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Sample records for castle ringberg germany

  1. Giessen international workshop on interactions of exocrine and endocrine pancreatic diseases. Castle of Rauischholzhausen of the Justus-Liebig-University, Giessen, Germany. March 18-19, 2005.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andren-Sandberg, Ake; Hardt, Philip D

    2005-07-08

    The 'Giessen International Workshop on Interactions of Exocrine and Endocrine Pancreatic Diseases' was held on March 18-19, 2005 at the Castle of Rauischolzhausen, Giessen University, Germany. About 50 international clinicians and researchers attended the workshop. It was structured into three sessions: A: Pancreatic Autoimmunity - Interaction Between Exocrine and Endocrine Tissue; B: Diabetes Mellitus - Possible Implications of Exocrine Pancreatic Insufficiency; C: Chronic Pancreatitis - Update on Prevalence, Understanding and Pathophysiological Concepts. Several new aspects of pancreatic diseases were discussed, including new classifications of pancreatitis, new insights into prevalence, pathophysiology and new therapeutical considerations. The meeting resulted in more cooperation and a number of new concepts for clinical study which will provide data for future developments.

  2. Castles at War

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    April 29th-30th 2013, its topic was "Castles at War" in particular during the period AD 1000–1660. For the last 20 years, archaeological and historic research has dealt with many aspects of castles, their function as a noble family's seat, their role each as an administrative unit's centre...

  3. The Castle Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tom Anderson; David Culler; James Demmel; Jerry Feldman; Susan Graham; Paul Hilfinger; Katherine Yelick

    2000-02-16

    The goal of the Castle project was to provide a parallel programming environment that enables the construction of high performance applications that run portably across many platforms. The authors approach was to design and implement a multilayered architecture, with higher levels building on lower ones to ensure portability, but with care taken not to introduce abstractions that sacrifice performance.

  4. Power, Domination and Kafka’s Castle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yücel Karadaş

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The propositions of the Enlightenment philosophy, which valued the individual and his/her freedom, began to lose effect in the middle of the 19th century, with the increasing dominance of the ‘social’ and ‘class’ brought about by the growing industrialization. This dominance, which was the result of the modern capitalist society and the beurocratic state power it gave rise to, drove the intellectuals and thinkers of the time to question the individual freedom ideals of the Enlightenment and the early stages of modernity. In the intellectual sphere this questioning gained speed with Marx but became most apparent in the propositions of the Frankfurt School, which showed a lean on Weber’s idea of beurocratic structures of the modern state. Franz Kafka’s The Castle contributes to this questioning from a literary perspective. The Castle is also important because it was written in Germany where the mechanisms of the beurocratic dominance structures were most overt. The novel strikingly represents how these mechanisms of dominance affect the individuals and the relationships between them. This study handles the individual ideal of the Enlightenment and the criticisms directed to this ideal in the modern times, and it analyzes Kafka’s The Castle in terms of how it takes its place among the criticisms to this ideal with a literary dimension. In his famous work Castle, Kafka, evaluate the modern bureaucracy and its impact on the society in a different perspective from Weber who deal with modern society with the context of rationalization. For a better understanding of the novel, it may be necessary to make a double-layer reading of it. Because, until the last pages of the novel, it is thought that modern bureaucracy as a structure is constructed in the context of “nonsense” not “rationality”. The bureucratic mechanism that woven by hundreds of details in the novel, neither its officality nor its domination built on invididuals, and

  5. Adolescent growth: genes, hormones and the peer group. Proceedings of the 20th Aschauer Soiree, held at Glücksburg castle, Germany, 15th to 17th November 2013

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hermanussen, M.; Meitinger, T.; Veldhuis, J.D.; Low, M.J.; Pfäffle, R.; Staub, K.; Panczak, R.; Groth, D.; Brabec, Marek; von Salisch, M.; Loh, C.P.A.; Tassenaar, V.; Scheffler, C.; Mumm, R.; Godina, E.; Lehmann, A.; Tutkuviene, J.; Gervockaite, S.; Nierop, A.F.M; Holmgren, A.; Assmann, C.; van Buuren, S.; Koziel, S.; Zadzinska, E.; Varela-Silva, I.; Vignerová, J.; Salama, E.; El-Shabrawi, M.; Huijic, A.; Satake, T.; Bogin, B.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 11, č. 3 (2014), s. 341-353 ISSN 1565-4753. [Aschauer Soiree /20./. Glücksburg castle, 15.11.2014-17.11.2013] Institutional support: RVO:67985807 Keywords : special statistics * Markov random field Subject RIV: FG - Pediatrics

  6. Uncovering Lost Danish Castles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Bo Nissen

    Facing turbulence, strife and civil war in 14th century Denmark, local elites erected a large number of castles and fortifications. But many of these were destroyed in the – often very violent – process of reestablishing central authority towards the end of the century, and in 1396 Queen Margrethe...... to a pilot study. Cooperation between disciplines is crucial in extracting knowledge from what little is left for each, and archaeologists, historians, name scholars and geophysicists even had help from moles unearthing brick material! Results and new challenges will be the subject of this presentation......, with emphasis on the toponomastic studies. The analyzed place-name material falls into two categories: 1) Names of the fortifications – or the ruins – themselves and 2) Names in the surroundings indicating their presence. Most often the names, especially in the latter category, have been recorded 3-500 years...

  7. Dwelling towers of Czech castles

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Durdík, Tomáš

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 63, - (2009), s. 139-150 ISSN 1875-2896. [Meeting of Europa Nostra Scientific Council /44./. Kilkenny, 27.09.2008-02.10.2008] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z80020508 Keywords : castle * castellology * dwelling tower * donjon * keep * medieval archaeology * architecture * Bohemia * Middle Ages Subject RIV: AC - Archeology, Anthropology, Ethnology

  8. Sicilian Castles and Coastal Towers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirk Scott

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available While much attention has been paid to the development of castles as the hallmark architectural symbol of the Middle Ages, less attention has been given to the changes in European defensive strategies that occurred between the 15th and 17th centuries. It was at this time when the modern nations of Europe began to take form, as sea-based trade between distant nations took precedence over land-based trade routes. This paper examines how this transformation manifested in the defensive structures of Sicily, Italy, where the hilltop castles of the Middle Ages gradually gave way to a more cohesive network of coastal towers around the island. Putting this transition in its historical context, presenting an anthropological model from which to view this transition, and using geospatial methods to track these changes, the results of this study indicate that as defensive towers began to dominate the Sicilian coast around the 16th century, their command over the environment was no greater than that of the feudal castles which were still in use. Yet, unlike the castles of feudal lords, these towers represented an island-wide system of defense and the beginning of an adherence to a more centralized power structure then seen previously.

  9. Frombork Castle and Nicolas Copernicus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kogure, Tomokazu

    2004-10-01

    Nicolas Copernicus spent his last half life at Frombork Castle in Poland, where he wrote "On the Revolution of the Celestial Bodies." The author visited Frombork and had a strong impression by his great personality in late Renaissance, not only in astronomy, but also in activities in a wide field of economical, political affaires, renovation of currency.

  10. Report from the Third Annual Symposium of the RIKEN-Max Planck Joint Research Center for Systems Chemical Biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunschweiger, Andreas

    2014-08-15

    The third Annual Symposium of the RIKEN-Max Planck Joint Research Center for Systems Chemical Biology was held at Ringberg castle, May 21-24, 2014. At this meeting 45 scientists from Japan and Germany presented the latest results from their research spanning a broad range of topics in chemical biology and glycobiology.

  11. Evoliution of Castle Palaces in Lithuanian Renaissance

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    Inga Genytė

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The article author examines the problem of architecture history associated with the evolution of castle palaces in the current territory of Lithuania in the Lithuanian Renaissance period. The article is based on research papers thematically close to the publication, other literature and archive documents. After prehistory review of castle palaces at a theoretical level and clarifying the conditions for their occurrence, significant development trends of castle palaces during the Renaissance period in current Lithuania territory is revealed. At the beginning of the sixteenth century, Italian, Flemish and Flanders Renaissance reached Lithuania and merged with the local tradition; in the light of the Lithuanian Renaissance castle palaces reached their prosperity period in Lithuania. Castle palaces were distinguished by the diversity of their structural and architectural forms, relatively meaningful connection between function and artistic expression and a sustainable link with the components of environment.Article in Lithuanian

  12. Consolidated Automated System for Time and Labor Entry(CASTLE) -

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — CASTLE manages a full range of Human Resources time and attendance collections for DOT employees. To accomplish this CASTLE stores and maintains HR-related personnel...

  13. The King Tapestries at Kronborg Castle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reindel, Ulrik

    2015-01-01

    In the 1580s, Frederik II (Danish-Norwegian king, reigned 1559-1588) had the Great Hall at Kronborg Castle, Elsinore, furnished with 43 tapestries portraying no fewer than 100 Danish kings. The tapestries were arranged chronologically, beginning with King Dan, the mythological founder of the king...

  14. The lost castle of Count Rodrigo Gonzalez

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    Ehrlich, Michael

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This article suggests that a castle called Toron built in 1137 by Count Rodrigo of Lara, and granted to the Templar Order was in Summil, where remains of a Crusader castles are still visible (ca. 25 km from Ascalon, in south west Israel. This opinion opposes a consensual view that the castle built by Count Rodrigo was in Latrun, midway between Tel-Aviv and Jerusalem. This identifi cation is based on names’ similarity and on the universal opinion that Latrun was a Templar castle. In this article it is demonstrated that the geographic setting of Summil fi ts the Count’s castle, whereas Latrun does not; that Toron was a common name in the Crusader Kingdom; and, moreover, it is not certain that Latrun was a Templar castle. The article also suggest that there was a village near the castle, called Casale Sancti Salvatoris, and also discusses Frankish fortifi cation and settlement policy during the twelfth century.Este artículo sugiere que un castillo llamado Toron, construido el año 1137 por el conde Rodrigo González de Lara, y que fue luego otorgado a la orden del Temple, estaba en Summil, donde todavía permanecen las ruinas de un castillo de los cruzados (a unos 25 km de Ascalon, en el sudoeste de Israel. Esta opinión se contrapone a la tesis general que sostiene que el castillo construido por el conde estuvo situado en Latrun, a medio camino entre Tel-Aviv y Jerusalén. Una identificación basada en la similitud de nombres y en la común opinión que Latrun era un castillo templario. En este estudio se demuestra que la ubicación geográfica de Summil encaja con la del castillo del conde, mientras que Latrun no lo hace; que Toron fue un nombre habitual en el reino cruzado y que, por otra parte, no es cierto que Latrun fuera un castillo templario. Se sugiere también que cerca del castillo de Summil existía un pueblo llamado casale Sancti Salvatoris, analizándose asimismo la política de fortificación y colonización llevada a cabo por

  15. Dynamics and conceptual model of the Rossena castle landslide (Northern Apennines, Italy

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    A. Chelli

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available In the Northern Apennines there are many historical villages and castles, which are of great value and represent a cultural heritage of great importance. Their presence within a territory greatly affected by landslide hazards creates, in many circumstances, the need to solve problems of land management and to act for the preservation of historical monuments. This paper describe an interesting landslide, failed during the night of 28 February 2004, that involved the village of Rossena: the failure damaged the village (Fig. 1, the road and the fields down to the stream but, fortunately, the castle just upslope the village was not involved at all. The 10th century massive castle of Rossena stands on the top of a cliff at about 500 m a.s.l., on the border between the provinces of Parma and Reggio Emilia, and it is surrounded by a small ancient village. The castle of Rossena is the best preserved stronghold of the Longobard times, enlarged and reinforced in the tenth century and partially rebuilt by Bonifacio, the father of Matilda of Canossa (the Vice-Queen of Italy and probably the most important woman in the Middle Ages as a defensive structure guarding the Enza Valley. In addition, at Conossa, very close to Rossena, there was the meeting between Pope Gregory VII and the Emperor of Germany Henry IV, during the historical event known as 'fight for the investitures'. For these reasons, the area of Rossena is one of the most relevant from a historical point of view in the entire western part of the Emilia Romagna Region and it also has a high value as a geosite (Coratza et al., 2004.  

  16. Dynamics and conceptual model of the Rossena castle landslide (Northern Apennines, Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chelli, A.; Mandrone, G.; Ruffini, A.; Truffelli, G.

    2005-11-01

    In the Northern Apennines there are many historical villages and castles, which are of great value and represent a cultural heritage of great importance. Their presence within a territory greatly affected by landslide hazards creates, in many circumstances, the need to solve problems of land management and to act for the preservation of historical monuments. This paper describe an interesting landslide, failed during the night of 28 February 2004, that involved the village of Rossena: the failure damaged the village (Fig. 1), the road and the fields down to the stream but, fortunately, the castle just upslope the village was not involved at all. The 10th century massive castle of Rossena stands on the top of a cliff at about 500 m a.s.l., on the border between the provinces of Parma and Reggio Emilia, and it is surrounded by a small ancient village. The castle of Rossena is the best preserved stronghold of the Longobard times, enlarged and reinforced in the tenth century and partially rebuilt by Bonifacio, the father of Matilda of Canossa (the Vice-Queen of Italy and probably the most important woman in the Middle Ages) as a defensive structure guarding the Enza Valley. In addition, at Conossa, very close to Rossena, there was the meeting between Pope Gregory VII and the Emperor of Germany Henry IV, during the historical event known as "fight for the investitures". For these reasons, the area of Rossena is one of the most relevant from a historical point of view in the entire western part of the Emilia Romagna Region and it also has a high value as a geosite (Coratza et al., 2004).

  17. A Greek physician's portrait in Windsor Castle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartsocas, Christos S

    2017-01-01

    To the visitor to Windsor Castle, the Thomas Lawrence portraits in the Waterloo Chamber represent the most important contributors to the military defeat of Napoleon Bonaparte, by British, Prussian, Russian and Austrian forces at the Battle of Waterloo. Nevertheless, only few individuals realise that a Greek physician, Count Ioannis Capodistrias, a native of the island of Corfu, stands among these leading personalities as a diplomat, the Russian Minister of Foreign Affairs, who contributed remarkably to European unity in the early nineteenth century and as a statesman ('Governor' of Greece) with a tragic end to his life, after establishing a Greek State practically from ruins.

  18. Microalgae on dimension stone of a medieval castle in Thuringia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallmann, C.; Stannek, L.; Fritzlar, D.; Hoppert, M.

    2012-04-01

    Phototrophic microorganisms are important primary producers on hard rock substrata as well as on building facades. These eukaryotic microalgae and cyanobacteria, along with lichens, have also been recognized as important factors for rock weathering and stone decay. The rock substratum itself mostly provides extreme environmental conditions. Composition and diversity of sub-aeric phototrophic microbial communities is up to now poorly understood. Here we present a comparative study addressing the composition of algal biofilms on sandstone substrata based on the analysis of rDNA clone libraries from environmental samples and enrichment cultures. From a W-exposed, shaded wall area of a medieval castle ruin (Burg Gleichen, Thuringia, Germany cf. Hallmann et al., 2011), green algae like Prasiococcus, Prasiola and Elliptochloris could be retrieved. A ESE, sun-exposed wall section was colonized mainly by Apatococcus, Phyllosiphon and the lichen alga Trebouxia and Myrmecia. Accordingly, cyanobacterial communities show clear differences between both wall areas: the sun exposed area was dominated by Synechococcus-like organisms while on the W-exposed area cyanobacteria were almost absent. Just a few species, in particular Stichococcus-related strains, are ubiquitous in both areas. It is obvious that, apart from few generalists, different species colonize the wall areas that are situated in close vicinity, but provide different microclimatic conditions. These differences are discussed in view of biogenic weathering phenomena: certain microalgal species colonize crusts and scales along fracture planes and may contribute to rapid detachment and turnover of dimension stone surfaces. Hallmann, C., Fritzlar, D., Stannek, L., Hoppert, M. (2011) Ascomycete fungi on dimension stone of the "Burg Gleichen", Thuringia. Env. Earth Sci. 63, 1713-1722.

  19. The archetypal criticism of "Hooshroba Castle" story

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    Jalil Moshydy

    2017-04-01

    .“Universal archetypes are the collective unconscious and are inherited from our ancestors” (Cuddon, 1380: 39. The basic fact of life archetype such as birth, growing up, love, family and tribal life, death ...at the same concepts as the archetype known myths. Elements such as death and rebirth, hero's journey, an old wise man, anima and animus, shadow. The archetypal criticism based on inter-textuality to look at the literature and a relationship based on dialogue among literary works have been written based on archetypes believes. "Zat os-Sovar Castle" storyis one of the most mysterious talesof Masnavi and it is more mysteriously unfinished. Checking archetypal story of "Zat os-Sovar Castle"shows that archetype in this story has a special place. The story begins with the heroes of the adventure trip which is known archetypes. The old wise man in the form of three characters, namely the father, the old man will appear enlightened and king China. King of China's daughter the owner image of the beautiful castle, man is a manifestation of the female psyche Anima they say. Shadow of the dark side of the human psyche and the origin of evil traits, in the second brother to be seen and adverse effects on the soul leaves his. Mask or persona archetype also is seen in the behavior of the king of China When unaware that his show and the secret are their spiritual brothers. The loss of brothers and another brother replacing the frequently happens in the story, reminiscent of the archetype of death and rebirth is and in the end, according to the story's elements and characters, the myth of the creation of the first man to be seen. By analyzing this archetype can be hidden concepts in this part of the Masnavi and realized similar literary works and the benefit.

  20. INTEGRATION OF GEODATA IN DOCUMENTING CASTLE RUINS

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    P. Delis

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Textured three dimensional models are currently the one of the standard methods of representing the results of photogrammetric works. A realistic 3D model combines the geometrical relations between the structure’s elements with realistic textures of each of its elements. Data used to create 3D models of structures can be derived from many different sources. The most commonly used tool for documentation purposes, is a digital camera and nowadays terrestrial laser scanning (TLS. Integration of data acquired from different sources allows modelling and visualization of 3D models historical structures. Additional aspect of data integration is possibility of complementing of missing points for example in point clouds. The paper shows the possibility of integrating data from terrestrial laser scanning with digital imagery and an analysis of the accuracy of the presented methods. The paper describes results obtained from raw data consisting of a point cloud measured using terrestrial laser scanning acquired from a Leica ScanStation2 and digital imagery taken using a Kodak DCS Pro 14N camera. The studied structure is the ruins of the Ilza castle in Poland.

  1. Brick castles of Panemune regional park: Aspects of regeneration

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    Inga Genytė

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The regeneration of brick castles of Panemunė Regional Park in Lithuania was influenced by the political, economic, and social environment. The motives of their regeneration was the function of state border defence, installation of fortifications for the occupation of new lands, function of defence of the state internal and transit trade routes, function of the protection of noblemen’s property, and the function of strengthening of the territorial control. Two characteristic castle development tendencies were revealed: one witnessed further development under local construction traditions, while another reflected the examples of the European construction. The architecture of castles was shaped by the military tactics, development of military technique, local terrain, the wellbeing of the castle owners, their hierarchical role and demands, construction traditions, and the development of construction technology. The architectural forms varied from dungeon to palace. The changing social demands encouraged the choice of new solutions for castle regeneration in order to increase the comfort level conditions and cost-effectiveness of the premises.

  2. Internal Indpendent Assessment Report - CASTLE-PX SQA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whitney, D. M. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Dancy, L. L. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Pope, V. L. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2015-04-01

    This IIA assessed the flow down of institutional 830 Software Quality Assurance requirements through three required document templates to the CASTLE-PX software effort and the implementation of those SQA requirements. The templates flow down the DOE O 414.1D consensus standard requirements for Safety Software. This assessment did not include the flow down of NAP-24, Weapon Quality Policy, requirements. The assessment focused on the CASTLE-PX project’s software development and release processes. It did not assess Pantex’s acceptance or usage of the software. The assessment resulted in 3 Deficiencies, 5 Observations, 1 Recommendation, and 3 Strengths. Overall the CASTLE-PX team demonstrated it values quality and has worked to integrate quality practices into its software development processes. Improvement in documentation will enhance their SQA implementation.

  3. St. George at Prague Castle and Perseus: an Impossible Encounter?

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bažant, Jan

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 19, 1/2 (2015), s. 189-201 ISSN 1212-5865 Institutional support: RVO:67985955 Keywords : Bellerophon * St. George * iconography * Prague Castle * classical tradition Subject RIV: AB - History http://studiahercynia.ff.cuni.cz/wp-content/uploads/sites/79/2016/05/jan_bazant_189-201.pdf

  4. Christian IV's Winter Room and Studiolo at Rosenborg Castle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wadum, Jørgen

    2015-01-01

    An account of the creation of the highly decorated ensemble forming the Winter Room and the Writing Room, Christian 4s private quarters at Rosenborg Castle. Art historical, technical analysis reveals new evidence on the working practice of Danish and Antwerp artists and craftsmen in the first...

  5. Ringling School of Art and Design Builds a CASTLE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morse, Yvonne; Davis, Wendy

    1984-01-01

    Describes the development and installation of the Computer Automated Software for the Total Library Environment System (CASTLE), which uses a microcomputer to automate operations of small academic library in six main areas: circulation, online catalog, inventory and file maintenance, audiovisual equipment, accounting, and information and…

  6. The historical and touristic analysis of Pniv castle

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    I. O. Lysyi

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The goal to perform the historical and tourism analysis of a little-known Pniv castle, which is located near Nadvirna town in Ivano-Frankivsk region (Ukraine, has been set by the author of the article. The analysis has been made on the basis of use of four descriptive characteristics: natural and geographical; historical and cultural; infrastructural; informational. The natural and geographical group includes the morphological features of the monument’s construction; the hydrological characteristics of the territory; location near the objects of the natural reserve fund; presence of the complex of handmade recreational forests near the castle, landscaped parks or gardens; aggregate indicators of natural and geographical location of the castle. The historical and cultural component is described by the degree of physical preservation; the level of historical significance; the degree of cultural value, the indicator of architectural and stylistic value; the availability of saved elements from historic defensive systems. The infrastructural group contains the description of the transport accessibility; the availability of accommodation facilities; food establishments, museum institutions, specialized souvenir shops and stalls. Finally, the informational part consists of the castle’s integration to tourism routes; the organization of touristic promotional campaigns, exhibitions and fairs; the availability of informational and advertising data; the coverage rank in scientific tourism profiles and the availability of touristic information on the Internet. Consequently, the historical and touristic analysis has showed that Pniv castle has high recreational potential, which is generated through the combination of unique elements of natural and geographical localization (combined type of landscape and the specific historical and cultural features of the object (original architectural style of the defensive system. At the same time problematic aspects

  7. The measures of the castle San Felice a Cancello

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    Adriana Rossi

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available  Geometric logic characterizes the function and standard structure of the castles built under Frederick II: a square form with four square towers inserted at the summit. Any changes made have been few and slight, all intended to optimize the adaption of the structure to the site. However, the Matinale Castle in San Felice a Cancello, province of Caserta, in the region of Campania, represents an innovative exception. The study of the ruins confirms a rather singular guiding principle: the position and shape of the foundations of the towers allowed them to halve the number of the inevitable sectors used for flank defence. This solution anticipates by more than two centuries the advent of the bastion, the key element of the trace italienne or star fort. In order to fully comprehend this sophisticated concept, unique of its type, for a restoration was made aware of the critical survey.

  8. Coding Theory and Applications : 4th International Castle Meeting

    CERN Document Server

    Malonek, Paula; Vettori, Paolo

    2015-01-01

    The topics covered in this book, written by researchers at the forefront of their field, represent some of the most relevant research areas in modern coding theory: codes and combinatorial structures, algebraic geometric codes, group codes, quantum codes, convolutional codes, network coding and cryptography. The book includes a survey paper on the interconnections of coding theory with constrained systems, written by an invited speaker, as well as 37 cutting-edge research communications presented at the 4th International Castle Meeting on Coding Theory and Applications (4ICMCTA), held at the Castle of Palmela in September 2014. The event’s scientific program consisted of four invited talks and 39 regular talks by authors from 24 different countries. This conference provided an ideal opportunity for communicating new results, exchanging ideas, strengthening international cooperation, and introducing young researchers into the coding theory community.

  9. The Verrès Castle Access Project

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    Tito Berti Nulli

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The article describes the access project of the Verrès castle, located in Aosta Valley in Italy, underlining some urban and transport planning and design elements. This project constitute in fact an interesting example of integration between transport infrastructure planning and design with urban planning strategy for tourism development. The transport infrastructure (in this case a vertical lift for tourism use has furthermore a deep attention to the landscape and social contest and a good architectural design. The Verrès castle access project represents and interesting example of sustainable mobility and of touristic area accessibility which is strong integrated with urban renewal and territorial development. The feasibility study, financed by the Verrès municipality, is part of a the INTERREG IIIA ACOLTRA Project financed by Italy and France with the aim of creating a network of transnational tourist itineraries. Through this initiative Aosta Valley and Haute-Savoy are developing a common tourism strategy that intends to promote cultural heritage and tourism mobility through the RITT (Reseaux d’Itineraires Touristiques Transfrontalieres. In this contest of intervention the study for the accessibility of the Verrès castle is inserted, with the aim of designing a mobility infrastructure for the main attraction of the valley and at the same of strengthening the appeal of tourist attraction of the whole area. The project is located in the small city of Verrés, that lies at 390m, on the banks of the river Evançon. As many of the Valdostani municipalities is characterized by several small urban centers, which are located in a around 8kmq, in a territory where live 2.700 inhabitants. The feasibility study examines three different alternative for a lift that should connect the Verrès centre with the castle. In particular different transport technology (inclined and vertical lift and several path alternatives have been evaluated. The final

  10. Vascular Plant and Vertebrate Inventory of Montezuma Castle National Monument

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Cecilia A.; Drost, Charles A.; Halvorson, William Lee

    2006-01-01

    Executive Summary We summarize past inventory efforts for vascular plants and vertebrates at Montezuma Castle National Monument (NM) in Arizona. We used data from previous research to compile complete species lists for the monument and to assess inventory completeness. There have been 784 species recorded at Montezuma Castle NM, of which 85 (11%) are non-native. In each taxon-specific chapter we highlight areas of resources that contributed to species richness or unique species for the monument. Of particular importance are Montezuma Well and Beaver and Wet Beaver creeks and the surrounding riparian vegetation, which are responsible for the monument having one of the highest numbers of bird species in the Sonoran Desert Network of park units. Beaver Creek is also home to populations of federally-listed fish species of concern. Other important resources include the cliffs along the creeks and around Montezuma Well (for cliff and cave roosting bats). Based on the review of past studies, we believe the inventory for most taxa is nearly complete, though some rare or elusive species will be added with additional survey effort. We recommend additional inventory, monitoring and research studies.

  11. The reconstruction of Amerongen Castle (1673-1685

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    Ruud Meischke

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The proceedings during the reconstruction of Amerongen castle in the years 1673-1685 were exceptionally well-documented thanks to the extensive correspondence of the client Godert Adriaan van Reede with his wife Margaretha Turnor, his son, his secretary and his friend Johan Maurits van Nassau-Siegen, and thanks to some well-preserved reports and drawings of the building contractor Hendrick Schut. From the start the client had probably formed a idea of his new castle; its design, however, was supervised by Schut, who was also the building contractor and master carpenter of the work, assisted by the master mason Cornelis van Rietvelt and the stone mason Jan Prang. In February 1673 the castle was set fire to by French troops and completely destroyed. From September 1673 Van Reede himself was in the Netherlands for a few years and could therefore prepare the reconstruction in person and supervise the start of the work. First it was mostly a matter of clearing rubble and chiselling off all the still usable bricks. In spite of permanent financial problems he succeeded in keeping up the pace. In the autumn of 1676, two years after the commencement of the work, the shell of the building was completed. While the interior was worked at in stages during the subsequent years, from 1679 the stable building and the two staff residences were also erected on the outer bailey. With the placing of the marble chimneys in the large hall in 1685 the work was largely completed. Although the old foundations were used for the reconstruction, a completely new building, with a new plan was created, to some extent based on the example of The Hague Mauritshuis. Instead of a complex of four wings around an inner courtyard, a closed three-nave building block was constructed. This switch to a completely different type of house fits in with a wider tradition in the development of castle architecture in the Province of Utrecht in the seventeenth century. The history of

  12. Pengembangan Game Castle Defense “Jagaraga” pada Platform Android

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wiliem Indy

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Video game merupakan permainan dalam bentuk digital dan melakukan pengolahan pengubahan gambar. Game dengan judul “Jagaraga” merupakan game dengan genre Castle Defense dengan tema fantasy Bali dan penyisipan cerita Puputan Jagaraga. Cerita dalam permainan merupakan gabungan cerita fiksi dan beberapa kejadian atau event sejarah yang terjadi di Jagaraga. Pengembangan game memanfaatkan beberapa metode. Pergerakan animasi menggunakan pembuatan Kurva Bezier. Artificial Intelegent musuh dalam permainan memanfaatkan metode forward chaining yang sederhana dan penggunaan metode skala likert untuk format form penilaian game untuk mengukur tingkat keberhasilan pengembangan game. Pengembangan game pada penelitian ini sudah mencapai tahap yang memuaskan. Hasil perhitungan form penilaian, jumlah responden sebanyak 23 orang menyatakan aspek grafis bertemakan pasukan Bali mencapai nilai 88.70% yang termasuk dalam kategori sangat baik. Aspek cerita permainan yang menceritakan Puputan Jagaraga juga mendapat respon yang sangat positif dengan nilai 86.96% yang juga termasuk dalam kategori sangat baik. Kata kunci: Jagaraga, Forward Chaining, Bezier, skala Likert

  13. Asian Martial Art Exhibitions at the Swiss Castle of Morges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolae Gothard Bialokur

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available This article reports on two unique cultural exhibitions (2005 and 2007 held in Morges, Switzerland. The main theme for these exhibitions was Asian martial arts with a focus on those from Japan, including presentations by notable masters in aikido, karate, judo, kyudo, iaido, kenjutsu, jodo, juttejutsu, kusarigamajutsu, naginatajutsu, tameshigiri, and kendo. On exhibit were artifacts from Morges Castle museum collections as well as numerous ancient objects borrowed specifically for these exhibitions from other Swiss museums and private collections. There was also a lecture on Japanese sword collecting and care, and presentations of Japanese dance, flower arranging (ikebana, the art of tea (châ no yu, châdo, paper folding (origami, traditional kimono dress, and detailed demonstrations on the manufacture of bladed weapons. Text and photography were arranged to record these events for this article, showing how excellent organization and cooperation can introduce high-quality martial traditions to the public.

  14. Et in Arcadia Ego: El Mausoleo de Castle Howard

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Teresa Muñoz

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available

    Resumen

    Todas las construcciones que pueblan el jardín de Castle Howard de una forma aparentemente azarosa, colocadas siempre sobre  pequeñas colinas, transmiten la sensación de ser objetos permanentemente observados, más que de ser ellos mismos  lugares de observación del territorio circundante. Son más receptores de la mirada que origen de ella y esta situación es especialmente relevante en el caso del mausoleo de  Hawksmoor, algo más que un pabellón o un hito en el paisaje, ya que es la culminación de un itinerario que recorre todas ellas y el contrapunto a la casa principal. El mausoleo es el edificio  más habitado y también el más cualificado desde el punto de vista espacial, el más cerrado y al mismo tiempo el más vacío,  el más inaccesible y el más cercano. Esta construcción circular puede ser contemplada con emoción desde la lejanía, pero  también invita a aproximarse a sus límites, hasta sentir casi físicamente la vitalidad de quien habita en el interior de esa  jaula de piedra, y que habitará allí para siempre recordándonos que, como afirmaba Erwin Panofsky, la muerte es el auténtico
    sujeto de la existencia en el paisaje arcádico.

    Palabras clave

    Castle Howard, paisaje, mausoleo, Hawksmoor, arcadia, muerte, Panofsky

    Abstract

    All buildings that populate the garden of Castle Howard in a seemingly random, always placed on small hills, convey the feeling of being constantly observed objects, rather than being themselves observation sites surrounding territory. They are  more the gaze receptors than its origin, and this is particularly relevant in the case of the mausoleum of Hawksmoor, more  than a pavilion or a landmark in the landscape as it is the culmination of an itinerary that covers all of them and the counterpoint to the main house. The mausoleum is the building most inhabited and the most qualified from the

  15. Castle Creek known geothermal resource area: an environmental analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spencer, S.G.; Russell, B.F. (eds.)

    1979-09-01

    The Castle Creek known geothermal resource area (KGRA) is part of the large Bruneau-Grand View thermal anomaly in southwestern Idaho. The KGRA is located in the driest area of Idaho and annual precipitation averages 230 mm. The potential of subsidence and slope failure is high in sediments of the Glenns Ferry Formation and Idaho Group found in the KGRA. A major concern is the potential impact of geothermal development on the Snake River Birds of Prey Natural Area which overlaps the KGRA. Any significant economic growth in Owyhee County may strain the ability of the limited health facilities in the county. The Idaho Archaeological survey has located 46 archaeological sites within the KGRA.

  16. Radon concentrations inside castles and other ancient buildings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malanca, A.; Pessina, V.; Dallara, G.

    1992-01-01

    Sixty-two measurements of Rn-222 concentrations were made in 24 castles and 13 ancient buildings in 30 different places situated in the provinces of Parma and Reggio Emilia (Northern Italy). The method used was that of activated carbon canisters which were placed in selected settings for at least 48 h in the period staring from December 1990 to May 1991. It was possible to determine the amount of radon in each canister via its daughters gamma emitters counted by Nal(Tl) and Ge(I) detectors. The mean radon concentrations were 72 Bq m -3 (arithmetic mean) and 49 Bq m -3 (geometric mean), a good deal higher than the values obtained from measurements carried out in modern dwellings in the same area; 30 Bq m -3 (arithmetic mean) and 19 Bq m -3 (geometric mean). (author). 20 refs., 2 figs., 6 tabs

  17. Trip attraction rates of shopping centers in Northern New Castle County, Delaware.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-07-01

    This report presents the trip attraction rates of the shopping centers in Northern New : Castle County in Delaware. The study aims to provide an alternative to ITE Trip : Generation Manual (1997) for computing the trip attraction of shopping centers ...

  18. Vertebral Artery Dissection in a Bouncy Castle Injury: Case Report and Literature Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ripa, Valeria; Urakov, Timur M; Jernigan, Sarah C

    2017-01-01

    There is an increased rate of injuries associated with activities on bouncy castles. The purpose of this article was to describe the case of a 6-year-old boy who sustained a brain infarct as a consequence of a left posterior inferior cerebellar artery dissection due to improper landing in a bouncy castle and who required a suboccipital craniotomy. The second goal was to outline the literature review regarding cervical trauma related to trampoline or bouncy castle accidents in pediatric populations. Based on the described case and reviewed studies, bouncy castle or any other activity resulting in hyperflexion or hyperextension of the neck should be carefully evaluated for cervical spine fractures and vascular injuries. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  19. The GENIUS-test-facility first results on background from $^{222}$Rn daughters

    CERN Document Server

    Klapdor-Kleingrothaus, H V; Krivosheina, I V; Tomei, C; 10.1016/j.nima.2004.05.033

    2004-01-01

    GENIUS-TF (Nucl. Instr. and Meth. A 511 (2003) 341; Nucl. Instr. and Meth. A 481 (2002) 149.) is a test-facility for the GENIUS project (GENIUS-Proposal, 20 November 1997; Z. Phys. A 359 (1997) 351; CERN Courier, November 1997, 16; J. Phys. G 24 (1998) 483; Z. Phys. A 359 (1997) 361; in: H.V. Klapdor-Kleingrothaus, H. Pas. (Eds.), First International Conference on Particle Physics Beyond the Standard Model, Castle Ringberg, Germany, 8-14 June 1997, IOP Bristol (1998) 485 and in Int. J. Mod. Phys. A 13 (1998) 3953; in: H.V. Klapdor- Kleingrothaus, LV. Krivosheina (Eds.), Proceedings of the Second International Conference on Particle Physics Beyond the Standard Model BEYOND' 99, Castle Ringberg, Germany 6-12 June 1999, IOP Bristol (2000) 915), a proposed large scale underground observatory for rare events which is based on operation of naked germanium detectors in liquid nitrogen for an extreme background reduction. Operation of naked Ge crystals in liquid nitrogen has been applied routinely already for more th...

  20. Solar energy heating system design package for a single-family residence at New Castle, Pennsylvania

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1977-08-01

    The design of a solar heating and hot water system for the New Castle Redevelopment Authority's single-family dwelling located at New Castle, Pennsylvania is described. Documentation submitted by the contractor for Government review of plans, specifications, cost trade studies and verification status for approval to commit the system to fabrication is presented. Also included are system integration drawings, major subsystems drawings, and architect's specifications and plans.

  1. Weimar Germany

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reckendrees, Alfred

    The Weimar Republic is analysed within the framework of limited and open access orders. Germany had developed into a mature limited access order before World War I, with rule of law and open economic access but only limited access to politics. After the war, Germany developed toward an open access...... order; this process was, however, not sustainable. Two interpretations are discussed, which both pose a challenge to the limited access-open access framework: (1.) Weimar Germany was the first open access order that failed; (2.) sufficiency conditions of the sustainability of open access are not yet...

  2. The capture of the Marienwerder Castle, or where the Teutonic Order’s expansion to the East was stopped

    OpenAIRE

    Vytenis Almonaitis

    2017-01-01

    The capture of the Marienwerder Castle, or where the Teutonic Order’s expansion to the East was stopped This paper analyzes the construction, features, and significance of the Marienwerder castle, and its capture by Lithuanian forces in 1384. Located in what is now Kaunas, the castle represented the furthest eastern point of the Teutonic Order’s penetration into the Grand Duchy of Lithuania. As the sparse historiography on it suggests, the event seems to have been overlooked by contempora...

  3. Penalobo "Castle Rocks" - First approach to valuing this geoforms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinharandas, Carlos; Nobre, José; Gomes, Ana

    2013-04-01

    The village of Penalobo, located in the municipality of Sabugal (Portugal) is characterized by hercynian granites with interesting geological features, including pegmatite veins and quartz crystals with exotic forms, and presents some steep slopes and plateaus. From the mountainous configuration highlight some more pronounced elevations called "Castle Rocks". Such structures are composed by granites, which present greater fracturing at the top, which leads to the formation of large granite blocks. In less fractured zones it is possible to observe small folds. An excavation existing in one of those elevations allows us to observe a basic rock outcropping with clusters of crystals mottled with circular shape, which are indicative of the presence of late fluid during crystallization. In the zone of contact with the enclosing granite, there are small folds caused by magma intrusion. Those evidences led us to hypothesize that the peaks observed in the area of Penalobo village were due to the intrusion on basic magma. All this framework and geological environment becomes an asset for the scientific, educational and economic development of the region. On the other hand, it has a vital importance in the context of a strategy of forming a geological park, in the point of view of tourism, research and interpretation.

  4. Weimar Germany

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reckendrees, Alfred

    2015-01-01

    The Weimar Republic is analysed within the concept of limited and open access orders. Before World War I, Imperial Germany had developed into a mature limited access order with rule of law and open economic access but lack of competition in politics. After World War I and inflation, Weimar Germany...... developed toward an open access order; open access was not, however, sustainable and collapsed in 1930–31. This case of a failed open access order suggests refining the framework of limited and open access orders in further work. It shows that the political process of “creative destruction” might result...

  5. Nudging Germany

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Purnhagen, Kai; Reisch, Lucia A.

    Since 2015 behavioural scientists investigate at the German chancellery how one could regulate better. This piece illustrates the background of this new strategy and possible concequences for regulation and Rechtswissenschaft in Germany. We first discuss the concept of behaviourally informed regu...

  6. Aztec castles and the dP3 quiver

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leoni, Megan; Musiker, Gregg; Neel, Seth; Turner, Paxton

    2014-01-01

    Bipartite, periodic, planar graphs known as brane tilings can be associated to a large class of quivers. This paper will explore new algebraic properties of the well-studied del Pezzo 3 (dP3) quiver and geometric properties of its corresponding brane tiling. In particular, a factorization formula for the cluster variables arising from a large class of mutation sequences (called τ-mutation sequences) is proven; this factorization also gives a recursion on the cluster variables produced by such sequences. We can realize these sequences as walks in a triangular lattice using a correspondence between the generators of the affine symmetric group A 2 -tilde and the mutations which generate τ-mutation sequences. Using this bijection, we obtain explicit formulae for the cluster that corresponds to a specific alcove in the lattice. With this lattice visualization in mind, we then express each cluster variable produced in a τ-mutation sequence as the sum of weighted perfect matchings of a new family of subgraphs of the dP3 brane tiling, which we call Aztec castles. Our main result generalizes previous work on a certain mutation sequence on the dP3 quiver in Zhang (2012 Cluster Variables and Perfect Matchings of Subgraphs of the dP3 Lattice http://www.math.umn.edu/~/REU/Zhang2012.pdf), and forms part of the emerging story in combinatorics and theoretical high energy physics relating cluster variables to subgraphs of the associated brane tiling. This article is part of a special issue of Journal of Physics A: Mathematical and Theoretical devoted to ‘Cluster algebras in mathematical physics’. (paper)

  7. Carcinoma Showing Thymus-Like Differentiation (CASTLE of Thyroid: A Case Report and Literature Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leong-Perng Chan

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Carcinoma showing thymus-like differentiation (CASTLE is a rare malignant neoplasm that occurs in the thyroid gland, or head and neck. This tumor arises from either ectopic thymus tissue or remnants of branchial pouches, which retain the potential to differentiate along the thymus line. Clinical presentation and imaging can be consistent with a malignant lesion such as thyroid cancer or thymic carcinoma. Immunohistochemical staining with CD5 can differentiate CASTLE from other malignant thyroid neoplasms. A 54-year-old male had initially presented with a painless, left neck mass for 3 months. He underwent left thyroid lobectomy via a median sternotomy approach. Carcinoma showing thymus-like differentiation was the final histopathologic diagnosis. After 36 months of follow-up, no evidence of recurrence was observed. A median sternotomy is an excellent approach for CASTLE with anterior mediastinum involvement. Complete resection is important to improve the long-term survival rate and the locoregional recurrence rate.

  8. Accessibility of tourist sites to persons with disability: the case of Cape Coast and Elmina Castles in Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorreta Offei

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The term accessibility is used in the context of providing equal opportunity to enter into an environment. Much is not known about the accessibility of tourist sites such as castles and forts to people with disabilities. This study sought to examine the accessibility of the Cape Coast and Elmina Castles to people with disabilities through a qualitative approach which involved in-depth interviews and photovoice to collect data. The study revealed that the castles are inaccessible. Though ramps, spacious pathways and handrails in washrooms existed, there was however, no mutual relation between the design of the castles and the concept of accessibility as defined by the Disability Act. The creation of awareness on the rights of the disabled to participate in the tour of castles can perhaps draw the attention of local government authorities and other relevant stakeholders to effect the necessary changes.

  9. Application of instrumental neutron activation analysis to study ceramic fragments from Damascus Castle site, Syria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bakraji, E.H.

    2005-01-01

    Thirty-three archaeological ceramic fragment samples from Damascus Castle archaeological site, Damascus city, Syria, were analyzed using instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA). 36 elements were determined. These elemental concentrations have been processed using two multivariate statistical methods, cluster and factor analysis in order to determine similarities and correlation between the various samples. Factor analysis confirms that 84.8% of the ceramics samples classified by cluster analysis are correctly classified by cluster analysis. The results provided persuasive evidence that Castle pottery used at least four different clay sources. Moreover, by means of systematic local analysis it will be clear whether these sources are local or not. (author)

  10. The Torre de los Secretos in the context of Baena Castle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Manuel López Osorio

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The text addresses the structural consolidation carried out on the Torre de los Secretos of Baena Castle (Cordoba, as part of the restoration works planned for the castle complex. The intervention began with a comprehensive preliminary study that made it possible to glean rigorous knowledge of the materials and traditional building methods. The structural consolidation of this fabric, a mixture of masonry and rammed earth, was performed by means of a simple timber mesh system that remained concealed once the works were completed. The works also included the repair of the walls, showing the greatest possible respect for the existing materials and conserving the original textures and shapes.

  11. Cegelec Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    Cegelec is a group of companies acting internationally and one of Europe's biggest plant engineering firms in the fields of power generation and distribution with the focus on engineering and technical services. Cegelec's competences in Germany are mainly in planning, installation and maintenance of plants and facilities in all key industries and for public clients. The main areas of activity are industry, infrastructure and power, for which Cegelec offers comprehensive project and service work. While the Industry business area covers chemistry, steel, paper, automotive, re-engineering, and mining industries, Cegelec's Infrastructure unit performs services to airports, in tunnel construction, for railways and waterways. The Power market segment comprises gas, refuse incineration, power supply, sugar, power plants, and nuclear final storage. Cegelec is represented in Germany on roughly 30 locations with a staff of 1,700. The origins of Cegelec are in Germany, i.e. in AEG founded 1896. The Plant and Automation Technology sector was divested in 1996 and moved to Alstom where, in 2001, a management buyout led to the independent Cegelec group of companies. When the strategic partnership between Qatari Diar and Vinci took shape, Cegelec became a subsidiary of the Vinci group in April 2010. (orig.)

  12. The ''Amsterdam Castle'': A case study of wiggle matching and the proper calibration curve

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Plicht, J; Jansma, E|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/074965255; Kars, H

    1995-01-01

    We have performed a high-precision 14C wiggle-matching study on two oak beams from the "Castle of Amsterdam". These beams are also dated by dendrochronology. Our two dating methods can only be made consistent using the recommended calibration curve (1986) instead of the revised one (1993).

  13. 76 FR 75543 - Castle Creek Hydroelectric Project; Notice of Preliminary Permit Application Accepted for Filing...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-02

    ... Hydroelectric Project; Notice of Preliminary Permit Application Accepted for Filing and Soliciting Comments... (FPA), proposing to study the feasibility of the Castle Creek Hydroelectric Project to be located on... be located adjacent to the original hydroelectric plant, with a single shaft Pelton turbine...

  14. German Castles, Customs and Culture: Introducing a New Approach to the Undergraduate Culture Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lalande, John F., II

    2008-01-01

    Courses on the culture of the German-speaking world (GSW) have long dotted the landscape of undergraduate course offerings at North American colleges and universities. The primary purpose of this article is to share information about a new kind of undergraduate culture course that uses castles as a vehicle for introducing students to past and…

  15. St George the dragon-slayer at Prague Castle - the eternal pilgrim without a home?

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Benešovská, Klára

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 55, č. 1 (2007), s. 28-39 ISSN 0049-5123 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z80330511 Keywords : Gothic bronze sculpture * St George the dragon -slayer * Martin and George of Cluj * Prague Castle Subject RIV: AL - Art, Architecture, Cultural Heritage http://www.umeni-art.cz/cz/soubory/benesovska.pdf

  16. Restorian of outdoor plaster pavement floors in a medieval Czech castle

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Slížková, Zuzana; Drdácký, Miloš

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 14, č. 3 (2008), s. 81-98 ISSN 1355-6207 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA103/06/1609 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20710524 Keywords : floor plaster * metakaoline modified mortar * medieval castle rampart * non-standard testing Subject RIV: AL - Art, Architecture, Cultural Heritage

  17. Environmental assessment of metal exposure to corals living in Castle Harbour, Bermuda

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prouty, N.G.; Goodkin, N.F.; Jones, R.; Lamborg, C.H.; Storlazzi, C.D.; Hughen, K.A.

    2013-01-01

    Environmental contamination in Castle Harbour, Bermuda, has been linked to the dissolution and leaching of contaminants from the adjacent marine landfill. This study expands the evidence for environmental impact of leachate from the landfill by quantitatively demonstrating elevated metal uptake over the last 30 years in corals growing in Castle Harbour. Coral Pb/Ca, Zn/Ca and Mn/Ca ratios and total Hg concentrations are elevated relative to an adjacent control site in John Smith's Bay. The temporal variability in the Castle Harbour coral records suggests that while the landfill has increased in size over the last 35 years, the dominant input of metals is through periodic leaching of contaminants from the municipal landfill and surrounding sediment. Elevated contaminants in the surrounding sediment suggest that resuspension is an important transport medium for transferring heavy metals to corals. Increased winds, particularly during the 1990s, were accompanied by higher coral metal composition at Castle Harbour. Coupled with wind-induced resuspension, interannual changes in sea level within the Harbour can lead to increased bioavailability of sediment-bound metals and subsequent coral metal assimilation. At John Smith's Bay, large scale convective mixing may be driving interannual metal variability in the coral record rather than impacts from land-based activities. Results from this study provide important insights into the coupling of natural variability and anthropogenic input of contaminants to the nearshore environment.

  18. A reading of calvino’s The castle of crossed destinies as a machine-text

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Otávio Guimarães Tavares

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available This text has the objective of analising the compositinal processo of Italo Calvino’s work The Castle of Crossed Destinies as a machine-text, as a textual production that, through restrictions to the creative process, lends combinatorial procedures from tarot cards and mechanical processes as a means of expanding compositional possibilities.

  19. Gothic green glazed tile from Malbork Castle: Multi-analytical study

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Svorová Pawełkowicz, S.; Rohanová, D.; Svora, Petr

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 5, č. 1 (2017), č. článku 27. ISSN 2050-7445 Institutional support: RVO:61388980 Keywords : Antimony-doped tin oxide (ATO) * Green glazed tile * Malbork Castle * Medieval technology * Opacifiers * Silica-lead glaze Subject RIV: CA - Inorganic Chemistry OBOR OECD: Inorganic and nuclear chemistry

  20. Diana Wynne Jones’s Howl’s Moving Castle (1986) or the Story of a New Mythology

    OpenAIRE

    Seda Yavaş

    2015-01-01

    Diana Wynne Jones’s Howl’s Moving Castle (1986) or The Story of a New Mythology Abstract  This paper focuses upon Diana Wynne Jones’s 1986 fantasy novel Howl’s Moving Castle, part of the trilogy including Castle in the Air (1990) and House of Many Ways (2008). Taking place in a utopian land, the story creates a new mythology built upon magic, objects coming to life, no space boundaries and the search for eternal life and the perfect human. As a consequence, the paper will deal with th...

  1. Harry Pye postkaart Londonist : Elevant ja Kindlus = Harry Pye's Postcard from London : The Elephant & Castle / Harry Pye

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Pye, Harry, 1973-

    2008-01-01

    Londoni kirjanik ja kunstnik Harry Pye Lõuna-Londoni linnaosast Elephant & Castle, mille võlu ta avastab koos sõpradega linnaosast näituse jaoks fotosid tehes. Fotod eksponeeritakse grupinäitusel "Tõeline elu"

  2. A Study of the Curriculum and Contents in American Progressive Education : Focusing on Castle Kindergarten and Nursery School in Hawaii

    OpenAIRE

    塩路, 晶子

    2010-01-01

    This study aims to show the features of American progressive kindergarten in the early 20th century, through analyzing the curriculum and contents of Henry and Dorothy Castle Memorial Kindergarten and Nursery School in Hawaii. This kindergarten was established by Mary Castle at Honolulu in 1899 and influenced from John Dewey. And in 1927, the nursery school was established because educating younger children was important. Children could select the subject matter based on their own interest. A...

  3. from Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahriar Azizi

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The first and most important principle of marketing is focusing on the customer needs and wants, because regardless of that, companies will not be able to survive in today's competitive environment. These days, companies know that providing products and services according to customer needs and demands, is an important competitive advantage to gain more sales and benefit, so identifying customer needs and demands, and adopting appropriate strategies for supplying customers' desires are the most important activities in competitive markets. Considering the competitive environment in e-commerce and importance of focus on customer expectations in electronic markets, this study has been aimed to identify and prioritize the factors affecting customer satisfaction in electronic commerce. For data collection and final testing of the E-SAT model, questionnaire was designed and distributed between 221 people in Germany. Collected data was analyzed by SPSS software. The research model had found out that from six main factors and 25 sub factors, six factors and 17 sub factors affect satisfaction in online shopping. Also in this study, the type of goods, prices of purchased goods and age range of online buyers are investigated.

  4. Environmental Impact Statement. Disposal and Reuse of Castle Air Force Base, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-11-01

    rendering infectious waste noninfectious and disposable as nonhazardous waste 3-74 Castle AFB Disposal and Reuse FEIS * Discharge to the sewage system if...American Indians Volume 8: California, Robert F. Heizer , ed., Smithsonian Institution, Washington, DC. Wedel, W.R., 1941. Arrha 3ological Investigations at...Undeswrable substances rendering something unfit for use Continental Control Area The arspace of the 48 contiguous states, the District of Columb.ia and

  5. Isolation and Identification of Phototrophic Microorganisms from Rudkhan Castle as a Biodeteriorating Agent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parisa Mohammadi

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Phototrophic microorganisms are the first residents of different surfaces of ancient buildings’ walls. These organisms can expand to provide the colonization of other microorganisms and to form microbial biofilms. During biofilm growth, acids and metabolites production bore the substratum and cause surfaces damages. Rudkan Castle, the historic monument located in Gilan province, an area with a humid climate has an appropriate surfaces to grow these microorganisms. Materials and methods: In this study, morphological identification of algae and cyanobacteria which was isolated from different areas of the brick walls of Castle has been investigated. Samples were taken from 24 different areas of Castle walls and were aseptically cultured into Blue Green Medium (BGM and Bolds Basal Medium (BBM, and colonies were observed using light microscopy. Results: The dominant organisms which were isolated and identified, were Cladophora, Trentepohlia, Klebsormidium, Trebouxia, Pleurastrum, Chlorococcum as chlorophyta order and Scytonema, Tolypothrix, Leptolyngbya, Plectolyngbya, Phormidium, Gloeocapsa, Microcoleus, Nostoc as a cyanobacteria order. Discussion and conclusion: As expected, diversity of a large number of cyanobacteria and algae phototrophs was isolated. Diversity of organisms on the surface of monuments depends on many factors, including the weather condition such as moisture, the amount of radiation absorbed by the surface, temperature of area, the materials used in the monuments, the biological acceptance of surface and presence of variety of organisms in the soil surface and the air on. Study of destructive factors is the first step toward the protection and restoration of ancient monuments.

  6. The hill forts and castle mounds in Lithuania: interaction between geodiversity and human-shaped landscape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skridlaite, Grazina; Guobyte, Rimante; Satkunas, Jonas

    2015-04-01

    Lithuania is famous for its abundant, picturesque hill forts and castle mounds of natural origin. In Lithuania as well as in whole Europe the fortified hills were used as the society dwelling place since the beginning of the Late Bronze Age. Their importance increased when Livonian and Teutonic Orders directed a series of military campaigns against Lithuania with the aim of expansion of Christianity in the region at the end of 1st millennium AD, and they were intensively used till the beginning of the 15th c. when most of them were burned down during fights with the Orders or just abandoned due to the changing political and economical situation. What types of the geodiversity were used for fortified dwellings? The choice in a particular area depended on a variety of geomorphology left behind the retreating ice sheets. High spots dominating their surroundings were of prime interest. In E and SE Lithuania, the Baltic Upland hills marking the eastern margin of the last Weichselian glacier hosted numerous fortified settlements from the end of 2nd millennium BC to the Medieval Ages (Narkunai, Velikuskes etc). In W Lithuania, plateau-like hills of the insular Samogitian Upland had been repeatedly fortified from the beginning of 1st millennium AD to the 14th century (Satrija, Medvegalis etc). Chains of hill forts and castle mounds feature the slopes of glaciofluvial valleys of Nemunas, Neris and other rivers where the slopes were dissected by affluent rivulets and ravines and transformed into isolated, well protected hills (Kernave, Punia, Veliuona etc). Peninsulas and headlands formed by the erosion of fluvial and lacustrine deposits were used in the lowlands, e.g. in central and N Lithuania (Paberze, Mezotne etc). How much the landscape was modified for defense purposes? Long-term erosion and overgrowing vegetation damaged the former fortified sites, however some remains and the archeological excavations allowed their reconstruction. The fortified Bronze Age settlements

  7. Destroy The Castle: A 3D Magic Carpet-like Game

    OpenAIRE

    Ondrčková, Simona

    2017-01-01

    Title: Destroy the Castle: A 3D Magic Carpet-like Game Author: Simona Ondrčková Department: Department of Distributed and Dependable Systems Supervisor: Mgr. Pavel Ježek, Ph.D., Department of Distributed and Dependable Systems Abstract: The goal of the thesis is to create a computer game based on a game called Magic Carpet. The game has two main interesting aspects from the programming point of view: artificial intelligence and an editor. The artificial intelligence uses different approaches ...

  8. William Parsons, 3rd Earl of Rosse astronomy and the castle in nineteenth-century Ireland

    CERN Document Server

    Mollan, R Charles

    2015-01-01

    This is a revealing account of the family life and achievements of the Third Earl of Rosse, a hereditary peer and resident landlord at Birr Castle, County Offaly, in nineteenth-century Ireland, before, during and after the devastating famine of the 1840s. He was a remarkable engineer, who built enormous telescopes in the cloudy middle of Ireland. The book gives details, in an attractive non-technical style which requires no previous scientific knowledge, of his engineering initiatives and the astronomical results, but also reveals much more about the man and his contributions - locally in the

  9. Solar energy system demonstration project at Wilmington Swim School, New Castle, Delaware

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-07-01

    A solar energy system located at the Wilmington Swim School, New Castle, Delaware is described. The system was designed for a 40 percent heating and a 30 percent hot water solar contribution serving the heat loads in the following order: space heat - new addition, domestic water - entire facility, and pool heating - entire facility. On a cost basis for 2920 hours of operation, the heat reclaimed would cost $969.66 annually if provided by gas at 3.79 per million Btu's. At 5.5 centers per kwh, heat recovery costs of $481.80 percent a net savings of $487.86 annually.

  10. Hydrology of Alkali Creek and Castle Valley Ridge coal-lease tracts, central Utah, and potential effects of coal mining

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seiler, R.L.; Baskin, R.L.

    1988-01-01

    The Alkali Creek coal-lease tract includes about 2,150 acres in the Book Cliffs coal field in central Utah, and the Castle Valley Ridge coal-lease tract includes about 3,360 acres in the Wasatch Plateau coal field, also in central Utah. Both the Alkali Creek and Castle Valley Ridge coal-lease tracts are near areas where coal is currently (1987) mined by underground methods from the Cretaceous Blackhawk Formation. The Alkali Creek and Castle Valley Ridge areas have intermittent streams in which flow after snowmelt runoff is locally sustained into midsummer by springflow. The only perennial stream is South Fork Corner Canyon Creek in the Castle Valley Ridge area. Peak flow in both areas generally is from snowmelt runoff; however, peak flow from thunderstorm runoff in the Alkali Creek area can exceed that from snowmelt runoff. Estimated annual source-area sediment yield was 0.5 acre-ft/sq mi in the Alkali Creek lease tract and it was 0.3 acre-ft/sq mi in the Castle Valley Ridge lease tract. Groundwater in the Alkali Creek area occurs in perched aquifers in the Flagstaff Limestone and in other formations above the coal-bearing Blackhawk Formation. The principal source of recharge to the aquifers is snowmelt on outcrops. Faults may be major conduits and control the movement of groundwater. Groundwater discharges at formation contacts, between zones of differing permeability within a formation, near faults and into mines. Water sampled from 13 springs in the Alkali Creek area contained dissolved solids at concentrations ranging from 273 to 5,210 mg/L. Water sampled from 17 springs in the Castle Valley Ridge area contained dissolved solids at concentrations ranging from 208 to 579 mg/L. The composition of water from a recently abandoned part of an active mine the Wasatch Plateau closely resembles that of water discharging from a nearby mine that has been abandoned for more than 30 years. Mining of the Alkali Creek and Castle Valley Ridge coal-lease tracts likely will

  11. Terminal (Mis)diagnosis and the Physician–Patient Relationship in LM Montgomery’s The Blue Castle

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    LM Montgomery’s The Blue Castle was first published in 1926, yet contains many insights into medical practice that remain relevant today. The protagonist, Valancy, mistakenly receives a terminal diagnosis in a letter from her physician, who has sent her a note intended for another patient. Her interactions with the physician raise issues that are still relevant in contemporary medical education and practice, primarily the importance of effective communication in the physician–patient relationship, especially in the context of diagnosing terminal illness and handling a diagnostic error. The Blue Castle offers a useful starting point for debate and discussion in medical education about these topics. PMID:20473640

  12. State of the Crown of the continent ecosystem : Flathead/Castle Transboundary Bioregion (draft)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Konrad, E.; Peck, B.; Stewart, A.; Stewart, C.

    1999-01-01

    This state of the ecosystem report describes the ecological composition of the Flathead/Castle Transboundary bioregion, including human activity. The ecosystem (which does not follow political boundaries) extends from western Alberta, eastern British Columbia and Montana. The region encompasses 5088 square km. and occupies two watersheds of the greater Crown of the Continent Ecosystem. Ecological components of the North Fork of the Flathead and of the Castle Drainage including such ecological processes as fire and disease, vegetation, species, wildlife, the aquatic environment, and a century of human activity in the two regions are described. Forestry practices, petroleum extraction, mining, recreational activities, land development, ranching practices, and road development in the two regions are reviewed, along with ecosystem-wide trends. The advantages of ecosystem based management integrated with human based management practices was demonstrated by describing the Rocky Mountain Grizzly Bear Planning Committee`s work . The Committee consists of representatives of wildlife agencies of Montana, BC, Alberta and Canadian and US federal government agencies who share responsibility for jointly mapping grizzly habitat, grizzly mortality sinks, pooling data on mortalities to ensure that the regional grizzly bear population is managed as one population regardless of political boundaries. 221 refs., tabs., figs.

  13. MODELLING FROM THE PAST: THE LEANING SOUTWEST TOWER OF CAERPHILLY CASTLE 1539-2015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. E. C. Prizeman

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Caerphilly Castle (1268-70 is the first concentric castle in Britain and the second largest in the UK. The dramatic inclination of its ruinous south west tower has been noted since 1539. Comparing data from historical surveys and a terrestrial laser scan undertaken in 2015, this paper seeks to review evidence for the long-term stability of the tower. Digital documentation and archival research by architects is collated to provide data for structural analysis by engineers. A terrestrial laser scan was used to create a detailed three dimensional finite element model to enable structural analysis of the current shape of the tower made by tetrahedral elements. An automated strategy has been implemented for the transformation of the complex three dimensional point cloud into a three dimensional finite element model. Numerical analysis has been carried out aiming at understanding the main structural weaknesses of the tower in its present condition. Comparisons of four sets of data: 1539, 1830, 1870 and 2015 enabled us to determine change albeit between very different methods of measurement.

  14. Whose Castle is it Anyway? : Local/Global Negotiations of a Shakespearean Location

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Refskou Anne Sophie

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Kronborg Castle in the Danish town of Elsinore is a location strongly associated with Shakespeare thanks to the setting of Hamlet. It is a place where fiction currently eclipses history, at least in the context of a cultural tourist industry where Shakespeare’s name is worth a great deal more than Danish national heritage sites. Indeed, Kronborg is now widely marketed as ‘Hamlet’s Castle’ and the town of Elsinore has acquired the suffix ‘Home of Hamlet’. This article examines the signifiers implied in the naming and renaming of Kronborg as a Shakespearean location, while also looking at its unique international Shakespearean performance tradition, which spans two centuries. It describes how the identity of the castle has been shaped by its Shakespearean connection against the backdrop of changing ideologies in the twentieth and twenty-first centuries, and poses questions as to how this identity may continue to develop within the current contexts of renewed nationalism in Europe and the world.

  15. Bathymetric map and area/capacity table for Castle Lake, Washington

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosbrucker, Adam R.; Spicer, Kurt R.

    2017-11-14

    The May 18, 1980, eruption of Mount St. Helens produced a 2.5-cubic-kilometer debris avalanche that dammed South Fork Castle Creek, causing Castle Lake to form behind a 20-meter-tall blockage. Risk of a catastrophic breach of the newly impounded lake led to outlet channel stabilization work, aggressive monitoring programs, mapping efforts, and blockage stability studies. Despite relatively large uncertainty, early mapping efforts adequately supported several lake breakout models, but have limited applicability to current lake monitoring and hazard assessment. Here, we present the results of a bathymetric survey conducted in August 2012 with the purpose of (1) verifying previous volume estimates, (2) computing an area/capacity table, and (3) producing a bathymetric map. Our survey found seasonal lake volume ranges between 21.0 and 22.6 million cubic meters with a fundamental vertical accuracy representing 0.88 million cubic meters. Lake surface area ranges between 1.13 and 1.16 square kilometers. Relationships developed by our results allow the computation of lake volume from near real-time lake elevation measurements or from remotely sensed imagery.

  16. The Historical Destiny of the Romanovs in the Evolution of the Tobolsk Prison Castle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga N. Naumenko

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The penetration of European standards and norms in the life of Russian society, their influence on the culture, the legislation and administrative traditions, – these questions remain relevant over 300 years, since the beginning of the Europeanization of Russia by Peter I. The most important problem lies in the degree of adoption of the European experience, its relevance and adaptation to the Russian conditions. The question of penetration of the western norms into education, science, a family and other spheres which successfully functioned and were reproduced on a powerful internal resource of the Russian traditional culture is relevant too. The article is based on archival materials. It discusses the experience of the Russian emperors to reform Tobolsk prison castle in accordance with the European and Russian samples, and the results of this policy. The author draws attention to the pattern that emerged over 200 years: the attempt even a partial introduction to the prison castle European humanist values necessarily accompanied by a crisis of Imperial power and ended with its collapse in 1917. A return to the inquisitorial part of the prison and the rejection of the humane treatment of prisoners entailed the stabilization of the government. The author analyzes the causes of this phenomenon, comparing the cultural-historical conditions for prison reform in Russia and Europe, as well as differences in socio-economic and political development. The article also presents new data on the history of the exile of the Romanovs to Siberia in 1601 and 1918.

  17. From ivory tower to castle: how scientists are helping their local communities through solving crime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baylor, V.M.

    2002-01-01

    C.A.S.T.L.E. ( Centre for applied science and technology for law enforcement) was established in 1995 to use the resources within Oak Ridge to help local, state and federal law enforcement personnel solve crimes. It included several functions, which will be described in more detail below, casework support, short term feasibility tasks, technical advice and assistance to operations. As a further result of the CASTLE program and similar efforts at DOE laboratories throughout the U.S., the Department of Energy committed in May 1998 to a memorandum of understanding with the departments of treasury and Justice which covers a crime-fighting partnership initiative. Under this partnership, DOE charter is to provide preeminent science and technology that can be applied to the mitigation of crime and criminal activities through the establishment of collaborative partnerships between the DOE laboratories and the law enforcement and forensic sciences communities. One of the chief goals is to facilitate the flow of technologies produced through the partnership to law enforcement agencies at the state and local level. (N.C.)

  18. CASTLE3D - A Computer Aided System for Labelling Archaeological Excavations in 3D

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houshiar, H.; Borrmann, D.; Elseberg, J.; Nüchter, A.; Näth, F.; Winkler, S.

    2015-08-01

    Documentation of archaeological excavation sites with conventional methods and tools such as hand drawings, measuring tape and archaeological notes is time consuming. This process is prone to human errors and the quality of the documentation depends on the qualification of the archaeologist on site. Use of modern technology and methods in 3D surveying and 3D robotics facilitate and improve this process. Computer-aided systems and databases improve the documentation quality and increase the speed of data acquisition. 3D laser scanning is the state of the art in modelling archaeological excavation sites, historical sites and even entire cities or landscapes. Modern laser scanners are capable of data acquisition of up to 1 million points per second. This provides a very detailed 3D point cloud of the environment. 3D point clouds and 3D models of an excavation site provide a better representation of the environment for the archaeologist and for documentation. The point cloud can be used both for further studies on the excavation and for the presentation of results. This paper introduces a Computer aided system for labelling archaeological excavations in 3D (CASTLE3D). Consisting of a set of tools for recording and georeferencing the 3D data from an excavation site, CASTLE3D is a novel documentation approach in industrial archaeology. It provides a 2D and 3D visualisation of the data and an easy-to-use interface that enables the archaeologist to select regions of interest and to interact with the data in both representations. The 2D visualisation and a 3D orthogonal view of the data provide cuts of the environment that resemble the traditional hand drawings. The 3D perspective view gives a realistic view of the environment. CASTLE3D is designed as an easy-to-use on-site semantic mapping tool for archaeologists. Each project contains a predefined set of semantic information that can be used to label findings in the data. Multiple regions of interest can be joined under

  19. New Plants at Prague Castle and Hradčany in the Early Modern Period. A History of Selected Species

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Beneš, J.; Čulíková, Věra; Kosňovská, J.; Frolík, Jan; Matiášek, Josef

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 3, č. 1 (2012), s. 103-114 ISSN 1804-848X Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z80020508 Keywords : Prague Castle * Early Modern Period * archaeobotany Subject RIV: AC - Archeology, Anthropology, Ethnology http://www.iansa.eu/papers/IANSA-2012-01-benes.pdf

  20. Chemical constituents in the Peedee and Castle Hayne aquifers: Porters Neck area, New Hanover County, North Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, T.L.; Harris, W.B.

    2004-01-01

    Concerns about overuse and potential contamination of major aquifers in the southeastern part of North Carolina resulted in the initiation of a subsurface water quality study in February 2001. The focus of this study was to examine variations in nutrients (NO3-, TRP, SO42- Cl-, NH4+) and total dissolved Fe in the Cretaceous Peedee and Tertiary Castle Hayne Limestone aquifers of northeastern New Hanover County. Water samples were collected monthly for one year from sixteen wells located in the Porters Neck area (west of the Intracoastal Waterway and south of Futch Creek) and four springs located on the south side of Futch Creek. Variations in selective nutrient concentrations were measured between and within each aquifer. Concentrations of NH4+ and Fe increased in the Peedee sandstone aquifer during the warmer summer and early fall months. In late summer to early fall, Fe, NO 3-, NH4+, and TRP concentrations in the Castle Hayne Limestone aquifer were significantly higher than in the spring and winter months. Chloride and SO 42- concentrations for the Castle Hayne Limestone aquifer both increased during the warmer months, probably as a result of saltwater intrusion. Factors considered for nutrient and Fe variance include: temperature variation, anaerobic conditions, subsurface stratigraphy/structure, recharge locations, site location and surface fertilization. The shallower Castle Hayne Limestone aquifer showed seasonal variability in the study area, whereas the Peedee sandstone aquifer showed little to no seasonal variability. Increases in NO3- and TRP lagged slightly behind periods of high fertilization and were more prevalent down-dip of a major golf course. Nutrient content and seasonal variation of Futch Creek springs indicated that they originate from the Castle Hayne Limestone aquifer.

  1. Assessment of the environmental value of the Zichy Castle Park in Voivodeni, Romania – Brief description

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kovács Lóránt

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The Zichy Castle from Vajdaszentiväny (Voievodeni is located in Mure§ County, central Romania, south-west from the town of Reghin. Its constniction in classical baroque style dates back to the beginning of the X\\TH Century. The archaeological findings from the area show that Vajdaszentiväny was already populated in the Copper Age. The findings of gray dishes from the III and IV centuries were considered by Dr. Protase as indigenous Daco-Roman relics. The Roman presence here was demonstrated by residues of the hewn-stone road along the Maros River. After the Roman Age, several other populations (Goths, Slavonic peoples. Darghins and Huns settled down here. The feudal Hungarian state occupied this area around the XI Century. Several streams, terraces and old cemetery ruins demonstrate tliat the Hungarians used the region for protective purposes. The first mitten records of Vajdaszentiväny date back to 1332, when die Papal documents (Sacerdos de Sancto Johanne mention the settlement for the first time. In 1366. the name of the village was Märton-Szent-Ivän. and dunng the centuries it belonged to several old and noble families and dynasties as szentiväni Szekely. monoszlai Losonczi. Szakäcsi. the Bänffy and Dezsöfi, the Szentiväni, Butkai, Balog, Kecseti, Kerelöi, Szengyeli, Dengelegi, Fodor, vajdaszentivänyi Földväri, Koka, Piski, Järai or Järai Felsöjärai Abafäja. During the first half of the 19* Century, among former Hungarians noble owners of the village, the following can be mentioned: Count Sämuel Kemeny, Albert Horvath, Budai, Szocs (Käroly es Mihäly and Duke Löwenthäl. Later on, the village of Vajdaszentiväny became famous because of its castle, later named the “Zichy Castle,” but also because of its citizens as preservers of folk music, folk dance and folk tales.

  2. Preliminary Results on Mineralogy and Geochemistry of Loki's Castle Arctic Vents and Host Sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barriga, Fernando; Carvalho, Carlos; Inês Cruz, M.; Dias, Ágata; Fonseca, Rita; Relvas, Jorge; Pedersen, Rolf

    2010-05-01

    The Loki's Castle hydrothermal vent field was discovered in the summer of 2008, during a cruise led by the Centre of Geobiology of the University of Bergen, integrated in the H2Deep Project (Eurocores, ESF). Loki's Castle is the northernmost hydrothermal vent field discovered to date. It is located at the junction between the Mohns Ridge and the South Knipovich Ridge, in the Norwegian-Greenland Sea, at almost 74°N. This junction shows unique features and apparently there is no transform fault to accommodate the deformation generated by the bending of the rift valley from WSW-ENE to almost N-S. The Knipovich Rigde, being a complex structure, is an ultra-slow spreading ridge, with an effective spreading rate of only ~ 6 mm/y. It is partly masked by a substantial cover of glacial and post-glacial sediments, estimated to be between 12 and 20 ky old, derived from the nearby Bear Island fan, to the East of the ridge. The Loki's Castle vent site is composed of several active, over 10 m tall chimneys, producing up to 320°C fluid, at the top of a very large sulphide mound, which is estimated to be around 200 m in diameter. About a dozen gravity cores were obtained in the overall area. From these we collected nearly 200 subsamples. Eh and pH were measured in all subsamples. The Portuguese component of the H2Deep project is aimed at characterizing, chemically and mineralogically, the sulphide chimneys and the collected sediments around the vents (up to 5 meters long gravity cores). These studies are aimed at understanding the ore-forming system, and its implications for submarine mineral exploration, as well as the relation of the microbial population with the hydrothermal component of sediments. Here we present an overview of preliminary data on the mineralogical assemblage found in the analyzed sediments and chimneys. The identification of the different mineral phases was obtained through petrographic observations of polished thin sections under the microscope (with both

  3. Biomass in Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chapron, Thibaut

    2014-01-01

    This document provides, first, an overview of biomass industry in Germany: energy consumption and renewable energy production, the French and German electricity mix, the 2003-2013 evolution of renewable electricity production and the 2020 forecasts, the biomass power plants, plantations, biofuels production and consumption in Germany. Then, the legal framework of biofuels development in Germany is addressed (financial incentives, tariffs, direct electricity selling). Next, a focus is made on biogas production both in France and in Germany (facilities, resources). Finally, the French-German cooperation in the biomass industry and the research actors are presented

  4. Reaction to Crisis in Gothic Romance: Radcliffe’s The Castles of Athlin and Dunbayne

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tadej Braček

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Gothic romances were primarily women’s domain. This is proven by the fact that from the end of the eighteenth century to the beginning of the nineteenth century more than fifty female authors wrote Gothic romances. In the first part the paper depicts the emergence of romances, clarifies the notion of the Gothic and explains the theory of Gothic romances. The second part focuses on Ann Radcliffe’s first novel, The Castles of Athlin and Dunbayne. This section analyses in what way men and women react to crises. It concludes that reactions are primarily based not on sex but on the benevolence and malevolence of literary characters. The former react with higher intensity on the physical level (passing out, becoming ill and the latter react vehemently in emotional sense towards their rivals. The originality of the article lies in the systematic analysis of characters’ responses to crisis and in the study of atypical features of this Gothic novel.

  5. Isotope Tracer Methods for Investigations Of Nitrogen Deficiency In Castle Lake, California

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Axler, R.P.; Goldman, C.R.

    1981-01-01

    Castle Lake is a subalpine lake located in northern California. Thermal stratification is well developed soon after ice-thaw and persists until fall overturn. The epilimnion during the major portion of the growing season (mid-June to mid-September) is characterized by relatively constant temperature and depth (19±3°C, 5±2m respectively), high transparency (η = 0.21 m -1 ), low phytoplankton productivity (∼3 mg C m -3 hr -1 at midday), and low levels of dissolved inorganic nitrogen (≲5 μg N 1 -1 ) and phosphorus (≲1 μg P 1 -1 ). Nitrogen-fixing algae are not present in the water column and nutrient inputs derived from precipitation and surface inflow are generally negligible by early July

  6. Raman spectroscopy of gemstones on the necklaces from ancient graves at the Castle of Devin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gregor, M.; Vanco, L.; Kadlecikova, M.; Breza, J.

    2013-01-01

    The subjects of Raman and X-ray analyses were the beads from two necklaces found in ancient graves from the 11'"t"h and 12"t"h centuries at the Castle of Devin. One of the necklaces, consisting of 23 beads, was found in tomb 12/1980. Inside the grave, an incomplete skeleton of a woman was found, oriented in the west - east direction. The skull, shoulder blades and lower limbs were preserved in good condition. The grave contained a rich inventory: a silver ear-ring at the left side of the skull, a necklace between the shoulder blades and a ring on the right side at the height of the right hand. The other necklace, consisting of six stones, was found in grave 145/1985 in which, similarly like in the first grave, a woman's skeleton was discovered. The stones were found below the mandible. All beads are drilled through axially. (authors)

  7. Historical underway surface temperature data collected aboard the ship Skelton Castle on a voyage from England to India, 28 February 1800 to 3 June 1800 (NODC Accession 0095925)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Underway surface air temperature and sea water temperature were collected aboard the Skelton Castle while in route from England to Bombay India as part of the East...

  8. In pursuit of the heritage and place synergy: the environmental impact of Panemunė Castle as a heritage property and entirety of values. A study

    OpenAIRE

    Vaida Ščiglienė; Vaida Almonaitytė-Navickienė; Kristina Daubarytė; Ieva Kuizinienė, Angelė Čepėnaitė; Angelė Čepėnaitė

    2017-01-01

    The study on Panemunė Castle examined this heritage object in an entirety of its values and their impact on the environment, with a possibility of their synergism for the benefit of the place. It found the contemporary national heritage protection framework failing to grant equal attention to elements constituting the multifaceted worth of the castle as a property, inclusive of the social, cultural, artistic values, the engagement of local communities, the important role of cultural tourism a...

  9. Drugs in East Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dressler, J; Müller, E

    1997-09-01

    Germany was divided into two parts after World War II. The closed border and a nonconvertible currency in the Eastern part were the factors that did not allow a drug market to develop. Alcohol and medicaments were used as substitute drugs. Since Germany was reunified 5 years ago, there are now the same conditions prevailing for the procurement and sale of drugs in East Germany as there are in the Western German states. This report describes the current state of drug traffic, especially in Saxony, under the new social conditions.

  10. Hubungan Kadar Ft4 Dengan Kejadian Tirotoksikosis berdasarkan Penilaian Indeks New Castle Padawanita Dewasa di Daerah Ekses Yodium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harsa Rusda

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available AbstrakTirotoksikosis merupakan manifestasi klinis yang terjadi akibat peningkatan kadar hormon tiroid dalam darah. Kelebihan yodium merupakan salah satu penyebab terjadinya tirotoksikosis. Ini ditandai dengan hasil pemeriksaan kadar Ekskresi Yodium Urin (EYU > 199 μg/L. Tujuan: Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui hubungan kadar FT4 dengan kejadian tirotoksikosis berdasarkan penilaian indeks New Castle pada wanita dewasa di daerah ekses yodium. Metode: Penelitian dilakukan dengan menganalisis data yang dikumpulkan secara Cross Sectional Study terhadap 37 wanita dewasa menggunakan metoda total sampling di Nagari Koto Salak, Kecamatan Koto Salak Kabupaten Dharmasraya yang merupakan daerah ekses yodium (median EYU 323,5 μg/L. Pengumpulan data dilakukan dengan wawancara menggunakan penilaian Indeks New Castle dan pengambilan darah untuk dilakukan pemeriksaan kadar FT4 dalam serum. Hasil: Analisis univariat didapatkan jumlah penduduk wanita dewasa dengan kadar FT4 meningkat sebanyak 14 persen dan nilai rata-rata 1,71 ng/dl. Penilaian indeks New Castle dalam kategori doubtful 16 persen dan tidak ditemukan penduduk yang termasuk dalam kategori toxic. Berdasarkan hasil uji statistik Chi-square, didapatkan p value=1. Kesimpulan: Tidak terdapat hubungan yang bermakna antara kadar FT4 dalam serum dengan kejadian tirotoksikosis pada wanita dewasa di derah ekses yodium. Saran: Perlu dilakukan penyuluhan mengenai asupan yodium kepada masyarakat dan diharapkan penelitian ini dapat menjadi masukan kepada pemerintah dalam mengambil kebijakan terhadap pemberian kapsul yodium serta melakukan kontrol kadar EYU secara teratur dan berkala.Kata kunci: FT4, tirotoksikosis, indeks New Castle, wanita, ekses yodium, tiroidAbstractThyrotoxicosis is a clinical manifestation that occurs due to elevated levels of thyroid hormones in the blood. Iodine excess is one of the causes of thyrotoxicosis. This is indicated by the results of urine iodine excretion levels (EYU

  11. Sophie's Defense Mechanism in Her Struggle to Break the Curse in Diana Wynne Jones' Howl's Moving Castle

    OpenAIRE

    Perwita, Ratnanggana Ausiyyah Mustika

    2015-01-01

    The experience that young people get has an effect to their personality and their problem solving. This is why older people tend to be more mature than the young people. In Diana Wynne Jones' Howl's Moving Castle, the main character has a development in her personality through experiences. Her experiences lead her to how she solves her problems while she unconsciously uses defense mechanism. In this case, in this study will be analyzed the characteristic of the main character, Sophie, when sh...

  12. Germany, Russia, and energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paillard, Christophe Alexandre

    2007-01-01

    This article first recalls and comments the objectives defined in March 2007 by the European Council in terms of energy to struggle against climate change. These objectives relate to the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions, to renewable energies, to energy saving, and to the share of biofuels. It outlines that Germany worries about the political situation in Russia and the capacities of this country to supply Europe with hydrocarbons. Figures related to consumption of primary energy and to sources of production of electricity in Germany show that Germany is facing an increased energy dependency. The issues related to the relationship between the EU and Russia in the field of energy are further discussed, notably from the German point of view, but also from a European point of view as the EU expects a stronger reaction of Germany in front of the Russian situation

  13. Depression Disturbs Germany

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    The suicide of Robert Enke,the goalkeeper of the Germany national football team who had battled depression for years,stunned the country and cast depression into the national spotlight as a disturbing disease.

  14. EMI in Germany

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weiss, Felix; Schindler, Steffen

    2017-01-01

    This article discusses effectively maintained inequality considering two different examples from the Germany education system: secondary school attainment and enrolment in highly ranked universities among freshmen. In our analyses of secondary school attainment, we investigate whether considering...

  15. Germany - an immigration country

    OpenAIRE

    Siebert, Horst

    2003-01-01

    Germany has about the same proportion of foreigners in its population as the United States, it is an immigration country. In a way, Germany has let immigration happen, but it did not really have an explicit immigration policy in the past. Now it has to make up its mind on its immigration policy in the future. The paper looks at the experience with immigration in the past, at the integration of foreigners and at the issues of immigration policy.

  16. Germany at CERN

    CERN Document Server

    2001-01-01

    The Eighth Exhibition of German Industry, "Germany at CERN" started this week and offers German companies the opportunity to establish professional contacts with CERN. From left to right in the foreground: Maximilian Metzger (BMBF), Bettinna Schöneseffen (BMBF), Karl-Heinz Kissler (SPL division leader), Horst Wenninger, and Hans Hoffman. Behind and to the right of Karl-Heinz Kissler is His Excellency Mr Walter Lewalter, Ambassador and permanent representative of Germany to the UN office in Geneva.

  17. Multiculturalism in Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milan Mesić

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper starts out from the recent statement by the German Chancellor Angela Merkel that multiculturalism in Germany is dead. The author draws attention to the unfavourable conditions for the development of multiculturalism in Germany. The reasons are historical, especially the experience of Nazism as well as the German social state. Namely, foreign workers in Germany, although without political rights and socially non-integrated, enjoyed a high degree of working and social rights, including high employment security. In this respect their position significantly differed from that of American workers (immigrants, which is why the struggle for civil rights was not in the foreground for German immigrants. Therefore, “the crisis of multiculturalism” appeared with the immigrants’ “second generation” (children, who have been first hit in the current times of crisis and the increasing deregulation of the labour market. They have remained socially non-integrated and without civil and political rights. It is interesting that the churches, particularly the Protestant one, lead in Germany in the efforts to begin to look at immigrants in a cultural (human sense as well, and have thus been the first to acknowledge that Germany has become a multicultural society. But this term and concept in Germany have remained sketchy, both in the theoretical and political sense. However, they have gained certain sympathy, mainly in parts of liberal-democratic circles – the Green Party leading the way – but more in a symbolic sense in countering xenophobia and cultural exclusion in German society. When multiculturalism was accused of developing “parallel society”, both the right and the left renounced it in favour of the (seemingly neutral concept of integration. The author proves that Germany has become and has remained multicultural, although not a multiculturalist country.

  18. Investigation of original bricks from Ventspils castle for the purpose of restorations of medieval brick masonry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bajare, D.; Shvinka, V.

    2000-01-01

    This paper mainly tries to characterize Middle Age brick taken from Ventspils Castle (13-17th century). To this aim, the following techniques were applied: visual inspection, X-ray diffraction, mercury porosimetry, physical laboratory tests (water absorption, density, open porosity, saturation coefficient, Mage's index) and chemical analysis. The medieval bricks are still in good condition, any visible damages were not recognized in the course of visual inspection. According to the results of chemical analysis, three types of bricks made from different clays in different centuries were used. According to X-ray diffraction analysis data no one type of medieval bricks contains illite. So sintering temperature of the medieval bricks studied was higher than 900 deg C. The secondary calcite was formed in the structure of bricks from lime mortars under influence of water migration during several centuries. All medieval bricks studied are porous - open porosity of them amounts to 26-30 %. 14-15th century bricks have inclusions of chamotte additive, which makes the bricks less durable to soluble salts and frost, and of organic additive, that imparts the higher porosity. Mage's index for all medieval is less than 0.55, but saturation coefficient is close to 0,78 and it means that these bricks are not enough durable to soluble salts and frost

  19. Building Castles Together: A sustainable collaboration as a perpetual work-in-progress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle Vazquez Jacobus

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The Building Castles Together project is a multidisciplinary collaboration between the University of Southern Maine at Lewiston-Auburn College and Sandcastle Clinical and Educational Services that aims to build solidarity and resilience in vulnerable young children, their families and their community. This article explores how the partnership exemplifies five key areas impacting the sustainability of community-university collaborations. 1 Mutuality and reciprocity are foundational elements in establishing trust and ensuring project relevance to both organisations. 2 Interdisciplinarity and diversity are constructs related to the core mission of both the University and Sandcastle. The multiple perspectives offer a range of holistic strategies for addressing complex social problems, but also create the potential for misunderstandings between disciplines and organisations. 3 Community integration at multiple levels is critical to the partnership’s sustainability as well as to achievement of its ideals. 4 Dynamic interaction is an evolutionary process, both internal and external to both organisations, that impacts their relative contributions and necessitates flexibility in planning and outcomes. 5 Asset enhancement describes the potential to increase capacity, but also the concern for overextension and resource exhaustion. We conclude that sustainability in university-community partnerships is not a goal in itself, but an ongoing process, and an attribute of a partnership based on common principles, continuous input and constant change. Keywords Community-university partnership, sustainability, diversity, vulnerable youth

  20. Germany: Management of decommissioning waste in Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borrmann, F.; Brennecke, P.; Koch, W.; Kugel, K.; Steyer, S.

    2007-01-01

    Over the past two decades, Germany has gained a substantial amount of experience in the decommissioning of nuclear facilities of different types and sizes. Many research reactors and all prototype nuclear power plants, as well as a few larger nuclear power plants and fuel cycle facilities, are currently at varying stages of decommissioning. Several facilities have been fully dismantled and the sites have been cleared for reuse. The decommissioning projects comprise 18 power and prototype reactors, 33 research reactors and 11 fuel cycle facilities which are being or have been decommissioned. In the future, further nuclear power plants will be shut down and decommissioned in accordance with Germany?s energy policy to phase out the use of nuclear power for commercial electricity generation as given in the April 2002 amendment of the Atomic Energy Act. Radioactive waste, from operations as well as from decommissioning activities, is to be conditioned in such a way as to comply with the waste acceptance requirements of a repository. In Germany, all types of radioactive waste (i.e., short-lived and long-lived) are to be disposed of in deep geological formations. A distinction is being made for heat generating waste (i.e., high level waste) and waste with negligible heat generation (i.e., low level and intermediate level waste). Radioactive decommissioning waste is waste with negligible heat generation. Waste acceptance requirements of a repository are of particular importance for the conditioning of radioactive waste, including decommissioning waste. The waste acceptance requirements, as they resulted from the Konrad licensing procedure, are being applied by the waste generators for the conditioning of decommissioning waste. Compliance with these requirements must be demonstrated through the waste package quality control, even if the waste will be disposed of in the future. In 2002 the Konrad repository was licensed for the disposal of all types of waste with negligible

  1. Maria Spławska-Korczak, Zamek krzyżacki w Świeciu. Próba rekonstrukcji zamku wysokiego w średniowieczu [The Teutonic Order’s Castle in Schwetz. An attempt at reconstructing the High Castle in the Middle Ages], Wydawnictwo Naukowe UMK ...

    OpenAIRE

    Kwiatkowski, Krzyszof

    2017-01-01

    Maria Spławska-Korczak, Zamek krzyżacki w Świeciu. Próba rekonstrukcji zamku wysokiego w średniowieczu [ The Teutonic Order’s Castle in Schwetz. An attempt at reconstructing the High Castle in the Middle Ages ], Wydawnictwo Naukowe Uniwersytetu Mikołaja Kopernika, Toruń 2014, 222 pp. + 70 illustrations, ISBN: 978-83-231-3247-9

  2. Nuclear energy in Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    Since September 1998 the Federal Government formed by a Red/Green Coalition declared its goal: irreversible phase out of nuclear power plants. The first attempt to stop reprocessing as well as the first attempt to change nuclear law failed. The present situation is as follows: existing nuclear power plants operate in a most satisfying way producing 170 TWh/a. i.e. 35% of total production; transport license is not granted; no new NPP is planned, but Germany will participate in the French European Power Reactor (EPR) project. Concerning fast reactors, no industrial activities exist in Germany. There is no intention to build a facility, but Germany participates in the European CAPRA project. Existing research items are related to neutronics, safety analysis, irradiation experiment TRABANT, accelerator driven systems, thermohydraulics, safety

  3. Germany after Federal elections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niedzballa, G.

    2010-01-01

    The political, economical and social situation in Germany after the election and attitude to nuclear energy are summarised. The Coalition agreement include: 1.Extension of the remaining lifetimes of the nuclear power plants (Nuclear Power considered as “Bridging technology”; Safety first; Skimming of additional profits) 2. No nuclear new builds in Germany 3. Approval and promotion (loan guarantees) of nuclear exports 4. Reversal of the moratorium regarding the exploration of Gorleben salt dome (Completion of the exploration; International Peer Review Group) 5.Further research regarding competence preservation and safety

  4. RECORDING AND MODELING OF FORTRESSES AND CASTLES WITH UAS. SOME STUDY CASES IN JAEN (SOUTHERN SPAIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Cardenal

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The province of Jaen (Southern Spain has one of the largest concentrations of medieval fortresses of all Europe. Moreover ancient Iberian settlements located in oppida (fortified villages and dated at VI-IV BC also are outstanding examples of historical heritage landmarks in the region. Most of these places are being restored or under documentation analysis to prevent their progressive deterioration. These places have several geometric characteristics in common, such as isolated locations, elongated shapes, largemedium size objects (in the order of tens to few hundred of meters, architectural features with vertical development (such as masonry or rammed earth walls, towers, gates, battlements, etc or without it (walls, buildings or paths layouts at ground level. The object size, the required level of details and accuracy (of the order of some few cm and both vertical and horizontal features imply that present UAS techniques can be advantageously used with respect to conventional aerial and terrestrial photogrammetric techniques. Vertical stereoscopic and oblique convergent UAS photogrammetric networks combined with processing techniques based on Structure from Motion (SfM algorithms allow detailed low cost 2D/3D products. The proper selection of the UAS, camera, image acquisition mode (stop and/or cruising, the network and the processing software will determine the quality of final products and their usefulness in metric documentation, 3D modelization or museology. The efficiency of the use of UAS has been analyzed in several selected examples in Jaen (Burgalimar and Berrueco castles, Xth and XIIIth centuries, respectively, and the Iberian Puente Tablas oppidum, Vth-IVth centuries BC.

  5. In pursuit of the heritage and place synergy: the environmental impact of Panemunė Castle as a heritage property and entirety of values. A study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vaida Ščiglienė

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The study on Panemunė Castle examined this heritage object in an entirety of its values and their impact on the environment, with a possibility of their synergism for the benefit of the place. It found the contemporary national heritage protection framework failing to grant equal attention to elements constituting the multifaceted worth of the castle as a property, inclusive of the social, cultural, artistic values, the engagement of local communities, the important role of cultural tourism and the image of the place, and economic efficiency. The analysis of the different facets one by one and collectively has brought to the conclusion that the social, cultural, artistic and economic values of Panemunė Castle as a heritage property influence their environment, but are not experienced as a powerful driving force of the contemporary heritage protection. The process remains fragmented, sporadic and underdeveloped, with its elements failing to achieve synergism for the place.

  6. The capture of the Marienwerder Castle, or where the Teutonic Order’s expansion to the East was stopped

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vytenis Almonaitis

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The capture of the Marienwerder Castle, or where the Teutonic Order’s expansion to the East was stopped This paper analyzes the construction, features, and significance of the Marienwerder castle, and its capture by Lithuanian forces in 1384. Located in what is now Kaunas, the castle represented the furthest eastern point of the Teutonic Order’s penetration into the Grand Duchy of Lithuania. As the sparse historiography on it suggests, the event seems to have been overlooked by contemporary historians. In fact, this castle of the Teutonic Order was not just an ordinary fortress, but a mighty stronghold. A detailed analysis of primary sources allows classifying the capture of Marienwerder as a major event in the war between the Order and the Grand Duchy of Lithuania as well as one of the major victories scored by the latter. It may be concluded that the Teutonic Order’s expansion to the east, which had been started from Torun, was then stopped at Kaunas.   Zajęcie zamku Marienwerder albo gdzie zakończyła się ekspansja zakonu krzyżackiego na wschód W artykule analizowane są budowa, znaczenie i zajęcie w 1384 r. zamku zakonu krzyżackiego Marienwerder, który mieścił się na terytorium miasta Kowna. Był to najbardziej wysunięty na wschód zamek krzyżacki, który najgłębiej wchodził w terytorium Wielkiego Księstwa Litewskiego. Skromna historiografia świadczy o tym, że został on zapomniany przez współczesnych historyków. A jednak mowa jest tu nie o zwykłej rezydencji zakonu, a o potężnej twierdzy. Szczegółowa analiza źródeł pierwotnych pozwala uważać zajęcie zamku Marienwerder za jedno z najważniejszych wydarzeń w wojnie między zakonem krzyżackim a Wielkim Księstwem Litewskim, jak również jednym z największych zwycięstw tego ostatniego. Można również twierdzić, że ekspansja zakonu na wschód, rozpoczęta od Torunia, zakończyła się na Kownie.

  7. [Tularemia in Germany].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohlmann, R; Geis, G; Gatermann, S G

    2014-07-01

    The bacterium Francisella tularensis is known for more than 100 years by now as the etiological agent of the disease tularemia, a zoonotic infection with a worldwide distribution in the Northern Hemisphere. The prevalence of tularemia shows a wide geographic variation, being comparably infrequent in Germany. Tularemia can present itself with multiple clinical manifestations including ulceroglandular, glandular, oropharyngeal, oculoglandular, respiratory and typhoidal forms. Due to the low prevalence and the unspecific symptomatology, a rapid diagnosis and early start of an effective therapy are rarely obtained. Thus, in this article we summarize important aspects concerning etiology, ecology and routes of transmission, recent epidemiologic situation, clinical picture, diagnostics and treatment of tularemia, focusing on the situation in Germany. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  8. Germany at CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    2005-01-01

    From left to right: Maximilian Metzger, CERN's Secretary-General, Hermann Schunck, Director at the German Federal Ministry of Education and Research, and Robert Aymar, CERN's Director-General, talking to Wolfgang Holler from Butting, one of the companies at the "Germany at CERN" exhibition. Far right : Susanne-Corinna Langer-Greipl from BMBF, delegate to the CERN Finance Committee. For three days, CERN's Main Building was transformed into a showcase for German industry. Twenty-nine companies from sectors related to particle physics (electrical engineering, vacuum and low temperature technology, radiation protection, etc.) were here for the ninth "Germany at CERN" exhibition, organised by the German Federal Ministry of Education and Research (BMBF), which gave them the opportunity to meet scientists and administrators from the Laboratory. On 1 March the exhibition was visited by a German delegation headed by Dr Hermann Schunck, Director at BMBF.

  9. Library Consortia in Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Werner Reinhardt

    2001-07-01

    Full Text Available Looking at the present situation in Germany consortia show a considerable variety of organizational forms. Only in the case of the Friedrich-Althoff-Consortium in Berlin-Brandenburg a corporate body with deed of partnership does exist. In other German states consortia have been formed which are represented by an individual library (e.g. Baden-Württemberg or by a central institution such as the Bayerische Staatsbibliothek in Bavaria or the Hochschulbibliothekszentrum NRW in North Rhine-Westphalia. Rarely contracts for nationwide consortia have been signed; resulting from an initiative of a professional society, the „Gesellschaft Deutscher Chemiker“, an agreement was reached allowing for the use of the Beilstein-Crossfire-database in participating universities all over Germany.

  10. Germany bars nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaullier, V.

    1999-01-01

    Germany wants a future without nuclear energy, the different steps about the going out of nuclear programs are recalled. The real choice is either fossil energies with their unquestionable safety levels but with an increase of the greenhouse effect or nuclear energy with its safety concerns and waste management problems but without pollutant emission. The debate will have to be set in most European countries. (A.C.)

  11. Subaqueous volcanism in the Etnean area: evidence for hydromagmatic activity and regional uplift inferred from the Castle Rock of Acicastello

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corsaro, R. A.; Cristofolini, R.

    2000-01-01

    The subalkaline rocks outcropping at the Acicastello Castle Rock, Catania, Sicily, and on its abrasion platforms, are related to the oldest Etnean volcanism (500-300 ka; [Gillot, P.Y., Kieffer, G., Romano, R., 1994. The evolution of Mount Etna in the light of potassium-argon dating. Acta Vulcanol. 5, 81-87.]). Here, submarine lavas with pillows closely packed onto each other are associated with heterogeneous and poorly sorted volcaniclastic breccia levels with sub-vertical sharp boundaries. The present-day attitude was previously interpreted as due to a local tilt [Di Re, M., 1963. Hyaloclastites and pillow-lavas of Acicastello (Mt. Etna). Bull. Volcanol. 25, 281-284.; Kieffer, G., 1985. Evolution structurale et dynamique d'un grand volcan polygenique: stades d'edification et activitè actuelle de l'Etna (Sicile). Clermont Ferrand IIDoctorat Etat Tesi, Clermont Ferrand II.], or to the seaward sliding of the entire eastern Etnean flank [Borgia, A., Ferrari, L., Pasquarè, G., 1992. Importance of gravitational spreading in the tectonic and volcanic evolution of Mount Etna. Nature 357, 231-235.], on the assumption of originally horizontal boundaries. On the contrary, our observations do not match the hypothesis of a significantly tilted succession and lead us to conclude that, apart from the strong regional uplift, the present Castle Rock exposure did not suffer any substantial change of its attitude.

  12. Quasi-Bodies and Kafka’s Castle in Sion Sono’s Crime Noir Guilty of Romance (2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuo Chia-wen

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Sion Sono’s Guilty of Romance (Koi no tsumi, 2011 was adapted from an actual crime in Tokyo’s love hotel: an educated woman (a prostitute at night was found decapitated and her limbs were re-assembled with a sex-doll. Sono renders this through his cinematic narrative blurring the distinction between true crime and fictional sin like Rancière’s idea that everything is a narrative dissipating the opposition between “fact and fiction,” and “quasi-body” becomes a product of human literarity while an imaginary collective body is formed to fill the fracture in-between. In Sono’s story, the victim is a literature professor tormented by an incestuous desire for her father, whose favorite book is Kafka’s Castle. Thus she compares the love-hotel district where she turns loose at night as a castle of lusts. Here the narrative becomes a collective body that puppeteers human “quasi-bodies” in a Kafkaesque spatio-temporal aporia, and time’s spatialized horizontally with the germs of desire spread like a contagion on a Deleuzian “plane of immanence.”

  13. Application of geophysical methods to investigation of old castle, especially of the moat; Joshi no chosa ni okeru butsuri tansa no tekiyo (horiato no tansa)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanaka, A; Karube, F; Kobayashi, M; Toge, M [OYO Corp., Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-05-01

    An explanation is made about the application of geophysical methods to the investigation of the ruins of old castles especially of their moats. Techniques currently in use for exploration of the ruins of castles are mainly underground radar exploration and electric exploration. The underground radar method sends electromagnetic waves through the ground and receives the reflection for a high-precision exploration of the layers shallow in the ground. Therefore, this method is suitable for probing the ruins of castles relatively shallow in the flat land, hills, and mountains. The electric method (resistivity image method) do the probing by use of the two-electrode arrangement, performs inverse analysis on the basis of the obtained data for the determination of the underground resistivity distribution, and displays the distribution in an image easy to read. This method, when there is a great separation between the two electrodes, explores relatively deep into the ground. Thanks to this feature, this method is effective in probing relatively wide and deep ruins of moats, that is, the ruins of moats of castles built in later years, especially of those then filled with water. 2 refs., 5 figs.

  14. Nuclear power in Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schaefer, A.

    1990-01-01

    I want to give some ideas on the situation of public and utility acceptance of nuclear power in the Federal Republic of Germany and perhaps a little bit on Europe. Let me start with public perception. I think in Germany we have a general trend in the public perception of technology during the last decade that has been investigated in a systematic manner in a recent study. It is clear that the general acceptance of technology decreased substantially during the last twenty years. We can also observe during this time that aspects of the benefits of technology are much less reported in the media, that most reporting by the media now is related to the consequences of technologies, such as negative environmental consequences. hat development has led to a general opposition against new technological projects, in particular unusual and large. That trend is related not only to nuclear power, we see it also for new airports, trains, coal-fired plants. here is almost no new technological project in Germany where there is not very strong opposition against it, at least locally. What is the current public opinion concerning nuclear power? Nuclear power certainly received a big shock after Chernobyl, but actually, about two thirds of the German population wants to keep the operating plants running. Some people want to phase the plants out as they reach the end-of-life, some want to substitute newer nuclear technology, and a smaller part want to increase the use of nuclear power. But only a minority of the German public would really like to abandon nuclear energy

  15. Rewriting Germany's nuclear law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roser, T.

    1992-01-01

    In Germany, the private use of nuclear energy for peaceful uses is strictly regulated by a Nuclear Energy Act. Since its enactment back in 1959, this legislation has been overhauled five times - most recently in 1985. Now Klaus Toepfer, Germany's Federal Minister for the Environment, Protection of Nature, and Nuclear Safety, has set out to revise the Act for the sixth time. The present draft bill is intended to reorganise the back end of the nuclear fuel cycle; eliminate public promotion of nuclear power; clarify points of legal dispute. Of the draft bill's three aims, the last two are more parochial. The real novelty lies in the changes to the rules for the back end of the fuel cycle. First, the Federal Government proposes to abandon the priority given to spent fuel recycling. In future, direct disposal will be an equivalent option, and waste avoidance will have top priority. Intimately linked to the back end proposal is the Government's plan to load on the shoulders of nuclear operators the full responsibility for building and operating repositories for the final disposal of nuclear waste. The third aspect of Government's back end plans concerns decommissioning. At present, operators accumulate provisions over the plant lifetime, which for that purpose is estimated at 19 years. The provisions vary from plant to plant but are generally around DM1 billion and are tax free. Under the proposed regulations, this sum must be available from the first day of operation to cover the case of an early shutdown. In practice, this will increase the initial investment for a nuclear power plant in Germany by 10-20% and so make nuclear power less competitive. (author)

  16. Country report for Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heusener, Gerhard

    2001-01-01

    The status of the nuclear energy in Germany can be summarised as follows: 19 operating NPPs (22 GWe); electricity production in 200 amounted to 170 TWh (one third of the total production); average availability 91%; goal of the Federal Government is to phase out nuclear energy without paying to the utilities. Fast reactor activities involve participation of FZK in the European Project 'Burning of Pu and MAs in Critical Fast Reactors'; shifting to burning of actinides in subcritical accelerator driven systems (ADS). This includes neutronics, safety analysis, Pb-Bi technology, development of spallation target, corrosion in Pb and Pb-Bi

  17. Environmental policy in Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wey, K.G.

    1982-01-01

    Previous forms, emergence, and development of German environ-politics from 1900 to the present day are looked into by means of so far disregarded sources. The main lines of ecological and technological environ-politics are described and the difficulties in formulating and getting through adequate state measures of environment protection are shown quoting cases. The influence of structural pre-conditions, of the constitutional state, political culture and global development of Germany is examined as to its influence on environ-politics. The work must be understood as a historical argument in favor of a more conscious, reasonable political formation of environment in the sense of an ecological concept. (orig.) [de

  18. ECFA SURVEY: Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1994-01-01

    Few nations can match the scope of German basic physics contributions. Earlier this century, illustrious names (Rontgen, Franck, von Laue, Planck, Sommerfeld, Heisenberg, ) kept Germany among the front runners. Subsequent history has given German physics a very different profile - the country now participates massively in international projects and is the largest single contributing nation in CERN's research programme. At the same time, an impressive high energy programme at the German national Laboratory at DESY, Hamburg, centred around the 6.3 kilometre HERA ring, the world's only high energy electron-proton collider, attracts scientists from all over the world

  19. Cost-effectiveness analysis of lopinavir/ritonavir and atazanavir+ritonavir regimens in the CASTLE study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, Kit N; Rajagopalan, Rukmini; Dietz, Birgitta

    2009-02-01

    The purpose of the study was to conduct a cost-effectiveness analysis and budget impact analysis comparing lopinavir with ritonavir (LPV/r) and atazanavir plus ritonavir (ATV+RTV) for antiretroviral-naïve patients with a baseline CD4+ T-cell distribution and total cholesterol (TC) profile as reported in the CASTLE study. This decision analysis study used a previously published Markov model of HIV disease, incorporating coronary heart disease (CHD) events to compare the short- and long-term budget impacts and CHD consequences expected for the two regimens. Patients were assumed to have a baseline CHD risk of 4.6% (based on demographic data) and it was also assumed that 50% of the population in the CASTLE study were smokers. The CHD risk differences (based on percent of patients with TC >240 mg/dL) in favor of ATV+RTV resulted in an average improvement in life expectancy of 0.031 quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) (11 days), and an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio of $1,409,734/QALY. Use of the LPV/r regimen saved $24,518 and $36,651 at 5 and 10 years, respectively, with lifetime cost savings estimated at $38,490. A sensitivity analysis using a cohort of all smokers on antihypertensive medication estimated an average improvement in life expectancy of 31 quality-adjusted days in favor of ATV+RTV, and a cost-effectiveness ratio of $520,861/QALY: a ratio that is still above the acceptable limit within the US. The use of an LPV/r-based regimen in antiretroviral-naïve patients with a baseline CHD risk similar to patients in the CASTLE study appears to be a more cost-effective use of resources compared with an ATV+RTV-based regimen. The very small added CHD risk predicted by LPV/r treatment is more than offset by the substantial short- and long-term cost savings expected with the use of LPV/r in antiretroviral-naïve individuals with average to moderately elevated CHD risk.

  20. Beyond the Theme of The Castle%论《城堡》的主题意蕴

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    洪丽霁

    2016-01-01

    Many argue that The Castle is the most important novel of Franz Kafka,an outstanding novel that can be interpreted in many possibilities. It can be,interestingly,enlightening in terms of our understanding of ourselves and the surrounding world if this work of literary creation is interpreted together with the life of the mod-ern people. In The Castle,K,the hero makes a lot of efforts to enter the castle. By analyzing his attempts and their effect,we can feel the same feelings of human beings facing true life ! misfortune,misery,helplessness and a sense of loss ! on the one hand. But beyond these feelings,we also discovery tenacity in misfortune,per-sistence in misery,undauntedness in helplessness and fortitude in time of loss. These discoveries help lift our un-derstanding of life to a higher level.%不少人认为《城堡》是弗朗茨·卡夫卡最为重要的小说,也是一部具有多种理解和阐释之可能性的杰出作品。将作为文学创作的小说与现代人的现实处境相联系,通过对《城堡》中的主人公K为了进入城堡所作的种种尝试、努力及其效果进行分析和思考,不仅可以感受和见出与人类的真实生活密切相关的不幸、悲哀、无助与失落,同时还能体味到与之相连的另一面:不幸中的坚守、悲哀中的执着、无助中的不屈、失落中的刚毅,从而促使人们走向关于人生境遇的更深一层体验与解读,获得如何面对自身以及世界的一种真正富有意义的认识和启示。

  1. Germany, Pacifism and Peace Enforcement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalgaard-Nielsen, Anja

    This book is about the transformation of Germany's security and defence policy in the time between the 1991 Gulf War and the 2003 war against Iraq. It traces and explains the reaction of Europe's biggest and potentially most powerful country to the ethnic wars of the 1990s, the emergence of large...... the 1990s. The book debates the implications of Germany's transformation for Germany's partners and neighbours, and explains why Germany said ‘yes’ to the war in Afghanistan, but ‘no’ to the Iraq War. Based on a comprehensive study of the debates of the German Bundestag and actual German policy responses...

  2. Fusarium Keratitis in Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stasch, Serena; Kaerger, Kerstin; Hamprecht, Axel; Roth, Mathias; Cornely, Oliver A.; Geerling, Gerd; Mackenzie, Colin R.; Kurzai, Oliver; von Lilienfeld-Toal, Marie

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Fusarium keratitis is a destructive eye infection that is difficult to treat and results in poor outcome. In tropical and subtropical areas, the infection is relatively common and associated with trauma or chronic eye diseases. However, in recent years, an increased incidence has been reported in temperate climate regions. At the German National Reference Center, we have observed a steady increase in case numbers since 2014. Here, we present the first German case series of eye infections with Fusarium species. We identified Fusarium isolates from the eye or eye-related material from 22 patients in 2014 and 2015. Thirteen isolates belonged to the Fusarium solani species complex (FSSC), 6 isolates belonged to the Fusarium oxysporum species complex (FOSC), and three isolates belonged to the Fusarium fujikuroi species complex (FFSC). FSSC was isolated in 13 of 15 (85%) definite infections and FOSC in 3 of 4 (75%) definite contaminations. Furthermore, diagnosis from contact lens swabs or a culture of contact lens solution turned out to be highly unreliable. FSSC isolates differed from FOSC and FFSC by a distinctly higher MIC for terbinafine. Outcome was often adverse, with 10 patients requiring keratoplasty or enucleation. The use of natamycin as the most effective agent against keratitis caused by filamentous fungi was rare in Germany, possibly due to restricted availability. Keratitis caused by Fusarium spp. (usually FSSC) appears to be a relevant clinical problem in Germany, with the use of contact lenses as the predominant risk factor. Its outcome is often adverse. PMID:28747368

  3. [AIDS prevention in Germany].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pott, E

    2007-04-01

    In 1987 the national AIDS prevention campaign "Gib AIDS keine Chance" (Don't give AIDS a chance) was started in Germany. After a very difficult and controversial political debate about a probably successful response to AIDS, in the end a political decision was made in favour of the implementation of a long term "social learning strategy". Thus, since then the Bundeszentrale für gesundheitliche Aufklärung (Federal Centre for Health Education, BZgA) has been running the campaign on behalf of the Federal Ministry of Health. The result of this prevention program is a low rate of infections. In Germany there were 2600 newly diagnosed infections in 2005: 59 % in homosexual men, 16 % by heterosexual contacts, 17 % in people from high prevalence countries and 7 % in i.v. drug users. In comparison to the international situation Germany has a relatively low HIV-prevalence even nowadays. However, Germany has also been confronted with an increasing number of newly diagnosed infections in the last few years. When the prevention program was started it was very important to build new structures for a successful implementation of the campaign. That meant for instance to build up an effective infrastructure for cooperation between the governmental and the nongovernmental sector, including organising the coordinated action among the partners at the federal, regional and local levels. Likewise, international networking was of great importance. A key element, relevant for the success of the campaign was the close cooperation at the federal level between the BZgA and the Deutsche AIDS Hilfe (German AIDS Help, DAH), to combine the highreach intervention in low-prevalence populations with intensive interventions for high prevalence groups. An effective national AIDS prevention campaign must reach the whole population; inform the public about the main risks of infection, about methods of protection and about what is not infectious. Moreover groups with a higher level of risk of

  4. Multi-analytical characterization of archaeological ceramics. A case study from the Sforza Castle (Milano, Italy).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barberini, V.; Maspero, F.; Galimberti, L.; Fusi, N.

    2009-04-01

    The aim of this work was the characterization, using several analytical techniques, of a sample of ancient pottery found during archaeological excavations in the 14th century's Sforza Castle in Milano. The use of a multi-analytical approach is well established in the study of archaeological materials (e.g. Tite et al. 1984, Ribechini et al. 2008). The chemical composition of the sample was determined with X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy. The chemical composition is: SiO2 61.3(±3)%, Al2O3 22.5(±2)%, Fe2O3 7.19(±6)%, K2O 3.85(±1)%, MgO 1.6(±1)%, Na2O 1.6(±4)% (probably overestimated), TiO2 1.02(±2)%, CaO 0.93(±1)%, MnO 0.15(±1)% and P2O5 0.06(±2)%. The K2O content, important when dealing with TL dating, was determined also with atomic absorption spectrophotometry. The K2O content determined with atomic absorption is 3.86(±3)%, in agreement with X-ray fluorescence analysis. The mineralogical composition of the sample was determined with X-ray powder diffraction: quartz 59.6(±1) wt%, mica 37.8(±3) wt% and feldspar (plagioclase) 2.6(±2) wt%. The sample homogeneity was assessed with X-ray computerised tomography (CT), which is a very powerful non-destructive analysis tool for 3D characterization (Sèguin, 1991). CT images show differences in materials with different X-ray absorption (mainly depending on different densities) and 3D reconstruction has many interesting archaeological applications (e.g. study of sealed jars). CT images of the studied sample showed the presence of angular fragments (probably quartz) few millimetres wide immersed in a fine grained matrix. Moreover, before and after the CT analysis, some ceramic powder was sampled to perform thermoluminescence analysis (TL, the powder used for this analysis can not be recovered). It was thus possible to evaluate the dose absorbed by the material due the X-ray irradiation. The dose absorbed after 3 hours of irradiation, the time needed for a complete scan of a 7 x 5 x 1 cm, is about 100 Gy, which

  5. Uranium mining in Eastern Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sauer, H.D.

    1990-01-01

    A problem which simply does not exist in Western Germany is the uranium mining in the South of Eastern Germany (SDAG Wismuth). The cleaning up and control measure which are urgently needed will be a task for more than one generation. (orig./HP) [de

  6. CAS School in Germany

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Accelerator School

    The CERN Accelerator School (CAS), the Helmholtz Centre for Heavy Ion Research GmbH (GSI) and the Technische Universität Darmstadt (TU Darmstadt) jointly organised a course on General Accelerator Physics, at intermediate level, at TU Darmstadt from 27 September to 9 October 2009.   Participants in the CERN Accelerator School in Darmstadt, Germany. The Intermediate-level course followed established practice, with lectures on core topics in the mornings and specialised courses in the afternoons. The latter provided "hands-on" education and experience in the three selected topics: "RF Measurement Techniques", "Beam Instrumentation and Diagnostics" and "Optics Design and Correction". These proved to be highly successful, with participants choosing one course and following the topic throughout the school. Guided studies, tutorials, seminars and a poster session completed the programme. A visit to GSI and the F...

  7. Germany at CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    C. Laignel / FI-DI

    2005-01-01

    From 1 to 3 march 2005 Administration Building Bldg 60/61 - ground and 1st floor 09:30 - 17:30 Twenty eight companies will present their latest technology at the "Germany at CERN" exhibition. German industry will exhibit products and technologies which are related to the field of particle physics. The main subjects are: mechanical engineering, particle detectors, electrical engineering, electronics, data processing, radiation protection and vacuum and low temperature techonology. The exhibition is organised by the Federal Minister of Education and Research (BMBF), Bonn. There follows: the list of exhibitors A detailed programme will be available in due course at : your Departemental secretariat, the reception information desk, Building 33, the exhibition. A detailed list of firms is available under the following FI link: http://fi-dep.web.cern.ch/fi-dep/structure/memberstates/exhibitions_visits.htm LIST OF EXHIBITORS ACCEL Instruments GmbH APRA-NORM Elektromechanik GmbH BABCOCK NOELL Nucle...

  8. Germany AT CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    C. Laignel / FI-DI

    2005-01-01

    From 1 to 3 march 2005 Administration Building Bldg 60/61 - ground and 1st floor 09:30 - 17:30 Twenty nine companies will present their latest technology at the "Germany at CERN" exhibition. German industry will exhibit products and technologies related to the field of particle physics. The main sectors represented will be: mechanical engineering, particle detectors, electrical engineering, electronics, data processing, radiation protection and vacuum and low temperature techonology. The exhibition is organised by the Federal Minister of Education and Research (BMBF), Bonn. The exhibitors are listed below. A detailed programme will be available in due course: from your Departemental secretariat, from the reception information desk, Building 33, at the exhibition itself. A detailed list of the participating firms is already available at the following FI link: http://fi-dep.web.cern.ch/fi-dep/structure/memberstates/exhibitions_visits.htm LIST OF EXHIBITORS ACCEL Instruments GmbH APRA-NORM Elekt...

  9. Germany AT CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    2005-01-01

    From 1 to 2 March 2005 Administration Building Bldg 60/61 - ground and 1st floor 09:30 - 17:30 Twenty nine companies will present their latest technology at the "Germany at CERN" exhibition. German industry will exhibit products and technologies related to the field of particle physics. The main sectors represented will be: mechanical engineering, particle detectors, electrical engineering, electronics, data processing, radiation protection and vacuum and low temperature techonology. The exhibition is organised by the Federal Ministry of Education and Research (BMBF), Bonn. The exhibitors are listed below. A detailed programme will be available in due course: from your Departemental secretariat, from the reception information desk, Building 33, at the exhibition itself. A detailed list of the participating firms is already available at the following FI link: http://fi-dep.web.cern.ch/fi-dep/structure/memberstates/exhibitions_visits.htm LIST OF EXHIBITORS ACCEL Instruments GmbH APRA-NORM Elekt...

  10. West Germany's nuclear dilemma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dangelmayer, D.

    1978-01-01

    The US 1978 Nuclear Non-Proliferation Act legislated the embargo of enriched uranium supplies from that country to any other country which would not agree to tighter restrictions on a wide variety of their nuclear activities, including the reprocessing of spent uranium to provide separated plutonium. This has resulted in a three month supply cut-off to the EEC countries. However the EEC is now willing to renegotiate supply contracts with the US to accord with the tighter safeguards set down in the Act. Effectively both sides now have an 18 month breathing space for them to seek a compromise on the non-proliferation question. The effect of these strategies on West Germany's energy policy, which seeks to become increasingly energy self-sufficient through the use of nuclear fuel reprocessing and the fast reactor, is discussed. (U.K.)

  11. Environmental Foundations in Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Krikser

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Foundations in Germany were examined in the context of environmental issues. Data from environmental foundations show that there is huge difference between private and public foundations concerning financial settings. Furthermore, environment is often not the only objective and sometimes not even processed. Our analysis shows that there are different types of foundations with regard to environmental scopes and activities. Although “attractive topics” such as biodiversity and landscape conservation seem to be more important to foundations, less visible topics such as pollution prevention remain merely a “blind spot.” Together, these findings suggest that there is only a limited potential of private foundations compared with public foundations. Nevertheless, there might be an impact on environmental awareness and local sustainability.

  12. Nuclear power in Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beckurts, K.H.

    1985-01-01

    On the occasion of the retirement of the Editor-in-chief of 'atomwirtschaft', the author gave a keynote speech on the development of nuclear power in the Federal Republic of Germany at the headquarters of the Handelsblatt Verlag in Duesseldorf on October 30, 1984. He subdivided the period under discussion into five phases, the first of which comprises the 'founding years' of 1955 to 1960. This was the time when activities in nuclear research and nuclear technology in Germany, which were permitted again in mid-1955, began with the establishment of the national research centers, the first Atomic Power Program, the promulgation of the Atomic Energy Act, the foundation of government organizations, including the Federal Ministry for Atomic Energy, etc. In the second phase, between 1960 and 1970, a solid foundation was laid for the industrial peaceful uses of nuclear power in the construction of the first LWR experimental nuclear power stations, the first successful export contracts, the beginnings of the first nuclear fuel cycle plants, such as the WAK reprocessing plant, the Asse experimental repository, the Almelo agreement on centrifuge enrichment. The third phase, between 1970 and 1975, was a period of euphoria, full of programs and forecasts of a tremendous boom in nuclear generating capacities, which were further enhanced by the 1973 oil squeeze. In 1973 and 1974, construction permits for ten nuclear power plants were applied for. The fourth phase, between 1975 and 1980, became a period of crisis. The fifth phase, the eighties, give rise to hope for a return to reason. (orig./UA) [de

  13. The GENIUS-test-facility--first results on background from {sup 222}Rn daughters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klapdor-Kleingrothaus, H.V. E-mail: H.Klapdor@mpi-hd.mpg.dehttp://www.mpi-hd.mpg.de.non_acc; Tomei, C.; Krivosheina, I.V.; Chkvorets, O

    2004-09-11

    GENIUS-TF (Nucl. Instr. and Meth. A 511 (2003) 341; Nucl. Instr. and Meth. A 481 (2002) 149.) is a test-facility for the GENIUS project (GENIUS-Proposal, 20 November 1997; Z. Phys. A 359 (1997) 351; CERN Courier, November 1997, 16; J. Phys. G 24 (1998) 483; Z. Phys. A 359 (1997) 361; in: H.V. Klapdor-Kleingrothaus, H. Pas. (Eds.), First International Conference on Particle Physics Beyond the Standard Model, Castle Ringberg, Germany, 8-14 June 1997, IOP Bristol (1998) 485 and in Int. J. Mod. Phys. A 13 (1998) 3953; in: H.V. Klapdor-Kleingrothaus, I.V. Krivosheina (Eds.), Proceedings of the Second International Conference on Particle Physics Beyond the Standard Model BEYOND' 99, Castle Ringberg, Germany 6-12 June 1999, IOP Bristol (2000) 915), a proposed large scale underground observatory for rare events which is based on operation of naked germanium detectors in liquid nitrogen for an extreme background reduction. Operation of naked Ge crystals in liquid nitrogen has been applied routinely already for more than 20 years by the CANBERRA Company for technical functions tests (CANBERRA Company, private communication, 5 March 2004.), but it never had found entrance into basic research. Only in 1997 first tests of application of this method for nuclear spectroscopy have been performed, successfully, in Heidelberg (Klapdor-Kleingrothaus et al., 1997, 1998; J. Hellmig and H.V. Klapdor-Kleingrothaus, 1997). On May 5, 2003 the first four naked high-purity germanium detectors (total mass 10.52 kg) were installed in liquid nitrogen in the GENIUS Test Facility at the Gran Sasso underground laboratory. Since then the experiment has been running continuously, testing for the first time the novel technique in an underground laboratory and for a long-lasting period. In this work, we present the first analysis of the GENIUS-TF background after the completion of the external shielding, which took place in December 2003. We focus especially on the background coming from {sup 222

  14. The GENIUS-test-facility--first results on background from 222Rn daughters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klapdor-Kleingrothaus, H.V.; Tomei, C.; Krivosheina, I.V.; Chkvorets, O.

    2004-01-01

    GENIUS-TF (Nucl. Instr. and Meth. A 511 (2003) 341; Nucl. Instr. and Meth. A 481 (2002) 149.) is a test-facility for the GENIUS project (GENIUS-Proposal, 20 November 1997; Z. Phys. A 359 (1997) 351; CERN Courier, November 1997, 16; J. Phys. G 24 (1998) 483; Z. Phys. A 359 (1997) 361; in: H.V. Klapdor-Kleingrothaus, H. Pas. (Eds.), First International Conference on Particle Physics Beyond the Standard Model, Castle Ringberg, Germany, 8-14 June 1997, IOP Bristol (1998) 485 and in Int. J. Mod. Phys. A 13 (1998) 3953; in: H.V. Klapdor-Kleingrothaus, I.V. Krivosheina (Eds.), Proceedings of the Second International Conference on Particle Physics Beyond the Standard Model BEYOND' 99, Castle Ringberg, Germany 6-12 June 1999, IOP Bristol (2000) 915), a proposed large scale underground observatory for rare events which is based on operation of naked germanium detectors in liquid nitrogen for an extreme background reduction. Operation of naked Ge crystals in liquid nitrogen has been applied routinely already for more than 20 years by the CANBERRA Company for technical functions tests (CANBERRA Company, private communication, 5 March 2004.), but it never had found entrance into basic research. Only in 1997 first tests of application of this method for nuclear spectroscopy have been performed, successfully, in Heidelberg (Klapdor-Kleingrothaus et al., 1997, 1998; J. Hellmig and H.V. Klapdor-Kleingrothaus, 1997). On May 5, 2003 the first four naked high-purity germanium detectors (total mass 10.52 kg) were installed in liquid nitrogen in the GENIUS Test Facility at the Gran Sasso underground laboratory. Since then the experiment has been running continuously, testing for the first time the novel technique in an underground laboratory and for a long-lasting period. In this work, we present the first analysis of the GENIUS-TF background after the completion of the external shielding, which took place in December 2003. We focus especially on the background coming from 222 Rn

  15. Temperature profiles from MBT casts from the CASTLE ROCK from Ocean Weather Station C (OWS-C) in the North Atlantic Ocean 1964-07-01 to 1964-08-06 (NODC Accession 6400054)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Bathythermograph data were collected from the CASTLE ROCK within a 1-mile radius of Ocean Weather Station C (5245N 0350W) and in transit. Data were collected by the...

  16. Temperature profiles from MBT casts from the CASTLE ROCK from Ocean Weather Station C (OWS-C) in the North Atlantic Ocean from 1967-05-20 to 1967-06-17 (NODC Accession 6700230)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Bathythermograph data were collected from the CASTLE ROCK within a 1-mile radius of Ocean Weather Station C (5245N 0350W) and in transit. Data were collected by the...

  17. Temperature profiles from MBT casts from the CASTLE ROCK from Ocean Weather Station D (OWS-D) in the North Atlantic Ocean from 1967-02-22 to 1967-03-21 (NODC Accession 6700148)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Bathythermograph data were collected from the CASTLE ROCK within a 1-mile radius of Ocean Weather Station D (4400N 04100W) and in transit. Data were collected by the...

  18. The Sommersdorf mummies-An interdisciplinary investigation on human remains from a 17th-19th century aristocratic crypt in southern Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alterauge, Amelie; Kellinghaus, Manuel; Jackowski, Christian; Shved, Natallia; Rühli, Frank; Maixner, Frank; Zink, Albert; Rosendahl, Wilfried; Lösch, Sandra

    2017-01-01

    Sommersdorf Castle (Bavaria, Germany) is a medieval castle complex which has been inhabited by the aristocratic family von Crailsheim. The deceased were entombed in a crypt located in the parapets underneath the castle's church, resulting in mummification of the bodies. Based on the family chronicle and oral history, identities have been ascribed to the mummies. The aim of the study is therefore to test the accuracy of the historical records in comparison to archaeological, anthropological and genetic data. Today, the crypt houses eleven wooden coffins from the 17th to 19th century AD. In ten of these, mummified and scattered human remains were found. Archive records were studied in order to identify names, ancestry, titles, occupation, date of birth and death, and place of interment of the individuals. The coffins were visually inspected and dated by typo-chronology, and the mummified and scattered skeletal remains were subjected to a physical anthropological examination. In total, the crypt contains the remains of a minimum number of nine individuals, among them three adult males, five adult females and one infant. A detailed scientific examination, including prior conservation, ancient DNA analyses, and computed tomography (CT), was performed on five mummies. By means of the CT data age at death, sex, body height, pathologies, and anatomical variants were investigated. CT analysis further showed that the bodies were naturally mummified. Mitochondrial DNA analyses revealed that the tested individuals are not maternally related. In addition, health, living conditions and circumstances of death of the entombed individuals could be highlighted. Being confronted with the strengths, weaknesses and limitations of each methodological approach, probable identification was achieved in two cases.

  19. The “Mayor” and “Real” castles of the town of Calatayud in 1371 in the light of two inventories of the Royal Archive

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Álvaro Cantos Carnicer

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The text shows the study of two interesting inventories mentioning the objects of two castles (“Mayor” and “Real” of Calatayud (Aragon, carried out in 1371. Firstly, the original text in Catalan of the Archive of the Crown of Aragon has been transcribed. The work is focused on the elements of armour, arms and artillery machines; the nature and function of every object have been researched, comparing, as far as possible, with other contemporary sources; the terminology has also been analysed and some evident Aragonese words have been found. This work has allowed to know the different elements existing in the castles, establishing their specificity, state and lacks, sometimes not easily explicable, as in the case of the crossbows. The meticulous description of the artillery machines is absolutely exceptional.

  20. GERMANY AT CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    2001-01-01

    13 - 15 November 2001 Administration Building Bldg 60 - ground and 1st floor 09.00 hrs - 17.30 hrs OPENING CEREMONY 10h00 - 13 November GERMANY AT CERN Thirty-three German companies will be demonstrating their supplies and services offered for the construction of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) and other key CERN programmes. The Industrial exhibition will be enriched with a display of objects of contemporary German art. The official German presentation is under the patronage of the Federal Minister of Education and Research (BMBF), Bonn. There follows : the list of exhibitors, the list of lectures to be given at the exhibition. A detailed programme will be available in due course at : your Divisional Secretariat, the Reception information desk, building 33, the exhibition. LIST OF EXHIBITORS Accel Instruments GmbH Representative: 1.1 Accel Instruments GmbH/CH-8754 Netsal apra-norm Elektromechanik GmbH Representative: 2.1 apra-norm s.n.c./F-67500 Haguenau Babcock Noell Nuclear GmbH Balcke-D&u...

  1. The Lincoln Image in Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jörg Nagler

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This essay investigates the enduring fascination with the sixteenth President of the United States in Germany. In general, his legacy and its evaluation changed in relation to the determinate historical contexts, beginning with the monarchial system, extending through the Weimar Republic, the Third Reich, and now the Federal Republic of Germany. Certain social and political individuals/groups in Germany used the image and iconography of Lincoln as a projection screen to support their own political objectives. Although there were always multiple layers of Lincoln representations in Germany, the dominant images were: the national unifier, the libertarian universalist, the emancipator, the defender of moral values, the modernizer, the democrat who used the power of the democratic state, the egalitarian self-made man from humble origins, and the defender of social justice and workingmen’s rights.

  2. Pilot study on indoor climate investigation and computer simulation in historical museum building: Amerongen Castle, the Netherlands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raha Sulaiman

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The indoor climate is one of the most important factors contributing to climate-induced damage to the building materials and cultural collections of a monumental building. The Dutch monumental building - Amerongen Castle, and the collections housed in it show severe deterioration caused by inappropriate historical indoor environment. Assessments of the indoor climate, especially on the room temperature and relative humidity, are necessary to analyze the causes and impacts of climate change. As the building was flooded in year 1993 and 1996, extra attention is paid to investigate the effects of flooding to it. This pilot study was aimed to identify the buildup linkages between the known past, historical data on indoor environment and indoor climate performance in the building through simulation based-prediction. This paper focuses on the methodology of indoor climate investigation from the past to the current situation. A hypothesis was developed on backcasting-based prediction simulation which can be used to identify the accepted historical indoor climate where during those times there probably was no damage to the building and the collection. A simulation method based on heat, air and moisture transport is used with the HAMBase program. The computer model representing the Grand Salon of Amerongen Castle was calibrated by comparing real measurements to simulation results. It shows that the differences were only to the minimum of -1.8C and maximum of 3.2C. The data for the historical outdoor weather files was obtained by interpolating outdoor ancient climatology constructed by MATLAB. Based on archival research, indoor thermal history was gathered as input for the profiles used in simulation. Further, the calibrated computer model can be used to simulate past indoor climate and investigate the process of the deterioration of the room and the collections mainly due to the fluctuation of indoor temperature and relative humidity. At the end

  3. Wind energy in Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Molly, J.P.

    1994-01-01

    End of June 1994 429 MW in about 2100 wind energy converters (WECs) have been installed in Germany, able to produce 1.1% of the electrical energy demand of the five German coastal states Lower Saxony, Bremen, Hamburg, Schleswig-Holstein and Mecklenburg-Vorpommern. Determining factor for the again increased installation rate, compared with 1993, is the new 500/600-kW-class which now dominates the market. Dramatically reduced WEC prices during the last two years now allow an economic operation in good wind speed regions even without any subsidy. The goal to reach a total of 2000 MW WEC installations in the year 2000 is suddenly near at hand. In the course of the next seven years an installation rate of 250 MW/year will be necessary, a value which could be reached already in 1994. Nevertheless, there still is a long way to go, if the 2000 MW shall be achieved in the year 2000. New obstacles have arisen due to the increasingly restrictive handling of WEC site permission by conservationists, often in discrepancy with the generally recognized global ideas of the eco-organizations. After more than two years of experience, the WEC quality dependent subsidy as applied in Lower Saxony proofs to be a very effective stimulation for the technical development. WECs are now optimized for maximum energy production and minimum noise emission. The new 500/600-kW class is only half as noisy as could be expected from an extrapolation based on smaller WEC units. The energy cost reduction with the size of the WECs is still going on, indicating that the new Megawatt-WECs in development can offer again an economic advantage for the operator. (orig.)

  4. Arthroplasty register for Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hagen, Anja

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Scientific background: The annual number of joint replacement operations in Germany is high. The introduction of an arthroplasty register promises an important contribution to the improvement of the quality of patient’s care. Research questions: The presented report addresses the questions on organization and functioning, benefits and cost-benefits as well as on legal, ethical and social aspects of the arthroplasty registers. Methods: A systematic literature search was conducted in September 2008 in the medical databases MEDLINE, EMBASE etc. and was complemented with a hand search. Documents describing arthroplasty registers and/or their relevance as well as papers on legal, ethical and social aspects of such registers were included in the evaluation. The most important information was extracted and analysed. Results: Data concerning 30 arthroplasty registers in 19 countries as well as one international arthroplasty register were identified. Most of the arthroplasty registers are maintained by national orthopedic societies, others by health authorities or by their cooperation. Mostly, registries are financially supported by governments and rarely by other sources.The participation of the orthopedists in the data collection process of the arthroplasty registry is voluntary in most countries. The consent of the patients is usually required. The unique patient identification is ensured in nearly all registers.Each data set consists of patient and clinic identification numbers, data on diagnosis, the performed intervention, the operation date and implanted prostheses. The use of clinical scores, patient-reported questionnaires and radiological documentation is rare. Methods for data documentation and transfer are paper form, electronic entry as well as scanning of the data using bar codes. The data are mostly being checked for their completeness and validity. Most registers offer results of the data evaluation to the treating orthopedists and

  5. Hydrogeology, hydraulic characteristics, and water-quality conditions in the surficial, Castle Hayne and Peedee aquifers of the greater New Hanover County area, North Carolina, 2012-13

    Science.gov (United States)

    McSwain, Kristen Bukowski; Gurley, Laura N.; Antolino, Dominick J.

    2014-01-01

    A major issue facing the greater New Hanover County, North Carolina, area is the increased demand for drinking water resources as a result of rapid growth. The principal sources of freshwater supply in the greater New Hanover County area are withdrawals of surface water from the Cape Fear River and groundwater from the underlying Castle Hayne and Peedee aquifers. Industrial, mining, irrigation, and aquaculture groundwater withdrawals increasingly compete with public-supply utilities for freshwater resources. Future population growth and economic expansion will require increased dependence on high-quality sources of fresh groundwater. An evaluation of the hydrogeology and water-quality conditions in the surficial, Castle Hayne, and Peedee aquifers was conducted in New Hanover, eastern Brunswick, and southern Pender Counties, North Carolina. A hydrogeologic framework was delineated by using a description of the geologic and hydrogeologic units that compose aquifers and their confining units. Current and historic water-level, water-quality, and water-isotope data were used to approximate the present boundary between freshwater and brackish water in the study area. Water-level data collected during August–September 2012 and March 2013 in the Castle Hayne aquifer show that recharge areas with the highest groundwater altitudes are located in central New Hanover County, and the lowest are located in a discharge area along the Atlantic Ocean. Between 1964 and 2012, groundwater levels in the Castle Hayne aquifer in central New Hanover County have rebounded by about 10 feet, but in the Pages Creek area groundwater levels declined in excess of 20 feet. In the Peedee aquifer, the August–September 2012 groundwater levels were affected by industrial withdrawals in north-central New Hanover County. Groundwater levels in the Peedee aquifer declined more than 20 feet between 1964 and 2012 in northeastern New Hanover County because of increased withdrawals. Vertical gradients

  6. Historical events associated with fallout from Bravo Shot-Operation castle and 25 y of medical findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cronkite, E.P.; Conard, R.A.; Bond, V.P. [Brookhaven National Labs., Upton, NY (United States)

    1997-07-01

    The events prior to Bravo Shot-Operation Castle that led to a decision not to evacuate the Marshallese prior to testing the thermonuclear bombs are presented as are the actions taken after the fallout incident in evacuating the exposed Marshallese and the military personnel. The initial medical effects (findings during first 6 wk after exposure) are briefly described and are followed by description of long term effects, namely, induction of one case or fatal acute myeloid leukemia and a large number of thyroid tumors (benign and malignant) in addition to hypothyroidism in adults and children and two cases of cretinism. The hypothyroidism and cretinism responded well to administration of oral thyroxine. During the first 25 y, there was also much unrest and political agitation initiated by exposed and unexposed Marshallese who were very unhappy as a result of relocation and inability to return to their homelands and feeling that all illness and deaths were due to the mysterious radiation, which they understandably did not understand. The difficulties in part were ameliorated by financial aid from the U.S. Congress. In view of one of us (EPC), no one agency or person in the U.S. Government was willing to take the responsibility for care of the Marshallese and its financing. The exposed and non-exposed Marshallese had their lifestyle changed, some of their homelands made uninhabitable for several years and could aptly be called {open_quotes}nuclear nomads,{close_quotes} an expression coined by others. 14 refs., 3 tabs.

  7. The changing consumer in Germany

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grunert, Klaus G.; Grunert, Suzanne C.; Glatzer, Wolfgang

    1995-01-01

    Changes in economic, demographic, and cultural factors in West Germany during the past decades are briefly described, as well as changes in consumption patterns and the way the major marketing variables have been used and implemented. Special atte is paid to the upheavals caused by the German reu...

  8. The changing consumer in Germany

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grunert, Klaus G.; Grunert, Suzanne C.; Glatzer, Wolfgang

    1995-01-01

    Changes in economic, demographic, and cultural factors in West Germany during the past decades are briefly described, as well as changes in consumption patterns and the way the major marketing variables have been used and implemented. Special atte is paid to the upheavals caused by the German...

  9. Physician assistant education in Germany

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Dierks; L. Kuilman; C. Matthews

    2013-01-01

    The first physician assistant (PA) program in Germany began in 2005. As of 2013 there are three PA programs operational, with a fourth to be inaugurated in the fall of 2013. The programs have produced approximately 100 graduates, all with a nursing background. The PA model of shifting tasks from

  10. Photovoltaic energy generation in Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1993-01-01

    An overview is given of the current state of the art regarding photovoltaic research and demonstration programmes in the Federal Republic of Germany. Also attention is paid to the companies and research institutes involved, and the long-term economical and technical prospects of photovoltaic energy. 13 figs., 4 tabs., 10 refs

  11. Hydrology of the Ferron sandstone aquifer and effects of proposed surface-coal mining in Castle Valley, Utah, with sections on stratigraphy and leaching of overburden

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lines, Gregory C.; Morrissey, Daniel J.; Ryer, Thomas A.; Fuller, Richard H.

    1983-01-01

    Coal in the Ferron Sandstone Member of the Mancos Shale of Cretaceous age has traditionally been mined by underground techniques in the Emery Coal Field in the southern end of Castle Valley in east-central Utah. However, approximately 99 million tons are recoverable by surface mining. Ground water in the Ferron is the sole source of supply for the town of Emery, but the aquifer is essentially untapped outside the Emery area.The Ferron Sandstone Member crops out along the eastern edge of Castle Valley and generally dips 2 ? to 10 ? to the northwest. Sandstones in the Ferron are enclosed between relatively impermeable shale in the Tununk and Blue Gate Members of the Mancos Shale. Along the outcrop, the Ferron ranges in thickness from about 80 feet in the northern part of Castle Valley to 850 feet in the southern part. The Ferron also generally thickens in the subsurface downdip from the outcrop. Records from wells and test holes indicate that the full thickness of the Ferron is saturated with water in most areas downdip from the outcrop area.Tests in the Emery area indicate that transmissivity of the Ferron sandstone aquifer ranges from about 200 to 700 feet squared per day where the Ferron is fully saturated. Aquifer transmissivity is greatest near the Paradise Valley-Joes Valley fault system where permeability has been increased by fracturing. Storage coefficient ranges from about 10 .6 to 10 -3 where the Ferron sandstone aquifer is confined and probably averages 5 x 10-2 where it is unconfined.

  12. [Fostering of health economics in Germany].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulrich, V

    2012-05-01

    Health economics is now well established in Germany with the aim to apply economic tools to answer problems in health and health care. After a short review of the international development of health economics and the development in Germany in particular, the article looks at selected recent topics of health economic analysis in Germany (economic evaluation, industrial economics, health and education).

  13. Nuclear power perspectives for Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    Approximately 300 experts from the power industries, of research and politics, from Germany and abroad followed the invitation of the Deutsches Atomforum (DAtF) to meet at the traditional winter meeting held in Bonn on January 28 and 29, 1992, in order to discuss topical political issues, not only relating to nuclear power, but to primary energy supply in general. Bonn having been chosen as the place for the 1992 meeting, there were unusually many members of Parliament and members of the Federal German Government attending the conference. The four sessions of the conference were devoted to the following aspects: Perspectives, the world energy market, current issues of energy policy in Germany, and preventive risk management. (orig.) [de

  14. Fire Risk Assessment in Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berg, H. P.

    2000-01-01

    Quantitative fire risk assessment can serve as an additional tool to assess the safety level of a nuclear power plant (NPP) and to set priorities for fire protection improvement measures. The recommended approach to be applied within periodic safety reviews of NPPs in Germany starts with a screening process providing critical fire zones in which a fully developed fire has the potential to both cause an initiating event and impair the function of at least one component or system critical to safety. The second step is to perform a quantitative analysis using a standard event tree has been developed with elements for fire initiation, ventilation of the room, fire detection, fire suppression, and fire propagation. In a final step, the fire induced frequency of initiating events, the main contributors and the calculated hazard state frequency for the fire event are determined. Results of the first quantitative fire risk studies performed in Germany are reported. (author)

  15. Energy supply in East Germany

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shimoyama, Tsutomu

    1988-07-10

    East Germany has abundant brown coal, about 90.4% of primary energy production in 1986. The high dependence upon brown coal has been established since its reevaluation in 1980 and the production is reaching a peak. Its share in power generation is also as high as 83.3% in the year. Therefore, the energy sufficiency of East Germany is about 80%. Problems are arising, however, in deterioration of excavation conditions and coal quality. Domestic energy resources such as the uranium and natural gas are also used to the maximum extent. The nuclear power has about 10% of share in the power generation. The share expansion policy is seemingly maintained even after the accident of Chernoble. Exploration, excavation and reprocessing of the uranium are conducted under the leadership of USSR. The country depends upon the oil in a very low level, less than 1%, as a result of the energy conservation policy in 1980's. (1 fig, 5 tabs)

  16. Germany: energy transition or revolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boulanger, V.

    2013-01-01

    Germany has decided to phase out nuclear power by 2022 but it wants also to get rid of fossil energies by 2050. Those ambitious goals imply to be able to cut by half the demand for primary energy by 2050 which will be only possible if the need for building heating is cut by 80%, the constraint on transport is less important: one million of electrical vehicles will have to be on the road by 2020 and 3 millions 10 years later. In 2012 the production of electricity was made mainly from coal (44.7%), renewable energies (21.9%), nuclear energy (16%), natural gas (11.3%) and other energies (fuel...) (6.1%). Today the renewable energy sector is a major industrial sector in Germany, it represents about 382000 jobs directly or indirectly, it means more than the sector of conventional energies. (A.C.)

  17. International Student Migration to Germany

    OpenAIRE

    Donata Bessey

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents first empirical evidence on international student migration to Germany. I use a novel approach that analyzes student mobility using an augmented gravity equation and find evidence of strong network effects and of the importance of distance - results familiar from the empirical migration literature. However, the importance of disposable income in the home country does not seem to be too big for students, while the fact of being a politically unfree country decreases migrati...

  18. Radioactive waste in Federal Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brennecke, P.; Schumacher, J.; Warnecke, E.

    1988-01-01

    The Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB) is responsible for the long-term storage and disposal of radioactive waste according to the Federal Atomic Energy Act. On behalf of the Federal Minister of the Environment, Nature Conservation and Nuclear Safety, since 1985, the PTB has been carrying out annual inquiries into the amounts of radioactive waste produced in the Federal Republic of Germany. Within the scope of this inquiry performed for the preceding year, the amounts of unconditioned and conditioned waste are compiled on a producer- and plant-specific basis. On the basis of the inquiry for 1986 and of data presented to the PTB by the waste producers, future amounts of radioactive waste have been estimated up to the year 2000. The result of this forecast is presented. In the Federal Republic of Germany two sites are under consideration for disposal of radioactive waste. In the abandoned Konrad iron mine in Salzgitter-Bleckenstedt it is intended to dispose of such radioactive waste which has a negligible thermal influence upon the host rock. The Gorleben salt dome is being investigated for its suitability for the disposal of all kinds of solid and solidified radioactive wastes, especially of heat-generating waste. Comparing the estimated amount of radioactive wastes with the capacity of both repositories it may be concluded that the Konrad and Gorleben repositories will provide sufficient capacity to ensure the disposal of all kinds of radioactive waste on a long-term basis in the Federal Republic of Germany. 1 fig., 2 tabs

  19. Undergraduate medical education in Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chenot, Jean-François

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to give international readers an overview of the organisation, structure and curriculum, together with important advances and problems, of undergraduate medical education in Germany. Interest in medical education in Germany has been relatively low but has gained momentum with the new "Regulation of the Licensing of Doctors" which came into effect in 2003. Medical education had required substantial reform, particularly with respect to improving the links between theoretical and clinical teaching and the extension of interdisciplinary and topic-related instruction. It takes six years and three months to complete the curriculum and training is divided into three sections: basic science (2 years, clinical science (3 years and final clinical year. While the reorganisation of graduate medical education required by the new "Regulation of the Licensing of Doctors" has stimulated multiple excellent teaching projects, there is evidence that some of the stipulated changes have not been implemented. Indeed, whether the medical schools have complied with this regulation and its overall success remains to be assessed systematically. Mandatory external accreditation and periodic reaccreditation of medical faculties need to be established in Germany.

  20. Loki's Castle: Discovery and geology of a black smoker vent field at the Arctic Mid-Ocean Ridge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedersen, R.; Thorseth, I. H.; Lilley, M. D.; Barriga, F. J.; Früh-Green, G.; Nakamura, K.

    2010-12-01

    Previous attempts to locate hydrothermal vent fields and unravel the nature of venting at the ultraslow spreading and magma starved parts of the Arctic Mid Ocean Ridge (AMOR) have been unsuccessful. A black smoker vent field was eventually discovered at the Mohns-Knipovich bend at 73.5°N in 2008, and the field was revisited in 2009 and 2010. The Loki’s Castle vent field is located on the crest of an axial volcanic ridge that is bordered by a tectonic terrain dominated by core complexes to the NW, and a ridge flank that is buried by sediments from the Bear Island Fan to the SE. Fluid compositions are anomalous to other basalt-hosted fields and indicate interactions with sediments at depths. The vent field is associated with an unusually large hydrothermal deposit, which documents that extensive venting occurs at ultraslow spreading ridges despite the strongly reduced magmatic heat budget. ROV surveys have shown that venting occurs in two areas separated by around 100 m. Micro-bathymetry acquired by a Hugin AUV documents that two 20-30 tall mounds that coalesce at the base have developed around the vent sites. The micro-bathymetry also shows that the venting is located above two normal faults that define the NW margin of a rift that runs along the crest of the volcano. The black smoker fluids reach 317 °C, with an end-member SiO2 content of 16 mmol/kg. End-member chlorinity is around 85% of seawater suggesting that the fluids have phase-separated at depth. The fluid compositions indicate that the rock-water reactions occur around 2 km below the seafloor. The crustal thickness is estimated to be 4 +/- 0.5 km in the area. Whereas the depth of the reaction zone is comparable with faster spreading ridges, the fraction of crust cooled convectively by hydrothermal circulation is two times that of vent fields at ridges with normal crustal thickness.

  1. Wind power report Germany 2014

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rohrig, Kurt

    2015-01-01

    Record year 2014. In Germany, the expansion figures attained were so high on land and at sea that the overall new installation figure of 5,188 MW surpassed the previous maximum (from 2002) by more than 60%. With an overall capacity of 39,259 MW, for the first time, wind energy in Germany covers 9.7% of gross power consumption. On the global scale a capacity of more than 51,000 MW has been added - another record high for wind energy installations. Power mix. At 161 TWh, renewable energies in Germany covered 27.8% of gross power consumption and provided for the first time more energy than any other energy source. Coming into force of the new REA in August 2014, modified support schemes caused the expansion of biogas plants and large-scale PV installations to falter. The record expansion seen for wind energy can be interpreted as a pull-forward effect due to the tender procedures coming into force in 2017. Grid integration. Loss of production caused by feed-in management measures rose by 44% to 555 GWh as compared to 2012. Wind turbines were affected in 87% of cases but the impact on PV installations is increasing. Power generation must be more flexible and grids expanded to limit loss of production. Of the 23 expansion projects (1,887 km) in the Electricity Grid Expansion Act, just a quarter of them had been realized by the end of 2014 (463 km). In the preliminary analysis results for the 2014 grid development plan, the extent of grid upgrading and conversion was 3050 km. Offshore, the HelWin 1 grid link with a capacity of 580 MW went online. SylWin 1 and BorWin 2, with a total capacity of 1660 MW, are currently being tested in a trial. In the preliminary analysis results for the 2014 offshore grid development plan, grid connections having an overall capacity of 10.3 GW are planned. Onshore. 2014 saw a total of 44 different turbine types installed in Germany. For the first time, virtually the same number of turbines were added in the 3-4 MW class, as in the 2-3 MW

  2. Country report for Germany [Fast reactors in Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knebel, J.

    2007-01-01

    Full text: The primary energy consumption in Germany in 2005 was about 492.6 MtSKE in total. The distribution on the main energy sources is: mineral oil: 36.4%, natural gas 22.4%, black coal 13.5%, brown coal 11.4%, nuclear energy 12.6%, water and wind 1.2%, others 2.5%. The net electricity production in Germany in 2005 was about 495.9 billion kWh. The distribution is: nuclear energy 32%, lignite coal 28.9%, black coal 23.1%, oil 0.2%, natural gas 9.1%, water 4.7%, others (being biomass, photovoltaics, wind) 2.0%. In 2005, 18 nuclear power plants were in operation in Germany. In May 2005 the KWO Obrigheim was closed due to the new Atomic law which fixes the phase out of nuclear power production. The net installed nuclear power was 20.7GWel, the net nuclear electricity production was 163TWh, the time availability was 88%. Nuclear makes up for about 50% of the base-load electricity production in Germany. In absolute numbers, Germany is number 5 in nuclear electricity production. Among the top ten nuclear power plants world-wide, in 2005 there were 7 German plants including the plant with the highest amount of electricity produced, being NPP Brokdorf with 1440MWel and 11.98TWhel. The net electricity output of the nuclear power plants is constantly increasing due to power upgrading and higher time availabilities. As for the renewable energies, there is no significant absolute increase except for wind. About 50% of the government support for renewable energies from the Environmental Ministry goes to photovoltaics. The Helmholtz-Gemeinschaft (HGF), summarising 15 national research centres, 24.000 employees and a yearly budget of about 2,1 billion Euro is the largest research organisation in Germany. The HGF identifies and works on complex and urgent questions of society, science and economy, especially concentrating on systems of high complexity. There are six research areas, being energy, earth and environment, health, key technologies, structure of matter, traffic and

  3. Kazimierz Pospieszny, Domus Malbork. Zamek krzyżacki w typie regularnym [Domus Malbork. Castle of the Teutonic Order of a regular type] (Monografie Uniwersytetu Mikołaja Kopernika w Toruniu), Wydawnictwo Naukowe Uniwersytetu Mikołaja Kopernika

    OpenAIRE

    Raczkowski, Juliusz

    2017-01-01

    Kazimierz Pospieszny, Domus Malbork. Zamek krzyżacki w typie regularnym [Domus Malbork. Castle of the Teutonic Order of a regular type] (Monografie Uniwersytetu Mikołaja Kopernika w Toruniu), Wydawnictwo Naukowe Uniwersytetu Mikołaja Kopernika, Toruń 2014, 336 pp., 283 black-and-white figures., 30 coloured figures, ISBN: 978-83-231-3084-0

  4. Germany: the electricity bill soars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lauer, Hartmut

    2016-01-01

    As Germany is already one of the European countries where electricity prices are the highest for households (twice more than in France), the author comments the past evolution of these prices and shows that they will probably increase again in 2017 to finance energy transition. This increase is notably due to higher taxes (a comparison with the French CSPE tax is presented and commented), and to a costly grid renewal. As the energy transition appears to be very expensive (about 500 billions euros by 2025), the cost-benefit rate of the German energy transition is disastrous and the de-carbonation of the electricity sector does not progress

  5. Germany after March 11th

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolski, A.

    2011-01-01

    A retrospective since March 11th is presented with stress on the Fukushima accident, political situation in Germany, media and public opinion. Fukushima has devastated the trust in expert opinions about safety of NPPs. Germany’s Turn in Energy - consensus for nuclear phase-out exists between All political parties. The government has already announced adoption of the recommendations of the ethics commission. The 7 oldest units will remain shut-down. Further 7 units will be shut down until 2021. The youngest 3 units will be permanently shut down until 2022

  6. Staircases, Towers, and Castles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kara, Melike; Eames, Cheryl L.; Miller, Amanda L.; Chieu, Annie

    2015-01-01

    The very nature of algebra concerns the generalization of patterns (Lee 1996). Patterning activities that are geometric in nature can serve as powerful contexts that engage students in algebraic thinking and visually support them in constructing a variety of generalizations and justifications (e.g., Healy and Hoyles 1999; Lannin 2005). In this…

  7. "Business Castle" gates

    OpenAIRE

    Ivanova, Polina

    2015-01-01

    In times of globalization world faces serious social and environmental challenges, ranging from an ageing population to climate change mitigation. In order to address such complex challenges modern society need to contribute. And business is one of the most powerful sectors of it after government and media. Interestingly, companies effect on consumers and consumers have huge influence on companies, as well. Apart from creating economic welfare, enterprises have to face new challenges and ...

  8. Recycling of plastics in Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thienen, N. von; Patel, M.

    1999-01-01

    This article deals with the waste management of post-consumer plastics in Germany and its potential to save fossil fuels and reduce CO 2 emissions. Since most experience is available for packaging, the paper first gives an overview of the legislative background and the material flows for this sector. Then recycling and recovery processes for plastics waste from all sectors are assessed in terms of their contribution to energy saving and CO 2 abatement. Practically all the options studied show a better performance than waste treatment in an average incinerator which has been chosen as the reference case. High ecological benefits can be achieved by mechanical recycling if virgin polymers are substituted. The paper then presents different scenarios for managing plastic waste in Germany in 1995: considerable savings can be made by strongly enhancing the efficiency of waste incinerators. Under these conditions the distribution of plastics waste among mechanical recycling, feedstock recycling and energy recovery has a comparatively mall impact on the overall results. The maximum savings amount to 74 PJ of energy, i.e, 9% of the chemical sector energy demand in 1995 and 7.0 Mt CO 2 , representing 13% of the sector's emissions. The assessment does not support a general recommendation of energy recovery due to the large difference between the German average and the best available municipal waste-to-energy facilities and also due to new technological developments in the field of mechanical recycling

  9. Air crew monitoring in Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stegemann, R.; Frasch, G.; Kammerer, L.

    2006-01-01

    Cosmic radiation at high altitudes, especially high energetic neutrons, significantly increases exposure to man. Pilots and flight attendants may receive annual effective doses comparable to doses received in occupations, in which ionising radiation is used or radioactive sources are handled. For this reason, the European Council Directive 96/29 EURATOM requires that air-crew members also be monitored for radiation protection. Flight personnel, receiving an effective dose from cosmic radiation of more than 1 mSv per year are subject to monitoring i.e. radiation exposure has to be assessed, limited and minimized. As the physical conditions causing cosmic radiation doses are well established, it is possible to calculate the expected radiation dose with sufficient accuracy. Several codes for this purpose are available. Since August 2003, the operators of airlines in Germany are obliged to assess the doses of their air crew personnel from cosmic radiation exposure and to minimise radiation exposure by means of appropriate work schedules, flight routes and flight profiles. Approx. 31 000 persons of 45 airlines are monitored by the German Radiation Protection Register. Gender, age and 3 different occupational categories are used to characterise different groups and their doses. The presentation will give an overview about the legislation and organisation of air crew monitoring in Germany and will show detailed statistical results from the first year of monitoring. (authors)

  10. The Sommersdorf mummies—An interdisciplinary investigation on human remains from a 17th-19th century aristocratic crypt in southern Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kellinghaus, Manuel; Jackowski, Christian; Shved, Natallia; Rühli, Frank; Maixner, Frank; Zink, Albert; Rosendahl, Wilfried; Lösch, Sandra

    2017-01-01

    Sommersdorf Castle (Bavaria, Germany) is a medieval castle complex which has been inhabited by the aristocratic family von Crailsheim. The deceased were entombed in a crypt located in the parapets underneath the castle’s church, resulting in mummification of the bodies. Based on the family chronicle and oral history, identities have been ascribed to the mummies. The aim of the study is therefore to test the accuracy of the historical records in comparison to archaeological, anthropological and genetic data. Today, the crypt houses eleven wooden coffins from the 17th to 19th century AD. In ten of these, mummified and scattered human remains were found. Archive records were studied in order to identify names, ancestry, titles, occupation, date of birth and death, and place of interment of the individuals. The coffins were visually inspected and dated by typo-chronology, and the mummified and scattered skeletal remains were subjected to a physical anthropological examination. In total, the crypt contains the remains of a minimum number of nine individuals, among them three adult males, five adult females and one infant. A detailed scientific examination, including prior conservation, ancient DNA analyses, and computed tomography (CT), was performed on five mummies. By means of the CT data age at death, sex, body height, pathologies, and anatomical variants were investigated. CT analysis further showed that the bodies were naturally mummified. Mitochondrial DNA analyses revealed that the tested individuals are not maternally related. In addition, health, living conditions and circumstances of death of the entombed individuals could be highlighted. Being confronted with the strengths, weaknesses and limitations of each methodological approach, probable identification was achieved in two cases. PMID:28859116

  11. Massacre of Canadian Army Medical Corps personnel after the sinking of HMHS Llandovery Castle and the evolution of modern war crime jurisprudence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doucet, Jay; Haley, Gregory; McAlister, Vivian

    2018-06-01

    Events after the sinking of the hospital ship Llandovery Castle on June 27, 1918, by the German submarine U-86 outraged Canadians. Survivors aboard a single life raft gave evidence that many of the 234 souls lost had made it to lifeboats but were rammed and shot by the submarine. Many of those who died were nurses. Three German officers were charged with war crimes after the war. The submarine's captain evaded capture. The remaining two officers' defence that they were following the captain's orders failed and they were convicted. This ruling was used as a precedent to dismiss similar claims at the war crime trials after the Second World War. It is also the basis of the order given to members of modern militaries, including the Canadian Armed Forces, that it is illegal to carry out an illegal order.

  12. Mineralogy and Acid-Extractable Geochemistry from the Loki's Castle Hydrothermal Field, Norwegian Sea at 74 degrees N (South Knipovich Ridge)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barriga, F. J.; Fonseca, R.; Dias, S.; Cruz, I.; Carvalho, C.; Relvas, J. M.; Pedersen, R.

    2010-12-01

    The Loki’s Castle hydrothermal vent field was discovered in the summer of 2008 during a cruise led by the Centre of Geobiology of the University of Bergen, integrated in the H2Deep Project (Eurocores, ESF; see Pedersen et al., 2010, AGU Fall Meeting, Session OS26). Fresh volcanic glasses analyzed by EPMA are basalts. The vent site is composed of several active, over 10 m tall chimneys, producing up to 320 C fluid, at the top of a very large sulfide mound (estimated diameter 200 m). Mineralogy: The main sulfide assemblage in chimneys consists of sphalerite (Sp), pyrite (Py) and pyrrhotite, with lesser chalcopyrite (Ccp). Sulphide-poor selected samples collected at the base of chimneys are mostly composed of anhydrite (Anh), gypsum and talc (Tlc). Association of quartz, anhydrite, gypsum and barite were also found in some of the samples. The sulphide-poor samples from the base of the chimneys denote seawater interaction with the hydrothermal fluid and consequent decrease in temperature, precipitating sulfates. Sphalerite compositions are Zn(0.61-0.70)Fe(0.39-0.30)S. The variations in Fe content are consistent with those of hot, reduced hydrothermal fluids. The observed sulfide assemblage is consistent with the temperature of 320C measured in Loki’s Castle vents. Compositional zonation in sphalerites suggests different pulses of activity of the hydrothermal system, with higher contents of Zn in the center of the crystals. Geochemistry: Here we report preliminary data part of a major analytical task of sequential extraction of metals from sediments in the vicinity of Loki’s Castle, in an attempt to detect correlations with microbial populations and/or subseafloor mineralized intervals. The abundances of Cu, Pb, Ni, Cr, Zn, Fe, Mn and Co in sediments were determined by aqua regia extraction on subsamples from 7 gravity cores. Several anomalous intervals were sampled, in which Cu<707ppm, Ni shows many weak peaks (<50ppm), Cr shows 6 peaks (<121ppm), Zn shows 4 well

  13. Financing long term liabilities (Germany)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    In Germany the basis for the management of radioactive residues is the polluter-pays principle. All steps of treatment of radioactive waste arising from operation, decommissioning and dismantling including conditioning, interim storage and disposal of radioactive waste have to be financed by the waste producers. The waste producers are responsible for the harmless recycling of the residues or for their orderly management as radioactive waste. The Federal Government is responsible for establishing disposal facilities. Accordingly the waste producers are constructing and operating facilities in which the radioactive residues can be treated and stored until their disposal. As far as the radioactive waste cannot be stored by the producer, waste originating from research, medicine and industry can be stored in surface storage facilities of the federal states. Spent fuel from German NPPs is partly reprocessed in France and UK. The rest has to be disposed off directly in deep geologic formations. Until a repository for spent fuel is available in Germany spent fuel will be stored in interim storage facilities on the sites of the NPPs. The storage will take place in casks in a dry way. In exceptional cases, if the storage at a NPP site is not possible, there are two central storages at Ahaus and Gorleben which are in operation and can be made available as reserve. Radioactive waste returning from the reprocessing of German spent fuel in France and UK is stored in the Gorleben central storage. The Federal Government is aiming to establish a repository in deep geological formations about the year 2030 which shall be available for all types and quantities of radioactive waste. The necessary expenses for the planning and construction of radioactive waste disposal facilities are initially carried by the Federal Government. The Government recovers the costs by contributions or advance payments from the waste producers. The use of storage and disposal facilities is financed by

  14. A study on the applicability of the ecosystem model on water quality prediction in urban river outer moats of Yedo Castle, Nihonbashi River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kakinuma, Daiki; Tsushima, Yuki; Ohdaira, Kazunori; Yamada, Tadashi

    2015-04-01

    The objective of the study is to elucidate the waterside environment in the outer moats of Yedo Castle and the downstream of Nihonbashi River in Tokyo. Scince integrated sewage system has been installed in the area around the outer moats of Yedo Castle and the Nihon River basin, when rainfall exceeds more than the sewage treatment capacity, overflowed untreated wastewater is released into the moats and the river. Because the moats is a closed water body, pollutants are deposited to the bottom without outflowing. While reeking offensive odors due to the decomposition, blue-green algae outbreaks affected by the residence time and eluted nutrient causes problems. Scince the Nihonbashi River is a typical tidal river in urban area, the water pollution problems in the river is complicated. This study clarified the characteristics of the water quality in terms of dissolved oxygen saturation through on-site observations. In particular, dissolved oxygen saturation in summer, it is clarified that variations from a supersaturated state due to the variations of horizontal insolation intensity and water temperature up to hypoxic water conditions in the moats. According to previous studies on the water quality of Nihonbashi River, it is clarified that there are three types of variations of dissolved oxygen which desided by rainfall scale. The mean value of dissolved oxygen saturation of all layers has decreased by about 20% at the spring tide after dredging, then it recoveres gradually and become the value before dredging during about a year. Further more, in places where sewage inflows, it is important to developed a ecosystem medel and the applicability of the model. 9 variables including cell quota (intracellular nutrients of phytoplankton) of phosphorus and nitrogen with considerring the nitrification of ammonia nitrogen are used in the model. This model can grasp the sections (such as oxygen production by photosynthesis of phytoplankton, oxygen consumption by respiration of

  15. Neurosurgical Resident Training in Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stienen, Martin N; Gempt, Jens; Gautschi, Oliver P; Demetriades, Andreas K; Netuka, David; Kuhlen, Dominique E; Schaller, Karl; Ringel, Florian

    2017-07-01

    Introduction  Efficient neurosurgical training is of paramount importance to provide continuing high-quality medical care to patients. In this era of law-enforced working hour restrictions, however, maintaining high-quality training can be a challenge and requires some restructuring. We evaluated the current status of resident training in Germany. Methods  An electronic survey was sent to European neurosurgical trainees between June 2014 and March 2015. The responses of German trainees were compared with those of trainees from other European countries. Logistic regression analysis was performed to assess the effect size of the relationship between a trainee being from Germany and the outcome (e.g., satisfaction, working time). Results  Of 532 responses, 95 were from German trainees (17.8%). In a multivariate analysis corrected for baseline group differences, German trainees were 29% as likely as non-German trainees to be satisfied with clinical lectures given at their teaching facility (odds ratio [OR]: 0.29; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.18-0.49; p  hours as requested from the European Working Time Directive 2003/88/EC, and in an international comparison, German trainees were twice as likely to work > 50 hours per week (OR: 2.13; 95% CI, 1.25-3.61; p  = 0.005). This working time, however, is less spent in the operating suite (OR: 0.26; 95% CI, 0.11-0.59; p  = 0.001) and more doing administrative work (OR: 1.83; 95% CI, 1.13-2.96; p  = 0.015). Conclusion  Some theoretical and practical aspects of neurosurgical training are superior, but a considerable proportion of relevant aspects are inferior in Germany compared with other European countries. The present analyses provide the opportunity for a critical review of the local conditions in German training facilities. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  16. Integrated solid waste management in Germany

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-07-01

    This report covers Germany`s experience with integrated solid waste management programs. The municipal solid waste practices of four cities include practices and procedures that waste facility managers with local or state governments may consider for managing their own day-to-day operations.

  17. Mental health of Turkish women in Germany

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bromand, Z; Temur-Erman, S; Yesil, R

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to examine the protective and risk factors of mental distress among Turkish women living in Germany.......The purpose of the present study was to examine the protective and risk factors of mental distress among Turkish women living in Germany....

  18. Recent facts about photovoltaics in Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wirth, Harry

    2015-01-01

    Germany is leaving the age of fossil fuel behind. In building a sustainable energy future, photovoltaics is going to have an important role. The following summary consists of the most recent facts, figures and findings and shall assist in forming an overall assessment of the photovoltaic expansion in Germany.

  19. Employee share ownership in Germany

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ortlieb, Renate; Matiaske, Wenzel; Fietze, Simon

    2016-01-01

    Politicians and scholars alike praise the significant benefits associated with employee share ownership (ESO). However, little is known about the concrete motives of firms to provide ESO to their employees. In particular, it is unknown how these motives correlate with firms’ contexts. Drawing...... on an institutional theoretical framework, this article examines what aims firms pursue through the provision of ESO. The data originate from a survey of firms in Germany. The cluster analytic findings indicate distinctive patterns of relationships between aims and firm characteristics. Aims related to employee...... performance are most important to foreign-owned firms, financial aims are most important to non-public small and medium-sized firms and aims related to corporate image are most important to big firms and to firms that do not provide profit sharing. Aims related to employee attraction and retention are almost...

  20. Renewable Energy CSOPs in Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jens Lowitzsch

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The Energy-CSOP facilitates broad equity participation of citizens without assets or savings in a regulated public energy utility. As the CSOP is designed for regulated markets with guaranteed prices, regulated market access and long-term relationships between producer and consumer, the energy market is predestined. A CSOP trust can be set up for a renewable energy plant (e.g., a biogas reactor, a solar panel, a windmill or a geothermic drill. European states have set an ambitious target to reach 20% share of energy from renewable sources by 2020. Germany as Europe’s green energy leader could become a pioneer in CSOP implementation. Small communities in Europe would benefit from the increased share of renewable energy resources.

  1. Nuclear power plants in Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hennings, U.; Stuermer, W.

    1993-01-01

    Under the influence of the polarization between belief in progress, on the one hand, and the moral rigorism of our society, on the other hand, the risks of modern large technical systems have helped the highest level of technical safety to be attained in Germany. It has been reached especially by opting for maximum quality, maximum utility and reliability, complete documentation, continuous in-service checks during operation and, last but not least, by including man and human fallibility. Our concern should be that this strategy pursued in the Western industrialized countries becomes the rule, at least in its main characteristics, also in the Eastern countries. The hazards associated with reactors in Eastern countries affect us all, and it is especially the safety of those reactors which is causing concern. The experience accumulated with the 417 nuclear power plants now in operation, especially the incidents and accidents, shows that hazard potential management is admissible only with a highly developed safety strategy. (orig.) [de

  2. The visual arts influence in Nazi Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bie Yanan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This article will discuss the influence of visual art in Nazi Germany from two parts of visual arts, which are political photography and poster propaganda, analyzing the unique social and historical stage of Nazi Germany. And it emphasizes the ideology of the Nazis, which in Nazi Germany inflamed the political sentiment of the masses and took the visual art as their important instrument of political propaganda, while Nazi party used visual art on anti-society and war which is worth warning and criticizing for later generation.

  3. Eastern Germany Ahead in Employment of Women

    OpenAIRE

    Elke Holst; Anna Wieber

    2014-01-01

    Almost a quarter of a century after the fall of the Wall, there are still more women in employment in eastern Germany than in the west. Although the disparity is marginal now, the two regions started from dramatically different levels. In 1991, immediately after reunification, the employment rate for women in western Germany was 54.6 percent, but since then it has increased year on year, reaching 67.5 percent in 2012. In eastern Germany, female employment initially plummeted after the fall of...

  4. Farming for Health: Aspects from Germany

    OpenAIRE

    Neuberger, Konrad; Stephan, Ingrid; Hermanowski, Robert; Flake, Albrecht; Post, Franz-Joseph; van Elsen, Thomas

    2006-01-01

    Until now, the term ‘Farming for Health’ is unknown in Germany but it would cover a wide spectrum of different kinds of social agriculture already existing in Germany, such as farms that integrate disabled people or drug therapy into their farming system, or farms that integrate children, pupils or older people. Relevant work in Germany is done in ‘Sheltered Workshops’, where supporting and healing powers of farming and gardening are used for disabled people with a diversity of work possibili...

  5. Electricity prices differences between France and Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hensing, I.; Nolden, A.; Riechmann, Ch.; Schulz, W.

    1998-01-01

    High electricity prices in Germany especially as compared to France have played an important role in the electricity liberalization debate in Germany. The price differences can largely be explained by cost differences in electricity generation, the electricity grids, personnel cost and local taxes. Further analysis suggests that efficiency improvements upon market liberalization will only partly remove these price and cost differentials. Parts of the cost differentials are attributable to politically-motivated regulations and the (future) regulation of network functions. This implies that Germany can only expect to arrive at internationally comparable electricity prices if it advances with a reform of political and monopoly regulations alongside liberalizing electricity generation and trade. (author)

  6. Opportunities for smart meters in Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolff, J.

    2010-10-01

    Germany has the ambitious goal of lowering its CO2 emission with 80 percent until 2050 as compared to 1990. Sustainable energy and the deployment of smart meters are starting to play increasingly important roles. [nl

  7. Wind power in Germany - a success story

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weller, T.

    1996-01-01

    The successful introduction of wind power to the electric power industry in the Federal Republic of Germany is described using graphic representations to illustrate the industry's growth over the last twenty years. The history of the wind market is discussed, together with the importance of stakeholders as a way of funding the industry. The author concludes that public support for environmentally sensitive power generation was the key factor leading to the success of the wind power industry in Germany. (UK)

  8. Managing ageing workforces: Empirical evidence from Germany

    OpenAIRE

    Drew, H.

    2013-01-01

    Demographic change (ageing populations and falling birth rates) affects all industrialised nations, including Germany. Traditionally, the problems associated with managing numbers of older workers were mitigated by the Altersteilzeitgesetz in Germany. Under this law, firms were offered financial support by the government to offer early retirement (Müller-Camen et al. 2009). As these provisions came to an end in 2010, the need to find alternative solutions to displacing older workers, as well ...

  9. Climate protection policy. On Germany's pioneer role

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuebler, Knut

    2014-01-01

    After a downward trend of many years Germany's energy-related CO 2 emissions have risen again slightly over the past two years. This increase has prompted the federal government to initiate a new climate protection action campaign. After almost 30 years of experience in the field of climate protection policy there is every reason for Germany to be more consistent in using its political scope to act on the unrestrained increase in global greenhouse gas emissions.

  10. Housing Markets in Austria, Germany and Switzerland

    OpenAIRE

    Martin Schneider; Karin Wagner

    2015-01-01

    Running counter to the sharp rise in house prices and housing wealth observed since the mid- 1990s in the vast majority of European countries, real house prices in Germany and Austria were going down in this period and did not start to rise until 2010 or 2007, respectively. This reflects national idiosyncracies in housing markets and motivated the discussion of relevant peculiarities in, and similarities among, Austria and Germany as well as Switzerland. Among the most important structural fe...

  11. Maternal Employment and Childhood Overweight in Germany

    OpenAIRE

    Sophie-Charlotte Meyer

    2015-01-01

    A widespread finding among studies from the US and the UK is that maternal employment is correlated with an increased risk of child overweight, even in a causal manner, whereas studies from European countries obtain less conclusive results. As evidence for Germany is still scarce, the purpose of this study is to identify the effect of maternal employment on childhood overweight in Germany using two sets of representative micro data. Moreover, we explore potential underlying mechanisms that mi...

  12. Radioactive waste interim storage in Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-12-01

    The short summary on the radioactive waste interim storage in Germany covers the following issues: importance of interim storage in the frame of radioactive waste management, responsibilities and regulations, waste forms, storage containers, transport of vitrified high-level radioactive wastes from the reprocessing plants, central interim storage facilities (Gorleben, Ahaus, Nord/Lubmin), local interim storage facilities at nuclear power plant sites, federal state collecting facilities, safety, radiation exposure in Germany.

  13. GERMANY & TURKEY – A PARTNERSHIP PERSPECTIVE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bestenigar KARA

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The article shortly deals with economic and commercial relations between Turkey, that keeps close regulary economic, political and cultural relationship and Germany, which is one of six founding fathers of the European Union. The subject of article has been searched within the following framework: Measurement of commercial relations between export and import between, investment relations between Germany and Turkey, mutual distribution sector.

  14. Castle-palace of “La Calahorra”, Granada: influence of climatic and architectural factors in differential deterioration of their stone masonries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guardia, J. J.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The castle-palace of La Calahorra is a historical building (6th century with a dual-function. The exterior is a castle-fortress of late-medieval style, built with rubbles and rough ashlars of a crystalline limestone of great hardness and strength. The interior is a Renaissance palace, made of micritic limestone and dolomitic sandstone ashlars, both stone materials are porous, soft and low strength. The entire building has an orangey colored due to an iron patina that stains its stone masonries as a result of wind action. There is a differential deterioration among its external and internal, depending on the type of stone used factories, the rainwater and wind action and the building defects detected. While the exterior stone is in good state of conservation, the interior stones shows some important deterioration processes , mainly the micritic limestone present in the ornamental and decorative areas of the central courtyard.El castillo-palacio de La Calahorra es un edificio histórico (s. XVI con una doble funcionalidad. El exterior es un castillo-fortaleza de estilo tardo-medieval, construido con mampuestos y sillarejos de una caliza cristalina de gran dureza y resistencia. El interior es un palacio renacentista, hecho con sillares de caliza micrítica y arenisca dolomítica, ambos materiales pétreos son porosos, blandos y poco resistentes. Todo el edificio tiene una tonalidad anaranjada debido a la pátina de hierro que tiñe sus fábricas y que es consecuencia de la acción del viento. Existe un deterioro diferencial entre sus fábricas externas e internas, según el tipo de piedra empleado, la acción del agua de lluvia y el viento, y los defectos constructivos detectados. Mientras que la piedra exterior está en buen estado de conservación, las interiores sufren importantes procesos de deterioro, principalmente la caliza micrítica presente en las zonas ornamentales y decorativas del patio central.

  15. Dental tourism from Switzerland to Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gheorghe, Raluca; Zürcher, Andrea; Filippi, Andreas

    In recent years the topic of dental tourism has increasingly come into focus of dentists and patients. In the present study an attempt was made to find out, why patients from a restricted region travel to Germany for dental care. In five German dental clinics located in the border area between Switzerland and Germany, 272 women and 236 men ranging in age from 5 to 94 years, who had undergone at least one dental treatment in Germany, were questioned concerning the reasons for their visits. The interviews took place within a period of 6 months and relied on a questionnaire to collect data regarding sociodemographic features and patient behavior. In comparison to residents of Germany, patients residing in Switzerland took on considerably longer travel distances for the dental visit, in some cases more than 50km (9.7%). For patients residing in Switzerland the technical equipment of the practice was more important (pSwitzerland (95.6%) confirmed that dental treatments in Germany were cheaper and that additional family members also came to Germany for dental care (65.0%).

  16. Germany, high-tech country

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1997-01-01

    The Nuclear Technology Conference organized annually by the Deutsches Atomforum (DAtF) e.V. and the Kerntechnische Gesellschaft (KTG) e.V. was held in Aachen on May 13-15, 1997. Approximately 1000 participants from seventeen countries met to exchange information with experts from industry, research, science, and politics. Unlike earlier events, this one was not disturbed by demonstrations. DAtF President Dr. Wilfried Steuer welcomed Joachim H. Witt, Chief Executive Officer of the city of Aachen, who expressed words of welcome on behalf of his city at the opening of the plenary day of the conference. Energy policy and global competition were the optics of the address by Dr. Norbert Lammert, Parliamentary Undersecretary of State with the German Federal Ministry of Economics. He advocated grasping the changes offered by expanding global markets by reforming the structures of the energy supply sector. The rank of nuclear power in European research policy was explained by Fabricio Caccia Dominioni as representative of the European Commission. The electricity utilities were represented by Dr. Dietmar Kuhnt, Chief Executive Officer of RWE AG, who spoke about the security of energy investments. A thoughtful analysis of Germany as an industrial location was presented by Professor Dr. Herbert Henzler of McKinsey and Company Inc. The President of the European Nuclear Society (ENS), Ger R. Kuepers, sketched the development of nuclear power in the Netherlands, combining national and European aspects and emphasizing, in particular, the important function of ENS. Uranium enrichment as an European project was subject of the report by Dr. Klaus Messer, Urenco Ltd. The General Manager of Tractabel Energy Engineering and Chairman of Belgatom, Guy Frederic, examined the economic viability of nuclear power, appealing to the audience to reduce capital costs by innovation without detracting from safety. (orig./DG) [de

  17. [Cochlear implant treatment in Germany].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacob, R; Stelzig, Y

    2013-01-01

    Restoration of impaired auditory function through cochlear implant is possible, with high reliably and great success. Nevertheless, there are regular disputes between patients and insurance companies due to high costs. In Germany, approx. 1.9 Mio. people are severely hearing impaired. It can be estimated that for adequate hearing rehabilitation about 30,000 cochlear implants/year are necessary. Currently, less than 10% of those affected are offered cochlear implant. A handicap is defined if there is deviation from normal hearing for more than 6 months. This sets a time frame for the supply with cochlear implant after sudden deafness. The professional code requires to advice all medical options to a person seeking help for hearing loss. This includes benefit-risk consideration. At this point, the economic aspect plays no role. The indication for medical treatment is only subject to the treating physician and should not be modified by non-physicians or organizations. It should be noted that a supply of hearing aids is qualitatively different to the help from a cochlear implant, which provides a restoration of lost function. In social law (SGB V and IX) doctors are requested to advise and recommend all measures which contribute to normal hearing (both sides). This indicates that doctors may be prosecuted for not offering help when medically possible, just because health insurance employees did not approve the cost balance. The current situation, with insufficient medical care for the hearing impaired, needs clarifying. To do this, patients, health insurance companies, the political institutions, legislation and professional societies need to accept their responsibilities.

  18. TUM Critical Zone Observatory, Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Völkel, Jörg; Eden, Marie

    2014-05-01

    Founded 2011 the TUM Critical Zone Observatory run by the Technische Universität München and partners abroad is the first CZO within Germany. TUM CZO is both, a scientific as well as an education project. It is a watershed based observatory, but moving behind this focus. In fact, two mountainous areas are integrated: (1) The Ammer Catchment area as an alpine and pre alpine research area in the northern limestone Alps and forelands south of Munich; (2) the Otter Creek Catchment in the Bavarian Forest with a crystalline setting (Granite, Gneiss) as a mid mountainous area near Regensburg; and partly the mountainous Bavarian Forest National Park. The Ammer Catchment is a high energy system as well as a sensitive climate system with past glacial elements. The lithology shows mostly carbonates from Tertiary and Mesozoic times (e.g. Flysch). Source-to-sink processes are characteristic for the Ammer Catchment down to the last glacial Ammer Lake as the regional erosion and deposition base. The consideration of distal depositional environments, the integration of upstream and downstream landscape effects are characteristic for the Ammer Catchment as well. Long term datasets exist in many regards. The Otter Creek catchment area is developed in a granitic environment, rich in saprolites. As a mid mountainous catchment the energy system is facing lower stage. Hence, it is ideal comparing both of them. Both TUM CZO Catchments: The selected catchments capture the depositional environment. Both catchment areas include historical impacts and rapid land use change. Crosscutting themes across both sites are inbuilt. Questions of ability to capture such gradients along climosequence, chronosequence, anthroposequence are essential.

  19. Atomic energy laws in Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lukes, R.H.P.

    1980-01-01

    The regulations of German atomic energy laws are based in large on the fundamental law of the Federal Republic of Germany-the constitution. Atomgesetz of 1959, as amended on October 31, 1976, constitutes the core of atomic energy laws (Atomrecht), and is supplemented by orders (Verordnungen). The Federal Republic has the right to legislate Atomrecht, and the enforcement of such laws and orders is entrusted to each province. The peaceful uses of radioactive materials are stipulated by Atomgesetz and orders. Atomgesetz seeks two objects, first it is to enable the handling of radioactive substances for the acquisition of energy, medical treatment, food treatment and the harmless examination of things by radioactive materials, and secondly to ensure the protection from danger in the handling of such materials. The control of radioactive materials by the state including imports and exports, storage and possession, disposal and processing, etc., is established by the law to secure the protection from danger of atomic energy. The particular indemnification responsibility for the harm due to radiation is defined in Atomgesetz, and only the owners (Inhaber) of atomic energy facilities are liable for damage. The violation of the regulations on the transaction of radioactive materials is punished by fines up to 100,000 German marks of imprisonment of less than five years. Orders are established on roentgen ray, the protection from radiation, the treatment of foods by electron beam, gamma ray, roentgen ray or ultraviolet ray and the permission of medicines. The regulations of the EURATOM treaty have legality as Atomrecht. (Okada, K.)

  20. Radioactive waste management in Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brammer, K.J.

    2011-01-01

    The responsibility for the disposal of radioactive waste is regulated in the Federal Republic of Germany in the Atomic Energy Act. Basically, it is the responsibility of the waste producers to carry out all necessary processing steps up to the delivery to a repository. The Federal Republic reserves the right to select, explore and operate the repository (§ 9a, para. 3 AtG). The costs of all necessary expenditures of this task are borne by the waste producers in accordance with § 21 AtG regulation. The waste quantity forecasts have shown that by the year 2080 a total volume of about 300,000 m3 of low- and intermediate-level (non-heat-generating) waste will be generated in research, industry, medicine and in the production of electricity in nuclear power plants. This waste is to be transported to the ‘Konrad repository’ which is under construction. The Federal Office for Radiation Protection (BfS), which is responsible for the construction and operation, intends to commission the repository at 2019. As a repository for heat-generating wastes, i. Approximately 10.000 tSM spent fuel (BE) 7,500 molds (HAW and MAW, corresponding to about 6000 tSM) returned Waste from reprocessing, the Gorleben salt dome has been explored since 1979. The works were resumed on 01.10.2010 after a 10-year break. Federal Environment Minister Röttgen has made it clear that the Federal Government has proposed a transparent procedure and a dialogue and participation procedure for open-ended exploration. (roessner)

  1. Signal frequency distribution and natural-time analyses from acoustic emission monitoring of an arched structure in the Castle of Racconigi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Niccolini

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The stability of an arch as a structural element in the thermal bath of King Charles Albert (Carlo Alberto in the Royal Castle of Racconigi (on the UNESCO World Heritage List since 1997 was assessed by the acoustic emission (AE monitoring technique with application of classical inversion methods to recorded AE data. First, damage source location by means of triangulation techniques and signal frequency analysis were carried out. Then, the recently introduced method of natural-time analysis was preliminarily applied to the AE time series in order to reveal a possible entrance point to a critical state of the monitored structural element. Finally, possible influence of the local seismic and microseismic activity on the stability of the monitored structure was investigated. The criterion for selecting relevant earthquakes was based on the estimation of the size of earthquake preparation zones. The presented results suggest the use of the AE technique as a tool for detecting both ongoing structural damage processes and microseismic activity during preparation stages of seismic events.

  2. Signal frequency distribution and natural-time analyses from acoustic emission monitoring of an arched structure in the Castle of Racconigi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niccolini, Gianni; Manuello, Amedeo; Marchis, Elena; Carpinteri, Alberto

    2017-07-01

    The stability of an arch as a structural element in the thermal bath of King Charles Albert (Carlo Alberto) in the Royal Castle of Racconigi (on the UNESCO World Heritage List since 1997) was assessed by the acoustic emission (AE) monitoring technique with application of classical inversion methods to recorded AE data. First, damage source location by means of triangulation techniques and signal frequency analysis were carried out. Then, the recently introduced method of natural-time analysis was preliminarily applied to the AE time series in order to reveal a possible entrance point to a critical state of the monitored structural element. Finally, possible influence of the local seismic and microseismic activity on the stability of the monitored structure was investigated. The criterion for selecting relevant earthquakes was based on the estimation of the size of earthquake preparation zones. The presented results suggest the use of the AE technique as a tool for detecting both ongoing structural damage processes and microseismic activity during preparation stages of seismic events.

  3. Efficiency calibration and coincidence summing correction for large arrays of NaI(Tl) detectors in soccer-ball and castle geometries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anil Kumar, G.; Mazumdar, I.; Gothe, D.A.

    2009-01-01

    Efficiency calibration and coincidence summing correction have been performed for two large arrays of NaI(Tl) detectors in two different configurations. They are, a compact array of 32 conical detectors of pentagonal and hexagonal shapes in soccer-ball geometry and an array of 14 straight hexagonal NaI(Tl) detectors in castle geometry. Both of these arrays provide a large solid angle of detection, leading to considerable coincidence summing of gamma rays. The present work aims to understand the effect of coincidence summing of gamma rays while determining the energy dependence of efficiencies of these two arrays. We have carried out extensive GEANT4 simulations with radio-nuclides that decay with a two-step cascade, considering both arrays in their realistic geometries. The absolute efficiencies have been simulated for gamma energies from 700 to 2800 keV using four different double-photon emitters, namely, 60 Co, 46 Sc, 94 Nb and 24 Na. The efficiencies so obtained have been corrected for coincidence summing using the method proposed by Vidmar et al. . The simulations have also been carried out for the same energies assuming mono-energetic point sources, for comparison. Experimental measurements have also been carried out using calibrated point sources of 137 Cs and 60 Co. The simulated and the experimental results are found to be in good agreement. This demonstrates the reliability of the correction method for efficiency calibration of two large arrays in very different configurations.

  4. Efficiency calibration and coincidence summing correction for large arrays of NaI(Tl) detectors in soccer-ball and castle geometries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anil Kumar, G., E-mail: anilg@tifr.res.i [Department of Nuclear and Atomic Physics, Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Homi Bhabha Road, Colaba, Mumbai 400005 (India); Mazumdar, I.; Gothe, D.A. [Department of Nuclear and Atomic Physics, Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Homi Bhabha Road, Colaba, Mumbai 400005 (India)

    2009-11-21

    Efficiency calibration and coincidence summing correction have been performed for two large arrays of NaI(Tl) detectors in two different configurations. They are, a compact array of 32 conical detectors of pentagonal and hexagonal shapes in soccer-ball geometry and an array of 14 straight hexagonal NaI(Tl) detectors in castle geometry. Both of these arrays provide a large solid angle of detection, leading to considerable coincidence summing of gamma rays. The present work aims to understand the effect of coincidence summing of gamma rays while determining the energy dependence of efficiencies of these two arrays. We have carried out extensive GEANT4 simulations with radio-nuclides that decay with a two-step cascade, considering both arrays in their realistic geometries. The absolute efficiencies have been simulated for gamma energies from 700 to 2800 keV using four different double-photon emitters, namely, {sup 60}Co, {sup 46}Sc, {sup 94}Nb and {sup 24}Na. The efficiencies so obtained have been corrected for coincidence summing using the method proposed by Vidmar et al. . The simulations have also been carried out for the same energies assuming mono-energetic point sources, for comparison. Experimental measurements have also been carried out using calibrated point sources of {sup 137}Cs and {sup 60}Co. The simulated and the experimental results are found to be in good agreement. This demonstrates the reliability of the correction method for efficiency calibration of two large arrays in very different configurations.

  5. Les peintures murales de la chapelle du château de Montreuil-Bellay / The Murals of the Chapel of Montreuil-Bellay Castle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel Gras

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The castle of Montreuil-Bellay was rebuilt by Guillaume d’Harcourt († 1487 and his wife Yolande de Laval († 1487. It contains in one of the chapels a rare testimony of murals dating from the last quarter of the fifteenth century in the Loire Valley, in France. Based on a widespread iconography, images however respond to specific expectations of the owners. Several complementary readings can be made in the representation of the six saints painted in the chapel. Individual devotions combine collective concerns of several members of the Harcourt and Laval families. Also, this short introduction on the murals also leads us to take a new look at the painter in charge of it. The artist, who was familiar with Flemish painting innovations during the fifteenth century. He probably can be identified with Coppin Delf. From an artistic standpoint, the murals of Montreuil-Bellay put on display an entanglement of different influences and iconographic sources. Indeed, they emphasize the extent and complexity in artistic transfers away from political divisions or distant geographical areas.

  6. Implications of diapir-derived detritus and gypsic paleosols in Lower Triassic strata near the Castle Valley salt wall, Paradox Basin, Utah

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawton, Timothy F.; Buck, Brenda J.

    2006-10-01

    Gypsum-bearing growth strata and sedimentary facies of the Moenkopi Formation on the crest and NE flank of the Castle Valley salt wall in the Paradox Basin record salt rise, evaporite exposure, and salt-withdrawal subsidence during the Early Triassic. Detrital gypsum and dolomite clasts derived from the middle Pennsylvanian Paradox Formation were deposited in strata within a few kilometers of the salt wall and indicate that salt rise rates roughly balanced sediment accumulation, resulting in long-term exposure of mobile evaporite. Deposition took place primarily in flood-basin or inland sabkha settings that alternated between shallow subaqueous and subaerial conditions in a hyperarid climate. Matrix-supported and clast-supported conglomerates with gypsum fragments represent debris-flow deposits and reworked debris-flow deposits, respectively, interbedded with flood-basin sandstone and siltstone during development of diapiric topography. Mudstone-rich flood-basin deposits with numerous stage I to III gypsic paleosols capped by eolian gypsum sand sheets accumulated during waning salt-withdrawal subsidence. Association of detrital gypsum, eolian gypsum, and gypsic paleosols suggests that the salt wall provided a common source for gypsum in the surrounding strata. This study documents a previously unrecognized salt weld with associated growth strata containing diapir-derived detritus and gypsic palesols that can be used to interpret halokinesis.

  7. Adolescent growth : genes, hormones and the peer group. Proceedings of the 20th Aschauer Soiree, held at Glücksburg castle, Germany, 15th to 17th November 2013

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tassenaar, Vincent

    The association between poverty, malnutrition, illness and poor socioeconomic conditions on the one side, and poor growth and short adult stature on the other side, is well recognized. Yet, the simple assumption by implication that poor growth and short stature result from poor living conditions,

  8. Germany. A pioneer on earthen feet?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michaelowa, A.

    2003-01-01

    Germany is one of the two OECD countries having achieved substantial greenhouse gas reductions in the last decade. While a part was large reductions in industry after the economic crash in East Germany, a relevant share is due to the huge public infrastructure investments in East Germany. The real success of German climate policy in the past decade is the strong reduction of methane and nitrous oxide which has been almost unnoticed. German climate policy is a good example of how lobbying of interest groups leads to a complex maze of hundreds of measures whose effects are difficult to evaluate. Paradoxically, policies have focused on expensive measures and Germany clearly is a pioneer in the most expensive forms of renewable energy. Concerning cost-effective measures and market instruments, Germany is a laggard. Only slowly, policymakers start to notice this distortion and first, shaky steps towards a more cost-efficient policy are made. Several challenges such as nuclear phase-out and trends in household energy consumption will put pressure on government to embrace the Kyoto Mechanisms and to refocus domestic instruments well before the first commitment period

  9. Provisions for containment venting in Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilhelm, J.G.

    1997-01-01

    In this short paper an overlook is given of the systems developed in Germany for filtered containment venting and their implementation in nuclear power plants. More information on the development can be found in the Proceedings of the DOE/NRC Aircleaning Conferences. In Germany, 28.8 % of the electric energy is produced by 19 nuclear power reactors. No new power reactor is expected to be built at least within the next ten years, but France and Germany cooperate in the development of a future European Power Reactor (ERP). This reactor type will be fitted with a core catcher and passive cooling in order to avoid serious consequences of a hypothetical core meltdown accident so that provisions for containment venting are not required. 3 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab

  10. Emission reduction program in the unified Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kehr, M.; Emsperger, W.; Termuehlen, H.

    1992-01-01

    High population density and intense industrialization in both parts of Germany resulted in high specific power demands. The domestic availability of hard coal and lignite made coal-fired power plants the backbone of power generation in all of Germany. The unification of Germany has brought together two power generation systems with similar basic needs and concepts. However, forty years existence within different economic systems has resulted in a quite different status in regard to installed generating capacity, availability of various fuels and environmental standards. To bridge the existing gap in a relatively short time is a huge challenge for the utilities, the power generation and distribution industry as well as for the federal and state authorities

  11. AREVA Germany. International competence in nuclear technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graeber, Ulrich

    2011-01-01

    AREVA NP was created in 2001 by the merger of the French nuclear technology specialist Framatome with the nuclear sector of Siemens. The company is headquartered in Paris and has regional subsidiaries in Germany and the United States. The joint venture's strength lies in its all-round competence in nuclear power plants, from reactor development to power plant services and modernization of operating plants, design and production of fuel assemblies and turn-key construction of nuclear power reactors. Major core competences are located in Germany including the test facilities which are unique in the entire group as well as electrical engineering and instrumentation and control systems. AREVA NP is part of the globally acting AREVA group which pursues a unique integrated business model. The concept covers the entire nuclear fuel cycle from uranium mining to reprocessing used fuel assemblies. At present, AREVA has 48,000 employees worldwide, of which 5,700 are Germany-based. (orig.)

  12. Provisions for containment venting in Germany

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilhelm, J.G.

    1997-08-01

    In this short paper an overlook is given of the systems developed in Germany for filtered containment venting and their implementation in nuclear power plants. More information on the development can be found in the Proceedings of the DOE/NRC Aircleaning Conferences. In Germany, 28.8 % of the electric energy is produced by 19 nuclear power reactors. No new power reactor is expected to be built at least within the next ten years, but France and Germany cooperate in the development of a future European Power Reactor (ERP). This reactor type will be fitted with a core catcher and passive cooling in order to avoid serious consequences of a hypothetical core meltdown accident so that provisions for containment venting are not required. 3 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  13. Checklist of earthworms (Oligochaeta: Lumbricidae) from Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehmitz, Ricarda; Römbke, Jörg; Jänsch, Stephan; Krück, Stefanie; Beylich, Anneke; Graefe, Ulfert

    2014-09-23

    A checklist of the German earthworm fauna (Oligochaeta: Lumbricidae) is presented, including published data, data from reports, diploma- and PhD- theses as well as unpublished data from museum collections, research institutions and private persons. Overall, 16,000 datasets were analyzed to produce the first German checklist of Lumbricidae. The checklist comprises 46 earthworm species from 15 genera and provides ecological information, zoogeographical distribution type and information on the species distribution in Germany. Only one species, Lumbricus badensis Michaelsen, 1907, is endemic to Germany, whereas 41% are peregrine. As there are 14 species occurring exclusively in the southern or eastern part of Germany, the species numbers in German regions increase from north to south.

  14. The DFG Viewer for Interoperability in Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ralf Goebel

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available This article deals with the DFG Viewer for Interoperability, a free and open source web-based viewer for digitised books, and assesses its relevance for interoperability in Germany. First the specific situation in Germany is described, including the important role of the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (German Research Foundation. The article then moves on to the overall concept of the viewer and its technical background. It introduces the data formats and standards used, it briefly illustrates how the viewer works and includes a few examples.

  15. 40 Years MAGLEV Vehicles in Germany

    OpenAIRE

    Meisinger, Reinhold; Guangwei, Shu

    2011-01-01

    On May 6th 1971 the worldwide first MAGLEV vehicle was presented by Messerschmitt-Bölkow-Blohm (MBB) in Ottobrunn near Munich, Germany. Till the year 2000 different test and application MAGLEV vehicles followed, but no commercial use in Germany. Since December 31st 2002 the Shang-hai MAGLEV Transportation System is successfully in operation, as the worldwide first and only one commercial used MAGLEV line. The paper in honour of Prof. Dr.-Ing. Eveline Gottzein for her 80th birthday contains in...

  16. Greenhouse gas neutral Germany in 2050

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benndorf, Rosemarie; Bernicke, Maja; Bertram, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    In order to answer the question how a greenhouse gas neutral Germany would look like an interdisciplinary process was started by the Federal Environmental Agency. It was clear from the beginning of this work that a sustainable regenerative energy supply could not be sufficient. Therefore all relevant emission sources were included into the studies: traffic, industry, waste and waste water, agriculture, land usage, land usage changes and forestry. The necessary transformation paths to reach the aim of a greenhouse gas neutral Germany in 2050, economic considerations and political instruments were not part of this study.

  17. [Pharmacological aspects of pain research in Germany].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niederberger, E; Kuner, R; Geißlinger, G

    2015-10-01

    In spite of several approved analgesics, the therapy of pain still constitutes a challenge due to the fact that the drugs do not exert sufficient efficacy or are associated with severe side effects. Therefore, the development of new and improved painkillers is still of great importance. A number of highly qualified scientists in Germany are investigating signal transduction pathways in pain, effectivity of new drugs and the so far incompletely investigated mechanisms of well-known analgesics in preclinical and clinical studies. The highlights of pharmacological pain research in Germany are summarized in this article.

  18. WORKSHOP: Low temperature devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1987-01-01

    With extraterrestrial neutrinos (whether from the sun or further afield) continuing to make science news, and with the search for the so far invisible 'dark matter' of the universe a continual preoccupation, physicists from different walks of life (solid state, low temperature, particles, astrophysics) gathered at a workshop on low temperature devices for the detection of neutrinos and dark matter, held from 12-13 March at Ringberg Castle on Lake Tegernsee in the Bavarian Alps, and organized by the Max Planck Institute for Physics and Astrophysics in Munich

  19. WORKSHOP: Low temperature devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    1987-06-15

    With extraterrestrial neutrinos (whether from the sun or further afield) continuing to make science news, and with the search for the so far invisible 'dark matter' of the universe a continual preoccupation, physicists from different walks of life (solid state, low temperature, particles, astrophysics) gathered at a workshop on low temperature devices for the detection of neutrinos and dark matter, held from 12-13 March at Ringberg Castle on Lake Tegernsee in the Bavarian Alps, and organized by the Max Planck Institute for Physics and Astrophysics in Munich.

  20. Architectural Modelling of Alternatives for Verification of New Interventions on the Example of the Romanesque Palace at Spiš Castle in Slovakia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregorová, Jana; Kalesný, František; Polomová, Beata; Vojteková, Eva

    2017-10-01

    The article presents the results of the first phase of the research project SK-VEGA 1/0951/16 on using transparent and translucent structures in historical buildings. The team of researchers from the Faculty of Architecture SUT Bratislava introduces possibilities of using lightweight roofs on the model example of a dominant medieval ruin (Romanesque Palace, Spiš Castle, UNESCO site). Architectural 3D-modelling of alternatives gains new methodical importance in conditions, when in real practice only safeguarding conservation approaches are preferred. Research based on design serves as a tool for decision-making on further restoration approaches to a specific cultural heritage object. The selected Romanesque Palace of the Spiš Castle has passed through many structural periods. The interior doesn’t exist and the perimeter walls create a raised landscape landmark. Romanesque, gothic and renaissance periods were identifiable. It would be possible to reconstruct these periods partially hypothetically on the basis of saved archive materials. Inner structures and the roofing of the palace were in individual historical periods changed. Exact frame models of a new roofing were created on the principle of hypothetical reconstruction: from the indication of the medieval form, renaissance form until contemporary new forms respecting the present day horizontal palace’s topping. The aim of the first stage of the research was to present a few architectural alternatives of the roof structure refilling according to the given cultural heritage determinants and structural possibilities. We introduce 12 solutions in graphic and text, which present architectural models of a new roofing, covering the interior by transparent structure based on glass panels and translucent structures based on a textile membrane. We achieve a new space for new functional use of the palace by means of various ways of physical enclosing. On the other side, we work with alternatives of the perimeter wall

  1. Food-related life style in Germany

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grunert, Klaus G.; Brunsø, Karen; Bisp, Søren

    1995-01-01

    Executive summary 1. This report is about an investigation of food-related lifestyle in Germany, based on a representative sample of 1000 households. 2. The German consumers are described by five segments, which differ in how and to which extent they use food and cooking to attain their central l...

  2. West Germany: Federal Structure, Political Influence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toogood, Alex

    1978-01-01

    Describes the organizational structure of the broadcasting industry in West Germany which is unique because of the federal, public, and political elements involved. Special problems that arise from this framework are discussed, including financing, programing, creative vs technical advances, concepts of production values, and political balance.…

  3. Agro-environmental policies in Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frohberg, K.; Weingarten

    1997-01-01

    Agricultural activities always have impacts on the environment. Whereas soil erosion is a minor problem in Germany water pollution due to modern and intensive agriculture is of major concern. At first the paper discusses to what extent agriculture contributes to environmental pollution in Germany, in particular to the pollution of surface waters (as well as hydroelectric power constructions on the Danube) and groundwater by nutrients and pesticides. Agro-environmental policy in Germany is dominated by command-and-control-measures. Hence, in the second section, recent developments of the most important legal and institutional settings concerning water conservation policies are surveyed with special emphasis on the Federal Water Act and the Implementation of the Nitrate Directive into German legislation by the Fertilizer Ordinance. Thirdly, impacts of alternative water conservation policies are investigated using a regionalized agricultural sector model. Information obtained by this model analysis cover the development of N-balances, potential nitrate concentrations in the recharged groundwater, costs potentially effected by this and resulting agricultural incomes on the country level of the former Federal Republic Germany. The last section focuses on programs promoting environmentally sound farming practices, which gained increasing importance in the Common Agricultural Policy of the European Union in the last years. It is argued that this development will also continue in the future. (author)

  4. Renewable Energy Policy Fact sheet - Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2017-07-01

    The EurObserv'ER policy profiles give a snapshot of the renewable energy policy in the EU Member States. Main support scheme in Germany: tendering scheme for RES-E, small power plants up to 100 kW are supported by a feed-in tariff. Market Incentive Programme (MAP) for RES-H, Electric Mobility Strategy for the transport sector

  5. The regulation of asset valuation in Germany

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Detzen, D.; Hoffman, S.

    2013-01-01

    This article examines the regulatory history of asset valuation in Germany from the fifteenth century to the implementation of the European Economic Community's Fourth Directive in 1986. Aiming to explain regulatory changes by reference to preceding socio-economic and political developments, we find

  6. New Avian Hepadnavirus in Palaeognathous Bird, Germany

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jo, Wendy K; Pfankuche, Vanessa M; Petersen, Henning; Frei, Samuel; Kummrow, Maya; Lorenzen, Stephan; Ludlow, Martin; Metzger, Julia; Baumgärtner, Wolfgang; Osterhaus, Albert; van der Vries, Erhard

    2017-01-01

    In 2015, we identified an avian hepatitis B virus associated with hepatitis in a group of captive elegant-crested tinamous (Eudromia elegans) in Germany. The full-length genome of this virus shares <76% sequence identity with other avihepadnaviruses. The virus may therefore be considered a new

  7. Expansion in Germany; Expansion am Standort Deutschland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Forst, Michael

    2011-05-05

    Germany is one of the key countries of the worldwide solar industry. For more than a decade, more than 100 German businesses have been active in all parts of the solar sector. During the past three years, the situation has changed dramatically, owing to increasing globalization and stronger competition.

  8. Mapping Music Education Research in Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruhn, Wilfried

    2004-01-01

    This article presents a very general survey of tracks and trends in music education research in Germany and its roots in the 19th century, where the beginning of empirical music psychology can be traced back to "Tonpsychologie" and perception research of scholars such as Helmholtz, Stumpf, Wundt, and Wellek. Focus areas that are…

  9. Recollections of a jewish mathematician in Germany

    CERN Document Server

    2016-01-01

    Abraham A. Fraenkel was a world-renowned mathematician in pre–Second World War Germany, whose work on set theory was fundamental to the development of modern mathematics. A friend of Albert Einstein, he knew many of the era’s acclaimed mathematicians personally. He moved to Israel (then Palestine under the British Mandate) in the early 1930s. In his autobiography Fraenkel describes his early years growing up as an Orthodox Jew in Germany and his development as a mathematician at the beginning of the twentieth century. This memoir, originally written in German in the 1960s, has now been translated into English, with an additional chapter covering the period from 1933 until his death in 1965 written by the editor, Jiska Cohen-Mansfield. Fraenkel describes the world of mathematics in Germany in the first half of the twentieth century, its origins and development, the systems influencing it, and its demise. He also paints a unique picture of the complex struggles within the world of Orthodox Jewry in Germany....

  10. Towards a national ecosystem assessment in Germany

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Albert, Christian; Neßhöver, Carsten; Schröter, Matthias

    2017-01-01

    We present options for a National Ecosystem Assessment in Germany (NEA-DE) that could inform decision-makers on the state and trends of ecosystems and ecosystem services. Characterizing a NEA-DE, we argue that its cross-sectoral, integrative approach would have the advantages of increased...

  11. Novel lyssavirus in Natterer's bat, Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freuling, Conrad M; Beer, Martin; Conraths, Franz J; Finke, Stefan; Hoffmann, Bernd; Keller, Barbara; Kliemt, Jeannette; Mettenleiter, Thomas C; Mühlbach, Elke; Teifke, Jens P; Wohlsein, Peter; Müller, Thomas

    2011-08-01

    A virus isolated from a Natterer's bat (Myotis nattererii) in Germany was differentiated from other lyssaviruses on the basis of the reaction pattern of a panel of monoclonal antibodies. Phylogenetic analysis supported the assumption that the isolated virus, Bokeloh bat lyssavirus, may represent a new member of the genus Lyssavirus.

  12. Monetary transmission and bank lending in Germany

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kakes, Jan; Sturm, Jan-Egbert; Philipp Maier, [No Value

    1999-01-01

    This paper analyses the role of bank lending in the monetary transmission process in Germany. We follow a sectoral approach by distinguishing corporate lending and household lending. We find that banks respond to a monetary contraction by adjusting their securities holdings, rather than reducing

  13. France, Germany and the nuclear challenge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turkish, F.

    2004-11-01

    Taking into account the french and german relations concerning the nuclear activities, the nuclear phaseout decided by the german government in 1998 presents inevitable impacts in France. The author discusses the constraints bound to this project (industrial interests, energy dependence...), the short dated phaseout project and the consequences for the relations of the two countries, Germany and France. (A.L.B.)

  14. Policies in Dementia, comparing Germany and Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerregaard, Lene Berit Skov

    2017-01-01

    In Short Germany as well as Denmark are focusing on the same issues regarding Dementia, as other European Countries are, too. The key issues in the national strategies are: timely diagnosis, self-determination for the person with dementia, unbroken “care chain”, better possibilities for the relief...

  15. Freshwater reservoir effect variability in Northern Germany

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Philippsen, Bente; Heinemeier, Jan

    2012-01-01

    Kayhude at the river Alster and Schlamersdorf at the river Trave, both in Schleswig-Holstein, Northern Germany. Measurements on modern materials from these rivers may not give a single reservoir age correction that can be applied to archaeological samples, but they will show the order of magnitude...

  16. Germany forms alliance for terascale physics

    CERN Multimedia

    Feder, Toni

    2007-01-01

    "Germany's high-energy particle physicists have formed a network to increase their international visibility and competitiveness as their field gears up for the start next ear of the Large Hadron Collide (LHC) at CERN and, eventually, the International Linear Collider." (1 page)

  17. Solar energy in Germany: a national commitment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Persem, Melanie

    2012-01-01

    This document presents some key information and figures about the development of solar energy in Germany: national energy plan and share of solar energy in the German energy mix, the photovoltaic industry: a dynamic industry which creates jobs, 2006-2012 evolution of photovoltaic power plant costs, solar thermal resource potentialities and effective exploitation

  18. Germany restores funds to grant agencies

    CERN Multimedia

    Schiermeier, Q

    1998-01-01

    Edelgard Bulmahn, the research minister for Germany's coalition government is to make up a shortfall in the budgets of the Max Planck Society (MPS) and the Deutsche Forshungsgemeinschaft (DFG) and will add an extra five per cent to each in 1999.

  19. Study of a unique 16th century Antwerp majolica floor in the Rameyenhof castle's chapel by means of X-ray fluorescence and portable Raman analytical instrumentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van de Voorde, Lien, E-mail: lien.vandevoorde@ugent.be [Ghent University, Department of Analytical Chemistry, X-Ray Microspectroscopy and Imaging Research Group, Krijgslaan 281 S12, B-9000 Ghent (Belgium); Vandevijvere, Melissa [Ghent University, Department of Analytical Chemistry, X-Ray Microspectroscopy and Imaging Research Group, Krijgslaan 281 S12, B-9000 Ghent (Belgium); University of Antwerp, Faculty of Architecture and Design, Conservation Studies, Centre for Conservation Research (CCR), Blindestraat 9, 2000 Antwerp (Belgium); University of Antwerp, Department of Chemistry, X-ray and Instrumentation Lab (AXI2L), Groenenborgerlaan 171, 2020 Antwerp (Belgium); Vekemans, Bart [Ghent University, Department of Analytical Chemistry, X-Ray Microspectroscopy and Imaging Research Group, Krijgslaan 281 S12, B-9000 Ghent (Belgium); Van Pevenage, Jolien [Ghent University, Department of Analytical Chemistry, Raman Spectroscopy Research Group, Krijgslaan 281 S12, B-9000 Ghent (Belgium); Caen, Joost [University of Antwerp, Faculty of Architecture and Design, Conservation Studies, Centre for Conservation Research (CCR), Blindestraat 9, 2000 Antwerp (Belgium); Vandenabeele, Peter [Ghent University, Department of Archaeology, Archaeometry Research Group, Sint-Pietersnieuwstraat 35, B-9000 Ghent (Belgium); Van Espen, Piet [University of Antwerp, Department of Chemistry, X-ray and Instrumentation Lab (AXI2L), Groenenborgerlaan 171, 2020 Antwerp (Belgium); Vincze, Laszlo [Ghent University, Department of Analytical Chemistry, X-Ray Microspectroscopy and Imaging Research Group, Krijgslaan 281 S12, B-9000 Ghent (Belgium)

    2014-12-01

    The most unique and only known 16th century Antwerp majolica tile floor in Belgium is situated in a tower of the Rameyenhof castle (Gestel, Belgium). This exceptional work of art has recently been investigated in situ by using X-ray fluorescence (XRF) and Raman spectroscopy in order to study the material characteristics. This study reports on the result of the analyses based on the novel combination of non-destructive and portable instrumentation, including a handheld XRF spectrometer for obtaining elemental information and a mobile Raman spectrometer for retrieving structural and molecular information on the floor tiles in the Rameyenhof castle and on a second, similar medallion, which is stored in the Rubens House museum in Antwerp (Belgium). The investigated material, majolica, is a type of ceramic, which fascinated many people and potters throughout history by its beauty and colourful appearance. In this study the characteristic major/minor and trace element signature of 16th century Antwerp majolica is determined and the pigments used for the colourful paintings present on the floor are identified. Furthermore, based on the elemental fingerprint of the white glaze, and in particular on the presence of zinc in the tiles – an element that was not used for making 16th century majolica – valuable information about the originality of the chapel floor and the two central medallions is acquired. - Highlights: • In situ, non-destructive investigation of a unique Antwerp majolica floor • Multi-methodological approach: make use of a mobile Raman and X-ray spectrometer • Obtaining information about layered structure of Antwerp majolica • The used pigments in the majolica floor in Rameyenhof castle are characterized. • The verification of the authenticity of the floor and two central medallions are performed.

  20. Football business models: Why did Germany win the World Cup?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cortsen, Kenneth

    2016-01-01

    This article looks into the managerial aspects related to why and how Germany won the 2014 FIFA World Cup.......This article looks into the managerial aspects related to why and how Germany won the 2014 FIFA World Cup....

  1. The Marketisation of Guidance Services in Germany, France and Britain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rees, Teresa; Bartlett, Will; Watts, A. G.

    1999-01-01

    Compares developments in Britain, France, and Germany, focusing on the trends toward marketing adult career guidance services. Describes how Germany's centralized system and the quasi-market based system in France might apply in Britain. (JOW)

  2. Is Germany a model for managers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wever, K S; Allen, C S

    1992-01-01

    Most American managers have a hard time making sense of Germany. The country has a fraction of the resources and less than one-third the population of the United States. Labor costs are substantially higher, paid vacations are at least three times as long, and strong unions are deeply involved at all levels of business, from the local plant to the corporate boardroom. Yet German companies manage to produce internationally competitive products in key manufacturing sectors, making Germany the greatest competitive threat to the United States after Japan. The seemingly paradoxical nature of the German economy typically evokes one of two diametrically opposed responses. The first is to celebrate the German economy as a "model" worth emulating--indeed, as the answer to declining U.S. competitiveness. The alternative, more skeptical response is to question Germany's staying power in a new, more competitive global economy. According to Kirsten Wever and Christopher Allen, the problem with both points of view is that they miss the forest for the trees. Observers are so preoccupied with praising--or blaming--individual components of the German economy that they fail to see the dynamic logic that ties these components together into a coherent system. In their review of recent research on the German business system, Wever and Allen argue that managers can learn an important lesson from Germany. In the global economy, competition isn't just between companies but between entire socioeconomic systems. Germany's ability to design a cohesive economic and social system that adapts continuously to changing requirements goes a long way toward explaining that country's competitive success.

  3. [Performance of in vitro fertilization in Germany].

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Ven, Hans; Montag, Markus; van der Ven, Katrin

    2002-07-01

    In Germany the application of assisted reproductive techniques (ART) is regulated by federal legislation. Compared with the international situation the "German Embryo Protection Law" is very "restrictive" and various methods of ART are prohibited, e.g. oocyte/embryo donation, embryo cryopreservation and Preimplantation Genetic Diagnosis (PGD). Furthermore, in Germany only 1 to 3 fertilized oocytes may be cultured to embryo. All these embryos then have to be transferred into the uterus of a particular patient. Additional fertilized oocytes can only be cryopreserved in a pronuclear state. The success rate of ART has increased significantly over the past few years owing to the introduction of blastocyst cultures and the selection of 1 to 2 good quality blastocysts for embryo transfer. Furthermore, the transfer of only 1 to 2 blastocysts effectively reduces the risk of high rank multiple pregnancies. In Germany, however, the selection of only a few good quality blastocysts for transfer is prohibited by law. New laboratory techniques, e.g. pronuclear scoring and polar body biopsy screening for aneuploidy are in accordance with German law. The application of these methods provides a selection of "good quality oocytes" and seems to increase the overall success rate. Further studies are required, however. The success rate, quality and cost effectiveness of ART in Germany appears compromised when compared with many other countries. What is more, in contrast to the international situation research and development in ART in Germany has been decreasing constantly over the past few years, due to the inappropriate regulations of the German health care system and the insufficient support given to university-based centers.

  4. The outlook for natural gas in Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergmann, B.

    1993-01-01

    In a generally stagnant energy market, gas will be the energy with the highest growth rate in Germany, especially because of its steadily rising shares in the residential and commercial sector. In western Germany there is to be accepted that the demand forecasts, which were raised from one conference to the next, have passed their zenith. Great uncertainty exists as regards the future use of gas for power generation. In the absence of any significant expansion of this market sector, which is considered rather improbable in western Germany, it can be stated that anticipated gas demand up to the year 2005 is already covered by existing import contracts and scheduled domestic production. The picture is completely different in eastern Germany, where a doubling of consumption is quite feasible. To achieve the requisite diversification of supplies, substantial additional imports from western sources will have to be contracted. Russia can and should remain eastern Germany's main supplier in the long run, but Russian deliveries must be placed on a reliable, long-term contractual basis. As far as new gas projects are concerned, deliveries from Norway, to a limited extent from the United Kingdom and above all as part of the new Russian export initiative are under discussion. Generally speaking, transit will be an increasingly significant issue, especially for additional supplies from Russia. The efficiency and reliability of gas marketing companies will become far more important in an environment characterised by growing uncertainties. The reliable customer offering a dependable market outlet will be increasingly sought. With energy prices likely to increase only slightly, the management of uncertainties and the safeguarding of economic driving forces will be the main challenge facing our supply projects. 15 figs

  5. Poverty, health, and nutrition in Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helmert, U; Mielck, A; Shea, S

    1997-01-01

    To investigate the relation between poverty and several variables describing health and nutrition behavior in East Germany and West Germany. Data are from the third National Health Survey in West Germany and the first Health Survey for the new federal states of Germany (1991/92). Both health surveys included a self-administered questionnaire ascertaining sociodemographic variables, smoking history, nutritional behavior (using a food-frequency list), physical activity, and a medical examination comprising measurements of height, weight, blood pressure, and blood sampling for serum cholesterol determination. Participants included 4958 subjects in the West Survey and 2186 subjects in the East Survey aged 25-69 years, with a respective net response rate of 69.0% and 70.2%. Poverty was defined as a household equivalence income of 62.5% or less of the median income of the general population. The lowest income group (poverty or near poverty) comprised 11.6% of East German versus 15.9% of West German males and 14.8% of East German versus 19.3% of West German females. For most but not all health and nutrition parameters, less favorable results were obtained for subjects with an equivalence income below or near poverty. The most striking poverty-related differences regarding cardiovascular disease risk factors were found for lack of regular exercise for both genders and obesity in females. No poverty-related differences were found for the prevalence of hypercholesterolemia, despite a much higher prevalence of obesity in persons with an income below the poverty line. Current nutritional behavior and changes in nutritional behavior during the last three years was strongly related to income status, with a more unhealthy status for low-income population groups in both East and West Germany. In Germany, poverty has strong effects on individual health status and nutritional behavior. Because of rising unemployment rates and reductions in social security payments for low

  6. Germany's socio-economic model and the Euro crisis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Dauderstädt

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Germany's socio-economic model, the "social market economy", was established in West Germany after World War II and extended to the unified Germany in 1990. During a prolonged recession after the adoption of the Euro in 1998, major reforms (Agenda 2010 were introduced which many consider as the key of Germany's recent success. The reforms had mixed results: employment increased but has consisted to a large extent of precarious low-wage jobs. Growth depended on export surpluses based on an internal real devaluation (low unit labour costs which make Germany vulnerable to global recessions as in 2009. Overall inequality increased substantially.

  7. Potential and costs of renewables in Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Albrecht, K.F.; Raede, H.S.

    1995-01-01

    Set off by the oil crisis in the Seventies and nurtured by the critical stance of the public towards nuclear energy and its growing awareness of the climate problem, studies on possible applications of renewables in Germany have played an increasingly important role over the years. A large number of publications have been turned out on this issue. It therefore appears worthwhile to collect the various results given in the literature and compile them for easy comparison. The authors of the present article give a short synopsis of a study to this end that was completed in the autumn of last year. The chief aim of the compilation was to enable the reader to gain a quick overview of the known results and to facilitate his orientation, thus making the problems surrounding the application of renewables in Germany more transparent. (orig.) [de

  8. Second births in western Germany and France

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katja Köppen

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available We compare second birth risks in France and western Germany using data from the Family and Fertility Survey. Second birth risks are higher for highly educated women than for women with lower education in both countries. In western Germany, the positive effect weakens after controlling for the education level of the partner. The positive effect of French women's education remains unchanged, even after controlling for the partners' characteristics. We interpret this finding in the sense that work and family life are more compatible in France, where highly educated women can turn their education more often into work opportunities and income. West German women often have to make a decision between an employment career and motherhood as two exclusive life options. In such a situation, it is primarily the partners' earning potential that influences fertility.

  9. The future of nuclear power in Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holzer, J.

    1993-01-01

    The future of nuclear power in Germany is not only a matter of technology, economy and ecology but, above all, a matter of political leadership, the quality of interaction of all groups of society, the need to take ideology out of politico-economico-technical matters, and of firmly standing up for a style of democracy in which majorities, not minorities, decide. The power economy is agreed that nuclear power is indispensable in a powerful electricity supply scheme. These should be the criteria to be met by an energy consensus: No nuclear plants should be sacrificed by being shut down before the end of their technical and economic service life; spent fuel and waste management in Germany should be secured with sufficient interim storage and repository storage capacities. (orig.) [de

  10. [The reception of Heinz Kohut in Germany].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milch, Wolfgang

    2016-01-01

    First the discussion of Kohut's new ideas in the United States is sketched as a background. The response to these ideas was divided: on the one hand they were hailed as important innovations of psychoanalytic theory, and a circle of colleagues formed around their author; on the other hand they were violently rejected, and old friends distanced themselves from him. In Germany Kuhut's ideas were initially well received. His visits, lectures and supervisions resulted in a lively exchange and a number of friendships. When the differences between Kohutian and classical theory became evident this led increasingly to disillusionment and retreat. De-emphasizing drive and ego psychology had considerable consequences for psychoanalytic technique as well as for the analyst's Menschenbild, his relationship to the patient and his critical self-reflection. In Germany, too, a circle of colleagues emerged, following and elaborating the ideas of Kohut.

  11. [Disaster Control and Civil Protection in Germany].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kippnich, Maximilian; Kowalzik, Barbara; Cermak, Rudolf; Kippnich, Uwe; Kranke, Peter; Wurmb, Thomas

    2017-09-01

    The train crash of Bad Aibling/Germany in February 2016 and the terrorist attacks of the recent years in Europe have demonstrated the urgent need to be prepared for such disastrous events. Disaster preparedness and disaster control are very important governmental duties, as are civil protection and civil defense. In Germany the responsibility for those tasks are divided between the 16 "Länder" and the Federation. While the Federation takes care of the civil protection and disaster assistance, the Länder are responsible for disaster control. The presented article focuses on these issues and gives valuable insights into the German system of disaster control and civil protection with a focus on health protection. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  12. [Migrants of high social status in Germany].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glebe, G

    1997-01-01

    "The accelerating economic globalization has created a growing demand for highly skilled labourers. As a result, there has been an increase in highly skilled and high-status migrants to Germany, especially to the urban agglomerations with global city functions. This migration process is carried mostly by the internal labour and job movement of multinational companies. In the urban centres these groups of migrants follow specific patterns of spatial organization and segregation with regard to their place of residence. But they also have other distinctive difference to the migrants with a lower social status, such as higher social acceptance in their host country, the transitory character of their stay in Germany, and their intentions to return to their home countries." (EXCERPT)

  13. Aquifer thermal energy stores in Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kabus, F.; Seibt, P.; Poppei, J.

    2000-01-01

    This paper describes the state of essential demonstration projects of heat and cold storage in aquifers in Germany. Into the energy supply system of the buildings of the German Parliament in Berlin, there are integrated both a deep brine-bearing aquifer for the seasonal storage of waste heat from power and heat cogeneration and a shallow-freshwater bearing aquifer for cold storage. In Neubrandenburg, a geothermal heating plant which uses a 1.200 m deep aquifer is being retrofitted into an aquifer heat storage system which can be charged with the waste heat from a gas and steam cogeneration plant. The first centralised solar heating plant including an aquifer thermal energy store in Germany was constructed in Rostock. Solar collectors with a total area of 1000m 2 serve for the heating of a complex of buildings with 108 flats. A shallow freshwater-bearing aquifer is used for thermal energy storage. (Authors)

  14. Year 2 of Germany's Energy Transition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cruciani, Michel

    2013-01-01

    After a decade characterised by the take-off of renewable energies, Germany decided in 2010 to make them the top priority. At the same time, it decided to make exemplary efforts in terms of energy efficiency and the reduction of greenhouse gases. The audacious nature of this policy was strengthened by the 'turn' taken in 2011 to give up nuclear energy in the wake of the Fukushima accident. Given the initial results for 2012, Germany seems to be on target for reaching its national objective, of 18% renewable energy within total consumption by 2020. Germany is also well placed to reduce its planned cut in electricity consumption of 10%. The country will also meet its commitments, both international and European, concerning greenhouse gas emissions. In contrast, recent trends suggest it will be increasingly difficult for Germany to meet its own, domestic goal of cutting emissions by 40%, by 2020. Furthermore, it is hard to see how Germany will be able to bring down total energy consumption by 20% by 2020 (from 2008 levels), or increase the share of renewables in electricity production above 35%. Success with this latter objective is largely dependent on reinforcing networks, both for transmission over long distances and for local distribution. It is not sure that the delays accumulated in both areas will be made up for by 2020, despite the rapid legislative adjustments that have already been made. By favouring intermittent energy sources - wind and solar power - Germany also faces problems of managing frequent production fluctuations. The long term solution to this lies in storing electricity. However, despite the considerable efforts in research and development, the technologies necessary for this will doubtless not be available on a large scale before the end of the present decade. These efforts could nevertheless provide German industry with interesting advantages in sectors of high potential, such as electric vehicles. Measures to promote renewable energies are

  15. The rise of precarious employment in Germany

    OpenAIRE

    Brady, David; Biegert, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    Long considered the classic coordinated market economy featuring employment security and relatively little employment precarity, the German labor market has undergone profound changes in recent decades. We assess the evidence for a rise in precarious employment in Germany from 1984 to 2013. Using data from the German Socio-Economic Panel (SOEP) through the Luxembourg Income Study, we examine low-wage employment, working poverty, and temporary employment. We also analyze changes in the demogra...

  16. Energy transition in France and Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Persem, Melanie

    2014-01-01

    This document presents some key figures and comparisons between the French and German energy plans: electricity mix, 2003-2013 evolution of installed power and of renewable electrical production, cost of energy transition (evolution of charges relative to contracts of renewable electricity purchasing agreement), 2004-2013 evolution employment in renewable energies industry, France-Germany power exchanges (France import balance of 9.8 TWh in 2013), electricity goals in the French and German energy transitions

  17. Supplementary income. Direct selling in Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roesner, Sven

    2014-01-01

    This document treats, first, of the evolution of the German support mechanisms to renewable energy sources. Then, it presents the legal framework of direct electricity selling (goal, evolution, facilities in concern and eligibility criteria). Next, the operation of direct selling since August 2014 in Germany is presented (producers eligibility, over- and under-production, reference values, income, tariffs). Finally, the perspectives and conditions of direct selling success are summarized in the conclusion

  18. The Societal Integration of Immigrants in Germany

    OpenAIRE

    Fertig, Michael

    2004-01-01

    This paper investigates whether and to what extent immigrants in Germany are integrated into German society by utilizing a variety of qualitative information and subjective data collected in the 1999 wave of the German Socio-Economic Panel (GSOEP). To this end, leisure-time activities and attitudes of native Germans, ethnic Germans and foreign immigrants of different generations are compared. The empirical results suggest that conditional on observable characteristics the activities and attit...

  19. Nuclear licensing and supervision in Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-06-01

    The legal instrument for implementing the licensing and supervisory procedure is specified by statutory ordinances, guidelines and provisions. The licensing requirements for nuclear power plants on the final storage of radioactive wastes in the federal republic of germany are described. The nuclear facilities are subject to continuous state supervision after they have been granted. The appendix gives a brief account of the most important ordinances relating to the AtG and extracts from the Nuclear Safety Convention. (HP)

  20. Pension Systems in Europe. Case of Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jarosław Poteraj

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The article presents an insight into the old age pensionsystem in Germany. The authors goal was to present both, past and present solutions employed by the Germans pension system, in search for ideas worth consideration in international comparisons. In the summary, the author highlights as a particular German approach, on the background of other countries, the fact of implementing in the German reality the special smart card system for pensioners.

  1. Monetary transmission and bank lending in Germany

    OpenAIRE

    Kakes, Jan; Sturm, Jan-Egbert; Philipp Maier

    1999-01-01

    This paper analyses the role of bank lending in the monetary transmission process in Germany. We follow a sectoral approach by distinguishing corporate lending and household lending. We find that banks respond to a monetary contraction by adjusting their securities holdings, rather than reducing their loans portfolio. Most lending categories even show an increase following a monetary tightening. The main implication of our results is that a bank lending channel is not an important transmissio...

  2. Photovoltaic energy in Germany: experience feedback

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Persem, Melanie

    2011-01-01

    This document presents some key information and figures about the development of photovoltaic energy in Germany: resource potential, 2000-2010 development, share in the energy mix, market, legal framework and incentives, market evolution and electricity feed-in tariffs, 2006-2011 evolution of photovoltaic power plant costs, households' contribution, R and D investments, industry development and employment, the German national energy plan after Fukushima, the expectations of the German photovoltaic industry

  3. Self-consumption in Germany. Experience feedback

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roesner, Sven

    2014-01-01

    This document presents some key information and figures about self-consumption from photovoltaic power plants and cogeneration plants in Germany: share of self-consumption in the overall electricity consumption, definition and economic models, legal aspects and feed-in tariffs, financial incentives for households, tertiary sector and industry, impact on grid dimensioning, challenge of storage on electric system optimisation, economic impact and 'lack of solidarity', possible future legal evolutions

  4. Experience with the SE in Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jochem Reichert

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available A rather significant proportion of the Societas Europaeas (the European Company, or SE formed to date have had German roots. German corporate law has been enriched by an interesting alternative which meanwhile seems to have gained momentum. This contribution focuses on SEs incorporated by German entrepreneurs and provides an interesting account concerning the use of SEs in Germany in practice, such as Allianz, Fresenius, BASF and Porsche. Has the SE been used to circumvent rigid company law provisions or is it a more flexible and effective tool, perhaps, for company mobility? The practical motives behind setting up this company form are also reflected upon. These include: the facilitation of cross-border mergers; transfer of the registered office; the ‘European’ image; a more flexible form of co-determination in large companies (reduction of the number of supervisory board members; avoidance and freezing of co-determination for medium-sized enterprises; the appeal of the one-tier system and its endangerment by German co-determination; and flat and uniform structures for company groups. The author also briefly discusses some of the problems arising from the formation of SEs in Germany. He ultimately concludes that practice has shown that it is possible to work with the legal regime of the SE in Germany, which adds a new company form to those available in that Member State.

  5. [First ciguatera outbreak in Germany in 2012].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedemann, Miriam

    2016-12-01

    In November 2012, 23 cases of ciguatera with typical combinations of gastrointestinal and neurological symptoms occurred in Germany after consumption of imported tropical fish (Lutjanus spp.). A questionnaire was used to gather information on the disease course and fish consumption. All patients suffered from pathognomonic cold allodynia. Aside from two severe courses of illness, all other cases showed symptoms of moderate intensity. During a three-year follow-up, seven patients reported prolonged paresthesia for more than one year. Two of them reported further neuropathies over almost three years. This is the first time that long-term persistence of symptoms has been documented in detail. Outbreak cases were allocated to eight clusters in seven German cities. A further cluster was prevented by the successful recall of ciguatoxic fish. Three clusters were confirmed by the detection of ciguatoxin in samples of suspicious and recalled fish. An extrapolation on the basis of ciguatoxic samples revealed twenty prevented cases of ciguatera. Further officially unknown cases should be assumed. During the outbreak investigations, inadvertently falsely labelled fish species and fishing capture areas on import and retail level documents were observed. The ascertainment of cases and the outbreak investigations proved to be difficult due to inconsistent case reports to poisons centers, local health and veterinary authorities. In Germany, many physicians are unaware of the disease pattern of ciguatera and the risks caused by tropical fish. The occurrence of further outbreaks during the following years emphasizes the increasing significance of ciguatera in Germany.

  6. Final storage in Germany. Who is interested?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuehn, K.

    2002-01-01

    The final storage of radioactive waste and spent fuel in Germany - who, in Germany, has any interest in this subject, especially now that the new Atomic Energy Act has been adopted, and who is going to read this article? The author, Professor Klaus Kuehn, examines this question, analyzing in his contribution the current situation and the points of view of those who may be interested in this topic. In Prof. Kuehn's opinion, the addresses in particular are these: - the federal government, - the opposition in the federal parliament, - the federal states, - the Federal Ministry for the Environment, - the Federal Ministry for Research, - the Federal Ministry of Economics, - the Federal Office for Radiation Protection, - the operators of nuclear power plants, - the Working Group Elaborating Procedures for Selecting Repository Sites (AkEnd). Klaus Kuehn concludes that there is little interest at the present time in the subject of Final Storage in Germany, for reasons explained in detail which result both from the political constellation and from existing constraints. (orig.) [de

  7. Peculiarities of transformation processes in East Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marion Dathe

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The process of socio-economic transformation of East German lands after the German reunification in 1990 is analyzed, the term "transformation" in frames of planned and market economies is defined. The author studies the historical determinants of the transformation process in Germany. German economic and industrial history in context of the driving forces and their social values, as well as the properties of the planning and economic systems that underlie the transformation of East German mentality, are considered. Further analysis is connected with economic, social and political components of the East German transformation process, "the dominance of the West", the collapse of the Council for Mutual Economic Assistance, privatization etc. Finally, the outcome of already traversed path of transformation of East Germany is considered. It is concluded, that the transformation process is not only historically conditioned situations of both the merging parties in the case of Germany, but also the positive or negative perception of its results and the motivation for its further implementation.

  8. Deep Geothermal Energy Production in Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thorsten Agemar

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Germany uses its low enthalpy hydrothermal resources predominantly for balneological applications, space and district heating, but also for power production. The German Federal government supports the development of geothermal energy in terms of project funding, market incentives and credit offers, as well as a feed-in tariff for geothermal electricity. Although new projects for district heating take on average six years, geothermal energy utilisation is growing rapidly, especially in southern Germany. From 2003 to 2013, the annual production of geothermal district heating stations increased from 60 GWh to 530 GWh. In the same time, the annual power production increased from 0 GWh to 36 GWh. Currently, almost 200 geothermal facilities are in operation or under construction in Germany. A feasibility study including detailed geological site assessment is still essential when planning a new geothermal facility. As part of this assessment, a lot of geological data, hydraulic data, and subsurface temperatures can be retrieved from the geothermal information system GeotIS, which can be accessed online [1].

  9. Novel barite chimneys at the Loki´s Castle Vent Field shed light on key factors shaping microbial communities and functions in hydrothermal systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ida Helene eSteen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to fully understand the cycling of elements in hydrothermal systems it is critical to understand intra-field variations in geochemical and microbiological processes in both focused, high-temperature and diffuse, low-temperature areas. To reveal important causes and effects of this variation, we performed an extensive chemical and microbiological characterization of a low-temperature venting area in the Loki’s Castle Vent Field (LCVF. This area, located at the flank of the large sulfide mound, is characterized by numerous chimney-like barite (BaSO4 structures (≤ 1m high covered with white cotton-like microbial mats. Results from geochemical analyses, microscopy (FISH, SEM, 16S rRNA gene amplicon-sequencing and metatranscriptomics were compared to results from previous analyses of biofilms growing on black smoker chimneys at LCVF. Based on our results, we constructed a conceptual model involving the geochemistry and microbiology in the LCVF. The model suggests that CH4 and H2S are important electron donors for microorganisms in both high-temperature and low-temperature areas, whereas the utilization of H2 seems restricted to high-temperature areas. This further implies that sub-seafloor processes can affect energy-landscapes, elemental cycling, and the metabolic activity of primary producers on the seafloor. In the cotton-like microbial mats on top of the active barite chimneys, a unique network of single cells of Epsilonproteobacteria interconnected by threads of extracellular polymeric substances (EPS was seen, differing significantly from the long filamentous Sulfurovum filaments observed in biofilms on the black smokers. This network also induced nucleation of barite crystals and is suggested to play an essential role in the formation of the microbial mats and the chimneys. Furthermore, it illustrates variations in how different genera of Epsilonproteobacteria colonize and position cells in different vent fluid mixing zones within

  10. High radiofrequency radiation at Stockholm Old Town: An exposimeter study including the Royal Castle, Supreme Court, three major squares and the Swedish Parliament

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardell, Lennart; Carlberg, Michael; Koppel, Tarmo; Hedendahl, Lena

    2017-01-01

    Exposure to radiofrequency (RF) radiation was classified as a possible human carcinogen, Group 2B, by the International Agency for Research on Cancer at WHO in 2011. The exposure pattern is changing due to the rapid development of technology. Outdoor RF radiation level was measured during five tours in Stockholm Old Town in April, 2016 using the EME Spy 200 exposimeter with 20 predefined frequencies. The results were based on 10,437 samples in total. The mean level of the total RF radiation was 4,293 µW/m2 (0.4293 µW/cm2). The highest mean levels were obtained for global system for mobile communications (GSM) + universal mobile telecommunications system (UMTS) 900 downlink and long-term evolution (LTE) 2600 downlink (1,558 and 1,265 µW/m2, respectively). The town squares displayed highest total mean levels, with the example of Järntorget square with 24,277 µW/m2 (min 257, max 173,302 µW/m2). These results were in large contrast to areas with lowest total exposure, such as the Supreme Court, with a mean level of 404 µW/m2 (min 20.4, max 4,088 µW/m2). In addition, measurements in the streets surrounding the Royal Castle were lower than the total for the Old Town, with a mean of 756 µW/m2 (min 0.3, max 50,967 µW/m2). The BioInitiative 2012 Report defined the scientific benchmark for possible health risks as 30–60 µW/m2. Our results of outdoor RF radiation exposure at Stockholm Old Town are significantly above that level. The mean exposure level at Järntorget square was 405-fold higher than 60 µW/m2. Our results were below the reference level on 10,000,000 µW/m2 established by the International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP), which, however, are less credible, as they do not take non-thermal effects into consideration and are not based on sound scientific evaluation. Our highest measured mean level at Järntorget was 0.24% of the ICNIRP level. A number of studies have found adverse, non-thermal (no measurable temperature

  11. High radiofrequency radiation at Stockholm Old Town: An exposimeter study including the Royal Castle, Supreme Court, three major squares and the Swedish Parliament.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardell, Lennart; Carlberg, Michael; Koppel, Tarmo; Hedendahl, Lena

    2017-04-01

    Exposure to radiofrequency (RF) radiation was classified as a possible human carcinogen, Group 2B, by the International Agency for Research on Cancer at WHO in 2011. The exposure pattern is changing due to the rapid development of technology. Outdoor RF radiation level was measured during five tours in Stockholm Old Town in April, 2016 using the EME Spy 200 exposimeter with 20 predefined frequencies. The results were based on 10,437 samples in total. The mean level of the total RF radiation was 4,293 µW/m 2 (0.4293 µW/cm 2 ). The highest mean levels were obtained for global system for mobile communications (GSM) + universal mobile telecommunications system (UMTS) 900 downlink and long-term evolution (LTE) 2600 downlink (1,558 and 1,265 µW/m 2 , respectively). The town squares displayed highest total mean levels, with the example of Järntorget square with 24,277 µW/m 2 (min 257, max 173,302 µW/m 2 ). These results were in large contrast to areas with lowest total exposure, such as the Supreme Court, with a mean level of 404 µW/m 2 (min 20.4, max 4,088 µW/m 2 ). In addition, measurements in the streets surrounding the Royal Castle were lower than the total for the Old Town, with a mean of 756 µW/m 2 (min 0.3, max 50,967 µW/m 2 ). The BioInitiative 2012 Report defined the scientific benchmark for possible health risks as 30-60 µW/m 2 . Our results of outdoor RF radiation exposure at Stockholm Old Town are significantly above that level. The mean exposure level at Järntorget square was 405-fold higher than 60 µW/m 2 . Our results were below the reference level on 10,000,000 µW/m 2 established by the International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP), which, however, are less credible, as they do not take non-thermal effects into consideration and are not based on sound scientific evaluation. Our highest measured mean level at Järntorget was 0.24% of the ICNIRP level. A number of studies have found adverse, non-thermal (no measurable

  12. Energy R and D in Germany; TOPICAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    PJ Runci

    1999-01-01

    Germany's total national (i.e., combined public and private sector) funding for R and D stood at$42 billion in 1997. The private sector accounted for nearly 62% ($24 billion) of the total, while the public sector accounted for approximately 38%. Since the late 1970s, when the public and private sectors each funded roughly half of Germany's R and D, the private sector has steadily assumed a larger and larger role as the dominant supporter of R and D activity, while overall government funding has remained essentially flat for much of the past two decades. In addition to declining relative to private R and D expenditures, public R and D expenditures in Germany declined by 4% in real terms between 1991 and 1997, to approximately$15 billion. The reduction in R and D investments in the public sector can be attributed in large part to the financial challenges associated with German reunification and related shifts in social priorities including efforts to address high unemployment and to rebuild basic infrastructure in the eastern states. R and D expenditures have also declined as a percentage of the total public budget, from a peak of 3.4% in 1985 to 2.7% in 1996. Energy R and D has been the hardest hit of all major socioeconomic areas of R and D expenditure funded by the German government. Between 1981 and 1997, public energy R and D fell from approximately$1.6 billion to$400 million--a 75% real decline. The$850 million reduction in Germany's fission R and D budget (which constituted two-thirds of government R and D investment in 1985) explains some 90% of the funding decline. Negative public perceptions regarding the safety and environmental impacts of nuclear energy have reduced nuclear power's viability as a long-term energy option for Germany. Discussions of a complete nuclear phaseout are now under way. At the same time, the German government has slashed its investments in fossil energy R and D by more than 90%. While energy efficiency and renewable energy

  13. Energy R and D in Germany

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Runci, PJ

    1999-11-01

    Germany's total national (i.e., combined public and private sector) funding for R&D stood at $42 billion in 1997. The private sector accounted for nearly 62% ($24 billion) of the total, while the public sector accounted for approximately 38%. Since the late 1970s, when the public and private sectors each funded roughly half of Germany's R&D, the private sector has steadily assumed a larger and larger role as the dominant supporter of R&D activity, while overall government funding has remained essentially flat for much of the past two decades. In addition to declining relative to private R&D expenditures, public R&D expenditures in Germany declined by 4% in real terms between 1991 and 1997, to approximately $15 billion. The reduction in R&D investments in the public sector can be attributed in large part to the financial challenges associated with German reunification and related shifts in social priorities including efforts to address high unemployment and to rebuild basic infrastructure in the eastern states. R&D expenditures have also declined as a percentage of the total public budget, from a peak of 3.4% in 1985 to 2.7% in 1996. Energy R&D has been the hardest hit of all major socioeconomic areas of R&D expenditure funded by the German government. Between 1981 and 1997, public energy R&D fell from approximately $1.6 billion to $400 million--a 75% real decline. The $850 million reduction in Germany's fission R&D budget (which constituted two-thirds of government R&D investment in 1985) explains some 90% of the funding decline. Negative public perceptions regarding the safety and environmental impacts of nuclear energy have reduced nuclear power's viability as a long-term energy option for Germany. Discussions of a complete nuclear phaseout are now under way. At the same time, the German government has slashed its investments in fossil energy R&D by more than 90%. While energy efficiency and renewable energy technologies have fared relatively well in comparison

  14. Nuclear third party liability in Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raetzke, Christian

    2016-01-01

    The German system of nuclear third party liability has always been, and arguably still is, the object of considerable interest in the international nuclear law community. This may seem surprising since Germany adheres to the Paris Convention and is therefore a party to a community of 15 states all following the same principles enshrined in this Convention. In fact, when implementing the PC, Germany chose the approach ensuring the most literal adherence to the PC's principles: it adopted the PC in its entirety, thus directly transposing the PC text into binding German law, instead of enacting a national law derived from, but not literally translating, the PC. At the same time, perhaps no other nation has made use of the options, choices and margins offered or abandoned by the PC to the national legislators, or kept in store by way of a reservation at signature of the Convention, in such an extended manner, testing - and as has even been contended in the past: stressing - the boundaries of the PC system. Unlimited liability introduced in 1985, the highest financial security of any PC state (EUR 2.5 billion), unlimited territorial scope combined with the principle of reciprocity and liability of German operators even in the force majeure cases of Article 9 of the PC are probably the most interesting decisions made by Germany in this context, established in the Atomic Energy Act (Atomgesetz). These choices betray a certain tendency of the German government to give the greatest possible benefit to victims, and in parallel to achieve a 'normalisation' of the nuclear liability regime, without stifling the industry. Within the compromise underlying the international nuclear liability regime - enabling the nuclear industry to create and sustain an energy sector highly relevant for national electricity production on the one hand and protecting potential victims on the other - Germany has more and more shifted the balance, as far as practically possible, to the

  15. International design competition. Formula student Germany; Internationaler Konstruktionswettbewerb. Formula Student Germany

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liebl, Johannes; Siebenpfeiffer, Wolfgang (eds.)

    2011-11-15

    Within the International Design Competition 2011 at the Hockenheimring (Federal Republic of Germany) the following contributions were presented: (1) Formula Student Germany - Experience the Future (Tim Hannig); (2) Live at the Hockenheimring 2011; (3) Cutaway Model of the FSC Winning Car - The GFR11c by the Global Formula Racing Team of the DHBW Ravensburg; (4) Formula Student Racecar with Selective Cylinder Deactivation (Alexander Titz); (5) Construction of a crankshaft for the RS11 (Stefan Buhl); (6) The Wheel Design of the ARG 11 (Megan Rotondo); (7) Cutaway Model of the FSE Winning Car - The DUT11 by the DUT Racing Team of the Delft University of Technology; (8) Formula Student Electric - E-Scrutineering (Ann-Christin Bartoelke); (9) Development of an E-motor for Formular Student Electric (Urs Leuthold); (10) The Battery Management System of the FHWT04e (Andreas Hagemeyer); (11) Overall Results 2011 at a Glance; (12) Show your Colours; (13) Formula Student Germany visiting China (Alia Pierce).

  16. The Twilight of the Public Intellectual: Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alison M. Lewis

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available This essay focuses on the questions of whether German unification resulted in a wholesale retreat of intellectuals from politics and engagement with social issues, as the rhetoric of failure would indicate, or whether the key debates of the period can be read instead as a sign that Germany is on the road to becoming a more 'normal' European nation. Before returning to these issuesat the end of this paper I first provide a broad historical and theoretical context for my discussion of the role of the concerned intellectual in Germany, before offering an overview of the respective functions of literary intellectuals in both German states in the post-war period. I then address a series of key debates and discussions in 1989 and the early nineteen-nineties that were responsible for changing the forms of engagement in intellectual debates in post-unification German society. I argue that the 1990s and early years of the new millennium hastened the disappearance of the writer as a universal intellectual and focused attention on the writer as an individualist and a professional. Today's youngest generation of writer in Germany is a specialist intellectual who intervenes in political and social matters from time to time but who is not expected to take a moral-ethical stance on most issues of national and international concern. S/he is one who frequently writes about personal subjects, but may also occasionally, as witnessed after September 11, turn his or her pen to topics of global concern as in terrorism and Islam. More often than not, however, writers now leave the work of commenting on political affairs to writers of the older guard and to other 'senior' specialist intellectuals.

  17. The Twilight of the Public Intellectual: Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alison M. Lewis

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available This essay focuses on the questions of whether German unification resulted in a wholesale retreat of intellectuals from politics and engagement with social issues, as the rhetoric of failure would indicate, or whether the key debates of the period can be read instead as a sign that Germany is on the road to becoming a more 'normal' European nation. Before returning to these issuesat the end of this paper I first provide a broad historical and theoretical context for my discussion of the role of the concerned intellectual in Germany, before offering an overview of the respective functions of literary intellectuals in both German states in the post-war period. I then address a series of key debates and discussions in 1989 and the early nineteen-nineties that were responsible for changing the forms of engagement in intellectual debates in post-unification German society. I argue that the 1990s and early years of the new millennium hastened the disappearance of the writer as a universal intellectual and focused attention on the writer as an individualist and a professional. Today's youngest generation of writer in Germany is a specialist intellectual who intervenes in political and social matters from time to time but who is not expected to take a moral-ethical stance on most issues of national and international concern. S/he is one who frequently writes about personal subjects, but may also occasionally, as witnessed after September 11, turn his or her pen to topics of global concern as in terrorism and Islam. More often than not, however, writers now leave the work of commenting on political affairs to writers of the older guard and to other 'senior' specialist intellectuals.

  18. The energy supply situation in Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lederer, P.

    2007-01-01

    The focus is on 4 energy supply issues of decisive relevance to energy supply in Germany, but also in other countries in Europe and worldwide: (1) How will the global energy situation develop? (2) What is the organization, and the development, of the market in which we are doing business? (3) What are the challenges facing the power industry in view of a threatening climate change? (4) Against this backdrop, how do we design the energy mix of the future? Analysis of these 4 points shows that, for a foreseeable time, all types of energy generation are necessary if Germany and Europe are to be supplied energy efficiently, securely, and in a way not polluting the environment. Hence, these concrete conclusions can be drawn: (1) We need more renewable energies in Germany, in Europe, and worldwide. (2) We need the development of 700 C coalfired power plant technology in order to first advance the development of CCS (carbon capture and storage) technology and thus minimize CO 2 emissions from fossil-fired power plants. (3) We need increases in energy efficiency which help us satisfy the steadily growing need for energy with dwindling fossil resources. (4) We need nuclear power because of its ability to produce baseload electricity free from CO 2 . For nuclear power, it is now important that politics and the power industry jointly find ways and means to reassess, in an unbiased way, the plant operating lives laid down in the current Atomic Energy Act. This is required, inter alia, because of the challenges in climate policy and because of global economic boundary conditions. (orig.)

  19. An ecological tax reform in Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bakker, L.; Bleijenberg, A.N.

    1992-01-01

    This study, being a part of the large research program 'External Effects of Energy Procurement' and coordinated by PROGNOS, concerns the distributional and macro-economic effects of the internalization of the external effects of the energy supply by means of an ecological tax reform. The PROGNOS study is focused on the costs and effects of energy production, procurement and consumption (in Germany), that are not taken care of by the market. Here a rough estimate is given of the macro-economic consequence and the distributional effects for the industrial sector and households in (West) Germany of an energy tax of which the revenues are 'reinjected' into the economy, mainly by lowering the financial burden on labour. First a description is given of the starting points of the study and the form of the energy tax. Subsequently attention is paid to the macro-economic effects, the sectoral effects, and the effects on the distribution of incomes for households. The model calculations for Western Germany and the Netherlands confirm the expectation that an ecological tax reform leads to the combined realization of employment and environmental objectives. Shifts in the sectoral structure may occur. Energy intensive branches of industry will have to give up a part of their market share in favour of labour-intensive sectors. The results also illustrate that there are several possibilities to prevent a change in the collective burden of regular expenses as a result of a tax or levy on energy, and that the effects of a fuel tax on the income distribution can be corrected. 5 figs., 19 tabs., 5 apps., 15 refs

  20. A Less Ambitious Energy Transition for Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beeker, Etienne; Yahiel, Michel; Lenglart, Fabrice; Broca, Olivier de; Senne, Valerie

    2017-08-01

    In the wake of the 2011 Fukushima nuclear disaster, the German authorities launched the country's energy transition, or Energiewende. With near unanimous support of Germany's citizens, it was seen as a society-wide project. The enthusiasm the Energiewende generated soon spread beyond the Rhine. Indeed, for many French people it became the model to follow. Replacing nuclear energy and fossil fuels with renewable energy sources that were local when possible, developing electric mobility and making progress towards a zero carbon economy were all virtuous goals. What's more, it seemed they could be attained over a relatively short period of time and at reasonable cost. Today, the Energiewende's future looks less bright. While Germany produces a third of its electricity from renewable energy, this comes at a high price. The cost of electricity for small consumers more than doubled between 2000 and 2013. At the same time, the country continues to rely on coal to produce a large share of its electricity and still has one of the highest levels of CO_2 per person in Europe. But Germany's population is divided about closing its coal-fired and lignite power plants, not to mention doing so would jeopardize its energy supply. Add to this the fact the massive development of intermittent renewable energy sources has made the German power grid unstable and has necessitated the construction of thousands of kilometers of high voltage lines amidst strong local opposition. Lastly, electrifying the transport sector could serve to compound the series of scandals that have hit the automotive industry. Against this backdrop, the coalition government formed following the September 2017 federal elections could very well lower the bar for the Energiewende. (author)

  1. The effectiveness of stuttering treatments in Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Euler, Harald A; Lange, Benjamin P; Schroeder, Sascha; Neumann, Katrin

    2014-03-01

    Persons who stutter (PWS) should be referred to the most effective treatments available, locally or regionally. A prospective comparison of the effects of the most common stuttering treatments in Germany is not available. Therefore, a retrospective evaluation by clients of stuttering treatments was carried out. The five most common German stuttering treatments (231 single treatment cases) were rated as to their perceived effectiveness, using a structured questionnaire, by 88 PWS recruited through various sources. The participants had received between 1 and 7 treatments for stuttering. Two stuttering treatments (stuttering modification, fluency shaping) showed favorable and three treatments (breathing therapy, hypnosis, unspecified logopedic treatment) showed unsatisfactory effectiveness ratings. The effectiveness ratings of stuttering modification and fluency shaping did not differ significantly. The three other treatments were equally ineffective. The differences between the effective and ineffective treatments were of large effect sizes. The typical therapy biography begins in childhood with an unspecified logopedic treatment administered extensively in single and individual sessions. Available comparisons showed intensive or interval treatments to be superior to extensive treatments, and group treatments to be superior to single client treatments. The stuttering treatment most often prescribed in Germany, namely a weekly session of individual treatment by a speech-language pathologist, usually with an assorted package of mostly unknown components, is of limited effectiveness. Better effectiveness can be expected from fluency shaping or stuttering modification approaches, preferably with an intensive time schedule and with group sessions. Readers will be able to: (a) discuss the five most prevalent stuttering treatments in Germany; (b) summarize the effectiveness of these treatments; and (c) describe structural treatment components that seem to be preferable

  2. 2005 primary energy consumption in Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2006-01-01

    According to preliminar calculations by the Arbeitsgemeinschaft Energiebilanzen (Working Party on Energy Balances, AGEB), the consumption of an aggregate 486 million TCE of primary energy resources in Germany last year was 1.3% below the level of the year before. Energy consumption was influenced by both the high level of prices and the development of the economy. Hardly any influence was attributable to the level of temperatures, which was largely unchanged compared to the figure of the year before. Oil consumption in 2005 in Germany dropped by nearly 2% to 174.8 million TCE. On the whole, oil with its 36% share in the energy balance remained by far the most important energy resource in Germany. Natural gas consumption of 110.4 million TCE was at the level of the year before. Its share in the primary energy balance rose slightly to 22.7%. Hard coal, because of lower use in power plants and the decline in iron making, showed a 4.6% drop in consumption to 62.8 million TCE. In this way, hard coal contributed 13% to total energy consumption. Lignite consumption dropped by 3.2% to 54.4 million TCE as a result of lower deliveries to power plants. Its 11.2% share in the total consumption of primary energy continued to make lignite the most important domestic energy resource. More than 90% of the lignite produced is used for electricity generation. The contribution to primary energy consumption of nuclear power dropped by more than 2% to 60.7 million TCE. Hydroelectric plants and wind power plants increased their contribution by 3.6%. The contribution to primary energy consumption made by all renewable energy resources rose to 4.6%. AGEB evaluates statistics of all areas of the power economy on the basis of standard criteria in order to combine these data in a comprehensive picture. Since 1994, the energy balances for Germany have been compiled by DIW on behalf of AGEB. (orig.)

  3. Nuclear energy in France and Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-01-01

    The peculiarities and the differences in the development of nuclear energy in the two neighboring countries are described. The development in France could be promoted more easily which was also due to the government structure. Uncomplicated licensing procedures and other factors permitted a less difficult realisation of the nuclear energy programme. Serious economic consequences in our country are pointed out. In this summary, the most important results and statements of a memorandum worked out by the KWU with the headline 'Germany/France - the electricity supply in comparison' are listed. (UA) [de

  4. Detection of radioactivity in scrap in Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kugeler, E.; Thierfeldt, S.; Sefzig, R.; Weimer, G.

    1999-01-01

    Although Germany's scrap export exceeds the import, the imports of scrap amount to more than one million Mg per year. Radioactivity has been found mainly in imported scrap in Germany. This radioactivity can consist of surface contamination in scrap e.g. from the oil and gas industry, nuclear and other technical applications or of radiation sources, e.g. from medical or technical irradiation devices where the source has not been removed prior to scrapping. Fortunately really large sources have been involved in only very few occasions. More serious incidents have, however, been reported from other countries. Today, measurement facilities have been installed at the entrances to virtually all German foundries and larger scrap yards. These measurement facilities allow the swift measurement of whole lorry or freight car loads. The lower limit of detection is for some devices as low as ca. 5 nSv/h (dose rate increase above background at the detector) which is achieved by very advanced hardware and software. Additionally, simplified dose rate measurements are performed by German customs officials at the eastern borders for scrap loads to be imported into Germany. When activity is detected in a load, several options exist, like e.g.: (i) sending the scrap back to the sender; (ii) allowing the whole load to be melted down; (iii) careful unloading and separating the load with the aim of localizing and removing the contamination. This paper analyses these various options after detection, discusses the role of the competent authorities and evaluates the possible radiological consequences. Realistic dose calculations show that it is possible that a person may receive doses of several mSv or even 10 mSv if precautionary measures are neglected or if a larger source is not detected at all. This paper further addresses which types and amounts of radioactivity may be detected and which conclusions can be drawn from the dose rate at the detector. The continuous increase in the number

  5. Freshwater reservoir effect variability in Northern Germany

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Philippsen, B.; Heinemeier, J.

    2013-01-01

    The freshwater reservoir effect is a potential problem when radiocarbon dating fish bones, shells, human bones, or food crusts on pottery from sites near rivers or lakes. The reservoir age in hardwater rivers can be up to several thousand years and may be highly variable. Accurate 14C dating of f...... that can also be expected for the past. This knowledge will be applied to the dating of food crusts on pottery from the Mesolithic sites Kayhude at the Alster River and Schlamersdorf at the Trave River, both in Schleswig-Holstein, northern Germany....

  6. Nuclear emergency preparedness and response in Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miska, H.

    2009-01-01

    Off-site nuclear emergency response in Germany is divided into disaster response under the responsibility of the Laender and measures for precautionary radiation protection pursuant to the Precautionary Radiation Protection Act under the lead of federal authorities. Early countermeasures at the regional level require a different management than long-term and comprehensive actions of precautionary radiation protection. As situations may arise in which measures of both approaches overlap with regard to place and time, it is essential to make thorough preparations in order to avoid problems with implementation. (orig.)

  7. Situation concerning the HLW repository in Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lempert, J.P.

    1992-01-01

    Final disposal of radioactive waste has been defined in Germany as: maintenance-free, safe emplacement of radioactive waste, time unlimited and no intention of retrievability. The responsibility for final disposal lies in the hands of the German Federal Government, which has assigned a federal authority to plan, erect and operate the federal facilities for long-term storage of nuclear waste. The federal authority has in lack of industrial experience contracted my company DBE which is responsible for the engineering, erection and operation of all German nuclear waste repositories. (author)

  8. Regulatory control of radiation sources in Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coy, K.

    1998-01-01

    The regulatory programme governing the safe use of radioisotopes in Germany is based on the federal legislation enacted as Atomic Energy Control Act (Atomgesetz) and Radiation Protection Ordinance (Strahlen-schutzverordnung) and its implementation by the competent authorities of the individual states. Despite this highly decentralized infrastructure of enforcement the basic principles of regulations described in this paper such as authorization criteria, conditions imposed as well as depth and intensity of inspection balanced according to the individual radiation hazard involved are harmonized to the greatest possible extent by regular coordination among the competent authorities as well as a series of technical regulations such as standards and guidelines. (author)

  9. Raw materials policy: implications for Germany

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaertner, E

    1978-04-01

    The contribution characterizes the situation of the national mining industry in 1977, deals with international raw materials policies within the framework of the North-South dialogue and with the policies of the western industrial countries, points out the dangers of worldwide state-controlled raw materials policies and calls for a) the political risk of enterprise cooperation with developing countries to be covered and b) double taxation to be avoided. Finally, the problems of securing the Federal Republic of Germany's raw materials supplies on a long-term basis are portrayed.

  10. Fuels and alternative propulsion in Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-04-01

    The transportation sector is one of the first responsible of the air pollution in Germany. The kyoto protocol and the european directive led the german Government to set about some measures. To encourage the petroleum industry to develop classical fuels/biofuels mixing, the government exempted from taxes until 2020 the biofuels part. The Government decided also financial incentives for diesel vehicles equipped with particles filters. Among the different fuels, the document presents the advantages and disadvantages of the hydrogen fuels and the hybrid motors. (A.L.B.)

  11. Management of nuclear liabilities in Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roser, T.

    1995-01-01

    The management of nuclear liabilities in the Federal Republic of Germany is explored in this article. The intermediate storage and final disposal of spent fuels from the country's twenty nuclear power stations is discussed. Flexible solutions to the changing problems of nuclear fuel cycle economics are needed. Financing the back end of the nuclear power station lifetimes is currently underfunded. Monies should be accumulated during the plant's active life. The political, technical, legal and economic aspects of the nuclear industry must also be included. (UK)

  12. Distance Education at Conventional Universities in Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hans-Henning Kappel

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Germany’s educational system has undergone a series of transformations during the last 40 years. In recent years, marked increases in enrolment have occurred. In response, admission requirements have been relaxed and new universities have been established.Academic distance education in the former Federal Republic of Germany (West Germany was ushered in by the educational radio broadcasts around the end of the 1960s. Aside from the formation of the FernUniversität (Open University in West Germany in 1975, there were significant developments in distance education occurring at the major universities in the German Democratic Republic (East Germany. After German reunification in 1990, the new unitary state launched programs to advance the development of distance education programs at conventional universities.Germany’s campus-based universities (Präsenzuniversitäten created various entities, including central units and consortia of universities to design and market distance education programs. Hybridisation provides the necessary prerequisites for dual mode delivery, such as basic and continuing education programs, as well as for the combination of distance and campus-based education (Präsenzstudium. Hybridisation also has also opened the door for the creation of new programs.Following an initial phase in which distance education research is expected to centralize a trend towards decentralisation is likely to follow. The German Association for Distance Education (AG-F offers a viable research network in distance education. Two dual mode case studies are also be surveyed: The Master of Arts degree, offered by the University of Koblenz-Landau, with Library Science as the second major, and the University of Kaiserslautern, where basic education will continue to be captured within the domain of the Präsenzstudium or campus-based education.The area in which distance education is flourishing most is within the field of academic continuing

  13. BASEMAP, NEW CASTLE COUNTY, DE

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Basemap datasets comprise six of the seven FGDC themes of geospatial data that are used by most GIS applications (Note: the seventh framework theme, orthographic...

  14. Reversing course: Germany`s response to the challenge of transboundary air pollution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sprinz, D.F.; Wahl, A.

    1998-03-01

    Perhaps like no other country, Germany has radically changed its policies towards regulating air pollution in the European context. Acting originally as a dragger in the 1970s to regulate transboundary air pollutants due to pessimism about the relationship between causes and effects, Germany responded very decisively to its own damage assessment in the early 1980s. In particular the adverse effects to forests (`Waldsterben` or forest decline) led to the formulation of strict air pollution regulations in the domestic context, efforts to spread the regulatory system within the European Union, and activities within the United Nations Economic Commission for Europe to foster stronger, continent-wide emission reductions. Using three conceptual models (rational actor, domestic politics, and social learning), we show that Germany deviated strongly from the ideal policy cycle consisting of (i) domestic policy formulation, (ii) international negotiations, as well as (iii) implementation and compliance with the provisions of international environmental agreements. Both national policy-making as well as partial implementation have been well on the way towards compliance even before Germany entered international negotiations on substantive protocols. Therefore, one may conclude from this country study that push countries may use the results of their national policy processes to influence the policy of other countries. (orig.)

  15. Terminal Decline in Well-Being Differs between Residents in East Germany and West Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogel, Nina; Gerstorf, Denis; Ram, Nilam; Goebel, Jan; Wagner, Gert G.

    2017-01-01

    Lifespan research has long been interested in how contexts shape individual development. Using the separation and later reunification of Germany as a kind of natural experiment we examine whether and how living and dying in the former East or West German context has differentially shaped late-life development of well-being. We apply multi-level…

  16. The Role of Western Germany in West European Defense

    Science.gov (United States)

    1966-04-08

    Ralph. Modern German History. New York: E. P. Dutton & Co., Inc., 1964. (DD175 F5) 34. German Research Association. Germany: Franz Steiner Verlag Gmb...and Rudolf , Walter. This Germany. New York: New York Graphic Society Publishers, Ltd., 1954. (DD257 L42) 39. Heidenheimer, Arnold J. The Government...202-07, 243. 47. Lauder, K. H. A Brief Review of Science and Technoloc in Western Germany. London: HIISO, 1955. (Q18 G4G7) 48. Leonhardt, Rudolf Walter

  17. Report on nuclear power plant instrumentation and control in Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bastl, W.

    1992-01-01

    The paper describes the status of the NPP control and instrumentation in Germany. The general technology underlying most aspects of NPP C and I in Germany has not altered since the last progress report although there has been many improvements in detail. Since the beginning of 1990 the GRS carried out the safety investigations of NPPs in East Germany. The USSR as the vendor of the plants and France were also involved in the project. The following fields are briefly described: Status of nuclear power in Germany; training simulators; backfitting of computers and information systems; operator support/new control rooms. (author). 6 refs, 1 tab

  18. West-East migration in Germany since 1990

    OpenAIRE

    Beck, Grit

    2011-01-01

    Not only did 2.5 million people migrate from East Germany to West Germany between 1991 and 2006, 1.5 million people also moved from West to East Germany. This counter-current movement took placed largely unnoticed by the public and researchers alike. This paper uses both quantitative and qualitative data to first of all examine how the population structure in the New Länder has changed as a result of interregional migration between Länder in East and West Germany. It goes on to study the moti...

  19. Maternal employment and childhood overweight in Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Sophie-Charlotte

    2016-12-01

    A widespread finding among studies from the US and the UK is that maternal employment is correlated with an increased risk of child overweight, even in a causal manner, whereas studies from other countries obtain less conclusive results. As evidence for Germany is still scarce, the purpose of this study is to identify the effect of maternal employment on childhood overweight in Germany using two sets of representative micro data. We further explore potential underlying mechanisms that might explain this relationship. In order to address the selection into maternal full-time employment, we use an instrumental variable strategy exploiting the number of younger siblings in the household as an instrument. While the OLS models suggest that maternal full-time employment is related to a 5 percentage point higher probability of the child to be overweight, IV estimates indicate a 25 percentage points higher overweight probability due to maternal full-time employment. Exploring various possible pathways, we find that maternal full-time employment promotes unhealthy dietary and activity behavior which might explain the positive effect of maternal employment on child overweight to some extent. Although there are limitations to our IV approach, several sensitivity analyses confirm the robustness of our findings. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Status of wind energy in Germany

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerdes, G.; Molly, J.P.; Rehfeldt, K. [Deutsches Windenergie-Institut, Wilhelmshaven (Germany)

    1996-12-31

    By the end of 1995 in total 3655 wind turbines (WT`s) were installed in Germany with a total capacity of 1,136 MW. In the year 1995 alone the WT installations grew by 1,070 units with 505 MW. About 40% of the 1995 installations were sold to inland states of Germany with their lower wind speed potential. This fast development occurred in parallel to continuously reduced local state and federal subsidies. The further development is based mainly on the guaranteed reimbursement due to the Electricity Feed Law. But since some time the electricity utilities fight back on all legal and political levels to get cancelled the unloved Electricity Feed Law and since two years the building construction law with the foreseen privilege for WT`s is discussed without any result. All these difficulties affect investors and credit giving banks in such a negative way, that the further annual increase in wind power installation for 1996 could be 10 to 20% less than in 1995. Many of the new commercial Megawatt WT`s have pitch control and variable rotor speed which cause better electrical power quality and lower life time loads. From statistical evaluations on technical data of WT`s a good overview of the further development is derived. 8 refs., 10 figs.

  1. Germany, Austria and dissolution of Yugoslavia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vuković Slobodan V.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with one of the causes of dissolution/breakdown of Yugoslavia. The author first analyses writing of German and Austrian press which has, at the very beginning of the crisis, taken a strong anti-Serb standing, as in 1914 and 1941. Author then analyses the reasons that led Austrian and German diplomacy and governments to actively forging the crisis and then breaking down a sovereign country. Those reasons could be summarized as follows: German and Austrian revenge for two wars lost in these territories; improvement of conditions for fulfillment of old German dream to advance toward Middle East; in order to become a world power Germany 'had to' to annul some of the consequences of the First and Second World War on the symbolic level and acquire a possibility to test its powers, and breaking down Yugoslavia, with help of its internal allies Germany broke down its army without military engagement and removed an obstacle for advancement towards East.

  2. Thuringische builds large PET plant in Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alperowicz, N.

    1993-01-01

    East Germany fibers producer Thuringische Faser AG Schwarza (TFS; Rudolstadt) is entering the polyethylene terephthalate (PET) business. The company, owned by India's Dalmia Group (New Delhi), is building an 80,000-m.t./year PET granulate plant, one of the largest in Europe, for completion at the end of 1995. The product will be used to make PET bottles and film for food packaging. TFS will need to buy 70,000 m.t./year of purified terephthalic acid and 27,000 m.t./year of ethylene glycol to feed the new plant. When acquiring TFS, Dalmia's chairman, Sanjay Dalmia, pledged to invest DM150 million ($95.4 million) in the Germany firm and keep 1,200 of the 3,000 workers. John Brown Deutsche Engineering (Essen) has been awarded a contract covering engineering, know-how, and turnkey supply of the complete plant, and will share of the complete plant, and will share the work with Austrian associate, Voest John Brown Industrieanlagenbau (Linz). The company, which completed against Zimmer (Frankfurt), will use its own technology. TFS, with 1992 sales of DM120 million, has capacities to produce 20,000 m.t/year of viscose staple fiber, 18,000 m.t./year of nylon-6 filament yarn, and 6,300 m.t./year of textile-grade polyester granulate, which will be converted to produce bottle-grade PET

  3. [Children-orientated tobacco advertising in Germany].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pumpe, K

    2002-04-01

    Since 1990 the percentage of smokers among the 12 to 17-year-olds in Germany has risen from 21 % to about 28 %. Most of them start between the age of 11 and 13. 85 % favour a certain brand by the age of 18. Despite the prohibition of tobacco commercials on radio and TV the cigarette industry has continually increased their budget for advertising aimed more and more at women and children. According to the author's knowledge, this report describes for the first time the strategies most frequently applied in Germany to incite children and teenagers to smoking. The publicity campaigns are not restricted to billboards and the printed press, but use the internet also. Indirect conditioning to a certain brand by music videos, movies and merchandising of attractive clothes and trips as well as the sponsoring of special music and sports events are also shown.The report analyses and evaluates examples of messages in printed advertisements aimed at children. With psychological skill interest in smoking is created with teenagers and a conditioning for smoking in certain situations is promoted.

  4. Nuclear energy research in Germany 2009

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    Research and development (R and D) in the fields of nuclear reactor safety and safety of nuclear waste and spent fuel management in Germany are carried out at research centers and, in addition, some 32 universities. In addition, industrial research is conducted by plant vendors, and research in plant and operational safety of power plants in operation is organized by operators and by organizations of technical and scientific research and expert consultant organizations. This summary report presents nuclear energy research conducted at research centers and universities in Germany in 2009, including examples of research projects and descriptions of the situation of research and teaching. These are the organizations covered: - Hermann von Helmholtz Association of German Research Centers, - Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT, responsibility of the former Karlsruhe Research Center), - Juelich Research Center (FZJ), - Nuclear Technology Competence Center East, - Dresden-Rossendorf Research Center (FZD), - Rossendorf Nuclear Process Technology and Analysis Association (VKTA), - Dresden Technical University, - Zittau/Goerlitz University of Applied Science, - Institute of Nuclear Energy and Energy Systems (IKE) of the University of Stuttgart. (orig.)

  5. Substitution treatment for opioid addicts in Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerlach Ralf

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background After a long and controversial debate methadone maintenance treatment (MMT was first introduced in Germany in 1987. The number of patients in MMT – first low because of strict admission criteria – increased considerably since the 1990s up to some 65,000 at the end of 2006. In Germany each general practitioner (GP, who has completed an additional training in addiction medicine, is allowed to prescribe substitution drugs to opioid dependent patients. Currently 2,700 GPs prescribe substitution drugs. Psychosocial care should be made available to all MMT patients. Results The results of research studies and practical experiences clearly indicate that patients benefit substantially from MMT with improvements in physical and psychological health. MMT proves successful in attaining high retention rates (65 % to 85 % in the first years, up to 50 % after more than seven years and plays a major role in accessing and maintaining ongoing medical treatment for HIV and hepatitis. MMT is also seen as a vital factor in the process of social re-integration and it contributes to the reduction of drug related harms such as mortality and morbidity and to the prevention of infectious diseases. Some 10 % of MMT patients become drug-free in the long run. Methadone is the most commonly prescribed substitution medication in Germany, although buprenorphine is attaining rising importance. Access to MMT in rural areas is very patchy and still constitutes a problem. There are only few employment opportunities for patients participating in MMT, although regular employment is considered unanimously as a positive factor of treatment success. Substitution treatment in German prisons is heterogeneous in access and treatment modalities. Access is very patchy and the number of inmates in treatment is limited. Nevertheless, substitution treatment plays a substantial part in the health care system provided to drug users in Germany. Conclusion In Germany, a

  6. Substitution treatment for opioid addicts in Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michels, Ingo Ilja; Stöver, Heino; Gerlach, Ralf

    2007-02-02

    After a long and controversial debate methadone maintenance treatment (MMT) was first introduced in Germany in 1987. The number of patients in MMT--first low because of strict admission criteria--increased considerably since the 1990s up to some 65,000 at the end of 2006. In Germany each general practitioner (GP), who has completed an additional training in addiction medicine, is allowed to prescribe substitution drugs to opioid dependent patients. Currently 2,700 GPs prescribe substitution drugs. Psychosocial care should be made available to all MMT patients. The results of research studies and practical experiences clearly indicate that patients benefit substantially from MMT with improvements in physical and psychological health. MMT proves successful in attaining high retention rates (65% to 85% in the first years, up to 50% after more than seven years) and plays a major role in accessing and maintaining ongoing medical treatment for HIV and hepatitis. MMT is also seen as a vital factor in the process of social re-integration and it contributes to the reduction of drug related harms such as mortality and morbidity and to the prevention of infectious diseases. Some 10% of MMT patients become drug-free in the long run. Methadone is the most commonly prescribed substitution medication in Germany, although buprenorphine is attaining rising importance. Access to MMT in rural areas is very patchy and still constitutes a problem. There are only few employment opportunities for patients participating in MMT, although regular employment is considered unanimously as a positive factor of treatment success. Substitution treatment in German prisons is heterogeneous in access and treatment modalities. Access is very patchy and the number of inmates in treatment is limited. Nevertheless, substitution treatment plays a substantial part in the health care system provided to drug users in Germany. In Germany, a history of substitution treatment spanning 20 years has meanwhile

  7. Hydrogeologic framework, hydrology, and refined conceptual model of groundwater flow for Coastal Plain aquifers at the Standard Chlorine of Delaware, Inc. Superfund Site, New Castle County, Delaware, 2005-12

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brayton, Michael J.; Cruz, Roberto M.; Myers, Luke; Degnan, James R.; Raffensperger, Jeff P.

    2015-01-01

    From 1966 to 2002, activities at the Standard Chlorine of Delaware chemical facility in New Castle County, Delaware resulted in the contamination of groundwater, soils, and wetland sediment. In 2005, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in partnership with the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Region 3, and the Delaware Department of Natural Resources and Environmental Control began a multi-year investigation of the hydrogeologic framework and hydrology of the confined aquifer system. The goals of the ongoing study at the site (the Potomac Aquifer Study) are to determine the hydraulic connection between the Columbia and Potomac aquifers, determine the direction of groundwater flow in the Potomac aquifer, and identify factors affecting the fate of contaminated groundwater. This report describes progress made towards these goals based on available data collected through September 2012.

  8. The Castle of Benifallim, Alicante: an initial interpretation from an archaeological point of view | El Castillo de Benifallim, Alicante: una aproximación desde la arqueología

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Débora Marcela Kiss

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This article is an initial study of a medieval fortress, the Castle of Benifallim, in Alicante. Our strategy of analysis includes different ways aproaches: from the architectural study through Archaeology of Architecture, to the analysis of its relationship with its surroundings through Landscape Archaeology. | El presente artículo constituye un primer acercamiento al estudio de una fortificación medieval, el Castillo de Benifallim, situado en la provincia de Alicante. Nuestra estrategia de análisis aborda el conocimiento del yacimiento desde diferentes niveles de aproximación, partiendo del estudio del objeto arquitectónico, mediante la arqueología de la arquitectura para arribar finalmente al análisis de las relaciones que se establecen con su entorno de implantación, la arqueología del paisaje.

  9. Bullying Involvement of Korean Children in Germany and in Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bae, Hwa-ok

    2016-01-01

    This study compared bullying involvement of Korean or Korean-German children living in Germany with children in Korea, and examined children's perceptions of school environment associated with bullying involvement of the children. This study included 105 Korean or Korean-German children living in the Bayern State of Germany as the study sample and…

  10. 48 CFR 252.229-7002 - Customs exemptions (Germany).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Customs exemptions... of Provisions And Clauses 252.229-7002 Customs exemptions (Germany). As prescribed in 229.402-70(b), use the following clause: Customs Exemptions (Germany) (JUN 1997) Imported products required for the...

  11. Educational Systems and Rising Inequality: Eastern Germany after Unification

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Below, Susanne; Powell, Justin J. W.; Roberts, Lance W.

    2013-01-01

    Educational systems considerably influence educational opportunities and the resulting social inequalities. Contrasting institutional regulations of both structures and contents, the authors present a typology of educational system types in Germany to analyze their effects on social inequality in eastern Germany after unification. After 1990, the…

  12. Documents and legal texts: Australia, Germany, Sweden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2012-01-01

    Australia: National Radioactive Waste Management Act 2012 No. 29, 2012 (An Act to make provision in relation to the selection of a site for, and the establishment and operation of, a radioactive waste management facility, and for related purposes). Germany: Act on the Peaceful Utilisation of Atomic Energy and the Protection against its Hazards (Atomic Energy Act) of 23 December 1959, as amended and promulgated on 15 July 1985, last amendment by the Act of 8 November 2011. Sweden: The Swedish Radiation Safety Authority's regulations concerning clearance of materials, rooms, buildings and land in practices involving ionising radiation (Swedish Radiation Safety Authority Regulatory Code issued on 20 October 2011, Published on 2 November 2011); The Swedish Radiation Safety Authority's general advice on the application of the regulations concerning clearance of materials, rooms, buildings and land in practices involving ionising radiation (issued on 20 October 2011)

  13. Renewable energies and energy transition in Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Persem, Melanie

    2014-01-01

    This document presents some key figures about the German national energy plan: the 2013 coalition contract and the 2014-2017 government priorities, the security of energy supplies and the reflections about an evolution of the existing mechanism, the legal aspects of the renewable energies support mechanism (EEG law and its amendments, 2014 law reform, goals, direct selling, bids solicitation, self-consumer EEG contribution, exemptions redesigning), the energy-mix comparison between Germany and France, the 2003-2013 evolution of the renewable power generation, the German photovoltaic and wind power parks (installed power, geographical distribution, capacity), and the evolution of electricity prices for the industry and for households between 1998 and 2013

  14. Radioactive waste management in West Germany

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krause, H [Kernforschungszentrum Karlsruhe G.m.b.H. (Germany, F.R.)

    1978-01-01

    The technologies developed in West Germany for radioactive waste management are widely reviewed. The first topic in this review paper is the disposal of low- and middle-level radioactive liquid wastes. Almost all these liquid wastes are evaporated, and the typical decontamination factor attained is 10/sup 4/ -- 10/sup 6/. The second topic is the solidification of residuals. Short explanation is given to bituminization and some new processes. The third topic is high-level liquid wastes. Degradation of glass quality due to various radiation is discussed. Embedding of small glass particles containing radioactive wastes into metal is also explained. Disposals of low-level solid wastes and the special wastes produced from reprocessing and mixed oxide fuel fabrication are explained. Final disposal of radioactive wastes in halite is discussed as the last topic. Many photographs are used to illustrate the industrial or experimental use of those management methods.

  15. Organisation of scientific research in Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berezhnaya Galina

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available This article considers the structure of research system in Germany. It describes the federal and state levels of research management. The Federal Ministry of Education and Research (BMBF bears primary responsibility for science and technology policy at the federal level. At the state level, this responsible is shared by the Ministry of Education and Science and the Ministry of Economy. The author emphasizes the role of the National Academy of Sciences “Leopoldina”, whose principal objective is to provide advisory services to German policymakers and present German science at the international level. Special attention is paid to the wide spectrum of German research agents: public and private research organizations, higher education institutions, R&D departments of industrial companies. The article stresses the research potential of universities that receive funding under the Excellence Initiative and describes the contribution of production in research and development activities, focusing on the top ten German companies in terms of R&D expenditure.

  16. Nuclear air cleaning activities in Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilhelm, J.

    1991-01-01

    The discussion is limited to nuclear air cleaning activities in the Federal Republic of Germany. Work is underway on containment venting with regard to filtration based on a combination of stainless steel roughing and fine filters with a decontamination factor similar to or better than that achieved with high-efficiency particulate air filters. The main point of interest is the development of relatively small filter units that can be located inside the containment. The concept of a new design for double containment having annular rooms between the steel containment and the concrete containment is discussed. Work related to the dismantling of decommissioned reactors and limited research for fuel reprocessing facilities are also noted

  17. Energy transition: how is Germany doing?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boulanger, Vincent

    2015-01-01

    In this book the author comments and discusses the content, successes and failures, uncertainties and consequences of the new German energy policy, Energiewende. The objective is to reach 80 to 95 per cent of reduction of greenhouse gas emissions by 2050 while phasing out nuclear. The author denies some statements about this policy. Some say that coal will replace nuclear as in fact renewable electricity production more than compensates the reduction of nuclear electricity production. Others say that Germany will have to import French nuclear electricity as in fact France must import German electricity in case of peak consumptions. Others say that German electricity became more expensive: it's true but it is in fact compensated by much higher energy savings. Remaining issues are the financing of nuclear plant dismantling and of nuclear waste management, the organisation of a decentralised production network, and the passage to renewable energies in the heating and transport sectors

  18. [Child Soldiers as Refugees in Germany].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zito, Dima

    2016-12-01

    Child Soldiers as Refugees in Germany How do former child soldiers cope with their potentially traumatic experiences, and how do the living conditions as refugees influence these coping processes? A dissertation at the faculty of human and social sciences at the University of Wuppertal, based on biographical-narrative interviews with 15 young refugees from six African countries, describes the characteristics of the traumatic sequences in the countries of origin and in exile, and elaborates typical coping processes. In order to survive a situation of absolute subjection within armed groups, children develop forms of adequate adaptation to the context like regulation and detachment of emotions e.g. with the use of drugs, assimilation to an idea of "hard masculinity" etc. They become victims, witnesses and often perpetrators of extreme violence (man-made-disaster), respectively traumatic processes can be seen in all sequences. After leaving the armed groups there is no way back into the families and communities destroyed by armed conflict, so they become refugees. In Germany, they are subjected to a bureaucratic and excluding asylum system, in which decisions on all relevant areas of life (age determination, place and right of residence, form of accommodation, access to education, etc.) are imposed on them. Especially the insecure right of residence and the living conditions in refugee camps are severe risk factors, impeding stabilization. Social support, e. g. by competent professionals, access to trauma- and culture-sensitive psychotherapy, societal inclusion, but also personal resilience are essential for coping with trauma and developing new future perspectives.

  19. Neuer Atheismus: New Atheism in Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Zenk

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Matthias Knutzen (born 1646 – died after 1674 was the first author we know of who self-identified as an atheist (Schröder 2010: 8. Before this, the term had solely been used pejoratively to label others. While Knutzen is almost completely forgotten now, authors such as Ludwig Feuerbach, Karl Marx, Friedrich Nietzsche, or Sigmund Freud are better remembered and might even be considered classic writers in the history of the atheist criticism of religion. Whatever may be said about the influence of any one of these authors, there is no doubt that Germany looks back on a notable history in this field. About a decade ago, Germany’s capital Berlin was even dubbed ‘the world capital of atheism’ by the American sociologist Peter L. Berger (2001: 195.Given this situation, I am bewildered by the expression ‘New Atheism’. Yet, undoubtedly, the term has become a catchphrase that is commonly used in the public discourse of several countries. The most prominent authors to be labelled ‘New Atheists’ are Richard Dawkins (The God Delusion, 2006, Daniel Dennett (Breaking the Spell: Religion as a Natural Phenomenon, 2006, Sam Harris (The End of Faith: Religion, Terror, and the Future of Reason, 2004, and Letter to a Christian Nation, 2006, and Christopher Hitchens (God Is Not Great: How Religion Poisons Every­thing, 2007. These authors and their books – all of them international bestsellers – have been intensely discussed around the world, including in Germany. In this paper, I intend to illuminate some of the characteristics and remarkable traits of the German discourse on the ‘New Atheism’. Here we can distinguish between two phases. The German media initially characterised ‘New Atheism’ as a rather peculiarly American phenomenon. However, it soon came to be understood to be a part of German culture as well.

  20. Systematic skin cancer screening in Northern Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breitbart, Eckhard W; Waldmann, Annika; Nolte, Sandra; Capellaro, Marcus; Greinert, Ruediger; Volkmer, Beate; Katalinic, Alexander

    2012-02-01

    The incidence of skin cancer is increasing worldwide. For decades, opportunistic melanoma screening has been carried out to respond to this burden. However, despite potential positive effects such as reduced morbidity and mortality, there is still a lack of evidence for feasibility and effectiveness of organized skin cancer screening. The main aim of the project was to evaluate the feasibility of systematic skin cancer screening. In 2003, the Association of Dermatological Prevention was contracted to implement the population-based SCREEN project (Skin Cancer Research to Provide Evidence for Effectiveness of Screening in Northern Germany) in the German state of Schleswig-Holstein. A two-step program addressing malignant melanoma and nonmelanocytic skin cancer was implemented. Citizens (aged ≥ 20 years) with statutory health insurance were eligible for a standardized whole-body examination during the 12-month study period. Cancer registry and mortality data were used to assess first effects. Of 1.88 million eligible citizens, 360,288 participated in SCREEN. The overall population-based participation rate was 19%. A total of 3103 malignant skin tumors were found. On the population level, invasive melanoma incidence increased by 34% during SCREEN. Five years after SCREEN a substantial decrease in melanoma mortality was seen (men: observed 0.79/100,000 and expected 2.00/100,000; women: observed 0.66/100,000 and expected 1.30/100,000). Because of political reasons (resistance as well as lack of support from major German health care stakeholders), it was not possible to conduct a randomized controlled trial. The project showed that large-scale systematic skin cancer screening is feasible and has the potential to reduce skin cancer burden, including mortality. Based on the results of SCREEN, a national statutory skin cancer early detection program was implemented in Germany in 2008. Copyright © 2010 American Academy of Dermatology, Inc. Published by Mosby, Inc. All

  1. Germany's climate policy: Facing an automobile dilemma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gössling, Stefan; Metzler, Daniel

    2017-01-01

    Germany has one of the most ambitious climate policy goals worldwide, having pledged to reduce national emissions by 40% by 2020, and 80–95% by 2050 (base year: 1990). 2015 data suggests that progress on decarbonisation has slowed, also because emissions from the transport sector have grown. Road transport, which is contributing 20.5% to Germany's CO_2 emissions, has become a major obstacle to achieving the country's policy goals. This paper analyses energy use from road transport in order to provide a better understanding of emissions from this sub-sector. Data is derived from representative longitudinal household surveys as well as mobility and fuel diaries for the period 2002–2015. Analysis reveals significant growth in energy-inefficient car choices, as well as considerable differences in mobility patterns (distances driven, driving styles) and actual fuel consumption between car segments. Findings suggest that German transport policies will fail to deliver significant emission reductions if complexities in car model choices and use patterns are ignored. Both command-and-control and market-based measures will be needed to align the transport sector with climate goals, while persisting policy inconsistencies will also have to be addressed. Findings are of central relevance for EU-wide and global climate policy in the transport sector. - Highlights: • Emissions from German road transport have remained constant between 1990 and 2015. • Non-progress on transport decarbonisation is barrier to national mitigation goals. • Analysis shows that wide range of complexities are overlooked by government. • Policies need to consider car fleet segmentation and driving patterns. • Command-and-control as well as market-based measures needed.

  2. Strategy for decommissioning of NPP's in Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rittscher, D.; Sterner, H.

    2003-01-01

    According to German Atomic Law, two different strategies are possible, i.e. direct dismantling and safe enclosure before dismantling. Both approaches have their advantages and disadvantages. Taking into account the site and plant specific conditions the optimal strategy can be evaluated. Both approaches have been applied in Germany in the past. The German Atomic Law and the Radiation Protection Ordinance (June 2002) were adapted recently (July 2002). Additionally, the life operation time of the German NPP's was fixed in a new law (April 2002): Orderly Termination of the Commercial Production of Nuclear Electricity. These issues have made it necessary for the power utilities to review the strategies applied. As long as the final disposal in Germany is still an open issue, the construction of local Interim Stores is necessary to be able to dismantle a NPP. The basic strategies are not excluding each other and it seems clear today, that the optimal approach is a combination of these strategies, e.g. dismantling of all auxiliary systems and leaving activated parts for a longer SE period. Within this approach the advantages of both basic strategies have been integrated in one. The EWN GmbH has developed such integrated but still different approaches for the decommissioning projects of the Kernkraftwerke Greifswald (KGR) and the Arbeitsgemeinschaft Versuchsreaktor (AVR) Juelich. It can be stated that the decommissioning of a NPP does not present technical issues of concern, but is more a project management issue, although surrounded by sometime intricate political and juridical boundary conditions. A major strategy change is to be expected only when final disposal capacities are available in the future. (authors)

  3. Reflexions on Urban Gardening in Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evelyn Gustedt

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This article reflects on traditional and contemporary gardening movements in Germany. The focus is on forms of gardening, that take place in spaces subject to land lease agreements and similar forms of tenancy or of illegal land take or squatting. The author examines various definitions taking into account the variety of practices, the development of urban gardening over time, and the respective backgrounds or values that users relate to such gardening activities. The examination of definitions led to the drawing up of a timeline of traditional and contemporary gardening movements in Germany and to the tentative approaching of this issue from a semantic perspective. The latter is due to the usage of many different terms mostly as yet undefined in a legal sense. Translation into English or, most likely, to any other language, further blurs the common understanding of the terms used. The author concludes with some considerations on these gardening movements in relation to urban sustainable developments. A presentation at the 5th Rencontres Internationals de Reims on Sustainability Studies, dedicated to Urban Agriculture – Fostering the Urban-Rural Continuum, which took place in October 2015 in Reims/France was the starting point of this article. The basis of this article is a literature review, nourished to a certain extent by observations randomly made over many years and complemented through talks with competent young colleagues. Special thanks go to Martin Sondermann, Leibniz University Hannover, who shared his research experience in various discussions with the author, as well as to Friederike Stelter, internship student at the author’s place of work, who gave highly appreciated support to the preparation of the presentation.

  4. Persistent Educational Advantage Across Three Generations: Empirical Evidence for Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Ziefle

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This article uses survey data from the German Socio-Economic Panel (GSOEP to analyze the persistence of educational attainment across three generations in Germany. I obtain evidence of a robust effect of grandparents' education on respondents' own educational attainment in West Germany, net of parental class, education, occupational status, family income, parents' relationship history, and family size. I also test whether the grandparent effect results from resource compensation or cumulative advantage and find empirical support for both mechanisms. In comparison, the intergenerational association between grandparents' and respondents' education is considerably weaker in East Germany and is also mediated completely by parental education. There are hardly any gender differences in the role of grandparents for respondents’ educational attainment, except for the fact that resource compensation is found to be exclusively relevant for women’s attainment in both West Germany and in East Germany after German reunification and the associated transition to an open educational system.

  5. Interrelationships between mortality and fertility in Germany: rural and urban Prussia and modern Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Entorf, H; Zimmermann, K F

    1990-01-01

    "The paper investigates the interrelationship between fertility and infant mortality and its economic determinants by time-series methods for historical and modern Germany. It is studied whether the causal effects of infant mortality on fertility have to be considered as hoarding or replacement, and whether the costs of nutrition have an influence on family decision making about demographic variables. Results show that there are indications for replacement motives, and that economic factors matter." (SUMMARY IN FRE AND ITA) excerpt

  6. Hydrogeologic characterization and assessment of bioremediation of chlorinated benzenes and benzene in wetland areas, Standard Chlorine of Delaware, Inc. Superfund Site, New Castle County, Delaware, 2009-12

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorah, Michelle M.; Walker, Charles W.; Baker, Anna C.; Teunis, Jessica A.; Emily Majcher,; Brayton, Michael J.; Raffensperger, Jeff P.; Cozzarelli, Isabelle M.

    2015-01-01

    Wetlands at the Standard Chlorine of Delaware, Inc. Superfund Site (SCD) in New Castle County, Delaware, are affected by contamination with chlorobenzenes and benzene from past waste storage and disposal, spills, leaks, and contaminated groundwater discharge. In cooperation with the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, the U.S. Geological Survey began an investigation in June 2009 to characterize the hydrogeology and geochemistry in the wetlands and assess the feasibility of monitored natural attenuation and enhanced bioremediation as remedial strategies. Groundwater flow in the wetland study area is predominantly vertically upward in the wetland sediments and the underlying aquifer, and groundwater discharge accounts for a minimum of 47 percent of the total discharge for the subwatershed of tidal Red Lion Creek. Thus, groundwater transport of contaminants to surface water could be significant. The major contaminants detected in groundwater in the wetland study area included benzene, monochlorobenzene, and tri- and di-chlorobenzenes. Shallow wetland groundwater in the northwest part of the wetland study area was characterized by high concentrations of total chlorinated benzenes and benzene (maximum about 75,000 micrograms per liter [μg/L]), low pH, and high chloride. In the northeast part of the wetland study area, wetland groundwater had low to moderate concentrations of total chlorinated benzenes and benzene (generally not greater than 10,000 μg/L), moderate pH, and high sulfate concentrations. Concentrations in the groundwater in excess of 1 percent of the solubility of the individual chlorinated benzenes indicate that a contaminant source is present in the wetland sediments as dense nonaqueous phase liquids (DNAPLs). Consistently higher contaminant concentrations in the shallow wetland groundwater than deeper in the wetland sediments or the aquifer also indicate a continued source in the wetland sediments, which could include dissolution of DNAPLs and

  7. GREAT BRITAIN AND GERMANY SUPREME AUDIT INSTITUTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dobre Cornelia

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Overall progress recorded in contemporary society, has increased at the same time the aspirations and expectations of the population, marked by phenomena which are based on the financial policy of the Executive. Of course, for the legislature to know the financial activity carried out by the Executive Board, in each State was established a Supreme Audit Institution (SAI, whose independence is guaranteed by the Constitution, as it is in Germany, or by law, as is the case of the United Kingdom. The variety of powers of supreme audit, is the result of various economic areas, each demonstrations through specific activities and suitable approaches to organizational cultures, which gives them their distinct identities. The work is conducted under the public responsibility with an emphasis on developing and improving continuously audit methodologies to present best practices. The two supreme institutions operate according to an annual plan of action which includes financial audit or regularity and performance auditing actions, and additional Federal Court of Audit of Germany practice preventive control institutions contained in its area of activity. By tradition, the role of supreme consists of the evaluation as regards the legality and regularity of financial management and accounting, but since the 80's but it was noticeable trend internationally to audit performance or "value for money" (United Kingdom, since the latter refers to the essence of the problem and is the final attainment of the envisaged at the time of allocation of resources. The topic researched is distinguished by originality, marked being the fact that a area so important as that of external public audit is least known works, and I wish to point out the vacuum bibliographic Supreme Audit Institutions experience in the international arena and beyond. Research methodology consists in the evaluation of resources in the area, using foreign literature. For the study of the subject of

  8. Study tour to biomass gasifiers in Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knoef, H.A.M.

    2000-12-01

    A study trip to a biomass gasification plant in Germany took place from 13-15 November 2000. The goal of the trip was to obtain information on German developments, experience, and possibilities in the field of biomass gasification. The participants were representatives of Dutch parties in the energy sector: waste sector, manufacturers, producers, policy makers and consultants. The most important feature was the visit to plants that were in operation. Due in particular to the new EEG (Emeuerbare-Energien-Gesetz/Renewable Energy) legislation, German policy makers have created an initial market for sustainable energy with a degree of success. The key feature is that EEG makes projects 'bankable' by guaranteeing a return delivery compensation. An EEG-type scheme designed to accelerate the development of sustainable energy could be an interesting instrument also for the Netherlands. The plan was to visit four plants and have a number of presentations in a period of three days. Preference was for relatively new plants with differing concepts. The following plants were visited and/or presented: 200-kWe CHP wood gasification plant, based on AHT technology, located at Domsland in Eckenfoerde; a 10,000 tonnes/year wood gasification plant, based on 'cupola furnace' technology of blast furnaces, located at Holzhausen near Leipzig; a 1-MWe wood gasification plant, based on Carbo-V technology, located at Freiberg; and finally a 23-MWe CBP wood gasification plant, also based on Juch technology, located at Siebenlehn. In clearly appears that Germany is ahead of the Netherlands in the realisation of gasification plants. Still, there are certain problems with the reliability of operation. The plants selected were relatively new (with the possible exception of Espenhain) and they are having too many teething problems. Sound insight has been obtained into the various concepts of decentralised energy generation from biomass and how this can be fitted into the existing infrastructure

  9. Retracted: Addition of a single methyl group to a small molecule sodium channel inhibitor introduces a new mode of gating modulation, by L Wang, SG Zellmer, DM Printzenhoff and NA Castle. British Journal of Pharmacology, volume 172(20): 4905-4918, published in October 2015; DOI 10.1111/bph.13259.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-07-01

    The above article, published by the British Journal of Pharmacology in October 2015 (https://bpspubs.onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/full/10.1111/bph.13259), has been retracted by agreement between the authors, the journal Editor in Chief and John Wiley & Sons Limited. The retraction has been agreed owing to the discovery of errors in the chemical structure of the synthetic compounds generated. The corrected structure is now available in the article PF-06526290 can both enhance and inhibit conduction through voltage gated sodium channels by L Wang, SG Zellmer, DM Printzenhoff and NA Castle, 2018, https://bpspubs.onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/full/10.1111/bph.14338. Reference Wang L, Zellmer SG, Printzenhoff DM, Castle NA (2015). Addition of a single methyl group to a small molecule sodium channel inhibitor introduces a new mode of gating modulation. Br J Pharmacol 172: 4905-4918. https://doi.org/10.1111/bph.13259. © 2018 The British Pharmacological Society.

  10. Market value-oriented gas pricing in Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eimermacher, T.

    1996-01-01

    In Germany, natural gas faces stiff competition from other types of energy. In many applications, natural gas is capable of replacing other fuels. In addition there is a growing gas-to-gas competition in some European countries, either through pipeline construction by a competitor as in Germany or by mandatory third-party access as in UK. Competition leads to market value-oriented energy pricing, which is particularly evident in Germany. For the consumer, this competitive situation ensures that natural gas can be obtained (and remains available in the long term) at competitive prices

  11. [Research funding for rare diseases in Germany].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wissing, Frank; Bruckner-Tuderman, Leena

    2017-05-01

    There is high need for more research in the field of rare diseases. Not only must the causes and mechanisms of the numerous and often heterogeneous diseases be delineated, but criteria must also be defined for optimal stratification of patients for individualized therapies. In this context, research and innovative diagnostics are linked together more closely than in other fields of medicine. The early stages of disease-oriented research can be performed in individual institutions but, due to low numbers of patients, late translation and transfer into clinics requires multicentric and international collaboration. In Germany research on rare diseases takes place mostly in faculties of medicine at universities. Since the institutional financial support is very low, research grants have substantial significance. The German Research Foundation (DFG) and the Federal Ministry of Education and Research (BMBF) are the main grant agencies for national projects, but foundations and patient advocacy groups also finance research to a certain extent. The ERA-Net "E-Rare" and the programs of the EU target primarily international cross-border projects and patient trials. All of these programs need to be adapted more efficiently to the particular needs of rare disease research. For national and international research projects on rare diseases, sufficient funds are needed but also sustainable interdisciplinary platforms and centers must be established in order to share expert knowledge and to implement complex programs such as proof-of-concept studies in humans.

  12. [Psychotherapeutic treatment of traumatized refugees in Germany].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Böttche, M; Stammel, N; Knaevelsrud, C

    2016-11-01

    Traumatic experiences resulting from war and violence can lead to a broad spectrum of psychological and somatic stress responses. The psychological strain of traumatized refugees is frequently aggravated by specific post-migration stressors. The current healthcare provision in Germany is characterized by many restrictions. The different residence permits are associated with a limited access to medical and psychotherapeutic services. In addition, there are several barriers limiting access of this group of patients to the healthcare system (e. g. low level of training of mental healthcare staff, language barriers and lack of financing for interpreters). Empirical studies have shown that traumatized refugees profit from existing trauma-focused and evidence-based interventions. Treatment is associated with particular challenges and issues (e. g. use of interpreters, migration and culture-specific as well as legal aspects). Specialized treatment centers for traumatized refugees use a multidisciplinary treatment approach, which includes psychotherapeutic, medical and social work interventions as well as assistance with the residential status and integration programs.

  13. Surface mining and land reclamation in Germany

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nephew, E.A.

    1972-05-01

    Mining and land restoration methods as well as planning and regulatory procedures employed in West Germany to ameliorate environmental impacts from large-scale surface mining are described. The Rhineland coalfield in North Rhine Westphalia contains some 55 billion tons of brown-coal (or lignite), making the region one of Europe's most important energy centers. The lignite is extracted from huge, open-pit mines, resulting in large areas of disturbed land. The German reclamation approach is characterized by planning and carrying out the mining process as one continuum from early planning to final restoration of land and its succeeding use. Since the coalfield is located in a populated region with settlements dating back to Roman times, whole villages lying in the path of the mining operations sometimes have to be evacuated and relocated. Even before mining begins, detailed concepts must be worked out for the new landscape which will follow: the topography, the water drainage system, lakes and forests, and the intended land-use pattern are designed and specified in advance. Early, detailed planning makes it possible to coordinate mining and concurrent land reclamation activities. The comprehensive approach permits treating the overall problem as a whole rather than dealing with its separate aspects on a piecemeal basis.

  14. Federal Republic of Germany: Commodities report 2003

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    The Federal Institute for Geosciences and Natural Resources (BGR) has compiled the facts and figures in a commodities report for 25 years. This report summarises Germany's mineral and energy commodities trading, consumption and supply situation. After fears of shortages in the early 70s, this 25-year-period was mainly characterised by the feeling that mineral resources would always be available on the international markets in adequate quantities. And although there has been no change in the situation even up to the present day, the world markets for mineral resources are currently undergoing a structural change: the old rule of thumb that 20% of humanity in Europe, the USA and Japan consumed more than 80% of resource production is no longer valid. With India, the People's Republic of China, not to mention other heavily populated emerging countries, over half of the world's population is now involved in the demand for minerals. This means that the growth in world economic demand for natural resources is at the beginning of a new growth curve. (orig.)

  15. Blood parasites in reptiles imported to Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halla, Ursula; Ursula, Halla; Korbel, Rüdiger; Rüdiger, Korbel; Mutschmann, Frank; Frank, Mutschmann; Rinder, Monika; Monika, Rinder

    2014-12-01

    Though international trade is increasing, the significance of imported reptiles as carriers of pathogens with relevance to animal and human health is largely unknown. Reptiles imported to Germany were therefore investigated for blood parasites using light microscopy, and the detected parasites were morphologically characterized. Four hundred ten reptiles belonging to 17 species originating from 11 Asian, South American and African countries were included. Parasites were detected in 117 (29%) of individual reptiles and in 12 species. Haemococcidea (Haemogregarina, Hepatozoon, Schellackia) were found in 84% of snakes (Python regius, Corallus caninus), 20% of lizards (Acanthocercus atricollis, Agama agama, Kinyongia fischeri, Gekko gecko) and 50% of turtles (Pelusios castaneus). Infections with Hematozoea (Plasmodium, Sauroplasma) were detected in 14% of lizards (Acanthocercus atricollis, Agama agama, Agama mwanzae, K. fischeri, Furcifer pardalis, Xenagama batillifera, Acanthosaura capra, Physignathus cocincinus), while those with Kinetoplastea (Trypanosoma) were found in 9% of snakes (Python regius, Corallus caninus) and 25 % of lizards (K. fischeri, Acanthosaura capra, G. gecko). Nematoda including filarial larvae parasitized in 10% of lizards (Agama agama, Agama mwanzae, K. fischeri, Fu. pardalis, Physignathus cocincinus). Light microscopy mostly allowed diagnosis of the parasites' genus, while species identification was not possible because of limited morphological characteristics available for parasitic developmental stages. The investigation revealed a high percentage of imported reptiles being carriers of parasites while possible vectors and pathogenicity are largely unknown so far. The spreading of haemoparasites thus represents an incalculable risk for pet reptiles, native herpetofauna and even human beings.

  16. Rural areas of Eastern Germany: modern challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klüter Helmut

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available After the German reunification the agricultural development of eastern territories seemed to have picked up its pace. Yet the main problems those territories are facing today hatched already in the mid-1990s. In our study we address the problems and challenges that hinder sustainable development of East German rural areas. We analyse agricultural statistics and describe the structure of agricultural enterprises, land-use, and other critical dimensions of agriculture. We discuss pros and cons of modern rural areas spatial planning policy and take a critical look at the current status of rural areas. We also put forward a number of concrete proposals aimed at the development of the area and counteracting the negative trends it is now experiencing. Even taking into account all ‘positive’ development trends that are postulated to have occurred since the unification, we underline the crucial necessity of diversification of labour forces and of changing the spatial planning policies in the rural areas of East Germany.

  17. Country policy profile - Germany. December 2015

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-12-01

    The German Government has initiated a long-term transformation of the entire energy system termed Energiewende. Besides the gradual phase-out of nuclear energy by 2022, one substantial element is the complete overhaul of the Renewable Energy Sources Act (EEG). On 1 August 2014 the EEG 2014 entered into force, representing a fundamental revision of the existing support scheme for renewable electricity, primarily for PV, wind and biomass. Beyond, Germany decided to phase out nuclear power from its generation mix by 2022 and to increase its share of renewable energy to 40-45% by 2025 and 55-60% by 2035. Renewable electricity is still supported through feed-in tariffs laid down in the EEG 2014 and low interest loans but from now on complemented by tendering procedures over the coming years. Renewable heating and cooling is supported by the regulations in the Renewable Energies Heat Act (EEWaermeG), the Market Incentive Programme (MAP) governed by the Federal Office of Economics and Export Control (BAFA) and low-interest loans offered via the KfW. Numerous support schemes are available for renewable heat on state (Laender) level. Renewable transport fuels are mainly supported by a quota system (bio-fuels Quota Act = Biokraftstoffquotengesetz - BiokraftQuG), and through fiscal regulation

  18. [The quality of chronic care in Germany].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fullerton, Birgit; Nolte, Ellen; Erler, Antje

    2011-01-01

    Over the last ten years changes in the legal framework of the German health care system have promoted the development of new health service models to improve chronic care. Recent innovations include the nation-wide introduction of disease management programmes (DMPs), integrated care contracts, community nurse programmes, the introduction of General Practitioner (GP)-centred care contracts, and new opportunities to offer interdisciplinary outpatient care in polyclinics. The aim of this article is to describe the recent developments regarding both the implementation of new health care models by statutory health insurance companies and their evaluation. As part of a European project on the development and validation of disease management evaluation methods (DISMEVAL), we carried out a selective literature search to identify relevant models and evaluation studies. However, on the basis of the currently available evaluation and study results it is difficult to judge whether these developments have actually led to an improvement in the quality of chronic care in Germany. Only for DMPs, evaluation is legally mandatory; its methods are inappropriate, though, for studying the effectiveness of DMPs. Further study results on the effectiveness of DMPs mostly focus on the DMP Diabetes mellitus type II and show consistent improvements regarding process parameters such as regular routine examinations, adherence to treatment guidelines, and quality of life. More research will be needed to determine whether DMPs can also help reduce the incidence of secondary disease and mortality in the long term. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier GmbH.

  19. Eocene lizard from Germany reveals amphisbaenian origins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Johannes; Hipsley, Christy A; Head, Jason J; Kardjilov, Nikolay; Hilger, André; Wuttke, Michael; Reisz, Robert R

    2011-05-19

    Amphisbaenia is a speciose clade of fossorial lizards characterized by a snake-like body and a strongly reinforced skull adapted for head-first burrowing. The evolutionary origins of amphisbaenians are controversial, with molecular data uniting them with lacertids, a clade of Old World terrestrial lizards, whereas morphology supports a grouping with snakes and other limbless squamates. Reports of fossil stem amphisbaenians have been falsified, and no fossils have previously tested these competing phylogenetic hypotheses or shed light on ancestral amphisbaenian ecology. Here we report the discovery of a new lacertid-like lizard from the Eocene Messel locality of Germany that provides the first morphological evidence for lacertid-amphisbaenian monophyly on the basis of a reinforced, akinetic skull roof and braincase, supporting the view that body elongation and limblessness in amphisbaenians and snakes evolved independently. Morphometric analysis of body shape and ecology in squamates indicates that the postcranial anatomy of the new taxon is most consistent with opportunistically burrowing habits, which in combination with cranial reinforcement indicates that head-first burrowing evolved before body elongation and may have been a crucial first step in the evolution of amphisbaenian fossoriality.

  20. Energy transition: how is Germany doing?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boulanger, Vincent

    2017-04-01

    This book is an updated edition of the previous version from 2015. In this book the author comments and discusses the content, successes and failures, uncertainties and consequences of the new German energy policy, Energiewende. The objective is to reach 80 to 95 per cent of reduction of greenhouse gas emissions by 2050 while phasing out nuclear. The author denies some statements about this policy. Some say that coal will replace nuclear as in fact renewable electricity production more than compensates the reduction of nuclear electricity production. Others say that Germany will have to import French nuclear electricity as in fact France must import German electricity in case of peak consumptions. Others say that German electricity became more expensive: it's true but it is in fact compensated by much higher energy savings. Remaining issues are the financing of nuclear plant dismantling and of nuclear waste management, the organisation of a decentralised production network, and the passage to renewable energies in the heating and transport sectors

  1. International design competition - Formula student Germany; Internationaler Konstruktionswettbewerb - Formula Student Germany

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Basshuysen, R. van; Siebenpfeiffer, W. (eds.)

    2007-11-15

    Following its great success last year, Formula Student Germany made an even more impressive impact at the second competition held at the Hockenheimring in 2007. This time, 1400 students from 14 nations came together to present the results of their development work to 5000 visitors and sponsors. At the end, the competition was won by the team from the University of Stuttgart - and ATZ/MTZ would like to congratulate them on their victory. The special character of Formula Student, however, means that everyone has something to celebrate. The enthusiasm and commitment of the teams not only resulted in exciting racing cars and innovative overall designs but also in a fantastic atmosphere. (orig.)

  2. Nuclear cooperation between Brazil and Federal Republic of Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Syllus, C.

    1989-01-01

    The Brazil-Federal Republic of Germany Cooperation Agreement for constructing nuclear power plants, and the process of nuclear tecnology transfer in the different areas of design, are discussed. (M.C.K.) [pt

  3. Germany versus the United States: Monetary Dominance in the Eurozone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chee-Heong Quah

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This study inspects if there is greater convergence with Germany amongst the Eurozone founding members and if their relations with the hegemonic economy have been more symmetrical after “euroization”. The dimensions explored are those inspired by the optimum currency areas (OCA framework. To some extent, the findings could signify if real convergence has been significantly endogenous. At the same time, to assess the relative dominance of Germany, the features against Germany are compared to those against US. In addition, the paper also appraises some aspects of economic performance to check whether economic conditions across the states have improved and converged after unification. In some convergence aspects, findings suggest remarkable convergence with Germany and across the states but also relative convergence with US. On economic performance, results indicate substantial improvements in inflation and unemployment. Amongst the founding states, Ireland has idiosyncratically shown serious divergences in a number of the convergence and performance measures.

  4. Careers in astronomy in Germany and the UK

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fohlmeister, Janine; Helling, Christiane

    2014-04-01

    Janine Fohlmeister and Christiane Helling discuss the outcomes of surveys addressing the career situation of astronomers in Germany and the UK, finding social and cultural differences between communities as well as gender bias in both.

  5. Tax wedge in Croatia, Belgium, Estonia, Germany and Slovakia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Gabrilo

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to analyse the taxation of labour income in Croatia, Belgium,Estonia, Germany and Slovakia. Having presented an outline of tax system rules, the paper shows the decomposition of the net average tax wedge for different family types and different income levels based on the OECD methodology. The results show that all observed countries apply a progressive tax schedule, apart from Germany where taxation for higher gross wages is not progressive due to a  cap on the SIC base. When it comes to a taxpayer earning an average gross wage, a Croatian single worker without children has the lowest tax burden, followed by Estonia, Slovakia, Germany and Belgium. However, as regards taxpayers earning 400% of AGW, Estonia has the smallest tax wedge, followed by Slovakia, Germany, Croatia and Belgium. Similar results are obtained by analyzing the tax wedge for couples with two children where one spouse is out of work.

  6. Redundancy proves its worth in FR Germany [emergency power supplies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simon, M.

    1987-01-01

    An analysis of loss of power events at nuclear power stations in FR Germany has confirmed the data used in the German risk study and underlined the advantages of providing a high degree of redundancy in emergency power supplies. (author)

  7. NP issues in the Federal Republic of Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kussmaul, K.

    1994-01-01

    Status of nuclear energy production in Federal Republic of Germany is presented. Measures to qualify continuing operation of nuclear power plants and research activities on reactor materials aging studying are described

  8. Are CSR disclosures relevant for investors? Empirical evidence from Germany

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verbeeten, F.H.M.; Gamerschlag, R.; Möller, K.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to examine whether narrative corporate social responsibility (CSR) disclosures (the provision of textual information on companies’ environmental and social performance to external stakeholders) are associated with firm value in Germany.

  9. Germany, Japan and the De-Baathification of Iraq

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Porch, Douglas

    2003-01-01

    ... since the occupations of Japan and Germany at the end of World War II." These plans include trials for Saddam's "key" senior officials, backed by a "truth and reconciliation" process to "publicly shame but not necessarily punish, human rights violators...

  10. The School-HE Interface in West Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmithals, F.

    1986-01-01

    Discusses the concerns and problems associated with the secondary school-higher education interface in West Germany. Reviews reform efforts and attempts at problem resolution with specific emphasis on physics instruction. (ML)

  11. Albedo neutron dosimetry in Germany: regulations and performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luszik-Bhadra, M.; Zimbal, A.; Busch, F.; Jordan, M.; Eichelberger, A.; Engelhardt, J.; Martini, E.; Figel, M.; Haninger, T.; Frasch, G.; Guenther, K.; Seifert, R.; Rimpler, A.

    2014-01-01

    Personal neutron dosimetry has been performed in Germany using albedo dosemeters for >20 y. This paper describes the main principles, the national standards, regulations and recommendations, the quality management and the overall performance, giving some examples. (authors)

  12. Public perceptions of cohort studies and biobanks in Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starkbaum, Johannes; Gottweis, Herbert; Gottweis, Ursula; Kleiser, Christina; Linseisen, Jakob; Meisinger, Christa; Kamtsiuris, Panagiotis; Moebus, Susanne; Jöckel, Karl-Heinz; Börm, Sonja; Wichmann, H-Erich

    2014-04-01

    Cohort studies and biobank projects have led to public discussions in several European countries in the past. In Germany, many medium-sized studies are currently running successfully in terms of respondent rates. However, EU-wide research on general public perceptions of biobanks and cohort studies have shown that Germany is among those countries where people express the highest reluctance for providing body material and other data for research purposes. Because of early efforts of the just-initiated German National Cohort Study, we are able to begin to investigate in greater detail how various groups of people across Germany reflect and discuss the ongoing implementation of cohort studies and biobanking in Germany. Our research is based on 15 focus group discussions in four German regions, as well as on Eurobarometer poll data on biobanking.

  13. The extent and impact of outsourcing: evidence from Germany

    OpenAIRE

    Craig P. Aubuchon; Subhayu Bandyopadhyay; Sumon Bhaumik

    2012-01-01

    The authors use data from several sources, including plant-level data from the manufacturing sector in Germany, to expand the literature on outsourcing. They find that, in Germany, the extent of outsourcing among manufacturing industries is higher than among service industries and that the outsourcing intensity of these industries did not change much between 1995 and 2005. They also find a statistically significantly positive impact of industry-level outsourcing intensity on German plant-leve...

  14. Inequality-adjusted gender wage differentials in Germany

    OpenAIRE

    Selezneva, Ekaterina; Van Kerm, Philippe

    2013-01-01

    This paper exploits data from the German Socio-Economic Panel (SOEP) to re-examine the gender wage gap in Germany on the basis of inequality-adjusted measures of wage differentials which fully account for gender differences in pay distributions. The inequality-adjusted gender pay gap measures are significantly larger than suggested by standard indicators, especially in East Germany. Women appear penalized twice, with both lower mean wages and greater wage inequality. A hypothetical risky inve...

  15. The costs of coexistence on farms in Germany

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Punt, Maarten J.; Venus, Thomas J.; Wesseler, Justus H H

    2017-01-01

    for farmers in their cultivation decisions, and therefore it is important to measure these costs. In this article, we investigate the costs of different coexistence measures for farmers in Germany. Currently, GM crop cultivation is outlawed in Germany, but there was a short period from 2005-2008 when...... that there are important differences in farm characteristics and overall landscape configuration that influence the costs or burden of coexistence measures....

  16. Comparisons in good and bad: criminality in Japan and Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kühne, H H

    1994-12-16

    In the field of criminological comparison, Japan and Germany are very suitable subjects. A nearly identical penal law and a social structure of highly developed industrial societies after a complete destruction at the end of World War War II give a good match. At first sight, Japan's crime rate is less than 1/4 of that in Germany. The impact of organised crime on the reduction of general crime is discussed.

  17. Precaution against radioactive contamination of steel products in Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ewers, E.; Schulz-Klemp, V.; Steffen, R.

    1999-01-01

    Regulations for handling of radioactive materials in Germany. Engagement of the Germany Iron and Steel Institute (VDEh) since the end of the eighties and measures taken. Level of radioactivity in uncontaminated steel products. Agreements between steel industry and scrap supplying industry as well as terms of delivery. Actual status of equipment for detection of radioactivity in the German steel plants. Demands of steel users for clean steel. (author)

  18. The role of Germany in resolving the ukrainian crisis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olena L. Hilchenko

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The article analyzes the participation of Germany in the matter of the Ukrainian crisis 2013-2015 and presents some approaches to the definition of the term «Ukrainian crisis». Reveals the reasons that lead Germany to take an active position in solving the Ukrainian question. Characterized the evolution of German-Russian relations from 90s to 2014, within which examined the St. Petersburg dialogue, «Pact of Putin-Schroeder», «Weimar triangle», «Partnership for modernization», Russian-Georgian conflict 2008. Available analysis of the new strategy of German foreign policy in 2012 «to support globalization – develop partnerships to share responsibility» and a new paradigm of German foreign policy presented in 2014 in the framework of the Munich conference on security policy. Examines the role of Germany in the European integration process of Ukraine during the Euromaidan events, the signing of the Association Agreement of Ukraine with the EU, ratification and future prospects of the enlargement of the European Union through the Eastern partnership countries. Presents the results of the public opinion of the population of Germany on this issue. Analyzes the position of the Germany government regarding the annexation of Crimea, the illegal referendum in Donetsk and Lugansk regions and the military aggression of Russian Federation against Ukraine. Presents description of the Germany role in the process of the diplomatic settlement of the military conflict in the East Ukraine in the framework of Norman four. On the example of polls are considered the public opinion of the population of Germany concerning possible ways of settlement the Ukrainian crisis. Presents the official position of the President of the Federal Republic of Germany. J. Gauck, Chancellor Merkel, Foreign Minister Frank-V. Steinmeier and Minister of Finance Schaeuble on certain issues of the Ukrainian crisis and the prolongations of sanctions against the Russian Federation

  19. Individual Evaluation of Judges in Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johannes Riedel

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In Germany, with the exception of the five federal supreme courts, court organization is a responsibility of the Länder (federal states. In some of the Länder, so-called employee profiles (“Anforderungsprofile“ have been established for judicial office. These lists attempt to describe criteria for certain judicial positions. They are applied in the process of promotion but also serve as an indicator for initial appointment.The European picture with respect to individual evaluation of judges is extremely diverse. In preparation for this paper, the author attempted to ascertain the situation in the Council of Europe member states. The results of this survey (to which 23 members of the CCJE have replied are listed in Appendix I.The general difficulty of professional evaluation of judges lies in the limits that have to be observed for constitutional reasons. In Germany, the overall rule of every evaluation is that there has to be a reliable factual basis. The evaluator is under a duty not to omit relevant aspects, to consider all the facts that make part of the picture, not to select arbitrarily but to try to paint a true and full picture of the person who is being evaluated. In the case of judges, it is unacceptable to comment on the core of judicial decision-making. Evaluations may be challenged in the administrative court on grounds of fact as well as on grounds of law. En Alemania, con la excepción de las cinco cortes supremas federales, la organización judicial es responsabilidad de los Länder (estados federales. En algunos de estos Länder, se han establecido los denominados perfiles de empleados (“Anforderungsprofile” para la oficina judicial. Estas listas pretenden describir los criterios para determinados cargos judiciales. Se aplican en los procesos de promoción, pero también sirven como un indicador para el nombramiento inicial.El panorama europeo respecto a la evaluación individual de los jueces es muy diverso. Preparando

  20. Transport of radioactive waste in Germany - a survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alter, U.

    1995-01-01

    The transport of radioactive waste is centralised and coordinated by the German Railway Company (Deutsche Bahn AG, DB) in Germany. The conditioning of radioactive waste is now centralised and carried out by the Gesellschaft fuer Nucklear Service (GNS). The Germany Railway Company, DB, is totally and exclusively responsible for the transport, the GNS is totally and exclusively responsible for the conditioning of radioactive waste. The German Railway Company transports all radioactive waste from nuclear power plants, conditioning facilities and the existing intermediate storage facilities in Germany. In 1992 nearly 177 shipments of radioactive waste were carried out, in 1991 the total amount was 179 shipments. A brief description of the transport procedures, the use of different waste packages for radioactive waste with negligible heat generation and the transport routes within Germany will be given. For this purpose the inspection authorities in Germany have used a new documentation system, a special computer program for waste flow tracking and quality assurance and compliance assurance, developed by the electrical power companies in Germany. (Author)

  1. [The situation of complementary medicine in Germany].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albrecht, Henning

    2013-01-01

    With the amendment of the German Medicinal Products Act in 1976 and the inclusion of naturopathy and homeopathy into the German Medical Licensure Act from 1988, the German government set up a comparatively favorable framework for Complementary and Alternative Medicine (CAM). But no comprehensive integration into the academic operating systems followed, because the universities as well as the legislative body seemed to have no further interest in CAM. Therefore, research projects in the field and suitable professorships had and still have to be financed by third-party funds. Notwithstanding the success of several CAM-projects, no sustainable development could be established: When the third-party funding runs off and the protagonists retire the institutional structures are supposed to vanish as well. Although the public demand for CAM is high in Germany, the administration detached homeopathy as a compulsory subject from the German Medical Licensure Act in 2002 and restricted severely the refunding of naturopathic medicines by the statutory health insurance in 2004. Moreover, the trend for CAM bashing takes root in the media. Unfortunately the CAM scene does not close ranks and is incapable to implement fundamental data collection processes into daily clinical routine: A wide range of data could justify further efforts to the government as well as to the scientific community. To say something positive, it must be mentioned that the scientific standard of CAM research is high for the most part and that third-party funded projects deliver remarkable results ever and on. Copyright © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  2. [Quality of surgical continuing education in Germany].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ansorg, J; Hassan, I; Fendrich, V; Polonius, M J; Rothmund, M; Langer, P

    2005-03-11

    One of the reasons for young doctors to leave the clinical work to go abroad or into non-clinical fields is insufficient quality of training under bad circumstances. Aim of the study was to evaluate the surgical training in Germany from the viewpoint of the residents. A questionnaire was prepared by residents and consultants and approved by the German surgical societies (Deutsche Gesellschaft fur Chirurgie und Berufsverband der Deutschen Chirurgen). It was sent to surgical residents between June 2003 and June 2004, published in "Der Chirurg BDC" and distributed among residents taking part in courses conducted by the BDC. It could be answered anonymously by email, mail or online. The questionnaire was sent back by 584 surgical residents (about 30 % of all). 58 % of the residents declared that they finished the training in the intended time (6 years). Rotation-systems as part of a structured residency program existed for 43 %. Standard surgical procedures were discussed or explained before the procedure in only 46 %. 61 % of the residents were not satisfied with the teaching assistance by their clinical teachers in the OR. Only 33 % had regular talks with the Chief about their progress in surgical training. 18 % of residents felt, that the hospital is interested in their progress in training. Indication-conferences took place in 52 % and mortality-conferences in only 20 % of programs. Regular seminars on recent issues took place in 62 %, and 61 % of residents did not get financial support to attend congresses. 36 % of residents had to use their holidays to attend congresses. Surgical training structures are not well established in about 50 % of the training hospitals from where we got answers to our survey. The training potential of daily surgical work is not used appropriately. It is therefore imperative to develop guidelines for surgical training, the use of log-books and rotation-programs.

  3. The use of IMRT in Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frenzel, Thorsten; Kruell, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    Intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) is frequently used, but there are no data about current frequency regarding specific tumor sites and equipment used for quality assurance (QA). An online survey about IMRT was executed from April to October 2014 by the collaborative IMRT working group (AK IMRT) of the German Association of Medical Physicists (DGMP). A total of 23 German institutions took part in the survey. Most reports came from users working with Elekta, Varian, and Siemens treatment machines, but also from TomoTherapy and BrainLab. Most frequent IMRT technology was volumetric modulated arc therapy (58.37 %: VMAT/''rapid arc''), followed by step-and-shoot IMRT (14.66 %), dynamic MLC (dMLC: 14.53 %), TomoTherapy (9.25 %), and 3.2 % other techniques. Different commercial hard- and software solutions are available for QA, whereas many institutes still develop their own phantoms. Data of 26,779 patients were included in the survey; 44 % were treated using IMRT techniques. IMRT was most frequently used for anal cancer, (whole) craniospinal irradiation, head and neck cancer, prostate cancer, other tumors in the pelvic region, gynecological tumors (except for breast cancer), and brain tumors. An estimated 10 % of all patients treated in 2014 with radiation in Germany were included in the survey. It is representative for the members of the AK IMRT. IMRT may be on the way to replace other treatment techniques. However, many scientific questions are still open. In particular, it is unclear when the IMRT technique should not be used. (orig.) [de

  4. Germany, an industrialized country, and nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wartenberg, L. v.

    2001-01-01

    The question of the future of nuclear power in Germany, and the agreement between the federal government and industry of June 14, 2000 about the future operation of plants, are important far beyond the confines of this sector of industry. In times of economic globalization and of competition among national economies, questions of location have become key issues in meeting future challenges. For this purpose, there must be more freedom for the economy; entrepreneurial action must be regarded as a positive duty to be fulfilled by society. Personal responsibility and competition, with room for self-responsibility, must not be hampered further by interventions and red tape. This applies to all sectors of the economy, in particular to the power supply sector, as is borne out by the current debate about the quota regulations for cogeneration systems (CHP). Social justice, one of the most important unifying forces in this modern society, must be interpreted as solidarity. This solidarity must be sought also in an international context. Supplying the basic necessities to all inhabitants of this earth requires all sources of energy, also in the interest of achieving sustainability. This term should be interpreted, above and beyond its meaning in environmental protection, as a concept in all areas of politics, implying that the future must be taken into account in all decisions made today. In the light of the problems associated with establishing a worldwide sustainable power supply system, inter alia meeting the objectives of climate protection, continuity of supply, and economic viability, there is no way around nuclear power. Free decisions are required in the sense of sustainable economic management, and the political boundary conditions must be created for this to be possible. (orig.) [de

  5. Thin film solar cell technology in Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diehl, W.; Sittinger, V.; Szyszka, B.

    2005-01-01

    Within the scope of limited nonrenewable energy resources and the limited capacity of the ecosystem for greenhouse gases and nuclear waste, sustainability is one important target in the future. Different energy scenarios showed the huge potential for photovoltaics (PV) to solve this energy problem. Nevertheless, in the last decade, PV had an average growth rate of over 20% per year. In 2002, the solar industry delivered more than 500 MWp/year of photovoltaic generators [A. Jaeger-Waldau, A European Roadmap for PV R and D, E-MRS Spring Meeting, (2003)]. More than 85% of the current production involves crystalline silicon technologies. These technologies still have a high cost reduction potential, but this will be limited by the silicon feedstock. On the other hand the so-called second generation thin film solar cells based on a-Si, Cu(In,Ga)(Se,S 2 (CIGS) or CdTe have material thicknesses of a few microns as a result of their direct band gap. Also, the possibility of circuit integration offers an additional cost reduction potential. Especially in Germany, there are a few companies who focus on thin film solar cells. Today, there are two manufacturers with production lines: the Phototronics (PST) division of RWE-Schott Solar with a-Si thin film technology and the former Antec Solar GmbH (now Antec Solar Energy GmbH) featuring the CdTe technology. A pilot line based on CIGS technology is run by Wuerth Solar GmbH. There is also a variety of research activity at other companies, namely, at Shell Solar, Sulfurcell Solartechnik GmbH, Solarion GmbH and the CIS-Solartechnik GmbH. We will give an overview on research activity on various thin film technologies, as well as different manufacturing and production processes in the companies mentioned above. (Author)

  6. [The hospital at Hillersleben Germany, April 1945].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weisskopf, Varda

    2014-01-01

    On 6th April 1945, nine days before the liberation of the Bergen Belsen Concentration Camp, about 2,500 Jewish prisoners were ordered to prepare to leave the camp on the next day. On 7th April, the prisoners left through the gates of the camp and began to walk about 10 kilometers to the train station near the city of Celle. There they were ordered to board a train that would take them to the Theresienstadt Concentration Camp. After six days of travel, the train stopped near the village of Farsleben, Germany, where it was liberated by the 743rd Tank Battalion of the 30th Infantry Division, of the U.S. 9th Army, on 13th April 1945. The 105th Medical Battalion of the same Division was the primary care provider for the survivors, who were then taken in vehicles available from the 30th Infantry Division, and organized into a convoy by the Division's Liaison Officer, Lt. Frank W. Towers, to the town of Hillersleben. A former German Air Force Base was located at Hillersleben with a small hospital that could not provide medical attention to all the survivors. On 21st April, Company C of the 95th Medical Battalion, received an order to go to Hillersleben. Colonel Dr. William W. Hurteau, the Commanding Officer of this Battalion, determined that the biggest task given to the Battalion during World War II, was establishing another hospital in the town of Hillersleben and providing additional beds in the existing hospital, which was a structure that had served as a boarding school. Furthermore, they needed to acquire hospital equipment which was obtained from German equipment and supplies that had been captured by the U.S. MiLitary. Also, they took care of obtaining food supplies from German warehouses, and meat and milk from local dairy farms. The lives of the prisoners on this train were saved by the heroism and dedicated work of those brave soldiers of the 30th Infantry Division and the 95th Medical Battalion.

  7. Germany: Exposure of Transport Workers During the Transport of Most Frequently Transported NORM in Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    The German national report to this CRP was focused on the following services according to the research agreement: (1) Status review, analysis and evaluation of the radiation exposure imposed by shipment and expected exposure of the shipment staff of the most relevant NORM in Germany; (2) Development of evaluation criteria and safety requirements to provide adequate safety standards for the transportation of NORM; (3) Development and application of procedures to determine the limits for exempt materials/consignments for transportation according to German Transport Regulations for all NORM. For the analysis and evaluation of the radiation exposure imposed by shipment of NORM for the following materials, a couple of transport scenarios were defined and the dose to transport workers was calculated. - Tantalum raw materials; - Raw phosphate; - Pipe scales and sludge from oil and gas exploitation; - Coal ash; - Waste rock material from uranium mining; - Zircon raw materials; - Titanium dioxide raw materials; - Filter gravel from waterworks

  8. Three aspects of the Germany-France comparison on electricity. Electricity production and consumption in Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laponche, Bernard

    2014-01-01

    As a comparative overview of the French and German situation regarding electric power, a first article proposes tables and graphs illustrating data evolution, and brief comments about these evolutions. Comparison focuses on household electricity consumption, on electricity exchanges, and on the production of electricity based on renewable energies. An appendix proposes a presentation of the German policy for energy transition: principles and objectives, phasing out nuclear, implementation. Then, an article, illustrated by data tables and graphs, discusses the evolution of electric power production and consumption in Germany between 2000 and 2013. The author addresses power final consumption, power total production and exchanges, the components of electric power production, and greenhouse gas emissions (by fossil fuel, by sector, and by electricity and heat production)

  9. Functional approaches in translation studies in Germany Functional approaches in translation studies in Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Kussmaul

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available In the early phase of translation studies in Germany, contrastive linguistics played a major role. I shall briefly describe this approach so that the functional approach will become clearer by contrast. Influenced by the representatives of stylistique comparée, Vinay/Darbelnet (1968 Wolfram Wilss, for instance, in his early work (1971, 1977 makes frequent use of the notion transposition (German “Ausdrucksverschiebung“, cf. also Catford’s (1965 term shift. As a whole, of course, Wilss’ work has a much broader scope. More recently, he has investigated the role of cognition (1988 and the various factors in translator behaviour (1996. Nevertheless, transposition is still a very important and useful notion in describing the translation process. The need for transpositions arises when there is no possibility of formal one-to-one correspondence between source and target-language structures. The basic idea is that whenever there is a need for transposition, we are faced with a translation problem. In the early phase of translation studies in Germany, contrastive linguistics played a major role. I shall briefly describe this approach so that the functional approach will become clearer by contrast. Influenced by the representatives of stylistique comparée, Vinay/Darbelnet (1968 Wolfram Wilss, for instance, in his early work (1971, 1977 makes frequent use of the notion transposition (German “Ausdrucksverschiebung“, cf. also Catford’s (1965 term shift. As a whole, of course, Wilss’ work has a much broader scope. More recently, he has investigated the role of cognition (1988 and the various factors in translator behaviour (1996. Nevertheless, transposition is still a very important and useful notion in describing the translation process. The need for transpositions arises when there is no possibility of formal one-to-one correspondence between source and target-language structures. The basic idea is that whenever there is a need for

  10. Conference on participatory wind energy in France and in Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vohrer, Philipp; Poize, Noemie; Hanus, Dominik; Hallmann, Dieter; Jourdain, Pierre; Ruehl, Martin; Bessiere, Patrick; Guyonnet-Duperat, Philippe; Foerster, Maelle; Partetzke, Matthias; Rumolino, Claudio

    2014-01-01

    The French-German office for Renewable energies (OFAEnR) organised a conference on participatory wind energy in France and in Germany. In the framework of this French-German exchange of experience, about 150 participants exchanged views on the role and involvement of citizens in wind energy projects and raised the question of the prerequisite to the construction of a participatory wind farm. In this framework, the different participatory models existing in both countries were analysed, in particular with regard to their respective advantages and drawbacks and to a legal framework which remains to be defined. Four projects, 2 in France and 2 in Germany, were presented as examples. The call for proposals model was presented and debated as well as the question of the project success, and of its financing and profitability. This document brings together the available presentations (slides) made during this event: 1 - Community wind farms in Germany: status quo and forecast (Philipp Vohrer); 2 - Participatory projects in France: which legal solutions, which prospects for development? (Noemie Poize); 3 - Citizen owned wind farms and their legal forms in Germany: Advantages and challenges of the different schemes (Dominik Hanus); 4 - Make wind power profitable: Citizen participation in Germany and France/Make the energy transition together. The energy co-operative participation as a model in Germany (Dieter Hallmann); 5 - Power to the people - A new model for French wind energy. Beganne community-owned wind farm (Pierre Jourdain); 6 - Making wind power profitable: civic participation in Germany and France: German utility companies rely on wind power. Direct civic participation in the municipal utility company - democratization of the turnaround in energy policy (Martin Ruehl); 7 - French municipalities get involved: calls for projects (Patrick Bessiere); 8 - Crowd-funding - French regulatory framework (Philippe Guyonnet-Duperat, Maelle Foerster); 9 - Making wind energy

  11. Oil and Gas Emergency Policy: Germany 2012 update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-07-01

    Germany has very little domestic oil and natural gas production and relies heavily on imports. It has well diversified and flexible oil and natural gas supply infrastructure, which consists of crude, product and gas pipelines and crude and oil product import terminals. Natural gas is imported into Germany exclusively by cross-border pipeline. The country has no LNG infrastructure, although some German companies have booked capacities in overseas LNG terminals. Oil continues to be the main source of energy in Germany although it has declined markedly since the early 1970s. It now represents approximately 32% of Germany’s total primary energy supply (TPES). Natural gas consumption in Germany has declined 10% since 2006. Demand was 90 bcm in 2010, down from 100 bcm in 2005. According to government commissioned analysis, the total consumption of natural gas in Germany is expected to continue to decline over the long term. The share of natural gas in Germany’s TPES is currently around 22%. German oil stock levels are generally well above the required 90-days. Total oil stock levels in Germany were equivalent to 140 days net imports in April 2012. Since 1998, the German oil stockholding agency (EBV) has been solely responsible for meeting Germany's 90-day stockholding obligation. The Oil Stockholding Act stipulates that the EBV shall constantly maintain stocks of oil and petroleum products at a level equivalent to or above 90 days of net imports. There is no minimum stockholding obligation on industry, so industry held commercial stocks are held in addition to the EBV stocks. There are several legal tools available to German authorities for natural gas emergency response. These include Ordinances that can be used to restrict the sale, purchase or use of goods, both in terms of quantity and time, or permit them only for certain priority purposes, to ensure that vital energy needs are met. There are no compulsory natural gas storage requirements in Germany, and no

  12. Germany as an energy-producing country - quo vadis?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rauscher, K.

    2003-01-01

    Secure, sufficient electricity supplies available at any time, as guaranteed in Germany, are vital to the existence of our modern society. Under the conditions of deregulated markets, it must continue to be possible in Germany to offer reliable, economical and non-polluting energy supplies. These three factors should enjoy equal importance in energy policy decisions in the interest of sustainability. The skewed balance caused by political preferences as experienced at the present time can jeopardize the general objective of optimization of the three factors in the long run. As in no other country, the power industry in Germany had to make a considerable adaptation effort, inter alia, because of market deregulation, airborne pollutant reduction, and agreements on the operating life of existing nuclear power plants. Other problems are likely to arise in the near future, e.g. in connection with emission trading. The power industry is willing and able to solve these future problems. This is true in particular of the expected replacement of power plants of approx. 40 000 MW generating capacity in Germany, where the European framework must be taken into account with a replacement requirement of approx. 200 000 MW. This implies investments of euro 50 billion in Germany alone, which can be made only if there is sufficient security in planning for the operators of power plants. The choice of efficient and economically viable power generation technologies must be possible in this respect. (orig.) [de

  13. Regional climate service in Southern Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schipper, Janus; Hackenbruch, Julia

    2013-04-01

    Climate change challenges science, politics, business and society at the international, national and regional level. The South German Climate Office at the Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT) is a contact for the structuring and dissemination of information on climate and climate change in the South German region. It provides scientifically based and user-oriented climate information. Thereby it builds a bridge between the climate sciences and society and provides scientific information on climate change in an understandable way. The expertise of KIT, in which several institutions operate on fundamental and applied climate research, and of partner institutions is the basis for the work in the climate office. The regional focus is on the south of Germany. Thematic focuses are e.g. regional climate modeling, trends in extreme weather events such as heavy rain and hail event, and issues for energy and water management. The South German Climate Office is one of four Regional Helmholtz Climate Offices, of which each has a regional and thematic focus. The users of the Climate Office can be summarized into three categories. First, there is the general public. This category consists mainly of non-professionals. Here, special attention is on an understandable translation of climate information. Attention is paid to application-related aspects, because each individual is affected in a different way by climate change. Typical examples of this category are school groups, citizens and the media. The second category consists of experts of other disciplines. Unlike the first category they are mainly interested in the exchange of results and data. It is important to the climate office to provide support for the use of climatological results. Typical representatives of this category are ministries, state offices, and companies. In the third and final category are scientists. In addition to the climatologists, this category also holds representatives from other scientific

  14. Environment and economic growth in the federal republic of Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bertsch, F.

    1998-01-01

    After several decades of economic growth with a continuous increase of energy consumptions, a new trend is now developing in Germany: reduction of energy consumptions and of pollutant emissions. This paper analyzes first the energy supplies of Germany (consumption, sources), the consumption by sector, and the share of the different energy sources in the German consumption (petroleum, coal, natural gas, nuclear power, and renewable energies). In a second part, the German energy policy is presented with its priorities and actions regarding the environment protection: energy savings, development of renewable energy sources, reduction of automotive fuels consumption, rational use of energy, thermal insulation of buildings, financial incentives etc.. Finally, the forecasting of future energy consumption and pollutants emission trends in Germany and at the worldwide scale are evoked. (J.S.)

  15. HTGR type reactors in West Germany. Realizations and prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dauenert, U.

    1978-01-01

    The framework within which the research studies on high temperature reactors have been pursued in West Germany since 1960 is recalled. The principles guiding the present policy of the country in this domain are given: choice of a single technical conception that be applied both to reactors generating electricity and reactors producing high temperature heat for industrial processes such as coal gasification; to group the technical and industrial potentials of West Germany in this domain; financial and technical participation of electricity producers in the expected realizations; international cooperation. In this technique, West Germany is at present among the most advanced nations with the realization of a prototype 300 MWe reactor, financed by the electricity producers and a contribution of government [fr

  16. Extent and application of ICU diaries in Germany in 2014

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nydahl, Peter; Knueck, Dirk; Egerod, Ingrid

    2015-01-01

    in keeping ICU diaries. CONCLUSION: Six years after the introduction of ICU diaries, ICU nurses in Germany are becoming familiar with the concept. Nursing shortage and bureaucratic challenges have impeded the process of implementation, but the adaption of ICU diaries to German conditions appears......, newsletters, newspapers, lectures and publications in German nursing journals. AIM: The aim of the study was to update our knowledge of the extent and application of ICU diaries in Germany in 2014. DESIGN: The study had a prospective mixed methods multicenter design. METHOD: All 152 ICUs in the two German...... of Germany had implemented diaries and three units were planning to do so. Interviews were conducted with nurses at 14 selected ICUs. Informants reported successful adaption of the diary concept to their culture, but variability in application. No units were identified where all nursing staff participated...

  17. The photovoltaic sector in Germany, where does it go?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2012-01-01

    Opinion polls show that photovoltaic power is very popular in Germany. This sector employs about 130.000 people and although a lot of solar modules are imported from China, other components like current inverters are fabricated in Germany and as a whole the trade balance is positive and the export rate nears 50%. In 2011 Germany invested 25 billion euros in the photovoltaic sector and now about 5% of the consumed electricity is photovoltaic power. Photovoltaic power reached grid parity in february 2012 for some consumers and the German government decided to reduce the purchase tariff drastically which may jeopardize the aim of having a photovoltaic park of 51 GWc by 2020. (A.C.)

  18. "Great Technology, Football and...": Malaysian Language Learners' Stereotypes about Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larisa Nikitina

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This study focuses on stereotypes about Germany, its culture and people, held by learners of German in a big public university in Malaysia. It examines not only the stereotypical representations of the target language country but also assesses its favourability and salience, which has not been done previously. The findings revealed that the students' stereotypes about Germany were varied and diverse. Also, they were overwhelmingly positive. The top three salient categories of images about Germany were related to technology, famous personalities - for the most part football players and scientists - and cars. The findings also indicated that very few references had been made to German culture and to its great cultural figures. The results of the present study suggest that students could benefit from a wider and deeper exposure to German culture in the language classroom.

  19. Regional cost differences of hospital supply in Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lauterbach, Karl W.

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available The intended adoption of a global reimbursement system for inpatient care in Germany envisions identical payments for identical treatments at different hospitals. This may lead to losses in some hospitals and may cause problems for the supply with health care facilities in the long run if there a important regional cost differences. Cost and performance data of 1112 hospitals in Germany have been analysed for regional differences in 2001: As regional categorizations we used official classification schemes based on centrality. The investigation does not support the postulation of additional payments for selected regions in Germany accounting for level cost-differences between hospitals. Confounding influence factors like ownership and hospital size seem to be more important. We recommend further investigations to evaluate regional cost-differences on the level of medical wards and using more risk-adjusted data. The examination of the individual case is necessary.

  20. ELEMENTS OF NEOCONSERVATISM IN THE CONTEMPORARY POLITICAL SOCIETY IN GERMANY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    М С Ладыгин

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the phenomenon of strengthening neoconservative sentiments, i.e. neocon actors, in Germany. The paper analyzes the aims of three neoconservative actors in Germany: the party Alternative for Germany, the social movement PEGIDA and the “Identitarian movement”. It is found that all three parties have similar aims and their cooperation could lead to a serious strengthening of neocon positions both in society and on the political landscape. One of the conclusions of the article at hand is that it is too early to judge the party's ability to work as an established party. This conclusion is accompanied with the fact that the majority of those who voted for AfG were so called “protest voters”, hence they may prevent the return of the party in the next elections to the Bundestag.

  1. Low Wage Mobility in Denmark, Germany and the United States

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deding, Mette

    In this working paper, mobility out of low wage employment in Denmark, Germany, and the United States is studied. Data used for the analysis are the Danish Longitudinal Database – a representative sample of the Danish population, and the PSID-GSOEP Equivalent File Data. Mobility is analysed...... as the transition out of low wage in 1993 and 1995 respectively, conditional on low wage in 1992. The econometric model takes selection into low wage in 1992 into account, and results clearly state the importance. At the aggregate level, mobility patterns are similar in Denmark and Germany, while mobility...

  2. Germany: INIS — 45 years of Reliable Nuclear Energy Information

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rehme, Silke; Eck, Sabrina; Mutschelknauss, Michael

    2015-01-01

    The Federal Republic of Germany has been an official INIS member since 1970. The first 78 citations from German publications can be found in Issue 2 of Volume 1 of the INIS Atomindex. At that time, the Zentralstelle für Atomenergie-Dokumentation (ZAED) was the INIS center in Western Germany. To ensure that the documentation on nuclear energy was directly serving the interests of researchers working in this field, the ZAED had been recently moved from Frankfurt to the neighborhood of Kernforschungszentrum Karlsruhe, Germany’s most important nuclear research institution. After 1977, the ZAED, together with other documentation centers, was merged into what is today FIZ Karlsruhe. At the same time, publications from Eastern Germany were analyzed by the Staatliches Amt für Atomsicherheit und Strahlenschutz in Berlin from 1974 to 1989. After the German reunification, FIZ Karlsruhe became responsible for this. The share of German contributions made to the INIS database amounts to 7% of the total number of contributions. Germany has regularly ranked among the top 5 contributing Member States in the annual statistics. Regarding cooperation in INIS, Germany — represented by FIZ Karlsruhe and its predecessors — has always been actively involved, not only in contributing publications, but also in strategic planning, organization, and technical and subject matters throughout the past five decades. Germany was part of the INIS Study Team during the planning stage of INIS. Germany also hosted two ILO meetings in Karlsruhe: one in 1979 and one on the occasion of the 30th anniversary in 2000. Staff from various INIS centers worldwide often visit FIZ Karlsruhe in order to gain insight into our INIS production or to participate in internships and training sessions on workflow management, application of rules, and FIBRE usage. FIZ Karlsruhe’s many years of participation in the Voluntary Input Program, and the editing of input provided as a service to sometimes as many as 7

  3. Traffic Mortality in Germany Before, During, and After Reunification

    OpenAIRE

    Winston, Flaura K.; Menon, Rajiv; Moll, Elisa K.; Arbogast, Kristy B.; Baker, Susan P.

    1999-01-01

    Following the fall of the Berlin Wall in late 1989, the combination of sudden wealth, sudden access to cars, and a flood of new young drivers had disastrous effects on East Germans. While motor vehicle occupant death rates decreased in West Germany, motor vehicle occupant death rates in East Germany surged upward. Between 1989 and 1991, the death rate increased for all age groups but was greatest for 18–20 year olds (from 5 to 54 deaths/100,000) and 21–24 year olds (from 5 to 44). Fatality ra...

  4. Geochemical characteristics of peat from two raised bogs of Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mezhibor, A. M.

    2016-11-01

    Peat has a wide range of applications in different spheres of human activity, and this is a reason for a comprehensive study. This research represents the results of an ICP-MS study of moss and peat samples from two raised bogs of Germany. Because of the wide use of sphagnum moss and peat, determining their geochemical characteristics is an important issue. According to the results obtained, we can resume that the moss samples from Germany are rich in Cu, As, Y, Zr, Nb, and REE. The geochemical composition of the bogs reflects the regional environmental features and anthropogenic influence.

  5. Renewable energy policy and wind energy development in Germany

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zitzer, Suzanne E [UFZ - Umweltforschungszentrum Leipzig-Halle GmbH, Leipzig (Germany). Department Urban Ecology, Environmental Planing and Transport

    2009-07-15

    The author of the contribution under consideration reports on the renewable energy policy and wind energy development in the Federal Republic of Germany. First of all, the author describes the historical development of the renewable energy policy since the 1970ies. Then, the environmental policies of the Red-Green Coalition (till to 2005) and of the Grand Coalition (since 2005) as well as the Renewable Energy Sources Act are described. The next section of this contribution is concern to the development of wind energy in the Federal Republic of Germany under consideration of onshore wind energy and offshore wind energy.

  6. Comparison of Bioenergy Policies in Denmark and Germany

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schwarz, Gerald; Noe, Egon; Saggau, Volker

    2012-01-01

    Purpose – This chapter compares bioenergy policy developments in Germany and Denmark to better understand the responses of EU country policy regimes to global shocks; to examine potentially emerging new trends of productivist policy models; and to explore potential land use conflicts in the context...... of a multifunctional EU agricultural policy. Design/methodology/approach – The chapter reviews the bioenergy policy development pathways taken by Germany and Denmark, highlighting key consequences for agricultural land use and rural development. Findings from both case studies are then compared in summary tables...

  7. Unlimited - nuclear liabilities in the Federal Republic of Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arendt, W.

    1986-01-01

    Unlimited nuclear liabilities as in force in the Federal Republic of Germany go beyond the international rules of the Paris liability agreement. The unlimited liability mainly roots in the positive operational experiences and safety balance of the 20 nuclear power plants which meanwhile are in operation in the Federal Republic of Germany. Nuclear liabilities must not be confounded with scepticism as to the utilization of nuclear power. Extraordinary requirements of that kind should rather be reflecting responsibility and clear ideas and notions of the advantages and risks of nuclear energy. (HSCH) [de

  8. Earthquakes in the Federal Republic of Germany 1977

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-01-01

    The seismic data will serve as input parameters for the construction of sensitive industrial-scale facilities and also as basic data of the general specifications for building construction (DIN 4149, part 1: Building construction in seismic regions of West Germany; assumed loads, dimensioning and design of high structures). To give a better picture, the data are presented in the form of maps showing seismic regions in West Germany (including marginal regions) and world-wide. Definitions are presented in order to facilitate reading for non-experts. (orig./HP) [de

  9. Change in the financing scheme for radioactive waste in Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Svobodová, Tereza

    2018-01-01

    Financing radioactive waste management is an issue every country using nuclear power has to deal with. A European directive even makes this binding for Euratom Member States. Germany changed its financing scheme entirely during the past year, thereby moving closer to other states' schemes. Germany replaced the funds put aside by the operators with a public fund to which the companies contribute. Now it is the government that is responsible for radioactive waste. This paper describes the regulation and information collection system on the European level and analyses the former and current German systems, their advantages and potential hazards. (orig.)

  10. [Italian immigration into Imperial Germany up to World War I].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trincia, L

    1996-09-01

    "A rapid growth, both economic and industrial, of the German Empire during the last decade of the nineteenth century...produced a major switch in Germany's status from that of a country of emigration to a country of immigration.... The essay gives a concise description of the characteristics of Italian migration flows towards Germany, integration processes and chain migration patterns. The impact of immigration on the receiving country is...analyzed, both in terms of economic development and from a social, political and legal point of view." (SUMMARY IN ENG AND FRE) excerpt

  11. Nuclear power phaseout policy and the economic implications for Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pfaffenberger, W.

    1999-01-01

    Implementation of Germany's nuclear power phaseout policy and the expected consequences are discussed in this paper, referring to environmental aspects and Germany's international commitments under the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change, implications for the national economy, the required structural transformation of the energy industry, and changes in the general legal setting for the energy sector. Proposals are discussed for modifying the planned nuclear power phaseout policy so as to make the process of winding down nuclear generation more compatible with economic, social, and environmental policy conditions. (orig./CB) [de

  12. EU stresstest national report of Germany. Implementation of the EU stress tests in Germany

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-07-01

    The European Council concluded in March 2011 that the safety of all EU nuclear plants should be reviewed on the basis of a comprehensive and transparent risk assessment (''stress test''). In addition to the European initiative, all countries with operating nuclear power plants indicated the performance of immediate safety reviews to take into account any lessons already learned or to be learned from the Fukushima Dai-ichi accident of 11{sup th} March 2011. The German Bundestag (Federal Parliament) called upon the German Federal Government on 17{sup th} March 2011 to conduct a comprehensive review of the safety requirements for the German nuclear power plants. The competent Federal Ministry asked its advisory body, the RSK, to perform this review. The findings of the RSK safety review were presented to the public on 17{sup th} May 2011. For the European stress tests, ENSREG published the scope and modalities for comprehensive risk and safety assessments of EU nuclear power plants on 13{sup th} May 2011. This ''Declaration of ENSREG'' determines the concept, methodology and time schedule of the EU stress test. Detailed requirements on content and structure of the reports and the planned peer reviews in 2012 were developed under the leadership of ENREG and agreed at its meeting on 11{sup th} October 2011. The BMU as the federal regulator in Germany asked the Laender nuclear regulatory authorities to initiate the EU stress tests according to the ENSREG Declaration. A joint meeting of BMU, Laender authorities, expert organisations and the licensees of the German nuclear power plants took place on 30{sup th} June 2011 to agree on the scope and the procedure of stress tests in Germany. It was also decided to take the 30{sup th} June 2011 as the reference date for the plants in operation, regardless future decisions on the possible limitation of the operating time by amendment to the Atomic Energy Act which were in the legislative

  13. EU stresstest national report of Germany. Implementation of the EU stress tests in Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    The European Council concluded in March 2011 that the safety of all EU nuclear plants should be reviewed on the basis of a comprehensive and transparent risk assessment (''stress test''). In addition to the European initiative, all countries with operating nuclear power plants indicated the performance of immediate safety reviews to take into account any lessons already learned or to be learned from the Fukushima Dai-ichi accident of 11 th March 2011. The German Bundestag (Federal Parliament) called upon the German Federal Government on 17 th March 2011 to conduct a comprehensive review of the safety requirements for the German nuclear power plants. The competent Federal Ministry asked its advisory body, the RSK, to perform this review. The findings of the RSK safety review were presented to the public on 17 th May 2011. For the European stress tests, ENSREG published the scope and modalities for comprehensive risk and safety assessments of EU nuclear power plants on 13 th May 2011. This ''Declaration of ENSREG'' determines the concept, methodology and time schedule of the EU stress test. Detailed requirements on content and structure of the reports and the planned peer reviews in 2012 were developed under the leadership of ENREG and agreed at its meeting on 11 th October 2011. The BMU as the federal regulator in Germany asked the Laender nuclear regulatory authorities to initiate the EU stress tests according to the ENSREG Declaration. A joint meeting of BMU, Laender authorities, expert organisations and the licensees of the German nuclear power plants took place on 30 th June 2011 to agree on the scope and the procedure of stress tests in Germany. It was also decided to take the 30 th June 2011 as the reference date for the plants in operation, regardless future decisions on the possible limitation of the operating time by amendment to the Atomic Energy Act which were in the legislative procedure at that time. The ''stress tests'' were started by all German

  14. Duty Rosters and Workloads of Obstetricians in Germany: Results of a Germany-wide Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neimann, Johannes; Knabl, Julia; Puppe, Julian; Bayer, Christian Michael; Gass, Paul; Gabriel, Lena; Seelbach-Goebel, Birgit; Lermann, Johannes; Schott, Sarah

    2017-08-01

    Compiling a daily hospital roster which complies with existing laws and tariff regulations and meets the requirements for ongoing professional training while also taking the legal regulations on the health of employees into account makes planning the duty roster a challenge. The aim of this study was to obtain a realistic picture of existing duty roster systems and of the current workloads of obstetricians in Germany. This online survey was sent to 2770 physicians training to become obstetricians or specializing in specific areas of obstetric care. The survey consisted of an anonymized 95-item questionnaire which collected data on different types of duty roster systems and the workload of obstetricians in Germany for the period from 17.02.2015 to 16.05.2015. Out of a total of 2770 physicians who were contacted, 437 (16%) completed the questionnaire. Across all forms of care, the care provided outside normal working hours usually (75%) consisted of a combination of regular working times and on-call duty or even consisted entirely of standby duty. Level I perinatal centers were most likely 20% (n = 88) to have a shift system in place. Working a shift system was significantly more common in care facilities which had previously carried out a job analysis. The number of physicians in hospitals who are present during the night shift was higher in facilities with higher numbers of births and in facilities which offered higher levels of care. In addition to regularly working overtime and the fact that often not all the hours worked were recorded, it was notable that the systems used to compile duty rosters often did not comply with legal regulations or with collectively agreed working hours nor were they compatible with the staff planning requirements. The results of this study show that the conditions of work, the working times, and the organization of working times in obstetric departments are in need of improvement. Recording the actual times worked together with an

  15. Problems of Economic Development in Reunified Germany. Retrospective Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Gotz

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Does Eastern Germany differ significantly from Western part in economic terms? How have new Bundeslnder been developing over past twenty years? How fast has East been catching up with West? What could have hampered convergence? How today are German states equipped with factors determining future growth? How the new Bundeslnder performed do compared with the old ones? This paper seeks to address above mentioned questions. It offers a comprehensive review of key economic developments of two decades of reunited Germany. Particularly it examines current economic landscape; investigates convergence processes taking place since reunification and tries to identify most likely impediments hampering full catching up. Finally, it aims at assessing contemporary growth potential of German states. With respect to the starting point poor performance of East Germany back in 1990 the progress made and results achieved are impressive. Though, comparing the situation with Western part of the country significant discrepancies continue to exist. Certainly, assessment of the last twenty years of reunited Germany hinges much upon perspective taken. Two decades after Berlin Wall Fall opinions on economic consequences of reunification are more balanced, since much has been achieved, but much still needs to be done.

  16. Resensies: Letters of Stone. From Nazi Germany to South Africa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Book Title: Letters of Stone. From Nazi Germany to South Africa. Book Author: Steven Robins. Cape Town: Penguin, 2016. 314 pp. ISBN 978 1 77609 024 2. Full Text: EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT · http://dx.doi.org/10.17159/tvl.v.54i1.18.

  17. School Psychology in the Federal Republic of Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mietzel, Gerd; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Reviews origins and evaluation of the present status of school psychology in the Federal Republic of Germany, emphasizing strict separation of school tracks. Notes that system has been evolving into more flexible organizational structure in recent years. Discusses roles and functions of school psychology, administration, training, relationships…

  18. Earthquakes in the Federal Republic of Germany in 1983

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henger, M.; Leydecker, G.

    1988-01-01

    The report summarizes the regional reports of the seismological observatories for the year 1983. There was no serious earthquake so far in the F.R.G. The data are presented in the form of maps showing the seismic centers in West Germany (including marginal regions). Explanations of seismological terminology and abbreviations used are given for the general reader. (DG) [de

  19. Social Policy and Immigrant Joblessness in Britain, Germany and Sweden

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kesler, Christel

    2006-01-01

    I examine patterns of joblessness among immigrant men and women from 33 countries of origin now living in Britain, Germany and Sweden. Access to welfare, access to the labor market, job segregation and institutional support for women's employment define distinct policy configurations in these three destinations. Findings show that gaps in…

  20. Generation choices as influenced by costs, risks and externalities -Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strauss, L.

    1994-01-01

    Power generation in Germany is dealing with social acceptability, cost considerations, governmental decisions and protection legislation. In the future, political and sociological factors will become more and more important: social acceptability of the energy sources choice is the most significant factor decision as the future pattern of power generation. (TEC)

  1. The Baltic policy of Germany and current international relations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salikov Aleksey

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This article analyses the Baltic policy of united Germany from the 1990s until today. The authors set out to identify the significance of German-Baltic relations and the role of the Eastern policy in Russian-German relations. The method of dynamic comparison between the political and economic narrative in intergovernmental relations makes it possible to identify distinctive features of Germany’s Baltic policy in the context of current international relations. In particular, it is noted that Germany was most active in the Baltic region in the 1990s, when the country was establishing political, economic, and cultural ties with the new independent states. In the second half of the 1990s, Germany’s foreign policy became less intense. After the accession of Lithuania, Latvia, and Estonia to the EU and NATO in 2004, certain disagreements started to arise between Germany and the Baltics. It explains the lukewarm relations between them. The Ukraine events brought about a change in Germany’s regional policy. Despite Russia remaining one of the key economic and political counteractors, Germany, being a partner of the Baltics in the EU and NATO, cannot adopt a neutral position in the conflict of interests between the Baltics and Russia.

  2. Radiocarbon dating of Mesolithic pottery from Northern Germany

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Philippsen, Bente

    2013-01-01

    The earliest pottery in Schleswig-Holstein, Northern Germany, was produced by the Final Mesolithic Ertebølle culture. Radiocarbon dating of food crusts on Ertebølle pottery indicated that ceramics from inland sites were substantially older than those from the coast. Therefore, a freshwater...

  3. Kids in Germany: Comparing Students from Different Cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzhugh, William P.

    This unit of study, intended for intermediate grade students, focuses on comparing students from different cultures: Germany and the United States. The unit addresses National Social Studies Standards (NCSS) standards; presents an introduction, such as purpose/rationale; cites a recommended grade level; states objectives; provides a time…

  4. The Kolumbus-Kids Project in Germany for Gifted Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wegner, Claas; Minnaert, Lea; Strehlke, Friederike

    2013-01-01

    Since 2006, the Kolumbus-Kids project in Germany has been supporting gifted learners between the ages 9 and 12. Selected children from regional schools are invited to participate in courses dealing with biological problems and phenomena at university. In order to attend these sessions, they first have to pass a special performance test and a test…

  5. Casting a University-Wide Net: Teaching "Sustainability in Germany"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ducate, Lara

    2016-01-01

    Due to the connection between Germany and sustainability studies, German Programs are well poised to offer a course on German history, culture, and sustainability to meet the needs of the next generation of students. Interdisciplinary humanities courses that incorporate critical thinking, problem solving, and collaborative learning will help to…

  6. The Division of Household Labor in Germany and Israel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewin-Epstein, Noah; Stier, Haya; Braun, Michael

    2006-01-01

    We compare the patterns of household division of labor in Germany and Israel--two countries that share key elements of the corporatist welfare regime but differ in their gender regimes--and evaluate several hypotheses using data from the 2002 International Social Survey Program. Although time constraints and relative resources affect the division…

  7. Sustainable supply of biogas in Germany; Nachhaltige Biogasbereitstellung in Deutschland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erler, Ronny [DBI - Gastechnologisches Institut gGmbH, Freiberg (Germany). Bereich Biogastechnologie; Ball, Thomas; Kiefer, Joachim [Technologiezentrum Wasser (Germany). Abt. Grundwasser und Boden; Dresen, Boris [Fraunhofer-Institut UMSICHT (Germany). Themenbereich Ressourcenmanagement; Koeppel, Wolfgang [DVGW-Forschungsstelle Karlsruhe (Germany). Gruppe Systeme und Netze

    2013-04-15

    The supply of certain substrates for biogas production is partly controversial discussed: 'Tank-or-plate' discussions, maize cultivation of the landscape and so forth. The research project 'Potential study for the sustainable production and supply of gaseous, renewable energy in Germany (Biogas Atlas)' examines the potentials of biogas production under consideration of various sustainability factors.

  8. Dental hygiene education in Germany: Between economics and emotions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Offermanns, B; Petersilka, G J

    2017-08-30

    To date, there is still no IFDH approved dental hygienist (DH) education model in Germany. Nevertheless, opportunities to complete vocational DH education courses have substantially increased within the last two decades. However, the content and quality of these courses vary greatly and are difficult to survey. The purpose of this article therefore was to present an overview of the education programmes offered in Germany as of March 2017. A formal request was sent to all education establishments for details of such courses, and a systematic internet search was performed covering the DH education topic in Germany. Ten vocational education programmes were found, most of them organized by local dental chambers. One private provider offers a Bachelor Degree in Dental Hygiene on completion of a course which runs over 2 or 3 ys. Details of contents, objectives and concise ratings or comparisons of the various courses are scarce, although in principle all should meet the same quality standards. For dental hygiene students, patients and dentists, it is hard and unsatisfactory to get a clear overview of the types and the quality of DH education which can be achieved in Germany. A solution for this dilemma would appear to be essential. However, due to the peculiarities of German legislation as well as the complex sphere of vested interests, it is impossible to predict if or when the situation will change for the better. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Space Research in the Federal Republic of Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preuss, Karl-Heinz, Ed.; Simen, Rolf H., Ed.

    The Federal Republic of Germany's space policy is designed to promote basic research, contribute to the development of space technology, and apply the findings in the public and private sectors. It is also aimed at enhancing the competitiveness of the West German space industry and helping countries of the Third World to solve their development…

  10. A Model for Intercultural Training for Study Abroad in Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henze, Yvonne A.

    2007-01-01

    This article describes an intercultural workshop designed for American students from the University of Rhode Island's International Engineering Program who are going to Germany to work and to study. The activities and goals of the workshop are explained. The outcomes and findings show that participation in the pre-departure intercultural workshop…

  11. Restructuring Schools for Democracy in the Former East Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumas, Wayne; Dumas, Alesia; Lee, William B.

    1996-01-01

    Discusses the contentious relationship between educators within the former East Germany and their West German cohorts following reunification. The problems have stemmed from conflicting ideologies and traditions (Marxist versus Christian Democrat and Social Democrat) as well as differences concerning school organization and educational objectives.…

  12. Germany plans 60m euro physics and medicine lab

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stafford, Ned

    2017-09-01

    A new €60m medical-physics research lab is to be built in Erlangen, Germany, by the Max Planck Institute for the Science of Light (MPL) together with the Friedrich Alexander University Erlangen-Nürnberg and the University Hospital Erlangen.

  13. Community nursing in Belgium, Germany and the Netherlands.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zee, J. van der; Kramer, K.; Kerkstra, A.; Stevens, F.C.J.; Derksen, A.

    1994-01-01

    This paper contains a comparative study on community nursing in the Netherlands, Belgium and Germany, carried out in the region around Maastricht, where the borders of the three countries meet. The well-known problem of comparative studies (the incomparability of concepts and data) has been solved

  14. Acidification policy - control of acidifying emissions in Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schaerer, B.

    1992-01-01

    Since the mid-eighties total annual acidifying emissions have started to decline in West Germany. There was considerable impact on this positive trend in air pollution by the control of SO 2 and NO x emissions from large boilers, which were reduced by more than 80%. Corresponding control programmes have been established for other groups of sources as well as other pollutants and - with unification - for East Germany. The driving force behind this development was and still is first of all the legal principle of anticipatory action or precaution which means in practical terms 'emission minimization'. This cornerstone of German clean air legislation is the most powerful components of Germany's 'acidification policy', as it requires policy-makers to draw up new or review existing regulations for emission reduction based on requirements according to the state of the art and forces operators to apply the most modern ways and means of operation. This paper describes the system used in Germany to deal with air pollution, the emission minimization strategy, and the actions against acidifying emissions based thereon. In addition, an outlook on what might be necessary to cope with the challenges of a sustainable development concerning acidification is given. 1 ref., 1 fig., 2 tabs

  15. Climatic change in Germany. Development, consequences, risks and perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brasseur, Guy; Jacob, Daniela; Schuck-Zoeller, Susanne

    2017-01-01

    The book on the climatic change in Germany includes contributions to the following issues: global climate projections and regional projections in Germany and Europe: observation of the climatic change in Central Europe, regional climate modeling, limits and challenges of the regional climate modeling; climatic change in Germany - regional features and extremes: temperature and heat waves, precipitation, wind and cyclones, sea-level increase, tides, storm floods and sea state, floods, definition uncertainties, draughts, forest fires, natural risks; consequences of the climatic change in Germany: air quality, health, biodiversity, water resources, biochemical cycles, agriculture, forestry, soils, personal and commercial transport, cities and urban regions, tourism, infrastructure, energy and water supplies, cost of the climatic change and economic consequences; overall risks and uncertainties: assessment of vulnerabilities, literature review, climatic change as risk enhancement in complex systems, overall risks and uncertainties, decision making under uncertainties in complex systems; integrated strategies for the adaptation to the climatic change: the climate resilient society - transformations and system changes, adaptation to the climatic change as new political field, options for adaptation strategies.

  16. The neuropathology of morality: Germany 1930–1960

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schirmann, Felix

    2014-01-01

    This article analyzes brain scientists' attempts to trace morality in the brain in Germany from 1930 to 1960. The debate around Karl Kleist's localization of the Gemeinschafts-Ich [community-I] in the 1930s is depicted in order to illustrate the central arguments for and against localizations of

  17. Novel Lyssavirus in Natterer’s Bat, Germany

    OpenAIRE

    Freuling, Conrad M.; Beer, Martin; Conraths, Franz J.; Finke, Stefan; Hoffmann, Bernd; Keller, Barbara; Kliemt, Jeannette; Mettenleiter, Thomas C.; Mühlbach, Elke; Teifke, Jens P.; Wohlsein, Peter; Müller, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    A virus isolated from a Natterer’s bat (Myotis nattererii) in Germany was differentiated from other lyssaviruses on the basis of the reaction pattern of a panel of monoclonal antibodies. Phylogenetic analysis supported the assumption that the isolated virus, Bokeloh bat lyssavirus, may represent a new member of the genus Lyssavirus.

  18. Radical Social Democracy and School Reform in Wilhelmian Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, James M.

    1977-01-01

    The article describes how the German Social Democratic Party promoted educational reform in Germany before World War I. It demanded state support for a secularized school program, suggested curricular reforms to instill socialist values, and promoted adult education and socialist training in the home. (AV)

  19. Epigenetics Europe conference. Munich, Germany, 8-9 September 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeltsch, Albert

    2011-12-01

    At the Epigenetics Europe conference in Munich, Germany, held on 8-9 September 2011, 19 speakers from different European countries were presenting novel data and concepts on molecular epigenetics. The talks were mainly focused on questions of the generation, maintenance, flexibility and erasure of DNA methylation patterns in context of other epigenetic signals like histone tail modifications and ncRNAs.

  20. The Idea of Inclusion: Conceptual and Empirical Diversities in Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruse, Stefan; Dedering, Kathrin

    2018-01-01

    In the mid-1990s, inclusion was introduced into discussions on education; today, we still do not have a precisely defined concept of inclusion. This article focuses its attention in this context on Germany, which in ratifying the Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities in 2009 embarked on the path towards realising an inclusive…

  1. A survey of environmental needs and innovative technologies in Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voss, C.F.; Roberds, W.J.

    1995-05-01

    The International Technology Program (IT?), formerly the international Technology Exchange Program (ITEP), of the Department of Energy's (DOE's) Office of Environmental Restoration and Waste Management (EM) is responsible for promoting: (1) the import of innovative technologies to better address EM's needs; and (2) the export of US services into foreign markets to enhance US competitiveness. Under this program: (1) the environmental restoration market in Germany was evaluated, including the description of the general types of environmental problems, the environmental regulations, and specific selected contaminated sites; and (2) potentially innovative environmental restoration technologies, either commercially available or under development in Germany, were identified, described and evaluated. It was found that: (1) the environmental restoration market in Germany is very large, on the order of several billion US dollars per year, with a significant portion possibly available to US businesses; and (2) a large number (54) of innovative environmental restoration technologies, which are either commercially available or under development in Germany, may have some benefit to the DOE EM program and should be considered for transfer to the US

  2. Teaching the Holocaust in the Republic of Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, Marsha

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to observe the approaches used by educators to facilitate learning about the Holocaust. The examples provided in this paper are one of various approaches that are used by educators teaching in the Federal Republic of Germany. Approaches will be different from country to country, from school to school, and from educator…

  3. Overlapping Rivalries : The two Germanys, Israel and the Cold War

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Vita, L.

    2017-01-01

    The case of early German-Israeli relations offers unique insight into the dynamics of the German Cold War. As this article shows, the two Germanys were ideologically and geopolitically antithetical, but vis-a-vis the question of relations with Israel East and West German representatives faced a

  4. Reassessing the Wage Penalty for Temps in Germany

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jahn, Elke

    As a consequence of the rapid growth of temporary agency employment in Germany, the debate on the poor working conditions of temps, specifically their remuneration, has intensified recently. The paper shows that the wage gap for German temp workers is rather large and varies between occupation...

  5. Wager: GdF realizes heavy investment in Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jemain, A.

    2003-01-01

    Gaz De France decoded to buy Preussag Energie in east Germany. This decision fits into the gas market deregulation and will allow an increase of 50 % of the gas production. Meanwhile the decision is criticized by the syndicate CGT as a financial aberration. (A.L.B.)

  6. Restructuring power supply in Germany; Umstrukturierung der Stromversorgung in Deutschland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-05-15

    According to recent calculations of the Umweltbundesamt (Federal Environmental Office), all German nuclear power plants can be decommissioned from 2017. This will result neither in supply shortages nor in higher electricity rates, and Germany's climate protection goals will not be in danger either. There will be no need to import nuclear power from other countries. (orig.)

  7. Cultural Life in the Federal Republic of Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inter Nationes, Bonn (West Germany).

    By the nature of the subject, it is impossible to do justice to the cultural developments of more than 40 years in a brief survey. The aim of this document is to explore the diverse cultural life of West Germany complete with photographs of past and present artists, art products, and other aspects of German culture. The subject areas treated are:…

  8. Cleaning ex-uranium sites in Easter Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gattsvajler, R.; Khagen, M.

    1995-01-01

    Consideration is given to problems, related with recovery and cleaning of ground and water, damaged during intensive uranium mining in the Easter Germany. Design and reclamation works, conducted in the framework of the unique project of Vismut company, are described. The consultation department of environment recovery for experience and technology propagation was organized in this company. 2 tabs

  9. [Basic research in ophthalmology in Germany and its international context].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlötzer-Schrehardt, U; Cursiefen, C

    2017-09-01

    Experimental basic research provides the foundations for the elucidation of pathophysiological mechanisms of diseases and the development of novel diagnostic and therapeutic strategies for ophthalmological diseases. The objective of this contribution is to provide an overview of the international interconnection of basic research in ophthalmology in Germany. The international context of ophthalmological research conducted in Germany is presented by means of personal experiences and data published by the German Ophthalmological Society (DOG), the German Research Foundation (DFG) and the European Union (EU). Due to the lack of organized databases this article lays no claim to completeness. Basic research in ophthalmology in Germany is mainly conducted in university eye departments and is mainly related to the etiology, pathophysiology and therapy development for various ophthalmic diseases. It is primarily funded by the DFG, the Federal Ministry of Education and Research (BMBF) and the EU plays an increasingly important role. Thus, ophthalmological research is integrated into numerous European research networks and beyond that into many international interconnections and relationships. In Germany, both clinical and basic research in ophthalmology is integrated into many international networks and is only functionally viable in an international context; however, given the increasing impact of ophthalmological research in Asian countries, future strategies require a continued focus on career development, research infrastructure, working environment and international cooperation.

  10. The "Carbon-Neutral University"--A Study from Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Udas, Erica; Wölk, Monique; Wilmking, Martin

    2018-01-01

    Purpose: Nowadays, several higher education institutions around the world are integrating sustainability topics into their daily operations, functionality and education systems. This paper presents a case study from a pilot project implemented by the Ernst-Moritz-Arndt-Universität Greifswald (hereafter, Greifswald University), Germany on its way…

  11. Prevalence of weather sensitivity in Germany and Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackensen, Sylvia; Hoeppe, Peter; Maarouf, Abdel; Tourigny, Pierre; Nowak, Dennis

    2005-01-01

    Several studies have shown that atmospheric conditions can affect well-being or disease, and that some individuals seem to be more sensitive to weather than others. Since epidemiological data on the prevalence of weather-related health effects are lacking, two representative weather sensitivity (WS) surveys were conducted independently in Germany and Canada. The objectives of this paper are: (1) to identify the prevalence of WS in Germany and Canada, (2) to describe weather-related symptoms and the corresponding weather conditions, and (3) to compare the findings in the two countries. In Germany 1,064 citizens (age >16 years) were interviewed in January 2001, and in Canada 1,506 persons (age >18 years) were interviewed in January 1994. The results showed that 19.2% of the German population thought that weather affected their health “to a strong degree,” 35.3% that weather had “some influence on their health” (sum of both = 54.5% weather sensitive), whereas the remaining 45.5% did not consider that weather had an effect on their health status. In Canada 61% of the respondents considered themselves to be sensitive to the weather. The highest prevalence of WS (high + some influence) in Germans was found in the age group older than 60 years (68%), which was almost identical in the Canadian population (69%). The highest frequencies of weather-related symptoms were reported in Germany for stormy weather (30%) and when it became colder (29%). In Canada mainly cold weather (46%), dampness (21%) and rain (20%) were considered to affect health more than other weather types. The most frequent symptoms reported in Germany were headache/migraine (61%), lethargy (47%), sleep disturbances (46%), fatigue (42%), joint pain (40%), irritation (31%), depression (27%), vertigo (26%), concentration problems (26%) and scar pain (23%). Canadian weather-sensitive persons reported colds (29%), psychological effects (28%) and painful joints, muscles or arthritis (10%). In Germany 32

  12. Small scale wood combustion in Germany. Recent research and trends

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maier, H.; Unterberger, S.; Hein, K.R.G. [Institute of Process Engineering and Power Plant Technology, University of Stuttgart (Germany)

    1998-12-31

    To reduce Europe`s greenhouse gas emission CO{sub 2} it is a challenging task utilising biomass fuels as there are wood or wood residues from the forest industry. The utilisation can be done either in commercially operated medium (> 50 kWth) or full scale (> 1 MWth) decentralised heat and power stations or in small scale (< 50 kWth) domestic heating systems. In small scale heating systems untreated wood logs, wood briquette or wood pellets and in few cases wood chips are used. The present market in Germany is focused on the use of wood logs. Presently, the use of wood pellets in small scale automatically operated boilers < 15 kW especially for low energy houses is discussed more and more. Since 1980 the installation of new wood fired small scale domestic heating systems reached a significant size due to the interest of the customers to have a alternative inhouse heating system and to increase the living comfort. In 1994 the amount of sold small scale heaters in Germany were in total about 133.258 units. The thermal power of in 1994 sold units is estimated of about 1350 MW which is a significant size in total with regard to domestic heating purposes. Since few years there is a clear market trend in Germany towards the installation of open fire stoves. Due to this trend in Germany and the design characteristic of open fire stoves using huge glass doors of glass windows it is very difficult to achieve a further reduction of emissions like CO and unburned volatile hydrocarbons (VOC). In the text the requirements for modern small scale wood fired stoves in Germany as well as the actual stage and trend of research and development (R and D) are discussed 4 refs.

  13. Disintegration and Violence among Migrants in Germany: Turkish and Russian Youths versus German Youths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baier, Dirk; Pfeiffer, Christian

    2008-01-01

    Turkish and Russian immigrants are the two largest groups of immigrants in Germany, but there are some important differences regarding their legal status. Although most of the Turkish adolescents were born in Germany, few of them have German citizenship. In contrast, most of the Russian youths were born outside Germany, but they mostly possess…

  14. 76 FR 11509 - Brass Sheet and Strip From France, Germany, Italy, and Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-02

    ...)] Brass Sheet and Strip From France, Germany, Italy, and Japan AGENCY: United States International Trade... and strip from France, Germany, Italy, and Japan. SUMMARY: The Commission hereby gives notice that it... France, Germany, Italy, and Japan would be likely to lead to continuation or recurrence of material...

  15. 77 FR 23508 - Brass Sheet and Strip From France, Germany, Italy, and Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-19

    ...)] Brass Sheet and Strip From France, Germany, Italy, and Japan Determination On the basis of the record \\1... antidumping duty orders on brass sheet and strip from France, Germany, Italy, and Japan would be likely to... from France, Germany, Italy, and Japan: Investigation Nos. 731-TA-313, 314, 317, and 379 (Third Review...

  16. 75 FR 81308 - Stainless Steel Sheet And Strip From Germany, Italy, Japan, Korea, Mexico, And Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-27

    ...)] Stainless Steel Sheet And Strip From Germany, Italy, Japan, Korea, Mexico, And Taiwan AGENCY: United States... and strip from Germany, Italy, Japan, Korea, Mexico, and Taiwan. SUMMARY: The Commission hereby gives... strip from Germany, Italy, Japan, Korea, Mexico, and Taiwan would be likely to lead to continuation or...

  17. 75 FR 59744 - Stainless Steel Sheet and Strip From Germany, Italy, Japan, Korea, Mexico, and Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-28

    ...)] Stainless Steel Sheet and Strip From Germany, Italy, Japan, Korea, Mexico, and Taiwan AGENCY: United States... duty orders on stainless steel sheet and strip from Germany, Italy, Japan, Korea, Mexico, and Taiwan... stainless steel sheet and strip from Germany, Italy, Japan, Korea, Mexico, and Taiwan would be likely to...

  18. Germany's Armed Forces in the Second World War: Manpower, Armaments, and Supply.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balsamo, Larry T.

    1991-01-01

    Discusses the state of Germany's armed forces in World War II. Describes Germany's progress from inferior weaponry and unprepared military at the beginning of the war to superior weapons and fighting. Stresses heavy German dependence on horse drawn supply. Credits Germany's defeat to human attrition accelerated by Hitler's operational leadership.…

  19. Comparison of drug abuse in Germany and China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michels, Ingo Ilja; Fang, Yu-Xia; Zhao, Dong; Zhao, Li-Yan; Lu, Lin

    2007-10-01

    Drug abuse has a long, but also different history in Germany and China. The Opium War largely influenced the history of China in 19th century; however, China was once recognized as a drug-free nation for 3 decades from the 1950s to the 1980s. Drug abuse has spread quickly since re-emerging as a national problem in China in the late 1980s. The number of registered drug abusers increased from 70 000 in 1990 to more than 1 million by the end of 2005. In past decades, illicit drug trafficking and production have swept most provinces in China, and drug abuse has caused many problems for both abusers and the community. One major drug-related problem is the spread of HIV, which has caused major social and economic damage in China. Germany, the largest developed European country, also faces the drug and addiction problem. Germany has about 150 000 heroin addicts, for whom HIV/AIDS has become a serious threat since the mid 1980s. To control the drug problem, the German Government adopted the pAction Plan on Drugs and Addictionq in 2003; the China Central Government approved a similar regulation in the antidrug campaign in 2005. Germany has experience in reducing drug-related harm. The methadone maintenance treatment (MMT) program has run for more than 20 years and the public has become more tolerant of addicts. In 2003, China began the MMT program for controlling the spread of HIV/AIDS. It is necessary for China to learn from developed countries to acquire success in its antidrug campaign. In this review, we will go over the differences and similarities in drug abuse between Germany and China. The differences are related to history, population and economics, drug policy context, drug laws, HIV/hepatitis C virus infection, the MMT program and so on. These 2 nations have drug abuse problems with different histories and currently use different approaches to handle illicit drug marketing and use. The legal penalties for illicit drug offences reflect the social differences of

  20. Королёвский замок Нялаб во владении потомков молдавского воеводы Саса / Korolevo Castle of Nyalab in possession of descendants of Moldavian Voivode Szasz

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igori Prohnenko

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The sons of Voivode Szasz moved to Hungary after Bohdan had possessed a position of Moldavian Voivode in 1359 and started an open conflict with Hungarian Crown. As a kind of reimbursement, they have possessed high positions here and became the owners of extensive property. Within a short period of time they have taken possession of Kővár, Beltek, Erdőd domains as well as property in Máramaros. They became one of the most influential nobles of Hungary. They had received pro honore Nyalab domain with the center in the castle of Korolevo from the king Louis in 70s of the 14th century and governed it as the Counts of Ugocsa County. After Balk's death the castle had to be returned to the king. However, descendants of Moldavian nobles had refused to leave fortifications and started property disputes among themselves.

  1. International strategies of business incubation: the USA, Germany and Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evgeny Tsaplin

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we examine strategies of business incubation in the following countries: the USA, Germany and Russia using both a comparative theoretical analysis of different performance criteria of business incubators and interviewing experts who work directly with startup companies. We find that there are more differences than similarities between the strategies of business incubation in these countries. The USA prove to be far ahead of Germany and especially Russia in supporting start-ups. The study might impact a business practice in the way of clarifying the most significant characteristics and general trends of business incubation strategies in the countries mentioned to take them into account in the process of launching and developing startup companies in one or another country.

  2. Comparison of cardiothoracic surgery training in USA and Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tchantchaleishvili, Vakhtang; Mokashi, Suyog A; Rajab, Taufiek K; Bolman, R Morton; Chen, Frederick Y; Schmitto, Jan D

    2010-11-26

    Training of cardiothoracic surgeons in Europe and the United States has expanded to incorporate new operative techniques and requirements. The purpose of this study was to compare the current structure of training programs in the United States and Germany. We thoroughly reviewed the existing literature with particular focus on the curriculum, salary, board certification and quality of life for cardiothoracic trainees. The United States of America and the Federal Republic of Germany each have different cardiothoracic surgery training programs with specific strengths and weaknesses which are compared and presented in this publication. The future of cardiothoracic surgery training will become affected by technological, demographic, economic and supply factors. Given current trends in training programs, creating an efficient training system would allow trainees to compete and grow in this constantly changing environment.

  3. Comparison of cardiothoracic surgery training in usa and germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Frederick Y

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Training of cardiothoracic surgeons in Europe and the United States has expanded to incorporate new operative techniques and requirements. The purpose of this study was to compare the current structure of training programs in the United States and Germany. Methods We thoroughly reviewed the existing literature with particular focus on the curriculum, salary, board certification and quality of life for cardiothoracic trainees. Results The United States of America and the Federal Republic of Germany each have different cardiothoracic surgery training programs with specific strengths and weaknesses which are compared and presented in this publication. Conclusions The future of cardiothoracic surgery training will become affected by technological, demographic, economic and supply factors. Given current trends in training programs, creating an efficient training system would allow trainees to compete and grow in this constantly changing environment.

  4. Thoughts about the future of nuclear power in Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Popp, M.

    2008-01-01

    On November 6, 2007, the Kerntechnische Gesellschaft conferred its 30 th honorary membership upon Professor Dr. Manfred Popp. The new Honorary Member has a record of outstanding achievements in the interest of nuclear power in Germany. This commitment is also apparent from his professional career, which was devoted to this high technology with impressive scientific and technical knowledge and political acumen, perseverance and stamina. The KTG is most grateful to Professor Popp for accepting its honorary membership. The article includes a revised version of the lecture given by Professor Manfred Popp at the ceremony conferring honorary membership. The author discusses some thoughts about the future of nuclear power in Germany in the light of societal, political, technical and environmental aspects. The status and perspectives of this technology are considered also within the framework of international developments. (orig.)

  5. [Culture sensitive analysis of psychosomatic complaints in migrants in Germany].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bermejo, Isaac; Nicolaus, Leonhard; Kriston, Levente; Hölzel, Lars; Härter, Martin

    2012-05-01

    To ensure an adequate health care of migrants, differentiated information on the association of cultural background and migration related factors and psychosomatic complaints are necessary. Cross-sectional questionnaire based survey regarding psychosomatic complaints of migrants from Turkey (n = 77), Italy (n = 95), and Spain (n = 67) and ethnic German resettled from the states of the former Soviet Union (n = 196). Questionnaires distributed by non-health specific counselling agencies of welfare associations. The cultural background was a relevant factor for psychosomatic complaints, showing higher complaints in Turkish and ethnic German resettled migrants, also compared to a sample of age corresponding Germans. In contrast, Spanish and Italian migrants showed a lower risk for psychosomatic complaints. Also gender, feeling unwell in Germany and fatalism showed a significant association with psychosomatic complaints. Migrants in Germany do not have per se a higher risk for psychosomatic complaints. A distinct differentiation by cultural background is necessary. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  6. A new neolithic circular enclosure in Central Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kretzer, Olaf

    2015-08-01

    Today we know about 130 neolithic enclosures in Central Europe. About 20 of them are located in Germany. In the last years, there was a great discussion about the function of the openings: Are the openings aligned with points of the solstices? Or are the openings aligned with points of rising stars?Four years ago, a new neolithic circular enclosure was found in the northern part of Thuringia. With a diameter of about 50 meters it was not so large but it was the first evidence of a neolithic culture in Thuringia: the central part of Germany!7000 years ago, people with unknown identity built up three rings with three or four openings.With the help of various measurements we were able to determine in which directions the openings were aligned. We found a link between these directions and very interesting landmarks - an amazing connection between sky and landscape.

  7. Probabilistic methods in the field of reactor safety in Germany

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Birkhofer, A [Technische Univ. Muenchen (Germany, F.R.). Lehrstuhl fuer Reaktordynamik und Reaktorsicherheit

    1979-01-01

    The present status and future prospects in Germany of reliability, as well as risk analysis, in the field of reactor safety are examined. The development of analytical methods with respect to the available data base is reviewed with consideration of the roles of reliability codes, component data, common mode failures, human influence, structural analysis and process computers. Some examples of the application of probability assessments are discussed and the extension of reliability analysis beyond the loss-of-coolant accident is considered. In the case of risk analysis, the object is to determine not only the probability of failure of systems but also the probability and extent of possible consequences. Some risk studies under investigation in Germany and the methodology of risk analysis are discussed. Reliability and risk analysis are involved to an increasing extent in safety research and licensing procedures and their influence in other fields such as the public perception of risk is also discussed.

  8. Psychology as science and as discipline: the case of Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gundlach, Horst

    2006-01-01

    This paper examines the history of psychology in Germany. It directs attention to the salient role played by examination regulations in the development of psychology. To highlight this, the term "discipline" is employed not as a synonym of "science" but according to its original meaning, as denoting a social entity consisting of teachers, disciples, more or less canonised subject matters, examinations, and resulting changes of the social status of the examinee. In the early nineteenth century a succession of state rescripts and regulations introduced to university curricula an examination subject named psychology, thereby making psychology an obligatory subject of university lectures, and creating a discipline of psychology next to the science of psychology. The two were far from being identical. This situation, thus far neglected in historiography, profoundly influenced the further development of psychology in Germany.

  9. Results from power quality measurements in Germany - An overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerdes, G.J.; Santjer, F. [German Wind Energy Inst, Wilhelmshaven (Germany)

    1996-12-31

    Grid interferences caused by wind turbines (WT) are getting a severe problem in Germany with the fast increasing number of installed turbines. The wind energy capacity was doubled annually in the past three years. The actual situation and the plannings for the next years will lead to a situation, where high wind energy penetration will exercise a big influence on the power and voltage quality of local utility networks. Measurements performed in Germany according to a national guideline show a big variety in power quality performance of WT`s, which does affect the requirements for grid connection and thus the economical situation of wind energy projects to a large extent. The results from more than 25 power quality measurements will be discussed in this paper. 5 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  10. Occupational radiation exposure in Germany: many monitored persons = high exposure?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nitschke, J.

    1996-01-01

    Natural radiation affects the entire population in Germany, and most of Germany's inhabitants are exposed to medical radiation in their lifetime. Occupational radiation exposure, however, is a kind of exposure affecting only a limited and well-defined group of the population, and this radiation exposure has been recorded and monitored as precisely as technically possible ever since the radiation protection laws made occupational radiation exposure monitoring a mandatory obligation. Official personal dosimetry applying passive dosemeters in fact does not offer direct protection against the effects of ionizing radiation, as dosemeter read-out and dose calculation is a post-exposure process. But it nevertheless is a rewarding monitoring duty under radiation protection law, as is shown by the radiation exposure statistics accumulated over decades: in spite of the number of monitored persons having been increasing over the years, the total exposure did not, due to the corresponding improvements in occupational radiation protection. (orig.) [de

  11. Conference on energy transition financing in France and Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faucheux, Ivan; Rid, Urban; Sickenberger, Peter; Ricordeau, Damien; Schmidt, Gerrit

    2014-01-01

    The French-German office for Renewable energies (OFAEnR) organised a conference on the energy transition financing in France and in Germany. In the framework of this French-German exchange of experience, participants exchanged views on the legal framework, the instruments and the role of financing institutions in the development of a low-carbon society and economy. Questions regarding the successful financing of renewable energy projects and the expectations of financiers were addressed. This document brings together the available presentations (slides) made during this event: 1 - Regulatory framework for investment in the 'green sector' in France (Ivan Faucheux); 2 - Overview of the financing framework for the German 'Energiewende' (Rid, Urban); 3 - Financing Renewables - KfW's Instruments and Track Record (Peter Sickenberger); 4 - French Overview on Renewable energy Financing (Damien Ricordeau); 5 - Profitability analysis of renewable energies in Germany: Which stakeholders and financing models have proven successful? (Gerrit Schmidt)

  12. Bioremediation in Germany: Markets, technologies, and leading companies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raphael, T.; Glass, D.J.

    1995-01-01

    Bioremediation has become an internationally accepted remediation tool. Commercial bioremediation activities take place in many European countries, but Germany and the Netherlands are the clear European leaders, with both having a long history of public and private sector activity in biological technologies. The German bioremediation market has been driven by government regulation, in particular the waste laws that apply to contaminated soils. The 1994 German market for bioremediation is estimated at $70 to 100 million (US $). There are at least 150 companies active in bioremediation in Germany, most of which practice bioremediation of hydrocarbon-contaminated soils, either in situ or ex situ. Because of their predominance in the current European market, German firms are well positioned to expand into those nations in the European Union (EU) currently lacking an environmental business infrastructure

  13. Natural and anthropogenic radiation exposure of humans in Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koelzer, Winfried

    2016-12-01

    The contribution on natural and anthropogenic radiation exposure in Germany covers the following issues: (1) natural radiation exposure: external radiation exposure - cosmic and terrestric radiation, internal radiation exposure - primordial and cosmogenic radionuclides; radiation exposure due to sola neutrinos and geo-neutrinos. (2) Anthropogenic radiation exposure: radiation exposure in medicine, radioactivity in industrial products, radiation exposure during flights, radiation exposure due to nuclear facilities, radiation exposure due to fossil energy carriers in power generation, radiation exposure due to nuclear explosions, radiation exposure due to nuclear accidents. (3) Occupational radiation exposure in Germany: radiation monitoring with personal dosimeters in medicine and industry, dose surveillance of the aviation personal, working places with increases radiation exposure by natural radiation sources.

  14. Problem of Production of Shale Gas in Germany

    OpenAIRE

    Nataliya K. Meden

    2014-01-01

    A bstract: Our magazine publishes a series of articles on shale gas in different countries. This article is about Germany, a main importer of Russian natural gas, so a perspective of exploitation of local shale gas resources is of a clear practical importance for Russia. We discuss external and internal factors which determine position of the German government concerning the shale gas excavation: policy of the USA and the EU, positions of German political parties, influence of the lobbying co...

  15. Sphagnum farming in Germany – a review of progress

    OpenAIRE

    G. Gaudig; F. Fengler; M. Krebs; A. Prager; J. Schulz; S. Wichmann; H. Joosten

    2014-01-01

    In ombrotrophic, nutrient-poor peatlands, the cultivation of peatmoss (Sphagnum spp.) is a promising paludiculture option. Since 2001 we have been studying peatmoss cultivation (‘Sphagnum farming’) in greenhouse and field experiments, paying special attention to propagation, propagule storage, establishment, productivity and regeneration. Our studies show that Sphagnum farming in Germany may provide a sustainable high-quality alternative to fossil white peat as a raw material for horticultural...

  16. Coercive Diplomacy: Otto von Bismarck and the Unification of Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-24

    politician, he forged a German empire under Prussian leadership that was ultimately realized on January 18, 1871, when King William I was crowned Emperor...the same pressures. King Frederick William cowered in the face of conflict, ordered his military to cease fighting the revolutionaries, and agreed...parliamentary rule, and the dissolution of the Prussian state into Germany. “Bismarck made himself noteworthy by his 6 championship of Prussian superiority

  17. BUYING BEHAVIOUR RELATED TO HEATING SYSTEMS IN GERMANY

    OpenAIRE

    Decker, Thomas; Zapilko, Marina; Menrad, Klaus

    2010-01-01

    The decision for buying a heating system is a long-term one, as many different aspects have an influence on this choice which were analysed in a Germany-wide, written survey. The respondents (only owners of a private house) had to answer questions about their attitude towards e.g. economics, convenience or ecological aspects related to heating systems and the respective combustibles. Using a multinomial logistic regression model the choice of the heating system is mainly explained by ecologic...

  18. Solar technology in the Federal Republic of Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-01-01

    A series of papers dealing with the status of solar research and development in the Federal Republic of Germany are presented at a conference in Greece with the object of promoting international cooperation in solar energy utilization. The reports focus on solar collector designs, solar systems, heat pumps, solar homes, solar cooling and refrigeration, desalination and electric power generation. Numerous examples of systems produced by German manufacturers are illustrated and described, and performance data are presented.

  19. Energy policies in the European Union. Germany's ecological tax reform

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Welfens, P.J.J.; Jungmittag, A.; Meyer, B.; Jasinski, P.

    2001-01-01

    The chapters discuss the following aspects: 1. Energy policy as a strategic element of economic policy in dynamic open economies. 2. Phasing out nuclear energy and core elements of sustainable energy strategy. 3. Ecological tax reform: Theory, modified double dividend and international aspects. 4. The policy framework in Europe and Germany. 5. Optimal ecological tax reform: Options and recommendations for an EU-action plan. 6. Conclusions. (orig./CB)

  20. Passive surveillance of Leptospira infection in swine in Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strutzberg-Minder, Katrin; Tschentscher, Astrid; Beyerbach, Martin; Homuth, Matthias; Kreienbrock, Lothar

    2018-01-01

    As no current data are available on the prevalence of leptospiral infection in swine in Germany, we analysed laboratory data from diagnostic examinations carried out on samples from swine all over Germany from January 2011 to September 2016. A total of 29,829 swine sera were tested by microscopic agglutination test (MAT) for antibodies against strains of eleven Leptospira serovars. Overall, 20.2% (6025) of the total sample collection tested positive for leptospiral infection. Seropositivity ranged between 16.3% (964) in 2011 and 30.9% (941) in 2016 (January to September only). Of all samples, 11.6% (57.3% of the positives) reacted with only one Leptospira serovar, and only 8.6% (42.7% of the positives) reacted simultaneously with two or more serovars. The most frequently detected serovar was Bratislava, which was found in 11.6% (3448) of all samples, followed by the serovars Australis in 7.3% (2185), Icterohaemorrhagiae in 4.0% (1191), Copenhageni in 4.0% (1182), Autumnalis in 3.7% (1054), Canicola in 2.0% (585), and Pomona in 1.2% (368). Modelling shows that both the year and the reason for testing at the laboratory had statistically strong effects on the test results; however, no interactions were determined between those factors. The results support the suggestion that the seropositivities found may be considered to indicate the state of leptospiral infections in the German swine population. Although data from passive surveillance are prone to selection bias, stratified analysis by initial reason for examination and analyses by model approaches may correct for biases. A prevalence of about 20% for a leptospiral infection is most probable for sows with reproductive problems in Germany, with an increasing trend. Swine in Germany are probably a reservoir host for serovar Bratislava, but in contrast to other studies not for Pomona and Tarassovi.

  1. Settlement of Tax Disputes in the Russian Federation and Germany

    OpenAIRE

    Anastasiya Alexandrovna Konyukhova

    2015-01-01

    This article is devoted to the settlement of tax disputes in the Russian Federation and the Federal Republic of Germany. The features of the conflict settlement mechanism are both shown in the stage of administrative and judicial review. In accordance with German law, the administrative stage of dispute resolution, carried out by the tax authority, always precedes the filing of a complaint to a court. Consequently, the taxpayer submits his first application in writing to the tax authority tha...

  2. Charles Darwin's Reception in Germany and What Followed.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Axel Meyer

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available 150 years ago, Heinrich Bronn provided in the first German translation of Charles Darwin's Origin of Species a rather liberal interpretation, even adding his own view of Darwin's ideas in an additional 15th chapter. Ernst Haeckel widely popularized his view of Darwinian evolution based on his reading of this translation. This was long seen - probably incorrectly - as the intellectual root of social Darwinism in Germany.

  3. Reforming Family Taxation in Germany - Labor Supply vs. Insurance Effects

    OpenAIRE

    Hans Fehr; Manuel Kallweit; Fabian Kindermann

    2013-01-01

    The present paper quantifies the economic consequences of eliminating the system of income splitting in Germany. We apply a dynamic simulation model with overlapping generations where single and married agents have to decide on labor supply and homework facing income and lifespan risk. The numerical exercise computes the resulting welfare changes across households and isolates aggregate efficiency effects of a move towards either individual taxation or family splitting. Our results indicate s...

  4. Consumer Attitude and Behaviour towards organic food in Germany

    OpenAIRE

    Huynh Thi, Ai Nhu

    2015-01-01

    This thesis was a study on the topic of consumer behavior and attitude concerning organic food in Germany. The purpose of this research paper is to present an overall view of German organic food market and to discover consumer’s behavior and attitude towards organic food. In the process, the study sought to understand the main external and internal social factors that influence purchase behavior, consumer decision making process, and explore organic consumer profile. The result also prese...

  5. Sustainable energy communities: a study contrasting Spain and Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Romero-Rubio, Carmen; Andrés Díaz, José Ramón de

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, several governments and organisations in the developed world have encouraged the creation of sustainable energy communities (SECs) as a strategy for achieving their energy and environmental targets. However, whereas in some of these countries (e.g., Germany), numerous SECs have been founded, there are other countries, such as Spain, where the creation and growth of SECs has been much slower. The purpose of this article is to analyse the case of Spain, to determine the causes of the lack of SECs in this country, and to propose actions adapted to the Spanish context aimed at accelerating the creation of SECs. To facilitate these tasks, we have taken the German case as a reference. The key finding is that, in contrast to Germany, in Spain, SECs have scarcely contributed to the development of RE (Renewable energy) infrastructures, despite having similar incentives for renewable electricity (until recently). Moreover, in Spain, these incentives have been drastically cut recently. Therefore, it has become even more difficult to finance a renewable electricity generation plant. That is why strategies in sectors other than renewable electricity have been suggested for the encouragement of SECs in Spain. -- Highlights: •Collective-ownership models for RE (Renewable energy) infrastructures are very widespread in Germany. •Approximately 22% of the installed renewable electricity capacity in Germany is owned by SECs. •In contrast, collective ownership of RE infrastructures is rare in Spain. •In Spain, incentives for renewable electricity have been drastically cut recently. •To encourage SECs, energy activities other than renewable electricity production are proposed

  6. Demographic Trends in Germany and their Economic Implications

    OpenAIRE

    Rembrandt Scholz; Carsten Schröder

    2012-01-01

    The present paper explores demographic trends in Germany, as well as the determinants of these trends, and the economic implications of these demographic changes for the country. A detailed spatial analysis reveals substantial differences in the speed and intensity of the processes of population aging and population decline across the German regions. The results indicate that these processes are particularly pronounced in the state of Mecklenburg Western-Pomerania. As a new contribution to th...

  7. The Future of the Energy Transition in Germany

    OpenAIRE

    Gawel, Erik; Lehmann, Paul; Korte, Klaas; Strunz, Sebastian; Bovet, Jana; Köck, Wolfgang; Massier, Philipp; Löschel, Andreas; Schober, Dominik; Ohlhorst, Dörte; Tews, Kerstin; Schreurs, Miranda; Reeg, Matthias; Wassermann, Sandra

    2014-01-01

    Although the goals of the country ’ s energy transition ( Energiewende ) are widely accepted in Germany, the specific route to get there is itself a matter of great controversy. The individual measures that are part of the energy transition policy and the questions of how they interact and how they are embedded in the European context are objects of controversial scientific and public debate. Most recently, the consequences for the price of electricity have, in particular...

  8. Human trafficking in Germany: strengthening victim's human rights

    OpenAIRE

    Follmar-Otto, Petra; Rabe, Heike

    2009-01-01

    The first study - "A human rights approach against human trafficking - International obligations and the status of implementation in Germany" - analyses how the prohibition of human trafficking and the resulting state obligations are anchored in human rights. The more recent specialised international agreements on human trafficking and law-making in the European Union are then presented. The emphasis is on the Council of Europe Convention, which professes to treat human trafficking in a human...

  9. Bioenergy in Germany. Facts and figures. Solid fuels, biofuels, biogas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-04-11

    The brochure under consideration gives statistical information about the bioenergy in Germany: Renewable energies (bioenergy) and solid fuels. For example, the structure of the primary energy consumption in the year 2010, the energy supply from renewables, gross electricity generation, the total sales of renewables, growth in number of installed pellet boilers, wood fuel equivalent prices by energy value or biofuels in comparison with heating oil are presented.

  10. Anti-Islamic PEGIDA beyond Germany : explaining differences in mobilisation

    OpenAIRE

    BERNTZEN, Lars Erik; WEISSKIRCHER, Manès

    2016-01-01

    First published online: 28 October 2016 The rise of anti-Islamic PEGIDA (Patriotische Europäer gegen die Islamisierung des Abendlandes) is one of the latest sustained episodes of radical right mobilisation in Western Europe outside the electoral arena. This study provides a first comparative analysis of PEGIDA beyond Germany and its core region of Saxony. Combining protest event analysis with online data and network analysis, we identify why PEGIDA mustered low-scale support in some countr...

  11. Demand response in Germany: Technical potential, benefits and regulatory challenges

    OpenAIRE

    Stede, Jan

    2016-01-01

    An increased flexibility of the electricity demand side through demand response (DR) is an opportunity to support the integration of renewable energies. By optimising the use of the generation, transmission and distribution infrastructure, DR reduces the need for costly investments and contributes to system security. There is a significant technical DR potential for load reduction from industrial production processes in Germany, as well as from cross-cutting technologies in industry and the t...

  12. Analysing inequalities in Germany a structured additive distributional regression approach

    CERN Document Server

    Silbersdorff, Alexander

    2017-01-01

    This book seeks new perspectives on the growing inequalities that our societies face, putting forward Structured Additive Distributional Regression as a means of statistical analysis that circumvents the common problem of analytical reduction to simple point estimators. This new approach allows the observed discrepancy between the individuals’ realities and the abstract representation of those realities to be explicitly taken into consideration using the arithmetic mean alone. In turn, the method is applied to the question of economic inequality in Germany.

  13. Germany at CERN, from 1 to 2 March 2005

    CERN Multimedia

    Patrice Loïez

    2005-01-01

    On 1 March the exhibition was visited by a German delegation headed by Dr Hermann Schunck, Director at BMBF.From left to right: Maximilian Metzger, CERN's Secretary-General, Hermann Schunck, Director at the German Federal Ministry of Education and Research, and Robert Aymar, CERN's Director-General, talking to Wolfgang Holler from Butting, one of the companies at the "Germany at CERN" exhibition. Far right : Susanne-Corinna Langer-Greipl from BMBF, delegate to the CERN Finance Committee.

  14. Conference on hydrogen-energy in France and Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bodineau, Luc; Menzen, Georg; Arnold, Peter Erich; Mauberger, Pascal; Roentzsch, Lars; Poggi, Philippe; Gervais, Thierry; Schneider, Guenther; Colomar, David; Buenger, Ulrich; Nieder, Babette; Zimmer, Rene; Jeanne, Fabrice; Le Grand, Jean-Francois

    2014-01-01

    The French-German office for Renewable energies (OFAEnR) organised a conference on hydrogen-energy in France and Germany. In the framework of this French-German exchange of experience, about 200 participants exchanged views on the different perspectives for use of hydrogen, in particular in transportation and energy storage applications. The technical production, transport and storage means were addressed too, as well as the technological models and the conditions for a large-scale industrial deployment. The economic prospects of hydrogen-energy in tomorrow's energy mix were also considered during the conference. This document brings together the available presentations (slides) made during this event: 1 - Hydrogen energy and Fuel Cells in France Today, and prospective (Luc Bodineau); 2 - The situation of energy Policy in Germany and the challenges for the Hydrogen Technology (Georg Menzen); 3 - Unlocking the Hydrogen Potential for Transport and Industry (Peter Erich Arnold); 4 - Hydrogen, a new energy for our planet - Hydrogen storage possibilities: example of solid storage (Pascal Mauberger); 5 - Innovative Materials and Manufacturing Technologies for H 2 Production and H 2 Storage (Lars Roentzsch); 6 - Scientific development and industrial strategy: experience feedback from the Myrte platform and energy transition-related perspectives (Philippe Poggi, Thierry Gervais); 7 - 'Power to Gas' - Important partner for renewables with big impact potential (Guenther Schneider) 8 - Developing a Hydrogen Infrastructure for Transport in France and Germany - A Comparison (David Colomar, Ulrich Buenger); 9 - H 2 and Fuel-Cells as Key Technologies for the Transition to Renewable energies - The example of Herten (Babette Nieder); 10 - Social acceptance of hydrogen mobility in Germany (Rene Zimmer); 11 - Hydrogen - A development opportunity for regions? (Fabrice Jeanne)

  15. Nuclear facilities in the Federal Republic of Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    The information brochure is a survey of installed nuclear facilities in Germany, presenting on one page each a picture of a nuclear power plant together with the main relevant data, or of other type of nuclear facilities belonging to the nuclear fuel cycle (such as fuel production plant, fuel production plant, fuel element storage facilities, and facilities for spent fuel and waste management). (UA) [de

  16. Local climate change policy in the United Kingdom and Germany

    OpenAIRE

    Bulkeley, Harriet; Kern, Kristine

    2004-01-01

    "For over a decade climate change has been considered one of the most significant political issues facing the international community. In order to address this challenge, attention needs to be focused not only at the international level of treaties and conventions, but also on how climate protection policy is taking shape at the local level. Germany and the UK have been leading countries for international action on climate change. However, the reductions in domestic emissions of greenhouse ga...

  17. Nuclear energy in the Federal Republic of Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heinrich, D.O.

    1978-01-01

    The way the electricity supply in West Germany is organised is outlined. A summary is given of the development of commercial reactors, of FBRs and HTRs and of their role in present and future nuclear generating capacity. The link-up between manufacturers and companies within the industry is illustrated. Procedures for licensing of plant and the role of administrative courts in dealing with public contestations following the issues of licenses is described. Reference is made to plans for reprocessing. (UK)

  18. Earthquakes in the Federal Republic of Germany 1986

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    A summary is given on the seismic events in the Federal Republic of Germany in the year 1986. Further articles deal with statistics on the earthquakes in the period from 1974 to 1986, reports on single regions as well as a list of the earthquakes world-wide and the damages resulting in the year 1986. (orig./HP) With 12 figs., 5 tabs [de

  19. Decolonial perspectives on charitable spaces of "welcome culture" in Germany

    OpenAIRE

    Braun, Katherine

    2017-01-01

    This article focusses on the relationships between volunteers and refugees in the German “welcome culture”. I highlight the continuities between historical and colonial notions of feminine charity and contemporary volunteering efforts in support of refugees in Germany. The “welcome culture” is conceived here as a charitable space that is historically sedimented by specific understandings of gender, racial and class difference. In particular, the difference between the modern emancipated femal...

  20. State and development of uterine myoma embolization in Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jakobs, T.F.; Helmberger, T.K.; Reiser, M.F.

    2003-01-01

    To evaluate the current situation and implementation of embolization of uterine leiomyomas into the treatment concept in women with symptomatic uterine leiomyomas in Germany. A questionnaire addressing the clinical background of uterine myomas, recommended treatment concepts, preclinical evaluation, technical approach and complications was sent to 164 departments of gynecology and radiology in Germany. 33 radiological departments and 19 gynecological departments submitted a completed questionnaire. Only 7 departments of radiology reported to have own experience with embolization of uterine leiomyomas, while only 2 departments of gynecology considered embolization as an alternative treatment option in patients with symptomatic leiomyomas. 18/33 radiological departments offer this treatment option but get no patient referrals. Agreement was found concerning the indications for treatment, preclinical evaluation by ultrasound and MRI, preferable location of treatable fibroids, technical approach and pain management. The embolization of uterine leiomyomas in patients with symptomatic myomas is regardless of the well documented high efficacy and low complication rate not yet an established treatment option in Germany. Interventional radiologists and gynecologists have to evaluate the indications for the embolization of uterine leiomyomas together before the procedure is advised to the patient, because it seems mandatory to add this procedure to the standard armamentarium of treatment options in uterine myomas. (orig.) [de

  1. Job satisfaction of radiologists in Germany. Status quo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beitzel, K.I.; Grosse, C.; Reiser, M.; Ertl-Wagner, B.; Ertl, L.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this study was to identify and evaluate the work-related satisfaction of radiologists and its influencing factors in Germany. Materials and Methods: For this purpose an invitational letter for an online opinion survey was sent to all member physicians of the Deutsche Roentgengesellschaft in 2008. 1200 questionnaires were completed (response rate 21 %) and evaluated statistically. Results: 81.7 % of radiologists declared themselves as being 'very' or 'rather satisfied'. The level of satisfaction was largely independent of age, gender, status, salary or family status. It increased over the last 5 years for 37.5 % of participants and decreased for 24.8 %. Nevertheless, 72 % of respondents indicated that they would not choose to specialize in radiology again. The main reason given was the workload. 65.6 % deemed it to be 'considerably' or 'rather too high'. Concomitantly, more than 70 % of respondents indicated that the workload had increased 'a lot' or 'rather'. Further reasons for not wanting to select the radiological profession again were 'unfavorable working hours' and 'unsatisfactory career perspectives'. Conclusion: The job satisfaction of radiologists in Germany is generally very high in spite of the perception of an extensive and frequently increasing workload. The high workload was the dominant factor against a renewed selection of the field of radiology. These data have to be interpreted in light of the current lack of residents and trained radiologists in Germany to counteract the trend toward emigration. (orig.)

  2. EMAS in Germany. Evaluation 2012; EMAS in Deutschland. Evaluierung 2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-03-15

    Since the 1990ies, the Eco-Management and Audit Scheme (EMAS) is established in the European Union. Arqum GmbH (Munich, Germany) and Infra dimap (Berlin, Germany) performed the survey ''EMAS in Germany - Evaluation 2012'' at 573 EMAS organizations in the period between March 2012 and July 2012 in order to gain insight into the current EMAS practice in German organizations and to identify potentials for the future development of the EMAS system. The survey covered the following topics: (1) Reasons for participation of the companies and organizations with the EMAS system; (2) Cost-effectiveness of EMAS at the site of the organization; (3) Experiences with the environmental statement; (4) Experiences after the last EMAS amendment (EMAS III); (5) Experience with the environmental verifier and the validation process; (6) Evaluation of the continuation of the EMAS system; (7) Requests to the environmental policy. The main results of this survey are presented in the contribution under consideration.

  3. Statement about the situation of radiation research in Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    The Radiation Protection Association observes with profound concern the decline in radiation research in the Federal Republic of Germany. Among other consequences, this gives rise to the fear that Germany's influence on developments, decisions, and standards in international bodies is going to decline for lack of competence. Moreover, Germany will hardly be able to deal with the growing number of topical problems arising in radiation effects in cell biology and molecular biology. These aspects, and others, however, are going to be of overriding importance also in the future as by far most of the radiation exposure of persons is due to medical applications and is going to continue at least at the same level. It would therefore be desirable if the competent government agencies made available the necessary funds. A national coordinating agency yet to be established, which would be made up of representatives of the university and non-university institutions concerned, could define research goals and award research contracts within the framework of a research program. (orig.) [de

  4. Germany: Family diversity with low actual and desired fertility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jürgen Dorbritz

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Germany is a low-fertility country with a rapidly ageing population, and will remain so for the foreseeable future. There are several reasons for this trend. Germany is among the countries with the highest rates of childlessness in the world, and childlessness has become widely accepted. This is illustrated by changes in living arrangements. A broad range of living arrangements has been added to the basic model of marriage with children; namely, single living, non-marital cohabitation, lone parenthood, patchwork families and living apart together. A culture of individualism has spread in Germany which forms the basis for widespread decisions against family formation. The desired number of children has become low and family policy is considered to be a failure in terms of its influence on fertility. German family policy has had a traditional orientation centred on monetary support to families and on the promotion of the male breadwinner model. Women have been largely forced to choose between family and work, and leave the labour market when a child is born. The still prevailing concept of family policy does not help to reduce the pressure to choose between work and family life, and thus makes it easier to decide not to have children, especially for highly educated women. A change in family policy is needed which will enable couples to choose between the breadwinner-housewife and the reconciliation model. Gradually, this change is starting to take place.

  5. Aseptic meningitis in Germany associated with echovirus type 13

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schreier Eckart

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Echoviruses are the commonest cause of aseptic meningitis. Echovirus type 13 which has not been isolated in Germany over a long period of time was the predominant enterovirus serotype associated with different local outbreaks of aseptic meningitis in Germany in 2000. Methods Virus isolation was performed from cerebrospinal fluid and stools. In order to study the genetic relationship of echovirus type 13 isolates, sequence analysis of a part of VP1 (~300 nt was carried out. Isolates from different geographic regions were compared to each other as well as to elder viruses (prototype strain from 1953, four isolates from 1965–1986. Results Overall, 55 isolates of echovirus type 13 were obtained from different parts of Germany. It was shown that the new isolated strains have a very high degree of homology on the nucleotide level (> 98% but differ significantly from the old strains (76–85%. Conclusions a Rare enterovirus serotypes can cause serious illness. b The molecular drift has also been shown for other enterovirus serotypes.

  6. Underground storage development in the Federal Republic of Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sponheuer, T.

    1990-01-01

    As the demand for gas in the Federal Republic of Germany is increasingly dependent upon temperature, underground storage is becoming a more and more important tool for the adjustment of supply load factors to the patterns of gas demand. Total working gas capacity is expected to double by the year 2000. Capacity requirements must be planned for a design winter, but allowances must also be made for operational flexibility, but management of incidents and the decrease in deliverability mainly from porous rock storage fields towards the end of the withdrawal season. Storage development potential in the Federal Republic of Germany is adequate for these requirements. However, the substantial uncertainties associated with the various factors determining future storage needs, administrative and licensing procedures, difficulties with regard to storage site acceptance by the general public and the resulting long project lead times confront gas companies from the Federal Republic of Germany with a complex planning problem and a major technical and commercial challenge, considering the estimated capital outlay of 4 to 5 billion DM in 1988 Deutschmarks. To master this challenge and to be able to provide secure and competitive gas supplies, the gas industry must continue to operate in a market economy which remains undistorted by new legislation and regulation. (author). 11 figs

  7. Case law: France, Germany, India, Switzerland, United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2012-01-01

    France: Administrative Court of Appeal of Lyon, 19 June 2012, Judgements Nos. 12LY00233 and 12LY00290 regarding EDF's permit to construct a waste conditioning and storage facility (ICEDA) in the town of Saint-Vulbas; Conseil d'Etat decision regarding Atelier de technologie de plutonium (ATPu) located at the Cadarache site. Germany: Request for arbitration against Germany at the World Bank's International Centre for the Settlement of Investment Disputes (ICSID) because of Germany's legislation leading to the phase-out of nuclear energy. India: Cases related to the Kudankulam Nuclear Power Project (KKNPP). Switzerland: Judgement of the Federal Administrative Court in the matter of Balmer-Schafroth a.o.v. BKW FMB Energy Inc. on the revocation of the operating licence for the Muehleberg nuclear power plant. United States: Judgement of the Court of Appeals for the D.C. Circuit vacating the NRC's 2010 Waste Confidence Decision and Rule Update; U.S. Supreme Court declines petition for certiorari filed by property owners on Price- Anderson Act claim for damages; Judgement of the NRC Atomic Safety and Licensing Board finding applicants ineligible to obtain a combined license because they are owned by a U.S. corporation that is 100% owned by a foreign corporation; Judgement of an NRC Atomic Safety and Licensing Board Authorizing Issuance of a license for the construction and operation of a commercial laser enrichment facility

  8. Energy policy in the Federal Republic of Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1986-01-01

    The tenor and consensus of energy policy in the Federal Republic of Germany have been affected and shaken by the discussion of damage to forests at the beginning of 1985, the rapidly slumping petroleum prices, the Chernobyl reactor accident, and the resulting emotionalized energy policy debates overshadowing the elections for the Land government, the Senate and the Bundestag. However, the responsible decision making organs still seem to feel a strong need for a consensus of that kind. ET-editors have therefore been trying to find out about the situation of 'energy policy in the Federal Republic of Germany' late in 1986. The Federal Government, the parliamentary factions, the parties, Land governments, labor unions and BDI, the coal, petroleum and natural gas industry as well as the manufacturers and managers of nuclear power plants were asked to express their opinion on the following questions: How will the energy supply of the Federal Republic of Germany be provided for in the future. What are the pros and cons of a nuclear phase-out. Should energy economy be reorganized. What is expected from and desired for the development of individual regions or energy sources, respectively. All but a few of above organs answered the questions. The statements therefore give a representative survey of the opinions and attitudes of the relevant decision-making organs and of different institutions. (orig./UA) [de

  9. Survival of Patients with Oral Cavity Cancer in Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Listl, Stefan; Jansen, Lina; Stenzinger, Albrecht; Freier, Kolja; Emrich, Katharina; Holleczek, Bernd; Katalinic, Alexander; Gondos, Adam; Brenner, Hermann

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to describe the survival of patients diagnosed with oral cavity cancer in Germany. The analyses relied on data from eleven population-based cancer registries in Germany covering a population of 33 million inhabitants. Patients with a diagnosis of oral cavity cancer (ICD-10: C00-06) between 1997 and 2006 are included. Period analysis for 2002–2006 was applied to estimate five-year age-standardized relative survival, taking into account patients' sex as well as grade and tumor stage. Overall five-year relative survival for oral cavity cancer patients was 54.6%. According to tumor localization, five-year survival was 86.5% for lip cancer, 48.1% for tongue cancer and 51.7% for other regions of the oral cavity. Differences in survival were identified with respect to age, sex, tumor grade and stage. The present study is the first to provide a comprehensive overview on survival of oral cavity cancer patients in Germany. PMID:23349710

  10. A short history of health technology assessment in Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perleth, Matthias; Gibis, Bernhard; Göhlen, Britta

    2009-07-01

    To provide an overview of the development of health technology assessment (HTA) in Germany since the 1990s. Analysis of key documents (e.g. literature, laws, and other official documentation) and personal experiences. Health technology assessment (HTA) entered the political agenda in Germany only in the mid-1990s, basically as the result of a top-down approach toward more efficiency in health care, but with a strong impetus of an evidence-based medicine movement. Accordingly, HTA became part of several healthcare reform laws since 1997, which led to the establishment of the Federal Joint Committee (G-BA) and the Institute for Quality and Efficiency in Health Care (IQWiG) in 2004. This tandem construction aims at using evidence in decision-making processes for coverage and other decisions. These developments have led to a considerable impact of HTA in Germany. In addition, a broad spectrum of activities at universities and in other organizations, such as the German Institute for Medical Documentation and Information (DIMDI), can be observed that contribute to both teaching and research in HTA. German researchers in the field of HTA are actively involved in international projects, such as EUNetHTA, and contribute to scientific conferences and journals.

  11. Germany 2050 a greenhouse gas-neutral country. Background paper

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Werner, Kathrin; Nissler, Diana (eds.)

    2013-10-15

    For several years, the German Federal Environment Agency (UBA) has been looking at the question how the climate target of a GHG-neutral Germany can be achieved. In a multi-disciplinary project launched by the agency, the first point of call was power generation because of its high emissions. It was shown in 2010 that power generation from 100 % renewable energy is possible. Even then it was understood that a renewable energy supply alone would not be enough to completely abolish greenhouse gas emissions. Other sectors of the economy would have to follow suit and undergo major changes, relying on low-GHG technology. Consequently, the study now submitted, ''Greenhouse gas-neutral Germany 2050'', includes in its research all relevant emission sources that are described in the annual National Inventory Report (NIR) on emissions and removal of greenhouse gases. Alongside complete energy supply, including heating and transport, we also look at emissions from industry, waste disposal, agriculture and forestry as well as changes in land use. We develop a target scenario. The transformations that lead to the target and related economic considerations or the selection of appropriate policy instruments, however, are not part of our study. The scenario analysis is based on the assumption that in 2050, Germany will still be an exporting industrial country with an average annual growth of 0.7 % of its gross domestic product.

  12. Epidemiology in Germany-general development and personal experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wichmann, Heinz-Erich

    2017-08-01

    Did you ever hear about epidemiology in Germany? Starting from an epidemiological desert the discipline has grown remarkably, especially during the last 10-15 years: research institutes have been established, research funding has improved, multiple curriculae in Epidemiology and Public Health are offered. This increase has been quite steep, and now the epidemiological infrastructure is much better. Several medium-sized and even big population cohorts are ongoing, and the number and quality of publications from German epidemiologists has reached a respectable level. My own career in epidemiology started in the field of environmental health. After German reunification I concentrated for many years on environmental problems in East Germany and observed the health benefits after improvement of the situation. Later, I concentrated on population-based cohorts in newborns (GINI/LISA) and adults (KORA, German National Cohort), and on biobanking. This Essay describes the development in Germany after worldwar 2, illustrated by examples of research results and build-up of epidemiological infractructures worth mentioning.

  13. The legal status of nuclear power in Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mann, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Over the past 15 years, political attitudes in Germany towards the nuclear industry have been characterised less by consistency than by some major policy shifts, and the same can be said for the legislation born of these attitudes. Although a number of these about-turns were predictable, others were less so because of their dependence on external factors. What now looks likely to be the final decision to phase out the civil use of nuclear power in Germany by 31 December 2022 raises a whole host of legal questions. In particular, the procedure followed to implement this phase-out provides ample material for debates on questions of constitutionality. Further matters of jurisprudential interest include the agreements concluded with the nuclear industry before the final phase-out decision was taken and the chronologically close political about-faces themselves. Finally, a degree of legal uncertainty still surrounds not only the as yet still unresolved issue of final repositories but also the resurgent debate over the source of funding for the dismantling of nuclear power plants. After providing an overview of the initial situation and the problems arising in connection with Germany's phasing out of the civil use of nuclear energy, this paper will place these issues in their proper legal context before evaluating them and highlighting the connection between these points of nuclear law and the current upheaval in German energy policy. (author)

  14. A framework for standardized calculation of weather indices in Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Möller, Markus; Doms, Juliane; Gerstmann, Henning; Feike, Til

    2018-05-01

    Climate change has been recognized as a main driver in the increasing occurrence of extreme weather. Weather indices (WIs) are used to assess extreme weather conditions regarding its impact on crop yields. Designing WIs is challenging, since complex and dynamic crop-climate relationships have to be considered. As a consequence, geodata for WI calculations have to represent both the spatio-temporal dynamic of crop development and corresponding weather conditions. In this study, we introduce a WI design framework for Germany, which is based on public and open raster data of long-term spatio-temporal availability. The operational process chain enables the dynamic and automatic definition of relevant phenological phases for the main cultivated crops in Germany. Within the temporal bounds, WIs can be calculated for any year and test site in Germany in a reproducible and transparent manner. The workflow is demonstrated on the example of a simple cumulative rainfall index for the phenological phase shooting of winter wheat using 16 test sites and the period between 1994 and 2014. Compared to station-based approaches, the major advantage of our approach is the possibility to design spatial WIs based on raster data characterized by accuracy metrics. Raster data and WIs, which fulfill data quality standards, can contribute to an increased acceptance and farmers' trust in WI products for crop yield modeling or weather index-based insurances (WIIs).

  15. Waste management concept during dismantling of KKS NPP in Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bacmeister, Georg U.

    2008-01-01

    Full text: This paper gives an overview on the waste management of NPP Stade during dismantling. The general idea is to reduce the radioactive waste to about three percentage of the complete dismantling mass. The NPP Stade in Germany was shut down in November 2003. After a transient phase the license for dismantling was given in 2005. In the following 8 years about 20.000 tones of steel and 120.000 tones of concrete will be put out by the dismantling. The yearly output of steel will by about 100 times higher than during the running time of the NNP. For this a new processes for waste management had to be installed. The waste management during dismantling focus on free release (about 97%). Beside some minor exception, the rest is deemed to be radioactive waste. This will be collected in 1000 packages, which are ready to be sent to a final storage. As until now in Germany no final storage is open (and sending of radioactive waste to another country is forbidden), the NNP Stade build an intermediate storage, where the packages may by saved for longest 40 years. The clearance procedure in Germany is regulated in the radiation protection ordinances. It is based on a nuclide specific set of clearance levels. To fulfil these demands the NNP Stade chose a semi automated system for characterization and documentation, which we develop in accordance to our release license. It guaranties a most accurate determination of the relevant nuclides for a set of dismantling material (some 10 to 100 tones). After the characterization only the gamma-activity of the material is measured in boxes of about 500 kg. A short comparison of the chosen procedure with other options, possible in Germany will be given and the decision from the collaboration with the NPP in Barsebaeck, Sweden, will be withdrawn. Beside the free release different options are used for waste management, like incineration, sending to landfill or reuse in nuclear industry. The waste management of the NNP Stade take

  16. Wind power report Germany 2014; Windenergie Report Deutschland 2014

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rohrig, Kurt (ed.)

    2015-07-01

    Record year 2014. In Germany, the expansion figures attained were so high on land and at sea that the overall new installation figure of 5,188 MW surpassed the previous maximum (from 2002) by more than 60%. With an overall capacity of 39,259 MW, for the first time, wind energy in Germany covers 9.7% of gross power consumption. On the global scale a capacity of more than 51,000 MW has been added - another record high for wind energy installations. Power mix. At 161 TWh, renewable energies in Germany covered 27.8% of gross power consumption and provided for the first time more energy than any other energy source. Coming into force of the new REA in August 2014, modified support schemes caused the expansion of biogas plants and large-scale PV installations to falter. The record expansion seen for wind energy can be interpreted as a pull-forward effect due to the tender procedures coming into force in 2017. Grid integration. Loss of production caused by feed-in management measures rose by 44% to 555 GWh as compared to 2012. Wind turbines were affected in 87% of cases but the impact on PV installations is increasing. Power generation must be more flexible and grids expanded to limit loss of production. Of the 23 expansion projects (1,887 km) in the Electricity Grid Expansion Act, just a quarter of them had been realized by the end of 2014 (463 km). In the preliminary analysis results for the 2014 grid development plan, the extent of grid upgrading and conversion was 3050 km. Offshore, the HelWin 1 grid link with a capacity of 580 MW went online. SylWin 1 and BorWin 2, with a total capacity of 1660 MW, are currently being tested in a trial. In the preliminary analysis results for the 2014 offshore grid development plan, grid connections having an overall capacity of 10.3 GW are planned. Onshore. 2014 saw a total of 44 different turbine types installed in Germany. For the first time, virtually the same number of turbines were added in the 3-4 MW class, as in the 2-3 MW

  17. Allergies in Germany -- prevalence and perception by the public.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Augustin, Matthias; Franzke, Nadine; Beikert, Florian C; Stadler, Rudolf; Reusch, Michael; Schmitt, Jochen; Schäfer, Ines

    2013-06-01

    During the recent decades allergies have become more frequent all over the world. However, it is unclear how important the topic of allergies is for the general German population and how appropriately patients with allergies are treated. A telephone survey was performed on a representative random sample of n = 1,004 adults in Germany. The survey was performed by the Forsa Institute for Social Research and Statistical Analysis, Berlin, Germany, in the period from 31 January to 2 February 2012. Of the interviewees 52% responded that the topic of allergies concerned them; in 33% actually an allergy had been diagnosed by a physician. The proportion of allergies in the population correlated with the level of school education and was higher among people with a higher educational status. No differences in allergy rates were found between Eastern and Western Germany. Among allergic persons, 53% reported to be burdened by their allergy, 48% suffered from impaired performance because of their allergic symptoms. Among people suffering from pollen allergy, only 28% received sublingual immune therapy, with which 70% were satisfied. While 58% practiced self-medication, only 21% of the allergic persons were treated with anti-allergic drugs during their allergy flares. Allergic diseases are a common, often burdensome problem in the German population, but nevertheless the medical treatment of people affected is still insufficient. The proportion of patients receiving sublingual immune therapy as causal treatment is comparatively low. Active steps are needed to improve the utilization behavior of patients, e. g. to take advice of an allergy specialist. © The Authors • Journal compilation © Blackwell Verlag GmbH, Berlin.

  18. Cross border transport of vitrified residues from France to Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graf, W.; Jussofie, A.

    2016-01-01

    Until 1994 reprocessing was the only legal way to manage German spent fuel. Since in 1984 the national reprocessing concept was abandoned the reprocessing abroad was the only existing disposal route. With the amendment of the Atomic Energy Act in 2002 spent fuel management changed completely since from 1 June 2005 any delivery of spent fuel to reprocessing plants was prohibited and the direct disposal of spent fuel became mandatory. Until 2005 the total amount of spent fuel to be reprocessed abroad added up to 6080 t HM, 5309 t HM thereof in France. According to the commercial contracts signed between the German utilities and COGEMA, now AREVA NC, in France and BNFL, now INS in UK, and to the intergovernmental agreements concluded between Germany and France or UK the waste generated from reprocessing has to be returned to Germany. The return of high active vitrified waste from La Hague to the interim storage facility at Gorleben was not only demanding from the view of safety ensured by the cask design but especially for security reasons since the Gorleben area served as a target for nuclear opponents from the first transport in 1996 to the latest one in 2010. The protection against sabotage of the railway lines and mass protests needed improved security measures. Special working forces and projects have been set up in France and Germany to cope with this situation. A complex transport organization was necessary to involve all parties in line with the German and French security requirements during transport. All transports have been completed successfully so far thus confirming the efficiency of the applied measures. (author)

  19. Electronic Cigarettes-Attitudes and Use in Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rüther, Tobias; Wissen, Franziska; Linhardt, Andrea; Aichert, Désirée S; Pogarell, Oliver; de Vries, Hein

    2016-05-01

    Smoking is the leading preventable cause of death and disease. Previous studies on electronic cigarette (e-cigarette) use have reported reduction and cessation of conventional cigarette smoking; however, health effects are still a matter of discussion. This cross-sectional study investigated the attitudes of adults in Germany towards using e-cigarettes instead of or in addition to cigarettes. Furthermore, it examined the extent to which e-cigarettes are used as a smoking cessation tool. In 2012, we recruited a sample of 319 participants comprising e-cigarette users (vapers, 33%), cigarette smokers (smokers, 37%) and smokers of both cigarette types (dual users, 30%). The Integrated Model for Change (I-Change Model) was used as a theoretical framework and a modified Fagerström Test of Nicotine Dependence was used to assess nicotine dependence. Data were collected by means of a questionnaire and smoking status was substantiated by measuring exhaled carbon monoxide. The vapers were more often men, were less addicted to nicotine and had a higher motivation to stop smoking than the smokers. In addition, vapers reported better health and had a lower carbon monoxide concentration than smokers. Furthermore, vapers had a more positive attitude towards e-cigarettes and higher self-efficacy in terms of abstaining from cigarettes in certain situations. This is the first study to report on the use of e-cigarettes in Germany. Our results support those of previous studies in other populations. Further research is still needed on the potential health effects of e-cigarettes and their efficacy as a smoking cessation aid. The study is the first description of attitudes and use of e-cigarettes in Germany. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. Opening speech: nuclear power today - the situation in germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gueldner, R.

    2005-01-01

    Nuclear power is experiencing an upswing worldwide. High prices of conventional fuels, discussions about the long-term continuity of supply, rising energy requirements, and the search for efficient ways of protecting the climate have moved nuclear power back into focus in a positive way. This is also true for Germany. In this country, nuclear power has gone through twelve very successful months since the 2004 Nuclear Technology Conference in Duesseldorf, as is borne out by the performance of all nuclear power plants in Germany. A change of mood towards a positive view of nuclear power is taking place in Germany. It is also seen, however, that the ''problem'' of final storage, which has been solved technically, is in urgent need of a political solution. German know-how in nuclear technology enjoys a high reputation internationally. For manufacturers and the associated supplier industries, this means excellent market opportunities, also for future projects, in view of worldwide demand. Various nuclear projects have progressed at long last: The Heinz Meier-Leibnitz research reactor (FRM-II) has been commissioned; the final stage of expansion of the Urenco uranium enrichment plant in Gronau has been approved; the license for a capacity increase in the ANF fuel fabrication plant in Lingen has been granted. Nuclear power is enjoying a high reputation also in the European Union. Major expansion plans exist in Asia, while increases in power and performance as well as life extensions can be observed in the United States. The world needs a sustainable energy mix - with nuclear power. (orig.)