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Sample records for castanea sativa mill

  1. EXTRACTION AND ANALYSIS OF CONDENSED TANNINS IN CASTANEA SATIVA MILL.

    OpenAIRE

    Živković, J.; Mujić, I.; Nikolić, G.; S Vidović; A Mujić

    2010-01-01

    Proanthocyanidins, also known as condensed tannins are widespread in woody plants, but are also found in certain forages. Castanea sativa Mill. are exploited for various purposes, but a little is known about potential of this species and possible application in diet and therapy. The parts of chestnut such as: seed, peeled seed, brown seed shell, red internal seed shell, leaves, catkin, spiny bur, as well as the new and old chestnut bark were extracted with 50% ethanol as an extragents. Conten...

  2. The effects of e-beam radiation in the antioxidant potential of chestnuts (Castanea sativa Mill.)

    OpenAIRE

    Carocho, Márcio; Antonio, Amilcar L.; Kałuska, Iwona; Bento, Albino; Botelho, M. Luísa; Ferreira, Isabel C.F.R.

    2012-01-01

    Chestnut fruits (Castanea sativa Mill.) are widely consumed all over the world, and have been studied in terms of nutritional value and also for their antioxidant potential [1]. In Europe, Portugal is a leading producer of this nut, along with Italy, and the conservation of the chestnut’s properties is essential, especially for export [2]. Irradiation might be an alternative conservation method, since Methyl Bromide, a widely used fumigant, was prohibited as a conservation technique by the Eu...

  3. The effects of e-beam radiation in the antioxidant potential of chestnuts (Castanea sativa Mill.)

    OpenAIRE

    Carocho, Márcio; Antonio, Amilcar L.; Kałuska, Iwona; Bento, Albino; Ferreira, Isabel C.F.R.

    2012-01-01

    Chestnut fruits (Castanea sativa Mill.) are widely consumed all over the world, and have been studied in terms of nutritional value and also for their antioxidant potential. In Europe, Portugal is one of the leading producers of this nut, and its conservation is essential. Irradiation might be an alternative conservation method, since methyl bromide, a widely used fumigant, was prohibited as post-harvest technique by the European Union in 2010 due to its toxicity. The alternati...

  4. 27 - Micorrização in vitro de plantas micropropagadas de castanheiro: Castanea sativa Mill

    OpenAIRE

    Martins, Anabela

    1997-01-01

    A cultura de Castanea sativa Mill. nas zonas temperadas assume uma grande importância, quer pela produção de castanha, quer pela de madeira. A micropropagação afigura-se como uma boa técnica de propagação vegetativa, uma vez que as técnicas convencionais se revelam muito dificeis com esta espécie. A aclimatação de plantas micropropagadas é normalmente, um problema que pode ser minimizado com a micorrização das raízes dessas plantas. A micorrização in vitro foi induzida em germinantes e em...

  5. Comparative effects of gamma and electron beam irradiation on the antioxidant potential of Portuguese chestnuts (Castanea sativa Mill.)

    OpenAIRE

    Carocho, Márcio; Antonio, Amilcar L.; Barros, Lillian; Bento, Albino; Botelho, M. Luísa; Kałuska, Iwona; Ferreira, Isabel C. F. R.

    2012-01-01

    Chestnuts (Castanea sativa Mill.) are widely consumed all over the world, and have been recently studied for their antioxidant potential. The present study reports the effect of e-beam and gamma radiation (doses of 0, 0.5, 1 and 3 kGy) on the antioxidant potential of Portuguese chestnuts. Irradiation might be an alternative preservation method, since Methyl Bromide, a widely used fumigant, was banished by the European Union in 2010 due to its toxicity. The antioxidant activity ...

  6. INTRODUCCIÓN DE CULTIVARES DE CASTAÑO EUROPEO (Castanea sativa Mill., HÍBRIDOS EUROJAPONESES (Castanea crenata x Castanea sativa, Y CASTAÑO JAPONÉS (Castanea crenata Sieb et Zucc. A CHILE. PRIMEROS RESULTADOS Introduction of European chestnut cultivars (Castanea sativa Mill., Eurojapanese hybrids (Castanea crenata x Castanea sativa and Japanese cultivars (Castanea crenata Sieb et Zucc. to Chile. First results

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    Pablo Grau B.

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available El Instituto de Investigaciones Agropecuarias (INIA, en su Centro Regional de Investigación (CRI Quilamapu, ubicado en la ciudad de Chillán, como parte del programa de mejoramiento de frutos de nuez, introdujo 18 de los cultivares comerciales más importantes de castaña desde Italia, Francia y Japón, a mediados de la década del 90. La mayoría de los cultivares introducidos pertenecen a la clasificación marrón, siendo ésta la primera vez que cultivares comerciales de fruto de alta calidad de castaño europeo (Castanea sativa Mill. tipo marrón, de castaño japonés (Castanea crenata Sieb et Zucc., e híbridos eurojaponeses (C. crenata x C. sativa son introducidos al país. Luego de cumplir dos años de cuarentena, el material fue liberado e injertado en portainjertos de semilla en el CRI Quilamapu. La mayoría de los cultivares iniciaron su producción al segundo año de establecidos, el año 2002, y su comportamiento agronómico está siendo evaluado anualmente. La calidad del fruto de la mayoría de los cultivares fue excelente, y cumplen los requisitos para ser clasificados como marrón según el sistema francés o italiano. Los cvs. más promisorios fueron Marrone di Citta di Castello, Marrone di Marradi y Marrone di Val di Susa que expresaron una alta calidad de fruto. La precocidad de los cultivares híbridos eurojaponeses fue superior a la expresada por selecciones locales, iniciándose la cosecha a inicios de marzo. A partir del año 2002 todos los cultivares se encuentran en evaluación en ensayos de adaptación desde la VII a la X Región del país, área con alto potencial para el cultivo de ambas especies. El presente trabajo constituye la primera introducción de cultivares tipo marrón de castaño europeos, híbridos eurojaponeses y cultivares japoneses a Chile.The Agricultural Research Institute (INIA, at its Regional Research Center (CRI Quilamapu at Chillán, as part of a nut fruit improvement program, introduced in the

  7. Growth dynamics and productivity of pure and mixed Castanea sativa Mill. and Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb. Franco plantations in northern Portugal

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    Nunes Leónia --

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Since the late 1980’s the productivity of monocultures versus mixed-species forests has been the object of special interest and study by forest managers and ecologists. All over the world mixed plantations have been established in different proportions to analyse if mixtures can provide greater yields and more benefits than monocultures of the component species and also to understand if they can be an interesting economic option. An experimental design trial was set up in the north of Portugal in a replacement series with pure and mixed Castanea sativa Mill. and Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb. Franco. The objective of this study was to assess growth dynamics and compare the aboveground biomass and net primary production of the two species in pure and mixed treatments in proportions 1:1 and 1:3. The growth was measured at 7, 11, 15, 17, 19, 27 and 28 years after planting and aboveground net primary production was estimated at age 28 years. As a component of the mixed treatments, P. menziesii exhibited greater height, diameter and aboveground biomass than C. sativa. Relative yield total indicated a higher productivity in the mixtures compared with the pure treatments. Early in the development the pure treatments had a similar aboveground biomass per hectare as the mixtures, but later the mixtures had more yield than the pure treatments. The mixture productivity increase trough time appears to be a result of both canopy stratification and better use of site resources. The aboveground net primary production was also higher in mixed than in the pure treatments. This study shows the importance of comparing mixed and pure stands.

  8. Influence of e-beam postharvest irradiation in the colour of four European chestnut fruit varieties of Castanea sativa Mill.

    OpenAIRE

    Amilcar L. Antonio; Carocho, Márcio; Bento, Albino; Rafalski, Andrzej; Quintana, Begoña

    2013-01-01

    In this study we characterized the physical dimensions of four European chestnut varieties of Castanea sativa, 3 from Portugal (Cota, Longal and Judia) and 1 from Italy (Palummina). The typical physical dimensions of the different chestnut fruit varieties could be used to optimize the process in an irradiation preservation treatment. The chestnut fruits were submitted to an irradiation preservation treatmen with electron beam, at 1 kGy, and the colour parameters (CIE L*, a*, b*) of the skins,...

  9. Estudio de procesos ecológicos para el desarrollo sostenible del castaño (Castanea sativa Mill.) de la Sierra de Francia

    OpenAIRE

    Salazar Iglesias, Sergio

    2008-01-01

    En la cuenca mediterránea los bosques de castaño (Castanea sativa Mill.) tienen una gran importancia tanto desde un punto de vista ecológico, económico, paisajístico o cultural. Debido a esta importancia se estudiaron estos ecosistemas desde una perspectiva ecológica La investigación se llevó a cabo en la Sierra de Francia, en la provincia de Salamanca (España). Se seleccionaron tres ecosistemas de estudio, dos castañares (vegetación paraclimácica en la zona de estudio), uno dedicado a la pro...

  10. Brown rot on nuts of Castanea sativa Mill: an emerging disease and its causal agent

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    Maresi G

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The quality and quantity of nut production are fundamental to the economic viability of chestnut cultivation, yet recent reports indicate that severe damage due to moulds represents a significant problem for growers. We carried out an investigation of the agents of chestnut rot and internal fruit damage in three orchards in Italy. Black and brown rot, as well as insect damage, were found in all the areas examined. Brown rot appeared to be the main cause of damage, affecting 8% to 49% and 2% to 24% of nuts collected from the ground and from burrs, respectively. With respect to morphology and DNA sequencing analyses, fungal isolates obtained from brown rot were homologous with Gnomoniopsis sp. obtained from Dryocosmus kuriphilus (Yasumatsu galls and with Gnomoniopsis castanea and Gnomoniopsis smithogilvyi described on chestnut in Italy and Australia, respectively. The same fungus was also isolated from the bark of one- and two-years-old healthy shoots at each site, supporting the endophytic behaviour of this rot agent. Brown rot symptoms on nuts associated with Gnomoniopsis sp. corresponded with those previously described by several authors and referred to as Phoma or Phomopsis endogena, suggesting a relationship between these fungi and Gnomoniopsis sp. It is to notice that the escalation of brown rot damage in Italy followed several periods of drought and probably the recent invasion of D. kuriphilus, both stress factors for chestnut trees.

  11. EKSTRAKCIJA I ANALIZA KONDENZIRANIH TANINA CASTANEA SATIVA MIIL.

    OpenAIRE

    J Živković; I Mujić; Nikolić, G.; S Vidović; Mujić, A.

    2009-01-01

    Proantocijanidini, poznati kao kondenzirani tanini su jako rasprostranjeni u drvenastim biljkama, a pronađeni su i u hrani. Castanea sativa Mill. se dosta koristi za različite namjene, međutim malo je poznat njegov potencijal i moguća primjena u dijeti i terapiji. Dijelovi kestena kao što su; cijeli plod, srž ploda, vanjska smeđa kora ploda, crvena unutrašnja kora ploda, list, resa, ježura, kao i nova i stara kora drveta su ekstrahirani primjenom 50% etanola kao ekstragensa. Sadržaj ukupni...

  12. Diversidad vegetal y tratamientos forestales en parcelas de castaño (Castanea sativa Mill. de dos regiones mediterráneas

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    Gondard, H.

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available During the last few decades; marked land use changes have taken place throughout the Mediterranean region. These changes have a great impact on plant diversity and also affect the current ecosystem functioning. This is particularly true for sweet chestnut (Castanea sativa Mill. stands (groves or coppices that have been more or less abandoned from the end of the last century. Thus; our objective was to analyze consequences on plant species diversity of various management types in chestnut stands of two Mediterranean areas; the Cévennes in France; and Mt. Etna in Italy. Our results indicate that there are few species in common between the two Mediterranean areas; only less than 9%. These differences can be explained by different ecological conditions (climate; soil type; etc. between the two areas; but also by the differences of management type (groves and coppice stands in the Cévennes; only coppice stands on Mt. Etna or stand characteristics (shoot density; diameter at breast height; etc.. Moreover; plant species diversity is different according to management types. Indeed; we found that plant species diversity is higher in groves than in coppice stands. VSfe also demonstrated that C. sativa cultivated groves were generally characterized by small heliophilous therophytes. C. sativa abandoned groves; young C. sativa coppice stands were characterized by hemicryptophytes with anemochorous dispersal mode and chamaephytes. Medium and old C. sativa coppice stands (that differ by the shoot age were more particularly characterized by phanerophytes with zoochorous dispersal mode. A consequence of chestnut stands abandonment is homogeneous vegetation with decreasing plant diversity. One solution could be to maintain a landscape mosaic of diverse chestnut stands diversely modified by human activities. This could allow enhancing the high regional plant diversity.

    [fr] Ces dernières décades les changements subis

  13. Variación de la Tasa de Enraizamiento Asociada al Número de Subcultivo y Diámetro de Microtallos de Castaño Castanea sativa Mill Rooting Rate Variation Related to Subculture Number and Diameter of Chestnut Castanea sativa Mill. Microshoots

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    Darcy Ríos L

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Este estudio tuvo por objeto determinar el número de subcultivo y el diámetro basal en el cual se obtiene la mayor tasa de enraizamiento ex vitro para microtallos de castaño, Castanea sativa Mill., obtenidos vía cultivo in vitro. El material vegetal correspondió a microtallos provenientes del cultivo de embriones con entre 7 y 12 subcultivos durante la etapa de proliferación, para la cual se utilizó medio Driver y Kuniyuki Walnut (DKW con los macronutrientes reducidos a la mitad y suplementado con 1 mg L-1 6-benzilaminopurina (BAP y 0,1 mg L-1 de ácido indol 3-butírico (AIB. Se utilizó el método de inducción rápida de enraizamiento sumergiendo los tallos en una solución de 0,5 mg mL-1 de AIB durante 15 min. Para la etapa de enraizamiento, se utilizó como sustrato corteza de pino:perlita (4:1, v/v evaluando los resultados a los 20 días de cultivo. Las variables evaluadas fueron tasa de supervivencia (%, tasa de enraizamiento (%, número de raíces, largo de raíces (mm, presencia de callo y aspecto del sistema radicular. Los resultados mostraron una disminución de la capacidad de enraizamiento a medida que aumenta el número de subcultivo. El factor diámetro de microtallo no presentó diferencias significativas respecto a las variables evaluadas.This study had the objective of determining the subculture number and the shoot basal diameter that produces the best rooting rate ex vitro of chestnut, Castanea sativa Mill., microshoots obtained via in vitro culturing. The plant material corresponded to microcuttings obtained from embryo cultures with between 7 and 12 subcultures in the proliferative stage, for which Driver and Kuniyuki Walnut (DKW medium was used with the macronutrients reduced to a half and supplemented with 1 mg L-1 6-benzylaminopurine (BAP and 0.1 mg L-1 indole-3-butiric acid (IBA. The quick induction rooting method was used, submerging the base of the microcuttings in a solution of 0.5 mg mL-1 of IBA for 15 min

  14. Short communication. Inheritance of cotyledon storage proteins in European sweet chestnut (Castanea sativa Miller)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, M. A.; Alvarez, J. B.; Gutierrez, J. C.; Martin, L. M.

    2012-11-01

    A first approximation to the inheritance of cotyledon storage proteins was studied in European sweet chestnut (Castanea sativa Mill.) by evaluating the offspring of a controlled cross between two local chestnut varieties (Corriente and Pilonga) from southern Spain. The analysis was carried out in 15 polymorphic bands corresponding to the albumin fraction of the storage proteins. The relationship between bands displayed one case of allelism and four of linkage. These results should be considered as the baseline of the genetics of these proteins and suggest that they could be useful for the evaluation of the genetic variability in chestnut. (Author) 13 refs.

  15. Um método eficiente para a detecção de Phytophthora cinnamomi associada com a Doença da Tinta do Castanheiro na rizosfera de Castanheiro (Castanea sativa Mill. An efficient assay for detection of Phytophthora cinnamomi in the rhizosphere of Sweet Chestnut (Castanea sativa Mill.

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    E. Gouveia

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available O ciclo biológico de Phytophthora cinnamomi Rands e P. cambivora (Petri Buisman espécies associadas com a Doença da Tinta do Castanheiro, ocorre integralmente no ambiente solo. A presença de qualquer uma destas espécies parasitas inviabiliza as novas plantações de castanheiro e coloca sérios problemas à manutenção dos soutos já instalados. Para garantir a ausência de propágulos dos parasitas no material de multiplicação do castanheiro e avaliar o estado sanitário dos solos é necessário que os métodos de detecção sejam sensíveis e rápidos, o que nem sempre é conseguido com as espécies de Phytophthora cujo ciclo de vida ocorre no ambiente solo. Neste estudo desenvolveuse e optimizou-se um método de biodetecção conjugado com a utilização de meios de cultura selectivos. Como material biológico utilizaram-se discos de folha de castanheiro (Castanea sativa, azevinho (Ilex aquifolium e camélia (Camellia japonica, em condições de temperatura constante (25º e em condições normais de laboratório com a adição ou não de biocidas (pimaricina e penicilina na água de diluição do solo. Os discos de folha de castanheiro foram mais eficientes na detecção de Phytophthora, obtendo-se maior percentagem de isolamentos positivos no meio de cultura selectivo (P10VPH. Os resultados obtidos neste estudo permitiram estabelecer um protocolo experimental de fácil utilização e tornar mais eficiente a detecção de Phytophthora cinnamomi associada com a Doença da Tinta do Castanheiro.The life cycle of Phytophthora cinnamomi Rands and P. cambivora (PetriBuisman, both species associated with Ink Disease of Chestnut, occurs entirely in soil. The presence of any of these parasitic species is a limiting constraint for new plantations of sweet chestnut and represents a serious problem for established groves. Sensitive and fast detection methods are necessary to guarantee the absence of inoculum in the propagation material and to

  16. Paenibacillus castaneae sp. nov., isolated from the phyllosphere of Castanea sativa Miller.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valverde, Angel; Peix, Alvaro; Rivas, Raúl; Velázquez, Encarna; Salazar, Sergio; Santa-Regina, Ignacio; Rodríguez-Barrueco, Claudino; Igual, José M

    2008-11-01

    A bacterial strain, designated Ch-32(T), was isolated from the phyllosphere of Castanea sativa in Spain. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences placed the isolate in the genus Paenibacillus within the same subgroup as Paenibacillus xinjiangensis and Paenibacillus glycanilyticus, with similarities of 96.3 and 96.8 %, respectively. DNA-DNA hybridization values for strain Ch-32(T) with these two species were lower than 20 %. The novel isolate was a Gram-variable, motile, sporulating rod. It produced catalase and oxidase and hydrolysed cellulose, gelatin and aesculin. Acetoin and urease production, nitrate reduction and starch hydrolysis were negative. Growth was supported by many carbohydrates and organic acids as carbon sources. MK-7 was the only menaquinone detected and anteiso-C(15 : 0), iso-C(16 : 0) and C(16 : 0) were the major fatty acids. The DNA G+C content was 46 mol%. Phylogenetic, DNA relatedness and phenotypic analyses showed that strain Ch-32(T) should be classified as a novel species of the genus Paenibacillus, for which the name Paenibacillus castaneae sp. nov. is proposed; the type strain is Ch-32(T) (=CECT 7279(T)=DSM 19417(T)). PMID:18984693

  17. Dietary effects of oregano (Origanum vulgaris L. plant or sweet chestnut (Castanea sativa Mill. wood extracts on microbiological, chemical-physical characteristics and lipid oxidation of cooked ham during storage

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    David Ranucci

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the dietary effect of feeding pigs with diets enriched with sweet chestnut wood (Castanea sativa Mill. or oregano (Origanum vulgaris L. extract on the microbiological and chemical characteristics of cooked pork ham. Three groups of 10 pigs were fed with a control diet (CTRL, with the CTRL diet enriched with 0.2% of oregano extract (OR and with the CTRL diet enriched with 0.2% of sweet chestnut wood extract (SCW, respectively. Six cooked hams per group were produced, sliced and packaged under a modified atmosphere (N2:CO2=80:20 and stored at refrigeration temperature (4±1°C. Three packages per cooked ham were sampled for analyses at three different storage times (0, 10 and 20 days. At day 0 time, antioxidant capacity of the products (ORACFL assay and chemical composition were performed. At each sampling time, from all the samples the following analyses were performed: Total Microbial Count (TMC, Lactic Acid Bacteria count (LAB, Enterobacteriaceae count, Listeria monocytogenes, pH value, colour coordinates (L*, a*, b*, total basic volatile nitrogen (TBVN and thio-barbituric reactive substances (TBARs determinations. No differences in TMC, LAB and Enterobacteriaceae count, pH, TBVN, chemical composition and L* values were registered between the three groups at all the sampling times considered. No Listeria monocytogenes was detected in the samples tested. Significant differences were registered for ORACFL at 0 days, a* and b* values and TBARs value at 10 and 20 days of storage, with higher values for ORACFL, a* and b* values and lower values for TBARs in SCW and OR than CTRL. No antimicrobial effect could be recorded for OR and SCW but a higher oxidative stability, also highlighted by the colour maintenance, was observed in both OR and SCW.

  18. UKLANJANJE RADIKALA, ANTIMIKROBNA AKTIVNOST I SADRŽAJ FENOLNIH MATERIJA CASTANEA SATIVA EKSTRAKATA

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    J Živković

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Ispitivano je uklanjanje radikala i antimikrobna aktivnost ekstrakata, tri kultivara Castanea Sativa Mill. Lišće i rese su ekstrahirane pod istim uvjetima 50%-tnim etanolom kao ekstragensom, a zatim su dobiveni suhi ekstrakti ispitivanih uzoraka. Nakon izvršene kisele hidrolize uzoraka ukupne fenolne tvari su ordređene HPLC-om. Radi određivanja efekta ekstrakata na stvaranje i transformiranje hidroksil (OH radikala i (DPPH radikala, ekstrakti su rastvoreni u destiliranoj vodi i dodani u Fenton-ov model sistem, do fi nalne koncentracije od 0,2 mg/ml. Visoka vrijednost antioksidativne aktivnosti (AA u odnosu na hidroksil radikale određena je za resu Lovranskog kestena (59,09%. Najveća antiradikalna aktivnost u odnosu na DPPH radikale je utvrđena kod ekstrakta rese domaćeg pitomog kestena (37,50. Antimikrobni test je pokazao da etanolni ekstrakti rese i lista inhibiraju rast Gram pozitivnih bakterija.

  19. Gnomoniopsis smithogilvyi causes chestnut canker symptoms in Castanea sativa shoots in Switzerland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasche, Sabrina; Calmin, Gautier; Auderset, Guy; Crovadore, Julien; Pelleteret, Pegah; Mauch-Mani, Brigitte; Barja, François; Paul, Bernard; Jermini, Mauro; Lefort, François

    2016-02-01

    A screening of Castanea sativa scions for grafting for the presence of endophytes showed that the opportunistic fungal pathogen Gnomoniopsis smithogilvyi was the most abundant member of the endophytic flora. This fungus is known as a pathogen affecting chestnut fruits in Italy and Australia. Here, we present evidence that it causes cankers very similar to the ones due to Cryphonectria parasitica infection on twigs and scions of chestnut trees. We found natural infections of G. smithogilvyi in healthy grafted plants as well as in scions from chestnut trees. The identity of the fungus isolated from asymptomatic tissues was verified by applying Koch's postulates and corroborated by DNA sequencing of four different gene regions. In contrast to C. parasitica that appears on the bark as yellow to orange pycnidia, stromata and slimy twisted tendrils, G. smithogilvyi forms orange to red and black pycnidia, gray stromata and cream-colored to beige slimy twisted tendrils on the bark. These Swiss strains are closely related to G. smithogilvyi strains from Australia and from New Zealand, Gnomoniopsis sp. and Gnomoniopsis castanea from New Zealand, Italy, France and Switzerland. While the strains from Ticino are genetically very close to G. smithogilvyi and G. castanea from Italy, the differences between the strains from Ticino and Geneva suggest two different origins. The present study supports the hypothesis that a single species named G. smithogilvyi, which is known to be the agent of chestnut rot, also causes wood cankers on chestnut. PMID:26768710

  20. In vivo Skin Irritation Potential of a Castanea sativa (Chestnut) Leaf Extract, a Putative Natural Antioxidant for Topical Application

    OpenAIRE

    Almeida, IF; Valentão, P.; Andrade, PB; Seabra, RM; Pereira, TM; Amaral, MH; Costa, PC; Bahia, MF

    2008-01-01

    Topical application of natural antioxidants has proven to be effective in protecting the skin against ultraviolet-mediated oxidative damage and provides a straightforward way to strengthen the endogenous protection system. However, natural products can provoke skin adverse effects, such as allergic and irritant contact dermatitis. Skin irritation potential of Castanea sativa leaf ethanol:water (7:3) extract was investigated by performing an in vivo patch test in 20 volunteers. Before performi...

  1. Involvement of reactive oxygen species during early stages of ectomycorrhiza establishment between Castanea sativa and Pisolithus tinctorius

    OpenAIRE

    Baptista, Paula; Martins, Anabela; Pais, M.S.; Tavares, Rui Manuel; Lino-Neto, Teresa

    2007-01-01

    Evidence for the participation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and antioxidant systems in ectomycorrhizal(ECM) establishment is lacking. In this paper, we evaluated ROS production and the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) during the early contact of the ECM fungus Pisolithus tinctorius with the roots of Castanea sativa (chestnut tree). Roots were placed in contact with P. tinctorius mycelia, and ROS production was evaluated by determining the level...

  2. Characterization of chestnut (Castanea sativa, mill starch for industrial utilization

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    Ivo Mottin Demiate

    2001-03-01

    Full Text Available Studies were conducted to characterize the chestnut and its starch. Chemical composition of the chestnuts showed high level of starch. Moisture level in the raw nuts was around 50g/100g in wet basis and starch content, around 80g/100g in dry basis; other nut flour components were protein (5.58 g/100g, lipid (5.39 g/100g, crude fiber (2.34 g/100g and ash (2.14 g/100g. Starch fraction was chemically characterized in order to identify the granule quality as compared with those of cassava and corn. This fraction showed more lipids and proteins than the other starches. Chestnut starch granules showed peculiar shape, smaller than the control starches and low amount of damaged units. Chemical composition concerning amylose : amylopectin ratio was intermediate to that presented by cassava and corn starch granules. Water absorption at different temperatures as well as solubility were also intermediate but closer to that presented by cassava granules. The same behavior was observed in the interaction with dimethyl-sulfoxide. Native starch granules and those submitted to enzymatic treatment with commercial alpha-amylase and also with enzymes from germinated wheat were observed by scanning electronic microscopy. Water suspensions of chestnut starch granules were heated to form pastes that were studied comparatively to those obtained with cassava and corn starches. Viscographic pattern of chestnut starch pastes showed a characteristic profile with high initial viscosity but peak absence, high resistance to mechanical stirring under hot conditions and high final viscosity. There was no way to compare it with the paste viscographic profiles obtained with the control starches. Chestnut starch pastes were stable down to pH 4 but unstable at pH 3. The water losses observed in the chestnut starch pastes after freeze-thaw cycles showed more similarity to the pattern observed in corn starch pastes as well as clarity and strength of the gel. In general the results showed that chestnut pastes functional properties are intermediate to those of the cassava and corn starch pastes.A composição química das castanhas mostrou níveis elevados de amido, sendo o principal componente da matéria seca. O teor de umidade das castanhas foi de aproximadamente 50g/100g e o conteúdo de amido da farinha de castanha foi de cerca de 80g/100g; outros componentes da farinha de castanha são proteínas (5,58g/100g, lipídios (5,39g/100g, fibra bruta (2,34g/100g e cinzas (2,14g/100g. A fração amido foi caracterizada quimicamente de forma a identificar a qualidade dos grânulos comparando-os com os de amido de milho e de mandioca. O amido foi obtido mediante procedimentos convencionais de extração e purificação e continha mais lipídios e proteínas do que os amidos usados como controle. Os grânulos do amido de castanha apresentam forma peculiar, menores do que os amidos controles. A composição química com relação à razão amilose/amilopectina foi intermediária àquela encontrada para os amidos de milho e de mandioca. O poder de inchamento e a solubilidade a diferentes temperaturas apresentaram valores intermediários embora mais próximos aos apresentados por grânulos do amido de mandioca. O mesmo comportamento foi observado com relação à solubilidade em dimetilsulfóxido (DMSO. Os grânulos, tratados enzimaticamente com amilase bacteriana comercial e também com extrato de trigo germinado, foram observados por microscopia eletrônica de varredura (SEM. Suspensões de grânulos de amido de castanha em água foram aquecidas e as pastas pesquisadas comparativamente com aquelas obtidas com amido de milho e de mandioca. As pastas obtidas com amido de castanha mostraram perfis característicos com viscosidade inicial elevada mas com ausência de pico, resistência à agitação mecânica sob temperatura elevada (95ºC e viscosidade final elevada. As pastas de amido de castanha apresentaram-se estáveis até pH 4,0 e instáveis a pH 3,0. A perda de água observada na pasta de amido de castanha após ciclos de congelamento / descongelamento foi mais relacionada ao comportamento da pasta de amido de milho assim como a transparência e a força do gel. De uma forma geral os resultados mostraram que as pastas de castanha apresentam propriedades funcionais com valores intermediários se comparadas com as obtidas com amidos de milho e de mandioca.

  3. Characterization of chestnut (Castanea sativa, mill) starch for industrial utilization

    OpenAIRE

    Demiate Ivo Mottin; Oetterer Marília; Wosiacki Gilvan

    2001-01-01

    Studies were conducted to characterize the chestnut and its starch. Chemical composition of the chestnuts showed high level of starch. Moisture level in the raw nuts was around 50g/100g in wet basis and starch content, around 80g/100g in dry basis; other nut flour components were protein (5.58 g/100g), lipid (5.39 g/100g), crude fiber (2.34 g/100g) and ash (2.14 g/100g). Starch fraction was chemically characterized in order to identify the granule quality as compared with those of cassava and...

  4. PtSRR1, a putative Pisolithus tinctorius symbiosis related receptor gene is expressed during the first hours of mycorrhizal interaction with Castanea sativa roots

    OpenAIRE

    Acioli-Santos, B.; Malosso, E.; Calzavara-Silva, C.E.; C. E. P. Lima; Figueiredo, A.; Sebastiana, M.; Pais, M.S.

    2009-01-01

    PtSRR1 EST was previously identified in the first hours of Pisolithus tinctorius and Castanea sativa interaction. QRT-PCR confirmed PtSRR1 early expression and in silico preliminary translated peptide analysis indicated a strong probability that PtSRR1 be a transmembrane protein. These data stimulate the PtSRR1 gene research during ectomycorrhiza formation.

  5. PtSRR1, a putative Pisolithus tinctorius symbiosis related receptor gene is expressed during the first hours of mycorrhizal interaction with Castanea sativa roots PtSRR1, um possível receptor simbiose-regulado de Pisolithus tinctorius é expresso nas primeiras horas de interação ectomicorrízica com raízes de Castanea sativa

    OpenAIRE

    Acioli-Santos, B.; Malosso, E.; Calzavara-Silva, C.E.; C. E. P. Lima; Figueiredo, A.; Sebastiana, M.; Pais, M.S.

    2009-01-01

    PtSRR1 EST was previously identified in the first hours of Pisolithus tinctorius and Castanea sativa interaction. QRT-PCR confirmed PtSRR1 early expression and in silico preliminary translated peptide analysis indicated a strong probability that PtSRR1 be a transmembrane protein. These data stimulate the PtSRR1 gene research during ectomycorrhiza formation.PtSRR1 foi isolado preliminarmente de P. tinctorius nas primeiras horas da interação com raízes de C. sativa. Análises de QRT-PCR confirma...

  6. In vivo skin irritation potential of a Castanea sativa (Chestnut) leaf extract, a putative natural antioxidant for topical application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, Isabel F; Valentão, Patrícia; Andrade, Paula B; Seabra, Rosa M; Pereira, Teresa M; Amaral, M Helena; Costa, Paulo C; Bahia, M Fernanda

    2008-11-01

    Topical application of natural antioxidants has proven to be effective in protecting the skin against ultraviolet-mediated oxidative damage and provides a straightforward way to strengthen the endogenous protection system. However, natural products can provoke skin adverse effects, such as allergic and irritant contact dermatitis. Skin irritation potential of Castanea sativa leaf ethanol:water (7:3) extract was investigated by performing an in vivo patch test in 20 volunteers. Before performing the irritation test, the selection of the solvent and extraction method was guided by the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl hydrazyl (DPPH) free radical scavenging test and polyphenols extraction (measured by the Folin Ciocalteu assay). Iron-chelating activity and the phenolic composition (high performance liquid chromatography/diode array detection) were evaluated for the extract obtained under optimized conditions. The extraction method adopted consisted in 5 short extractions (10 min.) with ethanol:water (7:3), performed at 40 degrees. The IC(50) found for the iron chelation and DPPH scavenging assays were 132.94 +/- 9.72 and 12.58 +/- 0.54 microg/ml (mean +/- S.E.M.), respectively. The total phenolic content was found to be 283.8 +/- 8.74 mg GAE/g extract (mean +/- S.E.M.). Five phenolic compounds were identified in the extract, namely, chlorogenic acid, ellagic acid, rutin, isoquercitrin and hyperoside. The patch test carried out showed that, with respect to irritant effects, this extract can be regarded as safe for topical application. PMID:18793273

  7. PtSRR1, a putative Pisolithus tinctorius symbiosis related receptor gene is expressed during the first hours of mycorrhizal interaction with Castanea sativa roots PtSRR1, um possível receptor simbiose-regulado de Pisolithus tinctorius é expresso nas primeiras horas de interação ectomicorrízica com raízes de Castanea sativa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Acioli-Santos

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available PtSRR1 EST was previously identified in the first hours of Pisolithus tinctorius and Castanea sativa interaction. QRT-PCR confirmed PtSRR1 early expression and in silico preliminary translated peptide analysis indicated a strong probability that PtSRR1 be a transmembrane protein. These data stimulate the PtSRR1 gene research during ectomycorrhiza formation.PtSRR1 foi isolado preliminarmente de P. tinctorius nas primeiras horas da interação com raízes de C. sativa. Análises de QRT-PCR confirmaram sua expressão positiva (12 h e seu peptídeo putativo indicou forte possibilidade para proteína transmembranar. Estes dados estimulam o estudo do PtSRR1 durante a formação de ectomicorrizas.

  8. Velocity and pattern of ice propagation and deep supercooling in woody stems of Castanea sativa, Morus nigra and Quercus robur measured by IDTA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuner, Gilbert; Xu, Bingcheng; Hacker, Juergen

    2010-08-01

    Infrared differential thermal analysis (IDTA) was used to monitor the velocity and pattern of ice propagation and deep supercooling of xylem parenchyma cells (XPCs) during freezing of stems of Castanea sativa L., Morus nigra L. and Quercus robur L. that exhibit a macro- and ring-porous xylem. Measurements were conducted on the surface of cross- and longitudinal stem sections. During high-temperature freezing exotherms (HTEs; -2.8 to -9.4°C), initial freezing was mainly observed in the youngest year ring of the sapwood (94%), but occasionally elsewhere (older year rings: 4%; bark: 2%). Initially, ice propagated rapidly in the largest xylem conduits. This resulted in a distinct freezing pattern of concentric circles in C. sativa and M. nigra. During HTEs, supercooling of XPCs became visible in Q. robur stems, but not in the other species that have narrower pith rays. Intracellular freezing of supercooled XPCs of Q. robur became visible by IDTA during low-temperature freezing exotherms (propagation and deep supercooling in stems can be monitored at meaningful spatial and temporal resolutions. PMID:20616300

  9. PHYSICAL, MORPHOLOGICAL PROPERTIES AND RAMAN SPECTROSCOPY OF CHESTNUT BLIGHT DISEASED CASTANEA SATIVA MILL. WOOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gokhan Gunduz

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In this study, some of the physical and anatomical properties of Chestnut Blight Diseased (CBD wood were investigated, and the study also included observations using Raman spectroscopy. The objective of these investigations was to determine the extent of the damage that is done to the wood of the diseased chestnut trees, which must be removed from the forest and used in the manufacture of industrial products. It was indicated that most of the adverse effects of the disease were in the vascular cambium. There was a clear indication of deterioration of the wood in the last growth ring next to vascular cambium. In the diseased secondary xylem region next to vascular cambium; vessel diameter, vessel frequency and vessel element length had a decrease, and vessel and other cells were irregular compared to healthy wood. Spores were detected and identified as Cryphonectria parasitica (Murrill. Annual ring properties (annual growth ring width, latewood percentage, etc. were similar in diseased wood compared to healthy wood. The Raman spectroscopy results showed no significant changes in the structure of the cell wall or its components. After removing the diseased parts, unlimited usage of formerly wood is possible. Heat treatment of the wood is suggested before use in the interest of sanitation and dimensional stability.

  10. PHYSICAL, MORPHOLOGICAL PROPERTIES AND RAMAN SPECTROSCOPY OF CHESTNUT BLIGHT DISEASED CASTANEA SATIVA MILL. WOOD

    OpenAIRE

    Gokhan Gunduz,; Mehmet Ali Oral; Mehmet Akyuz; Deniz Aydemir; Barbaros Yaman; Nejla Asik; Ali Savas Bulbul; Surhay Allahverdiyev

    2016-01-01

    In this study, some of the physical and anatomical properties of Chestnut Blight Diseased (CBD) wood were investigated, and the study also included observations using Raman spectroscopy. The objective of these investigations was to determine the extent of the damage that is done to the wood of the diseased chestnut trees, which must be removed from the forest and used in the manufacture of industrial products. It was indicated that most of the adverse effects of the disease were in the vascu...

  11. Brown rot on nuts of Castanea sativa Mill: an emerging disease and its causal agent

    OpenAIRE

    Maresi G; Oliveira Longa CM; Turchetti T

    2013-01-01

    The quality and quantity of nut production are fundamental to the economic viability of chestnut cultivation, yet recent reports indicate that severe damage due to moulds represents a significant problem for growers. We carried out an investigation of the agents of chestnut rot and internal fruit damage in three orchards in Italy. Black and brown rot, as well as insect damage, were found in all the areas examined. Brown rot appeared to be the main cause of damage, affecting 8% to 49% and 2% t...

  12. ROS involvement during the initial stages of ectomycorrhiza establishment in Castanea sativa Mill.

    OpenAIRE

    Baptista, Paula; Martins, Anabela; Tavares, Rui Manuel; Lino-Neto, Teresa

    2005-01-01

    Mycorrhiza are mutualistic associations between soil fungi and roots of vascular plants. During mycorrhiza establishment morphological, physiological and ecological alterations occur in both symbionts. However, very little is known about the mechanisms controlling the colonization process and how this process is started. It was suggested that, during the early stages of fungal invasion, an induction of defence responses in host plant occurs, similar to the one induced by pathogens that will b...

  13. Chestnut (Castanea sativa Mill.) Fruit Composition & Quality - Effects of Industrial Processing on Nutrients & Secondary Metabolites

    OpenAIRE

    Vasconcelos, Maria do Carmo Barbosa Mendes de

    2010-01-01

    Tese de Doutoramento em Ciências Agrárias e Florestais O castanheiro é cultivado um pouco por toda a Europa do Sul (principalmente Itália, Portugal, França e Espanha), Turquia, América do Norte, América do Sul (Chile e Bolívia), Ásia(China, Japão e Coreia), Austrália e Nova Zelândia, onde os seus frutos são consumidos em larga escala. Face ao seu conteúdo em amido, açúcares livres, fibra, proteínas, lípidos, vitaminas e sais minerais, bem como em outros compostos biologicamente activ...

  14. Antioksidativni učinak fenolnih tvari u ekstraktima pitomog kestena (Castanea sativa Mill.)

    OpenAIRE

    Živković, Jelena; Zeković, Zoran; MUJIĆ, Ibrahim; Tumbas, Vesna; Cvetković, Dragoljub; Spasojević, Ivan

    2009-01-01

    Primjenom elektronske paramagnetske rezonantne spektroskopije ispitana su antioksidativna svojstva ekstrakata kestena kao izvora fenolnih spojeva. Osim velikog antioksidativnog učinka na hidroksilne i DPPH radikale, fenolne tvari imaju i sposobnost zaštite staničnih membrana od lipidne peroksidacije. Prema spoznajama autora, po prvi je put ispitana sposobnost antioksidansa da bi se nadvladao tzv. refraktorni odgovor organizma na dijetetske antioksidativne suplemente. U vodi otopljeni ekstrakt...

  15. Complete mitochondrial genome of Eruca sativa Mill. (Garden rocket.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yankun Wang

    Full Text Available Eruca sativa (Cruciferae family is an ancient crop of great economic and agronomic importance. Here, the complete mitochondrial genome of Eruca sativa was sequenced and annotated. The circular molecule is 247,696 bp long, with a G+C content of 45.07%, containing 33 protein-coding genes, three rRNA genes, and 18 tRNA genes. The Eruca sativa mitochondrial genome may be divided into six master circles and four subgenomic molecules via three pairwise large repeats, resulting in a more dynamic structure of the Eruca sativa mtDNA compared with other cruciferous mitotypes. Comparison with the Brassica napus MtDNA revealed that most of the genes with known function are conserved between these two mitotypes except for the ccmFN2 and rrn18 genes, and 27 point mutations were scattered in the 14 protein-coding genes. Evolutionary relationships analysis suggested that Eruca sativa is more closely related to the Brassica species and to Raphanus sativus than to Arabidopsis thaliana.

  16. A Novel Role of Eruca sativa Mill. (Rocket Extract: Antiplatelet (NF-κB Inhibition and Antithrombotic Activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Fuentes

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Epidemiological studies have shown the prevention of cardiovascular diseases through the regular consumption of vegetables. Eruca sativa Mill., commonly known as rocket, is a leafy vegetable that has anti-inflammatory activity. However, its antiplatelet and antithrombotic activities have not been described. Methods: Eruca sativa Mill. aqueous extract (0.1 to 1 mg/mL, was evaluated on human platelets: (i P-selectin expression by flow cytometry; (ii platelet aggregation induced by ADP, collagen and arachidonic acid; (iii IL-1β, TGF-β1, CCL5 and thromboxane B2 release; and (iv activation of NF-κB and PKA by western blot. Furthermore, (v antithrombotic activity (200 mg/kg and (vi bleeding time in murine models were evaluated. Results: Eruca sativa Mill. aqueous extract (0.1 to 1 mg/mL inhibited P-selectin expression and platelet aggregation induced by ADP. The release of platelet inflammatory mediators (IL-1β, TGF-β1, CCL5 and thromboxane B2 induced by ADP was inhibited by Eruca sativa Mill. aqueous extract. Furthermore, Eruca sativa Mill. aqueous extract inhibited NF-κB activation. Finally, in murine models, Eruca sativa Mill. aqueous extract showed significant antithrombotic activity and a slight effect on bleeding time. Conclusion: Eruca sativa Mill. presents antiplatelet and antithrombotic activity.

  17. Optimization of water curing for the preservation of chestnuts (Castanea sativa Mill.) and evaluation of microbial dynamics during process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blaiotta, Giuseppe; Di Capua, Marika; Romano, Annalisa; Coppola, Raffaele; Aponte, Maria

    2014-09-01

    Chestnuts are very perishable fruits, whose quality may be compromised during postharvest handling. Damage can be caused both by insects and fungi. Water curing, a commonly used postharvest method, is based on soaking fruits in water typically for about one week. Factors that affect effectiveness of water curing have only been explained partially. A decrease in pH, likely imputable to a light fermentation caused by lactic acid bacteria, may inhibit the growth of moulds. In this study a Lactobacillus pentosus strain was selected for its ability to inhibit fungi, and used as a starter culture during water curing. As second goal, a reduction of the environmental impact of the process was evaluated by using water that had been re-cycled from a previous curing treatment. Experiments were performed on pilot as well as on farm scale. In all trials, microbial dynamics were evaluated by means of a polyphasic approach including conventional and molecular-based analyses. According to results, the employment of an adjunct culture appears as a very promising opportunity. Even if no reduction in the duration of the process was achieved, waters exhibited a minor microbial complexity and fruits did not lose the natural lustre after the process. PMID:24929716

  18. Lactic Acid Bacteria as protective and functional cultures for the enhancement of chestnut (Castanea sativa Mill.) processing chain

    OpenAIRE

    Di Capua, Marika

    2015-01-01

    Chestnuts are very perishable fruits, whose quality may be compromised during postharvest handling. Damage can be caused both by insects and fungi. Water curing, a commonly used postharvest method, is based on soaking fruits in water typically for about one week. Factors that affect effectiveness of water curing have only been explained partially. A decrease in pH, likely imputable to a light fermentation caused by lactic acid bacteria, may inhibit the growth of moulds. In this study a Lac...

  19. An efficient assay for detection of Phytophthora cinnamomi in the rhizosphere of Sweet Chestnut (Castanea sativa Mill.)

    OpenAIRE

    E. Gouveia; Coelho, V; Sousa, N.; Coutinho, S.; Nunes, L.; Maria Loreto Monteiro

    2009-01-01

    O ciclo biológico de Phytophthora cinnamomi Rands e P. cambivora (Petri) Buisman espécies associadas com a Doença da Tinta do Castanheiro, ocorre integralmente no ambiente solo. A presença de qualquer uma destas espécies parasitas inviabiliza as novas plantações de castanheiro e coloca sérios problemas à manutenção dos soutos já instalados. Para garantir a ausência de propágulos dos parasitas no material de multiplicação do castanheiro e avaliar o estado sanitário dos solos é necessário que o...

  20. Seasonal Variation in Phenolic Constituents of Hazelnut (Coryllus avellana L.) and Chestnut (Castanea sativa Mill.) Leaves and Shoots

    OpenAIRE

    BİLGENER, Şükriye Kurnaz

    1998-01-01

    In this research, the seasonal variation in total phenolic contents in hazelnut and chestnut leaves and shoots was determined. In addition, the phenolic compounds extracted by aqueous alcohol or obtained by acid hydrolysis of the leaves and shoots were separated by paper chromatography (PC). The total phenolic contents of the chestnut leaves and shoots were higher than the hazelnut. In both species, the young shoots had higher total phenolic contents than one year old shoots. The total phen...

  1. Castanea sativa Mill. Flowers amongst the most powerful antioxidant matrices: a phytochemical approach in decoctions and infusions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carocho, Márcio; Barros, Lillian; Bento, Albino; Santos-Buelga, Celestino; Morales, Patricia; Ferreira, Isabel C F R

    2014-01-01

    Infusions and decoction of chestnut tree flowers have been used for different medical purposes, but their phytochemical profile and antioxidant activity are still mostly unknown. Herein, decoctions and infusions of flowers from the two most appreciated chestnut cultivars (longal and judia) in Trás-os-Montes, Portugal, were prepared and characterized with regard to their content in free sugars, organic acids, and phenolic compounds, such as flavonoids and hydrolyzable tannins, and their antioxidant activity. Overall, the decoction of the cultivar judia was the sample with both the highest quantity of flavonoids and antioxidant activity. The phenolic compound with the highest abundance in all samples was trigalloyl-HHDP-glucoside, followed by pentagalloyl glucoside. The sample with the highest quantity of total phenolic compounds was judia infusion, closely followed by longal decoction, which also gave the highest quantities of ellagitannins. Regarding sugars and organic acids, the profiles were more similar. These results corroborate ancestral claims of the health benefits of infusions and decoctions of chestnut flowers. PMID:24822186

  2. Replacement of steel cable with synthetic rope in mountain logging operations in Castanea sativa Mill. coppice stands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Canga

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim of the study: The objective of this study was to evaluate skidding from stump area to roadside with a tracked skidder (Caterpillar 3DG XL using two different types of cable (steel or synthetic.Area of study: NW of Spain.Material and methods: A time study was performed to calculate productivity for the two types of cable and two regression models were fitted to predict the productive and cycle time of the tracked skidder.Research highlights: An increase of 12.53% in productivity (m3/SMH and improvements in working conditions using synthetic rope were found.Keywords: Chestnut; synthetic rope; time study; tracked skidder.

  3. Airborne castanea pollen forecasting model for ecological and allergological implementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astray, G; Fernández-González, M; Rodríguez-Rajo, F J; López, D; Mejuto, J C

    2016-04-01

    Castanea sativa Miller belongs to the natural vegetation of many European deciduous forests prompting impacts in the forestry, ecology, allergological and chestnut food industry fields. The study of the Castanea flowering represents an important tool for evaluating the ecological conservation of North-Western Spain woodland and the possible changes in the chestnut distribution due to recent climatic change. The Castanea pollen production and dispersal capacity may cause hypersensitivity reactions in the sensitive human population due to the relationship between patients with chestnut pollen allergy and a potential cross reactivity risk with other pollens or plant foods. In addition to Castanea pollen's importance as a pollinosis agent, its study is also essential in North-Western Spain due to the economic impact of the industry around the chestnut tree cultivation and its beekeeping interest. The aim of this research is to develop an Artificial Neural Networks for predict the Castanea pollen concentration in the atmosphere of the North-West Spain area by means a 20years data set. It was detected an increasing trend of the total annual Castanea pollen concentrations in the atmosphere during the study period. The Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs) implemented in this study show a great ability to predict Castanea pollen concentration one, two and three days ahead. The model to predict the Castanea pollen concentration one day ahead shows a high linear correlation coefficient of 0.784 (individual ANN) and 0.738 (multiple ANN). The results obtained improved those obtained by the classical methodology used to predict the airborne pollen concentrations such as time series analysis or other models based on the correlation of pollen levels with meteorological variables. PMID:26802339

  4. RAPD Assessment of Genetic Diversity of Yunjie(Eruca sativa Mill.) in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUN Wan-cang; WANG He-lin; GUAN Chun-yun; MENG Ya-xiong; ZHANG Jin-wen; LIU Zi-gang; ZHANG Tao; LI Xun; CHEN She-yuan; ZENG Xiu-cong

    2003-01-01

    Genetic diversity of Yunjie (Eruca sativa Mill. ) in China was assessed by analyses of RAPD (randomly amplified polymorphic DNA) markers. Twenty native cultivars representing Yunjie-growing ecotypes in China were selected as material in this study. Twelve out of the 64 tested random decamer primers were able to identify 131 stable RAPD bands from these Yunjie cultivars. Of them 105 bands, or 80.15% of the total, were polymorphic. Most Yunjie cultivars from the same ecotype had their characteristic DNA bands.Cluster analysis by unweighted pair group method of arithmetic means (UPGMA) suggested that the 20 Yunjie genotypes could be divided into four groups. The genetic distances among the 20 cultivars varied from 0. 117 8between Shuozhou and Shenchi to 0. 499 4 between Hetian and Xiliang. Hetian alone could be a new type of Yunjie identified in China because it had the greatest genetic distance from all the other tested cultivars. These results indicate that Chinese Yunjie have abundant genetic diversity. Classification of Chinese Yunjie based on the RAPD information was in good agreement with the relationships between these Yunjie cultivars in their geographic origins and their plant morphology.

  5. Estudio de procesos ecológicos para el desarrollo sostenible del Castaño (Castanea sativa Mill.) de la Sierra de Francia

    OpenAIRE

    Salazar Iglesias, S.

    2008-01-01

    340 págs.-- Tesis de la Universidad de Salamanca Departamento de Biología Animal, Ecología, Parasitología, Edafología y Química Agrícola y del Instituto de Recursos Naturales y Agrobiología de Salamanca (IRNASA-CSIC).

  6. Bioactive potential of Rosa micrantha Borrer ex Sm. and Castanea sativa Mill. flowers as functional food ingredients: antioxidant and antifungal activity

    OpenAIRE

    Barros, Lillian; Ferreira, Isabel C. F. R.

    2014-01-01

    Natural products represent a rich source of biologically active compounds and are an example of molecular diversity, with recognized potential in drug discovery and development. Particularly, the plant kingdom offers a wide range of natural antioxidants, recognized by having remarkable medicinal properties [1,2]. These beneficial effects could be related to the high content in phenolic compounds, known for being strong scavengers of free radicals, which have key roles in ageing...

  7. Biology and Yield of Rocket (Eruca sativa Mill. under Field Conditions of the Czech Republic (Central Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivana DOLEŽALOVÁ

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Five rocket (Eruca sativa (L. Mill. varieties and accessions were cultivated under field conditions in the Czech Republic (Central Europe and subsequently studied for variation in morphology and yield. Two cultivation techniques (treatments were tested during the growing seasons in 2010 and 2011: directly sown seeds in the field and plantlets cultivated in a glasshouse and later transplanted to the field. There were analysed four morphological parameters of the leaf rosette (leaf shape in outline, leaf margin, leaf apex and leaf colour, marketable yield, nonmarketable parts, and rosette radius. Plants from plantlets transplanted to the field in spring terms (April yielded a substantially higher marketable yield and had a higher rosette radius in contrast to plants from directly sown seeds. Conversely, for the summer terms (late August, September the direct sowing technique produced higher marketable yield in comparison with plantlets treatment. Plants cultivated from directly sowed seeds reached a marketable yield on average from 15 to 60 g per plant while transplanted plants produced on average from 10 to 49 g per plant. It is evident that cultivation of rocket under field conditions of the Czech Republic is possible and provides, when using the appropriate sowing term, more or less stable yields of marketable parts. Details on variation in yield parameters of individual varieties and accessions are presented.

  8. Šume pitomog kestena s prasećim zeljem (Aposeri foetidae-Castanetum sativae ass. nova) u Hrvatskoj

    OpenAIRE

    Medak, Jasnica

    2011-01-01

    Pitomi kesten (Castanea sativa Mill.) je vrsta šumskog drveća koja u širem prostoru južne Europe, a tako i Hrvatske, ima izuzetnu gospodarsku, ali i ekološku vrijednost. Problematika sušenja kestena dovela je do zanemarivanja vrste i u gospodarskom i u istraživačkom smislu, no posebice fitocenološkom. Ovaj članak donosi rezultate višegodišnjih fitocenoloških istraživanja. Analizirani su originalni fitocenološki snimci sakupljeni s čitavog područja Hrvatske, s naglaskom na glavna područja rasp...

  9. Decomposition of olive mill waste compost, goat manure and Medicago sativa in Lebanese soils using the litterbag technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atallah, Therese

    2014-05-01

    Organic amendments, green manure and plant residues incorporation are the main sources of nutrients in organic farming, their decomposition rate is crucial for the accumulation and long-term storage of organic matter in soils. In this study the decomposition of compost from olive mill waste (N: 29.3 g kg-1; total dissolved nitrogen or TDN: 3.82 g kg-1), goat manure (N: 31.5 g kg-1; TDN: 0.94 g kg-1), the shoots (N: 33.6 g kg-1; TDN: 17.57 g kg-1) and roots (N: 22.12 g kg-1; TDN: 8.87 g kg-1) of Medicago sativa was followed in three Lebanese soils. The nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium released were followed over one year, starting in early winter (December-January). The mild sub-humid Mediterranean conditions allowed a rapid mass loss in alfalfa shoots 30 days after incorporation. Manure and compost were more persistent. Between 80 and 90% of TDN were released, after 30 days of in-situ incubation for compost, the release was over 90% for alfalfa shoots. The movement of P was slower, as the compost (6.99 g kg-1 of P) and manure (9.81 g kg-1 of P) lost 33% and 22%, respectively, during 30 days of incubation. After one year, 15 to 35% of P remained in the soils. The manure was the richest in potassium (19.66 g kg-1) followed by the alfalfa shoots (15.56 g kg-1), the compost (8.19 g kg-1) and the roots (5.96 g kg-1). The loss of potassium was important, as over 88% had disappeared over the year. All decomposition curves followed an exponential model. The calculated coefficients of decomposition for total nitrogen (lnfinal - lninitial/days) were significantly higher for alfalfa shoots (0.00547 day-1) and similar for the compost (0.00184 day-1) and the manure (0.00175 day-1). The ANOVA test showed a difference between two of the sites (Site A: 521 g kg-1 of clay and 42 g kg-1 of calcium carbonate; Site S: 260 g kg-1 of clay and 269 g kg-1 of CaCO3) and the third one (Site L: 315 g kg-1 of clay and 591 g kg-1 of CaCO3). The relationships between the soil calcium

  10. Humic substances can modulate the allelopathic potential of caffeic, ferulic, and salicylic acids for seedlings of lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) and tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loffredo, Elisabetta; Monaci, Linda; Senesi, Nicola

    2005-11-30

    The capacity of a leonardite humic acid (LHA), a soil humic acid (SHA), and a soil fulvic acid (SFA) in modulating the allelopathic potential of caffeic acid (CA), ferulic acid (FA), and salicylic acid (SA) on seedlings of lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) and tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) was investigated. Lettuce showed a sensitivity greater than that of tomato to CA, FA, and SA phytotoxicity, which was significantly reduced or even suppressed in the presence of SHA or SFA, especially at the highest dose, but not LHA. In general, SFA was slightly more active than SHA, and the efficiency of the action depended on their concentration, the plant species and the organ examined, and the allelochemical. The daily measured residual concentration of CA and FA decreased drastically and that of SA slightly in the presence of germinating seeds of lettuce, which were thus able to absorb and/or enhance the degradation of CA and FA. The adsorption capacity of SHA for the three allelochemicals was small and decreased in the order FA > CA > SA, thus suggesting that adsorption could be a relevant mechanism, but not the only one, involved in the "antiallelopathic" action. PMID:16302757

  11. Polyhydroxyalcanoates of strains of Azospirillum spp. isolated of roots of Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. “tomato” and Oryza sativa L. “rice” in Lambayeque

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katty Baca

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available In this work was determined the concentration of polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs of Azospirillum strains isolated from roots of Lycopersicon esculentum Mill "tomato" and Oryza sativa L. "rice" as an alternative to accumulation of petroleum-based plastics. Previously disinfected root were plated in Nfb semisolid medium where nitrogen-fixing bacteria were recognized by a whitish film on the surface and turn from green to blue. The genus Azospirillum was identified in Congo red agar medium, obtained 96 isolates of A. lipoferum and A. brasilense on tomato and rice. Batch fermentation was performed with broth Azotobacter modified feeding a saturated solution of malic acid every 12 hours and were stained with Sudan Black B. Strains were selected with the greatest number of PHAs granules (in tomato, 18 of A. lipoferum and 2 of A. brasilense; in rice, 10 of A. lipoferum and 10 of A. brasilense and quantified the biomass and PHAs. PHAs concentration reached 0.661 gL-1 in A. lipoferum KM(T-73 and 0.738 gL-1 in A. brasilense KM(T-19, both isolated from tomato. Strains of A. lipoferum and A. brasilense isolated from tomato reached a higher concentration of biomass and PHAs against the strains of rice.

  12. Variations in fatty acid compositions of the seed oil of Eruca sativa Mill. caused by different sowing periods and nitrogen forms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atnan Ugur

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Eruca is a native plant genus of the South Europe and central Asia where it has been cultivated since centuries. As the genus name implies, the oil is high in erucic acid. Materials and Methods: In this study, our aim was to investigate the effect of sowing periods (autumn and spring and three forms of the nitrogen-containing fertilizers (manure, calcium nitrate [Ca(NO 3 2 , 15.5% N], and ammonium sulphate [(NH 4 2 SO 4 , 21% N] on fatty acid compositions of the oils obtained from Eruca sativa Mill. seeds cultivated. All oils were obtained by maceration of the seeds with n-hexane at room temperature and converted to their methyl ester derivatives by trans-methylesterification reaction using boron-trifluorur (BF 3 . The fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs in the oils were detected by capillary gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS. Results: All the samples analyzed were found to contain quite high amounts of erucic acid ranging between 46.64-54.79%, followed by oleic (17.86-19.95%, palmitic (7.25-10.97%, linoleic (4.23-9.72%, and linolenic (1.98-3.01% acids. Conclusion: Our data pointed out that there is a statistically important alteration caused by these applications on the contents of only C12:0 and C14:0 found as the minor fatty acids, whereas no other fatty acids in the samples seemed to be affected by those criteria.

  13. Antioxidant properties of three different Castanea sativa Portuguese varieties submitted to gamma irradiation

    OpenAIRE

    Carocho, Márcio; Antonio, Amilcar L.; Bento, Albino; Botelho, M. Luísa; Ferreira, Isabel C. F. R.

    2013-01-01

    The Northeast of Portugal is responsible for 82% of the nation's total production of chestnuts. Since 2010, European legislation has banned the use of Methyl Bromide in chestnut disinfestation due to environment concerns and health related issues. This fumigant was widely applied over chestnuts and other fruits to kill insects and other contaminating agents, and, although dangerous, it was the most efficient treatment available, since other heat treatments still pose relevant d...

  14. Signalling process during the early contact of ectomycorrhizal fungi Pisolithus tinctorius with Castanea sativa roots

    OpenAIRE

    Baptista, Paula; Martins, Anabela; Tavares, Rui Manuel; Lino-Neto, Teresa

    2006-01-01

    Ectomycorrhizas (ECM) are symbiotic associations between roots of higher plants, mainly trees (e.g. Pinacea and Fagaceae), and soil fungi (asco- and basidiomycetes). The establishment of this symbiotic association requires a sequence of highly regulated and coordinated events, initiated by an exchange of specific signalling compounds between both partners. The triggering mechanisms and the progression of the colonization process are still not well understood. The present work focus on the sig...

  15. Phenolic compounds as markers for the botanical origin of unifloral honeys from Castanea sativa flowers

    OpenAIRE

    Barros, Lillian; Dueñas, Montserrat; Carvalho, Ana Maria; Santos-Buelga, Celestino; Isabel C. F. R. Ferreira

    2012-01-01

    The determination of the plant origin for honey and other bee products is of great interest. One of the procedures used to determine the floral origin is pollen analysis, but nowadays other analytical methods that could complement that approach are also available. In this perspective there have been many studies that correlate plant source with the presence of certain compounds (Soler et al., 1995; Tomás-Barberán et al., 2001). Recent studies have revealed that the analysis of ...

  16. Effects of gamma irradiation in Castanea sativa tocopherols profile: study extended to four different chestnut varieties

    OpenAIRE

    Carocho, Márcio; Amilcar L. Antonio; Barreira, João C. M.; Botelho, M. Luísa; Bento, Albino; Ferreira, Isabel C. F. R.

    2013-01-01

    In the region of Trás-os-Montes, chestnut production represents a significant income, estimated to be about 15 M€ in 2010. It is therefore, mandatory to develop a safe, reliable and cheap disinfestation alternative to post-harvest fumigation with methyl bromide, since its eradication in 2010 by the European Union, due to environmental concerns and danger for the operators. Hot water dip is being used as a replacement, but still display con...

  17. Raw and fungal-treated olive-mill wastewater effects on selected parameters of lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) growth--the role of proline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouzounidou, Georgia; Ntougias, Spyridon; Asfi, Maria; Gaitis, Fragiskos; Zervakis, Georgios I

    2012-01-01

    Olive-mill wastewater (OMW) constitutes a major agricultural waste stream for which disposal is associated with significant environmental repercussions. No data are available on the effects of biotreated OMW and of the protective role of exogenously provided proline on plant physiology. In the present study, OMW was administered, either raw or previously treated by the white-rot fungus Pleurotus ostreatus, with or without proline amendment, to lettuce plants growing in sterilized sand. Biotreated OMW and proline addition resulted in significant moderation of OMW adverse effects on plant biomass production and ascorbic acid content, while their synergistic action alleviated the severe negative impact on net photosynthetic rate, water use efficiency and photosynthetic activity (Fv/Fo) invoked by the effluent. Moreover, biotreated OMW supplemented with proline, moderated the decrease in chlorophylls exerted by raw OMW, but it did not contribute at restoring carotenoids content. Restoration of plant transpiration was complete when biotreated OMW was used (with or without proline); proline alone mitigated the negative impact of OMW on photosynthetic efficiency (Fv/Fm and Fv'/Fm'). It seems that key photosynthetic parameters could be exploited as suitable evaluators of wastewater-induced plant toxicity, while plant fertigation with biotreated and/or supplemented OMW could be an interesting prospect in valorizing this effluent. PMID:22560036

  18. Myiasis by Philornis spp. (Diptera: Muscidae) in Dendroica castanea (Aves: Parulidae) in Panama Miasis ocasionada por Philornis spp. (Diptera: Muscidae) in Dendroica castanea (Aves: Parulidae) en Panamá

    OpenAIRE

    Jorge M. Herrera; Sergio E. Bermúdez

    2012-01-01

    We report the parasitism of an unidentified species of Philornis, extracted from a juvenile Dendroica castanea that was collected from Pipeline Road of the Soberania National Park of Panama. This finding is unusual since Philornis spp. parasitizes nested chicks. On the other hand, this is the first time that this parasite is reported in D. castanea.Registramos el parasitismo de una especie no identificada de Philornis extraída de un juvenil de Dendroica castanea, capturada en el Sendero del O...

  19. Myiasis by Philornis spp. (Diptera: Muscidae in Dendroica castanea (Aves: Parulidae in Panama Miasis ocasionada por Philornis spp. (Diptera: Muscidae in Dendroica castanea (Aves: Parulidae en Panamá

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge M. Herrera

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available We report the parasitism of an unidentified species of Philornis, extracted from a juvenile Dendroica castanea that was collected from Pipeline Road of the Soberania National Park of Panama. This finding is unusual since Philornis spp. parasitizes nested chicks. On the other hand, this is the first time that this parasite is reported in D. castanea.Registramos el parasitismo de una especie no identificada de Philornis extraída de un juvenil de Dendroica castanea, capturada en el Sendero del Oleoducto del Parque Nacional Soberanía. Este hallazgo es inusual ya que Philornis spp. parasita principalmente polluelos en nidos. Del mismo modo, el presente constituye el primer registro del parásito en D. castanea.

  20. Pengaruh Trichogramma spp. Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae Terhadap Telur Penggerek Batang Tebu (P. castaneae Hubr. Dan C. auricilius Dudgeon.)

    OpenAIRE

    Rizky, Liza Khairani

    2012-01-01

    Liza Khairani Rizky, "Effect of Trichogramma spp. (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae) to the egg of Sugarcane Stem Borer (Phragmatoecia castaneae Hubr. and Chilo auricilius Dudg.) ", under supervised by Yuswani P. Ningsih and Syahrial Oemry. The research was conducted in the research and development (Risbang) of Sugarcane PTP Nusantara II (PERSERO) North Sumatera on April until Juni 2011. This study aimed to the effect of Trichogramma spp.to eggs of P. castaneae Hubr. and C. au...

  1. Hypoglycemic and Hypolipidemic Effects of Polyphenols from Burs of Castanea mollissima Blume

    OpenAIRE

    Yujun Liu; Chao Ma; Xinjie Wang; Lingling Shi; Jieyuan Liu; Siyu Chen; Shan Zhao; Peipei Yin

    2011-01-01

    Substantial evidence suggests that phenolic extracts of Castanea mollissima spiny burs (CMPE) increase pancreatic cell viability after STZ (streptozotocin) treatment as a result of their antioxidant properties. In the present study, the hypoglycemic and hypolipidemic activities of CMPE were studied in normal and STZ-induced diabetic rats CMPE were orally administrated at doses of 150 and 300 mg/kg twice a day for 12 consecutive days. Serum glucose, triglyceride, total cholesterol, HDL- and LD...

  2. Antioxidant Potential of Polyphenols and Tannins from Burs of Castanea mollissima Blume

    OpenAIRE

    Chao Ma; Ling Ling Shi; Yu Jun Liu; Si Yu Chen; Jie Yuan Liu; Shan Zhao

    2011-01-01

    Spiny burs of Castanea mollissima Blume (Chinese chestnut) are usually discarded as industrial waste during post-harvesting processing. The objective of this study was to establish an extraction and isolation procedure for tannins from chestnut burs, and to assess their potential antioxidant activity. Aqueous ethanol solution was used as extraction solvent, and HPD 100 macroporous resin column was applied for isolation. The influence of solvent concentration in the extraction and elution proc...

  3. A Morphological and Histological Characterization of Male Flower in Chestnut (Castanea) Cultivar ‘Yanshanzaofeng’

    OpenAIRE

    Feng Zou; Su-Juan Guo; Huan Xiong; Peng Xie; Wen-Jun Lv; Guang-Hui Li

    2013-01-01

    Chinese chestnut (Castanea mollissima Blume.) is a widely distributed fruit tree and well known for its ecological and economic value. In order to evaluate obstacles to male reproductive in the C. mollissima, a morphological and histological characterization of male flower of chestnut cultivar ‘Yanshanzaofeng’ were examined by paraffin section technique and scanning electron microscopy. The results showed that male catkins with floral primordia were formed in the buds of one-year olds shoots ...

  4. Comparison of dynamic changes in endogenous hormones and sugars between abnormal and normal Castanea mollissima

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tao Liu; Yunqian Hu; Xiaoxian Li

    2008-01-01

    To elucidate the possible functions of endogenous hormones in the flowering of chestnut, concentrations of four endogenous hormones [indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), gibberellic acid (GA), abscisic acid (ABA), zeatin riboside (ZR)) and the soluble sugars content were measured in both normal and developmentally abnormal Chinese chestnut (Castanea mollissima) during flowering and fruiting stages. Our results showed that the contents of ZR, ABA, and GA exhibited a significant different pattern in normal trees from that in abnormal trees, while the contents of IAA and soluble sugars showed a similar change pattern between them. These results suggest that quantitative changes in endogenous hormones may correspond to different flowering and fruiting mechanisms.

  5. CTAB-silica Method for DNA Extraction and Purification from Castanea mollissima and Ginkgo biloba

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shen Yongbao; Shi Jisen

    2003-01-01

    A new method CTAB-silica for DNA extraction and purification from the leaves and buds of Castanea mollissima and Ginkgo biloba was tested. The method is based on the silica-based purification protocol developed by Boom et al. (1990). By modifying the protocol, plant genome DNA could be extracted easily from dormant buds, mature leaves, and other parts of plant. Our results showed that the purified DNA was of high purity and could be analyzed by PCR. Furthermore, this CTAB-silica method took much less time for a successful DNA purification process compared to the traditional methods (CTAB and SDS). By our method, the suitable DNA can be extracted and purified from over 10 plant samples by one person in an hour.

  6. Production rate of pollen grains of castanea crenata in a quercus serrata secondary forest

    OpenAIRE

    Kiyonaga, Jota

    1995-01-01

    The production rate of pollen grains of Castanea crenata in a secondary Quercus serrata forest was determined in 1990-1993, based on the number of pollen grains per male catkin and annual fall rate of male catkins. The latter parameter was measured using six litter traps. The annual production rate of pollen grains in 1990-1992 was 9.7×10^<11>-3.7×10^<12>no.ha^<-1>yr^<-1>. The mean value for the four years was 2.0×10^<12>no.ha^<-1>yr^<-1>. Resumo Produktaĵo de poleneroj (no.ha^<-1>yr^<-1>) de...

  7. Ectomycorrhizae of Tuber huidongense and T. liyuanum with Castanea mollissima and Pinus armandii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Shan-Ping; Yu, Fu-Qiang; Tang, Li; Wang, Ran; Wang, Yun; Liu, Pei-Gui; Wang, Xiang-Hua; Zheng, Yi

    2016-04-01

    Tuber huidongense and T. liyuanum are common commercial white truffles in China that belong to the Rufum and Puberulum groups of the genus Tuber, respectively. Their mycorrhizae were successfully synthesized with two native trees--Castanea mollissima and Pinus armandii--under greenhouse conditions. The identities of the mycorrhizae were confirmed through internal transcribed spacer (ITS) sequence analyses, and their morphological characteristics were described. All of the obtained mycorrhizae have an interlocking pseudoparenchymatous mantle, which is a typical feature of truffle mycorrhizae. The mycorrhizae of T. huidongense on the two trees have hyaline branched emanating hyphae, similar to the documented mycorrhizae of the Rufum group. The unramified, spiky, and hyaline cystidia on the mycorrhizae of T. liyuanum with both C. mollissima and P. armandii further confirmed that this characteristic is constant for the mycorrhizae of the Puberulum group. The successful mycorrhizal syntheses on the two nut-producing trees will be of economic importance in the cultivation of the two truffles. PMID:26452572

  8. Subpopulation genetic structure of a plant panmictic population of Castanea sequinii as revealed by microsatellite markers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Ying; KANG Ming; HUANG Hongwen

    2007-01-01

    Castanea squinii Dode,an endemic tree widely distributed in China,plays an important role both in chestnut breeding and forest ecosystem function.The spatial genetic structure within and among populations is an important part of the evolutionary and ecological genetic dynamics of natural populations,and can provide insights into effective conservation of genetic resources.In the present study,the spatial genetic structure of a panmictic natural population of C.sequinii in the Dabie Mountain region was investigated using microsatellite markers.Nine prescreened microsatellite loci generated 29-33 alleles each,and were used for spatial autocorrelation analysis.Based on Moran's I coefficient,a panmictic population of C.sequinii in the Dabie Mountain region was found to be lacking a spatial genetic structure.These results suggest that a high pollen-mediated gene flow among subpopulations counteract genetic drift and/or genetic differentiation and plays an important role in maintaining a random and panmictic population structure in C.sequinii populations.Further,a spatial genetic structure was detected in each subpopulation's scale (0.228 km),with all three subpopulations showing significant fine-scale structure.The genetic variation was found to be nonrandomly distributed within 61 m in each subpopulation (Moran's I positive values).Although Moran's I values varied among the different subpopulations,Moran's I in all the three subpopulations reached the expected values with an increase in distances,suggesting a generally patchy distribution in the subpopulations.The fine-scale structure seems to reflect restricted seed dispersal and microenvironment selection in C.sequinii.These results have important implications for understanding the evolutionary history and ecological process of the natural population of C.sequinii and provide baseline data for formulating a conservation strategy of Castanea species.

  9. 芸芥自交亲和性的遗传及自交亲和基因mRNA差异显示分析%Analysis of self-compatibility genes by mRNA differential display technique and inheritance of self-compatibility in E.sativa Mill

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    范惠玲; 白生文; 张芬琴; 肖占文; 陈修斌; 孙万仓

    2012-01-01

    以8份芸芥自交亲和系与4份芸芥自交不亲和系为试验材料,通过正交和反交方式共组配了18个不同的杂交组合,调查了F1群体的自交亲和性与否,及1424株F2群体和626株BC1群体的性状分离情况.同时,还采用mRNA差异显示技术研究了芸芥自交亲和基因的表达器官,分离、筛选了与自交亲和性相关的特异基因片段.结果表明:芸芥自交亲和性与细胞质遗传无关,而是由一对核基因控制的简单隐性遗传性状;芸芥自交亲和基因的表达不属于组成性表达,而属于组织特异性表达;在芸芥自交亲和系的柱头cDNA扩增中共得到3条差异cDNA片段,其与芸芥自交亲和基因有密切关系.%18 hybridized combinations were made between 8 self-compatible lines and 4 self-incompatible lines, and inheritance of self-compatibility in E. Sativa Mill was analysed. Furthermore, expresstion tissue of self-compatible genes was preliminary analysed, and specific cDNA fragments related to self-compatibility were isolated and screened by using mRNA differential display technique. The results showed that all the F1 plants were self-incompatible, and the F2 and BC1 population segregated in ratio. Through chi square test, the segregation ratios of self-incompatibility to self-compatibility in F2 and BC| population were coincided with the ratio of 1:3 and 1:1, respectively. Therefore, it was inferred that the hereditary of self-compatibility in Yunjie was controlled by one pair recessive nucleus gene. Self-compatible genes of Yunjie was not constitutive expression, but that belonged to specific tissue expression. Self-compatible lines had 3 differentially expressed bands which exhibited stably with different primers, these cDNA bands were closely related to self-compatibility of Yunjie.

  10. Induction of apoptosis in human hepatocellular carcinoma cells by extracts of Lannea coromandelica (Houtt.) Merr. and Diospyros castanea (Craib) Fletcher

    OpenAIRE

    Weerapreeyakul, Natthida; Junhom, Cholpajsorn; Barusrux, Sahapat; Thitimetharoch, Thaweesak

    2016-01-01

    Background Herbal plants are a preferred source of anticancer agents. This study aims to screen the anticancer activity of a crude extract of twigs of (a) Bombax anceps Pierre var. anceps (BA); (b) Catunaregam tomentosa (Blume ex DC.) Tirveng. (CT); (c) Erythrophleum succirubrum Gagnep. (ES); (d) Lannea coromandelica (Houtt.) Merr. (LC); and (e) leaves and (f) twigs of Diospyros castanea (Craib) Fletcher (DC). Methods The 50 % ethanol–water extracts were prepared from each plant sample. In vi...

  11. Species-specific duplications of NBS-encoding genes in Chinese chestnut (Castanea mollissima).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Yan; Li, Yingjun; Huang, Kaihui; Cheng, Zong-Ming

    2015-01-01

    The disease resistance (R) genes play an important role in protecting plants from infection by diverse pathogens in the environment. The nucleotide-binding site (NBS)-leucine-rich repeat (LRR) class of genes is one of the largest R gene families. Chinese chestnut (Castanea mollissima) is resistant to Chestnut Blight Disease, but relatively little is known about the resistance mechanism. We identified 519 NBS-encoding genes, including 374 NBS-LRR genes and 145 NBS-only genes. The majority of Ka/Ks were less than 1, suggesting the purifying selection operated during the evolutionary history of NBS-encoding genes. A minority (4/34) of Ka/Ks in non-TIR gene families were greater than 1, showing that some genes were under positive selection pressure. Furthermore, Ks peaked at a range of 0.4 to 0.5, indicating that ancient duplications arose during the evolution. The relationship between Ka/Ks and Ks indicated greater selective pressure on the newer and older genes with the critical value of Ks = 0.4-0.5. Notably, species-specific duplications were detected in NBS-encoding genes. In addition, the group of RPW8-NBS-encoding genes clustered together as an independent clade located at a relatively basal position in the phylogenetic tree. Many cis-acting elements related to plant defense responses were detected in promoters of NBS-encoding genes. PMID:26559332

  12. A Morphological and Histological Characterization of Male Flower in Chestnut (Castanea Cultivar ‘Yanshanzaofeng’

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng Zou

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Chinese chestnut (Castanea mollissima Blume. is a widely distributed fruit tree and well known for its ecological and economic value. In order to evaluate obstacles to male reproductive in the C. mollissima, a morphological and histological characterization of male flower of chestnut cultivar ‘Yanshanzaofeng’ were examined by paraffin section technique and scanning electron microscopy. The results showed that male catkins with floral primordia were formed in the buds of one-year olds shoots in later April. Later, a protoderm, ground meristem and a procambium had differentiated in young anthers. Each young anther soon developed to four microsporangia. The anther wall layers developed completely by mid-May and consisted of one-cell-layered epidermis, one-cell-layered endothecium, two or three middle layers and one-cell-layered tapetum. The tapetum was of glandular type. Microspore mother cells underwent meiosis through simultaneous cytokinesis in later May and gave rise to tetrads of microspores, which were tetrahedrally arranged. Mature pollens contained two cells with three germ pores. Anthers were dehiscent and pollen grains shed by early June. Based our results, we did not find the abnormal male flower in the C. molissma cv ‘yanshanzaofeng’, indicating that male gametes were fertile and thus was considered as pollenizers.

  13. Nutritional and microbiological evaluations of chocolate-coated Chinese chestnut (Castanea mollissima) fruit for commercial use

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mahamadou E.GOUNGA; Shi-ying XU; Zhang WANG

    2008-01-01

    In recent years, China has become an increasingly important and the largest chestnut producer in the world. This study aimed to evaluate the nutritional value and microbiological quality of the roasted freeze-dried Chinese chestnut (Castanea mollissima) (RFDC) coated with dark chocolate (DCC) and milk chocolate (MCC) for industrial use and commercial consumption.Chocolate coating significantly improved the nutritional value of chestnut. RFDC had high levels of starch (66.23%) and fibers (3.85%) while DCC and MCC contained significantly high amounts of sucrose, protein, fat and minerals. Furthermore, the protein content doubled in MCC rather than in DCC. This could be attributed to the different formulations in the two products. Milk powder and whey protein constituted the source of protein in MCC while cocoa powder added to MCC formulation constituted an additional source of minerals. The amino acid profile showed differences in amino acid composition related to the sample's protein content, indicating their good nutritional quality. The moisture contents in all RFDC, DCC and MCC were suitable for industrial processing. These results provide information about the additional nutrients of chocolate-coated chestnut and confirm that the product is an interesting nutritional food. The combination of freeze-drying and chocolate-coating generally results in greater reductions on microbiological loads, extending shelf life of harvested chestnut for commercial application. This is an alternative strategy to add value to chestnut, minimizing the significant losses in harvested fruits and providing a wider range of choices of new products to the consumer disposal.

  14. Fruiting characteristics of Castanea mollissima%板栗结实特性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘国彬; 兰彦平; 姚研武; 兰卫宗

    2011-01-01

    The pollination fruiting characteristics of Castanea mollissmia and effects of parents on seed-setting rate and empty-shell rate were studied in this paper. The results showed that there was great difference in bur-setting rate and bud-dropping rate, and the difference in empty-bur rate, seed-setting rate and the number of nuts per bur was significant among different cross combinations. The highest seed-setting rate was observed in cross combination of Hongli × Hebeiduanfeng, and Xionghuabaiyu × Hebeiduanfeng and Yimengduanzhi × Hebeiduanfeng followed it,Chuizhili × Hebeiduanfeng and Hongli × Chuizhili were the lowest, but the empty-bur rate of which were the highest.The hybrid results were different among different male parents and female parents because of compatibility. The seedsetting rate, empty-bur rate and number of nuts per bur were different among four cross combinations whose male parent was Hebeiduanfeng and two cross combinations whose female parent was Hongli. It was also discovered that there was little relationship between involucre development and nuts in it. According to the results, the better the compatibility between parents, the lower the empty-bur rate and the higher the seed-setting rate. Therefore, the selection of pollination trees with good compatibility showed important significance in practical production of Castanea mollissima.%研究并探讨了部分板栗良种间的授粉结实特性以及不同亲本对板栗结实率、空苞率等的影响.人工授粉杂交结果表明,不同品种间杂交,座苞率、落苞率有较大差异,结实率、空苞率、坚果数/结实苞在小同杂交组合间也存在明显差异,‘红栗×河北短丰'结实率最高,空苞率较低,其次为‘雄花败育×河北短丰'以及‘沂蒙短枝×河北短丰',‘垂枝栗×河北短丰'和‘红栗×垂枝栗'结实率最低,空苞率却最高.同一父(母)本不同母(父)本间由于亲和性不同也使杂交结果差异较大,以‘

  15. Pharmacology of Marihuana (Cannabis sativa)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maickel, Roger P.

    1973-01-01

    A detailed discussion of marihuana (Cannabis sativa) providing the modes of use, history, chemistry, and physiologic properties of the drug. Cites research results relating to the pharmacologic effects of marihuana. These effects are categorized into five areas: behavioral, cardiovascular-respiratory, central nervous system, toxicity-toxicology,…

  16. A tangled tale of two teal: Population history of the grey Anas gracilis and chestnut teal a. castanea of Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, L.; Adcock, G.J.; Linde, C.; Omland, K.E.; Heinsohn, R.; Terry, Chesser R.; Roshier, D.

    2009-01-01

    Two Australian species of teal (Anseriformes: Anatidae: Anas), the grey teal Anas gracilis and the chestnut teal A. castanea, are remarkable for the zero or near-zero divergence recorded between them in earlier surveys of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) diversity. We confirmed this result through wider geographical and population sampling as well as nucleotide sampling in the more rapidly evolving mtDNA control region. Any data set where two species share polymorphism as is the case here can be explained by a model of gene flow through hybridization on one hand or by incomplete lineage sorting on the other hand. Ideally, analysis of such shared polymorphism would simultaneously estimate the likelihood of both phenomena. To do this, we used the underlying principle of the IMa package to explore ramifications to understanding population histories of A. gracilis and A. castanea. We cannot reject that hybridization occurs between the two species but an equally or more plausible finding for their nearly zero divergence is incomplete sorting following very recent divergence between the two, probably in the mid-late Pleistocene. Our data add to studies that explore intermediate stages in the evolution of reciprocal monophyly and paraphyletic or polyphyletic relationships in mtDNA diversity among widespread Australian birds. ?? 2009 J. Avian Biol.

  17. Scientifically advanced solutions for chestnut ink disease

    OpenAIRE

    Choupina, Altino; Estevinho, Leticia M.; Martins, Ivone

    2014-01-01

    On the north regions of Portugal and Spain, the Castanea sativa Mill. culture is extremely important. The biggest productivity and yield break occurs due to the ink disease, the causal agent being the oomycete Phytophthora cinnamomi. This oomycete is also responsible for the decline of many other plant species in Europe and worldwide. P. cinnamomi and Phytophthora cambivora are considered, by the generality of the authors, as the C. sativa ink disease causal agents. Most Phytophthora species ...

  18. Water Mills in Israel

    OpenAIRE

    Frankel, Rafael

    2015-01-01

    The most fundamental questions regarding the history of water mills are when and where was the water mill invented and the relationship historically between the horizontal water mill, that with a horizontal water wheel and the vertical water mill that with a vertical water wheel as described by Vitruvius (De Architectura X, 5, 2). In both cases they are operated by a spindle that goes through a hole in the lower mill stone and turns the upper stone. In the horizontal mill this spindle is conn...

  19. Biomass torrefaction mill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sprouse, Kenneth M.

    2016-05-17

    A biomass torrefaction system includes a mill which receives a raw biomass feedstock and operates at temperatures above 400 F (204 C) to generate a dusty flue gas which contains a milled biomass product.

  20. Comparison of protocols for DNA extraction from Cannabis sativa seeds

    OpenAIRE

    Soler Aleixandre, Salvador; Sifres Cuerda, Alicia Gemma; Llosa, E.; Llamas, M.; Vilanova Navarro, Santiago; Prohens Tomás, Jaime

    2013-01-01

    Cannabis sativa is an important crop cultivated both for industrial (var. sativa) and medicinal and recreational (var. indica) purposes. Cultivation of var. indica plants is generally forbidden and this difficults genetic studies. An alternative is the extraction of DNA from seed embryos. In order to develop an efficient protocol for DNA extraction of C. sativa seeds we have tested six DNA extraction methods in seeds and leaves of a C. sativa var. sativa accession. We found that the best prot...

  1. Neuropharmacological effects of Nigella sativa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beheshti, Farimah; Khazaei, Majid; Hosseini, Mahmoud

    2016-01-01

    Nigella sativa (NS) (Ranunculaceae family) is generally utilized as a therapeutic plant all over the world. The seeds of the plant have a long history of use in different frameworks of medicines and food. In Islamic literature, it is considered as one of the greatest forms of therapeutics. It has been widely used to treat nervous system diseases such as memory impairment, epilepsy, neurotoxicity, pain, etc. Additionally, this is uncovered that the majority of therapeutic properties of this plant are due to the presence of thymoquinone (TQ) which is a major bioactive component of the essential oil. Pharmacological studies have been done to evaluate the effects of NS on the central nervous system (CNS). The present review is an effort to provide a detailed scientific literature survey about pharmacological activities of the plant on nervous system. Our literature review showed that NS and its components can be considered as promising agents in the treatment of nervous system disorders. PMID:27247928

  2. Neuropharmacological effects of Nigella sativa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farimah Beheshti

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Nigella sativa (NS (Ranunculaceae family is generally utilized as a therapeutic plant all over the world. The seeds of the plant have a long history of use in different frameworks of medicines and food. In Islamic literature, it is considered as one of the greatest forms of therapeutics. It has been widely used to treat nervous system diseases such as memory impairment, epilepsy, neurotoxicity, pain, etc. Additionally, this is uncovered that the majority of therapeutic properties of this plant are due to the presence of thymoquinone (TQ which is a major bioactive component of the essential oil. Pharmacological studies have been done to evaluate the effects of NS on the central nervous system (CNS. The present review is an effort to provide a detailed scientific literature survey about pharmacological activities of the plant on nervous system. Our literature review showed that NS and its components can be considered as promising agents in the treatment of nervous system disorders.

  3. Thymoquinone: The Bioactive Component of Nigella Sativa

    OpenAIRE

    GÜLLÜ, Elif BACAK; AVCI, Gülcan

    2013-01-01

    Thymoquinone (TQ) which was isolated from Nigella Sativa (NS), particularly has the beneficial effects such as antioxidant, anticancerogenic, antihyperlipidemic, hepatoprotective. The biochemical and physiological properties of TQ was summarized in this review

  4. ANTI-CANCER ACTIVITY OF NIGELLA SATIVA

    OpenAIRE

    Salomi, M.J.; Panikkar, K.R.; Kesavan, M.; Donata, K.; Rajagopalan, K.

    1989-01-01

    An extract of Smilax china, Hemidesmus indicus and Nigella Sativa on the ratio 3:2:1, prepared by boiling in water and concentrated could completely cure cases of oral canger diagnosed by modern methods. Cytotoxic studies with the three components showed activity in Nigella sativa at a concentration of 25 microgram equivalent of the dry powder against Dalton's lymphoma ascites cells. Animal experiments indicated the retarded growth of ascites as compared to the controls with a longivity of 90%.

  5. Effects of Different Pollination Treatments on Nutrition Changes of the Ovary in Chinese Chestnut (Castanea mollissima Blume

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng Zou

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Chinese chestnut (Castanea mollissima Blume has noteworthy ecological, economic and cultural importance in the Northern Hemisphere. The low yield of chestnut often affect the economic efficiency. Ovary development is an important step in nut production. Changes in nutrient contents during ovary development in chestnut cultivar ‘Yanshanzaofeng’ have not been thoroughly investigated. In this study, cultivar ‘Yanshanzaofeng’ and ‘Dabanhong’ were used as material. About 50~100 pollinated female inflorescences were picked every five days (5, 10, 15, 20, 25, 30, 35, 40, 45, 50 days to determine N, P, K, fat, total soluble sugar, crude protein and starch contents. The results indicated that the contents of total soluble sugar, starch and fat increased constantly in ovaries after self-and cross-pollination, but protein, N and K contents first increased in 20 DAP (day after pollination and after that decreased in the stage of young fruit development. The changes of P has two peak values, one was in 40 DAP and the other was in 50 DAP. P and crude protein were not significantly after pollination treatments. However, N, sugar, starch, fat and K were significantly higher in cross-pollination treatment it seems that these nutrient has a decisive role during ovary development in chestnut. The characteristics of these nutrition changes provide a basis information for spraying N, P, K etc during ovary development and may have the potential to improve nut yield.

  6. FM Interviews: Stephanie Mills

    OpenAIRE

    Valauskas, Edward

    2002-01-01

    Stephanie Mills is an author, editor, lecturer and ecological activist who has concerned herself with the fate of the earth and humanity since 1969, when her commencement address at Mills College in Oakland, Calif., drew the attention of a nation. Her speech, which the New York Times called "perhaps the most anguished statement" of the year's crop of valedictory speeches, predicted a bleak future. According to Mills, humanity was destined for suicide, the result of overpopulation and overuse ...

  7. Emerging clinical and therapeutic applications of Nigella sativa in gastroenterology

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    Nigella sativa (N. sativa) decreases DNA damage and thereby prevents initiation of carcinogenesis in colonic tissue secondary to exposure to toxic agents such as azoxymethane. N. sativa is of immense therapeutic benefit in diabetic individuals and those with glucose intolerance as it accentuates glucose-induced secretion of insulin besides having a negative impact on glucose absorption from the intestinal mucosa. N. sativa administration protects hepatic tissue from deleterious effects of tox...

  8. INDUSTRIJSKA KONOPLJA (Cannabis sativa L. ssp. sativa) V SLOVENIJI IN PO SVETU

    OpenAIRE

    Medved, Meta

    2012-01-01

    Gojenje industrijske konoplje (Cannabis sativa L. ssp. sativa) ima v Sloveniji in po svetu še vedno negativen prizvok. Razlog za to je sorodnost te rastline z indijsko konopljo (Cannabis sativa L. ssp. indica), ki se vzgaja za pridobivanje droge. To se odraža tudi v zakonodaji, ki nekaterim državam prepoveduje, drugim pa omejuje gojenje konoplje. Namen te raziskave je predstaviti uporabnost in dobičkonosnost pri pridelavi konoplje, ter preveriti vpliv pojavnosti droge, indijske konoplje na ...

  9. Allelopathic effect of medicinal plant Cannabis sativa L. on Lactuca sativa L. seed germination

    OpenAIRE

    Mahmoodzadeh, Homa; Ghasemi, Mohsen; Hasan ZANGANEH

    2015-01-01

    In order to examine allelopathic effect of Cannabis sativa L. on germination capability and seedling growth of Lactuca sativa L., a study was performed in laboratory conditions. Treatments were set up in randomised block design in four replications for each of four concentration ranges of 25, 50, 75 and 100 % of aqueous extract made of shoot parts and 4 identical extract concentrations made of root of cannabis. Control variant was lettuce seed treated by distilled water. During the studies sh...

  10. Purification of glucosinolates from Camelina sativa seeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camelina sativa L. Crantz defatted seed press cake contains a number of phytochemicals, including the flavonoid rutin (quercetin 3-O-rutinoside), an acylated quercetin glycoside, and three glucosinolates: glucoarabin (9-(methylsulfinyl)nonyl-glucosinolate) glucocamelinin (10-(methylsulfinyl)decyl-gl...

  11. Purification of glucosinolates from Camelina sativa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camelina sativa (Gold-of-pleasure or false flax) has been cultivated as an oilseed crop for centuries, and has been used as both a fuel oil and an edible oil. Current research efforts centers on its exceptionally high levels of omega-3 fatty acids which is uncommon in vegetable oils, as well as ric...

  12. Extreme mill make over

    OpenAIRE

    Ruberg, Toomas

    2006-01-01

    This paper examines the operation and performance of a lumber mill. Generating positive cash flow and remaining profitable at coincident low points of the economic and seasonal cycle are major challenges. Mill metrics were benchmarked using industry data which revealed performance gaps in costs, production rate, quality and lumber recovery. Economies of scale were investigated for lumber manufacturing. Capacity utilization for the site empirically determined that the unit was operating at clo...

  13. Pitt Mill Demonstration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oder, R.R.; Borzone, L.A.

    1990-05-01

    Results of a technical and economic evaluation of application of the Pitt Mill to fine coal grinding are presented. The Pitt Mill is a vertically oriented, batch operated, intermediate energy density (0. 025 kW/lb media), stirred ball mill. The mill grinds coal from coarse sizes (typically 3/16 inch or 4 mesh topsize) to the 10 micron to 20 micron mean particle diameter size range in a single step using a shallow grinding bed containing inexpensive, readily available, course grinding media. Size reduction is efficient because of rapid product circulation through the grinding bed caused by action of a novel circulation screw mounted on the agitator shaft. When a dispersant is employed, the grinding can be carried out to 50% to 60% solids concentration. Use of coarse grinding media offers the possibility of enhanced mineral liberation because size reduction is achieved more by impact shattering than by attrition. The batch method offers the possibility of very close control over product particle size distribution without overproduction of fines. A two- phase program was carried out. In the first phase, Grinding Studies, tests were run to determine a suitable configuration of the Pitt Mill. Machine design parameters which were studied included screw configuration, media type, agitator RPM, time, media size, and slurry chamber aspect ratio. During the last part of this phase of the program, tests were carried out to compare the results of grinding Pocahontas seam, Pittsburgh {number sign}8, and East Kentucky Mingo County coals by the Pitt Mill and by a two-stage grinding process employing a Netzsch John mill to feed a high energy density (0.05 kW/Lb media) disc mill. 22 refs., 25 tabs.

  14. Influence of e-beam irradiation processing on chestnuts color and texture

    OpenAIRE

    Antonio, Amilcar L.; Elsa RAMALHOSA; Kałuska, Iwona; Quintana, Begoña; Trigo, M.J.; Ferreira, Armando; Bento, Albino

    2012-01-01

    Chestnut (Castanea sativa Mill.) fruit is a seasonal product with some storage problems, such as those related with the infestation by insects and developing of moulds. This fact makes that chestnut must be post-harvested treated, in order to meet the international trade fitossanitary regulations. Fumigation with methyl bromide, performed in closed chambers, was commonly used. Recently, March 2010, this treatment process was forbidden by the European Commission [1], given no or few alternativ...

  15. Ionizing radiation applications for food preservation: effects of gamma and e-beam irradiation on physical and chemical parameters of chestnut fruits

    OpenAIRE

    António, Amílcar Manuel Lopes

    2014-01-01

    [EN]In Mediterranean countries chestnut fruits represent an important food product with a high economic relevance in local economy. The production of European chestnut (Castanea sativa Mill.) varieties in E.U. countries represents more than 100 kton, with an income for the producers of several million of euros, value that increases along the market chain. These fruits are also exported to other countries that, due to international phytosanitary laws, impose the absence of insects. Until recen...

  16. Sweet chestnut cultures in the Southern Alps – conservation and regional development. eco.mont (Journal on Protected Mountain Areas Research)|eco.mont Vol. 2 No. 1 2 1|

    OpenAIRE

    Bender, Oliver

    2010-01-01

    Sweet chestnut cultures are a major component of the vegetation in many large protected areas of the Southern Alps. Since Roman times, vast areas of Southern and Western Europe have been covered by groves and coppices of sweet chestnut trees (Castanea sativa MILL.). Having replaced the original broadleaved forest, they used to play a vital role in traditional agriculture. Chestnut cultivation was even more important in terms of producing a substitute for cereals (bread) than for the productio...

  17. Assessing phytophtora zoospore a to enhance disease management and promote ecological surveillance of chestnut ink disease

    OpenAIRE

    Gouveia, Eugénia; Nunes, Luís

    2014-01-01

    Phytophthora cinnamomi and P. cambivora are soil borne oomycetes that cause Chestnut Ink Disease, a lethal and widespread disease of the European chestnut (Castanea sativa Mill.). Soil moisture is a key factor for the onset of Phytophthora root rot epidemics. Zoospores are the main infective propagules that reach the roots by swimming in liquid environments, become encysted and after that infect the host. Considering this biological uniqueness, we studied zoospore release an...

  18. Litterfall and litter decomposition in chestnut high forest stands in northern Portugal

    OpenAIRE

    Patrício, Maria do Sameiro; Pereira, Ermelinda; Claro, Ana Marília; Fernandes, Maria José; Nunes, Luís; Monteiro, Maria do Loreto

    2010-01-01

    Sweet chestnut (Castanea sativa Mill.) is an important species in Northern Portugal as for fruit as well as for timber. Today, the role of the chestnut areas is not limited to production of fruit and timber but also to other aspects such as landscape, environmental and ecological protection, which are very important. Consequently, its sustainable management is essential in maintaining the health and vitality of the chestnut areas, therefore increasing the economical and social benefits of the...

  19. Molecular tools to improve chestnut management: El Bierzo as a case study

    OpenAIRE

    Quintana González, Julia

    2014-01-01

    The European chestnut (Castanea sativa Mill.) is a multipurpose species that has been widely cultivated around the Mediterranean basin since ancient times. New varieties were brought to the Iberian Peninsula during the Roman Empire, which coexist since then with native populations that survived the last glaciation. The relevance of chestnut cultivation has being steadily growing since the Middle Ages, until the rural decline of the past century put a stop to this trend. Forest fires and disea...

  20. Macrofungi associated with sweet chestnut: a source of income for rural populations in Northeast of Portugal

    OpenAIRE

    Baptista, Paula; Martins, Anabela; Tavares, Rui Manuel; Lino-Neto, Teresa

    2007-01-01

    European chestnut tree (Castanea sativa Mill.) has a great economic interest for wood and fruit production in northeast of Portugal. Over the last decade another important income associated with this culture has emerged - the collection and commercialization of wild edible mushrooms growing in chestnut orchards. Actually, despite the low knowledge of their biodiversity, ecology or sustainable management in those regions, mushrooms harvesting have been increasing, mainly due to their economic ...

  1. The complete chloroplast genomes of Cannabis sativa and Humulus lupulus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vergara, Daniela; White, Kristin H; Keepers, Kyle G; Kane, Nolan C

    2016-09-01

    Cannabis and Humulus are sister genera comprising the entirety of the Cannabaceae sensu stricto, including C. sativa L. (marijuana, hemp), and H. lupulus L. (hops) as two economically important crops. These two plants have been used by humans for many purposes including as a fiber, food, medicine, or inebriant in the case of C. sativa, and as a flavoring component in beer brewing in the case of H. lupulus. In this study, we report the complete chloroplast genomes for two distinct hemp varieties of C. sativa, Italian "Carmagnola" and Russian "Dagestani", and one Czech variety of H. lupulus "Saazer". Both C. sativa genomes are 153 871 bp in length, while the H. lupulus genome is 153 751 bp. The genomes from the two C. sativa varieties differ in 16 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), while the H. lupulus genome differs in 1722 SNPs from both C. sativa cultivars. PMID:26329384

  2. Uranium mining and milling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this report uranium mining and milling are reviewed. The fuel cycle, different types of uranium geological deposits, blending of ores, open cast and underground mining, the mining cost and radiation protection in mines are treated in the first part of this report. In the second part, the milling of uranium ores is treated, including process technology, acid and alkaline leaching, process design for physical and chemical treatment of the ores, and the cost. Each chapter is clarified by added figures, diagrams, tables, and flowsheets. (HK)

  3. Anticancer activities of Nigella sativa (black cumin).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Md Asaduzzaman; Chen, Han-chun; Tania, Mousumi; Zhang, Dian-zheng

    2011-01-01

    Nigella sativa has been used as traditional medicine for centuries. The crude oil and thymoquinone (TQ) extracted from its seeds and oil are effective against many diseases like cancer, cardiovascular complications, diabetes, asthma, kidney disease etc. It is effective against cancer in blood system, lung, kidney, liver, prostate, breast, cervix, skin with much safety. The molecular mechanisms behind its anticancer role is still not clearly understood, however, some studies showed that TQ has antioxidant role and improves body's defense system, induces apoptosis and controls Akt pathway. Although the anti-cancer activity of N. sativa components was recognized thousands of years ago but proper scientific research with this important traditional medicine is a history of last 2∼3 decades. There are not so many research works done with this important traditional medicine and very few reports exist in the scientific database. In this article, we have summarized the actions of TQ and crude oil of N. sativa against different cancers with their molecular mechanisms. PMID:22754079

  4. Genetic mapping of agronomic traits in false flax (Camelina sativa subsp. sativa).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gehringer, A; Friedt, W; Lühs, W; Snowdon, R J

    2006-12-01

    The crucifer oilseed plant false flax (Camelina sativa subsp. sativa) possesses numerous valuable agronomic attributes that make it attractive as an alternative spring-sown crop for tight crop rotations. The oil of false flax is particularly rich in polyunsaturated C18-fatty acids, making it a valuable renewable feedstock for the oleochemical industry. Because of the minimal interest in the crop throughout the 20th century, breeding efforts have been limited. In this study, a genetic map for C. sativa was constructed, using amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) markers, in a population of recombinant inbred lines that were developed, through single-seed descent, from a cross between 'Lindo' and 'Licalla', 2 phenotypically distinct parental varieties. Three Brassica simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers were also integrated into the map, and 1 of these shows linkage to oil-content loci in both C. sativa and Brassica napus. Fifty-five other SSR primer combinations showed monomorphic amplification products, indicating partial genome homoeology with the Brassica species. Using data from field trials with different fertilization treatments (0 and 80 kg N/ha) at multiple locations over 3 years, the map was used to localize quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for seed yield, oil content, 1000-seed mass, and plant height. Some yield QTLs were found only with the N0 treatment, and might represent loci contributing to the competitiveness of false flax in low-nutrient soils. The results represent a starting point for future marker-assisted breeding. PMID:17426770

  5. Evaluation of End Mill Coatings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    L. J. Lazarus; R. L. Hester,

    2005-08-01

    Milling tests were run on families of High Speed Steel (HSS) end mills to determine their lives while machining 304 Stainless Steel. The end mills tested were made from M7, M42 and T15-CPM High Speed Steels. The end mills were also evaluated with no coatings as well as with Titanium Nitride (TiN) and Titanium Carbo-Nitride (TiCN) coatings to determine which combination of HSS and coating provided the highest increase in end mill life while increasing the cost of the tool the least. We found end mill made from M42 gave us the largest increase in tool life with the least increase in cost. The results of this study will be used by Cutting Tool Engineering in determining which end mill descriptions will be dropped from our tool catalog.

  6. 昭阳区坡地板栗早实丰产技术研究%Castanea mollissima Early Friut and High Yield Technology at Sloping Field of Zhaoyang District

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李章华

    2012-01-01

    以云南省林业科学院引进的云栗15、云栗22、云栗44及昭通大板栗等优良品种为试验材料,采用随机区组设计进行板栗早实丰产试验.探讨了板栗园的整地和建植方式、授粉树种的合理配置、整形修剪、适时摘心等种植技术措施以及优良种与合理密植对早实丰产的影响.进一步阐述适时适当合理施肥、林地水肥管理、管抚、林农间种、环割和倒贴皮以及病虫害防治等板栗田间管理措施.%The fine variety of Castanea mollissima 15, Castanea mollissima 22, Castanea mollissima 44 and Zhaotong large chestnut introduced from yunnan Academy of Forestry were took as test materia, Castanea mollissima early fruit and high yield trials was conducted with randomized block design. The effects of site preparation, planting method, the rational allocation of pollinated species, pruning, and timely pinching on early fruit and high yield also have been studied: furthermore, we elaborated chestnut field management measures of timely appropriate and reasonable fertilization, forest land and fertilizer management, cultivation, interpolating, girdling and back inversion, as well as pest control etc.

  7. Triterpene Saponins from Nigella sativa L.

    OpenAIRE

    TAŞKIN, Mustafa Kemal; ÇALIŞKAN, Özgen ALANKUŞ; ANIL, Hüseyin

    2005-01-01

    Three known triterpene glycosides were isolated from the MeOH extract of dried and powdered seeds of Nigella sativa. The structures of the compounds were established as 3-O-[b-D-xylopyranosyl- (1 \\to 3)-a-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1 \\to 2)-a -L-arabinopyranosyl]- 28-O-[a-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1 \\to 4)-b-D-glucopyranosyl-(1 \\to 6)- b-D-glucopyranosyl]-hederagenin (1), 3-O-[a -L-rhamnopyranosyl- (1 \\to 2)-a-L-arabinopyranosyl]-28-O-[a -L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1 \\to 4)- b-D-glucopyranosyl-(1\\to 6)-b-D-...

  8. Uranium-mill appraisal program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The results of special team appraisals at NRC-licensed uranium mills in the period May to November 1981 are reported. Since the Three Mile Island accident, NRC management has instituted a program of special team appraisals of radiation protection programs at certain NRC-licensed facilities. These appraisals were designed to identify weaknesses and strengths in NRC-licensed programs, including those areas not covered by explicit regulatory requirements. The regulatory requirements related to occupational radiation protection and environmental monitoring at uranium mills have been extensively upgraded in the past few years. In addition, there was some NRC staff concern with respect to the effectiveness of NRC licensing and inspection programs. In response to this concern and to changes in mill requirements, the NRC staff recommended that team appraisals be conducted at mills to determine the adequacy of mill programs, the effectiveness of the new requirements, and mill management implementation of programs and requirements. This report describes the appraisal scope and methodology as well as summary findings and conclusions. Significant weaknesses identified during the mill appraisals are discussed as well as recommendations for improvements in uranium mill programs and mill licensing and inspection

  9. Yang-Mills and Beyond

    CERN Document Server

    Marateck, Samuel

    2011-01-01

    In their 1954 paper, Yang and Mills invented the non-Abelian field strength to satisfy certain criteria but didn't explain how it could be derived. In the penultimate section we show how the Yang-Mills field strength derives from Yang's gauge transformation. The preceding sections place Yang-Mills theory in historical perspective and cover material relating to the field strength. The final section shows how Yang-Mills theory was combined with spontaneous symmetry breaking, the Goldstone theorem and subsequent work to contribute to the Standard Model of particle physics.

  10. Cross-Amplification of Vicia sativa subsp. sativa Microsatellites across 22 Other Vicia Species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastin Raveendar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The temperate and herbaceous genus Vicia L. is a member of the legume tribe Fabeae of the subfamily Papilionoideae. The genus Vicia comprises 166 annual or perennial species distributed mainly in Europe, Asia, and North America, but also extending to the temperate regions of South America and tropical Africa. The use of simple sequence repeat (SSR markers for Vicia species has not been investigated as extensively as for other crop species. In this study, we assessed the potential for cross-species amplification of cDNA microsatellite markers developed from common vetch (Vicia sativa subsp. sativa. For cross-species amplification of the SSRs, amplification was carried out with genomic DNA isolated from two to eight accessions of 22 different Vicia species. For individual species or subspecies, the transferability rates ranged from 33% for V. ervilia to 82% for V. sativa subsp. nigra with an average rate of 52.0%. Because the rate of successful SSR marker amplification generally correlates with genetic distance, these SSR markers are potentially useful for analyzing genetic relationships between or within Vicia species.

  11. Cross-amplification of Vicia sativa subsp. sativa microsatellites across 22 other Vicia species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raveendar, Sebastin; Lee, Gi-An; Jeon, Young-Ah; Lee, Yun Jeong; Lee, Jung-Ro; Cho, Gyu-Taek; Cho, Joon-Hyeong; Park, Jong-Hyun; Ma, Kyung-Ho; Chung, Jong-Wook

    2015-01-01

    The temperate and herbaceous genus Vicia L. is a member of the legume tribe Fabeae of the subfamily Papilionoideae. The genus Vicia comprises 166 annual or perennial species distributed mainly in Europe, Asia, and North America, but also extending to the temperate regions of South America and tropical Africa. The use of simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers for Vicia species has not been investigated as extensively as for other crop species. In this study, we assessed the potential for cross-species amplification of cDNA microsatellite markers developed from common vetch (Vicia sativa subsp. sativa). For cross-species amplification of the SSRs, amplification was carried out with genomic DNA isolated from two to eight accessions of 22 different Vicia species. For individual species or subspecies, the transferability rates ranged from 33% for V. ervilia to 82% for V. sativa subsp. nigra with an average rate of 52.0%. Because the rate of successful SSR marker amplification generally correlates with genetic distance, these SSR markers are potentially useful for analyzing genetic relationships between or within Vicia species. PMID:25608853

  12. Japan steel mill perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murase, K. [Kobe Steel Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    2004-07-01

    The international and Japan's steel industry, the coking coal market, and Japan's expectations from Canada's coal industry are discussed. Japan's steel mills are operating at full capacity. Crude steel production for the first half of 2004 was 55.8 million tons. The steel mills are profitable, but costs are high, and there are difficulties with procuring raw materials. Japan is trying to enhance the quality of coke, in order to achieve higher productivity in the production of pig iron. Economic growth is rising disproportionately in the BRICs (Brazil, Russia, India, and China), with a large increase in coking coal demand from China. On the supply side, there are several projects underway in Australia and Canada to increase production. These include new developments by Elk Valley Coal Corporation, Grande Cache Coal, Western Canadian Coal, and Northern Energy and Mining in Canada. The Elga Mine in the far eastern part of Russia is under development. But the market is expected to remain tight for some time. Japan envisions Canadian coal producers will provide a stable coal supply, expansion of production and infrastructure capabilities, and stabilization of price. 16 slides/overheads are included.

  13. Gamma radiation sensitivity in Nigella sativa L

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gamma irradiation induced mutagenic sensitivity of Nigella sativa L. (black cummin) was assessed from R1 attributes like frequency of seed germination, rate of seedling growth, chromosomal anomalies and sterility types, following exposures of dry dormant seed samples (1.8 % moisture content) to 5 KR, 10 KR, 20 KR, 30 KR, 40 KR, 50 KR and 60 KR of γ-irradiations. Results indicated that gamma radiations have induced both physiological and chromosomal disturbances. LD50 was found to lie between 20 KR and 30 KR of γ-ray. Treatments beyond 30 KR of irradiation were found to be lethal due to complete failure of emergence of seedlings in the field conditions; although 5 KR has shown stimulation in mitotic index. Sterility types have possibly appeared as an outcome of meiotic disturbances. (author)

  14. Chemical composition of Nigella sativa Linn: Part 2 Recent advances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akram Khan, M; Afzal, M

    2016-06-01

    The black cumin or Nigella sativa L. seeds have many acclaimed medicinal properties such as bronchodilatory, hypotensive, antibacterial, antifungal, analgesic, anti-inflammatory and immunopotentiating. This review article is an update on the previous article published on Nigella sativa L. in this journal in 1999. It covers the medicinal properties and chemical syntheses of the alkaloids isolated from the seeds of the herb. PMID:27068721

  15. Nigella Sativa Concoction Induced Sustained Seroreversion in HIV Patient

    OpenAIRE

    Onifade, Abdulfatah Adekunle; Jewell, Andrew Paul; Adedeji, Waheed Adeola

    2013-01-01

    Nigella sativa had been documented to possess many therapeutic functions in medicine but the least expected is sero-reversion in HIV infection which is very rare despite extensive therapy with highly active anti-retroviral therapy (HAART). This case presentation is to highlight the complete recovery and sero-reversion of adult HIV patient after treatment with Nigella sativa concoction for the period of six months. The patient presented to the herbal therapist with history of chronic fever, di...

  16. Single-nucleotide polymorphism identification and genotyping in Camelina sativa

    OpenAIRE

    Singh, Ravinder; Bollina, Venkatesh; Higgins, Erin E.; Clarke, Wayne E.; Eynck, Christina; Sidebottom, Christine; Gugel, Richard; Snowdon, Rod; Parkin, Isobel A. P.

    2015-01-01

    Camelina sativa, a largely relict crop, has recently returned to interest due to its potential as an industrial oilseed. Molecular markers are key tools that will allow C. sativa to benefit from modern breeding approaches. Two complementary methodologies, capture of 3′ cDNA tags and genomic reduced-representation libraries, both of which exploited second generation sequencing platforms, were used to develop a low density (768) Illumina GoldenGate single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) array. Th...

  17. EFFECTS OF SIMULATED ACIDIC RAIN ON YIELDS OF 'RAPHANUS SATIVUS', 'LACTUCA SATIVA', 'TRITICUM AESTIVUM' AND 'MEDICAGO SATIVA'

    Science.gov (United States)

    Experiments were performed to determine effects of simulated acidic rain on radishes (Raphanus sativus), wheat(Triticum aestivum) and alfalfa (Medicago sativa) grown under greenhouse conditions. Experimental designs allowed the detection of statistically significant differences a...

  18. INVESTIGATION ON HARDENED STEEL MILLING WITH MICRO-END MILL

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUYing-ning; WANGCheng-yong; WUXue-qi; QINZhe; ZENGBao-ping

    2004-01-01

    Tool wear and breakage of the micro-milling tool is an important problem for high speed machining of hardened steel die and mould. Dry milling of S136 hardened steel is carried out using TiA1N coated carbide micro-end mill (Ф2 mm). The effect of cutting speed, feed per tooth and radial depth of cut on cutting force is analyzed. Cutting parameters adapting to dry machining and strategy optimized for higher rate of material removal with lower cutting force are attained. Results of SEM observation show that the main failure patterns of micro-end mill are breakage of tool tip, wear and drop-off of surface coating, micro-chipping, and breakage of flank.

  19. Galilean Yang-Mills Theory

    OpenAIRE

    Bagchi, Arjun; Basu, Rudranil; Kakkar, Ashish; Mehra, Aditya

    2015-01-01

    We investigate the symmetry structure of the non-relativistic limit of Yang-Mills theories. Generalising previous results in the Galilean limit of electrodynamics, we discover that for Yang-Mills theories there are a variety of limits inside the Galilean regime. We first explicitly work with the $SU(2)$ theory and then generalise to $SU(N)$ for all $N$, systematising our notation and analysis. We discover that the whole family of limits lead to different sectors of Galilean Yang-Mills theorie...

  20. Understanding milling induced changes: Some results

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    K Chattopadhyay; N Ravishankar; T A Abinandanan; Viji Varghese

    2003-10-01

    The effect of mechanical milling on materials has been studied using simple model systems. The results show that milling leads to enhancement in both thermodynamic driving force and transport kinetics. A study of some characteristic physical properties of the milled samples in comparison to the bulk shows how milling affects the properties.

  1. 修剪强度对日本栗生长发育的影响%Effect of Pruning Intensity on Growth of Castanea crenata Gimyose

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李明良; 朱杭瑞; 陈顺伟; 江志标; 江龙表; 吴荣虎; 陈柏荣

    2011-01-01

    Experiments were conducted on different pruning treatments on 12-year Castanea crenata Gimyose. The result showed that cutting 1/4 of bearing branch had the best effect of nut yield, because it had advantages of inhibiting male flowers, increasing female flowers, controlling elongation growth and enhancing diameter growth of branch and thus increasing seeding. Treatment of top cutting and cutting 1/3 of bearing branch had similar effect as the first treatment. Cutting of 1/2 bearing branch had disadvantage of decreasing female flowers, promoting elongation growth of branch except decrease of male flowers.%以12年生日本栗银寄品种为材料,选择剪去结果母枝长的1/2、1/3、1/4和抹除顶芽共4种修剪强度,开展修剪对日本栗生长发育影响试验.结果表明,以1/4强度处理增产效果最明显,具有抑制雄花数量、增加雌花数量、控制枝长伸长生长和增加枝粗及增加结蓬数量的综合效果;其次,去顶处理和1/3修剪处理也具备良好的抑制雄花数量、增加雌花数量、控制枝长伸长生长和增加枝粗及增加结蓬数量的综合效果;而1/2高强度修剪处理除有效控制雄花数量外,表现为减少了雌花数量、促进了枝长伸长生长等效应.

  2. Stress responses in alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The isoflavonoid conjugates medicarpin-3-O-glucoside-6 double-prime-O-malonate (MGM), afrormosin-7-O-glucoside (AG), and afrormosin-7-O-glucoside-6 double-prime-O-malonate (AGM) were isolated and characterized from cell suspension cultures of alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.), where they were the major constitutive secondary metabolites. They were also found in alfalfa roots but not in other parts of the plant. The phytoalexin medicarpin accumulated rapidly in suspension cultured cells treated with elicitor from Colletotrichum lindemuthianum, and this was subsequently accompanied by an increase in the levels of MGM. In contrast, net accumulation of afrormosin conjugates was not affected by elicitor treatment. Labeling studies with [14C]phenylalanine indicated that afrormosin conjugates were the major de novo synthesized isoflavonoid products in unelicited cells. During elicitation, [14C]phenylalanine was incorporated predominantly into medicarpin, although a significant proportion of the newly synthesized medicarpin was also conjugated. Treatment of 14C-labeled, elicited cells with L-α-aminooxy-β-phenylpropionic acid, a potent inhibitor of PAL activity in vivo, resulted in the initial appearance of labeled medicarpin of very low specific activity, suggesting that the phytoalexin could be released from a preformed conjugate under these conditions. Our data draw attention to the involvement of isoflavone hydroxylases during the constitutive and elicitor-induced accumulation of isoflavonoids and their conjugates in alfalfa cell cultures

  3. Stress responses in alfalfa (Medicago sativa L. )

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kessmann, H.; Edwards, R.; Dixon, R.A. (Samuel Roberts Noble Foundation, Ardmore, OK (USA)); Geno, P.W. (Oklahoma State Univ., Stillwater (USA))

    1990-09-01

    The isoflavonoid conjugates medicarpin-3-O-glucoside-6{double prime}-O-malonate (MGM), afrormosin-7-O-glucoside (AG), and afrormosin-7-O-glucoside-6{double prime}-O-malonate (AGM) were isolated and characterized from cell suspension cultures of alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.), where they were the major constitutive secondary metabolites. They were also found in alfalfa roots but not in other parts of the plant. The phytoalexin medicarpin accumulated rapidly in suspension cultured cells treated with elicitor from Colletotrichum lindemuthianum, and this was subsequently accompanied by an increase in the levels of MGM. In contrast, net accumulation of afrormosin conjugates was not affected by elicitor treatment. Labeling studies with ({sup 14}C)phenylalanine indicated that afrormosin conjugates were the major de novo synthesized isoflavonoid products in unelicited cells. During elicitation, ({sup 14}C)phenylalanine was incorporated predominantly into medicarpin, although a significant proportion of the newly synthesized medicarpin was also conjugated. Treatment of {sup 14}C-labeled, elicited cells with L-{alpha}-aminooxy-{beta}-phenylpropionic acid, a potent inhibitor of PAL activity in vivo, resulted in the initial appearance of labeled medicarpin of very low specific activity, suggesting that the phytoalexin could be released from a preformed conjugate under these conditions. Our data draw attention to the involvement of isoflavone hydroxylases during the constitutive and elicitor-induced accumulation of isoflavonoids and their conjugates in alfalfa cell cultures.

  4. Determination of essential elements in milk and urine of camel and in nigella sativa Seeds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Studies on milk and urine of camel and Nigella sativa seeds, either with respect to concentration or bioavailability of major and trace essential elements of these materials are limited and warrant further investigation. The objective of this study was to analyze urine, milk of camel and Nigella sativa for some element using neutron activation analysis. Camel milk and urine have higher concentration of Na than Nigella sativa seeds but K concentration in camel urine and Nigella sativa is higher than that of milk. The Ca and Mg concentration in Nigella sativa seeds are higher than that in milk and urine. The concentration of iron and Zn in Nigella sativa is high. The concentration of Co and Cr in urine is higher than in Nigella sativa and camel milk Se is detected only in urine's camel. Nigella sativa seeds contain more trace elements as Sr, Al, Rb, Ba and La.

  5. Allelopathic effect of medicinal plant Cannabis sativa L. on Lactuca sativa L. seed germination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Homa MAHMOODZADEH

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available In order to examine allelopathic effect of Cannabis sativa L. on germination capability and seedling growth of Lactuca sativa L., a study was performed in laboratory conditions. Treatments were set up in randomised block design in four replications for each of four concentration ranges of 25, 50, 75 and 100 % of aqueous extract made of shoot parts and 4 identical extract concentrations made of root of cannabis. Control variant was lettuce seed treated by distilled water. During the studies shoot and seminal root length of lettuce seedlings were measured after treatments with different concentrations of extracts made of root and shoot parts of cannabis, and the obtained values were compared with the control. The obtained results suggest that the extract from the shoot parts of cannabis in high concentrations of 75 and 100 % had inhibiting effect to the germination indices while the extract from the root had no statistically significant effect on germination of lettuce seeds. Extract made of root part of cannabis showed also stimulatory effect to shoot and seminal root length of lettuce seedlings in extract concentrations of 50, 75 and 100 %.

  6. Effect of Gamma Radiation on In Vitro Multiple Shoot Formation of Aromatic Rice Seeds (oryza sativa L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effect of exposure dose of gamma radiation on multiple shoot formation of aromatic rice seeds (Oryza sativa L.c v. Khao Dawk Mali 105) was investigated. The seeds were irradiated by gamma radiation with varying exposure doses of 0,4,8,12,16,20,24,28,32,36,40 and 44 krad. After irradiation, the seeds were surface sterilized and cultured on Murashige and Skoog medium supplemented with benzyl adenine 25 mg/1 to induce multiple shoot formation. After 5 weeks cultured the number of multiple shoot-forming seeds and the number of shoots per seed were counted. It was found that the number of multiple shoot-forming seeds was increased from 45.9 per mille in the control to 83.3 per mille in seeds irradiated at 24 krad. At the exposure dose of 28 krad the number of multiple shoot-forming seeds was decreased to 80 per mille and was lowest (11.4 per mille) at 40 krad. Multiple shoots formation was completely inhibited at the highest exposure dose of 44 krad. The exposure dose required to reduce the number of multiple shoot-forming seeds by 50 percent (R D50) was 38 krad. Similarly, the number of shoots per multiple shoot-forming seed was increasing as the exposure dose increased from 5.7 shoots in the control to 21.3 shoots in seeds irradiated at 40 krad. The number of shoots per seed was zero at the exposure dose of 44 krad. The multiple shoots regenerated from irradiated seeds were rooted. Then the M1 R1 plant lets were transplanted into pots grown under greenhouse conditions

  7. Effect of Nigella sativa on the kidney function in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Aziz Dollah

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Nigella sativa (N. sativa is an amazing herb which is used in traditional medicine for a wide range of illnesses including bronchial asthma, dysentery, gastrointestinal problems, as well as beneficial effect on blood lipids, lowering blood pressure, serum cholesterol, and triglycerides level. This study aimed to determine the toxic effect of N. sativa powder on the kidney function which was evaluated by serum urea and creatinine and through histopathological examination of kidney tissue. Methods and Materials: In this study, 24 male Sprague Dawley rats were randomly divided into four groups (six each. The rats were kept in the separate cage with three rats per cage. The treatment groups were given rat pellet containing N. sativa dose at 0.01, 0.10, and 1.00 g/kg body weight which were considered as low, normal, and high dose for five weeks while control group fed with rat chow pellet without supplementation. At the end of 35 days, the rats were sacrificed to take the blood sample and to remove the kidney organ for toxicity evaluation. Statistical analyses were done through one-way ANOVA using SPSS. Results: The finding revealed that there was no significant difference in serum urea of treatment groups compared with the control group. The results showed a significant decline in serum creatinine of high dose of Nigella sativa  treated  compared with low dose treated and control groups (p

  8. Renal injury, nephrolithiasis and Nigella sativa: A mini review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parichehr Hayatdavoudi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The incidence and prevalence of kidney stone is increasing worldwide. After the first recurrence the risk of subsequent relapses is higher and the time period between relapses is shortened. Urinary stones can be severely painful and make a huge economic burden. The stone disease may increase the vulnerability of patients to other diseases such as renal failure. Medicinal herbs are rich sources of antioxidants which are increasingly consumed globally for their safety, efficacy and low price. Nigella sativa is a spice plant that is widely used for prevention and treatment of many ailments in Muslim countries and worldwide. This review aims at investigation of the effects of Nigella sativa on renal injury and stone formation. Materials and Method: The scientific resources including PubMed, Scopus, and Google scholar were searched using key words such as: nephrolithiasis, urolithiasis, kidney/renal stone, renal injury, renal failure, urinary retention and black seed, black cumin, Nigella sativa and thymoquinone.    Results: N. sativa and its main component, thymoquinone showed positive effects in prevention or curing kidney stones and renal failure through various mechanism such as antioxidative, anti-inflammatory, anti-eicosanoid and immunomodulatory effects. The putative candidate in many cases has been claimed to be thymoquinone but it seems that at least in part, particularly in kidney stones, the herbal melanin plays a role which requires further investigation to prove. Conclusion: N. sativa and its components are beneficial in prevention and curing of renal diseases including nephrolithiasis and renal damages.

  9. Two complete chloroplast genome sequences of Cannabis sativa varieties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Hyehyun; Seo, Boyoung; Lee, Seunghwan; Ahn, Dong-Ha; Jo, Euna; Park, Jin-Kyoung; Min, Gi-Sik

    2016-07-01

    In this study, we determined the complete chloroplast (cp) genomes from two varieties of Cannabis sativa. The genome sizes were 153,848 bp (the Korean non-drug variety, Cheungsam) and 153,854 bp (the African variety, Yoruba Nigeria). The genome structures were identical with 131 individual genes [86 protein-coding genes (PCGs), eight rRNA, and 37 tRNA genes]. Further, except for the presence of an intron in the rps3 genes of two C. sativa varieties, the cp genomes of C. sativa had conservative features similar to that of all known species in the order Rosales. To verify the position of C. sativa within the order Rosales, we conducted phylogenetic analysis by using concatenated sequences of all PCGs from 17 complete cp genomes. The resulting tree strongly supported monophyly of Rosales. Further, the family Cannabaceae, represented by C. sativa, showed close relationship with the family Moraceae. The phylogenetic relationship outlined in our study is well congruent with those previously shown for the order Rosales. PMID:26104156

  10. The Protective Effects of Nigella sativa and Its Constituents on Induced Neurotoxicity

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammad Reza Khazdair

    2015-01-01

    Nigella sativa (N. sativa) is an annual plant and widely used as medicinal plant throughout the world. The seeds of the plant have been used traditionally in various disorders and as a spice to ranges of Persian foods. N. sativa has therapeutic effects on tracheal responsiveness (TR) and lung inflammation on induced toxicity by Sulfur mustard. N. sativa has been widely used in treatment of various nervous system disorders such as Alzheimer disease, epilepsy, and neurotoxicity. Most of the the...

  11. The relaxant effect of Nigella sativa on smooth muscles, its possible mechanisms and clinical applications

    OpenAIRE

    Rana Keyhanmanesh; Zahra Gholamnezhad; Mohammad Hossien Boskabady

    2014-01-01

    Nigella sativa (N. sativa) is a spice plant which has been traditionally used for culinary and medicinal purposes. Different therapeutic properties including the beneficial effects on asthma and dyspnea, digestive and gynecology disorders have been described for the seeds of N. sativa. There is evidence of the relaxant effects of this plant and some of its constituents on different types of smooth muscle including rabbit aorta, rabbit jejunum and trachea. The relaxant effect of N. sativa coul...

  12. Polyploid genome of Camelina sativa revealed by isolation of fatty acid synthesis genes

    OpenAIRE

    Shewmaker Christine K; Goldstein Elianna; Schroeder Jesara; Comai Luca; Beilstein Mark; Ditt Renata F; Hutcheon Carolyn; Nguyen Van Thu; De Rocher Jay; Kiser Jack

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Camelina sativa, an oilseed crop in the Brassicaceae family, has inspired renewed interest due to its potential for biofuels applications. Little is understood of the nature of the C. sativa genome, however. A study was undertaken to characterize two genes in the fatty acid biosynthesis pathway, fatty acid desaturase (FAD) 2 and fatty acid elongase (FAE) 1, which revealed unexpected complexity in the C. sativa genome. Results In C. sativa, Southern analysis indicates the p...

  13. SUBAQUEOUS DISPOSAL OF MILL TAILINGS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neeraj K. Mendiratta; Roe-Hoan Yoon; Paul Richardson

    1999-09-03

    A study of mill tailings and sulfide minerals was carried out in order to understand their behavior under subaqueous conditions. A series of electrochemical experiments, namely, cyclic voltammetry, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and galvanic coupling tests were carried out in artificial seawater and in pH 6.8 buffer solutions with chloride and ferric salts. Two mill tailings samples, one from the Kensington Mine, Alaska, and the other from the Holden Mine, Washington, were studied along with pyrite, galena, chalcopyrite and copper-activated sphalerite. SEM analysis of mill tailings revealed absence of sulfide minerals from the Kensington Mine mill tailings, whereas the Holden Mine mill tailings contained approximately 8% pyrite and 1% sphalerite. In order to conduct electrochemical tests, carbon matrix composite (CMC) electrodes of mill tailings, pyrite and galena were prepared and their feasibility was established by conducting a series of cyclic voltammetry tests. The cyclic voltammetry experiments carried out in artificial seawater and pH 6.8 buffer with chloride salts showed that chloride ions play an important role in the redox processes of sulfide minerals. For pyrite and galena, peaks were observed for the formation of chloride complexes, whereas pitting behavior was observed for the CMC electrodes of the Kensington Mine mill tailings. The electrochemical impedance spectroscopy conducted in artificial seawater provided with the Nyquist plots of pyrite and galena. The Nyquist plots of pyrite and galena exhibited an inert range of potential indicating a slower rate of leaching of sulfide minerals in marine environments. The galvanic coupling experiments were carried out to study the oxidation of sulfide minerals in the absence of oxygen. It was shown that in the absence of oxygen, ferric (Fe3+) ions might oxidize the sulfide minerals, thereby releasing undesirable oxidation products in the marine environment. The source of Fe{sup 3{minus}} ions may be

  14. YANG-MILLS FIELD CAPACITOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trunev A. P.

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The article presents a project of the capacitor in the Yang-Mills theory. Model capacitor represents the equipotential surfaces separated by a space. To describe the mechanism of condensation chromodynamics field used numerical models developed based on an average of the Yang-Mills theory. In the present study, we used eight-scalar component model that in the linear case is divided into two groups containing three or five fields respectively. In contrast to classical electrodynamics, a static model of the Yang-Mills is not divided into independent equations because of the nonlinearity of the model itself. However, in the case of a linear theory separation is possible. It is shown that in this particular case, the Yang-Mills theory is reduced to Poisson theory, which describes the electrostatic and magnetostatic phenomena. In the present work it is shown that in a certain region of the parameters of the capacitor of the Yang-Mills theory on the functional properties of the charge accumulation and retention of the field is similar to the capacitor of the electrostatic field or a magnet in magnetostatics. This means that in nature there are two types of charges, which are sources of macroscopic Yang-Mills field, which are similar to the properties of electric and magnetic charges in the Poisson theory. It is shown that in Yang-Mills only one type of charge may be associated with the distribution density of the substance, while another type of charge depends on the charge distribution of the first type. This allows us to provide an explanation for the lack of symmetry between electric and magnetic charges

  15. Effects of Nigella sativa and Lepidium sativum on Cyclosporine Pharmacokinetics

    OpenAIRE

    Abdul Ahad; Mohd Raish; Al-Mohizea, Abdullah M.; Hesham M. Korashy; Al-Kharfy, Khalid M.; Mohd Aftab Alam; Al-Suwayeh, S. A.; Iqbal Muzaffar; Al-Jenoobi, F. I.

    2013-01-01

    The present study was conducted to investigate the effects of Nigella sativa and Lepidium sativum on the pharmacokinetics of cyclosporine in rabbits. Two groups of animals were treated separately with Nigella sativa (200 mg/kg p.o.) or Lepidium sativum (150 mg/kg p.o.) for eight consecutive days. On the 8th day, cyclosporine (30 mg/kg p.o.) was administered to each group one hour after herbal treatment. Blood samples were withdrawn at different time intervals (0.0, 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0, 3.0, 4....

  16. Primary human monocyte differentiation regulated by Nigella sativa pressed oil

    OpenAIRE

    Mat Mahaya C; Mohamed Azman S; Hamid Shahrul S

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Oxidized low density lipoprotein plays an important role in development of foam cells in atherosclerosis. The study was focused on regulation of primary human monocyte growth and CD11b expression in presence of Nigella sativa oil. Methods Primary human monocytes were isolated from whole blood and grown at 37°C and 5% CO2 saturation for five days prior to treatment with Nigella sativa oil. The cells were plated and washed before treatment with ox-LDL (10 μg/ml) as positive ...

  17. ANTIBACTERIAL STUDIES ON BENINCASA HISPIDA AND NIGELLA SATIVA OIL

    OpenAIRE

    Lubna Tahir; Benazir Chand; Salma Rahman

    2013-01-01

    Fixed oil of seeds of Benincasa hispida and Nigella sativa was found active against various resistant pathogens of both gram positive and gram negative bacteria. The maximum zone of inhibition was observed against S.aureus (24mm) for Nigella sativa but when 1:1 combination of both the plants was used, good activity against all the tested pathogens i.e., M. luteus, E. coli, S. aureus, P. multocida, P. aeruginosa and B. subtilis (20.31 to 18.61mm) was observed proving seeds as a strong candidat...

  18. Competition between Medicago sativa and Dactylis glomerata in mixed culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioan ROTAR

    1991-08-01

    Full Text Available The higs yield obtained from mixte culture of Medicago sativa and Dactylis glomerata in favourable cultivating conditions, show the superiority of this mixture in obtaining rich and constant yields. Our experiment has in view the relations established between the two species sown at different intervals on land gradually fertilized by nitrogen. The intraspecific competition for the nourishing space manifests itself with stronger intensity in the case of small distances and decreases as they increase. The presence of mineral nitrogen in the soil, for long periods, increases the competitive capacity of cocksfoot, its absence favours Medicago sativa.

  19. Aspectos terapêuticos de compostos da planta Cannabis sativa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Honório Káthia Maria

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Several cannabinoid compounds present therapeutic properties, but also have psychotropic effects, limiting their use as medicine. Nowadays, many important discoveries on the compounds extracted from the plant Cannabis sativa (cannabinoids have contributed to understand the therapeutic properties of these compounds. The main discoveries in the last years on the cannabinoid compounds were: the cannabinoid receptors CB1 and CB2, the endogenous cannabinoids and the possible mechanisms of action involved in the interaction between cannabinoid compounds and the biological receptors. So, from the therapeutical aspects presented in this work, we intended to show the evolution of the Cannabis sativa research and the possible medicinal use of cannabinoid compounds.

  20. Einstein-Yang-Mills from pure Yang-Mills amplitudes

    CERN Document Server

    Nandan, Dhritiman; Schlotterer, Oliver; Wen, Congkao

    2016-01-01

    We present new relations for scattering amplitudes of color ordered gluons and gravitons in Einstein-Yang-Mills theory. Tree-level amplitudes of arbitrary multiplicities and polarizations involving up to three gravitons and up to two color traces are reduced to partial amplitudes of pure Yang-Mills theory. In fact, the double-trace identities apply to Einstein-Yang-Mills extended by a dilaton and a B-field. Our results generalize recent work of Stieberger and Taylor for the single graviton case with a single color trace. As the derivation is made in the dimension-agnostic Cachazo-He-Yuan formalism, our results are valid for external bosons in any number of spacetime dimensions. Moreover, they generalize to the superamplitudes in theories with 16 supercharges.

  1. Colorado's prospectus on uranium milling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The first part of this paper will discuss Colorado's control of uranium mill tailings under Titles I and II of the Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act of 1978. Colorado has a legacy of nine inactive mill sites requiring reclamation under Title I, and two presently active plus a number of new mill proposals which must be regulated in accordance with Title II. Past failures in siting and control on the part of federal jurisdictions have left the state with a heavy legacy requiring extensive effort to address impacts to the state's environment and population. The second part of this paper will discuss the remedial action programme authorized under Public Law 92-314 for Mesa Country, where lack of federal control led to the dispersal of several hundred thousand tons of uranium mill tailings on thousands of properties, including hundreds of homes, schools and other structures. Successful completion of the State efforts under both programmes will depend on a high level of funding and on the maintenance of adequate regulatory standards. (author)

  2. Combined fundamental and experimental approach to milling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starkey, Derek

    Air jet mills are important tools in the size reduction processing of pharmaceutical powders. The benefits of the air jet mill to the pharmaceutical industry are its sanitary design (no moving parts or media) and ability to produce narrow particle size distributions. Due to the high-value nature of active pharmaceutical ingredients, a trial-and-error approach to obtain optimal milling conditions for size reduction would lead to a needless expenditure of time and valuable resources. This work uses population balances for modeling the continuous milling of a spiral jet mill with inexpensive, readily available excipient powders, and predicts milling model parameters for high value powders with only small quantities being consumed. We have developed a multilevel model that describes the effect of material characteristics and mill operating variables on particle breakage in a specific air jet mill. This model allows us to predict product size distributions of brittle crystalline materials. The method used to develop this model can be utilized for many self-classifying mills. For a new mill, extensive initial milling with inexpensive excipient powders is required to determine mill-dependent model parameters. Subsequently, quick material characterization experiments can be made with limited powder consumption of expensive powders to determine powder-dependent milling parameters.

  3. Galilean Yang-Mills Theory

    CERN Document Server

    Bagchi, Arjun; Kakkar, Ashish; Mehra, Aditya

    2015-01-01

    We investigate the symmetry structure of the non-relativistic limit of Yang-Mills theories. Generalising previous results in the Galilean limit of electrodynamics, we discover that for Yang-Mills theories there are a variety of limits inside the Galilean regime. We first explicitly work with the $SU(2)$ theory and then generalise to $SU(N)$ for all $N$, systematising our notation and analysis. We discover that the whole family of limits lead to different sectors of Galilean Yang-Mills theories and the equations of motion in each sector exhibit hitherto undiscovered infinite dimensional symmetries, viz. infinite Galilean Conformal symmetries in $D=4$. These provide the first examples of interacting Galilean Conformal Field Theories (GCFTs) in $D>2$.

  4. Galilean Yang-Mills theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagchi, Arjun; Basu, Rudranil; Kakkar, Ashish; Mehra, Aditya

    2016-04-01

    We investigate the symmetry structure of the non-relativistic limit of Yang-Mills theories. Generalising previous results in the Galilean limit of electrodynamics, we discover that for Yang-Mills theories there are a variety of limits inside the Galilean regime. We first explicitly work with the SU(2) theory and then generalise to SU( N) for all N, systematising our notation and analysis. We discover that the whole family of limits lead to different sectors of Galilean Yang-Mills theories and the equations of motion in each sector exhibit hitherto undiscovered infinite dimensional symmetries, viz. infinite Galilean Conformal symmetries in D = 4. These provide the first examples of interacting Galilean Conformal Field Theories (GCFTs) in D > 2.

  5. ESTUDOS NUTRICIONAIS COM ARROZ (Oryza sativa, L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfredo LAM-SÁNCHEZ

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available

    RESUMO: Estudos com arroz (Oryza sativa, L. foram realizados a fim de determinar a variabilidade do teor de proteína em coleções de cultivares e a possibilidade de utilizar as camadas periféricas do grão na alimentação humana. Foram analisadas 626 linhagens e cultivares de arroz que mostraram uma variação quanto ao teor de proteína de 4.00 a 14.31 g/100 g de amostra. Para se extrair as camadas periféricas do grão, foi desenvolvida uma máquina experimental, que removia as camadas superficiais dos grãos de arroz integral (inteiros somente com a casca removida. Verificou-se que a quantidade de proteína do grão diminui de fora para dentro. O resíduo, que era constituído de grande parte de restos de endosperma com um teor protéico menor mas incluía o embrião, que é a primeira estrutura a se deslocar de grão no beneficiamento e contém proteínas, vitaminas, sais minerais e lípides, tinha um bom valor nutritivo. Desenvolveu-se também uma fórmula para alimentação infantil a partir da mistura de leite de vaca com arroz, com composição semelhante à do leite materno, a ser utilizada sob a forma de bebida ou mingau. Formulações com 40%-20% arroz + 60%-80% leite de vaca proporcionaram valores de Coeficiente de Eficiência Protéica (2,39 e 2,38, respectivamente que não diferiam estatisticamente do valor de 2,43 obtido na fórmula com 100% de leite de vaca. Seus preços foram 59% e 65% do obtido para o leite de vaca integral. PALAVRAS-CHAVE: Arroz; qualidade do grão; proteína; camadas periféricas; misturas arroz-leite; nutrição humana.

  6. Uranium mill tailings and radon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The major health hazard from uranium mill tailings is presumed to be respiratory cancer resulting from the inhalation of radon daughter products. A review of studies on inhalation of radon and its daughters indicates that the hazard from the tailings is extremely small. If the assumptions used in the studies are correct, one or two people per year in the US may develop cancer as a result of radon exhaled from all the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Program sites. The remedial action should reduce the hazard from the tailings by a factor of about 100

  7. YANG-MILLS FIELD AMPLIFIER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trunev A. P.

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The article presents a project of the Yang-Mills amplifier. Amplifier model is a multilayer spherical shell with increasing density towards the center. In the center of the amplifier is the core of high-density material. It is shown that in such a system, the amplitude of the Yang-Mills waves rises from the periphery to the center of several orders of magnitude. The role of the Yang-Mills field in the processes occurring in the nuclei of galaxies, stars and planets is discussed. The data modeling to strengthen the Yang-Mills field in the bowels of the planet, with an atomic explosion, and in some special devices such as the voltaic pile. To describe the mechanism of amplification chromodynamics field used as accurate results in Yang-Mills theory and numerical models developed based on an average and the exact equations as well. Among the exact solutions of the special role played by the centralsymmetric metric describing the contribution of the Yang-Mills field in the speed of recession of galaxies. Among the approximate numerical models can be noted the eight-scalar model we have developed for the simulation of non-linear color oscillations and chaos in the Yang-Mills theory. Earlier models were investigated spatio-temporal oscillations of the YangMills theory in the case of three and eight colors. The results of numerical simulation show that the nonlinear interaction does not lead to a spatial mixing of colors as it might be in the case of turbulent diffusion. Depending on the system parameters there is a suppression of the amplitude of the oscillations the first three by five colors or vice versa. The kinetic energy fluctuations or shared equally between the color components, or dominated by the kinetic energy of repressed groups of colors. In the present study, we found that amplification chromodynamic field leads to a sharp increase in the amplitude of the suppressed color, which can lead to an increase in entropy, excitation of nuclear

  8. Uranium mill tailings and radon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The major health hazard from uranium mill tailings is presumed to be respiratory cancer resulting from the inhalation of radon daughter products. A review of studies on inhalation of radon and its daughters indicates that the hazard from the tailings is extremely small. If the assumptions used in the studies are correct, one or two people per year in the United States may develop cancer as a result of radon exhaled from all the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action program sites. The remedial action should reduce the hazard from the tailings by a factor of about 100

  9. Sensitivity of salad greens (Lactuca sativa L. and Eruca sativa Mill.) exposed to crude extracts of toxic and non-toxic cyanobacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bittencourt-Oliveira, M C; Hereman, T C; Macedo-Silva, I; Cordeiro-Araújo, M K; Sasaki, F F C; Dias, C T S

    2015-05-01

    We evaluated the effect of crude extracts of the microcystin-producing (MC+) cyanobacteria Microcystis aeruginosa on seed germination and initial development of lettuce and arugula, at concentrations between 0.5 μg.L(-1) and 100 μg.L(-1) of MC-LR equivalent, and compared it to crude extracts of the same species without the toxin (MC-). Crude extracts of the cyanobacteria with MC (+) and without MC (-) caused different effects on seed germination and initial development of the salad green seedlings, lettuce being more sensitive to both extracts when compared to arugula. Crude extracts of M. aeruginosa (MC+) caused more evident effects on seed germination and initial development of both species of salad greens than MC-. Concentrations of 75 μg.L(-1) and 100 μg.L(-1) of MC-LR equivalent induced a greater occurrence of abnormal seedlings in lettuce, due to necrosis of the radicle and shortening of this organ in normal seedlings, as well as the reduction in total chlorophyll content and increase in the activity of the antioxidant enzyme peroxidase (POD). The MC- extract caused no harmful effects to seed germination and initial development of seedlings of arugula. However, in lettuce, it caused elevation of POD enzyme activity, decrease in seed germination at concentrations of 75 μg.L(-1) (MC-75) and 100 μg.L(-1) (MC-100), and shortening of the radicle length, suggesting that other compounds present in the cyanobacteria extracts contributed to this result. Crude extracts of M. aeruginosa (MC-) may contain other compounds, besides the cyanotoxins, capable of causing inhibitory or stimulatory effects on seed germination and initial development of salad green seedlings. Arugula was more sensitive to the crude extracts of M. aeruginosa (MC+) and (MC-) and to other possible compounds produced by the cyanobacteria. PMID:26132007

  10. Genetic Isolation, Divergence And Gene Flow In O. sativa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knowledge about the structure and evolutionary history of naturally occurring variation in crops and their wild relatives provides insights into the complex process of domestication and new opportunities for utilizing novel alleles in crop improvement. Domesticated Asian rice (Oryza sativa L.) is co...

  11. Crop physiology of fibre hemp (Cannabis sativa L.).

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Werf, van der H.

    1994-01-01

    Fibre hemp ( Cannabis sativa L.) may be an alternative to wood as a raw material for the production of paper pulp. The effects of enviromnental factors and cultural measures on the functioning, yield and quality of fibre hemp crops in the Netherlands were investigated.Until flowering (generally in

  12. New developments in fiber hemp (Cannabis sativa L.) breeding

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Salentijn, E.M.J.; Zhang, Qingying; Amaducci, Stefano; Yang, Ming; Trindade, L.M.

    2015-01-01

    Fiber hemp (Cannabis sativa L.) is a sustainable and high yielding industrial crop that can help to meet the high global demand for fibers. Hemp can be grown for fiber, seeds, and/or for dual purpose in a wide range of geographic zones and climates. Currently the main hemp producing regions in th

  13. Nigella sativa: reduces the risk of various maladies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butt, Masood Sadiq; Sultan, Muhammad Tauseef

    2010-08-01

    Coinage of terms like nutraceuticals, functional, and pharma foods has diverted the attention of human beings to where they are seeking more natural cures. Though pharmaceutical drugs have been beneficial for human health and have cured various diseases but they also impart some side effects. Numerous plants have been tested for their therapeutic potential; Nigella sativa, commonly known as black cumin, is one of them. It possesses a nutritional dense profile as its fixed oil (lipid fraction), is rich in unsaturated fatty acids while essential oil contains thymoquinone and carvacrol as antioxidants. N. sativa seeds also contain proteins, alkaloids (nigellicines and nigelledine), and saponins (alpha-hederin) in substantial amounts. Recent pharmacological investigations suggested its potential role, especially for the amelioration of oxidative stress through free radical scavenging activity, the induction of apoptosis to cure various cancer lines, the reduction of blood glucose, and the prevention of complications from diabetes. It regulates hematological and serological aspects and can be effective in dyslipidemia and respiratory disorders. Moreover, its immunopotentiating and immunomodulating role brings balance in the immune system. Evidence is available supporting the utilization of Nigella sativa and its bioactive components in a daily diet for health improvement. This review is intended to focus on the composition of Nigella sativa and to elaborate its possible therapeutic roles as a functional food to prevent an array of maladies. PMID:20694927

  14. Hemp (Cannabis sativa L.) seeds after plasma treatment

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šerá, Božena; Gajdová, Iveta; Gavril, B.; Hnatiuc, E.; Šerý, M.; Špatenka, P.

    Brasov: Universitatea Transilvania din Brasov, 2012 - (Clotea, L.; Cernat, M.). s. 251-251 ISBN 978-1-4673-1650-7. [International Conference on Optimization of Electrical and Electronic Equipment /13./ OPTIM 2012. 24.05.-26.05.2012, Brasov] Institutional support: RVO:67179843 Keywords : Cannabis sativa L. * plasma treatment Subject RIV: EI - Biotechnology ; Bionics

  15. Complete sequence of a cryptic virus from hemp (Cannabis sativa)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ziegler, A.; Matoušek, Jaroslav; Steger, G.; Schubert, J.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 157, č. 2 (2012), s. 383-385. ISSN 0304-8608 R&D Projects: GA ČR GCP501/10/J018 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50510513 Keywords : Cannabis sativa * Partitivirus * cryptic virus Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 2.030, year: 2012

  16. WATER USE AND EVAPOTRANSPIRATION COEFFICIENTS FOR CAMELINA SATIVA

    Science.gov (United States)

    The water use characteristics of Camelina sativa, an oilseed crop, were evaluated in an irrigation experiment in Maricopa, Arizona. Camelina (cv. Robinson) was grown between November 2006 and April 2007 in plots, each 10 by 17 m. Thirty-two of the field plots were replicated in a randomized block de...

  17. Integration of micro milling highspeed spindle on a microEDM-milling machine set-up

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    De Grave, Arnaud; Hansen, Hans Nørgaard; Andolfatto, Loic

    2009-01-01

    In order to cope with repositioning errors and to combine the fast removal rate of micro milling with the precision and small feature size achievable with micro EDM milling, a hybrid micro-milling and micro-EDM milling centre was built and tested. The aim was to build an affordable set-up, easy t...

  18. Would John Stuart Mill have regulated pornography?

    OpenAIRE

    McGlynn, C.; Ward, I

    2014-01-01

    John Stuart Mill dominates contemporary pornography debates where he is routinely invoked as an authoritative defence against regulation. This article, by contrast, argues that a broader understanding of Mill's ethical liberalism, his utilitarianism, and his feminism casts doubt over such an assumption. New insights into Mill's approach to sex, sexual activity, and the regulation of prostitution reveal an altogether more nuanced and activist approach. We conclude that John Stuart Mill would a...

  19. On deformations of Yang-Mills algebras

    OpenAIRE

    Movshev, M.

    2005-01-01

    This is a next paper from a sequel devoted to algebraic aspects of Yang-Mills theory. We undertake a study of deformation theory of Yang-Mills algebra YM - a ``universal solution'' of Yang-Mills equation. We compute (cyclic) (co)homology of YM.

  20. 77 FR 14837 - Bioassay at Uranium Mills

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-13

    ... COMMISSION Bioassay at Uranium Mills AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Draft regulatory guide... for public comment draft regulatory guide (DG), DG-8051, ``Bioassay at Uranium Mills.'' This guide describes a bioassay program acceptable to the NRC staff for uranium mills and applicable portions...

  1. TOXICITY OF METHYL-TERT BYTYL ETHER (MTBE) TO PLANTS (AVENA SATIVA, ZEA MAYS, TRITICUM AESTIVUM, AND LACTUCA SATIVA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Effects of Methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) on the germination of seeds and growth of the plant were studied in some laboratory experiments. Test plants were wild oat (Avena sative), sweet corn (Zea mays), wheat (Triticum aestivum), and lettuce (Lactuca sativa). Seed germination,...

  2. J. S. Mill on Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Alan

    2011-01-01

    Mill may be said either to have written rather little on education or to have written a very great deal. He himself distinguished between a "narrow" and a "wider" sense of education, the former limited to what happens in formal educational settings, the latter embracing all the influences that make us who and what we are. He wrote rather little on…

  3. The emerging biofuel crop Camelina sativa retains a highly undifferentiated hexaploid genome structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kagale, Sateesh; Koh, Chushin; Nixon, John; Bollina, Venkatesh; Clarke, Wayne E; Tuteja, Reetu; Spillane, Charles; Robinson, Stephen J; Links, Matthew G; Clarke, Carling; Higgins, Erin E; Huebert, Terry; Sharpe, Andrew G; Parkin, Isobel A P

    2014-01-01

    Camelina sativa is an oilseed with desirable agronomic and oil-quality attributes for a viable industrial oil platform crop. Here we generate the first chromosome-scale high-quality reference genome sequence for C. sativa and annotated 89,418 protein-coding genes, representing a whole-genome triplication event relative to the crucifer model Arabidopsis thaliana. C. sativa represents the first crop species to be sequenced from lineage I of the Brassicaceae. The well-preserved hexaploid genome structure of C. sativa surprisingly mirrors those of economically important amphidiploid Brassica crop species from lineage II as well as wheat and cotton. The three genomes of C. sativa show no evidence of fractionation bias and limited expression-level bias, both characteristics commonly associated with polyploid evolution. The highly undifferentiated polyploid genome of C. sativa presents significant consequences for breeding and genetic manipulation of this industrial oil crop. PMID:24759634

  4. Genetic Variation of Host Populations of Liriomyza sativae Blanchard

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Li-ping; DU Yu-zhou; HE Ya-ting; ZHENG Fu-shan; LU Zi-qiang

    2008-01-01

    In this study, partial sequences of the mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase subunit Ⅰ (mtDNA-COI) gene and the ribosomal internal transcribed spacer 1 (rDNA-ITS1) gene, isolated from five artificial populations of Liriomyza sativae (Diptera:Agromyzidae), were sequenced and compared, to analyze their genetic variation. Analysis of the mtDNA-CO1 gene showed that a low genetic variation was detected among the five populations and only five variable sites were found in the nucleotide sequences. Most of the observed variations that occurred within the populations were because of nucleotide transitions, whereas, the interpopulation variation was because of the differences in haplotype frequencies occurring among the host populations. Analysis of the rDNA-ITS1 gene revealed a small diversity in the five host populations. The trend of genetic differentiation in the host populations was consistent with the preference of L. sativae to the plant hosts.

  5. Biofunctional properties of Eruca sativa Miller (rocket salad) hydroalcoholic extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sultan, Khushbakht; Zakir, Muhammad; Khan, Haroon; Rauf, Abdur; Akber, Noor Ul; Khan, Murad Ali

    2016-05-01

    Eruca sativa Miller is a worldwide common alimentary plant (rocket leaves). The aim of this study was to correlate the potential in vitro scavenging activity of the E. sativa hydroalcoholic extract (HAE) with its in vivo hypoglycaemic effect. In DDPH free radical (DFR) and ferric-reducing antioxidant power assays, HAE in a concentration dependent manner (25-100 μg/mL) displayed a strong scavenging activity with maximum effect of 88% and 75% at 100 μg/mL, respectively. Daily administration of HAE (50 mg/kg; p.o.) in the in vivo model of alloxan-induced diabetic rabbits for 28 days showed significant reduction in glycaemia, also supported by recovery of body weight. In conclusion, our results give preliminary information on the potential use of this plant as a nutraceutical, useful to control and/or prevent a hyperglycaemic status. PMID:26156861

  6. GLYCOSIDES FROM LINARIA VULGARIS MILL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Mashcenko

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available A new flavonol glycoside, 5,4′-dimethylkaempferol 3-O-β-D-(6′′-α-Lrhamnopyranosyl -glucopyranoside, together with three known compounds were isolated from the n-butanolic soluble fraction of underground and aerial parts of Linaria vulgaris Mill, collected on the territory of Moldova. The characterisation of these compounds was achieved by various chromatographic and spectroscopic methods (IR, UV, 13C-NMR, 1H-NMR and MS.

  7. Toxicity Effect of Nigella Sativa on the Liver Function of Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Mohamad Hafanizam Bin Hassan; Latiffah Abdul Latiff; Saadat Parhizkar; Mohammad Aziz Dollah

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this study was to determine the toxic effect of Nigella sativa powder on the liver function which was evaluated by measuring liver enzymes and through histopathological examination of liver tissue. Methods: Twenty four male Sprague Dawley rats were allotted randomly to four groups including: control (taking normal diet); low dose (supplemented with 0.01 g/kg/day Nigella sativa); normal dose (supplemented with 0.1 g/kg/day Nigella sativa) and high dose (supplemente...

  8. Effect of Nigella sativa on reproductive system in experimental menopause rat model

    OpenAIRE

    Saadat Parhizkar; Latiffah Latiff; Ali Parsa

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Menopause is the condition when regular menstrual periods cease and may be accompanied by psychological and physical symptoms. The purpose of current study was to determine Nigella sativa effects on reproductive system in experimental menopause animal models. Materials and Methods: A series of experiments was conducted to investigate the effects of different dosages of N. sativa (first experiment), various extracts of N. sativa (second experiment) and some of its ingredients (third...

  9. The emerging biofuel crop Camelina sativa retains a highly undifferentiated hexaploid genome structure

    OpenAIRE

    Kagale, Sateesh; Koh, Chushin; Nixon, John; Bollina, Venkatesh; Clarke, Wayne E.; Tuteja, Reetu; Spillane, Charles; Robinson, Stephen J.; Links, Matthew G; Clarke, Carling; Higgins, Erin E.; Huebert, Terry; Sharpe, Andrew G; Parkin, Isobel A. P.

    2014-01-01

    Camelina sativa is an oilseed with desirable agronomic and oil-quality attributes for a viable industrial oil platform crop. Here we generate the first chromosome-scale high-quality reference genome sequence for C. sativa and annotated 89,418 protein-coding genes, representing a whole-genome triplication event relative to the crucifer model Arabidopsis thaliana. C. sativa represents the first crop species to be sequenced from lineage I of the Brassicaceae. The well-preserved hexaploid genome ...

  10. Cannabis sativa: The Plant of the Thousand and One Molecules

    OpenAIRE

    Andre, Christelle M.; Hausman, Jean-Francois; Guerriero, Gea

    2016-01-01

    Cannabis sativa L. is an important herbaceous species originating from Central Asia, which has been used in folk medicine and as a source of textile fiber since the dawn of times. This fast-growing plant has recently seen a resurgence of interest because of its multi-purpose applications: it is indeed a treasure trove of phytochemicals and a rich source of both cellulosic and woody fibers. Equally highly interested in this plant are the pharmaceutical and construction sectors, since its metab...

  11. Cannabis sativa: the plant of the thousand and one molecules

    OpenAIRE

    Andre, Christelle M.; Jean-Francois eHausman; Gea eGuerriero

    2016-01-01

    Cannabis sativa L. is an important herbaceous species originating from Central Asia, which has been used in folk medicine and as a source of textile fibre since the dawn of times. This fast-growing plant has recently seen a resurgence of interest because of its multi-purpose applications: it is indeed a treasure trove of phytochemicals and a rich source of both cellulosic and woody fibres. Equally highly interested in this plant are the pharmaceutical and construction sectors, since its metab...

  12. Cannabidiol, a Cannabis sativa constituent, as an antipsychotic drug

    OpenAIRE

    Zuardi A.W.; Crippa J.A.S.; Hallak J.E.C.; Moreira F.A.; Guimarães F.S.

    2006-01-01

    A high dose of delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol, the main Cannabis sativa (cannabis) component, induces anxiety and psychotic-like symptoms in healthy volunteers. These effects of delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol are significantly reduced by cannabidiol (CBD), a cannabis constituent which is devoid of the typical effects of the plant. This observation led us to suspect that CBD could have anxiolytic and/or antipsychotic actions. Studies in animal models and in healthy volunteers clearly suggest an anxi...

  13. THE EFFECT OF NIGELLA SATIVA L. ON INTRACTABLE PEDIATRIC SEIZURES

    OpenAIRE

    J Akhondian; Parsa, A; H. RAKHSHANDE

    2009-01-01

    Background:Despite availability and administration of numerous antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) nearly 15% of childhood epilepsy cases are resistant to treatment; in traditional medicine however Nigella sativa L. (Black seed) has been known for its anticonvulsant effects.Materials and Methods:In this double-blind clinical trial conducted on children with refractory epilepsy we administered the aqueous extract of black seed as an adjunct therapy and compared the effects with those of a placebo. The ...

  14. Nigella sativa and its active constituent thymoquinone in oral health

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    In this review, we summarized published reports that investigated the role of Nigella sativa (NS) and its active constituent, thymoquinone (TQ) in oral health and disease management. The literature studies were preliminary and scanty, but the results revealed that black seed plants have a potential therapeutic effect for oral and dental diseases. Such results are encouraging for the incorporation of these plants in dental therapeutics and hygiene products. However, further detailed preclinica...

  15. PHARMACOGNOSY AND PHARMACOLOGY OF NIGELLA SATIVA - A REVIEW

    OpenAIRE

    Saha Rajsekhar; Bhupendar Kuldeep

    2011-01-01

    The importance of natural flora is well known by the scientific community. The medicinal plant gifted by nature have by explored by the humans to find out there respective values in the medical field. Times to time there have been report regarding the medicinal plants having huge possibilities for use. In the above article a similar kind of plant have been described, which have been reported of having many medicinal uses. The plant Nigella sativa have been reported to have significant activit...

  16. The draft genome and transcriptome of Cannabis sativa

    OpenAIRE

    van Bakel, Harm; Stout, Jake M.; Cote, Atina G; Tallon, Carling M; Sharpe, Andrew G; Hughes, Timothy R.; Page, Jonathan E.

    2011-01-01

    Background Cannabis sativa has been cultivated throughout human history as a source of fiber, oil and food, and for its medicinal and intoxicating properties. Selective breeding has produced cannabis plants for specific uses, including high-potency marijuana strains and hemp cultivars for fiber and seed production. The molecular biology underlying cannabinoid biosynthesis and other traits of interest is largely unexplored. Results We sequenced genomic DNA and RNA from the marijuana strain Pur...

  17. Cannabinoids act as necrosis-inducing factors in Cannabis sativa

    OpenAIRE

    Shoyama, Yoshinari; Sugawa, Chitomi; Tanaka, Hiroyuki; Morimoto, Satoshi

    2008-01-01

    Cannabis sativa is well known to produce unique secondary metabolites called cannabinoids. We recently discovered that Cannabis leaves induce cell death by secreting tetrahydrocannabinolic acid (THCA) into leaf tissues. Examinations using isolated Cannabis mitochondria demonstrated that THCA causes mitochondrial permeability transition (MPT) though opening of MPT pores, resulting in mitochondrial dysfunction (the important feature of necrosis). Although Ca2+ is known to cause opening of anima...

  18. Aspectos terapêuticos de compostos da planta Cannabis sativa

    OpenAIRE

    Honório Káthia Maria; Arroio Agnaldo; Silva Albérico Borges Ferreira da

    2006-01-01

    Several cannabinoid compounds present therapeutic properties, but also have psychotropic effects, limiting their use as medicine. Nowadays, many important discoveries on the compounds extracted from the plant Cannabis sativa (cannabinoids) have contributed to understand the therapeutic properties of these compounds. The main discoveries in the last years on the cannabinoid compounds were: the cannabinoid receptors CB1 and CB2, the endogenous cannabinoids and the possible mechanisms of action ...

  19. Selectivity of herbicides in Camelina (Camelina sativa (L.) Crtz.)

    OpenAIRE

    Scheliga, Maria; Petersen, Jan

    2016-01-01

    Camelina (Camelina sativa (L.) Crtz.) is a cruciferous plant. As an oilseed crop camelina is mainly grown for oil production. After the 1960s, however, the cultivation has become less important. Only in recent years, interest in this culture was awakened in the search for new sources of omega 3 fatty acids, natural antioxidants and a potential crop for the production of biofuels. The use of camelina oil for different purposes within the framework of the material use of renewable raw materials...

  20. Spectroscopy analysis of phenolic and sugar patterns in a food grade chestnut tannin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricci, A; Lagel, M-C; Parpinello, G P; Pizzi, A; Kilmartin, P A; Versari, A

    2016-07-15

    Tannin of chestnut (Castanea sativa Mill.) wood, commonly used in winemaking was characterised with a spectroscopy qualitative approach that revealed its phenolic composition: several vibrational diagnostic bands assigned using the Attenuated Total Reflectance-Infrared Spectroscopy, and fragmentation patterns obtained using the Laser-Desorption-Ionization Time-of-Flight technique evidenced polygalloylglucose, e.g. castalagin/vescalagin-like structures as the most representative molecules, together with sugar moieties. The implication of these findings on winemaking application and the potential influence of the chemical structure on the sensory properties of wine are discussed. PMID:26948634

  1. Amido resistente em diversas fontes não convencionais de amido

    OpenAIRE

    Fontinha, C.; Correia, Paula

    2010-01-01

    Amido resistente (AR) é aquele que não é digerido no intestino delgado, conduzindo a efeitos benéficos para a saúde, tal como a fibra dietética faz. Procedeu-se à determinação do AR em farinhas e amidos extraídos de duas variedades de castanha (Castanea sativa Mill), Longal e Martainha, da bolota de azinheira (Quercus rotundifolia) e da glande do sobreiro (Quercus suber). As farinhas foram obtidas por moenda dos frutos após secagem a diferentes temperaturas, 40º C, 50º C, 60ºC e 70ºC. Posteri...

  2. THE EFFECT OF NIGELLA SATIVA L. ON INTRACTABLE PEDIATRIC SEIZURES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. AKHONDIAN MD

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Background:Despite availability and administration of numerous antiepileptic drugs (AEDs nearly 15% of childhood epilepsy cases are resistant to treatment; in traditional medicine however Nigella sativa L. (Black seed has been known for its anticonvulsant effects.Materials and Methods:In this double-blind clinical trial conducted on children with refractory epilepsy we administered the aqueous extract of black seed as an adjunct therapy and compared the effects with those of a placebo. The study was performed between Sep 2003 and Nov 2004. The subjects received either extract or placebo for a period of four weeks and between these two periods for two weeks they received only their pre-existing anti-epileptic drugs (AEDs.Results:The mean frequency of seizures decreased significantly during treatment with extract, (p-value =0/007.Conclusion:It can be concluded that the water extract of Nigella sativa L. has antiepileptic effects in children with refractory seizures that do not respond to known AEDS.keywords:Nigella sativa, Intractable seizures, Children

  3. Tracking alien chromosome in sativa background by genomic in situ hybridization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Genomic in situ hybridization (GISH) was used to look into the genomic constitution of monosomic alien -addition line derived from O. sativa x O. brachyantha. Biotin label genomic DNA from O. brachyantha was used as probe. The probe hybridized to the brachyantha chromosome. No detectable hybridization signal was observed on sativa chromosomes. This differential painting of chromosome enables us to unequivocally discriminate brachyantha chromosome from those of sativa. Results showed the usefulness of GISH in the identification of a single alien chromosome in the sativa background. (author)

  4. Aspectos terapêuticos de compostos da planta Cannabis sativa Therapeutical aspects of compounds of the plant Cannabis sativa

    OpenAIRE

    Káthia Maria Honório; Agnaldo Arroio; Albérico Borges Ferreira da Silva

    2006-01-01

    Several cannabinoid compounds present therapeutic properties, but also have psychotropic effects, limiting their use as medicine. Nowadays, many important discoveries on the compounds extracted from the plant Cannabis sativa (cannabinoids) have contributed to understand the therapeutic properties of these compounds. The main discoveries in the last years on the cannabinoid compounds were: the cannabinoid receptors CB1 and CB2, the endogenous cannabinoids and the possible mechanisms of action ...

  5. Formation of surface coating on milling balls during milling of Cr powders

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王成国; 齐宝森; 王瑞华

    2002-01-01

    The formation regularity of surface coating on milling balls during milling of Cr powders was investigated, revealing that the plastic deformation of the balls surface plays an important role in the formation of coating and that the stronger affinity between the powders and the balls is a necessary pre-condition for the coating. The size of Cr powders, the coating thickness and the microhardness vary consistently with milling time during milling. At initial milling stage, the powder size decreases, while the coating thickness and the microhardness increase, however, after milling for 24h, they all change slightly with prolonged milling, indicating a dynamic equilibrium between the powders cold welding and crashing, i.e. an almost equal rate for the powders attaching to and breaking off the milling balls.

  6. Geometrical characterization of micro end milling tools

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borsetto, Francesca; Bariani, Paolo; Bissacco, Giuliano;

    2005-01-01

    Performance of the milling process is directly affected by the accuracy of tool geometry. Development of methods suitable for dimensional characterization of such tools, with low measurement uncertainties is therefore of relevance. The present article focuses on the geometrical characterization of...... a flat micro end milling tool with a nominal mill diameter of 200 microns. An experimental investigation was carried out involving two different non-contact systems...

  7. High-speed milling of light metals

    OpenAIRE

    F. Cus; U. Zuperl; V. Gecevska

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: of this paper: Introduction applicability of high-speed cutting of light metals is presented in this paper.Design/methodology/approach: HSC is the result of numerous technical advances ensuring that milling has become faster than conventional milling and has gained importance as a cutting process. The advantages of the HSC milling are higher productivity owing to the reduction of machining times increase of the flow time of production, reduction of the number of technological operati...

  8. J. S. Mill's Methodology of Political Economy

    OpenAIRE

    Marek Hudík

    2007-01-01

    The article deals with Mill's views on methodology. The place taken by political economy in the general classification of knowledge is shown. This includes: natural distinction between physical and moral sciences (including non-reducibility of mental phenomena to physical phenomena) and definition of political economy as a separate science. Further, the concept of economic man as introduced by Mill is presented. Two methods, which Mill saw as appropriate for studying social phenomena - i. e. ...

  9. Anaerobic Digestion of Paper Mill Wastewater

    OpenAIRE

    Shreeshivadasan Chelliapan; Siti Baizura Mahat; Md. Fadjil Md. Din; A. Yuzir; Othman, N.

    2012-01-01

    In general, paper mill wastewater contains complex organic substances which could not be treated completely using conventional treatment processes, e.g. aerobic processes. As a result, anaerobic technology is a promising alternative for paper mill wastewater treatment due to its ability to degrade hard organic compounds. In the present study, treatment of paper mill wastewater using a stage anaerobic reactor was investigated. The more specific objectives of this study were to confirm whether ...

  10. The Microbiology of Olive Mill Wastes

    OpenAIRE

    Spyridon Ntougias; Kostas Bourtzis; George Tsiamis

    2013-01-01

    Olive mill wastes (OMWs) are high-strength organic effluents, which upon disposal can degrade soil and water quality, negatively affecting aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems. The main purpose of this review paper is to provide an up-to-date knowledge concerning the microbial communities identified over the past 20 years in olive mill wastes using both culture-dependent and independent approaches. A database survey of 16S rRNA gene sequences (585 records in total) obtained from olive mill wast...

  11. Milling in hardened steel - a study of tool wear in conventional- and dynamic milling

    OpenAIRE

    Ersvik, Erik; Khalid, Roj

    2015-01-01

    Milling is a commonly used machining process where a rotating cutter removes material from the workpiece. In recent years, attention has been turned towards so called dynamic milling methods which differ from the conventional way of milling. Dynamic milling normally uses, as opposed to the conventional way, more of the axial cutting edge, smaller radial depth of cut, significantly higher cutting speed and feed per tooth. The method has demonstrated potential to save both time and money under ...

  12. John Stuart Mill and romanticism

    OpenAIRE

    Macleod, Christopher

    2011-01-01

    This thesis is an examination of the philosophy of John Stuart Mill and its relation to the romantic movement. The Introduction outlines reasons to believe that such an inquiry is sensible: Mill’s readings of the British and German romantics are outlined. I proceed to offer an argument for the application of an historical term such as ‘romanticism’ in philosophy and suggest that the space opened up by the revisionist view of romanticism as an extension, rather than a denial, of the Enlighte...

  13. Yang-Mills Instanton Sheaves

    CERN Document Server

    Lai, Sheng-Hong; Tsai, I-Hsun

    2016-01-01

    The SL(2,C) Yang-Mills instanton solutions constructed recently by the biquaternion method were shown to satisfy the complex version of the ADHM equations and the Monad construction. Moreover, we discover that, in addition to the holomorphic vector bundles on CP^3 similar to the case of SU(2) ADHM construction, the SL(2,C) instanton solutions can be used to explicitly construct instanton sheaves on CP^3. Presumably, the existence of these instanton sheaves is related to the jumping lines of the SL(2,C) instantons on S^4 which do not exist for SU(2) instantons.

  14. Control for Cold Rolling Mills

    OpenAIRE

    Morad, Antoni; Travancic, Faruk

    2005-01-01

    This report contains the details in a final research thesis work done rolling mill technology. The work is carried out at Heat Transfer located at Finspång. The main objective of this work is to evaluate thickness and flatness data from the profile to give an optimal start value for the pressure and force applied on the machine and the speed as well, so that the profiles produced, have the right thickness and best possible flatness. Thickness, start value for power, the degree of bending the ...

  15. Palm Oil Milling Wastes and Sustainable Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. C. Er

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Palm oil milling generates solid wastes, effluent and gaseous emissions. The aim of this study is to assess the progress made in waste management by the Malaysian palm oil milling sector towards the path of sustainable development. Sustainable development is defined as the utilization of renewable resources in harmony with ecological systems. Inclusive in this definition is the transition from low value-added to higher value-added transformation of wastes into resources. Approach: A longitudinal study was carried out from 2003-2010 via, initially a field survey and subsequently a key informant approach with observation as a complementation for both. Results: Solid wastes, inclusive of solid wastes derived from air emissions and palm oil mil effluent, have a utility function with zero wastage. The principal source of effluent is palm oil mill effluent. Treated palm oil mill effluent is utilized for cropland application by plantation-based palm oil mills. However, independent mills discharge treated palm oil mill effluent in accordance to environmental parameters into receiving waterways. Methane is also released by palm oil mill effluent. Biogas from palm oil mill effluent and biomass energy from solid wastes are potential sources of renewable energy in Malaysia. Conclusion: In general, the wastes from palm oil milling are returned to the field for cropland application, utilized in-house or in the plantation, or sold to third parties. Thus, there is progress made towards sustainable development. The addition of new technologies and replacement of old mills will help to reduce the carbon footprint. However, at this juncture, the feed-in tariff for renewable energy is not financially attractive. If the biogas and biomass renewable energy sector were to take-off, enhancement in the value chain would occur and in tandem further progress towards sustainable development can be attained.

  16. The history and effects of mills on western civilization

    OpenAIRE

    Macfarlane, Alan.

    2004-01-01

    In conversation with the miller, David, Alan Macfarlane watches some of the processes of milling and reflects on the revolutionary importance of water mills in England as in this water mill at Lode, near Cambridge

  17. Technological improvements in wire rod mills

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lestani, M.

    1996-07-01

    The paper deals with the latest rolling technologies and hi-tech equipment developed by Danieli-mogardshammar to ensure top performance of modern wire rod mills. In particular, a high reduction sizing mill, a twin module fast finishing block and a high speed cropping shear are presented. (authors)

  18. Jiangsu Mills Attempt to Adjust Production

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    The profit squeeze on China’s textile mills continues. In Jiangsu Province, a very important market, mills are reacting in a variety of ways to this situation. Spinners and weavers of man-made fiber appear to be the most adversely affected,

  19. Radiological health aspects of uranium milling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report describes the operation of conventional and unconventional uranium milling processes, the potential for occupational exposure to ionizing radiation at the mill, methods for radiological safety, methods of evaluating occupational radiation exposures, and current government regulations for protecting workers and ensuring that standards for radiation protection are adhered to. In addition, a survey of current radiological health practices is summarized

  20. Effect of dietary inclusion of alfalfa (Medicago sativa) and black cumin (Nigella sativa) on performance and some blood metabolites of Japanese quail

    OpenAIRE

    Navid Hosseini Mansoub; Mahmoud Pooryousef Myandoab

    2012-01-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the effect of dietary inclusion of alfalfa (Medicago sativa) and black cumin (Nigella sativa) powder on performance and serum composition of Japanese quails. One week old three hundreds Japanese quails were divided into 4 groups (of three replicates each) in a randomized design. G1 is the control group that did not receive any herbal planet, G2 group was fed the control diet + 2% of Alfalfa powder, G3 group was fed the cont...

  1. Preliminary Test of Upgraded Conventional Milling Machine into PC Based CNC Milling Machine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    CNC (Computerized Numerical Control) milling machine yields a challenge to make an innovation in the field of machining. With an action job is machining quality equivalent to CNC milling machine, the conventional milling machine ability was improved to be based on PC CNC milling machine. Mechanically and instrumentally change. As a control replacing was conducted by servo drive and proximity were used. Computer programme was constructed to give instruction into milling machine. The program structure of consists GUI model and ladder diagram. Program was put on programming systems called RTX software. The result of up-grade is computer programming and CNC instruction job. The result was beginning step and it will be continued in next time. With upgrading ability milling machine becomes user can be done safe and optimal from accident risk. By improving performance of milling machine, the user will be more working optimal and safely against accident risk. (author)

  2. Sensory acceptability evaluation of irradiated rice, oryza sativa indica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The non-glutinous and glutinous types of polished rice, Oryza sativa indica were subjected to gamma rays at ambient temperature and stored at 27+-10C for one week. The irradiated rice was cooked and tasted by members of trained panel. Using Hedonic scale and Triangle test, the acceptability of irradiated rice was justified. Gamma irradiation up to 100 krads did not significantly cause off-color, off-odor and off flavor in irradiated non-glutino rice. Glutinous rice irradiated at 60 krads could not be significantly differentiated from non-irradiated sample

  3. POLLINATION EVENTS IN NIGELLA SATIVA L. (BLACK CUMIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suchetana Mukherjee

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The pollination events in Nigella sativa Family: Ranunculaceae; common name: black cumin; significant plant species for therapeutic uses and possessing spice yielding property has been studied in relation to floral morphology, consequences of pollination types on reproductive parameters, types of visitors (Apis dorsata Fabr. – honeybees; Coccinella transversalis Fabr. - lady bug, Danaux plexippus L. - butterfly and Colletes succinctus L. - wasp and flower color changes from bud to blooming stage. Honeybees are the predominant pollinators. Pollination is of ‘generalized type’. The study has provided insight on the effective mode of pollination in the species maximizing seed yield.

  4. Nigella sativa and its active constituent thymoquinone in oral health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Attass, Safia A; Zahran, Fat'heya M; Turkistany, Shereen A

    2016-03-01

    In this review, we summarized published reports that investigated the role of Nigella sativa (NS) and its active constituent, thymoquinone (TQ) in oral health and disease management. The literature studies were preliminary and scanty, but the results revealed that black seed plants have a potential therapeutic effect for oral and dental diseases. Such results are encouraging for the incorporation of these plants in dental therapeutics and hygiene products. However, further detailed preclinical and clinical studies at the cellular and molecular levels are required to investigate the mechanisms of action of NS and its constituents, particularly TQ. PMID:26905343

  5. Novel lipid constituents identified in seeds of Nigella sativa (Linn)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Novel lipids were isolated from the unsaponifiable matter extracted from seeds of Nigella sativa Linn by using n-hexane. The new dienoate and two monoesters were the new lipids identified by spectral (IR, 1H- and 13C-NMR spectra, mass spectrum, elemental analysis) and chemical analysis. The dienoate (1) was identified as methylnonadeca-15,17-dienoate and two monoesters were identified as pentyl hexadec-12-enoate (2) and pentyl pentadec-11-enoate (3). Linoleic acid, oleic acid, β-sitosterol and stigmasterol were identified as part of the lipid structures. All compounds exhibited moderate activity against Staphylococcus aureus and poor activity against shigella spp, and Klebsiella pneumoniae. (author)

  6. Transferability analysis of EST-SSR markers of Castanea mollissima to Castanopsis fargesii%中国板栗EST-SSR分子标记在栲树中的通用性分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李春; 孙晔

    2012-01-01

    Simple sequence repeats(SSR),also known as microsatellite molecular markers,have been cross-amplified successfully in closely related species of the same genus and even across genera within the same family. In the present study, 124 primer pairs of polymorphic EST-SSR originally developed from Castanea mollissima were cross-amplified in Castanopsis fargesii. Results indicated that 42. 7% of Castanea mollssima EST-SSR primers were successfully cross-amplified in Castanopsis far gesii and 56. 6% were polymorphic. The genetic diversity of 4 populations of C. fargesii were investigated with polymorphic EST-SSRs, preliminary results showed that C. fargesii possessed high levels of genetic diversity(Na=6.105,Ho=0. 563,He-0.621). These polymorphic EST-SSR primers would provide a powerful tool for further investigation on population genetics of C. fargesii.%简单重复序列也称为微卫星分子标记,不仅在同属近缘种间具有良好的通用性,甚至在近缘属间也具有一定的通用性.本研究利用壳斗科基因组信息数据库中公布的中国板栗124对多态的EST-SSR引物在栲树中进行跨属(栗属到栲属)通用性研究,结果显示中国板栗EST-SSR引物在栲树中通用性和多态性分别为42.7%和56.6%;使用19对多态的EST-SSR引物对4个栲树自然居群的遗传多样性进行初步分析,结果显示栲树自然居群具有较高的遗传多样性(Na=6.105,Ho=0.563,He=0.621).这些引物为栲树群体遗传学的深入研究提供了有力工具.

  7. Environmental planning in uranium milling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Effluents from uranium milling in the Achala region in the province of Cordoba are studied. Liquids from lixiviation-recovery and from precipitation-washing of yellow-cake were analyzed. Separation of both liquids before treatment and disposal is recommended. Data of the hydric environment are presented specially for volumes of flow. The disposal criteria established by the provincial authorities are presented, and discussed. Calculations to define the effects on the environment of two types of effluents (the leaching effluent without treatment and the same after treating it) on two points of the rivers net, are given and the results discussed. A disposal policy for a treated effluent of mean composition is presented, based on two different amounts for the two phases of the river flux; the possible effects on two points of the net were also calculated. In the author's opinion, such policy will result in a disposal without a sensible damage in the receptor. (Author)

  8. GC-MS study of Nigella sativa (seeds fatty oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehta, B. K.

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available The GC-MS study of N. sativa (seeds fatty oil revealed the presence of 26 compounds which were identified as methyl hept-6-enoate,1-phenylhepta-2,4-dione, pentadecane, hexadec-1-ene, 1-phenyldecan-2-one, octadec-1-ene, octadecane, methyl pentadecanoate, bis(3-chlorophenyl ketone, diethyl phthalate, ethyl octadec-7-enoate, methyl octadecanoate, tricos-9-ene, octadeca-9,12-dienoic acid, hexadecanoic acid, methyl hexadecanoate, methyl octadec-15-enoate, henicosan-10-one, 2-methyl octadecanoic acid, docos-1-ene, ethyl octadecanoate, methyl octadecanoate, pentacos-5-ene,12-methyltricosane, dibutyl phthalate and 2-methyltetracosane.El estudio por GC-MS del aceite de la semilla de Nigella sativa reveló la presencia de 26 compuestos los cuales fueron identificados como: hept-6-enoato de metilo, 1-fenilhepta-2,4-diona, pentadecano, hexadec-1-eno, 1-fenildecan-2-ona, octadec-1-eno, octadecano, pentadecanoato de metilo, bis(3-clorofenil cetona, ftalato de dietilo, octadec-7-enoato de etilo, octadecanoato de metilo, tricos-9-eno, ácido octadeca-9,12-dienoico, ácido hexadecanoico, hexadecanoato de metilo, octadec-15-enoato de metilo, henicosan-10-ona, ácido 2-metil octadecanoico, docos-1-eno, octadecanoato de etilo, octadecanoato de metilo, pentacos-5-eno, 12-metiltricosano, ftalato de dibutilo y 2-metiltetracosano.

  9. Construction of Oryza Sativa genome contigs by fingerprint strategy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TAOQUAZHOU; GUOFANHONG; 等

    1995-01-01

    We described the construction of BAC contigs of the genome of a indica variety of Oryza sativa.Guang Lu Ai 4. An entire representative(Sixfold coverage of rice chromosomes)and genetically stable BAC library of rice genome constructed in this lab has been systematically analysed by restriction enzyme fragmentation and polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis.And all the images thus obtained were subject to image-processing,which consisted of preliminary location of bands,cooperative tracking of lanes by correlation of adjacent bads.a precise densitometric pass,alignment at the marker bands with the standard,optional interactive editing,and normalization of the accepted bands.The contigs were generated based on the Computer Software specially designed for genome mapping.The number of contigs with 600 kb in length on average was 464.of contigs with 1000kb in length on average was 107; of contigs with 1500 kb in length on average was Construction of Oryza Sativa genome contigs.23.Therefor,all the contigs we have obtained ampunted up to 420 megabases in length.Considering the size of rice genome(430 megabased),the contigs generated in this lab have covered nearly 98% of the rice genome.We are now in the process of mapping the contigs to chromosomes.

  10. Using the eight-roller mill in the purifier-less mill flow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fistes, Aleksandar; Rakić, Dušan

    2015-07-01

    Double grinding of mill streams without intermediate sieving, i.e. the eight-roller milling system provides opportunities for significant reduction of capital cost compared to conventional wheat flour milling system. In this study the effects of using the eight-roller mill in the purifier-less mill flow were investigated. Middlings from the break system of commercial flour mill, which would be sent to the purification system, were intercepted and employed in the experiments. Milling results obtained with double grinding of middlings were compared with the results obtained by conventional system with intermediate sifting before regrinding of stock. At the same roll gap setting and under the same sieving conditions, the eight-roller system produced less flour compared to the conventional system. Results showed that the most efficient way to increase flour yield in the eight-roller milling system is to increase the upper size limit of flour by increasing the sieve aperture. This is not followed by the deterioration of flour quality as determined by ash content. Increase of the upper size limit of flour particles is followed by the decrease of the flour ash content suggesting that it is possible to implement the eight-roller mills in the purifier-less mill flow. PMID:26139941

  11. Essential oils of Nigella sativa protects Artemia from the pathogenic effect of Vibrio parahaemolyticus Dahv2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manju, Sivalingam; Malaikozhundan, Balasubramanian; Withyachumnarnkul, Boonsirm; Vaseeharan, Baskaralingam

    2016-05-01

    The anti-Vibrio activity of essential oils (EOs) of nine medicinal plants was tested against 28 Vibrio spp. isolated from diseased Fenneropenaeus indicus. EO of Nigella sativa exhibited anti-Vibrio activity against all Vibrio spp. and greater inhibition was noted for the isolate V2 which was identified as Vibrio parahaemolyticus Dahv2. Further, EO of N. sativa effectively inhibited V. parahaemolyticus Dahv2 with an inhibition zone of 23.9mm at 101.2μgml(-1). Moreover, EO of N. sativa revealed anti-biofilm activity at 101.2μgml(-1) against V. parahaemolyticus Dahv2 and inhibited the growth of V. parahaemolyticus Dahv2 at 100μgml(-1).In vivo experimental infection studies showed that the survival of Artemia spp. infected with V. parahaemolyticus Dahv2 at 1×10(3)cfuml(-1) was only 40%. However, the survival of Artemia spp. was significantly increased after challenge with 100μgml(-1) of EO of N. sativa. EO of N. sativa showed higher anti-oxidant potential and total phenol content than other EOs tested. The anti-oxidant activity of EO of N. sativa was highly correlated to their total phenolic contents (r=0.836, P<0.05). This observation suggests that EO of N. sativa protected the Artemia spp. after experimental infection of V. parahaemolyticus Dahv2. PMID:26945773

  12. Effect of Nigella sativa on reproductive system in experimental menopause rat model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saadat Parhizkar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Menopause is the condition when regular menstrual periods cease and may be accompanied by psychological and physical symptoms. The purpose of current study was to determine Nigella sativa effects on reproductive system in experimental menopause animal models. Materials and Methods: A series of experiments wasconducted to investigate the effects of different dosages of N. sativa (first experiment, various extracts of N. sativa (second experimentand some of its ingredients (third experiment on selected menopausal parameters of ovariectomized (OVX rats. Forty different OVX rats were equally divided into 5 groups and administered with one of the following treatments for 21 days: conjugated equine estrogen (positive control, distilled water or olive oil (negative control, treatment groups  (N. sativa300, 600 and 1200 mg/kg in the first experiment, (300mg/kg methanol, hexane and SFE extracts of N. sativa in the second experiment and (linoleic acid 50 mg/kg, gamma linolenic acid 10mg/kg, and thymoquinone 15mg/kg in the third experiment. Results: The results demonstrated that N.sativa exert estrogenic effect were exhibited through uterotrophic assay and vaginal cell cornification as well as blood estrogen level. Furthermore, low dose N. sativa, methanol extract and linoleic acid had prominent estrogenic like effects which were significantly different from those of control group (p

  13. Coal Moisture Estimation in Power Plant Mills

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Palle; Bendtsen, Jan Dimon; Pedersen, Tom S.;

    2009-01-01

    Knowledge of moisture content in raw coal feed to a power plant coal mill is of importance for efficient operation of the mill. The moisture is commonly measured approximately once a day using offline chemical analysis methods; however, it would be advantageous for the dynamic operation of the...... plant if an on-line estimate were available. In this paper we such propose an on-line estimator (an extended Kalman filter) that uses only existing measurements. The scheme is tested on actual coal mill data collected during a one-month operating period, and it is found that the daily measured moisture...

  14. Remediation of inactive mining and milling sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The presentation introduces relevant environment remediation standards and describes some measures of engineering remedied for inactive mines and mills. Since 1990, the remediation of decommissioned nuclear facilities has obtained fixed financial aid from state government, part of which is offered to inactive mines and mills. Considering the environmental characteristics of Chinese uranium mines and mills, the major task of decommissioning is to prevent radon release, and keep surface water and underground water from contamination. In order to control the rate of radon release effectively, the authors' research institutes conducted a series of experiments on the covers of tailings with two kinds of different material, clay and concrete

  15. Environmental design of a uranium mill

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the frame work of the Cleaner Technology Project for Uranium Mining and Milling, Australian Nuclear and Technology Organization (ANSTO), Environment Division of ANSTO has carried out a programme of research which seeks to identify, investigate and develop cleaner technologies that have the potential to minimize the environmental impact of uranium mining and milling. This paper describes three design options of a new uranium mill that can meet environmental, technical and economical objectives. The feasibility of such an approach was examined in the laboratory and in a pilot plant study. (author)

  16. Effect of Nigella sativa on reproductive system in experimental menopause rat model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parhizkar, Saadat; Latiff, Latiffah Abdul; Parsa, Ali

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Menopause is the condition when regular menstrual periods cease and may be accompanied by psychological and physical symptoms. The purpose of current study was to determine Nigella sativa effects on reproductive system in experimental menopause animal models. Materials and Methods: A series of experiments was conducted to investigate the effects of different dosages of N. sativa (first experiment), various extracts of N. sativa (second experiment) and some of its ingredients (third experiment) on selected menopausal parameters of ovariectomized (OVX) rats. Forty different OVX rats were equally divided into 5 groups and administered with one of the following treatments for 21 days: conjugated equine estrogen (positive control), distilled water or olive oil (negative control), treatment groups (N. sativa300, 600 and 1200 mg/kg in the first experiment), (300mg/kg methanol, hexane and SFE extracts of N. sativa in the second experiment) and (linoleic acid 50 mg/kg, gamma linolenic acid 10mg/kg, and thymoquinone 15mg/kg in the third experiment). Results: The results demonstrated that N.sativa exert estrogenic effect were exhibited through uterotrophic assay and vaginal cell cornification as well as blood estrogen level. Furthermore, low dose N. sativa, methanol extract and linoleic acid had prominent estrogenic like effects which were significantly different from those of control group (p<0.05) in different experiments. Conclusion: The finding indicated the probable beneficial role for N. sativa in the treatment of postmenopausal symptoms and possibility of using N. sativa as an alternative to hormone replacement therapy (HRT) for post menopause in human. PMID:27247926

  17. Synthesis and characterization of silicon carbide by reaction milling in a dual-drive planetary mill

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The formation of silicon carbide from elemental silicon and graphite powder by reaction milling in a specially designed dual-drive planetary mill is reported. The phase evolutions, particle size distribution, and morphology of particles during milling are studied during a 40-h grinding period. X-ray diffraction study indicates complete conversion of silicon and graphite to silicon carbide. The crystallite size varies from 150 nm from the start to 10 nm after 40 h of milling. The lattice strain increases with milling up to about 20 h when SiC forms and subsequently with the formation of SiC it is reduced. Al-SiC composites are prepared by mixing Al with 40 h milled final SiC powder and sintered in an inert atmosphere. The composites show excellent compatibility between Al and SiC particles, no voids or cracks are present

  18. Optimization of FIB milling for rapid NEMS prototyping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malm, Bjarke; Petersen, Dirch Hjorth; Lei, Anders;

    2011-01-01

    We demonstrate an optimized milling technique to focused ion beam (FIB) milling in template silicon membranes for fast prototyping of nanoelectromechanical systems (NEMS). Using a single-pass milling strategy the highly topology dependent sputtering rate is boosted and shorter milling time is...... in NEMS development can accomplish....

  19. Effect of Fixed Oil of Nigella Sativa on Male Fertility in Normal and Hyperlipidemic Rats

    OpenAIRE

    A.E. Samir Bashandy

    2007-01-01

    High plasma level of cholesterol or triglycerides was associated with poor semen quality and direct adverse effects on testicular function that may lead to male infertility. The effect of fixed oil of Nigella sativa (N. sativa) on male fertility in normal and hyperlipidemic rats was studied. Induction of hyperlipidemia was done by feeding rats on a diet containing 1% cholesterol, 2% sheep fat and 0.5% cholic acid for 2 months. Oil of N. sativa was orally given (0.5mL/rat) for 2 months daily t...

  20. Nigella sativa Oil Enhances the Spatial Working Memory Performance of Rats on a Radial Arm Maze

    OpenAIRE

    Mohamad Khairul Azali Sahak; Abdul Majid Mohamed; Noor Hashida Hashim; Durriyyah Sharifah Hasan Adli

    2013-01-01

    Nigella sativa, an established historical and religion-based remedy for a wide range of health problems, is a herbal medicine known to have antioxidant and neuroprotective effects. This present study investigated the effect of Nigella sativa oil (NSO) administration on the spatial memory performance (SMP) of male adult rats using eight-arm radial arm maze (RAM). Twelve Sprague Dawley rats (7–9 weeks old) were force-fed daily with 6.0  μ L/100 g body weight of Nigella sativa oil (NSO group; n ...

  1. Uranium Mill and ISL Facility Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — An Excel database on NRC and Agreement State licensed mills providing status, locational/operational/restoration data, maps, and environmental reports including...

  2. Health risks from uranium mill tailings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reviews the risk to public health and the environment from uranium mill tailings. The steps taken by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to reduce this risk from tailing are summarized

  3. GEOMETRICAL CHARACTERIZATION OF MICRO END MILLING TOOLS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borsetto, Francesca; Bariani, Paolo

    /lubricants, milling strategies and controls. Moreover the accuracy of tool geometry directly affects the performance of the milling process influencing the dimensional tolerances of the machined part, the surface topography, the chip formation, the cutting forces and the tool-life. The dimensions of certain...... for the manufacturing of miniature parts by micro milling puts further challenges on to the manufacturing process. The whole geometry of the tools cannot be directly downscaled with the tool diameter. Besides the physical limit in the reduction of the cutting edge radius constituted by the grain size of sintered...... carbides the error motion during the grinding wheels do not allow using identical paths for tools having differences in diameter of more than one order of magnitude. Thus grinding paths for micro and mills are simplified in comparison to those for larger tools of similar shape. [1] The aim of the present...

  4. On the classification of Yang Mills fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A scheme of Classification for Yang Mills fields analogous to the Petrov Classification in general relativity is discussed. It is also shown how such a classification is used to obtain explicit solutions of the equations of motion. (author)

  5. Decommissioning plan for Andujar uranium mill facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The milling of radioactive ores results in contaminated buildings and facilities which must be decommissioned, and large quantities of tailings which must be managed safely so that residual environmental and health risks do not exceed acceptable levels. In the south of Spain on the outskirts of the town of Andujar an inactive uranium mill facility is under decommissioning. Mill equipment, buildings and process facilities have been dismantled and demolished and the resulting metal wastes and debris have been placed in the pile. The tailing mass is being reshaped by flattening the sideslopes and a cover system will be placed over the pile. This paper describes the safety aspects and technical approaches which are being used for the remediation and closure of the Andujar mill site. (author). 7 figs

  6. INTERFIBER COMPETITION IN TEXTILE MILLS OVER TIME

    OpenAIRE

    zhang, ping; Fletcher, Stanley M.; Ethridge, Don E.

    1994-01-01

    Cotton and synthetic fiber competition in textile mills between 1961-1990 was examined using a time-varying parameter regression model. Results indicate that the structure of demand for cotton is not stable and cotton's share responses to changes in the prices of cotton and synthetic fiber vary over time. Cotton and synthetic fiber competition in textile mill use is essentially between cotton and noncellulosic fiber. Cellulosic fiver is not a cotton competitor.

  7. Micronization of proteins by jet milling

    OpenAIRE

    Ehmer, Axel

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this thesis was to provide more information about the jet milling of proteins, to identify important parameters and their effect on resulting particle size, chemical stability and bioactivity of the investigated proteins. To perform the planned micronization experiments the MC One® of Jetpharma had to be modified. A cryogenic cooling system had been established facilitating milling gas temperatures of about -60°C in reproducible quality. To exclude possible effects of air humidi...

  8. Olive Mill wastewater bioremediation towards detoxification

    OpenAIRE

    Paixão, Susana M.; Ribeiro, Belina; Sàágua, M. C.; Baeta-Hall, Lina; Correia, Anabela; Duarte, José Cardoso

    2011-01-01

    Olive oil production is a traditional agricultural industry in Mediterranean countries and Portugal is one of the ten major producers. This industry generates an effluent, olive mill wastewater (OMW), which does not undergo any treatment and, usually, is stored in evaporation lagoons or spread on the land. Disposal of olive oil mill wastewaters is a serious environmental problem due to its high organic loading, presence of polyphenols and tannins, high content in suspended solids and acidity,...

  9. Palm Oil Milling Wastes and Sustainable Development

    OpenAIRE

    A. C. Er; Abd. R.M. Nor; Katiman Rostam

    2011-01-01

    Problem statement: Palm oil milling generates solid wastes, effluent and gaseous emissions. The aim of this study is to assess the progress made in waste management by the Malaysian palm oil milling sector towards the path of sustainable development. Sustainable development is defined as the utilization of renewable resources in harmony with ecological systems. Inclusive in this definition is the transition from low value-added to higher value-added transformation of waste...

  10. Practitioner Profile: An Interview With Amanda Mills

    OpenAIRE

    Amanda Mills

    2012-01-01

    For more than 25 years, Amanda Mills has been working with arts organizations across Canada and with artists of all kinds to assist them in achieving financial sanity. She has taught business management at the University of Victoria and has prepared thousands of tax returns for writers, visual artists, choreographers, actors, filmmakers, broadcasters, and creative entrepreneurs. Ten years ago, bringing together her work on trauma, with twenty years of business management, Mills founded ...

  11. "SPINNING MILLS IN KOLHAPUR DISTRICT: A CASE STUDY OF DRKCOSPIN"

    OpenAIRE

    Prakash Soudagar Raut

    2016-01-01

    The first successful co-operative spinning mill was established at Ichalkarangi in Kolhapur District of Maharashtra in 1960.Development of Spinning Mills in Kolhapur District is influenced by many natural as well as economic factors. The entire factors provide a good base upon which the Spinning Mills flourish. Economic or demographic factors play a powerful part in the development of Spinning Mills in Kolhapur District. The Spinning Mills are of paramount importance in Kolhapur District. The...

  12. Dynamic estimation of electrical demand in hot rolling mills

    OpenAIRE

    Alonso Orcajo, Gonzalo Arturo; Rodríguez, Josué; Ardura García, Pablo; Cano Rodríguez, José Manuel; González Norniella, Joaquín; Llera Traviesa, Rocío; Cifrián, Diego

    2016-01-01

    This paper proposes a method capable of reproducing the particular operating conditions of a hot strip mill and predicting the evolution of the main electrical variables from both the characteristics of the steel to be milled and the specific features of the rolling mill. The method analyzes the load torque and the motor speed evolution in the stands of the roughing and finishing mill drives, according to the steel to be milled. In this study three types of carbon alloy steel are considered, ...

  13. Enzymatic corn wet milling: engineering process and cost model

    OpenAIRE

    McAloon Andrew J; Johnston David B; Ramírez Edna C; Singh Vijay

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background Enzymatic corn wet milling (E-milling) is a process derived from conventional wet milling for the recovery and purification of starch and co-products using proteases to eliminate the need for sulfites and decrease the steeping time. In 2006, the total starch production in USA by conventional wet milling equaled 23 billion kilograms, including modified starches and starches used for sweeteners and ethanol production 1. Process engineering and cost models for an E-milling pr...

  14. Predictive Function Control for Milling Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhihuan Zhang

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The adaptive constant control for the cutting process is an effective way to improve the productivity of the Computer Numerical Control (CNC milling machine. This control is achieved through adjusting the feed rate online, and many scholars has been concentrated in the field. However, in of the existing adaptive constant control algorithms, the controller parameters are tuned only depends on the dynamic behavior of the controlled system, without giving effect to control the input and system output prospects. Therefore, milling force mutated because of the mutation of the depth or width of cut usually resulting in the overshooting of control system or overflow of control input. In this paper, we present a new solution to the problem, in which a mathematical model of milling process is established based on the characteristics of the CNC milling process. Then the predictive functional control law is introduced on the milling process and the controller parameters can be tuned online. The Simulation results show that the proposed method has the advantages of strong robustness to different interferences, good practicability for the milling process, and good real-time control responsibility.  

  15. High-speed milling of light metals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Cus

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Purpose of this paper: Introduction applicability of high-speed cutting of light metals is presented inthis paper.Design/methodology/approach:HSC is the result of numerous technical advances ensuring that milling hasbecome faster than conventional milling and has gained importance as a cutting process. The advantages ofthe HSC milling are higher productivity owing to the reduction of machining times increase of the flow timeof production, reduction of the number of technological operations, increase of the surface quality and longerservice life of tools. The machining conditions for execution of the HSC (36000min-1 and feeding 20m/minrequire modernly built machine tools to meet those machining conditions.Findings: Continuous development of new materials is more and more dynamical, particularly, in theautomobile, aircraft and electronic industry and in the manufacture of various mechanical parts. Also theachievements in the area of building of machines and tools, ensuring high cutting speeds (highly efficientmachining have contributed to development of the process.Research limitations/implications: High quality of the surfaces, the quality of this so-called HSC milling canbe compared to grinding.Practical implications: High-speed milling of light metals from aluminium and magnesium is more and morefrequently used in practice. This result is high quality of the surface and shorter machining times. In some caseswhen machining by grinding is specified, the latter is omitted.Originality/value: The applicability of high-speed milling has proved to be successful, when aluminum andmagnesium alloying materials are machined.

  16. Antibacterial Activity of Nigella sativa L. Seed Extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.V. Suresh Kumar

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Most of the bacterial pathogens are resistant to existing synthetic antibacterial agents demanding an increasing effort to seek effective phytochemicals as antibacterial agents against such pathogens. Nigella sativa L. (black cumin seeds play an important role in folk medicine and some of its major constituents are reported to be pharmacologically active. In this present work, black cumin seed extracts were obtained using supercritical carbon dioxide (SCCO2 and conventional soxtec extraction using various organic solvents. The antibacterial activities of the extracts were investigated by the agar dilution method against Gram-positive bacteria (Bacillus cereus F 4810 and Staphylococcus aureus FRI 722 and Gram-negative bacteria (Escherichia coli MTCC 108 and Yersinia enterocolitica MTCC 859. SCCO2-1 (120 bar/40ºC extract showed effective growth inhibition than conventional solvent extracts against all the tested bacteria. Further the antibacterial principle present in the extract was isolated and characterized found to be thymoquinone.

  17. Alfalfa (Medicago Sativa L As A Promising Forage In Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sajimin

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L or Lucerne is a perennial herbaceous legume with superior forage quality. It is the most important forage crop in the world and it was the first domesticated forage crop. Alfalfa is able to fix nitrogen from the air through a symbiotic relationship with Rhizobium bacteria with N production 7.85 – 10.37 g/m2. Its rooting system can reach 4.5 m that allows it to escape drought. Forage production can reach 15.48 tons of dry matter per ha/year and containing 18.0 – 29.1 % crude protein. Plants can live 3 to 12 years depending on climatic conditions and crop varieties. However, alfalfa is not a tropical plant, thus it has not been widely cultivated in Indonesia. The problem of alfalfa cultivation are high pest attacks and competition with weeds. Therefore, alfalfa cultivation requires attention and good management to obtain optimum yield.

  18. Trichomes of Cannabis sativa as viewed with scanning electron microscope

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ledbetter, M.C.; Krikorian, A.D.

    1975-06-01

    Direct examination of fresh, unfixed and uncoated specimens from vegetative and floral parts of Cannabis sativa with the scanning electron microscope enables one to obtain a faithful representation of their surface morphology. The presence of two major types of trichomes has been confirmed: a glandular type comprising or terminating in a globoid structure, and a conically-shaped nonglandular type. Moreover, three or possibly four distinct glandular types can be distinguished: sessile globoid, small-stalked and large-stalked globoid, and a peltate type. The nonglandular trichomes can be distinguished by the nature of their surfaces: those with a warty surface, and those which are relatively smooth. The range of size and distribution, and the special features of all these types of trichomes are also provided.

  19. Hemp (Cannabis sativa L.) as an Environmentally Friendly Energyplant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poisa, Liena; Adamovics, Aleksandrs

    2010-01-01

    Hemp is suitable as a renewable energy resource. The aim of this study was to clarify local hemp's (Cannabis sativa L.) possibilities for energy use. Arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd), lead (Pb) and titanium (Ti) presence in hemp was determined using an inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometer Optima 2100 DV. If there were increased N fertilizer rates, there were increased hemp `Pūriņi' seeds and shive yield increases, but the oil content was reduced. Arsenic content was higher in the shives than in the stems with fibre. The ash content depends on non-organic substances which the plants absorb during the vegetation season. The lignin content depends on several factors: plant parts, and the N fertilizer rate. The unexplored factors have a great effect on the ash and lignin content. Hemp is suitable for cultivation and for bio-energy production in the agro-climatic conditions in Latvia.

  20. [Co-crystallization of cucumber concentrate (Cucumis sativa L.)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vázquez, A; Beristain, C I

    1998-09-01

    A sucrose syrup of 70 degrees Brix was concentrated until a concentration greater than 95 degrees Brix was attained. It was studied the effect of concentration (20, 25 and 35 degrees Brix) on the physical properties of the cucumber (Cucumis sativa L.) granules. Moisture content, solubility, and density were determined. The best results were found for the concentrated at 30 degrees Brix. Lemon juice was added to the concentrated to decrease pH from 5.5 to 4.0 to improve flavor and to avoid growth of molds and yeast. No significant differences in the higroscopicity were found between both pH (s). Sensory evaluation shows that 30 judges of 45 preferred the sample made with the co-crystallizate containing lemon juice. PMID:9951539

  1. Crystal structure of isoflavone reductase from alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaoqiang; He, Xianzhi; Lin, Jianqiao; Shao, Hui; Chang, Zhenzhan; Dixon, Richard A

    2006-05-19

    Isoflavonoids play important roles in plant defense and exhibit a range of mammalian health-promoting activities. Isoflavone reductase (IFR) specifically recognizes isoflavones and catalyzes a stereospecific NADPH-dependent reduction to (3R)-isoflavanone. The crystal structure of Medicago sativa IFR with deletion of residues 39-47 has been determined at 1.6A resolution. Structural analysis, molecular modeling and docking, and comparison with the structures of other NADPH-dependent enzymes, defined the putative binding sites for co-factor and substrate and potential key residues for enzyme activity and substrate specificity. Further mutagenesis has confirmed the role of Lys144 as a catalytic residue. This study provides a structural basis for understanding the enzymatic mechanism and substrate specificity of IFRs as well as the functions of IFR-like proteins. PMID:16600295

  2. Novel lipid constituents identified in seeds of Nigella sativa (Linn)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mehta, B.K.; Verma, Manjul; Gupta, Meenal [Vikram University (India). School of Studies in Chemistry and Biochemistry]. E-mail: bkmehta11@yahoo.com

    2008-07-01

    Novel lipids were isolated from the unsaponifiable matter extracted from seeds of Nigella sativa Linn by using n-hexane. The new dienoate and two monoesters were the new lipids identified by spectral (IR, {sup 1}H- and {sup 13}C-NMR spectra, mass spectrum, elemental analysis) and chemical analysis. The dienoate (1) was identified as methylnonadeca-15,17-dienoate and two monoesters were identified as pentyl hexadec-12-enoate (2) and pentyl pentadec-11-enoate (3). Linoleic acid, oleic acid, {beta}-sitosterol and stigmasterol were identified as part of the lipid structures. All compounds exhibited moderate activity against Staphylococcus aureus and poor activity against shigella spp, and Klebsiella pneumoniae. (author)

  3. Ultrasound-assisted biodiesel production from Camelina sativa oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sáez-Bastante, J; Ortega-Román, C; Pinzi, S; Lara-Raya, F R; Leiva-Candia, D E; Dorado, M P

    2015-06-01

    The main drawbacks of biodiesel production are high reaction temperatures, stirring and time. These could be alleviated by aiding transesterification with alternative energy sources, i.e. ultrasound (US). In this study, biodiesel was obtained from Camelina sativa oil, aided with an ultrasonic probe (20kHz, 70% duty cycle, 50% amplitude). Design of experiments included the combination of sonication and agitation cycles, w/wo heating (50°C). To gain knowledge about the implications of the proposed methodology, conventional transesterification was optimized, resulting in higher needs on catalyst concentration and reaction time, compared to the proposed reaction. Although FAME content met EN 14103 standard, FAME yields were lower than those provided by US-assisted transesterification. Energy consumption measurements showed that ultrasound assisted transesterification required lower energy, temperature, catalyst and reaction time. PMID:25768413

  4. Furanocoumarins in Pastinaca sativa L. in vitro culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekiert, H; Gomółka, E

    2000-08-01

    Callus cultures of Pastinaca sativa L. (parsnip), Apiaceae, were cultivated on variants of Linsmaier-Skoog's medium, containing varying quantities (0.1-10.0 mg/l) of phytohormones: NAA-BAP and IBA-BAP which allowed to obtain 1.5-3-fold fresh biomass growth during 6-week subcultures. HPLC analyses showed that tissues cultured in vitro produced psoralen, bergapten, xanthotoxin, isopimpinellin and umbelliferone which are well known metabolites in plants growing under natural conditions. Total content of coumarins depended on the nature and quantity of phytohormones present in the medium, and ranged from 115.7 to 408.5 mg/100 g of the dry weight, isopimpinellin being the metabolite which dominated quantitatively (maximum content of 238.9 mg/100 g). Psoralen was also accumulated in callus tissues at considerable amounts (maximum content of 108.8 mg/100 g). This metabolite dominated in vegetative plant parts that have been analysed in our study (leaves, stems, roots) but its contents were lower than in the material from in vitro culture (48.9 mg/100 g 10.6 mg/100 g and 14.9 mg/100 g, respectively). Imperatorin was not detected in callus tissues although it dominated in the analysed fruits of the studied plant (200.0 mg/100 g). The best of the tested media in respect of promoting tissue biosynthetic capabilities was that which contained 3 mg/l NAA and 1 mg/l BAP. The studies showed that in vitro cultures of Pastinaca sativa L. can be a convenient model to study the biosynthesis of furanocoumarins and also a potential rich source of these compounds, particularly isopimpinellin. PMID:10989843

  5. The Protective Effects of Nigella sativa and Its Constituents on Induced Neurotoxicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Reza Khazdair

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Nigella sativa (N. sativa is an annual plant and widely used as medicinal plant throughout the world. The seeds of the plant have been used traditionally in various disorders and as a spice to ranges of Persian foods. N. sativa has therapeutic effects on tracheal responsiveness (TR and lung inflammation on induced toxicity by Sulfur mustard. N. sativa has been widely used in treatment of various nervous system disorders such as Alzheimer disease, epilepsy, and neurotoxicity. Most of the therapeutic properties of this plant are due to the presence of some phenolic compounds especially thymoquinone (TQ, which is major bioactive component of the essential oil. The present review is an effort to provide a comprehensive study of the literature on scientific researches of pharmacological activities of the seeds of this plant on induced neurotoxicity.

  6. Inhibitory effect of marine green algal extracts on germination of Lactuca sativa seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Jae-Suk; Choi, In Soon

    2016-03-01

    The allelopathic potential of nine green seaweed species was examined based on germination and seedling growth of lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.). Out of nine methanol extracts, Capsosiphon fulvescens and Monostroma nitidum extracts completely inhibited germination of L. sativa at 4 mg/filter paper after 24 hr of treatment. Water extracts of these seaweeds generally showed low anti-germination activities than methanol extracts. Of the nine water extracts, Enteromorpha linza extract completely inhibited L. sativa germination at 16 mg/filter paper after 24 hrs. To identify the primary active compounds, C. fulvescens. powder was successively fractionated according to polarity, and the main active agents against L. sativa were determined to be lipids (0.0% germination at 0.5 mg of lipids/paper disc). According to these results, extracts of C. fulvescens can be used to develop natural herbicidal agents and manage terrestrial weeds. PMID:27097439

  7. Optimized analysis and quantification of glucosinolates from Camelina sativa seeds by reverse-phase liquid chromatography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gold-of-pleasure or false flax (Camelina sativa L. Crantz) presscake contains three relatively unique glucosinolates: glucoarabin (9-(methylsulfinyl) nonylglucosinolate)glucocamelinin (10-(methylsulfinyl)decylglucosinolate), and 11-(methylsulfinyl)undecylglucosinolate. Using defatted seed material...

  8. Anti-microbial effect of Nigella sativa seed extract against staphylococcal skin Infection

    OpenAIRE

    Rafati, Shiva; Niakan, Mohammad; Naseri, Mohsen

    2014-01-01

    Background: The development of microbial resistance to the existing anti-microbial agents has become a real challenge and a serious problem facing patients suffering from skin infections. Seeds of Nigella sativa have been used for a long time in folk medicine for the treatment of skin infections. Production of new potent agents is urgently needed, especially for hospitals and health care centers. This study is designed to explore anti-microbial effect of extract from the Nigella sativa seeds ...

  9. Antipsoriatic activity and cytotoxicity of ethanolic extract of Nigella sativa seeds

    OpenAIRE

    Lalitha Priyanka Dwarampudi; Dhanabal Palaniswamy; Muruganantham Nithyanantham; Raghu, P. S.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Nigella sativa Linn (Ranunculaceae) is popularly known as black cumin with a wide spectrum of pharmacological activities including anti-inflammatory, antibacterial, antifungal and antihelmenthic. The seeds are externally applied for eruptions of skin. The seeds are used traditionally for psoriasis tropicus with general pain and eruption of patches. Objective: The ethanolic extract of Nigella sativa seeds were evaluated for antipsoriatic activity. Materials and Methods: The screeni...

  10. Gastroprotective effects of Nigella Sativa oil on the formation of stress gastritis in hypothyroidal rats

    OpenAIRE

    Abdel-Sater, Khaled A

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the effects of hypothyroidism on the development of acute cold restraint stress gastritis in rats and protective effect of Nigella sativa at the beginning of the acute cold restraint stress. 60 rats were randomly divided into six groups; the control (groups I), surgically thyroidectomized group (group II), acute cold restraint stressed group (group III), surgically thyroidectomized plus stressed group (group IV), Nigella sativa oil group (group V) and surgi...

  11. Accumulation of heavy metals in Medicago sativa L. and Trifolium pratense L. at the contaminated fluvisol

    OpenAIRE

    Jakšić Snežana P.; Vučković Savo M.; Vasiljević Sanja; Grahovac Nada; Popović Vera; Šunjka Dragana B.; Dozet Gordana K.

    2013-01-01

    Recently, heavy metals concentrations increased in some agricultural areas due to the consequences of anthropogenic impacts. The aim of this study was to determine the level of heavy metals (As, Cr, Ni and Pb) in Medicago sativa L. and Trifolium pratense L. grown on fluvisol, in order to obtain information on safety of these nutrients. The total content of Pb, As, Cr and Ni in the samples of fluvisol was above the maximum allowable amount. The content of heavy metals in Medicago sativa ...

  12. Effects of Cannabis sativa extract on haloperidol-induced catalepsy and oxidative stress in the mice

    OpenAIRE

    Abdel-Salam, Omar M.E.; El-Din M. Gaafar, Alaa; El Sayed El-Shamarka, Marawa; Salem, Neveen A

    2012-01-01

    Haloperidol is a classic antipsychotic drug known for its propensity to cause extrapyramidal symptoms due to blockade of dopamine D2 receptors in the striatum. Interest in medicinal uses of cannabis is growing. Cannabis sativa has been suggested as a possible adjunctive in treatment of Parkinson's disease. The present study aimed to investigate the effect of repeated administration of an extract of Cannabis sativa on catalepsy and brain oxidative stress induced by haloperidol administration i...

  13. Cold Pressing and Supercritical CO2 Extraction of Hemp (Cannabis sativa) Seed Oil

    OpenAIRE

    Aladić, K.; S. Jokić; Moslavac, T.; Tomas, S.; S Vidović; Vladić, J.; Šubarić, D.

    2015-01-01

    In the past few decades, the Cannabis sativa L. hemp variety has been unfairly neglected because of its similarity to the illegal kind Cannabis indica used as a narcotic. The objective of this study was to evaluate the process of oil extraction from Cannabis sativa seeds by cold pressing, followed by extraction with supercritical CO2. In the pressing experiments, the response surface methodology was conducted in order to study the effects of temperature, frequency, and nozzle size on oil reco...

  14. De novo assembly and characterization of Camelina sativa transcriptome by paired-end sequencing

    OpenAIRE

    Liang, Chao; Liu, Xuan; Yiu, Siu-Ming; Lim, Boon Leong

    2013-01-01

    Background Biofuels extracted from the seeds of Camelina sativa have recently been used successfully as environmentally friendly jet-fuel to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. Camelina sativa is genetically very close to Arabidopsis thaliana, and both are members of the Brassicaceae. Although public databases are currently available for some members of the Brassicaceae, such as A. thaliana, A. lyrata, Brassica napus, B. juncea and B. rapa, there are no public Expressed Sequence Tags (EST) or ge...

  15. Toxicity Effect of Nigella Sativa on the Liver Function of Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamad Hafanizam Bin Hassan

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The aim of this study was to determine the toxic effect of Nigella sativa powder on the liver function which was evaluated by measuring liver enzymes and through histopathological examination of liver tissue. Methods: Twenty four male Sprague Dawley rats were allotted randomly to four groups including: control (taking normal diet; low dose (supplemented with 0.01 g/kg/day Nigella sativa; normal dose (supplemented with 0.1 g/kg/day Nigella sativa and high dose (supplemented with 1 g/kg/day Nigella sativa. All of supplements administered in powder form mixed with rats’ pellet for 28 days. To assess liver toxicity, liver enzymes measurement and histological study were done at the end of supplementation. Results: The finding revealed that there was no significant change in serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT and aspartate aminotransferase (AST between treatment groups. Histopathological study showed very minimal and mild changes in fatty degeneration in normal and high doses of Nigella sativa treated group. Inflammation and necrosis were absent. Conclusion: The study showed that supplementation of Nigella sativa up to the dose of 1 g/kg supplemented for a period of 28 days resulted no changes in liver enzymes level and did not cause any toxicity effect on the liver function.

  16. Immunomodulatory and cytotoxic effects of Nigella sativa and thymoquinone on rat splenocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gholamnezhad, Zahra; Rafatpanah, Houshang; Sadeghnia, Hamid Reza; Boskabady, Mohammad Hossein

    2015-12-01

    Three different concentrations of Nigella sativa (N. sativa) ethanolic extract, thymoquinone (TQ), dexamethasone, and saline were examined to see whether they had any effects on cell viability, proliferation, and interleukin 4 (IL-4) and interferon-γ (IFN-γ) secretion in non-stimulated, phytohemagglutinin (PHA) and concavaline A (Con A)-stimulated splenocytes. In PHA and Con A-stimulated splenocytes, cell viability and proliferation were increased and Con A shifted cytokine profile towards Th2 balance. Dexamethasone treatment showed a suppression in viability, IFNγ and IL-4 secretion in non-stimulated and stimulated splenocytes. Extract and TQ reduced the viability and inhibited the proliferation of stimulated and non-stimulated splenocytes concentration-dependently. Higher concentrations of N. sativa (1000 mg/ml) and TQ (5 and 10 mg/ml) reduced the secretion of IL-4 in stimulated cells. Two higher concentrations of N. sativa had decreased IFNγ secretion in both stimulated and non-stimulated cells. In non-stimulated cells, only the highest and in Con A-stimulated cells, all TQ concentrations had inhibited IFNγ secretion. The highest concentration of N. sativa increased IFNγ/IL-4 ratio in both stimulated and non-stimulated cells while higher concentrations of TQ only had the same effect on stimulated cells. N. sativa and TQ showed cytotoxic inhibitory effect on rat splenocytes and on Th1/Th2 cytokines concentration-dependently. Higher concentrations of extract and TQ increased cytokines balance in Th1/Th2. PMID:26342766

  17. Immunomodulatory and anti-inflammatory action of Nigella sativa and thymoquinone: A comprehensive review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majdalawieh, Amin F; Fayyad, Muneera W

    2015-09-01

    Many herbal products are now used as remedies to treat various infectious and non-infectious conditions. Even though the use of herbs and natural products is much more evident in the Eastern world, their use in Western cultures is continuously increasing. Although the immunomodulatory effects of some herbs have been extensively studied, research related to possible immunomodulatory effects of many herbs and various spices is relatively scarce. Here, we provide a comprehensive review of the immunomodulatory and anti-inflammatory properties of Nigella sativa, also known as black seed or black cumin, and its major active ingredient, thymoquinone (TQ). This review article focuses on analyzing in vitro and in vivo experimental findings that were reported with regard to the ability of N. sativa and TQ to modulate inflammation, cellular and humoral adaptive immune responses, and Th1/Th2 paradigm. The reported capability of N. sativa to augment the cytotoxic activity of natural killer (NK) cells against cancer cells is also emphasized. The molecular and cellular mechanisms underlying such immunomodulatory and anti-inflammatory effects of N. sativa and TQ are highlighted. Moreover, the signal transduction pathways implicated in the immunoregulatory functions of N. sativa and TQ are underscored. Experimental evidence suggests that N. sativa extracts and TQ can potentially be employed in the development of effective therapeutic agents towards the regulation of immune reactions implicated in various infectious and non-infectious conditions including different types of allergy, autoimmunity, and cancer. PMID:26117430

  18. A review on the inhibitory potential of Nigella sativa against pathogenic and toxigenic fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shokri, Hojjatollah

    2016-01-01

    Nigella sativa (N. sativa) grows in various parts of the world, particularly in Iran. It has been traditionally used as a folk remedy to treat a number of diseases. The seeds of this plant contain moisture, proteins, carbohydrates, crude fiber, alkaloids, saponins, ash, fixed oils and essential oil. The major components of the essential oil are thymoquinone, p-cymene, trans-anethole, 2-methyl-5(1-methyl ethyl)-Bicyclo[3.1.0]hex-2-en and γ-terpinene. So far, several pharmacological effects such as anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-cancer and anti-microbial have been reported for N. sativa or its active compounds. Thymoquinone, thymohydroquinone and thymol are the most active constituents which have different beneficial properties. The oil, extracts and some of N. sativa active components possessed moderate in vitro and in vivo inhibitory activity against pathogenic yeasts, dermatophytes, non-dermatophytic filamentous fungi and aflatoxin-producing fungi. The main morphological changes of pathogenic and toxigenic fungi treated with N. sativa oil were observed in the cell wall, plasma membrane and membranous organelles, particularly in the nuclei and mitochondria. Although this review represents first step in the search for a new anti-fungal drug, the full potential of N. sativa as a fungitoxic agent has not been exploited and necessitates further investigations. PMID:27247919

  19. Performance and emission of CI engine fuelled with camelina sativa oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► Camelina sativa as a potential source of alternative fuel. ► Neat camelina sativa oil as a fuel for CI engine. ► The engine performance and emissions of CI engine fuelled with neat camelina sativa oil. ► Comparison of rate of heat release for camelina sativa oil and diesel oil. - Abstract: The paper describes the results of the tests of CI Perkins 1104C-44 engine fuelled with camelina sativa oil. The engine was not especially calibrated for fuelling with the vegetable fuel. During the test the engine performance and emissions were analysed. For comparison the same speed characteristic was examined for standard fuelling of the engine with diesel oil. In order to understand the engine performance and emission the mass fraction burnt and the rate of heat release was calculated and compared for the same energy provided to the engine cylinder with the injected fuels. The results show that there is possible to receive relatively good engine performance for fuelling the engine with camelina sativa oil but there is a need to change the calibration parameters of the engine fuel system when the engine is fuelled with this fuel.

  20. Recent Developments with Degree Mills: Accreditation Mills and Counterfeit Diploma and Transcript Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezell, Allen

    2009-01-01

    This article updates developments regarding Diploma Mills, Accreditation Mills, and Counterfeit Diploma & Transcript operations. It will cover identification & prosecution, to new entities now appearing in these growth industries with annual revenues over one billion dollars. This article will address federal and state laws, a new Federal…

  1. Learning Activity Packets for Milling Machines. Unit I--Introduction to Milling Machines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oklahoma State Board of Vocational and Technical Education, Stillwater. Curriculum and Instructional Materials Center.

    This learning activity packet (LAP) outlines the study activities and performance tasks covered in a related curriculum guide on milling machines. The course of study in this LAP is intended to help students learn to identify parts and attachments of vertical and horizontal milling machines, identify work-holding devices, state safety rules, and…

  2. Reclamation of uranium mining and milling disturbances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since 1945 the history of uranium mining and milling in the US has been a story of wide fluctuations in market prices and in mining and milling capacity. The late 1960's and the 1970's saw a sizeable reduction in the production of yellowcake because of an earlier over-supply, a leveling off of the military demand, and a failure of the nuclear electric power industry to create the anticipated commercial demand. The decline in the domestic production of yellowcake has continued through the early 1980's to the present. Today, there are five operating uranium mills in the US: one in Wyoming, two in Utah, one in New Mexico, and one in Texas. Of these five mills, three are operating on a reduced schedule, as little as three days a month. A significant portion of the current US production of uranium goes overseas to fulfill Japanese, French, and other European contracts. There is still a sizeable reclamation job to be accomplished on old uranium wastes, both tailings impoundments and overburden embankments. Before the Uranium Mill Tailings Control Act of 1978 (PL 95-604), reclamation was frequently omitted altogether, or else done in a haphazard fashion. We do not know the total area of unreclaimed, radioactive, uranium overburden wastes in the western US, but the area is large, probably several thousand hectares. Fortunately, these overburden wastes are almost entirely located in remote areas. Mill tailings are more difficult to reclaim than overburden, and tailings represent a more serious health hazards. There are approximately 25 million metric tons of unreclaimed uranium mill tailings, with variable health hazards, located in the US

  3. Isolation and identification of chemical constituents from acid hydrolyzed extract of kernel of Castanea mollissima Blume%板栗种仁酸水解物化学成分的分离与鉴定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    江冰娅; 吴兆华; 黄健; 高慧媛; 王喆星; 吴立军

    2009-01-01

    目的 更好地开发利用板栗(Castanea mollissima Blum)种仁.方法 对板栗种仁的体积分数为95%的乙醇提取物进行酸水解,水解物采用硅胶柱色谱、氧化铝柱色谱、凝胶柱色谱和重结晶等方法进行分离;根据理化性质和NMR谱数据并参考文献鉴定其结构.结果 分离鉴定了10个化合物,分别为对羟基苯甲酸(p-hydroxybenzoic acid,1)、原儿茶酸(protocatechuic acid,2)、没食子酸(gallic acid,3)、5 -羟甲基糠醛(5-hydroxymethylfurfural,4)、β-谷甾醇(β-sitosterol,5)、α-菠甾醇(α-spinasterol,6)、齐墩果酸(oleanane acid,7)、2α-羟基齐墩果酸(maslinic acid,8)、α-香树脂醇(α-amyrin,9)、单棕榈酸甘油酯(glycerolmonopalmitate,10).结论 化合物6、8为首次从栗属植物中分离得到;化合物9为首次从板栗中分离得到.

  4. 锥栗直链淀粉-脂肪酸复合物的体外消化及益生元活性%In Vitro Digestion and Prebiotic Activity of Castanea Henryi Amylose- Fatty Acid Complexes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢涛; 张儒

    2012-01-01

    With inulin (I) and fructooligosaccharide ( FOS) as the controls, external digestion and prebiotic activities of castanea henryi amylose - hexylic acid complex ( CAHC) , - capric acid complex ( CACC ) and - stearic acid complex ( CASC) were studied. The results demonstrated that CA and its fatty acid complexes show to the extent the anti - digestion to artificial gastric or/and intestinal juice. Above all, CA - stearic acid complexations made at 60℃ and 90℃ ( CASC60 and CASC90) are provided with the strongest resistance to digestion. Not only CASC60 but also CASC90 displays good prebiotic activity with Bifidobacterium bifidum and Lactobacillus delbrueckii as the object of study,respectively. Therefore,if used as new prebiotics,both have development potential.%以菊糖与低聚果糖为对照,研究了锥栗直链淀粉与己酸、葵酸、硬脂酸复合物的抗消化作用及益生元效应.试验结果表明:锥栗直链淀粉及其脂肪酸复合物对人工胃液与小肠液都具有不同程度的抗性,其中抗消化作用最强的是分别在60℃和90℃结晶温度下制备的锥栗直链淀粉-脂肪酸复合物(CASC60和CASC90);以两歧双歧杆菌与德氏乳杆菌两株典型的益生菌为研究对象,CASC60和CASC90均表现了良好的益生元活性.因此,CASC60和CASC90具有作为新型益生元开发的潜力.

  5. Effects of nigella sativa supplementation on blood parameters and anthropometric indices in adults: A systematic review on clinical trials

    OpenAIRE

    Alireza Mohtashami; Mohammad Hasan Entezari

    2016-01-01

    Background: Nigella sativa (N. sativa) has been used in traditional medicine and several studies have been performed in the last decades to reveal the effects of it on different medical disorders such as diabetes, dyslipidemia, hypertension, and obesity. We evaluated the effects of N. sativa supplementation on lipid profiles, glycemic control, blood pressure (BP), and some anthropometric indices in humans. Materials and Methods: A search on published studies was done by using databases includ...

  6. Origin of samples of Cannabis sativa through insect fragments associated with compacted hemp drug in South America

    OpenAIRE

    Marcos Patrício Macedo; Cecília Kosmann; José Roberto Pujol-Luz

    2013-01-01

    Origin of samples of Cannabis sativa through insect fragments associated with compacted hemp drug in South America. Insects associated with a seizure of Cannabis sativa L. may indicate the origin of the illicit drug. Nevertheless, no work regarding this subject has been previously published for South America. In the present investigation, seven kilograms of vegetal material (C. sativa) were inspected for insect fragments. Three species were identified and used to test the origin of the seizur...

  7. Practitioner Profile: An Interview With Amanda Mills

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda Mills

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available For more than 25 years, Amanda Mills has been working with arts organizations across Canada and with artists of all kinds to assist them in achieving financial sanity. She has taught business management at the University of Victoria and has prepared thousands of tax returns for writers, visual artists, choreographers, actors, filmmakers, broadcasters, and creative entrepreneurs. Ten years ago, bringing together her work on trauma, with twenty years of business management, Mills founded Loose Change Financial Therapy – the place where money and feelings meet. Mills has presented Loose Change workshops for social workers, teachers, psychotherapists, artists, anti-poverty activists, sex trade workers, women’s groups, and the general public.  She has been a guest on major Canadian radio and television broadcasts and profiled in many major Canadian newspapers and periodicals. Mills is also a crisis counselor and co-wrote a bestselling book on recovering from trauma. A tax professional and business manager, she is certified as a financial counselor under the Bankruptcy and Insolvency Act. Mills is also currently completing a certificate in mediation.

  8. Representations of Super Yang-Mills Algebras

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herscovich, Estanislao

    2013-06-01

    We study in this article the representation theory of a family of super algebras, called the super Yang-Mills algebras, by exploiting the Kirillov orbit method à la Dixmier for nilpotent super Lie algebras. These super algebras are an extension of the so-called Yang-Mills algebras, introduced by A. Connes and M. Dubois-Violette in (Lett Math Phys 61(2):149-158, 2002), and in fact they appear as a "background independent" formulation of supersymmetric gauge theory considered in physics, in a similar way as Yang-Mills algebras do the same for the usual gauge theory. Our main result states that, under certain hypotheses, all Clifford-Weyl super algebras {{Cliff}q(k) ⊗ Ap(k)}, for p ≥ 3, or p = 2 and q ≥ 2, appear as a quotient of all super Yang-Mills algebras, for n ≥ 3 and s ≥ 1. This provides thus a family of representations of the super Yang-Mills algebras.

  9. Anaerobic Digestion of Paper Mill Wastewater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shreeshivadasan Chelliapan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In general, paper mill wastewater contains complex organic substances which could not be treated completely using conventional treatment processes, e.g. aerobic processes. As a result, anaerobic technology is a promising alternative for paper mill wastewater treatment due to its ability to degrade hard organic compounds. In the present study, treatment of paper mill wastewater using a stage anaerobic reactor was investigated. The more specific objectives of this study were to confirm whether paper mill wastewater can be tolerated by methanogenic sludge and to assess the stability of reactor for measured parameters (e.g. COD removal, and methane composition. Results showed up to 98% COD removal efficiency in the anaerobic reactor when the reactor was operated at an OLR of 1.560 kg COD/m3.d. Anaerobic digestion can provide high treatment efficiency for recalcitrant substrates, which generates robust microorganism (acidogenesis and methanogenesis, for the degradation of recalcitrant compounds such as in the paper mill wastewater.

  10. Perspectives on the amorphisation/milling relationship in pharmaceutical materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Descamps, M; Willart, J F

    2016-05-01

    This paper presents an overview of recent advances in understanding the role of the amorphous state in the physical and chemical transformations of pharmaceutical materials induced by mechanical milling. The following points are addressed: (1) Is milling really able to amorphise crystals?, (2) Conditions for obtaining an amorphisation, (3) Milling of hydrates, (4) Producing amorphous state without changing the chemical nature, (5) Milling induced crystal to crystal transformations: mediation by an amorphous state, (6) Nature of the amorphous state obtained by milling, (7) Milling of amorphous compounds: accelerated aging or rejuvenation, (8) Specific recrystallisation behaviour, and (9) Toward a rationalisation and conceptual framework. PMID:26826439

  11. Integrated chemical plants at the pulp mill

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ehtonen, P.; Hurme, M.; Jaervelaeinen, M.

    1995-12-31

    The goal of this paper is to present how the chemical plants can be integrated to the pulp mill. The integration renders possible to balance the chemical consumptions. The total mass balance of a pulp mill with the incoming fuel material and the outgoing waste and flue gases are discussed. The balance figures are presented for the chemicals of the modern fibre line, which will produce fully bleached softwood pulp with an improved effluent quality. The main benefits are lower chemical and transportation costs. The principal over-all plant process block diagrams and process descriptions are presented. The presented info system provides real time information on process and production status at overall mill and department levels. (author)

  12. CNC Milling Machine Simulation in Engineering Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ernesto Lo Valvo

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available In this work an effective simulator for a CNC milling machine is presented. It has been developed in EMC2, a free Opens Source NC software running in Linux environment, developed by an international community. It can be installed on a common PC and is able to: control a CNC machine; read part programs; display the tool path; send instructions to the CNC machine for the cutting process. In this work a new feature has been implemented, which can both display a 3D model of the machine and simulate all the motions of the movable parts of a real 3 axis end milling machine. This simulator lets the users not only verify the toolpath but also detect any possible collision by using the very computer which controls the milling machine. This system is very efficient and easy to use as powerful tool in Engineering education.

  13. Recycling of mill scale in sintering process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    El-Hussiny N.A.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This investigation deals with the effect of replacing some amount of Baharia high barite iron ore concentrate by mill scale waste which was characterized by high iron oxide content on the parameters of the sintering process., and investigation the effect of different amount of coke breeze added on sintering process parameters when using 5% mill scale waste with 95% iron ore concentrate. The results of this work show that, replacement of iron ore concentrate with mill scale increases the amount of ready made sinter, sinter strength and productivity of the sinter machine and productivity at blast furnace yard. Also, the increase of coke breeze leads to an increase the ready made sinter and productivity of the sintering machine at blast furnace yard. The productivity of the sintering machine after 5% decreased slightly due to the decrease of vertical velocity.

  14. Biorefinery pulp mill - BiSe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mielonen, K. [Lappeenranta University of Technology (Finland)], email: katriina.mielonen@lut.fi

    2012-07-01

    A need to utilize woody material in a more efficient way to produce pulp, biofuels and energy was seen as a key factor in the development of new pulp mill biorefineries. There are many alternatives to execute the biorefinery concept. In the Biorefinery Pulp Mill-project approached prehydrolysis of wood chips and acid hydrolysis of logging residue for the production of bioethanol, as well as the separation of lignin for the production of biodiesel were studied. The main goal of the project was to examine these new biofuel production methods and processes for the improvement of the competitiveness, energy effectiveness and economic profitability of domestic pulp mills, while keeping in mind the main product, chemical pulp.

  15. Antibacterial effect of Turkish black cumin ( Nigella sativa L. oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gecgel, Umit

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available A series of five different oils from Turkish black cumin ( Nigella sativa used in foods mainly for their flavour, preservation and natural therapies were screened for their antibacterial effects at 0.5 %, 1.0 % and 2.0 % concentrations using the agar diffusion method against twenty four pathogenic, spoilage and lactic acid bacteria (LAB. All tested oils showed antibacterial activity against all the bacteria used in the assay. The oils at 2.0 % concentration were more effective than of the other concentrations. The most sensitive bacterium against all of the oil concentrations was Aeromonas hydrophila, while the most resistant was Yersinia enterocolitica. Generally, lactic acid bacteria had more resistance than pathogenic and spoilage bacteria against black cumin oils. Consequently, black cumin oil may be used as an antimicrobial agent in food products to prevent spoilage.Se ensayaron un total de cinco aceites diferentes de comino negro turco ( Nigella sativa L., que se utilizan habitualmente en alimentos para darles sabor, ayudar a la conservación o por sus efectos terapéuticos, para estudiar sus propiedades antimicrobianas a concentraciones de 0.5 %, 1.0 %, y 2 %. Para ello se utilizó el método de difusión en agar, frente a veinticuatro microorganismos patógenos, causantes de alteraciones o bacterias ácido lácticas (LAB. Todos los aceites ensayados mostraron actividad antimicrobiana contra todos los microorganismos ensayados, siendo las concentraciones del 2 % las concentraciones más eficaces. Aeromonas hydrophyla fue el microorganismo mas sensible a todas las concentraciones mientras que Yersinia enterocolitica fue la más resistente. Generalmente las bacterias acido lácticas tuvieron más resistencia que los gérmenes patógenos y las bacterias que causan alteraciones. En consecuencia, el aceite de comino negro turco se puede utilizar como agente antimicrobiano en productos alimenticios para evitar su alteración.

  16. Transportation of the MOAB Uranium Mill Tailings to White Mesa Mill by Slurry Pipeline

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hochstein, R. F.; Warner, R.; Wetz, T. V.

    2003-02-26

    The Moab uranium mill tailings pile, located at the former Atlas Minerals Corporation site approximately three miles north of Moab, Utah, is now under the control of the US Department of Energy (''DOE''). The location of the tailings pile adjacent to the Colorado River, and the ongoing contamination of groundwater and seepage of pollutants into the river, have lead to the investigation, as part of the final site remediation program, of alternatives to relocate the tailings to a qualified permanent disposal site. This paper will describe the approach being taken by the team formed between International Uranium (USA) Corporation (''IUC'') and Washington Group International (''WGINT'') to develop an innovative technical proposal to relocate the Moab tailings to IUC's White Mesa Mill south of Blanding, Utah. The proposed approach for relocating the tailings involves using a slurry pipeline to transport the tailings to the White Mesa Mill. The White Mesa Mill is a fully licensed, active uranium mill site that is uniquely suited for permanent disposal of the Moab tailings. The tailings slurry would be dewatered at the White Mesa Mill, the slurry water would be recycled to the Moab site for reuse in slurry makeup, and the ''dry'' tailings would be permanently disposed of in an approved below grade cell at the mill site.

  17. CO2 laser milling of hard tissue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werner, Martin; Ivanenko, Mikhail; Harbecke, Daniela; Klasing, Manfred; Steigerwald, Hendrik; Hering, Peter

    2007-02-01

    Drilling of bone and tooth tissue belongs to recurrent medical procedures (screw- and pin-bores, bores for implant inserting, trepanation etc.). Small round bores can be in general quickly produced with mechanical drills. Problems arise however by angled drilling, by the necessity to fulfill the drilling without damaging of sensitive soft tissue beneath the bone, or by the attempt to mill precisely noncircular small cavities. We present investigations on laser hard tissue "milling", which can be advantageous for solving these problems. The "milling" is done with a CO2 laser (10.6 μm) with pulse duration of 50 - 100 μs, combined with a PC-controlled galvanic beam scanner and with a fine water-spray, which helps to avoid thermal side-effects. The damaging of underlying soft tissue can be prevented through control of the optical or acoustical ablation signal. The ablation of hard tissue is accompanied with a strong glowing, which is absent during the laser beam action on soft tissue. The acoustic signals from the diverse tissue types exhibit distinct differences in the spectral composition. Also computer image analysis could be a useful tool to control the operation. Laser "milling" of noncircular cavities with 1 - 4 mm width and about 10 mm depth is particularly interesting for dental implantology. In ex-vivo investigations we found conditions for fast laser "milling" of the cavities without thermal damage and with minimal tapering. It included exploration of different filling patterns (concentric rings, crosshatch, parallel lines and their combinations), definition of maximal pulse duration, repetition rate and laser power, optimal position of the spray. The optimized results give evidences for the applicability of the CO2 laser for biologically tolerable "milling" of deep cavities in the hard tissue.

  18. High-speed milling of light metals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Cus

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: of this paper: Introduction applicability of high-speed cutting of light metals is presented in this paper.Design/methodology/approach: HSC is the result of numerous technical advances ensuring that milling has become faster than conventional milling and has gained importance as a cutting process. The advantages of the HSC milling are higher productivity owing to the reduction of machining times increase of the flow time of production, reduction of the number of technological operations, increase of the surface quality and longer service life of tools. The machining conditions for execution of the HSC (36000min-1 and feeding 20m/min require modernly built machine tools to meet those machining conditions.Findings: Continuous development of new materials is more and more dynamical, particularly, in the automobile, aircraft and electronic industry and in the manufacture of various mechanical parts. Also the achievements in the area of building of machines and tools, ensuring high cutting speeds (highly efficient machining have contributed to development of the process.Research limitations/implications: High quality of the surfaces, the quality of this so-called HSC milling can be compared to grinding.Practical implications: High-speed milling of light metals from aluminium and magnesium is more and more frequently used in practice. This result is high quality of the surface and shorter machining times. In some cases when machining by grinding is specified, the latter is omitted.Originality/value: The applicability of high-speed milling has proved to be successful, when aluminum and magnesium alloying materials are machined.

  19. Neuroprotective effects of Nigella sativa extracts during germination on central nervous system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, Mohammad Hayatul; Ahmad, Iffat Zareen; Salman, Mohammad Tariq

    2015-01-01

    Background: Nigella sativa Linn. which has many acclaimed medicinal properties is an indigenous herbaceous plant and belongs to the Ranunculaceae family, which grows in countries bordering the Mediterranean Sea, Pakistan and India. Objective: This study was designed to investigate the effects of N. sativa seed extracts of different germination phases on the central nervous system (CNS) responses in experimental animals. Materials and Methods: Anxiolytic, locomotor activity of extracts (1 g/kg of body weight) was evaluated in both stressed and unstressed animal models and antiepileptic effect was evaluated by maximal electroshock seizure model keeping diazepam (20 mg/kg) as a positive control. Antidepressant effect was evaluated by forced swim test and tail suspension test keeping imipramine (15 mg/kg) as a positive control. Results: All tested extracts of N. sativa during different phases of germination (especially 5th day germination phase) showed significant (P < 0.001) anxiolytic effect in comparison to control. Diazepam reduced locomotor activity in control (unstressed) rats but did not show affect in stressed rats while N. sativa extracts from germination phases significantly (P < 0.001) reduced locomotor activity in unstressed as well as stressed animals. All the extracts of N. sativa from different germination phases exhibited significant (P < 0.001) reduction in various phases of epileptic seizure on comparison with the reference standard (diazepam). During antidepressant test, N. sativa extracts exhibited a slight reduction in the immobility of rats. Conclusion: During germination, especially in 5th day germination extract, N. sativa showed significant CNS depressant activity as compared to whole seeds that possibly may be due higher content of secondary metabolites produced during germination. PMID:26109765

  20. Catalytic Pyrolysis of Olive Mill Wastewater Sludge

    OpenAIRE

    Abdellaoui, Hamza

    2015-01-01

    Olive mill wastewater sludge (OMWS) is the solid residue that remains in the evaporation ponds after evaporation of the majority of water in the olive mill wastewater (OMW). OMWS is a major environmental pollutant in the olive oil producing regions. Approximately 41.16 wt. % of the OMWS was soluble in hexanes (HSF). The fatty acids in this fraction consist mainly of oleic and palmitic acid. Catalytic pyrolysis of the OMWS over red mud and HZSM-5 has been demonstrated to be an effective techno...

  1. Prototyping of Dental Structures Using Laser Milling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreev, A. O.; Kosenko, M. S.; Petrovskiy, V. N.; Mironov, V. D.

    2016-02-01

    The results of experimental studies of the effect of an ytterbium fiber laser radiation parameters on processing efficiency and quality of ZrO2 ceramics widely used in stomatology are presented. Laser operating conditions with optimum characteristics for obtaining high quality final surfaces and rapid material removal of dental structures are determined. The ability of forming thin-walled ceramic structures by laser milling technology (a minimum wall thickness of 50 μm) is demonstrated. The examples of three-dimensional dental structures created in computer 3D-models of human teeth using laser milling are shown.

  2. Wollstonecraft, Mill, and Women's Human Rights

    OpenAIRE

    Botting, Eileen Hunt

    2016-01-01

    This book argues that Mary Wollstonecraft and John Stuart Mill are the two primary architects of the modern theory of women’s rights as human rights. It only through addressing women’s rights, Botting argues, that the idea of human rights was given universal scope and application. Botting describes the development of the idea of women’s human rights beginning with the work of Wollstonecraft and Mill, and gives an account of their reception in both western and nonwestern contexts. Her goal is ...

  3. Regulatory oversight of uranium mines and mills

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The Canadian Nuclear Safety Commission (CNSC) is the principal nuclear regulator in Canada. The CNSC is empowered through the Nuclear Safety and Control Act (NSCA) and associated regulations, to regulate the entire nuclear cycle which includes uranium mining and milling. The paper discusses the regulatory oversight of uranium mines and mills which include: - Who is CNSC, what is the CNSC's mission and CNSC background - Oversight Management System; - Regulatory Framework; - Expectations for Assessing Compliance; - QA Principles and Program Elements; - A Look to the Future; - Planning regulatory oversight activities; - Management System Documentation Review; - Regulatory Oversight Activities; - Following-up On Inspections; - Enforcing Compliance with Requirements; - Improving the Regulatory Oversight Process. (author)

  4. Operating System For Numerically Controlled Milling Machine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, R. B.

    1992-01-01

    OPMILL program is operating system for Kearney and Trecker milling machine providing fast easy way to program manufacture of machine parts with IBM-compatible personal computer. Gives machinist "equation plotter" feature, which plots equations that define movements and converts equations to milling-machine-controlling program moving cutter along defined path. System includes tool-manager software handling up to 25 tools and automatically adjusts to account for each tool. Developed on IBM PS/2 computer running DOS 3.3 with 1 MB of random-access memory.

  5. Note about Yang Mills, QCD and their supersymmetric counterparts

    CERN Document Server

    Jora, Renata

    2011-01-01

    We analyze in an effective Lagrangian framework the connection between Super QCD (Super Yang Mills) and QCD (Yang Mills) by highlighting the crucial role that the zero modes play in the process of decoupling gluinos and squarks.

  6. The influence of milling on the dissolution performance of simvastatin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zimper, Ulrike; Aaltonen, Jaakko; Krauel-Goellner, Karen;

    2012-01-01

    Particle size reduction is a simple means to enhance the dissolution rate of poorly water soluble BCS-class II and IV drugs. However, the major drawback of this process is the possible introduction of process induced disorder. Drugs with different molecular arrangements may exhibit altered......, as well as factor interactions in a dry ball milling process using simvastatin as model drug, and to optimize the milling procedure with regard to the opposing responses particle size and process induced disorder by application of a central composite face centered design. Particle size was assessed...... milling frequency, milling time and ball quantity at a set drug load, out of which milling frequency was found to be the most important factor for particle size as well as process induced disorder. Milling frequency and milling time exhibited an interaction effect on the responses. The optimum milling...

  7. Fiber Bundles, Yang-Mills Theory, and General Relativity

    OpenAIRE

    Weatherall, JO

    2014-01-01

    © 2015 Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht I articulate and discuss a geometrical interpretation of Yang–Mills theory. Analogies and disanalogies between Yang–Mills theory and general relativity are also considered.

  8. Superiority of wet-milled over dry-milled superfine powdered activated carbon for adsorptive 2-methylisoborneol removal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Long; Matsui, Yoshihiko; Matsushita, Taku; Shirasaki, Nobutaka

    2016-10-01

    Superfine powdered activated carbon (SPAC), which is produced from conventionally sized powdered activated carbon (PAC) by wet milling in a bead mill, has attracted attention for its high adsorptive removal ability in both research and practice. In this study, the performance of dry-milled SPAC was investigated. 2-Methylisoborneol (MIB), an earthy-musty compound commonly targeted by water treatment systems, was used as the target adsorbate. Dry-milled SPAC exhibited lower adsorptive removal of MIB than wet-milled SPAC, even when both SPACs were produced from the same PAC and were composed of particles of the same size. One reason for the lower removal of MIB by the dry-milled SPAC was a higher degree of aggregation in the dry-milled SPAC after production; as a result the apparent particle size of dry-milled SPAC was larger than that of wet-milled SPAC. The dry-milled SPAC was also more negatively charged than the wet-milled SPAC, and, owing to its higher repulsion, it was more amenable to dispersion by ultrasonication. However, even after the dry-milled SPAC was ultrasonicated so that its apparent particle size was similar to or less than that of the wet-milled SPAC, the dry-milled SPAC was still inferior in adsorptive removal to the wet-milled SPAC. Therefore, another reason for the lower adsorptive removal of dry-milled SPAC was its lower equilibrium adsorption capacity due to the oxidation during the milling. The adsorption kinetics by SPACs with different degrees of particle aggregation were successfully simulated by a pore diffusion model and a fractal aggregation model. PMID:27403874

  9. Medical uses of marijuana (Cannabis sativa): fact or fallacy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maule, W J

    2015-01-01

    Marijuana (Cannabis sativa) has been used throughout the world medically, recreationally and spiritually for thousands of years. In South Africa, from the mid-19th century to the 1920s, practitioners prescribed it for a multitude of conditions. In 1928 it was classified as a Schedule I substance, illegal, and without medical value. Ironically, with this prohibition, cannabis became the most widely used illicit recreational drug, not only in South Africa, but worldwide. Cannabis is generally regarded as enjoyable and relaxing without the addictive risks of opioids or stimulants. In alternative medicine circles it has never lost its appeal. To date 23 States in the USA have legalised its medical use despite the federal ban. Unfortunately, little about cannabis is not without controversy. Its main active ingredient, δ-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), was not isolated until 1964, and it was not until the 1990s that the far-reaching modulatory activities of the endocannabinoid system in the human body was studied. This system's elucidation raises the possibility of many promising pharmaceutical applications, even as restrictions show no sign of abating. Recreational use of cannabis continues to increase, despite growing evidence of its addictive potential, particularly in the young. Public approval drives medical cannabis legalisation efforts without the scientific data normally required to justify a new medication's introduction. This review explores these controversies and whether cannabis is a panacea, a scourge, or both. PMID:26126326

  10. Herbicidal treatments for control of Cannabis sativa L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horowitz, M

    1977-01-01

    In order to test herbicides for the destruction of illicit stands of cannabis (Cannabis sativa L.) a series of commercially available herbicides were sprayed on glasshouse-grown plants having 2 to 6 leaves. The following herbicides caused complete kill or severe injury to cannabis plants: (a) herbicides with root and foliage activity--ametryn, atrazine, metribuzin, prometryn, terbutryne, diuron, fluometuron, linuron, methabenzthiazuron, phenobenzuron, ethofumesate, karbutilate, methazole and oxadiazon; and (b) foliar-acting herbicides with brief or no soil persistence--amitrole, bentazon, 2,4-D, diquat + paraquat, glyphosate and phenmedipham. In field experiments herbicides of the latter group, and ioxynil, metribuzin, and a MSMA-cacodylate mixture, caused death or severe damage to young cannabis plants. Glyphosate, ioxynil and bentazon destroyed developed cannabis plants. In glasshouse and field experiments the following herbicides applied to young cannabis plants caused marked deformations of stems, leaves and/or inflorescences: barban, butralin, dalapon, difenzoquat, dinitramine, diphenamid, IPC, napropamide, penoxalin, triffuralin, and U-27267. PMID:585583

  11. Selectivity of herbicides in Camelina (Camelina sativa (L. Crtz.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scheliga, Maria

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Camelina (Camelina sativa (L. Crtz. is a cruciferous plant. As an oilseed crop camelina is mainly grown for oil production. After the 1960s, however, the cultivation has become less important. Only in recent years, interest in this culture was awakened in the search for new sources of omega 3 fatty acids, natural antioxidants and a potential crop for the production of biofuels. The use of camelina oil for different purposes within the framework of the material use of renewable raw materials is of particular interest due to the high levels of linoleic and linolenic acid. For the establishment of camelina as a crop in agricultural crop rotation systems weed control should not be disregarded despite the rather good competitive ability against weeds. Based on greenhouse experiments a field trial in 2015 with different herbicide strategies was carried out. Besides Butisan Top (metazachlor + quinmerac, Devrinol FL (napropamide and Stomp Aqua (pendimethalin and also Betasana SC (phenmedipham has been tested in various amounts and combinations. Using assessments to weed density and herbicide tolerance different herbicide strategies were compared with each other. Though, it is difficult to find a compromise between satisfactory herbicidal effect and a slight injury to the crop plant. The herbicide selection, the application rate and the combination of different herbicides have an effect on the crop. To confirm the data obtained further tests are necessary.

  12. Cannabidiol, a Cannabis sativa constituent, as an antipsychotic drug

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zuardi A.W.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available A high dose of delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol, the main Cannabis sativa (cannabis component, induces anxiety and psychotic-like symptoms in healthy volunteers. These effects of delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol are significantly reduced by cannabidiol (CBD, a cannabis constituent which is devoid of the typical effects of the plant. This observation led us to suspect that CBD could have anxiolytic and/or antipsychotic actions. Studies in animal models and in healthy volunteers clearly suggest an anxiolytic-like effect of CBD. The antipsychotic-like properties of CBD have been investigated in animal models using behavioral and neurochemical techniques which suggested that CBD has a pharmacological profile similar to that of atypical antipsychotic drugs. The results of two studies on healthy volunteers using perception of binocular depth inversion and ketamine-induced psychotic symptoms supported the proposal of the antipsychotic-like properties of CBD. In addition, open case reports of schizophrenic patients treated with CBD and a preliminary report of a controlled clinical trial comparing CBD with an atypical antipsychotic drug have confirmed that this cannabinoid can be a safe and well-tolerated alternative treatment for schizophrenia. Future studies of CBD in other psychotic conditions such as bipolar disorder and comparative studies of its antipsychotic effects with those produced by clozapine in schizophrenic patients are clearly indicated.

  13. Gene duplication and divergence affecting drug content in Cannabis sativa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiblen, George D; Wenger, Jonathan P; Craft, Kathleen J; ElSohly, Mahmoud A; Mehmedic, Zlatko; Treiber, Erin L; Marks, M David

    2015-12-01

    Cannabis sativa is an economically important source of durable fibers, nutritious seeds, and psychoactive drugs but few economic plants are so poorly understood genetically. Marijuana and hemp were crossed to evaluate competing models of cannabinoid inheritance and to explain the predominance of tetrahydrocannabinolic acid (THCA) in marijuana compared with cannabidiolic acid (CBDA) in hemp. Individuals in the resulting F2 population were assessed for differential expression of cannabinoid synthase genes and were used in linkage mapping. Genetic markers associated with divergent cannabinoid phenotypes were identified. Although phenotypic segregation and a major quantitative trait locus (QTL) for the THCA/CBDA ratio were consistent with a simple model of codominant alleles at a single locus, the diversity of THCA and CBDA synthase sequences observed in the mapping population, the position of enzyme coding loci on the map, and patterns of expression suggest multiple linked loci. Phylogenetic analysis further suggests a history of duplication and divergence affecting drug content. Marijuana is distinguished from hemp by a nonfunctional CBDA synthase that appears to have been positively selected to enhance psychoactivity. An unlinked QTL for cannabinoid quantity may also have played a role in the recent escalation of drug potency. PMID:26189495

  14. Monitoring homologous recombination in rice (Oryza sativa L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Here we describe a system to assay homologous recombination during the complete life cycle of rice (Oryza sativa L.). Rice plants were transformed with two copies of non-functional GUS reporter overlap fragments as recombination substrate. Recombination was observed in all plant organs examined, from the seed stage until the flowering stage of somatic plant development. Embryogenic cells exhibited the highest recombination ability with an average of 3 x 10-5 recombination events per genome, which is about 10-fold of that observed in root cells, and two orders of that observed in leaf cells. Histological analysis revealed that recombination events occurred in diverse cell types, but preferentially in cells with small size. Examples of this included embryogenic cells in callus, phloem cells in the leaf vein, and cells located in the root apical meristem. Steady state RNA analysis revealed that the expression levels of rice Rad51 homologs are positively correlated with increased recombination rates in embryogenic calli, roots and anthers. Finally, radiation treatment of plantlets from distinct recombination lines increased the recombination frequency to different extents. These results showed that homologous recombination frequency can be effectively measured in rice using a transgene reporter assay. This system will facilitate the study of DNA damage signaling and homologous recombination in rice, a model monocot.

  15. Monitoring homologous recombination in rice (Oryza sativa L.)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang Zhuanying; Tang Li [Guangdong Provincial Key Lab of Biotechnology for Plant Development, College of Life Sciences, South China Normal University, Guangzhou 510631 (China); Li Meiru [South China Botanic Garden, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510650 (China); Chen Lei; Xu Jie [Guangdong Provincial Key Lab of Biotechnology for Plant Development, College of Life Sciences, South China Normal University, Guangzhou 510631 (China); Wu Goujiang [South China Botanic Garden, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510650 (China); Li Hongqing, E-mail: hqli@scnu.edu.cn [Guangdong Provincial Key Lab of Biotechnology for Plant Development, College of Life Sciences, South China Normal University, Guangzhou 510631 (China)

    2010-09-10

    Here we describe a system to assay homologous recombination during the complete life cycle of rice (Oryza sativa L.). Rice plants were transformed with two copies of non-functional GUS reporter overlap fragments as recombination substrate. Recombination was observed in all plant organs examined, from the seed stage until the flowering stage of somatic plant development. Embryogenic cells exhibited the highest recombination ability with an average of 3 x 10{sup -5} recombination events per genome, which is about 10-fold of that observed in root cells, and two orders of that observed in leaf cells. Histological analysis revealed that recombination events occurred in diverse cell types, but preferentially in cells with small size. Examples of this included embryogenic cells in callus, phloem cells in the leaf vein, and cells located in the root apical meristem. Steady state RNA analysis revealed that the expression levels of rice Rad51 homologs are positively correlated with increased recombination rates in embryogenic calli, roots and anthers. Finally, radiation treatment of plantlets from distinct recombination lines increased the recombination frequency to different extents. These results showed that homologous recombination frequency can be effectively measured in rice using a transgene reporter assay. This system will facilitate the study of DNA damage signaling and homologous recombination in rice, a model monocot.

  16. Minor oxygenated cannabinoids from high potency Cannabis sativa L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Safwat A; Ross, Samir A; Slade, Desmond; Radwan, Mohamed M; Khan, Ikhlas A; ElSohly, Mahmoud A

    2015-09-01

    Nine oxygenated cannabinoids were isolated from a high potency Cannabis sativa L. variety. Structure elucidation was achieved using spectroscopic techniques, including 1D and 2D NMR, HRMS and GC-MS. These minor compounds include four hexahydrocannabinols, four tetrahydrocannabinols, and one hydroxylated cannabinol, namely 9α-hydroxyhexahydrocannabinol, 7-oxo-9α-hydroxyhexa-hydrocannabinol, 10α-hydroxyhexahydrocannabinol, 10aR-hydroxyhexahydrocannabinol, Δ(9)-THC aldehyde A, 8-oxo-Δ(9)-THC, 10aα-hydroxy-10-oxo-Δ(8)-THC, 9α-hydroxy-10-oxo-Δ(6a,10a)-THC, and 1'S-hydroxycannabinol, respectively. The latter compound showed moderate anti-MRSa (IC50 10.0 μg/mL), moderate antileishmanial (IC50 14.0 μg/mL) and mild antimalarial activity against Plasmodium falciparum (D6 clone) and P. falciparum (W2 clone) with IC50 values of 3.4 and 2.3 μg/mL, respectively. PMID:26093324

  17. Induction of mutants in Cannabis Sativa L. by γ radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A description is given of the mutations induced in a well known cultivar of fibre hemp belonging to the species Cannabis sativa in order to obtain new phenotypic characters that could unequivocally differentiate it from drug hemp. Two new dioecious hemp cultivars, characterized by clear morphological markers and low (≤0.2%)Δ-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) content, have been obtained by mutagenesis of seeds irradiated with 60Co γ rays(optimum dose 300-350 Gy) and selection of the segregant progenies. These new cultivars, named red petiole (exhibiting anthocyanin leaf petioles) and yellow apex (exhibiting yellow distal leaflets), have been compared with varieties C.S., carmagnola and fibranova by growing them in three different areas (centre-north and south) of Italy. These agronomical trials highlighted the good performance of both new cultivars as for yield in dry matter and in fibre, not significantly different from the results of carmagnola. Besides, the new cultivars showed THC contents (0.09 and 0.17%) lower than the threshold set by the E.U. (0.2%). (Author)

  18. The WRKY Gene Family in Rice (Oryza sativa)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Christian A. Ross; Yue Liu; Qingxi J. Shen

    2007-01-01

    WRKYgenes encode transcription factors that are involved in the regulation of various biological processes. These zinc-finger proteins, especially those members mediating stress responses, are uniquely expanded in plants. To facilitate the study of the evolutionary history and functions of this supergene family, we performed an exhaustive search for WRKY genes using HMMER and a Hidden Markov Model that was specifically trained for rice. This work resulted in a comprehensive list of WRKY gene models in Oryza sativa L. ssp. indica and L. ssp. japonica. Mapping of these genes to individual chromosomes facilitated elimination of the redundant, leading to the identification of 98 WRKY genes in japonica and 102 in indica rice. These genes were further categorized according to the number and structure of their zinc-finger domains. Based on a phylogenetic tree of the conserved WRKY domains and the graphic display of WRKY loci on corresponding indica and japonica chromosomes, we identified possible WRKY gene duplications within, and losses between the two closely related rice subspecies. Also reviewed are the roles of WRKY genes in disease resistance and responses to salicylic acid and jasmonic acid, seed development and germination mediated by gibberellins, other developmental processes including senescence, and responses to abiotic stresses and abscisic acid in rice and other plants. The signaling pathways mediating WRKY gene expression are also discussed.

  19. Isolation and culture of protoplast from leaves of Lactuca sativa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Witool Chaipakdee

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Protoplasts were isolated from leaves of lettuce (Lactuca sativa L. seedlings after in vitro germination for 25, 30, 40 and 50 days. The leaves were stripped and incubated in various combinations of cellulase and pectinase. Protoplasts were cultured on MS medium containing various kinds and concentrations of plant growth regulators in different culture systems including liquid media, hanging, drop culture and solid media. Results revealed that the highest number of viable protoplasts, 14.1x105 cells per gram of fresh weight, was obtained from 30 day-old leaves of lettuce seedlings and isolated by using 2% cellulase in combination with 1% pectinase. Liquid MS medium supplemented with 0.5 mg/l NAA and 0.5 mg/l BA promoted the highest cell division up to 17.67%. First division of protoplasts was observed at 4 days after culture and microcolony formation occurred at the 4th week after culturing. Unfortunately, neither callus formation nor plantlet regeneration were obtained.

  20. Mill Designed Bio bleaching Technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Institute of Paper Science Technology

    2004-01-30

    generation of laccase has a broad spectrum of operating parameters. Nonetheless, the development of future genetically engineered laccases with enhanced temperature, pH and redox potentials will dramatically improve the overall process. A second challenge for LMS bleaching technologies is the need to develop effective, catalytic mediators. From the literature we already know this is feasible since ABTS and some inorganic mediators are catalytic. Unfortunately, the mediators that exhibit catalytic properties do not exhibit significant delignification properties and this is a challenge for future research studies. Potential short-term mill application of laccase has been recently reported by Felby132 and Chandra133 as they have demonstrated that the physical properties of linerboard can be improved when exposed to laccase without a chemical mediator. In addition, xxx has shown that the addition of laccase to the whitewater of the paper machine has several benefits for the removal of colloidal materials. Finally, this research program has presented important features on the delignification chemistry of LMS{sub NHA} and LMS{sub VA} that, in the opinion of the author, are momentous contributions to the overall LMS chemistry/biochemistry knowledge base which will continue to have future benefits.

  1. Effect of cleaning, milling, and baking on deoxynivalenol in wheat.

    OpenAIRE

    Abbas, H. K.; Mirocha, C J; Pawlosky, R. J.; Pusch, D J

    1985-01-01

    Samples of wheat naturally infected by Fusarium graminearum Schwabe were obtained from mills in Oklahoma, Missouri, Kansas, and Minnesota and fields in Nebraska and Kansas in 1982; they were analyzed for deoxynivalenol (DON). The wheat was milled, and DON was found throughout all the milling fractions (bran, shorts, reduction flour, and break flour). The DON recoveries for each mill run ranged from 90 to 98%. These samples, regardless of DON concentration, also gave similar fractional distrib...

  2. Milling Process of Petroleum Coke for Sintered Steel Applications

    OpenAIRE

    Velasco, F.; S. Guzmán; Rabanal, M. E.; Jiménez-Mateos, J. M.; Echeberria, J.; Ayerbe, E.; Calero, J.

    2011-01-01

    The effect of milling on different properties of a petroleum coke has been evaluated. The material was subjected to planetary milling at two different rates (400 and 600 rev min-1) for different times up to 48 h. The milled material was characterised by scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, sieve analysis, thermal analysis, chemical analysis, specific surface area and compressibility has been undertaken. The results show that the milling produces a very quick loss of the crystal st...

  3. Polyploid genome of Camelina sativa revealed by isolation of fatty acid synthesis genes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shewmaker Christine K

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Camelina sativa, an oilseed crop in the Brassicaceae family, has inspired renewed interest due to its potential for biofuels applications. Little is understood of the nature of the C. sativa genome, however. A study was undertaken to characterize two genes in the fatty acid biosynthesis pathway, fatty acid desaturase (FAD 2 and fatty acid elongase (FAE 1, which revealed unexpected complexity in the C. sativa genome. Results In C. sativa, Southern analysis indicates the presence of three copies of both FAD2 and FAE1 as well as LFY, a known single copy gene in other species. All three copies of both CsFAD2 and CsFAE1 are expressed in developing seeds, and sequence alignments show that previously described conserved sites are present, suggesting that all three copies of both genes could be functional. The regions downstream of CsFAD2 and upstream of CsFAE1 demonstrate co-linearity with the Arabidopsis genome. In addition, three expressed haplotypes were observed for six predicted single-copy genes in 454 sequencing analysis and results from flow cytometry indicate that the DNA content of C. sativa is approximately three-fold that of diploid Camelina relatives. Phylogenetic analyses further support a history of duplication and indicate that C. sativa and C. microcarpa might share a parental genome. Conclusions There is compelling evidence for triplication of the C. sativa genome, including a larger chromosome number and three-fold larger measured genome size than other Camelina relatives, three isolated copies of FAD2, FAE1, and the KCS17-FAE1 intergenic region, and three expressed haplotypes observed for six predicted single-copy genes. Based on these results, we propose that C. sativa be considered an allohexaploid. The characterization of fatty acid synthesis pathway genes will allow for the future manipulation of oil composition of this emerging biofuel crop; however, targeted manipulations of oil composition and general

  4. Cardio-protective and anti-cancer therapeutic potential of Nigella sativa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hammad Shafiq

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Nigella sativa is the miraculous plant having a lot of nutritional and medicinal benefits, and attracts large number of nutrition and pharmacological researchers. N. sativa seed composition shows that it is the blessing of nature and it contains and many bioactive compounds like thymoquinone, α-hederin, alkaloids, flavonoids, antioxidants, fatty acids many other compounds that have positive effects on curing of different diseases. Several medicinal properties of N. sativa like its anti-cancer, anti-inflammatory, anti-diabetic, antioxidant activities and many others are well acknowledged. However, this article focuses on activity of N. sativa against cardiovascular diseases and cancer. For gathering required data the authors went through vast number of articles using search engines like Science direct, ELSEVIER, Pub Med, Willey on Line Library and Google scholar and the findings were classified on the basis of relevance of the topic and were reviewed in the article. N. sativa is rich source of different biologically active compounds and is found effective in controlling number of cardiovascular diseases and various cancers both in vivo and in vitro studies.

  5. Safety evaluation of Phytovagex, a pessary formulation of Nigella sativa, on pregnant rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Salarinia

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The possible toxicity of drugs in pregnancy should be tested before their use in pregnant patients. In the present study, we aimed to evaluate the safety of phytovagex, a pessary formulation of Nigella sativa (N. sativa, which is already in clinical use for vaginal fungal infection. Materials and Methods: The pregnant rats were treated intravaginal with physiological saline (vehicle or phytovagex pessary in the first half of their pregnancy (days 1 to 10 of gestation. Duration of pregnancy and health parameters of the newborns were recorded after parturition. Also, cytotoxicity of N. sativa hydroalcoholic extract was tested against ovary Cho cells.  Results: The phytovagex had no significant effect on the duration of pregnancy, number of newborns, weight of neonates, and percent of stillbirth. No deformity or general behavioral abnormality was observed in neonates monitored for 30 days after birth. N. sativa extract had no significant effect on the viability of ovary cells at the concentrations of 12.5-200 µg/mL. Conclusion: Results of this animal study showed that phytovagex has no overall effect on the duration of pregnancy and health parameters of the newborns. Also, its active agent, N. sativa, does not induce any cytotoxic effect on ovary cells.

  6. Antifungal effects of Zataria multiflora and Nigella sativa extracts against Candida albicans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moghim Hassan

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Candidiasis is a fungal infection caused by Candida albicans. Recentstudies suggest that the side effects of herbal drugs with significant therapeutic effectsare far less than chemical drugs. This study was therefore, conducted to examineantifungal activities of Zataria multif lora and Nigella sativa extracts on C. albicans.Methods: Powders of Z. multif lora and N. sativa were macerated with ethanol 70% and evaporatedat 38˚C by rotary evaporator. The suspension of C. albicans was prepared according to McFarlandat a concentration of approximately 0.5-2.5 × 10CFU/ml. Testing was performed according tomicrobroth dilution in 96-well micro-dilution plates. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC,MIC50%, MIC90% and minimum fungicidal concentration (MFC were separately evaluated bycounting the fungal colonies for Z. multif lora and N. sativa.Results: The measured values of MIC, MIC50%, MIC90% and MFC of Z. multiflora on the C.albicans were 0.13, 0.38, 0.74 and 1.03 mg/ml, and those of N. sativa were 10, 27.7, 52.3 and 72.3 mg/ml, respectively.Conclusion: The results indicate that both Zataria multiflora and Nigella sativa extracts are effectiveagainst Candida albicans, but the former species has the highest antifungal activity. If the clinicaltrials confirm the results of this study, Z. multiflora, as a new antifungal agent by replacing chemicaldrugs can be used to develop antifungal medicinal herbs.

  7. A review on therapeutic potential of Nigella sativa: A miracle herb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Aftab; Husain, Asif; Mujeeb, Mohd; Khan, Shah Alam; Najmi, Abul Kalam; Siddique, Nasir Ali; Damanhouri, Zoheir A; Anwar, Firoz

    2013-05-01

    Nigella sativa (N. sativa) (Family Ranunculaceae) is a widely used medicinal plant throughout the world. It is very popular in various traditional systems of medicine like Unani and Tibb, Ayurveda and Siddha. Seeds and oil have a long history of folklore usage in various systems of medicines and food. The seeds of N. sativa have been widely used in the treatment of different diseases and ailments. In Islamic literature, it is considered as one of the greatest forms of healing medicine. It has been recommended for using on regular basis in Tibb-e-Nabwi (Prophetic Medicine). It has been widely used as antihypertensive, liver tonics, diuretics, digestive, anti-diarrheal, appetite stimulant, analgesics, anti-bacterial and in skin disorders. Extensive studies on N. sativa have been carried out by various researchers and a wide spectrum of its pharmacological actions have been explored which may include antidiabetic, anticancer, immunomodulator, analgesic, antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, spasmolytic, bronchodilator, hepato-protective, renal protective, gastro-protective, antioxidant properties, etc. Due to its miraculous power of healing, N. sativa has got the place among the top ranked evidence based herbal medicines. This is also revealed that most of the therapeutic properties of this plant are due to the presence of thymoquinone which is major bioactive component of the essential oil. The present review is an effort to provide a detailed survey of the literature on scientific researches of pharmacognostical characteristics, chemical composition and pharmacological activities of the seeds of this plant. PMID:23646296

  8. 40 CFR 61.142 - Standard for asbestos mills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 8 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Standard for asbestos mills. 61.142... (CONTINUED) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS National Emission Standard for Asbestos § 61.142 Standard for asbestos mills. (a) Each owner or operator of an asbestos mill shall...

  9. Texture formation in iron particles using mechanical milling with graphite as a milling aid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crystallographically anisotropic platelet iron particles were successfully prepared using a conventional ball mill with addition of graphite (Gp) particles. The morphological and structural changes resulting from the milling were investigated using scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction. The spherical iron particles were plastically deformed into platelet shapes during the milling. Simultaneously, it is suggested that the size of the Gp particles decreased and adhered as nanoparticles on the surface of the iron particles. The adhered Gp particles affected the plastic deformation behavior of the iron particles: the (001) planes of α-iron were oriented parallel to the particle face, and no preferred in-plane orientation was observed. This study not only details the preparation of soft magnetic metal particles that crystallographically oriented to enhance their magnetic properties but also provides new insight into the activities of the well-established and extensively studied mechanical milling method

  10. Comparative analysis of milling results on the tail-end reduction passages of the wheat flour milling process: Conventional vs. eight-roller milling system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fišteš Aleksandar Z.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction of the eight-roller mill into the wheat flour milling process significantly reduces the investment costs and overall energy requirements compared to the conventional milling system. However, the conditions for controlled milling are less favorable and could result in deterioration of flour yield and quality. Paper compares milling results obtained using a conventional process and process with an eight-roller mill employed on the tail-end passages of the reduction system. At the same roll gap and under the same sieving conditions, the flour release was lower in the process with the eight-roller mill compared to the conventional milling system. By decreasing the roll gap and increasing the upper size limit (granulation of flour in the process with the eight-roller mill it is possible to increase flour yield and decrease milling energy consumption per unit mass of flour produced. This can be achieved without deterioration of flour quality as determined by ash content. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 031014

  11. CVD carbon powders modified by ball milling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazmierczak Tomasz

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Carbon powders produced using a plasma assisted chemical vapor deposition (CVD methods are an interesting subject of research. One of the most interesting methods of synthesizing these powders is using radio frequency plasma. This method, originally used in deposition of carbon films containing different sp2/sp3 ratios, also makes possible to produce carbon structures in the form of powder. Results of research related to the mechanical modification of these powders have been presented. The powders were modified using a planetary ball mill with varying parameters, such as milling speed, time, ball/powder mass ratio and additional liquids. Changes in morphology and particle sizes were measured using scanning electron microscopy and dynamic light scattering. Phase composition was analyzed using Raman spectroscopy. The influence of individual parameters on the modification outcome was estimated using statistical method. The research proved that the size of obtained powders is mostly influenced by the milling speed and the amount of balls. Powders tend to form conglomerates sized up to hundreds of micrometers. Additionally, it is possible to obtain nanopowders with the size around 100 nm. Furthermore, application of additional liquid, i.e. water in the process reduces the graphitization of the powder, which takes place during dry milling.

  12. Species status of Mill Creek Elliptio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, G.M. [Academy of Natural Sciences (United States); Mulvey, M. [Savannah River Ecology Lab., Aiken, SC (United States)

    1993-12-31

    This report discusses environmental effects of the Savannah River Plant on aqautic populations in Mill Creek and surrounding tributaries. Of particular concern was the status of Elliptio. Genetics and phenotypic characteristics have shown that the current classification system is not adequate for these populations. The appendices characterize genetic variability at different loci, electrophoretic data, allele frequencies, sympatric species, and anatomical characters.

  13. QUANTUM GRAVITY AND YANG-MILLS THEORY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trunev A. P.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we consider Einstein's theory of gravitation in connection with Yang-Mills theory. The model of the metric satisfying the basic requirements of quantum theory is proposed. The mechanism of generation of baryonic matter of dark energy is discussed

  14. Lucky Mc Uranium Mill. Draft environmental statement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Environmental Impact Statement addressed the following: the existing environment; operations; environmental impacts; environmental effects of accidents; monitoring programs and other mitigating measures; unavoidable adverse environmental impacts; relationship between short-term uses of the environment and long-term productivity; irreversible and irretrievable commitments of resources; alternatives; and NRC benefit-cost summary for the Lucky Mc Mill

  15. Radiosensitivity of quince seeds (Cydonia oblonga Mill.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The investigation with quince seeds (Cydonia oblonga Mill.) radiosensitivity and the mineral composition of the plants obtained for mutation breeding are related. The concentration of some macro and micronutrients in quince seedlings obtained from irradiated seeds are studied. (M.A.C.)

  16. Buffalo calves intoxicated with Ageratum houstonianum mill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ageratum houstonianum Mill, a noxious weed has been reported to contain pyrrolizidine alkaloids, saponins, triterpens and coumarin. It is an invasive weed that is commonly found in the pasturelands of tropical and subtropical regions. The objectives of this work were to verify the toxicity of A. ho...

  17. Rotationally Vibrating Electric-Field Mill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirkham, Harold

    2008-01-01

    A proposed instrument for measuring a static electric field would be based partly on a conventional rotating-split-cylinder or rotating-split-sphere electric-field mill. However, the design of the proposed instrument would overcome the difficulty, encountered in conventional rotational field mills, of transferring measurement signals and power via either electrical or fiber-optic rotary couplings that must be aligned and installed in conjunction with rotary bearings. Instead of being made to rotate in one direction at a steady speed as in a conventional rotational field mill, a split-cylinder or split-sphere electrode assembly in the proposed instrument would be set into rotational vibration like that of a metronome. The rotational vibration, synchronized with appropriate rapid electronic switching of electrical connections between electric-current-measuring circuitry and the split-cylinder or split-sphere electrodes, would result in an electrical measurement effect equivalent to that of a conventional rotational field mill. A version of the proposed instrument is described.

  18. Yang-Mills theory in Coulomb gauge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this thesis we study the Yang-Mills vacuum structure by using the functional Schroedinger picture in Coulomb gauge. In particular we discuss the scenario of colour confinement, which was originally formulated by Gribov. After a short introduction, we recall some basic aspects of Yang-Mills theories, its canonical quantization in the Weyl gauge and the functional Schroedinger picture. We then consider the minimal Coulomb gauge and the Gribov problem of the gauge theory. The gauge fixing of the Coulomb gauge is done by using the Faddeev-Popov method, which enables the resolution of the Gauss law - the constraint on physical states. In the third chapter, we variationally solve the stationary Yang-Mills Schroedinger equation in Coulomb gauge for the vacuum state. Therefor we use a vacuum wave functional, which is strongly peaked at the Gribov horizon. The vacuum energy functional is calculated and minimized resulting in a set of coupled Schwinger-Dyson equations for the gluon energy, the ghost and Coulomb form factors and the curvature in gauge orbit space. Using the angular approximation these integral equations have been solved analytically in both the infrared and the ultraviolet regime. The asymptotic analytic solutions in the infrared and ultraviolet regime are reasonably well reproduced by the full numerical solutions of the coupled Schwinger-Dyson equations. In the fourth chapter, we investigate the dependence of the Yang-Mills wave functional in Coulomb gauge on the Faddeev-Popov determinant. (orig.)

  19. Safety aspects in thorium mining and milling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    On account of limited uranium and vast thorium resources, India has adopted a three stage nuclear energy programme wherein initially the existing uranium reserves shall be explored and at later stages the thorium reserves shall be utilized for nuclear power production. Thorium occurs in nature as mineral monazite, which along with other heavy minerals, is found abundantly in the beach sands along the coastal stretches of peninsular India. Recovery of thorium therefore involves mining of beach sands, mineral separation to obtain monazite and its chemical processing to obtain thorium values. The process for recovery of thorium involve both radiological as well as conventional hazards. This paper highlight's the issues related to Radiological Hazards, Conventional Hazards, Waste Management and Regulatory Control. The radiological safety provisions in the thorium mining and milling as well as the industrial and fire safety aspects in thorium milling are enforced by the Atomic Energy Regulatory Board (AERB), which is the national regulatory body of India for nuclear and radiation safety. AERB's regulatory oversight span through all consenting stages namely, siting, construction, commissioning, operation and decommissioning. AERB is supported in its work by elaborate committee structure and follows a multi-tier review system of safety committees to carry out review and assessment. The individual doses in thorium mining and milling facilities as well to those of public residing in vicinity of these facilities is well within the specified limits. Industrial and fire safety statistics in thorium mills are also better when compared to similar conventional industries

  20. Analysis of cannabinoids in laser-microdissected trichomes of medicinal Cannabis sativa using LCMS and cryogenic NMR

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Happyana, Nizar; Agnolet, Sara; Muntendam, Remco; Van Dam, Annie; Schneider, Bernd; Kayser, Oliver

    2013-01-01

    Trichomes, especially the capitate-stalked glandular hairs, are well known as the main sites of cannabinoid and essential oil production of Cannabis sativa. In this study the distribution and density of various types of Cannabis sativa L trichomes, have been investigated by scanning electron microsc

  1. Evaluation of anticonvulsant activity of volatile oil extract of Nigella sativa seeds by chemically induced seizure model in albino rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asmatanzeem Bepari

    2016-08-01

    Conclusions: The N. sativa seeds showed anticonvulsant activity in pentylenetetrazole induced seizure model of epilepsy. This study showed that volatile oil of N. sativa seeds potentiated the effect of sodium valproate. [Int J Basic Clin Pharmacol 2016; 5(4.000: 1300-1307

  2. GenBank blastn search result: AK289245 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK289245 J100077H08 AY525351.1 AY525351 Castanea sativa voucher HH R3T2 (Connecticut Agricultura ... l Experiment Station, New Haven , Connecticut) Ycf9 (ycf9) gene, partial cds; ycf9- ...

  3. Analysis of machining accuracy during free form surface milling simulation for different milling strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matras, A.; Kowalczyk, R.

    2014-11-01

    The analysis results of machining accuracy after the free form surface milling simulations (based on machining EN AW- 7075 alloys) for different machining strategies (Level Z, Radial, Square, Circular) are presented in the work. Particular milling simulations were performed using CAD/CAM Esprit software. The accuracy of obtained allowance is defined as a difference between the theoretical surface of work piece element (the surface designed in CAD software) and the machined surface after a milling simulation. The difference between two surfaces describes a value of roughness, which is as the result of tool shape mapping on the machined surface. Accuracy of the left allowance notifies in direct way a surface quality after the finish machining. Described methodology of usage CAD/CAM software can to let improve a time design of machining process for a free form surface milling by a 5-axis CNC milling machine with omitting to perform the item on a milling machine in order to measure the machining accuracy for the selected strategies and cutting data.

  4. Identification of Intergeneric Hybrid Plants Between Oryza sativa and O. minuta via GISH and RAPD

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU Shun-wu; CHEN Bao-tang; TAO Ai-lin; ZHANG Duan-pin

    2003-01-01

    To transfer desirable resistance traits from O. minuta to O. sativa, intergeneric hybrid plants between O. sativa (AA, 2n=2X=24) and O. minuta (BBCC, 2n=4X=48) were produced by embryo rescue after sexual cross. Morphological observation and chromosome counts indicated their hybrid status (ABC, 2n =3X=36). Genomic in situ hybridization (GISH) was further applied to confirm the parentage of the chromosomes of F1 hybrids. Chromosomes of O. minuta and O. sativa were distinguishable in the hybrids in different fluorescence colors. GISH indicated that A and BC chromosomes were not randomly assembled in a cell.RAPD profiles unequivocally revealed their hybrids with double parent patterns. The results of blast tests showed that the hybrids had obtained disease resistance from O. minuta, and had a level of susceptibility between the parents.

  5. Design, build and programming a small milling machine

    OpenAIRE

    Goya Cordovilla, Álvaro; Díez Marín, Miguel

    2013-01-01

    The goal of this project is to design and build a prototype of a small milling machine. What makes special this milling machine is it is going to be intended for milling in a vehicle registration plate. The size of our vehicle registration plate is 50x10x1,5 cm. That’s why the dimensions of our milling machine must be the less as possible in order to save usable space and the most important think in engineering, save the more materials/money we can. On the other hand, this milling machine is ...

  6. Vibrations in High Speed Milling of Thin-walled Components

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Tongyue; HE Ning; LI Liang

    2006-01-01

    Thin-walled structures have been widely used in the aerospace industry. The dynamic interaction between the milling cutter and thin-walled workpiece can easily lead to vibration. This paper investigates the vibration caused during milling the thin-walled workpiece on the NC machining center, presents a theoretical milling vibration model of thin-walled beam. The model was verified by using milling experiments and numerical simulations. Some valuable conclusions are derived, this will be references to scientific research and guides to the vibration-free milling of thin-walled structures at different cutting speeds.

  7. Effect of Nigella sativa oil on experimental toxoplasmosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mady, Rasha F; El-Hadidy, Wessam; Elachy, Samar

    2016-01-01

    Toxoplasmosis is a parasitic infection caused by Toxoplasma gondii protozoon. It is most commonly treated by pyrimethamine (PYR); however, this was intolerable by many patients. The aim of this study was to assess therapeutic effects of Nigella sativa oil (NSO) alone and combined with pyrimethamine (PYR) compared to a previous combination of clindamycin (CLN) and (PYR). One hundred Albino mice were used in the current study and were equally divided into five groups: normal (I), infected untreated control (II); infected, treated with NSO-only (III); infected, treated with NSO + PYR (IV); and infected, treated with CLN + PYR (V). The virulent RH Toxoplasma strain was used in infection survival rates estimation, impression smears from liver and spleen, and histopathological and ultrastructural studies were done. Liver malondialdehyde (MDA) level and total antioxidant capacity (TAC) were determined. Interferon-γ and specific IgM were also measured in sera by ELISA. Results showed that NSO alone has no direct anti-Toxoplasma effect, whereas its combination with PYR produced potent effect that is comparable to CLN + PYR. It significantly increased the survival rate and decreased the parasite density and pathological insult in both liver and spleen. Also, significant increase in interferon-γ level denotes stimulation of cellular immunity. NSO + PYR combination markedly improved the antioxidant capacity of Toxoplasma infected mice compared to the infected untreated ones and to CLN/PYR. In conclusion, although NSO, if administered alone, has significant immunostimulant and antioxidant properties, it failed to decrease tachyzoite counts. Combination of NSO and PYR had synergistic effect in treatment of toxoplasmosis. PMID:26446086

  8. Cannabidiol, a constituent of Cannabis sativa, modulates sleep in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murillo-Rodríguez, Eric; Millán-Aldaco, Diana; Palomero-Rivero, Marcela; Mechoulam, Raphael; Drucker-Colín, René

    2006-08-01

    Delta(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (Delta(9)-THC) and cannabidiol (CBD) are two major constituents of Cannabis sativa. Delta(9)-THC modulates sleep, but no clear evidence on the role of CBD is available. In order to determine the effects of CBD on sleep, it was administered intracerebroventricular (icv) in a dose of 10 microg/5 microl at the beginning of either the lights-on or the lights-off period. We found that CBD administered during the lights-on period increased wakefulness (W) and decreased rapid eye movement sleep (REMS). No changes on sleep were observed during the dark phase. Icv injections of CBD (10 microg/5microl) induced an enhancement of c-Fos expression in waking-related brain areas such as hypothalamus and dorsal raphe nucleus (DRD). Microdialysis in unanesthetized rats was carried out to characterize the effects of icv administration of CBD (10 microg/5 microl) on extracellular levels of dopamine (DA) within the nucleus accumbens. CBD induced an increase in DA release. Finally, in order to test if the waking properties of CBD could be blocked by the sleep-inducing endocannabinoid anandamide (ANA), animals received ANA (10 microg/2.5 microl, icv) followed 15 min later by CBD (10 microg/2.5 microl). Results showed that the waking properties of CBD were not blocked by ANA. In conclusion, we found that CBD modulates waking via activation of neurons in the hypothalamus and DRD. Both regions are apparently involved in the generation of alertness. Also, CBD increases DA levels as measured by microdialysis and HPLC procedures. Since CBD induces alertness, it might be of therapeutic value in sleep disorders such as excessive somnolence. PMID:16844117

  9. Cannabis sativa: The Plant of the Thousand and One Molecules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andre, Christelle M; Hausman, Jean-Francois; Guerriero, Gea

    2016-01-01

    Cannabis sativa L. is an important herbaceous species originating from Central Asia, which has been used in folk medicine and as a source of textile fiber since the dawn of times. This fast-growing plant has recently seen a resurgence of interest because of its multi-purpose applications: it is indeed a treasure trove of phytochemicals and a rich source of both cellulosic and woody fibers. Equally highly interested in this plant are the pharmaceutical and construction sectors, since its metabolites show potent bioactivities on human health and its outer and inner stem tissues can be used to make bioplastics and concrete-like material, respectively. In this review, the rich spectrum of hemp phytochemicals is discussed by putting a special emphasis on molecules of industrial interest, including cannabinoids, terpenes and phenolic compounds, and their biosynthetic routes. Cannabinoids represent the most studied group of compounds, mainly due to their wide range of pharmaceutical effects in humans, including psychotropic activities. The therapeutic and commercial interests of some terpenes and phenolic compounds, and in particular stilbenoids and lignans, are also highlighted in view of the most recent literature data. Biotechnological avenues to enhance the production and bioactivity of hemp secondary metabolites are proposed by discussing the power of plant genetic engineering and tissue culture. In particular two systems are reviewed, i.e., cell suspension and hairy root cultures. Additionally, an entire section is devoted to hemp trichomes, in the light of their importance as phytochemical factories. Ultimately, prospects on the benefits linked to the use of the -omics technologies, such as metabolomics and transcriptomics to speed up the identification and the large-scale production of lead agents from bioengineered Cannabis cell culture, are presented. PMID:26870049

  10. Cannabis sativa: the plant of the thousand and one molecules

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christelle M Andre

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Cannabis sativa L. is an important herbaceous species originating from Central Asia, which has been used in folk medicine and as a source of textile fibre since the dawn of times. This fast-growing plant has recently seen a resurgence of interest because of its multi-purpose applications: it is indeed a treasure trove of phytochemicals and a rich source of both cellulosic and woody fibres. Equally highly interested in this plant are the pharmaceutical and construction sectors, since its metabolites show potent bioactivities on human health and its outer and inner stem tissues can be used to make bioplastics and concrete-like material, respectively. In this review, the rich spectrum of hemp phytochemicals is discussed by putting a special emphasis on molecules of industrial interest, including cannabinoids, terpenoids and phenolic compounds, and their biosynthetic routes. Cannabinoids represent the most studied group of compounds, mainly due to their wide range of pharmaceutical effects in humans, including psychotropic activities. The therapeutic and commercial interests of some terpenoids and phenolic compounds, and in particular stilbenoids and lignans, are also highlighted in view of the most recent literature data. Biotechnological avenues to enhance the production and bioactivity of hemp secondary metabolites are proposed by discussing the power of plant genetic engineering and tissue culture. In particular two systems are reviewed, i.e. cell suspension and hairy root cultures. Additionally, an entire section is devoted to hemp trichomes, in the light of their importance as phytochemical factories. Ultimately, prospects on the benefits linked to the use of the -omics technologies, such as metabolomics and transcriptomics to speed up the identification and the large-scale production of lead agents from bioengineered Cannabis cell culture, are presented.

  11. Transesterification of camelina sativa oil with supercritical alcohol mixtures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Transesterification of camelina oil under supercritical methanol/ethanol and 1-butanol mixture conditions. • Chemical composition of fatty acid methyl esters, ethyl esters and butyl esters. • Effect of different alcohol molar ratio on biodiesel yields. • Effect of different alcohol molar ratio on physical properties of biodiesel products. - Abstract: The transesterification of camelina sativa oil with methanol–1-butanol, and ethanol–1-butanol alcohol mixtures under supercritical conditions have been studied in order to maximize biodiesel yield and improve biodiesel quality. The influence of the variation of the molar ratio of methanol–1-butanol and ethanol–1-butanol from 1:0, 3:1, 2:1, 1:1, 1:2, to 0:1 on the yield of free fatty methyl esters/free fatty ethanol esters–free fatty acid butyl esters, the composition of the biodiesel blend mixtures, and the physical properties of the biodiesel have been investigated at the reaction temperature of 290 °C, reaction time of 30 min, and the initial reaction pressure of 500 psi. A maximum yield of 86.14 wt% for free fatty acid methyl esters–free fatty acid butyl esters with the optimum cold property can be obtained at the molar ratio of methanol–1-butanol of 0.5–0.9. Also, a maximum yield of 85.60 wt% for free fatty ethyl esters–free fatty butyl esters with the lowest pour point can be achieved at the molar ratio of ethanol–1-butanol in the range of 0.5–0.7

  12. Lipid analysis of developing Camelina sativa seeds and cultured embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollard, Mike; Martin, Tina M; Shachar-Hill, Yair

    2015-10-01

    Camelina sativa is a cultivated oilseed rich in triacylglycerols containing oleic, linoleic, α-linolenic and eicosenoic acids. As it holds promise as a model species, its lipid synthesis was characterized in vivo and in culture. Lipid accumulates at a maximum rate of about 26 μg/day/seed (11.5 mg lipid/day/g fresh seed weight), a rate comparable with other oilseeds. Noteworthy is a late stage surge in α-linolenic acid accumulation. Small amounts of unusual epoxy and hydroxy fatty acids are also present in the triacylglycerols. These include 15,16-epoxy- and 15-hydroxy-octadecadienoic acids and homologous series of ω7-hydroxy-alk-ω9-enoic and ω9/10-hydroxy-alkanoic acids. Mid-maturation embryos cultured in vitro have growth and lipid deposition rates and fatty acid compositions that closely match that of seeds, but extended culture periods allow these rates to rise and surpass those observed in planta. Optimized thin layer chromatography systems for characterization of labeled products from acetate or glycerol labeling are described. Glycerol label is only found in acylglycerols, largely as the intact glyceryl backbone, but acetate can label acyl groups and sterols, the latter to a much higher relative specific activity. This presumably occurs because mevalonic acid precursor is derived from the non-plastid pool of acetyl-CoA that is also the source for malonyl-CoA to drive FAE1-dependent chain elongation. Particular attention has been paid to the separation of sterols and diacylglycerols, and to hydrogenation of triacylglycerols to simplify their analysis. These improved methods will allow more accurate analyses of the fluxes of lipid metabolism in cultured plant embryos. PMID:26262674

  13. Effect of nigella sativa seeds extract on serum c-reactive protein in albino rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    C-reactive protein (CRP) is an acute phase protein. It predicts future risk of cardiovascular diseases. Different medicinal plants and their active ingredients possess the ability to reduce serum CRP levels and hence inflammatory disorders and cardiovascular diseases. In our study, ethanolic extract of Nigella sativa seeds was evaluated in albino rats for its possible effect on serum CRP levels. Objective: The objective of this study was to determine the effect of ethanolic extract of Nigella sativa seeds on an acute inflammatory biomarker/mediator, C-reactive protein (CRP) in albino rats. Study Design: Randomized controlled trial (RCT). Place and Duration of Study: Physiology Department, Services Institute of Medical Sciences (SIMS), Lahore; from September to November, 2009. Subjects and Methods: The study was carried out on 90 male albino rats. Five percent (5%) formalin in a dose of 50 meu1 was injected into sub-plantar surface of right hind paw of each rat to produce inflammation. The rats were randomly divided into three groups of thirty each. Group A was given normal saline (control); group B was given Nigella sativa seed extract; and group C received diclofenac sodium, as a reference drug. CRP levels in each group were measured from blood samples taken 25 hours after giving formalin. Results: The ethanolic extract of Nigella sativa seeds, given intraperitoneally, caused highly significant (p<0.001) reduction in serum CRP levels as compared to control group. The reduction in CRP levels by ethanolic extract of Nigella sativa was also significantly (p<0.05) more than that produced by diclofenac sodium. Conclusion: Our results suggest that Nigella sativa possesses ability to reduce serum CRP levels significantly, after production of artificial inflammation, in albino rats. (author)

  14. N-glycan transition of the early developmental stage in Oryza sativa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horiuchi, Risa; Hirotsu, Naoki; Miyanishi, Nobumitsu

    2016-08-26

    N-Glycosylation is one of the post-translational modifications. In animals, N-glycans linked to proteins function in cell-cell recognition, sorting, transport, and other biological phenomena. However, in plants, N-glycan-mediated biological functions remain obscure. In a previous study, we showed that the main type of N-glycan transition is from the paucimannosidic to complex type before and after germination in Oryza sativa, suggesting that transitions of N-glycan, including those of glycoproteins and glycosyltransferases, are closely associated with plant growth. To further elucidate the relationship between N-glycan structure and plant growth, we analyzed the structures of N-glycans expressed in O. sativa seedlings grown under light conditions and performed comparative analyses of the structures in the shoot and root. The analyses show that fundamental N-glycan structures are common to the shoot and root, whereas paucimannosidic-type N-glycans dramatically decreased in the root grown under light conditions. Further, to investigate the effects of light on N-glycan structures in O. sativa seedlings, we analyzed N-glycan structures in O. sativa seedlings grown in the dark. Understandably, N-glycan expression in the root was almost unaffected by light. However, despite a marked difference in phenotype, N-glycan expression in the shoot was also unaffected by light. This result suggests that the shoot and root of O. sativa have different glycoproteins and distinct N-glycan synthetic systems. Thus, we propose that the N-glycan synthetic system of the O. sativa shoot is almost unaffected by light conditions and that many photosynthesis-related proteins are not modified by N-glycans. PMID:27320861

  15. Rhipicephalus annulatus (Acari: Ixodidae Control by Nigella sativa, Thyme and Spinosad Preparations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shawky Mohamed Aboelhadid

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Several compounds obtained from plants have potential insecticidal, growth deterrent or repellent characteristics. The control of hard ticks by non-chemical substances was targeted in this study.Methods: The effect of 36 materials on in-vitro ticks was studied, including 2 absolute controls (water only or ab­solute ethyl alcohol only, 6 conventionally used spinosad preparations (aqueous solutions, 12 Nigella sativa (N. sativa preparations (aqueous and alcoholic solutions, and 12 Thyme preparations (aqueous and alcoholic solutions. The engorged ticks were tested in-vitro for mortality and oviposition ability using the studied materials.Results: The final mortality after 48 hours of application in N. sativa aqueous preparations began from 10.0% con­centration, 1.0% to 100% by concentration preparations ≥10%. In addition, N. sativa alcoholic preparations began from 50.0% concentration, 2 % to 100% by concentration ≥5%. Meanwhile, Thyme aqueous and alcoholic prepa­rations began from 70.0% concentration, 5% to 90% by concentration 10–20%. Additionally, spinosad aqueous preparations and both of control preparations (Water and Alcohol resulted in no mortality. All differences were sta­tistically significant. The oviposition was stopped in N. sativa (aqueous ≥10% and alcoholic ≥5% and in spinosad (aqueous≥25%. The aqoues dilution of the used matters killed B. annulatus larvae beginning from the concentration 5%.Conclusion: Nigella sativa alcohol 20% was the best of studied preparations being the lowest concentration (20% that could achieve the highest lethal (100% effect in shortest time (12 hours. Moreover, Thyme oil and spinosad could not kill 100% of adult but did on larvae.

  16. Nanocrystalline titanium characteristics obtained through cryogenic and high energy milling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The microstructure and changes in chemical composition of Ti powders produced by cryogenic milling (modified Atritor) and by high energy milling (Spex mill) were investigated. The effect of high energy milling and cryomilling parameters, such as milling time and ball to powder ratio (BPR), on the particle size, grain size, chemistry, and structure of Ti powders were investigated using x-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, and transmission electron microscopy. The experimental results show that Ti powders with a grain size of approximately 20 nm (nanocrystalline) can be produced using the cryomilling technique. The average particle size increased initially with milling time from the original 55 μm to a maximum value of 125 after milling for 2 hours, and then decreased to 44μm after milling for 8 hours. Both the average particle size and the grain size decreased as the BPR increased. The results using Spex mill show that the particle size and grain size both decreased as the milling time increased. The oxygen, nitrogen and iron content of the powders increased with the milling time (au)

  17. Genetic improvement of rice (oryza sativa l.) by induced mutations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 1989 was initiated at Rice Research Institute of Cuba, a mutation breeding programme, in order to obtain new germoplasm with improved characters such as milling quality, earliness, resistance to the Hoja Blanca virus disease and salt tolerance. Seven varieties has been irradiated and two different sources of radiation were used: gamma rays from 60Co and fast neutrons of a 14 MeV neutron generator. In 1995, was released the variety IACuba 23 for low inputs conditions. Another four varieties IACuba 21, IACuba 22, IACuba 27 and IACuba 28 are in validation trials in rice production areas under irrigated condition. The last two have showed resistance to Steneotarsonemus spinki. Also, a group of mutants was selected to be used as parents. These mutants have been used in 953 crosses

  18. Allelopathic effects of Medicago sativa L. and Vicia cracca L. leaf and root extracts on weeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koloren, Onur

    2007-05-15

    In this study, the allelopathic potential of different concentration (5, 25 and 50%) of M. sativa and V. cracca leaf and root extracts were evaluated on germination and radicle length of four weed species (Amaranthus retroflexus L., Lolium perenne L., Ipomoea hederacea L. and Portulaca oleracea L.) in laboratory condition. As a result, germination and radicle length of all species were reduced by the extract from M. sativa and V. cracca leaf and root at different percentage. Increasing the water extract concentrations from 5 to 50% of test plants parts significantly increased the inhibition of all weed species germination and radicle length. PMID:19086510

  19. Advice of the Italian CCTN on the toxicity of Cannabis sativa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Camoni, I. [ed.] [Istituto Superiore di Sanita`, Rome (Italy). Lab. di Tossicologia Applicata; Mucci, N. [ed.] [ISPESL, Monteporzio Catone, Roma (Italy). Dip. di Medicina del Lavoro; Paroli, E. [ed.] [Rome, Univ. `La Sapienza` (Italy). Fac. di Medicina, Ist. di Farmacologia

    1998-06-01

    This recommendation of the Italian National Toxicological Committee (CCTN) regards the possible toxic effects of some products derived from Cannabis sativa, indica variety. The CCTN has especially evaluated genotoxic, immunological and toxic to reproduction effects of these substances, on the basis of the results from both experimental studies and observations on humans. [Italiano] Il documento contiene il parere della CCTN sui potenziali effetti tossici di alcuni derivati della Cannabis sativa, varieta` indica. Il parere e` stato elaborato sulla base dei risultati sia di studi sperimentali sia dei limitati studi sull`uomo, prendendo in particolare considerazione gli effetti genotossici, tossico-riproduttivi ed immunologici.

  20. Protective effects of Nigella sativa against hypertension-induced oxidative stress and cardiovascular dysfunction in rats

    OpenAIRE

    Nur Taşar; Ahmet Özer Şehirli; Ömer Yiğiner; Selami Süleymanoğlu; Meral Yüksel; Berrak Yeğen; Göksel Şener

    2012-01-01

    We investigated the protective effect of Nigella sativa against oxidative injury in the heart and kidney tissues of rats with renovascular hypertension (RVH). RVH model was induced by placing a renal artery clip (2-kidney-1-clip, 2K1C) in Wistar albino rats (n= 8), while sham rats (n= 8) had no clip placement. Starting on the 3rd week after the operation, rats received Nigella sativa (0.2 ml/kg/day, intraperitoneally) or vehicle for the following 6 weeks. Blood pressures (BP) were recorded at...

  1. Efecto de rizobacterias promotoras de crecimiento vegetal solubilizadoras de fosfato en lactuca sativa cultivar white boston

    OpenAIRE

    Diana Beatriz Sanchez López; Ana María García Hoyos; Felipe Andrés Romero Perdomo; Ruth Rebeca Bonilla Buitrago

    2014-01-01

    Título en español: Efecto de rizobacterias promotoras de crecimiento vegetal solubilizadoras de fosfato en Lactuca sativa cultivar White BostonTítulo en ingles: Effect of plant growth promoting rhizobacteria phosate solubilizing  Lactuca sativa cultivar White BostonResumen:  En las últimas décadas, la agricultura colombiana se ha visto afectada por la reducción de la productividad en las zonas hortícolas, el incremento de los costos de producción y la dependencia del uso de productos químicos...

  2. Isolation of Cannabinoids from the plant Cannabis sativa and its potential anticancer activity

    OpenAIRE

    Tariq A.L.; Reyaz A.L

    2012-01-01

    The plant leaves were identified as Cannabis sativa L. The cannabniods were extracted by aqueous extract found a total yield of 3.8g while as acetone extract 4.8g. The protein content in crude extract of Cannabis sativa L for aqeous extract found 112μg/ml and for acetone extract 160μg/ml. The molecular weight of protein by SDS PGAGE found to be 70KDa. The HPLC intension percentage for aqueous was 11 while for acetone extract it found 25. The actone extract exhibited more anticancer activity a...

  3. Influence of Feed Supplementation with Cannabis Sativa on Quality of Broilers Carcass

    OpenAIRE

    Rifat Ullah Khan1*, F. R. Durrani1, Naila Chand1 and Haseeb Anwar

    2010-01-01

    A project was planned to study the effect of feeding powdered seeds of Cannabis sativa on the carcass quality of broiler chicks. A total of 160 day-old broiler chicks of equal weight were randomly divided into four equal groups A, B, C and D. Each group was further divided into four replicates with 10 chicks in each replicate. Dried crushed Cannabis sativa seeds were added to the feed of groups B, C and D at the rate of 5, 10 and 20% of offered feed respectively, while group A served as a con...

  4. Cannabis sativa and the endogenous cannabinoid system: therapeutic potential for appetite regulation

    OpenAIRE

    Farrimond, Jonathan Andrew; Mercier, Marion Simone; Whalley, Ben; Williams, Claire M.

    2011-01-01

    Abstract The herb Cannabis sativa (C. sativa) has been used in China and on the Indian subcontinent for thousands of years as a medicine. However, since it was brought to the U.K. and then the rest of the western world in the late 19th century, its use has been a source of controversy. Indeed, its psychotropic side effects are well reported but only relatively recently has scientific endeavour begun to find valuable uses for either the whole plant or its individual components. Here...

  5. A neurotoxicidade da Cannabis sativa e suas repercussões sobre a morfologia do tecido cerebral

    OpenAIRE

    Bárbara da Silva Santos; Marcelo Coertjens

    2014-01-01

    Para a compreensão das repercussões psicológicas e comportamentais verificadas em usuários de Cannabis sativa, experimentos têm sido desenvolvidos analisando a relação entre a intensidade do uso da droga e biomarcadores de lesão e inflamação. Dessa forma, este estudo teve como objetivo realizar pesquisa bibliográfica, relacionando marcadores bioquímicos de neurotoxicidade e suas repercussões sobre a morfologia do tecido cerebral em usuários de Cannabis sativa, durante a exposição ao ∆9-THC po...

  6. Isolation of Cannabinoids from the plant Cannabis sativa and its potential anticancer activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tariq. A. L

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The plant leaves were identified as Cannabis sativa L. The cannabniods were extracted by aqueous extract found a total yield of 3.8g while as acetone extract 4.8g. The protein content in crude extract of Cannabis sativa L for aqeous extract found 112μg/ml and for acetone extract 160μg/ml. The molecular weight of protein by SDS PGAGE found to be 70KDa. The HPLC intension percentage for aqueous was 11 while for acetone extract it found 25. The actone extract exhibited more anticancer activity against HT29, MCF7 and SF-26 Cells

  7. Cannabis sativa and the endogenous cannabinoid system: therapeutic potential for appetite regulation

    OpenAIRE

    Farrimond, Jonathan A.; Mercier, Marion S.; Whalley, Benjamin J.; Williams, Claire M.

    2011-01-01

    The herb Cannabis sativa (C. sativa) has been used in China and on the Indian subcontinent for thousands of years as a medicine. However, since it was brought to the UK and then the rest of the western world in the late 19th century, its use has been a source of controversy. Indeed, its psychotropic side effects are well reported but only relatively recently has scientific endeavour begun to find valuable uses for either the whole plant or its individual components. Here, we discuss evidence ...

  8. Daugiakomponenčių Camelina sativa ir rapso metilesterio biodegalų palyginamieji tyrimai

    OpenAIRE

    Justas Žaglinskis; Paulius Rapalis; Vygintas Daukšys

    2012-01-01

    Straipsnyje pateikiami RRME biodegalų palyginamųjų motorinių bandymų, kurie buvo atlikti dyzeliniame variklyje VALMET 320 DMG, rezultatai. Įvertinti variklio energetiniai (ηe, be) ir ekologiniai rodikliai (CO2, CO, NOX, HC, SM). Atliktų naujų biodegalų motoriniai tyrimų rezultatai rodo, kad naujų Camelina sativa biodegalų savybės nenusileidžia standartizuotiems rapso metilesterio biodegalų savybėms. Lyginant su mineraliniu dyzelinu, naudojant Camelina sativa biodegalų mišinius VME ir ZME, ski...

  9. Beneficial uses of paper mill residuals for New York State`s recycled-paper mills. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-09-01

    This report evaluates the New York paper mill industry in terms of the productive management and treatment of solid wastes. It identifies current efforts by recycling mills to beneficially use paper mill residuals (often called sludge) and suggests additional options that should be considered by the industry in general and individual mills in particular. It also examines the regulations and economics affecting the mills and suggests actions that could improve the industry`s ability to convert wastes to value-added products. The report recommends that the mills should continue measures to reduce fiber and filler clay losses, promote the transfer of usable fiber and clay to mills able to use them, upgrade sludge dewatering capabilities, and take a more regional approach to solid waste disposal problems. State agencies are urged to support these efforts, encourage the development and commercialization of new beneficial use technologies, and reduce regulatory barriers whenever possible.

  10. Understanding dental CAD/CAM for restorations - dental milling machines from a mechanical engineering viewpoint. Part A: chairside milling machines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebon, Nicolas; Tapie, Laurent; Duret, Francois; Attal, Jean-Pierre

    2016-01-01

    The dental milling machine is an important device in the dental CAD/CAM chain. Nowadays, dental numerical controlled (NC) milling machines are available for dental surgeries (chairside solution). This article provides a mechanical engineering approach to NC milling machines to help dentists understand the involvement of technology in digital dentistry practice. First, some technical concepts and definitions associated with NC milling machines are described from a mechanical engineering viewpoint. The technical and economic criteria of four chairside dental NC milling machines that are available on the market are then described. The technical criteria are focused on the capacities of the embedded technologies of these milling machines to mill both prosthetic materials and types of shape restorations. The economic criteria are focused on investment costs and interoperability with third-party software. The clinical relevance of the technology is assessed in terms of the accuracy and integrity of the restoration. PMID:27027102

  11. Investment requirements for new mines and mills

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Assuming that there will be an increase from production of 18,000 tpy of U/sub 3/O/sub 8/ to 25,000 tpy by 1985, 35,000 tpy by 1990 and around 50,000 tpy by the year 2000, this would require an increase in the daily ore milling rate from 40,000 tpd to about 140,000 tpd. This new milling capacity would require 1.5 to 2.0 billion dollars. New mines with a daily tonnage rate of about 150,000 tons would have to be developed requiring an investment from 10 to 12.5 billion dollars in the same time span. Adding expenditures for replacement of depleted facilities and exploration gives 17.5 to 25 billion dollars

  12. Yang-Mills for historians and philosophers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crease, R. P.

    2016-01-01

    The phrase “Yang-Mills” can be used (1) to refer to the specific theory proposed by Yang and Mills in 1954; or (2) as shorthand for any non-Abelian gauge theory. The 1954 version, physically speaking, had a famous show-stopping defect in the form of what might be called the “Pauli snag,” or the requirement that, in the Lagrangian for non-Abelian gauge theory the mass term for the gauge field has to be zero. How, then, was it possible for (1) to turn into (2)? What unfolding sequence of events made this transition possible, and what does this evolution say about the nature of theories in physics? The transition between (1) and (2) illustrates what historians and philosophers a century from now might still find instructive and stimulating about the development of Yang-Mills theory.

  13. Analytic Representations of Yang-Mills Amplitudes

    CERN Document Server

    Bjerrum-Bohr, N E J; Damgaard, Poul H; Feng, Bo

    2016-01-01

    Scattering amplitudes in Yang-Mills theory can be represented in the formalism of Cachazo, He and Yuan (CHY) as integrals over an auxiliary projective space---fully localized on the support of the scattering equations. Because solving the scattering equations is difficult and summing over the solutions algebraically complex, a method of directly integrating the terms that appear in this representation has long been sought. We solve this important open problem by first rewriting the terms in a manifestly Mobius-invariant form and then using monodromy relations (inspired by analogy to string theory) to decompose terms into those for which combinatorial rules of integration are known. The result is a systematic procedure to obtain analytic, covariant forms of Yang-Mills tree-amplitudes for any number of external legs and in any number of dimensions. As examples, we provide compact analytic expressions for amplitudes involving up to six gluons of arbitrary helicities.

  14. Environmental impact of uranium mining and milling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The author introduces the subject with an overview of the regulatory requirments and philosophy applied to uranium mines and mills. The special attention given to tailings management is highlighted, and a discussion of the basic environmental concerns is concluded with an itemizing of the main tasks facing the AECB. The extent of the environmental impact of uranium mining, milling and waste management is illustrated with specific details pertaining to mines in the Elliot Lake area. The author concludes that the impact on the ground and surface water system is not alarming, and the impact on air quality is not significant beyond a few hundred metres from the mining facilities. The publicly perceived impact is discussed, followed by a rationale for the continued licensing of new uranium mining operations complete with tailings management facilities

  15. Investigation for parametric vibration of rolling mill

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐华平; 丁睿; 吴运新; 钟掘

    2002-01-01

    The vibration unsteady condition of rolling mill caused by flexural vibration of strip has been investigated. The parametric flexural vibration equation of rolled strip has been established. The parametric flexural vibration stability of rolled strip has been studied and the regions of stability and unstability have been determined based on Floquet theory and perturbation method. The flexural-vibration of strip is unstable when the frequency of variable tension is two times as the natural frequency of flexural-vibration strip. The characteristic of current in a temp driving motor's main loop has been studied and tested, it has been proved that there are 6 harmonic component and 12 harmonic component in main loop of driving motor electricity. The vertical vibration of working roller has been tested, the test result approves that the running unsteady is caused by parametric vibration. It attaches importance to the parametric vibration of rolling mill.

  16. Multifractal properties of ball milling dynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Budroni, M. A., E-mail: mabudroni@uniss.it; Pilosu, V.; Rustici, M. [Dipartimento di Chimica e Farmacia, Università degli Studi di Sassari, Via Vienna 2, Sassari 07100 (Italy); Delogu, F. [Dipartimento di Ingegneria Meccanica, Chimica, e dei Materiali, Università degli Studi di Cagliari, via Marengo 2, Cagliari 09123 (Italy)

    2014-06-15

    This work focuses on the dynamics of a ball inside the reactor of a ball mill. We show that the distribution of collisions at the reactor walls exhibits multifractal properties in a wide region of the parameter space defining the geometrical characteristics of the reactor and the collision elasticity. This feature points to the presence of restricted self-organized zones of the reactor walls where the ball preferentially collides and the mechanical energy is mainly dissipated.

  17. ISOTHERMAL PYROLYSIS OF KRAFT PULP MILL SLUDGE

    OpenAIRE

    Syamsudin Syamsudin; Herri Susanto; Subagjo Subagjo

    2014-01-01

    Kraft pulp mill sludge cake composed of rejected wood fibers and activated sludge microorganisms. With a heating value about 14 MJ/kg (dried basis), this type of biomass had a potential as an alternative energy source. Unfortunately, it had an ash content of 27.6% and a moisture content of 80%. For reducing moisture content with minimum energy consumption, a combination of mechanical dewatering and thermal drying was studied previously. Meanwhile, experiments on isothermal pyrolysis had been ...

  18. Predictive Function Control for Milling Process

    OpenAIRE

    Zhihuan Zhang; Chao Hu

    2013-01-01

    The adaptive constant control for the cutting process is an effective way to improve the productivity of the Computer Numerical Control (CNC) milling machine. This control is achieved through adjusting the feed rate online, and many scholars has been concentrated in the field. However, in of the existing adaptive constant control algorithms, the controller parameters are tuned only depends on the dynamic behavior of the controlled system, without giving effect to control the input and system ...

  19. Sohio's L-Bar uranium mill

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sohio Petroleum Company's new L-Bar uranium mill near Grants, New Mexico, refines 2722 kilograms of yellowcake daily from 1360 metric tons of ore produced at Sohio's J.J. No. 1 mine and other nearby mines. This paper follows the ore from the mine through the various processing steps - semi-autogenous grinding, acid leaching, countercurrent decantation, solvent extraction, ammonium diuranate precipitation, washing and drying, and tailings disposal. (author)

  20. Mineralization of olive mill wastewater over DSA

    OpenAIRE

    Gonçalves, M. R.; Correia, J P; Marques, Isabel Paula Ramos

    2011-01-01

    Bioenergy recovery from olive mill wastewater (OMW) has been effectively accomplished by anaerobic digestion [1]. Nevertheless, a post treatment is required to attain the discharge limit values. After the anaerobic treatment of OMW, the main issues are related to the remaining organic matter (COD), recalcitrant phenolic compounds (40-50%) and effluent dark-brown colour. The electrochemical treatment is proposed in this work as a final step to mineralise the OMW non-biodegradable fraction. The...

  1. Biotechnological valorization of olive mill wastewaters

    OpenAIRE

    Gonçalves, Cristiana

    2011-01-01

    Tese de doutoramento em Química e Engenharia Biológica Mediterranean countries are known to have favorable conditions for olive oil production. The three-phase extraction technology demands the addition of hot water to the process, and olive oil, olive cake and olive mill wastewater (OMW) are produced. An approach for using this waste as a renewable resource is of greater interest. Accordingly, the present investigation aims the OMW valorization, by producing high-value compounds (lipas...

  2. Polymeric biophenols in olive mill wastewaters

    OpenAIRE

    Cardoso, Susana M.; Falcão, Soraia; Peres, António M.; Olívia R. Pereira; Domingues, M. R. M.

    2011-01-01

    Olive mill wastewater (OMW), the effluents generated in the olive oil extraction industry operating in three-phases mode, are phytotoxic mainly due to its high phenolic content [1]. On the other hand, attending to the potential healthbenefits of some of their phenolic compounds, OMW are now regarded as a potent source of biophenols for food and pharmaceutical industries. An important portion of the OMW biophenols include the secoiridoids found in olive pulp and their derivat...

  3. New biophenols in olive mill wastewaters

    OpenAIRE

    Cardoso, Susana M.; Falcão, Soraia; Peres, António M.; Domingues, M. R. M.

    2010-01-01

    Olive mill wastewaters (OMW) have been attracting the attention of food and pharmaceutical industries, as it is a potential source of biophenols with a wide range of biological activities. This effluent produced in the olive oil industry contains approximately half of the total phenolic compounds of the olive fruit and it is currently exploited for industrial extraction of hydroxytyrosol [1]. Still, the phenolic composition of OMW is extremely complex, and many compounds are yet unidentified....

  4. LIBERALIZATION OF THE TAIWAN WHEAT MILLING INDUSTRY

    OpenAIRE

    Stiegert, Kyle W.; Peng, Hsing Ming

    1998-01-01

    Taiwan, in just the past two years, lifted quoto restrictions on wheat imports and lowered tariff barriers. These changes along with the antitrust movement and severe overcapacity will be the catalysts for tremendous structural changes in the way wheat millers compete for domestic market share and contracts for flour. The purpose of this study was to examine the impact of liberalization on the Taiwan milling industry.

  5. Kinetic reduction of mill scale via hydrogen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaballah N.M.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Mill scale is very attractive industrial waste since it is rich in iron (about = 72 % Fe and it is suiTab. for direct recycling to the blast furnace via sintering plant. In this paper the characterizations of raw materials were studied by different methods of analyses. The produced briquettes were reduced with different amounts of hydrogen at varying temperatures, and the reduction kinetics was determined. Two models were applied and the energy of activation was calculated.

  6. Environmental impact of uranium mining and milling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Atomic Energy Control Board is now involved from the early planning stages in the development of uranium mine/mill facilities. As a result, new facilities (including tailings management areas) are designed and developed to meet a high standard. The impact of the mines and tailings areas in the Elliot Lake area on ground and surface waters and air quality is discussed in detail

  7. Geothermal Mill Redevelopment Project in Massachusetts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vale, A.Q.

    2009-03-17

    Anwelt Heritage Apartments, LLC redeveloped a 120-year old mill complex into a mixed-use development in a lower-income neighborhood in Fitchburg, Massachusetts. Construction included 84 residential apartments rented as affordable housing to persons aged 62 and older. The Department of Energy (“DOE”) award was used as an essential component of financing the project to include the design and installation of a 200 ton geothermal system for space heating and cooling.

  8. Biorefinery pulp mill - BiSe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henricson, K.; Saukkonen, E.; Nokkanen, T. (and others) (Lappeenranta Univ. of Technology (Finland). Lab. of Fiber and Paper Technology). Email: kaj.henricson@lut.fi

    2010-10-15

    A need to utilize woody material in a more efficient way to produce pulp, biofuels and energy is seen as a key factor in the development of new pulp mill biorefineries. There are many alternatives to execute the biorefinery concept. In the Biorefinery Pulp Mill (Biojalostamo Sellutehdas), BiSe project approach, prehydrolysis of wood chips and acid hydrolysis of logging residue for the production of bioethanol as well as the separation of lignin for the production of biodiesel are studied. The main goal of the project is to examine these new biofuel production methods and processes for the improvement of the competitiveness, energy effectiveness and economic profitability of domestic pulp mills, while keeping in mind the main product, chemical pulp. In the project, laboratory experiments on wood chip prehydrolysis prior to cooking, hydrolysis liquor treatment, cooking of prehydrolyzed chips, low power pulp bleaching and lignin separation are carried out. Based on these laboratory data, a simulation model of the biorefinery is created. The model is then used to assess the profitability of the BiSe biorefinery approach. (orig.)

  9. Superstring limit of Yang-Mills theories

    CERN Document Server

    Lechtenfeld, Olaf

    2016-01-01

    It was pointed out by Shifman and Yung that the critical superstring on $X^{10}={\\mathbb R}^4\\times Y^6$, where $Y^6$ is the resolved conifold, appears as an effective theory for a U(2) Yang-Mills-Higgs system with four fundamental Higgs scalars defined on $\\Sigma_2\\times{\\mathbb R}^2$, where $\\Sigma_2$ is a two-dimensional Lorentzian manifold. Their Yang-Mills model supports semilocal vortices on ${\\mathbb R}^2\\subset\\Sigma_2\\times{\\mathbb R}^2$ with a moduli space $X^{10}$. When the moduli of slowly moving thin vortices depend on the coordinates of $\\Sigma_2$, the vortex strings can be identified with critical fundamental strings. We show that similar results can be obtained for the low-energy limit of pure Yang-Mills theory on $\\Sigma_2\\times T^2_p$, where $T^2_p$ is a two-dimensional torus with a puncture $p$. The solitonic vortices of Shifman and Yung then get replaced by flat connections. Various ten-dimensional superstring target spaces can be obtained as moduli spaces of flat connections on $T^2_p$, d...

  10. Biogenic treatment of uranium mill effluents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is necessary to treat mine/mill effluents before discharging to the environment as per the regulatory requirements. Effluents from a uranium mill normally contain 226Ra as a pollutant, which needs treatment. Normally wastewater treatment consists of lime addition to increase the pH to 10 which precipitates most contaminants except 226Ra. The current chemical treatment of 226Ra is by co-precipitation as barium-radium-sulphate by addition of barium chloride. There is a considerable concern about the long-term stability of barium-radium sludge due to re-dissolution of radium when contacted with fresh water. Adsorption can be another metal specific physio-chemical process. The most recent development in environment biotechnology is the use of microbe based bio-sorbents for the recovery of toxic metals from industrial effluent. A fungal species of Pencillium chrysogenum has been found to be a 226Ra specific biosorbent. It has been observed that up to 96% of 226Ra values can be adsorbed by chemically treated biomass of Pencillium chrysogenum from effluent containing 226Ra in the range of 400-2000 Bq m-3. Biomass in the form of granules can be used in columns, like resins, to remove 226Ra values. It is proposed that this process can replace or substitute the present barium chloride treatment of mill effluents. (author)

  11. John Stuart Mill on socialism and accountability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco José Sales Rocha

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/1677-2954.2010v9n1p17Este artigo mostra que o tipo de socialismo proposto por John Stuart Mill é marcado por uma forte preocupação com a controlabilidade do poder econômico e político. Ele rejeitou enfaticamente os modelos centralistas de socialismo por entender que eles levam a uma grande concentração de poder que compromete a liberdade. Para J. S. Mill, o socialismo deve ser implantado lentamente a partir de reformas amplamente discutidas que favoreçam a cidadania econômica dos trabalhadores, promovam a participação deles nas decisões referentes ao processo produtivo e em associações voluntárias. J. S. Mill acreditava que a competição econômica é essencial para o adequado funcionamento de uma economia socialista. Ele não esperava que tal economia se tornasse uma realidade em um futuro próximo.

  12. EQUIVALENT NORMAL CURVATURE APPROACH MILLING MODEL OF MACHINING FREEFORM SURFACES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YI Xianzhong; MA Weiguo; QI Haiying; YAN Zesheng; GAO Deli

    2008-01-01

    A new milling methodology with the equivalent normal curvature milling model machining freeform surfaces is proposed based on the normal curvature theorems on differential geometry. Moreover, a specialized whirlwind milling tool and a 5-axis CNC horizontal milling machine are introduced. This new milling model can efficiently enlarge the material removal volume at the tip of the whirlwind milling tool and improve the producing capacity. The machining strategy of this model is to regulate the orientation of the whirlwind milling tool relatively to the principal directions of the workpiece surface at the point of contact, so as to create a full match with collision avoidance between the workpiece surface and the symmetric rotational surface of the milling tool. The practical results show that this new milling model is an effective method in machining complex three- dimensional surfaces. This model has a good improvement on finishing machining time and scallop height in machining the freeform surfaces over other milling processes. Some actual examples for manufacturing the freeform surfaces with this new model are given.

  13. Cutting force prediction for circular end milling process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wu Baohai; Yan Xue; Luo Ming; Gao Ge

    2013-01-01

    A deduced cutting force prediction model for circular end milling process is presented in this paper.Traditional researches on cutting force model usually focus on linear milling process which does not meet other cutting conditions,especially for circular milling process.This paper presents an improved cutting force model for circular end milling process based on the typical linear milling force model.The curvature effects of tool path on chip thickness as well as entry and exit angles are analyzed,and the cutting force model of linear milling process is then corrected to fit circular end milling processes.Instantaneous cutting forces during circular end milling process are predicted according to the proposed model.The deduced cutting force model can be used for both linear and circular end milling processes.Finally,circular end milling experiments with constant and variable radial depth were carried out to verify the availability of the proposed method.Experiment results show that measured results and simulated results corresponds well with each other.

  14. Ecological risks of an old wood impregnation mill: application of the Triad approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karjalainen, Anne-Mari; Kilpi-Koski, Johanna; Väisänen, Ari O; Penttinen, Sari; van Gestel, Cornelius A M; Penttinen, Olli-Pekka

    2009-07-01

    Although many studies deal with the distribution and mobility of chromated copper arsenate (CCA) metals in soil, the ecotoxicity of CCA-contaminated soils is rarely studied. The Triad approach was applied to determine the ecological risks posed by a CCA mixture at a decommissioned wood impregnation mill in southern Finland. A combination of (1) chemical analyses; (2) toxicity tests with plants (aquatic: Lemna minor; terrestrial: Lactuca sativa), earthworms (Lumbricus rubellus), and enchytraeids (Enchytraeus albidus) conducted on contaminated soils, their aqueous extracts, and well water collected from the site; and (3) determination of the abundance of enchytraeids and nematodes and the bioaccumulation of metals in plants (horsetail) collected from the field were used to assess the actual risk. Although metal concentrations were low, L. minor growth appeared to be reduced by As contamination of the well water. In soil, metals were heterogeneously distributed with total concentrations of 14.8 to 4360 mg As/kg, 15.2 to 1740 mg Cr/kg, and 4.83 to 790 mg Cu/kg. In several samples, concentrations were above Finnish regulatory guideline values and exceeded the half maximal effective concentration (EC50) or 50% lethal concentration (LC50) values for the toxicity of the individual metals to earthworms and enchytraeids, indicating hazards to the ecosystem. (Bio)availability of metals was high, as indicated by weak electrolyte extractions and body residues in L. rubellus and E. albidus exposed in bioassays. Earthworm survival correlated significantly with body metal concentrations, but not with soil total metal concentrations. Enchytraeid responses in the soil bioassays were less sensitive to CCA metal exposure. Plant growth was affected by CCA pollution, with L. sativa root elongation correlating significantly with total and available As concentrations and L. minor development being significantly reduced in H2O extracts of the most contaminated soil sample. Abundance of

  15. A review of Neuropharmacology Effects of Nigella sativa and Its Main Component, Thymoquinone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Javidi, Soheila; Razavi, Bibi Marjan; Hosseinzadeh, Hossein

    2016-08-01

    Neuropharmacology is the scientific study of drug effect on nervous system. In the last few years, different natural plants and their active constituents have been used in neurological therapy. The availability, lower price, and less toxic effects of herbal medicines compared with synthetic agents make them as simple and excellent choice in the treatment of nervous diseases. Nigella sativa, which belongs to the botanical family of Ranunculaceae, is a widely used medicinal plant all over the world. In traditional and modern medicines several beneficial properties have been attributed to N. sativa and its main component, thymoquinone (TQ). In this review, various studies in scientific databases regarding the neuropharmacological aspects of N. sativa and TQ have been introduced. Results of these studies showed that N. sativa and TQ have several properties including anticonvulsant, antidepressant, anxiolytic, anti-ischemic, analgesic, antipsychotic, and memory enhancer. Furthermore, its protective effects against neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer, Parkinson and multiple sclerosis have been discussed. Although there are many studies indicating the beneficial actions of this plant in nervous system, the number of research projects relating to the human reports is rare. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:27169925

  16. Protective efficacy of Nigella sativa seeds and oil against columnaris disease in fishes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammed, H H; Arias, C R

    2016-06-01

    Columnaris disease, caused by the bacterium Flavobacterium columnare, is currently the most frequently reported bacterial disease affecting farm-raised channel catfish in the USA. Common treatments against the disease include the use of medicated feed that has led to emergent antibiotic resistant strains of F. columnare. Nigella sativa (Black cumin) is a medicinal herb commonly used by many cultures as a natural remedy for numerous disorders. Recently, we have discovered the antibacterial activity of N. sativa and its oil extract against F. columnare. In this study, we showed N. sativa oil (NSO) strongly inhibited the growth of all of the strains of F. columnare tested and yielded significantly larger zones of inhibition than those produced by oxytetracyclin. We tested the protective effect against columnaris disease in vivo by incorporating NSO (5%) or N. sativa seeds (NSS) (5%) into fish feeds. Fishes (Ictalurus punctatus and Danio rerio) fed amended diets displayed significantly lower mortality than those fed control diets. Per cent mortalities in control groups ranged from 77% to 44% and from 70% to 18% in zebrafish and channel catfish, respectively. A dose study using different NSS concentrations showed that 5% NSS offered the most protection against columnaris disease in channel catfish. PMID:26265495

  17. Effect of UV irradiation and Nigella sativa protective role on the mice liver tissues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effect of UV irradiation on liver tissues of mice before and after feeding on the Nigella sativa L. for 4 and 7 days were investigated by following the variations in their infrared spectral features. The results showed that the exposure of experimental animals to UV radiations causes considerable changes in both proteins and PO2 contents in the liver and the extent of changes depends on the energy of the source and time exposure. It was found that feeding of Nigella sativa L. during exposure for 4 days causes no significant effect on the UV induced changes in the liver tissues, while feeding for 7 days reduces the extent of the UV induced changes. Histological findings denoted that UV-Radiation causes different grades of damage in liver cells depending on the duration and type of radiation. Alcoholic extract of Nigella sativa seeds protected liver cells from being subjected to the degenerative changes. The present work investigates the possibility of applying Nigella sativa as a natural biological substance for curative purpose after UV radiation damage

  18. Black cumin (Nigella sativa) and its constituent (thymoquinone): a review on antimicrobial effects

    OpenAIRE

    Fatemeh Forouzanfar; Bibi Sedigheh Fazly Bazzaz; Hossein Hosseinzadeh

    2014-01-01

    Nigella sativa seeds have wide therapeutic effects and have been reported to have significant effects against many ailments such as skin diseases, jaundice, gastrointestinal problems, anorexia, conjunctivitis, dyspepsia, rheumatism, diabetes, hypertension, intrinsic hemorrhage, paralysis, amenorrhea, anorexia, asthma, cough, bronchitis, headache, fever, influenza and eczema. Thymoquinone (TQ) is one of the most active constituent and has different beneficial properties. Focus on antimicrobial...

  19. Ultrasound-assisted extraction of volatile compounds from industrial Cannabis sativa L. inflorescences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Da Porto

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Summary. This study investigated the use of ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE to recovery  volatile compounds from the inflorescences of a fiber type Cannabis sativa L. cultivar. The results show that ultrasonic treatment not longer than 5 min allows to obtain an enhanced concentration of terpenes in comparison with maceration. Instead, an ultrasonic treatment longer than 5 min increased  the concentration of δ-9-tetraidrocannabinol (THC. A preliminary screening of cannabis inflorescences scent was performed by headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS avoiding the chemical modification and artifact formation that can occur in conventional methods . Industrial relevance. Inflorescences of fiber type Cannabis sativa cultivars are generally considered waste parts for fiber industry, although the inflorescences’ volatiles are pleasant to the human sensory system. Cannabis scent originate from volatile monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes . Traditionally, the recovery of floral fragrances from plants is by water distillation (hydro-distillation or steam distillation to produce essential oils. However, these techniques take at least several hours and require the application of heating, which can produce the degradation of thermo labile compounds present in the starting plant material. Ultrasound-assisted extraction can be use as alternative method to extract aroma compounds from inflorescences of fiber type  Cannabis sativa. The extracts so obtained could be used as ingredients for perfumes (cosmetic industry or flavorings for beverages (food industry.Keywords. Ultrasound; Extraction; Cannabis sativa L.; terpenes; THC; HS-SPME

  20. Biological nitrogen fixation by lucerne (Medicago sativa L.) in acid soils.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pijnenborg, J.W.M.

    1990-01-01

    Growth of lucerne( Medicago sativa L.) is poor in soils with values of pH-H2O below 6. This is often due to nitrogen deficiency, resulting from a hampered performance of the symbiosis withRhizobium meliloti. This thesis deals with the factors affecting biological nitrogen fixat

  1. Gastrointestinal effects of Nigella sativa and its main constituent, thymoquinone: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shakeri, Farzaneh; Gholamnezhad, Zahra; Mégarbane, Bruno; Rezaee, Ramin; Boskabady, Mohammad Hosein

    2016-01-01

    Gastrointestinal (GI) diseases affect a large number of people all over the world. Uncontrolled acid secretion and occurrence of gastric ulcers are common disorders of GI tract which pose serious problems to human health. Many synthetic drugs have been used to treat GI disorders but a definite cure has not been discovered so far and the available medications cause several side effects. Nigella sativa (N. sativa) (Ranunculacea) has several therapeutic effects which are attributed to its constituents like nigellicine, nigellidine, thymoquinone, dithymoquinone, thymol and carvacrol. Several beneficial pharmacological properties of this plant such as anti-oxidant, anti-bacterial, anti-histaminic, anti-hypertensive, hypoglycemic, anti-fungal, anti-inflammatory, anti-cancer and immunomodulatory effects were reported and different therapeutic properties such as reliving bronchial asthma, jaundice, hydrophobia, paralysis, conjunctivitis, piles, skin diseases, anorexia, headache, dysentery, infections, obesity, back pain, hypertension and gastrointestinal problems, have been described for the seeds of N. sativa and its oil. The present review provides a detailed summery of scientific researches regarding gastrointestinal effect of N. sativa and its main constituent, thymoquinone. PMID:27247918

  2. Gastrointestinal effects of Nigella sativa and its main constituent, thymoquinone: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farzaneh Shakeri

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Gastrointestinal (GI diseases affect a large number of people all over the world. Uncontrolled acid secretion and occurrence of gastric ulcers are common disorders of GI tract which pose serious problems to human health. Many synthetic drugs have been used to treat GI disorders but a definite cure has not been discovered so far and the available medications cause several side effects. Nigella sativa (N. sativa (Ranunculacea has several therapeutic effects which are attributed to its constituents like nigellicine, nigellidine, thymoquinone, dithymoquinone, thymol and carvacrol. Several beneficial pharmacological properties of this plant such as anti-oxidant, anti-bacterial, anti-histaminic, anti-hypertensive, hypoglycemic, anti-fungal, anti-inflammatory, anti-cancer and immunomodulatory effects were reported and different therapeutic properties such as reliving bronchial asthma, jaundice, hydrophobia, paralysis, conjunctivitis, piles, skin diseases, anorexia, headache, dysentery, infections, obesity, back pain, hypertension and gastrointestinal problems, have been described for the seeds of N. sativa and its oil. The present review provides a detailed summery of scientific researches regarding gastrointestinal effect of N. sativa and its main constituent, thymoquinone.

  3. Analysis of the temporal variation of radiation balance components in arid rice (Oryza sativa L.) culture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The time variation of measured radiation balance components in a cultived rice area (Oryza sativa L.) under arid conditions in the Brazil central-west region was analysed. The relation between global solar radiation, radiation balance, reflected radiation and terrestrial effective radiation in three different stages of the culture development: vegetative stage; blooming and maturation, was determined. (M.C.K.)

  4. Wild parsnip (Pastinaca sativa)-induced photosensitization in goats and horses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wild parsnip (Pastinaca sativa is a European biennial weed that was inadvertently introduced and has subsequently spread through many parts of North America. Though it is generally considered a nuisance as it displaces beneficial forages. It has also been sporadically associated with photosensitiza...

  5. Camelina (Camelina sativa L.) oil as a biofuels feedstock: Golden opportunity or false hope?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camelina (Camelina sativa) is a promising sustainable alternative energy crop belonging to the Brassicaceae (mustard) family with several favorable agronomic characteristics that has potential to significantly enhance domestic biofuels production. With high seed oil content as well as high yield of ...

  6. REACTION OF RICE (ORYZA SATIVA) CULTIVARS TO PENETRATION AND INFECTION BY CURVULARIA TUBERCULATA AND C. ORYZAE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isolates of Curvularia species were collected from weedy Cyperaceae species and are being evaluated as possible biocontrol agents of sedge weeds in rice (Oryza sativa). Curvularia species have been reported from rice; thus cultivars of rice were tested to determine rice seedling responses to these ...

  7. Rapid separation of seed glucosinolates from Camelina sativa by thin layer chromatography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Russo

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available A thin layer chromatography (TLC method has been developed for the quantitative analysis of glucosinolates extracted from Camelina sativa. This procedure resolves the same long-chain glucosinolates as high-performance liquid chromatography but increases simultaneous sample size to 18. The TLC method saves time and solvent, and can be applied to screening of Camelina.

  8. Exploring the Potential Use of Camelina sativa as a Biofuel crop for Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acharjee, Tapas Chandra

    2011-12-01

    The objective of this research is to explore the feasibility of using Camelina sativa, an oilseed crop as an alternative feedstock for biodiesel production. To establish it as a potential biofuel crop in Nevada, C. sativa seeds were treated with ethyl methane sulfonate (EMS) and twenty-five randomly selected lines of an M3 generation EMS population were evaluated for fatty acid composition. Increased variation in fatty acid composition was observed when compared with the control, wildtype cultivar. Most importantly, lines demonstrated putative decreases in relative linolenic acid content, a desirable outcome for biodiesel quality. To select the best variety of C. sativa for local production, an analysis of oil content, germination rate, 1000 seed weight was performed among different varieties and significant differences in seed quality was observed. Transcriptome analysis of C. sativa was performed using 454 pyrosequencing to characterize expressed genes in roots, stems, leaves, flowers, and developing seeds of mature plants subjected to drought, cold and high salinity stress Some contig assemblies corresponding to stress-inducible gene and genes involved in fatty acid biosynthesis were observed in this study.

  9. Hyaloperonospora camelinae on Camelina sativa (L.) in Washington State: Detection, seed transmission, and chemical control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camelina (Camelina sativa [L.] Crantz) plants with symptoms of downy mildew were obtained from three different locations in Washington State. Based on PCR and sequencing of the ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 region, the causal pathogen was identified as Hyaloperonospora camelinae. The PCR primers consistently ampli...

  10. Rapid separation of seed glucosinolates from Camelina sativa by thin layer chromatography

    OpenAIRE

    Roberto Russo; Remo Reggiani

    2012-01-01

    A thin layer chromatography (TLC) method has been developed for the quantitative analysis of glucosinolates extracted from Camelina sativa. This procedure resolves the same long-chain glucosinolates as high-performance liquid chromatography but increases simultaneous sample size to 18. The TLC method saves time and solvent, and can be applied to screening of Camelina.

  11. Use of Harvested Rice (Oryza Sativa) Fields for Diazinon Runoff Mitigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    In landscapes defined by intensive agriculture, management practices are often needed to abate effects of potential non-point source pollution. Innovative research focuses on using rice (Oryza sativa), a wetland cereal crop, for pesticide mitigation both pre- and post-harvest. Because rice fields ...

  12. Analysis of crystallite size and microdeformation crystal lattice the tungsten carbide milling in mill high energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The tungsten carbide (WC) has wide application due to its properties like high melting point, high hardness, wear resistance, oxidation resistance and good electrical conductivity. The microstructural characteristics of the starting powders influences the final properties of the carbide. In this context, the use of nanoparticle powders is an efficient way to improve the final properties of the WC. The high energy milling stands out from other processes to obtain nanometric powders due to constant microstructural changes caused by this process. Therefore, the objective is to undertake an analysis of microstructural characteristics on the crystallite size and microdeformations of the crystal lattice using the technique of X-ray diffraction (XRD) using the Rietveld refinement. The results show an efficiency of the milling process to reduce the crystallite size, leading to a significant deformation in the crystal lattice of WC from 5h milling. (author)

  13. John Stuart Mill: utilitarismo e liberalismo = John Stuart Mill: utilitarianism and liberalism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simões, Mauro Cardoso

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Meu objetivo, neste trabalho, é investigar a compatibilidade das teses utilitaristas e liberais de John Stuart Mill. Apresentarei, inicialmente, os principais críticos da filosofia moral e política de Mill, para os quais o discípulo de Bentham teria abandonado o utilitarismo ou, ainda, não esclarecido suficientemente seu princípio da liberdade, o que o tornaria um pensador assistemático e inconsistente. Minha tese é contrária a tais interpretações, uma vez que sustenta ser Mill consistente. Em seguida, defenderei uma interpretação do princípio da liberdade e da individualidade, procurando demonstrar que seu utilitarismo é compatível com seu liberalismo.

  14. Effect of dietary vitamin A and Nigella sativa on the performance of broiler chicks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A study was conducted to assess the effect of feeding different added levels of vitamin A and Nigella sativa seeds on broiler performance, blood chemistry and carcass characteristics. One- hundred forty four, one-day old unsexed (Lohman) broiler chicks were divided randomly into eight groups, each represented a treatment (18 birds/treatment), with 2 replicates for each treatment 2x4 factorial arrangement in a completely randomised design was used. The experimental basal rations were formulated to meet requirement for essential nutrients for broiler chicks according to NCR (1984) recommendation. Four graded levels of added vitamin A (0,3000,4500 and 9000 IU/kg) and two levels of Nigella sativa (0, 0.25%) were used. The experiment lasted for eight weeks. Body weight, weight gain, feed intake and feed conversion ratio were determined. In addition blood chemistry, absolute weight of internal organs and carcass characteristics were measured. The added level 3000 IU of vitamin A significantly increased weight gain (P≤ 0.01) decreased feed conversion ratio (P≤ 0.01) and increased muscle: bone ratio (P≤ 0.05). The level 0.25% of Nigella sativa with no added vitamin A significantly (P ≤ 0.01) increased body weight and weight gain. High level of added vitamin A decreased absolute weight of liver (P≤ 0.01), and increased fat content of muscles (P≤ 0.01) and abdominal fat (P≤ 0.01). Vitamin A and Nigella sativa significantly affect serum Ca (which was determined according to the calorimetric method), P, Zn , and alkaline phosphates(alk.ase) and cholesterol (P≤ 0.05) which was determined according to the Enzymatic Calometric Test . Addition of 0.25% Nigella sativa significantly affect serum cholestrol (P ≤0.01). The treatments had no significant affect on serum glucose and ash content of meat. Significant interaction between vitamin A and Nigella sativa were observed on body weight gain, feed conversion ratio, feed intake (P≤ 0.01, P≤0.05, and P≤0

  15. The effectiveness of Nigella sativa seed extract in inhibiting Candida albicans on heat cured acrylic resin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanoem EH

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Indonesia has a variety of plants that can be used for medicines. One of the medicinal plants is Nigella sativa. Nigella sativa has been used for medicinal purposes, both as medicinal herb and as medicinal oil. It contains saponin and atsiri oils that have antifungal, antimicrobial and antibacterial effects. Nigella sativa has been suggested as denture cleansers since it can inhibit the growth of Candida albicans (C. albicans on heat cured acrylic resin. Purpose: The aim of this research is to know the effectiveness of Nigella sativa seed extract in inhibiting the growth of C. albicans on heat cured acrylic resin. Methods: Eighteen acrylic samples were divided into three groups. Group I was control group, only contaminated with C. albicans without immersing in any solution. Group II was acrylic sample immersed in sterile aquades for one hour. Group III was acrylic sample immersed in Nigella sativa seed extract for one hour. Results: There were significant differences of C. albicans (p < 0.05 among the three groups. The number of Candida albicans was significantly higher in Group I, while that in group II was lower than that in group I, and that in group III was the lowest. Conclusion: Nigella sativa seed extract was effective in inhibiting the growth of C. albicans on heat cured acrylic resin.Latar belakang: Indonesia memiliki berbagai tanaman yang dapat dipakai sebagai obat, salah satu tanaman tersebut adalah jinten hitam (Nigella sativa. Pada beberapa negara jinten hitam telah digunakan untuk berbagai tujuan, baik sebagai obat herbal maupun sebagai minyak. kandungan jinten hitam adalah saponin dan minyak atsiri yang mempunyai efek anti jamur dan anti mikroba. Jinten hitam disarankan sebagai pilihan pembersih gigi tiruan yang dapat menghambat pertumbuhan Candida albicans (C. albicans pada resin akrilik heat cured. Tujuan: Tujuan penelitian ini adalah mengetahui efektivitas dari ekstrak biji jinten hitam dalam menghambat pertumbuhan

  16. SB-ATR FTIR Spectroscopic Monitoring of Free Fatty Acids in Commercially Available Nigella sativa (Kalonji) Oil

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Free fatty acids (FFA) in Nigella sativa (N. sativa) commercial and seed oil were determined using single-bounce attenuated total reflectance (SB-ATR) Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. Gravimetrical mixing was done by adding 0.1–40% oleic acids in neutralized N. sativa oil containing 0.1% FFA. FTIR spectroscopy technique and partial least square (PLS) calibration were used to detect the absorption region of carbonyl (C=O) which is in the range of 1690–1727 cm−1. The results of P...

  17. Effects of Nigella sativa L. on Lipid Peroxidation and Reduced Glutathione Levels in Erythrocytes of Broiler Chickens

    OpenAIRE

    Tuluce, Yasin; Ozkol, Halil; Sogut, Bunyamin; Celik, Ismail

    2013-01-01

    We aimed to determine the effect of Nigella sativa L. on reduced glutathione (GSH) and lipid peroxidation (as malondialdehyde, MDA) in erythrocytes of broiler chickens. We used 100 Ross 308 chickens and they were equally divided into four groups namely control, 0.5 %, 1 % and 1.5 % containing Nigella sativa L. The control group received control broiler fattening feed whereas, the treatments groups were fed by the feed containing 0.5 %, 1 % and 1.5 % grinded Nigella sativa L. seeds...

  18. Nigella sativa oil for the control of irradiation induced disorders in serum protein components of male albino rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effect of whole body gamma irradiation at the dose level 7 Gy delivered as shot dose or cumulative doses, on the electrophoretic pattern of serum protein components, was studied in male albino rats subjected to Nigella sativa treatment. Sodium dodecyl sulphate- polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) of serum proteins of irradiated rats showed significant increases in percentages of some fractions of high molecular weights. Administration of nigella sativa oil before radiation exposure resulted in detectable radioprotective effect. Radiation protection effect exerted by nigella sativa oil prior to cumulative doses was more pronounced than that in case of one shot dose

  19. Analytical Prediction of Three Dimensional Chatter Stability in Milling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altintas, Yusuf

    The chip regeneration mechanism during chatter is influenced by vibrations in three directions when milling cutters with ball end, bull nose, or inclined cutting edges are used. A three dimensional chatter stability is modeled analytically in this article. The dynamic milling system is formulated as a function of cutter geometry, the frequency response of the machine tool structure at the cutting zone in three Cartesian directions, cutter engagement conditions and material property. The dynamic milling system with nonlinearities and periodic delayed differential equations is reduced to a three dimensional linear stability problem by approximations based on the physics of milling. The chatter stability lobes are predicted in the frequency domain using the proposed analytical solution, and verified experimentally in milling a Titanium alloy with a face milling cutter having circular inserts.

  20. Fractal and Chaos Characteristics in Rock Milled Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chenxu LUO

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available In order to research the mechanism and to reveal the natural characteristics in rock milled process, the milling load was deemed to be a component of the deterministic nonlinear dissipation system. The characteristic factor model of milling load was built on the basis of time delay method, and the phase-space of milling load was rebuilt. the dimensional phase-type of broken attractor was described. The results indicated that the broken attractor was a fractal set ,which acquired through the scale conversion of phase-space developed by each dimension. The relevant dimension of broken attractor can be as the identification to reflect the change of rock broken mechanism. And the Lyapunov exponential spectrum and the maximum Lyapunov exponent were acquired by confirming the system reconstruction dimension. The chaos phenomenon was existed in the rock milled process, which provides the basis for building the deterministic model of rock milled process.

  1. Fault Detection in Coal Mills used in Power Plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Odgaard, Peter Fogh; Mataji, Babak

    2006-01-01

    In order to achieve high performance and efficiency of coal-fired power plants, it is highly important to control the coal flow into the furnace in the power plant. This means suppression of disturbances and force the coal mill to deliver the required coal flow, as well as monitor the coal mill...... in order to detect faults in the coal mill when they emerge. This paper deals with the second objective. Based on a simple dynamic model of the energy balance a residual is formed for the coal mill. An optimal unknown input observer is designed to estimate this residual. The estimated residual is following...... tested on measured data of a fault in a coal mill, it can hereby be concluded that this residual is very useful for detecting faults in the coal mill....

  2. Protective effects of Nigella sativa against hypertension-induced oxidative stress and cardiovascular dysfunction in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nur Taşar

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the protective effect of Nigella sativa against oxidative injury in the heart and kidney tissues of rats with renovascular hypertension (RVH. RVH model was induced by placing a renal artery clip (2-kidney-1-clip, 2K1C in Wistar albino rats (n= 8, while sham rats (n= 8 had no clip placement. Starting on the 3rd week after the operation, rats received Nigella sativa (0.2 ml/kg/day, intraperitoneally or vehicle for the following 6 weeks. Blood pressures (BP were recorded at the beginning of the study and at the end of the 3rd and 9th weeks. Cardiac functions were assessed using transthoracic echocardiography before the rats were decapitated. Plasma samples were obtained to assay asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA, nitric oxide (NO, creatine kinase (CK and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH levels. Production of reactive oxidants was monitored by chemiluminescence (CL assay in the cardiac and renal tissues. Moreover oxidative injury was examined through malondialdehyde (MDA and glutathione (GSH levels and Na+,K+-ATPase activity in these tissues. 2K1C caused increased BP and left ventricular (LV dysfunction, while plasma ADMA, CK, and LDH levels were increased (p<0.05-0.001. Moreover, hypertension caused significant decreases in plasma NO levels, as well as in tissue Na+,K+-ATPase activities and GSH contents, while MDA levels in both tissues were increased (p<0.05-0.001. On the other hand, Nigella sativa treatment significantly reduced BP, attenuated oxidative injury and improved LV function. Nigella sativa protected against hypertension-induced tissue damage and improved cardiovascular function via its antioxidant and antihypertensive actions, suggesting a therapeutic potential of Nigella sativa in renovascular hypertension.

  3. Comparison of anti-inflammatory activity of nigella sativa and diclofenac sodium in albino rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background: Nigella sativa or Kalonji is a naturally occurring plant in Pakistan and other countries which possesses a wide range of medicinal properties, the anti-inflammatory property being one of these. Diclofenac sodium is a commonly used anti-inflammatory drug. The purpose of this study was to compare the anti-inflammatory effect of ethanolic extract of Nigella sativa seeds with that of diclofenac sodium in albino rats. Method: This laboratory randomized controlled trial (RCT) was conducted in the Physiology Department, Services Institute of Medical Sciences (SIMS), Lahore. The study was carried out on 90 male albino rats. Five percent formalin in a dose of 50 meu was injected into sub-plantar surface of right hind paw of each rat to produce inflammation. The rats were randomly divided into three groups of thirty each. Group A was given normal saline (control); group B was given Nigella sativa seed extract; and group C received diclofenac sodium, as a reference drug. Increase in paw diameter, and total and differential leukocyte counts were measured as markers of inflammation. Results: Nigella sativa seeds extract caused significant (p<0.05) reduction in the paw inflammatory response in albino rats. The effect was longer in duration than the effect caused by diclofenac sodium; however, the extract was comparatively less potent than diclofenac sodium. The extract had no significant effect (p>0.05) on the total or differential leukocyte counts. Conclusion: Our results suggest that ethanolic extract of Nigella sativa seeds possesses potent anti-inflammatory effect, in albino rats however, this effect is comparatively less but prolonged than that produced by diclofenac sodium. (author)

  4. Extracellular lipids of Camelina sativa: characterization of chloroform-extractable waxes from aerial and subterranean surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razeq, Fakhria M; Kosma, Dylan K; Rowland, Owen; Molina, Isabel

    2014-10-01

    Camelina sativa (L.) Crantz is an emerging low input, stress tolerant crop with seed oil composition suitable for biofuel and bioproduct production. The chemical compositions and ultrastructural features of surface waxes from C. sativa aerial cuticles, seeds, and roots were analyzed using gas chromatography and microscopy. Alkanes, primary fatty alcohols, and free fatty acids were common components of all analyzed organs. A particular feature of leaf waxes was the presence of alkyl esters of long-chain fatty acids and very long-chain fatty alcohols, ranging from C38 to C50 and dominated by C42, C44 and C46 homologues. Stem waxes were mainly composed of non-sterol pentacyclic triterpenes. Flowers accumulated significant amounts of methyl-branched iso-alkanes (C29 and C31 total carbon number) in addition to straight-chain alkanes. Seed waxes were mostly primary fatty alcohols of up to 32 carbons in length and unbranched C29 and C31 alkanes. The total amount of identified wax components extracted by rapid chloroform dipping of roots was 280μgg(-1) (fresh weight), and included alkyl hydroxycinnamates, predominantly alkyl coumarates and alkyl caffeates. This study provides qualitative and quantitative information on the waxes of C. sativa root, shoot, and seed boundary tissues, allowing the relative activities of wax biosynthetic pathways in each respective plant organ to be assessed. This detailed description of the protective surface waxes of C. sativa may provide insights into its drought-tolerant and pathogen-resistant properties, and also identifies C. sativa as a potential source of renewable high-value natural products. PMID:25081105

  5. The MediaMill TRECVID 2006 semantic video search engine

    OpenAIRE

    Snoek, C.G.M.; van Gemert, J. C.; Gevers, T; Huurnink, B; Koelma, D.C.; Liempt, M; Rooij, O; Sande, K.E.A. van de; Seinstra, F.J.; Smeulders, A.W.M.; Thean, A.H.C.; Veenman, C.J.; Worring, M.

    2006-01-01

    In this paper we describe our TRECVID 2006 experiments. The MediaMill team participated in two tasks: concept detection and search. For concept detection we use the MediaMill Challenge as experimental platform. The MediaMill Challenge divides the generic video indexing problem into a visual-only, textual-only, early fusion, late fusion, and combined analysis experiment. We provide a baseline implementation for each experiment together with baseline results, which we made available to the TREC...

  6. Advances in Milling Machine Using CAD/CAM: A Review

    OpenAIRE

    Dahake, Prajakta H.; Sahakar, Nikita R.; Gadge, P.A

    2015-01-01

    The development of unmanned machining systems has been a recent focus of manufacturing research. The conventional milling machine removes metal with a revolving cutting tool called a milling cutter. For this, CNC machines are in use. CNC machine operates on part program. This program includes several G-codes and M- codes. This program is generated by skilled operators. This may cause error in geometry. Also increases labor cost. Thus new technology of milling operation is conceptualized to re...

  7. GeneMill: A 21st century platform for innovation

    OpenAIRE

    Johnson, James R.; D'Amore, Rosalinda; Thain, Simon C.; Craig, Thomas; McCue, Hannah V.; Hertz-Fowler, Christiane; Hall, Neil; Hall, Anthony J.W.

    2016-01-01

    GeneMill officially launched on 4th February 2016 and is an open access academic facility located at The University of Liverpool that has been established for the high-throughput construction and testing of synthetic DNA constructs. GeneMill provides end-to-end design, construction and phenotypic characterization of small to large gene constructs or genetic circuits/pathways for academic and industrial applications. Thus, GeneMill is equipping the scientific community with easy access to the ...

  8. Wastes from former mining and milling activities in Tajikistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This article is devoted to wastes from former mining and milling activities in Tajikistan. Currently, the serious radiological and ecological problems in Tajikistan are uranium mining and milling activities consequences overcoming which intensively developed during the soviet period. After the collapse of USSR, the uranic ores extraction in Tajikistan stopped due to deposit's output completion on the territory of the republic. Remediation of mining and milling activities' sites became the most urgent once all mines were closed.

  9. Wastes from former mining and milling activities in Tajikistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This article is devoted to wastes from former mining and milling activities in Tajikistan. Currently, the serious radiological and ecological problems in Tajikistan are uranium mining and milling activities consequences overcoming which intensively developed during the soviet period. After the collapse of USSR, the uranic ores extraction in Tajikistan stopped due to deposit's output completion on the territory of the republic. Remediation of mining and milling activities' sites became the most urgent once all mines were closed.

  10. Dynamical Breaking of Generalized Yang-Mills Theory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANGDian-Fu; SONGHe-Shan

    2004-01-01

    The dynamical breaking of a generalized Yang-Mills theory is discussed. It is shown, in terms of the Nambu Jona-Lasinio mechanism, that the gauge symmetry breaking can be realized dynamically in the generalized Yang-Mills theory. The combination of the generalized Yang-Mills theory and the NJL mechanism provides a way to overcome the difficulties related to the Higgs field and the Higgs mechanism in the usual spontaneous symmetry breaking theory.

  11. Dynamical Breaking of Generalized Yang-Mills Theory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Dian-Fu; SONG He-Shah

    2004-01-01

    The dynamical breaking of a generalized Yang-Mills theory is discussed. It is shown, in terms of the Nambu-Jona-Lasinio mechanism, that the gauge symmetry breaking can be realized dynamically in the generalized Yang-Mills theory. The combination of the generalized Yang-Mills theory and the NJL mechanism provides a way to overcome the difficulties related to the Higgs field and the Higgs mechanism in the usual spontaneous symmetry breaking theory.

  12. Flow phenomena modelling in the sifter of the fan mill

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dobrowolski, B.; Nowosielski, G. [Politech Opolska, Opole (Poland)

    2004-07-01

    This paper presents numerical tests of the air-pulverized coal mixture flow in the sifter of the fan mill. Numerical calculations were performed for a typical mill used in the boiler OP-650b. A three-dimensional model of the mill was worked out. Influence of the angle of separator blade position on gas and solid particle circulation inside the sifter was analyzed.

  13. Love, poetry, & the good life:Mill's autobiography & perfectionist ethics

    OpenAIRE

    Clark, Samuel

    2010-01-01

    I argue for a perfectionist reading of Mill's account of the good life, by using the failures of development recorded in his Autobiography as a way to understand his official account of happiness in Utilitarianism. This work offers both a new perspective on Mill's thought, and a distinctive account of the role of aesthetic and emotional capacities in the most choiceworthy human life. I consider the philosophical purposes of autobiography, Mill's disagreements with Bentham, and the nature of c...

  14. Chatter Prediction for Variable Pitch and Variable Helix Milling

    OpenAIRE

    Yong Wang; Taiyong Wang; Zhiqiang Yu; Yue Zhang; Yulong Wang; Hengli Liu

    2015-01-01

    Regenerative chatter is a self-excited vibration that can occur during milling, which shortens the lifetime of the tool and results in unacceptable surface quality. In this paper, an improved semidiscretization method for modeling and simulation with variable pitch and variable helix milling is proposed. Because the delay between each flute varies along the axial depth of the tool in milling, the cutting tool is discrete into some axial layers to simplify calculation. A comparison of the pred...

  15. Characteristics of waste composting in Castanea mollissima Bl.areas and evaluation of maturity%板栗产区废弃物堆肥特性及腐熟度评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨娜; 郭素娟; 张峰

    2009-01-01

    Compost by agricultural and forestry waste is one of the effective ways to reduce pollution, make use of resources and recycle. In this study, 7 different ratios of raw materials, which were leaves and hulls of Castanea mollissima BI., corn stalks and cow dung in Beijing Huairou area were set up, namely A, B, C, D, E, F, G, adopting EM treatment in the late autumn of 2008. Through determining temperature, moisture content, pH value, NH~+_4-N, NO~-_3-N,C/N in composting process, the effects of different ratios on compost maturity were researched. Simultaneously, Chinese cabbage seed germination index (GI) was adopted to evaluate maturity and physiological toxicity. The results showed that:1) in the composting process, temperature, NH~+_4-N and C/N had similar changing trends in different ratios, which rose in the first 14 days, then gradually decreased. The highest temperature of E was higher than the other six ratios, which reached 62℃. GI and NO~-_3-N presented a trend of rising. Moisture content kept declining and the pH maintained at 8-9.2) GI was positively correlated with pH and NO~-_3-N, and negatively correlated with NH~+_4-N and C/N; especially, GI was significantly correlated with NH~+_4-N, reached-0.799 6.3) In Beijing Huairou area, E (C. Mollissima leaves : C. Mollissima hull:corn stalks:cow dung=2.0:2.0:2.0:4.0) was the optimum combination of compost, its maturity efficient was high and the time reaching maturity was about 42 days.%利用农林废弃物进行堆肥,是减少环境污染、实现资源循环利用的有效途径之一.以北京市怀柔区板栗落叶、栗蓬、玉米秸秆、牛粪为原料,设置7种不同配比(A、B、C、D、E、F、G),采用有效微生物群(EM)技术,于2008年秋末进行堆肥试验.通过对堆肥过程中堆体的温度、含水率、pH值、NH~+_4-N、NO~-_3一N、C/N的测定,研究了不同配比对堆肥腐熟度的影响.同时,采用白菜种子发芽指数(GI)评价了堆肥的腐熟度和生理毒

  16. Diversity of Chloroplast DNA SSRs in the Wild and Cultivated Chestnuts(Castanea mollissima)%板栗野生居群与栽培品种间叶绿体微卫星遗传差异初探

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄武刚; 程丽莉; 周志军; 刘建立

    2009-01-01

    对24对epSSR通用引物进行筛选,选用4对呈现多态性的引物对板栗的4个野生居群和9个地方品种群进行遗传分析.结果表明:4个位点在128个样本中扩增等位基因数(N_a)平均为3,有效等位基因数(N_e)平均为1.635,期望杂合度(H_e)平均为0.381,各遗传参数值远低于核基因组对群体研究的相应值.4个等位基因共组合出8种单倍型,既有共享率超过57%的单倍型,也存在特异稀有单倍型,其中陕西汉中与安徽广德板栗天然野生居群,具有较高的单倍型多样性,分别为0.671和0.781,明显高于其他地区,显示两地是板栗的分布及遗传多样性中心.基于cpSSR数据,对板栗地方品种与天然野生居群间的遗传结构、关系及地方品种的起源进行初步探讨.%In this study 24 cpSSR primer pairs were screened, and four pairs were found producing DNA fragment length polymorphism from the tested populations of Castanea mollissima. In order to estimate genetic variation and genetic structure of chestnut, we surveyed four wild and nine cultivated populations in China with cpSSR markers. The results showed there were 3 average number of alleles (N), 1.635 effective number of alleles (N_e) and 0.381 expected heterozygosity ( H_e) , from 4 loci in 128 samples. Apparently, the parameters of cpSSR loci were much lower than those revealed by nuclear SSRs. The combinations of all the length variants of alleles from four cpSSR loci finally presented eight haplotypes in the nine populations of C. mollissima. The Qinling mountainous region and Tianmushan mountainous regions possessed the richest haplotype diversity (respectively 0.671 and 0.781) . Based on cpSSR data, we estimated the genetic structures of the wild and cultivated chestnut populations and discussed the origins of the cultivated C. mollissima in China.

  17. Bentham, Mill and Green on the Nature of the Good

    OpenAIRE

    DIMOVA-COOKSON, M.

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to compare three thinkers with respect to one moral issue. The three thinkers are Jeremy Bentham, John Stuart Mill and Thomas Hill Green. These are thinkers of three successive generations. The influence Bentham had on Mill, as well as the influence Bentham and Mill had on Green, is undisputed. Unlike Mill, however, Green did not see himself as a disciple of the utilitarian school, so one could question whether Green is a natural follower of the first two phil...

  18. Occupational Health and safety management in Olive Oil Mills

    OpenAIRE

    Rubio-Romero, Juan Carlos

    2014-01-01

    This paper aims at examining the occupational accident rate, and OHS Management, in the 
olive oil mill industry in Spain.
Our study analyses all occupational accidents which occurred during 2004-2009, with or without sick leave, at 90 Andalusian olive oil mills. Besides, after visits, inspections and interviews carried out in three olive oil mills, we design a pilot questionnaire, and interview 34 olive oil mills, then we drew up a questionnaire to 150 more with the collaboration
 of the Lab...

  19. The Thermal-Reaction Between Paper Mill Sludge And Adhesive

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The thermal-reaction among paper mill sludge and urea-formaldehyde(UF), phenol-formaldehyde(PF) by the thermogravimetry-differencial were tested.The results showed that there were no obvious heat absorption and leak effects when the paper mill sludge was heated.In the course of heating,the UF presented significant absorpting and leaking effects,but the thermal reaction was not significant when the paper mill sludge blended with UF,while it was significant when mill sludge blended with PF

  20. Methodical characterization of rice ( Oryza sativa bran oil from Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmood, Zahid

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available The hexane-extracted oil content of four varieties of rice (Oryza sativa viz. Super Kernel, 386, 385 and Basmati, bran was ranged 14.70-19.10 %. Other physical and chemical parameters of the extracted oils were as follow: Iodine value 112.40, 109.80, 105.1 and 103.70; refractive index ( 40 °C 1.4650, 1.4680, 1.4657 and 1.4660; density ( 40 °C 0.919, 0.913, 0.909 and 0.911; saponification value 183, 177, 186 and 190; unsaponifiable matter 6.15, 5.60, 4.98 and 5.40 % respectively. Tocopherols ( α, γ and δ in the oils were: 284.00, 175.12, 180.42, 300.06; 83.40, 98.70, 120.70, 90.60; 75.16, 57.20, 39.32, 83.00 mg/kg respectively. The contents of tocotrienols ( α, γ and δ in the oils were: 120.30, 106.00, 95.20, 135.74; 196.00, 125.00, 210.0, 276.41; 72.50, 20.00, 39.30, 64.00 mg/kg respectively. The amount of γ - Oryzanol in the investigated oils was ranged 415.12-802.05 The induction periods (Rancimat, 20 L/h, 120 °C of the crude oils were 6.81, 5.99, 6.39 and 7.40 h respectively. The major sterol fractions of the oils consisted of campesterol ranged (10.10-19.20%, stigmasterol (14.00-19.28 %, b -sitosterol (49.30-58.20 %, and D5 ,avenasterol (8.14-13.05 %. The investigated varieties ( Super Kernel, 386, 385 and Basmati of rice bran oil were found to contain high levels of oleic acid 42.67, 38.59, 40.68 and 36.78 % followed by linoleic and palmitic acids 31.58, 33.80, 28.70, 30.51 and 17.00, 14.88, 19.63, 20.00 % respectively. The contents of myristic, stearic and arachidic acids was 1.50, 2.02, 4.28, 1.00; 2.64, 2.87, 4.02, 7.48; and 1.28, 3.00, 1.00, 1.00 % respectively. A number of parameters of the investigated rice bran oils indigenous to Pakistan were comparable to those of typical rice bran and some other vegetable oils, reported in the literature. The results of the present analysis as compared with those of different vegetable oils demonstrated rice bran to be a potential oil source and thus could be useful

  1. Engineering assessment of inactive uranium mill tailings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-07-01

    The Grand Junction site has been reevaluated in order to revise the October 1977 engineering assessment of the problems resulting from the existence of radioactive uranium mill tailings at Grand Junction, Colorado. This engineering assessment has included the preparation of topographic maps, the performance of core drillings and radiometric measurements sufficient to determine areas and volumes of tailings and radiation exposures of individuals and nearby populations, the investigations of site hydrology and meteorology, and the evaluation and costing of alternative corrective actions. Radon gas released from the 1.9 million tons of tailings at the Grand Junction site constitutes the most significant environmental impact, although windblown tailings and external gamma radiation are also factors. The eight alternative actions presented herein range from millsite and off-site decontamination with the addition of 3 m of stabilization cover material (Option I), to removal of the tailings to remote disposal sites and decontamination of the tailings site (Options II through VIII). Cost estimates for the eight options range from about $10,200,000 for stabilization in-place to about $39,500,000 for disposal in the DeBeque area, at a distance of about 35 mi, using transportation by rail. If transportation to DeBeque were by truck, the cost estimated to be about $41,900,000. Three principal alternatives for the reprocessing of the Grand Junction tailings were examined: (a) heap leaching; (b) treatment at an existing mill; and (c) reprocessing at a new conventional mill constructed for tailings reprocessing. The cost of the uranium recovered would be about $200/lb by heap leach and $150/lb by conventional plant processes. The spot market price for uranium was $25/lb early in 1981. Therefore, reprocessing the tailings for uranium recovery appears not to be economically attractive.

  2. Engineering assessment of inactive uranium mill tailings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Grand Junction site has been reevaluated in order to revise the October 1977 engineering assessment of the problems resulting from the existence of radioactive uranium mill tailings at Grand Junction, Colorado. This engineering assessment has included the preparation of topographic maps, the performance of core drillings and radiometric measurements sufficient to determine areas and volumes of tailings and radiation exposures of individuals and nearby populations, the investigations of site hydrology and meteorology, and the evaluation and costing of alternative corrective actions. Radon gas released from the 1.9 million tons of tailings at the Grand Junction site constitutes the most significant environmental impact, although windblown tailings and external gamma radiation are also factors. The eight alternative actions presented herein range from millsite and off-site decontamination with the addition of 3 m of stabilization cover material (Option I), to removal of the tailings to remote disposal sites and decontamination of the tailings site (Options II through VIII). Cost estimates for the eight options range from about $10,200,000 for stabilization in-place to about $39,500,000 for disposal in the DeBeque area, at a distance of about 35 mi, using transportation by rail. If transportation to DeBeque were by truck, the cost estimated to be about $41,900,000. Three principal alternatives for the reprocessing of the Grand Junction tailings were examined: (a) heap leaching; (b) treatment at an existing mill; and (c) reprocessing at a new conventional mill constructed for tailings reprocessing. The cost of the uranium recovered would be about $200/lb by heap leach and $150/lb by conventional plant processes. The spot market price for uranium was $25/lb early in 1981. Therefore, reprocessing the tailings for uranium recovery appears not to be economically attractive

  3. Yang-Mills theory in Coulomb gauge; Yang-Mills-theorie in Coulombeichung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feuchter, C.

    2006-07-01

    In this thesis we study the Yang-Mills vacuum structure by using the functional Schroedinger picture in Coulomb gauge. In particular we discuss the scenario of colour confinement, which was originally formulated by Gribov. After a short introduction, we recall some basic aspects of Yang-Mills theories, its canonical quantization in the Weyl gauge and the functional Schroedinger picture. We then consider the minimal Coulomb gauge and the Gribov problem of the gauge theory. The gauge fixing of the Coulomb gauge is done by using the Faddeev-Popov method, which enables the resolution of the Gauss law - the constraint on physical states. In the third chapter, we variationally solve the stationary Yang-Mills Schroedinger equation in Coulomb gauge for the vacuum state. Therefor we use a vacuum wave functional, which is strongly peaked at the Gribov horizon. The vacuum energy functional is calculated and minimized resulting in a set of coupled Schwinger-Dyson equations for the gluon energy, the ghost and Coulomb form factors and the curvature in gauge orbit space. Using the angular approximation these integral equations have been solved analytically in both the infrared and the ultraviolet regime. The asymptotic analytic solutions in the infrared and ultraviolet regime are reasonably well reproduced by the full numerical solutions of the coupled Schwinger-Dyson equations. In the fourth chapter, we investigate the dependence of the Yang-Mills wave functional in Coulomb gauge on the Faddeev-Popov determinant. (orig.)

  4. Yang-Mills instantons over Riemann surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Exact solutions to the self-dual Yang-Mills equations over Riemann surfaces of arbitrary genus are constructed. They are characterized by the conformal class of the Riemann surface. They correspond to U(1) instantonic solutions for an Abelian-Higgs system. A functional action of a genus g Riemann surface is constructed, with minimal points being the two-dimensional self-dual connections. The exact solutions may be interpreted as connecting initial and final nontrivial vacuum states of a conformal theory, in the sense of Segal, with a Feynman functor constructed from the functional integral of the action. (orig.)

  5. YANG-MILLS FIELDS AND THE LATTICE.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    CREUTZ,M.

    2004-05-18

    The Yang-Mills theory lies at the heart of our understanding of elementary particle interactions. For the strong nuclear forces, we must understand this theory in the strong coupling regime. The primary technique for this is the lattice. While basically an ultraviolet regulator, the lattice avoids the use of a perturbative expansion. I discuss some of the historical circumstances that drove us to this approach, which has had immense success, convincingly demonstrating quark confinement and obtaining crucial properties of the strong interactions from first principles.

  6. Observables in Topological Yang-Mills Theories

    CERN Document Server

    Boldo, J L; Gieres, François; Lefrançois, M; Piguet, O; Boldo, Jose Luis; Constantinidis, Clisthenis P.; Gieres, Francois; Lefrancois, Matthieu; Piguet, Olivier

    2003-01-01

    Using topological Yang-Mills theory as example, we discuss the definition and determination of observables in topological field theories (of Witten-type) within the superspace formulation proposed by Horne. This approach to the equivariant cohomology leads to a set of bi-descent equations involving the BRST and supersymmetry operators as well as the exterior derivative. This allows us to determine superspace expressions for all observables, and thereby to recover the Donaldson-Witten polynomials when choosing a Wess-Zumino-type gauge.

  7. Domestic uranium mining and milling industry 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report was prepared by the Energy Information Administration to provide the Secretary of Energy with basic data and analyses for ninth annual determination of the viability of the domestic uranium mining and milling industry. A viability determination is required annually, for the years 1983 through 1992, by Section 170B of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) Authorization Act of 1983, Public Law 97-415, which amend the Atomic Energy Act of 1954. Topics include: evolution of the U.S. uranium industry; nuclear power requirements and uranium industry projections; and attributes of industry viability

  8. La science politique de John Stuart Mill

    OpenAIRE

    Frederick Rosen

    2008-01-01

    This essay explores aspects of John Stuart Mill’s approach to social and political science in the Considerations on Representative Government (1861) with an emphasis on the significance of character or ‘ethology’ in this science. The starting point is a discussion of psychology and ethology in Book VI of the Logic (1843). This conception is examined in terms of Mill’s framework of inductive and deductive science and the distinction between art and science where the views of Mill and Jeremy Be...

  9. Design and Fabrication of Savonious Wind Mill

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. L. N. V. Aashrith

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The project deals with the design and fabrication of Savonius wind mill. Pw – Wind power (watt, and Power produced by the turbine Pt has been calculated using m – Mass flow rate (kg/s, Swept area of the windfall ,V- Velocity of the wind, Θ- Angular position of turbine, T- Torque obtained by wind, Pt- Shaft power , Cp- Power coffecient ,Ct- Torque co-efficient , μ – Tip speed ratio , r – Radius of rotor , d- Diameter of rotor ,w- Angular speed of rotor. Various operations involved in fabrication process and characteristics & specifications of wind turbine has been mentioned

  10. Design and Fabrication of Savonious Wind Mill

    OpenAIRE

    P. L. N. V. Aashrith; Ch.Vikranth

    2014-01-01

    The project deals with the design and fabrication of Savonius wind mill. Pw – Wind power (watt), and Power produced by the turbine Pt has been calculated using m – Mass flow rate (kg/s), Swept area of the windfall ,V- Velocity of the wind, Θ- Angular position of turbine, T- Torque obtained by wind, Pt- Shaft power , Cp- Power coffecient ,Ct- Torque co-efficient , μ – Tip speed ratio , r – Radius of rotor , d- Diameter of rotor ,w- Angular speed of rotor. Various operations involved in fabrica...

  11. Duality in supersymmetric Yang-Mills theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peskin, M.E.

    1997-02-01

    These lectures provide an introduction to the behavior of strongly-coupled supersymmetric gauge theories. After a discussion of the effective Lagrangian in nonsupersymmetric and supersymmetric field theories, the author analyzes the qualitative behavior of the simplest illustrative models. These include supersymmetric QCD for N{sub f} < N{sub c}, in which the superpotential is generated nonperturbatively, N = 2 SU(2) Yang-Mills theory (the Seiberg-Witten model), in which the nonperturbative behavior of the effect coupling is described geometrically, and supersymmetric QCD for N{sub f} large, in which the theory illustrates a non-Abelian generalization of electric-magnetic duality. 75 refs., 12 figs.

  12. Origin of samples of Cannabis sativa through insect fragments associated with compacted hemp drug in South America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Patrício Macedo

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Origin of samples of Cannabis sativa through insect fragments associated with compacted hemp drug in South America. Insects associated with a seizure of Cannabis sativa L. may indicate the origin of the illicit drug. Nevertheless, no work regarding this subject has been previously published for South America. In the present investigation, seven kilograms of vegetal material (C. sativa were inspected for insect fragments. Three species were identified and used to test the origin of the seizure of cannabis plant material: Euschistus heros (Fabricius, 1794, Thyanta perditor (Fabricius, 1794 (Heteroptera, Pentatomidae, and Cephalotes pusillus (Klug, 1824 (Hymenoptera, Formicidae. These insect species restricted the geographic origin of the drug to the Neotropical region, and their distribution patterns showed an overlap of the State of Mato Grosso (Brazil, Argentina, and Paraguay. Based on this information, two of the three major C. sativa growing areas in South America were excluded: (1 the Colombian territory and (2 northeastern Brazil.

  13. Mechanically milled aluminium matrix composites reinforced with halloysite nanotubes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.A. Dobrzański

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The present work describes fabrication of aluminium AlMg1SiCu matrix composite materials reinforced with halloysite nanotubes by powder metallurgy techniques and hot extrusion.Design/methodology/approach: Mechanical milling, compacting and hot extrusion successively are considering as a method for manufacturing metal composite powders with a controlled fine microstructure and enhanced mechanical properties. It is possible by the repeated welding and fracturing of powders particles mixture in a highly energetic ball mill.Findings: The milling process has a huge influence on the properties of powder materials, changing the spherical morphology of as-received powder during milling process to flattened one due to particle deformation followed by welding and fracturing particles of deformed and hardened enough which allows to receive equiaxial particles morphology again. The investigation shows that so called brittle mineral particles yields to plastic deformation as good as ductile aluminium alloy particles. That indicates that the halloysite powder can play a role of the accelerator during mechanical milling. High energy ball milling as a method of mechanical milling improves the distribution of the halloysite reinforcing particles throughout the aluminium matrix, simultaneously reducing the size of particles. The apparent density changes versus milling time can be used to control the composite powders production by mechanical milling and the presence of halloysite reinforcements particles accelerates the mechanical milling process.Research limitations/implications: Contributes to knowledge about technology, structure and properties of aluminium alloy matrix composite material reinforced with mineral nanoparticles.Practical implications: Conducted research shows that applied technology allows obtaining very good microstructural characteristics.Originality/value: It has been confirmed that halloysite nanotubes can be applied as an effective

  14. Contamination introduced during rock sample powdering. Effects from different mill materials on trace element contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We examined blanks during powdering processes for thirty-three trace elements using ICP-MS (inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry). Quartz sand was used as target of powdering with grinding mills of several kinds: an agate hand mill, agate ball mill, Fe hand mill, alumina ceramic hand mill and artificial crystalline quartz hand mill. The results show that the artificial crystalline quartz hand mill is the purest grinder among the analyzed ones. This grinder is suitable for soft rock samples such as limestone. The alumina ceramic hand mill can reduce contamination, except for Cs, W and Pb. The agate hand mill and the agate ball mill introduce contamination whose level is depending on the individual device due to heterogeneity of the natural agate. The Fe hand mill introduces contamination of some si-derophile elements such as Mo and W. The results of this study emphasize careful choice of a grinding mill for sample pulverizing. (author)

  15. Physiologische Grundlagen der Akkumulation von
    Schwermetallionen beim Faserhanf (Cannabis sativa L.) und das Nutzungspotential bei der Phytoremediation

    OpenAIRE

    Ostwald, Anke

    2000-01-01

    Im Rahmen der Arbeit sollte die Akkumulation von Schwermetallen sowie deren Einfluss auf die Synthese von Phytochelatinen in Faserhanfpflanzen - bzw. Zellkulturen (Cannabis sativa L.) untersucht und mit anderen Pflanzen oder Zellkulturen verglichen werden. Zudem sollte die Einsatzfähigkeit von Faserhanf zur Remediation schwermetallbelasteter Böden bewertet und Nutzungsmöglichkeiten für das geerntete Pflanzenmaterial aufgezeigt werden. Pflanzliche Kalluskulturen von Hanf (Cannabis sativa L...

  16. The enhancing effects of alcoholic extract of Nigella sativa seed on fertility potential, plasma gonadotropins and testosterone in male rats

    OpenAIRE

    Rostam Ghorbani; Namdar Yousofvand; Rahmatollah Parandin

    2012-01-01

    Background: The task force on plants for fertility regulation in men continued with its program to identify novel prototypes in plants alleged to have fertility regulating properties. Nigella Sativa seeds are frequently used in folk medicine in the Middle East and some Asian countries for the promotion of good health and treatment of many ailments. Objective: To evaluated the role of alcoholic extract of Nigella sativa on fertility potential, Pituitary-testicular axis hormones and Testosteron...

  17. Increased 5-HT Levels Following Repeated Administration of Nigella sativa L. (Black Seed) Oil Produce Antidepressant Effects in Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Perveen, Tahira; Haider, Saida; Zuberi, Nudrat Anwar; Saleem, Sadia; Sadaf, Sana; Batool, Zehra

    2013-01-01

    The seeds of Nigella sativa L., commonly known as black seed or black cumin, and its extracts are used in folk medicine in the Middle East and in Asian countries for the promotion of good health and as a remedy for many ailments. These seeds have many acclaimed medicinal properties such as broncho-dilatory, immunopotentiating, analgesic, anti-inflammatory, and hypotensive. In the present study, the antidepressant activity following the repeated administration of Nigella sativa L. oil has been...

  18. In vitro and in vivo study of the antibacterial effects of Nigella sativa methanol extract in dairy cow mastitis

    OpenAIRE

    Hassan Rakhshandeh; Nassser Vahdati-Mashhadian; Mehrangiz khajekaramadini

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Nigella Sativa (N. Sativa) seeds were used in traditional medicine for the treatment of a variety of diseases. The seed extracts and oil of this plant have shown various pharmacological properties including antimicrobial actions. In this study, the in vitro and in vivo antibacterial effects of methanol extract of the seeds against pathogenic bacteria causing mastitis in cows have been investigated. Materials and methods: in in vivo experiments, 10 cows with mastitis were treated by...

  19. Evaluation of antileishmanial activity and cytotoxicity of the extracts of Berberis vulgaris and Nigella sativa against Leishmania tropica

    OpenAIRE

    Hossein Mahmoudvand; Fariba Sharififar; Monireh Sezavar Rahmat; Razieh Tavakoli; Ebrahim Saedi Dezaki; Sareh Jahanbakhsh; Iraj Sharifi

    2014-01-01

    Background & objectives: Leishmaniasis is a major public health problem, and the alarming spread of parasite resistance underlines the importance of discovering new therapeutic products. The present study aims to investigate the in vitro antileishmanial activity and cytotoxicity of the ethanolic extract of Berberis vulgaris fruits and chloroform extract of Nigella sativa seeds against Leishmania tropica. Methods: In this study, antileishmanial activity of B. vulgaris and N. sativa extracts...

  20. Effect of Ruta graveolens and Cannabis sativa alcoholic extract on spermatogenesis in the adult wistar male rats

    OpenAIRE

    Sailani, M. R.; Moeini, H.

    2007-01-01

    Objective: The present study was undertaken to evaluate the effects of alcohol extracts of Ruta graveolens and Cannabis sativa that were used traditionally in medieval Persian medicine as male contraceptive drugs, on spermatogenesis in the adult male rats. Materials and Methods: Ethanol extracts of these plants were obtained by the maceration method. The male rats were injected intraperitionaly with C. sativa and R. graveolens 5% ethanol extracts at dose of 20 mg/day for 20 consecutive days, ...

  1. Over-expression of AtPAP2 in Camelina sativa leads to faster plant growth and higher seed yield

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang Youjun; Yu Laura; Yung Ka-Fu; Leung Dennis YC; Sun Feng; Lim Boon L

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Lipids extracted from seeds of Camelina sativa have been successfully used as a reliable source of aviation biofuels. This biofuel is environmentally friendly because the drought resistance, frost tolerance and low fertilizer requirement of Camelina sativa allow it to grow on marginal lands. Improving the species growth and seed yield by genetic engineering is therefore a target for the biofuels industry. In Arabidopsis, overexpression of purple acid phosphatase 2 encoded ...

  2. Accumulation of heavy metals by lettuce (lactuca sativa l.) irrigated with different levels of wastewater of Quetta City

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heavy metal contamination of soils resulting from irrigation by wastewater is causing major concern due to the potential health risk involved. This study was therefore designed to investigate the heavy metal ions viz., Cu/sup 2/sup +/, Fe/sup 2+/, Mn/sup 2+/, Zn/sup 2+/, Pb/sup 2+/, Ni/sup 2+ and Cd/sup 2+/ concentrations by lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) grown in pots. This leafy vegetable was irrigated with 5 different concentrations of wastewater collected from 3 different localities viz., Chiltan town, Chiltan Ghee Mill (oil industry) and Zarghoon town of Quetta city. Tap water was used as background water. Plant samples were analyzed for their heavy metal contents using Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy (AAS). Results showed that localities, treatments and their interactions (except Cu/sup 2+/ and Pb/sup 2+/) generally exhibited highly significant (P=0.01) influence on the accumulation of heavy metals. The maximum values of 9.71; 509.06; 32.47; 94.38; 8.58; 5.05 and 7.45 mg kg/sup -1/ for Cu/sup 2+/, total Fe/sup 2+/, Mn/sup 2+/, Zn/sup 2+/, Ni/sup 2+/,Pb/sup 2+/, and Cd/sup 2+/ respectively, were generally obtained in highest concentration of effluents. While maximum values of 9.02; 4.47 and 7.90 mg kg-1 of Cu/sup 2+/, Ni/sup 2+/ and Cd/sup 2+/ were obtained for Chiltan ghee mill effluents. However, maximum values i.e., 435.96 and 80.47 mg kg-1 of total Fe and Zn/sup 2+/ were recorded for Chiltan town. The highest values of 30.09 and 6.32 mg kg-1 for Mn/sup 2+/ and Pb/sup 2+/ were noted in Zarghoon town, respectively. On the basis of grand mean values,the magnitude of heavy metals detected for various metals is in order: Fe > Zn >Mn> Cu >Pb> Cd > Ni. Results further demonstrated that the total concentrations of Cu/sup 2+/, Fe/sup 2+/, Mn/sup 2+/, Zn/sup 2+/ and Ni/sup 2+/ are within the recommended international standards set by WHO/FAO, but could be reached to toxic level either by the consecutive use of effluents or by increased dietary pattern of the consumers

  3. Local saw mills save Velky Krtis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After the Bana Dolina coal mine has received its last state subsidy, the only major employer in the region will be the PRP saw mill. The unemployment rate is very high in the Velky Krtis region over 25%. Several agricultural and food processing companies have gone bankrupt and the Bana Dolina mine today only employs around 200 people. Few new jobs have been created. So far only furniture manufacturers from the Swedish company, Furni Finish, have promised the town they will open a new plant, where they may employ around 150. Another potential investment to be made by a Spanish producer of light components is still under negotiation, stated the mayor of Velky Krtis, Jozef Sauver. Should the Spanish company decide to come to the region, about 100 people could find a job at the former Liaz production halls. Currently, PRP is the largest employer in the region. Over the last 7 years, its owners have invested over 60 mil. Sk (1.58 mil. EUR) in the saw mill. Now they are preparing an 80 mil. Sk (2.10 mil. EUR) investment. The new business would process timber waste that is currently sold to the chipboard producer, Bucina DDD. In the future, the material could be used to produce energy. The town council are considering the construction of a new wood-fired heat plant that would use timber waste bought from PRP. (author)

  4. Quantum Yang--Mills Dark Energy

    CERN Document Server

    Pasechnik, Roman

    2016-01-01

    In this short review, I discuss basic qualitative characteristics of quantum non-Abelian gauge dynamics in the non-stationary background of the expanding Universe in the framework of the standard Einstein--Yang--Mills formulation. A brief outlook of existing studies of cosmological Yang--Mills fields and their properties will be given. Quantum effects have a profound impact on the gauge field-driven cosmological evolution. In particular, a dynamical formation of the spatially-homogeneous and isotropic gauge field condensate may be responsible for both early and late-time acceleration, as well as for dynamical compensation of non-perturbative quantum vacua contributions to the ground state of the Universe. The main properties of such a condensate in the effective QCD theory at the flat Friedmann--Lema\\'itre--Robertson--Walker (FLRW) background will be discussed within and beyond perturbation theory. Finally, a phenomenologically consistent dark energy can be induced dynamically as a remnant of the QCD vacua co...

  5. La science politique de John Stuart Mill

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frederick Rosen

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available This essay explores aspects of John Stuart Mill’s approach to social and political science in the Considerations on Representative Government (1861 with an emphasis on the significance of character or ‘ethology’ in this science. The starting point is a discussion of psychology and ethology in Book VI of the Logic (1843. This conception is examined in terms of Mill’s framework of inductive and deductive science and the distinction between art and science where the views of Mill and Jeremy Bentham are contrasted. Given Mill’s view of the relationship between art and science, the science of ethology (including political ethology assumes a more prominent position in Mill’s thought than any political art or any distinctly political science. Contrary to many commentators, it is argued that Mill never abandoned his commitment to ethology, as is clear from the discussion of ‘the ideally best form of government’ in the Considerations. Mill’s conception of ‘active character’ here underpins and directs what might otherwise be seen as a traditional account of forms of government. The cultivation of active character becomes an essential condition for the success of representative government. The essay concludes with remarks on Mill’s emphasis on society for his account of liberty in On Liberty (1859 and suggests that he considered new ways of understanding the traditional processes of government.

  6. Grouting of uranium mill tailings piles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A program of remedial action was initiated for a number of inactive uranium mill tailings piles. These piles result from mining and processing of uranium ores to meet the nation's defense and nuclear power needs and represent a potential hazard to health and the environment. Possible remedial actions include the application of covers to reduce radon emissions and airborne transport of the tailings, liners to prevent groundwater contamination by leachates from the piles, physical or chemical stabilization of the tailings, or moving the piles to remote locations. Conventional installation of liners would require excavation of the piles to emplace the liner; however, utilization of grouting techniques, such as those used in civil engineering to stabilize soils, might be a potential method of producing a liner without excavation. Laboratory studies on groutability of uranium mill tailings were conducted using samples from three abandoned piles and employing a number of particulate and chemical grouts. These studies indicate that it is possible to alter the permeability of the tailings from ambient values of 10-3 cm/s to values approaching 10-7 cm/s using silicate grouts and to 10-8 cm/s using acrylamide and acrylate grouts. An evaluation of grouting techniques, equipment required, and costs associated with grouting were also conducted and are presented. 10 references, 1 table

  7. Metallurgical analysis of spalled work roll of hot strip mill

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this study failure analysis of four work roll of the Hot Strip Mill is carried out. The microstructure is correlated with the chemical composition of shell and roll-life. It was concluded that for the longer service of the roll, cementite, graphite and martensite should be balanced (as per working requirement of the mill). (author)

  8. Treatment of Olive Oil Mill Wastewater With Fungi

    OpenAIRE

    YEŞİLADA, Özer

    1999-01-01

    : Olive oil mills produce a liquid waste called olive black water in the olive oil production process. In this study, olive oil mill wastewater (OOMW) was analysed and then treated aerobically with fungi. Consequently, high chemical oxygen demand (COD), phenol and color reduction were obtained. High biomass yields and laccase enzyme activities were also determined.

  9. Wheat mill stream properties for discrete element method modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    A discrete phase approach based on individual wheat kernel characteristics is needed to overcome the limitations of previous statistical models and accurately predict the milling behavior of wheat. As a first step to develop a discrete element method (DEM) model for the wheat milling process, this s...

  10. Dynamic Model of Gap Loop for HCW Mill

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Jing-ming; YANG Qiu-xia; CHE Hai-jun; CHANG Ling-fang

    2004-01-01

    The hydraulic automatic gauge control system using gap loop for cold mill was designed. The stiffness of HCW cold mill was defined for gap loop, and the dynamic model of gauge control system for gap loop was built with mechanism analysis. The stiffness for gap loop and the cylinder displacement loop were measured.

  11. Recycling and reuse of wastewater from uranium mining and milling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uranium mining/milling process, and the sources, recycling/reuse approach and treatment methods of process wastewater are introduced. The wastewater sources of uranium mining and milling include effluent, raffinate, tailings water, mine discharge, resin form converted solution, and precipitation mother liquor. Wastewater can be recycled/reused for leachant, eluent, stripping solution,washing solution and tailings slurry. (authors)

  12. Yang-Mills connections valued on the octonionic algebra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Restuccia, A.; Veiro, J. P.

    2016-05-01

    We consider a formulation of Yang-Mills theory where the gauge field is valued on an octonionic algebra and the gauge transformation is the group of automorphisms of it. We show, under mild assumptions, that the only possible gauge formulations are the usual su(2) or u(1) Yang-Mills theories.

  13. Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Project surface project management plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This Project Management Plan describes the planning, systems, and organization that shall be used to manage the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Project (UMTRA). US DOE is authorized to stabilize and control surface tailings and ground water contamination at 24 inactive uranium processing sites and associated vicinity properties containing uranium mill tailings and related residual radioactive materials

  14. Virginia Tech, Mill Mountain team up for Thursday's "Jazzing Women"

    OpenAIRE

    Elliott, Jean

    2005-01-01

    Virginia Tech is teaming up with Mill Mountain Theatre and Circuit Productions to present "Jazzing Women," an evening of jazz music, dance, and song at Mill Mountain's Waldron Theater at 8 p.m. Thursday, March 17. The featured event is part of Virginia Tech's Mid-Atlantic Conference on the Scholarship of Diversity.

  15. Improved hydrogen sorption kinetics in wet ball milled Mg hydrides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meng, Li

    2011-05-04

    In this work, wet ball milling method is used in order to improve hydrogen sorption behaviour due to its improved microstructure of solid hydrogen materials. Compared to traditional ball milling method, wet ball milling has benefits on improvement of MgH{sub 2} microstructure and further influences on its hydrogen sorption behavior. With the help of solvent tetrahydrofuran (THF), wet ball milled MgH{sub 2} powder has much smaller particle size and its specific surface area is 7 times as large as that of dry ball milled MgH{sub 2} powder. Although after ball milling the grain size is decreased a lot compared to as-received MgH{sub 2} powder, the grain size of wet ball milled MgH{sub 2} powder is larger than that of dry ball milled MgH{sub 2} powder due to the lubricant effect of solvent THF during wet ball milling. The improved particle size and specific surface area of wet ball milled MgH{sub 2} powder is found to be determining its hydrogen sorption kinetics especially at relatively low temperatures. And it also shows good cycling sorption behavior, which decides on its industrial applicability. With three different catalysts MgH{sub 2} powder shows improved hydrogen sorption behavior as well as the cyclic sorption behavior. Among them, the Nb{sub 2}O{sub 5} catalyst is found to be the most effective one in this work. Compared to the wet ball milled MgH{sub 2} powder, the particle size and specific surface area of the MgH{sub 2} powder with catalysts are similar to the previous ones, while the grain size of the MgH{sub 2} with catalysts is much finer. In this case, two reasons for hydrogen sorption improvement are suggested: one is the reduction of the grain size. The other may be as pointed out in some literatures that formation of new oxidation could enhance the hydrogen sorption kinetics, which is also the reason why its hydrogen capacity is decreased compared to without catalysts. After further ball milling, the specific surface area of wet ball milled Mg

  16. Crystallization degree change of expanded graphite by milling and annealing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tang Qunwei [Key Laboratory for Functional Materials of Fujian Higher Education, Institute of Material Physical Chemistry, Huaqiao University, Quanzhou 362021 (China); Wu Jihuai [Key Laboratory for Functional Materials of Fujian Higher Education, Institute of Material Physical Chemistry, Huaqiao University, Quanzhou 362021 (China)], E-mail: jhwu@hqu.edu.cn; Sun Hui; Fang Shijun [Key Laboratory for Functional Materials of Fujian Higher Education, Institute of Material Physical Chemistry, Huaqiao University, Quanzhou 362021 (China)

    2009-05-05

    Expanded graphite was ball milled with a planetary mill in air atmosphere, and subsequently thermal annealed. The samples were characterized by using X-ray diffraction spectroscopy (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA). It was found that in the milling initial stage (less than 12 h), the crystallization degree of the expanded graphite declined gradually, but after milling more than 16 h, a recrystallization of the expanded graphite toke place, and ordered nanoscale expanded graphite was formed gradually. In the annealing initial stage, the non-crystallization of the graphite occurred, but, beyond an annealing time, recrystallizations of the graphite arise. Higher annealing temperature supported the recrystallization. The milled and annealed expanded graphite still preserved the crystalline structure as raw material and hold high thermal stability.

  17. Design of the Soymilk Mill based on TRIZ Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiang Fan

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The soymilk mill is an important food machine, but its volume is too large to be suitable for house using. This study first analyzes some problems in the soymilk mill miniaturization. For these problems, the thinking tools, evolutionary tools and contradiction solving tool of TRIZ theory are used to resolve the conflict in the integration of grinding and boiling and in the keep grinding effect, to tackle the optimization problem in the grinding stria structure and mill plate speed, then the Dwarfs method and substance-field analysis model is used in solving the interference and the conditions water supply problems which are encountered in the design of the global structure and a micro soymilk mill is designed. Finally, the mechanical analysis model about soy granules, soymilk particles in the grinding zone and the computational model of motor starting torque are obtained; they provide the reference data for application of soymilk mill.

  18. Mill, Bentham, and the Art and Science of Government

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen G. Engelmann

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Comparisons of Bentham and J.S. Mill tend to privilege Mill. If we compare these two not as normative philosophers but as theorists of the art and science of government, however, a different perspective emerges. This essay compares the definitions of art and science provided in Mill's and Bentham's treatments of logic, and considers the consequences for the art of government of Mill's embrace of the project of a social science. One important consequence is the emergence of a technopolitical understanding of government that sees this art as a practice that either tries to shape or conform to a natural characterological substrate, and that ideally mediates between these polar alternatives. Through this new framework Mill and many post-Millians misread Bentham as a clumsily deductive artificer. The essay concludes its exploration of this misreading with a preliminary examination of the problems--ontological, epistemological, ethical, and political--that a focus on character produces.

  19. The Role of Nigella sativa and Its Active Constituents in Learning and Memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahak, Mohamad Khairul Azali; Kabir, Nurul; Abbas, Ghulam; Draman, Suhaimi; Hashim, Noor Hashida; Hasan Adli, Durriyyah Sharifah

    2016-01-01

    The loss of the ability for learning and memory is a prominent feature of dementia, which affects millions of individuals all over the world, due to either neurodegenerative diseases or brain injury. Although a lot of information is known about the pathology involved, treatment remains elusive at best. The Black Seed of Nigella sativa has been historically and religiously used for thousands of years for preventing and treating many different kinds of diseases. This review article looks at Nigella sativa and its potential role in facilitating learning and memory. The possible use of this seed's extract or compounds isolated from it, such as thymoquinone, for treating damaged brain neural tissue is discussed. The evidence presented in this paper appears to be supporting the hypothesis that this plant and/or its bioactive constituents can enhance learning and memory in health and disease in animals and humans. PMID:27022403

  20. Asymmetric somatic hybridization between wheat (Triticum aestivum) and Avena sativa L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiang, Fengning; Xia, Guangmin; Chen, Huimin

    2003-06-01

    Protoplasts from cell suspensions ofyoung-embryo-derived calli, which were nonregenerable for long-term subculture and protoplasts from embryogenic calli with the regeneration capacity of 75% ofthe same wheat Jinan 177, were mixed as recipient. Protoplasts from embryogenic calli of Avena sativa (with the regeneration capacity ofless than 10%) irradiated with UV at an intensity of 300 muW/cm(2) for 30 s, 1 min, 2 min, 3 min, 5 min were used as the donor. Protoplasts ofthe recipient and the donor were fused by PEG method. Many calli and normal green plants were regenerated at high frequency, and were verified as somatic hybrids by chromosome counting, isozyme, 5S rDNA spacer sequence analysis and GISH (genomic in situ hybridization). Fusion combination between protoplasts either from the cell suspensions or from the calli and UV-treated Avena sativa protoplasts could not regenerate green plants. PMID:18763139

  1. Investigation on the lubrication properties of biodiesel made of Camelina Sativa and Lard esters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kreivaitis, Raimondas; Padgurskas, Juozas [Aleksandras Stulginskis Univ., Kaunas (Lithuania). Inst. of Power and Transport Machinery; Gumbyte, Milda [Aleksandras Stulginskis Univ., Kaunas (Lithuania). Inst. of Environment and Ecology

    2013-06-01

    The ethyl esters can be produced from renewable resources while methyl esters have petroleum based methyl part. Camelina Sativa is the potential source of oilseeds. The oil has similar properties as that of rapeseed oil. Animal fats are cheap raw material and there esters were suggested as a fuel for diesel engine by many authors. The objective of this study would be the lubrication properties of ethyl esters made of Camelina Sativa and Lard. The lubrication properties investigated using High-Frequency Reciprocating Rig (HFRR) method. The wear scar diameter represents the lubrication properties. The observed lubrication results are compared with lubrication properties of conventional diesel fuel obtained from manufacturer ''ORLEN Lietuva'' Lithuania. The results show that mixtures of diesel and biodiesel improve the lubrication properties. (orig.)

  2. Asymmetric somatic hybridization between wheat (Triticum aestivum) and Avena sativa L.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    向凤宁; 夏光敏; 陈惠民

    2003-01-01

    Protoplasts from cell suspensions of young-embryo-derived calli, whichwere non- regenerable for long-term subculture and protoplasts from embryogenic calli with the regeneration capacity of 75% of the same wheat Jinan 177, were mixed as recipient. Protoplasts from embryogenic calli of Avena sativa (with the regeneration capacity of less than 10%) irradiated with UV at an intensity of300 μW/cm2 for 30 s, 1 min, 2 min, 3 min, 5 min were used as the donor. Protoplasts of the recipient and the donor were fused by PEG method. Many calli and normal green plants were regenerated at high frequency, and were verified as somatic hybrids by chromosome counting, isozyme, 5S rDNA spacer sequence analysis and GISH (genomic in situ hybridization). Fusion combination between protoplasts either from the cell suspensions or from the calli and UV-treated Avena sativa protoplasts could not regenerate green plants.

  3. The transfer RNA genes in Oryza sativa L.ssp.indica

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王希胤; 史晓黎; 郝柏林

    2002-01-01

    The availability of the draft genome sequence of Oryza sativa L. ssp. indica has made it possible to study the rice tRNA genes. A total of 596 tRNA genes, including 3 selenocysteine tRNA genes and one suppressor tRNA gene are identified in 127551 rice contigs. There are 45 species of tRNA genes and the revised wobble hypothesis proposed by Guthrie and Abelson is perfectly obeyed. The relationship between codon usage and the number of corresponding tRNA genes is discussed. Redundancy may exist in the present list of tRNA genes and novel ones may be found in the future. A set of 33 tRNA genes is discovered in the complete chloroplast genome of Oryza sativa L. ssp. indica. These tRNA genes are identical to those in ssp. japonica identified by us independently from the origional annotation.

  4. Studies Regarding Tailings Pond Seepage Water from Mining Activities over Avena sativa L. Germination Influence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen BEINSAN

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Cultivation of oat in the limiting areas of tailings pond might be regarded as one of the possibilities that could lead to the general amelioration of these places. In order to characterize the waste products, to determine and evaluate the components that may be leached from waste products and that can affect the limiting areas of tailings pond, leaching tests were performed. In this paper, we have observed the influence of eluate, obtained from leaching tests, on seed germination, radicle and coleoptyle development as well as on the amount of accumulated dry matter for Avena sativa L., genotypes. According to our researches, we may conclude that the studied genotypes of Avena sativa L. showed tolerance to eluate while values registered for seed germination, radicle and coleoptyle development as well as dry matter content were comparatively higher than those registered for the control variant.

  5. Data for global lysine-acetylation analysis in rice (Oryza sativa).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Yehui; Zhang, Kai; Cheng, Zhongyi; Wang, Guo-Liang; Liu, Wende

    2016-06-01

    Rice is one of the most important crops for human consumption and is a staple food for over half of the world׳s population (Yu et al., 2002) [1]. A systematic identification of the lysine acetylome was performed by our research (Xiong et al., 2016) [2]. Rice plant samples were collected from 5 weeks old seedlings (Oryza sativa, Nipponbare). After the trypsin digestion and immunoaffinity precipitation, LC-MS/MS approach was used to identify acetylated peptides. After the collected MS/MS data procession and GO annotation, the InterProScan was used to annotate protein domain. Subcellular localization of the identified acetylated proteins was predicted by WoLF PSORT. The KEGG pathway database was used to annotate identified acetylated protein interactions, reactions, and relations. The data, supplied in this article, are related to "A comprehensive catalog of the lysine-acetylation targets in rice (O. sativa) based on proteomic analyses" by Xiong et al. (2016) [2]. PMID:26977447

  6. Cancer chemopreventive potential of volatile oil from black cumin seeds, Nigella sativa L., in a rat multi-organ carcinogenesis bioassay

    OpenAIRE

    Salim, Elsayed I.

    2010-01-01

    Nigella sativa (N. sativa) is a herbal plant of the Ranunculaceae family that has been widely used for various medicinal and nutritional purposes. Volatile oil extracts along with its major constituents, such as thymoquinone, have recently attracted considerable attention for their antioxidant, immunoprotective and antitumor properties. The present study was conducted to assess the chemopreventive potential of crude oils in N. sativa on tumor formation using a well-established rat multi-organ...

  7. Phylogeography of Asian wild rice, Oryza rufipogon, reveals multiple independent domestications of cultivated rice, Oryza sativa

    OpenAIRE

    Londo, Jason P.; Chiang, Yu-Chung; Hung, Kuo-Hsiang; Chiang, Tzen-Yuh; Schaal, Barbara A.

    2006-01-01

    Cultivated rice, Oryza sativa L., represents the world’s most important staple food crop, feeding more than half of the human population. Despite this essential role in world agriculture, the history of cultivated rice’s domestication from its wild ancestor, Oryza rufipogon, remains unclear. In this study, DNA sequence variation in three gene regions is examined in a phylogeographic approach to investigate the domestication of cultivated rice. Results indicate that India and Indochina may rep...

  8. Postavení konopí (Cannabis sativa) v ochraně rostlin

    OpenAIRE

    HRDLIČKOVÁ, Helena

    2011-01-01

    Cannabis sativa is a useful fibre, oil and energy plant that could be replace lot of synthetic row materials, whose production pollutes the environment. The aim of this work was to summarize the information about the occurrence of pets, diseases and weeds in the hemp stand and the possibilities of protection against them, together with information about the competitive and allelopathic characteristics of hemp and possibilities of hemp utilization in the plant protection. Though the spectrum o...

  9. Pemanfaatan Jerami Padi (Oryza sativa L.) sebagai Bahan Baku Pembuatan Karboksimetil Selulosa

    OpenAIRE

    Hasibuan, Irma Fitri

    2016-01-01

    Background: Paddy straw (Oryza sativa L.) is agricultural waste which can be used as the source of cellulose since it contains 36 % of cellulose. Carboxymeythyl cellulose is a linear polymear cellulose ether and anionic compoud. Objective: To make carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) from paddy straw and to compare the CMC characteristic of paddy straw with commercial CMC. Method: Carboxymethyl cellulose of paddy straw (KSJP) was made by processing delignifacation in order to obtain a-cellulos...

  10. Heterologous Expression of AtWRKY57 Confers Drought Tolerance in Oryza sativa

    OpenAIRE

    Jiang, Yanjuan; Qiu, Yuping; Hu, Yanru; Yu, Diqiu

    2016-01-01

    Drought stress is a severe environmental factor that greatly restricts plant distribution and crop production. Recently, we have found that overexpressing AtWRKY57 enhanced drought tolerance in Arabidopsis thaliana. In this study, we further reported that the Arabidopsis WRKY57 transcription factor was able to confer drought tolerance to transgenic rice (Oryza sativa) plants. The enhanced drought tolerance of transgenic rice was resulted from the lower water loss rates, cell death, malondiald...

  11. Regeneration of foreign genes co-transformed plants of Medicago sativa L by Agrobacterium rhizogenes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕德扬; 曹学远; 唐顺学; 田霞

    2000-01-01

    Gene encoding sulphur amino acid-rich protein (HNP) and rol genes were transferred into Medicago sativa L (alfalfa) mediated by Agrobacterium tumafeciens. Regeneration of trans-genie plants was induced successfully from hairy root tissue of cotyledon in alfalfa. Cotyledon tissues were an ideally transformed recipient. There was a negative correlation between age of hairy roots and embryogenesis frequency in alfalfa. Production of co-transformed plants with greater yield and super quality was important for development of new alfalfa varieties.

  12. Regeneration of foreign genes co-transformed plants of Medicago sativa L by Agrobacterium rhizogenes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Gene encoding sulphur amino acid-rich protein (HNP) and rol genes were transferred into Medicago sativa L (alfalfa) mediated by Agrobacterium tumafeciens. Regeneration of transgenic plants was induced successfully from hairy root tissue of cotyledon in alfalfa. Cotyledon tissues were an ideally transformed recipient. There was a negative correlation between age of hairy roots and embryogenesis frequency in alfalfa. Production of co-transformed plants with greater yield and super quality was important for development of new alfalfa varieties.

  13. Comparative gene expression profiles between heterotic and non-heterotic hybrids of tetraploid Medicago sativa

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Xuehui; Wei, Yanling; Nettleton, Dan; Brummer, E. Charles

    2009-01-01

    Background Heterosis, the superior performance of hybrids relative to parents, has clear agricultural value, but its genetic control is unknown. Our objective was to test the hypotheses that hybrids expressing heterosis for biomass yield would show more gene expression levels that were different from midparental values and outside the range of parental values than hybrids that do not exhibit heterosis. Results We tested these hypotheses in three Medicago sativa (alfalfa) genotypes and their t...

  14. Radioprotection by macerated extract of Nigella sativa in normal tissues of fibrosarcoma bearing mice

    OpenAIRE

    Reelma Velho-Pereira; Kumar, A.; Pandey, B. N.; Mishra, K. P.; Aarti G Jagtap

    2012-01-01

    The current study was undertaken to study the effect of a macerated extract of Nigella sativa seeds in normal as well as in tumour bearing mice against gamma radiation-induced cellular damage to normal tissues. This was done to mimic the clinical setting where in, normal tissues of cancer patients undergoing radiotherapy are exposed to the deleterious effects of radiation. The protection of cellular DNA was analysed in peripheral blood leucocytes of whole body irradiated mice following pretre...

  15. Ameliorating effects of two extracts of Nigella sativa in middle cerebral artery occluded rat

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammad Akhtar; Aliyu Muhammad Maikiyo; Razia Khanam; Mohd Mujeeb; Mohd Aqil; Abul Kalam Najmi

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Aqueous and hydroalcoholic extracts of Nigella sativa (400 mg/kg, orally) for 7 days were administered and evaluated for their neuroprotective effects on middle cerebral artery occluded (MCAO) rats. Materials and Methods: Cerebral ischemia was induced by middle cerebral artery occlusion for 2 h followed by reperfusion for 22 h. After 24 h of ischemia, grip strength, locomotor activity tests were performed in the surgically operated animals. After behavioral tests, animals were immedi...

  16. Nigella sativa L. Seed Extract Modulates the Neurotransmitter Amino Acids Release in Cultured Neurons In Vitro

    OpenAIRE

    Tarek El-Naggar; María Pilar Gómez-Serranillos; Olga María Palomino; Carmen Arce; María Emilia Carretero

    2010-01-01

    Nigella sativa L. (NS) has been used for medicinal purposes since ancient times. This study aimed to investigate the cytotoxicity of NS dry methanolic extract on cultured cortical neurons and its influence on neurotransmitter release, as well as the presence of excitatory (glutamate and aspartate) and inhibitory amino acids (gamma-aminobutyric acid—GABA—and glycine) in NS extract. Cultured rat cortical neurons were exposed to different times and concentrations of NS dry methanolic extract and...

  17. Comparing Nigella sativa Oil and Fish Oil in Treatment of Vitiligo

    OpenAIRE

    Ghorbanibirgani, Alireza; Khalili, Ali; Rokhafrooz, Darioush

    2014-01-01

    Background: Vitiligo is one of the autoimmune skin diseases that destroy the melanocytes of the skin. Moreover, its prevalence varies in different countries and regions. Objectives: The aim of this study was to compare the effect of Nigella sativa and fish oil on vitiligo lesions of the patients referred to a dermatology clinic. Materials and Methods: This randomized, double blind clinical trial was conducted in the dermatology clinic of the Imam Khomeini Hospital Ahvaz, Iran, from June to De...

  18. Protective Effect of Nigella Sativa Against Diabetic Complications on The Liver in White Male Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Nassar Ayoub Abdellatif

    2013-01-01

    Aim of the work: The effect of diabetes on the liver is associated with histological changes. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the histological changes following administration of nigella sativa (NS) in the streptozotocin (STZ) induced diabetes mellitus in rats. Materials and Methods: Thirty six male white rats (n=36), weighing (180–230 g) were taken for this study. The animals were divided into 3 groups: 1- Normal control group. 2- Diabetic group. 3- Diabetic group treated by ...

  19. The Role of Nigella sativa and Its Active Constituents in Learning and Memory

    OpenAIRE

    Mohamad Khairul Azali Sahak; Nurul Kabir; Ghulam Abbas; Suhaimi Draman; Noor Hashida Hashim; Durriyyah Sharifah Hasan Adli

    2016-01-01

    The loss of the ability for learning and memory is a prominent feature of dementia, which affects millions of individuals all over the world, due to either neurodegenerative diseases or brain injury. Although a lot of information is known about the pathology involved, treatment remains elusive at best. The Black Seed of Nigella sativa has been historically and religiously used for thousands of years for preventing and treating many different kinds of diseases. This review article looks at Nig...

  20. The Study Of The Insecticidal Effect Of Nigella Sativa Essential Oil Against Tuta Absoluta Larvae

    OpenAIRE

    Benchouikh Adil; Allam Tarik; Abderrahim Kribii; Khadija Ounine

    2015-01-01

    Abstract To contribute to the development of an integrated strategy of pests associated with the tomato crop the insecticidal potential of the essential oil of Nigella sativa was evaluated on larvae of Tuta absoluta which is considered the most destructive insect in the production of tomato Solanum lycopersicum and which causes serious damages in invaded areas. Rearing larvae of Tuta absoluta and the testing of toxicity were conducted in laboratory conditions in petri dishes at a temperature ...

  1. Detection of the Antibacterial Effect of Nigella Sativa Ground Seeds with Water

    OpenAIRE

    Bakathir, Hussein Ahmed; Abbas, Nageeb Ahmed

    2010-01-01

    Nigella Sativa (NS) seeds have been used for medicinal purposes for centuries both as herbs and its oil. In Islam it is regarded as one of the greatest forms of healing medicine included in the medicine of prophet Mohammed. Huge number of studies have been carried out in recent years on the pharmacological effects of these seeds and also the possible relationship with their constituents. A number of these investigations emphasized the antimicrobial effect of them by using different extracts. ...

  2. Produksi bioethanol dari jerami padi (Oryza sativa) melalui hidrolisis asan dan fermentasi dengan Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    OpenAIRE

    SRI KUSUMASTUTI HAYUNINGTYAS; SUNARTO; SITI LUSI ARUM SARI

    2014-01-01

    Hayuningtyas SK, Sunarto, Sari SLA. 2013. The production of bioethanol from rice straw (Oryza sativa) by acid hydrolysis and fermentation with Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Bioteknologi 11: 1-4. Bioethanol is one of the alternative fuels that are considered more environmentally friendly. Bioethanol can be obtained from material that contains cellulose, such as rice straw. This study aimed to determine the optimum fermentation time to product bioethanol from rice straw hydrolysis and measured of b...

  3. Avena sativa: An Effective Natural Ingredient in Herbal Shampoos for the Treatment of Hair Greasiness

    OpenAIRE

    Farboud, Effat Sadat; Amin, Gholamreza; Akbari, Leyla

    2013-01-01

    Aims: Evaluation of anti-greasiness properties of oat extract and oil in shampoos. Methodology: Seborrhea can cause greasiness in scalp and hair. There are few compounds currently in use to reduce sebaceous gland secretions. Avena sativa or oat is a plant containing saponins as active ingredients with cleansing activity. In a double blinded, randomized, placebo clinical study, we investigated anti-grease and cleansing effects of oat by comparing shampoos formulated from oat extract and oil wi...

  4. Favorable impact of Nigella sativa seeds on lipid profile in type 2 diabetic patients

    OpenAIRE

    Huda Kaatabi; Bamosa, Abdullah O.; Lebda, Fatma M.; Al Elq, Abdulmohsen H.; Al-Sultan, Ali I.

    2012-01-01

    Background and Aim: The atherogenic pattern of dyslipidemia associated with type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) has been increasingly discussed. We have recently reported a hypoglycemic effect of Nigella sativa (NS) seeds in patients with type 2 DM. In this study we sought to assess the impact of NS seeds on lipid profile in type 2 diabetic patients. Patients and Method: A total of 94 patients with type 2 DM were recruited and divided into 3 dose groups. Capsules containing NS were administered ora...

  5. Effect of Nigella sativa (seed and oil on the bacteriological quality of soft white cheese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. D. Alsawaf

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of Nigella sativa seed (1% and 3% and oil (0.3% and 1% on some food poisoning and pathogenic bacteria as well as on the total bacterial count TBC (cfu/g in soft white cheese prepared from raw ewe's milk and labratory pasteurized ewe's milk inoculated with Staphylococcus aureus, Brucella melitensis and Escherichia coli at a concentration of 1×106 cfu/ml were carried out. Cheese samples were examined for bacterial count at: zero, 2nd, 4th and 6th days of storage at refrigerator temp. Results showed that there was Significant decrease (P<0.05 in TBC, Staphylococcus aureus, Brucella melitensis and Escherichia coli count in cheese samples treated with N. sativa seed (1% and 3% and oil (0.3% and 1% with pronounced concentration dependent inhibition in contrast to control cheese samples which exerted significant increase in bacterial counts as it reached 2.8×107, 2.95×106, 2.22×106 and 2.885×106 cfu/g for TBC, Staph. aureus, Br. melitensis and E. coli respectively at the 6th day of storage at refrigerator temp. N. sativa oil (0.3% and 1% was significantly more affective (P<0.05 as antibacterial agent than seed (1% and 3% respectively. No significant differences (P<0.05 in the susceptibility of Staph. aureus, Br.melitensis and E. coli to the antibacterial effect of N. sativa seed (1% and 3% and oil (0.3% and 1% were observed in treated soft white cheese.

  6. Carotenoids of Lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) Grown on Soil Enriched with Spent Coffee Grounds

    OpenAIRE

    Susana Casal; Sara Cunha; José Alberto Pereira; Rebeca Cruz; Paula Baptista

    2012-01-01

    The impact of spent coffee grounds on carotenoid and chlorophyll content in lettuce (Lactuca sativa L. var. capitata) was evaluated. A greenhouse pot experiment was conducted with spent coffee amounts ranging from 0% to 20% (v/v). All evaluated pigments increased proportionally to spent coffee amounts. Lutein and β-carotene levels increased up to 90% and 72%, respectively, while chlorophylls increased up to 61%. Biomass was also improved in the presence of 2.5% to 10% spent coffee, decreasing...

  7. Variation in vegetative growth and trichomes in Cannabis sativa L. (Marihuana) in response to enviromental pollution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharma, G.K.; Mann, S.K.

    1984-07-01

    Four populations of Cannabis sativa L. (marihuana) growing in their native habitat and exposed to different levels of environmental pollution were studied for several leaf morphology and leaf trichome features. Leaf length, petiole length, length and width of central leaflet, and the number of teeth on leaf margin decreased with increase in pollution. Trichome length and trichome density values were found to be higher in populations exposed to higher levels of environmental pollution.

  8. [Effect of outer space factors on lettuce seeds (Lactuca sativa) flown on "Kosmos" biosatellites].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nevzgodina, L V; Maksimova, E N; Akatov, Iu A; Kaminskaia, E V; Marennyĭ, A M

    1990-01-01

    The effect of cosmic radiation on air-dry lettuce (Lactuca sativa) seeds was investigated. It was attempted to discriminate the effects of cosmic ionizing radiation per se and its combination with solar light radiation. It was found that the number of aberrant cells in the seeds exposed to solar light was smaller than that of cells chielded with 0.0008 to 0.0035 g/cm2 foil which could be attributed to photoreactivity. PMID:2329764

  9. A photorespiratory bypass increases plant growth and seed yield in biofuel crop Camelina sativa

    OpenAIRE

    Dalal, Jyoti; Lopez, Harry; Vasani, Naresh B.; Hu, Zhaohui; Swift, Jennifer E.; Yalamanchili, Roopa; Dvora, Mia; Lin, Xiuli; Xie, Deyu; Qu, Rongda; Sederoff, Heike W.

    2015-01-01

    Background Camelina sativa is an oilseed crop with great potential for biofuel production on marginal land. The seed oil from camelina has been converted to jet fuel and improved fuel efficiency in commercial and military test flights. Hydrogenation-derived renewable diesel from camelina is environmentally superior to that from canola due to lower agricultural inputs, and the seed meal is FDA approved for animal consumption. However, relatively low yield makes its farming less profitable. Our...

  10. Levels of selected metals in leaves of Cannabis sativa L. cultivated in Ethiopia

    OpenAIRE

    Zerihun, Agalu; Chandravanshi, Bhagwan Singh; Debebe, Ayalew; Mehari, Bewketu

    2015-01-01

    Background Cannabis sativa L. is one of the illicit drug bearing plants. Cannabis products are the most widely trafficked drugs worldwide. The highest levels of cannabis production in the world take place in the African continent. A small volume of cannabis is produced in rural areas of Ethiopia, of which a small portion is exported to neighboring countries and the majority is consumed at home. The literature survey revealed that there is no report on the metal contents in cannabis cultivated...

  11. In silicio expression analysis of PKS genes isolated from Cannabis sativa L.

    OpenAIRE

    Flores-Sanchez, Isvett J.; Linthorst, Huub J. M.; Robert Verpoorte

    2010-01-01

    Cannabinoids, flavonoids, and stilbenoids have been identified in the annual dioecious plant Cannabis sativa L. Of these, the cannabinoids are the best known group of this plant's natural products. Polyketide synthases (PKSs) are responsible for the biosynthesis of diverse secondary metabolites, including flavonoids and stilbenoids. Biosynthetically, the cannabinoids are polyketide substituted with terpenoid moiety. Using an RT-PCR homology search, PKS cDNAs were isolated from cannabis plants...

  12. Enhancement of metal(loid)s phytoextraction by Cannabis sativa L

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Petrová, Šárka; Benešová, Dagmar; Soudek, Petr; Vaněk, Tomáš

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 10, č. 1 (2012), s. 631-641. ISSN 1459-0255 R&D Projects: GA MŠk 2B08058 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50380511 Keywords : phytoextraction * chelate * glutathione * Cannabis sativa L. * metal Subject RIV: DK - Soil Contamination ; De-contamination incl. Pesticides Impact factor: 0.435, year: 2012 http://www.isfae.org/scientficjournal/2012/issue1/pdf/environment/e0.pdf

  13. Využitie Trichodermy harzanium pri pestovaní technickej konopy (Cannabis sativa L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Vrabeľ, Matej

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this bachelor thesis is to detect possible positive and negative effects of the massive inoculation of the symbiotic soil organisms for the industrial hemp (Cannabis sativa L.). The experiment was carried out on the research stations of the Czech University of Life Sciences Červený újezd . The first area was inoculated with the fungus Trichoderma harzanium and the other serves as a control. The data analysis showed that the selected symbiotic fungus in this particular application c...

  14. Untersuchungen zur entzündungshemmenden Wirkung von Cannabis sativa L.- Extrakten im Modell der Gewebekulturen

    OpenAIRE

    Nadig, Alexandra

    2008-01-01

    In this study, which is a part of a project of the European Union, the anti-inflammatory effects of extracts of Cannabis sativa L. with a very low content of THC, were examined. Three varying extracts of cannabis were studied by the use of different cell models (microglia, chondrocytes, SK-N-H cells and monocytes) and their effects were analysed by enzymes immuno assay, enzyme linked immunosorbent assay and western blot. The proteins of interest were prostaglandin E2, cyclooxyg...

  15. Obsah kanabinoidů v konopí setém (Cannabis sativa) a legislativa

    OpenAIRE

    PRAVDOVÁ, Martina

    2011-01-01

    These days hemp is a the most discussed plant in the whole world because of the content of compounds with psychotropic effects. Utilization of Cannabis sativa as a crop is universal (a fibre, food, oil and energy crop) and appreciated mainly from ecological point of view. This work summarizes information about cannabinoid characteristics, about their interspecific and intraspecific variability in hemp, possibilities of cannabionoid application in medicine, risks of their abuse as a drug, summ...

  16. Obsah kanabidiolu v konopí setém (Cannabis sativa)

    OpenAIRE

    BOUDOVÁ, Miroslava

    2013-01-01

    Hemp (Cannabis sativa) is a crop that people have grown for a lot of years ago. It is amazing by its almost versatile use, whether in medicine, food, industry and power engineering. The aim of this thesis was to evaluate the content of cannabidiol in different parts of hemp and the possibility of using these parts as a source of the compound. Morphologically distinct varieties - Bialobrzeskie and Finola were selected for the experiment. The Cannabidiol content was determined by high performan...

  17. Propagation through alginate encapsulation of axillary buds of Cannabis sativa L. — an important medicinal plant

    OpenAIRE

    Lata, Hemant; Chandra, Suman; Khan, Ikhlas A.; Mahmoud A. ElSohly

    2009-01-01

    Cannabis sativa L. (Cannabaceae) is an important medicinal plant well known for its pharmacologic and therapeutic potency. Because of allogamous nature of this species, it is difficult to maintain its potency and efficacy if grown from the seeds. Therefore, chemical profile-based screening, selection of high yielding elite clones and their propagation using biotechnological tools is the most suitable way to maintain their genetic lines. In this regard, we report a simple and efficient method ...

  18. Economic evaluation of hemp (Cannabis sativa) grown for energy purposes (briquettes)

    OpenAIRE

    Pernikářová, Hana

    2014-01-01

    Depletion of fossil fuels and their environmental risks have brought to the foreground energy crops as a possible source of bioenergy. Industrial hemp (Cannabis sativa L.) has been suggested for production of solid biofuels (briquettes) due to good physic – mechanical properties as well as positive energy and combustion characteristics. Production costs and revenue play significant role in decision of producer which crop to cultivate. As no similar publication has not been published yet, the ...

  19. Impact of Black seed (Nigella sativa) extract on bone turnover markers in postmenopausal women with osteoporosis

    OpenAIRE

    Valizadeh, N; H.R Zakeri; G Amin ansafi; A. Shafiee; Sarkhail, P.; Heshmat, R; H Sereshti; B Larijani

    2010-01-01

    "n "n  "n  "nBackground and the purpose of the study: "nExperimental studies have shown that Ns (Nigella sativa) seeds oil can increase bone formation and may have anabolic effects on bone loss. This study was conducted to investigate the beneficial impacts of the oil of Black seeds on bone turnover in osteoporotic postmenopausal women. "nMaterials and methods: A placebo controlled pilot study was carried out on 15 postmenopausal osteoporotic wo...

  20. Teelt en saldo van deder : Camelina sativa (deder) als alternatieve teelt

    OpenAIRE

    Voort, van der, A.J.; Hartog, L.

    2010-01-01

    Deder is een ‘nieuw’ gewas voor de Nederlandse landbouw. Deder (Camelina Sativa (L.)) is een gewas dat vroeger al in Europa werd gebruikt. Momenteel wordt deder niet meer verbouwd. De hernieuwde interesse komt vooral voort uit de zoektocht naar perspectiefvolle oliehoudende energiegewassen. In verband met de sterke interesse als energiegewas is de energie- en broeikasgasbalans van deder bepaald. Hieruit blijkt dat deder, afhankelijk van zomer- of wintervariant, licht lager of licht beter scoo...