogenization through the invasion of a certain serious invasive plant species merit more studies. Hence, we used field surveys to quantitatively compare invasive populations of Solidago canadensis (SC) in China with the control sites (adjacent sites to SC present sites yet without the species) and SC native populations in the USA. We found that plant communities in SC invaded habitats shared similarities with those in SC native ranges. Bray-Curtis similarity clearly showed that the composition of plant communities in SC invaded habitats were similar to those in SC native ranges. Both in the native and introduced range, plant communities with SC present were characterized by SC being dominant, significantly lower species richness,α-diversity andβ-diversity, as well as a decrease in the correlation coefficient between geographic distance and floristic similarities. SC favors fertile and moist loam habitat, while it dominated in various habitats in China, where more than 20 different dominants should have occurred. In conclusion, serious invasive species can quickly remodel and homogenize diverse communities by dominating them.

  4. Antibodies to avian influenza viruses in Canada geese (Branta canadensis): a potential surveillance tool?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kistler, Whitney M; Stallknecht, David E; Deliberto, Thomas J; Swafford, Seth; Pedersen, Kerri; Van Why, Kyle; Wolf, Paul C; Hill, Jerry A; Bruning, Darren L; Cumbee, James C; Mickley, Randall M; Betsill, Carl W; Randall, Adam R; Berghaus, Roy D; Yabsley, Michael J

    2012-10-01

    Traditionally, the epidemiology of avian influenza viruses (AIVs) in wild birds has been defined by detection of virus or viral RNA through virus isolation or reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction. Our goals were to estimate AIV antibody prevalence in Canada geese (Branta canadensis) and measure effects of age and location on these estimates. We collected 3,205 samples from nine states during June and July 2008 and 2009: Georgia, Massachusetts, Minnesota, Mississippi, New Jersey, North Carolina, Pennsylvania, Washington, and West Virginia. Serum samples were tested for AIV antibodies with the use of a commercial blocking enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Overall, 483 (15%) Canada geese had detectable antibodies to AIV. Significantly higher prevalences were detected in geese collected from northeastern and upper midwestern states compared with southeastern states. This trend is consistent with results from virus isolation studies reporting AIV prevalence in North American dabbling ducks. Within Pennsylvania, significantly higher antibody prevalences were detected in goose flocks sampled in urban locations compared to flocks sampled in rural areas. Antibody prevalence was significantly higher in after-hatch-year geese compared to hatch-year geese. No significant differences in prevalence were detected from 10 locations sampled during both years. Results indicate that Canada geese are frequently exposed to AIVs and, with resident populations, may potentially be useful as sentinels to confirm regional AIV transmission within wild bird populations.

  5. Use of exposure history to identify patterns of immunity to pneumonia in bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plowright, Raina K.; Manlove, Kezia; Cassirer, E. Frances; Besser, Thomas H.; Hudson, Peter J.

    2013-01-01

    Individual host immune responses to infectious agents drive epidemic behavior and are therefore central to understanding and controlling infectious diseases. However, important features of individual immune responses, such as the strength and longevity of immunity, can be challenging to characterize, particularly if they cannot be replicated or controlled in captive environments. Our research on bighorn sheep pneumonia elucidates how individual bighorn sheep respond to infection with pneumonia pathogens by examining the relationship between exposure history and survival in situ. Pneumonia is a poorly understood disease that has impeded the recovery of bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis) following their widespread extirpation in the 1900s. We analyzed the effects of pneumonia-exposure history on survival of 388 radio-collared adults and 753 ewe-lamb pairs. Results from Cox proportional hazards models suggested that surviving ewes develop protective immunity after exposure, but previous exposure in ewes does not protect their lambs during pneumonia outbreaks. Paradoxically, multiple exposures of ewes to pneumonia were associated with diminished survival of their offspring during pneumonia outbreaks. Although there was support for waning and boosting immunity in ewes, models with consistent immunizing exposure were similarly supported. Translocated animals that had not previously been exposed were more likely to die of pneumonia than residents. These results suggest that pneumonia in bighorn sheep can lead to aging populations of immune adults with limited recruitment. Recovery is unlikely to be enhanced by translocating nai¨ve healthy animals into or near populations infected with pneumonia pathogens.

  6. Castor oil induces laxation and uterus contraction via ricinoleic acid activating prostaglandin EP3 receptors

    OpenAIRE

    Tunaru, Sorin; Althoff, Till F.; Nüsing, Rolf M.; Diener, Martin; Offermanns, Stefan

    2012-01-01

    Castor oil is one of the oldest drugs. When given orally, it has a laxative effect and induces labor in pregnant females. The effects of castor oil are mediated by ricinoleic acid, a hydroxylated fatty acid released from castor oil by intestinal lipases. Despite the wide-spread use of castor oil in conventional and folk medicine, the molecular mechanism by which ricinoleic acid acts remains unknown. Here we show that the EP3 prostanoid receptor is specifically activated by ricinoleic acid and...

  7. [Effects of Cuscuta australis parasitism on the growth, reproduction and defense of Solidago canadensis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Bei-fen; Du, Le-shan; Li, Jun-min

    2015-11-01

    In order to find out how parasitic Cuscuta australis influences the growth and reproduction of Solidago canadensis, the effects of the parasitism of C. australis on the morphological, growth and reproductive traits of S. canadensis were examined and the relationships between the biomass and the contents of the secondary metabolites were analyzed. The results showed that the parasitism significantly reduced the plant height, basal diameter, root length, root diameter, root biomass, stem biomass, leaf biomass, total biomass, number of inflorescences branches, axis length of inflorescence, and number of inflorescence. In particular, plant height, number of inflorescence and the stem biomass of parasitized S. canadensis were only 1/2, 1/5 and 1/8 of non-parasitized plants, respectively. There was no significant difference of plant height, root length, stem biomass and total biomass between plants parasitized with high and low intensities. But the basal diameter, root volume, leaf biomass, root biomass, the number of inflorescences branches, axis length of inflorescence and number of inflorescence of S. canadensis parasitized with high intensity were significantly lower than those of plants parasitized with low intensity. The parasitism of C. australis significantly increased the tannins content in the root and the flavonoids content in the stem of S. canadensis. The biomass of S. canadensis was significantly negatively correlated with the tannin content in the root and the flavonoids content in the stem. These results indicated that the parasitism of C. australis could inhibit the growth of S. canadensis by changing the resources allocation patterns as well as reducing the resources obtained by S. canadensis.

  8. Local extinction and unintentional rewilding of bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis) on a desert island

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilder, Benjamin T.; Betancourt, Julio L.; Epps, Clinton W.; Crowhurst, Rachel S.; Mead, Jim I.; Ezcurra, Exequiel

    2014-01-01

    Bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis) were not known to live on Tiburón Island, the largest island in the Gulf of California and Mexico, prior to the surprisingly successful introduction of 20 individuals as a conservation measure in 1975. Today, a stable island population of ~500 sheep supports limited big game hunting and restocking of depleted areas on the Mexican mainland. We discovered fossil dung morphologically similar to that of bighorn sheep in a dung mat deposit from Mojet Cave, in the mountains of Tiburón Island. To determine the origin of this cave deposit we compared pellet shape to fecal pellets of other large mammals, and extracted DNA to sequence mitochondrial DNA fragments at the 12S ribosomal RNA and control regions. The fossil dung was 14C-dated to 1476–1632 calendar years before present and was confirmed as bighorn sheep by morphological and ancient DNA (aDNA) analysis. 12S sequences closely or exactly matched known bighorn sheep sequences; control region sequences exactly matched a haplotype described in desert bighorn sheep populations in southwest Arizona and southern California and showed subtle differentiation from the extant Tiburón population. Native desert bighorn sheep previously colonized this land-bridge island, most likely during the Pleistocene, when lower sea levels connected Tiburón to the mainland. They were extirpated sometime in the last ~1500 years, probably due to inherent dynamics of isolated populations, prolonged drought, and (or) human overkill. The reintroduced population is vulnerable to similar extinction risks. The discovery presented here refutes conventional wisdom that bighorn sheep are not native to Tiburón Island, and establishes its recent introduction as an example of unintentional rewilding, defined here as the introduction of a species without knowledge that it was once native and has since gone locally extinct.

  9. Regiospecific Quantification of Triacylglycerols Containing Ricinoleate and Dihydroxy Fatty Acids in Castor Oil by Mass Spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricinoleate, a monohydroxy fatty acid, has many industrial uses such as the manufacture of aviation lubricant, plastic, paint and cosmetics. Ricinoleate occurs as acylglycerols (AG) in castor oil, and about 70% of castor oil is triricinolein. Castor oil is the only commercial source of ricinoleate. ...

  10. 21 CFR 524.2620 - Liquid crystalline trypsin, Peru balsam, castor oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 524.2620 Liquid crystalline trypsin, Peru balsam, castor oil. (a)(1) Specifications..., and 788.0 milligrams of castor oil. (2) Sponsor. See No. 051079 in § 510.600(c) of this chapter. (b)(1... balsam, and 800 milligrams of castor oil. (2) Sponsor. See No. 017135 in § 510.600(c) of this chapter....

  11. Genetic and chemical evaluation of the U.S. castor germplasm collection for biodiesel production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castor has multiple industrial applications including potential as a feedstock for biodiesel production. The oil content and fatty acid composition in castor seed are important factors to determine the price for production and affect the key fuel properties of biodiesel. The entire U.S. castor germp...

  12. Analysis of acylglycerols containing mono- and dihydroxy fatty acids in castor oil by HPLC and MS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricinoleate, a monohydroxy fatty acid, has many industrial uses such as the manufacture of aviation lubricant, plastic, paint and cosmetics. Ricinoleate occurs as acylglycerols (AG) in castor oil, and about 70% of castor oil is triricinolein. Castor oil is the only commercial source of ricinoleate. ...

  13. Castor oil biodiesel as an alternative fuel for diesel engines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper, a study related to the production and use of castor oil biodiesel is presented. The maximum methyl esters yield of the castor oil transesterification reaction is obtained under the following conditions: ambient temperature, a molar ratio of methanol to vegetable oil equal to 9 and a catalyst percentage equal to 0.8%. The castor oil biodiesel can be blended with petroleum diesel as far as 15% in such way that the resulting blend complies with national and international technical standards for diesel fuels. Its high viscosity becomes the main difficulty for using castor oil biodiesel in engines. However this biofuel exhibits excellent cold flow properties (low values of cloud and pour points). The motor tests using castor oil biodiesel petroleum diesel blends, for the biodiesel proportion tested; show that a biodiesel percentage increase leads to an increase in the specific fuel consumption, a decrease in the fuel air ratio, a slight decrease in smoke opacity, while the fuel conversion efficiency and the CO and CO2 emissions practically remain constants

  14. EVALUATION OF ANTIULCER ACTIVITY OF CASTOR OIL IN RATS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachhadiya Rakesh M.

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available To study the antiulcer activity of oil of Ricinus communis seed using different models of gastric ulceration in rats. Antiulcer activity of castor oil was studied in rats by administration of ethanol or aspirin or by pyloric ligation. Castor oil was administered in the dose of 500 mg/kg and 1000 mg/kg orally 30 min prior to ulcer induction. The antiulcer activity was assessed by determining and comparing the ulcer index in the test drug group with that of the ulcerated control group. Gastric total acid output and pepsin activity were estimated in the pylorus ligated rats. Ranitidine and Sucralfate were used as a reference drug. The ulcer index in the castor oil treated animals was found to be significantly less in all the models compared to ulcerated control animals. This antiulcer property was more prominent in animals in whom ulcers were induced by ethanol, aspirin and pyloric ligation. Ranitidine (30 mg/kg produced a significant gastric ulcer protection when compared with the control group. The anti-ulcer activity of castor oil was however, less than that of ranitidine. Our results suggest that castor oil possesses significant antiulcer property which could be either due to cytoprotective action of the drug or by strengthening of gastric mucosa and thus enhancing mucosal defence.

  15. Detoxified Castor Seed Cake for Broilers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DE Faria Filho

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The objective of the present study was to evaluate the effect of the dietary detoxified castor seed cake (DCC inclusion on broiler performance and carcass traits. Two hundred and fifty Cobb-500(r broilers were distributed according to a completely randomized experimental design consisting of five treatments (dietary inclusion of 0.0, 2.5, 5.0, 7.5, and 10.0% DCC with five replicates of 10 birds each (five males and five females. Feed intake (FI, body weight gain (WG, and feed conversion ratio (FCR were evaluated from one to 40 days of age. Carcass yield and the yields of the breast, leg (drumstick+thighs, and wings were determined when broilers were 40 days old. Live performance parameters were influenced by DCC dietary inclusion, and levels 2.00, 1.38, and 1.25% DCC impaired FI, WG, and FCR, respectively. Carcass and parts yields were not affected by dietary DCC inclusion. It was concluded that the addition of DCC levels up to 1.25% to broiler diets does not impair live performance or carcass traits.

  16. Heterogeneous catalysis afford biodiesel of babassu, castor oil and blends

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work describes the preparation of babassu, castor oil biodiesel and mixtures in various proportions of these oils, using alkaline compounds of strontium (SrCO3 + SrO + Sr (OH)2) as heterogeneous catalysts. The mixture of oils of these oleaginous sources was used in the production of biodiesel with quality parameters that meet current legislation. The catalyst was characterized by X-ray diffractometry (XDR), physisorption of gas (BET method), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDX) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The viscometric technique was used to monitor the optimization.The transesterification reactions performed using strontium compounds reached conversion rates of 97.2% babassu biodiesel (BB), 96.4% castor oil biodiesel (COB) and 95.3% Babassu/Castor Oil Biodiesel 4:1 (BBCO41). (author)

  17. Experimental Study of Castor Oil Based Lubricant for Automotive Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amit Suhane,

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Vegetable oils due to their better natural propertiescan be used as an alternative to reduce the dependency on the conventional lubricants. With the depletion of conventional resources at faster pace, need of hour is to approach the safer alternatives for ensuring the availability of such resources for longer periods with lesser harm to the mankind and sorroundings.This workevaluates the prospects of Castor oil based lubricant for automotive applications in contrast to the available commercial servo gear oil. Experimentation has been performed on four ball tester set up.Material used is carbon steel balls. Refined castor and mahua oils are blended in fixed ratios and subjected to friction and wear tests. Experimentation reveals that castor mahua oil blend possess immense potential in contrast to servo gear oil due to good wear reducing traits apart from environmental benefits.

  18. Multisystem organ failure after large volume injection of castor oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Silas W; Graber, Nathan M; Johnson, Rudolph C; Barr, John R; Hoffman, Robert S; Nelson, Lewis S

    2009-01-01

    We report a case of multisystem organ failure after large volume subcutaneous injection of castor oil for cosmetic enhancement. An unlicensed practitioner injected 500 mL of castor oil bilaterally to the hips and buttocks of a 28-year-old male to female transsexual. Immediate local pain and erythema were followed by abdominal and chest pain, emesis, headache, hematuria, jaundice, and tinnitus. She presented to an emergency department 12 hours postinjection. Persistently hemolyzed blood samples complicated preliminary laboratory analysis. She rapidly deteriorated despite treatment and developed fever, tachycardia, hemolysis, thrombocytopenia, hepatitis, respiratory distress, and anuric renal failure. An infectious diseases evaluation was negative. After intensive supportive care, including mechanical ventilation and hemodialysis, she was discharged 11 days later, requiring dialysis for an additional 1.5 months. Castor oil absorption was inferred from recovery of the Ricinus communis biomarker, ricinine, in the patient's urine (41 ng/mL). Clinicians should anticipate multiple complications after unapproved methods of cosmetic enhancement.

  19. Mixed Field Modification of Thermally Cured Castor Oil Based Polyurethanes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thermally cured polyurethanes were prepared from castor oil and hexamethylene diisocyanatee (HMDI). Due to the long aliphatic chain of the castor oil component of polyurethane, thermal curing of castor oil based polyurethane (COPU) is limited by increasing polymer viscosity. To enhance further crosslinking, COPUs were subjected to a range of accumulated doses (0.0-3.0 MGy) produced by the mixed ionizing field of the SLOWPOKE-2 research reactor. The physico-mechanical properties of COPU, unirradiated and irradiated, were characterized by mechanical tests. Increased bond formation resulting from radiation-induced crosslinking was confirmed by favorable increases in mechanical properties and by solid-state 13C-NMR and FTIR spectra

  20. Mixed field radiation modification of polyurethanes based on castor oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polyurethane is among the polymers and polymer-based composite materials being investigated at the Royal Military College of Canada for the fabrication of leak-tight containers for the long-term disposal of radioactive waste. Due to the long aliphatic chain of the castor oil component of polyurethane, thermal curing of castor oil based polyurethane (COPU) is limited by increasing polymer viscosity. To enhance further crosslinking, COPUs were subjected to a range of doses (0.0 - 3.0 MGy) produced by the mixed ionizing radiation field of a SLOWPOKE-2 research nuclear reactor. The tensile mechanical properties of castor oil based polyurethanes (COPU), unirradiated and irradiated, were characterized by mechanical tensile tests. Increases in mechanical strength due to radiation-induced crosslinking and limitations of thermal curing were confirmed by tensile tests and changing 13C-NMR and FTIR spectra. (author)

  1. Heterogeneous catalysis afford biodiesel of babassu, castor oil and blends

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carvalho, Lee M.G. de; Abreu, Wiury C. de; Silva, Maria das Gracas de O. e; Matos, Jose Milton E. de; Moura, Carla V.R. de; Moura, Edmilson M. de, E-mail: mmoura@ufpi.edu.br [Universidade Federal do Piaui (UFPI), Teresina, PI (Brazil). Departamento de Quimica; Lima, Jose Renato de O.; Oliveira, Jose Eduardo de [Universidade Estadual Paulista Julio de Mesquita Filho (UNESP/IQ/CEMPEQC), Araraquara, SP (Brazil). Instituto de Quimica. Centro de Monitoramento e Pesquisa da Qualidade de Combustiveis, Biocombustiveis, Petroleo e Derivados

    2013-04-15

    This work describes the preparation of babassu, castor oil biodiesel and mixtures in various proportions of these oils, using alkaline compounds of strontium (SrCO{sub 3} + SrO + Sr (OH){sub 2}) as heterogeneous catalysts. The mixture of oils of these oleaginous sources was used in the production of biodiesel with quality parameters that meet current legislation. The catalyst was characterized by X-ray diffractometry (XDR), physisorption of gas (BET method), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDX) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The viscometric technique was used to monitor the optimization.The transesterification reactions performed using strontium compounds reached conversion rates of 97.2% babassu biodiesel (BB), 96.4% castor oil biodiesel (COB) and 95.3% Babassu/Castor Oil Biodiesel 4:1 (BBCO41). (author)

  2. Role of carriers in the transmission of pneumonia in bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bindu Raghavan

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In the absence of livestock contact, recurring lamb mortality in bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis populations previously exposed to pneumonia indicates the likely presence of carriers of pneumonia-causing pathogens, and possibly inadequate maternally derived immunity. To investigate this problem we commingled naïve, pregnant ewes (n=3 with previously exposed rams (n=2. Post-commingling, all ewes and lambs born to them acquired pneumonia-causing pathogens (leukotoxin-producing Pasteurellaceae and Mycoplasma ovipneumoniae, with subsequent lamb mortality between 4-9 weeks of age. Infected ewes became carriers for two subsequent years and lambs born to them succumbed to pneumonia. In another experiment, we attempted to suppress the carriage of leukotoxin-producing Pasteurellaceae by administering an antibiotic to carrier ewes, and evaluated lamb survival. Lambs born to both treatment and control ewes (n=4 each acquired pneumonia and died. Antibody titers against leukotoxin-producing Pasteurellaceae in all eight ewes were ‘protective’ (>1:800 and no apparent respiratory disease; however their lambs were either born with comparatively low titers, or with high (but non-protective titers that declined rapidly within 2-8 weeks of age, rendering them susceptible to fatal disease. Thus, exposure to pneumonia-causing pathogens from carrier ewes, and inadequate titers of maternally derived protective antibodies, are likely to render bighorn lambs susceptible to fatal pneumonia.

  3. Bilateral uric acid nephrolithiasis and ureteral hypertrophy in a free-ranging river otter (Lontra canadensis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grove, Robert A.; Bildfell, Rob; Henny, Charles J.; Buhler, D.R.

    2003-01-01

    We report the first case of uric acid nephrolithiasis in a free-ranging river otter (Lontra canadensis). A 7 yr old male river otter collected from the Skagit River of western Washington (USA) had bilateral nephrolithiasis and severely enlarged ureters (one of 305 examined [0.33%]). The uroliths were 97% uric acid and 3% protein. Microscopic changes in the kidney were confined to expansion of renal calyces, minor loss of medullary tissue, and multifocal atrophy of the cortical tubules. No inflammation was observed in either kidney or the ureters. The ureters were enlarged due to marked hypertrophy of smooth muscle plus dilation of the lumen. Fusion of the major calyces into a single ureteral lumen was several cm distal to that of two adult male otters used as histopathologic control specimens. This case report is part of a large contaminant study of river otters collected from Oregon and Washington. It is important to understand diseases and lesions of the otter as part of our overall evaluation of this population.

  4. Role of carriers in the transmission of pneumonia in bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raghavan, Bindu; Erickson, Kayla; Kugadas, Abirami; Batra, Sai A; Call, Douglas R; Davis, Margaret A; Foreyt, William J; Srikumaran, Subramaniam

    2016-01-01

    In the absence of livestock contact, recurring lamb mortality in bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis) populations previously exposed to pneumonia indicates the likely presence of carriers of pneumonia-causing pathogens, and possibly inadequate maternally derived immunity. To investigate this problem we commingled naïve, pregnant ewes (n=3) with previously exposed rams (n=2). Post-commingling, all ewes and lambs born to them acquired pneumonia-causing pathogens (leukotoxin-producing Pasteurellaceae and Mycoplasma ovipneumoniae), with subsequent lamb mortality between 4-9 weeks of age. Infected ewes became carriers for two subsequent years and lambs born to them succumbed to pneumonia. In another experiment, we attempted to suppress the carriage of leukotoxin-producing Pasteurellaceae by administering an antibiotic to carrier ewes, and evaluated lamb survival. Lambs born to both treatment and control ewes (n=4 each) acquired pneumonia and died. Antibody titers against leukotoxin-producing Pasteurellaceae in all eight ewes were 'protective' (>1:800 and no apparent respiratory disease); however their lambs were either born with comparatively low titers, or with high (but non-protective) titers that declined rapidly within 2-8 weeks of age, rendering them susceptible to fatal disease. Thus, exposure to pneumonia-causing pathogens from carrier ewes, and inadequate titers of maternally derived protective antibodies, are likely to render bighorn lambs susceptible to fatal pneumonia. PMID:27185269

  5. CASTOR: Cathode/Anode Satellite Thruster for Orbital Repositioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mruphy, Gloria A.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of CASTOR (Cathode/Anode Satellite Thruster for Orbital Repositioning) satellite is to demonstrate in Low Earth Orbit (LEO) a nanosatellite that uses a Divergent Cusped Field Thruster (DCFT) to perform orbital maneuvers representative of an orbital transfer vehicle. Powered by semi-deployable solar arrays generating 165W of power, CASTOR will achieve nearly 1 km/s of velocity increment over one year. As a technology demonstration mission, success of CASTOR in LEO will pave the way for a low cost, high delta-V orbital transfer capability for small military and civilian payloads in support of Air Force and NASA missions. The educational objective is to engage graduate and undergraduate students in critical roles in the design, development, test, carrier integration and on-orbit operations of CASTOR as a supplement to their curricular activities. This program is laying the foundation for a long-term satellite construction program at MIT. The satellite is being designed as a part of AFRL's University Nanosatellite Program, which provides the funding and a framework in which student satellite teams compete for a launch to orbit. To this end, the satellite must fit within an envelope of 50cmx50cmx60cm, have a mass of less than 50kg, and meet stringent structural and other requirements. In this framework, the CASTOR team successfully completed PDR in August 2009 and CDR in April 2010 and will compete at FCR (Flight Competition Review) in January 2011. The complexity of the project requires implementation of many systems engineering techniques which allow for development of CASTOR from conception through FCR and encompass the full design, fabrication, and testing process.

  6. Laser-fabricated castor oil-capped silver nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamiri, Reza; Zakaria, Azmi; Abbastabar, Hossein; Darroudi, Majid; Husin, Mohd Shahril; Mahdi, Mohd Adzir

    2011-01-01

    Silver nanoparticles were fabricated by ablation of a pure silver plate immersed in castor oil. A Nd:YAG-pulsed Q-switch laser with 1064-nm wavelength and 10-Hz frequency was used to ablate the plate for 10 minutes. The sample was characterized by ultraviolet-visible, atomic absorption, Fourier transform-infrared spectroscopies, and transmission electron microscopy. The results of the fabricated sample showed that the nanoparticles in castor oil were about 5-nm in diameter, well dispersed, and showed stability for a long period of time.

  7. Large nonlocal nonlinear optical response of castor oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, Rogério F.; Alencar, Márcio A. R. C.; Meneghetti, Mario R.; Hickmann, Jandir M.

    2009-09-01

    The nonlocal nonlinearity of castor oil was investigated using the Z-scan technique in the CW regime at 514 nm and in femtosecond regime at 810 nm. Large negative nonlinear refractive indexes of thermal origin, thermo-optical coefficients and degree of nonlocality were obtained for both laser excitation wavelengths. The results indicate that the electronic part of the nonlinear refractive index and nonlinear absorption were negligible. Our results suggest that castor oil is promising candidate as a nonlinear medium for several nonlocal optical applications, such as in spatial soliton propagation, as well as a dispersant agent in the measurement of absorptive properties of nanoparticles.

  8. Synthesis of carbon nanotubes using natural carbon precursor: Castor oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raziah, A. Z.; Junizah, A. R.; Saifuddin, N.

    2012-09-01

    Castor oil has long been an article of commerce due to its versatility as it is widely used as a starting material for many industrial chemical products because of its unique structure. In this study, carbon nanotubes has been synthesized by thermal decomposition of castor oil in nitrogen atmosphere at 300-400δC using custom-made microwave processing unit. The precursor material was catalyzed by iron clusters originating from the addition of ferrocene. The morphology and characterization of the CNTs were studied and discussed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM).

  9. Studies on Ricinus Lipase Enzyme Isolated from Castor Seeds

    OpenAIRE

    Alka Srivastava; Rashmi Mohan Mathur; Rachna Prakash; Shashi Agrawal

    2016-01-01

    Healthy and bold seeds of castor variety “Aruna“ were collected. The de-hulled castor kernels were separated from seed coat and finely grounded in an electric grinder. The powdered kernels were passed through 60 mesh sieve and defatted using n-hexane in a soxhlet extractor. After complete extraction of oil seed meal was made free from solvent at low temperature. The defatted seed meal was pulverized and again passed through 60-mesh sieve to get final product .The RICINUS LIPASE source thus, o...

  10. EVALUATION OF ANTIULCER ACTIVITY OF CASTOR OIL IN RATS

    OpenAIRE

    Rachhadiya Rakesh M.; Kabra Mahaveer Prasad; Shete Rajkumar V

    2011-01-01

    To study the antiulcer activity of oil of Ricinus communis seed using different models of gastric ulceration in rats. Antiulcer activity of castor oil was studied in rats by administration of ethanol or aspirin or by pyloric ligation. Castor oil was administered in the dose of 500 mg/kg and 1000 mg/kg orally 30 min prior to ulcer induction. The antiulcer activity was assessed by determining and comparing the ulcer index in the test drug group with that of the ulcerated control group. Gastric ...

  11. Large-scale predation by river otters (Lontra canadensis) on Florida cooter (Pseudemys floridana) and Florida softshell turtles (Apalone ferox).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stacy, Brian A; Wolf, Dan A; Wellehan, James F X

    2014-10-01

    Abstract We observed predation by river otters (Lontra canadensis) on large numbers of Florida cooter (Pseudemys floridana) and Florida softshell turtles (Apalone ferox) in two small lakes in North Central Florida, USA during a period of unusually low water levels. Carcasses were strewn on the shoreline and accumulated around floating boat docks, where some residents observed turtles being killed. We found 76 carcasses, including predominantly skeletons, and two live, severely injured turtles from one lake; however, numerous remains undoubtedly were unrecovered. The otters frequently eviscerated the turtles and removed the head and one or more appendages, including the phallus of mature males. In skeletal remains, injuries inflicted by otters were nonspecific, indistinguishable from damage caused by scavengers, or easily missed in incomplete carcasses. This report of large-scale mortality of freshwater turtles in Florida suggests that otters could have a significant impact on local turtle populations.

  12. Capture myopathy in an endangered sandhill crane (Grus canadensis pulla)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpenter, J.W.; Thomas, N.J.; Reeves, S.

    1991-01-01

    Despite precautions to protect cranes, a 3-year-old endangered Mississippi sandhill crane (Grus canadensis pulla) was found caught in a leghold trap in Gautier, Mississippi, on 11 November 1987. The bird could have been in the trap for up to 16 hr and was standing and struggling to escape when it was discovered. Serum chemistries of the crane on 12 November revealed elevated lactic dehydrogenase (2,880 IU/L), alanine aminotransferase (ALT) (152 IU/L), and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) (>1,000 IU/L) values. Following surgical amputation of a fractured toe, the bird never attempted to stand and was unable to stand even when manually supported. Radiographic and physical examination of both legs did not reveal any anatomical abnormalities. Despite medical care, including supportive therapy, no improvement was observed in the bird's ability to stand and to support itself, and the bird died on 19 November. Serum chemistries and the postmortem and histopathologic findings were compatible with capture myopathy described in other species. Because of the possible susceptibility of long-legged birds such as the Mississippi sandhill crane to capture myopathy, special care must be taken when trapping, handling, chemically immobilizing, and transporting these species. In addition, precautions must be taken when conducting a predator-control program to ensure that nontarget wildlife are unlikely to encounter traps. Capture myopathy has only rarely been observed in wild birds, and this case represents the first report in a Mississippi sandhill crane.

  13. Fusobacterium necrophorum in North American Bighorn Sheep ( Ovis canadensis ) Pneumonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanthalingam, Sudarvili; Narayanan, Sanjeevkumar; Batra, Sai Arun; Jegarubee, Bavananthasivam; Srikumaran, Subramaniam

    2016-07-01

    Fusobacterium necrophorum has been detected in pneumonic bighorn sheep (BHS; Ovis canadensis ) lungs, in addition to the aerobic respiratory pathogens Mannheimia haemolytica , Bibersteinia trehalosi , Pasteurella multocida , and Mycoplasma ovipneumoniae . Similar to M. haemolytica , F. necrophorum produces a leukotoxin. Leukotoxin-induced lysis and degranulation of polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs) and macrophages are responsible for acute inflammation and lung tissue damage characteristic of M. haemolytica -caused pneumonia. As one approach in elucidating the role of F. necrophorum in BHS pneumonia, we determined the frequency of the presence of F. necrophorum in archived pneumonic BHS lung tissues, and susceptibility of BHS leukocytes to F. necrophorum leukotoxin. A species-specific PCR assay detected F. necrophorum in 37% of pneumonic BHS lung tissues (total tested n=70). Sequences of PCR amplicons were similar to the less virulent F. necrophorum subsp. funduliforme. Fusobacterium necrophorum leukotoxin exhibited cytotoxicity to BHS PMNs and peripheral blood mononuclear cells. As with the M. haemolytica leukotoxin, F. necrophorum leukotoxin was more toxic to BHS PMNs than domestic sheep PMNs. It is likely that F. necrophorum enters the lungs after M. haemolytica and other aerobic respiratory pathogens enter the lungs and initiate tissue damage, thereby creating a microenvironment that is conducive for anaerobic bacterial growth. In summary, Fusobacterium leukotoxin is highly toxic for BHS leukocytes; however, based on the PCR findings, it is unlikely to play a direct role in the development of BHS pneumonia.

  14. Costs and benefits of group living with disease: a case study of pneumonia in bighorn lambs (Ovis canadensis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manlove, Kezia R.; Cassirer, E. Frances; Cross, Paul C.; Plowright, Raina K.; Hudson, Peter J.

    2014-01-01

    Group living facilitates pathogen transmission among social hosts, yet temporally stable host social organizations can actually limit transmission of some pathogens. When there are few between-subpopulation contacts for the duration of a disease event, transmission becomes localized to subpopulations. The number of per capita infectious contacts approaches the subpopulation size as pathogen infectiousness increases. Here, we illustrate that this is the case during epidemics of highly infectious pneumonia in bighorn lambs (Ovis canadensis). We classified individually marked bighorn ewes into disjoint seasonal subpopulations, and decomposed the variance in lamb survival to weaning into components associated with individual ewes, subpopulations, populations and years. During epidemics, lamb survival varied substantially more between ewe-subpopulations than across populations or years, suggesting localized pathogen transmission. This pattern of lamb survival was not observed during years when disease was absent. Additionally, group sizes in ewe-subpopulations were independent of population size, but the number of ewe-subpopulations increased with population size. Consequently, although one might reasonably assume that force of infection for this highly communicable disease scales with population size, in fact, host social behaviour modulates transmission such that disease is frequency-dependent within populations, and some groups remain protected during epidemic events.

  15. Shikimate accumulates in both glyphosate-sensitive and glyphosate-resistant horseweed (Conyza canadensis L. Cronq.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Thomas C; Massey, Joseph H; Hayes, Robert M; Main, Chris L; Stewart, C Neal

    2003-01-29

    Horseweed (Conyza canadensis) is a cosmopolitan weed that commonly grows throughout North America. Horseweed that is not completely controlled by normal applications of glyphosate has been reported in western Tennessee. This research had three objectives: (1) to develop and validate an analytical procedure for the quantitative determination of shikimate, an important indicator of glyphosate activity in plants; (2) to confirm resistance to glyphosate in a horseweed population; and (3) to examine the accumulation of shikimate in both glyphosate-resistant and glyphosate-susceptible horseweed plants. The analytical procedure to determine shikimate used extraction with 1 M HCl for 24 h, followed by liquid chromatography using photodiode array detection, and shikimate recoveries were >or=82%. Glyphosate applications of both 0.84 kg ae/ha (the standard application rate) and 3.8 kg ae/ha to susceptible plants caused complete plant death. The same glyphosate applications to putative resistant populations caused less than 15% growth reduction as determined by visual evaluations, and fresh weights of these resistant plants 17 days after glyphosate treatment (DAT) were reduced an average of 45% in one population and were not affected in a different population. This direct comparison conclusively confirms that horseweed plants collected in western Tennessee in 2002 are resistant to 4 times the normal application dosage of glyphosate. The glyphosate-resistant horseweed biotypes still exhibited some herbicidal effects from the glyphosate, such as yellowing in the most actively growing, apical shoot meristems. The yellowing in the shoot apexes was transitory, and the plants recovered from this damage. Shikimate concentrations in all untreated horseweed plants were less than 100 microg/g, which was significantly less than that in all plants which had been treated with 0.84 kg ae/ha of glyphosate. Unexpectedly, shikimate accumulated (>1000 microg/g) in both resistant populations and

  16. GNS Castor V/21 Headspace Gas Sampling 2014

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Winston, Philip Lon [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Prior to performing an internal visual inspection, samples of the headspace gas of the GNS Castor V/21 cask were taken on June 12, 2014. These samples were taken in support of the CREIPI/Japanese nuclear industry effort to validate fuel integrity without visual inspection by measuring the 85Kr content of the cask headspace

  17. Evaluation of castor oil samples for potential toxin contamination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castor oil and its derivatives are widely used as a chemical feedstock for production of lubricants and greases, and for engineering plastics, plasticizers and surfactants. They also have wide application in consumer goods such as lipstick, deodorants and medicinal products. Due to concerns about th...

  18. GNS Castor V/21 Headspace Gas Sampling 2014

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Winston, Philip Lon [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Prior to performing an internal visual inspection, samples of the headspace gas of the GNS Castor V/21 cask were taken on June 12, 2014. These samples were taken in support of the CREIPI/Japanese nuclear industry effort to validate fuel integrity without visual inspection by measuring the 85Kr content of the cask headspace

  19. Detoxification of castor meal through reactive seed crushing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Non-edible oil crops, such as castor or jatropha, contain several toxic components. Post-harvest treatments should be used to reduce the risks associated with the possible dispersion of toxic compounds in the environment. A new processing technology named Reactive Seed Crushing was developed, which ...

  20. Develop a New Lesquerella fendleri Crop for Castor Oil Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seed oil of Lesquerella fendleri contains a valuable hydroxy fatty acid (HFA), lesquerolic acid (20:1OH). The conventional source of HFA is ricinoleic acid (18:1OH) from castor seeds. Ricinoleic acid and its derivatives are used as raw materials for numerous industrial products, such as lubricants, ...

  1. A review on the challenges for increassed production of castor

    Science.gov (United States)

    The oil produced by castor (Ricinus communis) is an important raw material for chemical industry for its unique properties such as the only commercial source of a hydroxilated fatty acid that composes around 90% of the oil. This crop has a remarkable potential for increasing importance as a raw mate...

  2. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi facilitate the invasion of Solidago canadensis L. in southeastern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ruyi; Zhou, Gang; Zan, Shuting; Guo, Fuyu; Su, Nannan; Li, Jing

    2014-11-01

    The significance of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) in the process of plant invasion is still poorly understood. We hypothesize that invasive plants would change local AMF community structure in a way that would benefit themselves but confer less advantages to native plants, thus influencing the extent of plant interactions. An AMF spore community composed of five morphospecies of Glomus with equal density (initial AMF spore community, I-AMF) was constructed to test this hypothesis. The results showed that the invasive species, Solidago canadensis, significantly increased the relative abundance of G. geosperum and G. etunicatum (altered AMF spore community, A-AMF) compared to G. mosseae, which was a dominant morphospecies in the monoculture of native Kummerowia striata. The shift in AMF spore community composition driven by S. canadensis generated functional variation between I-AMF and A-AMF communities. For example, I-AMF increased biomass and nutrient uptake of K. striata in both monocultures and mixtures of K. striata and S. canadensis compared to A-AMF. In contrast, A-AMF significantly enhanced root nitrogen (N) acquisition of S. canadensis grown in mixture. Moreover, mycorrhizal-mediated 15N uptake provided direct evidence that I-AMF and A-AMF differed in their affinities with native and invading species. The non-significant effect of A-AMF on K. striata did not result from allelopathy as root exudates of S. canadensis exhibited positive effects on seed germination and biomass of K. striata under naturally occurring concentrations. When considered together, we found that A-AMF facilitated the invasion of S. canadensis through decreasing competitiveness of the native plant K. striata. The results supported our hypothesis and can be used to improve our understanding of an ecosystem-based perspective towards exotic plant invasion.

  3. Lead tolerance mechanism in Conyza canadensis: subcellular distribution, ultrastructure, antioxidative defense system, and phytochelatins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ying; Zhou, Chuifan; Huang, Meiying; Luo, Jiewen; Hou, Xiaolong; Wu, Pengfei; Ma, Xiangqing

    2016-03-01

    We used hydroponic experiments to examine the effects of different concentrations of lead (Pb) on the performance of the Pb-tolerable plant Conyza canadensis. In these experiments, most of the Pb was accumulated in the roots; there was very little Pb accumulated in stems and leaves. C. canadensis is able to take up significant amounts of Pb whilst greatly restricting its transportation to specific parts of the aboveground biomass. High Pb concentrations inhibited plant growth, increased membrane permeability, elevated antioxidant enzyme activity in roots, and caused a significant increase in root H2O2 and malondialdehyde content. Analysis of Pb content at the subcellular level showed that most Pb was associated with the cell wall fraction, followed by the nucleus-rich fraction, and with a minority present in the mitochondrial and soluble fractions. Furthermore, transmission electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray analysis of root cells revealed that the cell wall and intercellular space in C. canadensis roots are the main locations of Pb accumulation. Additionally, high Pb concentrations adversely affected the cellular structure of C. canadensis roots. The increased enzyme activity suggests that the antioxidant system may play an important role in eliminating or alleviating Pb toxicity in C. canadensis roots. However, the levels of non-protein sulfhydryl compounds, glutathione, and phytochelatin did not significantly change in either the roots or leaves under Pb-contaminated treatments. Our results provide strong evidence that cell walls restrict Pb uptake into the root and act as an important barrier protecting root cells, while demonstrating that antioxidant enzyme levels are correlated with Pb exposure. These findings demonstrate the roles played by these detoxification mechanisms in supporting Pb tolerance in C. canadensis.

  4. Pacific flyway management plan for the Greater Sandhill Crane population wintering along the Lower Colorado River Valley

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The purpose of this management plan is to facilitate the cooperative management of the population of greater sandhill cranes (Grus canadensis tabida) that winter...

  5. Growth, testis size, spermatogenesis, semen parameters and seminal plasma and sperm membrane protein profile during the reproductive development of male goats supplemented with de-oiled castor cake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, C H A; Silva, A M; Silva, L M; van Tilburg, M F; Fernandes, C C L; Velho, A L M C; Moura, A A; Moreno, F B M B; Monteiro-Moreira, A C O; Moreira, R A; Lima, I M T; Rondina, D

    2015-06-01

    The present study was conducted to evaluate the effect of de-oiled castor cake on reproductive traits of crossbreed goats. Fourteen males were grouped into two lots (n = 7/group), as described: group without de-oiled castor cake (WCC) and group fed with de-oiled castor cake (CC). Goats received two diets containing a mixture of Bermudagrass hay and concentrates with the same energy (73% total digestive nutrients) and protein content (15% crude protein) during 150 days, corresponding to ages from 40 (puberty) to 60 weeks. Blood plasma concentrations of urea, albumin, lactate dehydrogenase, creatinine, alanine aminotransferase and testosterone were determined. We also evaluated scrotal circumference, sperm parameters, quantitative aspects of spermatogenesis and daily sperm production (DSP), as well as the proteome of seminal plasma and sperm membrane. Seminal fluid and sperm proteins were analyzed by 2D SDS-PAGE and mass spectrometry. After 150 days of castor cake feeding, animals had no changes in the biochemical composition of blood plasma, suggesting the absence of intoxication by ingestion of ricin. There were no alterations in dry mater intake, weight gain, testis size, peripheral concentrations of testosterone, sperm concentration, motility and morphology. Sertoli and germ cell populations in the testis and DSP were not affected either. However, there were significant variations in the expression of five seminal plasma proteins and four sperm membrane proteins. In conclusion, the replacement of soybean meal by castor cake (with ricin concentrations of 50mg/kg) did not interfere with the growth and core reproductive development of male goats. However, the diet with ricin altered the expression of certain seminal plasma and sperm membrane proteins, which play roles in sperm function and fertilization. Lower expression of these proteins may impair the ricin-fed animals to perform as high-fertility sires.

  6. Castor and jatropha oils: production strategies – A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lago Regina C.A.

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available The Brazilian bioenergy matrix is based on four platforms: ethanol, energy forests, residues and co-products and biodiesel. The food-energy dichotomy in the use of edible oils is one factor which has stimulated the search for non-edible oleaginous energy crops, such as many native palms. By the year 2000 Brazil had an annual deficit of 80 thousand tons of castor oil, making necessary to import oil from China and India. After a strong debate the National Program on Biodiesel Production (NPBP was launched by December 2004. After an initial excessive enthusiasm, small producers being focused in the program, a more mature and realistic planning is undertaken. Production in semi arid lands is being stimulated, mainly castor (Ricinus communis and Jatropha (Jatropha curcas. Apart from belonging to the same botanical family (Euphorbiaceae, both plants are well resistant to poor soils. Castor plant is well adapted to practically the whole country, except for some extreme areas (too low water availability or too much rain. Castor keeps being an alternative for the semi arid region but much more technology is requested to make it largely exploited. Following the petroleum crisis of 1980’s an ambitious research program on Jatropha curcas was initiated, later on discontinued and presently retaken by Embrapa and some Universities. Progress is slower than in the case of Ricinus communis. The first agronomical observations confirmed low productivity, problems with pests and diseases, high harvesting costs etc. Some strategic factors should be considered for the production of castor and Jatropha oils: 1. Production of raw materials; 2. Production of oils; 3. Detoxification and value aggregation to the extraction cakes and residues. Regarding raw material production, it is necessary a strong, long term research program on genetic breeding (short cycle varieties, with high productivity and allowing a sole harvesting, soil fertility, pest control, domestication

  7. Preparation and research on properties of castor oil as a diesel fuel additive

    OpenAIRE

    Nurbakhit Imankulov

    2012-01-01

    The research shows an opportunity of preparing biodiesel fuel on the basis of local diesel fuel and the bioadditive - castor oil. Limiting optimum concentration of introduction of the bioadditive equal was established as 5% mass ratio. The castor oil released from seeds of Palma Christi grown on experimental field. All physical and chemical characteristics of the oil including IR-spectra were determined. Operating conditions of castor oil introduction (temperature, solubility, concentra-tion,...

  8. Distribution, late summer feeding habits, and effects of dam building on stream width and depth by beaver (Castor canadensis) at Walnut Creek National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report summarizes a study done on beaver dam locations at Neal Smith National Wildlife Refuge (formerly Walnut Creek National Wildlife Refuge). The refuge is...

  9. Effects of metal lead on growth and mycorrhizae of an invasive plant species (Solidago canadensis L.)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Ruyi; YU Guodong; TANG Jianjan; CHEN Xin

    2008-01-01

    It is less known whether and how soil metal lead (Pb) impacts the invasion of exotic plants.A greenhouse experiment was conducted to estimate the effects of lead on the growth and mycorrhizae of an invasive species(Solidago canadensis L.)in a microcosm system. Each microcosm unit was separated into HOST and TEST compartments by a replaceable mesh screen that allowed arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungal hyphae rather than plant roots to grow into the TEST compartments.Three Pb levels(control,300,and 600 mg/kg soil)were used in this study to simulate ambient soil and two pollution sites where S. canadensis grows.Mycorrhizal inoculum comprised five indigenous arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal species (Glomus mosseae,Glomus versiform,Glomus diaphanum,Glomus geosporum,and Glomus etunicatum).The 15N isotope tracer was used to quantify the mycorrhizally mediated nitrogen acquisition of plants.The results showed that S. canadensis was highly dependent on mvcOrrhizae.The Pb additions significantly decreased biomass and arbuscular mycorrhizal colonization(root length colonized,RLC%) but did not affect spore numbers,N(including total N and 15N) and P uptake.The facilitating efficiency of mycorrhizae on nutrient acquisition was promoted by Pb treatments.The Pb was mostly sequestered in belowground of plant (root and rhizome).The results suggest that the high efficiency of mycorrhizae on nutrient uptake mightgive S. canadensis a great advantage over native species in Pb polluted softs.

  10. Extraction, Characterization and Modification of Castor Seed Oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. D. MOHAMMED

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper carried out experimental study, through extraction and characterization of both crude and refined castor oil. Normal hexane was used as solvent for the extraction process. The oil produced was refined through degumming, neutralization and bleaching process using local adsorbent (activated clay. The characterization analysis revealed that tested parameters, which include specific gravity, refractive index, acid value, saponification value and iodine value for both crude and refined castor oil produced, were within the ASTM standard specifications. In fact the iodine value obtained (84.8 for the refined oil indicates that the oil could certainly be used as lubricant, hydraulic break fluid and protecting coatings. The oil was modified via sulphation method to produce Turkey – red oil that was tested on wooden material, paper and cloth. The test revealed that the Turkey – red oil produced is suitable to be used as a good dying agent and polish.

  11. Biodiesel production from castor oil in Brazil: A difficult reality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva Cesar, Aldara da, E-mail: aldara@dep.ufscar.b [Federal University of Sao Carlos, Gepai - Grupo de Estudos e Pesquisas Agroindustriais, Departamento de Engenharia de Producao - UFSCar, Rodovia Washington Luis, km 235 - CEP 13565-905 - Sao Carlos - SP (Brazil); Otavio Batalha, Mario [Federal University of Sao Carlos, Gepai - Grupo de Estudos e Pesquisas Agroindustriais, Departamento de Engenharia de Producao - UFSCar, Rodovia Washington Luis, km 235 - CEP 13565-905 - Sao Carlos - SP (Brazil)

    2010-08-15

    The Brazilian National Program for Production and Use of Biodiesel (PNPB in Portuguese) has created a huge demand for biodiesel in Brazil. The PNPB is strongly based on social development through the inclusion of family farmers in projects integrated with biodiesel power plants. Among the various oilseeds, castor bean (Ricinus communis L.) was identified as the ideal one to promote social development in the semi-arid region. However, although promising, the mechanisms of the federal program are still insufficient to promote the effective participation of family farmers. This research shows that companies are facing huge problems in implementing contracts with family farmers. It describes and analyzes the functioning dynamics of this agro-production chain. This paper addresses the identification and the discussion of these obstacles, in order to increase the competitiveness of the biodiesel agribusiness chain, based on castor oil social projects in Brazil.

  12. Biodiesel production from castor oil in Brazil. A difficult reality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva Cesar, Aldara da; Otavio Batalha, Mario [Federal University of Sao Carlos, Gepai - Grupo de Estudos e Pesquisas Agroindustriais, Departamento de Engenharia de Producao - UFSCar, Rodovia Washington Luis, km 235 - CEP 13565-905 - Sao Carlos (Brazil)

    2010-08-15

    The Brazilian National Program for Production and Use of Biodiesel (PNPB in Portuguese) has created a huge demand for biodiesel in Brazil. The PNPB is strongly based on social development through the inclusion of family farmers in projects integrated with biodiesel power plants. Among the various oilseeds, castor bean (Ricinus communis L.) was identified as the ideal one to promote social development in the semi-arid region. However, although promising, the mechanisms of the federal program are still insufficient to promote the effective participation of family farmers. This research shows that companies are facing huge problems in implementing contracts with family farmers. It describes and analyzes the functioning dynamics of this agro-production chain. This paper addresses the identification and the discussion of these obstacles, in order to increase the competitiveness of the biodiesel agribusiness chain, based on castor oil social projects in Brazil. (author)

  13. Characterization of Novel Castor Oil-Based Polyurethane Polymer Electrolytes

    OpenAIRE

    Salmiah Ibrahim; Azizan Ahmad; Nor Sabirin Mohamed

    2015-01-01

    Castor oil-based polyurethane as a renewable resource polymer has been synthesized for application as a host in polymer electrolyte for electrochemical devices. The polyurethane was added with LiI and NaI in different wt% to form a film of polymer electrolytes. The films were characterized by using attenuated total reflectance-Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, dynamic mechanical analysis, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, linear sweep voltammetry and transference number measurem...

  14. Results on CASTOR Performance during LHC Run 2

    CERN Document Server

    CMS Collaboration

    2016-01-01

    The intercalibration of the gains of the fine mesh PMT's using beam-halo muons is discussed, this in combination with results of a study on the noise and baseline. Two methods on obtaining gain correction factors for reweighing the gains between different high voltage settings are compared. Results on the efficiency of a CASTOR jet trigger are compared for LHC Run 2 collision data and Monte Carlo event generator predictions.

  15. Experimental Study of Castor Oil Based Lubricant for Automotive Applications

    OpenAIRE

    Amit Suhane; R.M.Sarviya

    2014-01-01

    Vegetable oils due to their better natural propertiescan be used as an alternative to reduce the dependency on the conventional lubricants. With the depletion of conventional resources at faster pace, need of hour is to approach the safer alternatives for ensuring the availability of such resources for longer periods with lesser harm to the mankind and sorroundings.This workevaluates the prospects of Castor oil based lubricant for automotive applications in contrast to the ava...

  16. Extraction, Characterization and Modification of Castor Seed Oil

    OpenAIRE

    A. D. MOHAMMED; A. JIMOH; U. G. AKPAN

    2006-01-01

    This paper carried out experimental study, through extraction and characterization of both crude and refined castor oil. Normal hexane was used as solvent for the extraction process. The oil produced was refined through degumming, neutralization and bleaching process using local adsorbent (activated clay). The characterization analysis revealed that tested parameters, which include specific gravity, refractive index, acid value, saponification value and iodine value for both crude and refined...

  17. Low-modulus PMMA bone cement modified with castor oil

    OpenAIRE

    López, Alejandro; Hoess, Andreas; Thersleff, Thomas; Ott, Marjam; Engqvist, Håkan; Persson, Cecilia

    2011-01-01

    Some of the current clinical and biomechanical data suggest that vertebroplasty causes the development of adjacent vertebral fractures shortly after augmentation. These findings have been attributed to high injection volumes as well as high Young’s moduli of PMMA bone cements compared to that of the osteoporotic cancellous bone. The aim of this study was to evaluate the use of castor oil as a plasticizer for PMMA bone cements. The Young’s modulus, yield strength, maximum polymerization temper...

  18. Trial of an experimental castor oil solution for cleaning dentures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade, Ingrid Machado de; Andrade, Kelly Machado de; Pisani, Marina Xavier; Silva-Lovato, Cláudia Helena; de Souza, Raphael Freitas; Paranhos, Helena de Freitas Oliveira

    2014-01-01

    Denture hygiene is essential because denture biofilm is involved in oral infections and systemic diseases. Although there are chemical agents available on the market, none of them have ideal properties and research on such products is still necessary. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of a castor bean (Ricinus communis)-based solution for removing denture biofilm, compared to two traditional products (sodium hypochlorite and alkaline peroxide). Fifty maxillary complete denture wearers were instructed to brush their dentures after meals and to immerse their dentures once a day in the following solutions: Saline (20 min; control), Polident alkaline peroxide (3 min), NaOCl (20 min) and 2% castor oil solution (20 min). Participants used each solution for a period of 7 consecutive days, according to a random sequence. After each period, the internal surfaces of maxillary complete dentures were stained with a disclosing solution (1% neutral red), photographed and the disclosed biofilm was quantified with the aid of specific software. The influence of treatments on results was verified by the Friedman test (α=0.05). Tested solutions presented significant difference (Fr=51.67; poil presented intermediate results (median: 1.0% and 1.5%, respectively). It can be concluded that the castor oil solution tested in this study was comparable to alkaline peroxide in terms of efficiency in denture biofilm removal.

  19. Low-modulus PMMA bone cement modified with castor oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López, Alejandro; Hoess, Andreas; Thersleff, Thomas; Ott, Marjam; Engqvist, Håkan; Persson, Cecilia

    2011-01-01

    Some of the current clinical and biomechanical data suggest that vertebroplasty causes the development of adjacent vertebral fractures shortly after augmentation. These findings have been attributed to high injection volumes as well as high Young's moduli of PMMA bone cements compared to that of the osteoporotic cancellous bone. The aim of this study was to evaluate the use of castor oil as a plasticizer for PMMA bone cements. The Young's modulus, yield strength, maximum polymerization temperature, doughing time, setting time and the complex viscosity curves during curing, were determined. The cytotoxicity of the materials extracts was assessed on cells of an osteoblast-like cell line. The addition of up to 12 wt% castor oil decreased yield strength from 88 to 15 MPa, Young's modulus from 1500 to 446 MPa and maximum polymerization temperature from 41.3 to 25.6°C, without affecting the setting time. However, castor oil seemed to interfere with the polymerization reaction, giving a negative effect on cell viability in a worst-case scenario.

  20. Measurement of quadratic electrogyration effect in castor oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izdebski, Marek; Ledzion, Rafał; Górski, Piotr

    2015-07-01

    This work presents a detailed analysis of electrogyration measurement in liquids with the usage of an optical polarimetric technique. Theoretical analysis of the optical response to an applied electric field is illustrated by experimental data for castor oil which exhibits natural optical activity, quadratic electro-optic effect and quadratic electrogyration effect. Moreover, the experimental data show that interaction of the oil with a pair of flat electrodes induces a significant dichroism and natural linear birefringence. The combination of these effects occurring at the same time complicates the procedure of measurements. It has been found that a single measurement is insufficient to separate the contribution of the electrogyration effect, but it is possible on the basis of several measurements performed with various orientations of the polarizer and the analyser. The obtained average values of the quadratic electrogyration coefficient β13 in castor oil at room temperature are from - 0.92 ×10-22 to - 1.44 ×10-22m2V-2 depending on the origin of the oil. Although this study is focused on measurements in castor oil, the presented analysis is much more general.

  1. Extraction and Characterization of Drilling Fluid from Castor Oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manase Auta

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Drilling fluid is an essential component in drilling operations. It is used to prevent blowouts by creating adequate hydrostatic pressure, lubricating the walls of a well and the drill string, flushing to the surface of cuttings, and keeping the drill bit clean and cool. Extraction, characterization and formation of drilling fluid from castor seed oil were investigated. The castor seeds used were obtained from a local market and the extraction of the oil was done mechanically. The extracted oil characteristics such as specific gravity, pH, acid value, iodine value, saponification value, refractive index and viscosity were within the standard range before before formulating it to drilling fluid by the addition of additives. The result of the formulation obtained showed that the formulated drilling fluid had an electrical stability of 222 V, High Pressure/High Temperature of 8.8, mass funnel viscosity at 30 and 50 oC were 26.5 and 25 s, respectively; chemical alkalinity was 0.3 and excess lime of 0.39 Ib/bbI. The findings in this research have shown that formulated drilling fluid from castor seed oil is safe as drilling fluid and has characteristics close to that of the standard drilling mud equivalent circulating density 99. The formulated drilling fluid can adequately serve as an alternative to the commercial products.

  2. Castor bean (Ricinus communis L.) as a potential environmental bioindicator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendes, M G; Santos Junior, C D; Dias, A C C; Bonetti, A M

    2015-10-21

    Biomonitoring of air quality using living organisms is a very interesting approach to environmental impact assessment. Organisms with a vast distribution, such as plants, are widely used for these purposes. The castor bean (Ricinus communis L.) is an oleaginous plant that can potentially be used as a bioindicator plant owing to its rapid growth and large leaves, which have a wide surface area of contact with the air and the pollutants therein. This study investigated the the bioindicator potential of the castor bean by performing several tests. We observed statistically significant differences in the concentrations of chlorophyll a and b in the leaves of plants in polluted areas compared to that in the control group plants, which were located in a pollution-free area. Leaves of plants in the former group had higher peroxidase activity and showed a greater buffering ability than those of plants in the control group. The pKa values obtained via buffering capacity tests, revealed the presence of aminoazobenzene (an industrial dye) in leaves of R. communis. Genotoxicity was evaluated through the comet assay technique and revealed that other than some differences in DNA fragmentation, there is no statistically significant difference in this parameter between places analyzed. Our data indicate that R. communis can be a highly useful biological indicator. Further, we hypothesized that the castor bean can be a potential candidate for phytoremediation owing its physiological buffering capacity when exposed to substantial pollution.

  3. Effect of copper on castor bean (Ricinus communis L.) growth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chaves, Lucia Helena Garofalo; Cunha, Tassio Cavalcanti da Silva; Lima, Vinicius Mota; Cabral, Paulo Cesar Pinto; Barros Junior, Genival; Lacerda, Rogerio Dantas de [Universidade Federal de Campina Grande (UAEAg/UFCG), PB (Brazil). Unidade Academica de Engenharia Agricola

    2008-07-01

    Castor beans crop (Ricinus communis L.) is raising attention as an alternative crop for oil and biodiesel production. Despite the mineral fertilization is an important factor for increasing castor yield, few research has been made on this issue, mainly on the use de copper. In order to evaluate the effects of copper on growth of this plant an experiment was carried out in a greenhouse, in Campina Grande, Paraiba State, Brazil, from July to December 2007. The substrate for the pot plants was a 6 mm-sieved surface soil (Neossolo Quartzarenico). The experimental design was a completely randomized with three replications. The treatments were composed of five levels of Cu (0; 1; 2; 3 and 4 mg dm{sup -3}), which were applied at the time of planting. One plant of castor bean, cultivar BRS 188 - Paraguacu, was grown per pot after thinning and was irrigated whenever necessary. Data on plant height, number and length of leaves and stem diameter were measured at 21, 34, 77 and 103 days after planting. Copper levels used, in general, did not affect the plant height, stem diameter and leaf area, however they influenced the leaves and shoot biomass dry mass and the quadratic trend was the best to show the behavior of these. (author)

  4. Synthesis and characterization of castor oil-based polymeric surfactants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xujuan HUANG,He LIU,Shibin SHANG,Zhaosheng CAI,Jie SONG,Zhanqian SONG

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Dehydrated castor oil was epoxidized using phosphoric acid as a catalyst and acetic acid peroxide as an oxidant to produce epoxidized castor oil (ECO. Ring-opening polymerization with stannic chloride was used to produce polymerized ECO (PECO, and sodium hydroxide used to give hydrolyzed PECO (HPECO. The HPECO was characterized by Fourier transform infrared, 1H and 13C nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopies, gel permeation chromatography, and differential scanning calorimetry. The weight-average molecular weight of soluble PECO and HPECO were 5026 and 2274 g·mol-1, respectively. PECO and HPECO exhibited glass transition. Through neutralizing the carboxylic acid of HPECO with different counterions, castor oil-based polymeric surfactants (HPECO-M, where M= Na+, K+ or triethanolamine ion exhibited high efficiency to reduce the surface tension of water. The critical micelle concentration (CMC values of HPECO-M ranged from 0.042 to 0.098 g·L-1 and the minimum equilibrium surface tensions at CMC (gcmc of HPECO-M ranged from 25.6 to 30.0 mN·m-1. The water-hexadecane interfacial energy was calculated from measured surface tension using harmonic and geometric mean methods. Measured values of water-hexadecane interfacial tension agreed well with those calculated using the harmonic and geometric mean methods.

  5. Molecular characterization of Echinococcus granulosus sensu stricto and Echinococcus canadensis in humans and livestock from Algeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zait, Houria; Kouidri, Mokhtaria; Grenouillet, Florence Elisabeth; Umhang, Gérald; Millon, Laurence; Hamrioui, Boussad; Grenouillet, Frédéric

    2016-06-01

    In Algeria, previous studies investigated genotypes of Echinococcus granulosus sensu lato in animals and identified E. granulosus sensu stricto (s.s.) genotypes G1 and G3 whereas Echinococcus canadensis genotype G6 was only reported from dromedary cysts. Molecular data on human cystic echinococcosis (CE) were limited. We implemented a large genotyping study of hydatid cysts from humans and livestock animals to specify CE's molecular epidemiology and the genetic diversity in Algeria. Fifty-four human CE cysts from patients predominantly admitted in surgical units from Mustapha Hospital, Algiers, and 16 cysts from livestock animals gathered in two geographically distinct slaughterhouses, Tiaret and Tamanrasset, were collected. Molecular characterization was performed using sequencing of two mitochondrial genes, cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) and NADH dehydrogenase subunit I (NDI). In humans, G1 of E. granulosus s.s. was the main genotype (90.7 %); four samples (7.4 %) were characterized as E. granulosus s.s. G3 and one cyst as E. canadensis G6 (1.8 %). This molecular confirmation of E. canadensis G6 human infection in Algeria was observed in a Tuareg female living in a desertic area in Tamanrasset. All cysts from sheep, cattle, and goat were identified as E. granulosus s.s. G1 and the two cysts originating from dromedary as E. canadensis G6. Twenty concatenated haplotypes (COI + NDI) were characterized. Among E. granulosus s.s., one haplotype (HL1) was highly predominant in both humans and animals cysts (71.6 %). This study revealed main occurrence of E. granulosus s.s. in humans and livestock animals, with description of a predominant shared haplotype corresponding to the main worldwide observed haplotype E.granulosus s.s. G1. E. canadensis G6 was limited to South Algeria, in dromedary as well as in human.

  6. Molecular characterization of Echinococcus granulosus sensu stricto and Echinococcus canadensis in humans and livestock from Algeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zait, Houria; Kouidri, Mokhtaria; Grenouillet, Florence Elisabeth; Umhang, Gérald; Millon, Laurence; Hamrioui, Boussad; Grenouillet, Frédéric

    2016-06-01

    In Algeria, previous studies investigated genotypes of Echinococcus granulosus sensu lato in animals and identified E. granulosus sensu stricto (s.s.) genotypes G1 and G3 whereas Echinococcus canadensis genotype G6 was only reported from dromedary cysts. Molecular data on human cystic echinococcosis (CE) were limited. We implemented a large genotyping study of hydatid cysts from humans and livestock animals to specify CE's molecular epidemiology and the genetic diversity in Algeria. Fifty-four human CE cysts from patients predominantly admitted in surgical units from Mustapha Hospital, Algiers, and 16 cysts from livestock animals gathered in two geographically distinct slaughterhouses, Tiaret and Tamanrasset, were collected. Molecular characterization was performed using sequencing of two mitochondrial genes, cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) and NADH dehydrogenase subunit I (NDI). In humans, G1 of E. granulosus s.s. was the main genotype (90.7 %); four samples (7.4 %) were characterized as E. granulosus s.s. G3 and one cyst as E. canadensis G6 (1.8 %). This molecular confirmation of E. canadensis G6 human infection in Algeria was observed in a Tuareg female living in a desertic area in Tamanrasset. All cysts from sheep, cattle, and goat were identified as E. granulosus s.s. G1 and the two cysts originating from dromedary as E. canadensis G6. Twenty concatenated haplotypes (COI + NDI) were characterized. Among E. granulosus s.s., one haplotype (HL1) was highly predominant in both humans and animals cysts (71.6 %). This study revealed main occurrence of E. granulosus s.s. in humans and livestock animals, with description of a predominant shared haplotype corresponding to the main worldwide observed haplotype E.granulosus s.s. G1. E. canadensis G6 was limited to South Algeria, in dromedary as well as in human. PMID:27021186

  7. Demodex castoris sp. nov. (Acari: Demodecidae) parasitizing Castor fiber (Rodentia), and other parasitic arthropods associated with Castor spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izdebska, Joanna N; Fryderyk, Sławomira; Rolbiecki, Leszek

    2016-02-11

    A new species of demodecid mite, Demodex castoris sp. nov. (Acari: Prostigmata: Demodecidae), is described based on adult stages from the skin of the nasal region of the Eurasian beaver Castor fiber Linnaeus, 1758, collected in Poland. This is the first detection of a representative demodecid mite in rodents of the suborder Castorimorpha and also represents the first detection of a skin mite in Eurasian beavers. The new species is a small skin mite (average 173 µm in length) characterized by sexual dimorphism related to body proportions. D. castoris sp. nov. was observed in 4 out of 6 beavers examined (66.6%), with a mean intensity of 10.8 and an intensity range of 2-23 ind. host(-1). This paper also contains a checklist of parasitic arthropods known from Castor spp. PMID:26865230

  8. Surface Coating Studies of Polyurethane Derived from [(Alkyd)-(Epoxy Resin Treated Castor Oil)] Using Isophorene Diisocynate - II

    OpenAIRE

    Dinesh. P. Patel; Kiran Nimavat; Kartik Vyas

    2012-01-01

    Castor oil (C) was reacted with profitable epoxy resin (E) (diglycidylether of bisphenol-A, DGEBF) at a range of mole ratios. The consequential products (Castor oil- Epoxy resin) were nominated as CEs. Isocyanate terminated castor oil Polyurethane (ICOPU) was prepared by reaction of castor oil and various proportion of Isophoren diisocyanate. A commercial alkyd resin was blended with various proportions of CEs and ICOPU. A unique solvent system, which shows a one – phase clear solution and a ...

  9. Study of the Castor Oil Plant Pie in the Planting of the Castor Beans with Different Global Density of the Soil

    OpenAIRE

    Fabiana Xavier Costa; Edivan Silva Nunes Júnior; José Sebastião de Melo Filho

    2010-01-01

    It was aimed at with this work to evaluate the chlorophyll tenor in the leaves, of potassium in the pecíolos of the castor beans, the physical analysis of the soil and the tenors of the present macronutrientes in the leaves of the castor beans cultivated with growing doses of castor oil plant pie and degrees different from density of the soil. The experiment had beginning in the period of May 02, 2006 and he/she extended to September 02, 2006, in house-of-vegetation, without atmosphere contro...

  10. 78 FR 20029 - Castor Oil, Polymer With Adipic Acid, Linoleic Acid, Oleic Acid and Ricinoleic Acid; Tolerance...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-03

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 180 Castor Oil, Polymer With Adipic Acid, Linoleic Acid, Oleic Acid and Ricinoleic...: This regulation establishes an exemption from the requirement of a tolerance for residues of castor oil... residues of castor oil, polymer with adipic acid, linoleic acid, oleic acid and ricinoleic acid on food...

  11. Mass spectrometry of the lithium adducts of diacylglycerols containing hydroxy FA in castor oil and two normal FA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castor oil can be used in industry. The molecular species of triacylglycerols containing hydroxy fatty acids (FA) in castor oil have been identified. We report here the identification of twelve diacylglycerols (DAG) containing hydroxy FA in castor oil using positive ion electrospray ionization mass ...

  12. Evaluation of oil content and fatty acid composition in the USDA castor germplasm collection for biodiesel production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castor has potential as a feedstock for biodiesel production. The oil content and fatty acid composition in castor seed are important factors to determine the price for production and affect the key fuel properties of biodiesel. There were 1033 available castor accessions collected or donated from 4...

  13. Identification of diacylglycerol and triacylglycerol containing 11,12,13-trihydroxy-9-14-octadecadienoic acids in castor oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castor oil has many industrial uses. Molecular species of acylglycerols containing monohydroxy, dihydroxy and trihydroxy fatty acids in castor oil have been reported. We report here the identification of acylglycerols containing triOH18:2 fatty acid in castor oil. The structure of this novel fa...

  14. First molecular evidence of the simultaneous human infection with two species of Echinococcus granulosus sensu lato: Echinococcus granulosus sensu stricto and Echinococcus canadensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oudni-M'rad, Myriam; M'rad, Selim; Ksia, Amine; Lamiri, Rachida; Mekki, Mongi; Nouri, Abdellatif; Mezhoud, Habib; Babba, Hamouda

    2016-03-01

    Cystic echinococcosis is a widespread zoonotic parasitic disease especially in Tunisia which is one of the most endemic countries in the Mediterranean area. The etiological agent, Echinococcus granulosus sensu lato, implies dogs and other canids as definitive hosts and different herbivore species as intermediate hosts. Human contamination occurs during the consumption of parasite eggs passed in the environment through canid feces. Hydatid cysts coming from a child operated for multiple echinococcosis were collected and analyzed in order to genotype and to obtain some epidemiological molecular information. Three targets, ribosomal DNA ITS1 fragment, NADH dehydrogenase subunit 1 (nad1), and mitochondrial cytochrome c oxydase subunit 1 (CO1) genes, were amplified and analyzed by RFLP and sequencing approach. This study presents the first worldwide report in human of a simultaneous infection with Echinococcus granulosus sensu stricto (genotype G1) and Echinococcus canadensis (genotype G6) species. This is also the first report of the presence of E. canadensis in the Tunisian population which argues in favor of a greater importance of this species in human infestation in Tunisia than previously believed.

  15. Analysis of germination of castor and peanuts seeds by 13C NMR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Germination of castor and peanut seeds was followed by 13C NMR. Results are comparable to those observed for soybean seeds and reveal that this technique is generally applicable in cases in which a reasonable amount of soluble material is present during germination. Different pathways for oil degradation by castor and peanut seeds may be distinguished. (Author)

  16. An innovative European integrated project: Castor-CO2 from capture to storage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thiez, P.L.; Mosditchian, G.; Torp, T.; Feron, P.; Ritsema, I.; Zweigel, P.; Lindeberg, E.

    2005-01-01

    This chapter gives an overview of the CASTOR (CO2, from Capture to Storage) R and D project, funded by the European Union (EU) under the 6th Framework Program. With a partnership involving Industry and Research organizations, CASTOR aims at developing new technologies for post-combustion capture and

  17. Identification of acylglycerols containing dihydroxy fatty acids in castor oil by mass spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricinoleate, a monohydroxy fatty acid, in castor oil has many industrial uses. Dihydroxy fatty acids can also be used in industry. The C18 HPLC fractions of castor oil were used for mass spectrometry to identify the acylglycerols containing dihydroxy fatty acids. Four diacylglycerols identified were...

  18. Castor oil induces laxation and uterus contraction via ricinoleic acid activating prostaglandin EP3 receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tunaru, Sorin; Althoff, Till F; Nüsing, Rolf M; Diener, Martin; Offermanns, Stefan

    2012-06-01

    Castor oil is one of the oldest drugs. When given orally, it has a laxative effect and induces labor in pregnant females. The effects of castor oil are mediated by ricinoleic acid, a hydroxylated fatty acid released from castor oil by intestinal lipases. Despite the wide-spread use of castor oil in conventional and folk medicine, the molecular mechanism by which ricinoleic acid acts remains unknown. Here we show that the EP(3) prostanoid receptor is specifically activated by ricinoleic acid and that it mediates the pharmacological effects of castor oil. In mice lacking EP(3) receptors, the laxative effect and the uterus contraction induced via ricinoleic acid are absent. Although a conditional deletion of the EP(3) receptor gene in intestinal epithelial cells did not affect castor oil-induced diarrhea, mice lacking EP(3) receptors only in smooth-muscle cells were unresponsive to this drug. Thus, the castor oil metabolite ricinoleic acid activates intestinal and uterine smooth-muscle cells via EP(3) prostanoid receptors. These findings identify the cellular and molecular mechanism underlying the pharmacological effects of castor oil and indicate a role of the EP(3) receptor as a target to induce laxative effects.

  19. Expression profile of the genes involved in reserve synthesis in castor (Ricinus communis L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oil derived from the seed of castor (Ricinus communis L.) contains 90% ricinoleate (12-hydroxy-oleate) and has numerous industrial uses. Despite its economic importance, the production of castor oil is hampered by the presence of detrimental seed storage proteins, the toxin ricin and hyper-allergeni...

  20. Oil content among the diverse castor genetic resources in the U.S. collection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castor (Ricinus communis L.) contains oil used for medicine, as an ingredient in shampoo, soap, hand lotion, high-speed lubricants, and as a coating material. Due to its high oil content, oil derived from castor seeds is currently proposed to be used as a feedstock for biodiesel production. The USDA...

  1. Shared Bacterial and Viral Respiratory Agents in Bighorn Sheep (Ovis canadensis, Domestic Sheep (Ovis aries, and Goats (Capra hircus in Montana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David S. Miller

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Transmission of infectious agents from livestock reservoirs has been hypothesized to cause respiratory disease outbreaks in bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis, and land management policies intended to limit this transmission have proven controversial. This cross-sectional study compares the infectious agents present in multiple populations of bighorn sheep near to and distant from their interface with domestic sheep (O. aries and domestic goat (Capra hircus and provides critical baseline information needed for interpretations of cross-species transmission risks. Bighorn sheep and livestock shared exposure to Pasteurellaceae, viral, and endoparasite agents. In contrast, although the impact is uncertain, Mycoplasma sp. was isolated from livestock but not bighorn sheep. These results may be the result of historic cross-species transmission of agents that has resulted in a mosaic of endemic and exotic agents. Future work using longitudinal and multiple population comparisons is needed to rigorously establish the risk of outbreaks from cross-species transmission of infectious agents.

  2. EVALUATION OF PHYSIOLOGY AND BIOCHEMISTRY THE CASTOR BEAN FUNCTION OF DOSES AND FERTILIZER IN SOIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiana Xavier Costa

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Aimed at with this work to investigate the physiology and biochemistry of the castor bean, after use of compost and organic castor bean. The trial began on October 3, 2005 ending on March 20, 2006, in green-house, controlled environment of the National Center of Cotton Research (CNPA / EMBRAPA, in Campina Grande , State of Paraiba. Was used to cultivate castor BRS Paraguaçu. We used a randomized block design with four replications, totaling 11 treatments, since they are derived from doses of castor-oil and organic compost (four doses of each and three witnesses, with further study of orthogonal contrasts . The castor bean showed effective results in the variables chlorophyll content (ppm in leaves and number of days to flowering of the first cluster (DIAFI. Compost organic waste not produced any significant result for both variables.

  3. Physicochemical and sensory characteristics of milk from goats supplemented with castor or licuri oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, R A G; Oliveira, C J B; Medeiros, A N; Costa, R G; Bomfim, M A D; Queiroga, R C R E

    2010-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the influence of castor and licuri palm oils supplemented to milking goats on the physical, chemical, and sensory characteristics of milk. A double Latin square experimental design (5x5) using 10 confined crossbred Moxotó-Alpine goats was performed according to the following treatments: nonsupplemented (control), 3% castor oil, 5% castor oil, 3% licuri oil, and 5% licuri oil. Oils in each treatment were supplemented in the dry matter. Castor oil supplementation reduced the fat content and increased the lactose and density of milk. Considering the sensory analysis, a lower acceptability was observed for milk from goats supplemented with castor oil. On the other hand, licuri oil supplementation led to higher acceptability scores for flavor and odor of goat milk.

  4. Characterization and Digestibility of Detoxified Castor Oil Meal for Japanese Quails

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PA dos Santos

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT These experiments were performed to determine the chemical composition, coefficients of nutrient and energy metabolizability, amino acid composition, and cytotoxicity of different castor oil meals subjected to different detoxification processes and added to the diet of Japanese quails. In the trial, 180 46-d-old female Japanese quails were distributed according to a completely randomized design into five treatments and with replicates of six bird each. The treatments consisted of following detoxification methods of castor oil meal: Castor oil meal A (CMA - recovery in alcohol at 80 °C for 20 minutes and drying at 80 °C; castor oil meal B (CMB and C (CMC - recovery in alcohol at 80 °C for 6 minutes, neutralization with 5% NaOH, and drying under direct sunlight sun for two days (CMB or pelleted (CMC; castor oil meal D (CMD - recovery in alcohol at 110 °C for 15 minutes and drying at 110 °C. Castor oil meal was added replacing 20% of the reference diet. There was slight chemical composition variation (1.21% in crude protein, 6% in dry matter, 2.2% in ether extract and 64 kcal/kg in gross energy among the castor oil meals submitted to the different treatments. The castor oil meal submitted to treatment C showed the highest amino acid values. In the cytotoxicity test, treatment D presented lower ricin activity. Castor oil meals A, C, and D may be included in Japanese quail diets; however, castor oil meal D is recommended due to the simplicity its industrial process, its low toxicity, and metabolizability coefficients obtained.

  5. Identification of diacylglycerol and triacylglycerol containing 11,12,13-trihydroxy-9,14-octadecadienoic acid in castor oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Jiann-Tsyh; Chen, Grace Q

    2011-02-28

    Castor oil has many industrial uses. Molecular species of acylglycerols containing monohydroxy, dihydroxy and trihydroxy fatty acids in castor oil have been reported. We report here the identification of acylglycerols containing a triOH18:2 fatty acid in castor oil. The structure of this novel fatty acid was proposed as 11,12,13-trihydroxy-9,14-octadecadienoic acid by the mass spectrometry of the lithiated adducts of acylglycerols in the HPLC fractions of castor oil. The fragmentation pathways of the lithiated adduct of 11,12,13-trihydroxy-9,14-octadecadienoic acid were proposed. We also proposed the biosynthetic pathways of polyhydroxy fatty acids in castor.

  6. Response of Macroarthropod Assemblages to the Loss of Hemlock (Tsuga canadensis), a Foundation Species

    OpenAIRE

    Baiser, Benjamin H.; Record, Sydne; Ellison, Aaron M.; Sackett, Tara E.; Bewick, Sharon; Sanders, Nathan J.

    2011-01-01

    In eastern North American forests, eastern hemlock (Tsuga canadensis) is a foundation species. As hemlock is lost from forests due to the invasive hemlock woolly adelgid (Adelges tsugae) and pre-emptive salvage logging, the structure of assemblages of species associated with hemlock is expected to change. We manipulated hemlock canopy structure at hectare scales to investigate the effects of hemlock death on assemblages of ants, beetles, and spiders in a New England forest. Relative to refere...

  7. Discriminating Tsuga canadensis Hemlock Forest Defoliation Using Remotely Sensed Change Detection

    OpenAIRE

    Royle, D. D.; Lathrop, R. G.

    2002-01-01

    The eastern hemlock (Tsuga Canadensis) is declining in health and vigor in eastern North America due to infestation by an introduced insect, the hemlock woolly adelgid (Adelges isugue). Adelgid feeding activity results in the defoliation of hemlock forest canopy over several years. We investigated the application of Landsat satellite imagery and change-detection techniques to monitor the health of hemlock forest stands in northern New Jersey. We described methods used to correct effects due t...

  8. Detection and Characterization of a Distinct Bornavirus Lineage from Healthy Canada Geese (Branta canadensis) ▿

    OpenAIRE

    Payne, Susan; Covaleda, Lina; Jianhua, Guo; Swafford, Seth; Baroch, John; Ferro, Pamela J.; Lupiani, Blanca; Heatley, Jill; Tizard, Ian

    2011-01-01

    Avian bornaviruses (ABV), identified in 2008, infect captive parrots and macaws worldwide. The natural reservoirs of these viruses are unknown. Reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR) was used to screen oropharyngeal/cloacal swab and brain samples from wild Canada geese (Branta canadensis) for ABV. Approximately 2.9% of swab samples were positive for bornavirus sequences. Fifty-two percent of brain samples from 2 urban flocks also tested positive, and brain isolates were cultured in duck embryo fi...

  9. Safety analysis report for packaging (onsite) Castor GSF cask

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The CASTOR GSF packaging was designed and fabricated to be a certified Type B(U) packaging and comply with the requirements of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) for transport of up to five sealed canisters of vitrified radioactive materials. This onsite Safety Analysis Report for Packaging (SARP) provides the analysis and evaluations necessary to demonstrate that the casks, with the canister payload, meet the intent of the Type B packaging regulations set forth in 10 CFR 71 and therefore meet the onsite transportation safety requirements of WHC-CM-2-14, Hazardous Material Packaging and Shipping

  10. Global energy balance and density limit on CASTOR tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Total radiative power losses were measured with a pyroelectric detector on the CASTOR tokamak in a broad range of plasma parameters. It was shown that while the most important channel of energy losses for the low density operation (average ne19 m-3) is thermal conductivity, the high density regimes are radiative dominant. Using a simple analytic energy balance model, the connection is discussed between such a high level of radiation and the shrinking of the current channel resulting in an enhanced MHD activity. (author)

  11. LDPE/PHB blends filled with castor oil cake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burlein, Gustavo A.; Rocha, Marisa C. G.

    2015-05-01

    The response surface methodology (RSM) is a collection of mathematical techniques useful for developing, improving and optimizing process. In this study, RSM technique was applied to evaluate the effect of the components proportion on the mechanical properties of low density polyethylene (LDPE)/ poly (3-hydroxy-butyrate) (PHB) blends filled with castor oil cake (CC). The blends were prepared by melt mixing in a twin screw extruder. Low density polyethylene, poly (3-hydroxy-butyrate) and castor oil pressed cake were represented by the input variables designated as LDPE, PHB and CC, respectively. As it was desirable to consider the largest LDPE content in the ternary system, the components of the mixture were subjected to the following constraints: 0.7 ≤ LDPE ≤ 1.0, 0≤ PHB≤0.3 e 0 ≤ CC ≤0.3. The mechanical properties of the different mixtures were determined by conventional ASTM tests and were evaluated through analysis of variance performed by the Minitab software. Some polynomial equations were tested in order to describe the mechanical behavior of the samples. The quadratic model in pseudo components was selected for describing the tensile behavior because it was the most efficient from a statistical point of view (p-value ≤ 0.05; coefficient of determination (r2) close to 1 and variation inflation factor (VIF) values castor oil cake to LDPE. The morphological study of the materials obtained showed that LDPE/PHB blends are immiscible and form morphological structures with well distinguished phase boundaries between dispersed phase and matrix. Biodegradation was evaluated burying the samples in simulated soil for different periods of time. The LDPE/PHB/CC mixtures with higher content of PHB showed more pronounced degradation. Under the experimental conditions studied the LDPE/CC compositions presented no degradation. However, the loss of mass of the LDPE/PHB/CC mixtures was higher than the loss of mass of the corresponding LDPE/PHB binary blend. This

  12. Isocyanate-functionalized castor oil as a novel bitumen modifier

    OpenAIRE

    Cuadri Vega, Antonio Abad; García Morales, Moisés; Navarro Domínguez, Francisco Javier; Partal López, Pedro

    2013-01-01

    The use of biomaterials from renewable sources in the synthesis of polyurethane-derived polymers is lately receiving great attention from social, environmental and economic standpoints. In this work, prepolymers having different -NCO/-OH ratio were synthesized, by reaction of 4,4´-diphenylmethane diisocyanate (MDI) with castor oil (CO), to be used as modifying agent of asphaltic bitumen. Reactions between MDI and CO, performed with -NCO/-OH molar ratios of 8:1 and 4:1, have led to suitable bi...

  13. Early Stage Design of a Bio refinery from Castor Oil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Faria, Daniela; Quaglia, Alberto; Pessoa, Fernando;

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a systematic method fo r synthesis and analysis of bio mass based biorefinery pathways (process networks) in terms of current and future market conditions. The systematic method has been implemented into a computer aided tool that is able to quickly evaluate alternatives...... and network scenarios. The tool integrates d ata collection, modelling and superstructure optimization to determine the optimal network for a biorefinery. The application of the synthesis - analysis method and its corresponding computer aided tool is highlighte d for a case study where castor oil...

  14. A microanatomical and histological study of the postcranial dermal skeleton of the Devonian actinopterygian Cheirolepis canadensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louise Zylberberg

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The Devonian stem-actinoterygian Cheirolepis canadensis is potentially important to understand the evolution of the dermal skeleton of osteichthyans, but the last detailed histological study on this taxon was published more than forty years ago. Here, we present new data about the morphology and the histological structure of scales, fulcra, and fin-rays in the Devonian actinopterygian Cheirolepis canadensis through SEM and photomicroscopy. The scales have a typical palaeoniscoid organisation, with ganoine layers overlaying dentine and a bony basal plate, but the ganoine surface lacks the characteristic microtubercles that have been described on the ganoine surface of the scales of polypterids and many other actinopterygians. Fin-rays are composed of segmented and ramified lepidotrichia that show a structure reminiscent of scales, with ganoine and dentine components lying on a thick bony base. We describe articular processes between lepidotrichia that are reminiscent of, and plausibly homologous with, the peg-and-socket articulations between the scales. The analysis of the postcranial dermal skeleton of Cheirolepis canadensis shows that structural similarities between scales and lepidotrichia of this basal actinopterygian are greater than in more recent actinopterygians. The new data on histological and microanatomical structure of the dermal skeleton lend additional support to the hypothesis that lepidotichia are derivatives of scales, though they are also compatible with the more general hypothesis that scales, lepidotrichia and fulcra belong to the same morphogenetic system.

  15. Antifreeze proteins in the primary urine of larvae of the beetle Dendroides canadensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nickell, Philip K; Sass, Sandra; Verleye, Dawn; Blumenthal, Edward M; Duman, John G

    2013-05-01

    To avoid freezing while overwintering beneath the bark of fallen trees, Dendroides canadensis (Coleoptera: Pyrochroidae) larvae produce a family of antifreeze proteins (DAFPs) that are transcribed in specific tissues and have specific compartmental fates. DAFPs and associated thermal hysteresis activity (THA) have been shown previously in hemolymph and midgut fluid, but the presence of DAFPs has not been explored in primary urine, a potentially important site that can contain endogenous ice-nucleating compounds that could induce freezing. A maximum mean THA of 2.65±0.33°C was observed in primary urine of winter-collected D. canadensis larvae. THA in primary urine increased significantly through autumn, peaked in the winter and decreased through spring to levels of 0.2-0.3°C in summer, in a pattern similar to that of hemolymph and midgut fluid. THA was also found in hindgut fluid and excreted rectal fluid, suggesting that these larvae not only concentrate AFPs in the hindgut, but also excrete AFPs from the rectal cavity. Based on dafp transcripts isolated from Malpighian tubule epithelia, cDNAs were cloned and sequenced, identifying the presence of transcripts encoding 24 DAFP isoforms. Six of these Malpighian tubule DAFPs were known previously, but 18 are new. We also provide functional evidence that DAFPs can inhibit ice nucleators present in insect primary urine. This is potentially critical because D. canadensis larvae die if frozen, and therefore ice formation in any body fluid, including the urine, would be lethal.

  16. Experiments Are Revealing a Foundation Species: A Case Study of Eastern Hemlock (Tsuga canadensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aaron M. Ellison

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Foundation species are species that create and define particular ecosystems; control in large measure the distribution and abundance of associated flora and fauna; and modulate core ecosystem processes, such as energy flux and biogeochemical cycles. However, whether a particular species plays a foundational role in a system is not simply asserted. Rather, it is a hypothesis to be tested, and such tests are best done with large-scale, long-term manipulative experiments. The utility of such experiments is illustrated through a review of the Harvard Forest Hemlock Removal Experiment (HF-HeRE, a multidecadal, multihectare experiment designed to test the foundational role of eastern hemlock, Tsuga canadensis, in eastern North American forests. Experimental removal of T. canadensis has revealed that after 10 years, this species has pronounced, long-term effects on associated flora and fauna, but shorter-term effects on energy flux and nutrient cycles. We hypothesize that on century-long scales, slower changes in soil microbial associates will further alter ecosystem processes in T. canadensis stands. HF-HeRE may indeed continue for >100 years, but at such time scales, episodic disturbances and changes in regional climate and land cover can be expected to interact in novel ways with these forests and their foundation species.

  17. Environmental Conditions Influence Induction of Key ABC-Transporter Genes Affecting Glyphosate Resistance Mechanism in Conyza canadensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eleni Tani

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Conyza canadensis has been reported to be the most frequent weed species that evolved resistance to glyphosate in various parts of the world. The objective of the present study was to investigate the effect of environmental conditions (temperature and light on the expression levels of the EPSPS gene and two major ABC-transporter genes (M10 and M11 on glyphosate susceptible (GS and glyphosate resistant (GR horseweed populations, collected from several regions across Greece. Real-time PCR was conducted to determine the expression level of the aforementioned genes when glyphosate was applied at normal (1×; 533 g·a.e.·ha−1 and high rates (4×, 8×, measured at an early one day after treatment (DAT and a later stage (four DAT of expression. Plants were exposed to light or dark conditions, at three temperature regimes (8, 25, 35 °C. GR plants were made sensitive when exposed to 8 °C with light; those sensitized plants behaved biochemically (shikimate accumulation and molecularly (expression of EPSPS and ABC-genes like the GS plants. Results from the current study show the direct link between the environmental conditions and the induction level of the above key genes that likely affect the efficiency of the proposed mechanism of glyphosate resistance.

  18. Environmental Conditions Influence Induction of Key ABC-Transporter Genes Affecting Glyphosate Resistance Mechanism in Conyza canadensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tani, Eleni; Chachalis, Demosthenis; Travlos, Ilias S; Bilalis, Dimitrios

    2016-04-20

    Conyza canadensis has been reported to be the most frequent weed species that evolved resistance to glyphosate in various parts of the world. The objective of the present study was to investigate the effect of environmental conditions (temperature and light) on the expression levels of the EPSPS gene and two major ABC-transporter genes (M10 and M11) on glyphosate susceptible (GS) and glyphosate resistant (GR) horseweed populations, collected from several regions across Greece. Real-time PCR was conducted to determine the expression level of the aforementioned genes when glyphosate was applied at normal (1×; 533 g·a.e.·ha(-1)) and high rates (4×, 8×), measured at an early one day after treatment (DAT) and a later stage (four DAT) of expression. Plants were exposed to light or dark conditions, at three temperature regimes (8, 25, 35 °C). GR plants were made sensitive when exposed to 8 °C with light; those sensitized plants behaved biochemically (shikimate accumulation) and molecularly (expression of EPSPS and ABC-genes) like the GS plants. Results from the current study show the direct link between the environmental conditions and the induction level of the above key genes that likely affect the efficiency of the proposed mechanism of glyphosate resistance.

  19. Environmental Conditions Influence Induction of Key ABC-Transporter Genes Affecting Glyphosate Resistance Mechanism in Conyza canadensis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tani, Eleni; Chachalis, Demosthenis; Travlos, Ilias S.; Bilalis, Dimitrios

    2016-01-01

    Conyza canadensis has been reported to be the most frequent weed species that evolved resistance to glyphosate in various parts of the world. The objective of the present study was to investigate the effect of environmental conditions (temperature and light) on the expression levels of the EPSPS gene and two major ABC-transporter genes (M10 and M11) on glyphosate susceptible (GS) and glyphosate resistant (GR) horseweed populations, collected from several regions across Greece. Real-time PCR was conducted to determine the expression level of the aforementioned genes when glyphosate was applied at normal (1×; 533 g·a.e.·ha−1) and high rates (4×, 8×), measured at an early one day after treatment (DAT) and a later stage (four DAT) of expression. Plants were exposed to light or dark conditions, at three temperature regimes (8, 25, 35 °C). GR plants were made sensitive when exposed to 8 °C with light; those sensitized plants behaved biochemically (shikimate accumulation) and molecularly (expression of EPSPS and ABC-genes) like the GS plants. Results from the current study show the direct link between the environmental conditions and the induction level of the above key genes that likely affect the efficiency of the proposed mechanism of glyphosate resistance. PMID:27104532

  20. A complex alloantigen system in Florida sandhill cranes, Grus canadensis pratensis: Evidence for the major histocompatibility (B) system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarvi, S.I.; Gee, G.F.; Miller, M.M.; Briles, W.E.

    1995-01-01

    The B blood group system constitutes the major histocompatibility complex (Mhc) in birds. The Mhc is a cluster of genes largely devoted to the processing and presentation of antigen. The Mhc is highly polymorphic in many species and, thus, useful in the evaluation of genetic diversity for fitness traits within populations of a variety of animals. Correlations found between particular Mhc haplotypes and resistance to certain diseases emphasize the importance of understanding the functional significance of diversity of the Mhc, particularly in species threatened with extinction. As part of studies focused on genetic diversity in wild birds, serological techniques were used to define a highly polymorphic alloantigen system in seven families of Florida sandhill cranes (Grus canadensis pratensis). The results of analyses with antisera produced within the crane families and with chicken Mhc antigen-specific reagents revealed a single major alloantigen system that is likely the Mhc of the Florida sandhill crane. Preliminary experiments indicate that these crane alloantisera will provide a means of defining .the Mhc in other species of cranes.

  1. Environmental Conditions Influence Induction of Key ABC-Transporter Genes Affecting Glyphosate Resistance Mechanism in Conyza canadensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tani, Eleni; Chachalis, Demosthenis; Travlos, Ilias S; Bilalis, Dimitrios

    2016-01-01

    Conyza canadensis has been reported to be the most frequent weed species that evolved resistance to glyphosate in various parts of the world. The objective of the present study was to investigate the effect of environmental conditions (temperature and light) on the expression levels of the EPSPS gene and two major ABC-transporter genes (M10 and M11) on glyphosate susceptible (GS) and glyphosate resistant (GR) horseweed populations, collected from several regions across Greece. Real-time PCR was conducted to determine the expression level of the aforementioned genes when glyphosate was applied at normal (1×; 533 g·a.e.·ha(-1)) and high rates (4×, 8×), measured at an early one day after treatment (DAT) and a later stage (four DAT) of expression. Plants were exposed to light or dark conditions, at three temperature regimes (8, 25, 35 °C). GR plants were made sensitive when exposed to 8 °C with light; those sensitized plants behaved biochemically (shikimate accumulation) and molecularly (expression of EPSPS and ABC-genes) like the GS plants. Results from the current study show the direct link between the environmental conditions and the induction level of the above key genes that likely affect the efficiency of the proposed mechanism of glyphosate resistance. PMID:27104532

  2. Emergence phenology of Osmia lignaria subsp. lignaria (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae), its parasitoid Chrysura kyrae (Hymenoptera: Chrysididae), and bloom of Cercis canadensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraemer, M E; Favi, F D

    2010-04-01

    Emergence patterns of a natural population of Osmia lignaria subsp. lignaria Say were monitored during a 5-yr period (2003-2007) in relation to air temperature, bloom of eastern redbud (Cercis canadensis L.), and emergence of the parasitoid Chysura kyrae Krombein. Bee cocoons were placed in gelatin capsules and overwintered within shelters in their natural habitat. Mean emergence of female O. l. lignaria was observed at approximately 2 d after redbud bloom began; mean male emergence was approximately 1 wk earlier than for females and was nearly identical to that of C. kyrae. Horticultural models used to predict budburst for several tree species were evaluated with respect to redbud bloom and O. l. lignaria emergence. Each model indicated that both sexes of the bee and redbud had similar chill unit requirements. Differences in emergence and bloom dates were attributed to the different requirements for growing degree hours (GDHs) after chilling requirements were met. The close phenological relationship observed between eastern redbud and bee emergence suggests an important role for this common understory tree in the early nesting success of O. l. lignaria. PMID:20388263

  3. Populism

    OpenAIRE

    Abts, Koenraad; van Kessel, Stijn

    2015-01-01

    Populism is a concept applied to a wide range of political movements and actors across the globe. There is, at the same time, considerable confusion about the attributes and manifestation of populism, as well as its impact on democracy. This contribution identifies the defining elements of the populist ideology and discusses the varieties in which populism manifests itself, for instance as a component of certain party families. We finally discuss various normative interpretations of populism,...

  4. Characterization of Novel Castor Oil-Based Polyurethane Polymer Electrolytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salmiah Ibrahim

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Castor oil-based polyurethane as a renewable resource polymer has been synthesized for application as a host in polymer electrolyte for electrochemical devices. The polyurethane was added with LiI and NaI in different wt% to form a film of polymer electrolytes. The films were characterized by using attenuated total reflectance-Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, dynamic mechanical analysis, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, linear sweep voltammetry and transference number measurement. The highest conductivity of 1.42 × 10−6 S cm−1 was achieved with the addition of 30 wt% LiI and 4.28 × 10−7 S·cm−1 upon addition of 30 wt% NaI at room temperature. The temperature dependence conductivity plot indicated that both systems obeyed Arrhenius law. The activation energy for the PU-LiI and PU-NaI systems were 0.13 and 0.22 eV. Glass transition temperature of the synthesized polyurethane decreased from −15.8 °C to ~ −26 to −28 °C upon salts addition. These characterizations exhibited the castor oil-based polyurethane polymer electrolytes have potential to be used as alternative membrane for electrochemical devices.

  5. Sanitary quality of castor bean seeds (cv. IAC-226

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andréia Márcia Santos de Souza David

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate the fungicides efficacy on the castor seeds IAC-226 sanitary quality. The seeds were treated with two doses of the fungicides captan (250 and 300 g ai 100 kg-1 seed, thiophanate-methyl (100 and 150 g ai 100 kg-1 seed and thiabendazole (100 and 150 g kg ai 100 seeds. Seeds without fungicide treatment were the control. The seeds sanitary quality was evaluated by sanity test, using 10 replications of 20 seeds per treatment/lot, superficially sterilized (sodium hypochlorite and placed in plastic boxes (gerbox with filter paper and sterilized distilled water, under controlled temperature 25°C for 20 days. Seeds were examinated individually using a stereoscopic microscope and optical microscope. The results were expressed as percentage of infected seeds. The experimental design was completely randomized in a factorial arrangement (2 x 7, two lots and seven treatments, with ten repetitions. The fungicides captan, tiabendazol and tiofanato-metílico reduced the incidence of fungi, being recommended for the castor seeds IAC-226 treatment. There was a predominance of fungi Alternaria alternata, Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus niger, Bipolar, Botrytis ricini, Curvularia sp., Penicillium sp. and Rhizopus sp.

  6. Vaccination of elk (Cervus canadensis with Brucella abortus strain RB51 overexpressing superoxide dismutase and glycosyltransferase genes does not induce adequate protection against experimental Brucella abortus challenge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pauline eNol

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, elk (Cervus canadensis have been implicated as the source of Brucella abortus infection for numerous cattle herds in the Greater Yellowstone Area. In the face of environmental and ecological changes on the landscape, the range of infected elk is expanding. Consequently, the development of effective disease management strategies for wild elk herds is of utmost importance, not only for the prevention of reintroduction of brucellosis to cattle, but also for the overall health of the Greater Yellowstone Area elk populations. In two studies, we evaluated the efficacy of B. abortus strain RB51 over-expressing superoxide dismutase and glycosytransferase for protecting elk from infection and disease caused by B. abortus after experimental infection with a virulent B. abortus strain. Our data indicate that the recombinant vaccine does not protect elk against brucellosis. Further work is needed for development of an effective brucellosis vaccine for use in elk

  7. Study on Emission and Performance of Diesel Engine Using Castor Biodiesel

    OpenAIRE

    Md. Saiful Islam; Abu Saleh Ahmed; Aminul Islam; Sidek Abdul Aziz; Low Chyi Xian; Moniruzzaman Mridha

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents the result of investigations carried out in studying the emission and performance of diesel engine using the castor biodiesel and its blend with diesel from 0% to 40% by volume. The acid-based catalyzed transesterification system was used to produce castor biodiesel and the highest yield of 82.5% was obtained under the optimized condition. The FTIR spectrum of castor biodiesel indicates the presence of C=O and C–O functional groups, which is due to the ester compound in...

  8. Study on Emission and Performance of Diesel Engine Using Castor Biodiesel

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents the result of investigations carried out in studying the emission and performance of diesel engine using the castor biodiesel and its blend with diesel from 0% to 40% by volume. The acid-based catalyzed transesterification system was used to produce castor biodiesel and the highest yield of 82.5% was obtained under the optimized condition. The FTIR spectrum of castor biodiesel indicates the presence of C=O and C–O functional groups, which is due to the ester compound in bi...

  9. EVALUATION OF PHYSIOLOGY AND BIOCHEMISTRY THE CASTOR BEAN FUNCTION OF DOSES AND FERTILIZER IN SOIL

    OpenAIRE

    Fabiana Xavier Costa

    2011-01-01

    Aimed at with this work to investigate the physiology and biochemistry of the castor bean, after use of compost and organic castor bean. The trial began on October 3, 2005 ending on March 20, 2006, in green-house, controlled environment of the National Center of Cotton Research (CNPA / EMBRAPA), in Campina Grande , State of Paraiba. Was used to cultivate castor BRS Paraguaçu. We used a randomized block design with four replications, totaling 11 treatments, since they are derived from doses of...

  10. Application of Factorial Design of Experiments for the Continuous Hydrogenation of Enriched Castor Oil Methyl Esters

    OpenAIRE

    Tulasi Sri Venkata Ramana Neeharika; Karna Narayana Prasanna Rani; Kasturi Venkata Sesha Adinarayana Rao; Thella Prathap Kumar; Rachapudi Badari Narayana Prasad

    2013-01-01

    Castor oil methyl esters contains nearly 90% ricinoleic acid (12-hydroxy-cis-9-octadecenoic acid). Hydrogen-ated castor oil methyl esters finds several applications in coating, lubricants formulations and pharmaceu-tical areas. The present study reports a fast, simple, efficient and continuous hydrogenation of enriched castor oil methyl ester (ECME) using 10% Pd/C catalyst at different pressures and temperatures. The range of process conditions for this study varied from 30-60 °C, 5-15 bar wi...

  11. Unbodied dehydrated castor oil from oil of castor beans cultivated in tropical and sub tropical zones of pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Commercially available castor oil was analysed for specific gravity at 25/25 degree C (0.959), acid value (0.5), iodine value (85), refractive index at 25 degree C (1.4769), viscosity at 25 degree C (6.8), and hydroxyl value (162). Fatty acid composition, including palmitic acid (I. 7%), stearic acid (1.39%), oleic acid (5.73%), linoleic acid (6.25%), and ricinoleic acid (84.2%) was estimated by means of GLC. Unbodied dehydrated castor oil (DCO- 15) 93% was prepared by using sodium bisulphate and sodium bisulphite and other reaction conditions. Unbodied DCO was analysed for iodine value (139), acid value (3.6), refractive index at 25 degree C (1.4820), specific gravity at 25/25 degree C and 30/30 degree C (0.9333 and 0.925) viscosity at 25 degree C and 30 degree C (200 cps and 1.85 poise), respectively. Fatty acid composition was also determined to ascertain the extent of dehydration due to the formation of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA, 36.9%) and non conjugated linoleic acid (NCLA, 46.8%). Ricinoleic acid was estimated as 3.83%. Unbodied DCO-15 was in good conformance with the standard specification of ASTM and other values cited in the literature. (author)

  12. Protocol for Large-scale Monitoring of Riparian-Associated Mammals

    OpenAIRE

    Lesmeister, Damon B.; Nielsen, Clayton K.

    2011-01-01

    The design of large-scale wildlife monitoring programs must include long term and geographically broad methods of collecting reliable information on the status and trends in populations, with the overarching goal of providing inference about ecosystem health. We developed a monitoring protocol for populations of beaver (Castor canadensis), American mink (Neovison vison), muskrat (Ondatra zibethicus), and North American river otter (Lontra canadensis) in Illinois, USA. The goals of the monitor...

  13. Isotope labeling-based quantitative proteomics of developing seeds of castor oil seed (Ricinus communis L.)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nogueira, Fábio C S; Palmisano, Giuseppe; Schwämmle, Veit;

    2013-01-01

    In this study, we used a mass spectrometry-based quantification approach employing isotopic (ICPL) and isobaric (iTRAQ) labeling to investigate the pattern of protein deposition during castor oil seed (Ricinus communis L.) development, including that of proteins involved in fatty acid metabolism...... give important insights into certain aspects of the biology of castor oil seed development such as carbon flow, anabolism, and catabolism of fatty acid and the pattern of deposition of SSPs, toxins, and allergens such as ricin and 2S albumins. We also found, for the first time, some genes of SSP...... could be mapped to extant castor gene models, considerably expanding the number of proteins so far identified from developing castor seeds. Cluster validation and statistical analysis resulted in 975 protein trend patterns and the relative abundance of 618 proteins. The results presented in this work...

  14. Comparative clinical trial of castor oil and diclofenac sodium in patients with osteoarthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medhi, B; Kishore, K; Singh, U; Seth, S D

    2009-10-01

    A randomized, double-blind, comparative clinical study was conducted to compare the safety and efficacy of castor oil with diclofenac sodium in patients with knee osteoarthritis. Subjects with symptoms of knee osteoarthritis were given a castor oil capsule 0.9 mL (n = 50) thrice daily for 4 weeks or a capsule of diclofenac sodium (n = 50), 50 mg thrice daily for 4 weeks. The subjects completed an overall evaluation of symptom relief at 2 weeks and 4 weeks of completed treatment. The subjects were evaluated by clinical, routine laboratory and radiographic investigations for improvement of disease conditions and also for adverse drug reaction. On completion of 4 weeks treatment it was observed that both drugs were significantly effective in the treatment of knee osteoarthritis (p castor oil there were no adverse effects reported. The present study indicates that castor oil can be used as an effective therapy in primary knee osteoarthritis.

  15. Performance of the CASTOR calorimeter at CMS during Run II of LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Van De Klundert, Merijn H F

    2016-01-01

    The detector has pseudorapidity borders at -5.2 and -6.6. An overview is presented on the various aspects of CASTOR's performance and their relations during LHC Run 2. The equalisation of CASTOR's channels is performed using beam-halo muons. Thereafter, CASTOR's pedestal spectrum is studied. It is shown that noise estimates which are extracted using a fit, give on average a 10\\% lower threshold than statistical estimates. Gain correction factors, which are needed for the intercalibration, are obtained using a statistical, in-situ applicable method. The results of this method are shown to be reasonably consistent with laboratory measurements. Penultimately the absolute calibration is discussed, with emphasis on the relation between the scale uncertainty and CASTOR's alignment. It is shown that the alignment's contribution to the systematic uncerta...

  16. Two non-target mechanisms are involved in glyphosate-resistant horseweed (Conyza canadensis L. Cronq.) biotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Torralva, Fidel; Rojano-Delgado, Antonia M; Luque de Castro, María D; Mülleder, Norbert; De Prado, Rafael

    2012-11-15

    The physiological and biochemical bases for glyphosate resistance and susceptibility in horseweed (Conyza canadensis L. Cronq.) populations collected from Córdoba, Huelva, Málaga, Jaén and Seville in southern Spain were investigated. Screening 25 populations treated with glyphosate (238gacidequivalentha(-1)) at the rosette stage (BBCH 14-15) revealed reductions in fresh weight (fw) of 9-99%. The resistant biotype (R C004) was 6.1 times more resistant than the susceptible biotype (S). Shikimate accumulation in both biotypes increased until 72h after treatment (HAT), and then continued to increase (to 61.2%) in the S biotype, but decreased by 40% in the R (C004) biotype. Differential glyphosate spray retention and foliar uptake of applied (14)C-glyphosate between the R (C004) and S biotype had no effect on resistance to this herbicide. Quantitative and qualitative tests showed greater (14)C-glyphosate mobility in the S biotype than in the R (C004) biotype. Glyphosate was metabolized faster in the R (C004) biotype than in the S biotype. The herbicide disappeared completely from the R (C004) biotype by conversion into glyoxylate, sarcosine and aminomethylphosphonic acid within 96 HAT. On the other hand, 41.43nmolg(-1)fw of all glyphosate applied remained in the S biotype and glyoxylate was its only non-toxic metabolite. These results suggest that glyphosate resistance in horseweed is due to two different non-target mechanisms, namely: (a) impaired glyphosate translocation and (b) glyphosate metabolism to other compounds.

  17. ISOLATED PROTEIN FROM CASTOR BEAN, PEANUT, SOY BEAN AND SAFFLOWER MEALS

    OpenAIRE

    B.Tavasolian; S.Nikpour; B.Makanvand

    1981-01-01

    Castor bean, peanut, Soy bean and safflower protein isolates were prepared. The amino acid content of each of the protein isolates was analysed and the essential amino acid contents were compared with the FAO human requirements. The results indicated that castor bean has the highest oil and the protein content of defatted meal. Safflower 3148 (Marand, Iran) has the highest amount of essential amino acids. Peanut (Gilan Iran) has the lowest content of essential amino acids, however, in compari...

  18. Use of castor oil-based polyurethane adhesive in the production of glued laminated timber beams

    OpenAIRE

    Maximiliano dos Anjos Azambuja; Antonio Alves Dias

    2006-01-01

    Researchers from the Polymer Technology and Analytical Chemistry (LQATP) group at the São Carlos Institute of Chemistry, University of São Paulo, developed a polyurethane adhesive based on castor oil. In addition to deriving it from a renewable source, this adhesive is nonaggressive to humans and the environment. The purpose of this study is to investigate the feasible use of polyurethane adhesive based on castor oil in the production of 12 beams of Glulam, using the species Pinus caribea hon...

  19. Comparison of lubricant properties of castor oil and commercial engine oil

    OpenAIRE

    Binfa Bongfa; Peter A. Atabor; Atuci Barnabas; M.O. Adeoti

    2015-01-01

    The tribological performance of crude Nigeria-based castor oil has been investigated and compared with that of a foreign, 20W-50 high quality crankcase oil, to see its suitability as base oil for lubricating oils in indigenous vehicle and power plants engines. The experiment was conducted using a four ball tester. The results showed that unrefined castor oil has superior friction reduction and load bearing capability in an unformulated form than the commercial oil; can compete favourably with...

  20. UV and gamma irradiation effects on surface properties of polyurethane derivate from castor oil

    OpenAIRE

    Elaine C. Azevedo; Eduardo M. Nascimento; Gilberto O. Chierice; Salvador Claro Neto; Carlos M. Lepienski

    2013-01-01

    Gamma and ultraviolet radiation effects on hardness, elastic modulus and viscoelastic properties of polyurethane derived from castor oil (PU) were investigated by nanoindentation tests. Modifications on surface morphology, induced by radiation, were observed by atomic force microscopy. The polyurethane derivate from castor oil shows good resistance to gamma radiation, with only small changes in hardness, elastic modulus, viscoelastic properties and contact angle. The hardness of PU increases ...

  1. Some properties of castor oil affecting its performance as a capacitor impregnant and their significance to future impregnant research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For a considerable time castor oil and polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) have been the principal impregnants used in energy-storage capacitors. Castor oil has proven to be better than PCB for pulsed applications. PCB's have come under attack as an environmental hazard, while castor oil is a vegetable product and its supply and quality are subject to fluctuation. These two facts make the development of new impregnants desirable. The properties of PCB as a capacitor impregnant are well known. This paper first compares a number of properties of castor oil and PCB's. A comparison is made between the lives of castor oil capacitors and comparable PCB energy-storage capacitors. Some of the physical and chemical properties of castor oil which make it a good pulse capacitor impregnant are examined. These properties can be used as a guide for future research on new pulse capacitor impregnants

  2. Electron cyclotron emission and absorption experiment on the CASTOR tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Electron cyclotron radiation and absorption measurements on the CASTOR tokamak are reported. Emission spectra were obtained using fast-scanning Fourier spectrometer and InSb detectors, operating in the spectral range 30 to 300 GHz and receiving two orthogonal polarization components simultaneously. In the high plasma loop voltage runaway electrons gave rise to an intense broad-band emission. Runaway particles can be removed by increasing the plasma density. The electron temperature profile was deduced from thermal emission and absorption around second cyclotron harmonics. From the second and third harmonics of the non-thermal emission the energy and number of non-thermal particles can be calculated. During the lower-hybrid-current-drive (LHCD) experiments, the presence of 60 keV electrons with density of 1.1016 m-3 was deduced from emission spectra. (author). 5 figs., 6 refs

  3. The Castor Moving Group The age of Fomalhaut and Vega

    CERN Document Server

    Barrado y Navascués, D

    1998-01-01

    We have recomputed the kinematic properties of several of dozens nearby stars, to try to verify if Castor has a cohort of stars sharing the same space motion and age. We used kinematics, the location of the stars in CM diagrams, their lithium abundances, and their activity, to establish that the moving group seems to be real and to reject several stars which were believed to be part of this group. Of the initial 26 stars, we show that probably only 16 stars are physically associated. The moving group contains several A spectral type stars. Among them, Vega and Fomalhaut, two of the prototypes of the beta Pic type stars. Since this association includes several late spectral type stars, we used their properties to estimate their age and, therefore, the age of the group and that of Vega and Fomalhaut. Our estimate for that age is 200$\\pm$100 Myr.

  4. Immobilization of Yarrowia lipolytica for aroma production from castor oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braga, Adelaide; Belo, Isabel

    2013-04-01

    The main aim of this study was to compare different materials for Y. lipolytica immobilization that could be used in the production of γ-decalactone (a peach-like aroma) in order to prevent the toxic effect both of the substrate and the aroma upon the cells. Therefore, cells adsorption onto pieces of methyl polymethacrylate and of DupUM(®) was studied and further used in the biotransformation of castor oil into γ-decalactone. The highest aroma concentration was obtained with immobilized cells in DupUM(®), where reconsumption of the aroma by the cells was prevented, contrarily to what happens with free cells. This is a very promising result for γ-decalactone production, with potential to be used at an industrial level since the use of immobilized cells system will facilitate the conversion of a batch process into a continuous mode keeping high cell density and allowing easier recovery of metabolic products.

  5. Understory Vegetation in Old-Growth and Second-Growth Tsuga Canadensis Forests in Western Massachusetts

    OpenAIRE

    D’Amato, Anthony W.; Orwig, David A.; Foster, David Russell

    2009-01-01

    We compared the understory communities (herbs, shrubs, and tree seedlings and saplings) of old-growth and second-growth eastern hemlock forests (Tsuga canadensis) in western Massachusetts, USA. Second-growth hemlock forests originated following clear-cut logging in the late 1800s and were 108–136 years old at the time of sampling. Old-growth hemlock forests contained total ground cover of herbaceous and shrub species that was approximately 4 times greater than in second-growth forests (4.02 ±...

  6. Detection and characterization of a distinct bornavirus lineage from healthy Canada geese (Branta canadensis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payne, Susan; Covaleda, Lina; Jianhua, Guo; Swafford, Seth; Baroch, John; Ferro, Pamela J; Lupiani, Blanca; Heatley, Jill; Tizard, Ian

    2011-11-01

    Avian bornaviruses (ABV), identified in 2008, infect captive parrots and macaws worldwide. The natural reservoirs of these viruses are unknown. Reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR) was used to screen oropharyngeal/cloacal swab and brain samples from wild Canada geese (Branta canadensis) for ABV. Approximately 2.9% of swab samples were positive for bornavirus sequences. Fifty-two percent of brain samples from 2 urban flocks also tested positive, and brain isolates were cultured in duck embryo fibroblasts. Phylogenetic analyses placed goose isolates in an independent cluster, and more notably, important regulatory sequences present in Borna disease virus but lacking in psittacine ABVs were present in goose isolates. PMID:21900161

  7. Mycotoxin-induced disease in captive whooping cranes (Grus americana) and sandhill cranes (Grus canadensis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsen, G.H.; Carpenter, J.W.; Gee, G.F.; Thomas, N.J.; Dein, F.J.

    1995-01-01

    In 1987, an epizootic in cranes at the Patuxent Wildlife Research Center, Laurel, Maryland, USA, caused illness in 80% of 300 captive whooping cranes (Grus americana) and sandhill cranes (Grus canadensis) and death of 15 of these cranes. Gross pathology findings were inconclusive and consisted of dehydration, atrophy of fat, renal insufficiency, and small spleens. Extensive testing resulted in isolation of Fusarium sp. mold from constituents of the grain-based diet. Low levels of two mycotoxins, T2 (1-2 ppm) and deoxynivalenol (0.4 ppm), were isolated from the pelleted feed.

  8. Evaluation of the performance of a castor-oil based formulation in limiting pesticide residues in strawberry crops

    OpenAIRE

    Mário Sérgio Galhiane; Sandra Regina Rissato; Lucídio de Sousa Santos; Gilberto Orivaldo Chierice; Marcos Vinícius de Almeida; Terezinha Fumis; Inês Chechim; Aloísio Costa Sampaio

    2012-01-01

    A study was made to evaluate the effect of a castor oil-based detergent on strawberry crops treated with different classes of pesticides, namely deltamethrin, folpet, tebuconazole, abamectin and mancozeb, in a controlled environment. Experimental crops of greenhouse strawberries were cultivated in five different ways with control groups using pesticides and castor oil-based detergent. The results showed that the group 2, which was treated with castor oil-based detergent, presented the lowest ...

  9. Surface Coating Studies of Polyurethane Derived from [(Alkyd-(Epoxy Resin Treated Castor Oil] Using Isophorene Diisocynate - II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dinesh. P. Patel

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Castor oil (C was reacted with profitable epoxy resin (E (diglycidylether of bisphenol-A, DGEBF at a range of mole ratios. The consequential products (Castor oil- Epoxy resin were nominated as CEs. Isocyanate terminated castor oil Polyurethane (ICOPU was prepared by reaction of castor oil and various proportion of Isophoren diisocyanate. A commercial alkyd resin was blended with various proportions of CEs and ICOPU. A unique solvent system, which shows a one – phase clear solution and a clear coat of binder system, was used. All the blends were applied on mild steel panels and characterized for drying time, adhesion, flexibility, hardness, impact resistance and chemical resistance properties.

  10. Screening of the entire USDA castor germplasm collection for oil content and fatty acid composition for optimum biodiesel production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ming Li; Morris, J Bradley; Tonnis, Brandon; Pinnow, David; Davis, Jerry; Raymer, Paul; Pederson, Gary A

    2011-09-14

    Castor has tremendous potential as a feedstock for biodiesel production. The oil content and fatty acid composition in castor seed are important factors determining the price for production and affecting the key fuel properties of biodiesel. There are 1033 available castor accessions collected or donated from 48 countries worldwide in the USDA germplasm collection. The entire castor collection was screened for oil content and fatty acid composition by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and gas chromatography (GC), respectively. Castor seeds on the average contain 48.2% oil with significant variability ranging from 37.2 to 60.6%. Methyl esters were prepared from castor seed by alkaline transmethylation. GC analysis of methyl esters confirmed that castor oil was composed primarily of eight fatty acids: 1.48% palmitic (C16:0), 1.58% stearic (C18:0), 4.41% oleic (C18:1), 6.42% linoleic (C18:2), 0.68% linolenic (C18:3), 0.45% gadoleic (C20:1), 84.51% ricinoleic (C18:1-1OH), and 0.47% dihydroxystearic (C18:0-2OH) acids. Significant variability in fatty acid composition was detected among castor accessions. Ricinoleic acid (RA) was positively correlated with dihydroxystearic acid (DHSA) but highly negatively correlated with the five other fatty acids except linolenic acid. The results for oil content and fatty acid composition obtained from this study will be useful for end-users to explore castor germplasm for biodiesel production.

  11. Sequential processing of mannose-containing glycans by two α-mannosidases from Solitalea canadensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Fang F; Kulinich, Anna; Du, Ya M; Liu, Li; Voglmeir, Josef

    2016-04-01

    Two putative α-mannosidase genes isolated from the rather unexplored soil bacterium Solitalea canadensis were cloned and biochemically characterised. Both recombinant enzymes were highly selective in releasing α-linked mannose but no other sugars. The α-mannosidases were designated Sca2/3Man2693 and Sca6Man4191, and showed the following biochemical properties: the temperature optimum for both enzymes was 37 °C, and their pH optima lay at 5.0 and 5.5, respectively. The activity of Sca2/3Man2693 was found to be dependent on Ca(2+) ions, whereas Cu(2+) and Zn(2+) ions almost completely inhibited both α-mannosidases. Specificity screens with various substrates revealed that Sca2/3Man2693 could release both α1-2- and α1-3-linked mannose, whereas Sca6Man4191 only released α1-6-linked mannose. The combined enzymatic action of both recombinant α-mannosidases allowed the sequential degradation of high-mannose-type N-glycans. The facile expression and purification procedures in combination with strict substrate specificities make α-mannosidases from S. canadensis promising candidates for bioanalytical applications. PMID:26864077

  12. Herbicidas alternativos para controle de biótipos de Conyza bonariensis e C. canadensis resistentes ao glyphosate Alternative herbicides to control glyphosate-resistant biotypes of Conyza bonariensis and C. canadensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.S. Moreira

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Após sucessivos anos, aplicações do herbicida glyphosate em pomares de citros no Estado de São Paulo selecionaram biótipos resistentes de Conyza bonariensis e C. canadensis. Na ocorrência de plantas daninhas resistentes em uma área agrícola, tornam-se necessárias mudanças nas práticas de manejo para obtenção de adequado controle das populações resistentes, bem como para a redução da pressão de seleção sobre outras espécies. Assim, este trabalho foi realizado com o objetivo de identificar herbicidas alternativos para controle de biótipos de Conyza spp. resistentes ao herbicida glyphosate, com aplicações em diferentes estádios fenológicos da planta daninha. Três experimentos foram conduzidos em campo, em pomares de citros em formação, sobre plantas de buva em estádio fenológico de dez folhas e no pré-florescimento. Para plantas no estádio de dez folhas, controle satisfatório foi obtido com aplicações de glyphosate + bromacil + diuron (1.440 + 1.200 + 1.200 g ha-1, glyphosate + atrazina (1.440 + 1.500 g ha-1 e glyphosate + diuron (1.440 + 1.500 g ha-1. Quando em estádio de pré-florescimento de Conyza spp., a aplicação do herbicida amônio-glufosinato, na dose de 400 g ha-1, isolado ou associado a MSMA, bromacil+diuron, metsulfuron, carfentrazone e paraquat, foi a alternativa viável para controle dos biótipos resistentes ao glyphosate.After successive years, glyphosate applications on São Paulo-Brazil citrus orchards selected resistant biotypes of Conyza bonariensis and C. canadensis. The occurrence of herbicide-resistant weed biotypes at some agricultural area makes it necessary to change the management practices to reach effective control of the selected resistant populations, as well as to reduce selection pressure on the other species. Thus, this work aimed to identify the alternative herbicides to control glyphosate-resistant biotypes of Conyza spp., with applications at different weed phenological

  13. Effects of Process Parameters on the Yield of oil from Castor Seed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mbah, G.O

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The physicochemical properties of castor seed oil were evaluated in this work using standard analytical technique. The results showed the percentage (% moisture, crude lipid, crude protein, ash and carbohydrate contents of the castor seed as 0.700, 48.800, 7.200, 10.600, 31.615 respectively. The oil from the castor seed was odourless and yellowish at room temperature (30℃. The treatment combinations used (leaching time, leaching temperature and solvent: solute ratio showed significant differences (p< 0.05 in yield of castor oil seed flour with % oil yield of 35.52 – 53.90%. Lipid indices of the castor seed oil indicated the acid value (AV as 1.100mg NaOH/g of oil, free fatty acid (FFA as 0.550%, saponification value (SV as 188.300mgkOH/g of oil, iodine value (IV as 74.700I2/g of oil, peroxide value as 1.500ml/g of oil, and viscosity as 0.008. A standard statistical package Minitab version 16.0 program was used in the regression analysis and analysis of variance (ANOVA. The statistical software mentioned above was also used to generate various plots such as single effect, interaction plot, contour plot and 3D surface plot. The response or yield of oil extracted from castor flour was used to develop a mathematical model that correlates the yield of oil. The optimum condition obtained to give the highest yield of castor oil extraction are leaching time of 2hrs, leaching temperature of 50℃ and solute: solvent ratio of 0.05g/ml.

  14. Organic matter characterization and decomposition dynamics in sub-Antarctic streams impacted by invasive beavers Caracterización de la materia orgánica y la dinámica de descomposición en arroyos subantárticos impactados por castores invasores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erica Ulloa

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Despite being a relatively remote and well conserved area, the sub-Antarctic ecoregion faces pressing global threats from climate change, the ozone hole and introduced species. Its freshwater ecosystems are one of the least studied components of this biome, but they are known to confront a host of invasive taxa including trout and beavers. We set out to understand the basic characterization and dynamics of organic matter processing and decomposition in sub-Antarctic streams under natural forest (NF conditions and in ponds constructed by North American beavers (Castor canadensis (BP. We found these streams have a naturally stable benthic organic matter regime throughout the year with a peak in leaf input from Nothofagus pumilio in autumn. Beaver ponds significantly increased the retention of organic matter and caused significantly higher decomposition rates, probably associated with increased density and biomass of Hyalella spp. As expected, leaf decay rates for N. pumilio, a deciduous species, were higher (NF: -0.0028 day- ± 0.0001 SE; BP: -0.0118 day-1 ± 0.0009 SE than N. betuloides (a broad-leaf evergreen (NF: -0.0018 day-1 ± 0.0005 SE; BP: -0.0040 day-1 ± 0.0003 SE. Overall these results indicate that the naturally low decomposition rates (slower than 89% of a global survey of decay rates for these cold, oligotrophic streams are being modified by introduced beavers to resemble more temperate latitudes.A pesar de ser una zona relativamente remota y bien conservado, la ecorregión subantártica se enfrenta a presiones por amenazas globales por el cambio climático, el agujero de ozono y las especies introducidas. Los ecosistemas de agua dulce son uno de los componentes menos estudiados de este bioma, pero se sabe que enfrentan una serie de taxones invasivos como la trucha y los castores. El propósito de este estudio es entender la caracterización básica y dinámica de descomposición de la materia orgánica en arroyos subantárticos de

  15. Allelopathic effects of extracts from Solidago canadensis L.against seed germination and seedling growth of some plants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    To investigate the potential role of allelopathy in plant interference and in the successful invasion of alien species Solidago canadensis, aqueous and ethanolic extracts from rhizomes, stems and leaves of S. canadensis were prepared and used as treatment solutions to assess their effects on seed germination and seedling growth in four target species, mulberry (Morus alba); morning glory (Pharbitis nil), wheat (Triticum aestivum) and rape (Brassica campestris). Reduction and/or growth in germination and growth of the target plant species in the presence of both aqueous and ethanolic extracts at different concentrations indicated that the responses were species-specific and concentration-dependent. Generally, ethanolic extracts (especially from leaves) imposed stronger effects on both seed germination and seedling growth. Extracts with lower concentration at 0.001 g/ml dw could stimulate the seedling growth of rape and morning glory, whereas extracts at any given concentrations have inhibitory effects on wheat and mulberry. It is suggested that the aqueous and ethanolic extracts of all the three parts ofS. canadensis have significant allelopathic effects. Although both inhibition and stimulation occurred in the germination and growth of the target species, extracts with higher concentrations definitely inhibit seed germination and seedling growth of all target plants. We suggest that allelopathy plays a more important role than other mechanisms do in the out-competition of S. canadensis over other plants, and make it invasive in new habitats.

  16. Elodea canadensis under N and CO2 limitation : Adaptive changes in Rubisco and PEPCase activity in a bicarbonate user

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Ginkel, LC; Schutz, [No Value; Prins, HBA

    2000-01-01

    Diffusion of CO2 in water is 10,000 times slower than in air. Because of this photosynthesis in submerged aquatic macrophytes is often limited by CO2 availability. Elodea canadensis shows HCO3- utilization under conditions of CO2 limitation. A closely related species, Hydrilla verticillata, which al

  17. Toxoplasmosis in geese and detection of two new atypical Toxoplasma gondii strains from naturally infected Canada geese (Branta canadensis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The protozoan Toxoplasma gondii infects virtually all warm-blooded animals, including birds, humans, livestock, and marine mammals. The consumption of raw or undercooked meat infected with T. gondii is considered an important source of infection in humans. Canada goose (Branta canadensis), the most ...

  18. Isolation and genetic characterization of Toxoplasma gondii from naturally infected Canada goose (Branta canadensis) detected two new atypical strains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wild birds are important in the epidemiology of toxoplasmosis because they can serve as reservoir hosts, and vectors of zoonotic pathogens including Toxoplasma gondii. Canada goose (Branta canadensis) is the most widespread goose in North America. Little is known concerning T. gondii infection in bo...

  19. Survival of bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis) commingled with domestic sheep (Ovis aries) in the absence of mycoplasma ovipneumoniae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    To test the hypothesis that Mycoplasma ovipneumoniae is an important agent of the bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis) pneumonia that has previously inevitably followed experimental commingling with domestic sheep (Ovis aries), we commingled M. ovipneumoniae–free domestic and bighorn sheep (n=4 each). On...

  20. THE EFFECTS OF POSSIBLE CONTAMINATION ON THE RADIOCARBON DATING OF THE DEAD SEA SCROLLS II : EMPIRICAL METHODS TO REMOVE CASTOR OIL AND SUGGESTIONS FOR REDATING

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rasmussen, Kaare Lund; van der Plicht, Johannes; Doudna, Gregory; Nielsen, Frederik; Hojrup, Peter; Stenby, Erling Halfdan; Pedersen, Carl Th; Højrup, Peter

    2009-01-01

    While kept at the Rockefeller Museum in East Jerusalem, many Dead Sea Scroll fragments were exposed to castor oil by the original team of editors in the course of cleaning the parchments. Castor oil must be regarded as a serious contaminant in relation to radiocarbon dating. If modern castor oil is

  1. Identification of diacylglycerol and triacylglycerols containing 11,12,13-trihydroxy-9,14-octadecadienoic acid in castor oil by mass spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castor oil has many industrial uses. Molecular species of acylglycerols containing monohydroxy, dihydroxy and trihydroxy fatty acids in castor oil have been reported. The identification of acylglycerols containing a triOH18:2 fatty acid in castor oil is reported here. The structure of this novel fat...

  2. Optimization of biodiesel production from castor oil using response surface methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Gwi-Taek; Park, Don-Hee

    2009-05-01

    The short supply of edible vegetable oils is the limiting factor in the progression of biodiesel technology; thus, in this study, we applied response surface methodology in order to optimize the reaction factors for biodiesel synthesis from inedible castor oil. Specifically, we evaluated the effects of multiple parameters and their reciprocal interactions using a five-level three-factor design. In a total of 20 individual experiments, we optimized the reaction temperature, oil-to-methanol molar ratio, and quantity of catalyst. Our model equation predicted that the following conditions would generate the maximum quantity of castor biodiesel (92 wt.%): a 40-min reaction at 35.5 degrees C, with an oil-to-methanol molar ratio of 1:8.24, and a catalyst concentration of 1.45% of KOH by weight of castor oil. Subsequent empirical analyses of the biodiesel generated under the predicted conditions showed that the model equation accurately predicted castor biodiesel yields within the tested ranges. The biodiesel produced from castor oil satisfied the relevant quality standards without regard to viscosity and cold filter plugging point.

  3. Effectiveness of castor oil extract on Escherichia coli and its endotoxins in root canals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valera, Marcia Carneiro; Maekawa, Lilian Eiko; Chung, Adriana; de Oliveira, Luciane Dias; Carvalho, Claudio Antonio Talge; Koga-Ito, Cristiane Yumi; Jorge, Antonio Olavo Cardoso

    2012-01-01

    This in vitro study sought to evaluate the effectiveness of castor oil extract used as an irrigating solution on Escherichia coli and its endotoxins in root canals. Sixty single-rooted teeth were prepared (using castor oil extract as irrigating solution) and divided into five groups (n = 12): Group 1 samples were treated with calcium hydroxide (Ca(OH)2), Group 2 samples were treated with polymyxin B, Group 3 samples were treated with Ca(OH)2 and 2% chlorhexidine gel (CHX), and Group 4 samples were treated with castor oil extract. A control group used physiological saline solution as an irrigant. Canal content samples were collected at four different times: immediately after instrumentation, seven days after instrumentation, after 14 days of intracanal medication, and seven days after removal of intracanal medication. A plating method was used to assess antimicrobial activity and the quantification of endotoxins was evaluated by the chromogenic Limulus lysate assay. Data were submitted to ANOVA and a Dunn test (a = 5%). Irrigation with castor oil extract decreased E. coli counts but had no effect on the level of endotoxins. Samples taken seven days after removal of medication revealed a significant reduction in endotoxin levels in Groups 3 and 4. Compared to the saline solution irrigation, castor oil extract decreased microorganism counts in root canals immediately after canal preparation. None of the medications used completely eliminated endotoxins in the root canal.

  4. Naturally occurring and experimentally induced castor bean (Ricinus communis) poisoning in ducks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, W.I.; Allen, J.P.

    1981-01-01

    Castor bean (Ricinus communis) poisoning accounted for the death of several thousand ducks in the Texas panhandle in the fall and winter months of 1969-1971. Signs of intoxication resembled those of botulism, except for mucoid, blood-tinged excreta. The most common lesions were severe fatty change in the liver, widely distributed internal petechial hemorrhages or ecchymoses, and catarrhal enteritis. Nearly intact castor beans were found in the stomach of one duck during field necropsy. Fragments of seed coat resembling castor bean were found in the stomachs of 10 of 14 ducks examined in the laboratory. Clinical signs and postmortem lesions observed in wild ducks were induced experimentally in mallards (Anas platyrhynchos) by force-feeding intact castor beans. Toxicity titrations were erratic, but the LD50 appeared to be between three and four seeds. The mouse toxicity test, used to detect Clostridium botulinum toxin in the blood serum of intoxicated ducks, was negative in every case. Hemagglutination and precipitin tests generally failed to detect castor bean in extracts of excreta or intestinal contents of experimentally intoxicated ducks.

  5. The castor oil production in Brazil and the biodiesel program (Probiodiesel); A producao de mamona no Brasil e o Probiodiesel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Almeida, Cezar Menezes; Almeida Neto, Jose Adolfo de; Pires, Monica de Moura [Universidade Estadual de Santa Cruz, Ilheus, BA (Brazil). Grupo Bioenergia e Meio Ambiente]. E-mails: biocomb@uesc.br; Rocha, Pauletti Karllien [Secretaria de Ciencia, Tecnologia e Inovacao do Estado da Bahia (SECTI), Salvador, BA (Brazil)]. E-mail: pauletti@secti.ba.gov.br

    2004-07-01

    The objective of this work is to present a prospective study of the national production of biodiesel and castor oil and to determine the level of the public investment necessary to attain the proposed production. For replacement of 2% of the diesel internal consumption, 786 millions of liters of biodiesel will be necessary, based on the consumption of 2003. From this amount 293 millions of liters (40%) will be derived from the castor oil. Considering the castor oil agricultural productivity of 1.8 t/ha and the 45% industrial income in oil, it will be necessary the planting of 360.000 ha and investment amount of R$ 370 million. An idleness of 71% of the castor oil crushing industry has been detected, but this sector works with profit as function of castor oil price. An deficit of 55% between the castor oil planting area and the necessary one for biodiesel production was identified, considering that all the castor oil will be exclusively used for this purpose. With the proposed goals and without the necessary allocation of public resources for castor oil production, probably it will not be possible to expect that 1/5 of the biodiesel national production can come from the domestic agricultural planting.

  6. Identification of acylglycerols containing dihydroxy fatty acids in castor (Ricinus communis L.)oil by mass spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricinoleate, a monohydroxy fatty acid, in castor oil has many industrial uses. Dihydroxy fatty acids can also be used in industry. The C18 HPLC fractions of castor oil were used for mass spectrometry to identify the acylglycerols containing dihydroxy fatty acids. Four diacylglycerols identified were...

  7. Morphology and viability of castor bean genotypes pollen grains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Selma Alves Silva Diamantino

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to characterize the morphology and viability of the pollen of 15 genotypes of castor bean (Ricinus communis L. and to generate information that can assist in the selection of highly promising male parents for future use in genetic improvement programs aimed at producing seeds for oil extraction. Acetolysis and scanning electron microscopy was used to characterize the morphology of the pollen. The viability of the pollen grains was estimated by in vitro germination and colorimetric analysis (acetocarmine 2% and 2, 3, 5-triphenyltetrazolium chloride 1%. For the in vitro germination, pollen grains were grown in 10 types of solidified culture medium consisting of different concentrations of sucrose, boric acid, calcium nitrate, magnesium sulfate and potassium nitrate. The pollen grains had the following characteristics: medium size, isopolar and subspheroidal shape, radial symmetry, circular ambit, 3-colporate, elongated endoapertures, tectate exine and granulated sexine. The acetocarmine dye overestimated pollen viability. The media M5 and M8 were the most efficient at promoting the germination of pollen grains. The studied genotypes had high levels of viability and can therefore be used as male parents in genetic improvement programs.

  8. Streamlining CASTOR to manage the LHC data torrent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo Presti, G.; Espinal Curull, X.; Cano, E.; Fiorini, B.; Ieri, A.; Murray, S.; Ponce, S.; Sindrilaru, E.

    2014-06-01

    This contribution describes the evolution of the main CERN storage system, CASTOR, as it manages the bulk data stream of the LHC and other CERN experiments, achieving over 90 PB of stored data by the end of LHC Run 1. This evolution was marked by the introduction of policies to optimize the tape sub-system throughput, going towards a cold storage system where data placement is managed by the experiments' production managers. More efficient tape migrations and recalls have been implemented and deployed where bulk meta-data operations greatly reduce the overhead due to small files. A repack facility is now integrated in the system and it has been enhanced in order to automate the repacking of several tens of petabytes, required in 2014 in order to prepare for the next LHC run. Finally the scheduling system has been evolved to integrate the internal monitoring. To efficiently manage the service a solid monitoring infrastructure is required, able to analyze the logs produced by the different components (about 1 kHz of log messages). A new system has been developed and deployed, which uses a transport messaging layer provided by the CERN-IT Agile Infrastructure and exploits technologies including Hadoop and HBase. This enables efficient data mining by making use of MapReduce techniques, and real-time data aggregation and visualization. The outlook for the future is also presented. Directions and possible evolution will be discussed in view of the restart of data taking activities.

  9. Lipid composition of organelles from germinating castor bean endosperm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Donaldson, R.P.; Beevers, H.

    1977-02-01

    Glyoxysome, endoplasmic reticulum, mitochondria, and proplastid fractions were isolated from endosperm of castor beans (Ricinus communis) germinated for 5 days at 30 C. Samples from sucrose density gradients were diluted with 0.15 M KCl and the membranes pelleted. Lipid extracts of these membranes were analyzed for phosphoglyceride, acyl lipid, and sterol content. The endoplasmic reticulum contains 1.24 ..mu..mol of phosphoglyceride per mg of protein; the mitochondria, 0.65 ..mu..mol/mg; and the glyoxysome membranes, 0.55 ..mu..mol/mg. Phosphatidyl choline and phosphatidyl ethanolamine are the most abundant lipids in all membranes studied, accounting for 70% or more of the lipid phosphorus and 50% or more of the fatty acid. Glyoxysome membranes and endoplasmic reticulum also contain phosphatidyl inositol (respectively, 9 and 17% of the lipid phosphorus) and free fatty acids (13% of the total fatty acid in each). Compared with other organelles, mitochondrial membranes have more phosphatidyl ethanolamine relative to phosphatidyl choline and are characterized by the presence of cardiolipin, in which 80% of the fatty acid is linoleate. The relative amounts of linoleate, palmitate, oleate, stearate, and linolenate in each of the phosphotoglycerides are constant regardless of the membrane source. Stimasgasterol and ..beta..-sitosterol are present in the membranes (1 to 9 nmol each/mg protein). The data provide further evidence that glyoxysome membranes are derived from the endoplasmic reticulum but at the same time indicate some differentiation.

  10. Streamlining CASTOR to manage the LHC data torrent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This contribution describes the evolution of the main CERN storage system, CASTOR, as it manages the bulk data stream of the LHC and other CERN experiments, achieving over 90 PB of stored data by the end of LHC Run 1. This evolution was marked by the introduction of policies to optimize the tape sub-system throughput, going towards a cold storage system where data placement is managed by the experiments' production managers. More efficient tape migrations and recalls have been implemented and deployed where bulk meta-data operations greatly reduce the overhead due to small files. A repack facility is now integrated in the system and it has been enhanced in order to automate the repacking of several tens of petabytes, required in 2014 in order to prepare for the next LHC run. Finally the scheduling system has been evolved to integrate the internal monitoring. To efficiently manage the service a solid monitoring infrastructure is required, able to analyze the logs produced by the different components (about 1 kHz of log messages). A new system has been developed and deployed, which uses a transport messaging layer provided by the CERN-IT Agile Infrastructure and exploits technologies including Hadoop and HBase. This enables efficient data mining by making use of MapReduce techniques, and real-time data aggregation and visualization. The outlook for the future is also presented. Directions and possible evolution will be discussed in view of the restart of data taking activities.

  11. Echinococcus canadensis, E. borealis, and E. intermedius. What's in a name?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lymbery, Alan J; Jenkins, Emily J; Schurer, Janna M; Thompson, R C Andrew

    2015-01-01

    The phylogenetic relationships of the G6, G7, G8, and G10 genotypes of Echinococcus granulosus are well defined, but their taxonomic status is currently unresolved. We apply an evolutionary species concept to infer that the G6 and G7 genotypes represent a single species that is different to both the G8 and G10 genotypes, and that the G8 and G10 genotypes are also on different evolutionary trajectories and, therefore, should be regarded as separate species. The names Echinococcus intermedius, Echinococcus canadensis, and Echinococcus borealis have been previously proposed for these three taxa (G6/7, G10 and G8, respectively) and we argue that it may be appropriate to resurrect these names. The correct delimitation and formal recognition of species of Echinococcus may have important veterinary and public health consequences.

  12. Development of an HPLC post-column antioxidant assay for Solidago canadensis radical scavengers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marksa, Mindaugas; Radušienė, Jolita; Jakštas, Valdas; Ivanauskas, Liudas; Marksienė, Rūta

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this work was to modify and validate the post-column high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)-ABTS and DPPH methods for evaluating the antioxidant activity of the methanolic extracts of Solidago canadensis (Canadian goldenrod) leaves and flowers. Separation of the analytes was performed via the HPLC-PDA method on a YMC analytical column using a gradient elution program. Three compounds with antioxidant properties - chlorogenic acid, rutin and isoquercitrin - and two unidentified antioxidants were established. The research showed that the coil temperature regimes and loop length combinations influence the optimised post-column assay method for detecting the antioxidant activity of goldenrod radical scavengers. Investigations established that the temperature in the reaction coil was a substantial factor contributing to the signal strength of the analytes after reacting with the DPPH and ABTS radicals. PMID:25835071

  13. Antifungal Activity and Composition of Essential Oils of Conyza canadensis Herbs and Roots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katalin Veres

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Essential oils from herbs and roots of Conyza canadensis (horseweed, collected in Hungary, were obtained by hydrodistillation. The chemical compositions of the oils were analysed by combination of GC and GC/MS. The major constituent of the oil obtained from the aerial parts of horseweed was limonene (78%, while the main component of root oil was 2Z,8Z-matricaria ester. The antimicrobial activities of the oils were tested on Gram-positive (Enterococcus faecalis, Staphylococcus aureus, and Streptococcus pyogenes, Gram-negative (Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa bacteria, reference fungal strains, and fungal strains isolated from patients (Candida, Cryptococcus, Trichophyton, Rhodotorula, and Aspergillus by agar disc diffusion and broth dilution methods. None of the oils showed any activity against the tested bacterial strains, but exhibited moderate-to-strong activity against all fungi with the only exception of A. fumigatus. The highest zone of inhibition was observed in case of Cryptococcus neoformans and Trichophyton interdigitalis

  14. Echinococcus canadensis (G7) and Echinococcus granulosus sensu stricto (G1) in swine of southern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteiro, D U; Botton, S A; Tonin, A A; Azevedo, M I; Graichen, D A S; Noal, C B; de la Rue, M L

    2014-05-28

    The cystic echinococcosis (CE) is an important zoonotic disease caused by the parasite Echinococcus spp. In Brazil, this parasite is present in Rio Grande do Sul (RS) state, border with Argentina and Uruguay, causing several damages to human and animal health. This study aimed to identify Echinococcus spp. in hydatid cysts of swine and evaluate the similarity of the genotypes through the phylogenetic analysis. A total of 3,101,992 swine were slaughtered in the central/northern region of RS/Brazil, during 2008-2012. Five isolates were characterized as hydatid cyst by molecular analysis, based on the mitochondrial gene cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (cox-I). The genotypes E. granulosus sensu stricto (G1) (n=2) and E. canadensis (G7) (n=3) were identified in the hydatid cysts. The swine represents a potential intermediate host for different genotypes of Echinococcus spp., besides it can contribute to the perpetuation of the parasite's life cycle in rural areas.

  15. Plague as a mortality factor in Canada lynx (Lynx canadensis) reintroduced to Colorado.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wild, Margaret A; Shenk, Tanya M; Spraker, Terry R

    2006-07-01

    As part of a species recovery program, 129 Canada lynx (Lynx canadensis) originating from British Columbia, the Yukon, Manitoba, and Quebec, Canada, and Alaska, USA, were reintroduced to southwestern Colorado, USA, from 1999 to 2003. Of 52 lynx mortalities documented by October 2003, six lynx, including a female and her 5-mo-old kitten, had evidence of Yersinia pestis infection as determined by fluorescent antibody test and/or culture. Postmortem findings in these lynx were characterized by pneumonia, ranging from acute suppurative pneumonia, to multifocal necrotizing pneumonia, to fibrinous bronchopneumonia. Histopathologic examination of lung revealed multiple areas of inflammation and consolidation, areas of edema and hemorrhage, and bacteria surrounded by extensive inflammation. Spleens had severe lymphoid depletion and hypocellular red pulp. Lymphadenomegaly was observed in only one plague-affected lynx. We hypothesize that these Canada lynx were exposed to Y. pestis by infected prey, and these are the first reports of plague in this species. PMID:17092896

  16. Use of castor oil-based polyurethane adhesive in the production of glued laminated timber beams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maximiliano dos Anjos Azambuja

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Researchers from the Polymer Technology and Analytical Chemistry (LQATP group at the São Carlos Institute of Chemistry, University of São Paulo, developed a polyurethane adhesive based on castor oil. In addition to deriving it from a renewable source, this adhesive is nonaggressive to humans and the environment. The purpose of this study is to investigate the feasible use of polyurethane adhesive based on castor oil in the production of 12 beams of Glulam, using the species Pinus caribea hondurensis and Eucaliptus grandis. The structural performance of the beams of Glulam was evaluated through static bending tests. The results obtained enabled to conclude good efficiency of the polyurethane adhesive based on castor oil, for use in Glulam.

  17. Study on Emission and Performance of Diesel Engine Using Castor Biodiesel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Saiful Islam

    2014-01-01

    performance of diesel engine using the castor biodiesel and its blend with diesel from 0% to 40% by volume. The acid-based catalyzed transesterification system was used to produce castor biodiesel and the highest yield of 82.5% was obtained under the optimized condition. The FTIR spectrum of castor biodiesel indicates the presence of C=O and C–O functional groups, which is due to the ester compound in biodiesel. The smoke emission test revealed that B40 (biodiesel blend with 40% biodiesel and 60% diesel had the least black smoke compared to the conventional diesel. Diesel engine performance test indicated that the specific fuel consumption of biodiesel blend was increased sufficiently when the blending ratio was optimized. Thus, the reduction in exhaust emissions and reduction in brake-specific fuel consumption made the blends of caster seed oil (B20 a suitable alternative fuel for diesel and could help in controlling air pollution.

  18. STUDY ON CASTOR OIL POLYURETHANE/POLY (METHYL METHACRYLATE) AB CROSSLINKED POLYMERS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DU Ying; HAN Xiaozu; LIU Wenzhong

    1991-01-01

    Castor oil polyurethane/poly(methyl methacrylate) AB crosslinked polymers (ABCP) were synthesized by free radical copolymerization of MMA and vinyl-terminated castor oil polyurethane which was obtained from isocyanate-terminated castor oil polyurethane and hydroxyethyl methacrylate.The mechanical properties, transition and relaxation, as well as compatibility and morphology of the ABCP were investigated by changing the component. The results show that the ABCP is a semicompatible system and the compatibility of the two components decreases with increasing content of the hard segment. The mechanical and damping properties of the ABCP are obviously superior to that of their homopolymers. The damping value is mainly controlled by crosslink density of the ABCP but the Tg value by component.

  19. Castor oil biodiesel: an economic evaluation; Biodiesel de mamona: uma avaliacao economica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pires, Monica de Moura; Alves, Jaenes Miranda; Almeida Neto, Jose Adolfo de; Almeida, Cezar Menezes; Sousa, Geovania Silva de; Cruz, Rosenira Serpa da; Monteiro, Renata; Lopes, Beatriz Sampaio; Robra, Sabine [Universidade Estadual de Santa Cruz, Ilheus, BA (Brazil). Grupo Bioenergia e Meio Ambiente]. E-mails: mpires@uesc.br; jaenes@uesc.br; jalmeida@uesc.br; roserpa@uesc.br

    2004-07-01

    The production cost of castor oil biodiesel by methyl way and its economic viability, using as reference the production cost data of castor oil and the implantation of the pilot plant at UESC - state university of Santa Cruz, Bahia State, Brazil was determined. From this information, it was seen that the estimated price of castor oil biodiesel is close to the diesel price in the Itabuna market, Bahia state, Brazil. The indicators show economic viability of the mini-power plant installation. Such information are preliminary estimative for the market and can be modified as function of changes in the main factors used to have the production costs, as well as the sectorial policies that drives the activity as much in levels of raw material production as in biodiesel.

  20. Preparation and research on properties of castor oil as a diesel fuel additive

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurbakhit Imankulov

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The research shows an opportunity of preparing biodiesel fuel on the basis of local diesel fuel and the bioadditive - castor oil. Limiting optimum concentration of introduction of the bioadditive equal was established as 5% mass ratio. The castor oil released from seeds of Palma Christi grown on experimental field. All physical and chemical characteristics of the oil including IR-spectra were determined. Operating conditions of castor oil introduction (temperature, solubility, concentra-tion, etc. were determined. The received biofuel was tested at oil refinery and its bench tests with a positive effect were also carried out. Technical requirements and technological regulation (temporary on manufacture of this biodiesel fuel were prepared.

  1. Synthesis and characterization of castor oil based polyurethane–polyacrylonitrile interpenetrating polymer networks

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    P Mallu; Siddaramaiah; R Somashekar

    2000-10-01

    A series of interpenetrating polymer networks (IPNs) of castor oil based polyurethane/polyacrylonitrile (PU/PAN: 80/20, 60/40, 50/50, 40/60 and 20/80) were synthesized by condensation reaction of castor oil with methylene diisocyanate and acrylonitrile, employing benzoyl peroxide (BPO) and ethylene glycol dimethylacrylate (EGDM) as initiator and crosslinkers respectively. The physical, chemical, optical and some of the mechanical properties of PU/PAN were studied. Phase stabilization in IPNs was investigated by wide angle X-ray (WAXS) profile analysis. Variation of crystal size distribution was studied in these polymer networks.

  2. Inhibitors of nitric oxide synthetase prevent castor-oil-induced diarrhoea in the rat.

    OpenAIRE

    Mascolo, N; Izzo, A A; Barbato, F.; Capasso, F

    1993-01-01

    1. Castor oil (2 ml orally) produced copious diarrhoea in rats 3 h after its administration. 2. Pretreatment (intraperitoneal, i.p.) of rats with the NO synthesis inhibitors NG-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME, 1-25 mg kg-1) and NG-monomethyl-L-arginine (L-NMMA, 2.5-100 mg kg-1) inhibited or prevented castor-oil-induced diarrhoea. L-Arginine (150-600 mg kg-1, i.p.) administered to rats pretreated with L-NAME 10 mg kg-1, drastically reduced the antidiarrhoeal activity of L-NAME in a dose-...

  3. EVALUATION OF OIL CONTENT AND SEED WEIGHT IN CASTOR USING VARIOUS APPROACHES

    OpenAIRE

    Edinete Maria Oliveira

    2011-01-01

    The objective with this work to analyze the oil tenor and weight of several accesses of castor oil plant seeds for ends of genetic improvement, planted in different years. The analyses were accomplished at Embrapa Algodão Laboratory Multidisciplinary in Campina Grande -PB. 143 samples of castor oil plant seeds were used, coming of the city of Lagoa Seca - PB in 1998, 1999 and 2000, planted according to design random blocks. Initially the seeds were removed of the cold camera and made sampling...

  4. Pattern of genetic diversity among Fusarium wilt resistant castor germplasm accessions (Ricinus communis L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Anjani

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Wilt caused by Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. ricini (Wr Gordon is one of the major yield losing diseases in castor.Cultivating wilt resistant cultivars is an effective strategy to control the disease. Utilization of diverse sources ofstable resistance is a prerequisite for durable resistance breeding. The experiment was conducted to identifygenetically diverse resistant sources in castor germplasm. Genetic diversity among 20 identified wilt resistantgermplasm was assessed using multivariate classificatory methods. Wide genetic diversity was demonstratedamong these accessions. These accessions are valuable in wilt resistance breeding programme. They wouldserve as base diverse material for wilt resistance breeding, wilt resistant genepool construction and moleculartagging of resistant genes.

  5. Simultaneous allergen inactivation and detoxification of castor bean cake by treatment with calcium compounds

    OpenAIRE

    K.V. Fernandes; Deus-de-Oliveira, N.; Godoy, M.G.; Z.A.S. Guimarães; V.V. Nascimento; de Melo, E.J.T.; Freire, D. M.G.; M. Dansa-Petretski; O.L.T. Machado

    2012-01-01

    Ricinus communis L. is of great economic importance due to the oil extracted from its seeds. Castor oil has been used for pharmaceutical and industrial applications, as a lubricant or coating agent, as a component of plastic products, as a fungicide or in the synthesis of biodiesel fuels. After oil extraction, a castor cake with a large amount of protein is obtained. However, this by-product cannot be used as animal feed due to the presence of toxic (ricin) and allergenic (2S albumin) protein...

  6. 蓖麻饼粕的脱毒及综合开发利用%The Detoxification and Comprehensive Development and Utilization of Castor Bean Meal

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张树军; 狄建军; 白靓; 黄凤兰; 穆莎茉莉; 魏永春; 张国文

    2011-01-01

    Castor bean meal is a by-product after oil extraction,it contains rich protein and amino acids castor bean hulls and a spot of castor toxins,has a high utilization value.This paper reviewes the detoxification of castor bean meal,the development and utilization of proteins in detoxificated castor bean meal,castor toxins and castor bean hull.%蓖麻饼粕是蓖麻籽榨油后的副产品,含有丰富的蛋白和氨基酸、蓖麻壳及少量的蓖麻毒素,具有较高的综合利用价值.本文综述了蓖麻饼的脱毒,脱毒蓖麻饼蛋白质、蓖麻饼中毒素及蓖麻壳的开发利用.

  7. Virulence factors genes in enterococci isolated from beavers (Castor fiber).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauková, Andrea; Strompfová, Viola; Kandričáková, Anna; Ščerbová, Jana; Semedo-Lemsaddek, Teresa; Miltko, Renata; Belzecki, Grzegorz

    2015-03-01

    Only limited information exists concerning the microbiota in beaver (Castor fiber). This study has been focused on the virulence factors genes detection in enterococci from beavers. In general, animals are not affected by enterococcal infections, but they can be a reservoir of, e.g. pathogenic strains. Moreover, detection of virulence factors genes in enterococci from beavers was never tested before. Free-living beavers (12), male and female (age 4-5 years) were caught in the north-east part of Poland. Sampling of lower gut and faeces was provided according to all ethical rules for animal handling. Samples were treated using a standard microbiological method. Pure bacterial colonies were identified by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF) identification system. Virulence factors genes-gelE (gelatinase), agg (aggregation), cylA (cytolysin A), efaAfs (adhesin Enterococcus faecalis), efaAfm (adhesin Enterococcus faecium) and esp (surface protein) were tested by PCR. Moreover, gelatinase and antibiotic phenotypes were tested. Species detected were Enterococcus thailandicus, E. faecium, E. faecalis and Enterococcus durans. In literature, enterococcal species distribution was never reported yet up to now. Strains were mostly sensitive to antibiotics. Vancomycin-resistant E. faecalis EE9Tr1 possess cylA, efaAfs, esp and gelE genes. Strains were aggregation substance genes absent. Adhesin E. faecium (efaAfm) gene was detected in two of three E. faecium strains, but it was present also in E. thailandicus. Esp gene was present in EE9Tr1 and E. durans EDTr92. The most detected were gelE, efaAfm genes; in EF 4Hc1 also gelatinase phenotype was found. Strains with virulence factors genes will be tested for their sensitivity to antimicrobial enterocins.

  8. Production of bran castor biochar through slow pyrolysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pissinati de Rezende, E. I.; Mangrich, A. S.; Batista, M. G. F.; Toledo, J. M. S.; Novotny, E. H.

    2012-04-01

    Pyrolysis is a thermal process of great importance in the present context, since it constitutes a significant alternative to adequate use of organic waste. The principal products obtained in the pyrolysis of discarded biomass are bio-oil, biogas and biochar. Biochar, in turn, may play a relevant role when applied to the soil to sequester carbon and as a soil conditioner, a material comparable to organic matter of Indians Black Earths from the Amazon Region [1]. Seeking to determine the best methods of preparation of biochar, we studied the pyrolysis of bran castor residue of the Brazilian biodiesel industry. Eight samples, from FM1 to FM8, were prepared in a factorial design 23 using two temperature (300 and 350 °C), two heating velocity (5 and 10 °C min-1) and two period of heating (30 and 60 min). The eight samples were studied using the spectroscopy: EPR, FTIR, RMN, XPS, and elemental analysis. By elemental analysis, the samples that keep for lower temperature of pyrolysis, 300 °C, showed H/C and N/C ratios greater than the samples of 350 °C. That higher value can be attributed to chemical structure more aliphatic than aromatic mainly in the FM7 sample (V = 10 °C min-1, T = 300 °C, P = 30 min). The greater N/C ratio correlated with a superior amount of nitrogenous functions, presenting by both FM7 and FM4 samples, as determined by 13C NMR spectroscopy with absorptions in 175 ppm (amide) and 55 ppm (N-alkyl).

  9. Differential oxidative stress responses in castor semilooper, Achaea janata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavani, Ayinampudi; Chaitanya, R K; Chauhan, Vinod K; Dasgupta, Anwesha; Dutta-Gupta, Aparna

    2015-11-01

    Balance between reactive oxygen species (ROS) and the antioxidant (AO) defense mechanisms is vital for organism survival. Insects serve as an ideal model to elucidate oxidative stress responses as they are prone to different kinds of stress during their life cycle. The present study demonstrates the modulation of AO enzyme gene expression in the insect pest, Achaea janata (castor semilooper), when subjected to different oxidative stress stimuli. Antioxidant enzymes' (catalase (Cat), superoxide dismutase (Sod), glutathione-S-transferase (GST) and glutathione peroxidase (Gpx)) partial coding sequences were cloned and characterized from larval whole body. Tissue expression studies reveal a unique pattern of AO genes in the larval tissues with maximum expression in the gut and fat body. Ontogeny profile depicts differential expression pattern through the larval developmental stages for each AO gene studied. Using quantitative RT-PCR, the expression pattern of these genes was monitored during sugar-induced (d-galactose feeding), infection-induced (Gram positive, Gram negative and non-pathogenic bacteria) and pesticide-induced oxidative stress (Bt Cry toxin). d-Galactose feeding differentially modulates the expression of AO genes in the larval gut and fat body. Immune challenge with Escherichia coli induces robust upregulation of AO genes when compared to Bacillus coagulans and Bacillus cereus in the larval fat body and gut. Cry toxin feeding predominantly induced GST upregulation in the gut. The current study suggests that though there are multiple ways of generation of oxidative stress in the insect, the organism tailors its response by insult- and tissue-specific recruitment of the antioxidant players and their differential regulation for each inducer.

  10. Differential oxidative stress responses in castor semilooper, Achaea janata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavani, Ayinampudi; Chaitanya, R K; Chauhan, Vinod K; Dasgupta, Anwesha; Dutta-Gupta, Aparna

    2015-11-01

    Balance between reactive oxygen species (ROS) and the antioxidant (AO) defense mechanisms is vital for organism survival. Insects serve as an ideal model to elucidate oxidative stress responses as they are prone to different kinds of stress during their life cycle. The present study demonstrates the modulation of AO enzyme gene expression in the insect pest, Achaea janata (castor semilooper), when subjected to different oxidative stress stimuli. Antioxidant enzymes' (catalase (Cat), superoxide dismutase (Sod), glutathione-S-transferase (GST) and glutathione peroxidase (Gpx)) partial coding sequences were cloned and characterized from larval whole body. Tissue expression studies reveal a unique pattern of AO genes in the larval tissues with maximum expression in the gut and fat body. Ontogeny profile depicts differential expression pattern through the larval developmental stages for each AO gene studied. Using quantitative RT-PCR, the expression pattern of these genes was monitored during sugar-induced (d-galactose feeding), infection-induced (Gram positive, Gram negative and non-pathogenic bacteria) and pesticide-induced oxidative stress (Bt Cry toxin). d-Galactose feeding differentially modulates the expression of AO genes in the larval gut and fat body. Immune challenge with Escherichia coli induces robust upregulation of AO genes when compared to Bacillus coagulans and Bacillus cereus in the larval fat body and gut. Cry toxin feeding predominantly induced GST upregulation in the gut. The current study suggests that though there are multiple ways of generation of oxidative stress in the insect, the organism tailors its response by insult- and tissue-specific recruitment of the antioxidant players and their differential regulation for each inducer. PMID:26455997

  11. An analysis of expressed sequence tags of developing castor endosperm using a full-length cDNA library

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wallis James G

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Castor seeds are a major source for ricinoleate, an important industrial raw material. Genomics studies of castor plant will provide critical information for understanding seed metabolism, for effectively engineering ricinoleate production in transgenic oilseeds, or for genetically improving castor plants by eliminating toxic and allergic proteins in seeds. Results Full-length cDNAs are useful resources in annotating genes and in providing functional analysis of genes and their products. We constructed a full-length cDNA library from developing castor endosperm, and obtained 4,720 ESTs from 5'-ends of the cDNA clones representing 1,908 unique sequences. The most abundant transcripts are genes encoding storage proteins, ricin, agglutinin and oleosins. Several other sequences are also very numerous, including two acidic triacylglycerol lipases, and the oleate hydroxylase (FAH12 gene that is responsible for ricinoleate biosynthesis. The role(s of the lipases in developing castor seeds are not clear, and co-expressing of a lipase and the FAH12 did not result in significant changes in hydroxy fatty acid accumulation in transgenic Arabidopsis seeds. Only one oleate desaturase (FAD2 gene was identified in our cDNA sequences. Sequence and functional analyses of the castor FAD2 were carried out since it had not been characterized previously. Overexpression of castor FAD2 in a FAH12-expressing Arabidopsis line resulted in decreased accumulation of hydroxy fatty acids in transgenic seeds. Conclusion Our results suggest that transcriptional regulation of FAD2 and FAH12 genes maybe one of the mechanisms that contribute to a high level of ricinoleate accumulation in castor endosperm. The full-length cDNA library will be used to search for additional genes that affect ricinoleate accumulation in seed oils. Our EST sequences will also be useful to annotate the castor genome, which whole sequence is being generated by shotgun sequencing at

  12. 加拿大一枝黄花的防控措施%Controlling Measures of Solidago canadensis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    查国贤; 张国彪; 徐建方; 郝建华

    2011-01-01

    The measure of Solidago canadensis artificial removal should be combined with that of chemical control in spring. The tillage cropping was an effective and economic measure to control the regeneration of Solidago canadensis. Application of glyphosate plus sulfonylurea herbicide during whole growth season was efficient to control the ground part and the underground rhizome of S. Canadensis, but which can not be applied in cultivated lands. NJW001, which is developed by Weeds Research Laboratory of Nanjing Agricultural University can obviously suppress florescence development and flower bud opening, as well as the S. Canadensis plant growth.%加拿大一枝黄花人工拔除需与春季化除结合起来配套实施.耕翻复种是一项经济有效的防除措施,可有效控制加拿大一枝黄花再生.草甘膦+磺酰脲类除草剂在加拿大一枝黄花生长期内使用,对地上部分和地下根状茎都有很好的杀伤效果,但需注意的是,这类除草剂仅限在非耕地使用.南京农业大学杂草研究室研制的NJW001抑制剂能明显抑制加拿大一枝黄花花序的伸展和花蕾的开放,同时对株高也有明显的抑制作用.

  13. Differential Contribution of Malic Enzymes during Soybean and Castor Seeds Maturation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariel Claudia Gerrard Wheeler

    Full Text Available Malic enzymes (ME catalyze the decarboxylation of malate generating pyruvate, CO2 and NADH or NADPH. In some organisms it has been established that ME is involved in lipids biosynthesis supplying carbon skeletons and reducing power. In this work we studied the MEs of soybean and castor, metabolically different oilseeds. The comparison of enzymatic activities, transcript profiles and organic acid contents suggest different metabolic strategies operating in soybean embryo and castor endosperm in order to generate precursors for lipid biosynthesis. In castor, the malate accumulation pattern agrees with a central role of this metabolite in the provision of carbon to plastids, where the biosynthesis of fatty acids occurs. In this regard, the genome of castor possesses a single gene encoding a putative plastidic NADP-ME, whose expression level is high when lipid deposition is active. On the other hand, NAD-ME showed an important contribution to the maturation of soybean embryos, perhaps driving the carbon relocation from mitochondria to plastids to support the fatty acids synthesis in the last stages of seed filling. These findings provide new insights into intermediary metabolism in oilseeds and provide new biotechnological targets to improve oil yields.

  14. Sources of nitrogenous fertilizers and their effects in the growth of the castor bean plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joelma Sales dos Santos

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The main goal of this research was to verify and quantify the effects of doses (equivalent to nitrogen of fertilizers, manure from corral, residential sewage sludge, castor oil cake and urea, in the early growth of castor beans, BRS Nordestina in a greenhouse. The experiment was conducted in the Embrapa, at county of Campina Grande, state of Paraiba, Brazil, and it was used an experimental design of randomized with three replicates and 13 treatments, with a factorial 4 x 3 + 1, which factors were: types of organic fertilizers (manure from corral and manure, biosolids and castor bean cake and urea at rates of (85,170 and 255 kg N ha-¹, plus an additional treatment, which was the absolute witness without the fertilization. All the treatments witness received a mineral supplement P and K, at doses of 80 kg of P2O2 and K2O, applied in the foundation, with triple superphosphate and potassium chloride. Among the fertilizers, which further promoted the initial growth of castor beans was the pie of Euphorbia that, in addition to nutrients, especially of nitrogen, have much fiber, more than 35%, constituting themselves, thus a factor in improving soil physical environment.

  15. Apis mellifera pollination improves agronomic productivity of anemophilous castor bean (Ricinus communis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizzardo, Rômulo A G; Milfont, Marcelo O; Silva, Eva M S da; Freitas, Breno M

    2012-12-01

    Castor bean (Ricinus communis L.) is cultivated mainly for biodiesel production because of its oil-rich seeds; it is assumed to be an anemophylous species. But pollination deficit can lead to low productivity often attributed to other reasons. In this paper, we investigated pollination requirements, pollination mechanism, occurrence of pollination deficit, and the role of biotic pollinators in a large commercial plantation of castor bean. Our results show that R. communis bears a mixed breeding system favoring selfing by geitonogamy, although the wind promotes mostly outcrossing. We also found that the honey bee (Apis mellifera L.) foraging on castor bean can both transfer pollen from male to female flowers within the same raceme and boost the release of airborne pollen by male flowers. Both situations increase geitonogamy rates, raising significantly fruit set and seed yield. This is the first report of an animal foraging activity increasing seed yield in an anemophilous and geitonogamous crop and elucidates the role of biotic pollinators in castor bean reproduction.

  16. Treatment of Sebacic Acid Industrial Wastewater by Extraction Process Using Castor Oil Acid as Extractant*

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐航; 周全; 王金福

    2013-01-01

    Wastewater containing high concentrations of phenol and sodium sulfate is generated in sebacic acid (SA) industry. Castor oil acid, a raw material for producing SA, can be used to extract phenol from wastewater in order to reduce the amount of phenol used in the process and discharge of phenol. The results show that the extrac-tion mechanism is that hydroxyl group of phenol is linked to carboxyl group of castor oil acid by hydrogen bond. The extraction process approaches equilibrium in 30 min. Extraction ratio increases with the increase of sodium sulfate and castor oil acid, and decreases as phenol increases. When the oil-water ratio is 1︰3, the optimal distribu-tion coefficient of 40 is obtained. Phenol saturation concentration in castor oil acid is 1.03 mol·L−1 after extraction for 4 times. The equilibrium constant (Kex) at 25 °C is 8.41 and the endothermic enthalpy (ΔH) is 1.513 kJ·mol−1. The Gibbs free energy (ΔG) is−5.277 kJ·mol−1 and the value ofΔS is calculated to be 22.3 J·mol−1·K−1.

  17. Synthesis and properties of radiation modified thermally cured castor oil based polyurethanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mortley, Aba; Bonin, H. W.; Bui, V. T.

    2007-12-01

    Thermally cured polyurethanes were prepared from castor oil and hexamethylene diisocyanate (HMDI). Due to the long aliphatic chain of the castor oil component of polyurethane, thermal curing of castor oil based polyurethane (COPU) is limited by increasing polymer viscosity. To enhance further crosslinking, COPUs were exposed to doses up to 3.0 MGy produced by the mixed ionizing radiation field of a SLOWPOKE-2 research nuclear reactor. The physico-mechanical properties of castor oil based polyurethanes (COPU), unirradiated and irradiated, were characterized by mechanical tensile tests. A four-fold increase in modulus and tensile strength values from 0.930 to 4.365 MPa and 0.149 to 0.747 MPa, respectively, suggests improved physico-mechanical properties resulting from radiation. The changing areas of the carbonyl and the NH absorbance peaks and the disappearance of the isocyanate peak in the FTIR spectra as radiation progressed, indicates increased hydrogen bonding and intermolecular crosslinking, which is in agreement with the mechanical tests. Unchanging 13C solid state NMR spectra imply limited sample degradation with increasing radiation.

  18. Experimental investigation on performance and exhaust emissions of castor oil biodiesel from a diesel engine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shojaeefard, M H; Etgahni, M M; Meisami, F; Barari, A

    2013-01-01

    Biodiesel, produced from plant and animal oils, is an important alternative to fossil fuels because, apart from dwindling supply, the latter are a major source of air pollution. In this investigation, effects of castor oil biodiesel blends have been examined on diesel engine performance and emissions. After producing castor methyl ester by the transesterification method and measuring its characteristics, the experiments were performed on a four cylinder, turbocharged, direct injection, diesel engine. Engine performance (power, torque, brake specific fuel consumption and thermal efficiency) and exhaust emissions were analysed at various engine speeds. All the tests were done under 75% full load. Furthermore, the volumetric blending ratios of biodiesel with conventional diesel fuel were set at 5, 10, 15, 20 and 30%. The results indicate that lower blends of biodiesel provide acceptable engine performance and even improve it. Meanwhile, exhaust emissions are much decreased. Finally, a 15% blend of castor oil-biodiesel was picked as the optimized blend of biodiesel-diesel. It was found that lower blends of castor biodiesel are an acceptable fuel alternative for the engine.

  19. Antimicrobial action of sodium hypochlorite and castor oil solutions for denture cleaning - in vitro evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salles, Marcela Moreira; Oliveira, Viviane de Cássia; Souza, Raphael Freitas; Silva, Cláudia Helena Lovato; Paranhos, Helena de Freitas Oliveira

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this in vitro study was to evaluate the antimicrobial action of sodium hypochlorite (0.25% and 0.50%) and 10% castor oil solutions against specific microorganisms, by counting Colony Forming Units (CFU) of clinically important bacteria and Candida species. Acrylic resin specimens (n = 320; Lucitone 550) were obtained from square metal matrices (10 x 10 x 2 mm), sterilized by microwave (650W, for 6 minutes) and contaminated by Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Candida albicans, Bacillus subtilis, Escherichia coli, Streptococcus mutans, Enterococcus faecalis and Candida glabrata. The specimens were immersed for 20 minutes in one of the following hygiene solutions (n = 10/each): A - 0.25% Sodium hypochlorite; B - 0.5% Sodium hypochlorite; C - 10% Castor oil solution; and D (Control) - saline. Adhered cells were suspended and inoculated into a selective solid medium (37ºC for 24 h). The Student's t-test (α = 0.05) was performed to compare log10(CFU+1)/mL between Groups C and D. The results showed that sodium hypochlorite (0.25% and 0.5%) completely eliminated all detectable microorganisms. The castor oil solution eliminated B. subtilis and reduced counts for other strains. Differences between C and D were significant (p castor oil solution provided moderate efficacy and performed differently on the tested species, with the strongest effect on B. subtilis and with non-significant action on E. faecalis.

  20. Undecylenic acid: a valuable and physiologically active renewable building block from castor oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van der Steen, Marijke; Stevens, Christian V

    2009-01-01

    A lot of attention is currently being paid to the transition to a biobased economy. In this movement, most efforts concentrate on the development of bioenergy applications including bioethanol, biodiesel, thermochemical conversion of biomass, and others. However, in the energy sector other nonbiomass alternatives are known, whereas no valuable alternatives are available when thinking about chemical building blocks. Therefore, it is also essential to develop new routes for the synthesis of bio-based chemicals and materials derived thereof. Such intermediates can originate either from plants or from animals. Castor oil is a non-edible oil extracted from the seeds of the castor bean plant Ricinus communis (Euphorbiaceae), which grows in tropical and subtropical areas. Globally, around one million tons of castor seeds are produced every year, the leading producing areas being India, PR China, and Brazil.2 10-Undecenoic acid or undecylenic acid is a fatty acid derived from castor oil that, owing to its bifunctional nature, has many possibilities to develop sustainable applications.

  1. Lipase catalyzed transesterification of castor oil by straight chain higher alcohols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malhotra, Deepika; Mukherjee, Joyeeta; Gupta, Munishwar N

    2015-03-01

    Biolubricants from Castor oil were produced enzymatically by transesterification with higher alcohols using a lipase mixture of immobilized Mucor miehei (RMIM) and immobilized Candida antarctica lipase B (Novozym 435) under low water conditions. The conversions were in the range of 80-95% under the optimized conditions.

  2. Allergic contact dermatitis from 12-hydroxystearic Acid and hydrogenated castor oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Daniel W

    2009-01-01

    A 34-year-old male experienced severe allergic contact dermatitis from 12-hydroxystearic acid in a lip balm and from hydrogenated castor oil in an underarm deodorant. He also had a positive patch-test reaction to bis-diglyceryl polyacyladipate-2, which is present in the implicated lip balm and which itself contains 12-hydroxystearic acid. He was also incidentally found to have contact allergy to ricinoleic acid and castor oil. Ricinoleic acid is the principal fatty acid in castor oil, whereas 12-hydroxystearic acid is the principal fatty acid in hydrogenated castor oil. These two fatty acids are each 18-carbon 12-hydroxylated fatty acids, differing only in degree of saturation. The lack of patch-test reactivity to the analogous nonhydroxylated fatty acids, stearic acid (C18:0), and oleic acid (C18:1) indicates that 12-hydroxylation was required for allergenicity in this patient. In addition, serial dilution testing demonstrated that saturation of the hydroxylated C18 fatty acid enhanced its allergenicity.

  3. Differential Contribution of Malic Enzymes during Soybean and Castor Seeds Maturation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Righini, Silvana; Badia, Mariana Beatriz; Andreo, Carlos Santiago; Drincovich, María Fabiana; Saigo, Mariana

    2016-01-01

    Malic enzymes (ME) catalyze the decarboxylation of malate generating pyruvate, CO2 and NADH or NADPH. In some organisms it has been established that ME is involved in lipids biosynthesis supplying carbon skeletons and reducing power. In this work we studied the MEs of soybean and castor, metabolically different oilseeds. The comparison of enzymatic activities, transcript profiles and organic acid contents suggest different metabolic strategies operating in soybean embryo and castor endosperm in order to generate precursors for lipid biosynthesis. In castor, the malate accumulation pattern agrees with a central role of this metabolite in the provision of carbon to plastids, where the biosynthesis of fatty acids occurs. In this regard, the genome of castor possesses a single gene encoding a putative plastidic NADP-ME, whose expression level is high when lipid deposition is active. On the other hand, NAD-ME showed an important contribution to the maturation of soybean embryos, perhaps driving the carbon relocation from mitochondria to plastids to support the fatty acids synthesis in the last stages of seed filling. These findings provide new insights into intermediary metabolism in oilseeds and provide new biotechnological targets to improve oil yields. PMID:27347875

  4. Isotope labeling-based quantitative proteomics of developing seeds of castor oil seed (Ricinus communis L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nogueira, Fábio C S; Palmisano, Giuseppe; Schwämmle, Veit; Soares, Emanuela L; Soares, Arlete A; Roepstorff, Peter; Domont, Gilberto B; Campos, Francisco A P

    2013-11-01

    In this study, we used a mass spectrometry-based quantification approach employing isotopic (ICPL) and isobaric (iTRAQ) labeling to investigate the pattern of protein deposition during castor oil seed (Ricinus communis L.) development, including that of proteins involved in fatty acid metabolism, seed-storage proteins (SSPs), toxins, and allergens. Additionally, we have used off-line hydrophilic interaction chromatography (HILIC) as a step of peptide fractionation preceding the reverse-phase nanoLC coupled to a LTQ Orbitrap. We were able to identify a total of 1875 proteins, and from these 1748 could be mapped to extant castor gene models, considerably expanding the number of proteins so far identified from developing castor seeds. Cluster validation and statistical analysis resulted in 975 protein trend patterns and the relative abundance of 618 proteins. The results presented in this work give important insights into certain aspects of the biology of castor oil seed development such as carbon flow, anabolism, and catabolism of fatty acid and the pattern of deposition of SSPs, toxins, and allergens such as ricin and 2S albumins. We also found, for the first time, some genes of SSP that are differentially expressed during seed development.

  5. Characterization and Utilization of castor bean seed oil extract for production of medicated soap.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulrasheed A

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The research work is to investigate the potential utilization of castor bean seed oil extract in the production of medicated soap. The oil was extracted via soxhlet extractor using hexane as solvent. The characterization analysis reveals the acid value and saponification value of the oil which were between the ranges of values specified by ASTM. The soap produced gave a pH of (8.9, foam height (16cm, alcohol insoluble (3.45%, moisture content (4.2% and free acidity of (0.10. The antibacterial activity of soap produced from castor oil on bacteria isolate (Staphylococcus Aureus was promising with an inhibition zone of 15.5mm but at dilutions of 10-1 , 10-2 and 10-3 , were found to be 11.5mm, 9.5mm and 6mm respectively. This shows that as concentration decreases, the sensitivity of the soap to the bacteria isolate also decreases. The sensitivity of the medicated soap to the bacteria isolate is as a result of the presence of ricinoleic acid present in large proportion in the fatty acid composition of castor oil. It can be concluded that a highly effective soap can be produced from castor bean seed oil extract.

  6. Regiospecific Quantification of Triacylglycerols Containing Dihydroxy Fatty Acids in Castor Oil by Mass Spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    The triacylglycerols (TAG) containing dihydroxy fatty acids have been recently identified by mass spectrometry in castor oil. These new dihydroxy fatty acids were proposed earlier as 11,12-dihydroxy-9-octadecenoic acid (diOH18:1), 11,12-dihydroxy-9,13-octadecadienoic acid (diOH18:2) and 11,12-dihydr...

  7. Synthesis and properties of radiation modified thermally cured castor oil based polyurethanes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thermally cured polyurethanes were prepared from castor oil and hexamethylene diisocyanate (HMDI). Due to the long aliphatic chain of the castor oil component of polyurethane, thermal curing of castor oil based polyurethane (COPU) is limited by increasing polymer viscosity. To enhance further crosslinking, COPUs were exposed to doses up to 3.0 MGy produced by the mixed ionizing radiation field of a SLOWPOKE-2 research nuclear reactor. The physico-mechanical properties of castor oil based polyurethanes (COPU), unirradiated and irradiated, were characterized by mechanical tensile tests. A four-fold increase in modulus and tensile strength values from 0.930 to 4.365 MPa and 0.149 to 0.747 MPa, respectively, suggests improved physico-mechanical properties resulting from radiation. The changing areas of the carbonyl and the NH absorbance peaks and the disappearance of the isocyanate peak in the FTIR spectra as radiation progressed, indicates increased hydrogen bonding and intermolecular crosslinking, which is in agreement with the mechanical tests. Unchanging 13C solid state NMR spectra imply limited sample degradation with increasing radiation

  8. REGIOSPECIFIC ANALYSIS OF DIRICINOLEOYL-ACYL-GLYCEROL IN CASTOR OIL USING ELECTROSPRAY IONIZATION-MASS SPECTROMETRY

    Science.gov (United States)

    HPLC fractions of castor oil were used to identify the regiospecific location of non-hydroxyl fatty acids on glycerol backbone in diricinoleoyl-acyl-glycerols using electrospray ionization MS3 of lithium adducts. The regiospecific ions in MS3 spectra were from the loss of 'a,B'-unsaturated fatty aci...

  9. Analysis of castor by ELISAs that distinguish Ricin and Ricinus communis agglutinin (RCA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    To facilitate the analysis of castor (Ricinus communis L.) seed fractions and germplasm for ricin content, we investigated the use of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) methods to differentiate between ricin toxin and the related Ricinus communis agglutinin (RCA). Both proteins are based on ...

  10. Organic matter and soil water content influence on BRS 188 castor bean growth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lacerda, Rogerio Dantas de; Araujo, Ester Luiz de; Nascimento, Elka Costa Santos; Barros Junior, Genival [Universidade Federal de Campina Grande (UFCG), PB (Brazil); Guerra, Hugo O. Carvallo; Chaves, Lucia Helena G. [Universidade Federal de Campina Grande (UAEAg/UFCG), PB (Brazil). Unidade Academica de Engenharia Agricola

    2008-07-01

    The castor bean culture has been highlighted due to the several applications of its oil, which constitutes one of the best row materials for biodiesel manufacturing, and the base for several other industrial products. The objective of the present work was to study the effect of different soil water and soil organic matter on the castor bean growth. The experiment was conducted from April to August 2006 under greenhouse conditions using a randomized block 2x4 factorial design with two soil organic mater content (5.0 g.kg{sup -1} e 25.0 g.kg{sup -1}), four levels of available water (100, 90, 80 e 70% ) and three replicates. For this, 24 plastic containers, 75 kg capacity, were used on which was grown one plant 120 days after the seedling. At regular intervals the plant height was measured and the results analyzed statistically. For the qualitative treatments (with and without organic matter) the treatment means were compared through the Tukey test. For the quantitative ones (water levels) were used regressions. The castor bean cultivar height was significantly influenced by the organic matter content only after 80 days. Castor bean height increased significantly with the soil water content after 40 days of growing. (author)

  11. Film-forming properties of castor oil polyol ester blends in elastohydrodynamic conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    The viscosities and elastohydrodynamic (EHD) film thickness properties of binary blends of castor oil with polyol esters were determined experimentally. Predicted blend viscosity was calculated from the viscosity of the pure blend components. Measured viscosity values were closer to the values pre...

  12. Differential Contribution of Malic Enzymes during Soybean and Castor Seeds Maturation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerrard Wheeler, Mariel Claudia; Arias, Cintia Lucía; Righini, Silvana; Badia, Mariana Beatriz; Andreo, Carlos Santiago; Drincovich, María Fabiana; Saigo, Mariana

    2016-01-01

    Malic enzymes (ME) catalyze the decarboxylation of malate generating pyruvate, CO2 and NADH or NADPH. In some organisms it has been established that ME is involved in lipids biosynthesis supplying carbon skeletons and reducing power. In this work we studied the MEs of soybean and castor, metabolically different oilseeds. The comparison of enzymatic activities, transcript profiles and organic acid contents suggest different metabolic strategies operating in soybean embryo and castor endosperm in order to generate precursors for lipid biosynthesis. In castor, the malate accumulation pattern agrees with a central role of this metabolite in the provision of carbon to plastids, where the biosynthesis of fatty acids occurs. In this regard, the genome of castor possesses a single gene encoding a putative plastidic NADP-ME, whose expression level is high when lipid deposition is active. On the other hand, NAD-ME showed an important contribution to the maturation of soybean embryos, perhaps driving the carbon relocation from mitochondria to plastids to support the fatty acids synthesis in the last stages of seed filling. These findings provide new insights into intermediary metabolism in oilseeds and provide new biotechnological targets to improve oil yields. PMID:27347875

  13. Regiospecific analysis of diricinoleoylacylglycerols in castor (Ricinus communis L.) oil by electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    HPLC fractions of diricinoleoyl-acyl-glycerols containing one non-ricinoleoyl chain from castor oil were used to identify the regiospecific location of this non-ricinoleoyl chain on glycerol backbone using electrospray ionization-MS3 of lithium adducts. The regiospecific ions used were from the loss...

  14. Ratios of regioisomers of triacylglycerols containing dihydroxy fatty acids in castor oil by mass spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    The triacylglycerols (TAG) containing dihydroxy fatty acids have been recently identified by mass spectrometry in castor oil. These new dihydroxy fatty acids were proposed earlier as 11,12-dihydroxy-9-octadecenoic acid (diOH18:1), 11,12-dihydroxy-9,13-octadecadienoic acid (diOH18:2) and 11,12-dihydr...

  15. Simultaneous allergen inactivation and detoxification of castor bean cake by treatment with calcium compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ricinus communis L. is of great economic importance due to the oil extracted from its seeds. Castor oil has been used for pharmaceutical and industrial applications, as a lubricant or coating agent, as a component of plastic products, as a fungicide or in the synthesis of biodiesel fuels. After oil extraction, a castor cake with a large amount of protein is obtained. However, this by-product cannot be used as animal feed due to the presence of toxic (ricin) and allergenic (2S albumin) proteins. Here, we propose two processes for detoxification and allergen inactivation of the castor cake. In addition, we establish a biological test to detect ricin and validate these detoxification processes. In this test, Vero cells were treated with ricin, and cell death was assessed by cell counting and measurement of lactate dehydrogenase activity. The limit of detection of the Vero cell assay was 10 ng/mL using a concentration of 1.6 × 105 cells/well. Solid-state fermentation (SSF) and treatment with calcium compounds were used as cake detoxification processes. For SSF, Aspergillus niger was grown using a castor cake as a substrate, and this cake was analyzed after 24, 48, 72, and 96 h of SSF. Ricin was eliminated after 24 h of SSF treatment. The cake was treated with 4 or 8% Ca(OH)2 or CaO, and both the toxicity and the allergenic properties were entirely abolished. A by-product free of toxicity and allergens was obtained

  16. A rapid method for evaluation of the oxidation stability of castor oil FAME: influence of antioxidant type and concentration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Araujo, Susana V.; Luna, F. Murilo T.; Rola, Estelio M. Jr.; Azevedo, Diana C.S.; Cavalcante, Celio L. Jr. [Universidade Federal do Ceara, Departamento de Engenharia Quimica, Grupo de Pesquisa em Separacoes por Adsorcao - GPSA, Campus do Pici, 709, Fortaleza, CE, 60.455-900 (Brazil)

    2009-10-15

    The oxidation stability of castor oil fatty methyl ester (FAME), doped with four different phenolic antioxidants, was evaluated using a rapid method of thermal and air-contact degradation. The methodology is based on the induction times observed when the samples are contacted with pure oxygen at elevated pressures and temperatures. The results indicate different performances of the antioxidants as well as synergisms between antioxidants and biodiesel. In general, the addition of antioxidants increased from 6-15 times the stability of castor oil FAME., with BHA (butylated hydroxyanisol) showing the best results for improving antioxidation in castor oil biodiesel. (author)

  17. Effect of the organic garbage and castor oil plant pie on of crop growth characteristics of mamoneira (ricinus communis l.)

    OpenAIRE

    Márcia Maria Bezerra Guimarães; Edivan Silva Nunes Júnior; Vera Lúcia Antunes de Lima; Napoleão Esberard de Macedo Beltrão; Fabiana Xavier Costa; Francisco Ademilton Vieira Damaceno

    2009-01-01

    The main goal of this work was to evaluate the growth and development of the castor oil plant (Ricinus communis L.) submitted to the organic manuring, with castor oil plant pie and composed of organic garbage. The experiment was led at greenhouse, from October 2005 to March 2006, at Embrapa Algodão, state of Paraiba. The treatments were constituted from the addition of castor oil plant pie to the soil in the levels of 1.0; 2.0; 3.0 and 4.0 t ha-1 and organic garbage in the levels of 11.2; 22....

  18. Long live the wasp: adult longevity in captive colonies of the eusocial paper wasp Polistes canadensis (L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Southon, Robin J; Bell, Emily F; Graystock, Peter; Sumner, Seirian

    2015-01-01

    Insects have been used as an exemplary model in studying longevity, from extrinsic mortality pressures to intrinsic senescence. In the highly eusocial insects, great degrees of variation in lifespan exist between morphological castes in relation to extreme divisions of labour, but of particular interest are the primitively eusocial insects. These species represent the ancestral beginnings of eusociality, in which castes are flexible and based on behaviour rather than morphology. Here we present data on the longevity of the primitively eusocial Neotropical paper wasp P. canadensis, in a captive setting removed of environmental hazards. Captive Polistes canadensis had an average lifespan of 193 ± 10.5 days; although this average is shorter than most bee and ant queens, one individual lived for 506 days in the lab-longer than most recorded wasps and bees. Natal colony variation in longevity does exist between P. canadensis colonies, possibly due to nutritional and genetic factors. This study provides a foundation for future investigations on the effects of intrinsic and extrinsic factors on longevity in primitively eusocial insects, as well as the relationship with natal group and cohort size. PMID:25825677

  19. Mass Spectrometry and Antibody-Based Characterization of Blood Vessels from Brachylophosaurus canadensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cleland, Timothy P; Schroeter, Elena R; Zamdborg, Leonid; Zheng, Wenxia; Lee, Ji Eun; Tran, John C; Bern, Marshall; Duncan, Michael B; Lebleu, Valerie S; Ahlf, Dorothy R; Thomas, Paul M; Kalluri, Raghu; Kelleher, Neil L; Schweitzer, Mary H

    2015-12-01

    Structures similar to blood vessels in location, morphology, flexibility, and transparency have been recovered after demineralization of multiple dinosaur cortical bone fragments from multiple specimens, some of which are as old as 80 Ma. These structures were hypothesized to be either endogenous to the bone (i.e., of vascular origin) or the result of biofilm colonizing the empty osteonal network after degradation of original organic components. Here, we test the hypothesis that these structures are endogenous and thus retain proteins in common with extant archosaur blood vessels that can be detected with high-resolution mass spectrometry and confirmed by immunofluorescence. Two lines of evidence support this hypothesis. First, peptide sequencing of Brachylophosaurus canadensis blood vessel extracts is consistent with peptides comprising extant archosaurian blood vessels and is not consistent with a bacterial, cellular slime mold, or fungal origin. Second, proteins identified by mass spectrometry can be localized to the tissues using antibodies specific to these proteins, validating their identity. Data are available via ProteomeXchange with identifier PXD001738. PMID:26595531

  20. Nuclear and mitochondrial DNA analyses of golden eagles (Aquila chrysaetos canadensis) from three areas in western North America; initial results and conservation implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craig, Erica H; Adams, Jennifer R.; Waits, Lisette P.; Fuller, Mark R.; Whittington, Diana M.

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the genetics of a population is a critical component of developing conservation strategies. We used archived tissue samples from golden eagles (Aquila chrysaetos canadensis) in three geographic regions of western North America to conduct a preliminary study of the genetics of the North American subspecies, and to provide data for United States Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) decision-making for golden eagle management. We used a combination of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) D-loop sequences and 16 nuclear DNA (nDNA) microsatellite loci to investigate the extent of gene flow among our sampling areas in Idaho, California and Alaska and to determine if we could distinguish birds from the different geographic regions based on their genetic profiles. Our results indicate high genetic diversity, low genetic structure and high connectivity. Nuclear DNA Fst values between Idaho and California were low but significantly different from zero (0.026). Bayesian clustering methods indicated a single population, and we were unable to distinguish summer breeding residents from different regions. Results of the mtDNA AMOVA showed that most of the haplotype variation (97%) was within the geographic populations while 3% variation was partitioned among them. One haplotype was common to all three areas. One region-specific haplotype was detected in California and one in Idaho, but additional sampling is required to determine if these haplotypes are unique to those geographic areas or a sampling artifact. We discuss potential sources of the high gene flow for this species including natal and breeding dispersal, floaters, and changes in migratory behavior as a result of environmental factors such as climate change and habitat alteration. Our preliminary findings can help inform the USFWS in development of golden eagle management strategies and provide a basis for additional research into the complex dynamics of the North American subspecies.

  1. Gene Structures, Evolution, Classification and Expression Profiles of the Aquaporin Gene Family in Castor Bean (Ricinus communis L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Zhi Zou; Jun Gong; Qixing Huang; Yeyong Mo; Lifu Yang; Guishui Xie

    2015-01-01

    Aquaporins (AQPs) are a class of integral membrane proteins that facilitate the passive transport of water and other small solutes across biological membranes. Castor bean (Ricinus communis L., Euphobiaceae), an important non-edible oilseed crop, is widely cultivated for industrial, medicinal and cosmetic purposes. Its recently available genome provides an opportunity to analyze specific gene families. In this study, a total of 37 full-length AQP genes were identified from the castor bean gen...

  2. Endoplasmic reticulum-located PDAT1-2 from castor bean enhances hydroxy fatty acid accumulation in transgenic plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyun Uk; Lee, Kyeong-Ryeol; Go, Young Sam; Jung, Jin Hee; Suh, Mi-Chung; Kim, Jong Bum

    2011-06-01

    Ricinoleic acid (12-hydroxy-octadeca-9-enoic acid) is a major unusual fatty acid in castor oil. This hydroxy fatty acid is useful in industrial materials. This unusual fatty acid accumulates in triacylglycerol (TAG) in the seeds of the castor bean (Ricinus communis L.), even though it is synthesized in phospholipids, which indicates that the castor plant has an editing enzyme, which functions as a phospholipid:diacylglycerol acyltransferase (PDAT) that is specific to ricinoleic acid. Transgenic plants containing fatty acid Δ12-hydroxylase encoded by the castor bean FAH12 gene produce a limited amount of hydroxy fatty acid, a maximum of around 17% of TAGs present in Arabidopsis seeds, and this unusual fatty acid remains in phospholipids of cell membranes in seeds. Identification of ricinoleate-specific PDAT from castor bean and manipulation of the phospholipid editing system in transgenic plants will enhance accumulation of the hydroxy fatty acid in transgenic seeds. The castor plant has three PDAT genes; PDAT1-1 and PDAT2 are homologs of PDAT, which are commonly found in plants; however, PDAT1-2 is newly grouped as a castor bean-specific gene. PDAT1-2 is expressed in developing seeds and localized in the endoplasmic reticulum, similar to FAH12, indicating its involvement in conversion of ricinoleic acid into TAG. PDAT1-2 significantly enhances accumulation of total hydroxy fatty acid up to 25%, with a significant increase in castor-like oil, 2-OH TAG, in seeds of transgenic Arabidopsis, which is an identification of the key gene for oilseed engineering in production of unusual fatty acids.

  3. Synthesis and Physicochemical Behaviour of Polyurethane-Multiwalled Carbon Nanotubes Nanocomposites Based on Renewable Castor Oil Polyols

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Polyurethanes (PUs) are high performance materials, with vast industrial and engineering applications. In this research, effects of Multiwalled Carbon Nanotubes (MWCNTs) on physicochemical properties of Castor Oil based Polyurethanes (COPUs) were studied. MWCNTs were added in different weight percentages (0% to 1% wt) in a castor oil based polyurethane (COPUs-MWCNTs) nanocomposites. The composition, structure, and morphology of polyurethanes were characterized by Fourier transform infrared sp...

  4. Polyols Prepared from Ring-Opening Epoxidized Soybean Oil by a Castor Oil-Based Fatty Diol

    OpenAIRE

    Jing Zhang; Ji Jun Tang; Jiao Xia Zhang

    2015-01-01

    Several biorenewable vegetable oil-based polyols with different molecular weights and various hydroxyl functionalities were successfully prepared by ring-opening epoxidized soybean oil with a castor oil-based fatty diol. It was found that several factors, including reaction time, reaction temperature, and molar ratios between epoxidized soybean oil and castor oil diol, affect structures and rheology behaviors of the final polyols. Proton NMR, FT-IR, GPC, and rheometry results revealed that th...

  5. Nitrogen balance and ruminal assessment in male and female sheeps fed rations containing castor cake under different treatments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Nogueira Furtado

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Was evaluated the influence of alternative methods of detoxification of castor cake on nitrogen balance and ruminal evaluation in sheep fed isocaloric and isonitrogenous experimental diets. Twenty sheep (ten males and ten females were used in five treatments (castor cake untreated, treated with limestone, treated with urea, treated with phosphate monodicalcium and autoclaved and four repetitions. For nitrogen balance we used a randomized block design, with the blocks according to the sex and the variables pH and ammonia nitrogen (NH3-N in the experimental design was split plot, with plots in the diets subplots and the collection times (0, 2, 5 and 8 hours postprandial.The treatments did not influence N intake, N urinary, urea and N-urea concentration in plasma. The Urinary N was higher in diet containing castor cake treated with phosphate monodicalcium (FOS when compared with those containing castor cake treated by autoclave (ACL. Already the nitrogen balance (BN was higher in diet ACL when compared to FOS diet. The pH and N-NH3 were within the normal range of sheep, being little affected by diet. Diets with methods of detoxification of castor cake promoted moderate changes in nitrogen balance with emphasis on the castor cake autoclaved and treated with limestone. The males sheep showed higher nitrogen balance than females.

  6. Fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs) from castor oil: Production process assessment and synergistic effects in its properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Canoira, Laureano; Garcia Galean, Juan; Alcantara, Ramon [Department of Chemical Engineering and Fuels, ETS Ingenieros de Minas, Universidad Politecnica de Madrid, Rios Rosas 21, 28003 Madrid (Spain); Lapuerta, Magin; Garcia-Contreras, Reyes [Maquinas y Motores Termicos, ETS Ingenieros Industriales, Universidad de Castilla La Mancha, Avda. Camilo Jose Cela s/n, 13071 Ciudad Real (Spain)

    2010-01-15

    Fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs) from castor oil have been synthesized by methanolysis catalyzed by sodium methoxide and the optimal transesterification conditions have been found. However, some properties of the castor FAME render it unsuitable in pure state for its direct use as fuel in internal combustion engines. Thus, blends with reference diesel have been prepared and their properties have been evaluated. Among these properties, the oxidative stability of the blends shows a negative anti-synergistic effect, that is, all the blends have an induction period lower than the pure reference diesel and the pure castor FAME. On the contrary, the lubricity shows a positive synergistic effect, the wear scar of the blends being always lower than those of the pure components. The cold-filter plugging point of the blends shows also a singular effect, since the filterability remains identical to that of the reference diesel until around 50 vol% of castor FAME has been blended with it. The blends of castor FAME and reference diesel until approximately 40 vol% of castor FAME meet most of the specifications of the EN 590 standard. (author)

  7. Prospective study for the production of oleochemicals derivates from castor oil in Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margarita Guerrero

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available There are many ways get closet to the future, being the prospective the one that conceives the future, not like an unique reality but like a multiple one, obtained as a result of the identification of the human beign future actions. For all this, the human being takes knowledge, the yearings and the fears that he sees for the actions he will undertake. Using the prospective, this article outlines the dynamics that will have the oleochemical castor oil sector, because Colombia has resources to develop Ricinus comunnis cultivation and industrial uses of castor oil and its derivates. The study establishes the keys that define the current and future behaviour of the system, the position and the power of each one of the involved actors will have, and the determination of the scenarios (future representations with more probability to occur, as well as the definition of the scenario wanted and the strategies that will allow to reach it.

  8. Production and characterization of MDF using eucalyptus fibers and castor oil-based polyurethane resin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Campos Cristiane Inácio de

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The growing popularity of wooden panels renders this market segment increasingly competitive. MDF (Medium Density Fiberboard, in particular, is widely employed for a variety of applications, including civil construction, furniture, and packaging. This paper discusses a study of MDF produced from alternative raw materials, i.e., Eucalyptus fibers and castor-oil-based polyurethane resin. Physical and mechanical tests were performed to determine the MDF's modulus of elasticity and modulus of rupture in static bending tests, its swelling, water absorption, moisture and density. The results of the physical and mechanical characterization of this laboratory-produced MDF are discussed and compared with the Euro MDF Board standard. MDF produced with eucalyptus fiber and castor-oil-based polyurethane resin presents results very satisfactory.

  9. Comments on edge turbulence during lower hybrid current drive experiment on CASTOR tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edge plasma electrostatic turbulence is discussed from the point of view of its role in inducing anomalous particle transport. Preliminary results are presented of plasma edge fluctuation measurements obtained in the CASTOR tokamak by using the Langmuir probe technique. The level of edge turbulence found is sufficiently high to explain the anomalous particle losses observed in the ohmic heting regime of the tokamak discharge. On the other hand, it decreases appreciably during the combined lower hybrid current drive and ohmic heating regimes, the particle confinement time simultaneously increasing about twice. Thus, the fluctuation induced transport seems to be responsible for the anomalous particle transport in the CASTOR tokamak. (J.U.). 10 figs., 26 refs

  10. Comparison of lubricant properties of castor oil and commercial engine oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Binfa Bongfa

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The tribological performance of crude Nigeria-based castor oil has been investigated and compared with that of a foreign, 20W-50 high quality crankcase oil, to see its suitability as base oil for lubricating oils in indigenous vehicle and power plants engines. The experiment was conducted using a four ball tester. The results showed that unrefined castor oil has superior friction reduction and load bearing capability in an unformulated form than the commercial oil; can compete favourably with the commercial oil in wear protection when formulated with suitable antiwear agent, hence can be a good alternative base stock for crankcase oils suitable for Nigeria serviced vehicles, and plants engines from tribological, environmental, and non-food competitive points of view.

  11. Maximization of bioconversion of castor oil into ricinoleic acid by response surface methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goswami, Debajyoti; Sen, Ramkrishna; Basu, Jayanta Kumar; De, Sirshendu

    2009-09-01

    In this study, response surface methodology was applied to optimize process variables like temperature, pH, enzyme concentration (mg/g oil), and buffer concentration (g/g oil) for hydrolysis of castor oil using Candida rugosa lipase. A 2(4) full factorial central composite design was used to develop the quadratic model that was subsequently optimized and the optimal conditions were as follows: temperature 40 degrees C, pH 7.72, enzyme concentration 5.28 mg/g oil, buffer concentration 1g/g oil and there was 65.5% conversion in 6 h. These predicted optimal conditions agreed well with the experimental results. This is the first report on the application of response surface methodology in castor oil hydrolysis using C. rugosa lipase with higher percentage conversion in 6 h.

  12. Large spatial self-phase modulation in castor oil enhanced by gold nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alencar, Márcio A. R. C.; Nascimento, César M.; Chávez-Cerda, Sabino; da Silva, Monique G. A.; Meneghetti, Mario R.; Hickmann, Jandir M.

    2006-02-01

    Spatial self-phase modulation was observed when a CW laser beam propagated along a cell containing castor oil. The minimum power needed to excite this effect decreases when the sample length is increased, as well as when the laser wavelength approaches to the absorption band of the medium. The same phenomenon was also observed when a laser beam interacts with a colloidal solution of gold nanoparticles in castor oil. For this system the self-phase modulation minimum power decreased dramatically, which indicates that the nonlinear refractive index for this system is enhanced due to the gold nanoparticles. Moreover, for laser wavelength near to the plasmon resonance of the gold nanoparticles, this enhancement factor is even higher. Although the large value of those media nonlinearity, its temporal response is slow. This fact suggests that this phenomenon is due to thermal effects mainly.

  13. Growth of castor bean BRS-149 nordestina fertilized with nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diva Lima de Araujo

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available A trial was carried out in a greenhouse located at the Federal University of Campina Grande, in Campina Grande, Paraiba State, Brazil, with castor bean plants (Ricinus communis L., cv BRS Nordestina, in order to evaluate the effects of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium on the growth. A completely randomized design with three replications and 15 treatments originated from a baconian matrix was adopted. Reference doses were 40:90:60 kg ha-1 of N:P2O5:K2O, respectively. Plant height, stem diameter, number and length of leaves were measured at 20, 40, 60, 80, 100, 120 and 140 days after planting (DAP. The unbalanced fertilization affected the development and seed production of castor bean, and the best response of the plants was observed at levels of 200 kg ha-1 de N; 150 kg ha-1 de P2O5 and 150 kg ha-1 de K2O.

  14. Analyses to demonstrate the thermal performance of the CASTOR KN12

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diersch, R.; Weiss, M. [Gesellschaft fuer Nuklear-Behaelter mbH (Germany); Tso, C.F.; Powell, D. [Arup (United Kingdom); Choy, B.I.; Lee, H.Y. [KHNP-NETEC (Korea)

    2004-07-01

    The CASTOR {sup registered} KN-12 is a new cask design of GNB for dry and wet transportation of up to 12 PWR spent nuclear fuel assemblies in Korea. It complies with the requirements of 10 CFR 71 [1] and IAEA ST-1 [2] for TYPE B(U)F packages. It received its transport license from the Korean Competent Authority KINS in July 2002 and is now in use in South Korea. Demonstration of the cask's compliance with the regulatory requirements in the area of thermal performance has been carried out by a combination of testing carried out by Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute and analyses carried out by Arup. This paper describes the analyses to demonstrate the thermal performance of the cask and compliance with regulatory requirements under normal and hypothetical accident conditions of transport. Other aspects of the design of the CASTOR {sup registered} KN12 are presented in other papers at this conference.

  15. Efficacy of two canine distemper vaccines in wild Nearctic river otters (Lontra canadensis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peper, Steven T; Peper, Randall L; Kollias, George V; Brooks, Robert P; Stevens, Sadie S; Serfass, Thomas L

    2014-09-01

    Canine distemper virus (CDV), a contagious morbillivirus, infects families in the order Carnivora, including Nearctic river otters (Lontra canadensis). As a preventative measure, vaccinations against CDV are frequently given to mustelids in captive environments. The Pennsylvania River Otter Reintroduction Project (PRORP) used wild-caught river otters to evaluate the efficacy and need for vaccinations against CDV as part of any reintroduction project. The objectives of this study were to: 1) evaluate the prevalence of exposure to CDV in wild river otters, 2) determine the immunologic response of river otters (i.e., seroconversion) after vaccination with a single (primary) vaccine dose compared to a second (booster) dose of Galaxy-D, a modified live-virus canine distemper (CD) vaccine (MLV CDV), and 3) determine the immunologic response after being vaccinated with a primary vaccination compared to a booster dose of Fervac-D, an MLV CDV. River otters were injected subcutaneously in the nape of the neck with their designated vaccine. Timeframes for collection of blood samples and/or injection of booster vaccines varied depending on the parameters of PRORP. Ten of the 22 river otters had positive prevaccination titer levels to CD. Both vaccines, Galaxy-D and Fervac-D, produced sufficient seroconversion or rise of titer levels (86% and 57%, respectively) to recommend the use of vaccines in wild river otters. Future studies are recommended to evaluate currently produced CD vaccines. Future research should also focus on the number of days required between administration of primary and booster vaccines to achieve sufficient immune response. If only a primary dose is required, then hard-release reintroduction projects for river otters could be recommended. If primary and booster vaccines are required then soft-release reintroduction projects should be recommended. Soft-release projects should include captive management periods that allow for appropriate vaccination intervals

  16. Developmental toxicity of lead-contaminated sediment in Canada geese (Branta canadensis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, David J.; Heinz, Gary H.; Sileo, Louis; Audet, Daniel J.; Campbell, Juile K.; Obrecht, Holly H.

    2000-01-01

    Sediment ingestion has recently been identified as an important exposure route for toxicants in waterfowl. The effects of lead-contaminated sediment from the Coeur d'Alene River Basin (CDARB) in Idaho on posthatching development of Canada geese (Branta canadensis) were examined for 6 wk. Day-old goslings received either untreated control diet, clean sediment (48%) supplemented control diet, or CDARB sediment (3449 mug/g lead) supplemented diets at 12%, 24%, or 48%. The 12% CDARB diet resulted in a geometric mean blood lead concentration of 0.68 ppm (ww), with over 90% depression of red blood cell ALAD activity and over fourfold elevation of free erythrocyte protoporphyrin concentration. The 24% CDARB diet resulted in blood lead of 1.61 ppm with decreased hematocrit, hemoglobin, and plasma protein in addition to the effects just described. The 48% CDARB diet resulted in blood lead of 2.52 ppm with 22% mortality, decreased growth, and elevated plasma lactate dehydrogenase-L (LDH-L) activity. In this group the liver lead concentration was 6.57 ppm (ww), with twofold increases in hepatic lipid peroxidation (thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances, TBARS) and in reduced glutathione concentration; associated effects included elevated glutathione reductase activity but lower protein-bound thiols concentration and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G-6-PDH) activity. The kidney lead concentration in this group was 14.93 ppm with subacute renal tubular nephrosis in one of the surviving goslings. Three other geese in this treatment group exhibited calcified areas of marrow, and one of these displayed severe chronic fibrosing pancreatitis. Lead from CDARB sediment accumulated less readily in gosling blood and tissues than reported in ducklings but at given concentrations was generally more toxic to goslings. Many of these effects were similar to those reported in wild geese and mallards within the Coeur d'Alene River Basin.

  17. Juvenile hormone, reproduction, and worker behavior in the neotropical social wasp Polistes canadensis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giray, Tugrul; Giovanetti, Manuela; West-Eberhard, Mary Jane

    2005-01-01

    Previous studies of the division of labor in colonies of eusocial Hymenoptera (wasps and bees) have led to two hypotheses regarding the evolution of juvenile hormone (JH) involvement. The novel- or single-function hypothesis proposes that the role of JH has changed from an exclusively reproductive function in primitively eusocial species (those lacking morphologically distinct queen and worker castes), to an exclusively behavioral function in highly eusocial societies (those containing morphologically distinct castes). In contrast, the split-function hypothesis proposes that JH originally functioned in the regulation of both reproduction and behavior in ancestral solitary species. Then, when reproductive and brood-care tasks came to be divided between queens and workers, the effects of JH were divided as well, with JH involved in regulation of reproductive maturation of egg-laying queens, and behavioral maturation, manifested as age-correlated changes in worker tasks, of workers. We report experiments designed to test these hypotheses. After documenting age-correlated changes in worker behavior (age polyethism) in the neotropical primitively eusocial wasp Polistes canadensis, we demonstrate that experimental application of the JH analog methoprene accelerates the onset of guarding behavior, an age-correlated task, and increases the number of foraging females; and we demonstrate that JH titers correlate with both ovarian development of queens and task differentiation in workers, as predicted by the split-function hypothesis. These findings support a view of social insect evolution that sees the contrasting worker and queen phenotypes as derived via decoupling of reproductive and brood-care components of the ancestral solitary reproductive physiology. PMID:15728373

  18. Characterization of adhesive of polyurethane from castor oil by FTIR, TGA and XRD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castor oil polyurethanes are an alternative to adhesives that emanate volatile compounds. This adhesive come from a renewable source and has very low toxicity. In this work the microstructural and thermal characterization is presented. This material is partially crystalline. The mass loss start at 240 deg C and the glass transition temperature is 60 deg C. Then the adhesive is adequate to be employed at temperatures lower than 60 deg C. (author)

  19. Antimicrobial action of sodium hypochlorite and castor oil solutions for denture cleaning – in vitro evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcela Moreira SALLES

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this in vitro study was to evaluate the antimicrobial action of sodium hypochlorite (0.25% and 0.50% and 10% castor oil solutions against specific microorganisms, by counting Colony Forming Units (CFU of clinically important bacteria and Candida species. Acrylic resin specimens (n = 320; Lucitone 550 were obtained from square metal matrices (10 x 10 x 2 mm, sterilized by microwave (650W, for 6 minutes and contaminated by Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Candida albicans, Bacillus subtilis, Escherichia coli, Streptococcus mutans, Enterococcus faecalisand Candida glabrata. The specimens were immersed for 20 minutes in one of the following hygiene solutions (n = 10/each: A – 0.25% Sodium hypochlorite; B – 0.5% Sodium hypochlorite; C – 10% Castor oil solution; and D (Control – saline. Adhered cells were suspended and inoculated into a selective solid medium (37ºC for 24 h. The Student’s t-test (α = 0.05 was performed to compare log10(CFU+1/mL between Groups C and D. The results showed that sodium hypochlorite (0.25% and 0.5% completely eliminated all detectable microorganisms. The castor oil solution eliminatedB. subtilisand reduced counts for other strains. Differences between C and D were significant (p E. faecalis. Both sodium hypochlorite solutions (0.25% and 0.5% were effective in eliminating all microorganisms evaluated, and may be useful as cleaning solutions for complete dentures. The castor oil solution provided moderate efficacy and performed differently on the tested species, with the strongest effect on B. subtilis and with non-significant action on E. faecalis.

  20. Glutathione Preservation during Storage of Rat Lenses in Optisol-GS and Castor Oil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Thomas; Brøgger-Jensen, Martin Rocho; Johnson, Leif;

    2013-01-01

    Glutathione concentration in the lens decreases in aging and cataractous lenses, providing a marker for tissue condition. Experimental procedures requiring unfrozen lenses from donor banks rely on transportation in storage medium, affecting lens homeostasis and alterations in glutathione levels. ....... The aim of the study was to examine the effects of Optisol-GS and castor oil on lens condition, determined from their ability to maintain glutathione concentrations....

  1. Simultaneous allergen inactivation and detoxification of castor bean cake by treatment with calcium compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.V. Fernandes

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Ricinus communis L. is of great economic importance due to the oil extracted from its seeds. Castor oil has been used for pharmaceutical and industrial applications, as a lubricant or coating agent, as a component of plastic products, as a fungicide or in the synthesis of biodiesel fuels. After oil extraction, a castor cake with a large amount of protein is obtained. However, this by-product cannot be used as animal feed due to the presence of toxic (ricin and allergenic (2S albumin proteins. Here, we propose two processes for detoxification and allergen inactivation of the castor cake. In addition, we establish a biological test to detect ricin and validate these detoxification processes. In this test, Vero cells were treated with ricin, and cell death was assessed by cell counting and measurement of lactate dehydrogenase activity. The limit of detection of the Vero cell assay was 10 ng/mL using a concentration of 1.6 x 10(5 cells/well. Solid-state fermentation (SSF and treatment with calcium compounds were used as cake detoxification processes. For SSF, Aspergillus niger was grown using a castor cake as a substrate, and this cake was analyzed after 24, 48, 72, and 96 h of SSF. Ricin was eliminated after 24 h of SSF treatment. The cake was treated with 4 or 8% Ca(OH2 or CaO, and both the toxicity and the allergenic properties were entirely abolished. A by-product free of toxicity and allergens was obtained.

  2. Optimum Operating Conditions for Epoxidation Reaction of Jojoba and Castor Oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    El-Adly R. A

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this paper is to determine the best set of parameters such as, glacial acetic acid to ethylenic unsaturation mole ratio (acid/ethylene, hydrogen peroxide to ethylenic unsaturation mole ratio (H2O2/ethylene and temperature on epoxidation conversion based on experimental results, with respect to time. The effect of these parameters has been studied in a separate set of experiments. Their ranges were as follows: 0.2-0.8Wt%, 0.75-3Wt%, and 40oC-80oC respectively. Six models have been introduced to indicate the effect of these three variables on conversion for both jojoba and castor oil, and the prediction abilities of the resultant models were tested. Regression analysis is used to extract the introduced non linear models. In addition, two new correlations have been introduced to incorporate all the studied variables and their effect on conversion simultaneously for both jojoba and castor oil. An optimization program has been introduced to determine the optimum operating conditions for maximum conversion for both jojoba and castor oil. The study shows that, the maximum conversion for epoxidized jojoba oil (66% could be achieved at acid/ethylene ratio: 0.4, H2O2/ethylene ratio: 1.44; temp: 66.5 and time is 8hr. While the maximum conversion for epoxidized castor oil (53.24% could be achieved at acid/ethylene ratio: 0.37; H2O2/ethylenes ratio: 1.32; temp: 61 and time is 8hr. the model results are strongly agreed with the experimental results.

  3. Cadmium sulfide quantum dots stabilized by castor oil and ricinoleic acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyobe, Joseph William; Mubofu, Egid Beatus; Makame, Yahya M. M.; Mlowe, Sixberth; Revaprasadu, Neerish

    2016-02-01

    Castor oil and ricinoleic acid (an isolate of castor oil) are environmentally friendly bio-based organic surfactants that have been used as capping agents to prepare nearly spherical cadmium sulfide quantum dots (QDs) at 230, 250 and 280 °C. The prepared quantum dots were characterized by Ultra violet-visible (UV-vis), Photoluminescence (PL), Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM), High Resolution Transmission Electron Microscopy (HRTEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) giving an overall CdS QDs average size of 5.14±0.39 nm. The broad XRD pattern and crystal lattice fringes in the HRTEM images showed a hexagonal phase composition of the CdS QDs. The calculated/estimated average size of the prepared castor oil capped CdS QDs for various techniques were 4.64 nm (TEM), 4.65 nm (EMA), 5.35 nm (UV-vis) and 6.46 nm (XRD). For ricinoleic acid capped CdS QDs, the average sizes were 5.56 nm (TEM), 4.78 nm (EMA), 5.52 nm (UV-vis) and 8.21 nm (XRD). Optical properties of CdS QDs showed a change of band gap energy from its bulk band gap of 2.42-2.82 eV due to quantum size confinement effect for temperature range of 230-280 °C. Similarly, a blue shift was observed in the photoluminescence spectra. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) observations show that the as-synthesized CdS QDs structures are spherical in shape. Fourier transform infra-red (FTIR) studies confirms the formation of castor oil and ricinoleic acid capped CdS QDs.

  4. Identification of acylglycerols containing dihydroxy fatty acids in castor oil by mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Jiann-Tsyh; Arcinas, Arthur; Harden, Leslie A

    2009-04-01

    Ricinoleate, a monohydroxy fatty acid, in castor oil has many industrial uses. Dihydroxy fatty acids can also be used in industry. The C(18) HPLC fractions of castor oil were analyzed by electrospray ionization mass spectrometry of lithium adducts to identify the acylglycerols containing dihydroxy fatty acids and the dihydroxy fatty acids. Four diacylglycerols identified were diOH18:1-diOH18:1, diOH18:2-OH18:1, diOH18:1-OH18:1 and diOH18:0-OH18:1. Eight triacylglycerols identified were diOH18:1-diOH18:1-diOH18:1, diOH18:1-diOH18:1-diOH18:0, diOH18:2-diOH18:1-OH18:1, diOH18:1-diOH18:1-OH18:1, diOH18:1-diOH18:0-OH18:1, diOH18:2-OH18:1-OH18:1, diOH18:1-OH18:1-OH18:1 and diOH18:0-OH18:1-OH18:1. The locations of fatty acids on the glycerol backbone were not determined. The structures of these three newly identified dihydroxy fatty acids were proposed as 11,12-dihydroxy-9-octadecenoic acid, 11,12-dihydroxy-9,13-octadecadienoic acid and 11,12-dihydroxyoctadecanoic acid. These individual acylglycerols were at the levels of about 0.5% or less in castor oil and can be isolated from castor oil or overproduced in a transgenic oil seed plant for future industrial uses.

  5. Graphite–castor oil polyurethane composite electrode surfaces – AFM morphological and electrochemical characterisation

    OpenAIRE

    Chiorcea-Paquim, Ana-Maria; Diculescu, Victor Constantin; Cervini, Priscila; Cavalheiro, Eder Tadeu Gomes; Brett, Ana Maria Oliveira

    2014-01-01

    Graphite–castor oil polyurethane composite electrodes with different graphite weight percentages, 30–70% graphite–polyurethane w w−1, were morphologically studied by atomic force microscopy (AFM) and voltammetry. AFM images and r.m.s. roughness measurements demonstrated that the polyurethane roughness decreased with increasing the graphite content, composites of 50% and 60% graphite–polyurethane w w−1 showing the smother electrode surface. The electrochemical characterisation was performed in...

  6. Mechanism of arginine sensing by CASTOR1 upstream of mTORC1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saxton, Robert A; Chantranupong, Lynne; Knockenhauer, Kevin E; Schwartz, Thomas U; Sabatini, David M

    2016-08-11

    The mechanistic Target of Rapamycin Complex 1 (mTORC1) is a major regulator of eukaryotic growth that coordinates anabolic and catabolic cellular processes with inputs such as growth factors and nutrients, including amino acids. In mammals arginine is particularly important, promoting diverse physiological effects such as immune cell activation, insulin secretion, and muscle growth, largely mediated through activation of mTORC1 (refs 4, 5, 6, 7). Arginine activates mTORC1 upstream of the Rag family of GTPases, through either the lysosomal amino acid transporter SLC38A9 or the GATOR2-interacting Cellular Arginine Sensor for mTORC1 (CASTOR1). However, the mechanism by which the mTORC1 pathway detects and transmits this arginine signal has been elusive. Here, we present the 1.8 Å crystal structure of arginine-bound CASTOR1. Homodimeric CASTOR1 binds arginine at the interface of two Aspartate kinase, Chorismate mutase, TyrA (ACT) domains, enabling allosteric control of the adjacent GATOR2-binding site to trigger dissociation from GATOR2 and downstream activation of mTORC1. Our data reveal that CASTOR1 shares substantial structural homology with the lysine-binding regulatory domain of prokaryotic aspartate kinases, suggesting that the mTORC1 pathway exploited an ancient, amino-acid-dependent allosteric mechanism to acquire arginine sensitivity. Together, these results establish a structural basis for arginine sensing by the mTORC1 pathway and provide insights into the evolution of a mammalian nutrient sensor. PMID:27487210

  7. Accelerated artificial aging of particleboards from residues of CCB treated Pinus sp. and castor oil resin

    OpenAIRE

    Marília da Silva Bertolini; Francisco Antonio Rocco Lahr; Maria Fátima do Nascimento; José Augusto Marcondes Agnelli

    2013-01-01

    Tests simulating exposure to severe weather conditions have been relevant in seeking new applications for particleboard. This study aimed to produce particleboards with residues of CCB (chromium-copper-boron oxides) impregnated Pinus sp. and castor oil-based polyurethane resin, and to evaluate their performance before and after artificial accelerated aging. Panels were produced with different particle mass, resin content and pressing time, resulting eight treatments. Particles moisture and si...

  8. Production and Characterization of Biodiesel Using Nonedible Castor Oil by Immobilized Lipase from Bacillus aerius

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    A novel thermotolerant lipase from Bacillus aerius was immobilized on inexpensive silica gel matrix. The immobilized lipase was used for the synthesis of biodiesel using castor oil as a substrate in a solvent free system at 55°C under shaking in a chemical reactor. Several crucial parameters affecting biodiesel yield such as incubation time, temperature, substrate molar ratio, and amount of lipase were optimized. Under the optimized conditions, the highest biodiesel yield was up to 78.13%. Th...

  9. Production and characterization of MDF using eucalyptus fibers and castor oil-based polyurethane resin

    OpenAIRE

    Campos Cristiane Inácio de; Lahr Francisco Antonio Rocco

    2004-01-01

    The growing popularity of wooden panels renders this market segment increasingly competitive. MDF (Medium Density Fiberboard), in particular, is widely employed for a variety of applications, including civil construction, furniture, and packaging. This paper discusses a study of MDF produced from alternative raw materials, i.e., Eucalyptus fibers and castor-oil-based polyurethane resin. Physical and mechanical tests were performed to determine the MDF's modulus of elasticity and modulus of ru...

  10. Isocyanate-Functionalized Chitin and Chitosan as Gelling Agents of Castor Oil

    OpenAIRE

    Franco, José M.; Rocío Gallego; Jesús F. Arteaga; Concepción Valencia

    2013-01-01

    The main objective of this work was the incorporation of reactive isocyanate groups into chitin and chitosan in order to effectively use the products as reactive thickening agents in castor oil. The resulting gel-like dispersions could be potentially used as biodegradable lubricating greases. Three different NCO–functionalized polymers were obtained: two of them by promoting the reaction of chitosan with 1,6-hexamethylene diisocyanate (HMDI), and the other by using chitin instead of chitosan....

  11. Alternative castor oil-based polyurethane adhesive used in the production of plywood

    OpenAIRE

    2004-01-01

    Plywood is normally produced with urea-formaldehyde and/or phenol-formaldehyde adhesives. However, the former is considerably toxic and environmentally damaging, while the latter is expensive, thus motivating the search for alternative raw materials in plywood production. The castor oil-based polyurethane adhesive developed at the São Carlos Institute of Chemistry, University of São Paulo, is an environmentally friendly vegetal oil-based polymer that is harmless to humans. The wood species Eu...

  12. Effect of microwave-assisted system on transesterification of castor oil with ethanol

    OpenAIRE

    Gina M. Hincapié1, Sabine Valange2, Joël Barrault2, Jorge A. Moreno1, Diana P. López1

    2014-01-01

    Abstract A systematic study of microwave-assisted transesterification of castor oil was conducted in the presence of ethanol and of potassium hydroxide as catalyst. Effects of various reaction parameters such as reaction time, catalyst concentration, reaction temperature and ethanol-oil molar ratio were analyzed. Ethyl esters were successfully produced by microwave-assisted transesterification. The maximum yield was 80.1% at 60°C, 10:1 alcohol: oil molar ratio, 1.5% potassium hydroxide...

  13. Characterization and Digestibility of Detoxified Castor Oil Meal for Japanese Quails

    OpenAIRE

    PA dos Santos; MCMM Ludke; JV Ludke; CBV Rabello; MJB dos Santos; TR Torres

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT These experiments were performed to determine the chemical composition, coefficients of nutrient and energy metabolizability, amino acid composition, and cytotoxicity of different castor oil meals subjected to different detoxification processes and added to the diet of Japanese quails. In the trial, 180 46-d-old female Japanese quails were distributed according to a completely randomized design into five treatments and with replicates of six bird each. The treatments consisted of fol...

  14. Simultaneous allergen inactivation and detoxification of castor bean cake by treatment with calcium compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandes, K.V.; Deus-de-Oliveira, N. [Laboratório de Química e Função de Proteínas e Peptídeos, Centro de Biociências e Biotecnologia, Universidade Estadual do Norte Fluminense Darcy Ribeiro, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Godoy, M.G. [Laboratório de Biotecnologia Microbiana, Instituto de Química, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Guimarães, Z.A.S. [Laboratório de Biologia Celular e Tecidual, Centro de Biociências e Biotecnologia, Universidade Estadual do Norte Fluminense Darcy Ribeiro, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Nascimento, V.V. [Laboratório de Química e Função de Proteínas e Peptídeos, Centro de Biociências e Biotecnologia, Universidade Estadual do Norte Fluminense Darcy Ribeiro, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Melo, E.J.T. de [Laboratório de Biologia Celular e Tecidual, Centro de Biociências e Biotecnologia, Universidade Estadual do Norte Fluminense Darcy Ribeiro, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Freire, D.M.G. [Laboratório de Biotecnologia Microbiana, Instituto de Química, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Dansa-Petretski, M.; Machado, O.L.T. [Laboratório de Química e Função de Proteínas e Peptídeos, Centro de Biociências e Biotecnologia, Universidade Estadual do Norte Fluminense Darcy Ribeiro, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2012-08-24

    Ricinus communis L. is of great economic importance due to the oil extracted from its seeds. Castor oil has been used for pharmaceutical and industrial applications, as a lubricant or coating agent, as a component of plastic products, as a fungicide or in the synthesis of biodiesel fuels. After oil extraction, a castor cake with a large amount of protein is obtained. However, this by-product cannot be used as animal feed due to the presence of toxic (ricin) and allergenic (2S albumin) proteins. Here, we propose two processes for detoxification and allergen inactivation of the castor cake. In addition, we establish a biological test to detect ricin and validate these detoxification processes. In this test, Vero cells were treated with ricin, and cell death was assessed by cell counting and measurement of lactate dehydrogenase activity. The limit of detection of the Vero cell assay was 10 ng/mL using a concentration of 1.6 × 10{sup 5} cells/well. Solid-state fermentation (SSF) and treatment with calcium compounds were used as cake detoxification processes. For SSF, Aspergillus niger was grown using a castor cake as a substrate, and this cake was analyzed after 24, 48, 72, and 96 h of SSF. Ricin was eliminated after 24 h of SSF treatment. The cake was treated with 4 or 8% Ca(OH){sub 2} or CaO, and both the toxicity and the allergenic properties were entirely abolished. A by-product free of toxicity and allergens was obtained.

  15. Can beaver Castor fiber be selectively harvested by sex and age during spring hunting?

    OpenAIRE

    Parker, Howard; Rosell, Frank; Hermansen, Tore André; Sørløkk, Gjermund; Stærk, Martin

    2000-01-01

    In Norway, Sweden and Finland hunting Eurasian beaver Castor fiber Linnaeus, 1758 with firearms is presently the main harvest form and most are shot in late April and early May. As beaver cannot be sexed from external characteristics, and ageing by size is difficult, hunters usually shoot the first animal seen. This tends to select for pregnant females, which may conflict with management objectives. This study investigated whether pregnant females were more susceptible to being shot at a pa...

  16. 环氧蓖麻油合成研究%Synthesis of Epoxidized Castor Oil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    侯宾; 向开权; 黄东海; 杨艳

    2012-01-01

    The castor oil was prepared using the peroxyacetic acid by catalysis of phosphoric acid. Some factors which had effect on the epoxy value of product, such as reaction time, reaction temperature, the a- mounts of hydrogen peroxide etc were discussed. The result showed the effects of various parameters as follows:reaction time〉reaction temperature 〉 the amount of acid consumption〉 the amount of hydrogen peroxide 〉 catalyst concentration. FI-IPt was exploited to characterize the epoxidized castor oil, and then the differences of TG and DTG were compared to examine the thermal stability of epoxidized castor oil.%以磷酸为催化剂、采用过氧乙酸法对蓖麻油(CO)进行环氧化研究,探索了反应时间、反应温度和双氧水的用量等变量参数对蓖麻油环氧化的影响,得到各变量参数对反应的影响大小为:时间〉温度〉酸量〉双氧水的量〉催化剂的浓度.利用FI-IR对环氧蓖麻油(ECO)进行了表征,然后对比了CO和ECO的TG和DTG热稳定性.

  17. Characteristics and Composition of a High Oil Yielding Castor Variety from Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panhwar, Tarique; Mahesar, Sarfaraz Ahmed; Mahesar, Abdul Waheed; Kandhro, Aftab Ahmed; Talpur, Farah Naz; Laghari, Zahid Hussain; Chang, Abdul Sattar; Hussain Sherazi, Syed Tufail

    2016-01-01

    Keeping in view the versatile applications of castor oil in cosmetic, pharmaceutical and recently as renewable source, the present work is a step towards the commercialization of castor on large scale in Pakistan. The current study introduces a castor variety with high oil content. Initially seeds were physically examined for some physical parameters. Seed moisture, ash content and linear dimensions such as length, width and thickness were found to be 4.53%, 6.44%, 12.24 mm, 8.31 mm and 5.67 mm, respectively. For oil extraction, Soxhlet method was used which resulted in the high oil content 54.0%. For quality assessment of oil, physicochemical parameters were checked according to official standard AOCS methods and compared with ASTM specifications. The determined parameters were as follows; specific gravity 0.953 g/cm(-3), refractive index 1.431, viscosity 672.0 mPas.s, moisture content 0.32%, FFA 0.14%, IV 83.61 gI2/100 g, PV 2.25 meq/Kg and SV 186.0 mgKOH/g. Furthermore, fatty acid analysis of oil showed that, most abundant fatty acid was ricinoleic acid 94.59%, followed by palmitic 0.31%, linoleic 1.84%, oleic (n-9) 2.05%, oleic (n-10) 0.22%, stearic 0.45% and eicosenoic acid 0.53%. The detected fatty acids were compared with registered variety and varieties of other regions.

  18. UV and gamma irradiation effects on surface properties of polyurethane derivative from castor oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gamma and ultraviolet radiation effects on hardness, elastic modulus and viscoelastic properties of polyurethane derived from castor oil (PU) were investigated by nanoindentation tests. Modifications on surface morphology, induce by radiation, were observed by atomic force microscopy. The polyurethane derivative from castor oil shows good resistance to gamma radiation, with only small changes in hardness, elastic modulus, viscoelastic properties and contact angle. The hardness of PY increases at the near surface region due to UVA radiation and decreases after UVC radiation. The contact angle for water drop decreases after UVC radiation, by not after gamma radiation, despite a significant increase in roughness. Such results are attributed to different responses from polyurethane to radiation energy. Increase in hardness due to UVA is attributed to a higher crosslinking at shallow depths, while a decrease in mechanical properties may be attributed to chain scission. These results are consistent with the modifications on viscoelastic properties. Shore D hardness did not show the same trend as observed by nanoindentation results. Hardness, viscoelastic properties and contact angle of castor oil polyurethane are more severely influenced by UVC radiation, while gamma radiation does not have a significant effect. (author)

  19. Alternative castor oil-based polyurethane adhesive used in the production of plywood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabricio Moura Dias

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Plywood is normally produced with urea-formaldehyde and/or phenol-formaldehyde adhesives. However, the former is considerably toxic and environmentally damaging, while the latter is expensive, thus motivating the search for alternative raw materials in plywood production. The castor oil-based polyurethane adhesive developed at the São Carlos Institute of Chemistry, University of São Paulo, is an environmentally friendly vegetal oil-based polymer that is harmless to humans. The wood species Eucalyptus grandis offers favorable properties for plywood the manufacture. The study reported on here involved the use of castor oil-based polyurethane adhesive to produce plywood with Eucalyptus grandis layers. The plywood's performance was evaluated based on the results of physical and mechanical tests recommended by the Brazilian code, ABNT. Tests results showed higher values than those reported in the literature and recommended by the ABNT, indicating that the castor oil-based polyurethane adhesive is a promising glue for the manufacture of plywood.

  20. Yield of castor bean fertilized with sewage sludge and potassium and magnesium sulphate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thâmara F. M. Cavalcanti

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTThe aim of this study was to evaluate the yield and nutrition of castor bean in response to fertilization with sewage sludge and potassium (K and magnesium (Mg sulphate. The experiment was carried out from January to July 2011. The treatments, in a randomized block design with three replicates, in a Nitosol, corresponded to a factorial scheme (2 x 4 +1: two doses of K and Mg sulphate combined with four doses of sewage sludge (0, 2.60, 5.20 and 10.40 t ha-1, dry basis, applied based on its nitrogen (N content and the N requirement for the crop and an additional treatment with NPK. The castor bean grain yield fertilized with sewage sludge did not differ from conventional fertilization, with the maximum value achieved at a dose of 7.5 t ha-1 of sewage sludge. The fertilization with sewage sludge increased zinc and copper levels in the soil to values close to or higher than those in conventional fertilization, without any influence on the concentrations in the leaf. Fertilization with K and Mg sulphate increased the levels of these cations in the soil without affecting the concentrations in the leaves. The fertilization with sewage sludge increased the contents of organic matter, sulfur, zinc, iron, copper and boron in the soil, and manganese and boron in castor bean leaves.

  1. UV and gamma irradiation effects on surface properties of polyurethane derivative from castor oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Azevedo, Elaine C.; Nascimento, Eduardo M., E-mail: helunica@yahoo.com.br [Universidade Tecnologica Federal do Parana (UTFPR), Curitiba, PR (Brazil); Chierice, Gilberto O.; Claro Neto, Salvador [Universidade de Sao Paulo (IQSC/USP), Sao Carlos, SP (Brazil). Instituto de Quimica; Lepienski, Carlos M. [Universidade Federal do Parana (UFPR), Curitiba (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    Gamma and ultraviolet radiation effects on hardness, elastic modulus and viscoelastic properties of polyurethane derived from castor oil (PU) were investigated by nanoindentation tests. Modifications on surface morphology, induce by radiation, were observed by atomic force microscopy. The polyurethane derivative from castor oil shows good resistance to gamma radiation, with only small changes in hardness, elastic modulus, viscoelastic properties and contact angle. The hardness of PY increases at the near surface region due to UVA radiation and decreases after UVC radiation. The contact angle for water drop decreases after UVC radiation, by not after gamma radiation, despite a significant increase in roughness. Such results are attributed to different responses from polyurethane to radiation energy. Increase in hardness due to UVA is attributed to a higher crosslinking at shallow depths, while a decrease in mechanical properties may be attributed to chain scission. These results are consistent with the modifications on viscoelastic properties. Shore D hardness did not show the same trend as observed by nanoindentation results. Hardness, viscoelastic properties and contact angle of castor oil polyurethane are more severely influenced by UVC radiation, while gamma radiation does not have a significant effect. (author)

  2. Magnetic measurements using array of integrated Hall sensors on the CASTOR tokamaka)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duran, Ivan; Hronová, Olena; Stöckel, Jan; Sentkerestiová, Jana; Havlicek, Josef

    2008-10-01

    We have performed the first tests of "integrated" Hall sensors (IHSs) in a tokamak in-vessel environment. IHS combines the sensing element together with the complex electronic circuitry on a single small chip. The on-chip integrated circuits provide stabilization of the supply voltage, output amplification, noise suppression, and elimination of temperature dependencies. Eight IHSs of A1322LUA type produced by Allegro MicroSystems, Inc. were mounted on a stainless steel ring symmetrically encircling the CASTOR plasmas in poloidal direction 10 mm outside the limiter radius. IHSs were oriented such that they measure the horizontal and vertical magnetic fields. We found out that these sensors qualify for in-vessel use of small to middle sized fusion devices where the radiation is not an issue and the temperature below 150 °C can be guaranteed. The main advantages over the traditional pickup coils are the smaller size and more straightforward interpretation of output without the need of rather cumbersome integration and drift removal procedure associated with the use of inductive loops. We successfully exploited the sensors for determination of vertical plasma displacement on CASTOR. This new diagnostic helped us to shed more light into long term observed discrepancy on CASTOR between vertical plasma displacement as deduced by standard magnetic and by nonmagnetic diagnostics (Langmuir probes, bolometers).

  3. Magnetic measurements using array of integrated Hall sensors on the CASTOR tokamak

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ďuran, Ivan; Hronová, Olena; Stöckel, Jan; Sentkerestiová, Jana; Havlicek, Josef

    2008-10-01

    We have performed the first tests of ``integrated'' Hall sensors (IHSs) in a tokamak in-vessel environment. IHS combines the sensing element together with the complex electronic circuitry on a single small chip. The on-chip integrated circuits provide stabilization of the supply voltage, output amplification, noise suppression, and elimination of temperature dependencies. Eight IHSs of A1322LUA type produced by Allegro MicroSystems, Inc. were mounted on a stainless steel ring symmetrically encircling the CASTOR plasmas in poloidal direction 10 mm outside the limiter radius. IHSs were oriented such that they measure the horizontal and vertical magnetic fields. We found out that these sensors qualify for in-vessel use of small to middle sized fusion devices where the radiation is not an issue and the temperature below 150 °C can be guaranteed. The main advantages over the traditional pickup coils are the smaller size and more straightforward interpretation of output without the need of rather cumbersome integration and drift removal procedure associated with the use of inductive loops. We successfully exploited the sensors for determination of vertical plasma displacement on CASTOR. This new diagnostic helped us to shed more light into long term observed discrepancy on CASTOR between vertical plasma displacement as deduced by standard magnetic and by nonmagnetic diagnostics (Langmuir probes, bolometers).

  4. Molecular cytogenetic analysis and genomic organization of major DNA repeats in castor bean (Ricinus communis L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexandrov, O S; Karlov, G I

    2016-04-01

    This article addresses the bioinformatic, molecular genetic, and cytogenetic study of castor bean (Ricinus communis, 2n = 20), which belongs to the monotypic Ricinus genus within the Euphorbiaceae family. Because castor bean chromosomes are small, karyotypic studies are difficult. However, the use of DNA repeats has yielded new prospects for karyotypic research and genome characterization. In the present study, major DNA repeat sequences were identified, characterized and localized on mitotic metaphase and meiotic pachytene chromosomes. Analyses of the nucleotide composition, curvature models, and FISH localization of the rcsat39 repeat suggest that this repeat plays a key role in building heterochromatic arrays in castor bean. Additionally, the rcsat390 sequences were determined to be chromosome-specific repeats located in the pericentromeric region of mitotic chromosome A (pachytene chromosome 1). The localization of rcsat39, rcsat390, 45S and 5S rDNA genes allowed for the development of cytogenetic landmarks for chromosome identification. General questions linked to heterochromatin formation, DNA repeat distribution, and the evolutionary emergence of the genome are discussed. The article may be of interest to biologists studying small genome organization and short monomer DNA repeats.

  5. Potential of sunflower, castor bean, common buckwheat and vetiver as lead phytoaccumulators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jailson do C. Alves

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Studies concerning the tolerance, absorption and distribution of heavy metals in plants are essential for the success of phytoremediation programs. The present study was carried out in order to evaluate the potential of the sunflower, castor bean, common buckwheat and vetiver as lead phytoaccumulators. The species were grown in nutrient solution containing increasing doses of Pb (0, 50, 100, 200 and 400 mg L-1 during a 30-day exposure period. A completely randomized split-plot design was used, with a 4 x 5 factorial and three replicates. Significant reductions of dry matter of the root, shoot and whole plant were found in the all species under study as a function of the increased Pb doses. Vetiver showed higher tolerance to Pb contamination; sunflower and castor bean had intermediate tolerance and the common buckwheat proved to be the most sensitive species. The concentration and total content of Pb in plant compartments were significantly affected by the increased Pb doses in solution, and higher accumulation of this element was observed, in general, in the roots of the studied species. Common buckwheat proved to be not much promising for Pb-phytoremediation programs; sunflower showed potential for Pb phytoextraction and castor bean and vetiver were the most appropriate for Pb phytostabilization.

  6. Two decades of experience with more than 750 CASTOR and CONSTOR transport and storage casks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 1983 the world-wide first dual purpose transport and storage cask - a CASTOR registered Ic-DIORIT - was loaded in Wuerenlingen/ Switzerland. Meanwhile CASTOR registered casks are used at 24 sites on four continents. Spent fuel assemblies of PWR, BWR, VVER, RBMK, FBR, MTR and THTR as well as vitrified high active waste canisters are transported and/or stored in these kinds of monolithic metal casks. MOX spent fuel of PWR and BWR has been loaded, too. Starting in the mid of the 90s, GNB developed the new CONSTOR registered cask concept, which is based on a double liner technology with a layer of heavy concrete as shielding material inbetween. This CONSTOR registered cask concept fulfils all design criteria for transport and for storage given by the IAEA recommendations and by national authorities. Up to now, more than 750 CASTOR registered and CONSTOR registered casks have been used for transports or/and loaded for longterm interim storage. More than two decades of storage experience attest to the excellent behavior of the casks including the metallic gaskets and the tightness monitoring system. Detailed measurements of temperatures and of gamma and neutron dose rates have shown in each case that the safety requirements have been fulfilled. These measurements allowed to reduce unnecessary safety margins to optimize the benefit for the user

  7. Research Progress of Chemical Compositions and Pharmacological Actions of Mentha canadensis%薄荷化学成分与药理作用研究新进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    沈梅芳; 李小萌; 单琪媛

    2012-01-01

    Through searching literatures about Mentha canadensis at home and abroad in recent years,it is to summarize the chemical compositions,pharmacological actions and modern application in clinic, providing theory foundation for further developing of Mentha canadensis.%通过对薄荷在近几年国内外化学研究、药理作用方面相关文献的查阅,以及现代临床应用等方面的研究情况进行了总结,为进一步合理开发利用薄荷提供理论依据.

  8. Resistência ao glyphosate em biótipos de Conyza bonariensis e Conyza canadensis no Estado do Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil Resistance to glyphosate in Conyza bonariensis and Conyza canadensis biotypes in Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F.P. Lamego

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Experimentos de curva de dose-resposta foram conduzidos para avaliar a ocorrência de resistência ao glyphosate em biótipos de Conyza canadensis e Conyza bonariensis oriundos de municípios do Rio Grande do Sul. Para cada espécie foi realizado um experimento com dois biótipos um suscetível e outro com suspeita de resistência. Glyphosate nas doses de 0, 100, 200, 300, 400, 800 e 1.200 g ha-1 foi aplicado em plantas no estádio de 8-10 folhas. Curvas sigmoidais foram ajustadas para todos os biótipos testados. Confirmou-se a resistência ao glyphosate em biótipos de ambas as espécies, com fator de resistência em torno de 2,3.Dose-response experiments were conducted to evaluate the occurrence of resistance to glyphosate in Conyza canadensis and Conyza bonariensis biotypes originated from Rio Grande do Sul counties. For each species, one experiment was conducted with two biotypes, one susceptible and one suspected of resistance. Glyphosate rates of 0, 100, 200, 300, 400, 800 and 1200 g ha-1 were sprayed on the plants after reaching the 8-10 leaf growth stage. Sigmoidal curves were adjusted to each biotype tested. Resistance to glyphosate was confirmed for biotypes of both species with resistance factor of 2.3.

  9. PCR assay detects Mannheimia haemolytica in culture-negative pneumonic lung tissues of bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis) from outbreaks in the western USA, 2009-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanthalingam, Sudarvili; Goldy, Andrea; Bavananthasivam, Jegarubee; Subramaniam, Renuka; Batra, Sai Arun; Kugadas, Abirami; Raghavan, Bindu; Dassanayake, Rohana P; Jennings-Gaines, Jessica E; Killion, Halcyon J; Edwards, William H; Ramsey, Jennifer M; Anderson, Neil J; Wolff, Peregrine L; Mansfield, Kristin; Bruning, Darren; Srikumaran, Subramaniam

    2014-01-01

    Mannheimia haemolytica consistently causes severe bronchopneumonia and rapid death of bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis) under experimental conditions. However, Bibersteinia trehalosi and Pasteurella multocida have been isolated from pneumonic bighorn lung tissues more frequently than M. haemolytica by culture-based methods. We hypothesized that assays more sensitive than culture would detect M. haemolytica in pneumonic lung tissues more accurately. Therefore, our first objective was to develop a PCR assay specific for M. haemolytica and use it to determine if this organism was present in the pneumonic lungs of bighorns during the 2009-2010 outbreaks in Montana, Nevada, and Washington, USA. Mannheimia haemolytica was detected by the species-specific PCR assay in 77% of archived pneumonic lung tissues that were negative by culture. Leukotoxin-negative M. haemolytica does not cause fatal pneumonia in bighorns. Therefore, our second objective was to determine if the leukotoxin gene was also present in the lung tissues as a means of determining the leukotoxicity of M. haemolytica that were present in the lungs. The leukotoxin-specific PCR assay detected leukotoxin gene in 91% of lung tissues that were negative for M. haemolytica by culture. Mycoplasma ovipneumoniae, an organism associated with bighorn pneumonia, was detected in 65% of pneumonic bighorn lung tissues by PCR or culture. A PCR assessment of distribution of these pathogens in the nasopharynx of healthy bighorns from populations that did not experience an all-age die-off in the past 20 yr revealed that M. ovipneumoniae was present in 31% of the animals whereas leukotoxin-positive M. haemolytica was present in only 4%. Taken together, these results indicate that culture-based methods are not reliable for detection of M. haemolytica and that leukotoxin-positive M. haemolytica was a predominant etiologic agent of the pneumonia outbreaks of 2009-2010.

  10. Short-term effects of carbon dioxide on carnation callus cell respiration. [Dianthus Caryophyllus L. ; Elodea canadensis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palet, A.; Ribas-Carbo, M.; Argiles, J.M.; Azcon-Bieto, J. (Univ. de Barcelona (Spain))

    1991-06-01

    The addition of potassium bicarbonate to the electrode cuvette immediately stimulated the rate of dark O{sub 2} uptake of photomixotrophic and heterotrophic carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus L.) callus, of Elodea canadensis (Minchx) leaves, and of other plant tissues. This phenomenon occurred at pH values lower than 7.2 to 7.8, and the stimulation depended on the concentration of gaseous CO{sub 2} in the solution. These stimulatory responses lasted several minutes and then decreased, but additional bicarbonate or gaseous CO{sub 2} again stimulated respiration, suggesting a reversible effect. Carbonic anhydrase in the solution increased the stimulatory effect of potassium bicarbonate. The CO{sub 2}/bicarbonate dependent stimulation of respiration did not occur in animal tissues such as rat diaphragm and isolated hepatocytes, and was inhibited by salicylhydroxamic acid in carnation callus cells and E. canadensis leaves. This suggested that the alternative oxidase was engaged during the stimulation in plant tissues. The cytochrome pathway was severely inhibited by CO{sub 2}/bicarbonate either in the absence or in the presence of the uncoupler carbonylcyanide m-chlorophenyl hydrazone. The activity of cytochrome c oxidase of callus tissue homogenates was also inhibited by CO{sub 2}/bicarbonate. The results suggested that high carbon dioxide levels (mainly free CO{sub 2}) partially inhibited the cytochrome pathway (apparently at the oxidase level), and this block in electron transport elicited a large transient engagement of the alternative oxidase when present uninhibited.

  11. Identification and expression analysis of castor bean (Ricinus communis) genes encoding enzymes from the triacylglycerol biosynthesis pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cagliari, Alexandro; Margis-Pinheiro, Márcia; Loss, Guilherme; Mastroberti, Alexandra Antunes; de Araujo Mariath, Jorge Ernesto; Margis, Rogério

    2010-11-01

    Castor bean (Ricinus communis) oil contains ricinoleic acid-rich triacylglycerols (TAGs). As a result of its physical and chemical properties, castor oil and its derivatives are used for numerous bio-based products. In this study, we survey the Castor Bean Genome Database to report the identification of TAG biosynthesis genes. A set of 26 genes encoding six distinct classes of enzymes involved in TAGs biosynthesis were identified. In silico characterization and sequence analysis allowed the identification of plastidic isoforms of glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase and lysophosphatidate acyltransferase enzyme families, involved in the prokaryotic lipid biosynthesis pathway, that form a cluster apart from the cytoplasmic isoforms, involved in the eukaryotic pathway. In addition, two distinct membrane bound diacylglycerol acyltransferase enzymes were identified. Quantitative expression pattern analyses demonstrated variations in gene expressions during castor seed development. A tendency of maximum expression level at the middle of seed development was observed. Our results represent snapshots of global transcriptional activities of genes encompassing six enzyme families involved in castor bean TAG biosynthesis that are present during seed development. These genes represent potential targets for biotechnological approaches to produce nutritionally and industrially desirable oils.

  12. Repertoire of SSRs in the Castor Bean Genome and Their Utilization in Genetic Diversity Analysis in Jatropha curcas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arti Sharma

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Castor bean and Jatropha contain seed oil of industrial importance, share taxonomical and biochemical similarities, which can be explored for identifying SSRs in the whole genome sequence of castor bean and utilized in Jatropha curcas. Whole genome analysis of castor bean identified 5,80,986 SSRs with a frequency of 1 per 680 bp. Genomic distribution of SSRs revealed that 27% were present in the non-genic region whereas 73% were also present in the putative genic regions with 26% in 5′UTRs, 25% in introns, 16% in 3′UTRs and 6% in the exons. Dinucleotide repeats were more frequent in introns, 5′UTRs and 3′UTRs whereas trinucleotide repeats were predominant in the exons. The transferability of randomly selected 302 SSRs, from castor bean to 49 J. curcas genotypes and 8 Jatropha species other than J. curcas, showed that 211 (~70% amplified on Jatropha out of which 7.58% showed polymorphisms in J. curcas genotypes and 12.32% in Jatropha species. The higher rate of transferability of SSR markers from castor bean to Jatropha coupled with a good level of PIC (polymorphic information content value (0.2 in J. curcas genotypes and 0.6 in Jatropha species suggested that SSRs would be useful in germplasm analysis, linkage mapping, diversity studies and phylogenetic relationships, and so forth, in J. curcas as well as other Jatropha species.

  13. Repertoire of SSRs in the Castor Bean Genome and Their Utilization in Genetic Diversity Analysis in Jatropha curcas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Arti; Chauhan, Rajinder Singh

    2011-01-01

    Castor bean and Jatropha contain seed oil of industrial importance, share taxonomical and biochemical similarities, which can be explored for identifying SSRs in the whole genome sequence of castor bean and utilized in Jatropha curcas. Whole genome analysis of castor bean identified 5,80,986 SSRs with a frequency of 1 per 680 bp. Genomic distribution of SSRs revealed that 27% were present in the non-genic region whereas 73% were also present in the putative genic regions with 26% in 5'UTRs, 25% in introns, 16% in 3'UTRs and 6% in the exons. Dinucleotide repeats were more frequent in introns, 5'UTRs and 3'UTRs whereas trinucleotide repeats were predominant in the exons. The transferability of randomly selected 302 SSRs, from castor bean to 49 J. curcas genotypes and 8 Jatropha species other than J. curcas, showed that 211 (∼70%) amplified on Jatropha out of which 7.58% showed polymorphisms in J. curcas genotypes and 12.32% in Jatropha species. The higher rate of transferability of SSR markers from castor bean to Jatropha coupled with a good level of PIC (polymorphic information content) value (0.2 in J. curcas genotypes and 0.6 in Jatropha species) suggested that SSRs would be useful in germplasm analysis, linkage mapping, diversity studies and phylogenetic relationships, and so forth, in J. curcas as well as other Jatropha species.

  14. Accumulation of arsenic and nutrients by castor bean plants grown on an As-enriched nutrient solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melo, E E C; Costa, E T S; Guilherme, L R G; Faquin, V; Nascimento, C W A

    2009-08-30

    Phytoextraction is a remediation technique that consists in using plants to remove contaminants from soils and water. This study evaluated arsenic (As) accumulation in Castor bean (Ricinus communis cv. Guarany) grown in nutrient solution in order to assess its phytoextraction ability. Castor bean plants were grown under greenhouse conditions in pots containing a nutrient solution amended with increasing doses of As (0, 10, 50, 100, 250, 500 and 5000 microg L(-1)) in a completely randomized design with four replications. Shoot and roots dry matter production as well as arsenic and nutrient tissue concentrations were measured at the end of the experiment. The results showed that increasing As concentration in nutrient solution caused a decrease in shoot and root biomass but did not result in severe toxicity symptoms in castor bean growing under a range of As concentration from 0 to 5000 microg L(-1). The As doses tested did not affect the accumulation of nutrients by castor bean. Although castor bean did not pose characteristics of a plant suitable for commercial phytoextraction, it could be useful for revegetation of As-contaminated areas while providing an additional income by oil production.

  15. Genome-Wide Identification, Evolutionary Analysis, and Stress Responses of the GRAS Gene Family in Castor Beans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Wei; Chen, Zexi; Ahmed, Naeem; Han, Bing; Cui, Qinghua; Liu, Aizhong

    2016-01-01

    Plant-specific GRAS transcription factors play important roles in regulating growth, development, and stress responses. Castor beans (Ricinus communis) are important non-edible oilseed plants, cultivated worldwide for its seed oils and its adaptability to growth conditions. In this study, we identified and characterized a total of 48 GRAS genes based on the castor bean genome. Combined with phylogenetic analysis, the castor bean GRAS members were divided into 13 distinct groups. Functional divergence analysis revealed the presence of mostly Type-I functional divergence. The gene structures and conserved motifs, both within and outside the GRAS domain, were characterized. Gene expression analysis, performed in various tissues and under a range of abiotic stress conditions, uncovered the potential functions of GRAS members in regulating plant growth development and stress responses. The results obtained from this study provide valuable information toward understanding the potential molecular mechanisms of GRAS proteins in castor beans. These findings also serve as a resource for identifying the genes that allow castor beans to grow in stressful conditions and to enable further breeding and genetic improvements in agriculture. PMID:27347937

  16. Energetic balance of castor oil methyl and ethyl esters; Balanco energetico de esteres metilicos e etilicos de oleo de mamona

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Almeida Neto, Jose Adolfo de; Cruz, Rosenira Serpa da; Alves, Jaenes Miranda; Pires, Monica de Moura; Robra, Sabine [Universidade Estadual de Santa Cruz, Ilheus BA (Brazil). Grupo Bioenergia e Meio Ambiente]. E-mails: jalmeida@uesc.br; Parente Junior, Expedito [Tecnologias Bioenergeticas Ltda. (TECBIO), Fortaleza, CE (Brazil); Fundacao Nucleo de Tecnologia Industrial (NUTEC), Fortaleza, CE (Brazil)]. E-mail: expeditojr@tecbio.com.br

    2004-07-01

    Castor oil (Ricinus communis L.) is one of the cultures chosen by the biodiesel federal and state programs to supply raw material for biodiesel production - a biofuel indicated as renewable and less pollutant than its fossil competitor. An energetic balance was performed based on LCA - Life Cycle Analysis principles and Input-Output Analysis, comparing the castor oil energy performance with others traditional cultures: colza (Brassica napus) in Europe and soybean (Glycine max) in the United States. Energy balance (O-I) was positive in both production ways (methyl and ethyl) independent of coproduct use allocation alternative. The relation Output-Input (O-I) calculated for castor oil biodiesel [1.3-2.9] was higher than the colza (1.2-1.9) and lower than the soybean (3.2--3.4), independent of the way and allocation of the used byproduct. Both indicators suggest the energy and environmental viability of the castor oil biodiesel, provided that high agricultural productivity (higher than 1.500 kg/ha year) can be guaranteed. The potentialization of the positive energetic and environmental effects depends on the adequate utilization of the coproducts and process residues, the improvement of the energy efficiency in the the castor oil and biodiesel processing and the implementation of efficient management in the use of the chemical inputs (specially the N), responsible for up 5% of the total energy input.

  17. Genome-Wide Identification, Evolutionary Analysis, and Stress Responses of the GRAS Gene Family in Castor Beans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Xu

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Plant-specific GRAS transcription factors play important roles in regulating growth, development, and stress responses. Castor beans (Ricinus communis are important non-edible oilseed plants, cultivated worldwide for its seed oils and its adaptability to growth conditions. In this study, we identified and characterized a total of 48 GRAS genes based on the castor bean genome. Combined with phylogenetic analysis, the castor bean GRAS members were divided into 13 distinct groups. Functional divergence analysis revealed the presence of mostly Type-I functional divergence. The gene structures and conserved motifs, both within and outside the GRAS domain, were characterized. Gene expression analysis, performed in various tissues and under a range of abiotic stress conditions, uncovered the potential functions of GRAS members in regulating plant growth development and stress responses. The results obtained from this study provide valuable information toward understanding the potential molecular mechanisms of GRAS proteins in castor beans. These findings also serve as a resource for identifying the genes that allow castor beans to grow in stressful conditions and to enable further breeding and genetic improvements in agriculture.

  18. Toxicity and hazard of vanadium to mallard ducks (Anas platyrhynchos) and Canada geese (Branta canadensis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rattner, B.A.; McKernan, M.A.; Eisenreich, K.M.; Link, W.A.; Olsen, G.H.; Hoffman, D.J.; Knowles, K.A.; McGowan, P.C.

    2006-01-01

    A recent Canada goose (Branta canadensis) die-off at a petroleum refinery fly ash pond in Delaware was attributed to vanadium (V) toxicity. Because of the paucity of V toxicity data for wild birds, a series of studies was undertaken using the forms of V believed to have resulted in this incident. In 7-d single oral dose trials with mallard drakes (Anas platyrhynchos), the estimated median lethal dose (LD50) for vanadium pentoxide was 113 mg/kg body weight, while the LD50 for sodium metavanadate was 75.5 mg/kg. Sodium metavanadate was found to be even more potent (LD50 = 37.2 mg/kg) in male Canada geese. The most distinctive histopathological lesion of both forms of V was Iympho-granulocytic enteritis with hemorrhage into the intestinal lumen. Vanadium accumulation in liver and kidney was proportional to the administered dose, and predictive analyses based on these data suggest that V concentrations of 10 :g/g dry weight (dw) in liver and 25 ug/g dw in kidney are associated with mortality (>90% confidence that exposure is >LD50) in mallards acutely exposed to sodium metavanadate. Chronic exposure to increasing dietary concentrations of sodium metavanadate (38.5 to 2651 ppm) over 67 d resulted in V accumulation in liver and kidney (25.2 and 13.6 ug/g dw, respectively), mild intestinal hemorrhage, blood chemistry changes, and evidence of hepatic oxidative stress in mallards, although some of these responses may have been confounded by food avoidance and weight loss. Dietary exposure of mallards to 250 ppm sodium metavanadate for 4 wk resulted in modest accumulation of V in liver and kidney <5 ug/g dw) and mild intestinal hemorrhage. Based on these data and other observations, it is unlikely that chronic low-level dietary exposure to V poses a direct lethal hazard to wildlife. However, point sources, such as the V-laden fly ash pond encountered by geese at the petroleum refinery in Delaware, may pose a significant hazard to water birds.

  19. An individual-based modelling approach to estimate landscape connectivity for bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Corrie H; Parrott, Lael; Kyle, Catherine

    2016-01-01

    Background. Preserving connectivity, or the ability of a landscape to support species movement, is among the most commonly recommended strategies to reduce the negative effects of climate change and human land use development on species. Connectivity analyses have traditionally used a corridor-based approach and rely heavily on least cost path modeling and circuit theory to delineate corridors. Individual-based models are gaining popularity as a potentially more ecologically realistic method of estimating landscape connectivity. However, this remains a relatively unexplored approach. We sought to explore the utility of a simple, individual-based model as a land-use management support tool in identifying and implementing landscape connectivity. Methods. We created an individual-based model of bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis) that simulates a bighorn sheep traversing a landscape by following simple movement rules. The model was calibrated for bighorn sheep in the Okanagan Valley, British Columbia, Canada, a region containing isolated herds that are vital to conservation of the species in its northern range. Simulations were run to determine baseline connectivity between subpopulations in the study area. We then applied the model to explore two land management scenarios on simulated connectivity: restoring natural fire regimes and identifying appropriate sites for interventions that would increase road permeability for bighorn sheep. Results. This model suggests there are no continuous areas of good habitat between current subpopulations of sheep in the study area; however, a series of stepping-stones or circuitous routes could facilitate movement between subpopulations and into currently unoccupied, yet suitable, bighorn habitat. Restoring natural fire regimes or mimicking fire with prescribed burns and tree removal could considerably increase bighorn connectivity in this area. Moreover, several key road crossing sites that could benefit from wildlife overpasses were

  20. In vitro prion protein conversion suggests risk of bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis) to transmissible spongiform encephalopathies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Christopher J.; Morawski, A.R.; Carlson, C.M.; Chang, H.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs) affect both domestic sheep (scrapie) and captive and free-ranging cervids (chronic wasting disease; CWD). The geographical range of bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis; BHS) overlaps with states or provinces that have contained scrapie-positive sheep or goats and areas with present epizootics of CWD in cervids. No TSEs have been documented in BHS, but the susceptibility of this species to TSEs remains unknown. Results: We acquired a library of BHS tissues and found no evidence of preexisting TSEs in these animals. The prion protein gene (Prnp) in all BHS in our library was identical to scrapie-susceptible domestic sheep (A136R 154Q171). Using an in vitro prion protein conversion assay, which has been previously used to assess TSE species barriers and, in our study appears to recollect known species barriers in mice, we assessed the potential transmissibility of TSEs to BHS. As expected based upon Prnp genotype, we observed BHS prion protein conversion by classical scrapie agent and evidence for a species barrier between transmissible mink encephalopathy (TME) and BHS. Interestingly, our data suggest that the species barrier of BHS to white-tailed deer or wapiti CWD agents is likely low. We also used protein misfolding cyclic amplification to confirm that CWD, but not TME, can template prion protein misfolding in A136R 154Q171genotype sheep. Conclusions: Our results indicate the in vitro conversion assay used in our study does mimic the species barrier of mice to the TSE agents that we tested. Based on Prnp genotype and results from conversion assays, BHS are likely to be susceptible to infection by classical scrapie. Despite mismatches in amino acids thought to modulate prion protein conversion, our data indicate that A136R154Q171 genotype sheep prion protein is misfolded by CWD agent, suggesting that these animals could be susceptible to CWD. Further investigation of TSE transmissibility to BHS, including

  1. Toxicity and hazard of vanadium to mallard ducks (Anas platyrhynchos) and Canada geese (Branta canadensis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rattner, Barnett A; McKernan, Moira A; Eisenreich, Karen M; Link, William A; Olsen, Glenn H; Hoffman, David J; Knowles, Kathy A; McGowan, Peter C

    2006-02-01

    A recent Canada goose (Branta canadensis) die-off at a petroleum refinery fly ash pond in Delaware was attributed to vanadium (V) toxicity. Because of the paucity of V toxicity data for wild birds, a series of studies was undertaken using the forms of V believed to have resulted in this incident. In 7-d single oral dose trials with mallard drakes (Anas platyrhynchos), the estimated median lethal dose (LD50) for vanadium pentoxide was 113 mg/kg body weight, while the LD50 for sodium metavanadate was 75.5 mg/kg. Sodium metavanadate was found to be even more potent (LD50 = 37.2 mg/kg) in male Canada geese. The most distinctive histopathological lesion of both forms of V was lympho-granulocytic enteritis with hemorrhage into the intestinal lumen. Vanadium accumulation in liver and kidney was proportional to the administered dose, and predictive analyses based on these data suggest that V concentrations of 10 microg/g dry weight (dw) in liver and 25 microg/g dw in kidney are associated with mortality (>90% confidence that exposure is >LD50) in mallards acutely exposed to sodium metavanadate. Chronic exposure to increasing dietary concentrations of sodium metavanadate (38.5 to 2651 ppm) over 67 d resulted in V accumulation in liver and kidney (25.2 and 13.6 microg/g dw, respectively), mild intestinal hemorrhage, blood chemistry changes, and evidence of hepatic oxidative stress in mallards, although some of these responses may have been confounded by food avoidance and weight loss. Dietary exposure of mallards to 250 ppm sodium metavanadate for 4 wk resulted in modest accumulation of V in liver and kidney (<5 microg/g dw) and mild intestinal hemorrhage. Based on these data and other observations, it is unlikely that chronic low-level dietary exposure to V poses a direct lethal hazard to wildlife. However, point sources, such as the V-laden fly ash pond encountered by geese at the petroleum refinery in Delaware, may pose a significant hazard to water birds.

  2. Identification of trihydroxy fatty acids and the regiospecific quantification of the triacylglycerols containing trihydroxy fatty acids in castor oil by mass spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricinoleate, a monohydroxy fatty acid in castor oil, has many industrial uses. Dihydroxy and trihydroxy fatty acids can also be used in industry. We report here the identification of diacylglycerols and triacylglycerols containing trihydroxy fatty acids in castor oil. The Ci8 HPLC fractions of casto...

  3. Síntesis y caracterización de espumas flexibles de poliuretano obtenidas a partir de aceite de castor maleinizado Flexible polyurethane foam synthesis and characterization obtained from maleinizated castor oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Mazo

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo se realiza la síntesis de espumas flexibles de poliuretano empleando un diseño experimental Taguchi, utilizando aceite de castor con y sin maleinización, se estudia la cinética de la reacción de esterificación del aceite por cuantificación de los grupos ácido (ASTM D4662 - 03 y se evalúan las propiedades mecánicas de las espumas (densidad, resistencia tensil, % elongación, resiliencia y dureza. Norma NTC 2019 Icontec obtenidas en función de las variables de síntesis (cantidad y tipo de catalizador, relación molar aceite castor (CO - aceite maleinizado (MACO, cantidad de agua y surfactante empleado. Se realizan análisis de FTIR y SEM para las espumas. Los resultados mostraron una cinética de primer orden con respecto al anhídrido. El aceite maleinizado (MACO incrementa la resistencia mecánica de las espumas, debido al mayor entrecruzamiento por la incorporación de grupos ácido.In this work, the synthesis of polyurethane flexible foam is realized with the experimental design Taguchi, using castor oil with and without maleinization. The kinetic reaction of oil esterification was monitored by estimating the number of acid groups (ASTM D4662 - 03, and the mechanical properties of the foam were studied, including density, tensile resistance, % elongation, resilience and hardness (Norm NTC 2019 Icontec. The influence of various synthesis parameters was investigated, namely amount and type of catalyst, molar ratio of castor oil (CO - maleinizated castor oil (MACO, amount of water and surfactant used. The foams were analyzed using FTIR and scanning electron microscopy (SEM. The results showed first order kinetics with respect to the anhydride. The maleinizated castor oil (MACO increased the mechanical resistance of the foam due to the greater interweaving by the incorporation of acid groups.

  4. Vaccination of elk (Cervus canadensis) with Brucella abortus strain RB51 overexpressing superoxide dismutase and glycosyltransferase genes does not induce adequate protection against experimental brucella abortus challenge

    Science.gov (United States)

    In recent years, elk (Cervus canadensis) have been implicated as the source of Brucella abortus infection for numerous cattle herds in the Greater Yellowstone Area (GYA). In the face of environmental and ecological changes on the landscape, the range of infected elk is expanding. Consequently, the d...

  5. Molecular detection of Campylobacter spp. and fecal indicator bacteria during the northern migration of Sandhill Cranes (Grus canadensis) at the Central Platte River

    Science.gov (United States)

    The annual Sandhill crane (Grus canadensis) migration through Nebraska is thought to be a major source of fecal pollution to the Platte River, but of unknown human health risk. To better understand potential risks, the presence of Campylobacter species and fecal bacteria were exa...

  6. Exogenous glutamine increases lipid accumulation in developing seeds of castor bean (Ricinus communis L. cultured in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Yang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This report describes biomass production and compositional changes of developing castor seeds in response to change in the nitrogen resource (glutamine of the medium. During the early developmental period (24-36 days after pollination, oil was found to initially accumulate in the developing seeds. Carbohydrates and oil were inversely related after glutamine provision (35 mM, in the culture medium. [U-14C] sucrose labeling was used to investigate the effect of metabolic fluxes among different storage materials. Addition of glutamine led to a 7% increase of labeling in lipids and an inverse decrease of labeling in carbohydrates. It was postulated that changes in the glutamine concentration in the medium are likely to influence the partitioning of resources between the various storage products, especially carbohydrates and oil. These observations will contribute to a better understanding of assimilate partitioning in developing castor seeds and the development of molecular strategies to improve castor bean seed quality and plant breeding studies.

  7. Effect of castor oil enrichment layer produced by reaction on the properties of PLA/HDI-g-starch blends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Zhu; Zhang, Lisheng; Ma, Songqi; Yang, Yong; Zhang, Chuanzhi; Tang, Zhaobin; Zhu, Jin

    2013-04-15

    Blends of entirely bio-sourced polymers, namely polylactide (PLA) and starch, have been melt-compounded by lab-scale co-extruder with castor oil (CO) as a plasticizer. The enrichment of castor oil on starch had great effect on the properties of the blends. If the castor oil was mainly dispersed in PLA matrix, the properties of the blends were poor, but when the hexamethylenediisocyanate (HDI) was grafted on starch granules the ready reactions between the hydroxyl on CO and the isocyante on the HDI-grafted starch (HGSTs) brought CO molecules enriched on starch particles. DSC analysis shows that the CO layer on starch has a positive effect on the crystallization of PLA in the ternary blend. The accumulation of CO on starch greatly improves the toughness and impact strength of PLA/starch blends. The grafting content of HDI on the starch granules primarily determined the compatibility and properties of the resulted blends.

  8. Calculative activation analysis of the transport rack for CASTOR {sup registered} casks; Berechnung der Aktivierung eines Transportgestells fuer CASTOR {sup registered} -Behaelter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tittelbach, S. [Wissenschaftlich-Technische Ingenieurberatung GmbH (WTI), Juelich (Germany); Biedermann, R. [GNS Gesellschaft fuer Nuklear-Service mbH, Essen (Germany); Schmidt-Wohlfarth, Y.; Louia, A. [EnBW Kernkraft GmbH, Philippsburg (Germany)

    2011-07-01

    The transport rack for the internal transport of loaded CASTOR {sup registered} casks before the storage in the intermediate storage facility at the site of the NPP Philippsburg is exposed to neutron irradiation from the cask inventory. Using the Monte Carlo code MCNP the activation rates of the transport rack materials are calculated for typical storage times of the casks in the rack. The long-term activation was also calculated for the continuous use of the transport rack over 10 years. Further topics were the dose rate in the near surrounding of the transport rack after long-term activation and finally the disposability of rack components according to the legal regulations. The maximum contact dose rate was calculated to be below 1 micro Sv/h after 10 years of application. The transport rack can be disposed with large safety margins to the radiation protection limits.

  9. Cultivo de sequeiro da mamona adubada com casca de mamona e fertilizante nitrogenado Castor bean cultivated under rainfed conditions with the castor bean bark and nitrogen fertilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos A. da Silva

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se com este trabalho avaliar o crescimento e produção da mamoneira (Ricinus communis L., cv. BRS Energia cultivada em regime de sequeiro em função da adubação combinada de casca de mamona na forma moída e natural com doses crescentes de fertilizante nitrogenado. O experimento foi realizado entre setembro de 2009 a março de 2010, no Campus IV/UEPB. Realizou-se o plantio em vasos plásticos de 60 L preenchidos com 58 kg de solo. Utilizou-se o delineamento de blocos ao acaso em arranjo fatorial 2 x 4, sendo aplicado 3 t ha-¹ de casca de mamona em duas formas de utilização (natural e moída e quatro doses de nitrogênio (0, 30, 60, 90 kg ha-¹, com quatro repetições totalizando 32 parcelas. Verifica-se que a adubação com a casca moída foi superior a casca natural. Para a massa seca do cacho, área foliar por planta e número de folhas a dosagem 90 kg ha-¹ de N foi superior às demais. Já para o número de nós foi a dose de 60 kg ha-¹ de N. A casca de mamona usada de forma racional, como adubo, contribui para redução de custos ao produtor e incrementos na fertilidade do solo.The objective of this research was to evaluate the growth and production of castor bean (Ricinus communis L. BRS Energia in rainfed cultivation under combined fertilization of castor bean bark in a natural and ground forms and with increasing levels of nitrogen. The experiment was conducted during September, 2009 to March, 2010, at Campus IV/UEPB. The planting was done in 60 L pots filled with 58 kg of soil. Using a randomized block design in a 2 x 4 factorial, with two kinds of bark of castor bean (natural and ground in the dose of 3 t ha-¹ and four rates of nitrogen (0, 30, 60, 90 kg ha-¹ with four replications. It was verified that fertilization with the ground bark was superior than natural bark. For the dry mass of the bunch, leaf area per plant, and leaf number, dose of 90 kg ha-¹ of N was better than the others. While for the number of

  10. Analysis to foliate of mamoneira with emphasis in macronutrientes using organic garbage it is crooked of castor oil plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiana Xavier Costa

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Aimed with this work to evaluate the present macronutrientes in the leaves of the castor beans, in accomplished rehearsal being used the organic manuring front to three witness. The rehearsal was developed in the year of 2006, in house-of-vegetation of Embrapa Algodão, in Campina Grande PB. The treatments were constituted of the addition of the castor oil plant pie to the soil in the dosagens of 1, 2, 3, and 4 t. have-1 and I sand organic in the dosagens of 11,2; 22,4; 33,6 and 44,8 t. have-1 compared with three witness: the absolute (soil without addition of fertilizers; b he/she testifies relative 1 with the addition of NPK, in the dosagens of 180 kg N have-1, 64 kg P N have-1, 52 kg K have-1, he/she testifies relative 2, with addition of the micronutrients: boron (B, copper (Cu, iron (Fe, manganese (Mg and zinc (Zn , The used variable was her it analyzes to foliate to the 130 days after the emergency of the plântulas. An experimental design was used in blocks randomized with 11 treatments and four repetitions and the results of the macronutrientes were submitted to the variance analysis and of regression. The tenor of macronutrientes of the leaf of the castor beans had positive effect, when it was just used the castor oil plant pie in the variables. The composed of organic garbage didn't influence in the studied variables. Being, like this, the castor oil plant pie is constituted in a very interesting organic fertilizer for the growth, development, productivity and tenor of oil of the castor beans.

  11. 蓖麻油的单官能团反应%Single Functional Group Reactions of Castor Oil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张海飞; 朱新宝

    2015-01-01

    Castor oil is a kind of plant oils with unique properties,its molecule contains functional groups such as hydroxyl, ester group,ethylenic bond. Among these functional groups,single group can react to form castor oil derivatives,two or three groups of them also have different reactions to get special application of castor oil derivatives. Chemical reaction is summarized and classified according to the single group reaction. This article systematically introduces the reaction of the castor oil,briefly describes a variety of purposes of different products,comprehensively recommends castor oils basis chemistry knowledge,facilitates the design of the new chemical reaction and the development of new products,improves the castor oil deep processing technology.%蓖麻油是具有独特性能的植物油类,分子中含有羟基、酯基、烯键等官能团,这些官能团可以单独进行反应得到蓖麻油衍生物,也可以其中两个或三个基团组合先后进行不同反应得到特殊用途的蓖麻油衍生物。主要对三种官能团单独进行化学反应综述归类,系统地介绍蓖麻油中各官能团所能发生的反应,简述不同反应产物的用途,较全面地介绍了蓖麻油基础化学反应知识,便于新反应和多官能团反应的设计和新产品的开发,提高蓖麻油深加工技术水平。

  12. Transesterification of castor oil usingMgO/SiO2 catalyst and coconutoilas co-reactant

    OpenAIRE

    Kamisah D. Pandiangan; Novesar Jamarun; Syukri Arief; Wasinton Simanjuntak

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes the transesterification of castor oil with the use of coconut oil as co-reactant and MgO/SiO2as heterogeneous base catalyst. The catalyst was preparedfrom rice husk silica and magnesium nitrate by sol-gel method, with MgO load of 20% relative to silica, and then subjected to sintering treatment at 600 oC for 6 hours. A series of experiments was carried out, indicating that the use of coconut oil as co-reactant significantly promoted the conversion of castor oil into b...

  13. Development of Castor Oil Based Poly(urethane-esteramide)/TiO2 Nanocomposites as Anticorrosive and Antimicrobial Coatings

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammed Rafi Shaik; Manawwer Alam; Naser M. Alandis

    2015-01-01

    Castor oil based polyesteramide (CPEA) resin has been successfully synthesized by the condensation polymerization of N-N-bis (2-hydroxyethyl) castor oil fatty amide (HECA) with terephthalic acid and further modified with different percentages of 7, 9, 11, and 13 wt.% of toluene-2,4-diisocyanate (TDI) to obtain poly(urethane-esteramide) (UCPEA), via addition polymerization. TiO2 (0.1, 0.2, 0.3, 0.4, and 0.5 wt%) nanoparticles were dispersed in UCPEA resin. The structural elucidation of HECA, C...

  14. Castor oil increases intestinal formation of platelet-activating factor and acid phosphatase release in the rat.

    OpenAIRE

    Pinto, A; Calignano, A; Mascolo, N; Autore, G; Capasso, F

    1989-01-01

    1. When castor oil was administered by gavage to rats, the duodenum and jejunum but not ileum and colon produced large amounts (5-6 fold greater than control) of platelet activating factor (Paf). 2. Intraluminal release of acid phosphatase (AP) was also markedly increased (5-6 fold greater than control) in the duodenum and jejunum of castor oil-treated rats and there was a correlation between the elevated release of AP and intestinal hyperaemia. 3. These findings support a role for Paf as a m...

  15. Formulasi Lipstik Menggunakan Kombinasi Minyak Biji Anggur (Grapeseed Oil) Dan Minyak Jarak (Castor Oil) Sebagai Pelarut Zat Warna Sintetis

    OpenAIRE

    Mahyuni, Sri

    2015-01-01

    Background: Lipstick is a cosmetical availability used to color the lips by artistic touch in improving the esthetic of facial make-up. The lipstick is a lip colorer packaged in stick form made of wax, oil and fat. Castor oil is the components of lipstick used that usually a dye solvent, but the result is less good. Therefore, it was combined with grapeseed oil. Objective: The objective of research was to make the formula of lipstick using combination grapeseed oil and castor oil as a sol...

  16. Glutathione preservation during storage of rat lenses in optisol-GS and castor oil.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Holm

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Glutathione concentration in the lens decreases in aging and cataractous lenses, providing a marker for tissue condition. Experimental procedures requiring unfrozen lenses from donor banks rely on transportation in storage medium, affecting lens homeostasis and alterations in glutathione levels. The aim of the study was to examine the effects of Optisol-GS and castor oil on lens condition, determined from their ability to maintain glutathione concentrations. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Rat lenses were stored in the two types of storage media at varying time intervals up to 3 days. Glutathione concentration was afterwards determined in an enzymatic detection assay, specific for both reduced and oxidized forms. Lenses removed immediately after death exhibited a glutathione concentration of 4.70±0.29 mM. In vitro stored lenses in Optisol-GS lost glutathione quickly, ending with a concentration of 0.60±0.34 mM after 3 days while castor oil stored lenses exhibited a slower decline and ended at 3 times the concentration. A group of lenses were additionally stored under post mortem conditions within the host for 6 hours before its removal. Total glutathione after 6 hours was similar to that of lenses removed immediately after death, but with altered GSH and GSSG concentrations. Subsequent storage of these lenses in media showed changes similar to those in the first series of experiments, albeit to a lesser degree. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: It was determined that storage in Optisol-GS resulted in a higher loss of glutathione than lenses stored in castor oil. Storage for more than 12 hours reduced glutathione to half its original concentration, and was considered unusable after 24 hours.

  17. Lipase applications in oil hydrolysis with a case study on castor oil: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goswami, Debajyoti; Basu, Jayanta Kumar; De, Sirshendu

    2013-03-01

    Lipase (triacylglycerol acylhydrolase) is a unique enzyme which can catalyze various types of reactions such as hydrolysis, esterification, alcoholysis etc. In particular, hydrolysis of vegetable oil with lipase as a catalyst is widely studied. Free lipase, lipase immobilized on suitable support, lipase encapsulated in a reverse micelle and lipase immobilized on a suitable membrane to be used in membrane reactor are the most common ways of employing lipase in oil hydrolysis. Castor oil is a unique vegetable oil as it contains high amounts (90%) of a hydroxy monounsaturated fatty acid named ricinoleic acid. This industrially important acid can be obtained by hydrolysis of castor oil. Different conventional hydrolysis processes have certain disadvantages which can be avoided by a lipase-catalyzed process. The degree of hydrolysis varies widely for different lipases depending on the operating range of process variables such as temperature, pH and enzyme loading. Immobilization of lipase on a suitable support can enhance hydrolysis by suppressing thermal inactivation and estolide formation. The presence of metal ions also affects lipase-catalyzed hydrolysis of castor oil. Even a particular ion has different effects on the activity of different lipases. Hydrophobic organic solvents perform better than hydrophilic solvents during the reaction. Sonication considerably increases hydrolysis in case of lipolase. The effects of additives on the same lipase vary with their types. Nonionic surfactants enhance hydrolysis whereas cationic and anionic surfactants decrease it. A single variable optimization method is used to obtain optimum conditions. In order to eliminate its disadvantages, a statistical optimization method is used in recent studies. Statistical optimization shows that interactions between any two of the following pH, enzyme concentration and buffer concentration become significant in presence of a nonionic surfactant named Span 80.

  18. Dry Cask Storage Characterization Project - Phase 1: CASTOR V/21 Cask Opening and Examination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report documents visual examination and testing conducted in 1999 and early 2000 at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) on a Gesellschaft fuer Nuklear Service (GNS) CASTOR V/21 pressurized water reactor (PWR) spent fuel dry storage cask. The purpose of the examination and testing is to develop a technical basis for renewal of licenses and Certificates of Compliance for dry storage systems for spent nuclear fuel and high-level waste at independent spent fuel storage installation sites. The examination and testing was conducted to assess the condition of the cask internal and external surfaces, cask contents consisting of 21 Westinghouse PWR spent fuel assemblies from Dominion's (formerly named Virginia Power) Surry Power Station and cask concrete storage pad. The assemblies have been continuously stored in the CASTOR cask since 1985. Cask exterior surface and selected fuel assembly temperatures, and cask surface gamma and neutron dose rates were measured. Cask external/internal surfaces, fuel basket components including accessible weldments, fuel assembly exteriors, and primary lid seals were visually examined. Selected fuel rods were removed from one fuel assembly, visually examined, and then shipped to Argonne National Laboratory for nondestructive, destructive, and mechanical examination. Cask interior crud samples and helium cover gas samples were collected and analyzed. The results of the examination and testing indicate the concrete storage pad, CASTOR V/21 cask, and cask contents exhibited sound structural and seal integrity and that long-term storage has not caused detectable degradation of the spent fuel cladding or the release of gaseous fission products between 1985 and 1999

  19. Characteristics and Composition of a High Oil Yielding Castor Variety from Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panhwar, Tarique; Mahesar, Sarfaraz Ahmed; Mahesar, Abdul Waheed; Kandhro, Aftab Ahmed; Talpur, Farah Naz; Laghari, Zahid Hussain; Chang, Abdul Sattar; Hussain Sherazi, Syed Tufail

    2016-01-01

    Keeping in view the versatile applications of castor oil in cosmetic, pharmaceutical and recently as renewable source, the present work is a step towards the commercialization of castor on large scale in Pakistan. The current study introduces a castor variety with high oil content. Initially seeds were physically examined for some physical parameters. Seed moisture, ash content and linear dimensions such as length, width and thickness were found to be 4.53%, 6.44%, 12.24 mm, 8.31 mm and 5.67 mm, respectively. For oil extraction, Soxhlet method was used which resulted in the high oil content 54.0%. For quality assessment of oil, physicochemical parameters were checked according to official standard AOCS methods and compared with ASTM specifications. The determined parameters were as follows; specific gravity 0.953 g/cm(-3), refractive index 1.431, viscosity 672.0 mPas.s, moisture content 0.32%, FFA 0.14%, IV 83.61 gI2/100 g, PV 2.25 meq/Kg and SV 186.0 mgKOH/g. Furthermore, fatty acid analysis of oil showed that, most abundant fatty acid was ricinoleic acid 94.59%, followed by palmitic 0.31%, linoleic 1.84%, oleic (n-9) 2.05%, oleic (n-10) 0.22%, stearic 0.45% and eicosenoic acid 0.53%. The detected fatty acids were compared with registered variety and varieties of other regions. PMID:27250560

  20. Reproductive responses and productive characteristics in ewes supplemented with detoxified castor meal for a long period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliane Moreira Silva

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to evaluate the effects of supplementation with detoxified castor meal (DCM in the diet of ewes during pregnancy, partum, and post-partum on the weight development of their offspring and at slaughter. The study included 56 ewes with synchronized estrus that were naturally mated. At the beginning of pregnancy and in post-partum, hepatic and renal function-related parameters and progesterone levels were measured. At slaughter, the proximate composition and fatty acid profile were determined in the loin of ewes. There was no effect of diet on reproductive response after estrus synchronization. At the beginning of pregnancy, albumin and creatinine levels were lower in the DCM group. Supplementation with DCM did not alter the weight or body condition of ewes at partum. However, at weaning, the DCM group showed a higher loin-eye area (LEA in relation to the group fed diets without detoxified castor meal (WDCM. At partum, as well as at weaning, the offspring of the ewes supplemented with DCM had a larger LEA than the WDCM group. In post-partum, levels of glucose, urea, protein, and cholesterol were lower in the DCM group. The return to cyclicity was similar in both groups, with an average of 47 days after partum. At slaughter, neither anatomical and carcass components nor the results of the proximate analysis were affected by the type of diet, except for an increase in heptadecanoic acid in the DCM group. Supplementation with detoxified castor meal in the diet of ewes does not affect lambing, pregnancy, prolificacy, return to cyclicity, milk production, blood biochemical parameters, or carcass characteristics.

  1. CROSS TRANSMISSION OF 'GIARDIA'

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giardia cysts isolated from fecal samples obtained from humans (Homo sapiens), beaver (Castor canadensis), dogs (Canis familiaris), cats (Felis domesticus), bighorn X mouflon sheep (Ovis canadensis X O. musimon), guinea pig (Cavis porcellus), muskrat (Ondatra ziethica) and mule d...

  2. Herbicidas alternativos para controle de biótipos de Conyza bonariensis e C. canadensis resistentes ao glyphosate Alternative herbicides to control glyphosate-resistant biotypes of Conyza bonariensis and C. canadensis

    OpenAIRE

    Moreira, M. S.; M.S.C. Melo; S.J.P. Carvalho; Nicolai, M.; P.J. Crhistoffoleti

    2010-01-01

    Após sucessivos anos, aplicações do herbicida glyphosate em pomares de citros no Estado de São Paulo selecionaram biótipos resistentes de Conyza bonariensis e C. canadensis. Na ocorrência de plantas daninhas resistentes em uma área agrícola, tornam-se necessárias mudanças nas práticas de manejo para obtenção de adequado controle das populações resistentes, bem como para a redução da pressão de seleção sobre outras espécies. Assim, este trabalho foi realizado com o objetivo de identificar herb...

  3. Apis mellifera pollination improves agronomic productivity of anemophilous castor bean (Ricinus communis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rômulo A.G. Rizzardo

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Castor bean (Ricinus communis L. is cultivated mainly for biodiesel production because of its oil-rich seeds; it is assumed to be an anemophylous species. But pollination deficit can lead to low productivity often attributed to other reasons. In this paper, we investigated pollination requirements, pollination mechanism, occurrence of pollination deficit, and the role of biotic pollinators in a large commercial plantation of castor bean. Our results show that R. communis bears a mixed breeding system favoring selfing by geitonogamy, although the wind promotes mostly outcrossing. We also found that the honey bee (Apis mellifera L. foraging on castor bean can both transfer pollen from male to female flowers within the same raceme and boost the release of airborne pollen by male flowers. Both situations increase geitonogamy rates, raising significantly fruit set and seed yield. This is the first report of an animal foraging activity increasing seed yield in an anemophilous and geitonogamous crop and elucidates the role of biotic pollinators in castor bean reproduction.A mamoneira (Ricinus communis L. é cultivada principalmente para produção de biodiesel devido ao alto teor de óleo de suas sementes e considerada como sendo de polinização anemófila. Mas déficits de polinização podem levar a baixos índices de produtividade geralmente atribuídos a outros fatores. Neste trabalho foram investigados os requerimentos, mecanismos e déficit de polinização e o papel dos polinizadores bióticos em um monocultivo comercial de mamona. Os resultados mostram que R. communis possui um sistema de polinização misto, favorecendo a autopolinização por geitonogamia, embora o vento normalmente promova polinização cruzada. Observou-se também que a abelha melífera (Apis mellifera L. forrageando na mamoneira pode tanto transferir pólen das flores estaminadas para as pistiladas do mesmo racemo, quanto aumentar consideravelmente a liberação de p

  4. Characterization and Utilization of castor bean seed oil extract for production of medicated soap.

    OpenAIRE

    Abdulrasheed A; Aroke U. O; Muazu M.T.

    2015-01-01

    The research work is to investigate the potential utilization of castor bean seed oil extract in the production of medicated soap. The oil was extracted via soxhlet extractor using hexane as solvent. The characterization analysis reveals the acid value and saponification value of the oil which were between the ranges of values specified by ASTM. The soap produced gave a pH of (8.9), foam height (16cm), alcohol insoluble (3.45%), moisture content (4.2%) and free acidity of (0.10). The antibact...

  5. Production and characterization of biodiesel using nonedible castor oil by immobilized lipase from Bacillus aerius.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narwal, Sunil Kumar; Saun, Nitin Kumar; Dogra, Priyanka; Chauhan, Ghanshyam; Gupta, Reena

    2015-01-01

    A novel thermotolerant lipase from Bacillus aerius was immobilized on inexpensive silica gel matrix. The immobilized lipase was used for the synthesis of biodiesel using castor oil as a substrate in a solvent free system at 55°C under shaking in a chemical reactor. Several crucial parameters affecting biodiesel yield such as incubation time, temperature, substrate molar ratio, and amount of lipase were optimized. Under the optimized conditions, the highest biodiesel yield was up to 78.13%. The characterization of synthesized biodiesel was done through FTIR spectroscopy, (1)H NMR spectra, and gas chromatography.

  6. Study of very forward jets at 13 TeV with the CASTOR calorimeter of CMS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The CASTOR calorimeter of CMS measures QCD jets at pseudorapidities -5.2 ≥ η ≥ -6.6. Due to this unique very forward acceptance, such data is very discriminating for hadronic event generators. In particular since values of Bjorken-x down to 10-6 are probed. In preparation for the upcoming LHC Run 2 at √(s) = 13 TeV, a Monte Carlo study of such jets is presented, including full detector simulation with GEANT4. We investigate methods of data- and Monte Carlo-driven jet energy corrections. First results of pt-balancing and detector unfolding are presented.

  7. Synthesis of colloids based on gold nanoparticles dispersed in castor oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    New colloidal solutions of gold nanoparticles (AuNP), using castor oil as a nontoxic organic dispersant agent, were prepared via three different methods. In all three cases, tetrachloroauric(III) acid was employed as the gold source. The colloids were characterized by UV-Vis spectroscopy and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The AuNP produced by the three methods were quasispherical in shape, however with different average sizes. The individual characteristics of the nanoparticles presented in each colloidal system were also confirmed by observation of absorption maxima at different wavelengths of visible light. Each method of synthesis leads to colloids with different grades of stability with respect to particle agglomeration.

  8. Meat quality assessment from young goats fed for long periods with castor de-oiled cake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, C H A; Silva, A M; Silva, L M; van Tilburg, M F; Fernandes, C C L; Moura, A A; Moreno, F B M B; Monteiro-Moreira, A C O; Moreira, R A; Bezerra, F J; Rondina, D

    2015-08-01

    Diet can influence both the qualitative and quantitative traits of ruminant meat. This study evaluated the effects of castor de-oiled cake on the meat of mixed-breed male goat kids. After 165days of diet treatment, no alterations (p>0.05) were observed in the in vivo performance, anatomic components, dissection and proximate composition of the Longissimus dorsi muscle, as well as in the color and pH of the carcasses. However, diet had an effect (pgoats led to alterations in meat quality, without compromising its consumption qualities. PMID:25866931

  9. Yield of castor bean fertilized with sewage sludge and potassium and magnesium sulphate

    OpenAIRE

    Thâmara F. M. Cavalcanti; Geraldo R. Zuba; Regynaldo A. Sampaio; João P. Carneiro; Ely S. A. de Oliveira; Márcio N. Rodrigues

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACTThe aim of this study was to evaluate the yield and nutrition of castor bean in response to fertilization with sewage sludge and potassium (K) and magnesium (Mg) sulphate. The experiment was carried out from January to July 2011. The treatments, in a randomized block design with three replicates, in a Nitosol, corresponded to a factorial scheme (2 x 4 +1): two doses of K and Mg sulphate combined with four doses of sewage sludge (0, 2.60, 5.20 and 10.40 t ha-1, dry basis), applied base...

  10. Evaluation of the properties of iron oxide-filled castor oil polyurethane

    OpenAIRE

    Eleonora Mussatti; Claudia Merlini; Guilherme Mariz de Oliveira Barra; Saulo Güths; Antonio Pedro Novaes de Oliveira; Cristina Siligardi

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to obtain and evaluate the electrical, thermal and mechanical properties of iron oxide-filled castor oil polyurethane (PU/Fe2O3). The iron oxide used in this study was a residue derived from the steel pickling process of a Brazilian steel rolling industry. Polymeric composites with different iron oxide volume fractions (2.5, 5.0, 7.5, 10.0 and 12.5%) were prepared through the casting process followed by compression molding at room temperature. The composites were ana...

  11. Measurement of electron temperature and density by Thomson scattering diagnostic on the Tokamak CASTOR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new Thomson scattering diagnostics is being built on the tokamak CASTOR. The source of the light is a high-power pulsed ruby laser (10 J in one 10 - 20 ns pulse). The detection system is composed from a monochromator with ten photomultipliers. Included is a brief introduction to the physical principle of this method. The designed experimental setup of the diagnostic and its key elements are shown. The calculations of the overall efficiency of the detection system are presented and discussed. (author)

  12. Kinematics Modeling of an Omnidirectional Autonomous Mobile Robot with Castor Wheels

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Peng Yiqiang

    2006-01-01

    The kinematics model of an omnidirectional wheeled mobile robot (WMR) platform with 3 castor wheels was built, which includes the actuated inverse solution and the sensed forward solution. Motion simulations verify the consistency between the actuated inverse solution and the sensed forward solution. Analysis results show that the WMR possesses 3 degrees of freedom, and its motion trajectory is a straight line. The "pushing" and "pulling" motion patterns of the WMR can be generated by using different wheel orientations. It can be used in the places where the space is limited.

  13. Castor industry development:from cultivation to product exploitation%蓖麻产业发展:从种植到利用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙振钧; 吕丽媛; 伍玉鹏

    2012-01-01

    蓖麻作为世界十大油料作物之一,具有很高的开发利用价值。本文从产业发展的角度,综述了蓖麻种植的历史和高产栽培技术现状,分析了蓖麻利用特别是蓖麻基生物燃油及蓖麻深加工产品的研发现状及发展趋势。论述了蓖麻的耐盐性及蓖麻栽培对盐碱地的修复作用,并结合我国边际土地的情况,分析了我国种植蓖麻的潜力。据此提出我国蓖麻研究及产业发展的重点为:蓖麻适宜种植区调查与区划、种质资源调查与创新、低质非耕土壤蓖麻高产栽培技术研究、蓖麻基生物燃油制备工艺研究、蓖麻综合利用研究和蓖麻产业可持续发展及保障系统研究。%As one of the world's ten largest oil crops,castor has broad utilization prospects based on its high economic value.This paper analyzes the current situation of high-yielding castor cultivation technology,summarizes the comprehensive utilization of castor and describes the development of castor biodiesel fuel.Castor salt resistance and the remediation of saline-alkali soil by castor cultivationis are also discussed,as well as the potential of China's cultivation of castor.In this paper,recommendation for castor research and industrial development were also proposed,including the castor surrey and zoning in suitable planting area,the investigation and innovation of germplasm resources,high-yielding cultivation technology of castor in low quality and non-farming soil,preparation process of castor biodiesel fuel,comprehensive utilization research of castor,sustainable development and security system of castor industry.

  14. Survival of bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis) commingled with domestic sheep (Ovis aries) in the absence of Mycoplasma ovipneumoniae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Besser, Thomas E; Cassirer, E Frances; Yamada, Catherine; Potter, Kathleen A; Herndon, Caroline; Foreyt, William J; Knowles, Donald P; Srikumaran, Subramaniam

    2012-01-01

    To test the hypothesis that Mycoplasma ovipneumoniae is an important agent of the bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis) pneumonia that has previously inevitably followed experimental commingling with domestic sheep (Ovis aries), we commingled M. ovipneumoniae-free domestic and bighorn sheep (n=4 each). One bighorn sheep died with acute pneumonia 90 days after commingling, but the other three remained healthy for >100 days. This unprecedented survival rate is significantly different (P=0.002) from that of previous bighorn-domestic sheep contact studies but similar to (P>0.05) bighorn sheep survival following commingling with other ungulates. The absence of epizootic respiratory disease in this experiment supports the hypothesized role of M. ovipneumoniae as a key pathogen of epizootic pneumonia in bighorn sheep commingled with domestic sheep.

  15. RNA sequencing of Populus x canadensis roots identifies key molecular mechanisms underlying physiological adaption to excess zinc.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Ariani

    Full Text Available Populus x canadensis clone I-214 exhibits a general indicator phenotype in response to excess Zn, and a higher metal uptake in roots than in shoots with a reduced translocation to aerial parts under hydroponic conditions. This physiological adaptation seems mainly regulated by roots, although the molecular mechanisms that underlie these processes are still poorly understood. Here, differential expression analysis using RNA-sequencing technology was used to identify the molecular mechanisms involved in the response to excess Zn in root. In order to maximize specificity of detection of differentially expressed (DE genes, we consider the intersection of genes identified by three distinct statistical approaches (61 up- and 19 down-regulated and validate them by RT-qPCR, yielding an agreement of 93% between the two experimental techniques. Gene Ontology (GO terms related to oxidation-reduction processes, transport and cellular iron ion homeostasis were enriched among DE genes, highlighting the importance of metal homeostasis in adaptation to excess Zn by P. x canadensis clone I-214. We identified the up-regulation of two Populus metal transporters (ZIP2 and NRAMP1 probably involved in metal uptake, and the down-regulation of a NAS4 gene involved in metal translocation. We identified also four Fe-homeostasis transcription factors (two bHLH38 genes, FIT and BTS that were differentially expressed, probably for reducing Zn-induced Fe-deficiency. In particular, we suggest that the down-regulation of FIT transcription factor could be a mechanism to cope with Zn-induced Fe-deficiency in Populus. These results provide insight into the molecular mechanisms involved in adaption to excess Zn in Populus spp., but could also constitute a starting point for the identification and characterization of molecular markers or biotechnological targets for possible improvement of phytoremediation performances of poplar trees.

  16. A Comparative Experimental Analysis of Tribological Properties Between Commercial Mineral Oil and Neat Castor Oil using Taguchi Method in Boundary Lubrication Regime

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Bhaumik

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The present work aims to carry out a comparative experimental analysis of tribological properties of 372cSt mineral oil and 229cSt castor oil. The antiwear and extreme pressure properties of both the oils have been analysed according to ASTM G 99 and ASTM D-2783 standards. The surfaces of the balls and pins after tribo tests have been analysed using Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM images. The present test results predict that the antiwear and extreme pressure properties in case of the selected commercially available mineral oil are better than neat castor oil. Both coefficient of friction and frictional force increased by 16-42 % and 16-35 % respectively in case of neat castor oil as compared with that of the mineral oil. The load carrying capacity in case of mineral oil has been found to be 250 kg while in case of castor oil it has been found to be 126 kg. SEM images show a higher plastic deformation in case of castor oil as compared to the mineral oil. Both mineral oil and castor oil showed surface deteriorations and increase in roughness after 40 hrs of intermittent running during scuffing test. Thus, the present investigation indicates that the tribological properties of neat castor are inferior to that of mineral oil although close observation of the results shows that both AW and EP properties of neat castor oil are much closer to that of commercial mineral oil. Thus, the present work would help in formulating castor oil based new bio lubricants with better anti wear and extreme pressure properties

  17. Castor-1C spent fuel storage cask decay heat, heat transfer, and shielding analyses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report documents the decay heat, heat transfer, and shielding analyses of the Gesellschaft fuer Nuklear Services (GNS) CASTOR-1C cask used in a spent fuel storage demonstration performed at Preussen Elektra's Wurgassen nuclear power plant. The demonstration was performed between March 1982 and January 1984, and resulted in cask and fuel temperature data and cask exterior surface gamma-ray and neutron radiation dose rate measurements. The purpose of the analyses reported here was to evaluate decay heat, heat transfer, and shielding computer codes. The analyses consisted of (1) performing pre-look predictions (predictions performed before the analysts were provided the test data), (2) comparing ORIGEN2 (decay heat), COBRA-SFS and HYDRA (heat transfer), and QAD and DOT (shielding) results to data, and (3) performing post-test analyses if appropriate. Even though two heat transfer codes were used to predict CASTOR-1C cask test data, no attempt was made to compare the two codes. The codes are being evaluated with other test data (single-assembly data and other cask data), and to compare the codes based on one set of data may be premature and lead to erroneous conclusions

  18. Bio-based polyurethane prepared from Kraft lignin and modified castor oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. B. Tavares

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Current challenges highlight the need for polymer research using renewable natural sources as a substitute for petroleum-based polymers. The use of polyols obtained from renewable sources combined with the reuse of industrial residues such as lignin is an important agent in this process. Different compositions of polyurethane-type materials were prepared by combining technical Kraft lignin (TKL with castor oil (CO or modified castor oil (MCO1 and MCO2 to increase their reactivity towards diphenylmethane diisocyanate (MDI. The results indicate that lignin increases the glass transition temperature, the crosslinking density and improves the ultimate stress especially for those prepared from MCO2 and 30% lignin content from 8.2 MPa (lignin free to 23.5 MPa. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM micrographs of rupture surface after uniaxial tensile tests show ductile-to-brittle transition. The results show the possibility to develop polyurethane-type materials, varying technical grade Kraft lignin content, which cover a wide range of mechanical properties (from large elastic/low Young modulus to brittle/high Young modulus polyurethanes.

  19. Energetic characterization of the husk of the castor bean fruits of the variety Guarani

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teramoto, Erico Tadao; Sousa, Frederico Faula; Castro Neto, Pedro [Universidade Federal de Lavras (DEG/UFLA), MG (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia; Trugilho, Paulo Fernando [Universidade Federal de Lavras (DCF/UFLA), MG (Brazil). Dept. de Ciencias Florestais; Fraga, Antonio Carlos [Universidade Federal de Lavras (DAG/UFLA), MG (Brazil). Dept. de Agricultura; Nunes, Ramon Rachide [Universidade Federal de Lavras (DAG/UFLA), MG (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica

    2008-07-01

    The knowledge of the physical properties and of the calorific power and of the immediate chemical analysis certain products are interesting for the development of new technologies and equipment for your processing or use as fuel. This way, due to the scarce readiness of referring works for the husk of the castor bean fruits, the present study seeks complemental the available data in the literature. For such were certain the following properties of the husk of the castor bean fruits of variety Guarani: angle of repose, hectolitre weigh, moisture, ash content, volatile material content, fixed carbon content and superior calorific power and inferior calorific power. The following values were found: 42 deg for the angle of repose, 13.92 kg for the hectolitre weight, 4223.19 kcal/kg for the superior calorific power, 3829.92 kcal/kg for the inferior calorific power, 8.21% for the moisture, 9.86% for the ash content, 73.67% for the volatile material content and 8.26% for the fixed carbon content. (author)

  20. Isocyanate-functionalized chitin and chitosan as gelling agents of castor oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallego, Rocío; Arteaga, Jesús F; Valencia, Concepción; Franco, José M

    2013-06-03

    The main objective of this work was the incorporation of reactive isocyanate groups into chitin and chitosan in order to effectively use the products as reactive thickening agents in castor oil. The resulting gel-like dispersions could be potentially used as biodegradable lubricating greases. Three different NCO-functionalized polymers were obtained: two of them by promoting the reaction of chitosan with 1,6-hexamethylene diisocyanate (HMDI), and the other by using chitin instead of chitosan. These polymers were characterized through 1H-NMR, FTIR and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). Thermal and rheological behaviours of the oleogels prepared by dispersing these polymers in castor oil were studied by means of TGA and small-amplitude oscillatory shear (SAOS) measurements. The evolution and values of the linear viscoelasticity functions with frequency for -NCO-functionalized chitosan- and chitin-based oleogels are quite similar to those found for standard lubricating greases. In relation to long-term stability of these oleogels, no phase separation was observed and the values of viscoelastic functions increase significantly during the first seven days of ageing, and then remain almost constant. TGA analysis showed that the degradation temperature of the resulting oleogels is higher than that found for traditional lubricating greases.

  1. The use of castor oil and ricinoleic acid in lead chalcogenide nanocrystal synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyobe, Joseph W. M.; Mubofu, Egid B.; Makame, Yahya M. M.; Mlowe, Sixberth; Revaprasadu, Neerish

    2016-08-01

    A green solution-based thermolysis method for the synthesis of lead chalcogenide (PbE, E = S, Se, Te) nanocrystals in castor oil (CSTO) and its isolate ricinoleic acid (RA) is described. The blue shift observed from the optical spectra of CSTO and RA-capped PbE nanocrystals (NCs) confirmed the evidence of quantum confinement. The dimensions of PbE NCs obtained from NIR absorption spectra, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and X-ray diffraction (XRD) studies were in good agreement. The particle sizes estimated were in the range of 20, 25, and 130 nm for castor oil-capped PbS, PbSe, and PbTe, respectively. Well-defined close to cubic-shaped particles were observed in the scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images of PbSe and PbTe nanocrystals. The high-resolution TEM and selective area electron diffraction (SAED) micrographs of the as-synthesized crystalline PbE NCs showed distinct lattice fringes with d-spacing distances corroborating with the standard values reported in literature.

  2. Green superlubricity of Nitinol 60 alloy against steel in presence of castor oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Qunfeng; Dong, Guangneng; Martin, Jean Michel

    2016-07-01

    In the present work, first, we show that sliding Nitinol 60 alloy against steel under castor oil lubrication exhibits a new case of superlubricity (coefficient of friction CoF ≪ 0.01). So far, CoF below 0.01 have never been achieved under boundary lubrication at high contact pressure and in presence of vegetable oil as a green lubricant. Next, it is demonstrated that superlubricity is controlled by tribochemical reactions, involving chemical degradation of castor oil and the formation of metal oxy-hydroxides. Finally, to explain these findings, we propose a novel superlubricity mechanism consisting of hexanoic acid molecules intercalated between nickel and iron oxy-hydroxide lamellar layers, a structure very similar to the one found in Fe-Ni batteries. We propose that superlubricity is achieved due to repulsive electrostatic forces acting between the intercalated metal oxy-hydroxide lamellar compounds. This system would be suitable for practical engineering applications in many fields including biotechnologies.

  3. Hypersensitivity reaction studies of a polyethoxylated castor oil-free, liposome-based alternative paclitaxel formulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hongbo; Cheng, Guang; Du, Yuan; Ye, Liang; Chen, Wenzhong; Zhang, Leiming; Wang, Tian; Tian, Jingwei; Fu, Fenghua

    2013-03-01

    The commercial drug paclitaxel (Taxol) may introduce hypersensitivity reactions associated with the polyethoxylated castor oil-ethanol solvent. To overcome these problems, we developed a polyethoxylated castor oil-free, liposome-based alternative paclitaxel formulation, known as Lipusu. In this study, we performed in vitro and in vivo experiments to compare the safety profiles of Lipusu and Taxol, with special regard to hypersensitivity reactions. First, Swiss mice were used to determine the lethal dosages, and then to evaluate hypersensitivity reactions, followed by histopathological examination and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) of serum SC5b-9 and lung histamine. Additionally, healthy human serum was used to analyze in vitro complement activation. Finally, an MTT assay was used to determine the in vitro anti-proliferation activity. Our data clearly showed that Lipusu displayed a much higher safety margin and did not induce hypersensitivity or hypersensitivity-related lung lesions, which may be associated with the fact that Lipusu did not activate complement or increase histamine release in vivo. Moreover, Lipusu did not promote complement activation in healthy human serum in vitro, and demonstrated anti-proliferative activity against human cancer cells, similar to that of Taxol. Therefore, the improved formulation of paclitaxel, which exhibited a much better safety profile and comparable cytotoxic activity to Taxol, may bring a number of benefits to cancer patients.

  4. Castor oil as secondary carbon source for production of sophorolipids using Starmerella bombicola NRRL Y-17069.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bajaj, Vinit Kamalkishor; Annapure, Uday S

    2015-01-01

    Sophorolipids (SLs), a prominent member of the biosurfactants family are produced in acidic and/or lactonic form by yeast Starmerella bombicola NRRL Y-17069 when grown on hydrophilic or hydrophobic or both carbon sources. In current study, ricinoleic acid rich castor oil (10%) was used as hydrophobic and glycerol (10%) was used as hydrophilic carbon source. The yields of 24.5 ± 0.25 g/l sophorolipids were analyzed by anthrone and HPLC method which further increased upto 40.24 ± 0.76 g/l sophorolipids using fed batch process at 5L fermenter level. The structures of sophorolipids synthesized on castor oil were elucidated by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometer (LC-MS), (13)C and (1)H NMR. The results indicated that the ricinoleic acid (RA) gets hydroxylated at ω-1 position but incorporated into sophorolipids through already available hydroxyl group at 12(th) position. It resulted in the production of a novel sophorolipids with hydroxyl fatty acid as side chain and has applications as surfactant for novel drug delivery, anti microbial agent, cosmetic ingredient and emulsifier.

  5. [Analysis of Trace Inorganic Elements in Castor Oil by Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Tan-ping; Xie, Hua-lin; Nie, Xi-du

    2015-10-01

    A method for the determination of Na, Mg, Si, P, K, Ca, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Se, Sr, Mo, Cd, Hg and Pb in castor oil after direct dilution with ethanol by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) was established. The sample was diluted by ethanol before ICP-MS determination. The condensation and deposition of high concentrations of carbon in mass cone interface and ion lens, which will decrease the sensitivity of element analysis, were avoided effectively by introducing O2 to plasma. The mass spectral interferences were eliminated by octopole reaction system (ORS). The matrix effects were calibrated to using Sc, Ge, Rh and Ir as internal standard elements. Au standard solution, which could form amalgam alloy with Hg, was dropped to eliminate the memory effect of Hg. The results show that the correlation coefficient for analyte is no less than 0.999 5, the detection limits is in the range of 0.06 - 20.1 ng x L(-1), the recovery is in the range of 990.4% - 110.2%, and the RSD is less than 4.8%. This method was very fast, simple and accurate to simultaneously analyze multi-elements in castor oil.

  6. [Analysis of Trace Inorganic Elements in Castor Oil by Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Tan-ping; Xie, Hua-lin; Nie, Xi-du

    2015-10-01

    A method for the determination of Na, Mg, Si, P, K, Ca, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Se, Sr, Mo, Cd, Hg and Pb in castor oil after direct dilution with ethanol by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) was established. The sample was diluted by ethanol before ICP-MS determination. The condensation and deposition of high concentrations of carbon in mass cone interface and ion lens, which will decrease the sensitivity of element analysis, were avoided effectively by introducing O2 to plasma. The mass spectral interferences were eliminated by octopole reaction system (ORS). The matrix effects were calibrated to using Sc, Ge, Rh and Ir as internal standard elements. Au standard solution, which could form amalgam alloy with Hg, was dropped to eliminate the memory effect of Hg. The results show that the correlation coefficient for analyte is no less than 0.999 5, the detection limits is in the range of 0.06 - 20.1 ng x L(-1), the recovery is in the range of 990.4% - 110.2%, and the RSD is less than 4.8%. This method was very fast, simple and accurate to simultaneously analyze multi-elements in castor oil. PMID:26904837

  7. SOIL EXCHANGEABLE ALUMINUM INFLUENCING THE GROWTH AND LEAF TISSUE MACRONUTRIENTS CONTENT OF CASTOR PLANTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ROSIANE DE LOURDES SILVA DE LIMA

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Three castor ( Ricinus communis genotypes were studied regarding tolerance to high exchange factorial distribution of five doses of exchangeable aluminum added to the soil (0, 0.15, 0.30, 0.60, and 1.20 cmol c dm - 3 and three castor genotypes (BRS Nordestina, BRS Paraguaçu, and Lyra. The plants were raised in pots in a greenhouse. At 53 days after emergence, data were taken on plant height, leaf area, dry mass of shoot and root, and leaf tissue content of macronutrients. The most sensitive genotype was the cv. BRS Nordestina, in which the shoot and root dry weight in the highest aluminum content were reduced to 12.9% and 16.2% of the control treatment, respectively. The most tolerant genotype was the hybrid Lyra, in which the shoot and root dry weight in the maximum content of aluminum were reduced to 43.5% and 42.7% of the control treatment, respectively.The increased exchangeable aluminum affected the leaf nutrient content, and the intensity of the response was different among cultivars. The aluminum toxicity increased N, Ca, and Mg contents and reduced on P, K, and S contents. The cv. BRS Nordestina had a drastic shoot dry weight reduction associated with an intense increment in the N leaf content. Thus, the N increment was caused by a concentration effect caused by the limited growth.

  8. Enhanced accumulation of Cd in castor (Ricinus communis L) by soil-applied chelators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chhajro, Muhammad Afzal; Rizwan, Muhammad Shahid; Guoyong, Huang; Jun, Zhu; Kubar, Kashif Ali; Hongqing, Hu

    2016-01-01

    Phytoextraction has been identified as one of the most propitious methods of phytoremediation. This pot experiment were treated with varying amounts of (ethylenediamine triacetic acid) EDTA 3-15, (Nitriloacetic acid) NTA 3-10, (Ammonium citrate) NH4 citrate 10 - 25 mmol and one mg kg(-1)Cd, filled with 5 kg soil. The addition of chelators significantly increased Cd concentration in soil and plant. The results showed that maximum Cd uptake was noted under root, shoot and leaf of castor plant tissue (2.26, 1.54, and 0.72 mg kg(-1)) under EDTA 15, NTA 10, and NH4 citrate 25 mmol treatments respectively, and in soil 1.08, 1.06 and 0.52 mg kg(-1) pot(-1) under NH4 citrate 25, NTA 10 and EDTA 15 mmol treatments respectively, as against to control (p < 0.05). Additions of chelators reduction biomass under the EDTA 15 mmol as compared to other treatments, However, Bioconcentration factor (BCF), translocation factor (TF) and remediation factor (RF) were significantly increased under EDTA 15 and NH4 citrate 25 mmol as against control. Our results demonstrated that castor plant proved satisfactory for phytoextraction on contaminated soil, and EDTA 15 and NH4 citrate 25 mmol had the affirmative effect on the Cd uptake in the artificial Cd-contaminated soil.

  9. Influence of the organic matter and soil water deficit on the castor bean absolute growth rate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lacerda, Rogerio Dantas de; Guerra, Hugo O. Carvallo; Chaves, Lucia Helena G. [Universidade Federal de Campina Grande (UAEAg/UFCG), PB (Brazil). Unidade Academica de Engenharia Agricola; Araujo, Ester Luiz de; Nascimento, Elka Costa Santos; Barros Junior, Genival [Universidade Federal de Campina Grande (UFCG), PB (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    Even when under low precipitations conditions, the castor bean production decrease, it constitutes a very good alternative. It has an elevated economical importance, because from the plant it is used their leaves, stem and seeds. From the stem it is obtained cellulose for the paper industry, from the leaves textile products and from the seeds oil and tort. The oil is the only glycerin soluble in alcohol and the base for several industrial products such as the biodiesel. The objective of the present work was to study the effect of different soil water and soil organic matter on the castor bean, BRS 188 cultivar rate growth. The experiment was conducted from April to August 2006 under greenhouse conditions using a randomized block 2x4 factorial design with two soil organic mater content (5.0 g.kg{sup -1} e 25.0 g.kg{sup -1}), four levels of available water (100, 90, 80 e 70% ) and three replicates. For this, 24 plastic containers, 75 kg capacity, were used on which was grown one plant 120 days after the seedling. At regular intervals the plant height was measured and the results analyzed statistically. For the qualitative treatments (with and without organic matter) the treatment means were compared through the Tukey test. For the quantitative ones (water levels) regressions were used. It was observed that both, organic matter and available water for plants proportionated benefit effects to the growth rate of the plant. (author)

  10. Effect of the organic matter and soil water deficit on the castor bean inflorescences emission

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lacerda, Rogerio Dantas de; Araujo, Ester Luiz de; Nascimento, Elka Costa Santos; Barros Junior, Genival [Universidade Federal de Campina Grande (UFCG), PB (Brazil); Guerra, Hugo O. Carvallo; Chaves, Lucia Helena G. [Universidade Federal de Campina Grande (UAEAg/UFCG), PB (Brazil). Unidade Academica de Engenharia Agricola

    2008-07-01

    The castor bean culture has become important due to the several applications of its oil, which constitutes one of the best row materials for biodiesel manufacturing, and the base for several other industrial products. The objective of the present work was to study the effect of different soil water and soil organic matter on the castor bean inflorescence emission. The experiment was conducted from April to August 2006 under Greenhouse conditions using a randomized block 2x4 factorial design with two soil organic mater content (5.0 g.kg{sup -1} e 25.0 g.kg{sup -1}), four levels of available water (100, 90, 80 e 70% ) and three replicates. For this, 24 plastic containers, 75 kg capacity, were used on which was grown one plant 120 days after the seedling. When flowering occurred it was measured the number, the time required for the emission and the height of the emissions. The results were analyzed statistically; for the qualitative factor (with and without organic matter) the treatment means were compared through the Tukey test. For the quantitative ones (water levels) regressions were used. The time for the emission of the inflorescences was affected significantly by the organic matter and the available soil water content for plants. The number of inflorescences was affected positively by both treatments. (author)

  11. Synthesis of biodiesel from castor oil: Silent versus sonicated methylation and energy studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Sonicated transesterification leads to higher conversion than conventional one. • Energy consumption required by conventional and ultrasound-assisted transesterification was compared. • Ultrasound-assisted methylation is more competitive in terms of energy than conventional one. - Abstract: In recent years, biodiesel is evolving to be one of the most employed biofuels for partial replacement of petrodiesel. The most widely used feedstocks for biodiesel production are vegetable oils. Among them, castor oil presents two interesting features as biodiesel raw material; on one hand, it does not compete with edible oils; on the other, the cultivar does not require high inputs. In this research, a comparison between conventional and ultrasound-assisted transesterification was carried out in terms of castor oil methyl ester (COME) yield and energy efficiency. Results show that sonicated transesterification leads to higher COME yields under lower methanol-to-oil molar ratio, lower amount of catalyst, shorter reaction time and lower amount of energy required. Ultrasound-assisted transesterification parameters were optimized resulting in the following optimum conditions: 20 kHz fixed frequency, 70% duty cycle, 40% sonication amplitude, 4.87 methanol-to-oil molar ratio, 1.4% w/w amount of catalyst and 3 sonication cycles (3 min 48 s) that provided 86.57% w/w COME yield. The energy required along each type of transesterification was measured leading to the conclusion that sonicated transesterification consumes a significant lower amount of energy than conventional one, thus achieving higher COME yield

  12. Polyurethane and polyurea nanoparticles based on polyoxyethylene castor oil derivative surfactant suitable for endovascular applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morral-Ruíz, Genoveva; Melgar-Lesmes, Pedro; García, María Luísa; Solans, Conxita; García-Celma, María José

    2014-01-30

    The design of new, safe and effective nanotherapeutic systems is an important challenge for the researchers in the nanotechnology area. This study describes the formation of biocompatible polyurethane and polyurea nanoparticles based on polyoxyethylene castor oil derivative surfactant formed from O/W nano-emulsions by polymerization at the droplet interfaces in systems composed by aqueous solution/Kolliphor(®) ELP/medium chain triglyceride suitable for intravenous administration. Initial nano-emulsions incorporating highly hydrophilic materials were prepared by the phase inversion composition (PIC) method. After polymerization, nanoparticles with a small particle diameter (25-55 nm) and low polydispersity index were obtained. Parameters such as concentration of monomer, O/S weight ratio as well as the polymerization temperature were crucial to achieve a correct formation of these nanoparticles. Moreover, FT-IR studies showed the full conversion of the monomer to polyurethane and polyurea polymers. Likewise the involvement of the surfactant in the polymerization process through their nucleophilic groups to form the polymeric matrix was demonstrated. This could mean a first step in the development of biocompatible systems formulated with polyoxyethylene castor oil derivative surfactants. In addition, haemolysis and cell viability assays evidenced the good biocompatibility of KELP polyurethane and polyurea nanoparticles thus indicating the potential of these nanosystems as promising drug carriers.

  13. Performance evaluation of a diesel engine fueled with methyl ester of castor seed oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.DURGA DEVI

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Diesel engines are widely used as power sources in medium and heavy-duty applications because of their lower fuel consumption and lower emissions of carbon monoxide (CO and unburned hydrocarbons (HC compared with gasoline engines. Rudolf Diesel, the inventor ofthe diesel engine, ran an engine on groundnut oil at the Paris Exposition of 1900. Since then, vegetable oils have been used as fuels when petroleum supplies were expensive or difficult to obtain. With the increased availability of petroleum in the 1940s, research into vegetable oils decreased. Since the oil crisis of the 1970s research interest has expanded in the area of alternative fuels. The difficulties associated with using raw vegetable oils in diesel engines identified in the literature are injector coking, severe engine deposits, filter gumming problems, piston ring sticking, and injector coking and thickening of the lubricating oil. The highviscosity and low volatility of raw vegetable oils are generally considered to be the major drawbacks for their utilization as fuels in diesel engines. Castor methyl ester (CME blends showed performance characteristics close to diesel. Therefore castor methylester blends can be used in CI engines in rural area for meeting energy requirement in various agricultural operations such as irrigation, threshing, indistries etc.

  14. Dry storage of the BR3 spent fuel in the Castor BR3 cask

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ooms, L.; Massaut, V.; Noynaert, L. [SCK/CEN, B-2400 Mol (Belgium); Braeckeveldt, M. [Niras/Ondraf, B-1210 Brussels (Belgium)

    2001-07-01

    Twenty-five years of operation has resulted in an inventory of spent fuel with a wide variety in the BR3 nuclear pilot power plant. Studies were launched to evaluate all possible solutions for the BR3 experimental and 'exotic' spent fuel, i.e. reprocessing, dry storage in containers and dry storage in canisters. For the BR3 spent fuel the interim dry storage in Castor BR3 containers was chosen. The present paper describes in a first part the history and characteristics of the spent fuel. A second part handles with the different options, which were studied for the spent fuel evacuation. The last part focuses on the spent fuel preparation and the production of the Castor BR3. This project allowed the SCK-CEN to build up an important know-how in the field of spent fuel management, especially the management of research reactor fuel, which is very specific and not comparable with spent fuel of commercial nuclear power plants. (author)

  15. Sugarcane bagasse and castor oil polyurethane adhesive-based particulate composite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliano Fiorelli

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the potential use of sugarcane bagasse in two different fiber lengths (5 mm and 8 mm of the same density as a raw material for the production of particleboards, using castor oil-based two-component polyurethane adhesive. The quality of the product that can be manufactured industrially was evaluated based on density, thickness swell (TS, absorption (WA, modulus of elasticity (MOE, modulus of rupture (MOR in static bending and internal bond (IB, according to the Brazilian NBR 14.810:2006 standard. The results revealed a significant difference between the particleboards made with 5-mm-long fibers and those made with 8-mm-long fibers. An analysis by scanning electron microscopy (SEM indicates that the interparticle spaces are filled with castor oil-based two-component polyurethane adhesive, contributing to improve the physicomechanical properties of the particleboards. A durability assessment based on accelerated aging tests shows that waterproofed particleboards can be used in moist environments.

  16. 蓖麻油多官能团反应进展%Castor Oil Functional Reaction Review

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张海飞; 朱新宝

    2015-01-01

    Castor oil molecules contain functional groups such as hydroxyl,ester group,ethylenic bond,two or three kinds of functional groups can perform a series of chemical reactions,which form many new castor oil deriva-tives,and develop many new application,now the series of chemical reactions were reviewed and classified,authors systematically introduced the reaction of castor oil and briefly described different a variety of purposes of product,to facilitate the design of the new reaction and the development of new products,to improve the castor oil deep process-ing technology.%蓖麻油分子中含有羟基、酯基、烯键等官能团,其中二种或三种官能团组合能进行一系列化学反应,已合成出许多新的蓖麻油衍生物,开发出很多新的用途,现对其系列化学反应进行综述归类,系统地介绍蓖麻油多官能团组合所能发生的反应,简述不同反应产物的多种用途,便于新反应的设计和新产品的开发,提高蓖麻油深加工技术。

  17. Photosynthetic pigments and gas exchange in castor bean under conditions of above the optimal temperature and high CO2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiola França Silva

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The castor bean plant, a Euphorbiaceae oil seed C3-metabolism rustic and drought-resistant plant, is cultivated in a wide range of environments due to its good adaptive capacity. However, given the current environmental changes, many biochemical and physiological impacts may affect the productivity of important crops, such as castor bean. This work aimed to evaluate the impacts of the castor bean gas exchange in response to high temperature and increased CO2concentration.Our experiment was conducted in a phytotron located at Embrapa Algodão in 2010. We adopted a completely randomized design, with four treatments in a factorial combination of two temperatures (30/20 and 37/30°C and two CO2 levels (400 and 800 mmol L-1; four replications were performed, obtained in five surveys over the growth cycle, for a total of 80 sample units. An infrared gas analyzer (IRGA - Infra Red Gas Analyzer was used for the quantification of the photosynthetic rate, stomatal conductance and transpiration. An increase in the atmospheric CO2 concentration and temperature negatively affected the physiology of the castor bean plants, decreasing the net rate of photosynthesis, transpiration and stomatal conductance.

  18. The effects of possible contamination on the radiocarbon dating of the Dead Sea Scrolls I : Castor oil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rasmussen, KL; van der Plicht, J; Cryer, FH; Doudna, G; Cross, FM; Strugnell, J; Rasmussen, Kaare L.; Cryer, Frederick H.; Cross, Frank M.

    2001-01-01

    Some fragments of the Dead Sea Scroll manuscripts were contaminated with castor oil in the late 1950s. We have conducted experiments in order to establish if the AAA pretreatment cleaning procedures conducted on Dead Sea Scroll manuscript samples in the last two dating series (Bonani et al. 1992; Ju

  19. Computer simulation of 3D steady and 2D transient loading of CASTOR 440/84 using FEM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The system of computer codes, developed at the NRI Rez, plc. for the CEZ a.s. company, is described, aimed to the realistic best estimate evaluations of the temperature field in the CASTOR 440/84 container, which is used for the Dukovany NPP spent fuel. (author)

  20. Genomic surveys and expression analysis of bZIP gene family in castor bean (Ricinus communis L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Zhengwei; Xu, Wei; Liu, Aizhong

    2014-02-01

    The basic leucine zipper (bZIP) transcription factors comprise a family of transcriptional regulators present extensively in plants, involved in regulating diverse biological processes such as flower and vascular development, seed maturation, stress signaling and pathogen defense. Castor bean (Ricinus communis L. Euphorbiaceae) is one of the most important non-edible oilseed crops and its seed oil is broadly used for industrial applications. We performed a comprehensive genome-wide identification and analysis of the bZIP transcription factors that exist in the castor bean genome in this study. In total, 49 RcbZIP transcription factors were identified, characterized and categorized into 11 groups (I-XI) based on their gene structure, DNA-binding sites, conserved motifs, and phylogenetic relationships. The dimerization properties of 49 RcbZIP proteins were predicted on the basis of the characteristic features in the leucine zipper. Global expression profiles of 49 RcbZIP genes among different tissues were examined using high-throughput sequencing of digital gene expression profiles, and resulted in diverse expression patterns that may provide basic information to further reveal the function of the 49 RcbZIP genes in castor bean. The results obtained from this study would provide valuable information in understanding the molecular basis of the RcbZIP transcription factor family and their potential function in regulating the growth and development, particularly in seed filling of castor bean.

  1. The effect of herbivory on temporal and spatial dynamics of foliar nectar production in cotton and castor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wäckers, F.L.; Zuber, D.; Wunderlin, R.; Keller, F.

    2001-01-01

    The effects of feeding Spodoptera a littoralis (Boisd.) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) larvae on the quantity and distribution of extrafloral nectar production by leaves of castor ((Ricinus communis) and cotton (Gossypium herbaceum) were investigated. Following larval feeding, the total volume of nectar s

  2. Feeding Strategies of Castor fiber brirula%蒙新河狸采食对策初步研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卢山; 黄艳; 兰文旭; 葛炎

    2011-01-01

    蒙新河狸为国家一级保护动物,数量稀少,属濒危物种。通过对该物种采食对策的初步观察研究,结果表明:在食物选择上,蒙新河狸对径级为1~3 cm的树木呈正选择。蒙新河狸家域最主要的采食区域为巢穴上下游100 m范围内,主河道两岸10 m范围内。蒙新河狸采食主要选择2年生的树木和多年生的大树(7 cm以上)。%Castor fiber brirula,whose number is rare,is first class national protected animals,being endangered species.Feeding strategies of this species were preliminarily observed studied.Result shows that: in the choice of food,Castor fiber brirula appears positive selection on the diameter class of the 1-3 cm.The main feeding range of Castor fiber brirula home range is 100 m upstream and downstream within the nest,10 m range in both sides of main channel.Castor fiber brirula mainly choose 2-year-old trees perennial trees(above 7 cm) for feed.

  3. Expression of castor LPAT2 enhances ricinoleic acid content at the sn-2 position of triacylglycerols in lesquerella seed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lesquerella (Physaria fendelri) is a potential crop for hydroxy fatty acid (HFA) production. Its seed triacylglcerols (TAGs) contain 55–60% lesquerolic acid (20:1OH), mostly at the sn-1 and the sn-3 positions of TAG. Castor (Ricinus communis) TAGs contain 90% of ricinoleic acid (18:1OH) which is est...

  4. A review of nutritional and toxicological implications of castor bean (Ricinus communis L.) meal in animal feeding systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akande, T O; Odunsi, A A; Akinfala, E O

    2016-04-01

    The nutrient-rich defatted castor meal has been tested as a potential source of protein in diets of many livestock species but has limitation due to challenges of toxins. This review was conducted to compile the relevant research information on advances in the use of raw and differently processed castor seed meal in animal feed. In this article, distribution and uses of castor and its products were identified. Research findings on the nutrients profile, principal toxins, various detoxification strategies, nutritional value and toxicity on common livestock species were compiled and reviewed. The defatted seed meal had crude protein range of 32-48%, gross energy of about 3200 kcal/kg. Ricin content was 9.3 mg/g seed, and the average RCA content was 9.9 mg/g. The meal had high activity of lectin, which produced agglutination at about 4.70 mg/ml minimum assays. Reports of detoxification strategies showed varying degrees of success but high pH, moist heating and microbial techniques appeared to exert greater effect on deactivating ricin. Detoxification strategy for the allergen component is inconclusive. Tannins and the phenolic contents were present at trace level and did not constitute notable threat. It was concluded that castor seed holds great potential as feedstuff when upgraded but such upgrading must be safe, cost-effective and labour efficient for commercial acceptability.

  5. The effect of herbivory on temporal and spatial dynamics of foliar nectar production in cotton and castor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wäckers, F.L.; Zuber, D.; Wunderlin, R.; Keller, F.

    2001-01-01

    The effects of feeding Spodoptera littoralis(Boisd.) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) larvae on the quantity and distribution of extrafloral nectar production by leaves of castor (Ricinus communis) and cotton (Gossypium herbaceum) were investigated. Following larval feeding, the total volume of nectar secre

  6. THE EFFECTS OF POSSIBLE CONTAMINATION ON THE RADIOCARBON DATING OF THE DEAD SEA SCROLLS II: EMPIRICAL METHODS TO REMOVE CASTOR OIL AND SUGGESTIONS FOR REDATING

    OpenAIRE

    Rasmussen, Kaare Lund; Van der Plicht, Johannes; Doudna, Gregory; Nielsen, Frederik; Hojrup, Peter; Stenby, Erling Halfdan; Pedersen, Carl Th; Højrup, Peter

    2009-01-01

    While kept at the Rockefeller Museum in East Jerusalem, many Dead Sea Scroll fragments were exposed to castor oil by the original team of editors in the course of cleaning the parchments. Castor oil must be regarded as a serious contaminant in relation to radiocarbon dating. If modern castor oil is present and is not removed prior to dating, the (14)C dates will be skewed artificially towards modern values. In Rasmussen et al. (2001), it was shown that the standard AAA pretreatment procedure ...

  7. Sorption of oil in the polyurethane from oil or castor oil; Sorcao de oleo no poliuretano derivado do petroleo ou do oleo de mamona

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Florentino, Wagner M.; Goulart, Shane A.S.; Mulinari, Daniella R. [Centro Universitario de Volta Redonda (UniFOA), Volta Redonda, RJ (Brazil)], e-mail: wagner-can@hotmail.com

    2011-07-01

    The oil outpouring has caused serious environmental problems. To minimize this damage polyurethane foams have been used. In this work, the use of polyurethane from oil and castor oil, in different polyol/diisocyanate mass ratios, to absorb oil was evaluated. Results revealed that the proportion of polyol and diisocyanate influenced in the sorption capacity and the polyurethane from castor oil presented greater sorption capacity. Of this way, can say that the polyurethane from oil can be replaced by castor oil, contributing to sustainable development. (author)

  8. Vertical Stratification and Co-Occurrence Patterns of the Psocoptera Community Associated with Eastern Hemlock, Tsuga canadensis (L.) Carrière, in the Southern Appalachians

    OpenAIRE

    Edward Mockford; Rusty Rhea; Paris Lambdin; Jerome Grant; Carla Coots

    2012-01-01

    Of the more than 300 species of Psocoptera described in North America, 44 species have been documented on eastern hemlock, Tsuga canadensis (L.) Carrière, in the southern Appalachians. However, the distribution and co-occurrence patterns of these species throughout the tree canopy are unknown. This study was initiated to evaluate specimen abundance, species richness and species composition among three designated strata in the canopy of eastern hemlock, assess species for vertical stratificati...

  9. Síntesis de espumas rígidas de poliuretano obtenidas a partir de aceite de castor y poliglicerol empleando calentamiento por microondas Synthesis of rigid polyurethane foams obtained from castor oil and polyglycerol using microwave heating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Mazo

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo se realizó la síntesis de espumas rígidas de poliuretano utilizando un macropoliol sintetizado a partir de aceite de castor y poliglicerol, se optimizó mediante un análisis de superficie de respuesta, empleando un diseño factorial 32, los factores evaluados fueron: cantidad de agua y de ácido tartárico, el cual actúa como agente entrecruzante y catalizador; se evalúaron las propiedades mecánicas de las espumas como: densidad aparente (ASTM D1622-08, resistencia a la compresión (ASTM D1621, conductividad térmica (ASTM C177-04 y friabilidad (ASTM C421-8; se realizó Microscopia Electrónica de Barrido (SEM y Análisis de Calorimetría Diferencial de Barrido (DSC. El macropoliol fue obtenido desde fuentes renovables, mediante la transesterificación de Aceite de Castor (CO ó Aceite de Castor Maleinizado (MACO con Poliglicerol (PG. Se evalúo el efecto de las microondas en las reacciones, donde se encuentra una disminución del tiempo; el seguimiento y la caracterización de los productos intermedios se realiza mediante la cuantificación de valor ácido por titulación (ASTM D4662-03 y número de hidroxilos (ASTM D4274-05.In this work we showed the polyurethane rigid foams synthesis using a macropolyol synthesized from castor oil and polyglycerol. This process is optimized employing a response surface analysis and using a 3² factorial design. The factors evaluated were: amount of water and tartaric acid, where tartaric acid acts as crosslinking agent and catalyst; mechanical properties of foams were evaluated as bulk density (ASTM D1622-08, compressive strength (ASTM D1621, thermal conductivity (ASTM C177-04, and friability (ASTM C421-8; scanning electronic microscopic (SEM and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC. The macropolyol was obtained from renewable sources by the transesterification of castor oil (CO or maleinized castor oil (MACO and polyglycerol (PG. The effect of microwaves on the reactions was

  10. A Comparison of the Efficacy, Adverse Effects, and Patient Compliance of the Sena-Graph®Syrup and Castor Oil Regimens for Bowel Preparation

    OpenAIRE

    Ghazikhanlou Sani, Karim; Jafari, Mahmood-Reza; Shams, Safar

    2010-01-01

    Sena-Graph syrup has recently been formulated by an Iranian pharmaceutical company for being used in bowel evacuation before radiography, colonoscopy and surgery. This study compares the efficacy, adverse effects and patient compliance of two bowel preparation regimens with castor oil and Sena-Graph syrup in of outpatients for Intravenous Urography (IVU). One hundred and fourteen consecutive outpatients were randomized to receive either the standard bowel preparation with 60 mL of castor oil ...

  11. Exploiting EST databases for the development and characterization of EST-SSR markers in castor bean (Ricinus communis L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Yang Jun-Bo; Tian Bo; Yang Chun; Qiu Lijun; Liu Aizhong

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background The castor bean (Ricinus communis L.), a monotypic species in the spurge family (Euphorbiaceae, 2n = 20), is an important non-edible oilseed crop widely cultivated in tropical, sub-tropical and temperate countries for its high economic value. Because of the high level of ricinoleic acid (over 85%) in its seed oil, the castor bean seed derivatives are often used in aviation oil, lubricants, nylon, dyes, inks, soaps, adhesive and biodiesel. Due to lack of efficient molecular...

  12. Predicting distribution patterns and recent northward range shift of an invasive aquatic plant: Elodea canadensis in Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Risto Heikkinen

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Climate data and distribution data for the Canadian waterweed Elodea canadensis Michx. from North America, whole Europe and Finland were used to investigate the ability of bioclimatic envelope models to predict the distribution range and recent northward range shift of the species in Europe. Four different main types of models were developed using the North American data, including either three ‘baseline’ climate variables (growing degrees days, temperature of the coldest month, water balance or an extended set of seven climate variables, both averaged either over a 30 year time slice or a longer 90 year time slice. Ten different random selections of pseudo-absences were generated from the North American data, on the basis of which ten separate generalized additive models (GAMs were developed for each main model type. All the 40 developed GAMs were applied first to North America and then transferred to whole Europe and Finland. All the models showed a statistically highly significant accuracy in the three study areas. Although the differences among the four main model types were only minor, the two extended model types showed on average statistically better performance than the two baseline models based on Bayesian information criterion (BIC values, the amount of deviance explained by the models, resubstitution validation and four-fold cross-validation in North America. They also provided slightly more accurate predictions of climatically suitable area for Elodea canadensis in Finland both in 1961–1984 and 1985–2006. However, the projections from the individual extended models were more variable than projections from the baseline models. Thus model predictions based on a variety of predictor variables but only one selection of pseudoabsences may be subject to biases, and outputs from multiple models should be investigated to better account for uncertainties in modelling. Overall, our results suggest that more attention should be paid to the

  13. Biodiesel Production from Castor Oil by Using Calcium Oxide Derived from Mud Clam Shell

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Ismail

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The catalytic potential of calcium oxide synthesized from mud clam shell as a heterogeneous catalyst for biodiesel production was studied. The mud clam shell calcium oxide was characterized using particle size analyzer, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and BET gas sorption analyzer. The catalyst performance of mud clam shell calcium oxide was studied in the transesterification of castor oil as biodiesel. Catalyst characterization and transesterification study results of synthesized catalyst proved the efficiency of the natural derived catalyst for biodiesel production. A highest biodiesel yield of 96.7% was obtained at optimal parameters such as 1 : 14 oil-to-methanol molar ratio, 3% w/w catalyst concentration, 60°C reaction temperature, and 2-hour reaction time. Catalyst reusability test shows that the synthesized calcium oxide from mud clam shell is reusable up to 5 times.

  14. Phosphatidylcholine synthesis in castor bean endosperm. Metabolism of S-adenosylmethionine and ethanolamine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The methylation steps in the biosynthesis of phosphatidylcholine by castor bean endosperm have been studied. Endosperm halves were incubated with tracer concentrations of [2-14C] ethanolamine or [14C]S-adenosyl-L-methionine for 10 or 30 minutes, respectively. The kinetics of appearance were followed in methyl- and dimethylethanolamine, choline, and their phospho-, CDP-, and phosphatidyl-derivatives. Methyl groups from S-adenosyl-L-methionine rapidly labeled the three methylated-ethanolamine derivatives. Radioactivity then decreased in these compounds and accumulated in phosphatidylcholine. The initial methylation utilized ethanolamine as a substrate to form methyl-ethanolamine, which was partially converted to dimethyl-ethanolamine, choline, and phosphomethylethanolamine. Subsequent methylations occurred at both phospho-base and phosphatidyl-base levels. Experiments with ethanolamine confirmed these results

  15. High pressure changes of the castor oil viscosity by ultrasonic method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rostocki, A. J.; Siegoczyński, R. M.; Kielczyński, P.; Szalewski, M.

    2008-07-01

    The pressure change of viscosity of castor oil have been measured by ultrasonic method within the range of pressure up to 0.9 GPa. For the measurement, the authors have applied a new ultrasonic method based on Bleustein-Gulyaev (B-G) waves. For the lower pressures (up to 0.3 GPa) the results have been compared with earlier results obtained by falling body method, whereas for the higher pressure range results were compared with those obtained by the flow type viscometer. The measurements have shown: 1. Exponential rise of viscosity with pressure up to 0.4 GPa according to the Barus formula. 2. Extraordinary increment of viscosity at constant pressure during phase transition. 3. The decomposition of the high pressure phase during the decompression process have shown very large hysteresis of viscosity on pressure. 4. After the decompression process the viscosity lasts higher then a initial value for several hours.

  16. Detailed molecular characterization of castor oil ethoxylates by liquid chromatography multistage mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasioudis, Andreas; van Velde, Jan W; Heeren, Ron M A; van den Brink, Oscar F

    2011-10-01

    The molecular characterization of castor oil ethoxylates (CASEOs) was studied by reverse-phase liquid chromatography (RPLC) mass spectrometry (MS) and multistage mass spectrometry (MS(n)). The developed RPLC method allowed the separation of the various CASEO components, and especially, the baseline separation of multiple nominal isobars (same nominal mass) and isomers (same exact mass). MS and MS(n) were used for the determination and structure elucidation of various structures and for the discrimination of the isobars and isomers. Different ionization techniques and adduct ions were also tested for optimization of the MS detection and the MS(n) fragmentation. A unique fragmentation pathway of ricinoleic acid is proposed, which can be used as a marker of the polymerization process and the topology of ethoxylation in the CASEO. In addition, characteristic neutral losses of ricinoleic acid reveal its (terminal or internal) position in the molecule.

  17. An examination of the effect of castor oil packs on constipation in the elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arslan, Gülşah Gürol; Eşer, Ismet

    2011-02-01

    This research, conducted at two rest homes in Manisa, Turkey, was undertaken to examine the effect of castor oil pack (COP) administrations on constipation in the elderly. Study participants were monitored for 7 days before, 3 days during, and 4 days after COP administration utilizing the Recall Bias and Visual Scale Analog (RB-VSAQ) as well as the Standard Diary developed by Pamuk et al. Wilcoxon Signed Ranks, Repeated Measures, Bonferroni, and Mann-Whitney U tests were used for data analysis. Eighty percent of study subjects had been constipated for 10 years or longer. COP administration did not have an effect on the number of bowel movements or amount of feces, but decreased the feces consistency score, straining during defecation and feeling of complete evacuation after a bowel movement, thus decreasing symptoms of constipation. We conclude that COP may be used for controlling symptoms of constipation.

  18. Plasma formation and sustainment by a multijunction grill on the CASTOR tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiofrequency power up to 40 kW, injected into the vacuum chamber of the CASTOR tokamak by a multijunction grill, was used for plasma production during the ramp-up phase of a toroidal magnetic field. When electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) appears inside the tokamak chamber for the given pumping frequency (f=1.25 GHz) plasma with a density greater than 2x1018 m-3 and a temperature of Te=10 to 40 eV is produced. The plasma is sustained at some lower value of density during the whole RF pulse. Simultaneously, a toroidal current of up to ≅ 0.2 kA is generated. The energy confinement time is estimated to be about 30 μs during the ECR breakdown. (author)

  19. Castor oil and commercial thermoplastic polyurethane membranes modified with polyaniline: a comparative study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The study of conducting polymeric membranes is decisive in some areas, as in fuel cells and electrodialysis. This work aims the study of membranes using conventional and conductive polymers blends. Two types of polyurethane were used as conventional polymers, commercial thermoplastic polyurethane and polyurethane synthesized from castor oil and 4-4-dicyclohexylmethane isocyanate. Two kinds of conducting polymers were used, polyaniline doped with organic acid and a self doped polyaniline. The polymers and the membranes were characterized by electrical conductivity, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The synthesis of the membranes produced was proper, featuring a complete reaction, analyzed by FTIR. The membranes also showed good mechanical properties and thermal stability (≈ 220 °C). Among the membranes studied, the polyaniline doped with p-toluenesulphonic acid obtained higher thermal and viscoelastic properties. Thus they can be used in separation techniques using membranes. (author)

  20. Castor oil and commercial thermoplastic polyurethane membranes modified with polyaniline: a comparative study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Almeida Junior, Jose Humberto Santos; Meneguzzi, Alvaro; Ferreira, Carlos Arthur, E-mail: jhsajunior@globomail.com [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS), Porto Alegtre, RS (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia de Materiais; Bertuol, Daniel Assumpcao [Universidade Federal de Santa Maria (UFSM), RS (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Quimica; Amado, Franco Dani Rico [Universidade Estadual de Santa Cruz (UESC), Ilheus, BA (Brazil). Dept. de Ciencias Exatas e Tecnologia

    2013-11-01

    The study of conducting polymeric membranes is decisive in some areas, as in fuel cells and electrodialysis. This work aims the study of membranes using conventional and conductive polymers blends. Two types of polyurethane were used as conventional polymers, commercial thermoplastic polyurethane and polyurethane synthesized from castor oil and 4-4-dicyclohexylmethane isocyanate. Two kinds of conducting polymers were used, polyaniline doped with organic acid and a self doped polyaniline. The polymers and the membranes were characterized by electrical conductivity, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The synthesis of the membranes produced was proper, featuring a complete reaction, analyzed by FTIR. The membranes also showed good mechanical properties and thermal stability ( Almost-Equal-To 220 Degree-Sign C). Among the membranes studied, the polyaniline doped with p-toluenesulphonic acid obtained higher thermal and viscoelastic properties. Thus they can be used in separation techniques using membranes. (author)

  1. Bayesian Integration of Isotope Ratios for Geographic Sourcing of Castor Beans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Webb-Robertson, Bobbie-Jo M.; Kreuzer, Helen W.; Hart, Garret L.; Ehleringer, James; West, Jason B.; Gill, Gary A.; Duckworth, Douglas C.

    2012-08-15

    Recent years have seen an increase in the forensic interest associated with the poison ricin, which is extracted from the seeds of the Ricinus communis plant. Both light element (C, N, O, and H) and strontium (Sr) isotope ratios have previously been used to associate organic material with geographic regions of origin. We present a Bayesian integration methodology that can more accurately predict the region of origin for a castor bean than individual models developed independently for light element stable isotopes or Sr isotope ratios. Our results demonstrate a clear improvement in the ability to correctly classify regions based on the integrated model with a class accuracy of 6 0 . 9 {+-} 2 . 1 % versus 5 5 . 9 {+-} 2 . 1 % and 4 0 . 2 {+-} 1 . 8 % for the light element and strontium (Sr) isotope ratios, respectively. In addition, we show graphically the strengths and weaknesses of each dataset in respect to class prediction and how the integration of these datasets strengthens the overall model.

  2. The Mechanical Properties of Castor Seed Shell-polyester Matrix Composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.C. Nwigbo

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available A composite with a polyester matrix reinforced with chemically modified shells of castor seed (Ricinus communis was produced. The effect of the shell (filler on the mechanical properties of the composite was experimentally quantified. A preliminary study was earlier carried out the shell in terms of their chemical constituents, functional group and mechanical strength. The shell was ground and chemically treated to enhance good bonding and adhesion to the matrix. Composites were fabricated using a hand lay-up or contact mould method for different percentage compositions of the filler. Tests, with respect to the mechanical properties (i.e., tensile, flexural and creep response were carried out. The result obtained was compared with the unreinforced polyester plate. It was observed that the inclusion of the filler (shell added strength to the composite. Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM was taken on the composite samples to study the morphology of the composites.

  3. Effect of gamma radiation on the antioxidant activity of castor oil: Preliminary report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effect of gamma radiation in the antioxidant activity of castor oil, Ricinus communis L., has been studied by the DPPH method. The IC50 of the oil is 0,28 μL/mL, which indicates that this oil contain compounds with the ability to neutralize DPPH radicals. The antioxidant activity does not vary too much when the oil is irradiated up to 20 kGy, except for 15 kGy where it decreased 6%. If the oil was obtained from irradiated seeds, the activity does not vary too much up to 3 kGy. However, for 5 kGy it was observed a reduction of 20%. (orig.)

  4. Anatomic and tissue characteristics in goats fed for extended periods with residue of castor biodiesel production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cláudio Henrique de Almeida Oliveira

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Twenty-five adult crossbred goats, divided in two groups, were fed over a period of 16 months with diets based on Tifton hay and concentrate feed with (DCO or without (WDCO detoxified castor bean meal as a substitute for soybean meal. Throughout 480 days, blood samples were taken to measure lactate dehydrogenase, aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, urea, albumin and creatinine. The animals were euthanized, and the anatomical components (lungs, heart, spleen, liver, kidneys, tongue, empty stomach, empty intestines, omentum, cardiac and renal adipose tissue, carcass and commercial cuts (shoulder, ham, loin, ribs and neck were weighed. Thereafter, an anatomic dissection of the loin was performed, separating the muscle, adipose and bone tissues. On the muscular part of the loin, longissimus dorsi, the proximate composition, fatty acid profile and the expression of SEW-1, IGF-I and IGF-II were analyzed. A higher incidence of bone tissue was observed in the anatomical dissections of the loin and a lower incidence of fat in the proximate composition of the longissimus dorsi of the DCO group compared to the WDCO group (p<0.05. The expression of the IGF-II and SEW-1 genes was higher (p<0.001 for each in the muscle tissue of the DCO animals. Thus, using detoxified castor bean meal for long periods does not produce significant changes in the anatomical composition of the loin or the proximate composition of the longissimus dorsi. However, the differences in gene expression suggest the need for new investigations and care when using this product for animal feeding.

  5. Rhipicephalus sanguineus (Acari: Ixodidae) female ticks exposed to castor oil (Ricinus communis): an ultrastructural overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sampieri, B R; Furquim, K C S; Nunes, P H; Camargo-Mathias, M I

    2013-02-01

    Tick control has been accomplished through the use of synthetic acaricides, which has created resistant individuals, as well as contaminating the environment and nontarget organisms. Substances of plant origin, such as oils and extracts of eucalyptus and neem leaves, have been researched as an alternative to replace the synthetic acaricides. Ricinoleic acid esters from castor oil have recently been shown as a promising alternative in eliminating bacterial contamination during ethanol fermentation, by acting as an effective biocide. The same positive results have been observed when these esters are added to the food given to tick-infested rabbits. This study tested the effect of these substance on the reproductive system of Rhipicephalus sanguineus females, added to rabbit food, more specifically on oogenesis. For this, four groups were established: four control groups (CG1, CG2, CG3, and CG4) and four treatment groups (TG1, TG2, TG3, and TG4) with one rabbit in each (New Zealand White), used as hosts. After full 4 days feeding (semi-engorgement), the females were collected and had their ovaries extracted. In this study, it was observed that R. sanguineus females exposed to esters had their ovaries modified, which was demonstrated through transmission electron microscopy techniques. The addition of ricinoleic esters to the diet of tick-infested rabbits revealed how toxic such substances are for the cytoplasmic organelles of oocytes and pedicel cells. These compounds can change the morphophysiology of germ and somatic cells, consequently influencing their viability and, therefore, confirming that the ricinoleic acid esters from castor oil are a promising substance in the control of R. sanguineus. PMID:23086445

  6. Potential of castor bean (Ricinus communis L.) for phytoremediation of mine tailings and oil production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz Olivares, Alejandro; Carrillo-González, Rogelio; González-Chávez, Ma del Carmen A; Soto Hernández, Ramón Marcos

    2013-01-15

    Bioenergy production combined with phytoremediation has been suggested to help in solving two critical world problems: the gradual reduction of fossil fuels and soil contamination. The aim of this research was to investigate the potential for the use of Ricinus communis L. (castor oil plant) as an energy crop and plant species to remediate metal-polluted sites. This study was performed in mine tailings containing high concentrations of Cu, Zn, Mn, Pb and Cd. Physico-chemical characterization, total, DTPA-extractable and water-soluble metals in rhizospheric tailings heap samples were carried. Metal concentrations in plant tissues and translocation factors (TFs) were also determined. The Ricinus seed-oil content was high between 41 and 64%, seeds from San Francisco site 6 had the highest oil content, while these from site 7 had the lowest. No trend between oil yield vs seed origin site was observed. Seed-oil content was negatively correlated with root concentration of Cu, Zn, Pb and Cd, but no correlation was observed with the extractable-metals. According to its shoot metal concentrations and TFs, castor bean is not a metal accumulator plant. This primary colonizing plant is well suited to cope with the local toxic conditions and can be useful for the stabilization of these residues, and for then decreasing metal bioavailability, dispersion and human health risks on these barren tailings heaps and in the surrounding area. Our work is the first report regarding combined oil production and a phytostabilization role for Ricinus plants in metal mine tailings and may give a new value to suitable metal-polluted areas.

  7. Kinetic and Thermodynamics studies for Castor Oil Extraction Using Subcritical Water Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelmoez, Wael; Ashour, Eman; Naguib, Shahenaz M; Hilal, Amr; Al Mahdy, Dalia A; Mahrous, Engy A; Abdel-Sattar, Essam

    2016-06-01

    In this work both kinetic and thermodynamics of castor oil extraction from its seeds using subcritical water technique were studied. It was found that the extraction process followed two consecutive steps. In these steps, the oil was firstly extracted from inside the powder by diffusion mechanism. Then the extracted oil, due to extending the extraction time under high temperature and pressure, was subjected to a decomposition reaction following first order mechanism. The experimental data correlated well with the irreversible consecutive unimolecular-type first order mechanism. The values of both oil extraction rate constants and decomposition rate constants were calculated through non-linear fitting using DataFit software. The extraction rate constants were found to be 0.0019, 0.024, 0.098, 0.1 and 0.117 min(-1), while the decomposition rate constants were 0.057, 0.059, 0.014, 0.019 and 0.17 min(-1) at extraction temperatures of 240, 250, 260, 270 and 280°C, respectively. The thermodynamic properties of the oil extraction process were investigated using Arrhenius equation. The values of the activation energy, Ea, and the frequency factor, A, were 73 kJ mol(-1) and 946, 002 min(-1), respectively. The physicochemical properties of the extracted castor oil including the specific gravity, viscosity, acid value, pH value and calorific value were found to be 0.947, 7.487, 1.094 mg KOH/g, 6.1, and 41.5 MJ/Kg, respectively. Gas chromatography analysis showed that ricinoleic acid (83.6%) appears as the predominant fatty acid in the extracted oil followed by oleic acid (5.5%) and linoleic acid (2.3%).

  8. Rhipicephalus sanguineus (Acari: Ixodidae) female ticks exposed to castor oil (Ricinus communis): an ultrastructural overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sampieri, B R; Furquim, K C S; Nunes, P H; Camargo-Mathias, M I

    2013-02-01

    Tick control has been accomplished through the use of synthetic acaricides, which has created resistant individuals, as well as contaminating the environment and nontarget organisms. Substances of plant origin, such as oils and extracts of eucalyptus and neem leaves, have been researched as an alternative to replace the synthetic acaricides. Ricinoleic acid esters from castor oil have recently been shown as a promising alternative in eliminating bacterial contamination during ethanol fermentation, by acting as an effective biocide. The same positive results have been observed when these esters are added to the food given to tick-infested rabbits. This study tested the effect of these substance on the reproductive system of Rhipicephalus sanguineus females, added to rabbit food, more specifically on oogenesis. For this, four groups were established: four control groups (CG1, CG2, CG3, and CG4) and four treatment groups (TG1, TG2, TG3, and TG4) with one rabbit in each (New Zealand White), used as hosts. After full 4 days feeding (semi-engorgement), the females were collected and had their ovaries extracted. In this study, it was observed that R. sanguineus females exposed to esters had their ovaries modified, which was demonstrated through transmission electron microscopy techniques. The addition of ricinoleic esters to the diet of tick-infested rabbits revealed how toxic such substances are for the cytoplasmic organelles of oocytes and pedicel cells. These compounds can change the morphophysiology of germ and somatic cells, consequently influencing their viability and, therefore, confirming that the ricinoleic acid esters from castor oil are a promising substance in the control of R. sanguineus.

  9. Kinetic and Thermodynamics studies for Castor Oil Extraction Using Subcritical Water Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelmoez, Wael; Ashour, Eman; Naguib, Shahenaz M; Hilal, Amr; Al Mahdy, Dalia A; Mahrous, Engy A; Abdel-Sattar, Essam

    2016-06-01

    In this work both kinetic and thermodynamics of castor oil extraction from its seeds using subcritical water technique were studied. It was found that the extraction process followed two consecutive steps. In these steps, the oil was firstly extracted from inside the powder by diffusion mechanism. Then the extracted oil, due to extending the extraction time under high temperature and pressure, was subjected to a decomposition reaction following first order mechanism. The experimental data correlated well with the irreversible consecutive unimolecular-type first order mechanism. The values of both oil extraction rate constants and decomposition rate constants were calculated through non-linear fitting using DataFit software. The extraction rate constants were found to be 0.0019, 0.024, 0.098, 0.1 and 0.117 min(-1), while the decomposition rate constants were 0.057, 0.059, 0.014, 0.019 and 0.17 min(-1) at extraction temperatures of 240, 250, 260, 270 and 280°C, respectively. The thermodynamic properties of the oil extraction process were investigated using Arrhenius equation. The values of the activation energy, Ea, and the frequency factor, A, were 73 kJ mol(-1) and 946, 002 min(-1), respectively. The physicochemical properties of the extracted castor oil including the specific gravity, viscosity, acid value, pH value and calorific value were found to be 0.947, 7.487, 1.094 mg KOH/g, 6.1, and 41.5 MJ/Kg, respectively. Gas chromatography analysis showed that ricinoleic acid (83.6%) appears as the predominant fatty acid in the extracted oil followed by oleic acid (5.5%) and linoleic acid (2.3%). PMID:27181250

  10. Ocorrência de Erinnyis ello e Spodoptera marima na cultura da mamona no Rio Grande do Sul Occurrence of Erinnyis ello and Spodoptera marima in castor bean plantation in Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leandro do Prado Ribeiro

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do trabalho foi realizar o levantamento populacional e verificar a ocorrência de lepidópteros associados à cultura da mamona no Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil. O estudo populacional foi realizado em cultivos de mamona, cultivar "AL Guarany 2002", implantados na área experimental do Departamento de Solos da Universidade Federal de Santa Maria, em Santa Maria, RS. A semeadura ocorreu na primeira quinzena do mês de novembro de 2006, em uma área de 0,3ha, aproximadamente. As avaliações semanais iniciaram aos 20 dias após a emergência das plantas e persistiram até a maturação das bagas, perfazendo um total de 15 avaliações, sendo as lagartas coletadas manualmente em 40 plantas aleatórias/data de avaliação. Os espécimens coletados foram levados ao Laboratório de Entomologia do DFS/UFSM, onde foram mantidos até a fase adulta. Spodoptera marima Schs. (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae e Erinnyis ello L. (Lepidoptera: Sphingidae representaram um percentual de 15,2 e 28,3% do total de lagartas coletadas, respectivamente. Assim, este estudo relata a primeira ocorrência dessas duas espécies de lepidópteros em associação à cultura da mamona no Rio Grande do Sul.The aim of this research was to carry out the population survey and check an occurrence of lepidopterous associated to castor bean plantation in Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil. The population study was performed in castor bean plantation, AL Guarany 2002 cultivate, implemented in the experimental area Soils Department at Federal University of Santa Maria, in Santa Maria, Rio Grande do Sul State. The sow occurred in the first fifteen days of november of 2006, in an area of around 0,3 ha. The weekly appraisement started 20 days after the emergency of the plants and went until their maturation, creating a total of 15 evaluations, being the caterpillars hand collected in 40 random plants/ date of evaluation. The collected samples were brought to the Laboratory of Entomology at DFS

  11. Effect of γ-radiation sterilization on the stability of polyurethane potting compounds based on castor oil/SMDI and caprolactone polyol/SMDI, used for hollow fibre haemodialyzer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stability of polyurethane potting compounds based on castor oil/SMDI and caprolactone polyol/SMDI in repeated gamma radiation sterilization was studied. Radiation-induced degradation and leaching of low molecular weight fragments are higher in castor oil based polyurethane than in caprolactone polyol based polyurethane. For castor oil and caprolactone polyol based polyurethanes degradation increases up to 5 Mrad dose of sterilization. Further increase of dose of sterilization decreases leaching in caprolactone polyol based polyurethane which has resulted from secondary reactions leading to crosslinking. In the case of castor oil based polyurethane such crosslinks undergo cleavage at 10 Mrad dose of sterilization. (author)

  12. Pathogenicity of West Nile virus and response to vaccination in sandhill cranes (Grus canadensis) using a killed vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsen, G.H.; Miller, K.J.; Docherty, D.E.; Bochsler, V.S.; Sileo, L.

    2009-01-01

    West Nile virus was introduced into the United States in the vicinity of New York, New York, USA in 1999. The virus has since killed large numbers of birds nationwide, especially, but not limited to, crows (Corvus brachyrhinchos). One sandhill crane (Grus canadensis) at the Bridgeport Zoo (Bridgeport, Connecticut, USA) reportedly died from West Nile virus, so sandhill cranes and endangered whooping cranes (Grus americana), both in the wild and in captive breeding colonies at United States Geological Service (USGS) Patuxent Wildlife Research Center (Laurel, Maryland, USA) were considered at risk. A killed vaccine in sandhill cranes was evaluated by vaccinating and then challenging these cranes with live West Nile virus. No sandhill cranes inoculated with the killed vaccine developed significant titers when compared with unvaccinated controls. No sandhill cranes inoculated with the vaccine and challenged with the virus died from West Nile virus infection. In addition, no unvaccinated challenged sandhill cranes died. However, 2 days postchallenge, vaccinated cranes had significantly less viremia (P cell aggregates in both the brain and brain stem areas, and this was not observed in vaccinated challenged cranes or in vaccinated unchallenged cranes.

  13. Density of river otters (Lontra canadensis) in relation to energy development in the Green River Basin, Wyoming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godwin, B.L.; Albeke, S.E.; Bergman, H.L.; Walters, Annika W.; Ben-David, M.

    2015-01-01

    Exploration and extraction of oil and natural gas have increased in recent years and are expected to expand in the future. Reduction in water quality from energy extraction may negatively affect water supply for agriculture and urban use within catchments as well as down river. We used non-invasive genetic techniques and capture–recapture modeling to estimate the abundance and density of North American river otters (Lontra canadensis), a sentinel species of aquatic ecosystems, in Southwestern Wyoming. While densities in two of three river reaches were similar to those reported in other freshwater systems in the western US (1.45–2.39 km per otter), otters appeared to avoid areas near energy development. We found no strong difference in habitat variables, such as overstory cover, at the site or reach level. Also, fish abundance was similar among the three river reaches. Otter activity in our study area could have been affected by elevated levels of disturbance surrounding the industrial gas fields, and by potential surface water contamination as indicated by patterns in water conductivity. Continued monitoring of surface water quality in Southwestern Wyoming with the aid of continuously recording devices and sentinel species is warranted.

  14. Microbial water quality during the northern migration of Sandhill Cranes (Grus canadensis) at the central Platte River, Nebraska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moser, Matthew T.

    2014-01-01

    The central Platte River is an important resource in Nebraska. Its water flows among multiple channels and supports numerous beneficial uses such as drinking water, irrigation for agriculture, groundwater recharge, and recreational activities. The central Platte River valley is an important stopover for migratory waterfowl and cranes, such as the Whooping (Grus americana) and Sandhill Cranes (Grus canadensis), in their annual northward traversal of the Central Flyway. Waterfowl, cranes, and other migratory birds moving across international and intercontinental borders may provide long-range transportation for any microbial pathogen they harbor, particularly through the spread of feces. Samples were collected weekly in the study reach from three sites (upstream, middle, and downstream from the roosting locations) during the spring of 2009 and 2010. The samples were analyzed for avian influenza, Escherichia coli, Cryptosporidium, Giardia, Campylobacter, and Legionella. Analysis indicates that several types of fecal indicator bacteria and a range of viral, protozoan, and bacterial pathogens were present in Sandhill Crane excreta. These bacteria and pathogens were present at a significantly higher frequency and densities in water and sediments when the Sandhill Cranes were present, particularly during evening roosts within the Platte River environment.

  15. Post-disturbance plant community dynamics following a rare natural-origin fire in a Tsuga canadensis forest.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bryan D Murray

    Full Text Available Opportunities to directly study infrequent forest disturbance events often lead to valuable information about vegetation dynamics. In mesic temperate forests of North America, stand-replacing crown fire occurs infrequently, with a return interval of 2000-3000 years. Rare chance events, however, may have profound impacts on the developmental trajectories of forest ecosystems. For example, it has been postulated that stand-replacing fire may have been an important factor in the establishment of eastern hemlock (Tsuga canadensis stands in the northern Great Lakes region. Nevertheless, experimental evidence linking hemlock regeneration to non-anthropogenic fire is limited. To clarify this potential relationship, we monitored vegetation dynamics following a rare lightning-origin crown fire in a Wisconsin hemlock-hardwood forest. We also studied vegetation in bulldozer-created fire breaks and adjacent undisturbed forest. Our results indicate that hemlock establishment was rare in the burned area but moderately common in the scarified bulldozer lines compared to the reference area. Early-successional, non-arboreal species including Rubus spp., Vaccinium angustifolium, sedges (Carex spp., grasses, Epilobium ciliatum, and Pteridium aquilinium were the most abundant post-fire species. Collectively, our results suggest that competing vegetation and moisture stress resulting from drought may reduce the efficacy of scarification treatments as well as the usefulness of fire for preparing a suitable seedbed for hemlock. The increasing prevalence of growing-season drought suggests that silvicultural strategies based on historic disturbance regimes may need to be reevaluated for mesic species.

  16. Scale-Dependent Browsing Patterns on Canada Yew (Taxus canadensis by White-Tailed Deer (Odocoileus virginianus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steve K. Windels

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Canada yew (Taxus canadensis is a clonal shrub that forms discrete patches and was formerly an important component of forest understories in much of northeastern North America. Following Euro-American settlement, Canada yew has been extirpated or reduced in abundance throughout much of its former range, particularly in the USA; winter browsing by white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus has been implicated as responsible for much of its decline. Little is known about the factors affecting deer browsing intensity on Canada yew. We examined factors related to browsing intensity on Canada yew across three spatial scales in 29 forest stands in Michigan, USA. Browsing intensity on stems was related principally to two factors acting simultaneously across multiple spatial scales. Browsing intensity was negatively related to amount of Canada yew at the scale of the forest stand and negatively related to distance from the edge of Canada yew patches, effectively creating refugia from browsing. The browsing patterns we observed suggest that yew exists in two alternate stable states: (1 as loose aggregations of small stems or (2 large, dense patches of large stems. The implications of changes in deer density or snow cover to the probability of local persistence of Canada yew are discussed.

  17. Bioenergetics assessment of fish and crayfish consumption by river otter (Lontra canadensis): integrating prey availability, diet, and field metabolic rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dekar, Matthew P.; Magoulick, Daniel D.; Beringer, J.

    2010-01-01

    River otters (Lontra canadensis) are important predators in aquatic ecosystems, but few studies quantify their prey consumption. We trapped crayfish monthly as an index of availability and collected otter scat for diet analysis in the Ozark Mountains of northwestern Arkansas, USA. We measured otter daily energy expenditure (DEE) with the doubly labeled water method to develop a bioenergetics model for estimating monthly prey consumption. Meek's crayfish (Orconectes meeki) catch-per-unit-effort was positively related to stream temperature, indicating that crayfish were more available during warmer months. The percentage frequency of occurrence for crayfish in scat samples peaked at 85.0% in summer and was lowest (42.3%) in winter. In contrast, the percentage occurrence of fish was 13.3% in summer and 57.7% in winter. Estimates of DEE averaged 4738 kJ·day-1 for an otter with a body mass of 7842 g. Total biomass consumption ranged from 35 079 to 52 653 g·month-1 (wet mass), corresponding to a high proportion of fish and crayfish in the diet, respectively. Otter consumption represents a large fraction of prey production, indicating potentially strong effects of otters on trophic dynamics in stream ecosystems.

  18. Volatile Organic Compounds from the Clone Populus x canadensis “Conti” Associated with Megaplatypus mutatus Attack

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro Lucia

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Megaplatypus mutatus (Chapuis (Coleoptera, Platypodidae is an ambrosia beetle native to South America. It builds internal galleries that weaken the tree trunks, causing them severe stem breakage and mortality in commercial poplar plantations. The host selection by male M. mutatus has previously been correlated with the increasing diameter. This work explores the possibility that differential susceptibility of individual plants to M. mutatus could be associated with volatiles emitted. The comparison of the VOCs profiles of attacked and nonattacked P. x canadensis “Conti” 12 during M. mutatus flying season showed both qualitative and quantitative differences. The attacked plants, but not the nonattacked ones, showed the following compounds: a long chain aldehyde, α-ylangene, δ-cadinene, α-gurjunene, and β-cubebene; on the other side, β-sesquiphellandrene and β-chamigrene were detected only in nonattacked plants. α-Copaene is a common component of all the samples analyzed, but its proportion is increased in attacked individuals. Behavioral bioassays showed that males but not females M. mutatus are attracted to α-copaene. The relative increase of α-copaene in attacked individuals and the positive behavioral answer of males to it suggest that this compound could play a role in the orientation of the pioneer male towards the most suitable host.

  19. Life history of Neoseiulus californicus (McGregor, 1954) (Acari: Phytoseiidae) fed with castor bean (Ricinus communis L.) pollen in laboratory conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marafeli, P P; Reis, P R; Silveira, E C da; Souza-Pimentel, G C; de Toledo, M A

    2014-08-01

    The predatory mite, Neoseiulus californicus (McGregor, 1954) (Acari: Phytoseiidae) is one of the principal natural enemies of tetranychid mites in several countries, promoting efficient control of those mites in several food and ornamental crops. Pest attacks such as that of the spider mite, Tetranychus urticae Koch, 1836 (Acari: Tetranychidae), is one of the problems faced by farmers, especially in the greenhouse, due to the difficulty of its control with the use of chemicals because of the development of fast resistance making it hard to control it. The objective of this work was to study the life history of the predatory mite N. californicus as a contribution to its mass laboratory rearing, having castor bean plant [Ricinus communis L. (Euphorbiaceae)] pollen as food, for its subsequent use as a natural enemy of T. urticae on a cultivation of greenhouse rosebushes. The studies were carried out in the laboratory, at 25 ± 2°C of temperature, 70 ± 10% RH and a 14 hour photophase. The biological aspects and the fertility life table were appraised. Longevity of 32.9 days was verified for adult females and 40.4 days for males. The intrinsic rate of increase (rm) was 0.2 and the mean generation time (T) was 17.2 days. The population doubled every 4.1 days. The results obtained were similar to those in which the predatory mite N. californicus fed on T. urticae.

  20. Solvent-free enzymatic synthesis of feruloylated structured lipids by the transesterification of ethyl ferulate with castor oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Shangde; Zhu, Sha; Bi, Yanlan

    2014-09-01

    A novel enzymatic route of feruloylated structured lipids synthesis by the transesterification of ethyl ferulate (EF) with castor oil, in solvent-free system, was investigated. The transesterification reactions were catalysed by Novozym 435, Lipozyme RMIM, and Lipozyme TLIM, among which Novozym 435 showed the best catalysis performance. Effects of feruloyl donors, reaction variables, and ethanol removal on the transesterification were also studied. High EF conversion (∼100%) was obtained under the following conditions: enzyme load 20% (w/w, relative to the weight of substrates), reaction temperature 90 °C, substrate molar ratio 1:1 (EF/castor oil), 72 h, vacuum pressure 10 mmHg, and 200 rpm. Under these conditions, the transesterification product consisted of 62.6% lipophilic feruloylated structured lipids and 37.3% hydrophilic feruloylated lipids.

  1. Journal of Parasitology

    OpenAIRE

    Jordan, C.N.; Kaur, T; Koenen, K.; DeStefano, S.; Zajac, A. M.; Lindsay, D S

    2005-01-01

    The present study examined the seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii and Sarcocystis neurona in a population of beavers (Castor canadensis) from Massachusetts. Sixty-two blood samples were collected during the field seasons over 3 consecutive years from different animals. Blood was collected onto filter paper and shipped to the Department of Biomedical Sciences, Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, Virginia, for parasite testing. The samples were tested at dilutions of 1:25. 1:50, and]:100 against each p...

  2. The Use of Acceleration to Code for Animal Behaviours; A Case Study in Free-Ranging Eurasian Beavers Castor fiber

    OpenAIRE

    Graf, Patricia M.; Rory P Wilson; Lama Qasem; Klaus Hackländer; Frank Rosell

    2015-01-01

    Recent technological innovations have led to the development of miniature, accelerometer-containing electronic loggers which can be attached to free-living animals. Accelerometers provide information on both body posture and dynamism which can be used as descriptors to define behaviour. We deployed tri-axial accelerometer loggers on 12 free-ranging Eurasian beavers Castor fiber in the county of Telemark, Norway, and on four captive beavers (two Eurasian beavers and two North American beavers ...

  3. Computational identification and phylogenetic analysis of the oil-body structural proteins, oleosin and caleosin, in castor bean and flax.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyun, Tae Kyung; Kumar, Dhinesh; Cho, Young-Yeol; Hyun, Hae-Nam; Kim, Ju-Sung

    2013-02-25

    Oil bodies (OBs) are the intracellular particles derived from oilseeds. These OBs store lipids as a carbon resource, and have been exploited for a variety of industrial applications including biofuels. Oleosin and caleosin are the common OB structural proteins which are enabling biotechnological enhancement of oil content and OB-based pharmaceutical formations via stabilizing OBs. Although the draft whole genome sequence information for Ricinus communis L. (castor bean) and Linum usitatissimum L. (flax), important oil seed plants, is available in public database, OB-structural proteins in these plants are poorly indentified. Therefore, in this study, we performed a comprehensive bioinformatic analysis including analysis of the genome sequence, conserved domains and phylogenetic relationships to identify OB structural proteins in castor bean and flax genomes. Using comprehensive analysis, we have identified 6 and 15 OB-structural proteins from castor bean and flax, respectively. A complete overview of this gene family in castor bean and flax is presented, including the gene structures, phylogeny and conserved motifs, resulting in the presence of central hydrophobic regions with proline knot motif, providing an evolutionary proof that this central hydrophobic region had evolved from duplications in the primitive eukaryotes. In addition, expression analysis of L-oleosin and caleosin genes using quantitative real-time PCR demonstrated that seed contained their maximum expression, except that RcCLO-1 expressed maximum in cotyledon. Thus, our comparative genomics analysis of oleosin and caleosin genes and their putatively encoded proteins in two non-model plant species provides insights into the prospective usage of gene resources for improving OB-stability.

  4. Exogenous glutamine increases lipid accumulation in developing seeds of castor bean (Ricinus communis L.) cultured in vitro

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang Yang; Mulpuri Sujatha; Liu Aizhong

    2015-01-01

    This report describes biomass production and compositional changes of developing castor seeds in response to change in the nitrogen resource (glutamine) of the medium. During the early developmental period (24-36 days after pollination), oil was found to initially accumulate in the developing seeds. Carbohydrates and oil were inversely related after glutamine provision (35 mM, in the culture medium). [U-14C] sucrose labeling was used to investigate the effe...

  5. Genome-wide survey and expression profiles of the AP2/ERF family in castor bean (Ricinus communis L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Xu, Wei; Li, Fei; Ling, Lizhen; Liu, Aizhong

    2013-01-01

    Background The AP2/ERF transcription factor, one of the largest gene families in plants, plays a crucial role in the regulation of growth and development, metabolism, and responses to biotic and abiotic stresses. Castor bean (Ricinus communis L., Euphobiaceae) is one of most important non-edible oilseed crops and its seed oil is broadly used for industrial applications. The available genome provides a great chance to identify and characterize the global information on AP2/ERF transcription fa...

  6. A Comparison of the Efficacy of Castor Oil and Senagroph Herbal Extract in Patients' Bowel Preparation

    OpenAIRE

    Karim Ghazikanlou Sani; Mahmoodreza Jafari; Hasan Gheshlaghi

    2011-01-01

    Background/Objective: Bowel preparation has been"nconsidered necessary in radiologic examinations of the"nabdominal region to improve the diagnostic quality and"naccuracy. This study compares the effectiveness, side"neffects and patient tolerance of two bowel preparation"nregimens with castor oil and Senagraph herbal extract"nin bowel preparation of outpatients for intravenous"nurography (IVU)."nPatients and Methods: One-hundred fourteen"nconsecuti...

  7. Lipase-mediated hydrolysis of castor oil on its biotransformation into γ-decalactone by Yarrowia lipolytica

    OpenAIRE

    Braga, Adelaide; Gomes, Nelma; Belo, Isabel

    2011-01-01

    γ-Decalactone is a peach-like flavour compound that can be obtained biotechnologically by the biotransformation of ricinoleic acid. Castor oil is the substrate most usually used in the biotechnological production of γ-decalactone and it needs to be hydrolyzed in order to release ricinoleic acid. That biotransformation can be carried out by various microorganisms, such as the non-conventional yeast Yarrowia lipolytica, considered as non-pathogenic and as GRAS by the FDA. In order to ...

  8. Short communication. Evaluation of castor (Ricinus communis L.) induced mutants for possible selection in the improvement of seed yield

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarwar, G.; Boota Chaudhry, M.

    2008-07-01

    The aim of the present work was to determine selection criteria suitable for developing castor ideotypes with high yield potentials. Nineteen M4 generation castor mutants were obtained by gamma irradiation (100 to 1000 Gy) of DS30 castor seeds, and evaluated alongside this reference variety over 2006-07 for their possible use in the improvement of castor seed yield. Days to ripening, plant height, number of spikes/plant, length of main spike, number of main spike capsules, capsule weight, 100-seed weight and seed yield per plant were recorded for each mutant. Correlation coefficients were calculated, path analyses performed, and the genetic features of the different traits were determined. A significant, positive correlation was seen between capsule weight and seed yield. The 100-seed weight showed a positive but non-significant phenotypic relationship plus a significant genotypic relationship with seed yield. Capsule weight also showed a strong direct effect on seed yield, plus a strong positive and significant genotypic correlation with this variable. More than 50% heritability was observed for all the traits studied except the 100-seed weight and capsule weight. The number of main spike capsules showed the greatest genetic advance, followed by spike length and number of spikes. Traits such as the number of capsules, spike length and number of spikes showed strong heritability and good genetic advance. These traits are therefore governed by additive genes, and for the improvement of seed yield selection may be based directly on these attributes. In conclusion, for the improvement of seed yield the main emphasis should be placed on the number of spikes and capsule weight, via the selection of the highest yielding mutants among those tested. However, spike length and 100-seed weight should also be taken into account. (Author) 18 refs.

  9. Gene Structures, Evolution and Transcriptional Profiling of the WRKY Gene Family in Castor Bean (Ricinus communis L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Zhi; Yang, Lifu; Wang, Danhua; Huang, Qixing; Mo, Yeyong; Xie, Guishui

    2016-01-01

    WRKY proteins comprise one of the largest transcription factor families in plants and form key regulators of many plant processes. This study presents the characterization of 58 WRKY genes from the castor bean (Ricinus communis L., Euphorbiaceae) genome. Compared with the automatic genome annotation, one more WRKY-encoding locus was identified and 20 out of the 57 predicted gene models were manually corrected. All RcWRKY genes were shown to contain at least one intron in their coding sequences. According to the structural features of the present WRKY domains, the identified RcWRKY genes were assigned to three previously defined groups (I-III). Although castor bean underwent no recent whole-genome duplication event like physic nut (Jatropha curcas L., Euphorbiaceae), comparative genomics analysis indicated that one gene loss, one intron loss and one recent proximal duplication occurred in the RcWRKY gene family. The expression of all 58 RcWRKY genes was supported by ESTs and/or RNA sequencing reads derived from roots, leaves, flowers, seeds and endosperms. Further global expression profiles with RNA sequencing data revealed diverse expression patterns among various tissues. Results obtained from this study not only provide valuable information for future functional analysis and utilization of the castor bean WRKY genes, but also provide a useful reference to investigate the gene family expansion and evolution in Euphorbiaceus plants. PMID:26849139

  10. Gene Structures, Evolution, Classification and Expression Profiles of the Aquaporin Gene Family in Castor Bean (Ricinus communis L..

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhi Zou

    Full Text Available Aquaporins (AQPs are a class of integral membrane proteins that facilitate the passive transport of water and other small solutes across biological membranes. Castor bean (Ricinus communis L., Euphobiaceae, an important non-edible oilseed crop, is widely cultivated for industrial, medicinal and cosmetic purposes. Its recently available genome provides an opportunity to analyze specific gene families. In this study, a total of 37 full-length AQP genes were identified from the castor bean genome, which were assigned to five subfamilies, including 10 plasma membrane intrinsic proteins (PIPs, 9 tonoplast intrinsic proteins (TIPs, 8 NOD26-like intrinsic proteins (NIPs, 6 X intrinsic proteins (XIPs and 4 small basic intrinsic proteins (SIPs on the basis of sequence similarities. Functional prediction based on the analysis of the aromatic/arginine (ar/R selectivity filter, Froger's positions and specificity-determining positions (SDPs showed a remarkable difference in substrate specificity among subfamilies. Homology analysis supported the expression of all 37 RcAQP genes in at least one of examined tissues, e.g., root, leaf, flower, seed and endosperm. Furthermore, global expression profiles with deep transcriptome sequencing data revealed diverse expression patterns among various tissues. The current study presents the first genome-wide analysis of the AQP gene family in castor bean. Results obtained from this study provide valuable information for future functional analysis and utilization.

  11. Gene Structures, Evolution, Classification and Expression Profiles of the Aquaporin Gene Family in Castor Bean (Ricinus communis L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Zhi; Gong, Jun; Huang, Qixing; Mo, Yeyong; Yang, Lifu; Xie, Guishui

    2015-01-01

    Aquaporins (AQPs) are a class of integral membrane proteins that facilitate the passive transport of water and other small solutes across biological membranes. Castor bean (Ricinus communis L., Euphobiaceae), an important non-edible oilseed crop, is widely cultivated for industrial, medicinal and cosmetic purposes. Its recently available genome provides an opportunity to analyze specific gene families. In this study, a total of 37 full-length AQP genes were identified from the castor bean genome, which were assigned to five subfamilies, including 10 plasma membrane intrinsic proteins (PIPs), 9 tonoplast intrinsic proteins (TIPs), 8 NOD26-like intrinsic proteins (NIPs), 6 X intrinsic proteins (XIPs) and 4 small basic intrinsic proteins (SIPs) on the basis of sequence similarities. Functional prediction based on the analysis of the aromatic/arginine (ar/R) selectivity filter, Froger's positions and specificity-determining positions (SDPs) showed a remarkable difference in substrate specificity among subfamilies. Homology analysis supported the expression of all 37 RcAQP genes in at least one of examined tissues, e.g., root, leaf, flower, seed and endosperm. Furthermore, global expression profiles with deep transcriptome sequencing data revealed diverse expression patterns among various tissues. The current study presents the first genome-wide analysis of the AQP gene family in castor bean. Results obtained from this study provide valuable information for future functional analysis and utilization. PMID:26509832

  12. Isolation and Characterization of Castor Seed Oil and Its Utilization Potential in the Production of Polyurethane Foam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aishat IMASUEN

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Firm polyurethane (PU foams were prepared using Nigerian grown brown and white castor seed oil starting materials extracted at ambient temperature. Polyol with terminal primary hydroxyl groups synthesized from crude castor oil were reacted with aromatic diphenylmethane diisocyanate to prepare the foams. Castor seeds were decorticated and milled, after which they were weighed into filter bags for expression at ambient temperature, 50, 100 and 150 °C respectively at a constant pressure of 2 ton. Evaluation of the oil yield shows that the brown seeds with lower weight at a temperature of 150 °C gave a high yield of 54.79 %, compared to high weight at ambient temperature, which yielded 29.45 %. The white seeds with lower weight at a temperature of 150 °C gave high yields of 52.75 %, compared to higher weight at ambient temperature yielding 30.06 %. The oil was characterized in terms of moisture content, volatile content, acid value, free fatty acid and saponification value. The results are within the range reported in literature. In-situ polymerization was used in the production of polyurethane foam using the extracted oil as polyol. The results of the foam characterization in terms of compression set and density conform to standard foams.doi:10.14456/WJST.2014.20

  13. Gene Structures, Evolution and Transcriptional Profiling of the WRKY Gene Family in Castor Bean (Ricinus communis L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Zhi; Yang, Lifu; Wang, Danhua; Huang, Qixing; Mo, Yeyong; Xie, Guishui

    2016-01-01

    WRKY proteins comprise one of the largest transcription factor families in plants and form key regulators of many plant processes. This study presents the characterization of 58 WRKY genes from the castor bean (Ricinus communis L., Euphorbiaceae) genome. Compared with the automatic genome annotation, one more WRKY-encoding locus was identified and 20 out of the 57 predicted gene models were manually corrected. All RcWRKY genes were shown to contain at least one intron in their coding sequences. According to the structural features of the present WRKY domains, the identified RcWRKY genes were assigned to three previously defined groups (I-III). Although castor bean underwent no recent whole-genome duplication event like physic nut (Jatropha curcas L., Euphorbiaceae), comparative genomics analysis indicated that one gene loss, one intron loss and one recent proximal duplication occurred in the RcWRKY gene family. The expression of all 58 RcWRKY genes was supported by ESTs and/or RNA sequencing reads derived from roots, leaves, flowers, seeds and endosperms. Further global expression profiles with RNA sequencing data revealed diverse expression patterns among various tissues. Results obtained from this study not only provide valuable information for future functional analysis and utilization of the castor bean WRKY genes, but also provide a useful reference to investigate the gene family expansion and evolution in Euphorbiaceus plants.

  14. Gene Structures, Evolution, Classification and Expression Profiles of the Aquaporin Gene Family in Castor Bean (Ricinus communis L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Zhi; Gong, Jun; Huang, Qixing; Mo, Yeyong; Yang, Lifu; Xie, Guishui

    2015-01-01

    Aquaporins (AQPs) are a class of integral membrane proteins that facilitate the passive transport of water and other small solutes across biological membranes. Castor bean (Ricinus communis L., Euphobiaceae), an important non-edible oilseed crop, is widely cultivated for industrial, medicinal and cosmetic purposes. Its recently available genome provides an opportunity to analyze specific gene families. In this study, a total of 37 full-length AQP genes were identified from the castor bean genome, which were assigned to five subfamilies, including 10 plasma membrane intrinsic proteins (PIPs), 9 tonoplast intrinsic proteins (TIPs), 8 NOD26-like intrinsic proteins (NIPs), 6 X intrinsic proteins (XIPs) and 4 small basic intrinsic proteins (SIPs) on the basis of sequence similarities. Functional prediction based on the analysis of the aromatic/arginine (ar/R) selectivity filter, Froger's positions and specificity-determining positions (SDPs) showed a remarkable difference in substrate specificity among subfamilies. Homology analysis supported the expression of all 37 RcAQP genes in at least one of examined tissues, e.g., root, leaf, flower, seed and endosperm. Furthermore, global expression profiles with deep transcriptome sequencing data revealed diverse expression patterns among various tissues. The current study presents the first genome-wide analysis of the AQP gene family in castor bean. Results obtained from this study provide valuable information for future functional analysis and utilization.

  15. [CASTOR-Radiology: software of management in a Unit of Medical Imaging: use in the CHU of Tours].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertrand, P; Rouleau, P; Alison, D; Bristeau, M; Minard, P; Saad, B

    1993-01-01

    Despite the large volume of information circulating in radiology departments, very few of them are currently computerised, although computer processing is developing rapidly in hospitals, encouraged by the installation of PMSI. This article illustrates the example of an imaging department management software: CASTOR-Radiologie, Computerisation of part of the Hospital Information System (HIS) must allow an improvement in the efficacy of the service rendered, must reliably reflect the department's activity and must be able to monitor the running costs. CASTOR-Radiologie was developed in conformity with standard national specifications defined by the Public Hospitals Department of the French Ministry of Health. The functions of this software are: unique patient identification, HIS base, management of examination requests, allowing a rapid reply to clinician's requests, "real-time" follow-up of patients in the department, saving time for secretaries and technicians, medical files and file analysis, allowing analysis of diagnostic strategies and quality control, edition of analytical tables of the department's activity compatible with the PMSI procedures catalogue, allowing optimisation of the use of limited resources, aid to the management of human, equipment and consumable resources. Links with other hospital computers raise organisational rather than technical problems, but have been planned for in the CASTOR-Radiologie software. This new tool was very well accepted by the personnel.

  16. A comparison of the efficacy, adverse effects, and patient compliance of the sena-graph®syrup and castor oil regimens for bowel preparation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghazikhanlou Sani, Karim; Jafari, Mahmood-Reza; Shams, Safar

    2010-01-01

    Sena-Graph syrup has recently been formulated by an Iranian pharmaceutical company for being used in bowel evacuation before radiography, colonoscopy and surgery. This study compares the efficacy, adverse effects and patient compliance of two bowel preparation regimens with castor oil and Sena-Graph syrup in of outpatients for Intravenous Urography (IVU). One hundred and fourteen consecutive outpatients were randomized to receive either the standard bowel preparation with 60 mL of castor oil or the test method with 60 mL of Sena-Graph syrup before IVU examination. Demographic data of patients and their prior bowel preparation experience were collected before the examination. Two radiologists, blinded to the method of bowel preparation, reviewed the radiographs and graded the bowel preparation. The compliance and acceptability of both regimens were assessed by using structured questionnaires filled by the patients. The Numbers, ages, weights and gender distribution of patients and their prior bowel preparation experience in the two groups did not differ significantly. The cleanliness scores for the castor oil and Sena-Graph group were 3.97 ± 0.971 and 4.87 ± 0.917, respectively. The results indicated that Sena-Graph syrup causes a better bowel cleansing compared castor oil. Adverse effects in Sena-Graph groups were significantly lower than the castor oil group. Acceptability of the regimen in patients who used Sena-Graph was higher than the other group. The Sena-Graph regimen is significantly more effective and better tolerated than of Castor oil regimen in bowel cleansing. The incidence and severity of the adverse effects from Castor oil was higher than Sena-Graph.

  17. Distribution and chemical forms of copper in the root cells of castor seedlings and their tolerance to copper phytotoxicity in hydroponic culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Wei; Bao, Jianguo; Zheng, Jin; Hu, Hongqin; Du, Jiangkun

    2015-05-01

    The subcellular localization and chemical forms of copper in castor (Ricinus communis L.) seedlings grown in hydroponic nutrient solution were identified by chemical extraction, transmission electron microscopy, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The wild castor seeds were harvested from an abandoned copper mine in Tonglu Mountain, Daye City of Hubei Province, China. The results revealed that (1) the seedlings grew naturally in MS liquid medium with 40.00 mg kg(-1) CuSO4, in which the seedling growth rate and biomass index were 0.14 and 1.23, respectively, which were the highest values among all the treatments. The copper content in castor seedlings increased along with elevated CuSO4 concentration in the medium, reaching a maximum value of 16 570.12 mg kg(-1)(DW) when exposed to 60.00 mg L(-1) CuSO4, where 91.31% of the copper was accumulated in roots. (2) The copper existed in various chemical forms in the roots of the castor seedlings. Copper of 67.66% was extracted from the components of cell walls, such as exchangeable acidic polar compounds, cellulose and lignin, protein and pectin, and less concentrated in cell cytoplasm and nuclei. (3) Furthermore, the root cell walls were thickened when the castor seedlings exposed to CuSO4, with a large amount of high-density electron bodies, attached to the thickened cell walls. In the cell walls, most copper was bound to the carboxyl (-COOH) and hydroxyl (-OH) groups of acidic polar compounds, cellulose, hemicellulose, and polysaccharides. The conclusion showed that castor exhibited a strong tolerance to copper, the copper were accumulated mainly in the root cell, the root cell walls of castor were the major location of patience and detoxification in copper stress.

  18. Subcellular cadmium distribution and antioxidant enzymatic activities in the leaves of two castor (Ricinus communis L.) cultivars exhibit differences in Cd accumulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hanzhi; Guo, Qingjun; Yang, Junxing; Shen, Jianxiu; Chen, Tongbin; Zhu, Guangxu; Chen, Hui; Shao, Chunyan

    2015-10-01

    The aims of this study were: (1) the study of cadmium (Cd) accumulation and toxicity in different castor cultivars (Ricinus communis L.); (2) to investigate changes in antioxidant enzymatic activities and the subcellular distribution of Cd in young and old leaves from two different castor cultivars, after exposure to two different Cd concentrations, and explore the underlying mechanism of Cd detoxification focusing on antioxidant enzymes and subcellular compartmentalization. The Cd concentration, toxicity, and subcellular distribution, as well as superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and peroxidase (POD) activities were measured in Zibo-3 and Zibo-9 cultivars after exposure to two different concentrations of Cd (2mg/L and 5mg/L) for 10 days. This research revealed Cd accumulation characteristics in castor are root>stem>young leaf>old leaf. Castor tolerance was Cd dose exposure and the cultivars themselves dependent. Investigation of subcellular Cd partitioning showed that Cd accumulated mainly in the heat stable protein (HSP) and cellular debris fractions, followed by the Cd rich granule (MRG), heat denatured protein (HDP), and organelle fractions. With increasing Cd concentration in nutrient solution, the decreased detoxified fractions (BDM) and the increased Cd-sensitive fractions (MSF) in young leaves may indicate the increased Cd toxicity in castor cultivars. The BDM-Cd fractions or MSF-Cd in old leaves may be linked with Cd tolerance of different cultivars of castor. The antioxidant enzymes that govern Cd detoxification were not found to be active in leaves. Taken together, these results indicate Cd tolerance and toxicity in castor can be explained by subcellular partitioning.

  19. Organic acids, amino acids compositions in the root exudates and Cu-accumulation in castor (Ricinus communis L.) Under Cu stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Guoyong; Guo, Guangguang; Yao, Shiyuan; Zhang, Na; Hu, Hongqing

    2016-01-01

    Ricinus communis L. is a hyperaccumulation plant newly discovered in an abandoned land of Cu mine in China. A hydroponic experiment was then carried out to determine the root exudates in the Cu-tolerant castor (Ricinus communis L.). Plants were grown in nutrient solution with increasing level of Cu doses (0, 100, 250, 500, and 750 μmol/L Cu) in the form of CuSO4. Cu accumulation in the roots and shoots of castor, and root exudates collected from the castor were measured. The results indicated that the castor had a high Cu accumulation capacity and the Cu concentrations in the shoots and roots of the castor treated with 750 μmol/L Cu were 177.1, 14586.7 mg/kg, respectively. Tartaric was the largest in the root exudates in terms of concentrations, which reached up to 329.13 μmol/g (dry plant) in the level of 750 μmol/L Cu. There was a significantly positive linear relationship between the Cu concentration in root and the concentration of succinic (R = 0.92, P < 0.05), tartaric (R = 0.96, P < 0.01), and citric (R = 0.89, P < 0.05). These results indicated that the difference in root exudation from castor could affect their Cu tolerance. What is more, significant is that the high tartaric and citric, the low oxalic and cysteine in the root exudation of castor contributed to toleration of high Cu concentrations.

  20. Performance of CASTOR{sup R} HAW Cask Cold Trials for Loading, Transport and Storage of HAW canisters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilmsmeier, Marco; Vossnacke, Andre [GNS Gesellschaft fuer Nuklear-Service mbH, Hollestrasse 7A, D-45127 Essen (Germany)

    2008-07-01

    On the basis of reprocessing contracts, concluded between the German Nuclear Utilities (GNUs) and the reprocessing companies in France (AREVA NC) and the UK (Nuclear Decommissioning Authority), GNS has the task to return the resulting residues to Germany. The high active waste (HAW) residuals from nuclear fuel reprocessing are vitrified and filled into steel cans, the HAW canisters. According to reprocessing contracts the equivalent number of HAW canisters to heavy metals delivered has to be returned to the country of origin and stored at an interim storage facility where applicable. The GNS' CASTOR{sup R} HAW casks are designed and licensed to fulfil the requirements for transport and long-term storage of HAW canisters. The new cask type CASTOR{sup R} HAW28M is capable of storing 28 HAW canisters with a maximum thermal power of 56 kW in total. Prior to the first active cask loading at a reprocessing facility it is required to demonstrate all important handling steps with the CASTOR{sup R} HAW28M cask according to a specific and approved sequence plan (MAP). These cold trials have to be carried out at the cask loading plant and at the reception area of an interim storage facility in Gorleben (TBL-G), witnessed by the licensing authorities and their independent experts. At transhipment stations GNS performs internal trials to demonstrate safe handling. A brand-new, empty CASTOR{sup R} HAW28M cask has been shipped from the GNS cask assembly facility in Muelheim to the TBL-G for cold trials. With this cask, GNS has to demonstrate the transhipment of casks at the Dannenberg transfer station from rail to road, transport to and reception at the TBL-G as well as incoming dose rate and contamination measurements and preparation for storage. After removal of all shock absorbers with a cask specific handling frame, tilting operation and assembly of the secondary lid with a pressure sensor, the helium leak tightness and 'Block-mass' tests have to be carried out

  1. Assessment of a recombinant F1-V fusion protein vaccine intended to protect Canada lynx (Lynx canadensis) from plague

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfe, Lisa L.; Shenk, Tanya M.; Powell, Bradford; Rocke, Tonie E.

    2011-01-01

    As part of an ongoing restoration program in Colorado, USA, we evaluated adverse reactions and seroconversion in captive Canada lynx (Lynx canadensis) after vaccination with a recombinant F1-V fusion protein vaccine against Yersinia pestis, the bacterium that causes plague. Ten adult female lynx received the F1-V vaccine; 10 source- and age-matched lynx remained unvaccinated as controls. All of the vaccinated and control lynx remained apparently healthy throughout the confinement period. We observed no evidence of injection site or systemic reactions to the F1-V vaccine. Among vaccinated lynx, differences in log10 reciprocal antibody titers measured in sera collected before and after vaccination (two doses) ranged from 1.2 to 5.2 for anti-F1 antibodies and from 0.6 to 5.2 for anti-V antibodies; titers in unvaccinated lynx did not change appreciably over the course of confinement prior to release, and thus differences in anti-F1 (P=0.003) and anti-V (P=0.0005) titers were greater among vaccinated lynx than among controls. Although our findings suggest that the F1-V fusion protein vaccine evaluated here is likely to stimulate antibody responses that may help protect Canada lynx from plague, we observed no apparent differences in survival between vaccinated and unvaccinated subject animals. Retrospectively, 22 of 50 (44%; 95% confidence interval 29–59%) unvaccinated lynx captured or recaptured in Colorado during 2000–08 had passive hemagglutination antibody titers >1:16, consistent with exposure to Y. pestis; paired pre- and postrelease titers available for eight of these animals showed titer increases similar in magnitude to those seen in response to vaccination, suggesting at least some lynx may naturally acquire immunity to plague in Colorado habitats.

  2. Effect of fermentation period on the organic acid and amino acid contents of Ogiri from castor oil bean seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ojinnaka, M-T. C.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims: To monitor the changes in the concentration of organic acid and amino acid contents during the fermentation of castor oil bean seed into ogiri.Methodology and results: In this study, ogiri, a Nigerian fermented food condiment was prepared from castor oil bean using Bacillus subtilis as a monoculture starter for the production of three different fermented castor oil bean condiment samples: B1 (0% NaCl/lime, B2 (2% NaCl, B3 (3% lime. Variations in the composition of the castor oil bean with fermentation over 96 h periods were evaluated for organic acid and amino acid contents using High Performance Liquid Chromatography. Organic acids were detected in the fermented castor oil bean samples as fermentation period increased to 96 h. Organic acids identified were oxalic, citric, tartaric, malic, succinic, lactic, formic, acetic, propionic and butyric acids. The lactic acid contents in sample B1 (0% NaCl/lime decreased initially and then increased as the fermentation period progressed. The value at 96 h fermentation was 1.336 µg/mL as against 0.775 µg/mL at 0 h fermentation. Sample B3 (3% lime had lactic acid content that increased as fermentation period increased with lactic acid content of 1.298 µg/mL at 96 h fermentation. The acetic acid content of sample B1 increased as fermentation progressed and at 96 h fermentation, its value was 1.204 µg/mL while those of B2 and B3 were 0.677 µg/mL and 1.401 µg/mL respectively. The three fermented castor oil bean samples also contained sufficient amount of amino acids. Sample B1 had the highest values in isoleucine glycine and histidine with values 1.382 µg/mL, 0.814 µg/mL and 1.022 µg/mL respectively while sample B2 had the highest value in leucine content with 0.915 µg/mL at 96 h fermentation, closely followed by sample B3 and B1 with 0.798 µg/mL and 0.205 µg/mL respectively. The results of amino acid analysis indicated a high concentration of all amino acids at 96 h of fermentation

  3. Historic and Current Distributions of River Otters (Lontra canadensis and (Lontra longicaudis in the Río Grande or Río Bravo del Norte Drainage of Colorado and New Mexico, USA and of Chihuahua, Mexico and Adjacent Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Polechla

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available The Río Grande drainage is an important and imperiled wetland of the US/Mexican border arid lands. There is a desire to restore otter populations in this river by interested parties. In order to follow IUCN guidelines for restoration, biologists need learn more fully the situation prior to implementation of restoration management. A prerequisite for proper restoration conservation is to know the organism’s taxonomy (i.e., what taxa or species and subspecies one is dealing with, distribution, and relative abundance. The historic and current distribution of the Nearctic otter (Lontra canadensis and Neotropical otter (L. longicaudis in the borderlands of US and Mexico are reviewed in this paper. The evidence indicates that otters were native to the Río Grande valley and has been recorded in the languages and customs of Native Americans such as the Pueblo people prior to European settlement of the area. The first Spanish documents we were able to find whereby otters were recorded, date to the middle 16th century. Otters during historical times were probably more numerous than previously thought and one of the first wildlife laws in the borderlands revolved around a moratorium on trapping the otter and beaver. Presently, populations of otters occur in 1 the Río San Pedro of Chihuahua, a tributary of the Río Conchos entering the Río Grande from the southeast, 2 the upper Río Grande near the Colorado/New Mexico border, and 3 the middle Pecos River in southeastern New Mexico entering the Río Grande from the west. These observations are corroborated by multiple observations by competent observers and in the case of the first population, otter photos and sign. These populations are centered on areas with macro-habitats characterized by a river flowing through 1 deep canyons, or 2 ancillary wetlands. Considerable more detailed survey work is needed to determine the full extent of the distribution of otters in the Río Grande drainage. A genetic

  4. Diesel-alcohol-castor oil fuel blend as an alternative fuel for compression ignition motors; Misturas diesel-alcool-oleo de ricina como um combustivel alternativo para motores de ignicao por compressao

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peralta, Eduardo Gagliuffi; Bastos, Jose Guilherme R.R.; Barbosa, Cleiton Rubens Formiga [Rio Grande do Norte Univ., Natal, RN (Brazil). Centro de Tecnologia. Dept. de Engenharia Mecanica]. E-mail: eduardo@dem.ufrn.br

    2000-07-01

    This work evaluates some characteristics of the diesel-alcohol-castor oil ternary blends, where the castor oil is used as co-solvent viewing the using in compression ignition motors. The obtained results present the possibility of using those ternary blends as alternative fuels in compression ignition motors to be adopted in regions where the blend components are available.

  5. Histological Evaluation of Selected Organs of the Eurasian Beavers (Castor fiber) Inhabiting Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolka, I; Giżejewska, A; Giżejewski, Z; Kluciński, W; Kołodziejska, J

    2015-10-01

    There is a general scarcity of data on the histological structure of major organs in the Eurasian beaver (Castor fiber). This study presents the histological characteristics of beaver organs such as the liver, spleen, cardiac muscle, lungs and kidneys. Tissue samples were collected from 21 beavers and analysed. Selected samples of tail tissue were additionally examined. Tissue samples were placed in neutral buffered formalin and embedded in paraffin. 4-μm-thick sections were stained with haematoxylin and eosin, and other staining techniques were also used. Scant amounts of inter-lobular connective tissue were found in the liver. Ion or copper deposition was not observed, but scattered cytoplasmic glycogen deposits were present in hepatocytes. Our results suggest that beavers have defensive rather than storage spleens. Interestingly, the presence of melanin in splenic red pulp was noted. The histological structure of the examined organs closely resembled that of other rodent species. According to our knowledge, this is the first study evaluating the histological structure of beaver organs. Nevertheless, precise characterization of the evaluated organs requires further work with the involvement of accurate and reliable techniques, such as molecular biology or electron microscopy methods.

  6. Polyurethane resins derived from castor oil (Ricinus communis) for tibial crest deviation in dogs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Medial patellar luxation is one of the most common orthopedic problems in small breeds of dogs and tibial crest deviation is a frequent accompaining anatomical abnormality. For that reason, the purpose of this study was to evaluate the behavior of castor oil derived polyurethane implants when apllied to experimental defects created on the medial side of the proximal tibia of normal puppies. Twelve dogs were randomly divided in 3 groups of 4 animals and were submitted to the same treatment. Histopathological study was performed respectively at 30 (GI), 60 (GII) and 90 (GIII) days post-surgery. Evaluations methods included clinical assessment, radiology, gross and macroscopic study, tomography and statistical analysis. Clinically, there were no signs of implant rejection. Radiology revealed intense periosteal reaction and new bone formation. On gross examination, there was thickening and lateral deviation of the tibial crest and new bone neoformation. On microscopic examination, there was fibrous tissue around the polyurethane, periosteal proliferation on the medial side of the tibia and no bone proliferation towards the implant. Cat scans reveled lateral deviation of the tibial crest in eleven animals, which was statistically significant (p<5; pared T test)

  7. Subcutaneous tissue reaction to castor oil bean and calcium hydroxide in rats

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    Samira Esteves Afonso Camargo

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Castor oil bean cement (COB is a new material that has been used as an endodontic sealer, and is a candidate material for direct pulp capping. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the biocompatibility of a new formulation of COB compared to calcium hydroxide cement (CH and a control group without any material, in the subcutaneous tissue of rats. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The materials were prepared, packed into polyethylene tubes, and implanted in the rat dorsal subcutaneous tissue. Animals were sacrificed at the 7th and 50th days after implantation. A quantitative analysis of inflammatory cells was performed and data were subjected to ANOVA and Tukey's tests at 5% significance level. RESULTS: Comparing the mean number of inflammatory cells between the two experimental groups (COB and CH and the control group, statistically significant difference (p=0.0001 was observed at 7 and 50 days. There were no significant differences (p=0.111 between tissue reaction to CH (382 inflammatory cells and COB (330 inflammatory cells after 7 days. After 50 days, significantly more inflammatory cells (p=0.02 were observed in the CH group (404 inflammatory cells than in the COB group (177 inflammatory cells. CONCLUSIONS: These results demonstrate that the COB cement induces less inflammatory response within long periods.

  8. Evaluating the effect of temperature on biodiesel production from castor oil

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    Carlos Alberto Guerrero Fajardo

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Problems arising between biofuels and food as raw materials have led to investigating the use of inedible raw materials for their production. This work was aimed at studying the effect of temperature on converting castor oil in biodiesel production. Oil transesterification with methanol was carried out using an alkaline catalyst (0.5% NaOH - water solution for 1 hour using a 6:1 alcohol/oil molar ratio, at atmospheric pressure and taking temperature as a free variable. The temperature was evaluated at 68°F, 86°F, 104°F and 122ºF. The reaction products were analyzed by gas chromatography (CG-FID for quantifying the fatty acid methyl esters (FAME present. The results showed different dispersion depending on temperature, finding that 122°F resulted in less dispersion than the others. CG-FID analysis showed that most FAME content was reached at 122ºF, such temperature giving the highest ricinoleic acid conversion rate. Gas chromatography also revealed that reaction time was adequate, in process conditions, for obtaining ricinoleic acid-based 94.26% con- version.

  9. CASTOR OIL-BASED BUILDING MATERIALS REINFORCED WITH FLY ASH, CLAY, EXPANDED PERLITE AND PUMICE POWDER

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    Figen Balo

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports the results of a study conducted to evaluate the influence of class C fly ash (FA, clay (C, expanded perlite (EP, pumice powder (PP and epoxidized castor oil (ECO on the density, thermal conductivity, compressive strength, tensile strength, abrasion loss and water absorption of building material. Density, thermal conductivity, compressive strength and tensile strength decreased with the increase of ECO and FA as replacement for building material. These properties also decreased with increasing process temperature. The addition of clay in the building material had an increasing effect on these properties. The addition of clay decreased abrasion loss and water absorption as a function of replacement percent. The minimum thermal conductivity and maximum water absorption observed for the sample made with minimum clay and maximum FA-ECO ratios processed at the highest process temperature. The maximum compression-tensile strengths and minimum abrasion loss observed for the sample with maximum clay and minimum FA-ECO ratios processed at the lowest process temperature.

  10. Novo cultivar de mamona: IAC-226(Tarabay New castor bean cultivar IAC-226 (Tarabay

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    Angelo Savy Filho

    1990-01-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho descreve um novo cultivar de mamona (Ricinus communis 1., IAC-226 (Tarabay originado de linhagem pura, obtida do cruzamento controlado entre o 'Pindorama' e o 'Campinas': trata-se de germoplasma adaptado às condições climáticas normais de cultura no Estado de São Paulo, material de porte alto (250-350cm, diâmetro de copa de 215cm e ciclo vegetativo médio (180 dias, a partir da emergência. A produção econômica é dada pelos racemos primários, secundários, terciários e quaternários, com 19, 30, 23 e 28% da produção total respectivamente, elevado potencial produtivo (2.681kg/ha de sementes e 1.233kg/ha de óleo, e frutos indeiscentes.The characteristics of a new castor bean (Ricinus communis L. cultivar, named IAC-226 (Tarabay, obtained by hybridization between 'Pindorama' and 'Campinas', and selected by the pedigree method, are reported. The origin, characteristics of the plant and fruits such as seed weight and yield are described. Remarkable traits are: tall height indehiscent fruits, adaptation and outstanding yield ability with mean value of 2,681kg of seeds/ha and 1,233kg of oil/ha.

  11. Gamma radiation effects on mechanical properties and morphology of a polyurethane derivate from castor oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azevedo, Elaine Cristina; Orivaldo Chierice, Gilberto; Claro Neto, Salvador; Scheidegger Soboll, Daniel; Mauro Nascimento, Eduardo; Lepienski, Carlos Mauricio

    2011-03-01

    In this study, an adhesive of a polyurethane derivate from castor oil was irradiated with gamma radiation from a 60Co source, at doses from 0.2 to 25 kGy. This adhesive polyurethane is considered for use in hospital furniture because it does not liberate dangerous solvents. Hardness and elastic modulus were measured by instrumented indentation with a pyramidal Berkovich indenter, using loads from 0.08-40 mN with a nanoindenter XP. The instrumented indentation hardness was 110 MPa for an untreated sample, increasing to 124 MPa after irradiation with 25 kGy, at penetration depths of about 5 μm. The increases in elastic modulus induced by radiation were less pronounced. This polyurethane is naturally cross-linked and the relative modifications in the hardness are attributed to an additional cross-linking process induced by radiation. X-ray diffraction indicates a slight increase in crystallinity. The roughness measured by atomic force microscopy increases after gamma irradiation.

  12. The role of nanocrystalline cellulose on the microstructure of foamed castor-oil polyurethane nanocomposites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordero, Andrés Ignacio; Amalvy, Javier Ignacio; Fortunati, Elena; Kenny, José María; Chiacchiarelli, Leonel Matías

    2015-12-10

    Nanocrystalline cellulose (CNC), obtained by sulphuric acid hydrolysis, was used to synthesize polyurethane foams (PUFs) based on a functionalized castor oil polyol and a Methylene diphenyl diisocyanate (MDI). Formulations with varying isocyanate index (FI) and NCO number were prepared. At 0.5 wt.%, SEM's of the fractured surface underlined that the CNC acted both as a nucleation agent and as a particulate surfactant with cell geometries and apparent density changing selectively. The chemical structure of the PUF (FTIR) changed after the incorporation of CNC by a relative change of the amount of urea, urethane and isocyanurate groups. A low NCO number and isocyanate index contributed to the migration of the CNC to the Hard Segment (HS), acting as reinforcement and improving substantially the compressive mechanical properties (Ec and σc improvements of 63 and 50%, respectively). For a high NCO number or isocyanate index, the CNC migrated to the Soft Segment (SS), without causing a reinforcement effect. The migration of the CNC was also detected with DSC, TGA and DMA, furtherly supporting the hypothesis that a low NCO number and index contributed both to the formation of a microstructure with a higher content of urethane groups.

  13. ROMP-based thermosetting polymers from modified castor oil with various cross-linking agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Rui

    Polymers derived from bio-renewable resources are finding an increase in global demand. In addition, polymers with distinctive functionalities are required in certain advanced fields, such as aerospace and civil engineering. In an attempt to meet both these needs, the goal of this work aims to develop a range of bio-based thermosetting matrix polymers for potential applications in multifunctional composites. Ring-opening metathesis polymerization (ROMP), which recently has been explored as a powerful method in polymer chemistry, was employed as a unique pathway to polymerize agricultural oil-based reactants. Specifically, a novel norbornyl-functionalized castor oil alcohol (NCA) was investigated to polymerize different cross-linking agents using ROMP. The effects of incorporating dicyclopentadiene (DCPD) and a norbornene-based crosslinker (CL) were systematically evaluated with respect to curing behavior and thermal mechanical properties of the polymers. Isothermal differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) was used to investigate the conversion during cure. Dynamic DSC scans at multiple heating rates revealed conversion-dependent activation energy by Ozawa-Flynn-Wall analysis. The glass transition temperature, storage modulus, and loss modulus for NCA/DCPD and NCA/CL copolymers with different cross-linking agent loading were compared using dynamic mechanical analysis. Cross-link density was examined to explain the very different dynamic mechanical behavior. Mechanical stress-strain curves were developed through tensile test, and thermal stability of the cross-linked polymers was evaluated by thermogravimetric analysis to further investigate the structure-property relationships in these systems.

  14. The emulsion crystallization of hydrogenated castor oil into long thin fibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Meirleir, Niels; Pellens, Linda; Broeckx, Walter; De Malsche, Wim

    2013-11-01

    The present study discusses the optimal crystal growth conditions required for the emulsion crystallization of hydrogenated castor oil (HCO) into several crystal morphologies. The best possible crystal shape is furthermore identified in case high rheology modifying performance is required. HCO was crystallized in a meso- and micro-continuous process which allowed for a controlled and fast screening of several crystal morphologies at different crystallization conditions. Applying high isothermal temperatures (above 55 °C) resulted in a combination of rosettes, thick fibers and thin fibers. At lower isothermal temperatures (below 55 °C) the shape gradually evolved to a combination of short needles, spherically shaped and/or irregularly shaped crystals. Crystals with the highest aspect ratio were obtained when crystals were grown between 30 °C and 45 °C and were subsequently reheated above 63 °C, forming high amounts of large thin fibrous crystals. When diluted to 0.25 wt% these fibrous crystals increased the low shear viscosity far better compared to the other crystal shapes.

  15. Castor oil polymer induces bone formation with high matrix metalloproteinase-2 expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saran, Wallace Rocha; Chierice, Gilberto Orivaldo; da Silva, Raquel Assed Bezerra; de Queiroz, Alexandra Mussolino; Paula-Silva, Francisco Wanderley Garcia; da Silva, Léa Assed Bezerra

    2014-02-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the modulation of matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2) and -9 (MMP-9) expression in newly formed bone tissue at the interface between implants derived from castor oil (Ricinus communis) polymer and the tibia medullary canal. Forty-four rabbits were assigned to either Group 1 (n = 12; control) or Group 2 (n = 30), which had the tibial medullary canals reamed bilaterally and filled with polymer. CT scans showed no space between the material surface and the bone at the implant/bone marrow interface, and the density of the tissues at this interface was similar to the density measured of other regions of the bone. At 90 days postimplantation, the interface with the polymer presented a thick layer of newly formed bone tissue rich in osteocytes. This tissue exhibited ongoing maturation at 120 and 150 days postimplantation. Overall, bone remodeling process was accompanied by positive modulation of MMP-2 and low MMP-9 expression. Differently, in control group, the internal surface close to the medullary canal was lined by osteoblasts, followed by a bone tissue zone with few lacunae filled with osteocytes. Maturation of the tissue of the medullary internal surface occurred in the inner region, with the bone being nonlamellar.

  16. Preparation and characterization of novel antibacterial castor oil-based polyurethane membranes for wound dressing application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yari, Abbas; Yeganeh, Hamid; Bakhshi, Hadi; Gharibi, Reza

    2014-01-01

    Preparation of novel antibacterial and cytocompatible polyurethane membranes as occlusive dressing, which can provide moist and sterile environment over mild exudative wounds is considered in this work. In this regard, an epoxy-terminated polyurethane (EPU) prepolymer based on castor oil and glycidyltriethylammonium chloride (GTEAC) as a reactive bactericidal agent were synthesized. Polyurethane membranes were prepared through cocuring of EPU and different content of GTEAC with 1,4-butane diamine. The physical and mechanical properties, as well as cytocompatibility and antibacterial performance of prepared membranes were studied. Depending on their chemical formulations, the equilibrium water absorption and water vapor transmission rate values of the membranes were in ranges of 3-85% and 53-154g m(-2) day(-1), respectively. Therefore, these transparent membranes can maintain for a long period the moist environment over the wounds with low exudates. Detailed cytotoxicity analysis of samples against mouse L929 fibroblast and MCA-3D keratinocyte cells showed good level of cytocompatibility of membranes after purification via extraction of residual unreacted GTEAC moieties. The antibacterial activity of the membranes against Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus bacteria was also studied. The membrane containing 50% GTEAC exhibited an effective antibacterial activity, while showed acceptable cytocompatibility and therefore, can be applied as an antibacterial occlusive wound dressing.

  17. Water solubility enhancements of PAHs by sodium castor oil sulfonate microemulsions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHU Li-zhong; ZHAO Bao-wei; LI Zong-lai

    2003-01-01

    Water solubility enhancements of naphthalene(Naph), phenantherene(Phen) and pyrene(Py) in sodium castor oil sulfonate(SCOS) microemulsions were evaluated. The apparent solubilities of PAHs are linearly proportional to the concentrations of SCOS microemulsion, and the enhancement extent by SCOS solutions is greater than that by ordinary surfactants on the basis of weight solubilization ratio(WSR). The logKem values of Naph, Phen, and Py are 3.13, 4.44 and 5.01 respectively, which are about the same as the logKow values. At 5000 mg/L of SCOS conccentration, the apparent solubilities are 8.80, 121, and 674 times as the intrinsic solubilities for Naph, Phen, and Py. The effects of inorganic ions and temperature on the solubilization of solutes are also investigated. The solubilization is improved with a moderate addition of Ca2+, Na+, NH4+ and the mixture of Na+, K+, Ca2+, Mg2+ and NH4+. WSR values are enhanced by 22.0% for Naph, 23.4% for Phen, and 24.6% for Py with temperature increasing by 5℃. The results indicated that SCOS microemulsions improve the performance of the surfactant-enhanced remediation(SER) of soil, by increasing solubilities of organic pollutants and reducing the level of surfactant pollution and remediation expenses.

  18. Establishment of a health surveillance program for reintroduction of the Eurasian beaver (Castor fiber) into Scotland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, Gidona; Girling, Simon; Pizzi, Romain; Meredith, Anna; Rosell, Frank; Campbell-Palmer, Roisin

    2012-10-01

    In 2009 and 2010 16 Norwegian Eurasian beavers (Castor fiber) were reintroduced to Knapdale, Scotland as part of a 5-yr reintroduction trial (Scottish Beaver Trial). Despite numerous reintroduction programs throughout Europe there is no published information concerning recommended health surveillance during beaver reintroduction and only one publication describing causes of mortality. We describe the establishment of a health surveillance program based on International Union of Conservation of Nature (IUCN) and governmental guidelines, and report preliminary results based on the fecal and blood samples following the completion of the first stage of reintroduction. Animals underwent at least one general anesthetic to allow collection of fecal and blood samples and a thorough clinical examination. No bacterial enteric pathogens such as Salmonella spp., Campylobacter spp., or Yersinia pseudotuberculosis were isolated, nor were Giardia spp. or Cryptosporidium spp. However, numerous helminths including Travassosius rufus and Stichorchis subtriquetrus were detected. Five animals were positive for Leptospira antibodies. This included Leptospira saxkoebing, Leptospira canicola, Leptospira copenhageni, Leptospira icterohaemorrhagiae, Leptospira autumnalis, and Leptospira javanica. The highest loss of animals (20%) was during the statutory 6-mo rabies quarantine period. No common cause of death was determined. The rabies quarantine conditions were waived for four remaining animals, three of which were introduced to the wild successfully. The authors recommend the shortest possible quarantine period when introducing beavers, but allowing for the minimum recommended IUCN 35 days to allow for implementation of the initial stage of the health surveillance program, examination of animals, sample collection, and processing.

  19. Preparation and characterization of activated carbon from castor de-oiled cake

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    Viviana M. Ospina-Guarín

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Biomass residues have been used to produce activated carbons. On this process, the activation method and the raw composition determine the properties as porosity and surface area of the charcoal. After the extraction of castor oil, there is a solid byproduct (cake of low added value, which was used in the production of activated carbon to add value to this waste. For this purpose two traditional methods were used, first, physical activation using as activating agents steam, CO2 and mixture of both, and additionally chemical activation using K2CO3 as the activating agent. Some activated carbons were characterized using N2 adsorption isotherms, BET surface areas varied between 255.98 (m2/g and 1218.43 (m2/g. By SEM and EDS analysis was possible to observe that materials obtained by the two types of activation are principally amorphous and morphological characteristics of the carbon obtained by physical activation are very different from those obtained by chemical activation. Finally, through impregnation of inorganic phases of Ni and Mo was revealed that the high dispersion characteristics, these carbonaceous materials will have potential to be used as catalyst support.

  20. Evaluation of the properties of iron oxide-filled castor oil polyurethane

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    Eleonora Mussatti

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to obtain and evaluate the electrical, thermal and mechanical properties of iron oxide-filled castor oil polyurethane (PU/Fe2O3. The iron oxide used in this study was a residue derived from the steel pickling process of a Brazilian steel rolling industry. Polymeric composites with different iron oxide volume fractions (2.5, 5.0, 7.5, 10.0 and 12.5% were prepared through the casting process followed by compression molding at room temperature. The composites were analyzed by FTIR, XRD and densities, tensile strength, Young's modulus, electrical and thermal conductivities measurements. By increasing the iron oxide content, the apparent density, tensile strength, Young's modulus and electrical conductivity values of the composites were also increased. The iron oxide additions did not change significantly the value of thermal conductivity (from 0.191 W.mK-1 for PU up to 0.340 W.mK-1 for PU enriched with 12.5% v/v of iron oxide. Thus, even at the higher iron oxide concentration, the compounds as well as the pure polyurethane can be classified as thermal insulators.