WorldWideScience

Sample records for castillos rocha uruguay

  1. Instrumentos de molienda: evidencias del procesamiento de recursos vegetales en la laguna de Castillos (Rocha, Uruguay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina Capdepont

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Se presentan los resultados obtenidos del estudio de instrumentos de molienda recuperados en la Excavación I del montículo A del sitio Guardia del Monte -laguna de Castillos- Uruguay. Para realizar el trabajo se procedió a la caracterización de los instrumentos de molienda mediante el relevamiento de los atributos físicos y de las características funcionales. Para esto último se aplicó la Técnica de Extracción e Identificación de Partículas Biosilíceas, con el objetivo de realizar correlaciones entre instrumentos particulares y tipos de recursos vegetales específicos. Asimismo, se emplearon fuentes escritas profundizando en los aspectos relacionados con la molienda y uso de recursos vegetales. Los resultados obtenidos permitieron identificar el procesamiento de vegetales con aplicaciones alimenticias (preparación de harinas, bebidas fermentadas, etc. y tecnológicas (textilería, cordelería, cestería, entre los que se identificaron recursos silvestres y cultivados o manejados. Algunos instrumentos presentaron evidencias de procesamiento de recursos alimenticios, otros de recursos tecnológicos y finalmente otros con indicios de multifuncionalidad. Asimismo, se constató una cierta correlación entre algunos de los atributos físicos de los instrumentos y la funcionalidad atribuida a partir de los vegetales identificados y los usos referidos en las fuentes etnográficas.This paper presents the results from studies performed on milling stone tools recovered at Excavation I, Mound A from Guardia del Monte Site, Castillos lagoon, Uruguay. Physical attributes and functional features were used for the characterization of grinding artefacts. To this end opal phytoliths were extracted and analyzed in order to correlate different kinds of artefacts with specific vegetable resources. Written sources were used additionally to reach a deeper understanding of other aspects related to grinding activities and use of vegetable resources. The

  2. The "Tuteo" of Rocha, Uruguay: A Study of Pride and Language Maintenance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weyers, Joseph R.

    2014-01-01

    This paper examines the tuteo in Rocha, Uruguay, a unique situation in a country that is mostly "voseante." The study draws on speakers' attitudes toward "tú" and "vos" in Rocha, taken from informal interviews and from a linguistic attitude survey. The survey was conducted with 58 informants, most of whom were…

  3. The "Tuteo" of Rocha, Uruguay: A Study of Pride and Language Maintenance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weyers, Joseph R.

    2014-01-01

    This paper examines the tuteo in Rocha, Uruguay, a unique situation in a country that is mostly "voseante." The study draws on speakers' attitudes toward "tú" and "vos" in Rocha, taken from informal interviews and from a linguistic attitude survey. The survey was conducted with 58 informants, most of whom were…

  4. El modelo actual de desarrollo turístico al oeste del balneario La Paloma, Rocha, Uruguay. Tendencias, riesgos y propuestas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel Gadino

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Se analiza la capacidad del modelo de desarrollo de la costa atlántica del Uruguay para preservar los recursos que lo sustentan. Se estudia el sector de Playa Solari - Barra de Laguna de Rocha, zona con importantes dinámicas territoriales, conflictos entre el desarrollo urbano tradicional de balneario, las nuevas modalidades de turismo rural-costero y la protección de sus recursos. A través de comparación de imágenes aéreas históricas, opinión de usuarios, estudio de normativa entre otros, se investigan servicios ecosistémicos existentes, usos antrópicos y un escenario posiblemente tendencial. Los resultados evidencian una notoria etapa de consolidación urbana y un proceso histórico de ocupación y usos que perjudica a los principales recursos del desarrollo económico de la zona. Finalmente se proponen recomendaciones y una clasificación primaria de suelos con usos y ocupaciones alternativos a los actuales, así como un listado de medidas complementarias para paliar los impactos negativos de la situación tendencial.

  5. Uruguay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-06-01

    Uruguay, officially "The Oriental Republic of Uruguay," is a country of 176,215 sq km with a temperate climate and a good water supply, which contributed to the emergence of stock raising as the economy's traditional base. 1.31 million of the country's 2,940,200 people live in Montevideo, the capital and only large city. The population is 85%-95% white and 66% Roman Catholic. The dominant culture and official language is Spanish, although 25% of the people are of Italian origin. The annual population growth is only 0.5%, due to a low birth rate and large net outmigration. Infant mortality in 1986 was 27.1/1000, and life expectancy was 73 years. Literacy is 96%, due to an extensive system of public and private education. There is a large, urban middle class, which enjoys a high standard of living. 22% of the work force is in industry, 21% in government, 15% in commerce, and 28% in services. The 1986 gross domestic product was $6.2 billion, per capita $1701. The annual growth rate is now 6.3%, which is an upturn from the generally stagnant economic conditions of the last 30 years. 1986 exports were $834 million (mainly meat, wool, hides, and leather goods); imports were $870 million. Inflation averages 76.4%, and 270 pesos=$1.00. The major economic problem is managing the huge external debt of almost $5.4 billion. In 1987 Uruguay reached a debt rescheduling agreement with creditor banks and the International Monitary Fund, stretching out repayment dates through 2004. Exchange rates were allowed to float in 1982, and the country is trying to reduce the burden of the excessively large government sector through various privatization schemes. Uruguay has also been working with Argentina and Brazil toward integrating their economies. The only aboriginal inhabitants of Uruguay were the Charrua Indians. In 1811 Jose Gervasio Artigas led Uruguay's revolt against Spain, and total independence was achieved in 1828. Jose Batlle y Ordonez, who served as president from 1903 to

  6. Uruguay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-01-01

    Uruguay is a country of 176,000 sq. km with 3 million inhabitants, of whom 96% are literate. Independence was gained on August 25, 1825. The terrain consists of plains and low hills, with a climate which is temperate. Spanish is spoken by White, Mestizo, and Black ethnic groups who are variously non-professing or of Roman Catholic, Protestant, Jewish, and other faiths. Life expectancy ranges over 69-75 years. GDP is $11.3 billion, growing at a rate of 4%. Per capita income is $3600. The country's natural resources include arable land, hydroelectric potential, gold, granite, and marble. Beef, wool, grains, fruits, vegetables, meat processing, would and hides, textiles, shoes, handbags, leather apparel, tires, cement, fishing, and petroleum refining are areas of economic production. Fuels, chemical, machinery, and metals are imported, and meat, wool, hides, leather and wool products, fish, rice and furs are exported. In-depth information is also given on the people and history, government and principal officials, political conditions, the economy, defense, foreign relations, relations with the U.S., and names of principal U.S. officials in the country.

  7. Determinación de Glifosato mediante inmunoensayo enzimático (ELISA en el Paisaje Protegido Laguna de Rocha y su entorno, Uruguay.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Nardo

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available En el entorno de la Laguna de Rocha se ha visto incrementada la superficie dedicada a las actividades agrícolas con un mayor uso de plaguicidas, entre ellos el herbicida glifosato, usado en cultivos de soja principalmente. Mediante la utilización de técnicas de inmunoensayo enzimático (ELISA, se investigó la presencia de glifosato en la Laguna y algunos de sus afluentes en dos momentos específicos de tiempo. Se detectó glifosato en 27 de las 28 muestras estudiadas. Muestras positivas por ELISA fueron confirmadas por cromatografía iónica. El método ELISA demostró ser una herramienta de screening adecuada para determinar la presencia de glifosato en agua.

  8. Virtual Visit to the ATLAS Control Room by various towns in Uruguay

    CERN Multimedia

    2013-01-01

    Anilla Cultural Latinoamérica – Europa in Uruguay is a venture between ANEP, CES and UDELAR. In its line of action of scientific and technological culture they contact CERN for an open dialogue to divulge science, led to its teachers and students. The virtual "visit" of Uruguay at CERN is done from multiple video conferencing rooms in the country through the Uruguayan Academic Network. On 28th May six towns in Uruguay will be connected to the ATLAS Control Room: Montevideo, Maldonado, Rocha, Tacuarembó, Salto and Rivera.

  9. Two new species of Chaco Tullgren from the Atlantic coast of Uruguay (Araneae, Mygalomorphae, Nemesiidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Montes de Oca

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available We describe two new species of the nemesiid spider genus Chaco from Rocha Province, Uruguay. These new species are diagnosed based on genital morphology, male tibial apophysis spination, and burrow entrance. We test cospecificity of one species, C. costai, via laboratory mating experiments. The new species are diagnosed and illustrated and habitat characteristics, and capture behavior are described. We conduct a cladistic analysis based on a previously published morphological character matrix that now includes the newly described species.

  10. El Castillo de Chipiona (Cádiz

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    de Alba Romero, Margarita

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This work presents a synthesis of the archaeological investigations carried out in Chipiona’s Castle (Chipiona, Cadiz during the year 2007, mainly focused on the analysis of its initial structures. The stratigraphical research and the standing structures analysis show the constructive evolution of a complex medieval-modern building currently in use. Although its building typology reflects a defensive building, traditionally identified as «Castle», the archaeological remains seems to be actually a «Tower», «House-tower» or «Fort-House».En este artículo presentamos una síntesis de las investigaciones arqueológicas desarrolladas en el Castillo de Chipiona (Chipiona, Cádiz durante el año 2007 centradas fundamentalmente en el análisis paramental de sus estructuras embrionarias. La lectura estratigráfica y el estudio murario mostraron la evolución constructiva de un edificio polifásico de origen bajomedievalmoderno en uso hasta la actualidad. Aunque su tipología constructiva responde a la de un edificio defensivo tradicionalmente identificado como «Castillo» sin embargo parece responder más bien al esquema tradicional de «Torre», «Casa-Torre» o «Casa-Fuerte».

  11. People first in the Philippines: Gelia Castillo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yabes, C

    1995-01-01

    Gelia Castillo, a specialist in rural sociology whose ideas have influenced policymakers in government, international development circles, and academe, pioneered the concept of participatory development. Born into a poor family, her father convinced her that academic achievement was the key to her future; her academic training includes a Bachelor of Arts in psychology from the University of the Philippines, a Master's in rural sociology from Pennsylvania State University, and a Doctorate from Cornell University. She served as professor of rural sociology at the College of Agriculture, University of the Philippines, and published extensively on women's roles, the sex roles of Filipino adolescents, agricultural school administration, the team approach in community development, rice and potato farming, the changing social images in a developing society, and the protein gap. "Beyond Manila," her most famous book, was the first comprehensive research work on income distribution, employment, labor, education, and migration in the rural Philippines. She underscored the definition of "household" and observed that the role of women and children contributes greatly to the dynamics of society. Her husband, Leopoldo Castillo, an animal nutritionist who is now professor emeritus at the Institute of Animal Science, has long supported his wife's career. The mother of two daughters and one son was the only female member of the board of the International Potato Center for 6 years and served on the boards of the IDRC, the International Service for National Agriculture Research, and the International Council for Research in Agroforestry. At 66, and retired, she believes affirmative action is necessary and that the feminist movement has only helped professional women.

  12. Las tecnicas literarias de Othon Castillo en "La cruel naturaleza" (The Literary Techniques Used by Othon Castillo in "Cruel Native")

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Richard F.

    1975-01-01

    Discusses the style of the Ecuadorian novelist Othon Castillo and the literary techniques used in his novel "Cruel Nature." The novel describes the cities of Quito and Santa Ana in Ecuador and their inhabitants. (Text is in Spanish.) (TL)

  13. Uruguay - Surface Weather Observations

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Surface weather observation forms for 26 stations in Uruguay. Period of record 1896-2005, with two to eight observations per day. Files created through a...

  14. Brecha Salarial en Uruguay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Borraz

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available This study applies the extension of the Machado and Mata (2005 decomposition developed by Albrecht, van Vuuren and Vroman (2009 to analyze the gender wage gap with selection correction in Uruguay. The wage gap is increasing in the upper part of the wage distribution suggesting a glass ceiling in Uruguay. The wage gap is explained more for the differences in return to the observables characteristics than for differences in the characteristics. It is also a positive selection effect.

  15. Carlos Castillo-Chavez: a century ahead.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schatz, James

    2013-01-01

    When the opportunity to contribute a short essay about Dr. Carlos Castillo-Chavez presented itself in the context of this wonderful birthday celebration my immediate reaction was por supuesto que sí! Sixteen years ago, I travelled to Cornell University with my colleague at the National Security Agency (NSA) Barbara Deuink to meet Carlos and hear about his vision to expand the talent pool of mathematicians in our country. Our motivation was very simple. First of all, the Agency relies heavily on mathematicians to carry out its mission. If the U.S. mathematics community is not healthy, NSA is not healthy. Keeping our country safe requires a team of the sharpest minds in the nation to tackle amazing intellectual challenges on a daily basis. Second, the Agency cares deeply about diversity. Within the mathematical sciences, students with advanced degrees from the Chicano, Latino, Native American, and African-American communities are underrepresented. It was clear that addressing this issue would require visionary leadership and a long-term commitment. Carlos had the vision for a program that would provide promising undergraduates from minority communities with an opportunity to gain confidence and expertise through meaningful research experiences while sharing in the excitement of mathematical and scientific discovery. His commitment to the venture was unquestionable and that commitment has not waivered since the inception of the Mathematics and Theoretical Biology Institute (MTBI) in 1996.

  16. Ediacaran in Uruguay: Facts and controversies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aubet, Natalie R.; Pecoits, Ernesto; Heaman, Larry M.; Veroslavsky, Gerardo; Gingras, Murray K.; Konhauser, Kurt O.

    2014-11-01

    The Ediacaran of Uruguay has been regarded as containing a significant geological and paleontological record, which would make these successions critical to unraveling diverse aspects regarding the assembly of southwestern Gondwana and to understanding the conditions surrounding the rise of animal life in a period punctuated by drastic paleoenvironmental changes. However, a review of currently available data leads to the conclusion that, although variable, the stratigraphy, distribution and age of these units remain ambiguous. The same is true for existing basin models and tectonic evolution, which show different and sometimes contradicting supporting evidence. Here, we propose that the Ediacaran record consists of the Maldonado Group (Playa Hermosa, Las Ventanas and San Carlos formations), and the Tacuarí, Barriga Negra, Rocha and Sierra de Aguirre formations. The Arroyo del Soldado Group (Yerbal, Polanco Limestones and Cerro Espuelitas formations) and the Arroyo de la Pedrera Group (Piedras de Afilar and Cerro Victoria formations) were likely deposited between 700 and 1000 Ma. The best available radiometric age constraints indicate intense magmatic-tectonic activity occurred between 600 and 560 Ma, incompatible with previous models suggesting a stable, Atlantic-type passive margin on this portion of southwestern Gondwana. Further research is needed in order to firmly establish a consistent litho- and chronostratigraphic framework; particularly, before attempting any regional or global correlation, and inferences on global paleoenvironmental and paleobiological events.

  17. Un Ecce Homo de Antonio del Castillo en Granada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Montes González, Francisco

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The author presents a previously unknown painting by the Baroque artist from Cordoba, Antonio del Castillo y Saavedra. It is an Ecce Homo, a late work, and located in a private collection in Granada.Este artículo presenta el último aporte en el catálogo del pintor barroco cordobés Antonio del Castillo y Saavedra. Se trata de un lienzo con la iconografía del Ecce Homo, perteneciente a su última etapa artística, localizado en una colección particular de Granada.

  18. Radiactividad natural en la zona costera del departamento de Rocha, Uruguay

    OpenAIRE

    Noguera, Ana; Bentos Pereira, Heinkel; Fornaro, Laura

    2012-01-01

    La costa este uruguaya posee una riqueza enorme de ecosistemas como ser dunas, mar, ríos, arroyos y aguas subterráneas, así como una inmensa variedad de fauna y flora. En dicha área están presentes además recursos minerales, los cuales incluyen yacimientos de arenas negras, con 7 millones de toneladas de metales pesados evaluados en el área de Aguas Dulces – Valizas. Estos yacimientos están compuestos entre otros minerales por 0.6 % of monacita. Como resultado están presentes todos los radion...

  19. Radiactividad natural en la zona costera del departamento de Rocha, Uruguay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Lía Noguera Rocha

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available La costa este uruguaya posee una riqueza enorme de ecosistemas como ser dunas, mar, ríos, arroyos y aguas subterráneas, así como una inmensa variedad de fauna y flora. En dicha área están presentes además recursos minerales, los cuales incluyen yacimientos de arenas negras, con 7 millones de toneladas de metales pesados evaluados en el área de Aguas Dulces – Valizas. Estos yacimientos están compuestos entre otros minerales por 0.6 % of monacita. Como resultado están presentes todos los radionucleidos pertenecientes a la serie del 238U y del 232Th series.A los efectos de evaluar la transferencia de la contaminación radiactiva natural desde arena a otros compartimentos la actividad total alfa y beta fue determinada utilizando Analyzing miniscaler Ratemeter modelo PRS-5/STB-3, para arena, aguas subterráneas y vegetación (Hydrocotile bonariensis Lamarck del Balneario Valizas (34º 20´ 31.42” S y 53º 47´ 19.47” O. Todas las muestras fueron previamente tratadas, las muestras de arena fueron secadas, las aguas tratadas con HNO3, mantenidas a 4 º para su conservación y llevadas a sequedad, finalmente los vegetales fueron calcinados y las cenizas medidas. Fueron utilizados patrones de 238U y 232Th (IAEA RGU-1, RGTh-1. De las actividades específicas y de los coeficientes de transferencia obtenidospodemos concluir que los contaminantes radiactivos naturales migran de arena a otroscompartimentos. El coeficiente de transferencia de arena a H.bonariensis es el máselevado y está de acuerdo a los resultados previamente reportados en literatura. Losvalores obtenidos para aguas subterráneas están por debajo del límite de intervencióndeterminado para agua potable (0.55 Bq.l-1.

  20. La organización de la tecnología lítica de los pobladores tempranos del este de Uruguay The Organization Of Lithic Technology Among The Early Inhabitants Of Eastern Uruguay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrés Gascue

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Se presentan los resultados de las investigaciones realizadas en el sitio Rincón de los Indios (Rocha, Uruguay. Se analizaron los vestigios líticos (lascas, núcleos, instrumentos tallados, instrumentos confeccionados por picoteo y/o abrasión, preformas de puntas de proyectil y puntas de proyectil recuperados en los niveles tempranos. Con el análisis se ha buscado la especificidad de la utilización diferencial de las materias primas y los diferentes procesos de fabricación, identificando así los distintos subsistemas tecnológicos. La organización de la tecnología de los pobladores tempranos del Este de Uruguay implicó el aprovisionamiento de diversas materias primas minerales, tanto locales y regionales, como extra regionales. Se realizaban importantes desplazamientos para aprovisionarse de rocas de buena calidad, concordando con grupos cazadores de alta movilidad residencial que explotaban gran diversidad de ambientesThis paper presents the results of research carried out in Rincón de los Indios site, Rocha, Uruguay. The lithic remains (flakes, cores, flaked instruments, polished and pecked instruments, projectile point preforms and projectile points recovered from the early levels were analyzed. The objective was to study the distinctive use of raw materials and manufacture procedures, identifying the different technological sub-systems. The technological organization of the early inhabitants of eastern Uruguay involved the acquisition of a variety of local, regional and extra-regional mineral raw materials. These groups undertook signifi cant displacements in order to stock up on good quality rocks, which accords with groups of hunter-gatherers with high residential mobility who exploited a high diversity of environments

  1. Castillo-Palacio de Ayora Marquesado de Cenete

    OpenAIRE

    MATEO BELDA, RAFAEL

    2013-01-01

    Este PFG consiste en desarrollar, dentro del conjunto castillo-fortaleza de Ayora, una reconstrucción arquitectónica del palacete residencia del Marquesado y, posteriormente, del Infantado, siglos XVI-XVII. Se esclarecen los espacios internos del palacete y su composición general, tanto constructiva como decorativa. Se acentúa su importancia en términos arquitectónicos avanzados a su época y su repertorio de técnicas constructivas. Asimismo, se señala el peso que tuvo en la comarca como encla...

  2. GLAUBER ROCHA: CINEASTA, CRÍTICO E HISTORIADOR .

    OpenAIRE

    Mateus, Jeferson Carvalho

    2013-01-01

    RESUMO O estudo que se materializa nesta dissertação de mestrado coloca-se em uma pesquisa historiográfica que busca analisar a importância de Glauber Rocha para o cinema brasileiro, não sendo visto apenas como um cineasta, mas também como um importante historiador , uma vez que suas produções permitem conhecer as raízes e características do cinema brasileiro, em especial, do cinema novo. Para tanto, parte-se do entendimento de como o cinema se caracterizou durante o períod...

  3. Stele-menhir of Los Llanos (Castillo de Bayuela, Toledo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto MORALEDA OLIVARES

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available We present the finding, in the township of Castillo de Bayuela (Toledo of a granitic stone block with an antropomorphic figure engraved in it with schematic character. The piece lacks of an archaeological context, is difficult assigning it a precise chronology. Presumably it is a stele-menhir that we analyze it within the geographical area of the set in the Middle Tagus Basin and San Vicente Mountains.We suggest some interpretations and hypothesis about the posible dating and meaning while we are conscious that there are some constraints arising from the scant knowledge and rare documentation of that geographical zone. We can only with puntual findings and references wich can not allow definitive conclusions to be drawn on its chronology and function. However we believe the analysis of available data for this piece support the proposal for a partnership on the stele-menhirs and the funeral structures for the geografical area analyzed.

  4. La democracia directa en Uruguay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodolfo González Rissoto

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Describe la trayectoria de Uruguay como uno de los países del mundo con una larga y rica tradición en el uso de los institutos de democracia directa. En Uruguay plebiscito y referéndum son conceptos distintos. El plebiscito en el ordenamiento institucional uruguayo no constituye un instituto de democracia directa, sino simplemente una etapa, la última, en un proceso de reforma constitucional. En tanto el referéndum supone el ejercicio de un derecho previsto expresamente en la Constitución de la República, con la finalidad de intentar derogar o abrogar una norma de rango legal. Adiciona un cuadro o tabla donde se analiza el empleo de los institutos de democracia directa en Uruguay durante los últimos cincuenta y cinco años, que incluye también los plebiscitos.

  5. Aloysio de Castro and Uruguay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Wilson

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Aloysio de Castro, when Director of the School of Medicine of Rio de Janeiro, and Américo Ricaldoni, when Dean of the School of Medicine of Montevideo, Uruguay, started a period of intense collaboration between both institutions. In this period, Aloysio visited Montevideo in many occasions, giving lectures, donating scientific material and publishing papers in Uruguay. Ricaldoni retributed his visits, distinguishing Aloysio as the first foreign Honorary Professor of the Medical School of Uruguay, participating in the inauguration of the new building of the School in Rio. Even after Ricaldoni’s death in 1928, for many years, Aloysio continued with his visits. A poem by Aloysio de Castro dedicated to Montevideo is attached.

  6. Aloysio de Castro and Uruguay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Eduardo

    2015-02-01

    Aloysio de Castro, when Director of the School of Medicine of Rio de Janeiro, and Américo Ricaldoni, when Dean of the School of Medicine of Montevideo, Uruguay, started a period of intense collaboration between both institutions. In this period, Aloysio visited Montevideo in many occasions, giving lectures, donating scientific material and publishing papers in Uruguay. Ricaldoni retributed his visits, distinguishing Aloysio as the first foreign Honorary Professor of the Medical School of Uruguay, participating in the inauguration of the new building of the School in Rio. Even after Ricaldoni's death in 1928, for many years, Aloysio continued with his visits. A poem by Aloysio de Castro dedicated to Montevideo is attached.

  7. Nietzsche y las izquierdas. Su recepción en las revistas de Abelardo Castillo

    OpenAIRE

    Noelia Billi

    2007-01-01

    Este artículo estudia la recepción del pensamiento de Nietzsche en las revistas literarias y de izquierdas dirigidas por Abelardo Castillo: El grillo de papel, El escarabajo de oro y El ornitorrinco.

  8. English Language Teaching Profile: Uruguay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    British Council, London (England). English-Teaching Information Centre.

    This profile in outline form of the English language teaching situation in Uruguay discusses the role of English within Uruguayan society and within the educational system. Though English is quite widely used for reading scientific, technical and medical publications, and while it is considered important culturally in higher professions, it is not…

  9. Use of Reproductive Microhabitat by Melanophryniscus montevidensis (Anura: Bufonidae) from Uruguay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Gisela; Maneyro, Raúl

    2016-08-01

    This study describes the reproductive microhabitat of Melanophryniscus montevidensis and its use in two water bodies (WBs) in Barra de la Laguna de Rocha, Uruguay. Monthly field trips were performed between March 2012 and February 2013. Variables related to the WBs and vegetation, as well as parameters linked to the usage the amphibians make of the site (e.g: distance to the border of the pond, water depth and the vegetation use) were recorded. The behavior shown by the individuals during the breeding activity was recorded. This activity occurs in shallow temporary WBs with abundant hydrophilic vegetation. The individuals were found more frequently in areas near the edge of the pond, which has denser vegetation. The calling males were found closer to the border of the pond, and they showed better body condition than the non-calling males. In addition to calling activities, males used alternative tactics to find couples, such as active search of females, and aggressive behaviors, such as male displacing and physical combat. Such behaviors are common in anurans with explosive reproductive dynamics. The characterization of the reproductive microhabitats permits the proposal of strategies for the conservation of the species in Uruguay, given that the loss and fragmentation of habitats is one of the main causes considered for the decrease in their populations.

  10. El castillo de Penna Cadiella en la sierra de Benicadell

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Navarro Oltra, Vicente Carlos

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available In this article we try to locate the place where the castle of Penna Cadiella, mentioned in the Poem of Mio Cid could had been built. To this we reintroduce the hypothesis expressed in its time by P. Guichard regarding the castle's location on top of the Benicadell range of mountains (Valencia-Alicante and we provide new documentary and archaeological data. Likewise, we analyse the 371st chapter of Jaime I´s Crónica in which the battle fought for the possession of the above-mentioned castle by the troops of the Aragonese king against al-Azraq in the thirteenth century is narrated.

    En este trabajo se intenta localizar el lugar en el que pudo asentarse el castillo de Penna Cadiella mencionado en el Poema de Mío Cid. Para ello, se retoma la hipótesis que en su día planteara P. Guichard sobre su ubicación en la cima de la Sierra de Benicadell (Valencia-Alicante y se aportan nuevos datos documentales y arqueológicos. Asimismo, se analiza el capítulo 371 de la Crónica de Jaime I en el cual se relata la batalla que, por su posesión, libraron las tropas del rey aragonés contra al-Azraq a mediados del siglo XIII.

  11. Performance of 'Rocha' and 'Santa Maria' pears as affected by planting density

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mateus da Silveira Pasa

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate the performance of 'Rocha' and 'Santa Maria' pears at two planting densities. The experiment was carried out during the 2011/2012, 2012/2013, and 2013/2014 growing seasons, in one-year-old orchards (2011/2012 of 'Rocha' and 'Santa Maria' pears, trained in a central-leader system and planted in two densities (2,000 and 4,000 trees per hectare. The assessed parameters were: production per hectare, production per tree, yield efficiency, number of fruit per tree, average fruit weight, trunk diameter increment, fruit firmness, and soluble solid contents. The cumulative yield of 'Rocha' is greater at the higher planting density, whereas the yield efficiency of 'Santa Maria' increases at the lower planting density, as the trees get more mature. Trunk diameter of 'Rocha' also increases at the lower planting density. However, fruit quality parameters in both cultivars are little affected by planting density.

  12. How Immigrants. Have Shapped Uruguay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe Arocena

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Este texto presenta un análisis comparativo de cómo nueve grupos de migrantes y un sector de población negra, llevados como esclavos, han conformado la cultura de Uruguay. La imagen más común de Uruguay, tanto en el propio país como en el extranjero, es la de una nación homogénea y europeizada construida por inmigrantes de España e Italia, sin la presencia de una gran población de ascendencia africana y sin nativos. Esta imagen, en el mejor de los casos, es una verdad a medias, porque también ha habido contribuciones de inmigrantes de Asia, de Rusia, de otros países europeos y también de esclavos africanos y sus descendientes. En particular analizaremos cómo personas de ascendencia africana, vascos, italianos, suizos, rusos, armenios, libaneses, judíos, musulmanes y peruanos han contribuido en la construcción de la nación uruguaya. Asimismo, examinaremos el impacto de esta migración en la sociedad y la cultura de Uruguay. Este texto presenta las conclusiones más importantes de una investigación fundamentada en casi cien entrevistas a profundidad con personas descendientes de dichas comunidades.

  13. La venta que él se imaginaba ser castillo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitja Skubic

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Estas líneas no quieren más que llamar la atención sobre algunas apariciones del infinitivo en El Quijote, en particular sobre el empleo de esta forma verbal en función de predicado de la subordinada implícita con valor de proposición completiva, subjetiva u objetiva. Es decir, constatar en la construcción de la subordinada completiva el uso de la implícita con el infinitivo respecto a la subordinada con la forma verbal explícita, aquella hoy en día por cierto mucho menos frecuente respecto al uso en las obras literarias de las épocas pasadas o casi inexistente, hoy, en la lengua hablada. Es necesario preguntarse si es lícito ver en este fenómeno la substitución de la estructura implícita de infinitivo con la subordinada que contiene el verbo explícito, como la ofrece, a diferencia del epígrafe del capítulo I, 16, citado en el título, el epígrafe del capítulo siguiente donde leemos: La venta que por su mal pensó que era castillo. Por lo tanto, nuestra atención está dedicada a averiguar si es posible sostener la convicción de que es la subordinada explícita la que ha sustituido la implícita, con el infinitivo, y no lo contrario.

  14. Conscientizacion of the Oppressed Language and the Politics of Humor in Ana Castillo's "So Far from God"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thananopavarn, Susan

    2012-01-01

    This essay explores the relationship between Ana Castillo's novel "So Far from God" (1993) and her development of an activist poetics inspired by Paulo Freire's influential 1970 treatise "Pedagogy of the Oppressed." "So Far from God" may be understood as the practical application of Castillo's theory of "conscienticized poetics"; that is, the…

  15. en la jurisprudencia en Uruguay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Gregorio Esteva Gallicchio

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available El autor presenta en esta ponencia la configuración constitucional y legal, en el Derecho uruguayo, del derecho a la vida privada y del derecho a la libertad de información, y reseña la delimitación entre los mencionados derechos en la doctrina y la jurisprudencia de Uruguay, y, en el último caso, realiza la comparación con los estándares de la jurisprudencia de la Corte Interamericana de Derechos Humanos.

  16. Wind power assessment in Uruguay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cataldo, J. [Universidad de la Republica, Montevideo (Uruguay). Instituto de Mecanica de los Fluidos e Ingenieria Ambiental; Nunes, V. [Universidad de la Republica, Montevideo (Uruguay). Instituto de Ingeneria Electrica

    1996-09-01

    The wind power as a large alternative energy source appear in Uruguay. A nested method to obtain the mean wind velocity time series at complex terrain sites and describe the turbulence was developed. Sites with mean velocity over 9m/s and capacity factor over 40% were found. The aerodynamic interferences loss between wind generators using a numerical model were evaluated and a numerical model was developed to design an optimal cluster wind farm. As bulk result, an installed capacity of 300MW with a cost production less than 0.065U$S/kW.h can be estimated over the all studied Region. (author)

  17. Las Veliidae y Gerridae del Uruguay (Hemiptera The Veliidae and Gerridae from Uruguay (Hemiptera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia A. Mazzucconi

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Se citan por primera vez del Uruguay a Rhagovelia novana Drake, Microvelia mimula White (Veliidae, y Metrobates plaumanni plaumanni Hungerford (Gerridae; se agregan nuevos registros de las especies ya conocidas de este país. Con estas citas el número de especies conocidas del Uruguay es de tres de Veliidae y tres de Gerridae.Rhagovelia novana Drake, Microvelia mimula White (Veliidae, and Metrobates plaumanni plaumanni Hungerford (Gerridae are recorded for the first time from Uruguay; new records of the species already known from this country are added. Herewith the number of species known to occur in Uruguay is three of Veliidae and three of Gerridae.

  18. Perfuração de rochas por jato supersônico quente

    OpenAIRE

    Fernando Luiz Viegas

    2004-01-01

    No presente trabalho é apresentado o estudo da técnica de descamação térmica de rochas com o emprego de jatos supersônicos quentes com vistas à possível utilização na perfuração de poços e na abertura de túneis. Tal técnica já foi utilizada com sucesso, permitindo se obter altas taxas de penetração (1 a 10 m/hr) em rochas graníticas, apresentando vantagens econômicas em relação às técnicas convencionais de perfuração para este tipo de rocha. A partir de estudos anteriores, é desenvolvido um d...

  19. New Geophysical Observatory in Uruguay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez Bettucci, L.; Nuñez, P.; Caraballo, R. R.; Ogando, R.

    2013-05-01

    In 2011 began the installation of the first geophysical observatory in Uruguay, with the aim of developing the Geosciences. The Astronomical and Geophysical Observatory Aiguá (OAGA) is located within the Cerro Catedral Tourist Farm (-34 ° 20 '0 .89 "S/-54 ° 42 '44.72" W, h: 270m). This has the distinction of being located in the center of the South Atlantic Magnetic Anomaly. Geologically is emplaced in a Neoproterozoic basement, in a region with scarce anthropogenic interference. The OAGA has, since 2012, with a GSM-90FD dIdD v7.0 and GSM-90F Overhauser, both of GEM Systems. In addition has a super-SID receiver provided by the Stanford University SOLAR Center, as a complement for educational purposes. Likewise the installation of a seismograph REF TEK-151-120A and VLF antenna is being done since the beginning of 2013.

  20. First neuronavigation experiences in Uruguay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carbajal, Guillermo; Gomez, Alvaro; Pereyra, Gabriela; Lima, Ramiro; Preciozzi, Javier; Vazquez, Luis; Villar, Alvaro

    2010-01-01

    Neuronavigation is the application of image guidance to neurosurgery where the position of a surgical tool can be displayed on a preoperative image. Although this technique has been used worldwide in the last ten years, it was never applied in Uruguay due to its cost. In an ongoing project, the Engineering Faculty (Universidad de la República), the Hospital de Clínicas (Medicine Faculty - Universidad de la República) and the Regional Hospital of Tacuarembó are doing the first experimental trials in neuronavigation. In this project, a prototype based on optical tracking equipment and the open source software IGSTK (Image Guided Surgery Toolkit) is under development and testing.

  1. Uruguay: Political and Economic Conditions and U.S. Relations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-04

    Uruguay,” Agence France Presse, November 30, 2009. 21 " Tendencias : FA dejó de crecer; blancos oscilan," El País (Uruguay), October 27, 2009...non-existent. Central Intelligence Agency, “The World Factbook: Uruguay,” October 28, 2009. 34 Mercosur is a common market composed of Brazil...Commerce and Central Bank of Uruguay data, as presented by Global Trade Atlas, November 2009. 40 For more information, see U.S. Congress, Senate

  2. 7 CFR 1405.7 - Uruguay Round Agreements Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Uruguay Round Agreements Act. 1405.7 Section 1405.7... Uruguay Round Agreements Act. In the event the outlays by the United States for domestic support measures will exceed, in any required reporting period, the allowable levels under the Uruguay Round...

  3. Uruguay valitsus hakkab riiki korrastama / Allan Espenberg

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Espenberg, Allan

    2005-01-01

    Esimest korda tuleb nii valitsuse kui parlamendi tasandil Uruguays võimule vasakpoolne koalitsioon, mis suutis eemale tõrjuda kokku 174 aastat võimul olnud kahte parteid. Uueks presidendiks sai Tabare Vazquez, kelle poolt hääletasid pooled valijad

  4. A Geography of Uruguay for Elementary Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzhugh, William P.

    This paper is part of a larger study, conducted as part of a Christa McAuliffe Fellowship research project, "A Comparative Geography of Three Ecologically Similar Regions." The study compared the Chesapeake Bay region of Maryland with the Murray River region of South Australia and the Rio de la Plata region of Uruguay. The project was…

  5. Developing Foreign Language Teacher Standards in Uruguay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhlman, Natalie A.

    2010-01-01

    This article documents the development of foreign language (FL) teacher standards in Uruguay. It begins by discussing what it means to be a teacher, what standards are and are not, and how they can be helpful or misused in teacher development. In the proposal, a distinction is made between teacher preparation programs that are course-based and…

  6. [Smoking during pregnancy in Argentina and Uruguay].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Althabe, Fernando; Colomar, Mercedes; Gibbons, Luz; Belizán, José M; Buekens, Pierre

    2008-01-01

    Argentina and Uruguay are among the countries in which a large proportion of young women smoke. The rate of smokers during pregnancy in both countries is not well known, and data on the characteristics of women who quit smoking during pregnancy compared to those who continue smoking are not available. We conducted a survey including 1512 pregnant women > or = 18 years old (796 in Argentina; 716 in Uruguay), during antenatal visits in public hospitals of large urban regions; 44% of the women in Argentina and 53% in Uruguay had been or were regular smokers. 11% of the surveyed women in Argentina and 18% in Uruguay continued smoking during pregnancy. In both countries, the proportion of women who lived with smokers, allowed smoking at home, and were regularly or always exposed to tobacco smoke indoors, were 49%, 46% and 20% in the subgroup of women who never smoked, 67%, 60% and 32% in those who quit, and 78%, 75% and 52% in those who continued smoking, respectively. The study confirms a serious public health problem in both countries, and documents that environmental exposure persists in subgroups of women, even in those who quit smoking. It is important that the public health sector should provide access to effective programs for smoking cessation, to women who smoke during pregnancy. For the development of a new program, any intervention intending to have at least a moderate and sustainable success, it should seriously consider including components targeting the smoking environment of the pregnant women who smoke.

  7. Desplazamientos, fronteras, memoria: Bernal Díaz del Castillo y el viaje a las Hibueras

    OpenAIRE

    Añón, Valeria

    2010-01-01

    Este trabajo aborda el relato del viaje a las Hibueras que Bernal Díaz del Castillo presenta en su Historia verdadera de la conquista de la Nueva España entendiéndolo como texto cuya indefinición genérica cruza la memoria, la autobiografía, el viaje, la autofiguración. Leemos entonces las estrategias escriturarias por las cuales el relato de este desplazamiento redefine las variables y dinámicas de la exploración, la conquista y la aprehensión de sujetos y espacios otros.

  8. Vida y escritura de bernal díaz del castillo

    OpenAIRE

    Guillermo Serés

    2012-01-01

    A la hora de redactar su excelente crónica, la Historia verdadera de la conquista de la Nueva España, Bernal Díaz del Castillo quiere hacer equiparable la sencillez de estilo con la verdad, con lo que denuncia que la retórica y los que la ofician, los cronistas profesionales, mienten necesaria e irremediablemente. En otras palabras, la estética de la escritura de Bernal, como su vida, se concreta en una identificación de lo bello y lo verdadero: nace por oposición a la de...

  9. Figuraciones del “otro” en dos cuentos de Abelardo Castillo: marginales y bajos fondos

    OpenAIRE

    Montenegro, Rodrigo

    2012-01-01

    A partir de dos relatos de Abelardo Castillo, “Noche para el negro Griffiths” y “El candelabro de plata”, se articula una mirada que indaga en los textos la irrupción de personajes marginales dentro de la cultura argentina. En este anclaje necesariamente cultural, la marginalidad es el punto de inicio para una trayectoria problemática que encuentra en la noción de “otro” la categoría discursiva que guía la trayectoria de esta lectura. Al mismo tiempo se establece la relación entre la práctica...

  10. Pasatiempos en la vida militar. Juegos y juguetes en el Castillo de San Severino, Matanzas, Cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boris E. Rodríguez Tápanes

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Se examinan las distintas evidencias asociadas a pasatiempos encontradas en excavaciones arqueológicas realizadas en el Castillo de San Severino, en la provincia de Matanzas, Cuba. Se analiza la información histórica referente a las funciones de la dotación de la fortaleza y sus posibles ratos de ocio apuntando a la confección de juegos en el lugar y la utilización de otros insertados en el ámbito militar.

  11. Perspectives of the wind power generation in Uruguay; Perspectivas de la generacion eolica en Uruguay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gomez, Daniel Luis [Administracion Nacional de Usinas y Transmisiones Electricas (UTE), Montevideu (Uruguay)

    2004-07-01

    The objective of this paper is to describe, the journey for the development of power generation through source of wind, and to establish the elements that must be overcome to enable implementation of wind projects in Uruguay. For its achievement will be a descriptive framework that has been developing wind energy in the region, particularly as it relates to the Argentine case, as opposed to activities in the Uruguay in the same period. Carry out a review and interrelation between the greenhouse effect, the internalization of environmental costs and sustainable development concept, as well as analyzing the input of emissions to the environment by issuing sector. It will describe, briefly, the composition of the matrix of power generation in Uruguay. Subsequently analyzing the history of wind energy in Uruguay, the results of this experience and will be explored regarding the existence or absence of incentives within the existing legal framework. Finally, described the wind power perspectives in Uruguay and propound what will be the key steps and tools necessary to facilitate the development of this source of generation in the country.

  12. Direct radiocarbon dates for prehistoric paintings at the Altamira, El Castillo and Niaux caves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valladas, H.; Cachier, H.; Maurice, P.; Arnold, M. (Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS), 91 - Gif-sur-Yvette (France)); Quiros, F.B. de (Universidad de Leon (Spain). Area de Prehistoria); Clottes, J. (Ministere de la Culture et de la Communication, Foix (France)); Valdes, V.C. (UNED, Madrid (Spain). Departmento de Prehistoria e Historia Antigua); Uzquiano, P. (Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS), 34 -Montpellier (France). Laboratoire de Paleobotanique)

    1992-05-07

    Among things that most strikingly distinguish modern humans from other hominids and the rest of the animal kingdom is the ability to represent things and events pictorially. Complex paintings of the type discovered in the Altamira, El Castillo, Niaux and Lascaux caves represent an important stepping stone in the cultural evolution of humankind. Until now dates were derived from style or dated remains left by prehistoric visitors and could be biased by prolonged occupation or visits unrelated to painting activity. Here we report the first radiocarbon dates for the charcoal used to draw stylistically similar bisons in these caves: 14,000 {+-} 400 yr BP in the Spanish caves of Altamira, 12,990 {+-} 200 yr BP in El Castillo, and 12,890 {+-} 160 yr BP for a bison of different style in the French Pyrenean cave of Niaux. Our results demonstrate the imprecise nature of stylistic dating and show that painting dates derived from remains of human activities should be used with caution. (Author).

  13. Palaeostress perturbations near the El Castillo de las Guardas fault (SW Iberian Massif)

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Navarro, Encarnación; Fernández, Carlos

    2010-05-01

    Use of stress inversion methods on faults measured at 33 sites located at the northwestern part of the South Portuguese Zone (Variscan Iberian Massif), and analysis of the basic dyke attitude at this same region, has revealed a prominent perturbation of the stress trajectories around some large, crustal-scale faults, like the El Castillo de las Guardas fault. The results are compared with the predictions of theoretical models of palaeostress deviations near master faults. According to this comparison, the El Castillo de las Guardas fault, an old structure that probably reversed several times its slip sense, can be considered as a sinistral strike-slip fault during the Moscovian. These results also point out the main shortcomings that still hinder a rigorous quantitative use of the theoretical models of stress perturbations around major faults: the spatial variation in the parameters governing the brittle behaviour of the continental crust, and the possibility of oblique slip along outcrop-scale faults in regions subjected to general, non-plane strain.

  14. Control programme for cystic echinococcosis in Uruguay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irabedra, Pilar; Ferreira, Ciro; Sayes, Julio; Elola, Susana; Rodríguez, Miriam; Morel, Noelia; Segura, Sebastian; Santos, Estela Dos; Guisantes, Jorge A

    2016-05-24

    Cystic echinococcosis is a highly endemic parasitic zoonosis that is present in the Southern Cone countries of America. For several decades, various prevention and control programmes have been implemented in different countries and regions, with varying results. In Uruguay, a new control programme was implemented in 2006 that employed new strategies for canine diagnosis and treatment, dog population control, diagnosis in humans, epidemiological surveillance, and health education, including community participation. The control programme in Uruguay addresses the control and surveillance of the disease from a holistic perspective based on Primary Health Care, which has strengthened the community's participation in developing and coordinating activities in an interdisciplinary manner. Similarly, the control programme that is currently implemented is based on a risk-focused approach. The surveillance and control measures were focused on small villages and extremely poor urban areas. In this study, the strategies used and the results obtained from 2008-2013 are analysed and discussed.

  15. Control programme for cystic echinococcosis in Uruguay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irabedra, Pilar; Ferreira, Ciro; Sayes, Julio; Elola, Susana; Rodríguez, Miriam; Morel, Noelia; Segura, Sebastian; dos Santos, Estela; Guisantes, Jorge A

    2016-01-01

    Cystic echinococcosis is a highly endemic parasitic zoonosis that is present in the Southern Cone countries of America. For several decades, various prevention and control programmes have been implemented in different countries and regions, with varying results. In Uruguay, a new control programme was implemented in 2006 that employed new strategies for canine diagnosis and treatment, dog population control, diagnosis in humans, epidemiological surveillance, and health education, including community participation. The control programme in Uruguay addresses the control and surveillance of the disease from a holistic perspective based on Primary Health Care, which has strengthened the community’s participation in developing and coordinating activities in an interdisciplinary manner. Similarly, the control programme that is currently implemented is based on a risk-focused approach. The surveillance and control measures were focused on small villages and extremely poor urban areas. In this study, the strategies used and the results obtained from 2008-2013 are analysed and discussed. PMID:27223652

  16. Control programme for cystic echinococcosis in Uruguay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pilar Irabedra

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Cystic echinococcosis is a highly endemic parasitic zoonosis that is present in the Southern Cone countries of America. For several decades, various prevention and control programmes have been implemented in different countries and regions, with varying results. In Uruguay, a new control programme was implemented in 2006 that employed new strategies for canine diagnosis and treatment, dog population control, diagnosis in humans, epidemiological surveillance, and health education, including community participation. The control programme in Uruguay addresses the control and surveillance of the disease from a holistic perspective based on Primary Health Care, which has strengthened the community’s participation in developing and coordinating activities in an interdisciplinary manner. Similarly, the control programme that is currently implemented is based on a risk-focused approach. The surveillance and control measures were focused on small villages and extremely poor urban areas. In this study, the strategies used and the results obtained from 2008-2013 are analysed and discussed.

  17. Area Handbook Series: Uruguay, A Country Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-12-01

    do Couto e Silva in his book Geopolitica do Brasil . Essentially, the book described a world divided into two opposing blocs-the capitalist and...September 1988, 605-47. Macadar, Luis. "Uruguay: Crisis externa e inserci6n subregional- El comercio con Argentina y Brazil, 1975-84," Integracidn...52-62; hydrography, 52-55; Freedom and Change, 174 topography, 52 Freemasons, 17 Geopolltica do Brasil (Golbery do Couto e free-trade zones, xxiv, 147

  18. Paulo Mendes da Rocha: el nuevo campus de la Fundación Getulio Vargas

    OpenAIRE

    Zalamea León, Sergio

    2008-01-01

    A partir de las 4 hojas Dín A1 generadas para el concurso del nuevo campus de la Fundación Getulio Vargas en Sao Paulo Brasil , se recrea el edificio virtualmente en su totalidad. La investigación se basa en todos los dibujos que generó Paulo Mandes da Rocha y sus colaboradores el estudio MMBB, también en un recorrido por las obras de la Arquitectura Moderna Paulista poniendo especial atención en algunas de las obras mas importantes del autor... Magíster en Proyectos Arquitectónicos Cu...

  19. Training systems and prohexadione-calcium effect on vegetative growth and yield of Rocha pear

    OpenAIRE

    Ribeiro, Joana Sofia Santos Vidal

    2011-01-01

    Mestrado em Engenharia Agronómica - Instituto Superior de Agronomia Vegetative and reproductive aspects of 5 year old orchard of Rocha 'pear on Sydo rootstock trained in Vertical Axis, Palmette with 3 axes, Solaxe and Tatura systems were evaluated. Yield per hectare showed a large increase in 2011 compared with 2010, Vertical axis yield 88 tha-1, Palmette 66 tha-1, Solaxe 76 tha-1and Tatura 84 tha-1. Fruit thinning was not done. Palmette was the system whose branches had lower cross-sectio...

  20. Quetzal or not Quetzal, that is the question... . On the stairs of the Castillo monument in Chichen Itza

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elizondo-Garza, Fernando J.

    2002-11-01

    Some speculation will be presented about the hypothesis that states that the reflected sounds in the stairs of the Castillo building in Chichen Itza, Mexico, imitates the song of the quetzal bird. Some aspects of construction, both technical and social, are discussed as well as issues related with myth and fantasies.

  1. IMPORTÂNCIA DA VELOCIDADE DE CORTE NA OTIMIZAÇÃO DA ETAPA DE POLIMENTO DE ROCHAS ORNAMENTAIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jefferson Luiz Camargo

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available A etapa de polimento de rochas ornamentais ocorre em politrizes, as quais podem ser semi-automáticas ou automáticas. Em ambas as máquinas, a velocidade de rotação do satélite é invariável, e, por consequência, a velocidade de corte, que é a distância percorrida por um rebolo abrasivo em função do tempo, permanece constante. A possibilidade de se alterar a velocidade com que o rebolo abrasivo passa sobre a superfície da chapa de rocha pode permitir uma otimização desse processo. Para esta pesquisa foram definidas 24 situações operacionais distintas, nas quais variou-se a pressão de carregamento (1 e 2 kgf/cm2, velocidade de rotação de satélite (300, 400, 500 e 600 rpm e a exposição do satélite sobre a rocha (1, 2 e 3. Para isso, foi instalado um inversor de frequência em uma politriz semi-automática que possibilitou a variação da velocidade de rotação de satélite para realização dos experimentos. Assim, foram realizados os testes de polimento, sendo cada rocha submetida a 10 sequências de rebolos abrasivos do tipo magnesiano, a saber: 24, 36, 60, 120, 220, 400, 600, 800, 1200 e lustro, totalizando 720 amostras. Os resultados mostraram que no sistema tribológico existente no polimento de rochas ornamentais a variável rocha atua como elemento ativo, influenciando no desgaste do rebolo abrasivo e exibindo brilho de acordo com as propriedades petrográficas.

  2. Social Protection Systems in Latin America and the Caribbean: Uruguay

    OpenAIRE

    Fernando Filgueira

    2014-01-01

    Uruguays welfare state can be characterised by its universal primary education system, its early and robust social security system as well as widespread health coverage and benefits. Uruguay also has one of Latin Americas highest levels of social spending in terms of Gross Domestic Product (GDP) (24.3 per cent) and as a percentage of total public spending (80.6 per cent)..(?)

  3. ESCRITURA, IDENTIDAD Y MÍSTICA EN LA MADRE DEL CASTILLO LAS TRES GRACIAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Valencia Villamizar

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo se refiere a la mística como el acceso a estados de consciencia acrecentados, una forma de lograr una experiencia directa de lo sagrado. La investigación se centra en la autobiografía de la monja tunjana, que vivió entre los siglos XVII y comienzos del XVIII, Francisca Josefa del Castillo y Guevara. Los ejes temáticos de este trabajo son la escritura, la construcción de la identidad y la mística cristiana. La mística busca integrar las dimensiones masculina (ánimus, racionalidad, jerarquía y femenina (ánima, intuición, cooperación de toda persona, ampliando las posibilidades neurolingüísticas, afectivas y perceptivas de cara a una evolución colectiva de la consciencia del ser humano.

  4. DEL CASTILLO AL BURGO. EL ITINERARIO VIAJERO EN LOS COMIENZOS DE LA NARRATIVA MEDIEVAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Carmona Fernández

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available La concepción del ser humano como homo viator caracteriza las manifestaciones de civilización del occidente medieval cristiano. Los comienzos de su literatura dan al viaje una especial importancia para el desarrollo de la narración. La literatura caballeresca del siglo XII (Chrétien de Troyes coloca el itinerario viajero de sus personajes en un espacio peculiar que se va diferenciar de las narraciones de unos años después (Jean Renart que se sitúan en un nuevo espacio. El paso del castillo al burgo supone, más que un cambio de decorado, una nueva percepción de la realidad que prepara la narrativa posterior y la aparición de los libros de viaje en la segunda mitad del mismo siglo.

  5. Asociacion de Bibliotecologos del Uruguay: apuntes de su historia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruth Santestevan

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Es una contribución que quiere ser un homenaje a todos los asociados y una arenga para los nuevoscolegas. En el análisis se menciona el comienzo de la enseñanza bibliotecológica en el país y el desarrollode la historia de la Asociación de Bibliotecólogos del Uruguay, que ha pasado por diversas etapas y hatenido las siguientes denominaciones: Asociación de Bibliotecarios Diplomados del Uruguay (1945,Asociación de Bibliotecarios del Uruguay (1962, Asociación de Bibliotecólogos y Afines del Uruguay(1978, Asociación de Bibliotecólogos del Uruguay (1990 a la fecha. Para finalizar se hace unaapreciación de la importancia de la entidad para la comunidad bibliotecológica y para la sociedad engeneral.

  6. Métodos de análise de sulfetos em amostras de rochas e sedimentos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. L. T. Corrêa

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho foi realizado no período de agosto a dezembro de 1998, com o objetivo de comparar métodos de análise de sulfetos, visando obter uma técnica rápida, exata e reprodutível para avaliar o potencial de drenagem ácida em rochas e sedimentos. As amostras foram submetidas a digestões oxidativas com H2O2 e água régia. Nos extratos, foram determinados o S por gravimetria, por meio do Ba remanescente por espectrofotometria de absorção atômica (EAA, por turbidimetria e por colorimetria. Os teores de Fe e Pb foram determinados por EAA. Nos extratos de H2O2, determinou-se, também, a acidez por titulação com NaOH. A técnica mais indicada para avaliar o teor de sulfetos foi a digestão das amostras com água régia, seguida da determinação indireta do S, por meio do Ba remanescente por EAA. A digestão com H2O2 não foi eficiente para a oxidação total dos sulfetos presentes nas amostras, devendo subestimar o potencial de geração da drenagem ácida em amostras de rochas e sedimentos.

  7. O Esboço de psiquiatria forense de Franco da Rocha

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francis Moraes de Almeida

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available O artigo apresenta o livro Esboço de Psiquiatria Forense (1904 de Francisco Franco da Rocha (1864-1933. A obra é uma das primeiras publicações psiquiátricas brasileiras dedicadas à psiquiatria forense e apresenta uma extensa classificação das moléstias mentais proposta pelo próprio autor, com base nas classificações de Teixeira Brandão, Shüle e Krafft-Ebing, e ilustrada com exemplos de sua experiência clínica no Hospício do Juqueri, dirigido por Franco da Rocha de 1898 a 1923. O autor tem como perspectiva teórica o organicismo difuso, próprio dos adeptos da teoria da degeneração, e defende a necessidade do psiquiatra zelar pela defesa da sociedade frente aos alienados perigosos, enquanto perito na esfera jurídica.

  8. Ascorbic acid and tissue browning in pears (Pyrus communis L. cvs Rocha and Conference) under controlled atmosphere conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veltman, R.H.; Kho, R.M.; Schaik, van A.C.R.; Sanders, M.G.; Oosterhaven, J.

    2000-01-01

    The relationships between storage gas composition and ascorbic acid (AA) levels, and between AA levels and the development of internal browning, were studied in 'Conference' and 'Rocha' pears (Pyrus communis L.). In both cultivars, AA levels declined under (browning-inducing) controlled atmosphere (

  9. Los costos del crimen en Uruguay

    OpenAIRE

    Aboal, Diego; Campanella, Jorge; Lanzilotta, Bibiana

    2013-01-01

    En este trabajo se estiman algunos de los costos asociados a la criminalidad y la violencia en Uruguay. El método utilizado es el de la contabilidad de costos. Entre los costos considerados se incluyen costos de seguridad y prevención del delito, de justicia, reclusión y rehabilitación de reclusos, costos de bienes robados, costos de salud y por pérdida de vidas a consecuencia de la violencia, y costos asociados a la pérdida de tiempo productivo en prisión de los reclusos. Para esto se ha uti...

  10. Domestic tourism in Uruguay: a matrix approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena Domínguez Pérez

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper domestic tourism in Uruguay is analyzed by introducing an Origin-Destination matrix approach, and an attraction coefficient is calculated. We show that Montevideo is an attractive destination to every department except itself (even if it emits more trips than it receives, and the Southeast region is the main destination. Another important outcome is the importance of intra-regional patterns, associated to trips to bordering departments. Findings provide destination managers with practical knowledge, useful for reducing seasonality and attracting more domestic tourists throughout the year, as well as to deliver a better service offer, that attracts both usual visitors and new ones from competitive destinations.

  11. Evaluating Pension System Reform in Uruguay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gonzalo Garmendia

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This article evaluates the reform to the system of pensions in Uruguay through these variables: coverage, fiscal impact, accumulation of funds, yield, and costs associated to the operation of the Administradoras de Fondos de Ahorro Previsional (AFAPS. The reform is evaluated positively, even though elements are identified, that must be considered in the future: to extend the reform to the rest of the system that was not included before, generate the correct structure to regulate and supervise the system, fit the age of retirement to accede to benefits, and offer alternatives for investments of the AFAPS.

  12. Developing medical geology in Uruguay: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mañay, Nelly

    2010-05-01

    Several disciplines like Environmental Toxicology, Epidemiology, Public Health and Geology have been the basis of the development of Medical Geology in Uruguay during the last decade. The knowledge and performance in environmental and health issues have been improved by joining similar aims research teams and experts from different institutions to face environmental problems dealing with the population's exposure to metals and metalloids and their health impacts. Some of the Uruguayan Medical Geology examples are reviewed focusing on their multidisciplinary approach: Lead pollution and exposed children, selenium in critically ill patients, copper deficiency in cattle and arsenic risk assessment in ground water. Future actions are also presented.

  13. CRITCHLEY, Simon (2014. Tragedia y Modernidad. Trad. Daniel López, Santiago Rey y Ramón del Castillo. Madrid, Trotta. 78 pp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alba Ramírez Guijarro

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Tragedia y Modernidad recoge un texto titulado “Filosofía de la tragedia, tragedia de la modernidad” precedido por una presentación de Ramón del Castillo y acompañado por una entrevista final en la que conversan Tood Kesselman y Simon Critchley, autor del presente libro y cuya biografía es expuesta en el mismo por Ramón del Castillo.

  14. Cyanobacteria and cyanotoxins in freshwaters of Uruguay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylvia Bonilla

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Cyanobacterial blooms are a worldwide environmental problem. This phenomenon is typically associated with eutrophication (nutrient enrichment and changes in hydrology. In this study we analysed the distribution of planktonic cyanobacteria in Uruguay and their toxins (microcystin, saxitoxin and cylindrospermopsin, working with an interagency team (OSE, DINAMA, IM, University of the Republic and IIBCE. An historical data base (n = 3061 for 64 ecosystems, years 1980-2014 was generated. Differences between lotic and lentic ecosystems were found in terms of chlorophyll a and nutrient concentrations, usually indicating eutrophication. Two geo-referenced maps for the country were generated with cyanobacteria biomass indicators and the most relevant toxin (microcystin, according to risk levels suggested by the World Health Organization for recreational waters. The areas of greatest risk of exposure were the reservoirs of large rivers (Uruguay and Río Negro and Río de la Plata beaches. In the second part of the study, up to 20 mg L-1of microcystin was quantified in bloom (scum samples, as well as the presence of genes that suggest more microcystin varieties, potentially with greater toxicity. This study provides basic information about the distribution of cyanobacteria in Uruguayan freshwaters that will be useful for national monitoring programs and scientific research.

  15. [The career of Henrique da Rocha Lima and German-Brazilian relations (1901-1956)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, André Felipe Cândido da

    2010-06-01

    The career of Henrique da Rocha Lima is closely linked to cultural and scientific relations between Brazil and Germany. He pursued his scientific work at biomedical research institutions in both countries, but it was in Germany that he attained international standing, thanks to his research in the fields of microbiology, pathology and tropical medicine. His prestige and active participation in both Brazil's and Germany's scientific communities meant he was able to further academic interchange between both nations, mobilizing many people and institutions to contribute to this process. I present the obstacles and challenges faced in studying this complex character, whose career sheds light on the machinations of international scientific relations and some socio-historical processes that marked the institutionalization of science in Brazil.

  16. Pocas, pero contundentes palabras en la obra de Mendes da Rocha

    OpenAIRE

    Martínez Medina, Andrés; Marcos Alba, Carlos Luis

    2015-01-01

    La extensa producción arquitectónica de Mendes da Rocha resulta difícil de clasificar bajo el reduccionismo de los ‘ismos’ porque supone una revisión crítica y de síntesis de una modernidad replanteada. Se abordan tres aproximaciones al conjunto de su obra. Primera: la nueva tradición moderna de la arquitectura brasileña atendiendo a la implicación urbana de sus obras y a la escala de intervención (objeto, contexto, territorio). Segunda: la simbiosis entre arte y técnica desde una poética que...

  17. Hernán Cortés’ Tears in the Historia verdadera by Bernal Díaz del Castillo

    OpenAIRE

    Fernando Rodriguez Mansilla

    2016-01-01

    This article analyzes the function of Hernán Cortés’ tears in the Historia verdadera by Bernal Díaz del Castillo. Some critics have read Cortés’ weeping as a sign of weakness. Actually, the tears of the hero are a manifestation that links the figure of the conqueror —and by extension the whole text— to the classical epic tradition, as well as to an incipient concept of tragedy.

  18. Hernán Cortés’ Tears in the Historia verdadera by Bernal Díaz del Castillo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Rodriguez Mansilla

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This article analyzes the function of Hernán Cortés’ tears in the Historia verdadera by Bernal Díaz del Castillo. Some critics have read Cortés’ weeping as a sign of weakness. Actually, the tears of the hero are a manifestation that links the figure of the conqueror —and by extension the whole text— to the classical epic tradition, as well as to an incipient concept of tragedy.

  19. Diseño plan de marketing estratégico caso: Hotel-Restaurante El Castillo

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Diseño de un plan de marketing estratégico para un establecimiento hotelero y de restauración de nueva creación en un entorno único, un castillo medieval. En este plan se realiza un estudio del mercado y del entorno y el plan de acción con objetivos y estrategias específicas, la ejecución y control de éste

  20. Tabaquismo durante el embarazo en Argentina y Uruguay Smoking during pregnancy in Argentina and Uruguay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Althabe

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Argentina y Uruguay están entre los países con mayor proporción de mujeres jóvenes fumadoras. Se desconoce cuál es la proporción exacta de ellas que fuman durante el embarazo así como las características de las que dejan de fumar y las que continúan fumando durante el embarazo. Realizamos una encuesta administrada por un/a entrevistador/a a 1512 mujeres embarazadas de 18 años o mayores (796 en Argentina; 716 en Uruguay, que concurrían a control prenatal en hospitales públicos de grandes conglomerados urbanos. 44% de las mujeres en Argentina y 53% en Uruguay habían sido o eran fumadoras. Durante el embarazo, 11% de las mujeres en Argentina y 18% en Uruguay continuaron fumando. En ambos países, la proporción de mujeres que vive con fumadores, permite fumar en el hogar y regularmente o siempre se encuentra en lugares cerrados con personas que estén fumando fue 49%, 46% y 20% entre las mujeres que nunca fumaron, 67%, 60% y 32% entre las que dejaron, y 78%, 75% y 52% entre las que continuaron fumando respectivamente. El estudio confirma un importante problema de salud pública y documenta que la exposición ambiental persiste en subgrupos de mujeres, aun en aquéllas que dejaron de fumar. Es importante que el sector de salud pública provea acceso a programas efectivos para dejar de fumar durante el embarazo. Cualquier nueva intervención a desarrollar que intente tener un éxito al menos moderado y sostenible, debiera incluir componentes que actúen sobre el entorno fumador de la mujer embarazada que fuma.Argentina and Uruguay are among the countries in which a large proportion of young women smoke. The rate of smokers during pregnancy in both countries is not well known, and data on the characteristics of women who quit smoking during pregnancy compared to those who continue smoking are not available. We conducted a survey including 1512 pregnant women >18 years old (796 in Argentina; 716 in Uruguay, during antenatal visits in

  1. Estigma territorial como forma de violencia barrial. El caso del sector El Castillo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catalina Andrea Cornejo

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available En el ámbito académico se expone la violencia como un problema asociado a los hechos delictuales en el ámbito ciudad, obviándose otras formas de violencia que operan en este contexto tales como la violencia simbólica. Ésta, aplicada a la comprensión de las realidades barriales de la ciudad de Santiago, hace posible observar en la configuración de estigmas territoriales, identidades deterioradas de carácter colectivo que se imponen sobre ciertos barrios de la ciudad, considerados reductos de delincuencia y pobreza. En este contexto, el objetivo de este artículo es aproximarse al estigma territorial como forma de violencia simbólica a través de las percepciones de habitantes de un sector estigmatizado de la ciudad de Santiago de Chile, concretamente habitantes del sector El Castillo de la comuna de La Pintana. Este artículo es producto de un estudio exploratorio y de carácter cualitativo, para el cual se realizaron 20 entrevistas semi-estructuradas. Entre los principales resultados se encuentran el reconocimiento de los habitantes de ser encasillados con estigma a condición de habitar un barrio determinado, por un lado, y la lucha de combatir el estigma creando una nueva identidad territorial, por otro.

  2. Estimation of leaf area in coffee leaves (Coffea arabica L. of the Castillo® variety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Andrés Unigarro-Muñoz

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Allometric models based on measurements of single leaf dimensions or a combination there are useful tools for determining individual leaf area (LA because they are non-destructive, precise, simple and economical methods. The present study was carried out at the Central Station Naranjal of Cenicafé, located in the Department of Caldas (Colombia, four models were defined using the variables length (L and/or width (W to estimate LA in coffee leaves of the Castillo® variety (Coffea arabica L.. Estimation of regression coefficients was performed using information recorded from 6,441 leaves (group 1, and their validation was performed using records from another 992 leaves (group 2. Leaves were collected from all strata of the canopy and ranged from 0.76 to 140 cm2 in LA. In addition to exhibiting coefficients of variation differing from zero based on t-tests at 1%, the evaluated models possess coefficients of determination between 0.93 and 0.99. Four expressions have developed and adjusted to estimate leaf area in individual leaves, based on the measurement of simple variables and non-destructive.

  3. Preface to special issue in honor of Carlos Castillo-Chavez.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levin, Simon A

    2013-01-01

    A little more than a quarter-century ago, I received an inquiry from a young Assistant Professor of Applied Mathematics at the University of Tulsa, the honoree of this volume, Carlos Castillo-Chavez. Though he was well situated in a faculty job, he was not satisfied: He was interested in mathematical biology, having written an excellent thesis in population biology with Fred Brauer at Wisconsin entitled Linear and Nonlinear Deterministic Character-Dependent Models with Time Delay in Population Dynamics. But that success had only whetted his appetite to become more deeply embedded in biology, and he was prepared to give up his faculty job to start a postdoctoral fellowship in ecology. It is always difficult to read in such letters what potential exists in the author; but there was something about what Carlos wrote, the obvious sacrifice he was prepared to make, and my regard for Fred Brauer that convinced me that I must meet this fellow. We did meet, for lunch in an LA restaurant, and the qualities that have led to his remarkable career were immediately obvious. I resolved on the spot to make sure he joined our group. Carlos arrived at Cornell shortly thereafter, and did not leave for nearly twenty years.

  4. Origen del castillo y coto de Aranga, siglos X-XII

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barros, Carlos

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The importance of the fortress of the Higth Middle Age in the constitution of the feudal jurisdictions around the year 1000 is illustrated in this work which is the origin of the castle and a lordship of Aranga (now municipality of Galicia from the family of Traba. Th king Alfonso IX of Leon and Galicia transferred in 1193, the domain jurisdiction from a Aranga to Monastery of Sobrado, against the opinion of their vassals and peasants who, in 1168, preferring to continue to belong to the heirs of the counts of Traba and Aranga.

    La importancia de las fortalezas altomedievales en la constitución de las jurisdicciones feudales, en los alrededores del año 1000, se ilustra en este trabajo que trata del origen del castillo y coto de Aranga (actualmente, municipio de Galicia de la casa de Traba. El rey Alfonso IX de León y Galicia traspasa, en 1193, la jurisdicción señorial de Aranga al Monasterio de Sobrado, contra la opinión de sus campesinos y vasallos que, en 1168, preferían seguir perteneciendo a los herederos de los condes de Traba y Aranga.

  5. MACHADO DE ASSIS: POR UMA POÉTICA DA EMULAÇÃO, DE JOÃO CEZAR DE CASTRO ROCHA

    OpenAIRE

    Pablo Rocca

    2015-01-01

    Reviewed book:ROCHA, João Cezar de Castro. Machado de Assis: por uma poética da Emulação. Rio de Janeiro: Civilização Brasileira, 2013. Livro resenhado:ROCHA, João Cezar de Castro. Machado de Assis: por uma poética da Emulação. Rio de Janeiro: Civilização Brasileira, 2013.---Original em espanhol.

  6. Sertão e Narração: Guimarães Rosa, Glauber Rocha e seus desenredos Sertão (backland and Narration: Guimarães Rosa, Glauber Rocha and their plots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Paulo Gomes Pereira

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Este texto busca verificar as formas de construção da nação em Grande Sertão: veredas, de Guimarães Rosa, e Deus e o Diabo na terra do sol, de Glauber Rocha. Utilizando autores como Homi Bhabha, Stuart Hall, Walter Mignolo, Veena Das, o texto indaga de que forma esses autores construíram o sertão.This text tries to verify how the nation was constructed in Grande sertão: veredas [The Devil to Pay in the Backlands] by Guimarães Rosa, and Deus e o Diabo na terra do sol [Black God, White Devil] by Glauber Rocha. By analyzing authors as Homi Bhabha, Stuart Hall and Walter Mignolo, the text inquires how these authors had constructed the sertão (backland.

  7. OSMUNDACEAE EN ARGENTINA, PARAGUAY Y URUGUAY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo D. Arana

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available En este estudio se actualiza la taxonomía y distribución de las Osmundaceae, familia de helechos que habitan bosques y humedales subtropicales de la Argentina, Paraguay y Uruguay. Actualmente la familia comprende cuatro géneros, dos de ellos, con una especie cada uno, estan presentes en la región estudiada. Se acepta Osmunda spectabilis como una especie válida, diferente de O. regalis , la que no se encuentra presente en el área de estudio. Se reconoce a nivel de género a Osmundastrum con una única especie O. cinnamomeum var. cinnamomeum . Se incluyen una clave para los géneros, descripciones, la sinonimia relevante para América del Sur, distribuciones e ilustraciones de las especies. Se lectotipifica a Osmunda imbricata, Osmunda palustris y Osmunda spectabilis var. brasiliensis .

  8. Community-Associated MRSA in Uruguay

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2008-08-05

    Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus is an antibiotic-resistant bacterium that is typically associated with infections in healthcare settings. In the past couple of decades, MRSA has emerged in the community, most often causing skin infections in healthy people who haven't recently been hospitalized. After an increase in community cases in Uruguay in 2004, health officials investigated to learn more about what was happening and found some interesting trends. In this podcast, CDC's Dr. Stephen Benoit discusses what they learned, the results of which are published in the August 2008 issue of CDC's journal, Emerging Infectious Diseases.  Created: 8/5/2008 by Emerging Infectious Diseases.   Date Released: 8/7/2008.

  9. Entre memórias e sonhos: uma leitura Bergsoniana do documentário “Rocha que voa”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia Machado

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available

    Quais as possibilidades estéticas e políticas que oferece o cinema quando trabalha com a memória, seja a partir da sua temática, da linguagem ou da materialidade do filme? A partir dessa questão, evidenciamos algumas políticas da memória que estão em jogo na contemporaneidade  e, a partir daí, propomos aproximações entre os conceitos de memória-hábito/ memória por excelência em Henri Bergson e as imagens e sons do documentário Rocha que voa (2002,em que o diretor Eryk Rocha utiliza arquivos e depoimentos para tratar do período em o pai, o cineasta Glauber Rocha, ficou exilado em Cuba. 

  10. Soomlased ajendasid Uruguay ja Argentina vahelise tselluloositüli / Heiki Suurkask

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Suurkask, Heiki, 1972-

    2006-01-01

    Argentiinlased protestivad Uruguay jõe Uruguay-poolsel kaldal ehitavate tselluloositehaste vastu, ehitustööd mõistis hukka ka president Nestor Kirchner. Tehased rajab Soome kontsern Metsä-Botnia. Lisa: Argentinal endal keskkonnale ohtlikud tehased

  11. CHINA AND URUGUAY to Have More Opportunities for Win-win

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yan Manman

    2010-01-01

    @@ On August 27 2010,Uruguay Trade and Investment Opportunities Seminar was held in Beijing.Yu Ping,Vice President of CCPIT and Astori,Vice President of Uruguay as well as more than250 representatives from the business communities and associations in China and Uruguay attended the meeting.

  12. Fundamentos para simulação dos desmontes de rocha por explosivos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juarez Lopes de Morais

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Esse artigo apresenta alguns resultados do trabalho de pesquisa realizado para preparação da tese de doutorado sobre a utilização da simulação da fragmentação no processo de desmonte de rochas por explosivos. É apresentado um programa de computador denominado SIMBLAST que utiliza a linguagem de programação Visual Basic. O programa foi desenvolvido com base nos modelos Kuz-Ram e TCM - Two Components Model, descritos nesse artigo. Os dados para teste do simulador foram levantados nas detonações de hematita dura (HD e hematita mole (HM, nas minas de minério de ferro de Carajás, da Companhia Vale do Rio Doce, localizadas no sul do Estado do Pará, com a finalidade de comparação dos resultados da curva granulométrica gerada pelos dois modelos.This article shows some results of the doutorate thesis about blast simulation. It's looked for the development of blast simulation estabilished in Kuz-Ram and TCM (Two Components Model models. For that was developed a software called SIMBLAST. The data for this test of simulate was took in the iron mine in Carajás owned by CVRD - Companhia Vale do Rio Doce, located in the south of Para State. The simulator was tested firstly in blasting of hard hematite (HD and soft hematite (HM with the intention of compararison of the models

  13. Rutas turísticas culturales de la provincia de Cádiz: Castillos y fortalezas medievales

    OpenAIRE

    Roldán Corrales, Ana

    2015-01-01

    El presente documento trata sobre una de las rutas turísticas más singulares de la provincia de Cádiz que recorre sus castillos y fortalezas. Se inicia este estudio con una amplia introducción histórica que pretende informar al lector sobre el origen de este extenso Patrimonio Cultural: La Arquitectura defensiva de la provincia de Cádiz, justificada por la situación geoestratégica a lo largo de la historia.

  14. Birth defects monitoring in underdeveloped countries: an example from Uruguay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castilla, E E; Lopez-Camelo, J S; Dutra, G P; Paz, J E

    1991-01-01

    Medical authorities in developing countries are primarily interested in nutritional and infectious diseases. Therefore, activities directed to the prevention and control of low priority illnesses, such as birth defects, need to be particularly effective, simple, and economical. Monitoring of congenital anomalies is one of the preventive activities which can be efficiently performed at very low cost. Guidelines for this are given, and their application exemplified by the case of Uruguay. Uruguay has recently attained an infant mortality rate of 20/1,000, with the congenital anomalies ranking as its second cause. The government of Uruguay, through the Pan American Health Organisation/World Health Organisation (PARO/WHO) called the Estudio Colaborativo Latino Americano de Malformaciones Congenitas (ECLAMC) for advice in order to plan a program for the prevention of birth defects. The recommendations given were based on conclusions drawn from the analysis of data the ECLAMC program has been accumulating, from Uruguay and other Latin-American countries, since 1967. The case of Uruguay clearly indicates that sensible guidelines for birth defects prevention can be provided, after working with this "low priority and uninteresting" group of illnesses for more than twenty years.

  15. Informe sobre la estabilidad de la bóveda de la antigua cocina del castillo de Bellver (Palma de Mallorca)

    OpenAIRE

    Huerta Fernández, Santiago

    2008-01-01

    El castillo de Bellver fue construido en el siglo XIV (según Chueca debía estar terminado ya en 1314) y es una pieza excepcional por su planta circular y la arquería del patio. Tras casi siete siglos de vida y numerosas intervenciones el castillo presenta un estabilidad excelente, como lo demuestra las deformaciones inapreciables que en la actualidad pueden observarse. La solución de las bóvedas del patio circular sobre esbeltos pilares contrarrestados por anillos de compresión de la fábric...

  16. El castillo español en la estampilla. Reflexiones en torno a la marca, el marketing y el territorio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Monroy Avella

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available España es un país de castillos. La estampilla española nos revela una colección de imágenes evolutiva de este edificio. Se trata de una iconografía que pasa de lo simbólico a lo figurativo; del instrumento ideológico a la valorización del patrimonio y, luego, a la narrativa cultural. El siglo xx nos muestra este dinamismo, sobre todo durante el franquismo, y nos revela que se puede hacer marketing territorial a partir de imágenes en apariencia banales y efímeras. Desviando la función inicial de la estampilla, reestructurando su lectura, podemos llegar a una nueva forma de observación y descubrir nuevos discursos. Así hacemos arqueología con este visual, comprendiendo la voluntad del poder, sus iniciativas en materia de comunicación y sus tendencias identitarias. España hace, a su manera, valorización turística con una imagen de marca, su marca patrimonial por excelencia: sus castillos.

  17. Assessment of gastroenteric viruses from wastewater directly discharged into Uruguay River, Uruguay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Victoria, M; Tort, L F L; García, M; Lizasoain, A; Maya, L; Leite, J P G; Miagostovich, M P; Cristina, J; Colina, R

    2014-06-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the viral contamination of group A rotavirus (RVA), norovirus (NoV), and human astrovirus (HAstV) in sewage directly discharged into Uruguay River and to characterize RVA genotypes circulating in Uruguay. For this purpose, sewage samples (n = 96) were collected biweekly from March 2011 to February 2012 in four Uruguayan cities: Bella Unión, Salto, Paysandú, and Fray Bentos. Each sample was concentrated by ultracentrifugation method. Qualitative and quantitative RT-PCR for RVA, NoV, and HAstV were performed. A wide dissemination of gastroenteric viruses was observed in the sewage samples analyzed with 80% of positivity, being NoV (51%) the most frequently detected followed by RVA with a frequency of 49% and HAstV with 45%. Genotypes of RVA were typed using multiplex semi-nested RT-PCR as follows: P[8] (n = 15), P[4] (n = 8), P[10] (n = 1), P[11] (n = 1), G2 (n = 29), and G3 (n = 2). The viral load ranged from 10(3) to 10(7) genomic copies/liter, and they were detected roughly with the same frequency in all participant cities. A peak of RVA and HAstV detection was observed in colder months (June to September), whereas no seasonality was observed for NoV. This study demonstrates for the first time, the high degree of gastroenteric viral contamination in the country; highlighting the importance of developing these analyses as a tool to determine the viral contamination in this hydrographic boundary region used by the local populations for recreation and consumption, establishing an elevated risk of gastroenteric diseases for human health.

  18. OcorrÃncia e gÃnese de derrame alterado sob rocha sà no Planalto de Palmas (PR)/Ãgua Doce (SC)

    OpenAIRE

    Jacson Gosman Gomes de Lima

    2013-01-01

    Esta dissertaÃÃo de mestrado apresenta o mapeamento e caracterizaÃÃo de derrame alterado sob rocha sà no Planalto de Palmas (PR)/Ãgua Doce (SC). A metodologia de trabalho para atingir tal objetivo foi conduzida em duas linhas principais, uma visando mapear o derrame alterado sob rocha sà e outro visando caracteriza-lo, em ambas empregou-se tÃcnicas de campo e laboratÃrio. Em campo o derrame foi mapeado percorrendo-se as estradas da Ãrea de estudo, registrando sua localizaÃÃo em GPS e posterio...

  19. Investidura de doctores Honoris Causa de Albert Bandura y José del Castillo Nicolau. Universidad de Salamanca, 17 de julio de 1992

    OpenAIRE

    Sánchez López, Cándido, "Candy",

    1992-01-01

    Cincuenta y siete fotografías de la ceremonia de investidura de doctores Honoris Causa de Albert Bandura y José del Castillo Nicolau. Acto celebrado en el Paraninfo de la Universidad de Salamanca el 17 de julio de 1992.

  20. [Tinea nigra. 1st clinical case in Uruguay].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conti-Díaz, I A; Burgoa, F; Civila, E; Bonasse, J; Miller, A

    1984-08-30

    The first case in Uruguay of 'tinea nigra' is described in a 44-year-old male patient with a maculous pigmented lesion on the right foot. It represents the most meridional case of the disease yet recorded in South America. Exophiala werneckii was isolated in cultures (strain 1905 IHM).

  1. Situation Reports--Bahamas, Brasil, Guatemala, Netherlands Antilles (Curacao), Uruguay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    International Planned Parenthood Federation, London (England).

    Data relating to population and family planning in four foreign countries are presented in these situation reports. Countries included are Bahamas, Guatemala, Netherlands Antilles (Curacao), and Uruguay. Information is provided under two topics, general background and family planning situation, where appropriate and if it is available. General…

  2. 78 FR 68327 - Importation of Ovine Meat From Uruguay

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-14

    ... ante-mortem and post-mortem veterinary inspections, paying particular attention to the head and feet... United States. An authorized veterinary official of the Government of Uruguay certifies on the foreign..., records, and operations by an APHIS representative. We solicited comments concerning the proposed rule...

  3. The Impending Demise of "tu" in Montevideo, Uruguay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weyers, Joseph R.

    2009-01-01

    Since the early 1960s, the "tuteo" (T-T), and particularly the use of tonic "tu" with the "vos" verbal morphology (T-V) has been accepted as typical of the speech of Montevideo, Uruguay, a region generally classified as "voseante". This paper reports on the results of 117 rapid anonymous interviews conducted…

  4. Educational Production and the Distribution of Teachers in Uruguay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luschei, Thomas F.; Carnoy, Martin

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we discuss results from an analysis of a large dataset that includes virtually all sixth-grade students in Uruguay in 1996. We analyze the relationship between teacher attributes and student achievement scores and we explore the distribution of teachers according to characteristics identified as important by this analysis. We find…

  5. Computing and Education in Argentina, Uruguay and Paraguay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadowsky, Manuel

    Although the report is specifically about Argentina, Uruguay and Paraguay, the considerations presented are valid for all of Latin America. In September, 1969, Argentina had approximately 200 electronic computers. The annual growth is estimated at 15-20% and the implementation of teleprocessing and time-sharing systems have made evident the…

  6. ELT through Videoconferencing in Primary Schools in Uruguay: First Steps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banegas, Darío Luis

    2013-01-01

    Plan Ceibal is an interinstitutional undertaking which has distributed XO laptops and Internet connectivity among primary school learners and teachers across Uruguay and developed a wide range of educational programmes. Ceibal administration believes that it is imperative to introduce English as a Foreign Language in primary education through the…

  7. Trichothecene genotypes of Fusarium graminearum from wheat in Uruguay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Dinorah; Calero, Natalia; Mionetto, Ana; Bettucci, Lina

    2013-03-01

    Gibberella zeae (Schwein.) Petch (anamorph F. graminearum Schwabe) is the primary causal agent of FHB of wheat in Uruguay. In the last decade, F. graminearum has produced destructive epidemics on wheat in Uruguay, causing yield losses and price discounts due to reduced seed quality. Strains of F. graminearum clade usually express one of three strain-specific profiles of trichothecene metabolites: nivalenol and its acetylated derivatives (NIV chemotype), deoxynivalenol and 3-acetyldeoxynivalenol (3-AcDON chemotype), or deoxynivalenol and 15-acetyldeoxynivalenol (15-AcDON chemotype). A multiplex PCR assay of Tri3, Tri5, and Tri7 was used to determine the trichothecene genotype of 111 strains of F. graminearum collected during 2003 and 2009 growing seasons from fields located in the major wheat production area of Uruguay. The result showed that all except one of the isolates were of DON genotype, with the remainder of NIV genotype in years 2003 and 2009. All strains with the DON genotype were also of the 15-AcDON genotype in 2003 and nearly all (45/50) in 2009. No DON/3-AcDON genotypes were found in either growing season. No potential shifts in the populations were found in the trichothecene genotypes between 2003 and the 2009 epidemic FHB harvest seasons. This study provides the first data on trichothecene genotypes of F. graminearum strains isolated from wheat in Uruguay and add to the current regional knowledge of trichothecene genotypes.

  8. Language Policies in Uruguay and Uruguayan Sign Language (LSU)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behares, Luis Ernesto; Brovetto, Claudia; Crespi, Leonardo Peluso

    2012-01-01

    In the first part of this article the authors consider the policies that apply to Uruguayan Sign Language (Lengua de Senas Uruguaya; hereafter LSU) and the Uruguayan Deaf community within the general framework of language policies in Uruguay. By analyzing them succinctly and as a whole, the authors then explain twenty-first-century innovations.…

  9. The Impending Demise of "tu" in Montevideo, Uruguay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weyers, Joseph R.

    2009-01-01

    Since the early 1960s, the "tuteo" (T-T), and particularly the use of tonic "tu" with the "vos" verbal morphology (T-V) has been accepted as typical of the speech of Montevideo, Uruguay, a region generally classified as "voseante". This paper reports on the results of 117 rapid anonymous interviews conducted in Montevideo to document the status of…

  10. El fascismo en Uruguay. Un testimonio de Luigi Federzoni

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo Carusi

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo se detiene a analizar el golpe de Estado urugayo de marzo del 1933 y el gobierno de Gabriel Terra, encontrando una clara inspiración fascista. Para apoyar esta tesis, el ensayo se basa en las memorias de un viaje realizado en 1937 en América Latina por el jerarca fascista Luigi Federzoni. Las páginas relativas a su permanencia en Uruguay confirman el estrecho vínculo entre el gobierno de Terra y la Italia fascista y ponen en evidencia come se esperara con preocupación –de parte de Italia– el resultado de las elecciones del año siguiente, a las cuales Terra había decidido no volverse a presentar como candidato a la presidencia.Palabras clave: fascismo, Uruguay, L. Federzoni, G. Terra, fasci al exterior.___________________Abstract: This article peruses the Uruguayan coup d’etat in May 1933 and Gabriel Terra’s government, showing the latter’s undeniable fascist setting-out. In order to back this argument, the essay refers to a report written by the fascist hierarch Luigi Federzoni, who travelled through South America in 1937: the pages concerning Uruguay confirm the close connection between Terra’s government and Italian Fascism and reveal that the elections taking place in Uruguay the following year were awaited frantically in Italy, as Terra was not going to run for president again.Keywords: Fascism, Uruguay, L. Federzoni, G. Terra, Fasci abroad.

  11. Molecular detection of Rangelia vitalii in domestic dogs from Uruguay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, João Fabio; Carvalho, Luis; Maya, Leticia; Dutra, Fernando; Venzal, José Manuel; Labruna, Marcelo B

    2015-05-30

    The piroplasm Rangelia vitalii is the etiological agent of canine rangeliosis, a severe disease affecting domestic dogs in South America. Two domestic dogs from two different Departments (Salto and Treinta y Tres) of Uruguay presented with clinical signs such as apathy, anorexia, pale mucous membranes, jaundice, and hemorrhagic manifestations, suggestive of a canine vector-borne disease. Molecular analysis, based on PCR and DNA sequencing of portions of the 18S rRNA gene, revealed that both dogs were infected by R. vitalii. Two consensus sequences, one from Salto and one from Treinta y Tres, differed from each other by only 1 nucleotide (99.8% similarity) and were 99.8-100% identical to corresponding sequences of R. vitalii from Brazil and Argentina available in GenBank. Through phylogenetic analysis inferred by the 18S rRNA gene, the two Uruguayan sequences of R. vitalii were aligned with the corresponding sequences from 7 other R. vitalii sequences available in GenBank (5 from Brazil and, 2 from Argentina) under high bootstrap support. The two dogs of the present study were negative for Ehrlichia canis according to the E. canis-specific real-time PCR assay. Our findings not only confirm the occurrence of R. vitalii in Uruguay but also provide the southernmost record of this re-emerging agent. The only previous report of R. vitalii in Uruguay dated from 1976, a period when molecular analyses were not available. We provide the first molecular detection of R. vitalii in Uruguay. Currently, canine rangeliosis is confirmed to occur in Brazil, Argentina, and Uruguay.

  12. Molecular diversity of bovine viral diarrhea virus in uruguay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maya, L; Puentes, R; Reolón, E; Acuña, P; Riet, F; Rivero, R; Cristina, J; Colina, R

    2016-03-01

    Bovine viral diarrhea (BVD) affects bovine production and reproduction causing significant economic losses all over the world. Two viral species has been recognized: BVDV-1 and BVDV-2, both distributed worldwide. Recently, novel specie of BVDV named HoBi-like pestivirus was discovered. The presence of BVDV was confirmed in 1996 in Uruguay, however, does not exist until today a schedule of compulsory vaccination along the country. Serological studies with samples from all Uruguayan herds were performed during 2000 and 2001 demonstrating that all of them were seropositive to BVDV with a mean prevalence of 69%. In addition, there have been no new studies done since those previously described and it is important to mention that the genetic diversity of BVD has never been described in Uruguay. Nowadays, there is strongly suspect that BVDV is one of the most important causes of reproductive failures in our herds. The aim of this study was to describe for the first time in Uruguay the genetic diversity of BVDV with samples collected from different regions along the country. Serological status of 390 non-vaccinated animals against BVDV with reproductive problems from farms of Rivera, Tacuarembó and Florida departments of Uruguay were studied. All herds were seropositive to BVDV and high proportion of animals were positive (298/390), while 4.1% (16/390) of the animals were positive to Antigen Capture ELISA test and Real Time PCR. Phylogenetic analysis performed with concatenated sequences from the 5'UTR and Npro genomic regions revealed that BVDV-1 and BVDV-2 are infecting our herds, being BVDV-1 the most frequently found. The major subtype was BVDV-1a, followed by BVDV-1i and BVDV-2b. This is the first study that describes the genetic diversity of BVDV in Uruguay and it will contribute to the elaboration of sanitization programs.

  13. Nas trincheiras do front intelectual. Henrique da Rocha Lima e a Primeira Guerra Mundial no Jornal do Commercio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Felipe Cândido da Silva

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available RESUMOO artigo explora os textos publicados pelo pesquisador brasileiro Henrique da Rocha Lima no Jornal do Commercio no primeiro ano da ‘Grande Guerra’. Ele escreveu suas impressões de Hamburgo, de onde afirmou obter informações de primeira mão com as quais buscou contrariar ou problematizar as notícias divulgadas pelas agências francesa e inglesa. A propaganda aliada encontrou fértil terreno no Brasil, no que foi favorecida pela francofilia de nossas elites. O pesquisador brasileiro procurou combater a ideia de que a Alemanha era a causadora da Guerra, além de desmentir o que via como calúnias e mentiras veiculadas pelos aliados, como notícias das barbáries cometidas pelos alemães em território inimigo. O engajamento de Rocha Lima foi na contramão das tendências do mundo letrado e científico brasileiro, em sua grande parte simpáticos à causa Aliada, além de representar perfil de atuação pública que se tornaria a marca de sua trajetória profissional.

  14. Análise estrutural no planejamento de lavra de rocha ornamental

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniele Di Giorgio

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available A análise estrutural de um maciço rochoso é uma importante ferramenta a ser aplicada ao planejamento de lavra de rocha ornamental. Além do mapeamento das descontinuidades, é importante definir-se como estão distribuídas as tensões no maciço rochoso. Nesse trabalho, apresenta-se uma análise estrutural do Sienito Piquiri, RS, com aplicação no planejamento da lavra. Os dados coletados durante o levantamento estrutural constituíram um banco de dados utilizado para determinar os eixos de paleotensão. A análise efetuada distinguiu duas fases de deformação, sendo possível separar os tipos de fraturas (R, C, T e P. As fraturas com direções entre 260º e 10º foram consideradas mais problemáticas em relação às operações de lavra. A identificação das zonas menos intensamente fraturadas permitiu um aumento na recuperação dos blocos de sienito.Structural analysis of rock mass is an important tool to be used for mine planning of dimensional stones. Besides the structural mapping, it is important to define the stress distribution within the rock mass. This paper describes the results obtained from the application of structural analysis at the Piquiri Syenite, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, to aid dimensional stones quarry planning. Collected data during the structural survey constitute a data base used to determine the paleostress axes. The analyses performed distinguished two phases of deformation and were possible to separate the types of fracture into R, C, T e P. Fractures with directions ranging in 260ºand 10º were considered to impose more difficulties to the operations and planning. Avoiding mining at identified intense fractured zones mass allowed the increase of mining recovery of dimensional syenite blocks.

  15. Una nueva revisión del Panel de las Manos de la cueva de El Castillo (Puente Viesgo, Cantabria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruiz Redondo, A.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available El conjunto rupestre de la cueva de El Castillo contiene uno de los registros más completos de la actividad artística del Paleolítico superior. Uno de los lienzos más interesantes por la acumulación de varias fases pictóricas es el Panel de las Manos. En este trabajo proponemos la reinterpretación de la forma y la situación de una figura, lo cual nos sirve para ensayar una nueva definición del panel, que, de este modo, encuentra una mejor integración en el conocimiento del Arte Paleolítico Cantábrico.

  16. A propósito de geometría y misterio de barrio de Juan Castillo

    OpenAIRE

    2004-01-01

    El artículo de Nelly Richard evalúa cómo, desde el arte, se puede abordar sin caer en la mitificación ideológica, en la romantización nostálgica y el paternalismo condescendiente. En esta línea de preocupaciones, Richard sitúa el proyecto de Juan Castillo, Geometría y misterio de barrio como fuerza estética que, anclado en el espacio urbano, es capaz de explorar ciertas materias y relatos de lo popular más allá de toda formalización normativa y hegemónica de los diagnósticos de lo nacional....

  17. El modernismo domesticado: algunas ideas estéticas en la obra crítica de Eduardo Castillo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Tobón Giraldo

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available En su obra crítica, Eduardo Castillo defiende muchas de las ideas estéticas que el modernismo introdujo en Colombia: que el artista se opone a la moderna sociedad materialista, que el arte está limitado al círculo estrecho de los mandarines del gusto y que el sacerdocio exclusivo del arte exige sacrificar la vida al cultivo de la forma perfecta. Pero en sus textos estas ideas se encuentran armonizadas con algunas de las tesis principales del clasicismo hispanizante promulgado por la Regeneración a finales del siglo XIX, y carecen de la voluntad de contemporaneidad que caracterizó y validó el primer modernismo.

  18. Bufo arenarum Hensel, 1867 (Amphibia: Anura: Bufonidae para el Noroeste del Uruguay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olmos, Alejandro

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Uruguay, Departamento de Paysandú. Paysandú. Puente Internacional, Comisión Administradora del Río Uruguay. 17 de mayo de 1995. Col: C. Ríos. Colección Zoología Vertebrados de la Facultad de Ciencias (Montevideo, Uruguay ZVCB 2758 (macho.Departamento de Salto. Salto. Club de Remeros. 27 de febrero de 1997. Col: A. Olmos ZVCB 3459 (hembra.

  19. Crescimento de mudas de maracujázeiro-amarelo em resposta à adubação com superfosfato simples e pó de rocha

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiano Barbosa de Souza Prates

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Pesquisas feitas com pó de rocha têm mostrado a potencialidade de alguns resíduos em promover o enriquecimento mineral de solos pobres; prática definida como rochagem do solo. Este trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar o crescimento de mudas de maracujázeiro-amarelo (Passiflora edulis Sims f. flavicarpa Deg. em resposta à adubação com superfosfato simples e pó de rocha. O experimento foi realizado no período de janeiro a abril de 2006, em casa de vegetação do Instituto de Ciências Agrárias da Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (ICA-UFMG, localizado em Montes Claros/MG. Os tratamentos, em esquema fatorial 2 x 5, no delineamento em blocos casualizados, com três repetições, corresponderam à adição ao substrato de: duas doses de pó de rocha e cinco de superfosfato simples. Foram avaliados: altura das plantas, diâmetro do caule, número de folhas por planta, área foliar, massas de matéria fresca e seca da raiz, massas de matéria fresca e seca da parte aérea e conteúdo de fósforo na planta. Os resultados indicam aumento do crescimento das mudas com o incremento das doses de superfosfato simples e redução do efeito da adubação fosfatada com a adição de pó de rocha ao substrato, possivelmente relacionados a fenômenos de adsorção por formas de ferro amorfo e/ou por carbonatos, considerando que o pó de rocha provém da desintegração de ardósias, mármore e granito. A dose de superfosfato simples sem adição de pó de rocha, para se obterem mudas de maracujá com melhores características, deve ser de 3,0 a 6,5 kg m-3, enquanto com a adição de pó de rocha, de 6,0 a pelo menos 10,0 kg m-3.

  20. PRODUÇÃO DE CONCENTRADO DE MAGNETITA POR JIGAGEM A PARTIR DO REJEITO DE ROCHA FOSFÁTICA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raphael Silva Tomáz

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available A magnetita (Fe3O4 é um óxido magnético de ferro natural formado por íons Fe+2 e Fe+3. É o mais comum mineral fortemente magnético, estando presente em pequenas quantidades em quase todas as rochas e também nos meteoritos. A nanotecnologia está largamente presente em todo nosso dia a dia. É possível encontrar diferentes aplicações nas mais diversas áreas da indústria: Eletroeletrônicos, metalurgia, cerâmicos, tintas, tecidos, indústria de polímeros, medicina entre outras. Atualmente a Anglo American Fosfatos do Brasil não produz magnetita, mas possui uma produção de rejeito de 2 Mt (milhões toneladas com teores de magnetita por volta de 40%, na granulometria de 2 mm, sendo esse material enviado integralmente para a barragem de rejeito. O aproveitamento desse material, dada uma recuperação de 60%, traria um crescimento de 78,5 milhões de dólares no PIB do estado. A maior parte da produção de ferro do Brasil é feita por flotação, sendo que tal tipo de produção prejudica a utilização da magnetita, especificamente, para a produção de ferrofluidos nanomagnéticos, devido a enorme quantidade de produtos químicos, principalmente surfactantes, envolvidos na etapa de flotação. Contudo o objetivo desse trabalho é obter um concentrado de magnetita proveniente do rejeito da produção de rocha fosfática por jigagem, para que a mesma possa ser usada na produção de ferrofluidos. Os resultados da utilização do jigue como separador dos minerais são satisfatórios na produção de magnetita para ferrofluidos como coproduto da produção de concentrado de rocha fosfática.

  1. Inercias y tranformaciones en las relaciones laborales del Uruguay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Pucci

    Full Text Available This work intends to analyze the evolution of the labor relations in Uruguay, at the cornerstone of the productive restructuring processes that began to be developed starting from the constitution of regional markets in the Southern Cone. The hypothesis we support is that the transformations in the world of labor ocurred in Uruguay cannot be attributed only to the application of an economical or social model specific to development, but are enrolled in long term structural modifications, associated to changes in the social relations ocurred worldwide. However, the concrete evolution verified in labor relations is explained by the specific characteristics of the processes of regional integration that are expressed in the conformation of MERCOSUL.

  2. A new species of Branchinecta (Crustacea: Anostraca) from Uruguay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, D Christopher; Lorenz, Helen Racz

    2015-10-22

    Branchinecta uruguayensis, a new species of fairy shrimp, is described from a single seasonally astatic aquatic habitat in coastal Uruguay. This is the first record of an anostracan from the nation of Uruguay. Male B. uruguayensis n. sp. are separated from other Branchinecta species by the form of the second antennae. Branchinecta uruguayensis n. sp. share the distal antennomere lobiform projection with B. papillata Rogers, De los Rios, & Zúñiga, 2008 and B. achalensis César, 1985. Branchinecta uruguayensis n. sp. females are readily separated from all other Branchinecta by the presence of posteriolateral thoracic spines and lateral crenulations on the first abdomen segment margins. A key is provided to the Branchinectidae of South America.

  3. American Foulbrood in Uruguay: twelve years from its first report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antúnez, Karina; Anido, Matilde; Branchiccela, Belén; Harriet, Jorge; Campá, Juan; Zunino, Pablo

    2012-05-01

    Paenibacillus larvae is the causative agent of American Foulbrood (AFB), a deleterious disease that affects honeybees. In Uruguay it was first reported in 1999. In 2001 the bacterium was spread all over the country, and its prevalence in honey was estimated in 51%. Two P. larvae genotypes were found; ERIC I - BOX A, worldwide distributed and ERIC I - BOX C, exclusively detected in Argentina until then. In the present manuscript we analyzed the evolution of AFB outbreaks from 1999 to 2009, presented a new nation-wide survey carried out during 2011 when a prevalence of 2% was found and discuss national strategies for prevention of the disease. Since Uruguay is a small country where almost all beekeepers are registered, Uruguayan experience can be useful to be applied in other countries.

  4. Biología, medicina y eugenesia en Uruguay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barrán, Juan Pedro

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available In this work are analyzed the deep relationships between biology, medicine and society that were settled down in the Uruguay along the XIX century as well as the process of «medicalization» and «biologization» of the social thought that take place along the first decades of the XX century, and the role that played the eugenic ideas and defenders of eugenics in that process.

    En este trabajo se analizan las profundas relaciones entre biología, medicina y sociedad que se establecieron en el Uruguay a lo largo del siglo XIX así como el proceso de medicalización y biologización del pensamiento social que se produce a lo largo de las primeras décadas del siglo XX, y el papel que jugaron en ese proceso las ideas eugénicas y los defensores de la eugenesia.

  5. Essential oils of Mentha pulegium and Mentha rotundifolia from Uruguay

    OpenAIRE

    Daniel Lorenzo; Daniel Paz; Eduardo Dellacassa; Philip Davies; Roser Vila; Salvador Cañigueral

    2002-01-01

    Essential oils obtained by hydrodistillation from leaves of Mentha pulegium L. and Mentha rotundifolia (L.) Huds. from Uruguay were analysed by GC-FID and GC-MS. Oxygen-containing monoterpenes were the main group of constituents in both oils. Pulegone, isomenthone and menthone were the major components in the oil of M. pulegium, whereas piperitenone oxide and (Z)-sabinene hydrate were the major ones in M. rotundifolia. Enantiomerically pure (-)-menthone, (+)-isomenthone, (+)-isomenthol, (-)-m...

  6. Picobirnavirus in captive animals from Uruguay: identification of new hosts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillman, Luciana; Sánchez, Ana Maria; Arbiza, Juan

    2013-01-01

    The Picobirnaviruses (PBVs) have been detected in several species of animals from different countries worldwide, including in South America. The host range of these viruses has increased in recent years; thus, in order to contribute to the knowledge in this topic we analyzed samples from captivity animals from Uruguay. We found the presence of PBVs in four species of animals, Panthera leo, Panthera onca, Puma concolor and Oncifelis geoffroyi, representing new PBV-susceptible hosts. All strains belonged to genogroup I.

  7. ATLAS Virtual Visit Uruguay-19-05-2014

    CERN Multimedia

    2014-01-01

    In this opportunity the 2nd virtual visit to the CERN from Uruguay has been inserted into the 2nd International Congress Online on Education and New Media "La Kamera en Red" (May 19, 20, 21 2014), since it is now expanding to other countries in Latin-American and Europe. It is an original open possibility for local, regional and global citizens to share, show and create in a collective way about the diffusion of Science.

  8. Some historical aspects of plant cytogenetics in Argentina and Uruguay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan H. Hunziker

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available A brief account is given of the origin and development of plant cytogenetics in Argentina and Uruguay, along with some of the factors that hampered the development of this area.Uma breve narrativa é dada sobre a origem e desenvolvimento de citogenética em plantas na Argentina e Uruguai, juntamente com alguns fatores que prejudicaram o desenvolvimento desta area.

  9. Serologic evidence of human metapneumovirus circulation in Uruguay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santiago Mirazo

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available First identified in 2001, the human metapneumovirus (hMPV, is a respiratory tract pathogen that affects young children, elderly, and immunocompromised patients. The present work represents the first serologic study carried out in Uruguay. It was performed with the purpose of obtaining serological evidence of hMPV circulation in Uruguay and to contribute to the few serologic reports described until now. Sixty nine serum samples collected between 1998 and 2001 by vein puncture from patients without respiratory symptoms or underlying pathology aged 6 days to 60 years were examined using an indirect immunofluorescence assay (IFA. The global seropositivity rate of the samples was 80% (55/69. Rates of 60% (15/25 and 91% (40/44 were observed for the pediatric and adult cohorts, respectively. Results obtained from a longitudinal analysis of 6 children aged 6 days to 18 months are discussed. These results are a clear evidence of hMPV circulation in Uruguay, at least since 1998, and reinforce the previous data on worldwide circulation of this virus.

  10. Propaganda and Philanthropy: The Institute Bento da Rocha Cabral, the Lisbon Site of Biochemistry (1925-1953).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carneiro, Ana; Amaral, Isabel

    2015-05-01

    This paper focuses on the internal organization and dynamics of the Institute Bento da Rocha Cabral (IRC) in Lisbon, a privately-funded institution devoted to biomedical research, from the particular vantage point of its laboratory of biochemistry; in particular, the process through which the institution turned from medically-related to chemically-related research in the period spanning from 1925 to 1953. The history of the IRC raises interesting questions regarding the social politics of science as it materialized the desire of leading physicians of the Faculty of Medicine of Lisbon to create proper physical facilities for medically-related scientific research. We argue that the process which led to the creation of the IRC coincided with the gradual professional and political ascendance of physicians in Portuguese society initiated in the late nineteenth century, and is closely associated with Portuguese republicanism and the process of Lisbon becoming the scientific capital.

  11. Reply to da Rocha and Rodrigues' comments on the orientation congruent algebra and twisted forms in electrodynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Demers, D.G. [Everybody Reads Independent Bookstore, Lansing, MI (United States)

    2010-07-15

    The recent claim by da Rocha and Rodrigues that the nonassociative orientation congruent algebra (OC algebra) and native Clifford algebra are incompatible with the Clifford bundle approach is false. The new native Clifford bundle approach, in fact, subsumes the ordinary Clifford bundle one. Associativity is an unnecessarily too strong a requirement for physical applications. Consequently, we obtain a new principle of nonassociative irrelevance for physically meaningful formulas. In addition, the adoption of formalisms that respect the native representation of twisted (or odd) objects and physical quantities is required for the advancement of mathematics, physics, and engineering because they allow equations to be written in sign-invariant form. This perspective simplifies the analysis of, resolves questions about, and ends needless controversies over the signs, orientations, and parities of physical quantities. (Abstract Copyright [2010], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  12. Calydorea alba (Iridaceae: Tigridieae, a new species from Uruguay Calydorea alba (Iridaceae: Tigridieae, una nueva especie de Uruguay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. G. Roitman

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Calydorea alba is described from wet grasslands of northern Uruguay. The new species resembles Calydorea azurea, but can be easily distinguished by the smaller white flowers (3.2-3.6 cm wide vs. 4.4-5.3 cm wide, and linear subulate not truncate, style branches.Se describe Calydorea alba proveniente de pastizales húmedos del norte de Uruguay. Esta nueva especie se asemeja a Calydorea azurea, pero puede ser fácilmente distinguida por sus flores blancas más pequeñas (3,2-3,6 cm vs. 4.4-5.3 cm, de diámetro, y las ramas de estilo lineares, subuladas no truncadas.

  13. A new species of Melanophryniscus (Anura, Bufonidae from Uruguay Una nueva especie de Melanophryniscus (Anura, Bufonidae del Uruguay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raúl Maneyro

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available A new species of bufonid toad of the genus Melanophryniscus from northern Uruguay is described. It is included in the M. moreirae group and its external morphology is similar to Melanophryniscus sanmartini. Melanophryniscus sp. nov. is distinguished by having a light brown dorsal coloration with six darker longitudinal glandular ridges on the dorsal surface of the body and the gular region uniformly black.Se describe una nueva especie de anuro bufónido del género Melanophryniscus, procedente del norte de Uruguay. La nueva especie se incluye en el grupo M. moreirae y es similar, en cuanto a su morfología externa, con Melanophryniscus sanmartini. Melanophryniscus sp. nov. se distingue por presentar una coloración dorsal castaño clara con seis cordones glandulares longitudinales más oscuros en la superficie dorsal del cuerpo y la región gular de color negro uniforme.

  14. Odonata de Uruguay: lista de especies y nuevos registros Odonata from Uruguay: species list and new records

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Von Ellenrieder

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Se proporciona una lista de las 70 especies citadas para Uruguay. Catorce de ellas constituyen nuevos registros para el país: Mnesarete pruinosa (Hagen en Selys [Calopterygidae, Acanthagrion lancea Selys, A. peruvianum Leonard, Argia serva Hagen en Selys y Oxyagrion chapadense Costa (Coenagrionidae, Neoneura ethela Williamson (Protoneuridae, Progomphus costalis Hagen en Selys (Gomphidae, Elasmothemis constricta (Calvert, Erythrodiplax basalis (Kirby, Erythrodiplax media Borror, Micrathyria hypodidyma Calvert, Micrathyria ringueleti Rodrigues Capitulo, Orthemis ambinigra Calvert y Perithemis icteroptera (Selys en Sagra (Libelullidae.A list of 70 species known to occur in Uruguay is given. Fourteen species are new country records: Mnesarete pruinosa (Hagen in Selys (Calopterygidae, Acanthagrion lancea Selys, A. peruvianum Leonard, Argia serva Hagen in Selys, and Oxyagrion chapadense Costa (Coenagrionidae, Neoneura ethela Williamson (Protoneuridae, Progomphus costalis Hagen in Selys (Gomphidae, Elasmothemis constricta (Calvert, Erythrodiplax basalis (Kirby, Erythrodiplax media Borror, Micrathyria hypodidyma Calvert, Micrathyria ringueleti Rodrigues Capitulo, Orthemis ambinigra Calvert, and Perithemis icteroptera (Selys in Sagra (Libelullidae.

  15. Notas sobre la organización y ubicación del arte paleolítico en las cuevas del monte del Castillo (Puente Viesgo. Santander

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reynaldo GONZÁLEZ GARCÍA

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available El presente artículo es un pequeño resumen de una parte de las conclusiones de los trabajos realizados en el transcurso del verano de 1985 en el Monte del Castillo. El propósito de los mismos se orientó en una total y exhaustiva revisión de la gran mayoría de figuras paleolíticas, tanto pintadas, grabadas, y en algún caso esculpidas, de las cuatro cuevas que forman este prestigioso y conocido conjunto troglodítico: La cueva de las Monedas, la cueva de la Pasiega, la cueva de las Chimeneas y la cueva del Castillo, en Puente Viesgo, Santander.

  16. 76 FR 66892 - Notice of Implementation of Determination Under Section 129 of the Uruguay Round Agreements Act...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-28

    ... International Trade Administration Notice of Implementation of Determination Under Section 129 of the Uruguay... under section 129 of the Uruguay Round Agreements Act (``URAA'') to implement the findings of the World... issued the memorandum entitled ``Preliminary Results Under Section 129 of the Uruguay Round...

  17. 75 FR 48940 - Notice of Implementation of Determination Under Section 129 of the Uruguay Round Agreements Act...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-12

    ... International Trade Administration Notice of Implementation of Determination Under Section 129 of the Uruguay... Commerce (the Department) to implement its determination under section 129 of the Uruguay Round Agreements... Section 129 of the Uruguay Round Agreements Act: Antidumping Measures on Polyethylene Retail Carrier...

  18. 76 FR 74771 - Notice of Implementation of Determination Under Section 129 of the Uruguay Round Agreements Act...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-01

    ... Section 129 of the Uruguay Round Agreements Act and Revocation of the Antidumping Duty Order on Stainless... determination under section 129 of the Uruguay Round Agreements Act (``URAA'') regarding the investigation of... issued the memorandum entitled ``Preliminary Results Under Section 129 of the Uruguay Round...

  19. 37 CFR 1.701 - Extension of patent term due to examination delay under the Uruguay Round Agreements Act...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... to examination delay under the Uruguay Round Agreements Act (original applications, other than... Examination Delay § 1.701 Extension of patent term due to examination delay under the Uruguay Round Agreements... phrase is used in 35 U.S.C. 154(b)(2) as amended by section 532(a) of the Uruguay Round Agreements...

  20. 75 FR 65292 - Notice of Request for Approval of an Information Collection; Importation of Beef From Uruguay

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-22

    ...; Importation of Beef From Uruguay AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, USDA. ACTION: Approval of... approval of an information collection associated with regulations for the importation of beef from Uruguay... information on regulations for the ] importation of beef from Uruguay, contact Dr. Lynette Williams-...

  1. Uruguay y los procesos de integración regional: trayectoria, cambios y debates = Uruguay and regional integration processes: paths, changes, and debates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Revelez, Lincoln Bizzozero

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available El artículo analiza la evolución de Uruguay en los procesos de integración regional de América Latina. Para ello plantea desde el comienzo algunas aclaraciones conceptuales sobre los distintos momentos del proceso de integración regional y sobre los condicionantes y principios de la política exterior del país. Se parte de la base que los nuevos regionalismos y sobre todo el regionalismo estratégico del siglo 21 replantean las bases de la política exterior de los distintos países, entre los cuales Uruguay. En el caso de Uruguay eso significa replantear los principios de equidistancia regional con los países vecinos. Ello necesariamente provoca que Uruguay se enfrente a su papel en la nueva construcción regional y los recursos que provee para ello

  2. Assinatura geofísica das rochas alcalinas da porção norte da província alcalina de Góias.

    OpenAIRE

    Feitoza, Lorena Malta

    2011-01-01

    As rochas alcalinas da região de Iporá (Goiás) fazem parte da Província Alcalina de Goiás (PAGO) e vêm sendo estudadas desde o fim da década de 1960. Essa região foi afetada por importantes eventos de magmatismo alcalino durante o Cretáceo Superior, em particular, em regiões submetidas a arqueamentos crustais, condicionadas por falhamentos regionais com direção preferencial NW–SE. Esse ambiente inclui desde complexos máfico–ultramáficos alcalinos, rochas alcalinas subvulcânicas e vulcânicas. ...

  3. A Brazilian in the Reich of Wilhelm II: Henrique da Rocha Lima, Brazil-Germany relations and the Instituto Oswaldo Cruz, 1901-1909.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, André Felipe Cândido da

    2013-03-01

    This article follows the career of the Brazilian physician Henrique da Rocha Lima, one of the first to join the group of young researchers working at the Instituto Soroterápico de Manguinhos (Instituto Oswaldo Cruz). It describes his first voyage to Germany where he specialized in microbiology and pathological anatomy, training that shaped his subsequent professional identity. The tensions and dilemmas experienced by Rocha Lima provide an insight into what it meant to dedicate oneself to a scientific career in Brazil at the start of the twentieth century. They also reveal the importance of the relations with the German-speaking world for the experimental medicine that became established under the leadership of Oswaldo Cruz.

  4. Institutional regime of public-private participation in Uruguay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Schiavi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Recently enacted legislation on Public Private Partnerships in Uruguay provides a new institutional framework for the designing, structuring and subscription of contracts in ppp projects. Among its provisions, the new statute allocates competences to different administrative bodies for the execution, regulation and control of PPP s. Later administrative regulations were also adopted to facilitate the implementation and execution of this type of contracts. The present article studies these reforms, in order to provide a better understanding of the role played by the Technical Commission of the PPP Unit.

  5. El fascismo en Uruguay. Un testimonio de Luigi Federzoni

    OpenAIRE

    Paolo Carusi

    2015-01-01

    Este artículo se detiene a analizar el golpe de Estado urugayo de marzo del 1933 y el gobierno de Gabriel Terra, encontrando una clara inspiración fascista. Para apoyar esta tesis, el ensayo se basa en las memorias de un viaje realizado en 1937 en América Latina por el jerarca fascista Luigi Federzoni. Las páginas relativas a su permanencia en Uruguay confirman el estrecho vínculo entre el gobierno de Terra y la Italia fascista y ponen en evidencia come se esperara con preocupación –de parte ...

  6. The presence of women in physics in Uruguay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frins, Erna; Auyuanet, Adriana; Cabeza, Cecilia; Stari, Cecilia; Kahan, Sandra; Renom, Madeleine

    2015-12-01

    In this paper we describe the presence of women in physics in Uruguay. At the lower academic and research levels in physics, the distribution is about 2:1 men to women, similar to the distribution in physics graduate students. The difference becomes more pronounced at the higher academic and research levels. At the highest level there are no women. We also present some data to compare physics with other science fields. In recent years the state university and main national funding agency (ANII) have made some efforts to promote the presence of women in sciences. However, these efforts have not yet shown acceptable results.

  7. Geology, exploration status of Uruguay's sedimentary basins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goso, C.; Santa Ana, H. de (Administracion Nacional de Combustibles, Alcohol y Portland (Uruguay))

    1994-02-07

    This article attempts to present the geological characteristics and tectonic and sedimentary evolution of Uruguayan basins and the extent to which they have been explored. Uruguay is on the Atlantic coast of South America. The country covers about 318,000 sq km, including offshore and onshore territories corresponding to more than 65% of the various sedimentary basins. Four basins underlie the country: the Norte basin, the Santa Lucia basin, the offshore Punta del Este basin, and the offshore-onshore Pelotas-Merin basin. The Norte basin is a Paleozoic basin while the others are Mesozoic basins. Each basin has been explored to a different extent, as this paper explains.

  8. El Centro de Cardioestimuladores del Uruguay. CCC Medical Devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Darscht

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Estudio de caso del Centro de Cardioestimuladores del Uruguay - CCC Medical Devices preparado a solicitud de Ingenio en el marco del proyecto financiado por la Iniciativa para Incubadoras de InfoDev - Grupo Banco Mundial. Este estudio detalla los pasos seguidos por una empresa nacional con un fuerte factor de innovación y los cambios producidos en el entorno de los negocios de la empresa. El comienzo de una pequeña empresa de marcapasos que tras pasar por diferentes etapas hoy gana mercados en el área de ingeniería para dispositivos médicos para diferentes empresas de investigación biomédica a nivel internacional.AbstractCase study of the Centro de Cardioestimuladores del Uruguay - CCC Medical Devices prepared on behalf of Ingenio within the project financed by de Incubator Initiative of InfoDev-World Bank Group. This study refers to the steps followed by a highly innovative local company and to the changes in its business environment. The start up of a small pacemakers company that after going through different stages is presently increasing its market share in the area of engineering of medical devices for biomedic research companies worldwide.

  9. Prevalence of type-specific HPV infection in Uruguay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berois, Nora; Heard, Isabelle; Fort, Zoraida; Alonso, Rafael; Sica, Adela; Moerzinger, Patricia; Rodriguez, Guillermo; Sancho-Garnier, Hélène; Osinaga, Eduardo; Favre, Michel

    2014-04-01

    The aim of this work was to describe the prevalence of type-specific Human papillomavirus (HPV) infection in women attending organized cervical cancer screening program in Uruguay. Nine hundred sixty-five liquid cervical cell samples obtained after collection of cervical smears for cytology were assessed for HPV DNA using the Papillocheck system (Greiner BioOne). The overall prevalence of High-Risk (HR) HPV infections was 20.8% and increased from 16.5% in women with normal cytology to 93.3% in HSIL. Prevalence of HPV 16 and/or 18 was 6.3% and HPV 16 was the most prevalent genotype in normal cytology (3.6%). The five most prevalent genotypes were HPV 16, 31, 51, 56, and 39. The overall prevalence peaked below age 30. This study provides essential baseline information at national level on type-specific HPV prevalence in Uruguay before the introduction of HPV vaccination. It documents the current prevalence of each of the oncogenic genotypes in a population attending cervical cancer screening program, suggesting that at least 64.7% of high risk lesions are potentially preventable by available HPV vaccines, and possibly augmentable if cross-protection against non-vaccine HPV types 31, 33, and 45 is confirmed.

  10. Uruguay: el sur también existe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Morente Muñoz

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available La República Oriental del Uruguay resulta un país bastante desconocido. Creador del primer “Estado del Bienestar”, a principios del siglo XX, sus particularidades no lo hacen tan distinto al resto de países de América Latina. Padeció la dictadura más cruenta del Cono Sur y las inclemencias de las políticas neoliberales. En 2004, el Frente Amplio, conquista la mayoría parlamentaria y el gobierno, abriendo un camino de esperanzas y de reconstrucción económica y social. A través de sus políticas públicas, ahora desarrolladas por el segundo gobierno de la izquierda (2010, hace frente a la realidad heredada: más de un tercio de su población había sido condenada a la pobreza. Palabras-clave: Uruguay, dictadura, impunidad, derechos humanos.

  11. Essential oils of Mentha pulegium and Mentha rotundifolia from Uruguay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Lorenzo

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available Essential oils obtained by hydrodistillation from leaves of Mentha pulegium L. and Mentha rotundifolia (L. Huds. from Uruguay were analysed by GC-FID and GC-MS. Oxygen-containing monoterpenes were the main group of constituents in both oils. Pulegone, isomenthone and menthone were the major components in the oil of M. pulegium, whereas piperitenone oxide and (Z-sabinene hydrate were the major ones in M. rotundifolia. Enantiomerically pure (--menthone, (+-isomenthone, (+-isomenthol, (--menthol and (+-pulegone were detected by multidimensional gas chromatography in the case of M. pulegium oil.Óleos essenciais obtidos por hidrodestilação das folhas de Mentha pulegium L. e Mentha rotundifolia (L. Huds. do Uruguay foram analisados por GC-FID e GC-MS. O grupo de monoterpenes oxigenados foi o mais importante em ambos os óleos, sendo que a pulegona, isomenthona e menthona foram os constituintes maioritarios no óleo de Mentha pulegium, no entanto, o ôxido de piperitenona e (Z-hidrato de sabineno foram os maioritarios na Mentha rotundifolia. (--mentone, (+-isomentone, (+-isomenthol, (--menthol e (+-pulegone enantioméricamente puras foram detectadas por cromatografía gasosa multidimensional no caso do óleo de Mentha pulegium.

  12. Rochas silicáticas portadoras de potássio como fontes do nutriente para as plantas solo Potassium-rich silicate rocks as plant nutrient sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciano da Silva Ribeiro

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar, em casa de vegetação, o efeito da aplicação de pó de rochas silicáticas portadoras de K (ultramáfica alcalina, brecha piroclástica e flogopitito na liberação de K e sobre outros atributos químicos do solo. Foi utilizado um Latossolo Amarelo distrófico coeso com teor de K de 0,03 cmol c dm-3 de solo. As rochas foram testadas sem e com correção da acidez do solo - neste caso, elevando o valor da saturação por bases para 70 %. Inicialmente, as rochas e o corretivo de acidez foram aplicados e incorporados aos solos de cada vaso com 3 kg de solo, deixando-os em incubação por um período de 45 dias, com a umidade em torno de 80 % da capacidade de campo. Foram testadas as doses equivalentes a 75, 150, 225 e 300 kg ha-1 K2O de todas as rochas e do KCl, usado como fonte de referência. Findo o período de incubação, foi realizado um plantio de soja com a finalidade de observar a dissolução das rochas em um ambiente com plantas. As plantas foram colhidas 50 dias depois do plantio. Foram feitas análises do solo após o período de incubação e depois do plantio da soja. As rochas ultramáfica alcalina e brecha piroclástica foram as que mais liberaram K para o solo; a correção da acidez não influenciou o processo de dissolução das rochas.This greenhouse study evaluated the effect of potassium-rich silicate rocks (alkaline ultramaphic, pyroclastic breccia and phlogopite on the release of K and other chemical nutrients of the soil. A Yellow Latossol with 0.03 cmol c dm-3 K soil was used in the study. The rocks were tested at doses of 75, 150, 225 and 300 kg ha-1 K2O with and without lime, applied to increase the soil base saturation (V-value to 70 %. The rock and lime materials were mixed with the soil in the pots, watered to 80 % of the soil field capacity and incubated for 45 days. An additional pot containing soil and KCl, the reference K source, was also incubated. After incubation

  13. Recidiva criminal em 100 internos do Manicômio Judiciário de Franco da Rocha

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moscatello Roberto

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: Verificar a ocorrência de comportamento criminal recidivo em uma população de internos do Manicômio Judiciário de Franco da Rocha. MÉTODOS: Cem internos de um Manicômio Judiciário em cumprimento de medida de segurança foram entrevistados, sendo todos do sexo masculino e com idades variando de 26 a 80 anos. Os diagnósticos preencheram critérios da CID-10, e os delitos cometidos foram verificados segundo o Código Penal Brasileiro. RESULTADOS: Dos 100 internos avaliados, 41% cometeram um crime, e 59% cometeram mais de um crime. As psicoses esquizofrênicas foram os diagnósticos mais freqüentes nos internos que cometeram um crime e naqueles que cometeram mais de um crime. Os diagnósticos retardo mental e transtornos de personalidade seguiram em freqüência nos que cometeram um crime. Transtornos de personalidade e retardo mental foram os diagnósticos que seguiram em freqüencia nos que cometeram mais de um crime. CONCLUSÕES: As psicoses esquizofrênicas predominaram nos internos avaliados. Crimes contra a vida foram mais comuns entre os que cometeram um crime, enquanto crimes contra o patrimônio predominaram entre os que cometeram mais de um crime.

  14. ESTUDO DO DESGASTE DE REVESTIMENTO INTERNO DE UM MOINHO DE BOLAS OPERANDO COM ROCHA FOSFÁTICA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Carlos Silva

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available O revestimento interno dos moinhos vem tomando maior proeminência devido à sua influência direta na eficiência de moagem e pelo alto custo agregado relacionado ao seu tempo de operação. Uma vez que o desgaste do revestimento não é uniforme, foi realizado o acompanhamento do desgaste do revestimento interno do moinho de bolas (SAG 4,87 x 6,09 m da empresa Vale Fertilizantes S.A. Unidade Catalão-GO. Tal moinho trabalha com rocha fosfática e o monitoramento se deu através de um dispositivo prático visando à determinação do comportamento do desgaste do revestimento ao longo de toda a extensão do moinho, desde a alimentação até a descarga, bem como a variação em um único perfil de uma placa do revestimento. Observou-se que o desgaste não é uniforme tanto ao longo do moinho quanto em um mesmo perfil, indicando que o maior desgaste ocorre nos primeiros e últimos 1,5 metros, com valores muito próximos. Na alimentação do moinho o desgaste específico foi de 0,60 g/t, na descarga de 0,63 g/t e no do centro do moinho de aproximadamente 0,55g/t.

  15. Evaluación de la reforma del sistema de pensiones en Uruguay / Evaluating Pension System Reform in Uruguay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gonzalo Garmendia

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available En el presente artículo se evalúa la reforma del sistema de pensiones en Uruguay, a través de variables como la cobertura, el impacto fiscal, la acumulación de fondos, la rentabilidad, y los costos asociados a la operativa de las Administradoras de Fondos de Ahorro Previsional (afap. Dicha reforma se evalúa positivamente, aun cuando se identifican elementos que deben considerarse en el futuro: extender la reforma al resto del sistema previsional que no se incluyó en ésta; generar la institucionalidad adecuada para regular y supervisar todo el sistema previsional; ajustar la edad de retiro para acceder a las prestaciones; y brindar mayores alternativas para las inversiones de las afap.This article evaluates the reform to the system of pensions in Uruguay through these variables: coverage, fiscal impact, accumulation of funds, yield, and costs associated to the operation of the Administradoras de Fondos de Ahorro Previsional (afaps. The reform is evaluated positively, even though elements are identified, that must be considered in the future: to extend the reform to the rest of the system that was not included before, generate the correct structure to regulate and supervise the system, fit the age of retirement to accede to benefits, and offer alternatives for investments of the afaps.

  16. Uruguay vasakpoolne president tahab vaeses riigis korra majja lüüa / Allan Espenberg

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Espenberg, Allan

    2005-01-01

    Märtsikuus tuli Uruguays võimule vasakpoolne koalitsioon. President Tabare Vazquez peab kõige olulisemaks vaesusest jagusaamist riigis, välispoliitikas on tema eelistus sidemete arendamine teiste vasakpoolsete režiimidega

  17. First molecular detection of Rickettsia parkeri in Amblyomma tigrinum and Amblyomma dubitatum ticks from Uruguay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lado, Paula; Castro, Oscar; Labruna, Marcelo B; Venzal, José M

    2014-10-01

    Rickettsia parkei is the etiological agent of spotted fever in Uruguay, where is transmitted to humans by the tick Amblyomma triste. In the present study, ticks were collected from capybaras (Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris) and domestic dogs during 2011-2012 in different parts of Uruguay. Three out of 11 (27.3%) Amblyomma dubitatum ticks collected from capybaras, and 4 out of 6 (66.7%) Amblyomma tigrinum ticks collected from dogs were shown by molecular analyses to be infected by Rickettsia parkeri strain Maculatum 20. Until the present work, A. triste was the only tick species that was found infected by R. parkeri in Uruguay. This is the first report of R. parkeri infecting these two tick species in Uruguay, expanding the current distribution of this rickettsial pathogen in the country.

  18. 9 CFR 94.22 - Restrictions on importation of beef from Uruguay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... and post-mortem veterinary inspections, paying particular attention to the head and feet, at the... States. (j) An authorized veterinary official of the Government of Uruguay certifies on the foreign meat..., records, and operations by an APHIS representative....

  19. Lutzomyia longipalpis in Uruguay: the first report and the potential of visceral leishmaniasis transmission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salomón, Oscar Daniel; Basmajdian, Yester; Fernández, María Soledad; Santini, María Soledad

    2011-05-01

    Phlebotomine captures were performed in February 2010 in Salto (Salto department) and Bella Unión-Cuarein (Artigas department), Uruguay. Bella Unión is located across the Paraná River from Monte Caseros, Argentina, where a focus of canine visceral leishmaniasis (VL) was reported in 2009. No VL cases have ever been recorded in Uruguay and the last reported capture of Phlebotominae was in 1932 (Lutzomyia cortelezzii and Lutzomyia gaminarai). Light traps were placed in peridomestic environments, and Lutzomyia longipalpis, the main vector of visceral leishmaniasis, was found in Salto and Bella Unión. This is a first report of an area of potential VL transmission in Uruguay. Active and coordinated surveillance is required immediately the Uruguay-Argentina-Brazil border area.

  20. Los seguros ambientales en Uruguay - Validez de las cláusulas claims made

    OpenAIRE

    Ifrán, Geraldine

    2009-01-01

    he document presented tackles the study of environmental insurance, from its own history through its environmental policy and mandatory character and spe- cifically locating its regulation in Uruguay. The environmental legislation is stu- died in-depht as well as practical aspects. Taking into account the claims made modality in environmental insurance, such coverage is analyzed drawing a con- clusion about its validity in Uruguay law. Key words author: Environmental civil liability insurance...

  1. Les grands mammifères du site pleistocene supérieur de la grotte du Castillo. Étude archéozoologique : donnes paleontologiques, taphonomiques et palethnographiques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdellah Dari

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available El texto présenta un estudio arqueozoolôgico de una colecciôn de fauna del yacimiento de El Castillo en el Institut de Paléontologie Humaine de Paris. Esta colecciôn es parte de la fauna recolectada en las excavaciones de 1910 a 1914.This article présents and archaeozoological analysis of a collection at the I.P.H. This collection is part of the faunal remains collected in 1910/1914 diggings at El Castillo cave by H. Obemaier and H. Breuil.

  2. Uruguay: el sur también existe

    OpenAIRE

    Carmen Morente Muñoz

    2013-01-01

    La República Oriental del Uruguay resulta un país bastante desconocido. Creador del primer “Estado del Bienestar”, a principios del siglo XX, sus particularidades no lo hacen tan distinto al resto de países de América Latina. Padeció la dictadura más cruenta del Cono Sur y las inclemencias de las políticas neoliberales. En 2004, el Frente Amplio, conquista la mayoría parlamentaria y el gobierno, abriendo un camino de esperanzas y de reconstrucción económica y social. A través de sus políticas...

  3. Uruguay, “País de refugio y reasentamiento”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martín Lettieri

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Casi ningún lugar del mundo ha sido ajeno al desplazamiento forzado por distintos motivos en algún momento de su historia.Los latinoamericanos, particularmente, somos dueños y dueñas de una historia reciente de desplazamiento forzado.Sin embargo el 2009 encuentra al sur de Sudamérica como un espacio humanitario de solidaridad con el resto del mundo y de respeto por los derechos humanos para todas las personas que lo habitan.Sin lugar a dudas hoy Uruguay y la mayoría de los países vecinos están comprometidos con el respeto de los derechos de las personas refugiadas, de las personas que huyen de una persecución internacional, quizás de una manera única a nivel global,

  4. An estimation of the wage curve for Uruguay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    González Rodríguez-Villamil Cecilia

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available La existencia de la relación empírica entre salario y desempleo en Uruguay, se analizada en este trabajo. Se estiman varios modelos para el período 1986-2005 utilizando dos aproximaciones para medir el salario. Se obtiene una elasticidad de -0,09 entre desempleo y salarios. La elasticidad es mayor para los jóvenes, las mujeres y los menos educados. Los resultados indican que la elasticidad crece ante choques macroeconómicos adversos. Además, al desagregar por ocupación o formalidad e informalidad, los resultados sugieren que un aumento del desempleo produce un aumento de la informalidad y del cuentapropismo que lleva a una caída de los ingresos en estos sectores, que actúan como “amortiguador”.

  5. PARTICIPACIÓN ELECTORAL EN LAS ELECCIONES PRIMARIAS EN URUGUAY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Buquet

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available So far Uruguay is the only country in the world in which parties carried out open and simultaneous primary elections in order to select their presidential candidates. The effects of employing primaries on the election results are determined by the particular characteristics of the electorate who voluntarily participate in them. From survey data, we analyze the factors affecting participation in such instances and their effects on the type of presidential candidates tend to be elected. The results show that in primary elections vote citizens more educated, more interested in politics, identified with political parties and with more extreme ideological positions. As a result we observe that through primaries, candidates away from the median voter are more likely to be winners than with DSV system.

  6. La innovación en Uruguay. Problemas, instituciones, perspectivas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judith Sutz

    1995-12-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo se aborda la innovación en Uruguay desde dos puntos de vista: por una parte, se plantea la innovación como problema; por otra, se analiza el tejido institucional en el cual se desarrollan los procesos innovativos. La necesidad de esfuerzos en el marco del desarrollo científico-tecnológico mundial, la especificidad de un país pequeño, la inadecuación de las formas canónicas de la evaluación académica, el desconocimiento de los actores productivos acerca de la oferta local de soluciones, y la innovación como cuestión de Estado, constituyen el primer abordaje. El segundo presenta un mapa sintético de las diversas instituciones -incluyendo empresas- involucradas en procesos de innovación, señalando sus logros y limitaciones.

  7. LUCHA POR LA TIERRA EN EL NORTE DE URUGUAY

    OpenAIRE

    Gabriel Oyhantçabal Benelli; Matías Carámbula Pareja

    2011-01-01

    Este artículo analiza la trayectoria de la lucha por la tierra en Bella Unión, una región característica en Uruguay por la producción de caña de azúcar, a través de los movimientos de clase de sus principales protagonistas: los cortadores de caña sindicalizados en la Unión de Trabajadores Azucareros de Artigas (UTAA). El recorrido histórico hace énfasis en dos períodos históricos diferentes: 1961-1973 y 2005-presente. El primero va desde la fundación del sindicato hasta el golpe militar. Se d...

  8. Preemptive kidney transplantation--a team experience in Uruguay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Martínez, F; Curi, L; González-Carballido, G; Núñez, N; Manzo, L; Kurdián, M; Larre Borges, P; Nin, M; Orihuela, S

    2014-11-01

    Kidney transplantation is the best treatment for end-stage chronic renal disease. In Uruguay, the prevalence of patients on dialysis is 757 patients per millon inhabitants, plus 316 alive with a functioning renal graft. We install a preemptive renal transplantation program. Twenty-five patients received grafts without dialysis from 2004 to 2013, 5 receiving their 2nd transplantation and 17 from cadaveric donors, with 7.4 ± 7.7 months in the waiting list. At 24 months, patients' survival rate was 100% and the grafts' 97%, with a serum creatinine of 1.4 ± 0.6 mg%. The developed programs of dialysis and renal health care contributed install our preemptive kidney transplantation. Kidney transplantation should be proposed to selected patients with chronic renal failure as primary therapy of substitution of renal function.

  9. Interrogatorio de Testigo en el Derecho Procesal de Uruguay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro Abal Oliú

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available En el presente artículo se registran los resultados de un estudio acerca de cual es la regulación de este(os medio(s de prueba actualmente vigente en el Uruguay para los procesos en general, relevándose las normas resultantes del Código General del Proceso sobre ellos (los que son tratados en la ley en forma conjunta bajo la denominación común de “Declaración de Testigos”, y considerándose asimismo los diferentes problemas de interpretación que conforme a un marco teórico y a un marco dogmático plantean las correspondientes disposiciones.

  10. LUCHA POR LA TIERRA EN EL NORTE DE URUGUAY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Oyhantçabal Benelli

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo analiza la trayectoria de la lucha por la tierra en Bella Unión, una región característica en Uruguay por la producción de caña de azúcar, a través de los movimientos de clase de sus principales protagonistas: los cortadores de caña sindicalizados en la Unión de Trabajadores Azucareros de Artigas (UTAA. El recorrido histórico hace énfasis en dos períodos históricos diferentes: 1961-1973 y 2005-presente. El primero va desde la fundación del sindicato hasta el golpe militar. Se da en un contexto de auge de la lucha de masas en Uruguay en el cual los trabajadores rurales se organizan en la UTAA levantando, entre otras, la bandera de la Reforma Agraria. El segundo período está marcado por la llegada al gobierno nacional del Frente Amplio, una coalición social-demócrata que reactiva la producción de caña de azúcar en Bella Unión. Este cambio supone una oportunidad para las luchas sociales que la UTAA aprovecha con ocupaciones de tierra favoreciendo un proceso de colonización para los trabajadores rurales. Sin embargo el acceso a la tierra genera nuevas contradicciones, y por tanto nuevos desafíos, por los cambios en la forma de subsunción del trabajo al capital.

  11. Development of the National Kidney Transplantation Program in Uruguay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Martínez, F; Orihuela, S; Alvarez, I; Dibello, N; Curi, L; Nin, M; Wimber, E; Mizraji, R; Bengochea, M; González, G; Manzo, L; Toledo, R; Silva, W; Chopitea, Á; Lopez, D; Balboa, O; Porto, D; Noboa, O

    2015-10-01

    The first kidney transplantation (KT) in Uruguay was performed in 1969. We report the rates of KT and survival of patients and grafts up to December 2014. The country has a surface of 176,215 km(2) and a population of 3,286,314 inhabitants (18.6 inhabitants per km(2)). Till December 31, 2014, 1,940 KT have been performed in Uruguay (41.8 pmp that year); 90.4% of them were from cadaveric donors (CD). Median age of recipients (R) was 44 ± 14 years; R older than 55 years increased from 0 to 27% during the period. Our pre-emptive KT program started in 2007. Optimal donors (D) decreased from 65.2% to 35.5%, and D older than 45 years old increased from 9% to 37%. Trauma as cause of death decreased from 49% to 32% and stroke as cause of death increased from 25% to 39%. Patient survival rates at 1, 5, and 8 years were 93%, 87%, and 78%, respectively for KT performed between 1980 and 1989; they were 98%, 93%, and 89%, respectively, for KT performed between 1990 and1999; they were 97%, 91%, and 90%, respectively, for KT performed between 2000 and 2010. In December 2013, there were 1098 patients pmp in renal replacement therapy, 758 pmp in dialysis, and 340 pmp (30.9%) with a functioning graft. Our national KT program is mainly based (90.6%) on cadaveric donation. Epidemiological changes in the characteristics of R and D followed the changes in aging that occurred in the general population and the dialysis population. The survival rates from patients and kidneys are similar to those reported by the European and the American registries.

  12. Implicancias del uso de nonoxinol en el Uruguay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Míguez Carames

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Los disruptores endócrinos interfieren con la actividad de las hormonas en el organismo, imitando o bloqueando a las naturales. Son ubicuas y bioacumulables. Los que interfieren con estrógenos pueden provocar cáncer o una merma de la capacidad reproductora, además de cambios en el sexo de los peces y una afectación de la biodiversidad. En nuestro país aun se están consumiendo sustancias han sido prohibidas a nivel mundial por causar estos efectos. Así por ejemplo, desde enero de 2005 en Europa se ha prohibido productos con más de 0,1% de nonilfenol polietoxilado. En Uruguay se usa cada vez más, como agente de limpieza industrial (lavaderos de lana, curtiembres, institutional y doméstica (polvos de baja espuma, limpiadores. Es poco biodegradable y llega a los cursos de agua, sus sedimentos y a los seres vivos. Se debería tomar conciencia de la gravedad de este asunto y utilizar los sucedáneos para prevenir estas consecuencias.AbstractEndocrine disruptors interfere with the hormonal activity in the organism, mimicking or blocking natural hormones. They are ubiquitous and bioaccumulative. These substances interfere with estrogens and may cause cancer or a decrease in reproductive capacity in addition to changes in the sex of fish and an affectation of biodiversity. In our country we are still consuming substances that have been prohibited globally for causing these effects. For example, since January 2005 in Europe has banned products with more than 0.1% of nonylphenol polyethoxylated. In Uruguay, it is increasingly used as an industrial cleaning agent (wool washing, tanneries, institutional and domestic cleaning (low foam powdered detergents, cleaners. It has low biodegradability and reaches the waterways, sediments and living beings. We should grasp the seriousness of this matter and use substitutes to prevent these consequences.

  13. Descripción y análisis de capas superpuestas en El castillo de Lindabridis de Calderón

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Escudero Baztán, Juan Manuel

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes and analyzes the highlights of a play El castillo de Lindabridis of Calderón de la Barca: topics relating to the date of his writing and his performances in the seventeenth century, the management of chivalric sources, the unitary structure, the use of emblematic material through the medieval bestiaries, musical interludes, and the staging and the repetition of themes and motifs, along with some final considerations about gender. All these factors indicate the particular importance of this comedy of Calderón.Este trabajo describe y analiza los puntos más relevantes de una obra caballeresca calderoniana poco conocida como El castillo de Lindabridis: cuestiones relativas a la fecha de su escritura y sus representaciones en el siglo XVII, al manejo de las fuentes caballerescas, a la estructura unitaria, al uso de la emblemática a través de los bestiarios medievales, a los interludios musicales, a la escenificación y la repetición de temas y motivos, junto a unas consideraciones finales sobre el género. Elementos en su conjunto que indican la particular relevancia de esta comedia de gran espectáculo calderoniana.

  14. El castillo de San Romualdo (San Fernando, Cádiz. Aproximación estratigráfica y evolución constructiva

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Utrera Burgal, Raquel M.

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available This article shows the results of the archaeological research carried out in the castle of San Romualdo, the most emblematic building of the city of San Fernando and a defensive fortress tied to the control access of Cádiz. The standing building recording has enabled to know the building evolution from its origins until the present. Studies have hitherto confirmed the chronological conclusions already proposed in 2003. That is, the current castle is a medieval Christian building erected in the second half of the 13th century thanks to Mudejar workers and materials reused from a previous building.Presentamos en este artículo los resultados de nuestra investigación arqueológica en el castillo de San Romualdo, el edificio más emblemático de la ciudad de San Fernando y fortaleza defensiva ligada al control del acceso a Cádiz. El análisis estratigráfico de alzados ha permitido conocer la evolución constructiva del edificio, desde sus orígenes hasta la actualidad. Hasta ahora los estudios confirman las conclusiones en cuanto a su datación presentadas en el año 2003, es decir, el castillo, tal y como hoy lo conocemos, es una construcción medieval cristiana, realizada durante la segunda mitad del siglo XIII, con mano de obra mudéjar y con materiales reutilizados de una edificación anterior.

  15. La restauración de la iglesia de Santa María del Castillo de Castelldefels (Barcelona, España

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    González Moreno-Navarro, Antoni

    1996-10-01

    Full Text Available The church next to the castle of Castelldefels (both municipal property has been restored for its use as civic center and meeting point for historical studies related to that fast growing township. In its presbytery traces of the early Iberian and Roman settlements can be seen, and also, in one of the chapels, graffiti left by International Brigades occupying the castle during the Civil War between 1938 and 1939. The church has regained yet its fortress look with white walls.

    La iglesia aneja al castillo de Castelldefels, ambos edificios de propiedad municipal, ha sido restaurada para su uso como espacio cultural y punto de información histórica de un municipio que ha sufrido un rápido crecimiento. En el presbiterio pueden verse los restos de los primeros asentamientos ibéricos y romanos y, en una capilla, los grafitos que dejaron los combatientes de las Brigadas Internacionales que ocuparon el castillo durante la Guerra Civil, entre 1938 y 1939. El edificio ha recuperado también su apariencia de iglesia fortificada de muros blancos.

  16. El castillo de Corullón: estudio de un conjunto de proyectiles en el contexto de las revueltas irmandiñas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    González Castañón, María

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper approach the historical and archaeological analysis of the arrowheads collection from the excavation at Corullón castle (El Bierzo, León, which remained unpublished in León Museum. These finds allow to realize a typology which related them to another medieval types of archaeological sites in Spain and Europe. At the same time it intensified the relation of this castle with «irmandiña» revolution in the XV century, offering an evidence of the castle attack.

    Este estudio aborda el análisis histórico-arqueológico de un conjunto de proyectiles recuperados durante las excavaciones del castillo de Corullón (El Bierzo, León, que permanecían inéditos en los fondos del Museo de León. Los hallazgos permiten realizar una clasificación tipológica que relaciona éstos con otros procedentes de diversos asentamientos medievales españoles y europeos. Por otro lado refrendan el vínculo del castillo con las revueltas irmandiñas del siglo XV, ofreciendo un testimonio directo del asalto a la fortaleza.

  17. La iglesia de Nuestra Señora del Castillo (Calatañazor, Soria. Un gran edificio moderno de compleja secuencia medieval

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cauce, Carlos

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The church of Nuestra Señora del Castillo has been rarely the subject of that works devoted to the Romanesque in the province of Soria. These studies have mainly focused on the presence of a Romanesque building and of a high structure with a semicircular upper ending, thought to be a Pre-Romanesque bell-tower (espadaña, both of them preserved in the western façade. Nevertheless, the stratigraphic sequence of its walls show a complex building embracing several reforms and transformations occurred in the Medieval and Modern periods.La iglesia de Nuestra Señora del Castillo ha generado pocos estudios dentro de la historiografía dedicada al Románico en la provincia de Soria. Estos, fundamentalmente, se centraban en la existencia de un edificio románico en su hastial occidental y la presencia, en la misma fachada, de una alta estructura con remate semicircular identificada como una espadaña prerrománica. Sin embargo, la secuencia estratigráfica identificada en sus muros nos permite revisar estas propuestas mostrando un edificio con numerosas reformas y transformaciones de época medieval y moderna.

  18. Nuevas especies de Chorizococcus de la Argentina y Uruguay (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae New species of Chorizococcus from Argentina and Uruguay (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María C. Granara de Willink

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Se describen e ilustran dos especies nuevas: Chorizococcus achalensis sp. nov. de la Argentina y Chorizococcus uruguayensis sp. nov., de Uruguay. Se incluye la clave de Chorizococcus McKenzie para la región Neotropical y se citan nuevos huéspedes de Chorizococcus rostellum (Lobdell.Descriptions and illustrations of Chorizococcus achalensis sp. nov. from Argentina and Chorizococcus uruguayensis sp. nov. from Uruguay, are given. Also Chorizococcus Mc Kenzie neotropical key and new hosts plants of Chorizococcus rostellum (Lobdell are included.

  19. Origem dos diamictitos e de rochas associadas do subgrupo Itararé, no Sul do Estado do Paraná e Norte do Estado de Santa Catarina

    OpenAIRE

    Jose Roberto Canuto

    1985-01-01

    A presente dissertação tem por objetivo discutir os resultados do projeto de estudo da facies e provável origem dos diamictitos neopaleozóicos do Subgrupo Itararé, aflorantes no sul do Estado do Paraná e norte do Estado de Santa Catarina, e de algumas rochas sedimentares a eles associadas. O estudo baseou-se no exame megascópico de características estruturais, texturais e nas relações estratigráficas, além da análise paleontológica dos diamictitos e de outros sedimentos, expostos em cortes da...

  20. Contribuição ao conhecimento geológico e petrológico das rochas alcalinas da Ilha dos Búzios, SP

    OpenAIRE

    Francisco Rubens Alves

    1997-01-01

    Este trabalho se ocupa do estudo geológico e petrológico da Ilha de Búzios, litoral norte do Estado de São Paulo. Com menos do que 8 \\'km POT.2\\' de área, a ilha tem forma irregular e dimensões de aproximadamente 2,5 km (NNE) e 5,0 km (EW), com topos achatados e cume a 400 m de altura, centralmente localizado. É formada por sienitos, que representam mais que 80% de sua área, e encaixantes charnoquíticas. Diques de litologia variada cortam tanto os sienitos como as encaixantes. As rochas encai...

  1. ROCHA, Ana Luiza Carvalho; ECKERT, Cornelia. Antropologia da e na cidade: interpretações sobre as formas da vida urbana

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Antropologia da e na cidade: interpretações sobre as formas da vida urbana, das autoras Ana Luiza Rocha e Cornelia Eckert, expressa um percurso de investigação e uma linhagem que tem como fonte a antropologia urbana em inter-relações com a antropologia da imagem. O livro é um feixe de oito artigos anteriormente publicados em periódicos científicos, oriundos de estudos antropológicos e práticas etnográficas em cidades brasileiras, com foco privilegiado em Porto Alegre. Trata-se de uma obra ded...

  2. El monstruo colonizador y el monstruo liberado en la obra de Glauber Rocha y del Grupo Cine Liberación

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Los proyectos cinematográficos latinoamericanos de descolonización cultural de los años sesenta y setenta establecieron un diálogo con las tradiciones vernáculas, al tiempo que iniciaban una renovación estética de los cines nacionales. Los filmes y los manifiestos teóricos del periodo se caracterizan por la negación del valor universal de los modelos estéticos eurocéntricos. Influidos por Fanon, cineastas como Glauber Rocha y el grupo Cine Liberación denunciaron y resistieron la penetración c...

  3. Organized factions and disorganized parties: electoral incentives in Uruguay Grupos organizados y partidos desorganizados: incentivos electorales en Uruguay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott MORGENSTERN

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper extends the study of party organization and legislative voting to factionalize party systems. After developing a typology of factional types, it argues that hierarchically organized factions respond to a competing incentive system. Factions have interests that push them to work together for the good of the party, but at the same time, they have interests in distinguishing themselves for electoral purposes. Further, the electoral cycle drives the weights of these competing pressures, leading factional cooperation to break down as elections near. These patterns and incentives are particularly evident in Uruguay, and the paper uses roll-call data from that country's legislature to test the propositionsEl presente artículo aplica el estudio de la organización de partidos y el voto legislativo a sistemas de partidos con facciones. Tras desarrollar una clasificación de los diferentes tipos de facciones, se argumenta que las facciones jerárquicamente organizadas responden a un sistema competitivo de incentivos. Pese a que las facciones tienen intereses que las empujan a trabajar juntas por el bien del partido, al mismo tiempo, tienen interés en diferenciarse unas de otras por propósitos electorales. Además, el ciclo electoral dirige los pesos de estas presiones competitivas provocando la ruptura en la cooperación entre las facciones conforme se aproximan las elecciones. Estas pautas e incentivos son particularmente evidentes en el caso de Uruguay, por lo que el artículo utiliza datos del voto nominal del Legislativo del país para probar estos argumentos.

  4. Argilominerais: influência dos aditivos (cinza de bagaço de cana-de-acúcar e rocha sedimentar) no processo de sinterização

    OpenAIRE

    2008-01-01

    Foi estudada a influência de cinza de bagaço de cana e rocha sedimentar, adicionadas a um material argiloso, durante o processo de sinterização. O material argiloso e os aditivos foram caracterizados utilizando Difratometria de Raio X, Espectrometria de flurescência de Raio X e Análise Térmica. As amostras de cinza e rocha foram moídas, peneiradas a 0,088 mm e 0,125 mm, respectivamente, e incorporadas nos teores de 0, 20, 40, 60 e 80% em massa ao material argiloso. Foram preparados corpos de ...

  5. Observations on the Use of Manual Signs and Gestures in the Communicative Interactions between Native Americans and Spanish Explorers of North America: The Accounts of Bernal Diaz del Castillo and Alvar Nunez Cabeza de Vaca

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonvillian, John D.; Ingram, Vicky L.; McCleary, Brendan M.

    2009-01-01

    The accounts of two men who participated in several Spanish-led expeditions to the New World in the early 1500s document the frequent use of manual signs and gestures in the initial interactions between European explorers and the indigenous peoples of North America. Bernal Diaz del Castillo described the events that occurred during three…

  6. Comment on "Stress induction in the bacteria Shewanella oneidensis and Deinococcus radiodurans in response to below-background ionizing radiation", Castillo, et al. Int. J. Rad. Biol., 2015; Early Online DOI:10.3109/09553002.2015.1062571

    CERN Document Server

    Katz, J I

    2015-01-01

    Castillo, et al. report hormesis by background levels of radiation, at which there is $< 10^{-3}$ ionization per bacterium in a replication time. This suggests radiation products accumulate in the growth medium over much longer times. Experiments are proposed to test this hypothesis.

  7. Lead contamination in Uruguay: the "La Teja" neighborhood case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mañay, Nelly; Cousillas, Adriana Z; Alvarez, Cristina; Heller, Teresa

    2008-01-01

    Lead, ubiquitous in the environment as a result of mining and industrialization, is found as a contaminant in humans although it has no known physiological function there. Lead-exposed children are known to be the population with the highest potential health risks. The recommended biomarker to assess environmental lead exposure in animals is lead level in blood. Before 2001, the Department of Toxicology and Environmental Hygiene was the only team to produce human monitoring data on Uruguayan populations (Manay 2001a,b; Mañay et al. 1999). Lead pollution in Uruguay first received official attention during the 2001 La Teja poisoning episode. It was in the La Teja neighbourhood of Montevideo that high BLL were found in children (as high as 20 microg/dL), prompting corrective responses from Health and Environmental authorities. Growing awareness of environmental lead pollution and consequential human health effects from that event, resulted in public debate and demands for solutions from Health and Environmental authorities. Citizens demanded public disclosure of information concerning lead pollution and wanted action to address contaminated Uruguayan sites. In response, the Ministry of Health assembled an interinstitutional multidisciplinary committee, with delegates from health, environmental, labor, educational, and social security authorities, as well as community nongovernmental organizations (NGOs), among others. The University of the Republic was designated to serve as the main responsible entity for technical advice and support. After 2001, new research on lead pollution was undertaken and included multidisciplinary studies with communities in response to health risk alerts. The main emphasis was placed on children exposed to environmental lead. Major sources of Uruguayan lead contamination, similar to those in other developing countries, result from metallurgical industries, lead-acid battery processing, lead wire and pipe factories, metal foundries, metal

  8. Feições Cársticas em Rochas Siliciclásticas no Oeste do Estado do Rio Grande do Sul – Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Eduardo de Souza Robaina

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Na Bacia Hidrográfica do Ibicuí, localizada na região oeste-sudoeste do estado do Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil, ocorrem formas do terreno e mesmo associação de formas semelhantes àquelas de relevo cárstico, entretanto são produzidas por diferentes processos. Este artigo apresenta estudos desenvolvidos em feições de cavernas, típicas de relevo cárstico que se desenvolvem em rochas siliciclásticas da Bacia Sedimentar do Paraná. A origem morfogenética está relacionada com a evolução e aceleração de processos erosivos associado ao fluxo subterrâneo controlados por lineamentos estruturais e estratificação da rocha sedimentar. O mapeamento e estudo destas feições podem demonstrar a extensão e diversidade das formas tipo cársticas na área e contribuir para entender o modelo evolutivo das vertentes na área de estudo.

  9. Balanço geoquímico de solos derivados de rochas básico-ultrabásicas no ambiente subtropical do Rio Grande do Sul

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. F. S. Pinto

    1997-12-01

    Full Text Available O balanço de massa da intemperização de solos desenvolvidos de rochas básico-ultrabásicas no Rio Grande do Sul, os menos intemperizados constatados até o presente no estado, mostrou nos horizontes superficiais uma concentração relativa mais elevada dos elementos móveis do que nos subsuperficiais, indicando a existência de descontinuidade entre eles. Tais feições, em conjunto com a mineralogia e com a morfologia dos perfis investigados, indicam a ocorrência de eventos erosivo-deposicionais em um passado pedogeneticamente recente, bem como uma contribuição importante de materiais intempericamente menos evoluídos para a composição mineral dos horizontes superficiais. Esses eventos erosivos e o rejuvenescimento superficial dos perfis explicam o pouco desenvolvimento e a semelhança química e mineralógica desses solos com os desenvolvidos de rochas básico-ultrabásicas em regiões temperadas.

  10. Emigrantes y exiliados judíos en Uruguay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Facal Santiago

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available A lo largo de más de dos milenios, los judíos fueron víctimas del antijudaísmo y del antisemitismo imperantes en los más variopintos lugares del Viejo Mundo. Es por todos recordada la expulsión, de todos aquellos judíos que no quisieron convertirse al cristianismo, operada en la España de los Reyes Católicos, en 1492. Este tipo de hechos se han ido repitiendo a lo largo de la historia hasta el ascenso del nazismo al poder en Alemania en 1933, pasando por los brotes de antisemitismo operados en la Europa de la segunda mitad del siglo XIX. Debido a ello, muchos judíos tomaron la decisión de marcharse y buscar destinos más tolerantes para rehacer sus vidas, como fue el caso de Uruguay. Entre el último tercio del siglo XIX y la primera mitad del XX llegaron a estas orillas del Plata, unos 50.000 inmigrantes y refugiados judíos._____________________ABSTRACT:During more than two millenniums, the Jews have been victims of the anti- Judaism and anti-Semitism prevailing in diverse places of the Old World.The expulsion, of all those Jew that didn’t want to convert themselves to Cristianism, done in the Spain of the Catholic Monarchs in 1492, is well-remembered by everybody. This type of facts has been repeated during history up to the promotion of Nazism to power in Germany in 1933, getting by the germs of anti-Semitism occurred in the Europe of the second half of the nineteenth century. Due to that, lots of Jews made the decision of going away to look for more tolerant destinies for remaking their lives, as it was the case of Uruguay. Between the last third of the nineteenth century and the first half of the twentieth century, 50.000 jewish immigrants and refugees arrived to these coasts of the Plata’s River.

  11. Antigenic and genetic characterization of rabies virus isolates from Uruguay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guarino, Helena; Castilho, Juliana Galera; Souto, Juanita; Oliveira, Rafael de Novaes; Carrieri, Maria Luiza; Kotait, Ivanete

    2013-05-01

    After 25 years without any reported cases of rabies in Uruguay, the northern region of the country experienced an epizootic of bovine paralytic rabies in October 2007. The outbreak affected bovines and equines, and the main source of infection was the bat Desmodus rotundus, the only hematophagous species in the country. From October 2007 to July 2008, 42 bovine, 3 equine and 120 chiropteran samples were submitted to the National Veterinary Diagnostic Laboratory for rabies testing. A total of 12 samples (7 bovine, 2 equine and 3 from D. rotundus) were positive by the fluorescent antibody test, and viruses were isolated by the mouse inoculation test. The objective of this study was to compare the antigenic and genetic characteristics of these isolates and three isolates from insectivorous bats from other regions. Antigenic typing using a panel of eight monoclonal antibodies identified all 12 viruses as variant 3 (AgV3), a variant associated with D. rotundus. Two isolates from insectivorous bats (Tadarida brasiliensis and Molossus sp.) were characterized as antigenic variant 4 (AgV4) while the third, from Myotis sp., could not be characterized using this panel as its reactivity pattern did not match that of any of the known antigenic variants. Partial N-gene sequences (nt 149-1420) of these isolates were aligned with homologous sequences derived from GenBank by the CLUSTAL/W method and used to build a neighbor-joining distance tree with the Kimura 2-parameter model. All 12 isolates were genetically grouped into the D. rotundus cluster as they shared 100% identity. In the phylogenetic analysis, the three isolates from insectivorous bats segregated into three clusters: one related to T. brasiliensis, one to Myotis sp. and the other to Lasiurus sp., although the isolate associated with the latter came from a Molossus sp. specimen. These results indicate that AgV3 was associated with the outbreak of bovine paralytic rabies in Uruguay. This is the first report of rabies

  12. Freshwater gastropods diversity hotspots: three new species from the Uruguay River (South America)

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Lucía, Micaela

    2016-01-01

    Background: The Atlantic Forest is globally one of the priority ecoregions for biodiversity conservation. In Argentina, it is represented by the Paranense Forest, which covers a vast area of Misiones Province between the Paraná and Uruguay rivers. The Uruguay River is a global hotspot of freshwater gastropod diversity, here mainly represented by Tateidae (genus Potamolithus) and to a lesser extent Chilinidae. The family Chilinidae (Gastropoda, Hygrophila) includes 21 species currently recorded in Argentina, and three species in the Uruguay River. The species of Chilinidae occur in quite different types of habitats, but generally in clean oxygenated water recording variable temperature ranges. Highly oxygenated freshwater environments (waterfalls and rapids) are the most vulnerable continental environments. We provide here novel information on three new species of Chilinidae from environments containing waterfalls and rapids in the Uruguay River malacological province of Argentina. Materials and Methods: The specimens were collected in 2010. We analyzed shell, radula, and nervous and reproductive systems, and determined the molecular genetics. The genetic distance was calculated for two mitochondrial markers (cytochrome c oxidase subunit I–COI- and cytochrome b -Cyt b-) for these three new species and the species recorded from the Misionerean, Uruguay River and Lower Paraná-Río de la Plata malacological provinces. In addition, the COI data were analyzed phylogenetically by the neighbor-joining and Bayesian inference techniques. Results: The species described here are different in terms of shell, radula and nervous and reproductive systems, mostly based on the sculpture of the penis sheath. Phylogenetic analyses grouped the three new species with those present in the Lower Paraná-Río de la Plata and Uruguay River malacological provinces. Discussion: Phylogenetic analyses confirm the separation between the Uruguay River and the Misionerean malacological

  13. Species of Mycosphaerellaceae and Teratosphaeriaceae on native Myrtaceae in Uruguay: evidence of fungal host jumps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez, C A; Wingfield, M J; Altier, N; Blanchette, R A

    2013-02-01

    Mycosphaerella species are well-known causal agents of leaf diseases on many economically and ecologically important plant species. In Uruguay, a relatively large number of Mycosphaerellaceae and Teratosphaeriaceae are found on Eucalyptus, but nothing is known of these fungi on native Myrtaceae. The aim of this study was to identify Mycosphaerellaceae and Teratosphaeriaceae species associated with leaf diseases on native Myrtaceae in Uruguay and to consider whether host jumps by the pathogen from introduced Eucalyptus to native Myrtaceae have occurred. Several native forests throughout the country were surveyed with special attention given to those located close to Eucalyptus plantations. Five species belonging to the Mycosphaerellaceae and Teratosphaeriaceae clades were found on native Myrtaceous trees and three of these had previously been reported on Eucalyptus in Uruguay. Those occurring both on Eucalyptus and native Myrtaceae included Pallidocercospora heimii, Pseudocercospora norchiensis, and Teratosphaeria aurantia. In addition, Mycosphaerella yunnanensis, a species known to occur on Eucalyptus but not previously recorded in Uruguay, was found on leaves of two native Myrtaceous hosts. Because most of these species occur on Eucalyptus in countries other than Uruguay, it appears that they were introduced in this country and have adapted to be able to infect native Myrtaceae. These apparent host jumps have the potential to result in serious disease problems and they should be carefully monitored.

  14. Investigating Leadership Characteristics and Attitudes toward Creativity According to Agency Context for Agriculture Extension Agents in Uruguay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gravina, Maria Virginia

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate attitudes toward creativity and leadership characteristics according to the agency context for extension agents in Uruguay. Extension agents come from the three different agency contexts in Uruguay of the University, government, and private institutions. Leadership characteristics are those that combine…

  15. CAIRNES Y VICHADEROS EN LAS TIERRAS ALTAS DE URUGUAY / Cairnes and vichaderos in the highlands of Uruguay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moira Sotelo

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available El trabajo se centra en el estudio de una manifestación arqueológica compuesta por estructuras de piedras, denominadas en Uruguay como cairnes y vichaderos. Estas estructuras fueron construidas con piedras mediante la agregación e imbricación de bloques, dando lugar a la formación de montículos y círculos, ubicados en cerros y sierras del centro-norte y este del país. En general se ha aceptado que fueron hechas por las poblaciones indígenas (Guenoa-minuanes y quizás Charrúas que habitaban la región en tiempos de la llegada de los europeos, y que su uso estaría relacionado a entierros humanos, a eventos rituales y al control territorial. Estudios actuales se encaminan a profundizar en la cronología y funcionalidad de cairnes y vichaderos, así como sobre los grupos humanos que los construyeron. En esta oportunidad se presentan los resultados obtenidos con la revisión de fuentes documentales históricas, con referencias a prácticas funerarias y entierros con piedras. Por otro lado, se reseñan los resultados obtenidos con una prospección diseñada a partir de esa información, en el norte del territorio uruguayo. Los trabajos señalan un correlato espacial entre las fuentes documentales y el registro arqueológico, a la vez que confirman la magnitud de este fenómeno. Palabras clave: Tierras altas, estructuras de piedras, entierros humanos, documentos históricos.    Abstract This paper focuses on the study of an archaeological manifestation, composed by stone structures, known in Uruguay as cairnes and vichaderos. These structures were built by aggregating stone blocks, forming mounds and circles, hills and mountains located in north-central and east of Uruguay. It is generally accepted these stone structures were used as part of burial practices among indigenous groups (Guenoa-minuanes and perhaps Charrúas who inhabited the region before and after the European arrival. The social practices of indigenous peoples led to the

  16. Nota sobre an Vaso Campaniense de Imitación Procedente del Poblado Ilergeta de «El Castillo», en Chalamera (Huesca

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrique SANMARTÍ

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Muy cerca de la localidad de Chalamera, en la provincia de Huesca, existe un núcleo, habitado en la antigüedad, conocido como «El Castillo»; este poblado se halla enclavado en la cima del promontorio que domina a aquella población, sobre la orilla derecha del río Cinca y la izquierda de Alcanadre, en un punto que por dominar la llanura y elevaciones circundantes goza de unas condiciones estratégicas extraordinarias, evidenciadas, no sólo por los restos de un poblamiento prerromano, romano y medieval, sino también por la existencia en la cumbre de fortificaciones adaptadas al terreno y poco sobresalientes de él, que posiblemente debieron ser construidas en el siglo xvm, y de abundantes trindheras que permiten suponer una utilización militar de este punto durante la última guerra civil.

  17. Escucho para que me oigan. La conquista del Perú (1748 de Fray Francisco del Castillo y el gremio de los naturales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martha Barriga Tello

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Se estudia La conquista del Perú (1748 obra del criollo fray Francisco del Castillo y Tamayo OM, conocido como “El ciego de la Merced”. Nuestro objetivo, en primer término, es destacar el sutil valor reivindicativo de la obra que fue encargada por la comunidad indígena al clérigo mercedario en una fecha significativa como fue la coronación del nuevo rey Fernando VI. El análisis, luego, nos permitirá comprobar que obras como La conquista del Perú fueron el síntoma de un nuevo espíritu, compartido por muchos.

  18. Sobre Gaspar Becerra en Roma. La capilla de Constantino del Castillo en la iglesia de Santiago de los Españoles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Redín Michaus, Gonzalo

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available Until now, Gaspar Becerra's stay in Rome was documented only thanks to his recorded presence at the San Lucas meetings of 1544 and 1550, and the execution of a monstrance for the church of Saint James of the Spaniards between 1550 and 1551. By December 1557 the Andalucian artist was in Burgos, thereby indicating that he spent at least thirteen years in the Eternal City. Here, the author presents the contract between Becerra and Constantino del Castillo for his chapel, today destroyed, in the church of Saint James of the Spaniards. In reconstructing and analyzing this chapel. Becerra's formation and style are clarified, as are his contacts with the artist from Piacenza, Giulio Mazzoni who, as demonstrated by a document, terminated the chapel.

    Poco es lo que se sabe sobre la estancia de Gaspar Becerra en Roma, que hasta ahora se documentaba gracias a su presencia en las reuniones de la congregación de San Lucas, primero en 1544 y luego en 1550, y a la realización, entre este último año y 1551, de una custodia para la iglesia de Santiago de los Españoles. Ya en diciembre de 1557 el andaluz se encontraba en Burgos, por lo que pasó al menos trece años trabajando en la ciudad eterna. Aportamos aquí el contrato que Gaspar Becerra acordó con Constantino del Castillo para realizar su capilla, hoy destruida, en la iglesia de Santiago de los Españoles, cuya reconstrucción y análisis nos permiten concretar la formación y el estilo del andaluz, así como sus conexiones con el artista piacentino Giulio Mazzoni, quien, como corrobora un documento que aquí presentamos, acabó la capilla empezada por Becerra.

  19. Estudios tafonómicos del nivel Auriñaciense Arcaico de la cueva de El Castillo (Pueste Visgo, Cantabria : los microdesechos líticos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Peretti

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo se analizan los microdesechos líticos del nivel Auriñaciense Arcaico de la Cueva de El Castillo. En el mismo se presenta la metodología y técnica para efectuar este tipo de análisis. Los resultados obtenidos permiten identificar: 1 que se han llevado a cabo actividades de manufactura, uso, modificación y mantenimiento de los utensilios; 2 se han priorizado estrategias tecnológicas conservadoras en detrimento de las expeditivas; 3 se han localizado posibles áreas de actividad de talla in situ; 4 utilización preferencial de percutores blandos con relación a los duros; 5 selección preferencial de materias primas Ifticas; 6 finalmente, se han reconocido acumulaciones primarias y secundarias que podrían responder a los procesos postdeposicionales del depósito arqueológico.In this paper we have studied the lithic microdebitage of the Earliest Aurignacian Level of the El Castillo Cave. The methodology and technique to perform this type of analysis also is presented. The results obtained allow to identify: 1 Manufacture, use, modification and maintenance activities of tools that have been implemented; 2 Curated technological strategies have been developed in a bigger vjay than the expedient ones; 3 Some possible flintworking activity áreas have been located; 4 Preferential utilization of soft hammers over tfie hard ones; 5 Raw material selection; 6 flnally, it is been recognized priman/ and secondary clusters that could fiave fiad ttieir origin in tfie postdepositional formation processes of ttie arcfiaeological deposit.

  20. Andrés del Río, Antonio del Castillo y José G. Aguilera en el desarrollo de la ciencia mexicana del siglo XIX

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uribe Salas, José Alfredo

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available This article analyzes the intrinsic relation between education and science in the process of institutionalization of mineralogy and geology in nineteenth-century Mexico. It focuses on the intellectual leadership of three men of sciences in the modernization and professionalization of geology’s curricula. These were: Andrés Manuel del Río, Antonio del Castillo y José G. Aguilera. The work of these men represents the human foundation of the process of institutionalization and professionalization of Earth Sciences in Mexico: from the Royal Mining Seminar, to the Mining School and the National School of Engineering, to the National Institute of Geology, the latter the immediate antecedent of the modern Institute of Geology at the National Autonomous University of Mexico (UNAM.

    En el artículo se analiza la relación intrínseca entre educación y ciencia en el proceso de institucionalización de la mineralogía y la geología en México del siglo XIX. Destacamos el liderazgo intelectual de tres hombres de ciencia que desempeñaron un esfuerzo articulador en la modernización de los planes de estudio y profesionalización de la geología mexicana. Ellos son: Andrés Manuel del Río, Antonio del Castillo y José G. Aguilera. El trabajo de estos tres hombres representa el soporte humano del proceso de institucionalización y profesionalización de las Ciencias de la Tierra, primero a través del Real Seminario de Minería, pasando por la Escuela de Minería y la Escuela Nacional de Ingenieros, para terminar en el Instituto de Geológico Nacional, antecedente directo del actual Instituto de Geología de la Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México.

  1. Detection of pesticides in active and depopulated beehives in Uruguay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pareja, Lucía; Colazzo, Marcos; Pérez-Parada, Andrés; Niell, Silvina; Carrasco-Letelier, Leonidas; Besil, Natalia; Cesio, María Verónica; Heinzen, Horacio

    2011-10-01

    The influence of insecticides commonly used for agricultural purposes on beehive depopulation in Uruguay was investigated. Honeycombs, bees, honey and propolis from depopulated hives were analyzed for pesticide residues, whereas from active beehives only honey and propolis were evaluated. A total of 37 samples were analyzed, representing 14,800 beehives. In depopulated beehives only imidacloprid and fipronil were detected and in active beehives endosulfan, coumaphos, cypermethrin, ethion and chlorpyrifos were found. Coumaphos was present in the highest concentrations, around 1,000 μg/kg, in all the propolis samples from active beehives. Regarding depopulated beehives, the mean levels of imidacloprid found in honeycomb (377 μg/kg, Standard Deviation: 118) and propolis (60 μg/kg, Standard Deviation: 57) are higher than those described to produce bee disorientation and fipronil levels detected in bees (150 and 170 μg/kg) are toxic per se. The other insecticides found can affect the global fitness of the bees causing weakness and a decrease in their overall productivity. These preliminary results suggest that bees exposed to pesticides or its residues can lead them in different ways to the beehive.

  2. Detection of Pesticides in Active and Depopulated Beehives in Uruguay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Horacio Heinzen

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The influence of insecticides commonly used for agricultural purposes on beehive depopulation in Uruguay was investigated. Honeycombs, bees, honey and propolis from depopulated hives were analyzed for pesticide residues, whereas from active beehives only honey and propolis were evaluated. A total of 37 samples were analyzed, representing 14,800 beehives. In depopulated beehives only imidacloprid and fipronil were detected and in active beehives endosulfan, coumaphos, cypermethrin, ethion and chlorpyrifos were found. Coumaphos was present in the highest concentrations, around 1,000 µg/kg, in all the propolis samples from active beehives. Regarding depopulated beehives, the mean levels of imidacloprid found in honeycomb (377 µg/kg, Standard Deviation: 118 and propolis (60 µg/kg, Standard Deviation: 57 are higher than those described to produce bee disorientation and fipronil levels detected in bees (150 and 170 µg/kg are toxic per se. The other insecticides found can affect the global fitness of the bees causing weakness and a decrease in their overall productivity. These preliminary results suggest that bees exposed to pesticides or its residues can lead them in different ways to the beehive.

  3. Emigration and Economic Crisis: Recent Evidence from Uruguay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adela Pellegrino

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Uruguay es uno de los países sudamericanos con una proporción significativa de su población viviendo en el exterior. Desde los años setenta, el país ha tenido una emigración neta. Aunque esta tendencia se debilitó a principios de los noventa, recobró fuerza con la llegada de una severa crisis económica en 1999. En este artículo se discuten las características de la migración reciente de uruguayos y se pone en evidencia la relación entre crisis económica y emigración. El volumen del flujo poblacional en 2002 es comparable con las olas de migración que tuvieron lugar en los setenta. Los emigrantes con educación universitaria están sobrerrepresentados en comparación con la población general. Existe una correlación entre el acceso a redes de emigrantes uruguayos en los países de destino y la probabilidad de que un hogar haya tenido un miembro que emigró en 2002.

  4. Seasonal variation in sperm characteristics of boars in southern Uruguay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugo Petrocelli

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of season, natural photoperiod, and room temperature at the housing facility on boar semen characteristics in Uruguay (34º66'S; 56º29'W. For this purpose, 117 ejaculates, obtained from eight adult males collected through 12 consecutive months, were assessed for sperm viability, DNA integrity, abnormalities (total, primary, and secondary, ejaculate volume, and sperm concentration. Viability, total and primary abnormalities, volume, and sperm concentration were affected by season. Sperm viability, volume, and sperm concentration were affected by natural photoperiod. In general, autumn and the decreasing photoperiod had a negative impact on most of the semen characteristics, except for volume. Housing temperature did not affect semen characteristics. In boars living in temperate climates, semen quality is negatively affected during autumn and is related to photoperiod changes; however, the effects of temperature changes in housingdo not affect these seminal characteristics. In this scenario, seasonal differences in semen quality may have a negative effect on sow fertilization. Consequently, semen quality control especially during autumn is imperative for the best boar selection to be used for insemination purposes. Seasonal differences in semen quality may have a negative effect on sow reproductive performance. This issue will be addressed in a future investigation.

  5. La contribución de los inmigrantes en Uruguay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe Arocena

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Este es un estudio comparativo acerca de cómo nueve comunidades inmigrantes y los afrodescendientes fueron conformando la cultura de Uruguay, un pequeño país en América del Sur. La imagen más común de este país, tanto a nivel nacional como internacional, es la de una sociedad homogénea y europeizada, construida sobre la base de inmigrantes provenientes de España e Italia, con una escasa población afro y sin nativos. Este panorama es cierto sólo a medias ya que también han sido fundamentales las contribuciones de inmigrantes provenientes de Asia, Rusia, otros países europeos y de esclavos africanos y sus descendientes libres. En particular analizaré cómo las personas de ascendencia africana, vascos, italianos, suizos, rusos, armenios, libaneses, judíos, musulmanes y peruanos, han contribuido en la construcción de la nación uruguaya. Este artículo presenta las conclusiones más relevantes de una investigación basada en casi un centenar de entrevistas en profundidad con integrantes de estas comunidades.

  6. Grupos organizados y partidos desorganizados: incentivos electorales en Uruguay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott MORGENSTERN

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available El presente artículo aplica el estudio de la organización de partidos y el voto legislativo a sistemas de partidos con facciones. Tras desarrollar una clasificación de los diferentes tipos de facciones, se argumenta que las facciones jerárquicamente organizadas responden a un sistema competitivo de incentivos. Pese a que las facciones tienen intereses que las empujan a trabajar juntas por el bien del partido, al mismo tiempo, tienen interés en diferenciarse unas de otras por propósitos electorales. Además, el ciclo electoral dirige los pesos de estas presiones competitivas provocando la ruptura en la cooperación entre las facciones conforme se aproximan las elecciones. Estas pautas e incentivos son particularmente evidentes en el caso de Uruguay, por lo que el artículo utiliza datos del voto nominal del Legislativo del país para probar estos argumentos.

  7. Evaluation Criteria for Participatory Research: Insights from Coastal Uruguay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trimble, Micaela; Lázaro, Marila

    2014-07-01

    Participatory research in which experts and non-experts are co-researchers in addressing local concerns (also known as participatory action research or community-based research) can be a valuable approach for dealing with the uncertainty of social-ecological systems because it fosters learning among stakeholders and co-production of knowledge. Despite its increased application in the context of natural resources and environmental management, evaluation of participatory research has received little attention. The objectives of this research were to define criteria to evaluate participatory research processes and outcomes, from the literature on participation evaluation, and to apply them in a case study in an artisanal fishery in coastal Uruguay. Process evaluation criteria (e.g., problem to be addressed of key interest to local and additional stakeholders; involvement of interested stakeholder groups in every research stage; collective decision making through deliberation; and adaptability through iterative cycles) should be considered as conditions to promote empowering participatory research. Our research contributes to knowledge on evaluation of participatory research, while also providing evidence of the positive outcomes of this approach, such as co-production of knowledge, learning, strengthened social networks, and conflict resolution.

  8. CONSORCIOS TECNOLÓGICOS EN ARGENTINA, CHILE, COLOMBIA Y URUGUAY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Álvarez E.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo analiza un conjunto de consorcios tecnológicos apoyados con recursos públicos en Argentina, Chile, Colombia y Uruguay. Estos programas buscan facilitar la interacción entre empresas e instituciones dedicadas a la producción de ciencia y tecnología. Los resultados, basados en datos recabados para un subconjunto de los grupos apoyados, ponen en relieve las dificultades y los largos tiempos que se re-quieren para lograr resultados concretos, en particular, en innovación tecnológica. El trabajo cuantitativo muestra una evaluación relativamente baja de las empresas res-pecto al efecto de estos instrumentos en la generación de innovaciones de productos y procesos y la obtención de patentes, aunque existen aspectos relativamente mejor evaluados, como el mejoramiento del acceso a conocimiento tecnológico, en ámbitos como el mercadeo y los recursos humanos. Esto puede deberse a que varios de los consorcios llevan poco tiempo en funcionamiento y necesitan un plazo más largo para ser evaluados.

  9. Geographic distribution and conservation status of Caiman latirostris (Crocodylia, Alligatoridae in Uruguay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudio Borteiro

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Populations of Caiman latirostris are known to occur in Uruguay but their geographic distribution remains uncertain. This work presents anupdate of the species distribution and conservation status in Uruguay. Surveys conducted by the authors confirmed the presence of this species in the previously known distribution range of northwestern Uruguay, where it seems to be widespread and relatively abundant in contrast to earlier reports. We report new localities for C. latirostris, most relevant being those of the Cebollatí and Tacuarí Rivers, and the Pelotas, India Muerta and San Miguel stream basins, which significantly expand its distribution through important wetlands in the eastern part of the country. The overall distribution is coincident with different landscape types, where lagoons, artificial impoundments, livestock waterholes, rivers, streams, creeks and marshes are inhabited by caiman. Illegal non-commercial hunting was detected all over the country.

  10. A Chilling Example? Uruguay, Philip Morris International, and WHO's Framework Convention on Tobacco Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Andrew; Wainwright, Megan; Mamudu, Hadii

    2015-06-01

    The World Health Organization's Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC) is the first international public health treaty to address the global spread of tobacco products. Ethnographic research at the fourth meeting of the FCTC's Conference of the Parties in Uruguay highlights the role of the FCTC in recalibrating the relationship between international trade and investment agreements and those of global public health. Specifically, we chart the origins and development of the Punta del Este Declaration, tabled by Uruguay at the conference, to counter a legal request by Philip Morris International, the world's largest tobacco transnational, for arbitration by the International Centre for the Settlement of Investment Disputes over Uruguay's alleged violations of several international trade and investment treaties. We argue that medical anthropologists should give greater consideration to global health governance and diplomacy as a potential counterweight to the 'politics of resignation' associated with corporate capitalism.

  11. Burnout en Uruguay: Unos aportes para los resultados de Añon et al. (2012.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cesar Merino Soto

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available La presente carta pone de relieve algunas preguntas que podrían desafiar la validez de los resultados presentados por Añón et al. (2012, respecto a sus descripciones del nivel de burnout en un hospital público de Montevideo. Su estudio es importante para el aporte descriptivo local del burnout en trabajadores en Uruguay, y de la prevalencia del mismo en un plano internacional. Aparentemente, es uno de los pocos estudios publicados sobre el síndrome de burnout en Uruguay. Pero hay aspectos relacionados con la validez de las interpretaciones de sus resultados, que no han tomado en cuenta.

  12. Uruguay 2006: desarrollo equivo o ruptura con la historia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo BITTENCOURT

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN: En este artículo se argumenta que el muy bajo desempeño económico de Uruguay durante el siglo XX y en particular desde la década de 1960, que lo aleja progresivamente de la dinámica de la economía mundial aumentando la brecha de subdesarrollo, se explica fundamentalmente por la especialización del país en productos de muy escasa dinámica en el mercado mundial así como de muy bajo dinamismo tecnológico. El ensayo de modelo (neoliberal en lo económico y conservador en lo político resultó un fracaso en términos de mejorar la tasa de crecimiento de largo plazo del país, profundizando su especialización basada en productos primarios. Esto implica además un problema en términos de la capacidad de generación de empleos y de la distribución de ingresos. La reactivación reciente así como algunas medidas adoptadas por el nuevo Gobierno Progresista han resultado exitosas en aumentar los salarios, reducir la informalidad y ordenar la macroeconomía luego de la profunda crisis financiera que explotó en el 2002. Pero la ruptura con el pasado, necesaria para elevar significativamente la tasa de crecimiento sostenible de esta economía, requerirá posiblemente de otras acciones en torno a una estrategia de desarrollo de largo plazo, que ponga sus miras en mejorar la capacidad innovadora de la estructura productiva desarrollando nuevas ramas mediante la integración regional.ABSTRACT: This article shows that Uruguay’s very low long term growth performance, which implies an increasing divergence with respect to the world economy, is explained by specialization and productive problems. Uruguay produces and sells goods with very low dynamics in the world markets, and with slow technology changes. The (neoliberal and politically conservative development model applied in the last decades, failed in the objective of improving the long term growth rate, because this model implied a productive structure based in natural resources with

  13. OSRP Source Repatriations-Case Studies: Brazil, Ecuador, Uruguay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greenberg, Ray Jr. [U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration, Office of Global Threat Reduction, Washington, DC (United States); Abeyta, Cristy; Matzke, Jim; Wald-Hopkins, Mark; Streeper, Charles [Offsite Source Recovery Project, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico (United States)

    2012-07-01

    The Global Threat Reduction Initiative's (GTRI) Offsite Source Recovery Project (OSRP) began recovering excess and unwanted radioactive sealed sources (sources) in 1999. As of February 2012, the project had recovered over 30,000 sources totaling over 820,000 Ci. OSRP grew out of early efforts at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) to recover disused excess Plutonium- 239 (Pu-239) sources that were distributed in the 1960's and 1970's under the Atoms for Peace Program. Source recovery was initially considered a waste management activity. However, after the 9/11 terrorist attacks, the interagency community began to recognize that excess and unwanted radioactive sealed sources pose a national security threat, particularly those that lack a disposition path. After OSRP's transfer to the U.S. National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) to be part of GTRI, its mission was expanded to include all disused sealed sources that might require national security consideration. Recognizing the transnational threat posed by porous borders and the ubiquitous nature of sources, GTRI/OSRP repatriates U.S. origin sources based on threat reduction prioritization criteria. For example, several recent challenging source repatriation missions have been conducted by GTRI/OSRP in South America. These include the repatriation of a significant amount of Cs-137 and other isotopes from Brazil; re-packaging of conditioned Ra-226 sources in Ecuador for future repatriation; and, multilateral cooperation in the consolidation and export of Canadian, US, and Indian Co-60/Cs-137 sources from Uruguay. In addition, cooperation with regulators and private source owners in other countries presents opportunities for GTRI/OSRP to exchange best practices for managing disused sources. These positive experiences often result in long-term cooperation and information sharing with key foreign counterparts. International source recovery operations are essential to the preservation of U

  14. Magnetostratigraphy of the Neogene sediments of SW Uruguay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez Bettucci, L.; Orgeira, M. J.; Sanchez, G.; Bertoni-Machado, C.; Farina, R.

    2007-05-01

    Preliminary results on the magnetostratigraphy of three Neogene formations from SW Uruguay are presented: Camacho, Raigón and Libertad, and a relative age from the record of reversions in the Earth's magnetic field polarity is proposed. The sediments outcrop in the SW region of Uruguay,and have been received attention due to their fossil contents. The oldest is the late Miocene-Pliocene Camacho Fm, of Huayquerian to Montehermosan affinities. A Pliocene-early Pleistocene age has been assigned to Raigón Fm, of Chapadmalalan affinities. The overlying Libertad Fm has been considered early-middle Pleistocene in age, and to have Marplatan-Ensenadan affinities. The lithology of this facies of Camacho Fm is identified by the presence of fine to very fine sandstones and is composed of silty-sandy and bioturbed silty deposits. The marine facies of this formation is rich in fossil content, as several invertebrate and vertebrate taxa are found. The upper Raigón Fm is formed by sandstones of varied grain size and includes lenses and levels of claystones and conglomerates. It shows the sedimentological features of a deep, pebble-rich braided fluvial system. The 383 vertebrate specimens found in the sandy facies and studied in a taphonomically-oriented study belong to 19 genera and 13 higher taxa. The bones are disarticulated, with smooth fractures and little weathered or abraded, which is congruent with a short time of contact, as observed in strong and sudden flows. The elements belong to the three Voorhies groups and fractured specimens are found along with well preserved materials, implying different taphonomical histories and reworking. The consequent inferred time averaging urges caution at using these remains for defining precise ages. The Libertad Fm, top of the sequence, is conformed by greenish clays, clayey fine sandstones, medium sized sandstones and conglomeratic levels, corresponding to deposits of continental origin under a semiarid climate, which allowed the

  15. Occurrence of metal ions in rice produced in Uruguay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Rivero

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The United Nations General Assembly declared the year 2004 the International Year of Rice under the concept "Rice is Life". The largest nutritional problems occurring globally are protein-energy malnutrition, Ca, Fe, I, Zn and vitamin A deficiencies. Being rice the staple food more consumed worldwide, outstanding care is taken on its composition levels.Uruguay has emerged as medium-size rice producer and Latin America's major rice exporter, and is now amongst the world's top ten. Thus, the knowledge of toxic as well as micronutrient elements is very important. Here is reported the determination in forty nine samples of rice (Oryza sativa L. of As, Cd, Cr, and Pb by ET AAS in samples digested by dry ashing, and Ca, Co, Cu, Fe, K, Mg, Mo, Mn, Na, Ni and Zn by FAAS and Hg by CV AAS using microwave-assisted decomposition.The amount of all the metal ions studied in this work fall within the range typical of rice around the world. All the rice samples tested showed lower levels of As, Cd, Hg and Pb than the maximum limit permitted by governmental and international organizations.Potassium was the most abundant mineral followed by Mg and Ca and amongst microelements the presence of Cu, Fe, Mo, Mn, Na and Zn was outstanding.The milling process highly affects the contents of K, Mg, Mn, Na and Zn while little influence has on Ca, Co, Cu and Fe concentrations.Unexpected loss of Ca, Fe and Mn during parboiling process was detected. 

  16. A perfect storm? Welfare, care, gender and generations in Uruguay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filgueira, Fernando; Gutiérrez, Magdalena; Papadópulos, Jorge

    2011-01-01

    This article claims that welfare states modelled on a contributory basis and with a system of entitlements that assumes stable two-parent families, a traditional breadwinner model, full formal employment and a relatively young age structure are profoundly flawed in the context of present-day challenges. While this is true for affluent countries modelled on the Bismarckian type of welfare system, the costs of the status quo are even more devastating in middle-income economies with high levels of inequality. A gendered approach to welfare reform that introduces the political economy and the economy of care and unpaid work is becoming critical to confront what may very well become a perfect storm for the welfare of these nations and their peoples. Through an in-depth study of the Uruguayan case, the authors show how the decoupling of risk and protection has torn asunder the efficacy of welfare devices in the country. An ageing society that has seen a radical transformation of its family and labour market landscapes, Uruguay maintained during the 1980s and 1990s a welfare state that was essentially contributory, elderly and male-oriented, and centred on cash entitlements. This contributed to the infantilization of poverty, increased the vulnerability of women and exacerbated fiscal stress for the system as a whole. Furthermore, because of high levels of income and asset inequality, the redistribution of risk between upper- and lower-income groups presented a deeply regressive pattern. The political economy of care and welfare has begun to change in the last decade or so, bringing about mild reforms in the right direction; but these might prove to be too little and too late.

  17. Household demand elasticities for meat products in Uruguay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lanfranco, B. A.; Rava, C.

    2014-06-01

    This article analyzed the demand for meats at household level over the past decade in Uruguay, a country that exhibits a very high per capita consumption of these products. In particular, the consumption of beef is one of the highest in the world and only comparable to Argentina. The analysis involved a two-step estimation of an incomplete system of censored demand equations using household data from the last available national income and expenditure survey (2005/06). Thirteen meat products were included in the analysis: six broad beef products (de boned hindquarter cuts, bone-in hindquarter cuts, ground beef, rib plate, bone-in forequarter cuts, and other beef cuts), four products from other meats (sheep, pork, poultry, and fish), and three generic mixed-meat products. A complete set of short-term income, own-price and cross-price elasticities were computed and reported along with their 90% confidence intervals (CI). The results were consistent with both economic theory and empirical evidence as well as with the expected behavior, considering the relevance of these products, particularly beef, in the diet of Uruguayan consumers. All meat items were necessary goods and evidenced income-inelastic responses, which was expected given their high consumption level. All meats behaved as normal goods although exhibiting different reactions to changes in price. In general, beef cuts were more price elastic than other more broadly defined products. The more specific and dis aggregated the meat product the higher its corresponding direct price elasticity. The complement/substitute relationships found in this study were highly depended on the specific product combinations. (Author)

  18. Acerca de la "Cultura Física" en la revista Uruguay-Sport: Archivos de la CNEF, Uruguay (1918-1926

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola Dogliotti

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo se propone una indagación sobre lo que implicó la noción de "cultura física" en el proceso gestacional de la Comisión Nacional de Educación Física (CNEF del Uruguay, en las primeras dos décadas de su creación. Para esto se toma como fuente de indagación la revista oficial de esta institución, Uruguay-Sport. Entre los principales hallazgos se constata la fuerte incidencia de Estados Unidos en el proceso de conformación de la CNEF. La "cultura física" es entendida prioritariamente como sport. Se producen ciertos procesos de homogeneización deportiva a partir de modelos importados fundamentalmente de aquel país. Se presenta un cierto grado de lo que se puede llamar un optimismo deportivo.

  19. Genetic relationships among populations of Aedes aegypti from Uruguay and northeastern Argentina inferred from ISSR-PCR data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soliani, C; Rondan-Dueñas, J; Chiappero, M B; Martínez, M; Da Rosa, E García; Gardenal, C N

    2010-09-01

    Aedes aegypti (L.) (Diptera: Culicidae), the main vector of yellow fever and dengue viruses, was eradicated from Argentina between 1955 and 1963, but reinvaded the country in 1986. In Uruguay, the species was reintroduced in 1997. In this study we used highly polymorphic inter-simple sequence repeats (ISSR) markers to analyse the genetic structure of Ae. aegypti populations from Uruguay and northeastern Argentina to identify possible colonization patterns of the vector. Overall genetic differentiation among populations was high (F(ST) = 0.106) and showed no correlation with geographic distance, which is consistent with the short time since the reintroduction of the species in the area. Differentiation between pairs of Argentine populations (F(ST) 0.072 to 0.221) was on average higher than between Uruguayan populations (F(ST)-0.044 to 0.116). Bayesian estimation of population structure defined four genetic clusters and most populations were admixtures of two of them: Mercedes and Treinta y Tres (Uruguay) were mixtures of clusters 1 and 3; Salto (Uruguay) and Paraná (Argentina) of clusters 1 and 4; Fray Bentos (Uruguay) of clusters 2 and 3, and Gualeguaychú (Argentina) of clusters 2 and 3. Posadas and Buenos Aires in Argentina were fairly genetically homogeneous. Our results suggest that Ae. aegypti recolonized Uruguay from bordering cities in Argentina via bridges over the Uruguay River and also from Brazil.

  20. José Vasconcelos y su paso por el Uruguay de los años veinte José Vasconcelos and his Visit to Uruguay in the 1920s

    OpenAIRE

    Gerardo Caetano Hargain

    2011-01-01

    El texto trata de la visita de José Vasconcelos a Uruguay en una escala de su viaje a cuatro países del Cono Sur sudamericano (Argentina, Brasil, Chile y Uruguay), que daría origen a su célebre libro La raza cósmica. Misión de la raza iberoamericana. Notas de viajes a la América del Sur. Por diversas razones, Vasconcelos reservaba expectativas particulares en torno a su breve pasaje por Uruguay. Sin embargo, dadas sus ideas y proyectos, no resultaba aventurado sospechar que su encuentro direc...

  1. Conservation status assessment of the amphibians and reptiles of Uruguay Evaluación del estado de conservación de los anfibios y reptiles del Uruguay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrés Canavero

    Full Text Available The native species of amphibians and reptiles of Uruguay were categorized according to the IUCN Red List criteria. Out of 47 amphibian species, seven are listed as Critically Endangered (CR, five as Endangered (EN, one as Vulnerable (VU, three as Near Threatened (NT, and two as Data Deficient (DD; the remaining species are considered to be Least Concern (LC. Among the 64 species of reptiles evaluated, one is listed as Critically Endangered (CR, seven as Endangered (EN, two as Vulnerable (VU, one as Near Threatened (NT and seven as Data Deficient (DD; the rest are considered to be Least Concern (LC. The use of these results as an additional criterion in the definition of protected areas in Uruguay will contribute towards the conservation of the aforementioned threatened species and their associated ecosystems.Las especies nativas de anfibios y reptiles de Uruguay fueron categorizadas de acuerdo a los criterios de la Lista Roja de UICN. De las 47 especies de anfibios, siete se encuentran En Peligro Crítico (CR, cinco En Peligro (EN, una Vulnerable (VU, tres Casi Amenazadas (NT, y dos con Datos Deficientes (DD; las especies restantes son consideradas como Preocupación Menor (LC. Entre las 64 especies de reptiles evaluados, una se encuentra en Peligro Crítico (CR, siete En Peligro (EN, dos como Vulnerables (VU, una Casi Amenazadas (NT y siete con Datos Deficientes (DD; las especies restantes son consideradas como Preocupación Menor (LC. El uso de estos resultados como un criterio adicional en la definición de áreas protegidas en Uruguay contribuirá hacia la conservación de dichas especies amenazadas y sus ecosistemas asociados.

  2. The impact of the 2009/2010 enhancement of cigarette health warning labels in Uruguay: longitudinal findings from the International Tobacco Control (ITC) Uruguay Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gravely, Shannon; Fong, Geoffrey T.; Driezen, Pete; McNally, Mary; Thrasher, James F.; Thompson, Mary E.; Boado, Marcelo; Bianco, Eduardo; Borland, Ron; Hammond, David

    2015-01-01

    Background FCTC Article 11 Guidelines recommend that health warning labels (HWLs) should occupy at least 50% of the package, but the tobacco industry claims that increasing the size would not lead to further benefits. This article reports the first population study to examine the impact of increasing HWL size above 50%. We tested the hypothesis that the 2009/2010 enhancement of the HWLs in Uruguay would be associated with higher levels of effectiveness. Methods Data were drawn from a cohort of adult smokers (≥18 years) participating in the International Tobacco Control (ITC) Uruguay Survey. The probability sample cohort was representative of adult smokers in 5 cities. The surveys included key indicators of HWL effectiveness. Data were collected in 2008/09 (pre-policy: Wave 2) and 2010/11 (post-policy: Wave 3). Results Overall, 1746 smokers participated in the study at Wave 2 (n=1,379) and Wave 3 (n=1,411). Following the 2009/2010 HWL changes in Uruguay (from 50% to 80% in size), all indicators of HWL effectiveness increased significantly [noticing HWLs: odds ratio (OR)=1.44, p=0.015; reading HWLs: OR=1.42, p=0.002; impact of HWLs on thinking about risks of smoking: OR=1.66, p<0.001; HWLs increasing thinking about quitting: OR=1.76, p<0.001; avoiding looking at the HWLs: OR=2.35, p<.001; and reports that HWLs stopped smokers from having a cigarette “many times”: OR=3.42, p<0.001]. Conclusions The 2009/2010 changes to HWLs in Uruguay, including a substantial increment in size, led to increases of key HWL indicators, thus supporting the conclusion that enhancing HWLs beyond minimum guideline recommendations can lead to even higher levels of effectiveness. PMID:25512431

  3. French Trade Policy During the GATT Uruguay Round: Between Domestic and International Constraints

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alons, G.C.

    2012-01-01

    During the GATT Uruguay Round (1986-1993) France was one of the most conservative European member states and succeeded in influencing European position taking on agricultural trade liberalization. France’s recalcitrant position is often considered an outcome of purely domestic political consideratio

  4. Molecular analysis of isoniazid-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates in Uruguay

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Greif, G.; Coitinho, C.; Rivas, C.; Ingen, J. van; Robello, C.

    2012-01-01

    The incidence of tuberculosis (TB) is increasing in high-risk populations in Uruguay, possibly owing to emerging resistance. Mycobacterial interspersed repetitive units (MIRU) genotyping and katG sequence analysis of isoniazid (INH) resistance-associated mutations were performed in 45 INH-resistant

  5. Miscellaneous: Uruguay energy supply options study assessing the market for natural gas - executive summary.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conzelmann, G.; Veselka, T.; Decision and Information Sciences

    2008-03-04

    Uruguay is in the midst of making critical decisions affecting the design of its future energy supply system. Momentum for change is expected to come from several directions, including recent and foreseeable upgrades and modifications to energy conversion facilities, the importation of natural gas from Argentina, the possibility for a stronger interconnection of regional electricity systems, the country's membership in MERCOSUR, and the potential for energy sector reforms by the Government of Uruguay. The objective of this study is to analyze the effects of several fuel diversification strategies on Uruguay's energy supply system. The analysis pays special attention to fuel substitution trends due to potential imports of natural gas via a gas pipeline from Argentina and increasing electricity ties with neighboring countries. The Government of Uruguay has contracted with Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) to study several energy development scenarios with the support of several Uruguayan institutions. Specifically, ANL was asked to conduct a detailed energy supply and demand analysis, develop energy demand projections based on an analysis of past energy demand patterns with support from local institutions, evaluate the effects of potential natural gas imports and electricity exchanges, and determine the market penetration of natural gas under various scenarios.

  6. 78 FR 41259 - Importation of Fresh Citrus Fruit From Uruguay, Including Citrus

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-10

    ... that this argument is invalid due to the year-round marketing of citrus harvested domestically. We made... variety. Total citrus production in Uruguay in 2011 was 270,367 metric tons, which is less than 3 percent... metric tons, respectively, which is less than 3.2 percent of U.S. production and 1 percent of total...

  7. Screening of endocrine disruption activity in sediments from the Uruguay River.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivas-Rivera, Noelia; Eguren, Gabriela; Carrasco-Letelier, Leonidas; Munkittrick, Kelly R

    2014-08-01

    Sediment constitutes an important sink of endocrine disruptor compounds; however, the potential of sediments to act as a source of endocrine disruptors should be more extensively investigated. The main objective of this study was to determine whether exposure of immature common carp to Uruguay River sediments undergo physiological and endocrine alterations. The lower Uruguay River watershed supports intensive agricultural and forest production, receives municipal sewage discharge and industrial effluent, and a new large pulp mill was constructed in 2006. A 30-day semi-static assay was performed using sediments from four sites along the Uruguay River and compared with an unexposed group in dechlorinated water as a negative control. We focused on two upstream and two downstream sites of a new elemental chlorine free pulp mill. The results showed that plasma vitellogenin levels increased in fish along the river and significant differences were found between the exposed and unexposed groups. Condition factor and gonadosomatic index were not different; however, a significant difference in hepatosomatic index was observed in fish exposed to sediment from an industrial site. A significant reduction in primary spermatocyte accumulation was observed in the exposed group compared with that in the control group, and some individuals exposed to sediments from industrial sites presented with testis-ova. Our results suggest that Uruguay River sediments act as an important source of estrogenic compounds that could be responsible for the alterations observed. Future studies are needed to identify the causal agents and determine exposure routes.

  8. Practices to Reduce Milk Carbon Footprint on Grazing Dairy Farms in Southern Uruguay: Case Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carbon footprint (CF) is an increasingly relevant indicator to estimate the impact of a product on climate change. This study followed international guidelines to quantify the CF of milk produced on 24 dairy farms in Uruguay. Cows were grazed all year and supplemented with concentrate feeds. These d...

  9. Assessment of potential shale gas and shale oil resources of the Norte Basin, Uruguay, 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schenk, Christopher J.; Kirschbaum, Mark A.; Charpentier, Ronald R.; Cook, Troy; Klett, Timothy R.; Gautier, Donald L.; Pollastro, Richard M.; Weaver, Jean N.; Brownfield, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Using a performance-based geological assessment methodology, the U.S. Geological Survey estimated mean volumes of 13.4 trillion cubic feet of potential technically recoverable shale gas and 0.5 billion barrels of technically recoverable shale oil resources in the Norte Basin of Uruguay.

  10. Quality of Life Satisfaction among Workers and Non-Workers in Uruguay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gandelman, Nestor; Piani, Giorgina

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we use data from a population survey on quality of life dimensions conducted in Uruguay to analyze the self reported well-being among workers and non workers. Along with the literature, we find that the probability of being happy is greater for workers than non-workers. Specifically, we find evidence that workers tend to be more…

  11. Diagnostic Imaging Integrated Network: A Teleradiology Pilot in Public Hospitals in Uruguay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acosta, Lilian; Ruibal Faral, Karime

    2015-01-01

    A network of health care centers allows radiologists to share diagnostic images in different areas of Uruguay. This solution is based on an informatics multicenter application for center management, enabling the creation, storage and distribution of images and reports from different imaging modalities according to outsourcing agreements. The solution improves health care territorial equity and reduces asymmetry in resources distribution.

  12. Lessons from Participation in a Web-Based Substance Use Preventive Program in Uruguay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balsa, Ana I.; Gandelman, Néstor; Lamé, Diego

    2014-01-01

    We analyzed individual and program characteristics associated with participation in an Information and Communication Technologies (ICT)-based substance use preventive intervention in Uruguay, South America. The intervention was directed at ninth- and tenth-grade students in 10 private schools in Montevideo. Participation in the program was…

  13. The "Failure" of Private Universities in Uruguay: A Tale of Three Institutions. ASHE Annual Meeting Paper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roane, Warren

    In Latin America private universities are a recent phenomenon; Uruguay began its experiment with privatization only 15 years ago. This study explores several factors which have impeded formation of private universities by analyzing the "failures" of three institutions. The theoretical framework of the study is based on work by D.C. Levy…

  14. Infection by Paramphistomidae trematodes in cattle from two agricultural regions in NW Uruguay and NW Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchís, J; Sánchez-Andrade, R; Macchi, M I; Piñeiro, P; Suárez, J L; Cazapal-Monteiro, C; Maldini, G; Venzal, J M; Paz-Silva, A; Arias, M S

    2013-01-16

    The analysis of infection by Paramphistomidae trematodes was conducted in two agricultural regions with different knowledge on this parasitosis. Faecal and blood samples were collected from 374 cattle in Salto (NW Uruguay) where there is a lack of information about paramphistomosis. A total of 429 cattle from Galicia (NW Spain), an area with previous records of infection by gastric flukes, were sampled. Diagnostics of trematodosis was developed by using a copromicroscopic probe and an ELISA with excretory/secretory antigens collected from adult Calicophoron daubneyi (Paramphistomidae) specimens. Results were evaluated according intrinsic and extrinsic factors. In the Uruguay, the percentage of cattle passing Paramphistomidae-eggs by faeces was 7% (95% Confidence Interval 5, 10). A significantly higher prevalence of paramphistomosis in the Hereford × Angus cattle (OR=3.5) was recorded, as observed for the oldest ruminants (>3.5 years). An overall seroprevalence of 29% (25, 34) was obtained by ELISA, with the highest values in the Friesians (OR=3), the youngest bovines (Uruguay, especially by improving their management to avoid exposure to the gastric trematode. Further studies are in progress for identifying the species of Paramphistomidae affecting ruminants in Uruguay.

  15. Women, feminism and social change in Argentina, Chile and Uruguay, 1980-1940

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guimoar Dueñas

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Asunción Lavrin. Women, feminism and social change in Argentina, Chile and Uruguay, 1890-1940. Lincoln and London: University of Nebraska Press, 1995, 481 páginas. Tercer volúmen de la serie Engendering Latin America.

  16. La evolución político-constitucional de Uruguay entre 1975 y 2005

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Héctor Gros Espiell

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Los autores reseñan en este informe sobre Uruguay entre los años 1975 y 2005: la profundización del sistema autoritario comenzado en 1973; su finalización en 1985 y, desde entonces, la transición hacia el Estado de Derecho y la consolidación del sistema constitucional.

  17. La evolución político-constitucional de Uruguay entre 1975 y 2005

    OpenAIRE

    Héctor Gros Espiell; Esteva Gallicchio,Eduardo G

    2008-01-01

    Los autores reseñan en este informe sobre Uruguay entre los años 1975 y 2005: la profundización del sistema autoritario comenzado en 1973; su finalización en 1985 y, desde entonces, la transición hacia el Estado de Derecho y la consolidación del sistema constitucional.

  18. Continuing Professional Development of Physicians in Uruguay: Lessons from a Countrywide Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margolis, Alvaro; Alvarino, Fernando; Niski, Rosa; Fosman, Elena; Torres, Jorge; Rios, Gilberto; Petruccelli, Dante

    2007-01-01

    This article describes the advancement of continuing professional development (CPD) for physicians in Uruguay and explains the motivations for a CPD system, the role of the faculty of medicine and the other stakeholders, the strategic goals, and current results, including strengths and weaknesses. The work described here had three strategic…

  19. Goya, Ramón Bayeu y José del Castillo en los retablos de las iglesias parroquiales de la Puebla de Híjar, Vinaceite y Urrea de Gaén (Teruel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Álvarez Gracia, Andrés

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available During the second half of the eighteenth century, the Duke of Hijar renovated, at his own expense, the parish churches of three of his southern Aragonese domains in the towns of Puebla de Hijar, Vinaceite and Urrea de Gaén. For the painting of certain altarpieces, he contracted three important artists from the Court: Francisco de Goya, Ramón Bayeu and José del Castillo.

    En la segunda mitad del siglo XVIII, el duque de Híjar renovó, con cargo a su peculio, las iglesias parroquiales de tres de sus dominios bajoaragoneses en los pueblos de la Puebla de Híjar, Vinaceite y Urrea de Gaén. Para la pintura de algunos de los retablos contrató a tres importantes pintores de la Corte: Francisco de Goya, Ramón Bayeu y José del Castillo.

  20. La metodología de la hipótesis de atribución de autor aplicada a las figuras en los omoplatos de El Castillo (Cantabria, España

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan María Apellániz

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Se trata de un análisis crítico de la validez metodológica de los criterios de atribución de autoría aplicables a las figuras de animales grabadas sobre los omoplatos magdalenienses de la cuevas El Castillo (Cantabria, España propuestos por el Prof. Fernández Lombera

  1. La transformación del castillo de León en cárcel pública. Una idea decimonónica de conservación arquitectónica

    OpenAIRE

    Morais Vallejo, Emilio

    2005-01-01

    Al iniciarse el siglo XIX el Ayuntamiento de León decidió aprovechar las estructuras del viejo castillo de la ciudad para hacer la cárcel del partido. El arquitecto Fernando Sánchez Pertejo fue el encargado de hacer la restauración del edificio para adaptarlo a la nueva función, utilizando criterios de intervención propios de la época

  2. LA LOCALIDAD HISTÓRICO ARQUEOLÓGICA DEL RÍO SAN SALVADOR (SORIANO, URUGUAY The historical archaeological town of Rio San Salvador (Soriano, Uruguay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José López Mazz

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Los primeros cronistas de la conquista del Río de la Plata expusieron la diversidad cultural reinante en el área en el siglo XVI. Las investigaciones arqueológicas de los años 60 y 70 confirman, a nivel arqueológico, la intensa ocupación de la que fue objeto esta zona próxima a la confluencia del río Paraná con el río Uruguay. Este trabajo presenta información producida durante un trabajo de diagnóstico realizado en el marco de la llamada Arqueología Pública, en un sitio de ocupación española del siglo XVI ubicado al oriente de dicha confluencia. Los resultados muestran que la ocupación del sitio desde el año 1000 AP está caracterizada por una amplia diversidad de estilos cerámicos. El área constituyó un lugar estratégico para los asentamientos europeos en función de la presencia de redes de intercambio pre existente. La información producida permite afinar la secuencia cronológica prehistórica para el bajo río Uruguay, al tiempo que abre el debate  respecto de la dinámica etnohistórica regional y del rol jugado por este particular asentamiento humano.   Palabras claves: asentamientos europeos, Uruguay, río San Salvador, siglo XVI.    Abstract Early chroniclers of the conquest of the Río de la Plata exposed the cultural diversity prevailing in the area in the sixteenth century. Archaeological research during the 60’s and 70’s confirm an intense occupation of the confluence of the Paraná river and the Uruguay river area. This paper presents information recovered during a diagnostic fieldwork developed on a Spanish settlement from the sixteenth century. The results show an intense occupation of the site since 1000 AP, characterized by a wide variety of ceramic styles. The area was a strategic location for European occupation due to the presence of preexisting exchange networks. Information produced refines prehistoric chronological sequence for lower Uruguay river while opening the discussion about regional

  3. El Alcázar de Madrid. Del castillo Trastámara al palacio de los Austrias (Ss. XV-1543

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alonso Ruiz, Begoña

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The medieval Alcázar (fortress of Madrid was transformed into the residential palace of the Austrian dynasty in Spain from the reign of Charles I through that of Charles II. On Christmas Eve 1734, during the reign of the Bourbon king Philip V, the palace suffered a devastating fire, resulting in the construction of a new Royal palace, already baroque, on the same site. This research reconstructs the history – until now fragmented – of this lost medieval castle, contributing new source materials concerning the successive interventions carried out on the building. Specifically, this investigation focuses on the improvements realized during the period of the Catholic Monarchs and the first works commissioned by Charles V, prior to the definitive royal bond of 1536. This document marks the beginning of a new chapter in the constructive history of the building, when the old castle was transformed definitively into a residential palace, while highlighting the symbolic value of the Sala Rica and the rooms of protocol constructed during the Trastámara period.El alcázar medieval de Madrid se convirtió en la gran residencia de los Austrias desde la llegada de Carlos I al reinado de Carlos II. En la Nochebuena de 1734, reinando ya Felipe V de Borbón, el palacio sufrió un devastador incendio, resultado del cual se inicia la construcción del nuevo Palacio Real, ya barroco, sobre su solar. En esta investigación nos ocupamos de reconstruir la historia –hasta ahora fragmentada– de ese castillo medieval, aportando nuevos datos documentales acerca de las sucesivas intervenciones sufridas en el edificio. Nos centramos de forma especial en las obras realizadas en el período de los Reyes Católicos y en las primeras encargadas por Carlos V, antes de la definitiva real cédula de 1536 que marca el comienzo de un nuevo capítulo en la historia constructiva del edificio al transformarse de manera definitiva el viejo castillo en un palacio residencial

  4. Una propuesta de antropología teológica en castillo interior de Santa Teresa de Ávila

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agustina Serrano Pérez

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available El artículo presenta a Santa Teresa de Ávila (1515-1582 en un contexto histórico marcado por la apertura y el resurgimiento teológico, junto con un giro a posturas rígidas. En ese tiempo ella funda 17 conventos y escribe todas sus obras. Castillo Interior es el último eslabón de su proceso de autocomunicación, en que codifica su pensamiento teológico, estructurado en siete moradas que dan cuenta de la relación entre Dios y la respuesta humana. Este trabajo muestra la antropología de una Teología mística, como la autora deine su obra Castillo Interior, y trata de sintetizar la antropología teológica teresiana como un proceso salvíico desde el origen hasta la consumación. Finalmente se ofrecen unos rasgos característicos de la antropología teresiana en la que el misterio del ser humano se esclarece en Dios trinitario, es decir en la sabiduría amorosa del Espíritu.The a presents Saint Teresa of Ávila (1515-1582 in an historical context marked by theological resurgence and opening, together with a shift to rigid positions. In this period, she founds 17 convents and writes all her work. Interior Castle is the last link in her process of self-communication, and in which she encodes her theological thinking, structured in seven mansions that account for the relationship between God and the human response. This work shows the anthropology of a Mystical theology, as the author deines her work Interior Castle, and tries to synthesize Teresian theological anthropology as a salvific process from origin to consummation. Finally, the articles gives some characteristic features of Teresian anthropology, in which the mystery of human beings is illuminated in the Trinitarian God, i.e., in the loving wisdom of the Spirit.

  5. Epidemiological investigation of bovine tuberculosis outbreaks in Uruguay (2011-2013).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picasso, Catalina; Alvarez, Julio; VanderWaal, Kimberly L; Fernandez, Federico; Gil, Andres; Wells, Scott J; Perez, Andres

    2017-03-01

    Bovine tuberculosis (bTB) is a chronic disease of cattle caused by infection with the Mycobacterium bovis. While bTB prevalence in Uruguay has been low (<11 outbreaks/year) for the past 50 years as a consequence of a national control program, annual incidence increased in 2011 through 2013-15, 26 and 16 infected herds each year, raising concerns from livestock stakeholders and the government. The goal of this study was to assess the spatial dynamics of bTB in Uruguay from 2011 to 2013 and the association between bTB and potential demographic and movement risk factors at the herd level using data provided by the Uruguayan Ministry of Livestock, Agriculture, and Fisheries. Clustering of incident outbreaks was assessed using the Cuzick-Edwards' test and the Bernoulli model of the spatial scan statistic, and a conditional multivariable logistic regression model was used to assess risk factors associated with bTB in a subset of Uruguayan dairy farms. Significant (P<0.05) global clustering was detected in 2012, while high-risk local clusters were detected in southwestern (2011, 2012, 2013), northwestern (2012), and southeastern (2012) Uruguay. Increased risk of bTB in different regions of Uruguay suggests a potential role of animal movements in disease dissemination. Larger herds, higher numbers of animals purchased, and incoming steers to the farm were associated with increased odds of breaking with bTB, in agreement with previous studies but also suggesting other additional sources of risk. These results will contribute to enhanced effectiveness of bTB control programs in Uruguay with the ultimate objective of preventing or mitigating the impact of the disease in the human and animal populations of the country.

  6. Cross-fertilization between genetically modified and non-genetically modified maize crops in Uruguay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galeano, Pablo; Debat, Claudio Martínez; Ruibal, Fabiana; Fraguas, Laura Franco; Galván, Guillermo A

    2010-01-01

    The cultivation of genetically modified (GM) Bt maize (Zea mays L.) events MON810 and Bt11 is permitted in Uruguay. Local regulations specify that 10% of the crop should be a non-GM cultivar as refuge area for biodiversity, and the distance from other non-GM maize crops should be more than 250 m in order to avoid cross-pollination. However, the degree of cross-fertilization between maize crops in Uruguay is unknown. The level of adventitious presence of GM material in non-GM crops is a relevant issue for organic farming, in situ conservation of genetic resources and seed production. In the research reported here, the occurrence and frequency of cross-fertilization between commercial GM and non-GM maize crops in Uruguay was assessed. The methodology comprised field sampling and detection using DAS-ELISA and PCR. Five field-pair cases where GM maize crops were grown near non-GM maize crops were identified. These cases had the potential to cross-fertilize considering the distance between crops and the similarity of the sowing dates. Adventitious presence of GM material in the offspring of non-GM crops was found in three of the five cases. Adventitious presence of event MON810 or Bt11 in non-GM maize, which were distinguished using specific primers, matched the events in the putative sources of transgenic pollen. Percentages of transgenic seedlings in the offspring of the non-GM crops were estimated as 0.56%, 0.83% and 0.13% for three sampling sites with distances of respectively 40, 100 and 330 m from the GM crops. This is a first indication that adventitious presence of transgenes in non-GM maize crops will occur in Uruguay if isolation by distance and/or time is not provided. These findings contribute to the evaluation of the applicability of the "regulated coexistence policy" in Uruguay.

  7. José Vasconcelos y su paso por el Uruguay de los años veinte José Vasconcelos and his Visit to Uruguay in the 1920s

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerardo Caetano Hargain

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available El texto trata de la visita de José Vasconcelos a Uruguay en una escala de su viaje a cuatro países del Cono Sur sudamericano (Argentina, Brasil, Chile y Uruguay, que daría origen a su célebre libro La raza cósmica. Misión de la raza iberoamericana. Notas de viajes a la América del Sur. Por diversas razones, Vasconcelos reservaba expectativas particulares en torno a su breve pasaje por Uruguay. Sin embargo, dadas sus ideas y proyectos, no resultaba aventurado sospechar que su encuentro directo con el Uruguay real sería más conflictivo de lo que él esperaba. El texto aborda este periplo poco conocido del famoso viaje de Vasconcelos e indaga sobre las razones de algunos debates e incompatibilidades notorias que desató la experiencia concreta de la visita.The text concerns José Vasconcelos's visit to Uruguay during a trip to four countries in South Américas Southern Cone (Argentina, Brazil, Chile and Uruguay, which subsequently gave rise to his famous book, ha raza cósmica. Misión de la raza iberoamericana. Notas de viajes a la América del Sur. For a number of reasons, Vasconcelos harbored particular expectations about his brief stay in Uruguay. However, given his ideas and projects, it is safe to assume that his direct encounter with the actual Uruguay would have been more conflictive than he expected. The text deals with this little-known stage of Vasconcelos's well-publicized journey and explores the reasons behind certain debates and striking incompatibilities triggered by the specific experience of the visit.

  8. La excavación arqueológica y la conservación patrimonial en el Castillo de San Severino de Matanzas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Teresita Hernández Godoy

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available El Castillo de San Severino de Matanzas, declarado Monumento Nacional en 1978 por sus valores histórico-arquitectónicos, se inaugura como Museo Regional de la Ruta del Esclavo en 1997. Desde los inicios tuvo un proyecto de restauración asesorado por el Centro Nacional de Restauración, Conservación y Museología y la Oficina de Monumentos y Sitios Históricos de Patrimonio Provincial. Muchas son las locaciones rescatadas en San Severino mediante acciones de restauración, conservación y propuestas museográficas, donde la arqueología ha tenido un importante desempeño. En tal sentido, el artículo aborda la campaña arqueológica que tuvo lugar en mayo de 2008 en el área del foso. Se expone la metodología de trabajo implementada, se analizan el contexto y las unidades estratigráficas relacionadas, se discuten los resultados alcanzados y se presenta la interrelación final entre las estructuras localizadas como parte del proceso de restauración finalizado.

  9. Panegírico a Cortes, no exento de raspones a Bernal Díaz del Castillo, en la Historia de Solís

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatriz Gutiérrez Mueller

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Para finales del Barroco, se consideraba en los círculos oficiales que la Conquista de la Nueva España no había sido contada acertadamente. Antonio de Solís y Rivadeneyra, un escritor y clérigo, fue el encargado de hacer la historia oficial, publicada en 1684, en Madrid, conocida como Historia de la conquista de México. En este trabajo se explora su pertenencia al género demostrativo, de acuerdo con la clásica tipificación grecolatina y con los fines y modos propuestos, a su vez, por Luis de Granada a fines del XVI. Se podrá comprobar que el trabajo solisiano resulta ser un panegírico a Hernán Cortés pero con severas enmiendas y descréditos a la historia testimonial publicada post mortem, en 1632, por Bernal Díaz del Castillo.

  10. Una novela-testimonio dominicana sobre la dictadura de Trujillo : El Masacre se pasa a pie de Freddy Prestol Castillo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lauro Capdevila

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available El Masacre se pasa a pie de Freddy Prestol Castillo remporte un succès de librairie extraordinaire dès sa parution en 1973 et est rapidement considéré comme un classique, aujourd’hui étudié dans les établissements scolaires de la République Dominicaine. Dans ce roman-témoignage – pour reprendre la terme proposé par Miguel Barnet, l’auteur rapporte à la première personne le massacre de 12 000 à 20 000 présumés Haïtiens par les hommes de main du Trujillo en 1937. L’événement est un des moments décisifs de la dictature : il en marque profondément le caractère raciste et sanctionne les relations de violence entre l’État et la population. Dénonciatrice, l’œuvre cherche à rétablir la vérité des faits contre les mensonges de la propagande officielle. Nourri par cette volonté d’authenticité, le roman présente de façon dynamique et synthétique les bouleversements que subit la société dominicaine soumise à l’État dictatorial. La littérature apparaît ici comme une urgente nécessité pour restituer sa mémoire à la nation dans la perspective de sa reconstruction.El Masacre se pasa a pie de Freddy Prestol Castillo es un extraordinario éxito de ventas al publicarse en 1973. Muy pronto pasa a ser una obra clásica, estudiada hoy en los centros de enseñanza de la República Dominicana. En esa novela-testimonio – para usar el término propuesto por el cubano Miguel Barnet, el autor relata en primera persona la matanza de 12.000 a 20.000 presuntos haitianos a manos de los esbirros de Trujillo en 1937. El trágico acontecimiento es uno de los momentos álgidos de la dictadura que manifiesta claramente su carácter racista y deja al desnudo las relaciones de violencia entre el Estado y la población. Denunciadora, la obra pretende restablecer los hechos verídicos contra las mentiras de la propaganda oficial. Apoyándose en esta voluntad de autenticidad, la novela presenta de modo dinámico y sint

  11. Conventualización de la escritura en las Vidas de Santa Teresa de Jesús y Francisca Josefa de Castillo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Fabián Arévalo Viveros

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available El presente trabajo explora la existencia de la larga duración de las expresiones de obediencia de las monjas, paralelas y simultáneas a expresiones de subversión de lo masculino, presentes tanto en El libro de su vida de Santa Teresa de Jesús como en Su vida de Francisca Josefa de Castillo. ¿Cómo entender este complejo despliegue de estrategias de obediencia y subversión de tal manera que las veamos inseparables? Proponemos que, junto con el perfil de la monja que elabora una imagen de sí misma basada en un yo-obedezco, se manifiesta un yo-subvierto-el-orden-impuesto por el confesor. Estas dos proyecciones del yo recorren el texto y lo pueblan; le dan una fluctuación ambigua. En sus obras se produce una conventualización de la escritura, en la que escribir en el convento implica obedecerlo pero a su vez implica manifestarlo en la escritura como espacio de autonomía para descubrir el lenguaje.

  12. Seroincidence and Phylogeny of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infections in a Cohort of Commercial Sex Workers in Montevideo, Uruguay

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    Health, Ministry of Health, Montevideo, Uruguay; Microbiology Department, School of Medicine, University of Buenos Aires, Buenos Aires, Argentina; U.S...7014. Sergio Sosa- Estani and Mercedes Weissenbacher, Microbiology Department, School of Medicine, University of Buenos Aires, Paraguay 2155, Piso 11...Carrion G, Sanchez JL, Russell K, Robb M, Birx D, McCutchan F, Carr JK, 2002. Molecular epidemiology of HIV type 1 in Ecuador , Peru, Bolivia, Uruguay

  13. O DESGASTE DA PINTURA RUPESTRE E DOS ABRIGOS SOB ROCHA NA RESERVA PARTICULAR DO PATRIMÔNIO NATURAL (RPPN) POUSADA DAS ARARAS EM SERRANÓPOLIS-GOIÁS: ONDICIONANTES NATURAIS

    OpenAIRE

    2005-01-01

    Esta dissertação propõe-se a realizar uma análise dos condicionantes naturais responsáveis pelo desgaste de pinturas rupestres e dos abrigos sob rocha. Na área da Reserva Particular do Patrimônio Natural (RPPN) Pousada das Araras, no município de Serranópolis, Sudoeste de Goiás, distante cerca de 450 Km de Goiânia. Foram escolhidos dois sítios arqueológicos, denominados GO-JA-03 e GO-JA-04, com representações rupestres em abrigos de rocha da Formação Botucatu. O primeiro sítio, conhecido c...

  14. Algumas idades Rb-Sr e K-Ar de rochas granitóides da região de Vilarinho da Castanheira-Foz do Sabor (Carrazeda de Anciães-Nordeste de Portugal)

    OpenAIRE

    Silva, Antero Ferreira da; KAWASHITA,KOJI

    2005-01-01

    Neste trabalho apresentam-se algumas determinações isotópicas Rb/Sr e K/Ar de idades absolutas em rochas granitóides do antiforma de Alijó-Carviçais, correspondente à região es-sudeste de Carrazeda de Anciães (Vilarinho da Castanheira-Foz do Sabor). A rocha total de duas amostras dos granitos de Castedo-Cabanas de Cima e Zêdes-Cabeça Boa-Especiarias, indiferenciados localmente, proporcionaram as idades convencionais Rb/Sr de 361.1±23.8 e 404.7±22.3M.a., com razão inicial (87Sr/86S...

  15. Caracterização ambiental de lamas de beneficiamento de rochas ornamentais Environmental characterization of processing sludge of ornamental stones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florindo dos Santos Braga

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available As lamas de beneficiamento de rochas ornamentais (LBRO são resíduos que apresentam composição química variada em função da composição das rochas, do processo de beneficiamento, dos processos de reaproveitamento de águas e lamas, das propriedades dos insumos, entre outros fatores. A caracterização e classificação das LBRO são de grande importância, principalmente para o Estado do Espírito Santo, por possuir um expressivo número de empresas do setor. Neste trabalho, são apresentados os resultados de caracterização e classificação de lamas de desdobramento e polimento de mármores e granitos, segundo a NBR 10004/2004. Todas as amostras de lamas de tear convencional e de politriz analisadas foram classificadas como Classe IIA. Percebeu-se que a identificação dos resíduos por fonte geradora permite a proposição de tecnologias limpas, como o uso de teares a fio diamantado que utilizam o mínimo de insumos e de pastilhas diamantadas metálicas isentas de elementos tóxicos, contribuindo para a melhoria das características químicas das LBRO.The sludges produced in the cutting and polishing of ornamental stones are residues with diverse chemical composition that depend on the composition of the stones, the cutting and polishing process, the processes involved in the recycling of water and sludges, among others. The characterization and classification of these resulting sludges have great importance, especially for the State of Espírito Santo, Brazil, which is an important producer of ornamental stones. In this work, the results of characterization and classification of developmental and polishing sludges were presented, according to the Brazilian standard NBR 10004/2004. All the sludge samples from the cutting and polishing equipment were classified as Class IIA. We observed that the identification of the residues according to the generation source allows the proposition of clean technologies usage, such as cutting

  16. Francisco Berra and the Posivist Education in Uruguay (1874-1882

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo David Coll Cárdenas

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available The ideas of berra on education, that tended to make reign in the education a rigid naturalistic methodology, exerted their influence on the Argentine education, still before their performancein the scholastic government of the province of Buenos Aires. Through its documentary file it can know the river plate intellectual life in both borders, as well as the world strictly corresponding student and his pedagogical manifestations. In this work, we set out to study its performance in Uruguay between the years 1874 to 1882, whose election is not accidental. This period includes understands the beginning of its pedagogical activity in Uruguay, the elaboration of its main work ("The notes of pedagogia" and its participation in the pedagogical Congress of Buenos Aires in the heat of attack between liberal and clerical and the controversies untied by the advance of the positivismo.

  17. Culturas ciudadanas y partidos tradicionales: Argentina y Uruguay (1982-90

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel SERNA

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN:I .—En Argentina se da un rápido retorno a la democracia, democratización que no se consolida existiendo continuos desequilibrios económicos y políticos. La transición en Uruguay se diferencia considerablemente siendo mucho más lenta, pero logrando a largo plazo una consolidación mayor del sistema político democrático.2.—Argentina pese a todos sus vaivenes políticos a lo largo de su historia, logró reconstituir el sistema de partidos bipartidista (radicales y peronistas con una notoria ausencia de partidos de derecha y de izquierda. Uruguay en cambio tiene importantes transformaciones del sistema de partidos, pasando de un sistema bipartidista (blancos y colorados a uno multipartidario. Es notorio el crecimiento del peso relativo de los partidos de izquierda en el sistema político.3.—Las violaciones de los DD.HH. en Argentina llevaron al juzgamiento y condena de los culpables, siendo posteriormente amnistiados. Para el caso uruguayo se optó por una ley de amnistía general para los responsables de violaciones a los DD.HH., medida que fue plebiscitada a instancia de la sociedad civil. Se analizan las distintas repercusiones que tuvieron para la consolidación de los sistemas políticos.4.—Tanto en Uruguay como en Argentina se generalizaron procesos electorales de "voto castigo" y alta rotatividad entre los votantes de los partidos tradicionales. Pero mientras que en Argentina no se registra una pérdida relativa en el caudal electoral de los partidos tradicionales, en Uruguay la pérdida constante de votantes de los mismos en los últimos años es muy apreciable.ABSTRACT:1.—Although Argentina underwent a fast democratization process, consolidation was not achieved and waves and breaking kept appearing. Different from this case, the re-democratization process in Uruguay is much more slowly but could get a better consolidation in the long run.2.—Argentina presented continuous waves all along its political history

  18. Mitochondrial DNA COI characterization of Helicoverpa armigera (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) from Paraguay and Uruguay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnemann, J A; James, W J; Walsh, T K; Guedes, J V C; Smagghe, G; Castiglioni, E; Tay, W T

    2016-04-07

    Since its detection in Brazil in 2013, the Old World cotton bollworm Helicoverpa armigera has been reported in Argentina, Paraguay, and Bolivia. Here we present evidence extending the South American range of H. armigera to Uruguay, using polymerase chain reaction and sequencing of the partial mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) cytochrome oxidase I region. Molecular characterization of this gene region from individuals from Paraguay also supports previous morphological identification of H. armigera in Paraguay. Shared mtDNA haplotypes in H. armigera from Brazil, Uruguay, and Paraguay were identified. Additional surveying of populations in this region will be imperative to better monitor and understand factors that are underpinning its presence and successful adaptation in these South American regions. We discuss our findings with respect to the development of resistance pest management strategies of this invasive insect pest in a predominantly monoculture soybean crop landscape in the Southern Cone region.

  19. El papel de la banca pública en las crisis financieras de Argentina y Uruguay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wesley Marshall

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este artículo es subrayar la naturaleza contracíclica de la banca pública comercial. Esto se hará mediante un análisis histórico de las crisis bancarias en Argentina y Uruguay a principios del siglo xxi. Este tipo de banco abarcó en Argentina varios actores cruciales dentro de las exitosas políticas de resolución de crisis y de reestructuración financiera; mientras en Uruguay, la banca pública comercial tuvo un papel menor durante la fase de resolución de la crisis, pero jugó un papel fundamental en la minimización de los riesgos del sistema financiero que en parte provocaron la crisis de 2002.

  20. A confirmed case of Rickettsia parkeri infection in a traveler from Uruguay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portillo, Aránzazu; García-García, Concepción; Sanz, M Mercedes; Santibáñez, Sonia; Venzal, José M; Oteo, José A

    2013-12-01

    The first confirmed case of Rickettsia parkeri infection in Uruguay is reported. To date, in South America, molecularly confirmed cases of human infection have been found in Argentina and probably, Brazil. Our patient returned to Spain after a 7-day trip to Colonia Suiza (Southwestern Uruguay). He presented fever (39°C), chills, and two eschars (tache noire-like) surrounded by an indurated, erythematous halo on the inner side of the left ankle besides a maculopapular rash on the legs. After treatment with doxycycline for 7 days, he fully recovered. R. parkeri infection was diagnosed by molecular-based detection of the microorganism in a swab specimen of the eschar. Diagnosis was supported by seroconversion between acute- and convalescent-phase sera specimens.

  1. Seroprevalence of St. Louis Encephalitis Virus and West Nile Virus (Flavivirus, Flaviviridae in Horses, Uruguay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Analía Burgueño

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available St. Louis encephalitis virus (SLEV and West Nile virus (WNV belong to the Japanese encephalitis antigenic complex (Flavivirus genus, Flaviviridae family. They show antigenic close relationships and share many similarities in their ecology. Both are responsible for serious human diseases. The aim of this study was to investigate the presence of neutralizing antibodies to these viruses in horses from Uruguay. To do this, 425 horse sera were collected in 2007 and analyzed by plaque reduction neutralization tests. As a result, 205 sera (48.2% were found positive for SLEV, with titers ranging between 10 and 80. Two sera remained inconclusive, since they showed low titers to WNV and SLEV (10 and 20, not allowing us to demonstrate activity of WNV in our territory. This is the first report of circulation of SLEV in horses in Uruguay.

  2. Seroprevalence of St. Louis encephalitis virus and West Nile virus (Flavivirus, Flaviviridae) in horses, Uruguay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgueño, Analía; Spinsanti, Lorena; Díaz, Luis Adrián; Rivarola, María Elisa; Arbiza, Juan; Contigiani, Marta; Delfraro, Adriana

    2013-01-01

    St. Louis encephalitis virus (SLEV) and West Nile virus (WNV) belong to the Japanese encephalitis antigenic complex (Flavivirus genus, Flaviviridae family). They show antigenic close relationships and share many similarities in their ecology. Both are responsible for serious human diseases. The aim of this study was to investigate the presence of neutralizing antibodies to these viruses in horses from Uruguay. To do this, 425 horse sera were collected in 2007 and analyzed by plaque reduction neutralization tests. As a result, 205 sera (48.2%) were found positive for SLEV, with titers ranging between 10 and 80. Two sera remained inconclusive, since they showed low titers to WNV and SLEV (10 and 20), not allowing us to demonstrate activity of WNV in our territory. This is the first report of circulation of SLEV in horses in Uruguay.

  3. Lepidoptera (Insecta) associated with soybean in Argentina, Brazil, Chile and Uruguay.

    OpenAIRE

    Aline Carraro Formentini; Daniel Ricardo Sosa-Gómez; Silvana Vieira de Paula-Moraes; Neiva Monteiro Barros; Alexandre Specht

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT: The present research updates the systematic position and nomenclature of Lepidoptera associated with soybean crops in Argentina, Brazil, Chile and Uruguay. Scientific literature lists 69 species of Lepidoptera feeding on soybean plants. These species are representatives of the Superfamilies Noctuoidea (31), Pyraloidea (13), Hesperioidea (12), Tortricoidea (5), Geometroidea (5), and Bombycoidea (3). Diversity of Lepidoptera associated to crop, injury in different parts of the plant, ...

  4. Differences by sex in tobacco use and awareness of tobacco marketing -Bangladesh, Thailand, and Uruguay, 2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-28

    The majority of the world's 1.3 billion tobacco users are men, but female use is increasing. To examine differences in tobacco use and awareness of tobacco marketing by sex, CDC and health officials in Bangladesh, Thailand, and Uruguay (among the first countries to report results) analyzed 2009 data from a newly instituted survey, the Global Adult Tobacco Survey (GATS). This report summarizes the results of that analysis, which indicated wide variation among the three countries in tobacco use, product types used, and marketing awareness among males and females. In Bangladesh and Thailand, use of smoked tobacco products was far greater among males (44.7% and 45.6%, respectively) than females (1.5% and 3.1%, respectively). In Uruguay, the difference was smaller (30.7% versus 19.8%). Use of smokeless tobacco products in Bangladesh was approximately the same among males (26.4%) and females (27.9%), but females were significantly more likely to use smokeless tobacco in Thailand (6.3% versus 1.3%), and use in Uruguay by either sex was nearly nonexistent. Males in Bangladesh were twice as likely as females to notice cigarette advertising (68.0% versus 29.3%), but the difference between males and females was smaller in Thailand (17.4% versus 14.5%) and Uruguay (49.0% versus 40.0%). In all three countries, awareness of tobacco marketing was more prevalent among females aged 15--24 years than older women. Comprehensive bans on advertising, sponsorship, and promotion of tobacco products, recommended by the World Health Organization (WHO), can reduce per capita cigarette consumption if enforced.

  5. Ecology of Triatoma rubrovaria (Hemiptera, Triatominae) in wild and peridomestic environments of Uruguay

    OpenAIRE

    Roberto Salvatella; Raquel Rosa; Yester Basmadjian; Andres Puime; Luis Calegari; Jorge Guerrero; Maria Martinez; Gabriela Mendaro; Daniel Briano; Carlos Montero; Cristina Wisnivesky-Colli

    1995-01-01

    This paper describes population structure, spatial distribution and habitat selection of wild and peridomestic populations of Triatoma rubrovaria (Blanchard, 1843). Field studies were carried out at Las Piedras and La Bolsa in the Northern Department of Artigas, Uruguay. A semicircular sampling area, divided in seven or eight triangular sectors was sequentially examined from October 1990 to November 1991. At Las Piedras (typical wild habitat) 1063 T. rubrovaria bugs were collected from 84 of ...

  6. Multidecadal changes in the relationship between extreme temperature events in Uruguay and the general atmospheric circulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Renom, Madeleine; Barreiro, Marcelo [Universidad de la Republica, Unidad de Ciencias de la Atmosfera, Instituto de Fisica, Facultad de Ciencias, Montevideo (Uruguay); Rusticucci, Matilde [Universidad de Buenos Aires, Departamento de Ciencias de la Atmosfera y los Oceanos, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Buenos Aires (Argentina)

    2011-12-15

    We analyze changes in the relationship between extreme temperature events and the large scale atmospheric circulation before and after the 1976 climate shift. To do so we first constructed a set of two temperature indices that describe the occurrence of warm nights (TN90) and cold nights (TN10) based on a long daily observed minimum temperature database that spans the period 1946-2005, and then divided the period into two subperiods of 30 years each (1946-1975 and 1976-2005). We focus on summer (TN10) and winter (TN90) seasons. During austral summer before 1976 the interannual variability of cold nights was characterized by a negative phase of the Southern Annular Mode (SAM) with a cyclonic anomaly centered off Uruguay that favoured the entrance of cold air from the south. After 1976 cold nights are associated not with the SAM, but with an isolated vortex at upper levels over South Eastern South America. During austral winter before 1976, the El Nino phenomenon dominated the interannual variability of warm nights through an increase in the northerly warm flow into Uruguay. However, after 1976 the El Nino connection weakened and the variability of warm nights is dominated by a barotropic anticyclonic anomaly located in the South Atlantic and a low pressure center over South America. This configuration also strengthens the northward flow of warm air into Uruguay. Our results suggest that changes in El Nino evolution after 1976 may have played a role in altering the relationship between temperature extreme events in Uruguay and the atmospheric circulation. (orig.)

  7. El programa de asistencia policial de la AID en Uruguay (1965-1974)

    OpenAIRE

    Aldrighi, Clara

    2008-01-01

    This article analyzes the interference of the United States in Uruguayan internal politics throughout the years that preceded the military coup; it documents the decisive role played by the USAID’s Public Safety Program in the repression of the social and guerrilla movements, and sponsoring the authoritarian policies that culminated in the dictatorial regime. Key words: Uruguay. Counterinsurgency. Police assistance. Este artigo analisa a ingerência dos Estados Unidos na política inter...

  8. Latin American special project: kidney health cooperation project between Uruguay and Bolivia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sola, Laura; Plata-Cornejo, Raúl; Fernández-Cean, Juan

    2015-01-01

    Uruguay and Bolivia are two countries that show heterogenicity of the Latin American region, including the national income, the expenditure on health and the services for renal care. In Bolivia, there is manpower shortage for renal care with only 5 nephrologists per million people (pmp) and the prevalence of patients on dialysis is only 200 pmp. This is much lower than the mean prevalence rate of renal replacement therapy for Latin America as a whole. Uruguay on the other hand has more dedicated renal resources with 50 nephrologists pmp, and renal replacement therapy is provided to ~ 1,000 dialysis patients pmp. In November 2012, a collaborative project financed by the Uruguayan International Cooperation Agency was signed by both the Uruguay and Bolivia Ministries of Health, and the goal was to develop a comprehensive program for the prevention and management of all stages of chronic kidney disease (CKD) in Bolivia. The specific objectives were to: a) promote renal healthcare in the primary healthcare setting, b) identify kidney disease in populations at risk, and c) optimize patient care at all stages of CKD, including dialysis and transplantation supported with a national ESRD registry in Bolivia. As a first step, delegates from the Bolivian Health Ministry, visited Uruguay in April 2014, primarily to strengthen the development of tools required for developing and maintaining a national registry. In addition, during this visit, a meeting with the president of the Latin American Society of Nephrology and Hypertension (SLANH) culminated in designing a training program for peritoneal dialysis. This highly cooperative relationship is advancing the prevention and care of CKD in Bolivia and may serve as a model for international approaches to advance system level CKD care in countries with limited healthcare resources.

  9. Phylodynamics analysis of canine parvovirus in Uruguay: evidence of two successive invasions by different variants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maya, Leticia; Calleros, Lucía; Francia, Lourdes; Hernández, Martín; Iraola, Gregorio; Panzera, Yanina; Sosa, Katia; Pérez, Ruben

    2013-06-01

    Canine parvovirus (CPV) comprises three antigenic variants (2a, 2b, and 2c) with different frequencies and genetic variability among countries. Current CPV populations are considered to be spatially structured with relatively little movement of viruses between geographical areas. Here we describe the evolution and population dynamics of CPV in Uruguay from 2006-2011 using full-length capsid viral protein 2 (VP2) sequences. CPV-2c was the predominant variant in Uruguay for 4 years (2006-2009). The estimated time to the most recent common ancestor suggested that the CPV-2c variant appeared in Uruguay around 2004-2005. Comparative phylogenetic analysis revealed that South American CPV-2c strains did not emerge de novo but may have a European origin. In 2010, a remarkable epidemiological change occurred as a consequence of the emergence of a novel CPV-2a strain in the previously homogeneous CPV-2c population. The frequency of the novel CPV-2a strain increased to 85 % in 2011, representing the first example of a CPV-2a strain replacing a predominant CPV-2c strain in a dog population. The CPV-2a strains detected in 2010-2011 were not phylogenetically related to any other strain collected on the American continent but were identical to Asiatic strains, suggesting that its emergence was a consequence of a migration event. Taken together, our findings suggest that in the last decade, Uruguay has experienced two successive invasions by CPV-2c and CPV-2a variants of European and Asiatic origins, respectively. These results support the hypothesis that CPV invasion events are not rare in certain geographic regions and indicate that some current strains may exhibit an unexpectedly high invasion and replacement capability.

  10. Phylodynamics of HIV-1 Circulating Recombinant Forms 12_BF and 38_BF in Argentina and Uruguay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mangano Andrea

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although HIV-1 CRF12_BF and CRF38_BF are two epidemiologically important recombinant lineages circulating in Argentina and Uruguay, little is known about their population dynamics. Methods A total of 120 "CRF12_BF-like" and 20 "CRF38_BF-like" pol recombinant sequences collected in Argentina and Uruguay from 1997 to 2009 were subjected to phylogenetic and Bayesian coalescent-based analyses to estimate evolutionary and demographic parameters. Results Phylogenetic analyses revealed that CRF12_BF viruses from Argentina and Uruguay constitute a single epidemic with multiple genetic exchanges among countries; whereas circulation of the CRF38_BF seems to be confined to Uruguay. The mean estimated substitution rate of CRF12_BF at pol gene (2.5 × 10-3 substitutions/site/year was similar to that previously described for subtype B. According to our estimates, CRF12_BF and CRF38_BF originated at 1983 (1978-1988 and 1986 (1981-1990, respectively. After their emergence, the CRF12_BF and CRF38_BF epidemics seem to have experienced a period of rapid expansion with initial growth rates of around 1.2 year-1 and 0.9 year-1, respectively. Later, the rate of spread of these CRFs_BF seems to have slowed down since the mid-1990s. Conclusions Our results suggest that CRF12_BF and CRF38_BF viruses were generated during the 1980s, shortly after the estimated introduction of subtype F1 in South America (~1975-1980. After an initial phase of fast exponential expansion, the rate of spread of both CRFs_BF epidemics seems to have slowed down, thereby following a demographic pattern that resembles those previously reported for the HIV-1 epidemics in Brazil, USA, and Western Europe.

  11. Political strike. Viability analysis in the legal system of the Republic of Uruguay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Goldstein

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Several motivations have led unionized workers to exercise this fundamental right recognized under Article 57 of the Constitution of the Republic of Uruguay. This right has been the subject doctrine discussions by legal scholars when strikes are considered atypical. In this paper, the viability of strikes when they are motivated by politics is discussed, as well as the response of the national legal system to this phenomenon.

  12. Uruguay Roselli 1938 and Rosellichnus, n. ichnogenus: Two ichnogenera for clusters of fossil bee cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genise, J.F.; Bown, T.M.

    1996-01-01

    The systematic of the fossil bee nest ichnogenus Uruguay from the Uruguayan Cretaceous or lower Tertiary is reviewed and two new ichnospecies of a new ichnogenus, Rosellichnus, are proposed for fossil bee nests from the Miocene of the United Arab Emirates and Patagonian Argentina. Uruguay contains U. auroranormae (the ichnotype) and U. rivasi, which differs from the type ichnospecies in having clustered cells arranged in three rows, with one central and two marginal rows of subparallel cells. No bee nest architecture known to us unequivocally fits with any ichnospecies described herein. Uruguay was constructed in the subsoil and may be of halictid origin; however, its large cell size, thick cell walls, and the presence of a vestibular cell do not fit the architecture of nests of extant halictids. Rosellichnus arabicus lacks the complete cavity surrounding the cell cluster that is typical in nests of Old World halictids, but it may, nonetheless, still be of halictid origin. R. patagonicus has an architecture more similar to nests of anthophorine bees than to those of Neotropical Halictidae. Therefore, the ichnogenus Rosellichnus may include both halictid and anthophorine constructions. Although the smooth inner cell walls, spiral cell caps, and clustering of cells indicate that both Uruguay and Rosellichnus are trace fossils of bee origin, it is likely that both represent nest architectures that are no longer employed by extant bees, or those that are as yet unknown. The paleoenvironments of both the Argentine and Emirates species of Rosellichnus indicate that the trace-makers of this ichnogenus constructed their nests in open ground sandy soils. ?? 1996 OPA (Overseas Publishers Association) Amsterdam B.V. Published in The Netherlands by Harwood Academic Publishers GmbH.

  13. Report of the procedure of voluntary interruption of pregnancy at a university hospital in Uruguay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Bentancor

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To describe the constitution and operation of a voluntary interruption of pregnancy team of a university hospital, from the outlook of the mental health team. METHODS In this case study, the following aspects were analyzed: 1 historical background; 2 implementation of Law 18,897 of October 22, 2012; and 3 functioning of the program at the Hospital de Clínicas of the Facultad de Medicina (Universidad de la República, Uruguay, taking into account three dimensions: structure, process, and results. RESULTS Between December 2012 and November 2013, a total of 6,676 voluntary interruptions of pregnancy were reported in Uruguay; out of these, 80 were conducted at the Hospital de Clínicas. The patients’ demographic data agreed with those reported at the national level: Of the total patients, 81.0% were aged over 19 years; 6.2% decided to continue with the pregnancy; and only 70.0% attended the subsequent control and received advice on contraception. CONCLUSIONS In its implementation year in Uruguay, we can assess the experience as positive from the point of view of women’s health. Our experience as a mental health team at the Hospital de Clínicas, inserted into the multidisciplinary voluntary interruption of pregnancy team, is in the process of assessment and reformulation of practices.

  14. A new genus and species of opisthogonimid (Digenea) of Liophis anomalus (Serpentes: Colubridae) from Uruguay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volonterio, Odile; Baletta, Silvana; Meneghel, Melitta

    2006-10-01

    During a study on the helminth fauna of Liophis anomalus specimens deposited in the Reptile Collection of the Secci6n Zoología Vertebrados, Facultad de Ciencias, Uruguay, a new genus of Opisthogoniminae was found. Paracotyletrema n. gen. is described from the buccal cavity and esophagus of specimens from Departamento de Flores, Uruguay. This new genus differs from the other 2 Opisthogoniminae, Opisthogonimus and Westella, by having much smaller body size; maximum width at level of posterior end of oral sucker; oral sucker length more than one-fourth of body length; oral sucker and acetabulum separated by a distance of about the diameter of pharynx; cirrus pouch length more than half of body length; and testes in completely coincident zones. The type and only species, Paracotyletrema poncedeleoni n. gen., n. sp., is defined by the following diagnostic characters: mean oral sucker length one-third to one-half of body length; cirrus pouch of about body length, contorted, mainly acetabular; large, round testes in nearly adjacent fields, and an ovary nearly adjacent to right testis. Besides the type locality, Paracotyletrema poncedeleoni has been found in L. anomalus specimens from the Departamentos of Artigas and Treinta y Tres; therefore, it has a widespread distribution in Uruguay.

  15. Brief Counseling on Secondhand Smoke Exposure in Pregnant Women in Argentina and Uruguay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alemán, Alicia; Morello, Paola; Colomar, Mercedes; Llambi, Laura; Berrueta, Mabel; Gibbons, Luz; Buekens, Pierre; Althabe, Fernando

    2016-01-01

    Argentina and Uruguay have a high prevalence of smoking during pregnancy, as well as of secondhand smoke (SHS) exposure. In this secondary analysis of a trial to implement brief smoking cessation counseling during antenatal care in Argentina and Uruguay, we aim to evaluate the effects of the intervention on the rates of self-reported SHS exposure at home and at work, and on attitudes recalled by non-smoker women enrolled in the intervention group compared with the control group. We randomly assigned (1:1) 20 antenatal care clusters in Argentina and Uruguay to receive a multifaceted intervention to implement brief smoking cessation counseling, which also included questions and counseling regarding SHS exposure, or to receive the standard of care. There was not a statistically significant difference between groups of the intervention’s effect (reduction of exposure to SHS) on any of the three exposure outcome measures (exposure at home, work or other indoor areas) or on the attitudes of women regarding exposure (avoiding breathing SHS and having rooms where smoking is forbidden). This analysis shows that we should not expect reductions in SHS exposure with this modest intervention alone. To achieve such reductions, strategies engaging partners and other household members may be more effective. PMID:28036075

  16. Brief Counseling on Secondhand Smoke Exposure in Pregnant Women in Argentina and Uruguay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alicia Alemán

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Argentina and Uruguay have a high prevalence of smoking during pregnancy, as well as of secondhand smoke (SHS exposure. In this secondary analysis of a trial to implement brief smoking cessation counseling during antenatal care in Argentina and Uruguay, we aim to evaluate the effects of the intervention on the rates of self-reported SHS exposure at home and at work, and on attitudes recalled by non-smoker women enrolled in the intervention group compared with the control group. We randomly assigned (1:1 20 antenatal care clusters in Argentina and Uruguay to receive a multifaceted intervention to implement brief smoking cessation counseling, which also included questions and counseling regarding SHS exposure, or to receive the standard of care. There was not a statistically significant difference between groups of the intervention’s effect (reduction of exposure to SHS on any of the three exposure outcome measures (exposure at home, work or other indoor areas or on the attitudes of women regarding exposure (avoiding breathing SHS and having rooms where smoking is forbidden. This analysis shows that we should not expect reductions in SHS exposure with this modest intervention alone. To achieve such reductions, strategies engaging partners and other household members may be more effective.

  17. Questioning the "melting pot": analysis of Alu inserts in three population samples from Uruguay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hidalgo, Pedro C; Mut, Patricia; Ackermann, Elizabeth; Figueiro, Gonzalo; Sans, Monica

    2014-01-01

    The way that immigrants integrate into recipient societies has been discussed for decades, mainly from the perspective of the social sciences. Uruguay, as other American countries, received diffferent waves of European immigrants, although the details of the process of assimilation, when it did occur, are unclear. In this study we used genetic markers to understand the process experienced by the Basques, one of the major migration waves that populated Uruguay, and their relation to other immigrants, as well as to Native American and African descendants. For this purpose, we analyzed the allele frequencies of 10 ALU loci (A25, ACE, APOA1, B65, D1, F13B, PV92, TPA25, HS2.43, and HS4.65) in three samples from Uruguay (two of Basque descendants, one of non-Basque descendants) from two locations: Montevideo and Trinidad. No departure from Hardy-Weinberg expectations was observed, with the exceptions of the APOA1 and D1 loci in the non-Basque descendants' samples. Our data show that the major genetic contribution in the three samples comes from Europe (78-88%), with minor African (10-15%) and Native American (0-10%) contributions. Genetic distances reveal that Basque descendants from Trinidad cluster with Europeans, whereas both Montevideo samples cluster together and are separate from other populations, showing two diffferent types of integration, related to the general characteristics of each regional population.

  18. Detection and Molecular Characterization of Aichivirus 1 in Wastewater Samples from Uruguay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burutarán, L; Lizasoain, A; García, M; Tort, L F L; Colina, R; Victoria, M

    2016-03-01

    Aichivirus 1 (AiV-1) is an enteric virus with 30 nm in diameter, belonging to the genus Kobuvirus in the Picornaviridae family being a causative agent of gastroenteritis in humans. The transmission is via the fecal-oral route, through person to person contact, recreation in contaminated waters, or through the consumption of contaminated food or water. The aim of this study was to determine the frequency and the molecular characterization of AiV-1 in wastewater from Uruguay. Biweekly collections from March 2011 to February 2012 were performed in the cities of Bella Unión, Salto, Paysandú, and Fray Bentos, northwestern region of Uruguay. A total of 96 samples were collected; viruses were concentrated by ultracentrifugation, and AiV-1 was detected by using a nested PCR with primers directed to a conserved region (3CD junction) of the viral genome. A high frequency of AiV-1 (n = 54) was observed at all the cities analyzed mainly in the colder months of the year. AiV-1 was not evidenced as an appropriate viral fecal indicator since when compared with other previously detected enteric viruses, no correlation was observed. All 13 characterized AiV-1 belonged to the genotype B after the phylogenetic analysis performed with the sequences obtained from the first round PCR amplicon. This study demonstrates that AiV-1 is a frequently detected enteric viruses present in wastewater and excreted by infected persons in the northwestern region of Uruguay.

  19. Long-term flow forecasts based on climate and hydrologic modeling: Uruguay River basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucci, Carlos Eduardo Morelli; Clarke, Robin Thomas; Collischonn, Walter; da Silva Dias, Pedro Leite; de Oliveira, Gilvan Sampaio

    2003-07-01

    This paper describes a procedure for predicting seasonal flow in the Rio Uruguay drainage basin (area 75,000 km2, lying in Brazilian territory), using sequences of future daily rainfall given by the global climate model (GCM) of the Brazilian agency for climate prediction (Centro de Previsão de Tempo e Clima, or CPTEC). Sequences of future daily rainfall given by this model were used as input to a rainfall-runoff model appropriate for large drainage basins. Forecasts of flow in the Rio Uruguay were made for the period 1995-2001 of the full record, which began in 1940. Analysis showed that GCM forecasts underestimated rainfall over almost all the basin, particularly in winter, although interannual variability in regional rainfall was reproduced relatively well. A statistical procedure was used to correct for the underestimation of rainfall. When the corrected rainfall sequences were transformed to flow by the hydrologic model, forecasts of flow in the Rio Uruguay basin were better than forecasts based on historic mean or median flows by 37% for monthly flows and by 54% for 3-monthly flows.

  20. Desafíos del acceso a los estudios de derecho en el Uruguay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Martínez Sandres

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Una de las características particulares de la educación pública en el Uruguay es su promoción por el acceso universal a los estudios de nivel universitario. Mientras Ia aspiración va avanzando y supera la media regional en términos de  Tasa Bruta de Escolarización, comienzan a ser patentes los aspectos negativos de la falta de políticas y medidas que atiendan las consecuencias no deseadas del fenómeno. La inacción comienza a erosionar la imagen pública de las instituciones y en particular, su pertinencia social. El artículo se concentra en los efectos producidos a partir del acceso irrestricto a la Facultad de Derecho de la Universidad de la República (Uruguay, los problemas surgidos y algunos esfuerzos, que procuran mantener vigentes los principios más tradicionales de la sociedad nacional.Contenido: Uruguay. Universidad de la República y la Facultad de derecho. Universalización de los estudios de nivel superior. Las exigencias. Los problemas. La pertinencia en tela de juicio. ¿Qué nos deparan los próximos años?. Recomendaciones. Conclusión

  1. Paleomagnetic and Tectonic studies in Uruguay: a brief synthesis of the last decade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez Bettucci, L.

    2013-05-01

    The paleomagnetic studies in Uruguay have been applied as a complementary tool to geological studies. Paleomagnetic data can be very useful for geodynamic reconstructions, fundamentally for determine the latitudinal tectonic transport, rotations of crustal blocks. This technique has been applied to Paleoproterozoic, Neoproterozoic and Paleozoic units. The geology of the Uruguayan territory is divided into four tectonic units of Uruguay that include a) the Piedra Alta tectonostratigraphic terrane (PATT) and b) Nico Pérez tectonostratigraphic terrane (NPTT), separated by the Sarandí del Yí high-strain zone. Both terranes are well exposed in the Río de La Plata craton (RPC) and have paleoproterozoic ages, the last was reworked in Neoproterozoic times (metacraton). The most thoroughly investigated Neoproterozoic sections are located in the eastern and southeastern regions of Uruguay. The c) Dom Feliciano Belt shows a tectonic evolution from back-arc to foreland basin characterized by fold-and-thrust, thick-skinned belts developed during the Brasiliano/Pan-African orogenic cycle. And finally d) The high metamorphic grade Punta del Este terrane where its most notable feature is their African affinity. There is a significant shortage of geochemical and geochronological data for the existing geological complexity.

  2. Monitoramento geofísico de desmonte de rocha com utilização de explosivos em condições de risco elevado em zona urbana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jair Carlos Koppe

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available Esse trabalho introduz uma metodologia baseada na aplicação de métodos geofísicos para avaliação do risco associado ao desmonte de rochas com utilização de explosivos em áreas urbanas com alta densidade demográfica e situação de risco elevada. A utilização de GPR (ground penetrating radar forneceu informações relacionadas com as condições geomecânicas do terreno, tais como densidade de fraturas, enquanto que o monitoramento sismográfico auxiliou no controle de vibrações geradas pelo desmonte, mantendo-se essas vibrações abaixo dos limites estabelecidos na legislação brasileira. Resultados de caracterização geomecânica do subsolo e do monitoramento de vibrações são descritos e discutidos. A metodologia proposta é ilustrada em um estudo de caso.This paper presents an application of geophysical methods to evaluate the risk associated with blasting used during rock excavation at highly populated and risky urban areas. Ground penetration radar provided information related to rock mechanics such as fracture density, whilst seismographic readings helped in maintaining vibration levels below maximum limits. Results of in situ soil and rock characterization and vibration control are reported and discussed. The methodology proposed is illustrated in case study.

  3. Análisis de las discrepancias económicas entre Swanston y Cia, constructora del Puerto de la Luz (Canarias, y su ingeniero Juan de León y Castillo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mercedes Calvo Cruz

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo pretendemos abordar la figura de Juan de León y Castillo, persona ilustre en su época, científico, ingeniero y apasionado por la política y la filosofía, desde una óptica novedosa, toda vez, que se pretende poner de manifiesto la estrecha relación que existió entre el ingeniero y la Swanston and Company, contratista que llevó a cabo la construcción del Puerto de Refugio de la Luz de Las Palmas. Esta relación data de 1891, momento en el que se firma el contrato entre ambos y Juan de León y Castillo se hace cargo de las obras del puerto como Ingeniero Director y Consultivo.Es nuestro objetivo evidenciar los entresijos económicos y los numerosos problemas que existieron entre el ingeniero y la empresa contratista y poner de manifiesto una desconocida faceta de Juan de León y Castillo como censor de los libros contables y demás documentación económica que la Swanston llevaba para la obra que nos ocupa.Por tanto, con este trabajo quisiéramos contribuir al conocimiento de un hombre ilustre y polifacético, que no sólo se dedicó a la estricta labor de desarrollar aquellos conocimientos recibidos sino que denota la curiosidad propia de un investigador y la ecuanimidad en su proceder.In this work we try to approach Juan de León y Castillo's figure, an illustrious person of his time, scientist, engineer and an enthusiast about politics and philosophy. From a new optic, he tried to reveal the narrow relation that existed between the engineer and the Swanston and Company, contractor who carried out the construction of El Puerto de Refugio de la Luz de Las Palmas. This relation dates back on the late 1891, moment in which the contract is signed between both and Juan de León y Castillo takes charge of the works of the port as an engineer, director and advisor.It is our aim to demonstrate the economic mesenteries and the numerous problems which existed between the engineer and the company contractor and to reveal an

  4. La utopía de la democracia en uruguay. Entre la nostalgia del pasado y el desmentido de la historia The utopia of democracy in Uruguay. Between the nostalgia about the past and the refutation of history

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando AÍNSA AMIGUES

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN: Uruguay tiene una larga tradición democrática unida a la del desarrollo de un Estado de bienestar instaurado a principios del siglo XX y prolongado hasta la década de 1960, cuando el sistema entró en crisis. En este ensayo se analiza el contenido utópico de esa democracia, sus carencias, la crisis, el proceso de su decadencia, el período de la dictadura (1973-1984 y la nostalgia del «país que fue» que ha marcado la política del restablecimiento de la institucionalidad en 1985 hasta nuestros días.ABSTRACT: Uruguay has a long tradition of democracy that is associated to the Welfare State built at the beginning of the XX Century. In the sixties started a period of crisis and decadence, which had its worst moment during the period of the dictatorship (1973-1984. Uruguay lives since then with the nostalgia of what «has been», the impossible utopia of the past.Uruguay has a long tradition of democracy that is associated to the Welfare State built at the beginning of the XX Century. In the sixties started a period of crisis and decadence, which had its worst moment during the period of the dictatorship (1973-1984. Uruguay lives since then with the nostalgia of what «has been», the impossible utopia of the past.

  5. Un pedazo de la Prehistoria cántabra en Nueva York. Las Colecciones de la Cueva de El Castillo (Puente Viesgo, Cantabria en el American Museum of Natural History (Nueva York, EEUU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tattersall, I.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available En los años en torno a la I Guerra Mundial una pequeña pero importante colección de objetos de diferentes yacimientos cántabros llegó al AMNH de Nueva York de la mano del arqueólogo norteamericano N. C. Nelson. En un trabajo anterior uno de los firmantes (RW expuso en detalle las circunstancias historiográficas del traslado de los materiales españoles a los Estados Unidos. Aunque la representación de los sitios cantábricos comprende las cuevas de El Castillo, Morín y La Franca, además de otros yacimientos peninsulares, en este articulo nos centramos en el conjunto perteneciente a la cueva de El Castillo. La importancia de la secuencia de este yacimiento para la Prehistoria europea, lo disperso de sus colecciones y el desconocimiento de los materiales de AMNH por parte de la comunidad científica, legitiman a nuestro juicio una elección prioritaria del mismo. Presentamos los datos obtenidos de un primer análisis de la serie que comprende los materiales líticos, óseos, y la fauna así como una descripción de las muestras sedimentarias recogidas por Nelson, con especial incidencia de los niveles auriñacienses. Entre los materiales de El Castillo destaca la presencia de un fragmento óseo humano (peroné en curso de estudio, cuyo análisis deberá permitirnos su adscripción taxonómica y cronológica.

  6. Radiation protection in Uruguay. The role of the Uruguayan radiation protection association

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Puig, D.E. [University of the Republic, Faculty of Law, Montevideo (Uruguay)

    2000-05-01

    Uruguay has been conducted nuclear activities in medical uses for many years and as early as 1919 established the first law. In 1955 established a Regulatory body sources. But nowadays the Country has not the adequate structure in the use of nuclear technology in spite of the fact that these uses increased. The regulatory body depends on the Ministry of Industry, Energy and Mining and also is in charge of promotion and development. The paper will consider the principal aspects of the problem: lack of information, lack of basic legislation, lack of adequate structure. Lack of information: The radiological risk perception in the public is very different of that perception in the authorities. Uruguayan public have not become aware of the benefits of the uses of nuclear technology and the authorities have not learnt from accidents as in Goiania, Ciudad Juarez and others in order to be able improve legislation and structure. Fortunately Uruguay had not important incidents but it is important to have adequate legal instruments in order to prevent them as an adequate structure. Lack of basic legislation: The development of this science of nuclear energy needs adequate regulations and structures following the international standards Uruguay has important legal documents as the one that created the Atomic Energy National Commission and then the Nuclear Energy National Direction and others as the decree No. 519, November 1984 and legal instruments that approved the International Conventions of WLO but it has not a radiation protection Act. Uruguay is also part of the Tlatelolco Treaty and the Non Proliferation Treaty and approved the Vienna Convention on Civil Liability for Nuclear Damage of 1963, the Convention on Early Notification of a Nuclear Accident and the Convention on Assistance in Case of a Nuclear Accident or Radiological Emergency. Lack of an adequate structure: The regulatory body depends on the Ministry of Industry Energy and Mining and is in charge of

  7. "Aquellas escaramuzas por mí memoradas": experiencia y memorias de batalla en las crónicas de Hernán Cortés y Bernal Díaz del Castillo

    OpenAIRE

    Valeria Añón

    2009-01-01

    En este trabajo analizamos la representación de la experiencia de conquista en las Cartas de relación de Hernán Cortés y la Historia verdadera de la conquista de la Nueva España de Bernal Díaz del Castillo. En ambas crónicas, a medida que los soldados avanzan (en el territorio y en el relato), la vivencia sensible se constituye en piedra de toque en la organización de la trama, definiendo identidades. Nos centramos entonces en ciertos enfrentamientos paradigmáticos (la Noche Triste, la caída ...

  8. El hombre y la mujer en la traducción. Análisis del comportamiento de la traducción de Carmen Martín Gaite frente a la de Juan Bravo Castillo en Madame Bovary

    OpenAIRE

    Sánchez Moros, Tamara

    2016-01-01

    Uno de los asuntos que se dirimen en la teoría de la traducción es la existencia o no de una supuesta traducción femenina. Sin pretender entrar en tal dilema, el presente trabajo de fin de grado analizará el comportamiento interno de las traducciones de una traductora y de un traductor: la de Carmen Martín Gaite y la de Juan Bravo Castillo sobre la novela de Gustave Flaubert, Madame Bovary. A través del reconocimiento de los diferentes procedimientos de traducción utilizados po...

  9. Assessing the impact of cigarette package health warning labels: a cross-country comparison in Brazil, Uruguay, and Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thrasher, James F; Villalobos, Victor; Szklo, André; Fong, Geoffrey T; Pérez, Cristina; Sebrié, Ernesto; Sansone, Natalie; Figueiredo, Valeska; Boado, Marcelo; Arillo-Santillán, Edna; Bianco, Eduardo

    2015-01-01

    Objective To assess the impact of different health warning labels (HWL). Material and Methods Data from the International Tobacco Control Survey (ITC Survey) were analyzed from adult smokers in Brazil, Uruguay and Mexico, each of which used a different HWL strategy (pictures of human suffering and diseased organs; abstract pictorial representations of risk; and text-only messages, respectively). Main outcomes were HWL salience and cognitive impact. Results HWLs in Uruguay (which was the only country with a HWL on the front of the package) had higher salience than either Brazilian or Mexican packs. People at higher levels of educational attainment in Mexico were more likely to read the text-only HWLs whereas education was unassociated with salience in Brazil or Uruguay. Brazilian HWLs had greater cognitive impacts than HWLs in either Uruguay or Mexico. HWLs in Uruguay generated lower cognitive impacts than the text-only HWLs in Mexico. In Brazil, cognitive impacts were strongest among smokers with low educational attainment. Conclusions This study suggests that HWLs have the most impact when they are prominent (i.e., front and back of the package) and include emotionally engaging imagery that illustrates negative bodily impacts or human suffering due to smoking. PMID:21243191

  10. Hippidioll sp. (Mammalia, Perissodactyla. Equidae en sedimentos del Pleistoceno superior del Uruguay (Edad Mamífero Lujanense

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberdi, M. T.

    1990-12-01

    Full Text Available The most complete remains of Hippidion sp. to the Pleistocene of Uruguay are described. They agree with a robust form with fore limbs relatively short to the large skull. Cranial, mandibles and postcranial characters are analized and compared with respect to others «hippidiformes» of South America. The depositional environment belong to floodplain facies of meandering fluvial systems.Se describen los restos más completos de Hippidion sp. reportados hasta el momento para el Pleistoceno de Uruguay. Corresponden a una forma robusta con extremidades anteriores relativamente cortas respecto del cráneo grande. Se analizan sus caracteres cráneo-mandibulares y postcraneales comparados con otros «hippidiformes» de Sudamérica. El marco sedimentario corresponde a una planicie de inundación de un sistema fluvial meandriforme de la Fm. Sopas (Pleistoceno superior; Edad mamífero Lujanense del Uruguay.

  11. Briquetagem da granalha de aço recuperada do resíduo de rochas ornamentais Briquetting of steel grit recovered from the ornamental rocks cutting waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Junca

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Esse trabalho apresenta os resultados obtidos com a confecção de briquetes a partir da granalha de aço presente no resíduo de rochas ornamentais. A granalha recuperada através de separação magnética foi caracterizada pelo método titulométrico, EDS (Espectrometria por Dispersão de Elétrons e difração de raios X. O tamanho e a distribuição das partículas foram obtidos por microscopia eletrônica de varredura e análise granulométrica. O concentrado ferroso recuperado apresentou teor de 93% de ferro metálico. Os briquetes apresentaram resistência a verde para força até 1,02 kN e a seco para a força máxima de 3,59 kN.This paper presents the results obtained with the production of briquettes from the steel grit found in the residue of ornamental rocks. The grit recovered by magnetic separation was characterized by titrimetric analysis, EDS (Electron Dispersive Spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction for the analysis of iron concentration in the residue. The size and distribution of particles were obtained by the granulometric analysis method and scanning electron microscopy (SEM. The process resulted in a concentrate containing 93% metallic iron. The maximum load before fracture of the green briquettes was 1.02kN and of the dry briquettes was 3.59kN.

  12. Programa Rocha Amiga, Iniciativas para Crianças do Ensino Fundamental no Quadrilátero Ferrífero, Minas Gerais - Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Úrsula Azevedo Ruchkys

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available O Programa “Rocha Amiga” foi criado em Portugal no âmbito das comemorações do Ano Internacional do Planeta Terra (AIPT, durante o ano letivo de 2007/2008. No Brasil, o Programa está sendo adaptado para a região do Quadrilátero Ferrífero, Minas Gerais, em um Projeto financiado pela FAPEMIG - APQ – 03167-10, visando sensibilizar a comunidade escolar para a importância científica, didática, paisagística/estética, cultural e socioeconômica do patrimônio geológico de seu entorno. Três sítios geológicos de valor patrimonial foram selecionados como piloto. A implementação do Projeto foi iniciada no Parque das Mangabeiras - Serra do Curral onde foram realizados trabalhos de campo para identificação de afloramentos considerados chave para o entendimento da evolução geológica do sítio e de outros aspectos importantes associados, como valores histórico-culturais, biológicos e paisagísticos. Foram propostos e aplicados roteiros geoturísticos guiados e construídos kits pedagógicos de forma a proporcionar atividades lúdicopráticas facilitadoras do processo de ensino e aprendizagem de temas geológicos. Conclui-se que as atividades propostas podem favorecer o conhecimento e conservação do patrimônio geológico do Quadrilátero Ferrífero.

  13. A ESTÉTICA DA ANTROPOFAGIA: DEVORAÇÃO, CRÍTICA E CINEMA EM OSWALD DE ANDRADE, GLAUBER ROCHA E OLNEY SÃO PAULO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dinameire Oliveira Carneiro RIOS

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available As escolhas de elementos do campo ético e estético aproximam o Modernismobrasileiro e o Cinema Novo, movimentos artísticos que agenciaram um reconhecimento dosvalores da cultura popular, reelaborando as práticas estéticas e manifestações das culturas queestão no cerne de nossa formação, além de subsidiar as bases estruturais da nova obra de arteproduzida, buscando constantemente dentro das produções artísticas destes períodos umaintertextualidade que pretendesse dialogar com o passado e o presente do país em cada umdesses momentos históricos e artísticos. Nesse sentido, este trabalho analisa a posição crítica eintelectual de três importantes pensadores destes momentos estéticos brasileiros: inicialmenteOswald de Andrade e Glauber Rocha, intelectuais revolucionários, vanguardistas quepropuseram em suas obras a descolonização da arte brasileira, o primeiro através da metáforaritualística da antropofagia transformada numa elaboração teórica da cultura nacional quealiava barbárie e técnica e o segundo por meio da violência provocada pela fome teorizada na“Estética da Fome”, discutindo, por fim, como essas duas propostas que nortearam oModernismo e o Cinema Novo no Brasil encontram-se presentes na produção fílmica eintelectual do cineasta baiano Olney São Paulo.

  14. El Poder Simbólico de las Gremiales Ganaderos en el Uruguay Contemporáneo The simbolic power of cattle raisers' associations in contemporary Uruguay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Riella

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available En este artículo se buscará estudiar el amplio poder de influencia que los grandes estancieros y sus gremiales logran mantener desde hace más de un siglo en el Uruguay. Mediante el análisis de la dimensión simbólica del mundo social agrario estudiaremos las prácticas discursivas de las Gremiales Ganaderas - Asociación Rural del Uruguay y Federación Rural - como parte central de su estrategia simbólica para mantener su hegemonía en el campo social agrario. En este sentido, creemos que la construcción social del territorio en nuestro país se asienta en la forma de percepción impuesta por el poder simbólico de este grupo que ha hecho de sus formas particulares de apropiación y uso de la tierra la única forma posible y legítima de utilización de los recursos naturales. Para el análisis de las prácticas discursivas partimos del supuesto de que las organizaciones sociales, gremiales y corporativas están siempre inmersas en luchas simbólicas, ya que en ellas está en juego la realización objetiva de sus intereses a largo plazo. Utilizando los términos de Merton, podríamos afirmar que, más allá de la función manifiesta de una organización - gremial, comercial, profesional -, siempre hay una función latente que procura imponer a sus adversarios y a la opinión pública la "visión del mundo" propia del grupo que representa. En consecuencia, en las prácticas discursivas de estos agentes podremos encontrar claramente expresado su poder, sus alianzas, sus conflictos, lo que nos permite acceder a la comprensión de su estrategia simbólica de reproducción social.This article will try to study the broad influence and power maintained by large landowners and their associations since over a century ago in Uruguay. Based on the analysis of the symbolic dimensions of the agrarian world, we will study discursive practices of Cattle Owners Associations - Asociación Rural del Uruguay and Federación Rural - as a core part of their

  15. Análisis léxico-semántico del habla popular de los jóvenes espirituanos del IPU Honorato del Castillo Cancio en diferentes contextos comunicativos.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura María Pérez de Valdivia

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available La presente investigación titulada Análisis léxico-semántico del habla de los jóvenes espirituanos del IPU “Honorato del Castillo Cancio” en diferentes contextos comunicativos da muestra de ese lenguaje rico y expresivo que abarca las más disímiles actitudes de los jóvenes y se expresa en los diversos escenarios comunicativos donde se desarrollan. Este estudio descriptivo y con un enfoque sincrónico, centra su objetivo general en la determinación de la relación existente entre las características léxico-semánticas del habla de los estudiantes del 10mo grado del IPU “Honorato del Castillo Cancio” y las situaciones comunicativas en que participan. Para darle cumplimiento a este propósito, se aplicaron varios métodos y técnicas de recolección de datos a una muestra de 60 informantes, lo que permitió fundamentar la existencia de varios fenómenos lingüísticos (cambios semánticos, neologismos y préstamos en el habla de estos jóvenes teniendo en cuenta los contextos comunicativos en los que participan (escolar, familiar y comunitario.

  16. El barrio de Arriasa y tres elementos de la aljama judía de Toledo en el siglo XV: la carnicería, la «sinagoga vieja» y el «castillo viejo»

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Passini, Jean

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Already mentioned in 13th century written sources, the Arriasa neighborhood was an area within the Toledan Jewish quarter that still remained to be identified and demarcated. Documentary evidence –tenancy agreement charters dated back from the 13th until the 18th centuries–, as well as information on the vicissitudes experienced by the Jewish common properties from the late 15th century on, have been used to locate the butcher’s stalls, the “old synagogue” and the “old castle” on a street plan. Thus, the Arriasa neighborhood has been clearly delimited.

    Mencionado ya en el siglo XIII, el barrio de Arriasa había sido uno de los sectores de la Judería de Toledo más difíciles de localizar. Menciones en contratos conservados de arrendamiento de casas desde fines del siglo XIII y hasta la segunda mitad del siglo XVIII, y las vicisitudes sufridas por las propiedades inmuebles de la aljama judía desde fines del siglo xv han permitido situar la carnicería, la «sinagoga vieja» y el «castillo viejo». De esta manera se delimita claramente el barrio de Arriasa, que se distingue del barrio del Degolladero, aclarando además las referencias a la «sinagoga vieja» y al «castillo viejo».

  17. Una carta de Jardiel Poncela a propósito de la versión cinematográfica de "Las inquietudes de Shanti Andía", por Arturo Ruiz Castillo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herrera, Javier

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available On the occasion of the premiere of Las inquietudes de Shanti Andía realized by Arturo Ruiz Castillo from Baroja’s homonymous novel, Jardiel Poncela writes an extensive letter to him, totally unpublished. It is possible to read in it considerations of great interest to know his aesthetic thought and his ideas about public, the role of the women, praises about the adaptation realized from the original novel, as well as interesting considerations on the relations between literature and cinema.

    Con motivo del estreno de Las inquietudes de Shanti Andía realizada por Arturo Ruiz Castillo a partir de la obra de Baroja, Jardiel Poncela le escribe una extensa carta, totalmente inédita, en la que, entre otras consideraciones de gran interés para conocer su pensamiento estético y sus ideas acerca del público y el papel de la mujer, le elogia la adaptación realizada de la obra barojiana al tiempo que le hace una serie de consideraciones teóricas muy interesantes sobre las relaciones entre la literatura y el cine.

  18. Los efectos del sector público en el financiamiento de la vivienda: El mercado hipotecario de Uruguay

    OpenAIRE

    Gandelman, Eduardo; Gandelman, Nestor

    2004-01-01

    El presente trabajo estudia el mercado hipotecario de viviendas en Uruguay. El principal operador del mercado es el Banco Hipotecario del Uruguay (BHU), una institución estatal que concentra más de 80% del total de los créditos. Esta institución se ha visto en dificultades financieras, lo que ha dado pie a su reforma, la cual se está procesando actualmente. Sus dificultades se deben principalmente a ingerencias políticas en decisiones de carácter técnico, a dificultades prácticas (y no legale...

  19. ¿Para qué bailar? : La Escuela Nacional de Danza de Uruguay (1975-1985)

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    El presente trabajo forma parte de una tesis incompleta de la Maestría en Ciencias Humanas, opción Estudios Latinoamericanos, de la Facultad de Humanidades y Ciencias de la Educación de la Universidad de la República, Uruguay, y es sobre los primeros 10 años de historia de la División Ballet de la Escuela Nacional de Danza de Uruguay (1975-1985). La Escuela Nacional de Danza fue creada en 1975, en pleno proceso de la dictadura cívica militar uruguaya para formar alumnos en ballet clásico y...

  20. Mecanismos de determinación del salario en la actividad privada en Uruguay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Héctor Babace

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available I. Introducción. II. Reseña histórica de los sistemas de reglamentación y de determinación del salario en Uruguay. III. Descripción y análisis del actual sistema de determinación de salarios en la actividad privada en Uruguay. Análisis de la ley Nº 18.566 sobre negociación colectiva. 1. La negociación colectiva y la determinación de salarios. a. Características del sistema de relaciones laborales de Uruguay. b. Procedimientos para el establecimiento de condiciones de trabajo y para la determinación de salarios mínimos. b1. Determinación de salarios por negociación colectiva. b2. Determinación de salarios en Consejos de Salarios. b3. Preferencia por la negociación colectiva sobre los Consejos de Salarios para la determinación de salarios mínimos. 3. Los nuevos Consejos de Salarios. 4 El Consejo Superior Tripartito. 5. Otras cuestiones expresamente reguladas. 6. Los niveles de negociación y su articulación. 6. Prevención y solución de conflictos. La determinación del salario constituye un tema central en la protección de la justa remuneración y especialmente contribuyen al referido propósito, los mecanismos que se instrumenten para establecer los salarios mínimos.

  1. Les disparus politiques en Uruguay, entre l’histoire et la mémoire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugenia Allier Montaño

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Depuis un certain temps, les discussions sur les passés récents et violents, connus lors des années 1960-1980, sont l’un des enjeux majeurs des espaces publics dans plusieurs pays de l’Amérique du Sud. L’Uruguay, ayant vécu un régime civique militaire fortement répressif entre 1973 et 1985, n’a pas été l’exception. Pourtant, bien que les mémoires publiques sur ce passé aient traversé différentes périodes, c’est la disparition des personnes qui conduit presque toute l’histoire des luttes autour de la mémoire du pays. Dans ce texte, nous nous attelons à tracer l’histoire de la mémoire des disparus politiques dans l’arène publique en Uruguay pour connaître les motifs qu’ont faits des disparus de l’image du passé récent.Discussions on violence during the years 1960-1980 in South America have for some time been a central issue in the public space of many South American countries. Uruguay, having gone through a strongly repressive civic-military regime between 1973 and 1985, was no exception. While public memories on this period have gone through different phases, the forced disappearances have always been the main focus of the struggles for memory. This article attempts to trace the history of the remembering of these victims of forced disappearance in the Uruguayan public arena in order to determine memory patterns in the image of a recent past.

  2. Agriculture In Uruguay: New Methods For Drought Monitoring and Crop Identification Using Remotely Sensed Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lessel, J.; Ceccato, P.

    2014-12-01

    Agriculture is a vital resource in the country of Uruguay. Here we propose new methods using remotely sensed data for assisting ranchers, land managers, and policy makers in the country to better manage their crops. Firstly, we created a drought severity index based on the climatological anomalies of land surface temperature (LST) data from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), precipitation data from the Tropical Rainfall Monitoring Mission (TRMM), and normalized difference water index (NDWI) data also using MODIS. The use of the climatological anomalies on the variables has improved the ability of the index to correlate with known drought indices versus previously published indices, which had not used them. We applied various coefficient schemes and vegetation indices in order to choose the model which best correlated with the drought indices across 10 sites throughout Uruguay's rangelands. The model was tested over summer months from 2009-2013. In years where drought had indeed been a problem in the country (such as 2009) the model showed intense signals of drought. Secondly, we used Landsat images to identify winter and summer crops in Uruguay. We first classified them using ENVI and then used the classifications in an ArcMap model to identify specific crop areas. We first created a polygon of the classifications for soils and vegetation for each month (omitting cloud covered images). We then used the crop growing cycle to identify the times during the year for which specific polygons should be soil and which should be vegetation. By intersecting the soil polygons with the vegetation polygons during their respective time periods during the crop growing cycle we were able to create an accurately identify crops. When compared to a shapefile of proposed crops for the year the model obtained a kappa value of 0.60 with a probability of detection of 0.79 and a false alarm ratio of 0.31 for the south-western study area over the 2013-2014 summer.

  3. Provenance and paleogeography of the Devonian Durazno Group, southern Parana Basin in Uruguay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uriz, N. J.; Cingolani, C. A.; Basei, M. A. S.; Blanco, G.; Abre, P.; Portillo, N. S.; Siccardi, A.

    2016-03-01

    A succession of Devonian cover rocks occurs in outcrop and in the subsurface of central-northern Uruguay where they were deposited in an intracratonic basin. This Durazno Group comprises three distinct stratigraphic units, namely the Cerrezuelo, Cordobés and La Paloma formations. The Durazno Group does not exceed 300 m of average thickness and preserves a transgressive-regressive cycle within a shallow-marine siliciclastic shelf platform, and is characterized by an assemblage of invertebrate fossils of Malvinokaffric affinity especially within the Lower Devonian Cordobés shales. The sedimentary provenance of the Durazno Group was determined using petrography, geochemistry, and morphological studies of detrital zircons as well as their U-Pb ages. Sandstone petrography of Cerrezuelo and La Paloma sequences shows that they have a dominantly quartz-feldspathic composition with a minor contribution of other minerals. Whole-rock geochemical data indicate that alteration was strong in each of the three formations studied; chondritic-normalized REE patterns essentially parallel to PAAS, the presence of a negative Eu-anomaly, and Th/Sc and La/Hf ratios point to an average source composition similar to UCC or slightly more felsic. Within the Cerrezuelo Formation, recycling of older volcano-metasedimentary sources is interpreted from Zr/Sc ratios and high Hf, Zr, and REE concentrations. U-Pb detrital zircon age populations of the Cerrezuelo and La Paloma formations indicate that the principal source terranes are of Neoproterozoic age, but include also minor populations derived from Mesoproterozoic and Archean-Paleoproterozoic rocks. A provenance from the Cuchilla Dionisio-Dom Feliciano, Nico Pérez and Piedra Alta terranes of Uruguay and southern Brazil is likely. This study establishes an intracratonic extensional tectonic setting during Durazno time. Considering provenance age sources, regional paleocurrent distributions and the established orogenic history recorded in SW

  4. Testing multicultural robustness of the Child Behavior Checklist in a national epidemiological sample in Uruguay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viola, Laura; Garrido, Gabriela; Rescorla, Leslie

    2011-08-01

    Comparisons of Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) scores from 31 societies (Rescorla et al. Journal of Emotional and Behavioral Disorders 15:13-142 2007) supported the instrument's multicultural robustness, but none of these societies was in South America. The present study tested the multicultural robustness of the 2001 CBCL using data from a national epidemiological survey in Uruguay. Participants were 1,374 6- to 11-year-olds recruited through 65 schools nationwide; 1,098 (80%) had received no mental health or special education services in the past year (non-referred group), whereas 276 (referred group) had been referred for mental health services, had repeated ≥ 2 grades, or had significant developmental disabilities. Mean item ratings, factor structure, and scale internal consistencies were very similar to findings reported by Rescorla et al. (Journal of Emotional and Behavioral Disorders 15:13-142 2007) and Ivanova et al. (Journal of Clinical Child and Adoloescent Psychology 36: 405-417 2007). Children from low SES school environments obtained higher problem scores, especially in the referred group. Gender, age, and referral status effects paralleled those in the U.S. Non-referred children obtained somewhat higher mean problem scores in Uruguay than in the U.S., but mean score differences between non-referred and referred children were smaller in Uruguay than the U.S. Findings supporting the CBCL's multicultural robustness in a South American country extend the generalizability of findings reported by Rescorla et al. (Journal of Emotional and Behavioral Disorders 15:13-142 2007) for 31 societies.

  5. Não verás país nenhum: literatura e cultura brasileira em Ronald de Carvalho e João Cezar de Castro Rocha

    OpenAIRE

    Rocha, Marcelo

    2012-01-01

    O percurso teórico que norteia a elaboração desse artigo busca aproximar a organização de histórias da literatura desde a primeira metade do século XX, em especial o trabalho de Ronald de Carvalho, em sua Pequena história da literatura brasileira, de 1919, até os pressupostos orientadores da estrutura estabelecida por João Cezar de Castro Rocha, em Nenhum Brasil existe: pequena enciclopédia, de 2003.

  6. A new noteworthy record of Phrynops williamsi Rhodin & Mittermeier (Testudines, Chelidae in Uruguay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudio Borteiro

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The Neotropical turtle Phrynops williamsi (Testudines, Chelidae is a scarcely studied species distributed in southern Brazil, north-eastern Argentina, Paraguay and Uruguay. We report herein the finding of a juvenile specimen, it measured 40 mm of carapace length and was collected in February 2013 by Tiago Delpino at San Gregorio de Polanco (32°36'S, 55°50'W, Tacuarembó Department, in a streamlet tributary of the Negro River (MNHN 9487. This new record suggests that P. williamsi is widely distributed over the Negro River basin, at the southern boundaries of the species geographic range.

  7. Lepidoptera (Insecta associated with soybean in Argentina, Brazil, Chile and Uruguay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline Carraro Formentini

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: The present research updates the systematic position and nomenclature of Lepidoptera associated with soybean crops in Argentina, Brazil, Chile and Uruguay. Scientific literature lists 69 species of Lepidoptera feeding on soybean plants. These species are representatives of the Superfamilies Noctuoidea (31, Pyraloidea (13, Hesperioidea (12, Tortricoidea (5, Geometroidea (5, and Bombycoidea (3. Diversity of Lepidoptera associated to crop, injury in different parts of the plant, and changes in species composition are discussed considering the changes in plant disease management, introduction of plants expressing Bt proteins, and the recent introduction of Helicoverpa armigera (Hübner as a new crop pest.

  8. Mecanismos de acceso de la mujer a la justicia electoral: Uruguay

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    Inicia con un repaso del proceso de creación y funciones de la Corte Electoral de Uruguay, para analizar seguidamente la problemática de género, y en particular, los aspectos que intervienen en la participación de la mujer en el sistema de decisiones, cuando se refiere a participación ciudadana tanto a nivel del Estado, como en el seno de los Partidos, y en las Organizaciones de la Sociedad Civil: Sindicatos, Movimientos y Organizaciones Sociales

  9. Homo sportivus in Physical Education Teachers’ Training in Uruguay (1906–1956

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola Dogliotti Moro

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available This study inquires about the shaping of sports in Uruguay (1906–1956, especially about physical education teachers’ training. The central hypothesis states that the Homo sportivus was configured following the anglo–saxon influence, through the batllista discourse about sports and the arrival of the ymca American missionaries in the second decade of the twentieth century. By that time, there were differences and disagreements between the sport practice in educational institutions and the practice of soccer and its spreading in the Uruguayan society

  10. Finanzas y gestión de los gobiernos subnacionales en Uruguay

    OpenAIRE

    Huáscar Eguino; Juan Carlos Aguilar

    2009-01-01

    El presente estudio tiene por objetivo analizar las finanzas públicas municipales y la capacidad de gestión fiscal de los gobiernos departamentales en Uruguay para proporcionar un diagnóstico exhaustivo de su situación actual; identificar los principales desafíos y proponer recomendaciones para la mejora del marco de las relaciones fiscales intergubernamentales (ingresos, gastos, financiamiento); y recomendar elementos para mejorar la gestión y el desempeño fiscal al nivel departamental. El e...

  11. Rickettsiosis cutáneo ganglionar por Rickettsia conorii en el Uruguay

    OpenAIRE

    Ismael A. Conti-Diaz; Rubio, Ivonne; Raúl E. Somma Moreira; Pérez Bórmida,Graciela

    1990-01-01

    Se refieren 3 casos autóctonos de rickettsiosis cutáneo ganglionar trasmitidos por garrapatas de perros (Amblyomma maculatum, en uno de ellos) en el Uruguay. Dos de los 3 casos fueron seguramente provocados por Rickettsia conorii de acuerdo a los resultados de la reacción específica de inmunofluorescencia indirecta - IgM, anti R. conorii. Se incluye un tercer paciente no estudiado con tal técnica, por la similitud clínico-epidemiológica, la reactividad del suero frente al Proteus OX 19 y la r...

  12. Contributions of the Uruguayan Rural Association to viticulture in Uruguay (1872-1900

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verónica Sanz Bonino

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This article analyzes, from an agronomic point of view, the contents of the approaches of vine growers and experts in Uruguay for the period 1872-1900, included in the Journal of the Uruguayan Rural Association. The contents are organized according to parameters of management of the vine in the vineyard. It outlines the importance of the first actors in the organization of the early national viticulture –producers belonging to a corporate elite of immigrants- by adapting their prior knowledge based on experimentation processes. The role performed by the Uruguayan Rural Association in this stage is investigated.

  13. FY04 Inspection Results for Wet Uruguay Fuel in L-Basin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    VORMELKER, PHILIP

    2005-09-01

    The 2004 visual inspection of four Uruguay nuclear fuel assemblies stored in L-Basin was completed. This was the third inspection of this wet stored fuel since its arrival in the summer of 1998. Visual inspection photographs of the fuel from the previous and the recent inspections were compared and no evidence of significant corrosion was found on the individual fuel plate photographs. Fuel plates that showed areas of pitting in the cladding during the original receipt inspection were also identified during the 2004 inspection. However, a few pits were found on the non-fuel aluminum clamping plates that were not visible during the original and 2001 inspections.

  14. Magdalena Broquetas, La trama autoritaria : derechas y violencia en Uruguay, 1958-1966

    OpenAIRE

    Markarian, Vania

    2016-01-01

    La violencia política ha sido uno de los temas fundantes de los llamados estudios del pasado reciente en Uruguay, con la intención de explicar el proceso que llevó al golpe de Estado de 1973 y el posterior afianzamiento de la dictadura hasta 1984, en un país que se conocía en el contexto latinoamericano por su relativa estabilidad política y la fortaleza de sus instituciones democráticas. La gran mayoría de estos trabajos se ha centrado en la prédica y estrategias de las organizaciones de izq...

  15. Sewage surveillance reveals the presence of canine GVII norovirus and canine astrovirus in Uruguay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lizasoain, A; Tort, L F L; García, M; Gómez, M M; Leite, J P G; Miagostovich, M P; Cristina, J; Berois, M; Colina, R; Victoria, Matías

    2015-11-01

    Canine norovirus (NoV) and astrovirus (AstV) were studied in 20 domestic sewage samples collected in two cities in Uruguay. Four samples were characterized as canine AstV after phylogenetic analysis clustering with strains detected in Italy and Brazil in 2008 and 2012, respectively. One sample was characterized as canine NoV and clustered with a strain detected in Hong Kong and recently classified as GVII. This study shows the occurrence of a canine NoV GVII strain for the first time in the American continent and also warns about possible zoonotic infection, since canine strains were detected in domestic sewage.

  16. Young people and history from the perspective of teachers in Brazil, Argentina and Uruguay

    OpenAIRE

    González, María Paula

    2010-01-01

    Este trabajo presenta un análisis de la encuesta realizada a profesores de nivel secundario en 2008 en el marco de la investigación “Los Jóvenes y la Historia” que ha involucrado a docentes de Brasil, Argentina y Uruguay. La intención es articular los datos obtenidos con las interpretaciones que provisoriamente damos a los mismos no con afán de generalización sino con vocación de presentar indicios de una investigación en curso. En términos generales, el artículo presenta la perspectiva que u...

  17. La imprescriptibilidad de los crímenes contra la humanidad en Uruguay

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    La ratificación del Convenio sobre la imprescriptibilidad de los crímenes de guerra y de los crímenes de lesa humanidad por parte de Uruguay, constituye un primer paso dirigido a limitar la impunidad de los partícipes en la comisión de estas infracciones internacionales. Para la consecución de esta misma finalidad, el Estado Uruguayo ha dado un segundo paso, consistente en la ratificación del Estatuto de la Corte Penal Internacional, lo que ha llevado a efecto casi un año después del anterior...

  18. La reforma del proceso laboral en Uruguay. El regreso al proceso laboral autónomo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugo Fernández

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The reform of the labor process in Uruguay. The return to the autonomous labor processThe reform of the Uruguayan labor process and the return to an autonomous legal regime represent a radical and fundamental change in the national legislation. The simplicity of new procedural structures governed by principles and owns norms of labor discipline give the new regime a dogmatic autonomous space lost for many years. The procedural labor reform is built on the adjectival character of its nature prioritizing the substantive law and adjusting the procedural rule to its characteristics. The principles of Labor Law (substantive and procedural are the foundation of the new regime

  19. Instalación de sistemas de silvopastoreo con productores ganaderos de Colonia Gestido (Uruguay)

    OpenAIRE

    Aguirre, Sergio; Galván,Guillermo A

    2012-01-01

    Ubicada al norte de Uruguay la Colonia Gestido ocupa 3000 hectáreas, distribuidas en 55 predios dedicados a cultivos y frutales diversificadas con ganadería y lechería. Enmarcado en una tesis del Doctorado en Agroecología (Colombia), este trabajo define como problema “el pobre desempeño global de estos sistemas productivos” dado entre otros aspectos por una “inadecuada integración animal-vegetal” y “escasa presencia de árboles y arbustos multipropósito”. Para levantar estas res...

  20. Definition of a proper institutional and legal framweork to promote energy efficiency in Uruguay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blanco, Alfonso; Juarez, Maria

    2010-09-15

    There is no lower cost energy source than the avoided energy from unnecessary consumption either more expensive energy than scarce energy resources in a growing economy. Under this concept energy efficiency has been established as one of the main pillars of energy policy in Uruguay since 2005. A recently approved Law provides 4-axis of action to promote energy efficiency: building of institutional structure and long-term framework necessary for nationwide development, ensuring consumers access to adequate information, facilitating the access to finance and economic resources to encourage energy efficiency projects and, removing tax and administrative barriers to energy efficiency.

  1. Impacto de advertencias sanitarias del empaquetado de cigarros: un análisis comparativo en Brasil, Uruguay y México Assessing the impact of cigarette package health warning labels: a cross-country comparison in Brazil, Uruguay and Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James F Thrasher

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo. Evaluar el impacto de diferentes advertencias sanitarias (AS. Material y métodos. Se analizaron datos de la Encuesta Internacional para el Control del Tabaco (ITC Survey, un estudio de fumadores adultos en Brasil, Uruguay y México, tres países con distintas AS (con imágenes de sufrimiento humano y órganos enfermos; con imágenes abstractas del riesgo; mensajes de solo texto, respectivamente. Se analizó prominencia e impacto cognitivo de las AS. Resultados. Las AS de Uruguay (que era el único país con AS en la parte frontal del paquete tuvieron una mayor prominencia que en Brasil o México. En México, la gente que tenía un nivel de educación mayor eran mas propensos a leer mensajes de advertencia, mientras que educación no se asoció con prominencia en Brasil o Uruguay. Las AS de Brasil tuvieron un mayor impacto cognitivo y conductual que las AS de Uruguay o México. Las AS de Uruguay generaron un menor impacto cognitivo y conductual que las AS de sólo texto en México. En Brasil, los impactos cognitivos fueron los más fuertes entre fumadores con un bajo nivel educacional. Conclusiones. Este estudio sugiere que las AS tienen el mayor impacto cuando son prominentes (por ej. en el frente y la parte trasera del paquete e incluyen imágenes emocionalmente llamativas que muestran impactos negativos en el cuerpo o sufrimiento humano debido al fumar.Objective. To assess the impact of different health warning labels (HWL. Material and Methods. Data from the International Tobacco Control Survey (ITC Survey were analyzed from adult smokers in Brazil, Uruguay and Mexico, each of which used a different HWL strategy (pictures of human suffering and diseased organs; abstract pictorial representations of risk; and text-only messages, respectively. Main outcomes were HWL salience and cognitive impact. Results. HWLs in Uruguay (which was the only country with a HWL on the front of the package had higher salience than either Brazilian or

  2. Sistemas de educación superior en Paraguay y Uruguay. Un estudio comparado

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge García Riart

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available La comparación de datos de los sistemas de educación superior de Paraguay y Uruguay permiten colegir: a. El Para- guay tiene un sistema complejo y privatizado; b. El Uruguay tiene un sistema menos expandido pero hegemónicamente público y c. La precarización laboral del docente es común en ambas naciones. Es sobre todo patente en el caso paraguayo la necesidad de institucionalizar, oficializar y renovar la información en el ámbito de la educación superior para asegurar una mayor continuidad, convergencia y articulación. El trabajo coloca en contraste el número de universidades activas, públicas y privadas; el número de pro- gramas de estudios vigentes y programas acreditados; el número de docentes, su dedicación y titulación; el número de estudiantes y la tasa de escolarización universitaria.

  3. Fusarium and Aspergillus mycotoxins contaminating wheat silage for dairy cattle feeding in Uruguay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Palacio, Agustina; Bettucci, Lina; Pan, Dinorah

    Wheat is one of the most important cultivated cereals in Uruguay for human consumption; however, when harvest yields are low, wheat is usually used in ensiling for animal feeding. Ensiling is a forage preservation method that allows for storage during extended periods of time while maintaining nutritional values comparable to fresh pastures. Silage is vulnerable to contamination by spoilage molds and mycotoxins because ensilage materials are excellent substrates for fungal growth. The aim of the study was to identify the mycobiota composition and occurrence of aflatoxins and DON from wheat silage. A total of 220 samples of wheat were collected from four farms in the southwest region of Uruguay were silage practices are developed. The main fungi isolated were Fusarium (43%) and Aspergillus (36%), with Fusarium graminearum sensu lato and Aspergillus section Flavi being the most prevalent species. Aflatoxin concentrations in silo bags ranged from 6.1 to 23.3μg/kg, whereas DON levels ranged between 3000μg/kg and 12,400μg/kg. When evaluating aflatoxigenic capacity, 27.5% of Aspergillus section Flavi strains produced AFB1, 5% AFB2, 10% AFG1 and 17.5% AFG2. All isolates of F. graminearum sensu lato produced DON and 15-AcDON. The results from this study contribute to the knowledge of mycobiota and mycotoxins present in wheat silage.

  4. Turismo y crecimiento económico: el caso de Uruguay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Gabriel Brida

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available El turismo es uno de los factores más importantes en la productividad de una economía con significativos efectos multiplicadores la misma. El objetivo de esta investigación es analizar los efectos de la actividad turística sobre el crecimiento económico uruguayo, en particular la actividad turística asociada a los visitantes argentinos, principal origen del turismo en Uruguay, utilizando para ello información trimestral para el período 1987.I-2006.IV. El análisis de cointegración muestra la existencia de una relación de largo plazo entre el PIB per cápita, el gasto de los turistas argentinos y el tipo de cambio bilateral entre Uruguay y Argentina. Por su parte, el test de causalidad a la Granger confirma que la dirección de la causalidad es, precisamente, desde el gasto real de los turistas al PIB per cápita

  5. Aplicación del fideicomiso en Uruguay. Protección de derechos de acreedores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gonzalo Garmendia Vázquez

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The banking crisis of 2002 and the problems in the uruguayan capital market since 1998 ascribe importance to the theme of creditor´s rights protection. In adittion, the present context determines the necessity to develop diverse financial instruments to banking credit. It is in this framework that the Fideicomiso Law is approved in October 2003. Thus, the present article analizes the situation of creditor´s rights protection, an important element for an adequate utilization of Fideicomiso in Uruguay. We review the three elements that it includes: the normative precepts, the institutions that dictate and control them, and the efficiency of the Warranty´s System. The conclusion is that there are no particular problems with the precepts or with the efficiency of the Warranty´s System, a situation that is different with the institution that dictates and controls the normativity related to Fideicomiso, that is, the Central Bank of Uruguay.

  6. Population genetic analysis and trichothecene profiling of Fusarium graminearum from wheat in Uruguay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, D; Mionetto, A; Calero, N; Reynoso, M M; Torres, A; Bettucci, L

    2016-03-11

    Fusarium graminearum sensu stricto (F. graminearum s.s.) is the major causal agent of Fusarium head blight of wheat worldwide, and contaminates grains with trichothecene mycotoxins that cause serious threats to food safety and animal health. An important aspect of managing this pathogen and reducing mycotoxin contamination of wheat is knowledge regarding its population genetics. Therefore, isolates of F. graminearum s.s. from the major wheat-growing region of Uruguay were analyzed by amplified fragment length polymorphism assays, PCR genotyping, and chemical analysis of trichothecene production. Of the 102 isolates identified as having the 15-ADON genotype via PCR genotyping, all were DON producers, but only 41 strains were also 15-ADON producers, as determined by chemical analysis. The populations were genotypically diverse but genetically similar, with significant genetic exchange occurring between them. Analysis of molecular variance indicated that most of the genetic variability resulted from differences between isolates within populations. Multilocus linkage disequilibrium analysis suggested that the isolates had a panmictic population genetic structure and that there is significant recombination occurs in F. graminearum s.s. In conclusion, tour findings provide the first detailed description of the genetic structure and trichothecene production of populations of F. graminearum s.s. from Uruguay, and expands our understanding of the agroecology of F. graminearum and of the correlation between genotypes and trichothecene chemotypes.

  7. DESEMPEÑO COMPETITIVO DE ARGENTINA Y URUGUAY EN LA LECHE EN POLVO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edith Depetris Guiguet

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Los sectores lácteos de Argentina y Uruguay hacen importantes contribuciones tanto al producto interno bruto como a la generación de divisas provenientes de sus exportaciones. Al constituirse el mercosur ambos países tenían excedentes exportables de leche en polvo entera y descremada, y aunque con similares condiciones del contexto externo impuestas por la integración y la evolución del mercado internacional, el comportamiento exportador no ha sido igual en las dos naciones. Esto lleva a cuestionar si ambos o alguno de ellos ha perdido competitividad en el comercio a partir del inicio de la integración, respuesta que se espera encontrar como resultado de esta investigación. Por tanto, este estudio tiene como objetivo conocer la evolución competitiva del comercio internacional de leche en polvo de Argentina y Uruguay en ese periodo. Para ello se utilizarán varios indicadores alternativos, probándose su consistencia a los efectos de verificar la coherencia de los resultados.

  8. Spawning of migratory fish species between two reservoirs of the upper Uruguay River, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David A. Reynalte-Tataje

    Full Text Available This study investigated the migratory fish spawning within the reservoirs of the Machadinho and Itá dams (upper Uruguay River, Brazil and its relationship to environmental variables. Sampling was conducted in the lotic region of the river in two sites between the dams' reservoirs: Uruguay (main river and Ligeiro (tributary. Sampling included nine consecutive reproductive periods (RP spanning the period from 2001 to 2010 and was conducted at night on the water surface using cylindrical-conical plankton nets (0.5 mm mesh; environmental variables were also recorded. The spawning of the migratory species Salminus brasiliensis, Prochilodus lineatus, and Steindachneridion scriptum was registered: S. brasiliensis and P. lineatus spawned in the tributary river at the end of spring/beginning of summer, during flooding and during periods of high water temperature. Steindachneridion scriptum spawned in the main river at the beginning of spring. The study showed that S. brasiliensis, P. lineatus, and S. scriptum are able to spawn in small lotic river stretches within two reservoirs, but only under very specific and not common environmental conditions.

  9. Genetic heterogeneity and subtyping of human Hepatitis E virus isolates from Uruguay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirazo, Santiago; Ramos, Natalia; Russi, José Carlos; Arbiza, Juan

    2013-05-01

    Hepatitis E virus (HEV) infection is an important public health concern in many developing countries causing waterborne outbreaks, as well as sporadic autochthonous hepatitis. It is transmitted primarily by the fecal-oral route. However, zoonotic transmission from animal reservoirs to human has also been suggested. Genotype 3 is the most frequent genotype found in South America and the HEV epidemiology in this region seems to be very complex. However, data about the molecular characterization of HEV isolates of the region is still lacking and further investigation is needed. Our study characterized human HEV strains detected in a 1-year period in Uruguay, by extensive sequence analysis of three regions of the HEV genome. Uruguayan strains were closely related to a set of European strains and in turn, were dissimilar to Brazilian, Argentinean and Bolivian isolates. Additionally, the co-circulation of viral subtypes 3i and 3h was observed. Circulation of subtype 3i had been reported in Argentina and Bolivia whereas sequences of subtype 3h are rare and had never been reported in Latin America. In order to contribute to shedding light over the molecular epidemiology of this emergent infection in the region, we thoroughly analyzed the genetic variability of HEV strains detected in Uruguay, providing the largest dataset of sequences of HEV ever reported in a country in South America.

  10. Clinical spectrum of cutaneous manifestations in renal and renopancreatic recipients in two centers in Uruguay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dufrechou, L; Nin, M; Curi, L; Larre Borges, P; Martínez Asuaga, M; Noboa, O; Orihuela, S; González-Martínez, F; Larre Borges, A

    2014-11-01

    Uruguay, with a total population of 3,345,000 inhabitants, is the Latin American country with the second highest number of renal replacement therapies. Long-term immunosuppressant therapy is essential for graft survival but results in reduced immunosurveillance, leading to an increased risk of complications. A variety of dermatological manifestations and a large increase in nonmelanoma skin cancers have been reported in this population. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the frequency and clinical spectrum of cutaneous manifestations in renal and renopancreatic recipients in 2 reference centers in Uruguay. Two hundred and six renal or renopancreatic recipients between 21 and 77 years old were evaluated between September 2009 and September 2011. A total of 206 dermatoses were observed; 60% of the patients had at least 1 cutaneous manifestation. The most frequent dermatoses were cutaneous side effects due to immunosuppressive treatment (40.6%), followed by infections (26.1%), miscellaneous causes (18.9%), and malignant and premalignant lesions (14.4%). Transplant recipients represent a high-risk dermatological population. Physicians in transplant units should be aware of the importance of dermatological screening in order to promote early detection of skin cancer.

  11. Development and Climate Change in Uruguay. Focus on Coastal Zones, Agriculture and Forestry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agrawala, S.; Moehner, A.; Gagnon-Lebrun, F. [OECD Environment Directorate, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development OECD, Paris (France); Van Aalst, M. [Utrecht University, Utrecht (Netherlands); Smith, J.; Hagenstad, M. [Stratus Consulting, Boulder, CO (United States); Baethgen, W.E.; Martino, D.L. [Carbosur Consulting, Montevideo (Uruguay); Lorenzo, E. [Instituto de Mecanica de los Fluidos e Ingenieria Ambiental IMFIA, Universidad de la Republica, Montevideo (Uruguay)

    2004-07-01

    This document is an output from the OECD Development and Climate Change project, an activity jointly overseen by the EPOC Working Party on Global and Structural Policies (WPGSP), and the DAC Network on Environment and Development Co-operation (ENVIRONET). The overall objective of the project is to provide guidance on how to mainstream responses to climate change within economic development planning and assistance policies, with natural resource management as an overarching theme. This report presents the integrated case study for Tanzania carried out under an OECD project on Development and Climate Change. This report presents the integrated case study for Uruguay carried out under an OECD project on Development and Climate Change. The report is structured around a three-tiered framework. First, recent climate trends and climate change scenarios for Uruguay are assessed and key sectoral impacts are identified and ranked along multiple indicators to establish priorities for adaptation. Second, donor portfolios are analyzed to examine the proportion of development assistance activities affected by climate risks. A desk analysis of donor strategies and project documents as well as national plans is conducted to assess the degree of attention to climate change concerns in development planning and assistance. Third, an in-depth analysis is conducted for adaptation in coastal zones as well as for mainstreaming carbonsequestration within the agriculture and forestry sectors.

  12. Cannabis policy reforms in the Americas: a comparative analysis of Colorado, Washington, and Uruguay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pardo, Bryce

    2014-07-01

    Legal reforms in the Americas are influencing the public debate on cannabis policy. Uruguay and the two US states of Colorado and Washington have taken steps to regulate and legitimize the production, distribution, and use of cannabis and its derivatives. Earlier experiences with medical cannabis in the United States and limited access and production models in Europe have been insightful. However, these reforms are going further still, venturing into a new area of cannabis policy. A lack of empirical evidence regarding the effects of such reforms poses a challenge for policymakers. These examples will inform the design and implementation of any future cannabis policies. Therefore, a clear understanding of the details of each jurisdiction is necessary in developing future legal changes. Literature comparing the models of Uruguay, Colorado, and Washington is thin. This paper is based on an exhaustive examination of the laws, regulations, and discussions with regulators and functionaries of each jurisdiction. The research and analysis herein will provide policymakers with a greater understanding of the laws and regulations relevant to legal cannabis in these three jurisdictions, as well as draw to their attention some potential impacts and challenges of cannabis reform that require additional consideration to ensure public safety and health.

  13. Genetic characterization and phylogeography of the wild boar Sus scrofa introduced into Uruguay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graciela García

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The European wild boar Sus scrofa was first introduced into Uruguay, in southern South America during the early decades of the last century. Subsequently, and starting from founder populations, its range spread throughout the country and into the neighbouring Brazilian state Rio Grande do Sul. Due to the subsequent negative impact, it was officially declared a national pest. The main aim in the present study was to provide a more comprehensive scenario of wild boar differentiation in Uruguay, by using mtDNA markers to access the genetic characterization of populations at present undergoing rapid expansion. A high level of haplotype diversity, intermediate levels of nucleotide diversity and considerable population differentiation, were detected among sampled localities throughout major watercourses and catchment dams countrywide. Phylogenetic analysis revealed the existence of two different phylogroups, thereby reflecting two deliberate introduction events forming distantly genetic lineages in local wild boar populations. Our analysis lends support to the hypothesis that the invasive potential of populations emerge from introgressive hybridization with domestic pigs. On taking into account the appreciable differentiation and reduced migration between locales in wild boar populations, management strategies could be effective if each population were to be considered as a single management unit.

  14. Detection of Alpha and Gamma-Proteobacteria in Amblyomma triste (Acari: Ixodidae) from Uruguay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venzal, José Manuel; Estrada-Peña, Agustín; Portillo, Aránzazu; Mangold, Atilio J; Castro, Oscar; de Souza, Carlos G; Félix, María L; Pérez-Martínez, Laura; Santibánez, Sonia; Oteo, José A

    2008-01-01

    Amblyomma triste is the most prevalent tick species reported in human tick bites in Uruguay and has been found to be infected with Rickettsia parkeri, but no other microorganisms have been reported from this tick. A sample of 254 adults of A. triste was collected by flagging on vegetation in suburban areas in southern Uruguay. Pools of five ticks were assembled and a screening for the DNA from the resulting 51 pools was realized by PCR assays using primers for amplifying a fragment of 16S rRNA gene for members of Anaplasmataceae. Seventeen pools were positive (33%) and the sequenciation of the gene fragment amplified revealed the presence of a putative new Alpha-Proteobacterium (denominated Atri-uru). The phylogenetic analysis showed that this microorganism is closely related to the symbiont of I. ricinus denominated 'Candidatus Midichloria mitochondrii' and other associated organisms. This rickettsial symbiont of ticks is included in a recent new clade proposed for the Alpha subclass of the Proteobacteria. The discovery of this bacterium in A. triste is the first evidence of this group of Rickettsiales detected in the Genus Amblyomma, and the first record in South America. Also, in two of 17 positive samples a Gamma-Proteobacterium related to Francisella-like organisms was detected.

  15. Statute of Limitations in Uruguay and the ethical-political essence of the left

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Buriano

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper compares parties and citizen behavior in the referendum and plebiscite of 1989 and 2009 in Uruguay, concerning the derogation or repeal of articles of the amnesty law, as well as the unfinished epilogue of this process. This will allow us to observe a change in the axis-force that drives citizens' initiatives in the matter. While in 1989 the Frente Amplio (FA assumed and promoted the derogatory referendum, in 2009 the social organizations won the centrality of the scene. In that last year the negative position and subsequent support for the plebiscite campaign by the partisan left. Its virtual absence from the coalition generates doubts about the management of the demands concerning human rights and the ethical-doctrinal nature of the partisan left. Although in 2010 the FA tried to resume leadership, it was weakened by an internal dispute that resulted in contempt towards the legislative debate to neutralize the effects of the act. The civic, identity and perhaps political configuration of the XXI century Uruguay will depend on the resolution of this gap.

  16. Fusarium and Aspergillus mycotoxins contaminating wheat silage for dairy cattle feeding in Uruguay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agustina del Palacio

    Full Text Available Abstract Wheat is one of the most important cultivated cereals in Uruguay for human consumption; however, when harvest yields are low, wheat is usually used in ensiling for animal feeding. Ensiling is a forage preservation method that allows for storage during extended periods of time while maintaining nutritional values comparable to fresh pastures. Silage is vulnerable to contamination by spoilage molds and mycotoxins because ensilage materials are excellent substrates for fungal growth. The aim of the study was to identify the mycobiota composition and occurrence of aflatoxins and DON from wheat silage. A total of 220 samples of wheat were collected from four farms in the southwest region of Uruguay were silage practices are developed. The main fungi isolated were Fusarium (43% and Aspergillus (36%, with Fusarium graminearum sensu lato and Aspergillus section Flavi being the most prevalent species. Aflatoxin concentrations in silo bags ranged from 6.1 to 23.3 µg/kg, whereas DON levels ranged between 3000 µg/kg and 12,400 µg/kg. When evaluating aflatoxigenic capacity, 27.5% of Aspergillus section Flavi strains produced AFB1, 5% AFB2, 10% AFG1 and 17.5% AFG2. All isolates of F. graminearum sensu lato produced DON and 15-AcDON. The results from this study contribute to the knowledge of mycobiota and mycotoxins present in wheat silage.

  17. Uruguay 2006: éxitos y dilemas del gobierno de izquierda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Chasquetti

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available El artículo repasa el año político uruguayo a partir de la evaluación de los éxitos del gobierno en materia de crecimiento de la economía, mejoras en el terreno social y avances en los derechos humanos. También se examinan el papel del conflicto entre Uruguay y Argentina, el debate sobre la inserción internacional del país, la elección interna del partido de gobierno y el trabajo del Poder Ejecutivo y Legislativo. El artículo concluye con una reflexión sobre los desafíos de la democracia uruguayaThe article reviews the Uruguayan political year, taken into account the government successes in areas as the growth of the economy, the social indicators, and the advances in the human rights. The article also analyses the conflict between Uruguay and Argentina, the debate on the Uruguayan international insertion, the election of authorities of the government party, and the performance of the Executive and Legislative branches. The article concludes with a reflection on the challenges of the Uruguayan democracy

  18. La imprescriptibilidad de los crímenes contra la humanidad en Uruguay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Manuel Sánchez Patrón

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available La ratificación del Convenio sobre la imprescriptibilidad de los crímenes de guerra y de los crímenes de lesa humanidad por parte de Uruguay, constituye un primer paso dirigido a limitar la impunidad de los partícipes en la comisión de estas infracciones internacionales. Para la consecución de esta misma finalidad, el Estado Uruguayo ha dado un segundo paso, consistente en la ratificación del Estatuto de la Corte Penal Internacional, lo que ha llevado a efecto casi un año después del anterior. Ambas decisiones demuestran la intención de Uruguay de comprometerse Internacionalmente con el fin de evitar la impunidad de los responsables de la comisión de determinadas figuras delictivas, especialmente los crímenes de guerra y los crímenes contra la humanidad, ya que en tomo a estas dos infracciones internacionales gravitan los convenios internacionales a los que nos acabamos de referir.Contenido: imprescriptibilidad de los crímenes contra la humanidad en el pasado. Imprescriptibilidad de los crímenes contra la humanidad en el presente. Imprescriptibilidad de los crímenes contra la humanidad en el futuro. Conclusiones

  19. Non-alcoholic beverages and risk of bladder cancer in Uruguay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Acosta Giselle

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bladder cancer is the fourth most frequent malignancy among Uruguayan men. A previous study from Uruguay suggested a high risk of bladder cancer associated with maté drinking. We conducted an additional case-control study in order to further explore the role of non-alcoholic beverages in bladder carcinogenesis. Methods In the time period 1996–2000, 255 incident cases with transitional cell carcinoma of the bladder and 501 patients treated in the same hospitals and in the same time period were frequency matched on age, sex, and residence. Both cases and controls were face-to-face interviewed on occupation, tobacco smoking, alcohol drinking and intake of maté, coffee, tea, and soft drinks. Statistical analysis was carried out by unconditional multiple logistic regression. Results Ever maté drinking was positively associated with bladder cancer (odds ratio [OR] 2.2, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.2–3.9 and the risk increased for increasing duration and amount of maté drinking. Both coffee and tea were strongly associated with bladder cancer risk (OR for coffee drinking 1.6, 95% CI 1.2–2.3; OR for tea drinking 2.3, 95% CI 1.5–3.4. These results were confirmed in a separate analysis of never-smokers. Conclusion Our results suggest that drinking of maté, coffee and tea may be risk factors for bladder carcinoma in Uruguay.

  20. [Fiscal policy, affordability and cross effects in the demand for tobacco products: the case of Uruguay].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carbajales, Alejandro Ramos; Curti, Dardo

    2010-01-01

    Uruguay, a country with a solid tobacco control policy since 2005 shows, contrary to expectations, an insignificant decrease in total tobacco products' sales in the last five years. The hypothesis is that on one side, changes in household income and the income elasticity of the demand for cigarettes were important countervailing factors in the demand of both products. The period 2005-2009 shows a large increase of 36% in household real income in Uruguay due to fast economic recovery after the 2002 crisis. The second factor is the interchangeability of roll your own and cigarettes and the impact on the demand of each product as a reaction to tax and price changes. The tax and price of roll your own tobacco remains substantially lower than that of cigarettes. This fact, and the increased substitution of roll your own for cigarettes seems to be the main reasons for the low impact of the policy of tobacco tax and price increases. This paper then consists of a revision of a 2004 study to estimate separate demands for both main tobacco products and obtain estimates for own price, cross price and income elasticities. Then, a simulation study was performed using the elasticities found and two scenarios of increases in household income: moderate (2.5% per year) and high (5% per year) confirming that countries where income is growing fast and with a potential for substitution towards cheaper products require substantial cigarette tax and price increases for a fiscal tobacco control policy to become effective.

  1. Evolution of venom antigenaemia and antivenom concentration in patients bitten by snakes in Uruguay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morais, Victor; Negrín, Alba; Tortorella, María Noel; Massaldi, Hugo

    2012-11-01

    In this work we describe the first study carried out in Uruguay of venom antigenaemia and antivenom concentration in patients bitten by snakes. Between 50 and 70 snake bite accidents per year are caused in Uruguay by 2 species: Rhinocerophis alternatus and Bothropoides pubescens. The patients are treated with a specific polyvalent antivenom. Gaining insight on the evolution of venom antigenaemia and antivenom concentration in patients is important to improve treatment protocols. Blood samples of 29 patients were analysed to determine venom and antivenom concentrations at different times. Venom was detected in 18 of 19 samples before antivenom administration, with a mean concentration of 57 ng/mL. Most of the patients received 4 or 8 vials to neutralize the venom effects. Only one patient needed a total of 16 vials. He showed a severe envenomation and needed supplementary amounts of antivenom after the fifth day of the snake bite accident to reach normal clotting parameters. Antivenom concentrations were determined at 12 h, 24 h and 15 days after antivenom administration. It was found a faster antivenom decrease between 12 and 24 h than to 24 h to 15 days. This was explained by a different clearance mechanism in each period. In the first phase, the cause would be the neutralization of venom present in the blood whereas in the second phase it would be due to unbound antivenom elimination.

  2. Public versus private treatment of chronic diseases in seniors: Argentina, Brazil, Chile and Uruguay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cataife, Guido

    2012-01-01

    This article measures differences in the likelihood of treatment of chronic diseases in elders across types of coverage (private, public and social security) in four major Latin American cities: Buenos Aires (Argentina), Sao Paulo (Brazil), Santiago (Chile) and Montevideo (Uruguay). We used a logistic regression to estimate the odds ratio for treatment of chronic diseases carried by individuals with public, private and social security coverage. The data were from the Survey on health, well-being and aging in Latin America and the Caribbean (SABE) conducted in 1999 and 2000. We find a strong association between possession of public coverage only and treatment failure of chronic diseases in elders in Argentina. We find no significant association for Brazil, Chile and Uruguay. In Buenos Aires, access to private or social security coverage is a necessity for elders because the public sector fails to provide proper treatment. In the remaining cities, private or social security coverage provides similar coverage for chronic diseases in elders compared with the public sector. For this group of countries, the main difference between the former and the latter seems to be in terms of 'luxurious' characteristics, such as the quality of the facilities and waiting times.

  3. Factores que incidieron en el proceso de adopción de la variedad de café castillo generada por la federación nacional de cafeteros, resistente a la roya, en dos veredas del municipio del Líbano-Tolima (período 2001-2014)

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    La crisis cafetera sufrida en el municipio Líbano- Tolima durante el período 2008-2010, buscando reemplazar la variedad Caturra por la variedad Castillo, la primera por su suceptibilidad a la roya, causante de las pérdidas económicas, la segunda mejorada resistente a la enfermedad.

  4. 77 FR 65672 - Correction to Notice of Implementation of Determinations Under Section 129 of the Uruguay Round...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-30

    ... cash deposit rate as part of implementation of its determinations under section 129 of the Uruguay... producer are listed below: Final Determinations: Recalculated Antidumping Duty Cash Deposit Rates Amended Antidumping Duty Cash Deposit Rates (Percent) Circular Welded Carbon Quality Steel Pipe From the PRC...

  5. Grain Yield Variation in Malting Barley Cultivars in Uruguay and Its Consequences for the Design of a Trials Network

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ceretta, S.S.E.; Eeuwijk, van F.A.

    2008-01-01

    The efficiency of cultivar trial networks is an important subject in official cultivar testing. We investigated this efficiency for malting barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) in Uruguay, using data on 213 cultivars tested across an eight-year period at six locations. The variance-components approach was us

  6. Children in Institutions: The Beginning of the End? The Cases of Italy, Spain, Argentina, Chile and Uruguay. Innocenti Insight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llorente, Maria Angeles Garcia; Charlebois, Laura Martinez-Mora; Ducci, Valerio; Farias, Ana Maria

    Noting the growing global consensus on the need to promote family-based alternatives to institutional care for children and adolescents, this report examines efforts to prevent the institutionalization of children in Argentina, Chile, Uruguay, Italy, and Spain, focusing on both public and private initiatives, as well as local and national…

  7. Situation Report--Argentina, Colombia, Cyprus, Kuwait, Lebanon, Libyan Arab Republic, Oman, Syrian Arab Republic, and Uruguay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    International Planned Parenthood Federation, London (England).

    Data relating to pupulation and family planning in nine foreign countries are presented in these situation reports. Countries included are Argentina, Colombia, Cyprus, Kuwait, Lebanon, Libyan Arab Republic, Oman, Syrian Arab Republic, and Uruguay. Information is provided under two topics, general background and family planning situation, where…

  8. Barriers and promoters of an evidenced-based smoking cessation counseling during prenatal care in Argentina and Uruguay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colomar, Mercedes; Tong, Van T; Morello, Paola; Farr, Sherry L; Lawsin, Catalina; Dietz, Patricia M; Aleman, Alicia; Berrueta, Mabel; Mazzoni, Agustina; Becu, Ana; Buekens, Pierre; Belizán, José; Althabe, Fernando

    2015-07-01

    In Argentina and Uruguay, 10.3 and 18.3 %, respectively, of pregnant women smoked in 2005. Brief cessation counseling, based on the 5A's model, has been effective in different settings. This qualitative study aims to improve the understanding of factors influencing the provision of smoking cessation counseling during pregnancy in Argentina and Uruguay. In 2010, we obtained prenatal care providers', clinic directors', and pregnant smokers' opinions regarding barriers and promoters to brief smoking cessation counseling in publicly-funded prenatal care clinics in Buenos Aires, Argentina and Montevideo, Uruguay. We interviewed six prenatal clinic directors, conducted focus groups with 46 health professionals and 24 pregnant smokers. Themes emerged from three issue areas: health professionals, health system, and patients. Health professional barriers to cessation counseling included inadequate knowledge and motivation, perceived low self-efficacy, and concerns about inadequate time and large workload. They expressed interest in obtaining a counseling script. Health system barriers included low prioritization of smoking cessation and a lack of clinic protocols to implement interventions. Pregnant smokers lacked information on the risks of prenatal smoking and underestimated the difficulty of smoking cessation. Having access to written materials and receiving cessation services during clinic waiting times were mentioned as promoters for the intervention. Women also were receptive to non-physician office staff delivering intervention components. Implementing smoking cessation counseling in publicly-funded prenatal care clinics in Argentina and Uruguay may require integrating counseling into routine prenatal care and educating and training providers on best-practices approaches.

  9. Rickettsia parkeri: a Rickettsial pathogen transmitted by ticks in endemic areas for spotted fever rickettsiosis in southern Uruguay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venzal, José M; Estrada-Peña, Agustín; Portillo, Aránzazu; Mangold, Atilio J; Castro, Oscar; De Souza, Carlos G; Félix, María L; Pérez-Martínez, Laura; Santibánez, Sonia; Oteo, José A

    2012-01-01

    At first Rickettsia conorii was implicated as the causative agent of spotted fever in Uruguay diagnosed by serological assays. Later Rickettsia parkeri was detected in human-biting Amblyomma triste ticks using molecular tests. The natural vector of R. conorii, Rhipicephalus sanguineus, has not been studied for the presence of rickettsial organisms in Uruguay. To address this question, 180 R. sanguineus from dogs and 245 A. triste from vegetation (flagging) collected in three endemic localities were screened for spotted fever group (SFG) rickettsiosis in southern Uruguay. Tick extracted DNA pools were subjected to PCR using primers which amplify a fragment of the rickettsial gltA gene. Positive tick DNA pools with these primers were subjected to a second PCR round with primers targeting a fragment of the ompA gene, which is only present in SFG rickettsiae. No rickettsial DNA was detected in R. sanguineus. However, DNA pools of A. triste were found to be positive for a rickettsial organism in two of the three localities, with prevalences of 11.8% to 37.5% positive pools. DNA sequences generated from these PCR-positive ticks corresponded to R. parkeri. These findings, joint with the aggressiveness shown by A. triste towards humans, support previous data on the involvement of A. triste as vector of human infections caused by R. parkeri in Uruguay.

  10. Psicología, política y sociedad en Argentina y Uruguay : Simposio por invitación

    OpenAIRE

    Talak, Ana María

    2013-01-01

    El Simposio se propone analizar diferentes desarrollos de la psicología en dos países, Argentina y Uruguay, en relación con el orden social vigente y diferentes dimensiones políticas que se ponen en juego en forma explícita e implícita.

  11. Rickettsia parkeri: a Rickettsial pathogen transmitted by ticks in endemic areas for spotted fever rickettsiosis in southern Uruguay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José M. Venzal

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available At first Rickettsia conorii was implicated as the causative agent of spotted fever in Uruguay diagnosed by serological assays. Later Rickettsia parkeri was detected in human-biting Amblyomma triste ticks using molecular tests. The natural vector of R. conorii, Rhipicephalus sanguineus, has not been studied for the presence of rickettsial organisms in Uruguay. To address this question, 180 R. sanguineus from dogs and 245 A. triste from vegetation (flagging collected in three endemic localities were screened for spotted fever group (SFG rickettsiosis in southern Uruguay. Tick extracted DNA pools were subjected to PCR using primers which amplify a fragment of the rickettsial gltA gene. Positive tick DNA pools with these primers were subjected to a second PCR round with primers targeting a fragment of the ompA gene, which is only present in SFG rickettsiae. No rickettsial DNA was detected in R. sanguineus. However, DNA pools of A. triste were found to be positive for a rickettsial organism in two of the three localities, with prevalences of 11.8% to 37.5% positive pools. DNA sequences generated from these PCR-positive ticks corresponded to R. parkeri. These findings, joint with the aggressiveness shown by A. triste towards humans, support previous data on the involvement of A. triste as vector of human infections caused by R. parkeri in Uruguay.

  12. Educación bilingüe de frontera y políticas lingüísticas en Uruguay Bilingual education at the Uruguayan-Brazilian border and language policies in Uruguay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Brovetto

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available El Uruguay no es una sociedad lingüísticamente homogénea hablante de español. El bilingüismo español-portugués que se consigna en una amplia zona del noreste de Uruguay es un ejemplo de esta realidad. Recientemente, y de un modo bastante innovador para la tradición de las políticas lingüísticas en el Uruguay (o para la falta de ellas, esta realidad sociolingüística ha sido tomada en cuenta con programas educativos específicos. Este artículo presenta un análisis de estos programas, sus antecedentes, objetivos y resultados preliminares, así como un análisis primario de dos documentos que constituyen actos de políticas lingüísticas en el Uruguay: la nueva Ley de Educación y el nuevo Programa de Educación Inicial y Primaria.Uruguayan society is not linguistically homogeneous in that not all its population speaks Spanish. The bilingualism present in the northeast of Uruguay is an example of this reality. Recently, in a quite innovative way for the Uruguayan traditions in language policies (or for the lack of them, this sociolinguistic reality has been considered through the implementation of specific educational programs. This paper presents an analysis of these programs, their antecedents, goals and preliminary results. It also presents an initial analysis of two documents that are events in Uruguayan language policies: the recently approved Law of Education and the new official Curriculum for Primary Schools.

  13. Modeling Electoral Coordination: Voters, Parties and Legislative Lists in Uruguay Modelando la Coordinación Electoral: Votantes, Partidos y Listas Legislativas en Uruguay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ines Levin

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available During each electoral period, the strategic interaction between voters and political elites determines the number of viable candidates in a district. In this paper, we implement a hierarchical seemingly unrelated regression model to explain electoral coordination at the district level in Uruguay as a function of district magnitude, previous electoral outcomes and electoral regime. Elections in this country are particularly useful to test for institutional effects on the coordination process due to the large variations in district magnitude, to the simultaneity of presidential and legislative races held under different rules, and to the reforms implemented during the period under consideration. We find that district magnitude and electoral history heuristics have substantial effects on the number of competing and voted-for parties and lists. Our modeling approach uncovers important interaction-effects between the demand and supply side of the political market that were often overlooked in previous research.En cada período electoral, votantes y élites interactúan para determinar el número de agentes políticos postulados para la elección, así como el número de agentes políticos que reciben apoyo de los votantes. En este artículo, modelamos la interacción entre votantes y élites usando un modelo jerárquico de regresiones aparentemente no relacionadas, explicando la coordinación electoral a nivel de distrito en el Uruguay en función de la magnitud del distrito, resultados de elecciones anteriores, y régimen electoral. Las elecciones en este país son particularmente útiles para el estudio de los determinantes institucionales de la coordinación electoral debido a la amplia variación en la magnitud de los diferentes distritos, a la simultaneidad de las elecciones presidenciales y legislativas reguladas por normas electorales diversas, y a las reformas que tuvieron lugar durante el período bajo consideración. Encontramos que la

  14. The Teaching of Astronomy in Uruguay. (Spanish Title: La Enseñanza de la Astronomía en Uruguay.) O Ensino da Astronomia no Uruguai

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pintos Ganón, Reina; Fernández, Julio Angel

    2008-07-01

    We present in this work the development of astronomy in Uruguay since the colony times up to the present, stressing in particular those aspects related to the formal as well as informal teaching of astronomy. The first antecedents of astronomical studies in our country go back to the beginnings of the XVIIIth century related to the scientific expeditions from Europe coming to our shores. The teaching of astronomy was generalized at the high school level as soon as the end of the XIXth century, while itsintroduction at the university level happened much later, around the middle of the last century. We analyze the current situation of this subject, its problems, and some measures to strengthen its development. Se presenta en este trabajo el desarrollo de la astronomía en el Uruguay desde la época colonial hasta el presente, destacando en particular los aspectos vinculados a su enseñanza tanto formal como informal. Los primeros antecedentes de estudios astronómicos datan de la época colonial relacionados con las expediciones científicas del Viejo Mundo que llegaban a nuestras costas. La enseñanza de la Astronomía se generalizó en el ámbito de los estudios secundarios ya a fines del siglo XIX, mientras que en la Universidad su arribo fue mucho más tardío, a mediados del siglo pasado. Se analiza la situación actual de esta disciplina, sus problemas, y algunas medidas para fortalecer su desarrollo. Apresentamos, neste trabalho, o desenvolvimento da Astronomia no Uruguai desde a época colonial até o presente, destacando em particular os aspectos vinculados ao seu ensino tanto formal quanto informal. Os primeiros antecedentes de estudos astronômicos em nosso país datam da época colonial relacionados com as expedições científicas do Velho Mundo que chegavam às nossas costas. O ensino da Astronomia se generalizou no âmbito dos estudos secundários já no final do século XIX, enquanto que sua introdução na universidade foi muito mais tardia, em

  15. "Aquellas escaramuzas por mí memoradas": Experiencia y memorias de batalla en las crónicas de Hernán Cortés y Bernal Díaz del Castillo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valeria Añón

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available In this essay we analyze the representation of the conquest in Cartas de Relación by Hernán Cortés and in Historia verdadera de la conquista de la Nueva España by Bernal Díaz del Castillo. In both chronicles, the experience of the New World to be conquered organizes the plot and contributes to define identities. We analyze, in particular, some transcendent events in the conquest of México, such as the so called "Noche Triste" and the siege of Tenochitlan, in which multiple and complex images and metaphors are used to represent experience, along with several discursive traditions.

  16. Prefácio a: Maria Helena da Rocha Pereira: Vasos Gregos: Mensagem de arte e cultura, Centro de História da Arte e Investigação Artística – Universidade de Évora, «Colecção Património», 2009.

    OpenAIRE

    Teixeira, Cláudia

    2009-01-01

    Prefácio a: Maria Helena da Rocha Pereira: Vasos Gregos: Mensagem de arte e cultura, Centro de História da Arte e Investigação Artística – Universidade de Évora, «Colecção Património», 2009.

  17. APORTACIÓN DE LA CONVENCIÓN AMERICANA DE DERECHOS HUMANOS A LA PERSPECTIVA CHILENA DE LA DOGMÁTICA PROCESAL DEL DERECHO A LA TUTELA JUDICIAL. UN APOYO EN DOS FALLOS: CASOS BARRIOS ALTOS Y CASTILLO PETRUZZI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego I Palomo Vélez

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available La paradoja del referente nacional en materia de protección constitucional de las garantías procesales fundamentales (el Common Law y su due process of law, no ha hundido sus raíces sólo en aspectos que podrían denominarse teóricos, sino que ha aparejado consecuencias prácticas en la efectiva protección que reciben los derechos procesales básicos por parte de la judicatura. En efecto, la ausencia de un catálogo constitucional de estos derechos y garantías (al estilo de los países de Europa continental revalora la importancia de la Convención Americana como integrante de nuestro ordenamiento jurídico a través del bloque de constitucionalidad, y obliga a poner seria atención en lo allí dispuesto, como asimismo en la jurisprudencia que bajo su alero se ha ido desarrollando. De ello precisamente trata este trabajo, apoyándonos muy principalmente en dos fallos: Casos Barrios Altos y Castillo Petruzzi.The paradox of the national reference in the topic of constitutional protection of the fundamental legal guarantees (the Common Law and its due process of law has not sunk its roots only in aspects that could be defined as theoretical but has prepared practical consequences in the effective protection that the basic legal rights on behalf of the judicature receive. Indeed, the absence of a constitutional catalogue of these rights and guarantees (in the style of countries in continental Europe revalues the importance of the American Convention as a member of our judicial legislation through the constitutional bloc, and obligates putting serious attention in its contents as well as in the jurisprudence, which under its protection has been developing. This paper deals with this topic being mainly supported by two verdicts: Caso Barrios Altos and Castillo Petruzzi.

  18. La Historia verdadera de la conquista de la Nueva España, de Bernal Díaz del Castillo: Un estudio bibliográfico de las dos primeras ediciones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffers, Clara F.

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available El presente artículo pretende mostrar la evidencia que confirma cuál de las dos primeras ediciones de la Historia verdadera de la conquista de la Nueva España de Bernal Díaz del Castillo es, en realidad, la primera. Las dos tienen pies de imprenta muy parecidos -Madrid, Imprenta del Reino- y ambas llevan la fecha de 1632, o bien en la portada o en la suma de la tasa. A través de la evidencia bibliográfica comprobamos que la edición con la portada calcográfica es la primera edición, y la edición con la portada tipográfica es una edición contrahecha posterior. Este artículo es fruto de una investigación realizada como trabajo de fin del máster titulado "Crónicas americanas en la Biblioteca Histórica "Marques de Valdecilla".The following article uses bibliographical evidence to prove which of the two first editions of Historia verdadera de la conquista de la Nueva España by Bernal Díaz del Castillo is the true first edition and which is a posterior illegal edition. Both have the date 1632 either in their imprint or in their legal preliminaries, but this article will show that the illegal edition was printed at a later date. This article is the result of research carried out during the course of investigation related to the Master's Thesis "Crónicas americanas en la Biblioteca Histórica "Marques de Valdecilla".

  19. Estado de derecho, gobernabilidad y democracia en Uruguay: presente y escenarios futuros

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Moreira Betancor

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 21 false false false ES-CO X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Tabla normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin-top:0cm; mso-para-margin-right:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:10.0pt; mso-para-margin-left:0cm; line-height:115%; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;} El objetivo del presente artículo es abordar el funcionamiento de la democracia en Uruguay a comienzos del siglo xxi, con especial énfasis en las características del Estado de derecho. El trabajo consta de tres partes y un epílogo. En la primera parte se expone brevemente cómo llegó el Frente Amplio al gobierno y cómo gobierna en Uruguay. En la segunda parte se mencionan algunos de los aspectos sustantivos del debate contemporáneo en torno a la calidad de la democracia. En la tercera parte se presentan las características de la democracia en Uruguay, haciendo énfasis en el funcionamiento del Estado de derecho (Rule of Law. A manera de conclusión, el epílogo consta de una serie de reflexiones sobre el Estado de derecho, aplicadas al caso estudiado.

  20. Epidemic history of major genotypes of hepatitis C virus in Uruguay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castells, M; Bello, G; Ifrán, S; Pereyra, S; Boschi, S; Uriarte, R; Cristina, J; Colina, R

    2015-06-01

    Worldwide, more than 170 million people are chronically infected with the hepatitis C virus (HCV) and every year die more than 350,000 people from HCV-related liver diseases. Recently, HCV was reclassified into seven major genotypes and 67 subtypes. Some subtypes as 1a, 1b and 3a, have become epidemic as a result of the new parenteral transmission routes and are responsible for most HCV infections in Western countries. HCV 1a subtype have been sub-categorized into two separate sub clades. Recent studies based on the analysis of NS5B genome region, reveal that HCV epidemics in Argentina and Brazil are characterized by multiple introductions events of subtypes 1a, 1b and 3a, followed by subsequent local dispersion. There is no data about HCV genotypes circulating in Uruguay and their evolutionary and demographic history. To this end, a total of 153 HCV NS5B gene sequences were obtained from Uruguayan patients between 2005 and 2011. 86 (56%) sequences grouped with subtype 1a, 40 (26%) with subtype 3a and 27 (18%) with subtype 1b. Furthermore, subtype 1a sequences were distributed among both clades, 1 (n=62, 72%) and 2 (n=24, 28%). Four local HCV clades were found: UY-1a(I), UY-1a(II), UY-1a(III) and UY-3a; comprising a 39% of all HCV viruses analyzed in this study. HCV epidemic in Uruguay has been driving by multiple introductions of subtypes 1a, 1b and 3a and by local dissemination of a few country-specific strains. The evolutionary and demographic history of the major Uruguayan HCV clade UY-1a(I) was reconstructed under two different molecular clock rate models and displayed an epidemic history characterized by an initial phase of rapid expansion followed by a more recent reduction of growth rate since 2000-2005. This is the first comprehensive study about the molecular epidemiology and epidemic history of HCV in Uruguay.

  1. The role of LATU as national metrology institute of Uruguay and its responsibilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robatto, O.; Quagliata, E.; Santo, C.; Sica, A.; Sponton, M.

    2013-09-01

    Laboratorio Tecnológico del Uruguay (LATU) is the National Metrology Institute of Uruguay and has the obligation to maintain the national standards stated by National Law 15298. At present LATU is acting as a secondary laboratory as well as a primary laboratory. LATU was ISO 17025:2005 DKD (Deutscher Kalibrierdienst) accredited from 2001 up to 2007. By that time LATU decided to support its Capabilities of Measurement and Calibration (CMCs) at CIPM-MRA (Mutual Recognition Arrangement between national metrology institutes (NMIs)) by peer assessment. A Peer Review has been done in 2008 in order to get the QSTF (Sistema Interamericano de Metrología, Quality System Task Force) approval. "New "CMCs for Industrial Thermometers have been approved by the JCRB on September 2010. CMCs claimed for Standard Resistance Platinum Thermometers (SPRTs) calibration at fixed points have not been approved yet because there were some requirements of traceability of employed cells that were not fulfilled but will be solved properly. The declared CMCs have been chosen by LATU in order to cover the increasing calibration services required by the industry and the secondary calibration laboratories. To demonstrate its technical competence an support its declared "CMCs" LATU has also participated at bilateral and regional comparisons. In recent years LATU, the National Accreditation Body (OUA), the Standards Institute, the National Institute of Quality and Compliance Bodies have become Members of a new Institution to strengthen the Quality Infrastructure of the country (SUNAMEC). As part of this new activities, LATU is giving training courses to the secondary laboratories performing calibrations in temperature that want to get accredited by the National Accreditation Body and to act as Technical Evaluators or Auditors when required by OUA. It is expected, that in the future and in the frame of new accredited and recognized temperature calibration laboratories, LATU could strengthen its

  2. Breast cancer early detection and quality assurance in Uruguay; Deteccion precoz de cancer de mama e garantia de calidad en Uruguay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cotelo, Elena D. [Universidad de la Republica, Montevideo (Uruguay). Facultad de Medicina. Escuela Universitaria de Tecnologia Medica]. E-mail: elecote@adinet.com.uy

    2001-07-01

    In Uruguay, breast cancer incidence is 76.41 per 100.000, and death rate is 25.22 per 100.000. Since 1998, there is a National Programme of breast cancer early detection for females over forty years of age. We studied the state of the mammography facilities throughout the country. There are 657.000 female over forty and 51 mammography X-ray equipment. The Programme includes 2 mammography X-ray equipment in mobile units in the capital and 18 in hospitals all around the country. There are taken 120.000 mammographic exams per year, 15.000 of them belong to women who had participated in the Programme. We found that no mammography facility has established Quality Assurance Programmes. Despite the results of this study showed that is suitable the number and age of the mammography X-ray equipment, the lack of Quality Assurance Programmes will produce, in a short time, a negative cost-benefit balance. The consequences will be serious social, human an economical damages. (author)

  3. Uruguays vandløb skal give svaret på hvad der sker med vores vandløb når klimaet bliver varmere

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Jens Christian

    2008-01-01

    Uruguay rummer en række vandløb der i fysisk udformning og opland minder meget om de danske. Derfor har tre specialestuderende på Danmarks Miljøundersøgelser ved Aarhus Universitet været nede i Uruguays subtropiske varme for at undersøge hvordan danske vandløb vil kunne udvikle sig når klimaet...

  4. Tobacco smoke exposure in public places and workplaces after smoke-free policy implementation: a longitudinal analysis of smoker cohorts in Mexico and Uruguay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thrasher, James F.; Nayeli Abad-Vivero, Erika; Sebrié, Ernesto M.; Barrientos-Gutierrez, Tonatiuh; Boado, Marcelo; Yong, Hua Hie; Arillo-Santillán, Edna; Bianco, Eduardo

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To determine the prevalence, correlates and changes in secondhand smoke (SHS) exposure over the period after comprehensive smoke-free policy implementation in two Latin American countries. Methods: Data were analysed from population-based representative samples of adult smokers and recent quitters from the 2008 and 2010 waves of the International Tobacco Control Policy Evaluation Survey in Mexico (n = 1766 and 1840, respectively) and Uruguay (n = 1379 and 1411, respectively). Prevalence of SHS exposure was estimated for regulated venues, and generalized estimating equations were used to determine correlates of SHS exposure. Results: Workplace SHS exposure in the last month was similar within and across countries (range: Mexico 20–25%; Uruguay 14–29%). At the most recent restaurant visit, SHS exposure was lower where comprehensive smoke-free policies were implemented (range: Uruguay 6–9%; Mexico City 5–7%) compared with Mexican cities with weaker policies, where exposure remained higher but decreased over time (32–17%). At the most recent bar visit, SHS exposure was common (range: Uruguay 8–36%; Mexico City 23–31%), although highest in jurisdictions with weaker policies (range in other Mexican cities: 74–86%). In Uruguay, males were more likely than females to be exposed to SHS across venues, as were younger compared with older smokers in Mexico. Conclusions: Comprehensive smoke-free policies are more effective than weaker policies, although compliance in Mexico and Uruguay is not as high as desired. PMID:23172895

  5. Prostitution and exploitation child sexual in Uruguay. Opinion of sex workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Guerra

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In this article we will present the information obtained in the project entitled "Investigation on conditions of work and opinion on trafficking in persons between population that he exercises the feminine prostitution in Uruguay " from 188 interviews to sexual workers. First we analyse the concept of child prostitution in the frame of the sexual exploitation of children and teenagers, to advance then in the result of the fieldwork. 29 % of the sample expresses to know cases of child prostitution in his areas of work, which confirms a worrying presence of this phenomenon, especially in the street prostitution.  As for the opinion, 77% of the interviewed ones have a negative opinion of the phenomenon.

  6. Genetic characterization of the Neotropical catfish Pimelodus maculatus (Pimelodidae, Siluriformes) in the Upper Uruguay River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribolli, Josiane; de Melo, Cláudio Manoel Rodrigues; Zaniboni-Filho, Evoy

    2012-01-01

    Freshwater fish present unique challenges when one attempts to understand the factors that determine the structure of their populations. Habitat fragmentation is a leading cause of population decline that threatens ecosystems worldwide. In this study, we investigated the conservation status of genetic variability in the Neotropical catfish (Pimelodus maculatus). Specifically, we examined the structure and genetic diversity of this species in a region of the Upper Uruguay River fragmented by natural barriers and dams. There was no genetic structure among the four sites analyzed, indicating the existence of only one population group. A combination of environmental management and genetic monitoring should be used to minimize the impact of impoundment on panmitic populations of migratory fish species. PMID:23271936

  7. Initial antimicrobial activity studies of plants of the riverside forests of the southern Uruguay River

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Bertucci

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Development of new antimicrobial compounds against different microorganisms is becoming critically important, as infectious diseases are still one of the leading causes of death in the world. Plants can be a useful source of these lead compounds. In this study, 66 extracts of 25 plants of the riverside forest of southern Uruguay River were studied for antimicrobial activity against Staphylococcus aureus, Listeria inocua, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, Aspergillus niger and Candida albicans. Fifty-three of these extracts showed some kind of antimicrobial activity. Six of these (Eugenia mansoni, Eugenia repanda, Myrcianthes cisplatensis, Paullinia ellegans, Petunia sp and Ruprechtia laxiflora presented activity against Mycobacterium tuberculosis with MIC values as low as 50 μg/mL.

  8. Rural extension in Uruguay: problems and approaches from the point of view of their extensionists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Landini

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the problems faced by rural extension in Uruguay as well as the conceptions used by the development agents to conduct their practices constitutes a contribution to both, the Uruguayan rural development policies and the wider space of the MERCOSUR. A quali-quantitative research was conducted, during which 32 Uruguayan extensionists replied to a questionnaire. Replies underwent content and statistic analysis. Results suggest that the Uruguayan rural extensionists posses a complex conception of their practice, which articulates productive and social dimensions and relates to a critical and participatory way of understanding rural extension. Nevertheless, a diffusionist conception of rural extension is also present in some cases. Finally, problems related to group dynamics are highlighted.

  9. Performance and experience in oral narratives on the border areas between Argentina, Brazil e Uruguay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Hartmann

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available In the frontier among Argentina, Brazil and Uruguay oral narratives transpose political limits. On circulating in this region, narratives reveal identities, traditions and even feelings. In these countries the practice of storytelling is a central aspect of a "culture of frontier", it is fundamental for transmitting values and knowledge. In this paper I present an specific aspect of this culture: the story-tellers performances and its importance on the organization and transmission of the experience of living in the frontier. Firstly, it is done a theoretical approach about the relationship among experience, performance and narrative definitions. Then, presenting two narratives - one a comic story, and the other a personal life narrative - I explain how concepts of "performance as an exhibition" and "performance as skill" can be useful to understand the different forms storytellers act in narrative events.

  10. Ecology of Triatoma rubrovaria (Hemiptera, Triatominae) in wild and peridomestic environments of Uruguay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvatella, R; Rosa, R; Basmadjian, Y; Puime, A; Calegari, L; Guerrero, J; Martinez, M; Mendaro, G; Briano, D; Montero, C

    1995-01-01

    This paper describes population structure, spatial distribution and habitat selection of wild and peridomestic populations of Triatoma rubrovaria (Blanchard, 1843). Field studies were carried out at Las Piedras and La Bolsa in the Northern Department of Artigas, Uruguay. A semicircular sampling area, divided in seven or eight triangular sectors was sequentially examined from October 1990 to November 1991. At Las Piedras (typical wild habitat) 1063 T. rubrovaria bugs were collected from 84% of the rocky outcroops ("pedregales"). Abundance varied by season peaking in October-November (spring). Throughout the year, most of the population was made up of third, fourth and fifth instar nymphs; adults were found from October to March. In the peridomestic environment of La Bolsa, however T. rubrovaria was less common and showed a more irregular instar distribution. Colonized ecotopes, were those close to houses. In both sites T. rubrovaria was mainly associated with the geckonid Homonota uruguayensis and the cockroach Blaptica dubia.

  11. Ecology of Triatoma rubrovaria (Hemiptera, Triatominae in wild and peridomestic environments of Uruguay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Salvatella

    1995-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes population structure, spatial distribution and habitat selection of wild and peridomestic populations of Triatoma rubrovaria (Blanchard, 1843. Field studies were carried out at Las Piedras and La Bolsa in the Northern Department of Artigas, Uruguay. A semicircular sampling area, divided in seven or eight triangular sectors was sequentially examined from October 1990 to November 1991. At Las Piedras (typical wild habitat 1063 T. rubrovaria bugs were collected from 84 of the rocky outcroops ("pedregales". Abundance varied by season peaking in October-November (spring. Throughout the year, most of the population was made up of third, fourth and fifth instar nymphs; adults were found from October to March. In the peridomestic environment of La Bolsa, however T. rubrovaria was less common and showed a more irregular instar distribution. Colonized ecotopes, were those close to houses. In both sites T. rubrovaria was mainly associated with the geckonid Homonota uruguayensis and the cockroach Blaptica dubia.

  12. Violence and access to power in Latin America: Uruguay and El Salvador

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Rey Tristán

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This article reflects on the role of violence as a key strategy used by the Latin American left wing to access power since the victory of the Cuban Revolution (1959. It also looks at the spread of certain readings of this revolutionary process – political, social and of the actions themselves – that have great mobilising power and whose key element is violence. The case studies are Uruguay and El Salvador (from 1959 to 1996, which are of interest due to their differences within the revolutionary wave of Latin’s America’s “new left”, the challenging degree of their mobilisation,and their subsequent incorporation into the political system. For each, the justifications for resorting to violence are analysed, along with their interpretation and the repertoire of tactics used. It concludes with a reflection on the end of these experiences, the abandonment of violence and their achievements and limitations.

  13. Inclusión educativa en Uruguay: una revisión posible

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Jimena Viera Gómez

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available El presente artículo tiene como objetivo realizar una revisión crítica de algunos documentos nacionales y textos académicos sobre las políticas de inclusión educativa en Uruguay. Se parte de los diversos significados y acepciones que tiene el término inclusión educativa, entendiendo que la misma debe brindar apoyo a la población de estudiantes más vulnerables ya sea por razones culturales, sociales, económicas o por su condición de discapacidad. Considerar la diversidad como parte de lo humano conduce a pensar en una educación en y para la diversidad, esta concepción de educación debe constituir el centro de la política educativa y el Estado deberá garantizar los recursos necesarios para su implementación. Se analizan algunos documentos del marco normativo internacional sobre inclusión social y educativa. Considerando que estos documentos refieren a la educación inclusiva como un derecho humano fundamental. Aún existe una gran distancia entre los discursos y las posibilidades efectivas de ejercer el derecho a la educación por parte de los niños en general y con discapacidad en particular. Uruguay mantiene en la actualidad un sistema de educación segregada, donde la situación educativa de los jóvenes con discapacidad hace figura y representa un gran desafío. Para finalizar, se identifica a la formación docente como uno de los componentes primordiales para el desarrollo de una educación inclusiva. El desarrollo profesional de los docentes es en sí mismo una estrategia de cambio y un factor clave para los procesos de mejora e innovación educativa. // This article aims to make a critical review of some national documents and academic texts on educational policies for inclusion in Uruguay. It begins with the various meanings and connotations that educational inclusion has, understanding that it should provide support to the student population most vulnerable either for cultural, social, economic or their disability

  14. Health professionals and abortion: transitions and disputes in Uruguay (2000-2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandra López Gomez

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Unsafe and illegal abortion is a critical issue in most countries at Latin America and the Caribbean region. The recognition of sexual and reproductive rights as human rights that is observed in the international, regional and national levels has not been exempt from conflicts. The Uruguayan case provides important evidence in this regard. The thesis examines health professionals’ perceptions and perspectives related to their care practices with women and abortion in a legal context that considered abortion as a crime, between 2002 and 2012 in Uruguay. The results allow us to understand the complex relationship between the different levels involved in the policy process. Health professionals’ practices are an analyzer of the covenants and conflicts that are recorded in the social field.

  15. Characterization of home gardens in northern Uruguay and methodology for its diagnosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ignacio Traversa

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available An ecological, productive and social diagnosis of homegardens in Northern Uruguay is displayed in this paper, as well as methodology to achieve it, that could be used in other similar systems. The fieldwork consisted of interactive surveys to producers and field inventories for gathering information on the social, technical, productive and ecologicalaspects of green orchards. . A map of the orchards was done by using a Geographic Information System (GIS. The homegarden is organic, aligned along the minor and major roads and forms cluster cores at the interface between the urban and peri-urban areas. The prospects of the orchards are limited for socio-cultural reasons. Species biodiversity reached a total amount of 187 and an average of 23 species per orchard. Policies are needed for rescueing inherited knowledge that will keep homegardens alive.

  16. Body and Psychiatric Discourse in the Early Twentieth Century in Uruguay: Insufficiency, Weakness and Adaptation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agustina Craviotto Corbellini

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available This study analyzes the psychiatric medical discourse and experimental psychology during the twentieth century in Uruguay, as expert knowledge on children and as referents of the pedagogic discourse of that period. As an introduction some key elements of psychiatry in the country are presented; from them, it is stuyed how the dysfunction of the body became the focus of analysis that led to a series of school children´s classifications. The relationship of the dysfunctional body with school learning is at the core of the reflection, and indiscipline and mental weaknesses are taken as elements articulating the psychiatric and psychological discourses with the pedagogical one, through the notion of adjustment disorder.

  17. Historia clínica electrónica oncológica del Uruguay

    OpenAIRE

    Orefice, Pablo; Sande, Paulo; Portilla, Fernando; Forcella, Jorge; Schiavone, Andrea; Notejane, Álvaro; Cuello, Mauricio; Bertini, Diego; Vázquez, Álvaro; Cataldi, Sandra; Barrios, Enrique; Vacca, Nicolás; Camargo, Bruno; Kasdorf, Pedro; Delgado, Lucía

    2016-01-01

    En Uruguay y la región el cáncer es desde hace décadas una de las principales causas de muerte. A iniciativa de los Servicios de Oncología de la Universidad de la República, de los Servicios Oncológicos de la Asociación Española y de la Comisión Honoraria de Lucha contra el Cáncer se desarrolla la Historia Clínica Electrónica Oncológica (HCEO), cuya implementación fue solicitada al programa Salud.uy. Como objetivo se propone diseñar un sistema de información que contribuya a mejorar la ate...

  18. Políticas y planes de lectura: El caso de Uruguay

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    Se aborda el tema de las políticas públicas de promoción de la lectura, enfatizando en la formulación de planes nacionales, como medio para implementar dichas políticas en el contexto socio-educativo de un país. Se hace una breve referencia a las acciones a favor de la lectura en Iberoamérica y se estudia particularmente la situación de Uruguay con especial referencia al Plan Nacional de Lectura. Se esbozan los conceptos de campaña de lectura, promoción de la lectura, animación a la lectura y...

  19. Animal welfare and meat quality: the perspective of Uruguay, a "small" exporter country.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Campo, M; Brito, G; Montossi, F; Soares de Lima, J M; San Julián, R

    2014-11-01

    Public sensitivity towards animal welfare has risen in recent years. Uruguay is a primary meat exporter. Therefore, it is compulsory not only to provide good quality and safe meat, but also to project a welfare friendly image. Uruguayan meat production systems are mainly based on rangeland pastures but, due to international meat prices and the opening of new markets, intensive fattening systems increased. These systems include a wide range of feeding alternatives between pasture and concentrate utilization, involving differences in terms of animal welfare, carcass and meat quality, that require to be studied. Accordingly, some husbandry practices associated mainly with extensive systems must be evaluated, as well as their applicability to international recommendations related to pre-slaughter handling which may not be suitable for local conditions. In the present paper we share scientific results related to the impact of different production systems, husbandry practices and pre-slaughter procedures associated to animal welfare and meat quality in Uruguayan conditions.

  20. Occurrence and biodiversity of Aspergillus section Nigri on 'Tannat' grapes in Uruguay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garmendia, Gabriela; Vero, Silvana

    2016-01-04

    Ochratoxin A (OTA) is a nephrotoxic mycotoxin which has been found worldwide as a contaminant in wines. It is produced on grapes mainly by molds from Aspergillus section Nigri. This study has demonstrated for the first time the occurrence of black aspergilli on Tannat grapes from Uruguay, in a two year survey. Aspergillus uvarum (uniseriate) and Aspergillus welwitschiae (from Aspergillusniger aggregate) were the prevalent species whereas Aspergillus carbonarius which is considered the main OTA producing species was not detected. OTA production in culture medium was evaluated for native isolates from A. niger aggregate and compared to levels produced by a type strain of A. carbonarius. This work also includes the development of quick and easy molecular methods to identify black aspergilli to species level, avoiding sequencing.

  1. Seismic stratigraphic analysis of the Punta del Este basin, offshore Uruguay, South America

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stoakes, F.A.; Campbell, C.V. (Stoakes Campbell Geoconsulting Ltd., Calgary, Alberta (Canada)); Cass, R. (Arvec Consulting Ltd., Calgary, Alberta (Canada)); Ucha, N. (ANCAP, Montivideo (Uruguay))

    1991-02-01

    The Punta del Este part of the greater Salado basin is relatively unexplored with only two wells having been drilled, both in the updip part of the basin. These two wells have contributed some understanding of the stratigraphic succession but have failed to adequately assess the basin's true hydrocarbon potential. This paper constitutes one of the first detailed, comprehensive published accounts of this basin and is a prerequisite for future exploration in the area. In this paper, the authors give the results and major conclusions of a regional seismic stratigraphic analysis of the Punta del Este basin, offshore Uruguay. This paper is one of the first detailed, comprehensive published accounts of the tectonic and sedimentary evolution of this basin. The study area covers approximately 15,000 km{sup 2} (5,790 mi{sup 2}) of the continental shelf, from the shoreline to the 200-m (655-ft) shelf isobath.

  2. ONE HUNDRED YEARS OF PUBLIC COMPANIES IN URUGUAY: THEIR EVOLUTION AND PERFORMANCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena Bertino

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper combines two interrelated approaches to examine the evolution of the state as entrepreneur in Uruguay over its century of existence. One of them uses qualitative sources to reconstruct its development, identifying two periods in this evolution; these coincide with the different development models that the country and the world have adopted since the Thirties. During the first one the state progressively expanded its functions and the expansion of public companies played an important role. Since the Seventies, a liberal model has predominated, based on the reform of the companies (or the privatization placing more importance on efficiency and profitability. The second approach analyzes the time series of several important variables regarding the performance of the primary non-financial public companies (NFPC (employment, production, labor productivity, value-added as a proportion of GDP and profit results versus net transfers from the government.

  3. Runoff properties of extreme discharges on Paraná and Uruguay rivers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Vargas

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Climate variability in different spatial scales is a study area which has reached interest in application, especially during de last years. River discharges can be considered as a robust integrator of the properties of the basin; under these premises the goal of this work is to analyse flows from the Paraná and Uruguay rivers in several gauge stations and study the behavior of positive and negative anomalies and their extremes. The variable to be analysed was defined as the number of anomalies with the same sign per year. Results show that the structures are different for both rivers, which implies a different stochastic process. Identical representativeness was found between the anomaly series in each river. The risk estimation of extremes in both rivers indicates that it is possible to establish a decision model. Additionally, the series of annual number of anomalies presented a climatic jump in the seventies, for both rivers.

  4. Runoff properties of extreme discharges on Paraná and Uruguay rivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas, W.; Bischoff, S.; Naumann, G.; Marcuzzi, E.

    2010-05-01

    Climate variability in different spatial scales is a study area which has reached interest in application, especially during de last years. River discharges can be considered as a robust integrator of the properties of the basin; under these premises the goal of this work is to analyse flows from the Paraná and Uruguay rivers in several gauge stations and study the behavior of positive and negative anomalies and their extremes. The variable to be analysed was defined as the number of anomalies with the same sign per year. Results show that the structures are different for both rivers, which implies a different stochastic process. Identical representativeness was found between the anomaly series in each river. The risk estimation of extremes in both rivers indicates that it is possible to establish a decision model. Additionally, the series of annual number of anomalies presented a climatic jump in the seventies, for both rivers.

  5. Mortalidad infantil en Uruguay: un análisis de supervivencia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jewell R. Todd

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available A partir de todos los nacimientos ocurridos en el Uruguay entre 2002 y 2003 y las defunciones ocurridas en el primer año de vida, se estima la tasa de mortalidad infantil a través de modelos probit y hazard. Debido a que las muertes se concentran en los primeros días y semanas de vida, el modelo hazard es preferible al probit, encontrándose que la estimación probit sobreestima los efectos de las covariables. Los resultados muestran que las variables más importantes son la edad y la educación de la madre, los cuidados prenatales y los denominados predictores de la mortalidad (bajo peso al nacer, semanas de gestación y APGAR.

  6. Research in universities and its evaluation A comparative study among Argentina, Brazil and Uruguay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mabel Dávila

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper poses a comparative study among Argentina, Brazil and Uruguay on the research policies adopted in universities and their evaluation. A documentary analysis on current regulations, impact assessments and interviews to key persons enabled to reconstruct the principal aspects of the processes of research development in each country, especially in universities and their evaluation systems. The comparison identifies as a shared feature the difficulties for developing a quality evaluation process which considers the diversity of the systems found in higher education, a heterogeneous characteristic in the three countries.  However, there are differences related to the origin and consolidation of the systems of evaluation of university quality and science and technology, the policies developed in different stages and the influence of the political and economic contexts. These aspects exert a great influence in the different ways to evaluate the function of research, in the national cases as well as their inner ones. 

  7. Durabilidade de peças cerâmicas vermelhas com adição de rejeito de rocha ornamental isenta de granalha Durability of red ceramic samples with addition of ornamental rock waste free of steel particles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. V. Rodrigues

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Para avaliação da degradação acelerada em laboratório sofrida pelos corpos de prova de cerâmica vermelha com adição de rejeito de rocha ornamental isento de granalha, foi utilizado um equipamento que lixivia com água quente e fria em tempos controlados, e também, congela a amostra em até -4 ºC. Os corpos de prova cerâmicos foram confeccionados com até 10% em massa de rejeito de rocha ornamental a seco, e em seguida, umedecidos e moldados por extrusão. Os materiais produzidos foram calcinados nas temperaturas de 700 ºC, 800 ºC e 900 ºC. Após 1060 h de degradação acelerada em equipamento de laboratório, analisaram-se as propriedades cerâmicas do material. Os resultados das resistências mecânicas foram comparados através da distribuição de Weibull, antes e depois da degradação. Nota-se que o material com adição de 10% de rejeito de rocha ornamental na massa cerâmica é mais confiável quando queimada a 900 ºC após a degradação, quando comparados com as amostras sem adição de rejeito, proporcionando maior durabilidade.For the evaluation of the accelerated degradation in laboratory of red ceramic specimens with addition of ornamental rock waste free from steel particles, an equipment that leach with hot and cool water and time control, and also freezing the specimen at -4 ºC was used,. The ceramic samples were made with up to 10 wt.% of the dry ornamental rock waste, and after humidifying and molding by extrusion. The specimens were fired at 700 ºC, 800 ºC and 900 ºC. After 1060 h of accelerated degradation lab test, ceramic properties were evaluated. The results of the strength were compared for Weibull distribution, before and after degradation. The specimens with addition of 10 wt.% waste is more durable and reliable when fired to 900 ºC after the degradation.

  8. Dental anomalies in Didelphis albiventris (Mammalia, Marsupialia, Didelphidae from Argentina, Brazil and Uruguay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Amelia Chemisquy

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Dental anomalies have been investigated and reported for most orders of mammals, including marsupials. Previous works in Didelphis albiventris Lund, 1840 only described one kind of malformation or just a few observations from some collections, thus the type and presence of anomalies for this species was underestimated. The aim of this contribution is to describe and analyze several dental anomalies found in specimens of Didelphis albiventris from Argentina, Uruguay and Brazil. Dental anomalies were classified in three categories: supernumerary or missing teeth, morphological anomalies in size and shape, and teeth in unusual positions. We found 32 individuals of D. albiventris with anomalies out of 393 analyzed specimens (8.14%, some specimens with more than one anomaly. A similar proportion of specimens from Argentina and Uruguay presented anomalies, while in specimens from Brazil anomalies were less common. Anomalies were more commonly found in the upper toothrow and in molars, being supernumerary teeth and molars with unusual crown-shape the most common ones. The percentage of specimens with anomalies found for D. albiventris is higher than previously reported for the species, and other Didelphimorphia. Inbreeding and limited gene flow do not appear as possible explanations for the elevated percentage of anomalies, especially due to the ecological characteristics of Didelphis albiventris. Developmental instability and fluctuating asymmetry could be some of the causes for the anomalies found in this species, mostly since the habitat used by D. albiventris tends to be unstable and disturbed. Dental anomalies were mostly found in areas of the toothrow where occlusion is relaxed or does not prevent teeth from interlocking during mastication, and consequently have no functional value.

  9. Spatial and temporal distribution of ichthyoplankton in the upper Uruguay river, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samara Hermes-Silva

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available The distribution and abundance of fish eggs and larvae was analyzed in three sections of the Upper Uruguay river, in a stretch of 290 km. Samples were collected monthly from October, 2001 to March, 2002 during 48-h cycles at 6-h intervals between each sampling. Surface and bottom samples were collected with a 0.5-mm mesh cylindroconical net. Fishes from the Upper Uruguay river were reproductively active mainly from October to January, and this activity was more intense at the Ligeiro and Chapecó tributaries and Chapecó main river. It was observed that the tributaries are important spawning grounds and larval nursery sites, indicating the importance of preserving such environments.Foram analisadas a distribuição e abundância de ovos e larvas de peixes em três seções do Alto rio Uruguai, num trecho de 290 km. As coletas foram realizadas mensalmente no período de outubro de 2001 a março de 2002, durante um ciclo de 48 horas com intervalos de 6 horas entre as amostragens. Foram feitas coletas de superfície e fundo, nas margens e no canal central do rio, utilizando-se redes de plâncton do tipo cônicocilíndricas de malha 0,5mm. As maiores ocorrências foram verificadas entre os meses de outubro a janeiro, sendo que a atividade reprodutiva foi mais intensa nos tributários Ligeiro e Chapecó e no rio Uruguai, na foz do rio Chapecó. Foi observado neste estudo que alguns tributários se destacam como locais de desova e desenvolvimento de larvas de peixe, indicando a importância de se preservar estes ambientes.

  10. [Detection of rifampicin-resistant strains of Neisseria meningitidis in Uruguay].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez Giffoni, Gabriel; García Gabarrot, Gabriela; Alfonso, Adriana; Pujadas, Mónica; Camou, Teresa

    2011-12-01

    The objective of this study was to characterize the phenotype and genotype of two isolates of rifampicin-resistant Neisseria meningitidis associated with two independent events involving transmission of severe meningococcal meningitis that occurred in September and October 2010 in Montevideo, Uruguay. The most recent 10 years of data from the national antimicrobial resistance surveillance system were reviewed to estimate the frequency of the particular meningococcal features that were characterized. Rifampicin resistance was studied using the epsilometer test. The serotype and serosubtype of the isolates were determined by ELISA, and the genotype was characterized using DNA digestion with Nhel and pulse field gel electrophoresis. The two isolates were identical: B:2a:P1.5. In the collection of 408 strains of N. meningitidis isolated in Uruguay in the past 10 years, the phenotype only appeared in two isolates, which were sensitive to rifampicin. The two isolates studied also shared a single pulse type, which was different from that of two other rifampicin-resistant isolates obtained in 2003 and 2007. Consequently, it was concluded that both cases of transmission were caused by a single rifampicin-resistant strain, which could have been an import from another country or else the result of a drift from serogroup C to B due to selective pressure exerted by vaccines administered to the population. It is essential to maintain and maximize surveillance. However, since this type of finding has been sporadic so far, unless a secondary case is identified, there is no justification for changing the antimicrobial drug currently being administered to contacts as prophylaxis.

  11. Seasonal Variation of Honeybee Pathogens and its Association with Pollen Diversity in Uruguay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antúnez, Karina; Anido, Matilde; Branchiccela, Belén; Harriet, Jorge; Campa, Juan; Invernizzi, Ciro; Santos, Estela; Higes, Mariano; Martín-Hernández, Raquel; Zunino, Pablo

    2015-08-01

    Honeybees are susceptible to a wide range of pathogens, which have been related to the occurrence of colony loss episodes reported mainly in north hemisphere countries. Their ability to resist those infections is compromised if they are malnourished or exposed to pesticides. The aim of the present study was to carry out an epidemiological study in Uruguay, South America, in order to evaluate the dynamics and interaction of honeybee pathogens and evaluate their association with the presence of external stress factors such as restricted pollen diversity and presence of agrochemicals. We monitored 40 colonies in two apiaries over 24 months, regularly quantifying colony strength, parasite and pathogen status, and pollen diversity. Chlorinated pesticides, phosphorus, pyrethroid, fipronil, or sulfas were not found in stored pollen in any colony or season. Varroa destructor was widespread in March (end of summer-beginning of autumn), decreasing after acaricide treatments. Viruses ABPV, DWV, and SBV presented a similar trend, while IAPV and KBV were not detected. Nosema ceranae was detected along the year while Nosema apis was detected only in one sample. Fifteen percent of the colonies died, being associated to high V. destructor mite load in March and high N. ceranae spore loads in September. Although similar results have been reported in north hemisphere countries, this is the first study of these characteristics in Uruguay, highlighting the regional importance. On the other side, colonies with pollen of diverse botanical origins showed reduced viral infection levels, suggesting that an adequate nutrition is important for the development of healthy colonies.

  12. Memoria del terrorismo de estado en la ciudad de Montevideo (Uruguay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena BROQUETAS SAN MARTÍN

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN: Recientemente, en los países del Cono Sur de América Latina que han atravesado experiencias de terrorismo de Estado, ha comenzado a desarrollarse la discusión en torno a las marcas territoriales y los espacios físicos que aluden a ese pasado. En este contexto comenzó a pensarse la ciudad como escenario de las acciones del terrorismo de Estado, con el objetivo de reconocer en ella las huellas de esa experiencia y partiendo de la base de que esos rastros pueden transformarse en «vehículos de memoria». En esta ponencia, centrada en la ciudad de Montevideo (Uruguay, se repasarán las iniciativas de memoria desplegadas por agentes estatales y colectivos sociales para representar ese pasado de represión y violencia política y se reflexionará acerca del rol del historiador en esta contienda.ABSTRACT: Recently, in those countries of Southern America which have suffered experiences of the State terrorism, the discussion has begun to be developed concerning the territorial marks and the physical spaces that allude to this past. About this context the city begun to be thought as stage of the actions of the State terrorism, with the target to recognize on it the traces of this experience and departing from the base of which these tracks can be understood as «vehículos de la memoria» (places to recall past history. In this paper, focused on the city of Montevideo (Uruguay, there will be revised the initiatives of memory carried by state agents and social groups to represent this past of repression and political violence; the role of the historian in this process will be evalued at the same time.

  13. Seed softening patterns of forage legumes in a temperate/subtropical environment in Uruguay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Do Canto

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Few studies have been conducted in annual and perennial forage legumes to investigate the development of hardseededness and the subsequent pattern of seed softening in temperate and subtropical regions of South America. Experiments were conducted during 2007 and 2008 in central Uruguay to follow the pattern of seed softening in 35 annual and perennial forage legumes, including three native species of Uruguay and five commercial cultivars. Newly ripened seeds of each plant material were placed in mesh packets on the soil surface in mid-summer. Samples were recovered monthly for germination tests and the proportion of residual hard seeds determined. The native species Adesmia bicolor (Poir. DC., Adesmia securigerifolia Herter, and Ornithopus micranthus (Benth. Arechav., together with Ornithopus pinnatus (Mill. Druce cv. INIA Molles behaved similarly. They showed high levels of initial hard seed from 78% in A. bicolor to 99% in A. securigerifolia and O. pinnatus cv. INIA Molles in 2007; displayed pulses of seed softening, particularly in autumn, and retained moderate levels of residual hard seed for the development of a soil seed bank ranging from 15% in A. bicolor to 49% in O. micranthus. These appear to be desirable characteristics for persistence of forage legumes in subtropical grasslands, both for annual and perennial species. Trifolium repens L. and Lotus corniculatus L. produced few hard seeds, only 2% and 13% respectively were hard after 1-mo in the field and were completely soft by July placing extra reliance on their vegetative propagation for persistence. Materials of L. arenarius Brot. showed pronounced late autumn softening, while materials of L. ornithopodioides L. showed extremely high levels of hardseededness (between 96% and 100% and no softening during the evaluation period, apart from two materials that were completely soft seeded. Mediterranean forage legumes should be properly evaluated in temperate and subtropical regions as

  14. Los argumentos de Uruguay ante la Corte Internacional de Justicia en la Ronda de Alegatos por el caso de las Plantas de Celulosa en el Río Uruguay - doi:10.5102/uri.v8i1.1076

    OpenAIRE

    Juan Manuel Rivero Godoy

    2010-01-01

    El siguiente artículo versará sobre los alegatos presentados por el Estado de Uruguay ante la CIJ a efectos de cumplir el rito procesal de las audiencias públicas en el marco del desarrollo del proceso trabado entre el Estado Argentino y el Uruguay llevadas a cabo del 21 al 24 de setiembre y del 1 al 2 de octubre de 2009 en la Haya, Holanda. Durante éste período se mostrará los argumentos jurídicos que Uruguay utilizó para contrarrestar la presentación Argentina. Esta etapa marca el final del...

  15. Feições intempéricas em rochas alcalinas félsicas de Nova Iguaçu, RJ Weathering fabrics in felsic alkaline rocks of Nova Iguaçu, State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akihisa Motoki

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Esse artigo apresenta descrições de campo e considerações genéticas de feições intempéricas observadas em rochas alcalinas félsicas de Nova Iguaçu, RJ, com atenção especial aos clastos traquíticos de brecha vulcânica. Observam-se dois tipos de feições notáveis: "case hardening", o endurecimento da superfície da rocha por cimentação dos minerais intempéricos com o auxílio de hidróxidos dissolvidos na água superficial percolante; "dissociação mineral", o intemperismo seletivo de minerais e a conseqüente formação de cavidades na superfície da rocha. Nos afloramentos intemperizados das brechas, o case hardening forma saliência centimétrica dos clastos traquíticos sobre a superfície da matriz. Os clastos maiores do que 30 cm mostram a feição de saliência e reentrância na borda, que é originada do contraste entre a superfície endurecida e a subsuperfície não endurecida. Esses clastos têm suave saliência central cuja subsuperfície é composta do núcleo sem alteração. A lixiviação dos fenocristais de feldspato alcalino forma numerosas cavidades na superfície intemperizada de clastos de traquito porfirítico, gerando uma estrutura pseudovesicular, porém, na subsuperfície, a rocha menos alterada com textura maciça está presente. Esse fato demonstra que essas não são bombas, spatter ou escória. Essas observações são desfavoráveis à hipótese do Vulcão de Nova Iguaçu, que adota uma origem extrusiva dos clastos como um argumento fundamental.This paper presents the field description and genetic consideration of weathering fabrics observed in the Nova Iguaçu felsic alkaline rocks, State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, with special attention to trachytic clasts of volcanic breccia. Two types of notable fabrics are observed: "case hardening", the rock surface induration by cementation of weathered minerals with the help of the hydroxides dissolved in the surface water; and "mineral dissociation", the

  16. Produção de mudas de tomateiro em substratos contendo fibra de coco e pó de rocha Tomato seedlings production using substrates with coconut fiber and rock waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Regynaldo A Sampaio

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de avaliar proporções dos resíduos fibra de coco (FC e pó de rocha de granito (RG como substratos na produção de mudas de tomateiro, cultivar Kada Gigante, realizou-se um experimento em casa de vegetação na UFMG-ICA. Foi utilizado o delineamento experimental em blocos ao acaso, com quatro repetições. Os tratamentos foram constituídos por uma testemunha e seis proporções de fibra de coco (FC e pó de rocha de granito (RG: T1 - Substrato comercial Hortimix®; T2 - 0% FC + 100% RG; T3 - 20% FC + 80% RG; T4 - 40% FC + 60% RG; T5 - 60% FC + 40% RG; T6 - 80% FC + 20% RG; T7 - 100% FC + 0% RG. O cultivo foi feito em bandeja de poliestireno expandido com células de 3,5 x 3,5 x 5,0 cm. Foram avaliados o diâmetro do coleto, a altura da planta, o índice de velocidade de emergência, a percentagem de emergência e a massa fresca e seca da parte aérea e da raiz. Em praticamente todas as características avaliadas o substrato comercial foi superior aos substratos contendo fibra de coco e pó de rocha. Considerando-se apenas os substratos contendo fibra de coco e pó de rocha, as mudas com melhores características foram obtidas com a mistura de aproximadamente 70% em volume de fibra de coco.A greenhouse experiment was carried out to evaluate the ratio of coconut fiber and rock waste, in the tomato seedling production (cultivar Kada Gigante, in Montes Claros, Brazil. The experimental design was of randomized complete blocks with four replicates. The treatments were composed of a control and six ratios of coconut fiber (FC and rock waste (RG: T1 - Commercial Substrate Hortimix®; T2 - 0% FC + 100% RG; T3 - 20% FC + 80% RG; T4 - 40% FC + 60% RG; T5 - 60% FC + 40% RG; T6 - 80% FC + 20% RG; T7 - 100% FC + 0% RG. The cultivation was done in polystyrene trays with cells of 3.5 x 3.5 x 5,0 cm. Stem diameter, seedling height, emergency speed index, emergency percentage, root and aerial part of fresh and dry matter were evaluated. In

  17. Estudo da Faciologia Orgânica em Rochas Geradoras Marinhas Cretáceas do Grupo Villeta, Bacia do Valle Superior del Magdalena,Colômbia: Implicações Paleoambientais.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Andrade Iemini

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available As rochas pelíticas do Cretáceo superior são asgeradoras da maior parte das reservas de petróleo naColômbia. A Bacia do Valle Superior Del Magdalena(VSM, possui afloramentos de boa qualidade e comníveis de evolução térmica, que variam desde oimaturo até o fim da “janela” de geração de óleo,tornando esta região como uma das mais propíciaspara o estudo dos processos de geração e migraçãoprimária do petróleo no Cretáceo superior. O objetivoprincipal consistiu no estudo de fácies orgânicaatravés da caracterização geoquímica e análisepalinofaciológica das rochas geradoras de petróleocretáceas do VSM numa seção aflorante (QuebradaBambuca, objetivando o entendimento do controleexercido pela evolução paleoambiental sobre opotencial gerador e as variações composicionaisda matéria orgânica a partir da integração dosdados geoquímicos e palinofaciológicos. Paratanto, foram utilizadas análises organogeoquímicas(Carbono Orgânico Total - COT e Pirólise Rock-Eval, cedidas pelo Instituto Colombiano doPetróleo ICP - ECOPETROL e palinofaciológicasem amostras das Formações Tetuan Bambuca e LaLuna, Grupo Villeta, Bacia do Valle Superior delMagdalena. As rochas dessa formação apresentamum elevado conteúdo orgânico, com valores deCOT de até 23%. As lâminas organopalinológicasforam analisadas através de técnicas de palinofácies(microscopia em luz branca transmitida e luz azul/ultravioleta incidente-fluorescência realizando acontagem dos componentes orgânicos particuladosdos grupos do querogênio (fitoclasto, palinomorfoe matéria orgânica amorfa e da determinação doÍndice de Coloração de Esporos (ICE. A analisemicroscópica revelou um predomínio de matériaorgânica amorfa. Os palinomorfos são representadospor dinoflagelados e esporomorfos, sendo osdinoflagelados os mais representativos. A matériaorgânica amorfa apresenta fluorescência amarelaa laranja. O material lenhoso representa a

  18. Substituição do processo de usinagem pelo processo de forjamento a quente na fabricação da pré-forma de brocas de furação de rochas

    OpenAIRE

    Charles Chemale Yurgel

    2007-01-01

    Este trabalho tem como objetivo mostrar a viabilidade da troca de processo de usinagem pelo processo de forjamento a quente na fabricação da cavidade interna da pré-forma de brocas de furação de rochas, onde se observa na comparação entre os processos uma menor perda de matéria prima na utilização do novo processo, o que caracteriza a viabilidade dessa mudança. Foram realizados ensaios de forjamento para fabricação da cavidade da broca. Primeiramente, se utilizou um punção cônico, com um form...

  19. Indications of the Implementation in the Process of Educational Reform in Uruguay Indicadores de la implementación en procesos de reforma educativa en Uruguay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos R. Sarasola

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the author investigates, from a qualitative perspective, the problems associated with implementing educational innovations. He studies the recent case of the Basic Cycle reform in Uruguay. Based on the concepts of van der Vegt and Vandenberghe (1992, he analyzes the "functions guides" exercised by the director in order to be able to regulate the internal flow of the implementation. The first of these is "conceptual clarity", which has to do with providing the professors with a clear vision of what will take place within the implementation, and with specifying that vision in terms of the professional knowledge and abilities of the faculty as well. The second of these is "directional pressure," which refers to an operational level of the implementation; that is to say, how daily activities mesh with the objectives of the reform. Next, "function of support" refers to the support offered by the director for the management of resources (material, emotional, technical, and administrative resources, so that the resources may then effectively support the work in the center. Finally is "definition of latitude," that is, the degree of educational autonomy that the faculty have with respect to the external objectives of the reform. En este trabajo el autor estudia, desde una perspectiva cualitativa, la problemática de la implementación de innovaciones educativas. Toma por caso la reciente reforma del Ciclo Básico en Uruguay. Con base en los conceptos de van der Vegt y Vandenberghe (1992, analiza las "funciones guía" ejercidas por el director para poder regular el flujo interno de la implementación. La primera de ellas es la "claridad conceptual", que tiene que ver con las posibilidades de proveer a los profesores de una clara visión de lo que ha de lograrse con la implementación y con concretar esa visión en términos de saber profesional y habilidades de los docentes. La segunda es la "presión direccional" que refiere a un nivel

  20. Los conceptos de transición y democracia en el pensamiento de las Ciencias Sociales. Uruguay 1985-1989

    OpenAIRE

    Cecilia Arias

    2013-01-01

    En este artículo me propongo analizar los conceptos de transición y democracia en el pensamiento de las Ciencias Sociales en el Uruguay entre los años 1985-1989. El trabajo se enmarca en el proyecto “La construcción de la democracia en la transición. El pensamiento de las Ciencias Jurídicas, Políticas y Sociales: Uruguay 1985-1989” en el que participo junto a otros investigadores. Dicho proyecto tiene por objetivo investigar, desde una mirada interdisciplinaria pero con un marco teórico conse...

  1. Basis for a streamflow forecasting system to Rincón del Bonete and Salto Grande (Uruguay)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talento, Stefanie; Terra, Rafael

    2013-10-01

    This paper presents the basis for the design of streamflow prediction systems for the hydroelectric dams of Rincón del Bonete (Uruguay) and Salto Grande (Uruguay-Argentina). The prediction is made, independently, for each reservoir and each month of the year with two methodologies: data-driven statistical models and hybrid downscaling that includes atmospheric predictors. We determine a set of potential predictors and then fit linear models coupled with variable selection techniques, under the hypothesis of perfectly known predictors. The predictive skill of the schemes outperforms the climatological forecast throughout the year in both reservoirs (except August in Rincón del Bonete). This remains the case even when the forecast lead does not allow for the use of preceding flows as predictors. While in Rincón del Bonete it is not possible to distinguish a period of high predictability, in Salto Grande, there is a robust signal in March-May and October-December.

  2. Detection and molecular characterization of porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) from piglets with exudative epidermitis in Uruguay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, Natalia; Mirazo, Santiago; Castro, Gustavo; Arbiza, Juan

    2012-10-01

    Porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) is an economically important emerging pathogen associated with distinct syndromes and diseases in swine, collectively known as porcine circovirus associated diseases (PCVAD). The main purpose of this study was to investigate the presence of PCV2 in piglets affected with exudative epidermitis (EE) in Uruguay. In addition we aimed to analyze the phylogenetic relationships of the isolated strains. In June 2011 an outbreak of EE detected in a small herd was reported. Piglets presented skin lesions compatible with EE and symptoms associated with postweaning multisystemic wasting syndrome (PMWS) were also observed. Sera from affected and healthy animals were tested for the presence of viral DNA. Exclusively, diseased piglets were infected with PCV2. Phylogenetic analysis showed that PCV2 isolates belonged to PCV2b genotype. We report the detection and molecular characterization of PCV2 strains for the first time in Uruguay.

  3. Association of anemia, child and family characteristics with elevated blood lead concentrations in preschool children from Montevideo, Uruguay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Queirolo, Elena I; Ettinger, Adrienne S; Stoltzfus, Rebecca J; Kordas, Katarzyna

    2010-01-01

    Elevated blood lead levels (BPbs) have been identified in Uruguayan children in the La Teja neighborhood of Montevideo, but the extent of lead exposure in other city areas is unknown. Sources and predictors of exposure also remain understudied in this population. In 2007, the authors screened lead and hemoglobin levels in capillary blood of 222 preschool children from several areas of Montevideo, Uruguay, and identified predictors of elevated BPbs. Mean BPb was 9.0 +/- 6.0 microg/dL and 32.9% of children had levels >or= 10microg/dL. Mean hemoglobin level was 10.5 +/- 1.5 g/dL, with 44.1% having levels lead exposure, and fewer family possessions were also associated with higher BPbs. Pediatric lead exposure is a public health problem in Uruguay, with children experiencing elevated BPbs at a young age.

  4. Rickettsiosis cutáneo ganglionar por Rickettsia conorii en el Uruguay Cutaneous-ganglionar rickettsiosis by Rickettsia conorii in Uruguay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ismael A. Conti-Diaz

    1990-10-01

    Full Text Available Se refieren 3 casos autóctonos de rickettsiosis cutáneo ganglionar trasmitidos por garrapatas de perros (Amblyomma maculatum, en uno de ellos en el Uruguay. Dos de los 3 casos fueron seguramente provocados por Rickettsia conorii de acuerdo a los resultados de la reacción específica de inmunofluorescencia indirecta - IgM, anti R. conorii. Se incluye un tercer paciente no estudiado con tal técnica, por la similitud clínico-epidemiológica, la reactividad del suero frente al Proteus OX 19 y la rápida respuesta a la tetraciclina. La no descripción previa de la rickettsiosis por R. conorii en forma autóctona en el área de las Américas confiere especial interés a la comunicación, recomendándose la búsqueda de la afección en otros países de la región.Three autochthonous cases of cutaneous-ganglionar rickettsiosis transmitted by dogs ticks (Amblyomma maculatum in one of them are reported. Two of the three cases were undoubtely produced by Rickettsia conorii according to the results of the specific indirect immunofluorescence technique IEF-IgM anti R. conorii. A third case is included due to the clinical epidemiological similarity, the positive serum reactivity with Proteus O x 19 and the rapid response to tetracycline. Autochthonous rickettsiosis by R. conorii has not been previously registered in the American area what confers special interest to this communication. The search of the disease in the other countries of the region is suggested.

  5. Ronda Uruguay del GATT: evaluación de los resultados alcanzados en el área institucional

    OpenAIRE

    Sergio Abreu Bonilla

    2015-01-01

    Para los países de pequeña dimensión como Uruguay, el fortalecimiento de las normas y disciplinas internacionales constituye la principal garantía contra la aplicación de medidas unilaterales por parte de los países de mayor poder económico (...)Contenido: Introducción. Organización Mundial de Comercio. Entendimiento sobre un sistema integrado de solución de diferencias

  6. Sentences of the Inter-American Court of Human Rigths and State reactions. Mexico and Uruguay compared to past crimes

    OpenAIRE

    Dutrénit Bielous, Silvia

    2012-01-01

    Between 2009 and 2011 the Inter-American Court of Human Rights issued two convictions to Mexico and Uruguay. These cases may be regarded as paradigmatic of the repressive legacy of the seventies and eighties. Although both States have taken different routes of their political regimes, the crimes may come to be considered similar. Political contexts in which it has been discussed the legacy of human rights violations have differences. In this article we look at aspects of the pathways leading ...

  7. Mitochondrial DNA in Basque descendants from the city of Trinidad, Uruguay: Uruguayan- or Basque-like population?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sans, M; Figueiro, G; Ackermann, E; Barreto, I; Egaña, A; Bertoni, B; Poittevin-Gilmet, E; Maytia, D; Hidalgo, P C

    2011-02-01

    Like other countries in the Americas, during its colonization Uruguay was the recipient of immigrants from several ethnic groups from Europe, as well as of enslaved Africans. After its independence in 1830, Basques were the first group of Europeans to arrive in the country. In this paper, we aim to contribute to the understanding of the process of integration of these migratory waves into the Uruguayan society. For that purpose, individuals of Basque origin from the city of Trinidad, Uruguay, were chosen to participate in this study. Particularly, we wanted to determine if Basque descendants in Uruguay remained relatively isolated or if they mixed with other ethnic groups. Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) of 60 self-identified Basque descendants, taken from a larger sample of subjects with Basque ancestors, was analyzed. The origin of mtDNA haplogroups was 77.8% European, 20.4% Amerindian, and 1.8% African, showing similar frequencies to other Uruguayan regions. Very few sequences showed a clear Basque origin, although other sources such as the Canary Islands are likely. Moreover, genetic distances clearly show that Basque descendants are genetically closer to other Uruguayan groups than to European populations, including Basques. It is possible to conclude that Basques and their descendants in the region of Trinidad did not remain isolated and that their marriage behavior was similar to that of other Uruguayan populations. However, to have a more accurate picture of the way Basques intermarried with other populations in Uruguay, new analyses are needed that take into account paternal lineages as well as biparental genetic markers.

  8. Oligosarcus amome (Ostariophysi: Characidae), a new species from the río Uruguay basin, Misiones, Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almirón, Adriana; Casciotta, Jorge; Piálek, Lubomír; Doubnerová, Klára; Říčan, Oldřich

    2015-02-05

    Oligosarcus amome is described from tributaries of the arroyo Yabotí-Guazú, río Uruguay basin, Misiones Province, Argentina. This new species can be distinguished from all its congeners by the following combination of characters: presence of two conspicuous series of teeth on premaxilla bearing pentacuspidate teeth in the outer series. Oligosarcus amome is the sister taxon of all remaining analyzed species of the genus excepting O. itau. 

  9. The Battle Era and Labor in Uruguay and U.S. Low-Intensity in Conflict Policy in Latin America

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-05-01

    1Martin Weinstein, Uruguay: The Politics of Failure (Westport, 1975), 92. 22Direccion General de Estadistica , Anuario Estadistica de la Republica Oriental...dominated by immigrants engaged mainly in commerce and financial activities. 32 Most immigrants, however, 30Direccion General de Estadistica , Censo...General de Estadistica , Anuario Estadistico de la Republica Oriental del Urugay, 1901-1915. Montevideo, 1902- 1917. Direccion General de Estadistica

  10. Hospital admissions for acute myocardial infarction before and after implementation of a comprehensive smoke-free policy in Uruguay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sebrié, Ernesto Marcelo; Sandoya, Edgardo; Hyland, Andrew; Bianco, Eduardo; Glantz, Stanton A; Cummings, K Michael

    2012-01-01

    Background Stimulated by the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control, many countries in Latin America adopted comprehensive smoke-free policies. In March 2006, Uruguay became the first Latin American country to adopt 100% smoke-free national legislation, which ended smoking in all indoor public places and workplaces, including restaurants and bars. The objective of this study was to evaluate trends in hospital admissions for cardiovascular disease 2 years before and 2 years after the policy was implemented in Uruguay. Methods Reports of hospital admissions for acute myocardial infarction (AMI) (International Classification of Disease-10 I21) from 37 hospitals (79% of all hospital admissions in the country), representing the period 2 years before and 2 years after the adoption of a nationwide smoke-free policy in Uruguay (between 1 March 2004 and 29 February 2008), were reviewed. A time series analysis was undertaken to compare the average monthly number of events of hospital admission for AMI before and after the smoke-free law. Results A total of 7949 hospital admissions for AMI were identified during the 4-year study period. Two years after the smoke-free policy was enacted, hospital admissions for AMI fell by 22%. The same pattern and roughly the same magnitude of reduction in AMI admissions were observed for patients seen in public and private hospitals, men, women and people aged 40–65 years and older than 65 years. Conclusions The national smoke-free policy implemented in Uruguay in 2006 was associated with a significant reduction in hospital admissions for AMI. PMID:22337557

  11. Barriers and Promoters of an Evidenced-Based Smoking Cessation Counseling During Prenatal Care in Argentina and Uruguay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Van T.; Morello, Paola; Farr, Sherry L.; Lawsin, Catalina; Dietz, Patricia M.; Aleman, Alicia; Berrueta, Mabel; Mazzoni, Agustina; Becu, Ana; Buekens, Pierre; Belizán, José; Althabe, Fernando

    2015-01-01

    In Argentina and Uruguay, 10.3 and 18.3 %, respectively, of pregnant women smoked in 2005. Brief cessation counseling, based on the 5A’s model, has been effective in different settings. This qualitative study aims to improve the understanding of factors influencing the provision of smoking cessation counseling during pregnancy in Argentina and Uruguay. In 2010, we obtained prenatal care providers’, clinic directors’, and pregnant smokers’ opinions regarding barriers and promoters to brief smoking cessation counseling in publicly-funded prenatal care clinics in Buenos Aires, Argentina and Montevideo, Uruguay. We interviewed six prenatal clinic directors, conducted focus groups with 46 health professionals and 24 pregnant smokers. Themes emerged from three issue areas: health professionals, health system, and patients. Health professional barriers to cessation counseling included inadequate knowledge and motivation, perceived low self-efficacy, and concerns about inadequate time and large workload. They expressed interest in obtaining a counseling script. Health system barriers included low prioritization of smoking cessation and a lack of clinic protocols to implement interventions. Pregnant smokers lacked information on the risks of prenatal smoking and underestimated the difficulty of smoking cessation. Having access to written materials and receiving cessation services during clinic waiting times were mentioned as promoters for the intervention. Women also were receptive to non-physician office staff delivering intervention components. Implementing smoking cessation counseling in publicly-funded prenatal care clinics in Argentina and Uruguay may require integrating counseling into routine prenatal care and educating and training providers on best-practices approaches. PMID:25500989

  12. Venezuela, Surinam, Jamaica y Uruguay: relevancia de los partidos políticos para la democracia, ayer y hoy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natascha Adama

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available El postulado de que los sistemas bipartidistas son más estables es negado por las crisis políticas habidas en Uruguay y Jamaica en las décadas de 1960 y 1970. Los sistemas multipartidistas de Venezuela y Uruguay, en cierto momento histórico, acomodaron la realización de pactos y alianzas políticas aparentemente improbables, que en tiempos de crisis llevaron a la fragmentación del panorama político y a profundas crisis de liderazgo que continúan determinando la sociedad de hoy. Este artículo sostiene la hipótesis de que los sistemas bipartidistas tienen mayor propensión a la estabilidad política debido a que la agregación de demandas se concentra entre dos contendientes principales y a que las posibilidades de pactos políticos se ven limitadas. La hipótesis mencionada será explorada mediante el examen de: 1 la relevancia de los sistemas de partidos para la democratización, en general y en los casos de Jamaica, Uruguay, Surinam y Venezuela; 2 el papel de los partidos en los países mencionados durante y después de las crisis políticas, y su capacidad para re-equilibrarse y ajustarse ante las presiones del cambio social.

  13. El castillo de Gauzón (Asturias, España y el proceso europeo de feudalización entre la Antigüedad tardía y la Edad Media a través de las fortificaciones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muñiz López, I.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Las excavaciones arqueológicas realizadas en la fortaleza más renombrada de los reyes de Asturias, el castillo de Gauzón, desde el año 2007 han proporcionado un compendio de informaciones y datos que abren nuevas perspectivas sobre el origen de las fortificaciones altomedievales asturianas. El conjunto de dataciones de C14 , sumado al análisis estructural del yacimiento, a los materiales, a su cotejo con la prolífica documentación escrita y con los estudios previos de otros autores, permiten desarrollar en esta primera síntesis un discurso sobre el proceso de feudalización en Europa expresado en la cultura material de los castillos.

  14. Recent changes in frost days events characteristics in Uruguay-Southeastern South America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renom, Madeleine; De Mello, Santiago

    2015-04-01

    There are few studies about extreme temperature events in Southeastern South America as is it mentioned in the SREX report (2009), although these events generate human health impacts and big economical looses. Southeastern South America is one of the major agricultural production regions worldwide. Particularly in Uruguay, agricultural production represents a high percentage of the GDP and, in the last 15 years there has been a significant increase in the area used for that economic activity. Although frost is not always is considered as an extreme event it causes, in the case of Uruguay, an impact on society, energy consumption and agricultural losses. Previous studies have shown a negative trend in the occurrence of cold nights (TN10) during winter (June-July-August) and autumn (March-April-May) in Uruguay. This work try to determine if these trends affects the occurrences and characteristics of frost days (Tmin< 0°C). Based on a high-quality daily minimum temperature for 11 meteorological stations that cover the period 1950-2009, we analyzed different features of frost days. Long term trends do not present a clear spatial behaviour suggesting that there is a not clear relationship between the percentile based index (TN10) and a fixed index (FD). At monthly scale, May and September show a negative trend, although these months present a low number of cases that difficult the statistical treatment. It is noticeable that from a decadal point of view the last decade (2000-2009) was the decade with fewer occurrences comparing with the rest, while the 90's is the decade that presents more cases. We also analyzed changes in frost period (FP) which commonly extends from May to September. In general all the stations present a decrease in the FP in accordance with the negative trend detected at monthly scale, suggesting a warming in autumn and spring time. Although we detected different behaviour in two stations, one located inner land and the other located on the

  15. Gênese de solos derivados de rochas ultramáficas serpentinizadas no sudoeste de Minas Gerais Genesis of soils formed from ultramafic serpentinized rocks in southwestern Minas Gerais (Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Vidal-Torrado

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Os solos derivados de rochas serpentinizadas ou serpentinitos constituem um grupo especial de solos em toda superfície terrestre. De caráter ultramáfico, ou seja, rochas com mais de 70 % de minerais máficos (ferromagnesianos, os serpentinitos apresentam uma mineralogia pobre em sílica e escassa em Al, sendo, no entanto, muito enriquecida em Mg. São poucos os estudos sobre a morfologia, mineralogia, gênese e classificação dos solos desenvolvidos de tais rochas. Em ambiente tropical úmido no sudoeste de Minas Gerais, na zona do greenstone belt do Morro de Ferro, em superfícies geomórficas jovens, três perfis de solos representativos dessa paisagem sobre rochas serpentinizadas foram caracterizados por meio de descrições macro e micromorfológicas, análises granulométricas, químicas e por mineralogia de raios X das frações argila e silte. Complementarmente, para acompanhamento da alteração geoquímica dos horizontes do solo, foram feitas microanálises das seções delgadas por EDRX. Os solos foram classificados como Chernossolo Háplico Férrico típico, Cambissolo Háplico eutroférrico léptico e Neossolo Regolítico eutrófico típico e, embora situados num clima que favorece o rápido intemperismo, do ponto de vista morfológico e mineralógico, mostraram-se similares aos solos derivados de rochas serpentinizadas das regiões subtropicais e temperada. No processo de formação de solo, a evolução da trama segue a seguinte seqüência: alteração da rocha ® trama frâgmica ® trama porfírica com cavidades ® trama porfírica aberta por coalescência de cavidades. O processo de argiluviação é evidente e se dá em dois estádios distintos: argiluviação primária, que ocorre nas fendas e cavidades que se formam por alteração de rocha, e argiluviação secundária, verificada na porosidade mais aberta e evoluída da coalescência das cavidades. Os solos apresentam mineralogia pouco comum para solos tropicais, com

  16. Actitudes lingüísticas en Uruguay. Tensiones entre la variedad y la identidad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth García de los Santos

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Resumen Este artículo analiza las actitudes lingüísticas de los hablantes nativos de español de la ciudad de Montevideo hacia al español de Uruguay y el de los otros países hispanohablantes. El artículo es parte de los resultados del Proyecto LIAS (Linguistic Identity and Attitudes in Spanish-speaking Latin America, financiado por El Consejo Noruego de Investigaciones (RCN. La recolección de los datos se realizó en la capital del país, entrevistando a una muestra de 400 informantes previamente estratificada con las variables de edad, sexo y nivel socioeconómico. Los resultados presentan el grado de identificación de los hablantes frente a su variedad del español (creencias, lealtad hacia la norma propia y las actitudes de los hablantes respecto a las variedades entendidas como de mayor o menor prestigio; se encuentran ciertas regularidades en las causas que determinan estas actitudes. El estudio analizar el grado de tolerancia a las diferencias lingüísticas de acuerdo a distintos géneros discursivos (noticias de radio y televisión, información telefónica, publicidades y los resultados muestran que el contexto y el medio de comunicación son importantes para la manera en la que el hablante reacciona al uso del lenguaje. Abstract This article analyzes the linguistic attitudes of native Spanish-speakers from Montevideo towards Spanish spoken in Uruguay and in the other Spanish-speaking countries. It is a result of the LIAS-Project (Linguistic Identity and Attitudes in Spanish-speaking Latin America, funded by The Research Council of Norway (RCN. The data were gathered in the capital of the country, interviewing a stratified sample of 400 respondents, based on the variables of age, sex and socioeconomic status. The results describe the degree of identification of the speakers with their own variety of Spanish (beliefs, loyalty to the norm and their attitudes toward linguistic varieties of high or low prestige, and the findings

  17. Prevalence and predictors of exposure to multiple metals in preschool children from Montevideo, Uruguay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kordas, Katarzyna, E-mail: Kxk48@psu.edu [Department of Nutritional Sciences, Pennsylvania State University, 110 Chandlee Laboratory, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Queirolo, Elena I. [Center for Research, Catholic University of Uruguay, Montevideo (Uruguay); Clinic for Environmental Contaminants, Pereira Rossell Hospital, Montevideo (Uruguay); Ettinger, Adrienne S.; Wright, Robert O. [Department of Environmental Health, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, MA (United States); Stoltzfus, Rebecca J. [Division of Nutritional Sciences, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY (United States)

    2010-09-15

    The extent of children's exposure to multiple toxic metals is not well described in many developing countries. We examined metal exposures in young children (6-37 months) from Montevideo, Uruguay and their mothers (15-47 years) participating in a community-based study. Hair samples collected from 180 children and their mothers were analyzed for: lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd), manganese (Mn), and arsenic (As) concentration using inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Median metal levels ({mu}g/g) were: Pb 13.69, Mn 1.45, Cd 0.17, and As 0.09 for children and Pb 4.27, Mn 1.42, Cd 0.08, and As 0.02 for mothers. Of the child and maternal samples, 1.7% and 2.9% were below the limit of detection (LOD) for Cd, and 21.3% and 38.5% were below the LOD for As, respectively. Correlations between maternal and child levels ranged 0.38-0.55 (p < 0.01). Maternal hair metal levels were the strongest predictors of metal concentrations in children's hair. Girls had significantly lower As levels than boys (p < 0.01) but did not differ on other metals. In addition, in bivariate logistic regressions predicting the likelihood that the child would be exposed to multiple metals, hemoglobin < 10.5 g/dL (OR = 2.12, p < 0.05), blood lead (OR = 1.17, p < 0.01), and the mother being exposed to two or more metals (OR = 3.34, p < 0.01) were identified as significant predictors of increased likelihood of multiple metal exposure. Older child age (OR = 0.96, p < 0.05), higher maternal education (OR = 0.35, p < 0.01), and higher number of household possessions (OR = 0.83, p < 0.01) were significantly associated with decreased likelihood of multiple metal exposure. Preschool children in Uruguay are exposed to multiple metals at levels that in other studies have been associated with cognitive and behavioral deficits. Sources of exposure, as well as cognitive and behavioral consequences of multiple metal exposure, should be investigated in this population.

  18. DNA multigene characterization of Fasciola hepatica and Lymnaea neotropica and its fascioliasis transmission capacity in Uruguay, with historical correlation, human report review and infection risk analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gayo, Valeria; Sanchis, Jaime; Artigas, Patricio; Khoubbane, Messaoud; Birriel, Soledad; Mas-Coma, Santiago

    2017-01-01

    Background Fascioliasis is a pathogenic disease transmitted by lymnaeid snails and recently emerging in humans, in part due to effects of climate changes, anthropogenic environment modifications, import/export and movements of livestock. South America is the continent presenting more human fascioliasis hyperendemic areas and the highest prevalences and intensities known. These scenarios appear mainly linked to altitude areas in Andean countries, whereas lowland areas of non-Andean countries, such as Uruguay, only show sporadic human cases or outbreaks. A study including DNA marker sequencing of fasciolids and lymnaeids, an experimental study of the life cycle in Uruguay, and a review of human fascioliasis in Uruguay, are performed. Methodology/Principal findings The characterization of Fasciola hepatica from cattle and horses of Uruguay included the complete sequences of the ribosomal DNA ITS-2 and ITS-1 and mitochondrial DNA cox1 and nad1. ITS-2, ITS-1, partial cox1 and rDNA 16S gene of mtDNA were used for lymnaeids. Results indicated that vectors belong to Lymnaea neotropica instead of to Lymnaea viator, as always reported from Uruguay. The life cycle and transmission features of F. hepatica by L. neotropica of Uruguay were studied under standardized experimental conditions to enable a comparison with the transmission capacity of F. hepatica by Galba truncatula at very high altitude in Bolivia. On this baseline, we reviewed the 95 human fascioliasis cases reported in Uruguay and analyzed the risk of human infection in front of future climate change estimations. Conclusions/Significance The correlation of fasciolid and lymnaeid haplotypes with historical data on the introduction and spread of livestock into Uruguay allowed to understand the molecular diversity detected. Although Uruguayan L. neotropica is a highly efficient vector, its transmission capacity is markedly lower than that of Bolivian G. truncatula. This allows to understand the transmission and

  19. Regional differences in species composition and toxigenic potential among Fusarium head blight isolates from Uruguay indicate a risk of nivalenol contamination in new wheat production areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umpiérrez-Failache, M; Garmendia, G; Pereyra, S; Rodríguez-Haralambides, A; Ward, T J; Vero, S

    2013-08-16

    Members of the Fusarium graminearum species complex (FGSC) are the primary cause of Fusarium head blight (FHB) of wheat, and frequently contaminate grain with trichothecene mycotoxins that pose a serious threat to food safety and animal health. The species identity and trichothecene toxin potential of 151 FGSC isolates collected from wheat in Uruguay were determined via multilocus genotyping. Although F. graminearum with the 15ADON trichothecene type accounted for 86% of the isolates examined, five different FGSC species and all three trichothecene types were identified in this collection. This is the first report of Fusarium asiaticum, Fusarium brasilicum, Fusarium cortaderiae, and Fusarium austroamericanum from Uruguay. In addition, we observed significant (Pcomposition of FGSC species and trichothecene types within Uruguay. Isolates of F. graminearum with the 15ADON type were the most prevalent in western provinces (95%), while F. asiaticum (43%) and the NIV type (61%) predominated in the new wheat production zone in Cerro Largo along Uruguay's eastern border with Brazil. F. graminearum isolates (15ADON type) were significantly (Pwheat than were isolates from the other species examined (NIV or 3ADON types). However, F. graminearum isolates (15ADON type) were significantly (P<0.05) more sensitive to tebuconazole than isolates from other species (NIV type). These results document substantial heterogeneity among the pathogens responsible for FHB in Uruguay. In addition, the regional predominance of the NIV trichothecene type is of significant concern to food safety and indicates that additional monitoring of nivalenol levels in grain may be required.

  20. La experiencia de Uruguay: el Proyecto de Ley de Defensa de la Salud Reproductiva The experience in Uruguay: the Bill for the Defense of Reproductive Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mónica Xavier

    2005-04-01

    ties that projected it beyond the country's borders. The article briefly reviews the background and basis for the bill, the research it entailed, and the international commitments assumed by Uruguay, before concluding with a summary of the bill itself and the challenges it poses in terms of sexual and reproductive rights, specifically with regard to voluntary interruption of pregnancy.

  1. A multivariate approach to environmental-zooplankton relationships in Maldonado Bay (Uruguay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Milstein

    1986-01-01

    Full Text Available Environment-zooplankton relationships were analysed in Maldonado Bay (Uruguay, an estuarine area between the River Plate and the Atlantic Ocean. This was done through Principal Component Analysis. Most of the environment variability is accounted for, primarily, by the outflow of the River Plate and the inflow of coastal waters which change through the annual cycle, and in the second place by surface water conditions. On the other hand, most of the zooplankton variability is accounted for by 17 taxa abundant in April and February and by one dominant species present only from May to August. A second source of zooplanktonic variability is due to species which occurred in fall only The main observed variabili ty occurred on an annual scale. On it, variations on smaller scales overlap: from one day to another, between Maldonado Bay and the adjacent waters of the River Plate. The main factors involved were different at each scale. The Bay is relatively isolated from adjacent waters, but the degree of isolation varies throughout the year. The influence of coastal water is greater and occurs first outside the Bay. Biological processes may develop under different conditions in the Bay and in the adjacent waters of the River Plate.

  2. Presence of Political Parties and Deputies in Internet in Argentina, Paraguay and Uruguay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanina Welp

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available According to Latinobarómetro, political parties are the institutions which less confidence receive from Latin Americans. This is not a particularity of Latin America, but a documented problem of Western consolidated democracies.In this context, in Europe and United States, among others, the use of digital media become a tool to overcome the crisis of representation, given their capacities to renovate politics, and because they allow the offering of more publicity of public matters as well as the opening up of new channels of participation and communication between citizens and representatives. But to what extent and with which features is this adoption happening in Latin America? Based on the study of the online presence of political parties and deputies of Argentina, Paraguay and Uruguay (webs, blogs, Facebook and Twitter, this article explores the levels of digital media adoption and the influence of variables such as the internet diffusion in the country, the crisis of representation and the characteristics of political parties (institutionalization, ideology, size, role of leaders explaining the extension and characteristics of this adoption. 

  3. La Consolidación de un Nuevo Sistema de Partidos en Uruguay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Buquet

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available A pesar de su alto grado de institucionalización y de la relativa estabilidad de la competencia electoral, el sistema de partidos uruguayo ha sufrido una significativa transformación en los últimos cuarenta años. Este artículo analiza el proceso de cambio del viejo equilibrio bipartidista, que se mantuvo hasta la década de 1960, hasta el nuevo equilibrio tripartidista que se expresó en las elecciones de 2009. Para ello, se estudia la evolución de los resultados electorales, de la volatilidad y de la fragmentación, además del cambio de reglas que permitió la consolidación del nuevo sistema de partidos. Este trabajo permite comprender, desde una perspectiva institucionalista, la forma que adoptan las transformaciones de los sistemas de partidos en países altamente institucionalizados como Uruguay. La hipótesis es que los cambios producidos en el sistema de partidos, originados en shocks exógenos, se procesan gradualmente y se estabilizan a través del cambio de las reglas electorales.

  4. Acceso y calidad del empleo de la inmigración reciente en Uruguay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victoria Prieto

    Full Text Available Resumen Este artículo analiza las características de acceso y calidad de la inserción laboral de los inmigrantes extranjeros llegados a Uruguay entre 2007 y 2015. Los desempeños de los inmigrantes se comparan con los de la población nativa no migrante y retornada, primero de forma bivariada, luego mediante la inclusión de la condición migratoria en la estimación de modelos logísticos binomiales de la probabilidad de empleo, informalidad y sobrecalificación. La fuente empleada corresponde a las Encuestas Continuas de Hogares del período 2012 – 2015. Los resultados muestran una desventaja sistemática en el acceso al empleo de la población extranjera, y mayor riesgo de sobrecalificación y de informalidad entre los ocupados del mismo origen. Dentro de los extranjeros las mujeres tienen menores chances de insertarse en el mercado de trabajo pero no se encuentra un efecto negativo de la doble condición mujer-inmigrante en los indicadores de calidad del empleo. Si bien el tiempo de asentamiento mitiga el efecto adverso de la condición inmigratoria sobre el empleo, la informalidad y sobrecalificación, éste no desaparece entre los inmigrantes más antiguos.

  5. Turismo enológico en Uruguay: ¿qué quiere el visitante local?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gianfranca María Camussi Calvi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available El turismo enológico en Uruguay comienza a desarrollarse, con una demanda compuesta mayoritariamente por turistas extranjeros y visitantes locales en segundo plano. Con el objetivo de aportar conocimiento sobre el visitante doméstico y sus expectativas y aspiraciones, para el logro de un plan de marketing ajustado, se realizó una encuesta, a residentes de Montevideo de alto nivel socioeconómico. El 86% desea realizar enoturismo; los intereses específicos permiten separar grupos por afinidad. Respecto a las actividades propias del enoturismo, se diferencia un grupo que desea focalizarse en degustar y comprar vino, y otro que prefiere conocer el proceso productivo completo. Todos desean actividades complementarias, y se dicotomizan en - un grupo que prefiere gastronomía, cultura y arte, - mientras el otro, deportes o actividades al aire libre. Se ha identificado la amplitud de servicios para un turismo del vino exitoso que busque la satisfacción del cliente y la fidelización de los visitantes locales.

  6. Mobbing in Schools and Hospitals in Uruguay: Prevalence and Relation to Loss of Status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buunk, Abraham P; Franco, Silvia; Dijkstra, Pieternel; Zurriaga, Rosario

    2016-01-19

    In the present study in secondary schools and hospitals in Uruguay (N = 187), we examined the relationship between feeling the victim of mobbing and a perceived loss of status. Nearly all forms of mobbing were more prevalent among hospital employees than among school employees. Among hospital employees, 40.4%, and among school employees, 23.9% reported being the victim of mobbing at least once a week. Being the victim of mobbing was, in both hospitals and schools, more prevalent among older employees, and in hospitals, among employees who were more highly educated and who had been employed for a longer time. Men and women did not differ in reporting that one was a victim of mobbing, but men reported more perceived loss of status than women. However, among women, being the victim of mobbing was much more strongly related to experiencing a loss of status than among men. Several explanations for this gender difference and the practical and theoretical implications of the results are discussed.

  7. Early archosauromorph remains from the Permo-Triassic Buena Vista Formation of north-eastern Uruguay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezcurra, Martín D; Velozo, Pablo; Meneghel, Melitta; Piñeiro, Graciela

    2015-01-01

    The Permo-Triassic archosauromorph record is crucial to understand the impact of the Permo-Triassic mass extinction on the early evolution of the group and its subsequent dominance in Mesozoic terrestrial ecosystems. However, the Permo-Triassic archosauromorph record is still very poor in most continents and hampers the identification of global macroevolutionary patterns. Here we describe cranial and postcranial bones from the Permo-Triassic Buena Vista Formation of northeastern Uruguay that contribute to increase the meagre early archosauromorph record from South America. A basioccipital fused to both partial exoccipitals and three cervical vertebrae are assigned to Archosauromorpha based on apomorphies or a unique combination of characters. The archosauromorph remains of the Buena Vista Formation probably represent a multi-taxonomic assemblage composed of non-archosauriform archosauromorphs and a 'proterosuchid-grade' animal. This assemblage does not contribute in the discussion of a Late Permian or Early Triassic age for the Buena Vista Formation, but reinforces the broad palaeobiogeographic distribution of 'proterosuchid grade' diapsids in Permo-Triassic beds worldwide.

  8. Cuidar y ser cuidado en la vejez: desigualdades de género en Uruguay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosario Aguirre Cuns

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo tiene como objetivo contribuir al desarrollo de una perspectiva latinoamericana de vejez y género y aportar conocimientos en torno a los cuidados en la vejez en Uruguay. Desde una perspectiva feminista del cuidado, realiza una breve reflexión sobre la construcción social de la vejez, el género y su vínculo con el cuidado. A partir de información empírica reciente, cuya fuente es la Encuesta de Uso del Tiempo 2013, se da cuenta de las desigualdades de género en la provisión de cuidados por parte de las personas mayores a través de las tasas de participación y el tiempo dedicado a estas actividades. Considerando la división sexual del trabajo durante todo el curso de vida de los varones y mujeres, se argumenta sobre la necesidad de cuestionar la idea de envejecimiento activo como fundamento de las políticas públicas. Se propone incorporar una mirada sobre las personas mayores como realizadoras de cuidados y tareas domésticas que contribuyen al bienestar social y familiar y no sólo como dependientes que requieren de cuidados de provisión familiar y pública en la vejez avanzada.

  9. Genetic variability of hepatitis B virus in Uruguay: D/F, A/F genotype recombinants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, L; Flichman, D; Mojsiejczuk, L; Gonzalez, M V; Uriarte, R; Campos, R; Cristina, J; Garcia-Aguirre, Laura

    2015-09-01

    Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is a serious global health problem. Approximately 2 billion people worldwide have been infected, and approximately 350 million individuals currently suffer from HBV-induced chronic liver infection, which causes 600,000 deaths annually from chronic hepatitis, cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. HBV is classified in eight genotypes (A-H), and two more have been proposed (I-J). In this paper, complete genome sequences of nine Uruguayan HBV are reported. Five samples belong to genotype F1b and one to genotype A2. Three HBV recombinants were detected: A1/F1b, A2/F1b and D3/F1b. The following mutations were detected: a G1896A substitution, a 33-nucleotide deletion from position 2896 to 2928 in the Pre-S1 region involving Pre-S1 residues 3-13, a 33-nt deletion in the Pre-S1 region involving nt 2913-2945 and Pre-S1 residues 9-19. More F genotypes strains than expected were detected in this study, supporting the hypothesis that there are more people of indigenous origin than declared in our population. Also, one third of the samples analyzed were recombinants. This cannot be explained by the low HBV prevalence in Uruguay, but a high HBV infection rate in drug addicts and dialysis patients could act in favor of multiple-genotype HBV infections that could lead to recombination.

  10. Social policies in Uruguay: a view from the political dimension of community psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Ferreyra, Alicia

    2009-03-01

    This paper approaches social policy (SP) from the political perspective considered by Montero (Critical psychology: An introduction, Sage, London, pp 231-244, 1997; Community, Work and Family 1(1):65-78, 1998; Introducción a la Psicología Comunitaria. Desarrollo, conceptos y procesos, Paidos, Buenos Aires, pp 89-114, pp 255-284, 2004; Hacer para transformar. El método en la Psicología Comunitaria, Paidos, Buenos Aires, pp 229-256, 2004) as a paradigmatic dimension of community psychology. The field of SP, the characteristics of certain SPs and the role of SP in the production and reproduction of the subjectivities of those subject to them in Uruguay are described and an analysis given of the challenge posed by going from a compensatory or palliative to a transformative mode of SP. It is proposed that identification of, and understanding and intervention in, psychosocial processes in the field are the keys to maximising the likelihood of SPs assuming a transformative character. Psychosocial aspects and participatory processes implicit in the relationship between the State and civil society are discussed. Finally, some orientations for community psychological intervention in this field of action are proposed.

  11. Colombia, España, Uruguay, Costa Rica, Cuba, Ecuador: Seguridad Social para el adulto mayor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar José Dueñas Ruiz

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Estudio de tres bloques de derechos necesarios para el adulto mayor: salud, pensiones y servicios sociales. Se analizan dentro de un marco conceptual jurídico e histórico, acudiéndose a un lenguaje sencillo y entendible. Este artículo es corolario de un proyecto investigativo ya terminado elaborado por la Universidad del Rosario y la Organización Iberoamericana de la Seguridad Social (OISS. Se estudiaron esos tres derechos en el escenario colombiano, con base en la normatividad, la jurisprudencia y la praxis. Para tener una visión del ámbito iberoamericano se investigó el tratamiento que se les da en otros países: España, Ecuador, Cuba, Costa Rica, Uruguay, destacándose los rasgos más importantes. Varios capítulos fueron desarrollados con base en el método holístico dialéctico configuracional. Las conclusiones se ubican preferencialmente en un espacio jurídico. La principal consiste en que sea cual fuere el modelo de seguridad social, es indispensable una visión humanista.

  12. Information skills in the National Reading Plan of Uruguay: Actions for social inclusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Gladys Ceretta

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available It is described strategies that have been implemented to promote the development of information skills in the National Reading Plan of Uruguay that is under the responsability of the Ministry of Education and Culture, as a National Public Policy. They are aimed at vulnerable socio-economic contexts and help to the process of training reading promoters. We analyze and evaluate the experiences done with target populations that do not belong to the formal education area, especially those who are responsible for reading spaces such as public, community and popular libraries, among others. There are considered new forms of reading in a digital environment in the process of acquiring and strengthening of information skills to ensure equity in access and democratization of information and the process of knowledge construction. It is established the essential elements for the development of a model of information literacy to integrate the National Reading Plan that can coordinate with other areas and institutions and it may contribute to the social inclusion of individuals.

  13. Políticas y planes de lectura: El caso de Uruguay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Gladys Ceretta Soria

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Se aborda el tema de las políticas públicas de promoción de la lectura, enfatizando en la formulación de planes nacionales, como medio para implementar dichas políticas en el contexto socio-educativo de un país. Se hace una breve referencia a las acciones a favor de la lectura en Iberoamérica y se estudia particularmente la situación de Uruguay con especial referencia al Plan Nacional de Lectura. Se esbozan los conceptos de campaña de lectura, promoción de la lectura, animación a la lectura y políticas públicas de lectura. Se reflexiona sobre la importancia de la lectura en el nuevo contexto social pautado por la fuerte presencia de las tecnologías de la información y la comunicación. Se enfatiza en la importancia de la lectura textual y multimedial (recreativa, educativa, informativa como herramienta fundamental para la formación de individuos críticos que puedan ser capaces de desarrollar competencias para la sociedad del siglo XXI

  14. Patterns of exposure to multiple metals and associations with neurodevelopment of preschool children from Montevideo, Uruguay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kordas, Katarzyna; Ardoino, Graciela; Coffman, Donna L; Queirolo, Elena I; Ciccariello, Daniela; Mañay, Nelly; Ettinger, Adrienne S

    2015-01-01

    While it is known that toxic metals contribute individually to child cognitive and behavioral deficits, we still know little about the effects of exposure to multiple metals, particularly when exposures are low. We studied the association between children's blood lead and hair arsenic, cadmium, and manganese and their performance on the Bayley Scales of Infant Development III. Ninety-two preschool children (age 13-42 months) from Montevideo, Uruguay, provided a hair sample and 78 had a blood lead level (BLL) measurement. Using latent class analysis (LCA), we identified four groups of exposure based on metal concentrations: (1) low metals, (2) low-to-moderate metals, (3) high lead and cadmium, and (4) high metals. Using the four-group exposure variable as the main predictor, and fitting raw scores on the cognitive, receptive vocabulary, and expressive vocabulary scales as dependent variables, both complete-case and multiple imputation (MI) analyses were conducted. We found no association between multiple-metal exposures and neurodevelopment in covariate-adjusted models. This study demonstrates the use of LCA together with MI to determine patterns of exposure to multiple toxic metals and relate these to child neurodevelopment. However, because the overall study population was small, other studies with larger sample sizes are needed to investigate these associations.

  15. Shear zone evolution and timing of deformation in the Neoproterozoic transpressional Dom Feliciano Belt, Uruguay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oriolo, Sebastián; Oyhantçabal, Pedro; Wemmer, Klaus; Heidelbach, Florian; Pfänder, Jörg; Basei, Miguel A. S.; Hueck, Mathias; Hannich, Felix; Sperner, Blanka; Siegesmund, Siegfried

    2016-11-01

    New structural, microstructural and geochronological (U-Pb LA-ICP-MS, Ar/Ar, K-Ar, Rb-Sr) data were obtained for the Dom Feliciano Belt in Uruguay. The main phase of crustal shortening, metamorphism and associated exhumation is recorded between 630 and 600 Ma. This stage is related to the collision of the Río de la Plata and Congo cratons at ca. 630 Ma, which also involved crustal reworking of minor crustal blocks such as the Nico Pérez Terrane and voluminous post-collisional magmatism. Subsequent orogen-parallel sinistral shearing gave rise to further deformation up to ca. 584 Ma and resulted from the onset of the convergence of the Kalahari Craton and the Río de la Plata-Congo cratons. Sinistral shear zones underwent progressive strain localization and retrograde conditions of deformation during crustal exhumation. Dextral ENE-striking shear zones were subsequently active at ca. 550 Ma, coeval with further sinistral shearing along N- to NNE-striking shear zones. The tectonothermal evolution of the Dom Feliciano Belt thus recorded the collision of the Río de la Plata and Congo cratons, which comprised one of the first amalgamated nuclei of Gondwana, and the subsequent incorporation of the Kalahari Craton into Western Gondwana.

  16. First identification of Porcine Circovirus Type 2b mutant in pigs from Uruguay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, Natalia; Mirazo, Santiago; Castro, Gustavo; Arbiza, Juan

    2015-07-01

    Porcine Circovirus Type 2 (PCV2) is a worldwide distributed virus and is considered an important emerging pathogen related to several distinct disease syndromes in pigs. PCV2 strains are classified into three genotypes: PCV2a, with five subtypes (2A-2E), PCV2b with three subtypes (1A-1C) and PCV2c, only found in Denmark. Recently, several reports suggested the circulation of newly emerging PCV2b mutants (mPCV2b) isolated from pigs with PCVAD in cases of suspected vaccine failure. In this work, we report for the first time the identification of mPCV2b in pigs from Uruguay, providing an additional evidence of a global circulation. Complete genome characterization and phylogenetic analysis reveal that Uruguayan strains, as well as mPCV2b previously reported are closely related to other sequences already classified as PCV2b-1C. Furthermore, results showed that mPCV2b presented different genetic markers in the capsid protein compared with classical PCV2a/b strains. Further investigation about antigenic shift of the mPCV2b strains including the Uruguayan isolates is needed.

  17. Reform of abortion law in Uruguay: context, process and lessons learned.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Susan; Abracinskas, Lilián; Correa, Sonia; Pecheny, Mario

    2016-11-01

    In October 2012, a new law was approved in Uruguay that allows abortion on demand during the first 12 weeks of pregnancy, 14 weeks in the case of rape, and without a time limit when the woman's health is at risk or in the case of foetal anomalies. This paper analyses this legal reform. It is based on 27 individual and group interviews with key informants, and on review of primary documents and the literature. The factors explaining the reform include: secular values in society, favourable public opinion, a persistent feminist movement, effective coalition building, particular party politics, and a vocal public health sector. The content of the new law reflects the tensions between a feminist perspective of women's rights and public health arguments that stop short of fully recognizing women's autonomy. The Uruguayan reform shows that, even in Latin America, abortion can be addressed politically without electoral cost to the parties that promote it. On the other hand, the prevailing public health rationale and conditionalities built into the law during the negotiation process resulted in a law that cannot be interpreted as a full recognition of women's rights, but rather as a modified protectionist approach that circumscribes women's autonomy.

  18. Políticas públicas de lectura: el caso de Uruguay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magela Cabrera Castiglioni

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available  Se presentan los programas y acciones desarrollados en Uruguay en torno a la lectura en los últimos años desde la perspectiva de las políticas públicas. Se realiza una aproximación a algunos conceptos generales de políticas públicas, los cuales permiten delimitar un enfoque del tema, presentando a la vez un estudio de caso, que contempla aspectos como ser el rol del Estado; los actores involucrados; el grado de articulación de las políticas; la introducción de las tecnologías de la información y la comunicación y; el ejercicio de ciudadanía. Presenta la perspectiva de las competencias lectoras, superando la visión tradicional de la lectura asociada únicamente al placer y la recreación, demostrando su potencial de desarrollo e inclusión social. Finalmente se destaca el papel de los profesionales de la información en la injerencia de este tema, ya sea desde la academia, o desde el rol de dinamizadores y sensibilizadores respecto al mismo.

  19. Temporal and spatial changes in the diet of Hyla pulchella (Anura, Hylidae in southern Uruguay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inés da Rosa

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available In this article we report the diet of a population of the hylid frogHyla pulchella from southeastern Uruguay. We collected the specimens in ponds, where we identified microenvironments defined by the invertebrate assemblage, during one year divided into two seasons (warm and cold. We taxonomically determined 10365 invertebrates belonging to 21 categories in the digestive tracts of frogs. Weestimated the diversity of the diet and alimentary preference according to microenvironments and seasons. We estimated the expected richness of both diet and prey availability using a null model based on the hypergeometric distribution. We performed Discriminant Analyses and Kruskal-Wallis tests to detect changes in prey availability among microenvironments and between seasons. The overall diet in terms of frequencies was composed primarily of arthropods (mainly Araneae, Diptera, Hymenoptera, and Coleoptera and in terms of volume, by larvae. The most relevantitems to study the microenvironmental and seasonal variation in the available preys were Araneae, Collembola, Homoptera, Hymenoptera, Diptera, Dictioptera, Lepidoptera, Coleoptera, and larvae. Based on the null model curves and preference indexes we inferred positive selection by larvae, Isopoda, Dictioptera, Lepidoptera, and Diptera, and negative selection by Collembola and Hymenoptera. The diversityof diet and the null model curves indicated that the diet changes among microenvironments and seasons. This frog may be considered as a middle generalist predator, with some selective behavior and a combined search strategy (active and sit-and-wait. We conclude that the knowledge about the availability of preys is a relevant tool for trophic studies.

  20. Diagnosis of canine echinococcosis: comparison of coproantigen and serum antibody tests with arecoline purgation in Uruguay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craig, P S; Gasser, R B; Parada, L; Cabrera, P; Parietti, S; Borgues, C; Acuttis, A; Agulla, J; Snowden, K; Paolillo, E

    1995-02-01

    Echinococcus granulosus is one of the most important and widespread of the helminth zoonoses. Diagnosis of E. granulosus infection in dogs currently relies on arecoline dosing and detailed examination of the purge for adult worms. Two immunodiagnostic tests (ELISA) based on genus specific coproantigen detection or serum antibody (IgG, IgA and IgE) detection were compared against arecoline purgation for the detection of Echinococcus in naturally infected dogs in Uruguay. The coproantigen ELISA had a sensitivity of 76.9% compared with 34.6% for the serum IgG ELISA when assessed against 26 purge positive dogs (purge worm count range 1-4331). Coproantigen reactivity was positively correlated (r = 0.65) to purge worm count, with a threshold at over 20 worms. There was no positive correlation of antibody levels with worm counts. In 26 matched Echinococcus positive dog samples, the overall sensitivity of serological detection increased to 69.2% when seroreactivity for IgA and IgE antibodies were included and to 96.2% for both coproantigen and antibody assays combined. The detection of current infection of individual dogs with E. granulosus by coproantigen ELISA has the potential to replace arecoline purgation, while specific serum antibody detection should be useful in assessing Echinococcus exposure in dog populations.

  1. Tentativa e ideación de suicidio en adultos mayores en Uruguay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Cristina Heuguerot Fachola

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Se presenta una investigación sobre Intentos de Suicidio en Adultos Mayores en Uruguay realizada en una institución de Salud Pública de Montevideo en 2014 vinculada a un proyecto de Claves/Fiocruz. A partir de un proyecto inicial se realizaron entrevistas semiestructuradas a sujetos institucionalizados con historias de Intentos de Autoeliminación, una revisión bibliográfica, búsqueda de normativas y acciones preventivas de las autoridades de salud pública del país. Los resultados muestran: dificultades de los sujetos al hablar del IAE, vergüenza también asociada a la vejez, gran dificultad en los vínculos, confirma diferencias de género en el método de tentativas, una mayor ideación en mujeres, aunque la posibilidad de repetir el IAE no parece preocupante. El estudio permite reflexionar sobre la importancia del dispositivo de atención, el cuidado, la calidad de vida y los efectos de la vida institucionalizada en el adulto mayor.

  2. Early archosauromorph remains from the Permo-Triassic Buena Vista Formation of north-eastern Uruguay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martín D. Ezcurra

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The Permo-Triassic archosauromorph record is crucial to understand the impact of the Permo-Triassic mass extinction on the early evolution of the group and its subsequent dominance in Mesozoic terrestrial ecosystems. However, the Permo-Triassic archosauromorph record is still very poor in most continents and hampers the identification of global macroevolutionary patterns. Here we describe cranial and postcranial bones from the Permo-Triassic Buena Vista Formation of northeastern Uruguay that contribute to increase the meagre early archosauromorph record from South America. A basioccipital fused to both partial exoccipitals and three cervical vertebrae are assigned to Archosauromorpha based on apomorphies or a unique combination of characters. The archosauromorph remains of the Buena Vista Formation probably represent a multi-taxonomic assemblage composed of non-archosauriform archosauromorphs and a ‘proterosuchid-grade’ animal. This assemblage does not contribute in the discussion of a Late Permian or Early Triassic age for the Buena Vista Formation, but reinforces the broad palaeobiogeographic distribution of ‘proterosuchid grade’ diapsids in Permo-Triassic beds worldwide.

  3. Cabinet Appointment in Uruguay: Legislative Strategy, hierarchy of portfolio and party affiliation of ministers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel CHASQUETTI

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The article analyzes the formation and change of presidential cabinets in Uruguay during the period 1985-2010. In the first section we present the institutional and political features of the process of appointment and resignation of the ministers. The second section describes the cabinets formed in this period and shows that presidents have exchanged seats in cabinet by legislative support. The third section analyzes the political attributes of the ministers appointed (party affiliation, previous experience and the type of linkage that they keep with the president. The fourth analyze the relationship between the time survival of the individuals in office, the political responsibility in front of congress and the existence of a legislative majority that support the president. The last section describes the Uruguayan pattern of ministerial designation based in (i the establishment of an order of importance of portfolios, (ii the nomination of individuals with party affiliation (weather insider or adherent politicians and (iii the influence of the legislative support in defining the ministerial team.

  4. El gaucho en Uruguay y su contribución a la literatura

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Lacasagne

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Este trabajo intenta dar a conocer la aparición del gaucho en el Uruguay del siglo XVIII y su aporte ala literatura de este país. En este territorio, llamado en la época colonial Banda Oriental, donde lafrontera entre dos imperios no siempre estuvo bien delimitada, surge un grupo humano vinculado a lastareas pastoriles y sobre todo a la actividad comercial en esa frontera con el Brasil. Fue un grupohumano que se caracterizó porque hizo un culto de la libertad, por su aspecto temible y su actitud aveces temeraria. Tuvo una forma peculiar de vestirse así como fama de ser alegre y conversador. Suscanciones y narraciones, transmitidas de generación en generación, dieron lugar a la aparición de unaliteratura que llegó al libro una vez que la imprenta ingresó y se expandió en el país.La literatura gauchesca muchas veces nos permite reconstruir la forma de vida y los valores delprimitivo poblador errante de nuestras praderas. Debemos indicar que muestra no solamente la visióndel gaucho sobre sí mismo, ya que una vez que el libro oral se transforma en libro escrito y sobre todoa fines del siglo XIX, la visión de esta literatura cambia y comienza a expresar la imagen que tienen delgaucho las clases cultas y dirigentes del país.

  5. Antigenic relationships of Moraxella bovis isolates recovered from outbreaks of infectious bovine keratoconjunctivitis in Argentina, Brazil, and Uruguay between 1983 and 2000.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conceição, Fabrício Rochedo; Paolicchi, Fernando; Cobo, Ana Lia; Gil-Turnes, Carlos

    2003-10-01

    Cross-reactivity indices (CRIs) of 28 isolates of Moraxella bovis recovered from outbreaks of infectious bovine keratoconjunctivitis in Argentina (A, 11 isolates), Brazil (B, 7), and Uruguay (U, 10) between 1983 and 2000 were estimated. Hyperimmune sera were produced in rabbits and antibody titres determined with each isolate. Isolates showing CRIs3 70 were placed in the same group. Group I had 13 isolates (A, 1; B, 6; U, 6); group II had 6 isolates (A, 4; U, 2); groups III, IV, and V had 2 isolates each, recovered in Argentina; group VI had 2 isolates, from Uruguay; and group VII had 1 isolate, from Brazil. The CRIs3 70 between vaccine strains and isolates recovered before and after 1990 were 58% and 42%, 50% and 50%, and 33% and 67% with vaccine strains 2419, 2358, and 2439, respectively. Isolate 273, from Uruguay, showed CRIs > 70 with 78% of the isolates and is recommended as the vaccine strain.

  6. Estudos histológico-morfométricos e microrradiográficos de costelas de bovinos suplementados com fosfato de rocha Morphologic-morphometrical and microradiographical studies on ribs of cattle supplemented with rock phosphate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Célso Pilati

    1997-07-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do presente trabalho foi o de avaliar, através de técnicas especializadas, as possíveis alterações ósseas produzidas em bovinos em decorrência da ingestão prolongada de diferentes níveis de flúor contido no fosfato de rocha de Tapira utilizado como fonte suplementar de fósforo. No primeiro experimento bovinos confinados ingeriram, durante 6 meses, quantidades variáveis (63 e 128g/dia de fosfato de Tapira contendo 1.3% de flúor. No segundo experimento, bovinos em pastos de Brachiaria decumbens ingeriram, durante 33 meses, misturas minerais contendo diferentes níveis de fosfato de rocha de Tapira. No terceiro experimento, novilhas com idade inicial média de 14 meses ingeriram mistura mineral com fosfato de Tapira até a quinta lactação inclusivamente. Através de exames histológicos, morfométricos e microrradiográficos das amostras de costelas, não se observaram alterações da normalidade óssea, bem como não foram registradas diferenças entre amostras provenientes de diferentes tratamentos. Tais achados permitem inferir que, do ponto de vista de alterações ósseas, o fosfato de rocha de Tapira pode ser utilizado como fonte suplementar de fósforo para bovinos, nas dosagens, períodos e manejos alimentares estudados, sem risco de produzir alterações patológicas nos esqueleto dos animais.The present study was conducted to evaluate possible bone changes in cattle due to the ingestion of different levels of fluorine from rock phosphate used as a phophorus supplement. The bone material studied were ribs collected from cattle of three experiments where Tapira rock phosphate was used at different levels and during different periods as a partial or sole source of supplementary phosphorus. In the first experiment feedlot cattle ingested during a 6 month period 63 and 128g/day of Tapira rock phosphate containing 1.3% fluorine. In the second experiment cattle maintained in Brachiaria decumbens pastures during 33

  7. Consistencia de indicadores de especialización en el comercio internacional. Aplicación al caso de la mantequilla en Argentina y Uruguay // Consistency of Specialization Indicators. An Application to Argentina and Uruguay Butter International Trade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Depetris Guiguet, Edith

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo tiene como objetivo evaluar, en términos de su consistencia cardinal, ordinal y dicotómica, cinco indicadores alternativos de especialización comercial. Tres están basados en el enfoque de las ventajas comparativas reveladas: una versión simétrica del índice de Balassa, el chi-cuadrado y el índice de Ventajas Relativas del Comercio. Los otros dos están basados en el enfoque de la balanza comercial: una variante del índice de Michaely y otra del índice de Iapadre. Se aplica al caso particular del comercio mundial de mantequilla de Argentina y Uruguay en el período 1995-2006. Los resultados varían entre los dos países, habiéndose encontrado que algunos indicadores podrían utilizarse de manera sustitutiva mientras que otros deberían utilizarse de manera complementaria. En términos económicos, se detecta una especialización fluctuante según los años en Argentina y mucha estabilidad en Uruguay. // This study aims to evaluate, in terms of their cardinal, ordinal, and dichotomy consistency, five alternative comercial specialization indicators: a Balassa symmetric index version; a Chi-Squared Index; and the Relative Trade Advantage Index, all these three based on revealed comparative advantage theory; and two additional: Michaely Index variation, and Iapadre Index variation, based on trade balance flows. It is applied to the particular case of Argentina and Uruguay butter world trade during 1995-2006. The results vary for both countries. Some indicators are found to be useful as substitutes while other in a complementary manner. Economically, the indicators show that the Argentine specialization fluctuates among years while the Uruguayan is very stable.

  8. Towards a sustainable architecture: Learning of the constructed thing. The case of the residential sector I publish in Uruguay; Hacia una arquitectura sostenible: Aprendiendo de lo construido. El caso del sector residencial publico en Uruguay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piccion, A.; Camacho, M.; Lopez, N.; Milicua, S.

    2008-07-01

    This article presents measure data and satisfaction question in dwellings which had been Safety financed in ninety decade, in two cities of Uruguay. It assess the design strategies which are essentially used by architects, using the collected interior and exterior temperature data, the comfort hour percentages and the user perception of thermal environment. In Montevideo we observe a good performance to the strategies (solar protection, window factor and high inertia) adapted for the warm period. In Salto we observe a poor thermal behaviour, focus on users comfort due to the architects applied design strategies with identical criteria as in Montevideo, forgetting the local climate. (Author)

  9. Anti capitalismo romántico y asistencia: una emancipación ilusoria en el Uruguay progresista = Romantic anti capitalism and assistance: an illusory emancipation in progressive Uruguay

    OpenAIRE

    Bentura Alonso, José Pablo

    2011-01-01

    En este artículo se recoge parte de las conclusiones de la tesis doctoral del autor, en la cual se analiza la política asistencial del gobierno frenteamplista en Uruguay intentando, a partir de una construcción típico ideal, establecer qué perspectiva de cuestión social valiza la intervención del Ministerio de Desarrollo Social. El análisis desarrollado permite afirmar que la propuesta de intervención sobre “lo social” de la izquierda en el gobierno expresa una perspectiva que articula conten...

  10. Acute Contact Toxicity Test of Oxalic Acid on Honeybees in the Southwestern Zone of Uruguay Prueba de Toxicidad Aguda por Contacto de Ácido Oxálico en Abejas de la Zona Sudoeste de Uruguay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonidas Carrasco-Letelier

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This work studies the acute contact toxicity of oxalic acid (OA on a honeybee polyhybrid subspecies (Apis mellifera, which is the dominant biotype in southwestern zone of Uruguay (SWZU and the country's most important honey-producing region. We determined the mean lethal dose (LD50, as well as the no observed effect level (NOEL and the lowest observed effect level (LOEL values. We also estimated the total number of honeybees per hive in the test area. The aim was to assess the relationship between the maximum OA dose used in Uruguay (3.1 g OA per hive and the toxicological parameters of honeybees from SWZU. The current dose of 3.1 g OA per hive corresponds to 132.8 OA per honeybee since determined NOEL is 400 OA per honeybee; our results indicate that the current dose could be increased to 9.3 g OA per hive. The results also highlight some differences between the LD50 value in SWZU honeybees (548.95 OA per honeybee and some published LD50 values for other honeybee subspecies.Este trabajo estudió la toxicidad aguda por contacto del ácido oxálico (AO sobre una subespecie poli-híbrida de abejas (Apis mellifera, la cual es el biotipo dominante en la zona sudoeste de Uruguay (SWZU, la región más importante para la producción de miel en este país. Este estudio determinó la dosis letal 50 (DL50, así como el nivel de efecto no observado (NOEL, el nivel de efecto mínimo observado (LOEL, y el número total de individuos por colmena. El propósito fue evaluar la relación entre la dosis máxima de AO usada en Uruguay (3.1 g AO por colmena y los parámetros toxicológicos de las abejas de la SWZU. Los resultados mostraron que es posible elevar la dosis actual de AO por colmena a 9.3 g, ya que la dosis actual de 3.1 g de AO corresponde a 132.8 AO por abeja, y el NOEL determinado es 400 AO por abeja. Los resultados también destacaron algunas diferencias entre la DL50 de las abejas del SWZU (548.95 AO por abeja y algunos valores de DL50 publicados

  11. Acute Contact Toxicity Test of Oxalic Acid on Honeybees in the Southwestern Zone of Uruguay Prueba de Toxicidad Aguda por Contacto de Ácido Oxálico en Abejas de la Zona Sudoeste de Uruguay

    OpenAIRE

    Leonidas Carrasco-Letelier; Yamandu Mendoza; Gustavo Ramallo

    2012-01-01

    This work studies the acute contact toxicity of oxalic acid (OA) on a honeybee polyhybrid subspecies (Apis mellifera), which is the dominant biotype in southwestern zone of Uruguay (SWZU) and the country's most important honey-producing region. We determined the mean lethal dose (LD50), as well as the no observed effect level (NOEL) and the lowest observed effect level (LOEL) values. We also estimated the total number of honeybees per hive in the test area. The aim was to assess the relations...

  12. Don Álvaro Sánchez de Ávila, tenente de Rocha Forte, o la nobleza gallega bajomedieval en la transición hacia la modernidad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sánchez Sánchez, Xosé M.

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The low-medieval crisis and the changes that the feudal system suffered from inside, from 14th century is clear in all social classes of the medieval Galicia, developing each of them its own adjustment strategies in order to survive. In the case of the nobility there are several moves in practice, from the fusion with urban oligarchies by matrimonial ways to the apprppriation of charges of the concejo. The present article centres its attention in one of the main figures of the nobilty of Galicia in 15th century: Álvaro Sánchez de Ávila. He was the tenente of the castles of Rocha Forte and A Barreira, the main knight of Santiago’s archbisphoric and he exemplifies perfectly the figure of the noble in the transition of the medieval period to the Modernity: mentality, social standing and relationship with other members of its environment. Our study deepens in its figure, its activity and all its implications from a social perspective, supported on a solid documentary sources base.

    La crisis bajomedieval y los cambios que el sistema feudal sufría desde dentro a partir del siglo XIV se deja sentir en todas las clases sociales de la Galicia medieval, desarrollando cada una de ellas, sus propias estrategias de adaptación y supervivencia. En el caso de la nobleza, varias son las maniobras puestas en práctica, desde la fusión con las oligarquías urbanas por vías matrimoniales a la patrimonialización de cargos concejiles. Sobre esta base, el presente artículo centra su atención en una de las principales figuras nobiliarias de la Galicia del siglo XV: Álvaro Sánchez de Ávila. Tenente de las fortalezas de A Rocha Forte y A Barreira, hombre fuerte del arzobispado de Santiago, ejemplifica a la perfección la figura del noble en la transición del período medieval a la Modernidad, en cuanto a mentalidad, posición social y relación con otros miembros de su entorno. Nuestro estudio profundiza en su figura, su actividad y todas sus

  13. Seroepidemiological survey of Rickettsia spp. in dogs from the endemic area of Rickettsia parkeri rickettsiosis in Uruguay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lado, Paula; Costa, Francisco B; Verdes, José M; Labruna, Marcelo B; Venzal, José M

    2015-06-01

    Rickettsia parkeri rickettsiosis is a vector-borne zoonosis that occurs in some countries of the American continent. Following the first description and determination of the pathogenicity to humans in 2004 in USA, this bacterium has been reported in several South American countries. Human cases have been diagnosed in both Uruguay and Argentina in the past years. This study consisted in a serosurvey of 1000 domestic dogs living in the endemic area of rickettsiosis in Uruguay, where Amblyomma triste is the tick vector. Sera were analyzed by Indirect Immunofluorescence Assay (IFA), against antigens of three different rickettsial species: R. rhipicephali, R. felis and R. parkeri. It was determined that 20.3% of the dogs had antibodies that reacted to at least one of the three species tested, taking as cut off ≥64 titers. Furthermore, 140 of the seropositive dogs (14%) had a titer at least 4 times higher to R. parkeri than those of any of the other species, thus, it was considered that the immune response was stimulated by that species in particular. This is the first serological survey in primary hosts for adults of A. triste in Uruguay, and therefore the first prevalence values are reported. Adult A. triste ticks collected from the environment as well as from dogs were analyzed by PCR in order to confirm the current circulation of the agent in the area. In this matter, two out of 28 ticks from dogs, and 3 out of 53 ticks from the environment were positive, and the corresponding sequence analysis revealed 100% similarity with R. parkeri strain maculatum.

  14. Un análisis de las reformas judiciales de Argentina, Chile y Uruguay Judicial reform in Argentina, Chile and Uruguay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elin SKAAR

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available

    Este artículo trata sobre las reformas judiciales en Sudamérica, durante los años

    90. Muestra que tanto en el caso de la Argentina como en el de Chile, las reformas a los códigos de procedimiento estuvieron motivadas por tres factores centrales, vinculados con el doble pro­ceso de democratización y liberalización económica: i la preocupación con la violación de dere­chos humanos que provenía de los pasados regímenes autoritarios; ii el deseo de crear ambientes legales estables tanto para los derechos de propiedad como para la inversión extranjera; y iii la preocupación pública en torno a tasas de criminalidad cada vez más altas. Las reformas consti­tucionales que afectaron a las Cortes Supremas tanto en la Argentina como en Chile estuvieron vinculadas por razones estrictamente auto-interesadas. En última instancia, estas reformas fue­ron el resultado de compromisos políticos entre la izquierda y la derecha en respuesta a parti­culares eventos nacionales. En Uruguay, los frustrados intentos por desarrollar reformas en el código de procedimientos criminales y en el ámbito de la Corte Suprema pueden atribuirse a una combinación de falta de voluntad política, la carencia de apoyo a las mismas reformas judi­ciales, y una falta de recursos económicos. Notablemente, el análisis muestra que en ninguno de los tres países examinados las agencias internacionales han jugado un rol significativo a la hora de promover reformas u ofrecer asistencia financiera o técnica en favor de los cambios en los códigos de procedimiento o en la organización de las Cortes Supremas. Ello sugiere que estos dos tipos de reformas judiciales en el Cono Sur han sido motivados, ante todo, a partir de deman

  15. Surgimiento de actividades de exportación exitosas en Uruguay: cuatro casos específicos

    OpenAIRE

    Michele Snoeck; Lucia Pittaluga; Hector Pastori; Rosario Domingo; Carlos Casacuberta

    2009-01-01

    En este trabajo se presenta el análisis de cuatro casos específicos de surgimiento de cuatro actividades de exportación exitosas de Uruguay: software de computación, productos madereros, caviar y carne de esturión, y vacunas para animales. En cada uno de esos casos específicos se trata cómo empresas, asociaciones y varios gobiernos a varios niveles han manejado crisis de mercado y facilitado el suministro de los bienes públicos necesarios para cada actividad. El análisis de estos casos especí...

  16. La información y la lectura para presas políticas durante la dictadura militar en Uruguay

    OpenAIRE

    Yanet Fúster; Cecilia Langelán

    2010-01-01

    A partir del marco que provee la Bibliotecología/Ciencia de la Información se presenta un estudio sobre las vías de acceso a documentos de contenido recreativo e informativo y sobre el uso que de ellos se hacía en la Cárcel de Punta de Rieles para presas políticas, durante la dictadura civil-militar que vivió Uruguay entre 1973 y 1985. En un estudio de usuarios de carácter retrospectivo, se obtienen una serie de testimonios que revelan el significado de la lectura como medio para perforar los...

  17. Regulación y desempeño comparado de dos subsistemas privados de salud en el Uruguay

    OpenAIRE

    Labadie, Gaston J.

    1997-01-01

    Si bien las instituciones de salud de pre-pago no han sido tradicionalmente la modalidad predominante en América Latina, los casos de Uruguay y Argentina, con notables diferencias entre sí, se destacan porque ambos países las han tenido desde el siglo pasado. Dada la reciente atención que ha recibido este modelo de financiación, administración y provisión debido a las deficiencias de los sistemas de provisión estatales o de la seguridad social, resulta de particular interés estudiar y compara...

  18. Nueva agenda de derechos en el Uruguay: los procesos de reconocimiento y sus actores

    OpenAIRE

    González Guyer, Mariana

    2016-01-01

    Uruguay es un pequeño país del sur de América Latina que apenas supera los tres millones de habitantes, y que ha vuelto a destacarse en los últimos años en el escenario internacional por una legislación “de avanzada”. Tres leyes fueron aprobadas en un breve período de tiempo (2012 y 2013) que sorprendieron en la región y a nivel internacional: la interrupción voluntaria del embarazo, el matrimonio igualitario y la regulación de la marihuana. Las mismas se incorporan a lo que se identifica com...

  19. 10. Anti Capitalismo Romántico y Asistencia: una emancipación ilusoria en el Uruguay progresista

    OpenAIRE

    Alonso, José Pablo Bentura; Universidad de la Republica

    2011-01-01

    En este artículo se recoge partede las conclusiones de la tesis doctoral del autor, en la cual se analiza la política asistencial del gobierno frenteamplista en Uruguay intentando, a partir de una construcción típico ideal, establecer qué perspectiva de cuestión social valiza la intervención del Ministerio de Desarrollo Social.El análisis desarrollado permite afirmar que la propuesta de intervención sobre “lo social” de la izquierda en el gobierno expresa una perspectiva que articula contenid...

  20. Relationships in international supply chain of a multinational: the case Marfrig in their units in Argentina, Brazil and Uruguay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Troczinski Storti

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Studies aimed at understanding the characteristics of relationships that occur between companies involved in the supply chain are timely when the growing role of overseas companies. This article aims to understand and compare the presence and alignment of information on criteria analysis cooperation, involvement, trust, communication and coordination in supply chain relationships in Argentina, Brazil and Uruguay, of a multinational based in Brazil. It was developed an analytical model and, through interviews with members of these chains, it was found results with low presence and misalignment of information, which may prejudice new strategies in the perspective of SCM.

  1. Ronda Uruguay del GATT: evaluación de los resultados alcanzados en el área institucional

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Abreu Bonilla

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Para los países de pequeña dimensión como Uruguay, el fortalecimiento de las normas y disciplinas internacionales constituye la principal garantía contra la aplicación de medidas unilaterales por parte de los países de mayor poder económico (...Contenido: Introducción. Organización Mundial de Comercio. Entendimiento sobre un sistema integrado de solución de diferencias

  2. Midiendo con nuevos párametros : El balance social cooperativo aplicado a las Cooperativas Agrarias Federadas de Uruguay

    OpenAIRE

    González Quinteros, Laura

    2015-01-01

    Coincidiendo con su aniversario número 30 las Cooperativas Agrarias Federadas (CAF) de Uruguay han iniciado la realización de su primer Balance Social junto a un proceso de planificación estratégica también retomado. CAF es la gremial que agrupa a 23 empresas cooperativas y sociedades de fomento rural (SFR) de alcance nacional fundada en los años de reapertura democrática del país (1984). En este trabajo se expondrá el proceso metodológico desarrollado para la elaboración de este 1º Bal...

  3. Acoso laboral: ¿Cómo intervenir? : Una mirada desde la Universidad de la República del Uruguay

    OpenAIRE

    Menéndez, Manuel; Cánepa, Elisa

    2014-01-01

    En el año 2010 la Universidad de la República del Uruguay, la principal universidad del país, que es pública y cogobernada, creó un Programa de Salud Mental (PSM) para abordar las problemáticas de salud mental de sus estudiantes y trabajadores. El PSM decidió abordar la problemática del acoso laboral debido a la gran demanda existente. Una investigación estadística realizada por el PSM sobre la Calidad de Vida de los trabajadores docentes y no docentes de la Universidad, publicada en el añ...

  4. Epidemiología de las trematodosis bovinas en la región de Salto (Uruguay)

    OpenAIRE

    Sanchís Polto, Jaime Manuel

    2015-01-01

    Ante la escasa y poco actualizada información acerca de las trematodosis que afectan al ganado bovino en el Departamento de Salto (Uruguay), eminentemente agrícola, en el primer ensayo se recogieron muestras de sangre de 386 vacas de aptitud cárnica, láctea y mixta, pertenecientes a 13 explotaciones. Los sueros se analizaron con un ELISA y antígenos de excreción/secreción de adultos de F. hepatica, demostrándose una seropositividad individual del 67% (IC95% 62, 72), con los porcentajes más el...

  5. High prevalence and infection levels of Nosema ceranae in bumblebees Bombus atratus and Bombus bellicosus from Uruguay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arbulo, N; Antúnez, K; Salvarrey, S; Santos, E; Branchiccela, B; Martín-Hernández, R; Higes, M; Invernizzi, C

    2015-09-01

    Nosema ceranae is one of the most prevalent pathogens in Apis mellifera and has recently been found in multiple host species including several species of bumblebees. Prevalence and infection intensity of N. ceranae was determined in two species of native bumblebees from Uruguay. Nosema ceranae was the only microsporidia identified and mean prevalence was 72% in Bombus atratus and 63% in Bombus bellicosus, values much higher than those reported elsewhere. The presence of this pathogen in bumblebees may be threatening not only for bumblebee populations, but also to the rest of the native pollinator community and to honeybees.

  6. The relationship among depression, parenting stress, and partner support in low-income women from Montevideo, Uruguay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ardoino, Graciela I; Queirolo, Elena I; Barg, Gabriel; Ciccariello, Daniela A; Kordas, Katarzyna

    2015-01-01

    We investigated the prevalence and predictors of depression in low-income mothers (n = 99) of young children from Uruguay. We administered the Beck Depression Scale (BDI) and the Parenting Stress Index (PSI), and asked who is responsible for the main tasks of parenting and household care. We found a high prevalence of moderate-to-severe depression (BDI >19 points, 31.3%), with women with t scores > 90 on the PSI being seven times more likely to experience moderate-to-severe depressive symptoms than women with lower PSI scores (p <.01). This is the first investigation of the predictors of depression in urban Uruguayan mothers of low socioeconomic status.

  7. Isolation and Characterization of Alfalfa-Nodulating Rhizobia Present in Acidic Soils of Central Argentina and Uruguay

    OpenAIRE

    1999-01-01

    We describe the isolation and characterization of alfalfa-nodulating rhizobia from acid soils of different locations in Central Argentina and Uruguay. A collection of 465 isolates was assembled, and the rhizobia were characterized for acid tolerance. Growth tests revealed the existence of 15 acid-tolerant (AT) isolates which were able to grow at pH 5.0 and formed nodules in alfalfa with a low rate of nitrogen fixation. Analysis of those isolates, including partial sequencing of the genes enco...

  8. Sentences of the Inter-American Court of Human Rigths and State reactions. Mexico and Uruguay compared to past crimes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia DUTRÉNIT BIELOUS

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Between 2009 and 2011 the Inter-American Court of Human Rights issued two convictions to Mexico and Uruguay. These cases may be regarded as paradigmatic of the repressive legacy of the seventies and eighties. Although both States have taken different routes of their political regimes, the crimes may come to be considered similar. Political contexts in which it has been discussed the legacy of human rights violations have differences. In this article we look at aspects of the pathways leading to the main judgments and official reactions to those decisions, and explores the reasons for such behavior.

  9. Chemical composition of aboriginal peanut (Arachis hypogaea L. seeds from Uruguay.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grosso, Nelson R.

    1999-06-01

    Full Text Available Oil, protein, carbohydrate and ash contents, iodine value, and fatty acid and sterol compositions were studied in seed of 9 aboriginal (Arachis hypogaea subsp. fastigiata var. vulgaris cultivars originating from Uruguay. They showed a high protein level as other varieties of the subspecie fastigiata (these protein percentages are higher than varieties of subspecie (hypogaea . Palmitic (16:0, stearic (18:0, oleic (18:1, linoleic (18:2, arachidic (20:0, eicosenoic (20:1, behenic (22:0, and lignoceric (24:0 acids were detected. The cultivar 7 Uv showed higher oleic acid content (42.53% and 0/L ratio (1.09. The cultivars 2 Uv and 5 Uv had higher percentage in linoleic acid (43.67% and 43.40%, respectively. The cultivar 3 Uv and 4 Uv exhibited lower iodine value (104.90 and 104.73, respectively. Cholesterol, campesterol, stigmasterol, β-sitosterol, Δ5-avenasterol, Δ7-estigmasteroI and Δ7-avenasterol were detected in the sterols, β-sitosterol was the most abundant. Significant difference was only found for stigmasterol. The chemical quality of these seeds is characterized by higher protein levels and oils with lower O/L ratio and higher iodine value.

    Se han estudiado los contenidos en aceite, proteína, hidrato de carbono y ceniza, índice de yodo y composición en ácidos grasos y esteroles en semillas de 9 cultivares aborígenes (Arachis hypogaea subsp. fastigiata var. vulgaris originarios de Uruguay. Estos mostraron un nivel alto en proteína como las otras variedades de la subespecie fastigiata (estos porcentajes en proteína son mayores que en las variedades de la subespecie (hypogaea . Se detectaron los ácidos palmítico (16:0, esteárico (18:0, oleico (18:1, linoleico (18:2, araquídico (20:0, eicosenoico (20:1, behénico (22:0 y lignocérico (24:0. El cultivar 7 Uv mostró el mayor contenido en ácido oleico (42. 53% y en la relación oleico

  10. Foraging strategies of Southern sea lion females in the La Plata River Estuary (Argentina-Uruguay)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez, Diego H.; Dassis, Mariela; Ponce de León, Alberto; Barreiro, César; Farenga, Marcelo; Bastida, Ricardo O.; Davis, Randall W.

    2013-04-01

    The stocks of Southern sea lions (Otaria flavescens, SSL) and South American fur seals (SAFS) that breed on coastal islands of Uruguay constitute the most important focal concentration of pinnipeds in South America, with a significant increase in SAFS and a steady decrease of SSL over the past decades. Because females are a key element of population dynamics and no information exists on the post-breeding pup rearing period, we studied the foraging patterns of SSL females in the La Plata River Estuary (LPRE) during mid and late lactation (late austral autumn and winter), analyzing the foraging performance, geographic coverage and ontogenetic differences in foraging strategies for a period of 1-5 months. At-sea movements of 22 SSL females (6 subadults and 16 adults) from Isla de Lobos (IL, 35°01'28"S-54°52'59"W, Uruguay) were monitored using satellite transmitters (SPOT4, SPOT5 and STDR-S16, Wildlife Computers) in 2007 and 2010. An algorithm [McConnell, B.J., Chambers, C., Fedak, M.A., 1992. Foraging ecology of southern elephant seals in relation to the bathymetry and productivity of the Southern Ocean. Antarct. Sci. 4, 393-398.] with a maximum transit speed of 3 m s-1 was applied to the Argos information, resulting in a total of 2522 filtered locations. A daily mean of 3.5±1.74 filtered locations per animal was received. One hundred and eighty three foraging trips (FT) were recorded with no significant differences (p<0.05) between subadults and adults in the duration of FT (6.1±3.15 day), distance traveled per FT (237.2±105.25 km), mean distance from IL (57.2±25.90 km), maximum straight line (Spider) distance (100.2±41.40 km) and transit speed (1.1±1.04 m s-1). SSL showed directional fidelity to foraging sites, indicated by high mean vector (r) values (0.74±0.14) calculated from FT mean bearings. Kernel ranges for 50% and 95% of all FT locations were 5420 km2 and 36,222 km2, respectively, and the extension of the foraging areas appeared to be influenced by

  11. Psicólogos en Uruguay; una aproximación

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Emilio Gimenez

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo presenta una aproximación exploratoria a la situación de los psicólogos en el Uruguay. Realiza una estimación cuantitativa de alguna de sus características y problemas, a partir de fuentes de datos distintas y en especial el Censo Nacional en Psicología del año 2014 y las Bases de Recursos Humanos del Ministerio de Salud Pública. Se fundamenta la necesidad de mayores y mejores estudios, teniendo en cuenta la inserción profesional de los psicólogos en el contexto del cambio de modelo de atención, impulsado por la reforma de la salud. Observa el incremento de los inscritos y graduados de estudios de grado, en términos absolutos y relativos respecto a las otras carreras universitarias. La existencia de un alto número de psicólogos ubica al país posiblemente en el primer lugar, en relación a su población, con un porcentaje mayoritariamente femenino, alta presencia de egresados recientes, y residencia concentrada en zona metropolitana. Aún con mejoras en los últimos años, los datos muestran aún una débil inserción en el sistema de salud, lo que es consistente con la percepción de una respuesta insuficiente a las necesidades de atención psicológica. Se requieren por tanto, avanzar en las investigaciones que generen insumos para el diseño de políticas de recursos humanos en salud.

  12. Plastics and microplastics on recreational beaches in Punta del Este (Uruguay): Unseen critical residents?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lozoya, J P; Teixeira de Mello, F; Carrizo, D; Weinstein, F; Olivera, Y; Cedrés, F; Pereira, M; Fossati, M

    2016-11-01

    Beaches are social-ecological systems that provide several services improving human well-being. However, as one of the major coastal interfaces they are subject to plastic pollution, one of the most significant global environmental threats at present. For the first time for Uruguayan beaches, this study assessed and quantified the accumulation of plastic and microplastic debris on sandy beaches of the major touristic destination Punta del Este during the austral spring of 2013. Aiming to provide valuable information for decision-making, we performed a detailed analysis of plastic debris, their eventual transport pathways to the coast (from land and sea), and the associated persistent pollutants. The results indicated that the smallest size fractions (plastic debris, and their levels did not differ from baseline values reported for similar locations. The abundance of plastic debris was significantly and positively correlated with both the presence of possible land-based sources (e.g. storm-water drains, beach bars, beach access, car parking, and roads), and dissipative beach conditions. The analysis of coastal currents suggested some potential deposition areas along Punta del Este, and particularly for resin pellets, although modeling was not conclusive. From a local management point of view, the development and use of indices that allow predicting trends in the accumulation of plastic debris would be critically useful. The time dimension (e.g. seasonal) should also be considered for this threat, being crucial for locations such as Uruguay, where the use of beaches increases significantly during the summer. This first diagnosis aims to generate scientific baseline, necessary for improved management of plastic litter on beaches and their watersheds.

  13. Virus in Groundwater: Characterization of transport mechanisms and impacts on an agricultural area in Uruguay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamazo, P. A.; Colina, R.; Victoria, M.; Alvareda, E.; Burutaran, L.; Ramos, J.; Lopez, F.; Soler, J.

    2014-12-01

    In many areas of Uruguay groundwater is the only source of water for human consumption and for industrial-agricultural economic activities. Traditionally considered as a safe source, due to the "natural filter" that occurs in porous media, groundwater is commonly used without any treatment. The Uruguayan law requires bacteriological analysis for most water uses, but virological analyses are not mentioned in the legislation. In the Salto district, where groundwater is used for human consumption and for agricultural activities, bacterial contamination has been detected in several wells but no viruses analysis have been performed. The Republic University (UDELAR), with the support of the National Agency for Research and Innovation (ANII), is studying the incidence of virus in groundwater on an intensive agriculture area of the Salto district. In this area water is pumped from the "Salto Aquifer", a free sedimentary aquifer. Below this sedimentary deposit is the "Arapey" basaltic formation, which is also exploited for water productions on its fractured zones. A screening campaign has been performed searching for bacterial and viral contamination. Total and fecal coliforms have been found on several wells and Rotavirus and Adenovirus have been detected. A subgroup of the screening wells has been selected for an annual survey. On this subgroup, besides bacteria and viruses analysis, a standard physical and chemical characterization was performed. Results show a significant seasonal variation on microbiological contamination. In addition to field studies, rotavirus circulation experiments on columns are being performed. The objective of this experiments is to determinate the parameters that control virus transport in porous media. The results of the study are expected to provide an insight into the impacts of groundwater on Salto's viral gastroenterocolitis outbreaks.

  14. Distributional patterns in an insect community inhabiting a sandy beach of Uruguay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mourglia, Virginia; González-Vainer, Patricia; Defeo, Omar

    2015-12-01

    Most studies of sandy beach macrofauna have been restricted to semiterrestrial species and do not include insects when providing species richness and abundance estimates. Particularly, spatio-temporal patterns of community structure of the entomofauna inhabiting these ecosystems have been scarcely documented. This study assessed spatio-temporal distributional patterns of the night active entomofauna on a beach-dune system of Uruguay, including variations in species richness, abundance and diversity, and their relationship with environmental factors. A deconstructive taxonomic analysis was also performed, considering richness and abundance patterns separately for the most abundant insect Orders (Hymenoptera and Coleoptera) to better understand the factors which drive their patterns. We found clear temporal and across-shore patterns in the insect community inhabiting a land-ocean interface, which matched spatiotemporal variations in the environment. Abundance and species richness were highest in spring and summer, concurrently with high temperatures and low values of sediment moisture and compaction. Multivariate ordinations showed two well-defined species groups, which separated summer, autumn and spring samples from winter ones. Generalized Linear Models allowed us to describe a clear segregation in space of the most important orders of the insect community, with specific preferences for the terrestrial (Hymenoptera) and beach (Coleoptera) fringes. Hymenoptera preferred the dune zone, characterized by high elevation and low sand moisture and compaction levels, whereas Coleoptera preferred gentle slopes and fine and humid sands of the beach. Our results suggest that beach and dune ecosystems operate as two separate components in regard to their physical and biological features. The high values of species richness and abundance of insects reveal that this group has a more significant ecological role than that originally considered so far in sandy beach ecology.

  15. Participatory research towards co-management: lessons from artisanal fisheries in coastal Uruguay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trimble, Micaela; Berkes, Fikret

    2013-10-15

    Participatory research has become increasingly common in natural resources management. Even though participatory research is considered a strategy to facilitate co-management, there is little empirical evidence supporting this. The objective of the present paper is to analyze the contributions of participatory research to help encourage the emergence of co-management, based on a case study in Piriápolis artisanal fishery in coastal Uruguay (where management has been top-down). We argue that participatory research involving artisanal fishers, government, and other stakeholders (university scientists and NGOs) can be a key stimulus towards co-management. We build this argument by considering "seven faces" by which co-management can be analyzed: (1) as power sharing; (2) as institution building; (3) as trust building; (4) as process; (5) as learning and knowledge co-production; (6) as problem solving; and (7) as governance. Our findings show that participatory research had an impact on these various faces: (1) power was shared when making research decisions; (2) a multi-stakeholder group (POPA), with a common vision and goals, was created; (3) trust among participants increased; (4) the process of group formation was valued by participants; (5) stakeholders learned skills for participation; (6) two problem-solving exercises were conducted; and (7) a diversity of stakeholders of the initial problem identified by fishers (sea lions' impact on long-line fishery) participated in the process. The case shows that participatory research functions as a platform which enhances learning and knowledge co-production among stakeholders, paving the way towards future co-management.

  16. Molecular analysis of Porcine Circovirus Type 2 strains from Uruguay: evidence for natural occurring recombination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, Natalia; Mirazo, Santiago; Castro, Gustavo; Arbiza, Juan

    2013-10-01

    Porcine Circovirus Type 2 (PCV2) is a worldwide distributed virus and is considered an important emerging pathogen related to several distinct disease syndromes in pigs. Genomic structure consists of three major open reading frames (ORFs). ORF1 (rep gene) encodes replication-related proteins, ORF2 (cap gene) encodes the capsid protein and ORF3 encodes a protein putatively involved in virus-induced apoptosis. Based on cap gene sequences, PCV2 strains are classified into two main genotypes, PCV2a with five clusters (2A-2E) and PCV2b with three clusters (1A-1C). According to previous theoretical studies, PCV2 strains can eventually undergo intra and inter-genotype recombination, mainly within the rep gene. Ever since, several evidences of recombination in the field have been reported and confirmed this hypothesis. In South America, data regarding molecular characterization of PCV2 strains is still scant. Genotyping studies in the region have concluded that PCV2b is the predominant circulating genotype in the region and till now, no recombinant strains have ever been reported. In this work we thoroughly characterized at the molecular level Uruguayan PCV2 strains by extensive sequence data analysis. Moreover, recombination software tools were applied to explore and characterize eventual occurrence of natural recombination events. Two recombinant PCV2 strains were detected in this study, as a consequence of an inter-genotype recombination event between PCV2b-1A and PCV2a-2D, as the major and minor parent, respectively. According to recombination software analysis, in both cases the event occurred within the ORF1. Herein, extensive viral sequence dataset is provided, including the characterization of the first PCV2 recombinant strains ever reported in South America. Additionally, our results suggested a multi-centered source of PCV2 infection in Uruguay, which probably involved Brazilian and European origins.

  17. Formation of the volcanic rifted margin off Argentina/Uruguay, South Atlantic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franke, D.; Reichert, C.; Ladage, S.; Schnabel, M.; Schreckenberger, B.; Neben, S.; Hinz, K.

    2009-04-01

    The Federal Institute for Geosciences and Natural Resources (BGR), Germany has investigated the passive continental margins offshore Argentina and Uruguay since the early 90ies. Numerous marine geophysical surveys have meanwhile established a databasis of more than 25.000 km of regional multi-channel reflection seismic lines, accompanied with magnetic and gravity profiles. These data document that the Early Cretaceous South Atlantic continental break-up and initial sea-floor spreading were accompanied by large-scale, transient volcanism emplacing voluminous extrusives, manifested in the seismic data by huge wedges of seaward dipping reflectors (SDRs). These deeply buried and 60-120 km wide SDRs were emplaced episodically as suggested by at least three superimposed SDRS units. Distinct along-margin variations in the architecture, volume, and width of the SDRs wedges correlate with large scale margin segmentation. We identify at least four domains bounded by the Falkland Fracture Zone/Falkland Transfer, the Colorado Transfer, the Ventana Transfer and the Salado Transfer. The individual transfer zones may have acted as barriers for propagating rifts during the SDR emplacement phase, selectively directing rift segments in left stepping patterns along the western South Atlantic margin. The rift segments are offset systematically in a left stepping pattern along the western South Atlantic margin. Albeit we found extensive variations in the architecture, style and extent of the seaward dipping reflector sequences a general trend is that the largest volumes are emplaced close to the proposed transfer zones and the width of the SDRs wedges decreases northward within the individual margin segments. The different volcano-tectonic architectures of the margin segments and the distribution of the extruded magmas indicates that the emplacement of the volcanic material was controlled by the tectonic setting and the pre-rift lithosphere configuration within individual margin

  18. A potential vector of Schistosoma mansoni in Uruguay Um vetor potencial do Schistosoma mansoni no Uruguai

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Lobato Paraense

    1989-09-01

    Full Text Available Susceptibily experiments were carried out with a Biomphalaria straminea-like planorbid snail (Biomphalaria aff. straminea, species inquirenda from Espinillar, near Salto (Uruguay, in the area of the Salto Grande reservoir, exposed individually to 5 miracidia of Schistosoma mansoni (SJ2 and BH2 strains. Of 130 snails exposed to the SJ2 strain, originally infective to Biomphalaria tenagophila, 30 became infected (23%. The prepatent (precercaria period ranged from 35 to 65 days. The cercarial output was irregular, following no definite pattern, varying from 138 to 76,075 per snail (daily average 4.3 to 447.5 and ending up with death. Three specimens that died, without having shed cercarie, on days 69 (2 and 80 after exposure to miracidia, had developing secondary sporocysts in their tissues, justifying the prospect of a longer precercarial period in these cases. In a control group of 120 B. teangophila, exposed to the SJ2 strain, 40 became infected, showing an infection rate (33.3% not significantly different from that of the Espinillar snail (X [raised to the power of] 2 = 3.26. No cercarie were produced by any of the Espinilar snails exposed to miracidia of the BH2 strain, originally infective to Biomphalaria glabrata. Four specimens showed each a primary sporocyst in one tentacle, which disappeared between 15 and 25 days post-exposure, and two others died with immature, very slender sporocysts in their tissues on days 36 and 54. In a control group of 100 B. glabrata exposed to BH2 miracidia, 94 shed cercariae (94% and 6 remained negative. Calculation of Frandsen's (1979a, b TCP/100 index shows that "Espinillar Biomphalaria-SJ2 S. mansoni" is a vector-parasite "compatible" combination. Seeing that tenagophila-borne schistosomiasis is prevalent in Rio de Janeiro and São Paulo states and has recently spread sothwards to Santa Catarina state, and the range of B. tenagophila overlaps taht of the Espinillar Biomphalaria, the possibility of

  19. Diet of Cnesterodon decemmaculatus (Poeciliidae and Jenynsia multidentata (Anablepidae in a hypertrophic shallow lake of Uruguay Dieta de Cnesterodon decemmaculatus (Poeciliidae y Jenynsia multidentata (Anablepidae en un lago hipereutrófico de Uruguay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Federico Quintans

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Se analizaron las dietas de Cnesterodon decemmaculatus (Jenyns, 1842 y Jenynsia multidentata (Jenyns, 1842 en el Lago Rodó, un lago urbano hipereutrófico de Montevideo, Uruguay. Ambas especies mostraron un comportamiento omnívoro. Los ítems más consumidos por C. decemmaculatus fueron zooplancton, perifiton, fitoplancton y detritos; la dieta de J. multidentata incluyó zooplancton, insectos, crustáceos y peces juveniles. Estos resultados sugieren que ambas especies pueden actuar como planctívoros facultativos. La comunidad de peces de este lago se caracteriza por la dominancia de C. decemmaculatus y J. multidentata. Bajo esta condición, la depredación sobre el zooplancton de gran tamaño podría indirectamente estar contribuyendo a una alta abundancia de fitoplancton y una baja transparencia del agua.Diet of Cnesterodon decemmaculatus (Jenyns, 1842 and Jenynsia multidentata (Jenyns, 1842 were analysed in Lake Rodó, an urban hypertrophic lake from Montevideo, Uruguay. Both species displayed omnivory. The most consumed items for C. decemmaculatus were zooplankton, periphyton, phytoplankton and detritus; the diet of J. multidentata included zooplankton, insects, crustaceans and juvenile fish. Our results suggest that both species could be acting as facultative planktivores. The fish community of this lake is characterised by the dominance of C. decemmaculatus and J. multidentata. Under this condition, predation on large-bodied zooplankton could indirectly be contributing to maintain a high phytoplankton abundance and a low water transparency.

  20. Política fiscal, asequibilidad y efectos cruzados de precios en la demanda de productos de tabaco: el caso de Uruguay Fiscal policy, affordability and cross effects in the demand for tobacco products: the case of Uruguay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro Ramos Carbajales

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Uruguay es un país que desde 2005 ha realizado una política activa de control del tabaco. Sin embargo, la evolución de la demanda del total de productos de tabaco muestra un descenso insignificante en los últimos cinco años, lo que es contrario a lo esperado. La hipótesis es que el fuerte crecimiento del ingreso de los hogares unido a una elasticidad-ingreso de la demanda de cigarrillos cercana a 1 fue uno de los factores que contrarrestó el aumento real en los precios vía impuestos. El aumento en el ingreso de los hogares fue de 36% en términos reales en el periodo 2005-2009 debido a la fuerte recuperación luego de la crisis del año 2002. Por otro lado, un segundo factor explicativo importante de la demanda de cigarrillos en el Uruguay es la sustituibilidad entre cigarrillos y tabaco de armar. El impuesto y precio del tabaco de armar sigue siendo sustancialmente más bajo que el del cigarrillo, de forma que en los últimos años la cantidad demandada de tabaco de armar ha subido. El trabajo consistió entonces en revisitar un estudio de demanda realizado en 2004 por los autores y volver a estimar una función demanda de los dos productos principales de tabaco en el Uruguay (cigarrillos y tabaco de armar, lo que permite estimar las elasticidades precio, ingreso y cruzadas. A partir de estas estimaciones se realiza un ejercicio de simular alternativas de incrementos de impuestos con lo que se evalúa qué aumentos son necesarios para realmente impactar sobre la demanda en un escenario de crecimiento del ingreso de los hogares moderado de 2.5% anual y alto de 5% anual. Se confirma que se necesitan aumentos de impuestos muy superiores a los verificados en el último quinquenio.Uruguay, a country with a solid tobacco control policy since 2005 shows, contrary to expectations, an insignificant decrease in total tobacco products' sales in the last five years. The hypothesis is that on one side, changes in household income and the income

  1. Antropología y Turismo en “Los Países del Plata” (Argentina y Uruguay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margarita Barretto

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available El siguiente artículo presenta la creciente producción antropológica en el campo temático del turismo de Argentina y Uruguay. Desde comienzos de la década de noventa hasta el presente, el interés etnográfico de los investigadores sobre los distintos aspectos del turismo se ha incrementado sustancialmente, lo cual evidencia que la elaboración de trabajos académicos es cada vez más recurrente, así como diversa. En las próximas páginas intentaremos recorrer algunas de las investigaciones con las que hemos tenido contacto bibliográfico y aquellas que han sido presentadas en congresos de antropología social, especialmente en distintas instancias de la Reunión de Antropología del Mercosur (RAM y del Congreso Argentino de Antropología Social (CAAS, en las que hemos tenido lugar como coordinadores de grupos de trabajo sobre antropología y turismo. Podríamos decir que el campo del turismo en la antropología social y cultural de Argentina y Uruguay se halla instalado en el ámbito académico local, apuntando a nuevos paradigmas.

  2. Susceptibility of Varroa destructor (Acari: Varroidae) to synthetic acaricides in Uruguay: Varroa mites' potential to develop acaricide resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maggi, Matías Daniel; Ruffinengo, Sergio Roberto; Mendoza, Yamandú; Ojeda, Pilar; Ramallo, Gustavo; Floris, Iganazio; Eguaras, Martín Javier

    2011-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to estimate the acaricide susceptibility of Varroa destructor populations from Uruguay, which had never been exposed to synthetic acaricides. It was also to determine whether acaricide resistance to coumaphos occurred in apiaries in which acaricide rotation had been applied. Bioassays with acaricides against mite populations that had never been exposed to synthetic acaricides were performed, also against mite populations in which control failures with coumaphos had been reported. Additionally, coumaphos' effectiveness in honeybee colonies was experimentally tested. The lethal concentration that kills 50% of the exposed animals (LC(50)) for susceptible mite populations amounted to 0.15 μg/Petri dish for coumaphos and to less than 0.3 μg/Petri dish for the other acaricides. Coumaphos LC(50) was above 40 μg/Petri dish for resistant mites. The effectiveness of coumaphos in honeybee colonies parasitized by V. destructor ranged from 17.6% to 93.9%. LC(50) for mite populations susceptible to the most commonly applied miticides was determined, and the first case of coumaphos resistance recorded in Uruguay was established.

  3. Estado de conservación de la fauna de Sauria y Amphisbaenidae (Reptilia: Squamata de Uruguay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carreira Vidal, Santiago

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available Se evalúa el estado de conservación de la fauna de Sauria y Amphisbaenia del Uruguay, basado en el índice propuesto por Reca et al. (1994, y se aplican las categorías propuestas por Ávila et al. (2000. Se analizaron en total 17 especies, de las cuales se destacan como vulnerables (V Leposternon microcephalum, Anisolepis undulatus, Tropidurus torquatus y Stenocercus azureus, representando el 23,5% de los taxones investigados. La limitación principal detectada en la utilización del índice de Reca es que, dada la carencia de información básica sobre algunas especies, los resultados deben ser re-evaluados de forma constante ante la generación de nuevos conocimientos. Based on the index proposed by Reca et al. (1994, and the categories proposed by Ávila et al. (2000, the conservation status for Sauria and Amphisbaenia from Uruguay is evaluated. Seventeen species were analized, four of them stood out as vulnerable (V Leposternon microcephalum, Anisolepis undulatus, Tropidurus torquatus and Stenocercus azureus, representing the 23.5% of the taxa. The most important constraint detected using Reca's Index, is that due to the lack of basic information about some of the species, the results should be revisited any time new knowledge arises.

  4. Llamados a perfiles de proyectos de innovación en el Laboratorio Tecnológico del Uruguay (LATU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Castro

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available l presente trabajo muestra las características de los llamados realizados por el Laboratorio Tecnológico del Uruguay (LATU a PYMES  y a particulares a los efectos de seleccionar Perfiles de Proyectos de Innovación. Se presenta el sistema de llamados, sus características principales y los resultados obtenidos de las tres convocatorias realizadas  a  partir del año 2005. Se enfatiza en la característica de diseño y ejecución en conjunto entre el LATU y los proponentes de los Proyectos surgidos a partir de los Perfiles seleccionados. Las conclusiones iniciales presentadas indican una buena respuesta hacia las convocatorias con beneficios para los proponentes y para la actividad del LATU.Abstract The paper shows the characteristics of the calls made by the Technological Laboratory of Uruguay (LATU to SMEs and individuals, for the purpose of selecting Profiles for Innovation Projects. We present the system, its main features and the results of the three calls made since 2005. Emphasis is made in the joint design and implementation of the projects between LATU and the proponents . The initial findings show a good response to the calls, with mutual benefits to the proponents and LATU.

  5. Dinosaur ichnofauna of the Upper Jurassic/Lower Cretaceous of the Paraná Basin (Brazil and Uruguay)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francischini, H.; Dentzien–Dias, P. C.; Fernandes, M. A.; Schultz, C. L.

    2015-11-01

    Upper Jurassic and Lower Cretaceous sedimentary layers are represented in the Brazilian Paraná Basin by the fluvio-aeolian Guará Formation and the Botucatu Formation palaeoerg, respectively, overlapped by the volcanic Serra Geral Formation. In Uruguay, the corresponding sedimentary units are named Batoví and Rivera Members (both from the Tacuarembó Formation), and the lava flows constitute the Arapey Formation (also in Paraná Basin). Despite the lack of body fossils in the mentioned Brazilian formations, Guará/Batoví dinosaur fauna is composed of theropod, ornithopod and wide-gauge sauropod tracks and isolated footprints, as well as theropod teeth. In turn, the Botucatu/Rivera dinosaur fauna is represented by theropod and ornithopod ichnofossils smaller than those from the underlying units. The analysis of these dinosaur ichnological records and comparisons with other global Mesozoic ichnofauna indicates that there is a size reduction in dinosaur fauna in the more arid Botucatu/Rivera environment, which is dominated by aeolian dunes. The absence of sauropod trackways in the Botucatu Sandstone fits with the increasingly arid conditions because it is difficult for heavy animals to walk on sandy dunes, as well as to obtain the required amount of food resources. This comparison between the Upper Jurassic and Lower Cretaceous dinosaur fauna in south Brazil and Uruguay demonstrates the influence of aridization on the size of animals occupying each habitat.

  6. A 10-year analysis of the oral squamous cell carcinoma profile in patients from public health centers in Uruguay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Maria Laura Cosetti; Wagner, Vivian Petersen; Sant'ana Filho, Manoel; Carrard, Vinicius Coelho; Hugo, Fernando Neves; Martins, Manoela Domingues

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the demographic, clinical, and therapeutic characteristics and predictive factors of poor prognosis in patients with primary oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) in Uruguay. Medical records of patients with the diagnosis of primary OSCC treated between 2000 and 2010 in Uruguayan public hospitals were selected. Data on demographic characteristics, risk factors, clinical features, treatment, and outcome were collected. Associations of independent variables with outcomes were assessed using Pearson chi-squared and Fisher's tests. Of 200 patients with OSCC, 79.4% were men (3.8:1 male:female ratio), with a mean age of 60.75 ± 11.26 years. Tobacco and alcohol consumption were reported by 85.3% and 63.5% of patients, respectively. The most commonly affected location was the tongue (42.5%), with lesions exhibiting ulcerous aspects in 87.9% of cases and pain at the time of diagnosis in 70.4% of cases. One hundred sixty-one (82.1%) patients had advanced-stage (III/IV) OSCC. Surgery was the most common treatment option, and the overall 5-year survival rate was 58.5%. Univariate analysis showed that the predictors of poor prognosis were clinical aspect, size, regional metastasis, clinical stage, and treatment. In Uruguay, OSCC is diagnosed late, which is associated with a low survival rate. Educational and preventive measures and investment to improve early diagnosis should be undertaken.

  7. A 10-year analysis of the oral squamous cell carcinoma profile in patients from public health centers in Uruguay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Laura Cosetti OLIVEIRA

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the demographic, clinical, and therapeutic characteristics and predictive factors of poor prognosis in patients with primary oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC in Uruguay. Medical records of patients with the diagnosis of primary OSCC treated between 2000 and 2010 in Uruguayan public hospitals were selected. Data on demographic characteristics, risk factors, clinical features, treatment, and outcome were collected. Associations of independent variables with outcomes were assessed using Pearson chi-squared and Fisher's tests. Of 200 patients with OSCC, 79.4% were men (3.8:1 male:female ratio, with a mean age of 60.75 ± 11.26 years. Tobacco and alcohol consumption were reported by 85.3% and 63.5% of patients, respectively. The most commonly affected location was the tongue (42.5%, with lesions exhibiting ulcerous aspects in 87.9% of cases and pain at the time of diagnosis in 70.4% of cases. One hundred sixty-one (82.1% patients had advanced-stage (III/IV OSCC. Surgery was the most common treatment option, and the overall 5-year survival rate was 58.5%. Univariate analysis showed that the predictors of poor prognosis were clinical aspect, size, regional metastasis, clinical stage, and treatment. In Uruguay, OSCC is diagnosed late, which is associated with a low survival rate. Educational and preventive measures and investment to improve early diagnosis should be undertaken.

  8. Fortalecimiento del sistema judicial del Uruguay por la capacitación del sector humano; de la organización e integración de las escuelas judiciales americanos

    OpenAIRE

    Mariella Leles Da Silva Orcoyen

    2015-01-01

    Contenido: Introducción. Poder judicial. Ministerio Público y Fiscal. Estatuto de los jueces. Reforma procesal.  El fortalecimiento de la justicia por la reforma procesal. Centro de Estudios Judiciales del Uruguay. Capacitación.Capacitación para el ingreso a la magistratura. Resultados obtenidos. Estadísticas. Perspectivas futuras. Rol del Centro de Estudios Judiciales del Uruguay en la carrera judicial. Autoridades del Centro de Estudios Judiciales del Uruguay. Federación Americana de Escuel...

  9. Propuesta metodológica para un diagnóstico del mercado de trabajo tradicional y emergente de los bibliotecólogos en Uruguay

    OpenAIRE

    Laura Bálsamo, Elena Campiotti, Graciela Darré

    2013-01-01

    El presente artículo constituye una síntesis del Proyecto de Investigación "Mercado de Trabajo tradicional y emergente del bibliotecólogo en Uruguay: modelo diagnóstico y propuesta metodológica" presentado para la obtención del título de Licenciado en Bibliotecología.

  10. Addition of a spider family for Uruguay: First record of Iviraiva pachyura (Mello-Leitão, 1935 (Araneae: Hersiliidae, with notes on its natural history and distribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Álvaro Laborda

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This is the first record for the species Iviraiva pachyura and for the family Hersiliidae in Uruguay.  Data presented represent the southernmost record for the species.  Figures of living specimens, copulatory organs and a description of the egg sac are provided. The distribution of the species is shown and discussed. 

  11. The Admission and Academic Placement of Students from Selected South American Countries: Bolivia, Brazil, Paraguay, Uruguay. A Workshop Report, September-October, 1977.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldrich-Langen, Caroline, Ed.

    Information about the educational systems of Bolivia, Brazil, Paraguay, and Uruguay that may be helpful to U.S. college admission officers is presented. For each of the four countries, information is provided on: country facts, the educational system, primary and secondary education, higher education, other institutions, placement recommendations,…

  12. Exploración de alternativas para el desarrollo sostenible de sistemas de producción hortícola-ganaderos familiares en el sur de Uruguay

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aguerre, V.; Chilibroste, P.; Casagrande, M.; Dogliotti, S.

    2014-01-01

    La sostenibilidad de la mayoría de los predios hortícolas familiares en el sur de Uruguay está amenazada por ingresosinsuficientes y por el deterioro de los recursos naturales. En este estudio se cuantificó el efecto de la inclusión de diferentesactividades de producción ganadera en la estructura y

  13. Comercio y economías periféricas: una aproximación a la Ronda de Uruguay y al sector agroalimentario

    OpenAIRE

    Álvarez Cantalapiedra, Santiago

    1997-01-01

    Estudio sobre los acuerdos internacionales del comercio en el sector agroalimentario a través de los siguientes puntos: hegemonía y orden mundial, comercio internacional y teorías económicas, estructura del comercio en las economías periféricas, la Ronda de Uruguay y repercusiones del GATT en cuestiones ambientales.

  14. Democracia y política exterior: Uruguay (1985-2006

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lilia FERRO CLÉRICO

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN: Con un abordaje histórico-descriptivo, el artículo hace un análisis de la política exterior de Uruguay entre 1985 y 2006. El comienzo del período histórico estudiado está marcado por el retorno a la democracia al cabo de la dictadura militar más larga de la historia contemporánea del país. A través de los factores internos y externos que explican la formulación y ejecución de la política exterior el artículo analiza los principales lineamientos de las estrategias de inserción del país, los actores que intervienen en el proceso de toma de decisiones en materia de política externa así como los ejes temáticos a los que se dan distintas prioridades por parte de las sucesivas administraciones que determinan la agenda resultante. Se estudia igualmente el grado de continuidad de las políticas exteriores de cada período así como el de la autonomía de las mismas.ABSTRACT: With a historic-descriptive approach, the article makes an analysis of Uruguayan foreign policy between 1985 and 2006. The beginning of the period is marked by the return to democracy at the end of the longest period of military dictatorship in the contemporary history of the country. Through the internal and external factors that explain foreign policy, the article studies the country’s international insertion, the actors that take part of the decision-making process in foreign policy as well as the themes that are prioritized by each of the successive administrations, which determine the resulting agenda. The degree of continuity of the foreign policies of each period as well as their autonomy are also studied.

  15. Phenotypic characterization of naturalized swine breeds in Brazil, Uruguay and Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Concepta McManus

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Morphometric data was collected on 859 naturalized swine in Brazil (Piau, Tatu, Nilo, Caruncho, Casco de Burro, Moura, Monteiro and Rabo de Peixe, Colombia (Criolla Zungo, Sanpedreño and Casco de Mula and Uruguay (Mamellado, both on farm and in published material. Information was collected on breed, sex and age, as well as various morphometric measurements. Analysis of variance was carried out using PROC MIXED of SAS ® on phenotypic data. The coefficients of variance varied between 11.50 and 83.81%, and the coefficient of determination was medium to high. Females were in general smaller for most measurements than males, showing sexual dimorphism. The Moura was the closest naturalized breed to the commercial breeds, followed by the Piau, while the Monteiro was the furtherest. The dendrogram obtained from morphological information showed a division of the pigs into three groups. Characterization was possible using morphological and morphometric data.Foram colhidos dados morfométricos de 859 suínos naturalizados do Brasil (Piau, Tatu, Nilo, Caruncho, Casco de Burro, Moura, Monteiro e Rabo de Peixe, Colômbia (Criolla Zungo, Sanpedreño e Casco de Mula e Uruguai (Mamellado Dados sobre raça, sexo e idade foram coletados, assim como varias avaliações morfométricas. A análise de variância foi realizada utilizando-se o procedimento PROC GLM do SAS sobre os dados morfométricos. Os coeficientes de variância oscilaram de 11,50 a 83,81% e o coeficiente de determinação foi de moderado a alto. As fêmeas foram em geral menores na maioria das avaliações em relação aos machos, indicando dimorfismo sexual. A Moura foi a raça naturalizada mais próxima das raças comerciais, seguida da Piau, enquanto a Monteiro apresentou-se mais distante. O dendograma obtido a partir de informações morfológicas apresentou divisão dentro de três grupos. A caracterização foi possível utilizando-se dados morfológicos e morfométricos.

  16. Un análisis de las reformas judiciales de Argentina, Chile y Uruguay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elin SKAAR

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo trata sobre las reformas judiciales en Sudamérica, durante los años 90. Muestra que tanto en el caso de la Argentina como en el de Chile, las reformas a los códigos de procedimiento estuvieron motivadas por tres factores centrales, vinculados con el doble pro­ceso de democratización y liberalización económica: i la preocupación con la violación de dere­chos humanos que provenía de los pasados regímenes autoritarios; ii el deseo de crear ambientes legales estables tanto para los derechos de propiedad como para la inversión extranjera; y iii la preocupación pública en torno a tasas de criminalidad cada vez más altas. Las reformas consti­tucionales que afectaron a las Cortes Supremas tanto en la Argentina como en Chile estuvieron vinculadas por razones estrictamente auto-interesadas. En última instancia, estas reformas fue­ron el resultado de compromisos políticos entre la izquierda y la derecha en respuesta a parti­culares eventos nacionales. En Uruguay, los frustrados intentos por desarrollar reformas en el código de procedimientos criminales y en el ámbito de la Corte Suprema pueden atribuirse a una combinación de falta de voluntad política, la carencia de apoyo a las mismas reformas judi­ciales, y una falta de recursos económicos. Notablemente, el análisis muestra que en ninguno de los tres países examinados las agencias internacionales han jugado un rol significativo a la hora de promover reformas u ofrecer asistencia financiera o técnica en favor de los cambios en los códigos de procedimiento o en la organización de las Cortes Supremas. Ello sugiere que estos dos tipos de reformas judiciales en el Cono Sur han sido motivados, ante todo, a partir de deman­das nacionales, y no a partir de una presión internacional –lo que muestra una diferencia impor­tante en el contexto de reformas que distinguió a estos tres países latinoamericanos–, y el que se dio en otros países de la región.

  17. Parasite meningomyelitis in cats in Uruguay Meningomielites parasitária em gatos no Uruguai

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodolfo Rivero

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Two outbreaks of progressive hind limb paresis in cats (Felis catus caused by parasitic meningomyelitis in Uruguay are reported. The case studies occurred in 2008 and 2009 respectively, in the rural areas of Fray Bentos (33º 07' 40.39" S and were characterized by hindquarter paralysis. This paralysis was progressive and had a chronic progression of approximately 12 months until the death or euthanasia of the animals. Clinical symptoms started with ataxia of the hindquarters with lateral side-to-side swaying and culminated in total paralysis. Two animals were sent for necropsy in 2009. The main histopathological findings were severe myelitis in the lumbar spinal cord with perivascular cuffing and white matter necrosis, severe nonsuppurative meningitis with thrombi in subarachnoid blood vessels, and intravascular presence of multiple adult parasites. From the morphological characteristics of the parasites and location in the leptomeninges, the parasite was identified as the nematode Gurltia paralysans.São relatados dois surtos de paralisia progressiva dos membros posteriores em gatos (Felis catus, causada por meningomielite parasitária no Uruguai. Os estudos de casos ocorreram entre os anos 2008 e 2009, respectivamente, nas zonas rurais de Fray Bentos (33º 07' 40,39" S e foram caracterizados por paralisia dos membros posteriores. Esta paralisia era progressiva e tinha evolução crônica de aproximadamente 12 meses, até que os animais vinham a óbito ou eram eutanasiados. Os sintomas clínicos começaram com ataxia dos membros posteriores, com movimentos laterais, terminado em paralisia total. Em 2009, dois animais foram encaminhados para necropsia. Os achados histopatológicos foram caracterizados por severa mielite na medula espinhal lombar com manguitos perivasculares linfocitarios e necrose da substância branca, severa meningite não supurativa com trombos nos vasos sanguíneos subaracnóideos, e presença intravascular de m

  18. Propuestas de reforma en salud y equidad en Uruguay: ¿redefinición del Welfare State? Proposals for health reform and equity in Uruguay: a redefinition of the Welfare State?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Myriam Mitjavila

    2002-08-01

    Full Text Available En el presente artículo se realizan una revisión y un análisis de las propuestas de reforma del sector Salud en Uruguay, y de los posibles efectos de estas reformas en términos de equidad, estructura institucional del sector y relaciones de poder entre los actores involucrados en el proceso. Encontramos que las características contradictorias del sistema de salud, por un lado altamente estructurado y, al mismo tiempo, fragmentado, conspiran contra los esfuerzos reformistas que intentan introducir cambios en el mismo. En función de lo expresado, las posibilidades de reforma no residen en la consolidación de las IAMC (Instituciones de Asistencia Médica Colectiva ni en la aplicación del modelo residual. Por el contrario, asistimos a un proceso de reestructuración pasiva del sistema. En este contexto, y teniendo en cuenta el nivel de inequidades existentes, la tendencia que se percibe es de profundización de una distribución regresiva de beneficios y servicios. A partir de técnicas cualitativas y cuantitativas, mostramos como las inequidades relacionadas con el gasto, el acceso y la calidad están relacionadas con procesos de desarrollo de largo tiempo del sistema IAMC y con los movimientos adaptativos frentes a su colapso fiscal, por una parte, y con la pérdida de calidad del sistema público, por otra.This article reviews and analyzes health sector reform proposals in Uruguay and the possible effects of such reforms in terms of equity, the health sector's institutional structure, and the power relationship between the various actors in the process. The authors contend that a highly structured yet simultaneously fragmented system has conspired against any attempt to introduce major reforms into the system. Thus the only possibility for reform resides neither in the consolidation of the so-called Institutions for Collective Medical Care (IAMCs nor in the move towards a residual model. Rather, Uruguay is witnessing the system's passive

  19. Eficiência e efeito residual de biofertilizantes de rochas com PK e enxofre com Acidithiobacillus em alface Efficiency and residual effect of PK rock biofertilizers with sulfur and Acidithiobacillus on lettuce

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita de Cássia Matias de Lima

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Entre agosto e novembro de 2005 foi realizado um experimento em campo, com dois plantios consecutivos de alface (cv. Grand Rapids, em solo do Cariri cearense, visando avaliar a eficiência da fertilização com biofertilizantes de rocha fosfatada (BP e potássica (BK, em comparação com os fertilizantes minerais superfosfato simples(SFS e cloreto de potássio (KCl. Os fertilizantes minerais foram aplicados nos níveis recomendados com base na análise de solo para alface (SFS e KCl, e os biofertilizantes em três níveis (BP1 e BK1 metade da recomendação; BP2 e BK2 nível recomendado e BP3 e BK3 uma vez e meia o recomendado para SFS e KCl, e o tratamento controle (P0K0 sem aplicação de P e K. O delineamento experimental foi de blocos casualizados, em esquema fatorial 5², com quatro repetições. Os resultados demonstraram que o desempenho dos biofertilizantes com P e K foi equivalente ao dos fertilizantes minerais, especialmente com aplicação no nível BP2BK3. No segundo cultivo ficou evidenciado o efeito residual para produtividade da alface (biomassa fresca da parte aérea, altura, número de folhas, avaliação comercial e acumulação de P e K na parte aérea. Os resultados sugerem que os biofertilizantes de rochas com P e K podem ser usados como alternativa a fertilizantes minerais.Production of rock biofertilizers is a practical process with reduction of energy consumption and increasing nutrients availability in soils. To evaluate the agronomic efficiency and the residual effect of P rock biofertilizer (PB and potash rock (KB, compared to simple superphosphate (SSP and potassium chloride (KCl, a field experiment with two consecutive lettuce crops (cv. Grand Rapids was carried out in a soil at Cariri (Ceará, Brazil, from August to September 2005. The mineral fertilizers were applied in the levels recommended for lettuce (SSP and KCl, and the biofertilizers in three levels (PB1 and KB1 half of recommended levels; recommended levels

  20. Tectônica e Água Subterrânea em Rochas Pré-Cambrianas do Nordeste do Brasil - A Diversidade do Sistema Aqüífero

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamim Bley de Brito Neves

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Água subterrânea em rochas cristalinas fraturadas desempenha um importante papel no suprimento das provínciasestruturais mais orientais (Borborema, ao norte; São Francisco, ao sul do escudo brasileiro (Atlântico, grande parte delasestando situadas sob condições climáticas do semi-árido. Cerca de 100.000 poços foram perfurados em diferentes partesdesta região de cerca de 1.000.000 km2 nos últimos 150 anos. Apenas, critérios técnicos de locação de poços, baseados emgeologia estrutural, começaram a ser introduzidos, tendo estes critérios experimentado algum progresso gradual (menos doque esperado nos últimos 40 anos. Nestes termos, na medida que algum progresso foi registrado na locação dos poços, onúmero de poços secos e abandonados tem decrescido notoriamente. Além disso, há muitas possibilidades novas de pesquisas(geológicas e geofísicas abertas para o futuro. Para os sistemas aqüíferos de rochas ígneas e metamórficas, um contexto degrande diversidade de problemas deve ser reconhecido primeiro de que tudo. Apesar da maioria dos textos (livros e publicaçõesserem caracterizados por um simplismo hidrogeológico, ora inaceitável. Esta grande diversidade é comandada por doisdiferentes grupos de variáveis: os da Geotectônica (produto da dinâmica interna e os das condições climáticas e fisiográficas(produtos da dinâmica externa. Estas condições conduzem à definição das melhores características gerais para locação dopoço que deve ser perfurado. Um terceiro grupo de variáveis pode ser visualizada no “projeto de poço”, o qual, para assegurarum desempenho adequado, o poço precisa ser corretamente construído, operado, mantido e usado (produtos da intervençãodo homem/técnico. O exercício para determinar a proporção da influência de cada uma destas variáveis é difícil e discutível.Há alguns casos particulares onde, apenas, um grupo de fatores/variáveis é absolutamente preponderante no