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Sample records for cast-immobilized rat gastrocnemius

  1. Recovery of reinnervating rat muscle after cast immobilization.

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    Herbison, G J; Jaweed, M M; Ditunno, J F

    1984-08-01

    We evaluated the recovery of the reinnervating rat plantar flexor muscles after different periods of casting and then decasting the lower extremities. Four groups of 4-month-old, female Wistar rats underwent bilateral crush-denervation of the sciatic nerve at the sciatic notch. Two weeks after nerve crush, the hind legs of three groups of rats were immobilized with bilateral casts at the knee and ankle joints and the fourth group was a control group. Of the three casted groups, one was mobilized after 1 week and another group after 3 weeks of casting. The third experimental group remained casted until the end of 6 weeks. Six weeks after the nerve crush, all groups were evaluated for muscle weights of the soleus, plantaris, and gastrocnemius; absolute amounts of the myofibrillar, sarcoplasmic, and stromal proteins in the gastrocnemius; the fiber diameters and percent composition of type I and type II fibers in the soleus and plantaris; and the isometric contractile properties of the soleus muscle. Compared with the denervated control group, the experimental groups revealed the following: (i) Four weeks of casting caused a reduction in wet weight (range 30.6 to 40.4%, P less than 0.01) in the soleus, plantaris, and gastrocnemius muscles. Decasting led to an earlier recovery of the soleus than of the plantaris and gastrocnemius muscles. (ii) The myofibrillar protein returned to control values with 3 weeks of decasting but the stromal protein remained significantly elevated and the sarcoplasmic protein significantly depressed regardless of the period of mobilization. (iii) Except for the type I fibers in the plantaris, the remainder of the muscle fibers in the soleus and plantaris decreased in size due to casting. Only the type I muscle fibers of the soleus increased in size with longer periods of mobilization. (iv) Four weeks of casting significantly altered the maximum isometric twitch tension (-42.3%), contraction time (+17.1%), maximum tetanic tension (-38.1%), and

  2. Two-week cast immobilization induced chronic widespread hyperalgesia in rats.

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    Ohmichi, Y; Sato, J; Ohmichi, M; Sakurai, H; Yoshimoto, T; Morimoto, A; Hashimoto, T; Eguchi, K; Nishihara, M; Arai, Y-C P; Ohishi, H; Asamoto, K; Ushida, T; Nakano, T; Kumazawa, T

    2012-03-01

    It has been postulated that physical immobilization is an essential factor in developing chronic pain after trauma or surgery in an extremity. However, the mechanisms of sustained immobilization-induced chronic pain remain poorly understood. The present study, therefore, aimed to develop a rat model for chronic post-cast pain (CPCP) and to clarify the mechanism(s) underlying CPCP. To investigate the effects of cast immobilization on pain behaviours in rats, one hindlimb was immobilized for 2 weeks with a cast and remobilization was conducted for 10 weeks. Cast immobilization induced muscle atrophy and inflammatory changes in the immobilized hindlimb that began 2 h after cast removal and continued for 1 week. Spontaneous pain-related behaviours (licking and reduction in weight bearing) in the immobilized hindlimb were observed for 2 weeks, and widespread mechanical hyperalgesia in bilateral calves, hindpaws and tail all continued for 5-10 weeks after cast removal. A sciatic nerve block with lidocaine 24 h after cast removal transitorily abolished bilateral mechanical hyperalgesia in CPCP rats, suggesting that sensory inputs originating in the immobilized hindlimb contribute to the mechanism of both ipsilateral and contralateral hyperalgesia. Intraperitoneal injection of the free radical scavengers 4-hydroxy-2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperydine-1-oxy1 or N-acetylcysteine 24 h after cast removal clearly inhibited mechanical hyperalgesia in bilateral calves and hindpaws in CPCP rats. These results suggest that cast immobilization induces ischaemia/reperfusion injury in the hindlimb and consequent production of oxygen free radicals, which may be involved in the mechanism of widespread hyperalgesia in CPCP rats. PMID:22337282

  3. O alendronato de sódio na prevenção da osteopenia secundária à imobilização gessada, em ratas: avaliação histomorfométrica Alendronate sodium to prevent osteopenia caused by cast immobilization in female rats: histomorphometric evaluation

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    José B. Volpon

    2008-10-01

    concomitantly with cast immobilization. METHODS: Female Wistar rats were distributed in four groups with five animals each: 1 cast-immobilized; 2 no immobilization + alendronate; 3 cast-immobilized + alendronate; and 4 control. Immobilization was done with pelvipodalic cast applied till the right hind limb and alendronate was administered in weekly doses. The observation period was 28 days and histomorphometric evaluations were performed in the proximal tibial metaphysis, analyzing the number of trabeculae, bone volume, trabecular thickness, and trabecular separation. RESULTS: The immobilized group presented less bone volume than the other groups. The animals receiving alendronate every week, whether or not immobilized, presented a greater bone volume than the control group. Trabecular thickness in the immobilized group was less than in the control and in the non-immobilized groups that received alendronate, but had no significant difference when compared to the immobilized with alendronate group. The immobilized group presented greater trabecular separation than the other groups. In the non-immobilized groups, the non-immobilized group that received alendronate and the immobilized group that received alendronate presented an increased number of trabeculae when compared to the immobilized group. CONCLUSION: The immobilization used led to osteopenia, as confirmed by the decrease in all of the main histomorphometric parameters studied. Such changes were prevented with the concomitant administration of alendronate sodium, exception being made to the trabecular thickness. Alendronate sodium was able to increase morphometric parameters, even in non-immobilized animals.

  4. Calpain 3 Expression Pattern during Gastrocnemius Muscle Atrophy and Regeneration Following Sciatic Nerve Injury in Rats

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    Ronghua Wu

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Calpain 3 (CAPN3, also known as p94, is a skeletal muscle-specific member of the calpain family that is involved in muscular dystrophy; however, the roles of CAPN3 in muscular atrophy and regeneration are yet to be understood. In the present study, we attempted to explain the effect of CAPN3 in muscle atrophy by evaluating CAPN3 expression in rat gastrocnemius muscle following reversible sciatic nerve injury. After nerve injury, the wet weight ratio and cross sectional area (CSA of gastrocnemius muscle were decreased gradually from 1–14 days and then recovery from 14–28 days. The active form of CAPN3 (~62 kDa protein decreased slightly on day 3 and then increased from day 7 to 14 before a decrease from day 14 to 28. The result of linear correlation analysis showed that expression of the active CAPN3 protein level was negatively correlated with muscle wet weight ratio. CAPN3 knockdown by short interfering RNA (siRNA injection improved muscle recovery on days 7 and 14 after injury as compared to that observed with control siRNA treatment. Depletion of CAPN3 gene expression could promote myoblast differentiation in L6 cells. Based on these findings, we conclude that the expression pattern of the active CAPN3 protein is linked to muscle atrophy and regeneration following denervation: its upregulation during early stages may promote satellite cell renewal by inhibiting differentiation, whereas in later stages, CAPN3 expression may be downregulated to stimulate myogenic differentiation and enhance recovery. These results provide a novel mechanistic insight into the role of CAPN3 protein in muscle regeneration after peripheral nerve injury.

  5. Effects of denervation and immobilization on collagen synthesis in rat skeletal muscle and tendon.

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    Savolainen, J; Myllylä, V; Myllylä, R; Vihko, V; Väänänen, K; Takala, T E

    1988-06-01

    The activities of prolyl 4-hydroxylase (PH) and galactosylhydroxylysyl glucosyltransferase (GGT), both enzymes of collagen biosynthesis, and the concentration of hydroxyproline (HYP) were measured in the gastrocnemius, soleus, and tibialis anterior muscles of rats after sciatic nerve neurectomy combined with cast immobilization of the denervated limb for 1 and 3 wk. PH and GGT were also observed in Achilles and tibialis anterior tendons after cast immobilization without neurectomy. After neurectomy the specific PH activity in the denervated gastrocnemius muscle increased by 215% (P less than 0.001). The specific GGT activity increased by 92-110% (P less than 0.01) in the denervated gastrocnemius, soleus, and tibialis anterior muscles. Elevation of the muscular HYP concentration by 118-170% (P less than 0.001) in the denervated muscles was observed. The PH, GGT, and HYP responses of the denervated muscles immobilized at a lengthened or shortened position during denervation atrophy did not generally differ significantly from those of the unfixed denervated ones. The specific PH and GGT activities of the disused tendons decreased by 62 (P less than 0.01) and 25% (P less than 0.001), respectively, in tendons immobilized in a chronically shortened position. The results suggest that denervation atrophy of skeletal muscle is associated with both an increased level of muscular collagen biosynthesis and with an increased muscular collagen concentration. The PH and GGT responses of the cast-immobilized tendons suggest adaptive changes in collagen biosynthesis of the disused tendon. PMID:2837917

  6. Effects of estrogen on gastrocnemius muscle strain injury and regeneration in female rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xin FENG; Guo-zhen LI; Sheng WANG

    2004-01-01

    AIM: To study the effects of estrogen on muscle damage and regeneration after acute passive gastrocnemius muscle strain injury in female Sprague-Dawley rats. METHODS: Rats were divided into 5 groups: ovariectomized,strained and treated with low-dosage estradiol (20 μg/d) (Elow), treated with high-dosage estradiol (200 μg/d) (Ehigh),treated with oil placebo (Oil), strained with no ovariectomy (Strain), and sham operated with no strain and no ovariectomy (Con). Muscle damage index [plasma creatine kinase (CK)], antioxidant indexes [glutathione (GSH),Vitamin E (Vit E), total antioxidant capability (TAC)], and muscle regeneration index (desmin) were investigated at7 d. RESULTS: The plasma CK activity increased but GSH, Vit E, and TAC levels decreased after muscle strain injury (Strain vs Con P<0.05). Plasma CK activity was the greatest while GSH, Vit E, and TAC were the lowest in the Oil group among the five groups (P<0.01). Plasma CK in the Ehigh and Strain groups was lower than that in the Elow group. Plasma GSH, Vit E, and TAC were higher in the Ehigh and Strain groups compared with the Elow group(P <0.05). The expression of desmin in the Ehigh and Strain groups was higher than that in the Elow group (P<0.01)while that in the Oil group was the lowest in all the five groups (P<0.01). CONCLUSION: Endogenous estrogen in normal female rats or exogenous estrogen in ovariectomized rats could improve antioxidant capability in vivo, so that reduced muscle damage and accelerated muscle regeneration post gastronemius muscle strain injury.

  7. Musculus gastrocnemius tetanus kinetics in alcohol-intoxicated rats with experimentally-induced hindlimb vascular ischemia under conditions of low-frequence muscle fatigue

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    O. A. Melnychuk

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Alcohol intoxication and ischemic injury of skeletal muscles often accompany each other. It is shown that patients hospitalized with chronic alcoholism develop muscle fatigue. Skeletal muscle dysfunction in alcohol-dependent patients is caused by ethanol-associated myofibrillar atrophy and metabolic disbalance, while compression-ischemic lesions result from unconsciousness of the patient, in case of taking the critical alcohol dose. Therefore, the aim of this study is to discover typical m. gastrocnemius (cap. med. tetanic kinetics changes in alcohol intoxicated rats with experimentally induced vascular ischemia of hindlimb muscles under conditions of low-frequency progressive muscle fatigue. Experiments were carried out on 10 young male Wistar rats (149.5 ± 5.8 g kept under standard vivarium conditions and diet. The investigation was conducted in two phases: chronic (30 days and acute (3 hours experiment. All surgical procedures were carried out aseptically under general anesthesia. Ishemic m. gastrocnemius (cap. med. tetanic kinetic changes and force productivity in alcohol intoxicated rats were investigated in the isometric mode, with direct electrical stimulation. The fatigue of m. gastrocnemius (cap. med. was evaluated by three characteristic criteria: the first sag effect, the secondary force rise, the second sag effect. There have been 10 similar experiments: 5 series in each study group with 10 tetanic runs in each series. The highest amplitude of the native m. gastrocnemius (cap. med. tetanus relative to isoline was taken as 100% force response. The same pattern of m. gastrocnemius (cap. med. low-frequency fatigue development was found in both rat groups under study. It is evidenced by the absence of substantial m. gastrocnemius (cap. med. tetanus kinetics differences in alcohol intoxicated rats, compared with non-alcohol intoxicated rats during fatigue test. However, the appreciable m. gastrocnemius (cap. med. tetanic force reduction

  8. Gastrocnemius recession.

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    Anderson, John G; Bohay, Donald R; Eller, Erik B; Witt, Bryan L

    2014-12-01

    The Grand Rapids Arch Collapse classifications create a novel system for categorizing and correlating numerous common foot and ankle conditions related to a falling arch. The algorithm for treating these conditions is exceptionally replicable and has excellent outcomes. Gastrocnemius equinus diagnosis plays a crucial role in the pathology of arch collapse. A contracture of the gastrocnemius muscle is increasingly recognized as the cause of several foot and ankle conditions. The authors have expanded their indications for gastrocnemius recession to include arch pain without radiographic abnormality, calcaneus apophysitis, plantar fasciitis/fibromas, Achilles tendonosis, early-onset diabetic Charcot arthropathy, and neuropathic forefoot ulcers. PMID:25456721

  9. Effects of high-intensity intermittent training on carnitine palmitoyl transferase activity in the gastrocnemius muscle of rats

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    L.C. Carnevali Jr; Eder, R.; F.S. Lira; Lima, W. P.; Gonçalves, D. C.; N.E. Zanchi; H. Nicastro; Lavoie, J.M.; M.C.L. Seelaender

    2012-01-01

    We examined the capacity of high-intensity intermittent training (HI-IT) to facilitate the delivery of lipids to enzymes responsible for oxidation, a task performed by the carnitine palmitoyl transferase (CPT) system in the rat gastrocnemius muscle. Male adult Wistar rats (160-250 g) were randomly distributed into 3 groups: sedentary (Sed, N = 5), HI-IT (N = 10), and moderate-intensity continuous training (MI-CT, N = 10). The trained groups were exercised for 8 weeks with a 10% (HI-IT) and a ...

  10. Therapeutic Approaches in Mitochondrial Dysfunction, Proteolysis, and Structural Alterations of Diaphragm and Gastrocnemius in Rats With Chronic Heart Failure.

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    Barreiro, Esther; Puig-Vilanova, Ester; Marin-Corral, Judith; Chacón-Cabrera, Alba; Salazar-Degracia, Anna; Mateu, Xavier; Puente-Maestu, Luis; García-Arumí, Elena; Andreu, Antoni L; Molina, Luis

    2016-07-01

    Patients with chronic heart failure (CHF) experience exercise intolerance, fatigue and muscle wasting, which negatively influence their survival. We hypothesized that treatment with either the antioxidant N-acetyl cysteine (NAC) or the proteasome inhibitor bortezomib of rats with monocrotaline-induced CHF may restore inspiratory and limb muscle mass, function, and structure through several molecular mechanisms involved in protein breakdown and metabolism in the diaphragm and gastrocnemius. In these muscles of CHF-cachectic rats with and without treatment with NAC or bortezomib (N = 10/group) and non-cachectic controls, proteolysis (tyrosine release, proteasome activities, ubiquitin-proteasome markers), oxidative stress, inflammation, mitochondrial function, myosin, NF-κB transcriptional activity, muscle structural abnormalities, and fiber morphometry were analyzed together with muscle and cardiac functions. In diaphragm and gastrocnemius of CHF-cachectic rats, tyrosine release, proteasome activity, protein ubiquitination, atrogin-1, MURF-1, NF-κB activity, oxidative stress, inflammation, and structural abnormalities were increased, while muscle and cardiac functions, myosin content, slow- and fast-twitch fiber sizes, and mitochondrial activity were decreased. Concomitant treatment of CHF-cachectic rats with NAC or bortezomib improved protein catabolism, oxidative stress, inflammation, muscle fiber sizes, function and damage, superoxide dismutase and myosin levels, mitochondrial function (complex I, gastrocnemius), cardiac function and decreased NF-κB transcriptional activity in both muscles. Treatment of CHF-cachectic animals with NAC or bortezomib attenuated the functional (heart, muscles), biological, and structural alterations in muscles. Nonetheless, future studies conducted in actual clinical settings are warranted in order to assess the potential beneficial effects and safety concerns of these pharmacological agents on muscle mass loss and wasting in

  11. PPM1B and P-IKKβ expression levels correlated inversely with rat gastrocnemius atrophy after denervation

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    Jian Wei

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Activated inhibitor of nuclear factor-κB kinase β (IKKβ is necessary and sufficient for denervated skeletal muscle atrophy. Although several studies have shown that Mg2+/Mn2+-dependent protein phosphatase 1B (PPM1B inactivated IKKβ, few studies have investigated the role of PPM1B in denervated skeletal muscle. In this study, we aim to explore the expression and significance of PPM1B and phosphorylated IKKβ (P-IKKβ during atrophy of the denervated gastrocnemius. Thirty young adult female Wistar rats were subjected to right sciatic nerve transection and were sacrificed at 0 (control, 2, 7, 14, and 28 days after denervation surgery. The gastrocnemius was removed from both the denervated and the contralateral limb. The muscle wet weight ratio was calculated as the ratio of the wet weight of the denervated gastrocnemius to that of the contralateral gastrocnemius. RT-PCR and Western blot analysis showed that mRNA and protein levels of PPM1B were significantly lower than those of the control group at different times after the initiation of denervation, while P-IKKβ showed the opposite trends. PPM1B protein expression persistently decreased while P-IKKβ expression persistently increased for 28 days after denervation. PPM1B expression correlated negatively with P-IKKβ expression by the Spearman test, whereas decreasing PPM1B expression correlated positively with the muscle wet weight ratio. The expression levels of PPM1B and P-IKKβ were closely associated with atrophy in skeletal denervated muscle. These results suggest that PPM1B and P-IKKβ could be markers in skeletal muscle atrophy.

  12. PPM1B and P-IKKβ expression levels correlated inversely with rat gastrocnemius atrophy after denervation

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    Wei, Jian; Liang, Bing-Sheng [Department of Orthopedics, the Second Hospital, Shanxi Medical University, Taiyuan (China)

    2012-05-18

    Activated inhibitor of nuclear factor-κB kinase β (IKKβ) is necessary and sufficient for denervated skeletal muscle atrophy. Although several studies have shown that Mg{sup 2+}/Mn{sup 2+}-dependent protein phosphatase 1B (PPM1B) inactivated IKKβ, few studies have investigated the role of PPM1B in denervated skeletal muscle. In this study, we aim to explore the expression and significance of PPM1B and phosphorylated IKKβ (P-IKKβ) during atrophy of the denervated gastrocnemius. Thirty young adult female Wistar rats were subjected to right sciatic nerve transection and were sacrificed at 0 (control), 2, 7, 14, and 28 days after denervation surgery. The gastrocnemius was removed from both the denervated and the contralateral limb. The muscle wet weight ratio was calculated as the ratio of the wet weight of the denervated gastrocnemius to that of the contralateral gastrocnemius. RT-PCR and Western blot analysis showed that mRNA and protein levels of PPM1B were significantly lower than those of the control group at different times after the initiation of denervation, while P-IKKβ showed the opposite trends. PPM1B protein expression persistently decreased while P-IKKβ expression persistently increased for 28 days after denervation. PPM1B expression correlated negatively with P-IKKβ expression by the Spearman test, whereas decreasing PPM1B expression correlated positively with the muscle wet weight ratio. The expression levels of PPM1B and P-IKKβ were closely associated with atrophy in skeletal denervated muscle. These results suggest that PPM1B and P-IKKβ could be markers in skeletal muscle atrophy.

  13. Effects of high-intensity intermittent training on carnitine palmitoyl transferase activity in the gastrocnemius muscle of rats

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    Carnevali, L.C. Jr. [Grupo de Biologia Molecular da Célula, Instituto de Ciências Biomédicas, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo SP (Brazil); Centro Universitário Ítalo-Brasileiro (Unítalo), São Paulo SP (Brazil); Eder, R.; Lira, F.S. [Grupo de Biologia Molecular da Célula, Instituto de Ciências Biomédicas, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo SP (Brazil); Lima, W.P. [Grupo de Biologia Molecular da Célula, Instituto de Ciências Biomédicas, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo SP (Brazil); Instituto Federal de Educação,Ciência e Tecnologia de São Paulo, São Paulo SP (Brazil); Gonçalves, D.C. [Grupo de Biologia Molecular da Célula, Instituto de Ciências Biomédicas, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo SP (Brazil); Zanchi, N.E. [Laboratorio de Nutrição e Metabolismo Aplicado à Atividade Motora, Escola de Educação Física e Esporte, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo SP (Brazil); Centro de Pesquisa do Genoma Humano, Instituto de Ciências Biomédicas, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo SP (Brazil); Nicastro, H. [Laboratorio de Nutrição e Metabolismo Aplicado à Atividade Motora, Escola de Educação Física e Esporte, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo SP (Brazil); Lavoie, J.M. [Department of Kinesiology, University of Montreal, Montreal (Canada); Seelaender, M.C.L. [Grupo de Biologia Molecular da Célula, Instituto de Ciências Biomédicas, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo SP (Brazil)

    2012-06-29

    We examined the capacity of high-intensity intermittent training (HI-IT) to facilitate the delivery of lipids to enzymes responsible for oxidation, a task performed by the carnitine palmitoyl transferase (CPT) system in the rat gastrocnemius muscle. Male adult Wistar rats (160-250 g) were randomly distributed into 3 groups: sedentary (Sed, N = 5), HI-IT (N = 10), and moderate-intensity continuous training (MI-CT, N = 10). The trained groups were exercised for 8 weeks with a 10% (HI-IT) and a 5% (MI-CT) overload. The HI-IT group presented 11.8% decreased weight gain compared to the Sed group. The maximal activities of CPT-I, CPT-II, and citrate synthase were all increased in the HI-IT group compared to the Sed group (P < 0.01), as also was gene expression, measured by RT-PCR, of fatty acid binding protein (FABP; P < 0.01) and lipoprotein lipase (LPL; P < 0.05). Lactate dehydrogenase also presented a higher maximal activity (nmol·min{sup −1}·mg protein{sup −1}) in HI-IT (around 83%). We suggest that 8 weeks of HI-IT enhance mitochondrial lipid transport capacity thus facilitating the oxidation process in the gastrocnemius muscle. This adaptation may also be associated with the decrease in weight gain observed in the animals and was concomitant to a higher gene expression of both FABP and LPL in HI-IT, suggesting that intermittent exercise is a “time-efficient” strategy inducing metabolic adaptation.

  14. Effects of high-intensity intermittent training on carnitine palmitoyl transferase activity in the gastrocnemius muscle of rats

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    L.C. Carnevali Jr

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available We examined the capacity of high-intensity intermittent training (HI-IT to facilitate the delivery of lipids to enzymes responsible for oxidation, a task performed by the carnitine palmitoyl transferase (CPT system in the rat gastrocnemius muscle. Male adult Wistar rats (160-250 g were randomly distributed into 3 groups: sedentary (Sed, N = 5, HI-IT (N = 10, and moderate-intensity continuous training (MI-CT, N = 10. The trained groups were exercised for 8 weeks with a 10% (HI-IT and a 5% (MI-CT overload. The HI-IT group presented 11.8% decreased weight gain compared to the Sed group. The maximal activities of CPT-I, CPT-II, and citrate synthase were all increased in the HI-IT group compared to the Sed group (P < 0.01, as also was gene expression, measured by RT-PCR, of fatty acid binding protein (FABP; P < 0.01 and lipoprotein lipase (LPL; P < 0.05. Lactate dehydrogenase also presented a higher maximal activity (nmol·min-1·mg protein-1 in HI-IT (around 83%. We suggest that 8 weeks of HI-IT enhance mitochondrial lipid transport capacity thus facilitating the oxidation process in the gastrocnemius muscle. This adaptation may also be associated with the decrease in weight gain observed in the animals and was concomitant to a higher gene expression of both FABP and LPL in HI-IT, suggesting that intermittent exercise is a "time-efficient" strategy inducing metabolic adaptation.

  15. Effects of high-intensity intermittent training on carnitine palmitoyl transferase activity in the gastrocnemius muscle of rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We examined the capacity of high-intensity intermittent training (HI-IT) to facilitate the delivery of lipids to enzymes responsible for oxidation, a task performed by the carnitine palmitoyl transferase (CPT) system in the rat gastrocnemius muscle. Male adult Wistar rats (160-250 g) were randomly distributed into 3 groups: sedentary (Sed, N = 5), HI-IT (N = 10), and moderate-intensity continuous training (MI-CT, N = 10). The trained groups were exercised for 8 weeks with a 10% (HI-IT) and a 5% (MI-CT) overload. The HI-IT group presented 11.8% decreased weight gain compared to the Sed group. The maximal activities of CPT-I, CPT-II, and citrate synthase were all increased in the HI-IT group compared to the Sed group (P < 0.01), as also was gene expression, measured by RT-PCR, of fatty acid binding protein (FABP; P < 0.01) and lipoprotein lipase (LPL; P < 0.05). Lactate dehydrogenase also presented a higher maximal activity (nmol·min−1·mg protein−1) in HI-IT (around 83%). We suggest that 8 weeks of HI-IT enhance mitochondrial lipid transport capacity thus facilitating the oxidation process in the gastrocnemius muscle. This adaptation may also be associated with the decrease in weight gain observed in the animals and was concomitant to a higher gene expression of both FABP and LPL in HI-IT, suggesting that intermittent exercise is a “time-efficient” strategy inducing metabolic adaptation

  16. Age-related activation of mitochondrial caspase-independent apoptotic signaling in rat gastrocnemius muscle

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    Marzetti, Emanuele; Wohlgemuth, Stephanie Eva; Lees, Hazel Anne; Chung, Hae-young; Giovannini, Silvia; Leeuwenburgh, Christiaan

    2008-01-01

    Mitochondria-mediated apoptosis represents a central process driving age-related muscle loss. However, the temporal relation between mitochondrial apoptotic signaling and sarcopenia as well as the regulation of release of pro-apoptotic factors from the mitochondria has not been elucidated. In this study, we investigated mitochondrial apoptotic signaling in skeletal muscle of rats across a wide age range. We also investigated whether mitochondrial-driven apoptosis was accompanied by changes in...

  17. Diethyl hexyl phthalate-induced changes in insulin signaling molecules and the protective role of antioxidant vitamins in gastrocnemius muscle of adult male rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diethyl hexyl phthalate (DEHP) is an endocrine disruptor, it influences various organ systems in human beings and experimental animals. DEHP reduced the serum testosterone and increased the blood glucose, estradiol, T3 and T4 in rats. However, the effect of DEHP on insulin signaling and glucose oxidation in skeletal muscle is not known. Adult male albino rats were divided into four groups: Group I: Control; Groups II and III: DEHP treated (dissolved in olive oil at a dose of 10 and 100 mg/kg body weight, respectively, once daily through gastric intubation for 30 days); and Group IV: DEHP (100 mg/kg body weight) plus vitamins E (50 mg/kg body weight) and C (100 mg/kg body weight) dissolved in olive oil and distilled water, respectively, once daily through gastric intubation for 30 days. On completion of treatment, animals were euthanized and perfused (whole body); gastrocnemius muscle was dissected out and subjected to assessment of various parameters. DEHP treatment increased the H2O2, hydroxyl radical levels and lipid peroxidation which disrupt the membrane integrity and insulin receptor. DEHP impaired the insulin signal transduction, glucose uptake and oxidation through decreased expression of plasma membrane GLUT4, which may partly be responsible for the elevation of fasting blood glucose level. The present study suggests that DEHP exposure affects glucose oxidation in skeletal muscle and is mediated through enhanced lipid peroxidation, impaired insulin signaling and GLUT4 expression in plasma membrane. Antioxidant vitamins (C and E) have a protective role against the adverse effect of DEHP. -- Highlights: ► DEHP treatment significantly decreased serum insulin and testosterone levels. ► Increased ROS and decreased glucose uptake were observed in DEHP treated animals. ► Impaired insulin signaling in gastrocnemius muscle was observed in DEHP treatment. ► Vitamins C and E alter ROS, glucose uptake, oxidation and insulin signaling molecules.

  18. TIME COURSE CHANGE OF IGF1/AKT/MTOR/P70S6K PATHWAY ACTIVATION IN RAT GASTROCNEMIUS MUSCLE DURING REPEATED BOUTS OF ECCENTRIC EXERCISE

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    Eisuke Ochi

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to examine whether insulin-like growth factor (IGF-1 and Akt/mTOR/p70S6K pathway activity is altered by chronic eccentric exercise in rat medial gastrocnemius muscle. Male Wistar rats (n = 24 were randomly assigned to 1 of the 2 groups: eccentric exercise (ECC group or sham-operated control (CON group. Rats in the ECC group were trained every second day for 10 days (5 sessions in total or 20 days (10 sessions in total. After either 5 or 10 exercise sessions, muscle specimens were dissected and weighed. The mRNA expression of IGF-1 and its variant, mechano growth factor (MGF, was evaluated using real time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR. Tissue concentrations of Akt (P, mTOR (P, and p70S6K (P were measured by using western blot analysis. The medial gastrocnemius muscle mass of the ECC group did not show any significant difference after 5 exercise sessions, whereas the muscle mass increased significantly after 10 exercise sessions with a concomitant increase in the cross-sectional area of muscle fibers (p < 0.05. The expression of IGF-1 mRNA and the tissue concentrations of Akt (P and p70S6K (P after 10 exercise sessions was significantly higher than those of the age-matched controls and the rats that received 5 exercise sessions. The expression of MGF mRNA in both ECC5S and ECC10S were significantly higher than that in each period-matched control (p < 0.01. The tissue concentration of mTOR (P after 10 sessions showed a significant increase when compared with period-matched controls (p < 0.01. These results suggest that activation of the IGF-1/Akt/mTOR/p70S6K signaling pathway becomes dominant in the later phase of chronic exercise, when significant muscular hypertrophy is observed

  19. Time-related changes of motor unit properties in the rat medial gastrocnemius muscle after the spinal cord injury. II. Effects of a spinal cord hemisection.

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    Celichowski, Jan; Kryściak, Katarzyna; Krutki, Piotr; Majczyński, Henryk; Górska, Teresa; Sławińska, Urszula

    2010-06-01

    The contractile properties of motor units (MUs) were investigated in the medial gastrocnemius (MG) muscle in rats after the spinal cord hemisection at a low thoracic level. Hemisected animals were divided into 4 groups: 14, 30, 90 and 180 days after injury. Intact rats formed a control group. The mass of the MG muscle did not change significantly after spinal cord hemisection, hind limb locomotor pattern was almost unchanged starting from two weeks after injury, but contractile properties of MUs were however altered. Contraction time (CT) and half-relaxation time (HRT) of MUs were prolonged in all investigated groups of hemisected rats. The twitch-to-tetanus ratio (Tw/Tet) of fast MUs after the spinal cord hemisection increased. For slow MUs Tw/Tet values did not change in the early stage after the injury, but significantly decreased in rats 90 and 180 days after hemisection. As a result of hemisection the fatigue resistance especially of slow and fast resistant MU types was reduced, as well as fatigue index (Fat I) calculated for the whole examined population of MUs decreased progressively with the time. After spinal cord hemisection a reduced number of fast MUs presented the sag at frequencies 30 and 40 Hz, however more of them revealed sag in 20 Hz tetanus in comparison to control group. Due to considerable changes in twitch contraction time and disappearance of sag effect in unfused tetani of some MUs in hemisected animals, the classification of MUs in all groups of rats was based on the 20 Hz tetanus index (20 Hz Tet I) but not on the standard criteria usually applied for MUs classification. MU type differentiations demonstrated some clear changes in MG muscle composition in hemisected animals consisting of an increase in the proportion of slow MUs (likely due to an increased participation of the studied muscle in tonic antigravity activity) together with an increase in the percentage of fast fatigable MUs. PMID:19679495

  20. Diethyl hexyl phthalate-induced changes in insulin signaling molecules and the protective role of antioxidant vitamins in gastrocnemius muscle of adult male rat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Srinivasan, Chinnapaiyan; Khan, Adam Ismail; Balaji, Venkataraman; Selvaraj, Jayaraman; Balasubramanian, Karundevi, E-mail: kbala82@rediffmail.com

    2011-12-15

    Diethyl hexyl phthalate (DEHP) is an endocrine disruptor, it influences various organ systems in human beings and experimental animals. DEHP reduced the serum testosterone and increased the blood glucose, estradiol, T{sub 3} and T{sub 4} in rats. However, the effect of DEHP on insulin signaling and glucose oxidation in skeletal muscle is not known. Adult male albino rats were divided into four groups: Group I: Control; Groups II and III: DEHP treated (dissolved in olive oil at a dose of 10 and 100 mg/kg body weight, respectively, once daily through gastric intubation for 30 days); and Group IV: DEHP (100 mg/kg body weight) plus vitamins E (50 mg/kg body weight) and C (100 mg/kg body weight) dissolved in olive oil and distilled water, respectively, once daily through gastric intubation for 30 days. On completion of treatment, animals were euthanized and perfused (whole body); gastrocnemius muscle was dissected out and subjected to assessment of various parameters. DEHP treatment increased the H{sub 2}O{sub 2}, hydroxyl radical levels and lipid peroxidation which disrupt the membrane integrity and insulin receptor. DEHP impaired the insulin signal transduction, glucose uptake and oxidation through decreased expression of plasma membrane GLUT4, which may partly be responsible for the elevation of fasting blood glucose level. The present study suggests that DEHP exposure affects glucose oxidation in skeletal muscle and is mediated through enhanced lipid peroxidation, impaired insulin signaling and GLUT4 expression in plasma membrane. Antioxidant vitamins (C and E) have a protective role against the adverse effect of DEHP. -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer DEHP treatment significantly decreased serum insulin and testosterone levels. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Increased ROS and decreased glucose uptake were observed in DEHP treated animals. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Impaired insulin signaling in gastrocnemius muscle was observed in DEHP treatment. Black

  1. Effect of immobilization on collagen synthesis in rat skeletal muscles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savolainen, J; Väänänen, K; Vihko, V; Puranen, J; Takala, T E

    1987-05-01

    The activities of prolyl 4-hydroxylase (PH) and galactosylhydroxylysyl glucosyltransferase (GGT), both enzymes of collagen biosynthesis, and the concentration of hydroxyproline (Hyp) were measured in the soleus, gastrocnemius, and tibialis anterior muscles of rats after cast immobilization in the middle position for 1 or 3 wk. The specific activity of PH decreased by 54 and 70-75% (P less than 0.001) in the soleus muscle after 1 and 3 wk, respectively, the corresponding decreases in GGT activity were 43 and 47% (P less than 0.001). A less pronounced decrease in the activities of these enzymes was observed in gastrocnemius and tibialis anterior muscles. The Hyp concentration in the soleus increased during the first week of immobilization but began to decrease thereafter, and the total muscular Hyp content was reduced after immobilization for 3 wk. The results suggest a marked inhibition of muscular collagen synthesis during immobilization. Electrical stimulation of the sciatic nerve partially prevented this disuse atrophy and the decreases in PH, GGT, and Hyp in the tibialis anterior muscle but not in the gastrocnemius or soleus muscles. PMID:3034082

  2. Insulin Resistance Is Not Associated with an Impaired Mitochondrial Function in Contracting Gastrocnemius Muscle of Goto-Kakizaki Diabetic Rats In Vivo.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Macia

    Full Text Available Insulin resistance, altered lipid metabolism and mitochondrial dysfunction in skeletal muscle would play a major role in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM development, but the causal relationships between these events remain conflicting. To clarify this issue, gastrocnemius muscle function and energetics were investigated throughout a multidisciplinary approach combining in vivo and in vitro measurements in Goto-Kakizaki (GK rats, a non-obese T2DM model developing peripheral insulin resistant without abnormal level of plasma non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA. Wistar rats were used as controls. Mechanical performance and energy metabolism were assessed strictly non-invasively using magnetic resonance (MR imaging and 31-phosphorus MR spectroscopy (31P-MRS. Compared with control group, plasma insulin and glucose were respectively lower and higher in GK rats, but plasma NEFA level was normal. In resting GK muscle, phosphocreatine content was reduced whereas glucose content and intracellular pH were both higher. However, there were not differences between both groups for basal oxidative ATP synthesis rate, citrate synthase activity, and intramyocellular contents for lipids, glycogen, ATP and ADP (an important in vivo mitochondrial regulator. During a standardized fatiguing protocol (6 min of maximal repeated isometric contractions electrically induced at a frequency of 1.7 Hz, mechanical performance and glycolytic ATP production rate were reduced in diabetic animals whereas oxidative ATP production rate, maximal mitochondrial capacity and ATP cost of contraction were not changed. These findings provide in vivo evidence that insulin resistance is not caused by an impairment of mitochondrial function in this diabetic model.

  3. Estimation of the error between experimental tetanic force curves of MUs of rat medial gastrocnemius muscle and their models by summation of equal successive contractions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raikova, Rositsa; Aladjov, Hristo; Krutki, Piotr; Celichowski, Jan

    2016-05-01

    More accurate muscle models require appropriate modelling of individual twitches of motor units (MUs) and their unfused tetanic contractions. It was shown in our previous papers, using a few MUs, that modelling of unfused tetanic force curves by summation of equal twitches is not accurate, especially for slow MUs. The aim of this study was to evaluate this inaccuracy using a statistical number of MUs of the rat medial gastrocnemius muscle (15 of slow, 15 of fast resistant and 15 of fast fatigable type). Tetanic contractions were evoked by trains of 41 stimuli at random interpulse intervals and different mean frequencies, resembling discharge patterns observed during natural muscle activity. The tetanic curves were calculated by the summation of equal twitches according to the respective experimental patterns. The previously described 6-parameter analytical function for twitch modelling was used. Comparisons between the experimental and the modelled curves were made using two coefficients: the fit coefficient and the area coefficient. The errors between modelled and experimental tetanic forces were substantially different between the three MU types. The error was the most significant for slow MUs, which develop much higher forces in real contractions than could be predicted based on the summation of equal twitches, while the smallest error was observed for FF MUs - their recorded tetanic forces were similar to those predicted by modelling. The obtained results indicate the importance of the inclusion of the type-specific non-linearity in the summation of successive twitch-like contractions of MUs in order to increase the reliability of modelling skeletal muscle force. PMID:26214258

  4. Immobilization contributes to exaggerated neuropeptide signaling, inflammatory changes, and nociceptive sensitization after fracture in rats

    OpenAIRE

    Guo, Tian-Zhi; Wei, Tzuping; Li, Wen-Wu; Li, Xiang-Qi; Clark, J. David; Kingery, Wade S.

    2014-01-01

    A tibia fracture cast immobilized for 4 weeks can induce exaggerated substance P (SP) and CGRP signaling and neuropeptide-dependent nociceptive and inflammatory changes in the hindlimbs of rats similar to those seen in complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS). Four weeks of hindlimb cast immobilization can also induce nociceptive and vascular changes resembling CRPS. To test our hypothesis that immobilization alone could cause exaggerated neuropeptide signaling and inflammatory changes we tested...

  5. Observations of Different Methods in Treating Acute Contusion on Rat Gastrocnemius%不同方法干预大鼠腓肠肌急性钝挫伤模型的实验观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖响; 张茜; 苏波; 续畅; 林彩霞; 李文迅; 李健

    2013-01-01

    目的:观察不同方法对腓肠肌急性钝挫伤组织修复的影响,为肌肉损伤的临床治疗提供理论依据。方法:采用定量负荷自由落体打击法复制骨骼肌急性钝挫伤模型。造模成功后将大鼠随机分为6组,即刻予以不同方法干预,观测各组大鼠小腿周径变化;IL-1、IL-8、TNF含量变化;电镜观察肌原纤维损伤情况。结果:电镜下针刺组改变显著,可见肌原纤维损伤部位聚集较多线粒体和肌质网,正常的肌节附近有普遍增多的线粒体,同样范围内肌卫星细胞较其他组多3~4倍;IL-1、TNF水平明显增高的是正红花油组,其次是针刺组和冰敷组,2组间无显著差异;IL-8水平明显增高的是正红花组、针刺组、模型组。结论:骨骼肌损伤后需要良性修复,在临床治疗中,不要一味的消肿、消炎,应考虑如何用药,使肌肉损伤处良性修复,非瘢痕修复,促进肌肉的再生,功能的恢复。%Objective:To compare the different emergency treatment to acute closed skeletal gastrocnemius muscle injury of rats , and provides theoretical basis to clinical therapeutics on muscle injury .Methods:Modeling gastrocnemius muscle in rats'hindquarter by u-sing method of free falling with quantitative load to simulate acute skeletal muscle injury .Rats are divided into 6 groups and intervened in acute stage with different methods .After acute stage , we took out gastrocnemius of affected side to measure calf circumference , ob-served under electron microscope , and performed ELISA analysis .Results:Significant change was seen in the acupuncture group under electron microscopic observation , around myofibrillar injury site there were more mitochondria and sarcoplasmic reticulum , and more mi-tochondria around normal sarcomere .There was three to four times more muscle satellite cells in the same range than were in other groups .Using Zhenghonghua oil can cause IL-1&TNF

  6. The use of ultrasound to isolate the gastrocnemius-soleus junction prior to gastrocnemius recession.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toomey, Eugene P; Seibert, Nicholas R

    2014-12-01

    Gastrocnemius recession has become a popular procedure to release isolated gastrocnemius tightness. Using visual anatomic landmarks alone to plan the incision can be deceiving. The use of ultrasound preoperatively has been highly reproducible in isolating the gastrocnemius-soleus junction in the authors' practice. This provides confidence for incision placement, a smaller incision, and isolated release of the gastrocnemius fascia while leaving the underlying soleus undisturbed. PMID:25456719

  7. [Change in gastrocnemius dystrophin and metabolic enzymes and increase in high-speed exhaustive time induced by hypoxic training in rats].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yu-Ming; Li, Jun-Ping; Wang, Rui-Yuan

    2012-08-25

    The aim of the present study was to explore the changes and roles of dystrophin and membrane permeability in hypoxic training. Seventy-two 8-week-old Sprague Dawley (SD) rats were randomly divided into 4 groups, normoxic non-train (NC), normoxic train (NT), hypoxic non-train (HC), and hypoxic train (HT) groups. The rats of each group were randomly divided into three subgroups, non-exhaustive, low-speed exhaustive test and high-speed exhaustive test subgroups. Rats in hypoxia groups lived and were trained in a condition of 12.7% oxygen concentration (equal to the 4 300 m altitude). NT and HT groups received 4 weeks of training exercise. Then the rats in all non-exhaustive subgroups were sacrificed, and gastrocnemii were sampled for the measurements of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), succinatedehydrogenase (SDH), malate dehydrogenase (MDH) activities. Moreover, serum LDH activity was analyzed. Low-speed exhaustive test and high-speed exhaustive test subgroups received exhaustive tests with 20 (71% VO2max) and 30 m/min speed (86% VO2max), respectively, and their exhaustive times were recorded. The results showed that, compared with normoxic groups, the weights in hypoxia groups exhibited slower increase. The level of dystrophin in HT group without exhaustion test didn't change significantly. The muscle MDH activities were markedly affected by the different oxygen concentration, training and their interaction (P exhaustion time were markedly affected by the different test speed, training and their interaction (P exhaustive time of HT high-speed exhaustive test subgroup was more than NT high-speed exhaustive test subgroup in 30 m/min exhaustion test. Compared with NT high-speed exhaustive test subgroup, HT high-speed exhaustive test subgroup had an earlier fatigue in the test, but had a rapid recovery. These results suggested that hypoxic training can effectively increase the rats' high-speed exhaustive time. The mechanism may be related to an increase in serum LDH caused

  8. Effect of aerobic exercise on the contractile function of gastrocnemius myosin heavy chain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Objective To study the effect of 4-6 weeks' treadmill training of male SD rats on the contractile function of their gastrocnemius myosin heavy chain (MHC). Methods Forty male SD rats were randomly divided into control group and training group. The treadmill training of the training group rats was incessantly performed for 4-6 weeks at an intensity of about 75% VO2max (18.5-24 m/min,gradient of 0°,each training session lasting 50 minutes,twice a day). The content of gastrocnemius MHC mRNA was tested by rever...

  9. Enhanced activity of succinate dehydrogenase in rat's gastrocnemius under hypoxic living with normoxic training%低氧复合常氧训练增强大鼠腓肠肌琥珀酸脱氢酶的活性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    毛杉杉; 潘同斌; 王瑞元

    2005-01-01

    肌乳酸脱氢酶活性,即4周的低氧复合常氧训练未必能改善骨骼肌糖酵解供能能力.%BACKGROUND: The effect of hypoxic training on energy metabolism of skeletal muscles is receiving much interest from researchers of sports medicine. But at present, sufficient evidence supporting hypoxic training for its improvement on skeletal muscle aerobic oxidation and anaerobic capacity has not been obtained.OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effect of hypoxic living with normoxic training on aerobic oxidation and glycolytic capacity of rat skeletal muscles.DESIGN: Randomized controlled experiment.SETTING: College of Human Sport Science of Beijing Sport University.MATERIALS: This experiment was carried out in the Hebei Institute of Sport Science between March and July, 2003. Totally 96 normal male SD rats of 7 weeks were randomized into control group (C), hypoxic control group (HC), hypoxic living with normoxic training group (HNT) and normoxic training group (NT). The latter 3 groups were further divided into 3 subgroups (n=8) according to the sampling time points of 4, 7, and 28 days.METHODS: Hypoxic living with normoxic training protocol was designed to simulate the moderate-intensity normoxic training with hypoxic living for 1 hour in the condition of 4000 m altitude (with the slope of the treadmill of 10%, speed of 20 m/minutes performed once daily, 5 times a week for 4 consecutive weeks). Gastrocnemius muscle samples (0.5 g) were collected at the conjunction of the red and white tissues from the rats at the specified time points. Ultraviolet spectrophotometry was used to determine the activity of succinate dehydrogenase (SDH) in 10% gastrocnemius muscular homogenate. Gastrocnemius lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activity was assayed by the "rate method" in the mode setting of the semi-automatic biochemical analyzer. The total protein density was determined with "endpoint method" with the analyzer, namely biuret method.MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Changes of the activity of SDH and LDH in rat

  10. Propriedades mecânicas do músculo gastrocnêmio de ratas, imobilizado e posteriormente submetido a diferentes protocolos de alongamento Mechanical properties of gastrocnemius muscle of female rats immobilized and posteriorly submitted to different stretching protocols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Cristina Polizello

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available O alongamento é amplamente utilizado na prática clínica da fisioterapia e no desporto, porém, as alterações mecânicas que essa técnica gera no músculo esquelético são pouco exploradas cientificamente. Este estudo avaliou as alterações mecânicas que acometem o músculo gastrocnêmio de ratas Wistar, adultas jovens, após 14 dias de imobilização e, secundariamente, submetido a alongamento manual passivo por 10 dias consecutivos, aplicado uma ou duas vezes ao dia. Foram utilizados 50 animais, sendo 10 para cada grupo: Controle (GC; Imobilizado (GI; Imobilizado e Liberado (GIL; Imobilizado e alongado uma vez ao dia (GIA1; e Imobilizado e alongado duas vezes ao dia (GIA2. O músculo gastrocnêmio foi submetido ao ensaio mecânico de tração, onde foram avaliadas as propriedades de carga e alongamento nos limites máximo e proporcional, além de rigidez e resiliência. A imobilização reduziu os valores das propriedades mecânicas de carga no limite máximo (CLM, carga no limite proporcional (CLP, alongamento no limite máximo (ALM, rigidez e resiliência, em 44,4%, 34,4%, 27,6%, 64,4% e 54%, respectivamente, quando comparados com os valores do GC. A remobilização livre e o alongamento restauraram as propriedades de CLM, CLP, ALM, rigidez e resiliência do músculo, exceto para o GIA2, que foi incapaz de restabelecer a propriedade de ALM (31,3% menor que GC. Concluí-se, portanto que, após 14 dias de imobilização segmentar, cargas individuais de alongamento e a livre movimentação permitem restituir as propriedades mecânicas do tecido muscular.Stretching is widely employed in physiotherapeutic clinical practice and in sportive activities; however, the mechanical alterations of the skeletal muscle generated by this technique are poorly scientifically investigated. This study evaluated the mechanical alterations suffered by the gastrocnemius muscle of young adult female Wistar rats, submitted to14 days of immobilization followed

  11. Posteromedial approach of gastrocnemius for reduction and internal fixation of avulsed tibial attachment of posterior cruciate ligament

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Chun-li; XU Hu; LI Ming-quan

    2006-01-01

    Objective:To introduce a posteromedial approach through the medial border of the medial head of gastrocnemius for reduction and reattachment of bony avulsion of the posterior cruciate ligament (PCL) from the tibia.Methods: Eleven patients with avulsed tibial attachment of the PCL underwent an operative reduction and internal fixation through the posteromedial approach of the gastrocnemius in our department from February 1998 to March 2000. The skin incision was reversed L-shaped along the medial border of the medial head of the gastrocnemius and the posterior capsule was exposed by dissecting the medial border and lateral retraction, avoiding the damage of the popliteal neurovascular structures. After that, the posterior capsule was vertically dissected a little medially to the posterior intercondylar sulcus and just on the posterior medial tibial eminence positioned by finger palpation. Then the PCL and its tibial attachment were easily accessible. In the delayed cases, PCL peripheral releasing was necessary to overcome the ligament retraction and to refresh the fracture bed for optimal reduction and bony healing. At last, one or two biodegradable screws were used to fix the avulsed bone segment and 30° flexion knee plaster cast immobilization was regularly applied after the wound was closed. The evaluation included X-ray, posterior sag sign and posterior drawer test compared with the contralateral side. The functional assessment of the low limbs was not available because of concomitant injuries.Results: The posteromedial approach of the gastrocnemius used in repair of tibial attachment avulsed injury of the PCL could provide benefit of clear anatomical exposure, few blood loss (20 ml on average), no need for detachment or reattachment of any structure. The patients were followed up for 11 months on an average (ranging from 6 months to 2 years ). It demonstrated that bony healing was achieved within 4-6 weeks in cases of fresh injury and 7-9 weeks in cases of

  12. Histochemical pattern of gastrocnemius muscle in fluoride toxicity syndrome

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shashi A; Bhushan B; Bhardwaj M

    2010-01-01

    Objective:To evaluate the effect of sodium fluoride (NaF) on cytochemical distribution of proteins, DNA, and RNA in the gastrocnemius muscle of rat in experimental fluorosis.Methods:Young Sprague Dawley albino rats were administered with NaF at 30, 45, and 75 mg/kg bw/day subcutaneously for 15 and 30 days, respectively. The control animals were given the vehicle (1cc deionized double distilled water/kg bw/day).Results: In the first phase of 15 days experimentation, the gastrocnemius muscle of rats intoxicated with NaF at 30, 45, and 75 mg /kg bw/ day showed decline in proteins includingαamino acids as compared to control. In the second phase of 30 days experimentation, the muscle fibers of rat showed elevation in sarcolemmal and sarcoplasmic proteins in 30 mg NaF dose group, and angulated fibers exhibited increase in sarcolemmal proteins in 45 mg NaF group. The marginal regions of angular and rim fibers showed deeply stained rings of sarcoplasmic proteins whereas the split fibers were faintly stained in rats treated with NaF at 75 mg/kg bw/day for 30 days. In rats treated with NaF at 30 mg/kg bw/day for 15 days, the hypertrophied peripheral muscle fibers contained more DNA, however the atrophied fibers had more RNA. In 45 mg NaF group, RNA was located in sarcolemmal regions, while DNA content decreased as compared to control. In 75 mg NaF group, the muscle fibers had dark and light staining regions of DNA and RNA. In the 30 days of experimentation, the DNA level decreased whereas RNA content increased in the gastrocnemius muscle fibers of the rat treated with NaF at 30 mg/kg bw/day. In treatment group with NaF at 45 mg/kg bw/day, the RNA content slightly declined in comparison to control, in all treatments for 15 days as well as in treatment group with NaF at 30 mg/kg bw/day for 30 days whereas the amount of DNA slightly increased as compared to treatment group with NaF at 75 mg/kg bw/day for 15 days. The highest dose group revealed elevated amount of RNA whereas

  13. The anatomical, surgical and orthopedic importance of gastrocnemius

    OpenAIRE

    Ashfaq U. Hassan; Zahida Rasool; Nasir Muzzaffar

    2013-01-01

    Gastrocnemius is one of the most important muscles of lower limb. It belongs to the superficial compartment of calf muscles. They belong to group of superficial flexors. Gastrocnemius, plantaris and soleus form the bulk of the calf. Gastrocnemius forms the belly of the calf. It arises by two distinct heads, connected to the condyles of the femur by strong, flat tendons. It has an immense anatomic, medical, orthopedic and physiological importance and is attributed in a variety of medical and s...

  14. Empirical Evaluation of Gastrocnemius and Soleus Function During Walking

    OpenAIRE

    Lenhart, Rachel L.; Francis, Carrie A.; Lenz, Amy L.; Thelen, Darryl G.

    2014-01-01

    Distinguishing gastrocnemius and soleus muscle function is relevant for treating gait disorders in which abnormal plantarflexor activity may contribute to pathological movement patterns. Our objective was to use experimental and computational analysis to determine the influence of gastrocnemius and soleus activity on lower limb movement, and determine if anatomical variability of the gastrocnemius affected its function. Our hypothesis was that these muscles exhibit distinct functions, with th...

  15. THE GEM IN GASTROCNEMIUS: THE FABELLA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashfaq Ul Hassan

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Sesamoid bones are small seed like bones which can be found in the hand, knee, and foot. Their unique structure works to protect the tendon, and to increase its mechanical effect. Examples of sesamoid bones include the os acromiale, os styloideum, metacarpal and hallux sesamoids, patella, os trigonum, os calcaneus secundarius, accessory navicular, os peroneum, and os intermetatarseum. The Sesamoid bones are so named because they resemble a sesame seed. WE present a brief description about Fabella , a small Sesamoid bone occasionally found in the lateral head of Gastrocnemius muscle, its surgical and medical importance .Presence of Fabella can be confused with certain Orthopedic Problems.

  16. Technique, indications, and results of proximal medial gastrocnemius lengthening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barouk, Pierre

    2014-12-01

    Gastrocnemius proximal lengthening was first performed to correct spasticity in children, and was adapted for the patient with no neuromuscular condition in the late 1990s. Since then, the proximal gastrocnemius release has become less invasive and has evolved to include only the fascia overlying the medial head of the gastrocnemius muscle. The indications for performing this procedure are a clinically demonstrable gastrocnemius contracture that influences a variety of clinical conditions in the forefoot, hindfoot, and ankle. It is a safe and easy procedure that can be performed bilaterally simultaneously, and does not require immobilization of the ankle after surgery. PMID:25456723

  17. Association of gastrocnemius tendon calcification with chondrocalcinosis of the knee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foldes, K. [Department of Radiology, Veterans Administration Medical Center (VAMC), San Diego, CA (United States)]|[University of California San Diego Medical Center (UCSD), San Diego, CA (United States)]|[National Institute of Rheumatology and Physiotherapy, Budapest (Hungary); Lenchik, L. [Department of Radiology, Veterans Administration Medical Center (VAMC), San Diego, CA (United States)]|[University of California San Diego Medical Center (UCSD), San Diego, CA (United States); Jaovisidha, S. [Department of Radiology, Veterans Administration Medical Center (VAMC), San Diego, CA (United States)]|[University of California San Diego Medical Center (UCSD), San Diego, CA (United States); Clopton, P. [Department of Radiology, Veterans Administration Medical Center (VAMC), San Diego, CA (United States); Sartoris, D.J. [Department of Radiology, Veterans Administration Medical Center (VAMC), San Diego, CA (United States)]|[University of California San Diego Medical Center (UCSD), San Diego, CA (United States); Resnick, D. [Department of Radiology, Veterans Administration Medical Center (VAMC), San Diego, CA (United States)]|[University of California San Diego Medical Center (UCSD), San Diego, CA (United States)

    1996-10-01

    Objective. Chondrocalcinosis of the knee is a common radiological finding in the elderly. However, visualization of chondrocalcinosis may be difficult in patients with advanced cartilage loss.The purpose of this study was to determine sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of gastrocnemius tendon calcification that might serve as a radiographic marker of chondrocalcinosis in patients with painful knees. Design and patients. We prospectively evaluated 37 knee radiographs in 30 consecutive patients (29 men, 8 women; mean age 67 years, age range 37-90 years) with painful knees who had radiographic evidence of chondrocalcinosis. The frequency of fibrocartilage, hyaline cartilage, and gastrocnemius tendon calcification was determined. For a control group, we evaluated knee radiographs in 65 consecutive patients with knee pain (54 men, 11 women; mean age 59 years, age range 40-93 years) who had no radiological signs of chondrocalcinosis. The frequency of gastrocnemius tendon calcification in the control group was determined. Results. Gastrocnemius tendon calcification was 41% sensitive, 100% specific, and 78% accurate in predicting chondrocalcinosis. The gastrocnemius tendon was calcified on 15 of 37 (41%) radiographs in the experimental group and on 0 of 67 radiographs in the control group. In the chondrocalcinosis group, 23 (62%) had posterior hyaline cartilage calcification, 14 (38%) had anterior hyaline cartilage calcification, 31 (84%) had medial meniscus calcification, and 36 (97%) had lateral meniscus calcification. Conclusions. Our results show that gastrocnemius tendon calcification is an accurate radiographic marker of chondrocalcinosis in patients with knee pain. (orig.). With 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  18. Association of gastrocnemius tendon calcification with chondrocalcinosis of the knee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective. Chondrocalcinosis of the knee is a common radiological finding in the elderly. However, visualization of chondrocalcinosis may be difficult in patients with advanced cartilage loss.The purpose of this study was to determine sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of gastrocnemius tendon calcification that might serve as a radiographic marker of chondrocalcinosis in patients with painful knees. Design and patients. We prospectively evaluated 37 knee radiographs in 30 consecutive patients (29 men, 8 women; mean age 67 years, age range 37-90 years) with painful knees who had radiographic evidence of chondrocalcinosis. The frequency of fibrocartilage, hyaline cartilage, and gastrocnemius tendon calcification was determined. For a control group, we evaluated knee radiographs in 65 consecutive patients with knee pain (54 men, 11 women; mean age 59 years, age range 40-93 years) who had no radiological signs of chondrocalcinosis. The frequency of gastrocnemius tendon calcification in the control group was determined. Results. Gastrocnemius tendon calcification was 41% sensitive, 100% specific, and 78% accurate in predicting chondrocalcinosis. The gastrocnemius tendon was calcified on 15 of 37 (41%) radiographs in the experimental group and on 0 of 67 radiographs in the control group. In the chondrocalcinosis group, 23 (62%) had posterior hyaline cartilage calcification, 14 (38%) had anterior hyaline cartilage calcification, 31 (84%) had medial meniscus calcification, and 36 (97%) had lateral meniscus calcification. Conclusions. Our results show that gastrocnemius tendon calcification is an accurate radiographic marker of chondrocalcinosis in patients with knee pain. (orig.). With 2 figs., 2 tabs

  19. EMG-normalised kinase activation during exercise is higher in human gastrocnemius compared to soleus muscle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Thomas Elbenhardt; Leutert, Robin; Rasmussen, Søren T;

    2012-01-01

    In mice, certain proteins show a highly confined expression in specific muscle groups. Also, resting and exercise/contraction-induced phosphorylation responses are higher in rat skeletal muscle with low mitochondrial content compared to muscles with high mitochondrial content, possibly related to...... differential reactive oxygen species (ROS)-scavenging ability or resting glycogen content. To evaluate these parameters in humans, biopsies from soleus, gastrocnemius and vastus lateralis muscles were taken before and after a 45 min inclined (15%) walking exercise bout at 69% VO2(max) aimed at simultaneously...

  20. 运动训练对大鼠损伤远端脊髓及骨骼肌血管内皮生长因子表达的影响%Effects of exercise training on expressions of vascular endothelial growth factor in distal spinal cord and gastrocnemius muscle of rats with spinal cord injury

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    潘孟骁; 王红星; 丁晓晶; 励建安; 王彤

    2012-01-01

    目的:明确运动训练对大鼠损伤远端脊髓及骨骼肌血管内皮生长因子(VEGF)表达的影响,探讨运动促脊髓损伤功能恢复的机制.方法:成年雌性SD大鼠24只,采用改良Allen撞击法制作T9不完全性脊髓损伤模型.术后随机分为损伤后1d组、1周组、训练组(术后1周开始训练,共4周)、对照组(未行训练).分别在损伤前、损伤后第1、2、3、4及5周时采用Basso-Beattie-Bresnahan(BBB)评分评定运动功能.取损伤后1d、1周,对照组及训练组大鼠L5-S1节段脊髓及腓肠肌新鲜组织,采用RT-PCR及Western blot法测定VEGF mRNA及蛋白表达.结果:①对照组与训练组BBB评分均较损伤后1周、2周明显提高,但训练组较对照组增加更为显著(P<0.05);②训练组脊髓及腓肠肌VEGF mRNA及蛋白表达较对照组、损伤后1d、1周组显著增加(P<0.05);对照组与损伤1周组、1d组比较脊髓及腓肠肌内VEGF表达差异无显著性(P>0.05);但1周组脊髓内VEGF较1d组表达增加(P<0.05),而腓肠肌内VEGF表达较1d组降低(P<0.05).结论:运动训练能有效诱导脊髓损伤大鼠远端脊髓及骨骼肌VEGF表达,促进运动功能恢复.%Objective:To determine the effects of exercise training on expressions of vascular endothelial growth factor(VEGF) in distal spinal cord and skeletal muscles of rats with spinal cord injury. Method: Twenty-four female adult Sprague-Dawley rats were included. An animal model of incomplete spinal cord injury was established by using modified Allen's method at T9 level of spinal cord. Those rats were divided into 4 groups randomly as Id group, lweek post-injury group, control group(without training) and exercise group (trained by hody-weight-support-treadmill-training), Exercise training started at 1 week after injury lasted 10 min per time, twice a day, 5d per week, for 4 weeks. Locomotor function was evaluated using Basso-Beattic-Bresnahan (BBB) scale before injury and at the 1st d, 1

  1. Gastrocnemius and soleus spasticity and muscle length in Friedreich's ataxia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milne, Sarah C; Corben, Louise A; Yiu, Eppie; Delatycki, Martin B; Georgiou-Karistianis, Nellie

    2016-07-01

    Lower limb spasticity compromises the independence of people with Friedreich's ataxia (FRDA). This study sought to examine lower limb spasticity in FRDA in order to offer new insight as to the best approach and timing of spasticity management. Gastrocnemius and soleus spasticity and muscle length were measured by the Modified Tardieu Scale (MTS) in 31 participants with typical and late-onset FRDA. Relationships between the MTS and the Friedreich Ataxia Rating Scale (FARS), Functional Independence Measure (FIM), and disease duration were analysed. Differences between ambulant (n=18) and non-ambulant (n=13) participants were also examined. All participants had spasticity in at least one muscle, and 38.9% of ambulant and 69.2% of non-ambulant participants had contracture in one or both of their gastrocnemius muscles. Significant negative correlations were found between both gastrocnemius and soleus angle of catch and the FARS score. The FIM score also demonstrated significant correlations with gastrocnemius muscle length and angle of catch. Gastrocnemius and soleus spasticity and contracture is apparent in people with FRDA. Spasticity is evident early in the disease and in ambulant participants. Management of spasticity and reduced muscle length should be considered in people with FRDA at disease onset to optimise function. PMID:27021226

  2. The anatomical, surgical and orthopedic importance of gastrocnemius

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashfaq U. Hassan

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Gastrocnemius is one of the most important muscles of lower limb. It belongs to the superficial compartment of calf muscles. They belong to group of superficial flexors. Gastrocnemius, plantaris and soleus form the bulk of the calf. Gastrocnemius forms the belly of the calf. It arises by two distinct heads, connected to the condyles of the femur by strong, flat tendons. It has an immense anatomic, medical, orthopedic and physiological importance and is attributed in a variety of medical and surgical problems. A profound knowledge of this muscle is of great importance to any surgeon or orthopedicians or any clinician. [Int J Res Med Sci 2013; 1(4.000: 326-328

  3. 外固定架或石膏固定对桡骨远端不稳定性关节内骨折康复的影响%Rehabilitative effect on external fixator or cast immobilization for unstable intra-articular fracture of distal radius

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔡靖宇; 郭涛; 朱庆生

    2002-01-01

    Objective To investigate the advantage of external fixator in treatment of unstable intra-articular fracture of distal radius and important of rehabilitation treatment. Methods Fifty-two consecutive patients with unstable intra-articular fractures of distal radius (Frykman type VII, VIII) were randomly divided into 2 groups.A group treated by external fixator and B group treated by closed reduction and cast immobilization. Using the scoring system of Stewart and Dinest assessed all patients. Wrist joint rang motion (ROM) was measured by using gonimeter pre and post rehabilitation treatment.Results Both the anatomical and functional results were significantly better in the external fixator group than in the cast immobilization group (P< 0.05), there was significantly difference of wrist joint ROM between pre and post rehabilitation treatment. Conclusion It is recommended the use of external fixator for unstable intra-articular fractures of distal radius and rehabilitation treatment have an important role.

  4. Effects of dantrolene on force development in slow- and fast-twitch muscle of euthyroid, hypothyroid, and hyperthyroid rats.

    OpenAIRE

    Everts, M. E.; Hardeveld, C.

    1987-01-01

    1 The effects of dantrolene on twitch and tetanic force development were determined in soleus and gastrocnemius muscle of euthyroid, hypothyroid, and hyperthyroid rats. 2 Maximum twitch force of the gastrocnemius muscle was significantly more depressed by dantrolene than that of the soleus muscle in euthyroid and hyperthyroid rats. In hypothyroid rats, the effect of dantrolene on maximum twitch force was similar in soleus and gastrocnemius muscle. 3 Maximum tetanic force in soleus and gastroc...

  5. ”EMG-Normalised Kinase Activation during Exercise Is Higher in Human Gastrocnemius Compared to Soleus Muscle”

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leutert, Robin; Elbenhardt Jensen, Thomas; Rasmussen, Søren Them;

    2012-01-01

    In mice, certain proteins show a highly confined expression in specific muscle groups. Also, resting and exercise/contraction-induced phosphorylation responses are higher in rat skeletal muscle with low mitochondrial content compared to muscles with high mitochondrial content, possibly related to...... differential reactive oxygen species (ROS)-scavenging ability or resting glycogen content. To evaluate these parameters in humans, biopsies from soleus, gastrocnemius and vastus lateralis muscles were taken before and after a 45 min inclined (15%) walking exercise bout at 69% VO2max aimed at simultaneously...

  6. Stimulation of post-traumatic regeneration of skeletal muscles of old rats after x-ray irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The authors seek a method of stimulating restorative processes in irradiated muscles of old animals. Rats were used in the experiments. Different series of experiments were performed, including complete transverse section of the gastrocnemius muscle after local x-ray irradiation, and laser therapy of the transversly divided gastrocnemius muscle. Post-traumatic regeneration of the gastrocnemius muscle of old rats is illustrated schematically. The experimental data showed that pulsed laser therapy or grafting of minced unirradiated muscle tissue can largely restore the regenerative capacity of the gastrocnemius muscle of old rats when depressed by x-ray irradiation, but the method of grafting minced unirradiated muscle tissue was more effective

  7. A new approach to assess the gastrocnemius muscle volume in rodents using ultrasound; comparison with the gastrocnemius muscle index.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tim H J Nijhuis

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: The purpose of this study was to determine the reliability and validity of a new non-invasive ultrasound technique to measure gastrocnemius muscle atrophy after nerve denervation in an animal model. METHODS: In sixteen rodents an eight mm sciatic nerve gap was created. In the following 8 weeks, each week, two rodents were euthanized and the gastrocnemius muscle was examined using two different ultrasound systems and two investigators. The standardized ultrasound measurement protocol consisted of identifying pre-defined anatomical landmarks: 1 the fibula, 2 the fibular nerve, and 3 the junction between the most distal point of the semitendinosus muscle and gastrocnemius muscle. Consequently, we measured the muscle thickness as the length of the line between the fibula and the junction between the two muscles, perpendicular to the fibular nerve. After the ultrasound recording, the muscle mass was determined. RESULTS: A steep decline of muscle weight of 24% was observed after one week. In the following weeks, the weight further decreased and then remained stable from 6 weeks onwards, resulting in a maximal muscle weight decrease of 82%. The correlation coefficient was >0.96 between muscle diameter and weight using both ultrasound systems. The inter-rater reliability was excellent for both devices on the operated side (ICC of 0.99 for both ultrasound systems and good for the non-operated site (ICC's: 0.84 & 0.89. The difference between the muscle mass ratio and the muscle thickness ratio was not more than 5% with two outliers of approximately 13%. DISCUSSION: We have developed an innovative, highly reliable technique for quantifying muscle atrophy after nerve injury. This technique allows serial measurements in the same animal over time. This is a significant advantage compared to the conventional technique for quantifying muscle atrophy, which requires sacrificing the animal.

  8. Recruitment of the Rhesus soleus and medial gastrocnemius before, during and after spaceflight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, R. R.; Hodgson, J. A.; Aragon, J.; Day, M. K.; Kozlovskaya, I.; Edgerton, V. R.

    1996-01-01

    Electromyograms were recorded from the soleus and medial gastrocnemius muscles and tendon force from the medial gastrocnemius muscle of 2 juvenile Rhesus monkeys before, during and after Cosmos flight 2229 and of ground control animals. Recording sessions were made while the Rhesus were performing a foot pedal motor task. Preflight testing indicated normal patterns of recruitment between the soleus and medial gastrocnemius, i.e. a higher level of recruitment of the soleus compared to the medial gastrocnemius during the task. Recording began two days into the spaceflight and showed that the media gastrocnemius was recruited preferentially over the soleus. This observation persisted throughout the flight and for the 2 week period of postflight testing. These data indicate a significant change in the relative recruitment of slow and fast extensor muscles under microgravity conditions. The appearance of clonic-like activity in one muscle of each Rhesus during flight further suggests a reorganization in the neuromotor system in a microgravity environment.

  9. Effect of aerobic exercise on the contractile function of gastrocnemius myosin heavy chain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wen-jun Ren

    2009-01-01

    Objective To study the effect of 4- 6 weeks' treadmill training of male SD rats on the contractile function of their gnstroenemius myosin heavy chain (MHC). Methods Forty male SD rats were randomly divided into control group and training group. The treadmill training of the training group rats was incessantly performed for 4- 6 weeks at an intensity of about 75% VO2max (18. 5- 24 m/min, gradient of 0°, each training session lasting 50 minutes, twice a day). The content of gastrocnemlas MHC mRNA was tested by reverse transcription polymernse chain reaction (RT-PCR), and the changes of muscle fibre and its cross-section area (CSA) were measured using immunohistochemistry. Electric stimulation tests were used to determine the maximal tension of isometric contraction of the post-training gastrocnemius. Results ① After continuous treadmill training for 4 - 6 weeks, we found that the content of the total MHC, MHC Ⅰ , MHC Ⅱ x, MHC Ⅱ a mRNAs was 105%, 105%, 109% and 108% of that in the resting control group, respectively, and the MHC Ⅱ b mRNA content did not change significantly. The percentage of MHC Ⅰ mRNA in the total MHC mRNA increased while that of MHC Ⅱ mRNA decreased after aerobic training. ② The slow type of fibre type Ⅰ was the main part of the MHC after training and the CSA of the muscle fibres increased simultaneously. ③ The maximal tension of isometric contraction by pulse stimulation of square wave in the training group increased significantly compared with that in the control group (P<0. 01). Conclusion The findings indicate that aerobic exercise may promote an increase in the contractile function of MHC.

  10. Concurrent deficits of soleus and gastrocnemius muscle fascicles and Achilles tendon post stroke

    OpenAIRE

    Zhao, Heng; Ren, Yupeng; Roth, Elliot J.; Harvey, Richard L.; Zhang, Li-Qun

    2015-01-01

    Calf muscles and Achilles tendon play important roles in functional activities. However, it is not clear how biomechanical properties of the uniarticular soleus (SOL) and biarticular gastrocnemius muscle and Achilles tendon, including the fascicle length, pennation angle, and stiffness, change concurrently post stroke. Biomechanical properties of the medial gastrocnemius (GM) and soleus muscles were evaluated bilaterally in 10 hemiparetic stroke survivors using combined ultrasonography-biomec...

  11. Spasticity and Electrophysiologic Changes after Extracorporeal Shock Wave Therapy on Gastrocnemius

    OpenAIRE

    Sohn, Min Kyun; Cho, Kang Hee; Kim, Young-Jae; Hwang, Seon Lyul

    2011-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the spasticity and electrophysiologic effects of applying extracorporeal shock wave therapy (ESWT) to the gastrocnemius by studying F wave and H-reflex. Method Ten healthy adults and 10 hemiplegic stroke patients with ankle plantarflexor spasticity received one session of ESWT on the medial head of the gastrocnemius. The modified Ashworth scale (MAS), tibial nerve conduction, F wave, and H-reflex results were measured before and immediately after the treatment. The Visua...

  12. Rupture of the Gastrocnemius Muscle in Neonatal Thoroughbred Foals: A Report of Three Cases

    OpenAIRE

    SATO, Fumio; SHIBATA, Ryo; SHIKICHI, Mitsumori; ITO, Katsumi; MURASE, Harutaka; Ueno, Takanori; FURUOKA, Hidehumi; YAMADA, Kazutaka

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Rupture of the gastrocnemius muscle is occasionally found in neonatal foals associated with dystocia and assisted delivery. In this report, 3 cases of gastrocnemius muscle disruption in newborn Thoroughbred foals (6, 5 and 2 days old) are reported. In all cases, the foals were presented with inability to rise unassisted postpartum, a dropped tarsus and swelling in the caudal aspect of the thigh accompanied by a hematoma. Ultrasonography, radiography, computerized tomography (CT) and ...

  13. Differential diagnosis of isolated calf muscle vein thrombosis and gastrocnemius hematoma by high-frequency ultrasound

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SU Li-ya; GUO Fa-jin; XU Guang; HAN Xiu-jie; SUN Chang-kun; ZHANG Zheng; JING Qing-hong

    2013-01-01

    Background Differential diagnosis of isolated calf muscle vein thrombosis (ICMVT) and gastrocnemius hematoma is essential for early identification of deep vein thrombosis (DVT).This study aimed to investigate the diagnostic value of high-frequency color Doppler ultrasound for differential diagnosis of ICMVT and gastrocnemius hematoma.Methods A retrospective case series of 35 ICMVT (M∶F,21∶14; mean age (64.5±10.6) years) and 23 gastrocnemius hematoma (M∶F,16∶7; mean age (75.4±11.8) years) patients with bilateral/unilateral lower limb pain was conducted between January 2006 and September 2012.Characteristics and the morphology of high-frequency color Doppler ultrasonography of the lower limb deep vein,great saphenous vein,calf muscles,skin,and soft tissue were examined.Results ICMVT hypoechoic signals were characterized by long,tube-like masses on longitudinal sections and oval masses on transverse sections,with apparent muscle thrombosis boundaries,distal and proximal venous connections,and,often,lower limb DVT.Gastrocnemius hematoma hypoechoic signals were characterized by large volumes,enhanced posterior hematoma echo,hyperechoic muscle boundaries,no hematoma blood flow,and no DVT,and clear differences in trauma/exercise-and oral anticoagulant-induced hematomas were readily apparent.According to the measurement,the ratio of long diameter/transverse diameter (D/T) in ICMVT patients was about less than 2.0,whereas in gastrocnemius hematoma patients the ratio was more than 2.0.Early stage isoechoic and hypoechoic signals were detected with gradually increasing ovular anechoic areas.Partial muscle fibers in the hematoma due to muscle fractures were apparent.Conclusion High-frequency color Doppler ultrasound was found to be a sensitive and reliable method for differential diagnosis of ICMVT and gastrocnemius hematoma due to trauma and exercise or prolonged oral anticoagulant use.

  14. Tracking errors in tractography of the gastrocnemius muscle. A comparison between the transverse and sagittal planes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In scans taken in conventional direction, tracking errors may occur when using a streamline-based algorithm for the tractography of the gastrocnemius muscle. To solve errors in tracking, we applied tractography to the musculotendinous junction and performed fiber tracking on the gastrocnemius muscle of 10 healthy subjects with their written informed consent. We employed a spin-echo diffusion tensor imaging (SE-DTI) sequence with 6-direction diffusion gradient sensitization and acquired DTI images at 1.5 tesla using a body array coil with parallel imaging. We compared tractography obtained in the transverse and sagittal planes using anatomical reference and found that the gastrocnemius muscle and musculotendinous junction were significantly better visualized on sagittal scans and in 3 regions of interest. We utilized Mann-Whitney U-test to determine significant differences between rates of concordance (P2 value of skeletal muscle is around 50 ms, and TE should be as short as possible. A streamline-based algorithm is based on the continuity of a vector. It is easy to take running of the muscle fiber in sagittal scan. Therefore, tracking error is hard to occur. In conclusion, sagittal scanning may be one way to eliminate tracking errors in the tractography of the gastrocnemius muscle. Tracking errors were smaller with sagittal scans than transverse scans, and sagittal scans allow better fiber tracking. (author)

  15. Ganglion cysts at the gastrocnemius origin: a series of ten cases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To describe ganglion cysts arising close to the origin of the medial and lateral head of gastrocnemius as identified on magnetic resonance (MR) imaging. We present a series of ten cases of ganglion cysts arising close to the gastrocnemius origin from the medial and lateral femoral condyles. These were collected over a 6-year period from our imaging database. All patients attended for routine MR imaging of the knee with a variety of clinical presentations. Data collected included patient demographics, ganglion size, ganglion site, clinical presentation and ancillary MR imaging findings. The ten patients in this series consisted of seven males and three females, five right and five left knees, age range 27-68 years, mean age 40.6 years. The mean maximal dimension of the ganglion cysts was 26 mm, range 15-40 mm. The medial gastrocnemius origin was involved in eight patients and the lateral origin in two patients. The MR imaging findings consisted of both uni- and multi-loculated cysts, often containing numerous septations with fluid signal characteristics. The cysts were extra-capsular with no clear communication with the joint. One patient presented with a popliteal soft tissue mass and none of the cases required surgical intervention for cyst removal. MR imaging may identify ganglion cysts arising in an intra- or extra-articular site around the knee. This series documents the MR imaging characteristics of ganglion cysts arising close to the gastrocnemius origin and discusses the relevance of this imaging finding. (orig.)

  16. Ganglion cysts at the gastrocnemius origin: a series of ten cases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    James, S.L.J. [RNOH Stanmore, Department of Radiology, Middlesex (United Kingdom); Royal Orthopaedic Hospital, Department of Radiology, Birmingham (United Kingdom); Connell, D.A.; Saifuddin, A. [RNOH Stanmore, Department of Radiology, Middlesex (United Kingdom); Bell, J. [Kingston Hospital NHS Trust, Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Surrey (United Kingdom)

    2007-02-15

    To describe ganglion cysts arising close to the origin of the medial and lateral head of gastrocnemius as identified on magnetic resonance (MR) imaging. We present a series of ten cases of ganglion cysts arising close to the gastrocnemius origin from the medial and lateral femoral condyles. These were collected over a 6-year period from our imaging database. All patients attended for routine MR imaging of the knee with a variety of clinical presentations. Data collected included patient demographics, ganglion size, ganglion site, clinical presentation and ancillary MR imaging findings. The ten patients in this series consisted of seven males and three females, five right and five left knees, age range 27-68 years, mean age 40.6 years. The mean maximal dimension of the ganglion cysts was 26 mm, range 15-40 mm. The medial gastrocnemius origin was involved in eight patients and the lateral origin in two patients. The MR imaging findings consisted of both uni- and multi-loculated cysts, often containing numerous septations with fluid signal characteristics. The cysts were extra-capsular with no clear communication with the joint. One patient presented with a popliteal soft tissue mass and none of the cases required surgical intervention for cyst removal. MR imaging may identify ganglion cysts arising in an intra- or extra-articular site around the knee. This series documents the MR imaging characteristics of ganglion cysts arising close to the gastrocnemius origin and discusses the relevance of this imaging finding. (orig.)

  17. A study of the relationship between mineral content and mechanical properties of turkey gastrocnemius tendon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landis, W. J.; Librizzi, J. J.; Dunn, M. G.; Silver, F. H.

    1995-01-01

    The vertebrate skeletal system undergoes adaptation in response to external forces, but the relation between the skeletal changes and such forces is not understood. In this context, the variation in the amount and location of calcification has been compared with changes in mechanical properties of the normally mineralizing turkey gastrocnemius tendon using ash weight measurements, X-ray radiography, and mechanical testing. Radiographic evidence from 12- to 17-week-old birds showed calcification in only portions of gastrocnemius tendons proximal to the tarsometatarsal joint. Mechanical testing of these dissected proximal regions demonstrated an increased ultimate stress and modulus and a decreased maximum strain that appeared to parallel calcification. Further, stress-strain curves of portions of uncalcified turkey gastrocnemius tendon were shaped similar to those of other typical unmineralized tendon curves while highly calcified tendons yielded curves resembling those of bone. The proximal portions of the gastrocnemius where mineralization begins were observed to have a decreased tendon cross-sectional area compared with distal portions which do not mineralize. Based on the resultant measures of mineral content and location and mechanical properties, it is hypothesized that increased calcification is a result of increased stresses at certain locations of the tendon, perhaps the consequence of the natural forces exerted by the large leg muscles of the bird into which the gastrocnemius inserts. More specifically, tendon calcification may be the result of stress-induced exposure of charged sites on the surfaces of collagen molecules, fibrils, or fibers so that deposition of mineral and subsequent mechanical reinforcement occur in the tissue.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS).

  18. Ultrasound Changes in Achilles Tendon and Gastrocnemius Medialis Muscle on Squat Eccentric Overload and Running Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanz-López, Fernando; Berzosa Sánchez, César; Hita-Contreras, Fidel; Cruz-Diaz, David; Martínez-Amat, Antonio

    2016-07-01

    Sanz-López, F, Berzosa Sánchez, C, Hita-Contreras, F, Cruz-Diaz, D, and Martínez-Amat, A. Ultrasound changes in Achilles tendon and gastrocnemius medialis muscle on squat eccentric overload and running performance. J Strength Cond Res XX(X): 000-000, 2015-Previous studies have proven the adaptation to load in the Achilles tendon and gastrocnemius muscle after different types of exercise, such as running, heel drop training, and a variety of sports. These findings have been applied to improve performance and in the treatment and prevention of overuse injuries. However, the effects that squat performance may have on the Achilles tendon and gastrocnemius muscle are still unknown. Squats are a widely used training exercise that involves calf-muscle activation. Similarly, no reports have been published regarding the adaptation to load of trained and untrained subjects during several consecutive days of running. The purpose of this study was to analyze changes in the Achilles tendon and in the pennation angles of the gastrocnemius medialis after eccentric overload training and within 3 days of running. Twenty healthy males who volunteered for this study were divided into 2 groups. Subjects in the eccentric overload training (ECC) group performed 6 weeks of eccentric overload training (twice weekly, 4 sets of 7 repetitions in a Yoyo squat device) before the running intervention. All participants, ECC and control (CONT) groups, ran on 3 consecutive days. After the eccentric training, an increase in the cross-sectional area of the Achilles tendon and in the pennation angle was observed. As for the running intervention, the behavior of tissues in both groups was similar. These results suggest that eccentric overload training with squats promotes changes in the Achilles tendon and in the pennation angle of the gastrocnemius medialis muscle. Nevertheless, significant changes in the tissue do not appear between the running performance of trained and untrained subjects. PMID

  19. Gastrocnemius muscle belly and tendon length in stroke patients and able-bodied persons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halar, E M; Stolov, W C; Venkatesh, B; Brozovich, F V; Harley, J D

    1978-10-01

    Length changes of gastrocnemius muscle belly and tendon at different passive tensions and ranges of motion (ROM) were measured in 31 healthy persons and 15 hemiplegic patients with clinically demonstrated ankle joint plantar flexion (PF) contractures. Preliminary studies were done to obtain accurate determination of gastrocnemius muscle insertion and origin points on x-ray films, to calculate the magnification factor due to x-ray beam divergence and to measure the length changes in muscle belly by the use of a wire hook placed at the muscle-tendon junction. Our results revealed: (1) change in length at different passive tensions is in the muscle belly, not in the tendon, (2) in hemiplegic patients no statistical difference in elongational characteristics of affected gastrocnemius muscle bellies with clinically demonstrated ankle PF contractures and of the contralateral nonaffected muscle bellies, (3) spastic and flaccid gastrocnemius muscle bellies are not statistically different in respect to passive elongations, (4) gastrocnemius muscle bellies of both affected and nonaffected legs of hemiplegic patients were statistically different from the muscle bellies of healthy persons in regard to maximal ROM and maxinum muscle belly length changes, (5) there was approximately .5 mm change in the belly length for each degree of ankle ROM, (6) age is not a factor influencing passive elongation of muscle belly, (7) average muscle belly lengths were consistently shorter in hemiplegic muscles while their tendon lengths did not change. The enumerated findings suggest that the limitation of ankle ROM in spastic hemiplegic legs obtained by the standard clinical measurements technique represents a change in muscle belly rest length without a structural contracture of the muscle fibers. PMID:718411

  20. Change in gastrocnemius dystrophin and metabolic enzymes and increase in high-speed exhaustive time induced by hypoxic training in rats%低氧训练诱导大鼠腓肠肌抗肌营养不良蛋白和代谢酶变化及延长高速力竭运动时间

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐玉明; 李俊平; 王瑞元

    2012-01-01

    本文旨在探讨抗肌营养不良蛋白(dystrophin)和膜通透性在低氧训练中的变化及其作用.8周龄的Sprague Dawley (SD)大鼠共72只,随机分为4组;常氧安静(normoxic non-train,NC)组、常氧运动(normoxic train,NT)组、低氧安静(hypoxic nontrain,HC)组、低氧运动(hypoxic train,HT)组;每组又随机分为3个亚组:无力竭亚组、低速力竭亚组和高速力竭亚组.常氧运动组和低氧运动组进行4周运动训练;低氧组在氧浓度为12.7%(相当于海拔高度4 300 m)的常压低氧环境下生活训练.训练4周后,对各组的无力竭亚组取材,分别测定腓肠肌组织的乳酸脱氢酶(LDH)、琥珀酸脱氢酶(SDH)、苹果酸脱氢酶(MDH)活性和dystrophin含量以及血清LDH活性.其余大鼠分别进行力竭测验,记录力竭时间.结果显示,相对常氧运动组,低氧运动组大鼠体重增长减缓,而骨骼肌dystrophin水平无显著变化.低氧运动对MDH和LDH活性的作用明显.氧浓度和运动训练及其交互作用对MDH均有显著性影响(P<0.05),腓肠肌LDH仅受氧浓度的影响(P<0.05),而血LDH受氧浓度和运动训练交互作用的影响(P<0.05),表现为肌LDH活活性下降,血清LDH活性增高.对于大鼠力竭时间,力竭测验速度、运动训练及其交互作用有显著影响(P<0.05),运动训练和氧浓度的交互作用也有显著影响(P<0.05),而氧浓度的作用没有显著影响.低氧运动组的高速力竭亚组力竭总时间大于常氧运动组的高速力竭亚组,而且在力竭测试中疲劳出现较早但恢复迅速.以上结果提示,低氧运动能够有效延长大鼠高速力竭运动的时间,其作用机制可能与低氧运动后膜通透性增加而引起的血LDH含量上升有关.%The aim of the present study was to explore the changes and roles of dystrophin and membrane permeability in hypoxic training. Seventy-two 8-week-old Sprague Dawley (SD) rats were randomly divided into 4 groups, normoxic

  1. Effects of swimming training and free mobilization on bone mineral densities of rats with the immobilization-induced osteopenia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To investigate the possible effects of regular swimming exercise on bone mineral density (BMD) compared with free activity after cast immobilization of rats. We carried out the study from April 2005 to June 2005 at the Department of Sports Medicine, Medical School of Suleyman Demirel University, Isparta, Turkey. The study included a total of 24 female Wistar rats. The rats were randomized to control (n = 6), swimming training (ST) n = 9, and free mobilization (FM) n = 9 groups. We measured Bone mineral densities of femur and vertebra of all rats with a total body scanner using software specifically designed for small animals, before study started and at weeks 3 and 7. Timepoints corresponded to basal, after cast removal (ACIM), and after 3 weeks of free mobilization (AFM) or swimming training (AST). We immobilized the right hindlimb of each ST and FM animal with a cast while the left hindlimbs were kept free. After 3 weeks, the casts were removed. Then we allowed the rats to move freely in their cage for one week, after which the animals in ST group started to swim for 5 days a week for 3 weeks for 30 minutes per day. The group FM rats moved freely in the cage. Bone mineral density of the femur and vertebra after cast immobilization was significantly decreased compared with both their basal and age-matched control group. After mobilization, significant increases occurred in both groups according to ACIM. Similar but milder changes were observed in free limbs femur BMD of rats. Interestingly, vertebra BMD of swimming group was also higher than its age-matched control group (p<0.05). Our study showed that swimming exercise had a significant rehabilitative effect on BMD loss associated with immobilization. Further studies are needed to investigate the effects of swimming on other bone properties. (author)

  2. Modelling of gastrocnemius muscle using Hills equation in COMSOL Multiphysics 4.0a

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.Vivekanandan

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper summarizes the force generated by gastrocnemius muscle for the analysis of muscoskeletal simulation in human locomotion using Hills muscle model. Biomechanics of Hills equation describes the study of physical phenomenon by means of mathematical model that relates force and muscle length with the help of a partial differential equation. To calculate maximum fatigue in the muscle and to discriminate strained muscle from the normal one FEM based modelling was done in COMSOL Multiphysics 4.0a. The model parameters were evaluated using similar in vitro experiments performed on frogs gastrocnemius muscle. The biomechanical model was then incorporated into human body for the purpose of predicting force - length response for all the four phases of gait cycle. Evaluating the response for gait cycle will enable the physiotherapist to obtain clues for muscle weakness and fatigue in a rehabilitation program

  3. Architecture and functional ecology of the human gastrocnemius muscle-tendon unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, Erin E; Dominy, Nathaniel J

    2016-04-01

    The gastrocnemius muscle-tendon unit (MTU) is central to human locomotion. Structural variation in the human gastrocnemius MTU is predicted to affect the efficiency of locomotion, a concept most often explored in the context of performance activities. For example, stiffness of the Achilles tendon varies among individuals with different histories of competitive running. Such a finding highlights the functional variation of individuals and raises the possibility of similar variation between populations, perhaps in response to specific ecological or environmental demands. Researchers often assume minimal variation in human populations, or that industrialized populations represent the human species as well as any other. Yet rainforest hunter-gatherers, which often express the human pygmy phenotype, contradict such assumptions. Indeed, the human pygmy phenotype is a potential model system for exploring the range of ecomorphological variation in the architecture of human hindlimb muscles, a concept we review here. PMID:26712532

  4. PI3K/Akt/GSK-3β在去负荷及再负荷大鼠腓肠肌蛋白代谢中的作用%The Effect of PI3K/Akt/GSK-3β Signal Pathway on Gastrocnemius Protein Metabolism in Unloading and Reloading Rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张飞鹏; 吴金富; 王晶

    2011-01-01

    目的:观察去负荷及再负荷过程PI3K/Akt/GSK-3β信号途径的变化,并探讨该过程对骨骼肌蛋白分解及合成代谢的影响。研究方法:24只雌性SD大鼠随机分对照组(NC)、去负荷14 d模型组(TS)、去负荷14 d+再负荷自由活动14 d组(NR)、去负荷14 d+再负荷离心运动14 d组(ER)。用免疫印迹半定量分析PI3K、Akt、GSK-3β和P-GSK-3β的表达。研究结果:与NC组相比,TS组腓肠肌总蛋白含量显著下降(P〈0.05);以不同方式再负荷14 d都能使腓肠肌蛋白含量提高,NR与ER组之间没有显著差异;ER组PI3K蛋白表达显著高于NR组(P〈0.05);ER组Akt也高于NR组,但没有显著性差异。ER组的P-GSK-3β和GSK-3β蛋白表达与NR组的相似趋势,其中ER组的P-GSK-3β与NC组相比,有显著性差异(P〈0.05);而GSK3β则显著增加(P〈0.05)。结论:在去负荷条件下,PI3K/Akt/GSK-3β信号对骨骼肌蛋白分解影响较小;再负荷条件下,离心运动能加强PI3K/Akt/GSK-3β信号作用,参与骨骼肌蛋白合成。%objective: To observe PI3K/Akt/GSK-3β signal pathways on skeletal muscle protein metabolism in unloading and reloading,and discuss the relationship between eccentric exercise and PI3K/Akt/GSK-3β signal pathways on the apoptosis and anabolic.Methods: 24 female SD rats were divided into four groups: normal control group(NC),14 days tail-suspension group(TS),14 days tail-suspension 14 days standing naturally group(NR),14 days tail-suspension 14 days eccentric exercise group(ER).Western blotting was used to semi-quantitative analysis PI3K,Ak,GSK-3β and P-GSK-3β protein expression.Results: Compared with NC group,TS group's total protein content dropped significantly(P0.05);In a different way to the reloading in 14 days,the total protein content increased both in NR and ER,but there were no significant differences between NR and ER.PI3K protein expression in ER was more

  5. Glycogen accumulation in normal and irradiated minced muscle autografts on frog gastrocnemius

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alterations induced in glycogen content and phosphorylase activity have been studied in normal and irradiated minced muscle autografts on frog gastrocnemius at days 1, 3, 5, 7, 10, 15 and 30 postgrafting. The changes observed in the glycogen content and phosphorylase activity conform to the degeneration and regeneration phases of muscle repair. An attempt has been made to explain the altered glycogen utilizing capacities of the frog skeletal muscle during its repair and regeneration. (author)

  6. Diagnosis of Musculus Gastrocnemius Tightness - Key Factors for the Clinical Examination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumbach, Sebastian F; Braunstein, Mareen; Regauer, Markus; Böcker, Wolfgang; Polzer, Hans

    2016-01-01

    Common foot and ankle pathologies have been linked to isolated Musculus gastrocnemius tightness (MGT). Various examination techniques have been described to assess MGT. Still, a standardized examination procedure is missing. Literature argues for weightbearing examination but the degree of knee flexion needed to eliminate the restraining effect of the M. gastrocnemius on ankle dorsiflexion (ADF) is unknown. This manuscript investigates the effect of knee flexion on ankle dorsiflexion and provides a detailed description of a standardized examination protocol. Examination on 20 healthy individuals revealed, that 20° of knee flexion is sufficient to fully eliminate the influence of the M. gastrocnemius on ADF. This builds the prerequisite for a standardized examination for MGT. Non-weightbearing and weightbearing examination of ADF has to be conducted with the knee fully extended and at least 20° flexed. Two investigators should conduct non-weightbearing testing with the subject in supine position. In order to obtain reliable results, the axis of the fibula should be marked. One examiner can conduct weightbearing examination with the subject in lunge stance. Isolated MGT is present if ADF is impaired with the knee fully extended and knee flexion results in a significant ADF increase. The herein presented standardized examination is the prerequisite for future studies aiming at establishing norm values. PMID:27500825

  7. Popliteal vascular entrapment syndrome caused by a rare anomalous slip of the lateral head of the gastrocnemius muscle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Patrick T.; Moyer, Adrian C.; Huettl, Eric A. [Mayo Clinic Scottsdale, Department of Radiology, Scottsdale (United States); Fowl, Richard J.; Stone, William M. [Mayo Clinic Scottsdale, Department of Vascular Surgery, Scottsdale (United States)

    2005-06-01

    Popliteal vascular entrapment syndrome can result in calf claudication, aneurysm formation, distal arterial emboli, or popliteal vessel thrombosis. The most commonly reported causes of this syndrome have been anomalies of the medial head of the gastrocnemius muscle as it relates to the course of the popliteal artery. We report two cases of rare anomalous slips of the lateral head of the gastrocnemius muscle causing popliteal vascular entrapment syndrome. (orig.)

  8. Popliteal vascular entrapment syndrome caused by a rare anomalous slip of the lateral head of the gastrocnemius muscle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Popliteal vascular entrapment syndrome can result in calf claudication, aneurysm formation, distal arterial emboli, or popliteal vessel thrombosis. The most commonly reported causes of this syndrome have been anomalies of the medial head of the gastrocnemius muscle as it relates to the course of the popliteal artery. We report two cases of rare anomalous slips of the lateral head of the gastrocnemius muscle causing popliteal vascular entrapment syndrome. (orig.)

  9. Evaluation of treadmill exercise effect on muscular lipid profiles of diabetic fatty rats by nanoflow liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jong Cheol; Kim, Il Yong; Son, Yeri; Byeon, Seul Kee; Yoon, Dong Hyun; Son, Jun Seok; Song, Han Sol; Song, Wook; Seong, Je Kyung; Moon, Myeong Hee

    2016-01-01

    We compare comprehensive quantitative profiling of lipids at the molecular level from skeletal muscle tissues (gastrocnemius and soleus) of Zucker diabetic fatty rats and Zucker lean control rats during treadmill exercise by nanoflow liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Because type II diabetes is caused by decreased insulin sensitivity due to excess lipids accumulated in skeletal muscle tissue, lipidomic analysis of muscle tissues under treadmill exercise can help unveil the mechanism of lipid-associated insulin resistance. In total, 314 lipid species, including phospholipids, sphingolipids, ceramides, diacylglycerols (DAGs), and triacylglycerols (TAGs), were analyzed to examine diabetes-related lipid species and responses to treadmill exercise. Most lysophospholipid levels increased with diabetes. While DAG levels (10 from the gastrocnemius and 13 from the soleus) were >3-fold higher in diabetic rats, levels of most of these decreased after exercise in soleus but not in gastrocnemius. Levels of 5 highly abundant TAGs (52:1 and 54:3 in the gastrocnemius and 48:2, 50:2, and 52:4 in the soleus) displaying 2-fold increases in diabetic rats decreased after exercise in the soleus but not in the gastrocnemius in most cases. Thus, aerobic exercise has a stronger influence on lipid levels in the soleus than in the gastrocnemius in type 2 diabetic rats. PMID:27388225

  10. Evaluation of treadmill exercise effect on muscular lipid profiles of diabetic fatty rats by nanoflow liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jong Cheol; Kim, Il Yong; Son, Yeri; Byeon, Seul Kee; Yoon, Dong Hyun; Son, Jun Seok; Song, Han Sol; Song, Wook; Seong, Je Kyung; Moon, Myeong Hee

    2016-01-01

    We compare comprehensive quantitative profiling of lipids at the molecular level from skeletal muscle tissues (gastrocnemius and soleus) of Zucker diabetic fatty rats and Zucker lean control rats during treadmill exercise by nanoflow liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry. Because type II diabetes is caused by decreased insulin sensitivity due to excess lipids accumulated in skeletal muscle tissue, lipidomic analysis of muscle tissues under treadmill exercise can help unveil the mechanism of lipid-associated insulin resistance. In total, 314 lipid species, including phospholipids, sphingolipids, ceramides, diacylglycerols (DAGs), and triacylglycerols (TAGs), were analyzed to examine diabetes-related lipid species and responses to treadmill exercise. Most lysophospholipid levels increased with diabetes. While DAG levels (10 from the gastrocnemius and 13 from the soleus) were >3-fold higher in diabetic rats, levels of most of these decreased after exercise in soleus but not in gastrocnemius. Levels of 5 highly abundant TAGs (52:1 and 54:3 in the gastrocnemius and 48:2, 50:2, and 52:4 in the soleus) displaying 2-fold increases in diabetic rats decreased after exercise in the soleus but not in the gastrocnemius in most cases. Thus, aerobic exercise has a stronger influence on lipid levels in the soleus than in the gastrocnemius in type 2 diabetic rats. PMID:27388225

  11. Redox proteomic analysis of the gastrocnemius muscle from adult and old mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonagh, Brian; Sakellariou, Giorgos K; Smith, Neil T; Brownridge, Philip; Jackson, Malcolm J

    2015-09-01

    The data provides information in support of the research article, "Differential Cysteine Labeling and Global Label-Free Proteomics Reveals an Altered Metabolic State in Skeletal Muscle Aging", Journal of Proteome Research, 2014, 13 (11), 2008-21 [1]. Raw data is available from ProteomeXchange [2] with identifier PDX001054. The proteome of gastrocnemius muscle from adult and old mice was analyzed by global label-free proteomics and the relative quantification of specific reduced and reversibly oxidized Cysteine (Cys) residues was performed using Skyline [3]. Briefly, reduced Cysteine (Cys) containing peptides was alkylated using N-ethylmalemide (d0-NEM). Samples were desalted and reversibly oxidized Cys residues were reduced using tris(2-carboxyethyl)phosphine (TCEP) and the newly formed reduced Cys residues were labeled with heavy NEM( d5-NEM). Label-free analysis of the global proteome of adult (n=5) and old (n=4) gastrocnemius muscles was performed using Peaks7™ mass spectrometry data analysis software [4]. Relative quantification of Cys containing peptides that were identified as reduced (d(0) NEM labeled) and reversibly oxidized d(5)-NEM labeled was performed using the intensity of their precursor ions in Skyline. Results indicate that muscles from old mice show reduced redox flexibility particularly in proteins involved in the generation of precursor metabolites and energy metabolism, indicating a loss in the flexibility of the redox energy response. PMID:26217813

  12. Lateral gastrocnemius myocutaneous flap transposition to the midlateral femur: extending the arc of rotation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agarwal, Rishi Raj; Broder, Kevin; Kulidjian, Anna; Bodor, Richard

    2014-05-01

    We report the successful use of an extended lateral gastrocnemius myocutaneous flap for coverage of the midlateral femur using successive delayed elevations. A 62-year-old man underwent wide resection of a liposarcoma of the right anterior thigh with free flap reconstruction and subsequent radiation therapy 10 years before. Four years later, the patient fractured his irradiated femur and was treated with a retrograde intramedullary nail, which subsequently became infected, causing osteomyelitis of the distal femur, septic arthritis of the knee joint, and nonunion of his pathologic fracture. Although advised by numerous surgeons to undergo above-knee amputation, we offered our motivated patient a multidisciplinary approach to clear his infection and pathology; implanted new orthopedic hardware; performed delayed flap reconstruction; and rehabilitated him back to painless, unassisted ambulation. The extended lateral gastrocnemius myocutaneous flap used provided perfused soft tissues and durable coverage for the patient's exposed orthopedic hardware of the midlateral femur, 14 cm above the joint line of the knee. By using this flap to cover a femur defect well above published heights, our patient avoided amputation after years of worsening incapacitation. PMID:24401809

  13. Cadaveric study using radio-opaque contrast to determine arterial communication between the two bellies of gastrocnemius muscles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pawan Agarwal

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Gastrocnemius muscle is a workhorse flap to cover upper third tibial defects but has a limitation in covering middle one-third tibial defects. The inferiorly based hemi gastrocnemius muscle flap can be useful for reconstruction of the middle third of the leg. The arterial communication between the gastrocnemius muscle heads has been demonstrated, the consistent location, however, was not studied in large specimens. Materials and Methods: This study was conducted on sixty specimens of gastrocnemius muscles harvested from thirty fresh cadavers to determine arterial communication between two heads of gastrocnemius muscle using radio-opaque contrast with future application of taking one head of muscle distally based for coverage of middle third defect of tibia. A total of 60 specimens were obtained from thirty fresh cadavers. In thirty specimens, medial sural artery ligated and divided and 20 ml iohexol (350 given through popliteal artery. In remaining thirty specimens lateral sural artery ligated and divided and 20 ml iohexol (350 given through popliteal artery. Digital X-rays of gastrocnemius muscle specimens were taken, and collaterals between two bellies in lower half were noted and the distance of collaterals from the muscles top edge was also noted. Results: We found the communications between both bellies of the gastrocnemius muscle in all specimens in both legs. The mean distance of communications from the upper edge of the medial belly was 15.88 cm and from upper edge of the lateral belly was 14.72 cm in the right leg, respectively. The mean distance of communications from upper edge of the medial belly was 16.01 cm and from upper edge of the lateral belly was 13.78 cm in the left leg. The distal communications between gastrocnemius bellies were not constant in their location, but all the connections were present in distal 3.79 cm of raphe. Conclusion: This study supports the future application of inferior

  14. Cadaveric study using radio-opaque contrast to determine arterial communication between the two bellies of gastrocnemius muscles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agarwal, Pawan; Gupta, K. L.; Yadav, P.; Sharma, Dhananjaya

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Gastrocnemius muscle is a workhorse flap to cover upper third tibial defects but has a limitation in covering middle one-third tibial defects. The inferiorly based hemi gastrocnemius muscle flap can be useful for reconstruction of the middle third of the leg. The arterial communication between the gastrocnemius muscle heads has been demonstrated, the consistent location, however, was not studied in large specimens. Materials and Methods: This study was conducted on sixty specimens of gastrocnemius muscles harvested from thirty fresh cadavers to determine arterial communication between two heads of gastrocnemius muscle using radio-opaque contrast with future application of taking one head of muscle distally based for coverage of middle third defect of tibia. A total of 60 specimens were obtained from thirty fresh cadavers. In thirty specimens, medial sural artery ligated and divided and 20 ml iohexol (350) given through popliteal artery. In remaining thirty specimens lateral sural artery ligated and divided and 20 ml iohexol (350) given through popliteal artery. Digital X-rays of gastrocnemius muscle specimens were taken, and collaterals between two bellies in lower half were noted and the distance of collaterals from the muscles top edge was also noted. Results: We found the communications between both bellies of the gastrocnemius muscle in all specimens in both legs. The mean distance of communications from the upper edge of the medial belly was 15.88 cm and from upper edge of the lateral belly was 14.72 cm in the right leg, respectively. The mean distance of communications from upper edge of the medial belly was 16.01 cm and from upper edge of the lateral belly was 13.78 cm in the left leg. The distal communications between gastrocnemius bellies were not constant in their location, but all the connections were present in distal 3.79 cm of raphe. Conclusion: This study supports the future application of inferior-based hemigastrocnemius muscles flap

  15. Functional properties of slow and fast gastrocnemius muscle fibers after a 17-day spaceflight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widrick, J. J.; Romatowski, J. G.; Norenberg, K. M.; Knuth, S. T.; Bain, J. L.; Riley, D. A.; Trappe, S. W.; Trappe, T. A.; Costill, D. L.; Fitts, R. H.

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to study the effects of a 17-day spaceflight on the contractile properties of individual fast- and slow-twitch fibers isolated from biopsies of the fast-twitch gastrocnemius muscle of four male astronauts. Single chemically skinned fibers were studied during maximal Ca2+-activated contractions with fiber myosin heavy chain (MHC) isoform expression subsequently determined by SDS gel electrophoresis. Spaceflight had no significant effect on the mean diameter or specific force of single fibers expressing type I, IIa, or IIa/IIx MHC, although a small reduction in average absolute force (P(o)) was observed for the type I fibers (0.68 +/- 0.02 vs. 0.64 +/- 0.02 mN, P fiber diameter and P(o) where significantly reduced for the type I and IIa fibers obtained from one astronaut and for the type IIa fibers from another astronaut. Average unloaded shortening velocity [V(o), in fiber lengths (FL)/s] was greater after the flight for both type I (0.60 +/- 0.03 vs. 0.76 +/- 0.02 FL/s) and IIa fibers (2.33 +/- 0.25 vs. 3.10 +/- 0.16 FL/s). Postflight peak power of the type I and IIa fibers was significantly reduced only for the astronaut experiencing the greatest fiber atrophy and loss of P(o). These results demonstrate that 1) slow and fast gastrocnemius fibers show little atrophy and loss of P(o) but increased V(o) after a typical 17-day spaceflight, 2) there is, however, considerable intersubject variation in these responses, possibly due to intersubject differences in in-flight physical activity, and 3) in these four astronauts, fiber atrophy and reductions in P(o) were less for slow and fast fibers obtained from the phasic fast-twitch gastrocnemius muscle compared with slow and fast fibers obtained from the slow antigravity soleus [J. J. Widrick, S. K. Knuth, K. M. Norenberg, J. G. Romatowski, J. L. W. Bain, D. A. Riley, M. Karhanek, S. W. Trappe, T. A. Trappe, D. L. Costill, and R. H. Fitts. J Physiol (Lond) 516: 915-930, 1999].

  16. Acute Compartment Syndrome After Gastrocnemius Rupture (Tennis Leg) in a Nonathlete Without Trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Li; Jun, Huang; Muliang, Ding; Deye, Song; Jiangdong, Ni

    2016-01-01

    Acute compartment syndrome is a serious emergency that warrants urgent decompression, and tennis leg (i.e., rupture of the medial head of the gastrocnemius) is a known clinical condition that is usually treated symptomatically, with good results overall. In rare cases, acute compartment syndrome is associated with tennis leg after severe direct muscle trauma or severe exercise in athletes or physically active individuals. We present an unusual case of acute compartment syndrome secondary to tennis leg after the patient, a nonathlete, had disembarked from a truck without any trauma. Clinicians should have a high index of suspicion for atraumatic compartment syndrome, and timely surgical fasciotomy must be undertaken to avoid complications resulting from delayed diagnosis and treatment. PMID:25435006

  17. Reflex response and control of the human soleus and gastrocnemius muscles during walking and running at increasing velocity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Erik B; Alkjær, Tine; Raffalt, Peter C

    2012-01-01

    significantly from walking to running with increasing running speed in the soleus but not in the medial gastrocnemius. In both muscles the V-wave was highest just prior to heel strike. It is suggested that this was due to a high firing frequency of the motoneurones in this phase of the movement. It is concluded...

  18. Growth hormone, IGF-I, and exercise effects on non-weight-bearing fast muscles of hypophysectomized rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grossman, E. J.; Grindeland, R. E.; Roy, R. R.; Talmadge, R. J.; Evans, J.; Edgerton, V. R.

    1997-01-01

    The effects of growth hormone (GH) or insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) with or without exercise (ladder climbing) in countering the effects of unweighting on fast muscles of hypophysectomized rats during 10 days of hindlimb suspension were determined. Compared with untreated suspended rats, muscle weights were 16-29% larger in GH-treated and 5-15% larger in IGF-I-treated suspended rats. Exercise alone had no effect on muscle weights. Compared with ambulatory control, the medial gastrocnemius weight in suspended, exercised rats was larger after GH treatment and maintained with IGF-I treatment. The combination of GH or IGF-I plus exercise in suspended rats resulted in an increase in size of each predominant fiber type, i.e., types I, I + IIa and IIa + IIx, in the medial gastrocnemius compared with untreated suspended rats. Normal ambulation or exercise during suspension increased the proportion of fibers expressing embryonic myosin heavy chain in hypophysectomized rats. The phenotype of the medial gastrocnemius was minimally affected by GH, IGF-I, and/or exercise. These results show that there is an IGF-I, as well as a GH, and exercise interactive effect in maintaining medial gastrocnemius fiber size in suspended hypophysectomized rats.

  19. The calcineurin antagonist RCAN1-4 is induced by exhaustive exercise in rat skeletal muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emrani, Ramin; Rébillard, Amélie; Lefeuvre, Luz; Gratas-Delamarche, Arlette; Davies, Kelvin J A; Cillard, Josiane

    2015-10-01

    The aim of this work was to study the regulation of the calcineurin antagonist regulator of calcineurin 1 (RCAN1) in rat skeletal muscles after exhaustive physical exercise, which is a physiological modulator of oxidative stress. Three skeletal muscles, namely extensor digitorum longus (EDL), gastrocnemius, and soleus, were investigated. Exhaustive exercise increased RCAN1-4 protein levels in EDL and gastrocnemius, but not in soleus. Protein oxidation as an index of oxidative stress was increased in EDL and gastrocnemius, but remained unchanged in soleus. However, lipid peroxidation was increased in all three muscles. CuZnSOD and catalase protein levels were increased at 3 h postexercise in soleus, whereas they remained unchanged in EDL and gastrocnemius. Calcineurin enzymatic activity declined in EDL and gastrocnemius but not in soleus, and its protein expression was decreased in all three muscles. The level of PGC1-α protein remained unchanged, whereas the protein expression of the transcription factor NFATc4 was decreased in all three muscles. Adiponectin expression was increased in all three muscles. RCAN1-4 expression in EDL and gastrocnemius muscles was augmented by the oxidative stress generated from exhaustive exercise. We propose that increased RCAN1-4 expression and the signal transduction pathways it regulates represent important components of the physiological adaptation to exercise-induced oxidative stress. PMID:26122706

  20. [Regional differences in the level of ERK1/2 phosphorylation and expression of the myogenic regulatory factors following electrostimulation with different mechanic and metabolic action on the gastrocnemius muscle].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borzykh, A A; Kuz'min, I V; Lysenko, E A; Vinogradova, O L

    2014-01-01

    Effect of high-frequency electrical stimulation of the sciatic nerve on ERK1/2 kinase phosphorylation and mRNA expression in MyoD (myogenic regulation factor) and myogenin in the red (RGM) and white (WGM) parts of the medial head in rat's m. gastrocnemius was studied. Two stimulation regimes were equalized both lengthwise and in total effort but differed in duration and number of contractions and, therefore, in mechanic and metabolic effects on the muscle. It was shown that growth of the number of phosphorylated ERK1/2 was particularly high in WCM due to application of the protocol for multiple short-time contractions. Whatever the stimulation regime, MyoD mRNA expression in RGM and WGM increases to the same extent, whereas myogenin mRNA expression does not change. Consequently, the regime with the predominantly mechanic effect is favorable to activation of the ERK signaling pathway in glycolytic myofibers. PMID:25087411

  1. Assessing safety of negative-pressure wound therapy over pedicled muscle flaps: A retrospective review of gastrocnemius muscle flap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lance, Samuel; Harrison, Lindsey; Orbay, Hakan; Boudreault, David; Pereira, Gavin; Sahar, David

    2016-04-01

    The use of negative-pressure wound therapy (NPWT) for management of open wounds and immobilization of split-thickness skin grafts (STSGs) over wounds has been well described. However, there is a concern for potential compromise of flap viability when NPWT is used for skin grafts over pedicled muscle flaps. We have used NPWT to immobilize STSGs in eight patients who underwent a pedicled gastrocnemius muscle flap operation in our department. We applied a negative pressure of -75 mmHg on the muscle flaps for 5 days postoperatively. All wounds healed successfully, with a 97.5 ± 5.5% mean STSG uptake. No flap necrosis was observed. In our series, the use of NPWT for fixation of STSGs over pedicled gastrocnemius muscle flap was effective and had no negative impact on flap viability. PMID:26732293

  2. Hybrid diffuse optical techniques for continuous hemodynamic measurement in gastrocnemius during plantar flexion exercise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, Brad; Zhao, Mingjun; Shang, Yu; Uhl, Timothy; Thomas, D. Travis; Xenos, Eleftherios S.; Saha, Sibu P.; Yu, Guoqiang

    2015-12-01

    Occlusion calibrations and gating techniques have been recently applied by our laboratory for continuous and absolute diffuse optical measurements of forearm muscle hemodynamics during handgrip exercises. The translation of these techniques from the forearm to the lower limb is the goal of this study as various diseases preferentially affect muscles in the lower extremity. This study adapted a hybrid near-infrared spectroscopy and diffuse correlation spectroscopy system with a gating algorithm to continuously quantify hemodynamic responses of medial gastrocnemius during plantar flexion exercises in 10 healthy subjects. The outcomes from optical measurement include oxy-, deoxy-, and total hemoglobin concentrations, blood oxygen saturation, and relative changes in blood flow (rBF) and oxygen consumption rate (rV˙O2). We calibrated rBF and rV˙O2 profiles with absolute baseline values of BF and V˙O2 obtained by venous and arterial occlusions, respectively. Results from this investigation were comparable to values from similar studies. Additionally, significant correlation was observed between resting local muscle BF measured by the optical technique and whole limb BF measured concurrently by a strain gauge venous plethysmography. The extensive hemodynamic and metabolic profiles during exercise will allow for future comparison studies to investigate the diagnostic value of hybrid technologies in muscles affected by disease.

  3. The proprioceptive and agonist roles of gastrocnemius, soleus and tibialis anterior muscles in maintaining human upright posture

    OpenAIRE

    Di Giulio, I; Maganaris, CN; Baltzopoulos, V.; Loram, ID

    2009-01-01

    This article is available open access through the publisher’s website at the link below. Copyright © 2009 The Authors. Humans can stand using sensory information solely from the ankle muscles. Muscle length and tension in the calf muscles (gastrocnemius and soleus) are unlikely to signal postural sways on account of balance-related modulation in agonist activity. These facts pose two questions: (1) Which ankle muscles provide the proprioceptive information? (2) Which peripheral mechanism c...

  4. Oedema and fatty degeneration of the soleus and gastrocnemius muscles on MR images in patients with achilles tendon abnormalities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoffmann, Adrienne [University Hospital Balgrist Zuerich, Radiology Department, Zuerich (Switzerland); Hirslanden Klinik Aarau, Radiology Department, Aarau (Switzerland); Mamisch, Nadja; Buck, Florian M.; Pfirrmann, Christian W.A.; Zanetti, Marco [University Hospital Balgrist Zuerich, Radiology Department, Zuerich (Switzerland); Espinosa, Norman [University Hospital Balgrist Zuerich, Orthopedic Surgery Department, Zuerich (Switzerland)

    2011-09-15

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the frequency of oedema and fatty degeneration of the soleus and gastrocnemius muscles in patients with Achilles tendon abnormalities. Forty-five consecutive patients (mean 51 years; range 14-84 years) with achillodynia were examined with magnetic resonance (MR) images of the calf. The frequency of oedema and fatty degeneration in the soleus and gastrocnemius muscles was determined in patients with normal tendons, tendinopathy and in patients with a partial tear or a complete tear of the Achilles tendon. Oedema was encountered in 35% (7/20) of the patients with tendinopathy (n = 20; range 13-81 years), and in 47% (9/19) of the patients with partial tears or complete tears (n = 19; 28-78 years). Fatty degeneration was encountered in 10% (2/20) of the patients with tendinopathy, and in 32% (6/19) of the patients with tears. The prevalence of fatty degeneration was significantly more common in patients with a partial or complete tear compared with the patients with a normal Achilles tendon (p = 0.032 and p = 0.021, respectively). Oedema and fatty degeneration of the soleus and gastrocnemius muscles are common in patients with Achilles tendon abnormalities. (orig.)

  5. Ginseng administration protects skeletal muscle from oxidative stress induced by acute exercise in rats

    OpenAIRE

    2004-01-01

    Enzymatic activity was analyzed in the soleus, gastrocnemius (red and white) and plantaris muscles of acutely exercised rats after long-term administration of Panax ginseng extract in order to evaluate the protective role of ginseng against skeletal muscle oxidation. Ginseng extract (3, 10, 100, or 500 mg/kg) was administered orally for three months to male Wistar rats weighing 200 ± 50 g before exercise and to non-exercised rats (N = 8/group). The results showed a membrane stabilizing capaci...

  6. Therapeutic Effect of Extracorporeal Shock Wave Therapy According to Treatment Session on Gastrocnemius Muscle Spasticity in Children With Spastic Cerebral Palsy: A Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Dong-Soon; Park, Gi-Young; Lee, Michael Y.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate the therapeutic effect of extracorporeal shockwave therapy (ESWT) according to treatment session on gastrocnemius muscle spasticity in children with spastic cerebral palsy (CP). Methods Twelve children with spastic CP underwent 1 ESWT and 2 sham ESWT sessions for gastrocnemius (group 1) or 3 ESWT sessions (group 2) once per week for 3 weeks. Modified Ashworth Scale (MAS) score, passive range of motion (PROM) of the ankle plantar-flexor muscles with knee extension, and median red pixel intensity (RPI) of color histogram of medial gastrocnemius on real-time sonoelastography (RTS) were measured before ESWT, immediately after the first and third ESWT, and at 4 weeks after the third ESWT. Results Mean ankle PROM was significantly increased whereas as mean ankle MAS and median gastrocnemius RPI were significantly decreased in both groups after the first ESWT. Clinical and RTS parameters before ESWT were not significantly different from those immediately after the third ESWT or at 4 weeks after the third ESWT in group 1. However, they were significantly different from those immediately after the third ESWT or at 4 weeks after the third ESWT in group 2. Mean ankle PROM, mean ankle MAS, and median gastrocnemius RPI in group 2 were significantly different from that in group 1 at 4 weeks or immediately after the third ESWT. Conclusion The therapeutic effect of ESWT on spastic medial gastrocnemius in children with spastic CP is dependent on the number of ESWT sessions. PMID:26798605

  7. Formoterol decreases muscle wasting as well as inflammation in the rat model of rheumatoid arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-SanMiguel, Ana Belén; Gomez-Moreira, Carolina; Nieto-Bona, María Paz; Fernández-Galaz, Carmen; Villanúa, Maria Ángeles; Martín, Ana Isabel; López-Calderón, Asunción

    2016-06-01

    Adjuvant-induced arthritis is an experimental model of rheumatoid arthritis that is associated with body weight loss and muscle wasting. β2-adrenergic receptor agonists are powerful anabolic agents that trigger skeletal muscle hypertrophy and have been proposed as a promising treatment for muscle wasting in human patients. The aim of this work was to determine whether formoterol, a selective β2-adrenoreceptor agonist, is able to ameliorate muscle wasting in arthritic rats. Arthritis was induced in male Wistar rats by intradermal injection of Freund's adjuvant. Control and arthritic rats were injected daily with 50 μg/kg sc formoterol or saline for 12 days. Body weight change, food intake, and arthritis index were analyzed. After euthanasia, in the gastrocnemius mRNA was analyzed by PCR, and proteins were analyzed by Western blotting. Arthritis decreased gastrocnemius weight, cross-sectional area, and myofiber size, whereas formoterol increased those variables in both arthritic and control rats. Formoterol decreased the external signs of arthritis as well as NF-κB(p65) activation, TNFα, and COX-2 levels in the gastrocnemius of arthritic and control rats. Those effects of formoterol were associated with a decreased expression of myostatin, atrogin-1, and MuRF1 and in LC3b lipidation. Arthritis increased the expression of MyoD, myogenin, IGF-I, and IGFBP-3 and -5 in the gastrocnemius. In control and in arthritic rats, treatment with formoterol increased Akt phosphorylation and myogenin levels, whereas it decreased IGFBP-3 expression in the gastrocnemius. These data suggest that formoterol has an anti-inflammatory effect and decreases muscle wasting in arthritic rats through increasing Akt activity and myogenin and decreasing myostatin, the p-NF-κB(p65)/TNF pathway, and IGFBP-3. PMID:27245339

  8. Vestibular contribution to balance control in the medial gastrocnemius and soleus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dakin, Christopher J; Héroux, Martin E; Luu, Billy L; Inglis, John Timothy; Blouin, Jean-Sébastien

    2016-03-01

    The soleus (Sol) and medial gastrocnemius (mGas) muscles have different patterns of activity during standing balance and may have distinct functional roles. Using surface electromyography we previously observed larger responses to galvanic vestibular stimulation (GVS) in the mGas compared with the Sol muscle. However, it is unclear whether this difference is an artifact that reflects limitations associated with surface electromyography recordings or whether a compensatory balance response to a vestibular error signal activates the mGas to a greater extent than the Sol. In the present study, we compared the effect of GVS on the discharge behavior of 9 Sol and 21 mGas motor units from freely standing subjects. In both Sol and mGas motor units, vestibular stimulation induced biphasic responses in measures of discharge timing [11 ± 5.0 (mGas) and 5.6 ± 3.8 (Sol) counts relative to the sham (mean ± SD)], and frequency [0.86 ± 0.6 Hz (mGas), 0.34 ± 0.2 Hz (Sol) change relative to the sham]. Peak-to-trough response amplitudes were significantly larger in the mGas (62% in the probability-based measure and 160% in the frequency-based measure) compared with the Sol (multiple P vestibular signals have a larger influence on the discharge activity of motor units in the mGas compared with the Sol. More tentatively, these results indicate the mGas plays a greater role in vestibular-driven balance corrections during standing balance. PMID:26683068

  9. Spaceflight and hind limb unloading induce similar changes in electrical impedance characteristics of mouse gastrocnemius muscle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sung, M.; Li, J.; Spieker, A.J.; Spatz, J.; Ellman, R.; Ferguson, V.L.; Bateman, T.A.; Rosen, G.D.; Bouxsein, M.; Rutkove, S.B.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To assess the potential of electrical impedance myography (EIM) to serve as a marker of muscle fiber atrophy and secondarily as an indicator of bone deterioration by assessing the effects of spaceflight or hind limb unloading. Methods In the first experiment, 6 mice were flown aboard the space shuttle (STS-135) for 13 days and 8 earthbound mice served as controls. In the second experiment, 14 mice underwent hind limb unloading (HLU) for 13 days; 13 additional mice served as controls. EIM measurements were made on ex vivo gastrocnemius muscle. Quantitative microscopy and areal bone mineral density (aBMD) measurements of the hindlimb were also performed. Results Reductions in the multifrequency phase-slope parameter were observed for both the space flight and HLU cohorts compared to their respective controls. For ground control and spaceflight groups, the values were 24.7±1.3°/MHz and 14.1±1.6°/MHz, respectively (p=0.0013); for control and HLU groups, the values were 23.9±1.6°/MHz and 19.0±1.0°/MHz, respectively (p=0.014). This parameter also correlated with muscle fiber size (ρ=0.65, p=0.011) for spaceflight and hind limb aBMD (ρ=0.65, p=0.0063) for both groups. Conclusions These data support the concept that EIM may serve as a useful tool for assessment of muscle disuse secondary to immobilization or microgravity. PMID:24292610

  10. Within- and between-session reliability of medial gastrocnemius architectural properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMahon, J J; Turner, A; Comfort, P

    2016-06-01

    This study aimed to determine the within- and between-session reliability of medial gastrocnemius (MG) architecture (e.g. muscle thickness (MT), fascicle length (FL) and pennation angle (PA)), as derived via ultrasonography followed by manual digitization. A single rater recorded three ultrasound images of the relaxed MG muscle belly for both legs of 16 resistance trained males, who were positioned in a pronated position with their knees fully extended and the ankles in a neutral (e.g. 90°) position. A subset of participants (n = 11) were retested under the same conditions ~48-72 hours after baseline testing. The same rater manually digitized each ultrasound image on three occasions to determine MG MT, FL and PA before pooling the data accordingly to allow for within-image (n = 96), between-image (n = 32) and between-session reliability (n = 22) to be determined. Intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs) demonstrated excellent within-image (ICCs = 0.99-1.00, P ICCs = 0.83-0.95, P ICCs = 0.89-0.95, P < 0.001) reliability for MT, FL and PA. Between-session coefficient of variation was low (≤ 3.6%) for each architectural parameter and smallest detectible difference values of 10.6%, 11.4% and 9.8% were attained for MT, FL and PA, respectively. Manually digitizing ultrasound images of the MG muscle at rest yields highly reliable measurements of its architectural properties. Furthermore, changes in MG MT, FL and PA of ≥ 10.6%, 11.4% and 9.8% respectively, as brought about by any form of intervention, should be considered meaningful. PMID:27274113

  11. Rat hindlimb joint immobilization with acrylic resin orthoses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.A. da Silva

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to propose an orthosis of light material that would be functional for the animal and that would maintain only the ankle joint immobilized. Male Wistar rats (3 to 4 months old, 250-300 g were divided into 2 groups (N = 6: control and immobilized for 7 days. Rats were anesthetized with sodium pentobarbital (40 mg/kg weight and the left hindlimb was immobilized with the orthoses composed of acrylic resin model, abdominal belt and lateral supports. The following analyses were performed: glycogen content of the soleus, extensor digitorum longus, white gastrocnemius, red gastrocnemius, and tibialis anterior muscles by the phenol sulfuric method, and the weight, fiber area and intramuscular connective tissue of the soleus by the planimetric system. Data were analyzed statistically by the Kolmogorov-Smirnov, Student t and Wilcoxon tests. Immobilization decreased glycogen in all muscles (P < 0.05; soleus: 31.6%, white gastrocnemius: 56.6%, red gastrocnemius: 39%, extensor digitorum longus: 41.7%, tibialis anterior: 45.2% in addition to reducing soleus weight by 34% (P < 0.05. Furthermore, immobilization promoted reduction of the fiber area (43%, P < 0.05 and increased the connective tissue (200%, P < 0.05. The orthosis model was efficient comparing with another alternative immobilization model, like plaster casts, in promoting skeletal muscle alterations, indicating that it could be used as a new model in other studies related to muscle disuse.

  12. Comparative study of the differentiation potential of rat bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells and rat muscle-derived stem cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Alexandra

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a comparative study of the plasticity of rat bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs and rat muscle-derived stem cells (MDSCs. The study was performed on two cell populations that were isolated by aspiration from the femur bone marrow and gastrocnemius muscle biopsy of 6-week-old albino rats. Both cell populations were exposed to identical stimulation conditions. The cells were capable of undergoing osteogenic, chondrogenic, adipogenic and epithelial differentiation, as shown by histochemistry and immunostaining techniques. The MDSC population showed behavior and characteristics similar to the bone marrow MSC population; however, the osteogenic and adipogenic potential was more reduced compared to MSCs. Our results indicate a positive expression of E cadherin and Cytokeratin 10 after 28 days under epithelial stimulation, suggesting a potential use for gastrocnemius muscle MDSCs as a promising source for regenerative therapies, including re-epithelialization and skin regeneration.

  13. Three-Dimensional Muscle Architecture and Comprehensive Dynamic Properties of Rabbit Gastrocnemius, Plantaris and Soleus: Input for Simulation Studies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tobias Siebert

    Full Text Available The vastly increasing number of neuro-muscular simulation studies (with increasing numbers of muscles used per simulation is in sharp contrast to a narrow database of necessary muscle parameters. Simulation results depend heavily on rough parameter estimates often obtained by scaling of one muscle parameter set. However, in vivo muscles differ in their individual properties and architecture. Here we provide a comprehensive dataset of dynamic (n = 6 per muscle and geometric (three-dimensional architecture, n = 3 per muscle muscle properties of the rabbit calf muscles gastrocnemius, plantaris, and soleus. For completeness we provide the dynamic muscle properties for further important shank muscles (flexor digitorum longus, extensor digitorum longus, and tibialis anterior; n = 1 per muscle. Maximum shortening velocity (normalized to optimal fiber length of the gastrocnemius is about twice that of soleus, while plantaris showed an intermediate value. The force-velocity relation is similar for gastrocnemius and plantaris but is much more bent for the soleus. Although the muscles vary greatly in their three-dimensional architecture their mean pennation angle and normalized force-length relationships are almost similar. Forces of the muscles were enhanced in the isometric phase following stretching and were depressed following shortening compared to the corresponding isometric forces. While the enhancement was independent of the ramp velocity, the depression was inversely related to the ramp velocity. The lowest effect strength for soleus supports the idea that these effects adapt to muscle function. The careful acquisition of typical dynamical parameters (e.g. force-length and force-velocity relations, force elongation relations of passive components, enhancement and depression effects, and 3D muscle architecture of calf muscles provides valuable comprehensive datasets for e.g. simulations with neuro-muscular models, development of more realistic

  14. Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexey Kondrashov

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We aimed to perform a chemical analysis of both Alibernet red wine and an alcohol-free Alibernet red wine extract (AWE and to investigate the effects of AWE on nitric oxide and reactive oxygen species production as well as blood pressure development in normotensive Wistar Kyoto (WKY and spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs. Total antioxidant capacity together with total phenolic and selected mineral content was measured in wine and AWE. Young 6-week-old male WKY and SHR were treated with AWE (24,2 mg/kg/day for 3 weeks. Total NOS and SOD activities, eNOS and SOD1 protein expressions, and superoxide production were determined in the tissues. Both antioxidant capacity and phenolic content were significantly higher in AWE compared to wine. The AWE increased NOS activity in the left ventricle, aorta, and kidney of SHR, while it did not change NOS activity in WKY rats. Similarly, increased SOD activity in the plasma and left ventricle was observed in SHR only. There were no changes in eNOS and SOD1 expressions. In conclusion, phenolics and minerals included in AWE may contribute directly to increased NOS and SOD activities of SHR. Nevertheless, 3 weeks of AWE treatment failed to affect blood pressure of SHR.

  15. NEURO-PROTECTION AND NEURO-THERAPY EFFECTS OF Acalypha indica Linn. WATER EXTRACT EX VIVO ON Musculus gastrocnemius Frog

    OpenAIRE

    Arjo Tedjo; Hamdani Zain; Nurhadi Ibrahim; Ernie H. Purwaningsih

    2008-01-01

    The studies of neuro-protection and neuro-therapy effects of Acalypha indica Linn. water extract ex vivo on Musculus gastrocnemius frog have already done at three Departments in Faculty of Medicine, University of Indonesia. The experimental studies were done on 2 groups of frog for neuro-protection and neuro-therapy effects. Each group of frog was divided into 7 subgroups of application, 4 samples each. There were 5 subgroups of doses: 5; 10; 15; 20; 25 mg and 2 subgroups as control. Pancuro...

  16. Bi-pedicled V-Y gastrocnemius myocutaneous flap for repairing Achilles tendon and overlying skin defect: the anatomic basis and clinical application

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Yong-qing; ZHU Yue-liang; YANG Jun; LI Jun; DING Jing; LU Sheng

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To study the anatomic basis of the bi-pedicled V-Y gastrocnemius myocutaneous flap for repairing the composite Achilles tendon defect. Methods: The pedicle anatomy of the bi-pedicled V-Y gastrocnemius myocutaneous flap was examined on 30 cadaver specimens. The sliding distances of the flap were measured at different knee flexion degrees. The bi-pedicled V-Y gastrocnemius myocutaneous flap was applied in 12 cases of Achilles tendon defect with simultaneous skin and soft tissue defect. Results: The sural arteries could be classified into four types. After cutting off the gastrocnemius origin with a "Z-shaped" incision, the sliding distance of the flap reached (3.7±0.5)cm when the knee flexed 0°,(4.9±0.7)cm when the knee flexed 30°,(6.7±0.7)cm when the knee flexed 60°and (9.2±0.9)cm when the knee flexed 90°. All the defects healed. The patients recovered ambulation with satisfactory knee and ankle function.The follow-up was 4 months -12 years. Conclusions: Different sural artery types should be noticed during the harvest of the bi-pedicled V-Y gastrocnemius myocutaneous flap. With 90°knee flexion,this flap is suitable for one-stage repair of composite Achilles tendon defect within 9.2 cm±0.9 cm.

  17. 腓肠肌前方腱膜松解治疗非痉挛性腓肠肌挛缩%Anterior aponeurotic recession of gastrocnemius for non-spastic gastrocnemius contraction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    荣凯; 朱渊; 刘津浩; 徐向阳

    2014-01-01

    目的:介绍及评价腓肠肌前方腱膜松解治疗非痉挛性腓肠肌挛缩的手术方法及术后疗效。方法回顾性研究2006年7月至2013年7月期间,本组采用腓肠肌前方腱膜松解治疗非痉挛性腓肠肌挛缩的患者。患者术前体检Silfverskiöld试验(+),采用Baumann入路在腓肠肌与比目鱼肌间隙之间,松解腓肠肌前方腱膜,背伸踝关节至角度满意。术前和末次随访时测量踝关节的最大被动背伸角度(膝关节伸直位和屈曲90°时),进行美国足踝医师协会后足-踝关节(AOFAS-AH)评分,并记录术后并发症情况。结果29例(35足)患者获得随访,平均年龄36.5岁(8~69岁),平均随访32.6个月(7~54个月)。其中成人扁平足11例13足,儿童扁平足4例5足,踇外翻6例8足,跖筋膜炎5例6足,创伤性马蹄足3例3足。术前和末次随访时伸膝位踝关节最大被动背伸角度分别为(-5.7°±3.2°)(-15°~3°)和(8.2°±3.7°)(-6°~17°)(P<0.01),背伸角度平均增加13.9°。 AOFAS-AH评分由术前平均46.7分提高到末次随访的75.1分(P<0.01)。术后马蹄足畸形复发2例(2足),无过度延长、神经血管损伤及伤口并发症发生。结论腓肠肌前方腱膜松解操作方便,术后踝关节背伸角度恢复满意,跖屈肌力良好,未见明显并发症,是治疗非痉挛性腓肠肌挛缩安全、有效的手术方法。%Objective To investigate the surgical method and the clinical results of the anterior aponeurotic recession of gastrocnemius for non-spastic gastrocnemius contraction .Methods The patients with non-spastic gastrocnemius contraction treated by the anterior aponeurotic recession of gastrocnemius during July 2007 to July 2013, were retrospectively studied .All the patients were preoperatively identified by Silfverskiold test , and received the anterior aponeurotic recession of gastrocnemius in the

  18. The pediculated gastrocnemius muscle flap as a treatment for soft tissue problems of the knee – indication, placement and results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moebius, Boris

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available With the increase of endoprosthetic knee replacements, there is also an increase of critical wounds to the knee due to a high incidence of soft tissue problems (ranging from wound healing defects to severe wound infections. The literature describes a general rate of soft tissue complications of up to 20% [1], [2], with 5% [3] involving exposed bone. These complications are an increasingly important problem for surgeons. Since sufficient coverage of bones, tendons and prosthetic material with soft tissue is a necessity, the use of a pediculated muscle flap is the only solution in some cases. The gastrocnemius muscle is very useful for this purpose. It is an elaborate procedure which is associated with a high rate of complications. However, this procedure can establish a secure coverage with soft tissue, and the function of the prosthesis and the patient’s extremity can be saved. We have treated 23 patients with a gastrocnemius rotation flap after knee prosthesis or knee arthrodesis infection with consecutive soft tissue damage at our hospital from 8/2004 through 3/2011. The overall rate of healing of the knee infections with stable soft tissue status is almost 87%. The revision rate with lifting of the flap and revision of the sutures at the point of insertion as well as the point of extraction was about 35% with long-term conservative or additional surgical treatments.

  19. Correlations and coherence of monopolar EMG-currents of the medial gastrocnemius muscle in proximal and distal compartments

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    Vinzenz eVon Tscharner

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The penniform gastrocnemius muscle contains multiple heads in the proximal regions and the aponeuroses are attached to the Achilles tendon. The multiple head structure lead to the assumption that different regions of the muscle must be activated compartment wise. The purpose of this study was to compare the correlation and coherence of EMG-currents within and between proximal and distal compartments of the medial gastrocnemius muscle, which reflect underling synchronization of motor units. It was hypothesized and shown that phase-inverted signals represent a property that discriminates compartments. However, the phase-inverted and non-inverted signals showed values of correlations that were indicative for highly synchronized signals. The correlation increased with the complexity of the task and was higher for the calf-rising movement than while balancing in a tiptoe position. Because the muscle fibers do not span the whole length of the muscles one has to conclude that the MUs were synchronized by synchronizing the various motor nerves. This study shows that it is essential to measure monopolar signals and use non-isometric contractions to observe synchronization of the EMG-signals. One could speculate that compartmental differences can only be observed if more complex movements that generate rotational forces at the knee or ankle are used.

  20. Gait Analysis before and after Gastrocnemius Fascia Lengthening for Spastic Equinus Foot Deformity in a 10-Year-Old Diplegic Child

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    Manuela Galli

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. This case study quantified kinematic and kinetic effects of gastrocnemius lengthening on gait in a Cerebral Palsy child with equinus foot. Methods. A 10-year-old diplegic child with Cerebral Palsy was evaluated with Gait Analysis (GA before and after gastrocnemius fascia lengthening, investigating the lower limb joints kinematics and kinetics. Results. Kinematics improved at the level of distal joints, which are directly associated to gastrocnemius, and also at the proximal joint (like hip; improvements were found in ankle kinetics, too. Conclusions. This case study highlighted that GA was effective not only to quantify the results of the treatment but also to help preoperative decision making in dealing with CP child.

  1. Motor unit recruitment and firing rate in medial gastrocnemius muscles during external perturbations in standing in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollock, C L; Ivanova, T D; Hunt, M A; Garland, S J

    2014-10-01

    There is limited investigation of the interaction between motor unit recruitment and rate coding for modulating force during standing or responding to external perturbations. Fifty-seven motor units were recorded from the medial gastrocnemius muscle with intramuscular electrodes in response to external perturbations in standing. Anteriorly directed perturbations were generated by applying loads in 0.45-kg increments at the pelvis every 25-40 s until 2.25 kg was maintained. Motor unit firing rate was calculated for the initial recruitment load and all subsequent loads during two epochs: 1) dynamic response to perturbation directly following each load drop and 2) maintenance of steady state between perturbations. Joint kinematics and surface electromyography (EMG) from lower extremities and force platform measurements were assessed. Application of the external loads resulted in a significant forward progression of the anterior-posterior center of pressure (AP COP) that was accompanied by modest changes in joint angles (recruitment, motor unit firing rate immediately after the load drop was significantly lower than during subsequent load drops or during the steady state at the same load. There was a modest increase in motor unit firing rate immediately after the load drop on subsequent load drops associated with regaining balance. There was no effect of maintaining balance with increased load and forward progression of the AP COP on steady-state motor unit firing rate. The medial gastrocnemius utilized primarily motor unit recruitment to achieve the increased levels of activation necessary to maintain standing in the presence of external loads. PMID:24990568

  2. Daily in vivo neuromuscular stimulation effects on immobilized rat hindlimb muscles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardiner, P F; Lapointe, M A

    1982-10-01

    The purpose of the investigation was to determine the effects of a daily regimen of near-maximal contractions, produced via in vivo electrical stimulation of peripheral nerve, on functional and histochemical properties of rat hindlimb muscles immobilized for 28 days in a plaster cast. Rats had knee and ankle joints of one hindlimb immobilized; then while anesthetized, half of the group was subjected to a daily regimen of 480 semifused tetanic contractions (50 Hz) via fine-wire electrodes chronically implanted around the sciatic nerve. Immobilization caused significant decreases in soleus and gastrocnemius muscle weights, fiber cross-sectional areas, and twitch and tetanic strength measured in situ. In addition, immobilized soleus muscles had faster time to peak tension (TPT) and higher proportions of fast-twitch fibers, whereas immobilized gastrocnemius muscles demonstrated faster half-relaxation times (RT1/2) and total twitch durations (TPT plus RT1/2). The only significant effects of the imposed contractions were evident in the gastrocnemius in which stimulation prevented the shortening of RT1/2 and total twitch duration and resulted in significantly higher relative tensions at 50 Hz and higher fatigue resistance. Muscle activity of this type imposed on immobilized muscle is ineffective in attenuating atrophy but can, in fast muscle such as gastrocnemius, prevent changes in twitch characteristics resulting from immobilization, as well as augment contractile responses during semifused and fatiguing contractions. PMID:7153129

  3. The sequential effection of Vimentin and Desmin in eccentric exercise on the gastrocnemius of mouse%力竭性离心运动对大鼠腓肠肌波形蛋白与结蛋白的时序性影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王芝琴; 刘文锋; 宋卫红

    2011-01-01

    Objective To investigate the sequential effects of Vimentin and Desmin in exhaustive eccentric exercise on the gastrocnemius of mouse. Methods: 50 SD rats (8-week-old) were randomly divided into Control group (C) and exercise group (0 h, 3 h, 24 h, 48 h).Exercise group do eccentric and exhaustively-repeated exercise three days, the gastrocnemius' expression of Vimentin and Desmin were detected with immunohistochemistiy in different recovery phase. Results Gastrocnemius' Vimentin after eccentric exercise significantly increased the positive expression area, and in peak 24-48 hours after exercising, but the average optical density of Vimentin is the strongest after exercising immediately, then gradually fades Desmin expression increased gradually after 3 hours with exercising recovery time after exercise in rats, and in peak 48 hours. Conclusion Exhaustive eccentric exercise effect expression of Vimentin and Desmin.%目的:探讨力竭性离心运动对腓肠肌波形蛋白和结蛋白的时序性影响.方法:50只8周龄SD大鼠随机分为安静组(C)和运动组(0 h,3h,24 h,48 h);运动组进行重复三天的力竭性离心运动,免疫组化检测大鼠腓肠肌不同恢复时相波形蛋白和结蛋白的表达.结果:离心运动后腓肠肌Vimentin的阳性表达面积明显增大,而且在运动后24-48 h达到峰值,但Vimentin的平均光密度却在运动后即刻最强,以后逐渐变淡;运动后3h后随着运动后恢复时间大鼠Desmin阳性表达逐渐升高,48 h达到峰值.结论:力竭性离心运动对腓肠肌波形蛋白和结蛋白的表达具有明显影响.

  4. Effect of angular velocity on soleus and medial gastrocnemius H-reflex during maximal concentric and eccentric muscle contraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duclay, Julien; Robbe, Alice; Pousson, Michel; Martin, Alain

    2009-10-01

    At rest, the H-reflex is lower during lengthening than shortening actions. During passive lengthening, both soleus (SOL) and medial gastrocnemius (MG) H-reflex amplitudes decrease with increasing angular velocity. This study was designed to investigate whether H-reflex amplitude is affected by angular velocity during concentric and eccentric maximal voluntary contraction (MVC). Experiments were performed on nine healthy men. At a constant angular velocity of 60 degrees /s and 20 degrees /s, maximal H-reflex and M-wave potentials were evoked at rest (i.e., H(max) and M(max), respectively) and during concentric and eccentric MVC (i.e., H(sup) and M(sup), respectively). Regardless of the muscle, H(max)/M(max) was lower during lengthening than shortening actions and the H(sup)/M(sup) ratio was higher than H(max)/M(max) during lengthening actions. Whereas no action type and angular velocity effects on the MG H(sup)/M(sup) were found, the SOL H(sup)/M(sup) was lower during eccentric than concentric MVC and this depression was increased with higher angular velocity. Our findings indicate that the depression of the H-reflex amplitude during eccentric compared to concentric MVC depends mainly on the amount of inhibition induced by lengthening action. In conclusion, H-reflex should be evoked during both passive and active dynamic trials to evaluate the plasticity of the spinal loop. PMID:18555699

  5. Gastrocnemius muscle herniation as a rare differential diagnosis of ankle sprain: case report and review of the literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bergmann Greta

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Muscle herniation of the leg is a rare clinical entity. Yet, knowing this condition is necessary to avoid misdiagnosis and delayed treatment. In the extremities, muscle herniation most commonly occurs as a result of an acquired fascial defect, often due to trauma. Different treatment options for symptomatic extremity muscle herniation in the extremities, including conservative treatment, fasciotomy and mesh repair have been described. Case presentation We present the case of a patient who presented with prolonged symptoms after an ankle sprain. The clinical picture showed a fascial insufficiency with muscle bulging under tension. Ultrasound and MRI imaging confirmed the diagnosis of muscle hernia of the medial gastrocnemius on the right leg. Conservative treatment did not lead to success. Therefore, the fascial defect was treated surgically by repairing the muscle herniation using a synthetic vicryl propylene patch. Conclusions Muscle hernias should be taken into consideration as a rare differential diagnosis whenever patients present with persisting pain or soft tissue swelling after ankle sprain. Diagnosis is mainly based on clinical aspect and physical examination, but can be confirmed by radiologic imaging techniques, including (dynamic ultrasound and MRI. If conservative treatment fails, we recommend the closure with mesh patches for large fascial defects.

  6. Changes in Muscular Lipids in Unilateral Isolated Hypertrophy of Gastrocnemius Muscle Can Be Revealed by 1H MR Spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brechtel, Klaus; Machann, Juergen; Pick, Margarete; Schaefer, Juergen F.; Claussen, Claus D.; Schick, Fritz [University of Tuebingen, Tuebingen (Germany)

    2009-12-15

    To test whether proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy ({sup 1}H-MRS) reveals changes in the lipid content of the gastrocnemius muscle (GM) and soleus muscle (SOL) of a patient with unilateral isolated hypertrophy of the right GM. {sup 1}H-MRS was performed on a 1.5 Tesla (T) wholebody unit. Muscular lipids inside SOL and GM were assessed in both calves of the patient by a STEAM (stimulated echo acquisition mode) localization sequence. Results were compared to a control group of four healthy volunteers. Total amount of muscular lipids in the hypertrophic GM of the patient was clearly increased compared to the controls (38.7 versus 21.8{+-}3.5 a.u.) while intramyocellular lipids of the adjacent SOL were lower compared to the contralateral healthy leg. Muscular lipids are substrates for metabolism and can be assessed non-invasively by {sup 1}H-MRS. {sup 1}H-MRS is considered to be a helpful tool in clinical assessment of muscle metabolism in cases with muscular hypo- or hypertrophy.

  7. Proprioceptive acuity predicts muscle co-contraction of the tibialis anterior and gastrocnemius medialis in older adults' dynamic postural control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craig, C E; Goble, D J; Doumas, M

    2016-05-13

    Older adults use a different muscle strategy to cope with postural instability, in which they 'co-contract' the muscles around the ankle joint. It has been suggested that this is a compensatory response to age-related proprioceptive decline however this view has never been assessed directly. The current study investigated the association between proprioceptive acuity and muscle co-contraction in older adults. We compared muscle activity, by recording surface electromyography (EMG) from the bilateral tibialis anterior (TA) and gastrocnemius medialis (GM) muscles, in young (aged 18-34) and older adults (aged 65-82) during postural assessment on a fixed and sway-referenced surface at age-equivalent levels of sway. We performed correlations between muscle activity and proprioceptive acuity, which was assessed using an active contralateral matching task. Despite successfully inducing similar levels of sway in the two age groups, older adults still showed higher muscle co-contraction. A stepwise regression analysis showed that proprioceptive acuity measured using variable error was the best predictor of muscle co-contraction in older adults. However, despite suggestions from previous research, proprioceptive error and muscle co-contraction were negatively correlated in older adults, suggesting that better proprioceptive acuity predicts more co-contraction. Overall, these results suggest that although muscle co-contraction may be an age-specific strategy used by older adults, it is not to compensate for age-related proprioceptive deficits. PMID:26905952

  8. Changes in Muscular Lipids in Unilateral Isolated Hypertrophy of Gastrocnemius Muscle Can Be Revealed by 1H MR Spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To test whether proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H-MRS) reveals changes in the lipid content of the gastrocnemius muscle (GM) and soleus muscle (SOL) of a patient with unilateral isolated hypertrophy of the right GM. 1H-MRS was performed on a 1.5 Tesla (T) wholebody unit. Muscular lipids inside SOL and GM were assessed in both calves of the patient by a STEAM (stimulated echo acquisition mode) localization sequence. Results were compared to a control group of four healthy volunteers. Total amount of muscular lipids in the hypertrophic GM of the patient was clearly increased compared to the controls (38.7 versus 21.8±3.5 a.u.) while intramyocellular lipids of the adjacent SOL were lower compared to the contralateral healthy leg. Muscular lipids are substrates for metabolism and can be assessed non-invasively by 1H-MRS. 1H-MRS is considered to be a helpful tool in clinical assessment of muscle metabolism in cases with muscular hypo- or hypertrophy

  9. Effect of Aging and Obesity on Insulin Responsiveness and Glut-4 Glucose Transporter Content in Skeletal Muscle of Fischer 344 × Brown Norway Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Larkin, Lisa M.; Reynolds, Thomas H.; Supiano, Mark A.; Kahn, Barbara B.; Halter, Jeffrey B.

    2001-01-01

    This study investigated the metabolic changes with age in the Fischer 344 × Brown Norway rat and its suitability as an animal model of postmaturational insulin resistance. Specifically, we determined whether an age-associated decrease in glucose disposal is associated with diminished whole body insulin responsiveness and/or a decrease in glucose transporter (GLUT-4) protein and mRNA content in medial gastrocnemius muscle of male Fischer 344 × Brown Norway rats of ages 8, 18, and 28 months. Fa...

  10. Evaluation of treadmill exercise effect on muscular lipid profiles of diabetic fatty rats by nanoflow liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry

    OpenAIRE

    Jong Cheol Lee; Il Yong Kim; Yeri Son; Seul Kee Byeon; Dong Hyun Yoon; Jun Seok Son; Han Sol Song; Wook Song; Je Kyung Seong; Myeong Hee Moon

    2016-01-01

    We compare comprehensive quantitative profiling of lipids at the molecular level from skeletal muscle tissues (gastrocnemius and soleus) of Zucker diabetic fatty rats and Zucker lean control rats during treadmill exercise by nanoflow liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry. Because type II diabetes is caused by decreased insulin sensitivity due to excess lipids accumulated in skeletal muscle tissue, lipidomic analysis of muscle tissues under treadmill exercise can help unveil the mecha...

  11. Changes in the TBARs content and superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione peroxidase activities in the lymphoid organs and skeletal muscles of adrenodemedullated rats

    OpenAIRE

    Pereira B.; Costa-Rosa L.F.B.P.; Bechara E.J.H.; Newsholme P.; Curi R.

    1998-01-01

    Thiobarbituric acid reactant substances (TBARs) content, and the activities of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PDh), citrate synthase (CS), Cu/Zn- and Mn-superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase, and glutathione peroxidase (GPX) were measured in the lymphoid organs (thymus, spleen, and mesenteric lymph nodes (MLN)) and skeletal muscles (gastrocnemius and soleus) of adrenodemedullated (ADM) rats. The results were compared with those obtained for sham-operated rats. TBARs content was reduced b...

  12. The Application of Gastrocnemius Flap in Severe Electrical Burns of the Knees%腓肠肌肌瓣在修复严重膝部电烧伤中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱维平; 陈国华; 赵琳

    2003-01-01

    Objective To investigate the repairing methods of severe electrical burns of the knees. Methods 10pateints with severe electrical burns of the knees were enrolled in this study. After local debridement, gastrocnemius flap and netskin graft immediately. Results The entire flap survived very well with satisfactory results. Conclusion Early debridementfollowed by gastrocnemius flap and net skin graft could be simple, safe and reliable treatment strategies in the patients withsevere electrical burns of the knees.

  13. [Morphohistochemical study of skeletal muscles in rats after experimental flight on "Kosmos-1887"].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Il'ina-Kakueva, E I

    1990-01-01

    Morphometric and histochemical methods were used to examine the soleus, gastrocnemius (medial portion), quadriceps femoris (central portion) and biceps brachii muscles of Wistar SPF rats two days after the 13-day flight on Cosmos-1887. It was found that significant atrophy developed only in the soleus muscle. The space flight did not change the percentage content of slow (type I) and fast (type II) fibers in fast twitch muscles. During two days at 1 g the slow soleus muscle developed substantial circulation disorders, which led to interstitial edema and necrotic changes. The gastrocnemius muscle showed small foci containing necrotic myofibers. Two days after recovery no glycogen aggregates were seen in myofibers, which were previously observed in other rats examined 4--8 hours after flight. An initial stage of muscle readaptation to 1 g occurred, when NAD.H2-dehydrogenase activity was decreased. PMID:2145470

  14. Age-Associated Disruption of Molecular Clock Expression in Skeletal Muscle of the Spontaneously Hypertensive Rat

    OpenAIRE

    Miyazaki, Mitsunori; Schroder, Elizabeth; Stephanie E Edelmann; Michael E Hughes; Kornacker, Karl; Balke, C. William; Esser, Karyn A.

    2011-01-01

    It is well known that spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) develop muscle pathologies with hypertension and heart failure, though the mechanism remains poorly understood. Woon et al. (2007) linked the circadian clock gene Bmal1 to hypertension and metabolic dysfunction in the SHR. Building on these findings, we compared the expression pattern of several core-clock genes in the gastrocnemius muscle of aged SHR (80 weeks; overt heart failure) compared to aged-matched control WKY strain. Heart ...

  15. Induction of chronic non-inflammatory widespread pain increases cardiac sympathetic modulation in rats

    OpenAIRE

    Oliveira, Larissa Resende; de Melo, Vitor Ulisses; Macedo, Fabricio Nunes; Barreto, Andre Sales; Badaue-Passos, Daniel; Viana dos Santos, Marcio Roberto; Dias, Daniel Penteado Martins; Sluka, Kathleen A.; DeSantana, Josimari M.; Valter J. Santana-Filho

    2012-01-01

    Fibromyalgia (FM) is characterized by chronic non-inflammatory widespread pain (CWP) and changes in sympathetic function. In attempt to elucidate the pathophysiological mechanisms of FM we used a well-established CWP animal model. We aimed to evaluate changes in cardiac autonomic balance and baroreflex function in response to CWP induction in rats. CWP was induced by two injections of acidic saline (pH 4.0, n=8) five days apart into the left gastrocnemius muscle. Control animals were injected...

  16. Contributions of the soleus and gastrocnemius muscles to the anterior cruciate ligament loading during single-leg landing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mokhtarzadeh, Hossein; Yeow, Chen Hua; Hong Goh, James Cho; Oetomo, Denny; Malekipour, Fatemeh; Lee, Peter Vee-Sin

    2013-07-26

    The aim of this study was to identify the contribution of the Soleus and Gastrocnemius (Gastroc) muscles' forces to anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) loading during single-leg landing. Although Quadriceps (Quads) and Hamstrings (Hams) muscles were recognized as the main contributors to the ACL loading, less is known regarding the role of ankle joint plantarflexors during landing. Eight healthy subjects performed single-landing tasks from 30 and 60cm heights. Scaled generic musculoskeletal models were developed in OpenSim to calculate lower limb muscle forces. The model consisted of 10 segments with 23 degrees of freedom and 92 lower body muscle-tendon units. Knee joint reaction forces were calculated based on the estimated muscle forces and used to predict ACL forces. We hypothesized that Soleus and Gastrocs muscle forces have opposite effects on tibial loading in the anterior/posterior directions. In situations where greater landing height would lead to an increase in GRF and risk of ACL injury, we further hypothesized that posterior forces of the Soleus and Hams would increase correspondingly to help protect the ACL during a safe landing maneuver. Our results demonstrated the antagonistic and agonistic roles of Gastrocs and Soleus respectively in ACL loading. The posterior force of Soleus reached 28-32% of Ham's posterior force for both landing heights at peak GRF while the posterior force of Gastrocs on femur was negligible. ACL injury risk during single-leg landing is not only dependent on knee musculature but also influenced by muscles that do not span the knee joint, such as the Soleus. In conclusion, the role of the ankle plantarflexors should be considered when developing training strategies for ACL injury prevention. PMID:23731572

  17. Detection of G-Induced Loss of Consciousness (G-LOC) prognosis through EMG monitoring on gastrocnemius muscle in flight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Booyong Choi; Yongkyun Lee; Taehwan Cho; Hyojin Koo; Dongsoo Kim

    2015-08-01

    G-Induced Loss of Consciousness (G-LOC) is mainly caused by the sudden acceleration in the direction of +Gz axis from the fighter pilots, and is considered as an emergent situation of which fighter pilots are constantly aware. In order to resist against G-LOC, fighter pilots are subject to run Anti-G straining maneuver (AGSM), which includes L-1 respiration maneuvering and muscular contraction of the whole body. The purpose of this study is to create a G-LOC warning alarm prior to G-LOC by monitoring the Electromyogram (EMG) of the gastrocnemius muscle on the calf, which goes under constant muscular contraction during the AGSM process. EMG data was retrieved from pilots and pilot trainees of the Korean Air Force, during when subjects were under high G-trainings on a human centrifugal simulator. Out of the EMG features, integrated absolute value (IAV), reflecting muscle contraction, and waveform length (WL), reflecting muscle contraction and fatigue, have shown a rapid decay during the alarm phase, 3 seconds before G-LOC, compared to that of a normal phase withstanding G-force. Such results showed consistency amongst pilots and pilot trainees who were under G-LOC. Based on these findings, this study developed an algorithm which can detect G-LOC prognosis during flight, and at the same time, generate warning signals. The probability of G-LOC occurrence is detected through monitoring the decay trend and degree of the IVA and WL value of when the pilot initiates AGSM during sudden acceleration above 6G. Conclusively, this G-LOC prognosis detecting and warning system is a customized, real-time countermeasure which enhanced the accuracy of detecting G-LOC. PMID:26737905

  18. NEURO-PROTECTION AND NEURO-THERAPY EFFECTS OF Acalypha indica Linn. WATER EXTRACT EX VIVO ON Musculus gastrocnemius Frog

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arjo Tedjo

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The studies of neuro-protection and neuro-therapy effects of Acalypha indica Linn. water extract ex vivo on Musculus gastrocnemius frog have already done at three Departments in Faculty of Medicine, University of Indonesia. The experimental studies were done on 2 groups of frog for neuro-protection and neuro-therapy effects. Each group of frog was divided into 7 subgroups of application, 4 samples each. There were 5 subgroups of doses: 5; 10; 15; 20; 25 mg and 2 subgroups as control. Pancuronium bromide 0.2%, 4 mg, was used for a positive control as muscle relaxant. Neuro-protection study was done as follow: ringer – extract – pancuronium bromide, and neuro-therapy study was ringer – pancuronium bromide – extract, respectively. The parameters measured in these studies were the electrical activities such as amount and duration (second of re-polarization; depolarization, resting potential, and the height of spike after electrical stimulation at 5 mV. Neuro-protection effect of extract was determined by the ability of muscle to show the electrical response after incubating with pancuronium bromide for 10 minutes, and after incubating with extract for 10 minutes for neuro-therapy effect. In the dose of 15 mg and 20 mg/mL of A. indica Linn. extract showed better activities than the dose of 25 mg of extract, both as neuro-protection and neuro-therapy effects, but statistically its have not a significant difference. This study should be followed by an in vivo experiment on frog and it would be done in pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic studies on other animal models.

  19. Medial gastrocnemius muscle fascicle active torque-length and Achilles tendon properties in young adults with spastic cerebral palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barber, Lee; Barrett, Rod; Lichtwark, Glen

    2012-10-11

    Individuals with spastic cerebral palsy (CP) typically experience muscle weakness. The mechanisms responsible for muscle weakness in spastic CP are complex and may be influenced by the intrinsic mechanical properties of the muscle and tendon. The purpose of this study was to investigate the medial gastrocnemius (MG) muscle fascicle active torque-length and Achilles tendon properties in young adults with spastic CP. Nine relatively high functioning young adults with spastic CP (GMFCS I, 17±2 years) and 10 typically developing individuals (18±2 years) participated in the study. Active MG torque-length and Achilles tendon properties were assessed under controlled conditions on a dynamometer. EMG was recorded from leg muscles and ultrasound was used to measure MG fascicle length and Achilles tendon length during maximal isometric contractions at five ankle angles throughout the available range of motion and during passive rotations imposed by the dynamometer. Compared to the typically developing group, the spastic CP group had 33% lower active ankle plantarflexion torque across the available range of ankle joint motion, partially explained by 37% smaller MG muscle and 4% greater antagonistic co-contraction. The Achilles tendon slack length was also 10% longer in the spastic CP group. This study confirms young adults with mild spastic CP have altered muscle-tendon mechanical properties. The adaptation of a longer Achilles tendon may facilitate a greater storage and recovery of elastic energy and partially compensate for decreased force and work production by the small muscles of the triceps surae during activities such as locomotion. PMID:22867763

  20. Evaluation of elbow flexion following free muscle transfer from the medial gastrocnemius or transfer from the latissimus dorsi, in cases of traumatic injury of the brachial plexus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frederico Barra de Moraes

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE: To compare the gain in elbow flexion in patients with traumatic injury of the brachial plexus following muscle transfer from latissimus dorsi with the gain following free muscle transfer from the medial belly of the gastrocnemius. METHODS: This was a retrospective study in which the medical files of a convenience sample of 13 patients operated between 2000 and 2010 were reviewed. Group 1 comprised seven patients who underwent transfers from the gastrocnemius and group 2 (controls comprised six patients who underwent transfers from the latissimus dorsi. The following functions were evaluated: (1 range of motion (ROM of elbow flexion, in degrees, using manual goniometry and (2 grade of elbow flexion strength, using a muscle strength scale. Satisfactory results were defined as: (1 elbow flexion ROM ≥ 80° and (2 elbow flexion strength ≥ M3. The Fisher exact and Kruskal-Wallis tests were used (p < 0.05. RESULTS: The patients' mean age was 32 years (range: 17-56 and 72% had been involved in motorcycle accidents. Elbow flexion strength ≥ M3 was observed in seven patients (100% in group 1 and in five patients (83.3% in group 2 (p = 0.462. None of the patients presented M5, and one patient (16.7% in group 2 had a poor result (M2. Elbow flexion ROM with a gain ≥ 80° (daily functions was found in six patients (86% in group 1 and in three patients (50% in group 2 ( p = 0.1. CONCLUSION: The patients in group 1 had greater gains in strength and ROM than did those in group 2, but without statistical significance. Thus, transfers from the gastrocnemius become a new surgical option, if other techniques cannot be used.

  1. Evaluation of elbow flexion following free muscle transfer from the medial gastrocnemius or transfer from the latissimus dorsi, in cases of traumatic injury of the brachial plexus☆

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Moraes, Frederico Barra; Kwae, Mário Yoshihide; da Silva, Ricardo Pereira; Porto, Celmo Celeno; de Paiva Magalhães, Daniel; Paulino, Matheus Veloso

    2015-01-01

    Objective To compare the gain in elbow flexion in patients with traumatic injury of the brachial plexus following muscle transfer from latissimus dorsi with the gain following free muscle transfer from the medial belly of the gastrocnemius. Methods This was a retrospective study in which the medical files of a convenience sample of 13 patients operated between 2000 and 2010 were reviewed. Group 1 comprised seven patients who underwent transfers from the gastrocnemius and group 2 (controls) comprised six patients who underwent transfers from the latissimus dorsi. The following functions were evaluated: (1) range of motion (ROM) of elbow flexion, in degrees, using manual goniometry and (2) grade of elbow flexion strength, using a muscle strength scale. Satisfactory results were defined as: (1) elbow flexion ROM ≥ 80° and (2) elbow flexion strength ≥ M3. The Fisher exact and Kruskal–Wallis tests were used (p Elbow flexion strength ≥ M3 was observed in seven patients (100%) in group 1 and in five patients (83.3%) in group 2 (p = 0.462). None of the patients presented M5, and one patient (16.7%) in group 2 had a poor result (M2). Elbow flexion ROM with a gain ≥ 80° (daily functions) was found in six patients (86%) in group 1 and in three patients (50%) in group 2 (p = 0.1). Conclusion The patients in group 1 had greater gains in strength and ROM than did those in group 2, but without statistical significance. Thus, transfers from the gastrocnemius become a new surgical option, if other techniques cannot be used.

  2. Effects of aging on vasoconstrictor and mechanical properties of rat skeletal muscle arterioles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muller-Delp, Judy; Spier, Scott A.; Ramsey, Michael W.; Lesniewski, Lisa A.; Papadopoulos, Anthony; Humphrey, J. D.; Delp, Michael D.

    2002-01-01

    Exercise capacity and skeletal muscle blood flow during exercise are reduced with advancing age. This reduction in blood flow capacity may be related to increased reactivity of skeletal muscle resistance vessels to vasoconstrictor stimuli. The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that aging results in increased vasoconstrictor responses of skeletal muscle resistance arterioles. First-order (1A) arterioles (90-220 microm) from the gastrocnemius and soleus muscles of young (4 mo) and aged (24 mo) Fischer-344 rats were isolated, cannulated, and pressurized via hydrostatic reservoirs. Vasoconstriction in response to increases in norepinephrine (NE; 1 x 10(-9)-1 x 10(-4) M) and KCl (20-100 mM) concentrations and increases in intraluminal pressure (10-130 cmH(2)O) were evaluated in the absence of flow. Responses to NE and KCl were similar in both soleus and gastrocnemius muscle arterioles from young and aged rats. In contrast, active myogenic responses to changes in intraluminal pressure were diminished in soleus and gastrocnemius arterioles from aged rats. To assess whether alterations in the mechanical properties of resistance arterioles underlie altered myogenic responsiveness, passive diameter responses to pressure and mechanical stiffness were evaluated. There was no effect of age on the structural behavior (passive pressure-diameter relationship) or stiffness of arterioles from either the soleus or gastrocnemius muscles. These results suggest that aging does not result in a nonspecific decrease in vasoconstrictor responsiveness of skeletal muscle arterioles. Rather, aging-induced adaptations of vasoreactivity of resistance arterioles appear to be limited to mechanisms that are uniquely involved in the signaling of the myogenic response.

  3. Skin Penetration Time-Profiles for Continuous 810nm and Superpulsed 904nm Lasers in a Rat Model

    OpenAIRE

    Joensen, Jon; Øvsthus, Knut; Rolf K Reed; Hummelsund, Steinar; Iversen, Vegard Vereide; Lopes-Martins, Rodrigo Álvaro Brandão; Bjordal, Jan Magnus

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to investigate the rat skin penetration abilities of two commercially available low-level laser therapy (LLLT) devices during 150 sec of irradiation. Background data: Effective LLLT irradiation typically lasts from 20 sec up to a few minutes, but the LLLT time-profiles for skin penetration of light energy have not yet been investigated. Materials and methods: Sixty-two skin flaps overlaying rat’s gastrocnemius muscles were harvested and imm...

  4. Effect of Exercise Training on Skeletal Muscle SIRT1 and PGC-1α Expression Levels in Rats of Different Age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Chi-Chang; Wang, Ting; Tung, Yu-Tang; Lin, Wan-Teng

    2016-01-01

    The protein deacetylase sirtuin 1 (SIRT1) and activate peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ coactivator-1α (PGC-1α) pathway drives the muscular fiber-type switching, and can directly regulate the biophysiological functions of skeletal muscle. To investigate whether 12-week swimming exercise training modulates the SIRT1/PGC-1α pathway associated proteins expression in rats of different age. Male 3-month-old (3M), 12-month-old (12M) and 18-month-old (18M) Sprague-Dawley rats were used and assigned to sedentary control (C) or 12-week swimming exercise training (E) and divided into six groups: 3MC (n = 8), 12MC (n = 6), 18MC (n = 8), 3ME (n = 8), 12ME (n = 5) and 18ME (n = 6). Body weight, muscle weight, epididymal fat mass and muscle morphology were performed at the end of the experiment. The protein levels of SIRT1, PGC-1α, AMPK and FOXO3a in the gastrocnemius and soleus muscles were examined. The SIRT1, PGC-1α and AMPK levels in the gastrocnemius and soleus muscles were up-regulated in the three exercise training groups than three control groups. The FOXO3a level in the 12ME group significantly increased in the gastrocnemius muscles than 12MC group, but significantly decreased in the soleus muscles. In 3-, 12- and 18-month-old rats with and without exercise, there was a significant main effect of exercise on PGC-1α, AMPK and FOXO3a in the gastrocnemius muscles, and SIRT1, PGC-1α and AMPK in the soleus muscles. Our result suggests that swimming training can regulate the SIRT1/PGC-1α, AMPK and FOXO3a proteins expression of the soleus muscles in aged rats. PMID:27076782

  5. siRNA-induced silencing of hypoxia-inducible factor 3α (HIF3α) increases endurance capacity in rats

    OpenAIRE

    Drozdovska, S; Gavenauskas, B; Drevytska, T; Nosar, V; Nagibin, V; Mankovska, I; Dosenko, V

    2016-01-01

    Molecular mechanisms of adaptation to exercise despite a large number of studies remain unclear. One of the crucial factors in this process is hypoxia inducible factor (HIF) that regulates transcription of many target genes encoding proteins that are implicated in molecular adaptation to hypoxia. Experiments were conducted on 24 adult male Fisher rats. Real-time PCR analysis was performed for quantitative evaluation of Hif3α, Igf1, Glut-4 and Pdk-1 in m. gastrocnemius, m. soleus, in lung and ...

  6. Combination of Acellular Nerve Graft and Schwann Cells-Like Cells for Rat Sciatic Nerve Regeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Songtao Gao

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To investigate the effect of tissue engineering nerve on repair of rat sciatic nerve defect. Methods. Forty-five rats with defective sciatic nerve were randomly divided into three groups. Rats in group A were repaired by acellular nerve grafts only. Rats in group B were repaired by tissue engineering nerve. In group C, rats were repaired by autogenous nerve grafts. After six and twelve weeks, sciatic nerve functional index (SFI, neural electrophysiology (NEP, histological and transmission electron microscope observation, recovery ratio of wet weight of gastrocnemius muscle, regenerated myelinated nerve fibers number, nerve fiber diameter, and thickness of the myelin sheath were measured to assess the effect. Results. After six and twelve weeks, the recovery ratio of SFI and wet weight of gastrocnemius muscle, NEP, and the result of regenerated myelinated nerve fibers in groups B and C were superior to that of group A (P0.05. Conclusion. The tissue engineering nerve composed of acellular allogenic nerve scaffold and Schwann cells-like cells can effectively repair the nerve defect in rats and its effect was similar to that of the autogenous nerve grafts.

  7. Incorporation and effects of punicic acid on muscle and adipose tissues of rats

    OpenAIRE

    Illana Louise Pereira de MELO; de Oliveira e Silva, Ana Mara; Eliane Bonifácio Teixeira de CARVALHO; Luciana Tedesco YOSHIME; Sattler, José Augusto Gasparotto; Jorge MANCINI-FILHO

    2016-01-01

    Background This study evaluated the effect of pomegranate seed oil (PSO) supplementation, rich in punicic acid (55 %/C18:3-9c,11 t,13c/CLNA), on the lipid profile and on the biochemical and oxidative parameters in the gastrocnemius muscle and adipose tissues of healthy rats. Linseed oil (LO), rich in linolenic acid (52 %/C18:3-9c12c15c/LNA) was used for comparison. Methods Male Wistar rats (n = 56) were distributed in seven groups: control (water); LNA 1 %, 2 % and 4 % (treated with LO); CLNA...

  8. Carnosine content in skeletal muscle is dependent on vitamin B6 status in rats

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    Sofya eSuidasari

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Carnosine, a histidine-containing dipeptide, is well known to be associated with skeletal muscle performance. However, there is limited information on the effect of dietary micronutrients on muscle carnosine level. Pyridoxal 5′-phosphate (PLP, the active form of vitamin B6, is involved in amino acid metabolisms in the body as a co-factor. We hypothesized that enzymes involved in β-alanine biosynthesis, the rate-limiting precursor of carnosine, may also be PLP-dependent. Thus, we examined the effects of dietary vitamin B6 on the muscle carnosine content of rats. Male and female rats were fed a diet containing 1, 7, or 35 mg pyridoxine HCl/kg for 6 weeks. Carnosine in skeletal muscles was quantified by ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS. In the gastrocnemius muscle of male rats, carnosine concentration was significantly higher in the 7 and 35 mg groups (+70% and +61%, respectively than in the 1 mg pyridoxine HCl/kg group, whereas that in the soleus muscle of male rats was significantly higher only in the 7 mg group (+43% than in the 1 mg pyridoxine HCl/kg group (P<0.05. In both muscles of female rats, carnosine concentration was significantly higher in the 7 and 35 mg groups (+32% ~ +226% than in the 1 mg pyridoxine HCl/kg group (P<0.05. We also found that compared to the 1 mg group, β-alanine concentrations in the 7 and 35 mg groups were markedly elevated in gastrocnemius muscles of male (+153% and +148%, respectively, P<0.05 and female (+381% and +437%, respectively, P<0.05 rats. Noteworthy, the concentrations of ornithine in the 7 and 35 mg groups were decreased in gastrocnemius muscles of male rats (−46% and −54%, respectively, P<0.05, which strongly inversely correlated with β-alanine concentration (r=−0.84, P<0.01. In humans, 19% lower muscle carnosine content was found in soleus muscle of women of the lower plasma PLP tertile, but this was not observed in gastrocnemius muscle

  9. Autophagy in muscle of glucose-infusion hyperglycemia rats and streptozotocin-induced hyperglycemia rats via selective activation of m-TOR or FoxO3.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pengfei Lv

    Full Text Available Autophagy is a conserved process in eukaryotes required for metabolism and is involved in diverse diseases. To investigate autophagy in skeletal muscle under hyperglycemia status, we established two hyperglycemia-rat models that differ in their circulating insulin levels, by glucose infusion and singe high-dose streptozotocin injection. We then detected expression of autophagy related genes with real-time PCR and western blot. We found that under hyperglycemia status induced by glucose-infusion, autophagy was inhibited in rat skeletal muscle, whereas under streptozotocin-induced hyperglycemia status autophagy was enhanced. Meanwhile, hyperglycemic gastrocnemius muscle was more prone to autophagy than soleus muscle. Furthermore, inhibition of autophagy in skeletal muscle in glucose-infusion hyperglycemia rats was mediated by the m-TOR pathway while m-TOR and FoxO3 both contributed to enhancement of autophagy in gastrocnemius muscle in streptozotocin-induced hyperglycemia rats. These data shows that insulin plays a relatively more important role than hyperglycemia in regulating autophagy in hyperglycemia rat muscle through selectively activating the m-TOR or FoxO3 pathway in a fiber-selective manner.

  10. Arginine protection against ammonia toxicity in exhausted rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishna Mohan, P; Indira, K; Rajendra, W

    1987-01-01

    Arginine administration (5 m moles/kg/day) to albino rats for 7 days, revealed that this vital basic amino acid possesses latent potentiality for the accentuation of urea cycle or at least for arginase activity. The mitigation of ammonia toxicity was observed to be more effective in the case of gastrocnemius and red vastus as compared to white vastus. Further, ammonia and lactate levels were also decreased by arginine in blood and thereby delaying the onset of fatigue by preventing ammonotoxemia and lactic acidemia. PMID:3666875

  11. Hyperalgesia in an immobilized rat hindlimb: effect of treadmill exercise using non-immobilized limbs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuganji, Sayaka; Nakano, Jiro; Sekino, Yuki; Hamaue, Yohei; Sakamoto, Junya; Okita, Minoru

    2015-01-01

    Cast immobilization of limbs causes hyperalgesia, which is a decline of the threshold of mechanical and thermal mechanical stimuli. The immobilization-induced hyperalgesia (IIH) can disturb rehabilitation and activities of daily living in patients with orthopedic disorders. However, it is unclear what therapeutic and preventive approaches can be used to alleviate IIH. Exercise that activates the descending pain modulatory system may be effective for IIH. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of treadmill exercise during the immobilization period, using the non-immobilized limbs, on IIH. Thirty-six 8-week-old Wistar rats were randomly divided into (1) control, (2) immobilization (Im), and (3) immobilization and treadmill exercise (Im+Ex) groups. In the Im and Im+Ex groups, the right ankle joints of each rat were immobilized in full plantar flexion with a plaster cast for an 8-week period. In the Im+Ex group, treadmill exercise (15 m/min, 30 min/day, 5 days/week) was administered during the immobilization period while the right hindlimb was kept immobilized. Mechanical hyperalgesia was measured using von Frey filaments every week. To investigate possible activation of the descending pain modulatory system, beta-endorphin expression levels in hypothalamus and midbrain periaqueductal gray were analyzed. Although IIH clearly occurred in the Im group, the hyperalgesia was partially but significantly reduced in the Im+Ex group. Beta-endorphin, which is one of the endogenous opioids, was selectively increased in the hypothalamus and midbrain periaqueductal gray of the Im+Ex group. Our data suggest that treadmill running using the non-immobilized limbs reduces the amount of hyperalgesia induced in the immobilized limb even if it is not freed. This ameliorating effect might be due to the descending pain modulatory system being activated by upregulation of beta-endorphin in the brain. PMID:25304541

  12. Pedographic and clinical assessment of total contact cast immobilization in diabetic foot syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Sergey Valentinovich Gorokhov; Oleg Viktorovich Udovichenko; Irina Nikolaevna Ul'yanova; Evgeniya Aleksandrovna Berseneva; Gagik Radikovich Galstyan

    2012-01-01

    Aims: to estimate offloading efficiency of total contact cast (TCC) and determine factors, affecting trophic ulcer response to treatment with TCC, as well as ways of their compensation. Methods: 30 patients, receiving an outpatient treatment with TCC for diabetic foot syndrome, underwent routine clinical examination, pedography and walking activity monitoring. We assessed degree of pressure reduction on the planta and the lesion area in particular, in its correlation with treatmen...

  13. Decreased insulin action on muscle glucose transport after eccentric contractions in rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Asp, S; Richter, Erik

    1996-01-01

    We have recently shown that eccentric contractions (Ecc) of rat calf muscles cause muscle damage and decreased glycogen and glucose transporter GLUT-4 protein content in the white (WG) and red gastrocnemius (RG) but not in the soleus (S) (S. Asp, S. Kristiansen, and E. A. Richter. J. Appl. Physiol....... 79: 1338-1345, 1995). To study whether these changes affect insulin action, hindlimbs were perfused at three different insulin concentrations (0, 200, and 20,000 microU/ml) 2 days after one-legged eccentric contractions of the calf muscles. Compared with control, basal glucose transport was slightly...... stimulating concentration of insulin, whereas it was slightly (P < 0.05) higher during maximal insulin stimulation compared with control S. At the end of perfusion the glycogen concentrations were lower in both Ecc-gastrocnemius muscles compared with control muscles at all insulin concentrations. Fractional...

  14. De novo synthesis of purine nucleotides in different fiber types of rat skeletal muscle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The contribution of de novo purine nucleotide synthesis to nucleotide metabolism in skeletal muscles is not known. The authors have determined rates of de novo synthesis in soleus (slow-twitch red), red gastrocnemius (fast-twitch red), and white gastrocnemius (fast-twitch white) using the perfused rat hindquarter. 14C glycine incorporation into ATP was linear after 1 and 2 hours of perfusion with 0.2 mM added glycine. The intracellular (I) and extracellular (E) specific activity of 14C glycine was determined by HPLC of phenylisothiocyanate derivatives of neutralized PCA extracts. The rates of de novo synthesis when expressed relative to muscle ATP content show slow and fast-twitch red muscles to be similar and about twice as great as fast-twitch white muscles. This could represent a greater turnover of the adenine nucleotide pool in more oxidative red muscle types

  15. Age-associated disruption of molecular clock expression in skeletal muscle of the spontaneously hypertensive rat.

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    Mitsunori Miyazaki

    Full Text Available It is well known that spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR develop muscle pathologies with hypertension and heart failure, though the mechanism remains poorly understood. Woon et al. (2007 linked the circadian clock gene Bmal1 to hypertension and metabolic dysfunction in the SHR. Building on these findings, we compared the expression pattern of several core-clock genes in the gastrocnemius muscle of aged SHR (80 weeks; overt heart failure compared to aged-matched control WKY strain. Heart failure was associated with marked effects on the expression of Bmal1, Clock and Rora in addition to several non-circadian genes important in regulating skeletal muscle phenotype including Mck, Ttn and Mef2c. We next performed circadian time-course collections at a young age (8 weeks; pre-hypertensive and adult age (22 weeks; hypertensive to determine if clock gene expression was disrupted in gastrocnemius, heart and liver tissues prior to or after the rats became hypertensive. We found that hypertensive/hypertrophic SHR showed a dampening of peak Bmal1 and Rev-erb expression in the liver, and the clock-controlled gene Pgc1α in the gastrocnemius. In addition, the core-clock gene Clock and the muscle-specific, clock-controlled gene Myod1, no longer maintained a circadian pattern of expression in gastrocnemius from the hypertensive SHR. These findings provide a framework to suggest a mechanism whereby chronic heart failure leads to skeletal muscle pathologies; prolonged dysregulation of the molecular clock in skeletal muscle results in altered Clock, Pgc1α and Myod1 expression which in turn leads to the mis-regulation of target genes important for mechanical and metabolic function of skeletal muscle.

  16. Metformin ameliorates diabetes but does not normalize the decreased GLUT 4 content in skeletal muscle of obese (fa/fa) Zucker rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Handberg, A; Kayser, L; Høyer, P E;

    1993-01-01

    We studied the expression of the glucose transporter GLUT 4 in the soleus and red gastrocnemius muscles from obese, diabetic (fa/fa) Zucker rats compared to their lean littermates (Fa/-), with and without treatment with the antidiabetic drug metformin. In the untreated groups of rats, the GLUT 4...... muscles studied, indicating (1) that the decreased GLUT 4 expression is not directly related to hyperinsulinaemia and diabetes mellitus and (2) that metformin does not normalize the expression of GLUT 4 in skeletal muscle of the diabetic (fa/fa) Zucker rats....

  17. Influence of Stem Cell Therapy on Statin-induced Myopathy of Skeletal Muscle in Female Rats

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    Ayat Allah Farouk

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Objective: this work is a trial to visualize the role of transplanted BM- MSCs in skeletal muscle regeneration after induction of myopathy using a model of statin induced myopathy. The study was carried on eighty female and ten male albino rats, male rats for isolation of MSCs and female rats were divided to 8 groups. METHODS: Materials and Methods: : Group I: Rats were administered 0.5% carboxymethyl cellulose (solvent, 25 mg/kg b.w./day, as a control group. Group II: Rats were administered simvastatin, 80 mg/kg b.wt./day, for 16 days, then were sacrificed immediately. Group III: Simvastatin, was administered for 16 days, and then rats were sacrificed after 14 days of stoppage of simvastatin. Group IV: Simvastatin was administered for 16 days, then rats were sacrificed after 30 days of stoppage of simvastatin. Group V: Simvastatin, was administered for 30 days, then rats were sacrificed immediately. Group VI: Simvastatin was administered for 30 days, with intravenous injection of mesenchymal stem cells at 16th day of the experiment. Group VII: Simvastatin was administered for 46 days, then rats were sacrificed immediately. Group VIII: Simvastatin was administered for 46 days, with intravenous injection of mesenchymal stem cells at 16th day of the experiment. On the morning of the last day of each experimental period needle EMG and NC were recorded in gastrocnemius muscle and sciatic nerve. Then rats were sacrificed and blood samples were collected. The gastrocnemius muscles of both limbs were dissected. The right gastrocnemius was processed for histological study and the left one was used for examination of MSCs homing by detection of sry gene using PCR technique. RESULTS: Results: Stoppage of simvastatin for 14 and 30 days after induction of myopathy caused marked improvement and regeneration of skeletal muscle as manifested by significant improvement in EMG findings. However, there was persistence of mild myopathic changes after

  18. Third-Degree Hindpaw Burn Injury Induced Apoptosis of Lumbar Spinal Cord Ventral Horn Motor Neurons and Sciatic Nerve and Muscle Atrophy in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheng-Hua Wu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Severe burns result in hypercatabolic state and concomitant muscle atrophy that persists for several months, thereby limiting patient recovery. However, the effects of burns on the corresponding spinal dermatome remain unknown. This study aimed to investigate whether burns induce apoptosis of spinal cord ventral horn motor neurons (VHMNs and consequently cause skeletal muscle wasting. Methods. Third-degree hindpaw burn injury with 1% total body surface area (TBSA rats were euthanized 4 and 8 weeks after burn injury. The apoptosis profiles in the ventral horns of the lumbar spinal cords, sciatic nerves, and gastrocnemius muscles were examined. The Schwann cells in the sciatic nerve were marked with S100. The gastrocnemius muscles were harvested to measure the denervation atrophy. Result. The VHMNs apoptosis in the spinal cord was observed after inducing third-degree burns in the hindpaw. The S100 and TUNEL double-positive cells in the sciatic nerve increased significantly after the burn injury. Gastrocnemius muscle apoptosis and denervation atrophy area increased significantly after the burn injury. Conclusion. Local hindpaw burn induces apoptosis in VHMNs and Schwann cells in sciatic nerve, which causes corresponding gastrocnemius muscle denervation atrophy. Our results provided an animal model to evaluate burn-induced muscle wasting, and elucidate the underlying mechanisms.

  19. High Intensity Interval Training (HIIT) Induces Specific Changes in Respiration and Electron Leakage in the Mitochondria of Different Rat Skeletal Muscles

    OpenAIRE

    Ramos-Filho, Dionizio; Chicaybam, Gustavo; de-Souza-Ferreira, Eduardo; Guerra Martinez, Camila; Kurtenbach, Eleonora; Casimiro-Lopes, Gustavo; Galina, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    High intensity interval training (HIIT) is characterized by vigorous exercise with short rest intervals. Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) plays a key role in muscle adaptation. This study aimed to evaluate whether HIIT promotes similar H2O2 formation via O2 consumption (electron leakage) in three skeletal muscles with different twitch characteristics. Rats were assigned to two groups: sedentary (n=10) and HIIT (n=10, swimming training). We collected the tibialis anterior (TA-fast), gastrocnemius (GAS...

  20. Dithiobiuret toxicity in the rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raising the daily dose of dithiobiuret (DTB) in male rats from 0.5 to 1 to 5 mg/kg shortened the latency to the onset of flaccid muscle tone and associated diminished performance in a treadmill test from 7 to 5 to 3 days, respectively. Concomitant with the development of flaccid muscle tone gastrocnemius muscle contractions elicited by high frequency motor nerve stimulation were lower in peak tension and tended to fade more rapidly in DTB-treated rats than in control rats. Remarkably, rats treated with highly daily doses (10-16 mg/kg) of DTB were resistant to the expected development of DTB-induced flaccid muscle tone, and tetanic contractile abnormalities but a corresponding refractoriness to body weight loss, decreased fed and water intake, diuresis, and depression in water balance was not present. This nonselectivity of the refractory responses supported the results of a histopathological study indicating that DTB-induced neuromuscular toxicity was unlikely to be secondary to effect on other organ systems. It is not known whether the ultimate neurotoxin is DTB or a metabolite. In this regard, two pathways for the metabolism of DTB were proposed based on the results of thin-layer chromatography of urine samples from rats treated with either 14C- or 35S-DTB. One pathway involved the reversible oxidation of DTB to the disulfide-containing compound thiuret, and the other involved the replacement of a sulfur atom with oxygen to form monothiobiuret. Thiuret, but not monothiobiuret, possessed comparable toxicity to STB. This further suggested that redox cycling between DTB and thiuret could be an important contributing factor to the toxicity of DTB

  1. Accuracy of gastrocnemius muscles forces in walking and running goats predicted by one-element and two-element Hill-type models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sabrina S M; Arnold, Allison S; Miara, Maria de Boef; Biewener, Andrew A; Wakeling, James M

    2013-09-01

    Hill-type models are commonly used to estimate muscle forces during human and animal movement-yet the accuracy of the forces estimated during walking, running, and other tasks remains largely unknown. Further, most Hill-type models assume a single contractile element, despite evidence that faster and slower motor units, which have different activation-deactivation dynamics, may be independently or collectively excited. This study evaluated a novel, two-element Hill-type model with "differential" activation of fast and slow contractile elements. Model performance was assessed using a comprehensive data set (including measures of EMG intensity, fascicle length, and tendon force) collected from the gastrocnemius muscles of goats during locomotor experiments. Muscle forces predicted by the new two-element model were compared to the forces estimated using traditional one-element models and to the forces measured in vivo using tendon buckle transducers. Overall, the two-element model resulted in the best predictions of in vivo gastrocnemius force. The coefficient of determination, r(2), was up to 26.9% higher and the root mean square error, RMSE, was up to 37.4% lower for the two-element model than for the one-element models tested. All models captured salient features of the measured muscle force during walking, trotting, and galloping (r(2)=0.26-0.51), and all exhibited some errors (RMSE=9.63-32.2% of the maximum in vivo force). These comparisons provide important insight into the accuracy of Hill-type models. The results also show that incorporation of fast and slow contractile elements within muscle models can improve estimates of time-varying, whole muscle force during locomotor tasks. PMID:23871235

  2. A new linearly-combined bi-exponential model for kinetic analysis of the isometric relaxation process of Bufo gastrocnemius under electric stimulation in vitro

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    There was a slow-relaxing tail of skeletal muscles in vitro upon the inhibition of Ca2+-pump by cyclopiazonic acid (CPA). Herein, a new linearly-combined bi-exponential model to resolve this slow-relaxing tail from the fast-relaxing phase was investigated for kinetic analysis of the isometric relaxation process of Bufo gastrocnemius in vitro, in comparison to the single exponential model and the classical bi-exponential model. During repetitive stimulations at a 2-s interval by square pulses of a 2-ms duration at 12 V direct currency (DC), the isometric tension of Bufo gastrocnemius was recorded at 100 Hz. The relaxation curve with tensions falling from 90% of the peak to the 15th datum before next stimulation was analyzed by three exponential models using a program in MATLAB 6.5. Both the goodness of fit and the distribution of the residuals for the best fitting supported the comparable validity of this new bi-exponential model for kinetic analysis of the relaxation process of the control muscles. After CPA treatment, however, this new bi-exponential model showed an obvious statistical superiority for kinetic analysis of the muscle relaxation process, and it gave the estimated rest tension consistent to that by experimentation, whereas both the classical bi-exponential model and the single exponential model gave biased rest tensions. Moreover, after the treatment of muscles by CPA, both the single exponential model and the classical bi-exponential model yielded lowered relaxation rates,nevertheless, this new bi-exponential model had relaxation rates of negligible changes except much higher rest tensions. These results suggest that this novel linearly-combined bi-exponential model is desirable for kinetic analysis of the relaxation process of muscles with altered Ca2+-pumping activity.

  3. Task-dependent inhibition of slow-twitch soleus and excitation of fast-twitch gastrocnemius do not require high movement speed and velocity-dependent sensory feedback

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricky eMehta

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Although individual heads of triceps surae, soleus (SO and medial gastrocnemius (MG muscles, are often considered close functional synergists, previous studies have shown distinct activity patterns between them in some motor behaviors. The goal of this study was to test two hypotheses explaining inhibition of slow SO with respect to fast MG: (1 inhibition occurs at high movement velocities and mediated by velocity-dependent sensory feedback and (2 inhibition depends on the ankle-knee joint moment combination and does not require high movement velocities. The hypotheses were tested by comparing the SO EMG/MG EMG ratio during fast and slow motor behaviors (cat paw shake responses vs. back, straight leg load lifting in humans, which had the same ankle extension-knee flexion moment combination; and during fast and slow behaviors with the ankle extension-knee extension moment combination (human vertical jumping and stance phase of walking in cats and leg load lifting in humans. In addition, SO EMG/MG EMG ratio was determined during cat paw shake responses and walking before and after removal of stretch velocity-dependent sensory feedback by self-reinnervating SO and/or gastrocnemius. We found the ratio SO EMG/MG EMG below 1 (p<0.05 during fast paw shake responses and slow back load lifting, requiring the ankle extension-knee flexion moment combination; whereas the ratio SO EMG/MG EMG was above 1 (p<0.05 during fast vertical jumping and slow tasks of walking and leg load lifting, requiring ankle extension-knee extension moments. Removal of velocity-dependent sensory feedback did not affect the SO EMG/MG EMG ratio in cats. We concluded that the relative inhibition of SO does not require high muscle velocities, depends on ankle-knee moment combinations, and is mechanically advantageous for allowing a greater MG contribution to ankle extension and knee flexion moments.

  4. Using gastrocnemius sEMG and plasma α-synuclein for the prediction of freezing of gait in Parkinson's disease patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-Ying Wang

    Full Text Available Freezing of gait (FOG is a complicated gait disturbance in Parkinson's disease (PD and a relevant subclinical predictor algorithm is lacking. The main purpose of this study is to explore the potential value of surface electromyograph (sEMG and plasma α-synuclein levels as predictors of the FOG seen in PD. 21 PD patients and 15 normal controls were recruited. Motor function was evaluated using the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS and Freezing of gait questionnaire (FOG-Q. Simultaneously, gait analysis was also performed using VICON capture system in PD patients and sEMG data was recorded as well. Total plasma α-synuclein was quantitatively assessed by Luminex assay in all participants. Recruited PD patients were classified into two groups: PD patients with FOG (PD+FOG and without FOG (PD-FOG, based on clinical manifestation, the results of the FOG-Q and VICON capture system. PD+FOG patients displayed higher FOG-Q scores, decreased walking speed, smaller step length, smaller stride length and prolonged double support time compared to the PD-FOG in the gait trial. sEMG data indicated that gastrocnemius activity in PD+FOG patients was significantly reduced compared to PD-FOG patients. In addition, plasma α-synuclein levels were significantly decreased in the PD+FOG group compared to control group; however, no significant difference was found between the PD+FOG and PD-FOG groups. Our study revealed that gastrocnemius sEMG could be used to evaluate freezing gait in PD patients, while plasma α-synuclein might discriminate freezing of gait in PD patients from normal control, though no difference was found between the PD+FOG and PD-FOG groups.

  5. Hpyerglycemic Effect of a Mixture of Sea Cucumber and Cordyceps Sinensis in Streptozotocin- Induced Diabetic Rat

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HU Shiwei; WANG Jingfeng; LI Zhaojie; FU Jia; WANG Yuming; XUE Changhu

    2014-01-01

    Sea cucumber and cordyceps sinensis are used as both food and traditional medicines in Asia. This study was carried out in order to investigate the hpyerglycemic effect of a mixture of sea cucumber (Apostichopus japonicas) and cordyceps sinensis (Cor-dyceps militaris) (SCC) in diabetic rat and explore the mechanism underlining such an effect. The diabetic model rat was induced with intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin (STZ). The diabetic model rats were randomly divided into control group (0.9%NaCl), low dose group (300 mg SCC·(kg body weight)-1) and high dose group (1200 mg SCC (kg body weight)-1). Sodium chloride and SCC were intragastrically administered once a day for 35 d. Changes in fasting serum glucose and serum insulin content, oral glucose tolerance and liver and muscle glycogen content were routinely evaluated. Pancreas tissue andβ-cells of islets were observed under both optical and transmission electronic microscope, respectively. The abundance of glucose metabolism-relating genes in gastrocnemius and epididymal adipose tissue was determined with either reverse transcription PCR (RT-PCR) or western blotting. Results showed that SCC significantly decreased fasting serum glucose content, improved glucose tolerance and increased serum insulin and glycogen content; repaired STZ-injured β-cells of diabetic rat, and increased the expression of phosphatidylinositol 3 kinase (PI(3)K), protein kinase B (PKB) and glucose transporter 4 (Glut4) encoding protein in both gastrocnemius and adipose tissue, and Glut4 encoding gene in peripheral tissue. Our findings demonstrated that SCC exerted an anti-hyperglycemic effect by repairingβ-cells and promoting insulin-mediated signal transduction pathway in insulin-sensitive gastrocnemius and adipose tissue.

  6. Alteration of gene expression profiles in skeletal muscle of rats exposed to microgravity during a spaceflight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Wayne E.; Bhasin, Shalender; Lalani, Rukhsana; Datta, Anuj; Gonzalez-Cadavid, Nestor F.

    2002-01-01

    To clarify the mechanism of skeletal muscle wasting during spaceflights, we investigated whether intramuscular gene expression profiles are affected, by using DNA microarray methods. Male rats sent on the 17-day NASA STS-90 Neurolab spaceflight were sacrificed 24 hours after return to earth (MG group). Ground control rats were maintained for 17 days in flight-simulated cages (CS group). Spaceflight induced a 19% and 23% loss of tibialis anterior and gastrocnemius muscle mass, respectively, as compared to ground controls. Muscle RNA was analyzed by the Clontech Atlas DNA expression array in four rats, with two MG/ CS pairs for the tibialis anterior, and one pair for the gastrocnemius. Alterations in gene expression were verified for selected genes by reverse-transcription PCR. In both muscles of MG rats, mRNAs for 12 genes were up-regulated by over 2-fold, and 38 were down-regulated compared to controls. There was inhibition of genes for cell proliferation and growth factor cascades, including cell cycle genes and signal transduction proteins, such as p21 Cip1, retinoblastoma (Rb), cyclins G1/S, -E and -D3, MAP kinase 3, MAD3, and ras related protein RAB2. These data indicate that following exposure to microgravity, there is downregulation of genes involved in regulation of muscle satellite cell replication.

  7. Changes in the TBARs content and superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione peroxidase activities in the lymphoid organs and skeletal muscles of adrenodemedullated rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pereira B.

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Thiobarbituric acid reactant substances (TBARs content, and the activities of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PDh, citrate synthase (CS, Cu/Zn- and Mn-superoxide dismutase (SOD, catalase, and glutathione peroxidase (GPX were measured in the lymphoid organs (thymus, spleen, and mesenteric lymph nodes (MLN and skeletal muscles (gastrocnemius and soleus of adrenodemedullated (ADM rats. The results were compared with those obtained for sham-operated rats. TBARs content was reduced by adrenodemedullation in the lymphoid organs (MLN (28%, thymus (40% and spleen (42% and gastrocnemius muscle (67%. G6PDh activity was enhanced in the MLN (69% and reduced in the spleen (28% and soleus muscle (75%. CS activity was reduced in all tissues (MLN (75%, spleen (71%, gastrocnemius (61% and soleus (43%, except in the thymus which displayed an increment of 56%. Cu/Zn-SOD activity was increased in the MLN (126%, thymus (223%, spleen (80% and gastrocnemius muscle (360% and was reduced in the soleus muscle (31%. Mn-SOD activity was decreased in the MLN (67% and spleen (26% and increased in the thymus (142%, whereas catalase activity was reduced in the MLN (76%, thymus (54% and soleus muscle (47%. It is particularly noteworthy that in ADM rats the activity of glutathione peroxidase was not detectable by the method used. These data are consistent with the possibility that epinephrine might play a role in the oxidative stress of the lymphoid organs. Whether this fact represents an important mechanism for the establishment of impaired immune function during stress remains to be elucidated.

  8. Muscle Response to the Association of Statin and Physical Exercise in Rats Respuestas Musculares de la Asociación de Estatina y Ejercicio Físico Aeróbico en Ratas

    OpenAIRE

    Mariana Rotta Bonfim; José Carlos Silva Camargo Filho; Luiz Carlos Marques Vanderlei; Susimary Aparecida Trevizan Padulla; Marilita Falângola Accioly; Dorotéia Rossi Silva Souza; Reinaldo Azoubel

    2009-01-01

    Physical exercise and statins, which are recommended for the treatment of dyslipidemia, are independently associated to the occurrence of muscle injury. The objective is analyze the effect of aerobic exercise associated to the use of simvastatin on the morphology of the gastrocnemius muscle. Thirty Wistar rats were divided into six groups, two of which received a standard diet (1 sedentary and 1 exercised) and four (1 sedentary with medication, 1 sedentary without medication, 1 exercised with...

  9. Contraction-associated translocation of protein kinase C in rat skeletal muscle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Richter, Erik; Cleland, P J; Rattigan, S;

    1987-01-01

    Electrical stimulation of the sciatic nerve of the anaesthetized rat in vivo led to a time-dependent translocation of protein kinase C from the muscle cytosol to the particulate fraction. Maximum activity of protein kinase C in the particulate fraction occurred after 2 min of intermittent short...... tetanic contractions of the gastrocnemius-plantaris-soleus muscle group and coincided with the loss of activity from the cytosol. Translocation of protein kinase C may imply a role for this kinase in contraction-initiated changes in muscle metabolism....

  10. Botulinum Neurotoxin A Injections Influence Stretching of the Gastrocnemius Muscle-Tendon Unit in an Animal Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher J. Tuohy

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Botulinum Neurotoxin A (BoNT-A injections have been used for the treatment of muscle contractures and spasticity. This study assessed the influence of (BoNT-A injections on passive biomechanical properties of the muscle-tendon unit. Mouse gastrocnemius muscle (GC was injected with BoNT-A (n = 18 or normal saline (n = 18 and passive, non-destructive, in vivo load relaxation experimentation was performed to examine how the muscle-tendon unit behaves after chemical denervation with BoNT-A. Injection of BoNT-A impaired passive muscle recovery (15% vs. 35% recovery to pre-stretching baseline, p < 0.05 and decreased GC stiffness (0.531 ± 0.061 N/mm vs. 0.780 ± 0.037 N/mm, p < 0.05 compared to saline controls. The successful use of BoNT-A injections as an adjunct to physical therapy may be in part attributed to the disruption of the stretch reflex; thereby modulating in vivo passive muscle properties. However, it is also possible that BoNT-A injection may alter the structure of skeletal muscle; thus modulating the in vivo passive biomechanical properties of the muscle-tendon unit.

  11. 跖腱膜炎与功能性腓肠肌挛缩关系的临床观察%Clinical research of the relationship between plantar fasciitis and gastrocnemius contracture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王海有; 张建中; 金合

    2012-01-01

    目的 研究跖腱膜炎与腓肠肌挛缩的关系.方法 对2010年9月~2010年1 1月足踝外科门诊收治的20人跖腱膜炎患者和31人正常足进行对比研究.结果 29足跖腱膜炎中16例(55.2%)合并腓肠肌挛缩.62正常足中 11例(17.7%)合并腓肠肌挛缩.结论 跖腱膜炎与腓肠肌挛缩关系密切,跖腱膜炎的患者多伴有腓肠肌挛缩.%Objective To study the relationship between plantar fasciitis and gastrocnemius contracture. Methods 20 outpatients with plantar fasciitis were compared with 31 normal people during Sep to Nov 2010 in Foot and ankle surgery department of Tongren hospital. Results 16 of 29 feet with plantar fasciitis ( 55.2% )had gastrocnemius contracture compared with 11 of 62 normal feet ( 17.7% ). Conclusion There is a close relationship between plantar fasciitis and gastrocnemius contracture. A plantar fasciitis patient is more likely to suffer gastorcnemius contracture.

  12. Morphometric analysis of rat muscle fibers following space flight and hypogravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chui, L. A.; Castleman, K. R.

    1982-01-01

    The effect of hypogravity on striate muscles, containing both fast twitch glycolytic and slow twitch oxidative fibers, was studied in rats aboard two Cosmos biosatellites. Results of a computer-assisted image analysis of extensor digitorum muscles from five rats, exposed to 18.5 days of hypogravity and processed for the alkaline ATPase reaction, showed a reduction of the mean fiber diameter (41.32 + or - 0.55 microns), compared to synchronous (46.32 + or - 0.55 microns) and vivarium (49 + or - 0.5 microns) controls. A further experiment studied the ratio of fast to slow twitch fibers in 25 rats exposed to 18.5 days of hypogravity and analyzed at four different periods of recovery following the space flight. Using the previous techniques, the gastrocnemius muscle showed a reduction of the total muscle fiber area in square microns and a reduction in the percentage of slow fibers of flight animals compared to the control animals.

  13. Effects of Zusanli and Ashi Acupoint Electroacupuncture on Repair of Skeletal Muscle and Neuromuscular Junction in a Rabbit Gastrocnemius Contusion Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Zhan-ge; Wang, Rong-guo; Xiao, Cheng; Zhao, Jun-yun; Shen, Qian; Liu, Shou-yao; Xu, Qian-wei; Zhang, Qing-xi; Wang, Yun-ting

    2016-01-01

    Objective. To explore the effects of electroacupuncture (EA) at ST36 (EA-ST36) and at Ashi acupoints (EA-Ashi) on skeletal muscle repair. Methods. Seventy-five rabbits were randomly divided into five groups: normal, contusion, EA-Ashi, EA-ST36, and EA at Ashi acupoints and ST36 (EA-AS). EA (0.4 mA, 2 Hz, 15 min) was applied after an acute gastrocnemius contusion. The morphology of myofibers and neuromuscular junctions (NMJs) and expressions of growth differentiation factor-8 (GDF-8), acetylcholinesterase (AChE), Neuregulin 1 (NGR1), and muscle-specific kinase (MuSK) were assessed 7, 14, and 28 days after contusion. Results. Compared with that in contusion group, there was an increase in the following respective parameters in treatment groups: the number and diameter of myofibers, the mean staining area, and continuities of NMJs. A comparison of EA-Ashi and EA-ST36 groups indicated that average myofiber diameter, mean staining area of NMJs, and expressions of AChE and NRG1 were higher in EA-Ashi group, whereas expression of GDF-8 decreased on day 7. However, increases in myofiber numbers, expressions of MuSK and AChE, as well as decreases in GDF-8 expression, and the discontinuities were observed in EA-ST36 group on the 28th day. Conclusion. Both EA-ST36 and EA-Ashi promoted myofiber regeneration and restoration of NMJs. EA-Ashi was more effective at earlier stages, whereas EA-ST36 played a more important role at later stages. PMID:27190536

  14. Photobiomodulation on Bax and Bcl-2 Proteins and SIRT1/PGC-1α Axis mRNA Expression Levels of Aging Rat Skeletal Muscle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fang-Hui Li

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. This study aimed to analyze the effects of low level laser irradiation (LLLI on Bax and IGF-1 and Bcl-2 protein contents and SIRT1/PGC-1α axis mRNA expression levels to prevent sarcopenia in aged rats. Material and Methods. Twenty female Sprague Dawley rats (18 months old were randomly divided into two groups (n=10 per group: control (CON and LLLI groups. The gallium-aluminum-arsenium (GaAlAs laser irradiation at 810 nm was used in the single point contact mode (3.75 J/cm2; 0.4 cm2; 125 mW/cm2; 30 s. Bax, Bcl-2, and IGF-1 proteins and SIRT1/PGC-1α axis mRNA expression were assessed 24 h after LLLI on gastrocnemius in aged rat. Results. Gastrocnemius muscle weights, gastrocnemius mass/body mass, Bcl-2/BAX ratio, Bcl-2 protein, IGF-1 protein, and the mRNA contents in SIRT1, PGC-1α, NRF1, TMF, and SOD2 were significantly (P<0.05 increased by LLLI compared to CON group without LLLI. However, levels of BAX protein and caspase 3 mRNA were significantly attenuated by LLLI compared to CON group (P<0.05. Conclusion. LLLI at 810 nm inhibits sarcopenia associated with upregulation of Bcl-2/BAX ratio and IGF-1 and SIRT1/PGC-1α axis mRNA expression in aged rats. This indicates that LLLI has potential to decrease progression of myocyte apoptosis in sarcopenic muscles.

  15. Characterization of Fiber Types in Different Muscles of the Hindlimb in Female Weanling and Adult Wistar Rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We analyzed lesser diameter and distribution of fiber types in different skeletal muscles from female Wistar rats using a histoenzymology Myofibrillar Adenosine Tri-phosphatase (mATPase) method. Fragments from muscles were frozen and processed by mATPase in different pH. Adult and weanling rat soleus muscles presented a predominance of type I fibers and larger fiber diameters. In the plantar muscle in adult rats, the type IIB fibers demonstrated greater lesser diameter while in the weanling animals, types I and IIB fibers were larger. The plantar muscle of animals of both ages was composed predominantly of the type IID fibers. The type IID fibers were observed in similar amounts in the lateral gastrocnemius and the medial gastrocnemius muscles. Type IIB fibers showed predominance and presented higher size in comparison with other types in the EDL muscle. The present study shows that data on fiber type distribution and fiber lesser diameter obtained in adult animals cannot always be applied to weanling animals of the same species. Using the mATPase, despite the difficult handling, is an important tool to determine the different characteristics of the specific fibers in the skeletal muscle tissue

  16. Antihyperalgesic effect of tetrodotoxin in rat models of persistent muscle pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez, P; Levine, J D

    2015-12-17

    Persistent muscle pain is a common and disabling symptom for which available treatments have limited efficacy. Since tetrodotoxin (TTX) displays a marked antinociceptive effect in models of persistent cutaneous pain, we tested its local antinociceptive effect in rat models of muscle pain induced by inflammation, ergonomic injury and chemotherapy-induced neuropathy. While local injection of TTX (0.03-1 μg) into the gastrocnemius muscle did not affect the mechanical nociceptive threshold in naïve rats, exposure to the inflammogen carrageenan produced a marked muscle mechanical hyperalgesia, which was dose-dependently inhibited by TTX. This antihyperalgesic effect was still significant at 24h. TTX also displayed a robust antinociceptive effect on eccentric exercise-induced mechanical hyperalgesia in the gastrocnemius muscle, a model of ergonomic pain. Finally, TTX produced a small but significant inhibition of neuropathic muscle pain induced by systemic administration of the cancer chemotherapeutic agent oxaliplatin. These results indicate that TTX-sensitive sodium currents in nociceptors play a central role in diverse states of skeletal muscle nociceptive sensitization, supporting the suggestion that therapeutic interventions based on TTX may prove useful in the treatment of muscle pain. PMID:26548414

  17. Carnosine Content in Skeletal Muscle Is Dependent on Vitamin B6 Status in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suidasari, Sofya; Stautemas, Jan; Uragami, Shinji; Yanaka, Noriyuki; Derave, Wim; Kato, Norihisa

    2015-01-01

    Carnosine, a histidine-containing dipeptide, is well known to be associated with skeletal muscle performance. However, there is limited information on the effect of dietary micronutrients on muscle carnosine level. Pyridoxal 5'-phosphate (PLP), the active form of vitamin B6, is involved in amino acid metabolisms in the body as a cofactor. We hypothesized that enzymes involved in β-alanine biosynthesis, the rate-limiting precursor of carnosine, may also be PLP dependent. Thus, we examined the effects of dietary vitamin B6 on the muscle carnosine content of rats. Male and female rats were fed a diet containing 1, 7, or 35 mg pyridoxine (PN) HCl/kg for 6 weeks. Carnosine in skeletal muscles was quantified by ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry. In the gastrocnemius muscle of male rats, carnosine concentration was significantly higher in the 7 and 35 mg groups (+70 and +61%, respectively) than in the 1 mg PN HCl/kg group, whereas that in the soleus muscle of male rats was significantly higher only in the 7 mg group (+43%) than in the 1 mg PN HCl/kg group (P carnosine concentration was significantly higher in the 7 and 35 mg groups (+32 to +226%) than in the 1 mg PN HCl/kg group (P carnosine content was found in soleus muscle of women of the lower plasma PLP tertile, but this was not observed in gastrocnemius muscle or in men. We conclude that adequate dietary vitamin B6 is essential for maintaining carnosine in skeletal muscles of rats. Significantly lower soleus carnosine content among women close to PLP deficiency suggests that a similar phenomenon exists in the humans. PMID:26835452

  18. 三维步态分析评定腓肠肌长度的初步研究%Pilot study of 3-D gait analysis for measurement of gastrocnemius length

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孟殿怀; 许光旭; 朱奕; 励建安

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To explore the application of 3-D gait analysis for dynamic measurement of gastrocnemius length. Method: The pathology models of footdrop with ankle plantar flexion were established in 12 victims of poliomyelitis sequela. Ten age-matched normal juveniles were included as the control. The 3-D motion analysis system was employed to obtain the data of dynamic segmental motion on walking. Mathematic modeling was established to calculate the length of gastrocnemius. The angle of ankle dorsiflexion(passive motion) was measured by goniometer. Result: ①There was no significant difference of body height between patients with poliomyelitis sequela foot drop and the normal controls(P>0.05), but there were significant differences between the length of medial head and lateral head of gastrocnemius(P<0.05). ②The length of gastrocnemius was significant correlated with the cosine value of ankle dorsiflexion angle(P < 0.05). ③The equation of linear regression between the relative gastrocnemius length and the cosine value of ankle dorsiflexion angle was significant (P<0.01).Conclusion: Ankle dorsiflexion angle during walking by 3-D motion analysis may estimate the length of gastrocnemius of normal persons and patients with poliomyelitis sequela footdrop, judge the contraction of achillotendon, and provide an important reference of orthopedic surgery and rehabilitation for patients with poliomyelitis sequela footdrop.%目的:研究三维步态分析评定腓肠肌长度的可行性.方法:采用脊髓灰质炎后遗症患者作为足下垂病理模型12例;正常青少年10例作为对照组.采用三维动作分析系统采集步行时的动态运动数据,经建模分析求出腓肠肌长度;用量角器测量出测试对象踝背屈(被动活动)的角度值进行相关同归分析.结果:①脊髓灰质炎后遗症患者组与正常对照组身高差异无显著性(P>0.05),腓肠肌内/外侧头长度差异有显著性(P< 0.05);②腓肠肌长度与踝

  19. Long-term high-fat-diet feeding induces skeletal muscle mitochondrial biogenesis in rats in a sex-dependent and muscle-type specific manner

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gómez-Pérez Yolanda

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mitochondrial dysfunction is thought to play a crucial role in the etiology of insulin resistance, in which skeletal muscle is the main tissue contributor. Sex differences in skeletal muscle insulin and antioxidant responses to high-fat-diet (HFD feeding have been described. The aim of this study was to elucidate whether there is a sex dimorphism in the effects of HFD feeding on skeletal muscle mitochondrial biogenesis and on the adiponectin signaling pathway, as well as the influence of the muscle type (oxidative or glycolytic. Methods Gastrocnemius and soleus muscles of male and female Wistar rats of 2 months of age fed with a high-fat-diet (HFD or a low fat diet for 26 weeks were used. Mitochondrial biogenesis and oxidative damage markers, oxidative capacity and antioxidant defences were analyzed. Serum insulin sensitivity parameters and the levels of proteins involved in adiponectin signaling pathway were also determined. Results HFD feeding induced mitochondrial biogenesis in both sexes, but to a higher degree in male rats. Although HFD female rats showed greater antioxidant protection and maintained a better insulin sensitivity profile than their male counterparts, both sexes showed an impaired response to adiponectin, which was more evident in gastrocnemius muscle. Conclusions We conclude that HFD rats may induce skeletal muscle mitochondrial biogenesis as an attempt to compensate the deleterious consequences of adiponectin and insulin resistance on oxidative metabolism, and that the effects of HFD feeding are sex-dependent and muscle-type specific.

  20. Daily Oxygen/O₃ Treatment Reduces Muscular Fatigue and Improves Cardiac Performance in Rats Subjected to Prolonged High Intensity Physical Exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Filippo, C; Trotta, M C; Maisto, R; Siniscalco, D; Luongo, M; Mascolo, L; Alfano, R; Accardo, M; Rossi, C; Ferraraccio, F; D'Amico, M

    2015-01-01

    Rats receiving daily intraperitoneal administration of O2 and running on a treadmill covered an average distance of 482.8 ± 21.8 m/week as calculated during 5-week observation. This distance was increased in rats receiving daily intraperitoneal administration of an oxygen/O3 mixture at a dose of 100; 150; and 300 μg/kg with the maximum increase being +34.5% at 300 μg/kg and still present after stopping the administration of oxygen/O3. Oxygen/O3 decreased the mean arterial blood pressure (-13%), the heart rate (-6%), the gastrocnemius and cardiac hypertrophy, and fibrosis and reduced by 49% the left ventricular mass and relative wall thickness measurements. Systolic and diastolic functions were improved in exercised oxygen/O3 rats compared to O2 rats. Oxygen/O3 treatment led to higher MPI index starting from the dose of 150 μg/kg (p CPK, TnI, and nitrotyrosine concentration in the heart and gastrocnemius tissues, arguing a beneficial effect of the ozone molecule against the fatigue induced by a prolonged high intensity exercise. PMID:26265981

  1. Effects of 2 weeks lower limb immobilization and two separate rehabilitation regimens on gastrocnemius muscle protein turnover signaling and normalization genes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nedergaard Anders

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Limb immobilization causes a rapid loss of muscle mass and strength that requires appropriate rehabilitation to ensure restoration of normal function. Whereas the knowledge of muscle mass signaling with immobilization has increased in recent years, the molecular regulation in the rehabilitation of immobilization-induced muscle atrophy is only sparsely studied. To investigate the phosphorylation and expression of candidate key molecular muscle mass regulators after immobilization and subsequent rehabilitation we performed two separate studies. Methods We immobilized the lower limb for 2 weeks followed by the in-house hospital standard physiotherapy rehabilitation (Study 1. Secondly, we conducted an intervention study using the same 2 weeks immobilization protocol during which protein/carbohydrate supplementation was given. This was followed by 6 weeks of rehabilitation in the form of resistance training and continued protein/carbohydrate supplementation (Study 2. We obtained muscle biopsies from the medial gastrocnemius prior to immobilization (PRE, post-immobilization (IMMO and post-rehabilitation (REHAB and measured protein expression and phosphorylation of Akt, mTOR, S6k, 4E-BP1, GSK3β, ubiquitin and MURF1 and mRNA expression of Atrogin-1, MURF1, FOXO1, 3 and 4 as well as appropriate housekeeping genes. Results In both studies, no changes in protein expression or phosphorylation for any measured protein were observed. In Study 1, FOXO3 and FOXO4 mRNA expression decreased after IMMO and REHAB compared to PRE, whereas other mRNAs remained unchanged. Interestingly, we found significant changes in expression of the putative housekeeping genes GAPDH, HADHA and S26 with immobilization in both studies. Conclusions In neither study, the changes in muscle mass associated with immobilization and rehabilitation were accompanied by expected changes in expression of atrophy-related genes or phosphorylation along the Akt axis

  2. To Explore the Clinical Effect of MR Imaging Diagnosis in Athletic Injury of the Gastrocnemius Muscle%腓肠肌运动性损伤的MR影像诊断及临床作用探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张建保

    2016-01-01

    Objective Analyze the clinical effect of MR imaging diagnosis in athletic injury of the gastrocnemius muscle.Methods Selected 33 patients with calf injuries from June 2012 to May 2015 in our hospital as research object, the patients with the X-ray plane spread not prompt tibioifbula fracture, Application of MR revealed sports injury of the gastrocnemius muscle. Injury in patients within 1 to 10 days after application of phased-array coil surface of the body, regular check sequence and fat suppression sequence, implementation of short time inversion recovery in patients with partial sequence check.Results 33 patients with gastrocnemius, I degree damage in 13 patients, II degree of 14 patients with sports injury and 6 patients with III degree damage, neither MR results tibioifbula fracture or contusion.Conclusion By MR inspection on patients with sports injury of the gastrocnemius muscle has a more typical imaging ifndings, can intuitive, comprehensive real tissue injury situation, offer scientific basis for clinical diagnosis and treatment of disease.%目的:分析腓肠肌运动性损伤的MR影像诊断结果及价值。方法选择2012年6月~2015年5月来我院接受治疗的33例腓肠肌运动性损伤患者作为观察对象,经X线平面价差未提示胫腓骨骨折;应用MR检查提示存在腓肠肌运动型损伤。在患者伤后1~10 d应用相控阵表面体线圈,常规序列和脂肪抑制序列进行检查,对部分患者实施短时间反转恢复序列的检查。结果33例患者中,腓肠肌I度损伤13例、腓肠肌II度损伤14例、III度损伤6例,MR结果均未提示存在胫腓骨骨折或者挫伤。结论通过MR对腓肠肌运动型损伤患者进行检查具有较为典型的影像学表现,能够直观、全面的现实出组织损伤情况,为疾病的临床诊治提供科学的依据。

  3. Role of afferent input in load-dependent plasticity of rat muscle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawano, F.; Umemoto, S.; Higo, Y.; Kawabe, N.; Wang, X. D.; Lan, Y. B.; Ohira, Y.

    We have been studying the role of afferent input in the plasticity of skeletal muscles. The present study was performed to investigate the mechanisms responsible for the deafferentation-related inhibition of the compensatory hypertrophy in rat soleus muscle. Adult male Wistar rats were randomly separated into the control, functionally overloaded (FO), and functionally overloaded + deafferentation (FO+DA) group. The tendons of plantaris and gastrocnemius muscles were transected in the FO rats. The dorsal roots of the spinal cord at the L4-5 segmental levels were additionally transected in the FO+DA rats. The sampling of the soleus was performed 2 weeks after the surgery and ambulation recovery. The single muscle fibers were isolated in low-calcium relaxing solution. Further, the myonuclei or argyrophilic nucleolar organizer regions (AgNORs) were stained. Significant increase of the fiber cross-sectional area (CSA) was seen in the FO, but not in the FO+DA, rats. The myonuclear number in fiber was significantly decreased by FO. Addition of DA to FO further promoted the reduction of myonuclear number. The mean nucleus size and DNA content in single nucleus in all groups were identical. Although a single or double AgNORs were seen in ~90% of myonuclei in the control rats, their distributions were 72 and 76% in the FO and FO+DA rats, respectively (phypertrophy. It was also indicated that intact afferent input plays an essential role in these phenomena.

  4. Low level laser therapy on injured rat muscle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mantineo, M.; Pinheiro, J. P.; Morgado, A. M.

    2013-06-01

    Although studies show the clinical effectiveness of low level laser therapy (LLLT) in facilitating the muscle healing process, scientific evidence is still required to prove the effectiveness of LLLT and to clarify the cellular and molecular mechanisms triggered by irradiation. Here we evaluate the effect of different LLLT doses, using continuous illumination (830 nm), in the treatment of inflammation induced in the gastrocnemius muscle of Wistar rats, through the quantification of cytokines in systemic blood and histological analysis of muscle tissue. We verified that all applied doses produce an effect on reducing the number of inflammatory cells and the concentration of pro-inflammatory TNF-α and IL-1β cytokines. The best results were obtained for 40 mW. The results may suggest a biphasic dose response curve.

  5. Isolation and characterization of a novel gene sfig in rat skeletal muscle up-regulated by spaceflight (STS-90)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kano, Mihoko; Kitano, Takako; Ikemoto, Madoka; Hirasaka, Katsuya; Asanoma, Yuki; Ogawa, Takayuki; Takeda, Shinichi; Nonaka, Ikuya; Adams, Gregory R.; Baldwin, Kenneth M.; Oarada, Motoko; Kishi, Kyoichi; Nikawa, Takeshi

    2003-01-01

    We obtained the skeletal muscle of rats exposed to weightless conditions during a 16-day-spaceflight (STS-90). By using a differential display technique, we identified 6 up-regulated and 3 down-regulated genes in the gastrocnemius muscle of the spaceflight rats, as compared to the ground control. The up-regulated genes included those coding Casitas B-lineage lymphoma-b, insulin growth factor binding protein-1, titin and mitochondrial gene 16 S rRNA and two novel genes (function unknown). The down-regulated genes included those encoding RNA polymerase II elongation factor-like protein, NADH dehydrogenase and one novel gene (function unknown). In the present study, we isolated and characterized one of two novel muscle genes that were remarkably up-regulated by spaceflight. The deduced amino acid sequence of the spaceflight-induced gene (sfig) comprises 86 amino acid residues and is well conserved from Drosophila to Homo sapiens. A putative leucine-zipper structure located at the N-terminal region of sfig suggests that this gene may encode a transcription factor. The up-regulated expression of this gene, confirmed by Northern blot analysis, was observed not only in the muscles of spaceflight rats but also in the muscles of tail-suspended rats, especially in the early stage of tail-suspension when gastrocnemius muscle atrophy initiated. The gene was predominantly expressed in the kidney, liver, small intestine and heart. When rat myoblastic L6 cells were grown to 100% confluence in the cell culture system, the expression of sfig was detected regardless of the cell differentiation state. These results suggest that spaceflight has many genetic effects on rat skeletal muscle.

  6. Adaptation of fibers in fast-twitch muscles of rats to spaceflight and hindlimb suspension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Bian; Ohira, Yoshi; Roy, Roland R.; Nguyen, Quyet; Il'ina-Kakueva, E. I.; Oganov, V.; Edgerton, V. R.

    1992-01-01

    The adaptation of single fibers in medial gastrocnemius (MG), a fast-twitch extensor, and in tibialis anterior (TA), a fast-twitch flexor, was studied after 14 days of spaceflight onboard Cosmos 2044 or hindlimb suspension. Quantitative myosin ATPase activities of single fibers were measured in flight and suspended rats. Each of the enzyme and size measurements were directly correlated within each fiber with respect to its qualitative myosin ATPase staining properties and its expression of fast, slow, or both myosin heavy chains (MHC). The percentage of slow- and fast-twitch fibers of the MG and TA were found to be unchanged. Mean fiber size of all fibers was unaffected after flight or suspension. The ATPase activity in the MG was higher in flight than in control or suspended rats. In comparison to Cosmos 1887 spaceflight, the adaptations in the muscle fibers of the MG were more moderate.

  7. Effect of plaster cast immobilization on the turnover rates of soluble proteins and lactate dehydrogenase isoenzymes of rabbit M. soleus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In atrophized muscle the decreases of the activity of LDH isoenzymes can be explained partly by a 15 per cent decrease of the enzyme synthesis and partly by a 25 per cent increase in catabolism. The quantities of the soluble proteins and LDH were measured after intravenously administered 3H-leucin incorporation, from the musculus soleus. LDH was isolated by means of affinity chromatography. Radioactivity was determined in a Packard Tri-Carb scintillation counter. The synthesis rate of soluble proteins barely changed during immobilization. In the atrophized muscle the decrease of the amount of soluble proteins could be almost exclusively interpreted in terms of a 25 per cent enchancement of degradative process. The accelerated catabolism is most probably due to the proteolytic enzymes activated by immobilization. (L.G.)

  8. The effect of running, strength, and vibration strength training on the mechanical, morphological, and biochemical properties of the Achilles tendon in rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Legerlotz, Kirsten; Schjerling, Peter; Langberg, Henning;

    2007-01-01

    mechanical, morphological, and biochemical properties of the Achilles tendon. Sixty-four female Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into five groups: nonactive age-matched control (AMC; n = 20), voluntary wheel running (RT; n = 20), vibration strength-trained (LVST; n = 12), high-vibration strength......-trained (HVST; n = 6), and high strength-trained (HST; n = 6) group. After a 12-wk-long experimental period, the Achilles tendon was tested mechanically and the cross-sectional area, the soleus and gastrocnemius muscle mass, and mRNA concentration of collagen I, collagen III, tissue inhibitor of...

  9. Cathepsin D and MMP-9 activity increase following a high intensity exercise in hind limb muscles of young rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmeli, Eli; Haimovitz, Tal; Nemcovsky, E Carlos

    2007-01-01

    The influence of an intensive exercise regime on cathepsin D and MMP-9 activity in hind limb muscles was investigated. We hypothesized that high-intensity exercise would increase the number of these proteins, indicating their involvement in the pathogenesis of exercise-induced muscle injury. Muscle fibers from the gastrocnemius and soleus were used from young (6-mo-old) female rats (n = 6) who completed 10 consecutive days of treadmill running at high intensity (34 m min(-1) gradually up to 40 min per day), compared with nonrunning, age and sex-matched rats (n = 6). After a high-intensity exercise regime, cathepsin D activity significantly increased in the gastrocnemius (from 6.6 x 10(-3) to 10.7 x 10(-3) or 61% nM tyrosine x mg-1 protein x min-1) and the soleus (from 5.9 x 10(-3) to 8.9 x 10(-3) or 66%). The activity level of mRNA MMP-9, expressed as ng mg(-1) protein, increased in both muscles subjected to intensity running. The results of this study suggest that high-intensity running results in an elevation in the activity of lysosomal enzymes involved in matrix protein degradation. PMID:17569248

  10. Morphological differences in skeletal muscle atrophy of rats with motor nerve and/or sensory nerve injury

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lei Zhao; Guangming Lv; Shengyang Jiang; Zhiqiang Yan; Junming Sun; Ling Wang; Donglin Jiang

    2012-01-01

    Skeletal muscle atrophy occurs after denervation. The present study dissected the rat left ventral root and dorsal root at L4-6 or the sciatic nerve to establish a model of simple motor nerve injury, sensory nerve injury or mixed nerve injury. Results showed that with prolonged denervation time, rats with simple motor nerve injury, sensory nerve injury or mixed nerve injury exhibited abnormal behavior, reduced wet weight of the left gastrocnemius muscle, decreased diameter and cross-sectional area and altered ultrastructure of muscle cells, as well as decreased cross-sectional area and increased gray scale of the gastrocnemius muscle motor end plate. Moreover, at the same time point, the pathological changes were most severe in mixed nerve injury, followed by simple motor nerve injury, and the changes in simple sensory nerve injury were the mildest. These findings indicate that normal skeletal muscle morphology is maintained by intact innervation. Motor nerve injury resulted in larger damage to skeletal muscle and more severe atrophy than sensory nerve injury. Thus, reconstruction of motor nerves should be considered first in the clinical treatment of skeletal muscle atrophy caused by denervation.

  11. Effects of acute exposure of heavy ion to spinal cord on the properties of motoneurons and muscle fibers in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We investigate effects of localized exposure of heavy ion to the lumbar 4th to 6th segments of the rat spinal cord on the properties of motoneurons and the innervated muscle fibers without surgical treatments. Twenty 7-week-old male Wistar rats were exposed to 5 mm spread-out Bragg peak (SOBP) carbon beam (290 MeV, linear energy transfer (LET)=130 keV/μm): Two doses (15 Gy or 20 Gy) were applied to each group of rats (n=5) in two different depths; one group was exposed only for ventral horn of the spinal cord while other for whole spinal cord. Five rats served as controls. The rats were exposed to carbon irons on October 26, 2002. We will sacrifice the rats soon after they show an abnormal behavior including posture and walking. Cell body size and oxidative enzyme activity of spinal motoneurons of the control and heavy-ion-exposed rats will be analyzed. In addition, cell size, oxidative enzyme activity, and expressions of myosin heavy chain isoforms of the gastrocnemius, soleus, plantaris, extensor digitorum longus, and tibialis anterior muscle fibers will be also determined. This study is performed to test our hypothesis that atrophy and a decrease in cross-sectional area of motoneurons and muscle fibers which they innervate, as well as a decrease in oxidative activity of motoneurons and muscle fibers, will be induced due to exposure to heavy ion. (author)

  12. Contractile properties of rat, rhesus monkey, and human type I muscle fibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widrick, J. J.; Romatowski, J. G.; Karhanek, M.; Fitts, R. H.

    1997-01-01

    It is well known that skeletal muscle intrinsic maximal shortening velocity is inversely related to species body mass. However, there is uncertainty regarding the relationship between the contractile properties of muscle fibers obtained from commonly studied laboratory animals and those obtained from humans. In this study we determined the contractile properties of single chemically skinned fibers prepared from rat, rhesus monkey, and human soleus and gastrocnemius muscle samples under identical experimental conditions. All fibers used for analysis expressed type I myosin heavy chain as determined by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Allometric coefficients for type I fibers from each muscle indicated that there was little change in peak tension (force/fiber cross-sectional area) across species. In contrast, both soleus and gastrocnemius type I fiber maximal unloaded shortening velocity (Vo), the y-intercept of the force-velocity relationship (Vmax), peak power per unit fiber length, and peak power normalized for fiber length and cross-sectional area were all inversely related to species body mass. The present allometric coefficients for soleus fiber Vo (-0.18) and Vmax (-0.11) are in good agreement with published values for soleus fibers obtained from common laboratory and domesticated mammals. Taken together, these observations suggest that the Vo of slow fibers from quadrupeds and humans scale similarly and can be described by the same quantitative relationships. These findings have implications in the design and interpretation of experiments, especially those that use small laboratory mammals as a model of human muscle function.

  13. Effects of eldecalcitol on bone and skeletal muscles in glucocorticoid-treated rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinoshita, Hayato; Miyakoshi, Naohisa; Kasukawa, Yuji; Sakai, Sadaoki; Shiraishi, Ayako; Segawa, Toyohito; Ohuchi, Kentaro; Fujii, Masashi; Sato, Chie; Shimada, Yoichi

    2016-03-01

    Glucocorticoids cause secondary osteoporosis and myopathy, characterized by type II muscle fiber atrophy. We examined whether a new vitamin D3 analogue, eldecalcitol, could inhibit glucocorticoid-induced osteopenia or myopathy in rats, and also determined the effects of prednisolone (PSL) and/or eldecalcitol on muscle-related gene expression. Six-month-old female Wistar rats were randomized into four groups: PSL group (10 mg/kg PSL); E group (0.05 µg/kg eldecalcitol); PSL + E group; and control group. PSL, eldecalcitol, and vehicles were administered daily for 2 or 4 weeks. Right calf muscle strength, muscle fatigue, cross-sectional areas (CSAs) of left tibialis anterior muscle fibers, and bone mineral density (BMD) were measured following administration. Pax7, MyoD, and myogenin mRNA levels in gastrocnemius muscles were also determined. Muscle strength was significantly higher in the PSL + E group than in the PSL group (p muscle fatigue was seen between groups at 2 or 4 weeks. CSAs of type II muscle fibers were significantly larger in the E group and the PSL + E group than in the PSL group at 4 weeks (p = 0.0093, p = 0.0443, respectively). Eldecalcitol treatment for 4 weeks maintained the same BMD as the PSL + E group. After 2 weeks, but not 4 weeks, eldecalcitol treatment significantly increased Pax7 and myogenin mRNA expression in gastrocnemius muscle, and PSL also stimulated myogenin expression. Eldecalcitol appears to increase muscle volume and to protect against femur BMD loss in PSL-administered rats, and it may also stimulate myoblast differentiation into early myotubes. PMID:25944421

  14. Weight loss and brown adipose tissue reduction in rat model of sleep apnea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    de Oliveira Patricia G

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background - Obesity is related to obstructive sleep apnea-hypopnea syndrome (OSAHS, but its roles in OSAHS as cause or consequence are not fully clarified. Isocapnic intermittent hypoxia (IIH is a model of OSAHS. We verified the effect of IIH on body weight and brown adipose tissue (BAT of Wistar rats. Methods Nine-month-old male breeders Wistar rats of two groups were studied: 8 rats submitted to IIH and 5 control rats submitted to sham IIH. The rats were weighed at the baseline and at the end of three weeks, after being placed in the IIH apparatus seven days per week, eight hours a day, in the lights on period, simulating an apnea index of 30/hour. After experimental period, the animals were weighed and measured as well as the BAT, abdominal, perirenal, and epididymal fat, the heart, and the gastrocnemius muscle. Results Body weight of the hypoxia group decreased 17 ± 7 grams, significantly different from the variation observed in the control group (p = 0,001. The BAT was 15% lighter in the hypoxia group and reached marginally the alpha error probability (p = 0.054. Conclusion Our preliminary results justify a larger study for a longer time in order to confirm the effect of isocapnic intermittent hypoxia on body weight and BAT.

  15. Carbohydrate supplementation attenuates decrement in performance in overtrained rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coutinho de Oliveira, Caio Victor; Barbosa, Carlos Vinícius; Massa, Nayara Moreira; Pereira, Reabias de Andrade; Félix, Gustavo da Silva; Aquino, Jailane de Souza; de Oliveira, Edilamar Menezes; Silva, Alexandre Sérgio

    2016-01-01

    Carbohydrate ingestion at the end of a single exercise is recognized as delaying fatigue and accelerating recovery, but whether chronic ingestion can prevent overtraining during periods of intense training has not yet been elucidated. This study aimed to determine whether carbohydrate supplementation minimizes overtraining in Wistar rats. The animals underwent 11 weeks of training (running) on a treadmill, and the last 3 weeks were designed to induce overtraining. One group was supplemented with carbohydrates (EX-CHO) (n = 13), 1 group had no supplementation (EX) (n = 10), and a third group remained inactive (C) (n = 9). Performance tests were given before training (Pr1) and at the 8th (Pr2) and 11th (Pr3) training week. Food intake, body weight, testosterone, cortisol, malondialdehyde, creatine kinase, and activities of the PI3-K, Akt-1, mTOR, and GSK-3 enzymes were measured. In the EX group, there was a significant 32.6% performance decrease at Pr3 when compared with Pr2. In addition, at protocol completion, the EX-CHO group had a greater gastrocnemius weight than did the C group (p = 0.02), which the EX group did not. Training caused anorexia, decreased testosterone (p = 0.001), and increased malondialdehyde (p = 0.009) in both exercise groups compared with the C group, with no influence of carbohydrate supplementation on these variables (p > 0.05). Compared with in the C group, the activity of Akt-1 was higher in the EX-CHO group but not in the EX group (p = 0.013). Carbohydrate supplementation promoted an attenuation in the performance decrement and maintained gastrocnemius muscle mass in animals that had undergone overtraining protocols, which was accompanied by increased activity of the Akt-1 molecular indicator. PMID:26701118

  16. 林蛙油对游泳训练小鼠腓肠肌保护作用研究%The Protective Effect of Rana Oil on Swimming Trained Mice Gastrocnemius

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张平; 张岚; 鲍九枝; 李松哲

    2013-01-01

      探讨林蛙油对运动训练小鼠腓肠肌自由基代谢和超微结构的影响,为林蛙油的应用和开发提供实验依据。以ICR小鼠为研究对象,通过建立灌服林蛙油小鼠递增游泳训练和游泳力竭模型,测定小鼠力竭游泳时间、腓肠肌SOD活性、MDA含量和小鼠腓肠肌超微结构的变化。林蛙油能延长小鼠力竭游泳时间,与运动组相比,林蛙油中、高剂量组有显著差异(p<0.01)。运动组SOD活性显著降低,与安静组比较,有显著差异(p<0.01);与林蛙油各剂量组比较,中、高剂量组有显著差异(p<0.05)。运动组MDA的含量最高,与安静组比较,有显著异(p<0.01)与林蛙油各剂量组比较,均有显著异(p<0.01)。小鼠腓肠肌组织超微结构的观察表明,运动组肌原纤维上肌节结构可辨,但呈致密状,线粒体嵴断裂,呈空化状,林蛙油组损伤程度小于运动组。林蛙油可显著提高小鼠腓肠肌组织抗自由基氧化的功能,对运动造成的腓肠肌组织超微结构的损伤有明显的保护作用,对小鼠运动能力的提高有很好的作用。%To explore the impact of Rana oil on trained mice Gastrocnemius free radical metabolism and ultrastructure, provided the experimental basis for the application and development of Rana oil. The research aimed to establish the oil Rana mice fed the incremental swimming training and exhaustive swimming model. Changes of mice swimming exhausted time, gastrocnemius muscle SOD activity, MDA content and gastrocnemius muscle ultrastructure was measured. The Rana oil can extend the swimming exhausted time of mice, compared with the trained group, Rana oil of high and medium dose group had a significant difference (p<0.01). SOD activity in the trained group significantly reduced, compared with the quiet group, had a significant difference (p<0.01);comparison with Rana oil each dose group, the high and medium dose

  17. IL-15 expression increased in response to treadmill running and inhibited endoplasmic reticulum stress in skeletal muscle in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Hong-Tao; Luo, Li-Jie; Chen, Wen-Jia; Zhao, Lei; Tang, Chao-Shu; Qi, Yong-Fen; Zhang, Jing

    2015-02-01

    Interleukin 15 (IL-15) has recently been proposed as a circulating myokine involved in glucose uptake and utilization in skeletal muscle. However, the role and mechanism of IL-15 in exercise improving insulin resistance (IR) is unclear. Here, we investigated the alteration in expression of IL-15 and IL-15 receptor α (IL-15Rα) in skeletal muscle during treadmill running in rats with IR induced by a high-fat diet (HFD) and elucidated the mechanism of the anti-IR effects of IL-15. At 20 weeks of HFD, rats showed severe IR, with increased levels of fasting blood sugar and plasma insulin, impaired glucose tolerance, and reduced glucose transport activity. IL-15 immunoreactivity and mRNA level in gastrocnemius muscle were decreased markedly as compared with controls. IL-15Rα protein and mRNA levels in both soleus and gastrocnemius muscle were significantly decreased, which might attenuate the signaling or secretion of IL-15 in muscle. Eight-week treadmill running completely ameliorated HFD-induced IR and reversed the downregulated level of IL-15 and IL-15Rα in skeletal muscle of HFD-fed rats. To investigate whether IL-15 exerts its anti-IR effects directly in muscle, we pre-incubated muscle strips with the endoplasmic reticulum stress (ERS) inducer dithiothreitol (DTT) or tunicamycin (Tm); IL-15 treatment markedly decreased the protein expression of the ERS markers 78-kDa glucose-regulated protein, 94-kDa glucose-regulated protein and C/EBP homologous protein and inhibited ERS induced by DTT or Tm. Therefore, treadmill running promoted skeletal IL-15 and IL-15Rα expression in HFD-induced IR in rats. The inhibitory effect of IL-15 on ERS may be involved in improved insulin sensitivity with exercise training. PMID:24647688

  18. Prolonged mechanical ventilation alters the expression pattern of angio-neogenetic factors in a pre-clinical rat model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian S Bruells

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Mechanical ventilation (MV is a life saving intervention for patients with respiratory failure. Even after 6 hours of MV, diaphragm atrophy and dysfunction (collectively referred to as ventilator-induced diaphragmatic dysfunction, VIDD occurs in concert with a blunted blood flow and oxygen delivery. The regulation of hypoxia sensitive factors (i.e. hypoxia inducible factor 1α, 2α (HIF-1α,-2α, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF and angio-neogenetic factors (angiopoietin 1-3, Ang might contribute to reactive and compensatory alterations in diaphragm muscle. METHODS: Male Wistar rats (n = 8 were ventilated for 24 hours or directly sacrificed (n = 8, diaphragm and mixed gastrocnemius muscle tissue was removed. Quantitative real time PCR and western blot analyses were performed to detect changes in angio-neogenetic factors and inflammatory markers. Tissues were stained using Isolectin (IB 4 to determine capillarity and calculate the capillary/fiber ratio. RESULTS: MV resulted in up-regulation of Ang 2 and HIF-1α mRNA in both diaphragm and gastrocnemius, while VEGF mRNA was down-regulated in both tissues. HIF-2α mRNA was reduced in both tissues, while GLUT 4 mRNA was increased in gastrocnemius and reduced in diaphragm samples. Protein levels of VEGF, HIF-1α, -2α and 4 did not change significantly. Additionally, inflammatory cytokine mRNA (Interleukin (IL-6, IL-1β and TNF α were elevated in diaphragm tissue. CONCLUSION: The results demonstrate that 24 hrs of MV and the associated limb disuse induce an up-regulation of angio-neogenetic factors that are connected to HIF-1α. Changes in HIF-1α expression may be due to several interactions occurring during MV.

  19. 腓肠肌羽状角的高频超声测量及其临床意义%Measurement of plume angles of gastrocnemius by high frequency ultrasound and its clinical signiifcance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    叶攀; 胡海涛

    2014-01-01

    Objective To discuss the ultrasonic anatomy of gastrocnemius and its substructures in normal population. Methods Eighty gastrocnemius in 40 volunteers were scanned by real time high frequency ultrasound. Sonograms of medial and lateral heads of gastrocnemius were acquired. Plume angles between medial and lateral heads of gastrocnemius were measured at condition of rest, 5 kg and 10 kg isometric contraction. Both dominant and non-dominant legs were evaluated. Differences of plume angles were compared by ANOVA in different conditions and by t test in different legs. Results At the upper part of the muscle, both medial and lateral heads of gastrocnemius could be divided into muscular compartment, shallow compartment and deep compartment by hyperechoic intra-muscular septa with clear margin. The septa of lateral heads presented as hyperechoic side-lying′T′, while the septa of medial heads presented as hyperechoic side-lying-′T′. Vascular signals could be detected in these hyperechoic septa. The plume angle at the distal part of the lateral head of gastrocnemius was composed of shallow compartment attaching to the Achilles tendon, and that of the medial head was composed of medial muscular compartment attaching to the tendon. At rest, 5 kg and 10 kg isometric contraction, plume angles of lateral heads were (13.36±3.20)°, (13.32±3.30)° and (12.75±3.20)°, and plume angles of medial heads were (8.69±3.30)°, (8.59±2.99)° and (8.65±3.20)°. Under the same condition, plume angles of medial heads were larger than those of lateral heads and the difference was statistically signiifcant (t=9.09, 9.50 and 8.10, all P<0.01). Changes of plume angles between rest and different weight bearing conditions were small, and differences were not statistically signiifcant (F=0.89 and 0.02, P=0.41 and 0.98). Plume angles of medial heads in dominant legs and non-dominant legs were (13.66±3.60)° and (13.30±2.84)°, and those of lateral heads were (8.71±3.48)° and (8.80

  20. Functional overload attenuates plantaris atrophy in tumor-bearing rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Late stage cancer malignancies may result in severe skeletal muscle wasting, fatigue and reduced quality of life. Resistance training may attenuate these derangements in cancer patients, but how this hypertrophic response relates to normal muscle adaptations in healthy subjects is unknown. Here, we determined the effect of resistance training on muscle mass and myosin heavy chain (MHC) isoform composition in plantaris muscles from tumor-bearing (TB) rats. Age- and gender-matched Buffalo rats were used for all studies (n = 6/group). Suspensions of Morris Hepatoma MH7777 cells or normal saline were injected subcutaneously into the dorsum. Six weeks after cell implantation, muscles from TB rats were harvested, weighed and processed for ATP-independent proteasome activity assays. Once tumor-induced atrophy had been established, subgroups of TB rats underwent unilateral, functional overload (FO). Healthy, sham-operated rats served as controls. After six weeks, the extent of plantaris hypertrophy was calculated and MHC isoform compositions were determined by gel electrophoresis. Six weeks of tumor growth reduced body mass and the relative masses of gastrocnemius, plantaris, tibialis anterior, extensor digitorum longus, and diaphragm muscles (p ≤ 0.05). Percent reductions in body mass had a strong, negative correlation to final tumor size (r = -0.78). ATP-independent proteasome activity was increased in plantaris muscles from TB rats (p ≤ 0.05). In healthy rats, functional overload (FO) increased plantaris mass ~44% compared to the contralateral control muscle, and increased the relative percentage of MHC type I and decreased the relative percentage of MHC type IIb compared to the sham-operated controls (p ≤ 0.05). Importantly, plantaris mass was increased ~24% in TB-FO rats and adaptations to MHC isoform composition were consistent with normal, resistance-trained muscles. Despite significant skeletal muscle derangements due to cancer, muscle retains the capacity to

  1. Aerobic exercise training induces metabolic benefits in rats with metabolic syndrome independent of dietary changes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Wesendonck Caponi

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: We evaluated the effects of aerobic exercise training without dietary changes on cardiovascular and metabolic variables and on the expression of glucose transporter Type 4 in rats with metabolic syndrome. METHODS: Twenty male spontaneously hypertensive rats received monosodium glutamate during the neonatal period. The animals were allocated to the following groups: MS (sedentary metabolic syndrome, MS-T (trained on a treadmill for 1 hour/day, 5 days/week for 10 weeks, H (sedentary spontaneously hypertensive rats and H-T (trained spontaneously hypertensive rats. The Lee index, blood pressure (tail-cuff system, insulin sensitivity (insulin tolerance test and functional capacity were evaluated before and after 10 weeks of training. Glucose transporter Type 4 expression was analyzed using Western blotting. The data were compared using analysis of variance (ANOVA (p<0.05. RESULTS: At baseline, the MS rats exhibited lower insulin sensitivity and increased Lee index compared with the H rats. Training decreased the body weight and Lee index of the MS rats (MS-T vs. MS, but not of the H rats (H-T vs. H. There were no differences in food intake between the groups. At the end of the experiments, the systolic blood pressure was lower in the two trained groups than in their sedentary controls. Whole-body insulin sensitivity increased in the trained groups. Glucose transporter Type 4 content increased in the heart, white adipose tissue and gastrocnemius muscle of the trained groups relative to their respective untrained groups. CONCLUSION: In conclusion, the present study shows that an isolated aerobic exercise training intervention is an efficient means of improving several components of metabolic syndrome, that is, training reduces obesity and hypertension and increases insulin sensitivity.

  2. β-hydroxy-β-methylbutyrate did not enhance high intensity resistance training-induced improvements in myofiber dimensions and myogenic capacity in aged female rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jeong-Su; Park, Young-Min; Lee, Sang-Rok; Masad, Ihssan S; Khamoui, Andy V; Jo, Edward; Park, Bong-Sup; Arjmandi, Bahram H; Panton, Lynn B; Lee, Won Jun; Grant, Samuel C

    2012-11-01

    Older women exhibit blunted skeletal muscle hypertrophy following resistance training (RT) compared to other age and gender cohorts that is partially due to an impaired regenerative capacity. In the present study, we examined whether β-hydroxy-β-methylbutyrate (HMB) provision to aged female rodents would enhance regenerative mechanisms and facilitate RT-induced myofiber growth. Nineteen-month old female Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into three groups: HMB (0.48 g/kg/d; n = 6), non-HMB (n = 6), and control (n = 4). HMB and non-HMB groups underwent RT every third day for 10 weeks using a ladder climbing apparatus. Whole body strength, grip strength, and body composition was evaluated before and after RT. The gastrocnemius and soleus muscles were analyzed using magnetic resonance diffusion tensor imaging, RT-PCR, and immunohistochemistry to determine myofiber dimensions, transcript expression, and satellite cells/myonuclei, respectively. ANOVAs were used with significance set at p control. Moreover, both groups demonstrated significant increases in the numbers of satellite cells (+100-108%) and myonuclei (+32%) in the soleus but not the gastrocnemius. A significant IGF-I mRNA elevation was only observed in soleus of the HMB group (+33%) whereas MGF and myogenin increased significantly in both groups (+32-40%). Our findings suggest that HMB did not further enhance intense RT-mediated myogenic mechanisms and myofiber CSA in aged female rats. PMID:23149873

  3. Evaluation of low-level laser therapy on skeletal muscle ischemia-reperfusion in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats by assaying biochemical markers and histological changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takhtfooladi, Hamed Ashrafzadeh; Asghari, Ahmad; Amirkamali, Sahar; Hoseinzadeh, Hesam Aldin; Takhtfooladi, Mohammad Ashrafzadeh

    2016-08-01

    The purpose of the present study was to assess the effects of low-level laser therapy (LLLT) on skeletal muscle ischemia-reperfusion (IR) injuries in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Twenty male Wistar rats were randomly assigned into two experimental groups, as follows: the diabetic IR group (G1, n = 10) and the diabetic IR + LLLT group (G2, n = 10). Ischemia was induced in anesthetized rats from the right femoral artery clipping for 2 h, followed by a reperfusion for 24 h. Then, the laser irradiation (K30 handheld probe, AZOR, Technica, Russia, 650 nm, 30 mW, surface area = 1 cm(2), energy density = 1.8 J/cm(2)) was carried out by irradiating the rats over a unique point on the skin over the middle region of the right gastrocnemius muscle belly three times (every 8 h), starting after initiating the reperfusion for 3 min. At the end of the reperfusion period, rats were anaesthetized and blood samples were collected and used for the estimation of pO2, pCO2, pH, HCO3, serum creatine phosphokinase (CPK), and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH). Subsequently, the right gastrocnemius muscle samples were taken for wet/dry weight ratio assessment and histological/biochemical examination. The pO2, pCO2, HCO3, and pH levels were similar for both groups (P > 0.05). The serum LDH and CPK levels were significantly lower (P level in G2 was significantly decreased (P laser parameters and examining response over a longer period of tissue recovery. PMID:27250714

  4. Fetal rat metabonome alteration by prenatal caffeine ingestion probably due to the increased circulatory glucocorticoid level and altered peripheral glucose and lipid metabolic pathways

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Yansong [Department of Pharmacology, Basic Medical School of Wuhan University, Wuhan University, Wuhan, 430071 (China); Xu, Dan [Department of Pharmacology, Basic Medical School of Wuhan University, Wuhan University, Wuhan, 430071 (China); Research Center of Food and Drug Evaluation, Wuhan University, Wuhan, 430071 (China); Feng, Jianghua, E-mail: jianghua.feng@xmu.edu.cn [Wuhan Institute of Physics and Mathematics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wuhan, 430071 (China); Department of Electronic Science, Fujian Provincial Key Laboratory of Plasma and Magnetic Resonance, Xiamen University, Xiamen, 361005 (China); Kou, Hao; Liang, Gai [Department of Pharmacology, Basic Medical School of Wuhan University, Wuhan University, Wuhan, 430071 (China); Yu, Hong; He, Xiaohua; Zhang, Baifang; Chen, Liaobin [Research Center of Food and Drug Evaluation, Wuhan University, Wuhan, 430071 (China); Magdalou, Jacques [UMR 7561 CNRS-Nancy Université, Faculté de Médicine, Vandoeuvre-lès-Nancy (France); Wang, Hui, E-mail: wanghui19@whu.edu.cn [Department of Pharmacology, Basic Medical School of Wuhan University, Wuhan University, Wuhan, 430071 (China); Research Center of Food and Drug Evaluation, Wuhan University, Wuhan, 430071 (China)

    2012-07-15

    The aims of this study were to clarify the metabonome alteration in fetal rats after prenatal caffeine ingestion and to explore the underlying mechanism pertaining to the increased fetal circulatory glucocorticoid (GC). Pregnant Wistar rats were daily intragastrically administered with different doses of caffeine (0, 20, 60 and 180 mg/kg) from gestational days (GD) 11 to 20. Metabonome of fetal plasma and amniotic fluid on GD20 were analyzed by {sup 1}H nuclear magnetic resonance-based metabonomics. Gene and protein expressions involved in the GC metabolism, glucose and lipid metabolic pathways in fetal liver and gastrocnemius were measured by real-time RT-PCR and immunohistochemistry. Fetal plasma metabonome were significantly altered by caffeine, which presents as the elevated α- and β‐glucose, reduced multiple lipid contents, varied apolipoprotein contents and increased levels of a number of amino acids. The metabonome of amniotic fluids showed a similar change as that in fetal plasma. Furthermore, the expressions of 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase 2 (11β-HSD-2) were decreased, while the level of blood GC and the expressions of 11β-HSD-1 and glucocorticoid receptor (GR) were increased in fetal liver and gastrocnemius. Meanwhile, the expressions of insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1), IGF-1 receptor and insulin receptor were decreased, while the expressions of adiponectin receptor 2, leptin receptors and AMP-activated protein kinase α2 were increased after caffeine treatment. Prenatal caffeine ingestion characteristically change the fetal metabonome, which is probably attributed to the alterations of glucose and lipid metabolic pathways induced by increased circulatory GC, activated GC metabolism and enhanced GR expression in peripheral metabolic tissues. -- Highlights: ► Prenatal caffeine ingestion altered the metabonome of IUGR fetal rats. ► Caffeine altered the glucose and lipid metabolic pathways of IUGR fetal rats. ► Prenatal caffeine

  5. Fetal rat metabonome alteration by prenatal caffeine ingestion probably due to the increased circulatory glucocorticoid level and altered peripheral glucose and lipid metabolic pathways

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aims of this study were to clarify the metabonome alteration in fetal rats after prenatal caffeine ingestion and to explore the underlying mechanism pertaining to the increased fetal circulatory glucocorticoid (GC). Pregnant Wistar rats were daily intragastrically administered with different doses of caffeine (0, 20, 60 and 180 mg/kg) from gestational days (GD) 11 to 20. Metabonome of fetal plasma and amniotic fluid on GD20 were analyzed by 1H nuclear magnetic resonance-based metabonomics. Gene and protein expressions involved in the GC metabolism, glucose and lipid metabolic pathways in fetal liver and gastrocnemius were measured by real-time RT-PCR and immunohistochemistry. Fetal plasma metabonome were significantly altered by caffeine, which presents as the elevated α- and β‐glucose, reduced multiple lipid contents, varied apolipoprotein contents and increased levels of a number of amino acids. The metabonome of amniotic fluids showed a similar change as that in fetal plasma. Furthermore, the expressions of 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase 2 (11β-HSD-2) were decreased, while the level of blood GC and the expressions of 11β-HSD-1 and glucocorticoid receptor (GR) were increased in fetal liver and gastrocnemius. Meanwhile, the expressions of insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1), IGF-1 receptor and insulin receptor were decreased, while the expressions of adiponectin receptor 2, leptin receptors and AMP-activated protein kinase α2 were increased after caffeine treatment. Prenatal caffeine ingestion characteristically change the fetal metabonome, which is probably attributed to the alterations of glucose and lipid metabolic pathways induced by increased circulatory GC, activated GC metabolism and enhanced GR expression in peripheral metabolic tissues. -- Highlights: ► Prenatal caffeine ingestion altered the metabonome of IUGR fetal rats. ► Caffeine altered the glucose and lipid metabolic pathways of IUGR fetal rats. ► Prenatal caffeine ingestion

  6. Aerobic Exercise Reduces the Level of Insulin Resistance in Diabetic Rats%有氧运动对2型糖尿病大鼠腓肠肌氧化应激及MAPKs信号通路的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王小娟; 李建华; 边仁秀

    2012-01-01

    Objective To study the effect of aerobic exercise on the insulin resistance,oxidative stress and MAPKs signaling pathway of gastrocnemius in type 2 diabetic rats. Methods Thirty healthy male Wistar rats were randomly divided into control group (C, normal diet) .diabetic control group (DC, high fat diet), and diabetic aerobic exercise group (DE, high fat diet). After 4 weeks, rats in groups DC and DE were injected with streptozotocin (STZ) for developing type 2 diabetes,and continued feeding high-fat diet for another 4 weeks. Rats in group DE underwent swimming without additional load for 6 weeks. All rats were sacrificed after 6 weeks,and the fasting blood glucose (FBG),fasting insulin (FINS) .insulin resistance index (HOMA -IR),gastrocnemius superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glu-tathione peroxidase(GPX) activities, and malondialdehyde(MDA) levels were tested or calculated. Gastrocnemius p38 and JNK mRNA expression were determined by RT-PCR,and gastrocnemius ERK1/2 and p-ERKl/2 expression by Western-blot method. Results Compared with the rats in group C,FBG, FINS,HOMA-IR and MDA levels increased,gastrocnemius SOD and GPX decreased,MDA level significantly increased,mRNA relative expression levels of p38,JNKl ,and JNK2 in gastrocnemius significantly increased in rats of group DC. There was no statistical significance in relative expression level of ERK1. Compared with the group DC, FBG, FINS, HOMA -IR and MDA levels decreased, and gastrocnemius SOD and GPX increased,mRNA relative expression level of p38 and JNK1 in gastrocnemius,and relative expression level of p-ERKl ,ERK2 and p-ERK2 significantly increased in group DE. There was no statistical significance in the level of ERK1 and JNK2. Conclusion Aerobic exercise could activate the MAPKs signaling pathway,increase the expression of antioxidant enzymes SOD and GPX,improve the oxidative stress status in gastrocnemius, and thus reduce the level of insulin resistance in diabetic rat.%目的:研究有氧运动对2型糖

  7. Low level laser therapy on injured rat muscle: assessment of irradiation parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mantineo, M.; Pinheiro, J. P.; Morgado, A. M.

    2013-11-01

    Although studies show the clinical effectiveness of low level laser therapy (LLLT) in facilitating the muscle healing process, scientific evidence is still required to prove the effectiveness of LLLT and to clarify the cellular and molecular mechanisms triggered by irradiation. Here we evaluate the effect of different LLLT wavelengths, using continuous coherent Laser illumination (830 nm and 980 nm) and non-coherent LED illumination (850 nm), in the treatment of inflammation induced in the gastrocnemius muscle of Wistar rats, through the quantification of cytokines in systemic blood. We verified that all applied doses of coherent radiation produce an effect on reducing the concentration of pro-inflammatory TNF-α and IL-1β cytokines, while no treatment effect was observed after irradiation with non-coherent radiation. The best results were obtained for 40 mW at 830 nm. The results may suggest an important role of coherence properties of laser in LLLT.

  8. Experiment K-308: Automatic analysis of muscle fibers from rats subjected to spaceflight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castleman, K. R.; Chui, L. A.; Vandermeullen, J. P.

    1981-01-01

    The morphology of histochemically prepared muscle sections from the gastrocnemius and plantaris muscles of flight and vivarium control rats was studied quantitatively. Both fast-twitch and slow-twitch fibers were significantly smaller in flight groups than in control groups. Fibers in group 4F were somewhat larger than in 1F, presumably due to growth after recovery. Fibers in 4V were slightly larger than in 1V, presumably due to age. The slow fibers showed more spaceflight induced size loss than fast fibers, suggesting they suffered more from hypogravity. The proportion of slow fibers was also lower in the flight groups, suggesting spaceflight induced fiber type conversion from slow to fast.

  9. Beneficial effects of Ginkgo biloba extract on insulin signaling cascade, dyslipidemia, and body adiposity of diet-induced obese rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Banin, R.M.; Hirata, B.K.S. [Departamento de Ciências Biológicas, Universidade Federal de São Paulo, Diadema, SP (Brazil); Andrade, I.S.; Zemdegs, J.C.S. [Disciplina de Fisiologia da Nutrição, Departamento de Fisiologia, Universidade Federal de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Clemente, A.P.G. [Faculdade de Nutrição, Universidade Federal de Alagoas, Maceió, AL (Brazil); Dornellas, A.P.S.; Boldarine, V.T. [Disciplina de Fisiologia da Nutrição, Departamento de Fisiologia, Universidade Federal de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Estadella, D. [Departamento de Biociências, Universidade Federal de São Paulo, Baixada Santista, SP (Brazil); Albuquerque, K.T. [Curso de Nutrição, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Macaé, RJ (Brazil); Oyama, L.M.; Ribeiro, E.B. [Disciplina de Fisiologia da Nutrição, Departamento de Fisiologia, Universidade Federal de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Telles, M.M. [Departamento de Ciências Biológicas, Universidade Federal de São Paulo, Diadema, SP (Brazil)

    2014-07-25

    Ginkgo biloba extract (GbE) has been indicated as an efficient medicine for the treatment of diabetes mellitus type 2. It remains unclear if its effects are due to an improvement of the insulin signaling cascade, especially in obese subjects. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of GbE on insulin tolerance, food intake, body adiposity, lipid profile, fasting insulin, and muscle levels of insulin receptor substrate 1 (IRS-1), protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP-1B), and protein kinase B (Akt), as well as Akt phosphorylation, in diet-induced obese rats. Rats were fed with a high-fat diet (HFD) or a normal fat diet (NFD) for 8 weeks. After that, the HFD group was divided into two groups: rats gavaged with a saline vehicle (HFD+V), and rats gavaged with 500 mg/kg of GbE diluted in the saline vehicle (HFD+Gb). NFD rats were gavaged with the saline vehicle only. At the end of the treatment, the rats were anesthetized, insulin was injected into the portal vein, and after 90s, the gastrocnemius muscle was removed. The quantification of IRS-1, Akt, and Akt phosphorylation was performed using Western blotting. Serum levels of fasting insulin and glucose, triacylglycerols and total cholesterol, and LDL and HDL fractions were measured. An insulin tolerance test was also performed. Ingestion of a hyperlipidic diet promoted loss of insulin sensitivity and also resulted in a significant increase in body adiposity, plasma triacylglycerol, and glucose levels. In addition, GbE treatment significantly reduced food intake and body adiposity while it protected against hyperglycemia and dyslipidemia in diet-induced obesity rats. It also enhanced insulin sensitivity in comparison to HFD+V rats, while it restored insulin-induced Akt phosphorylation, increased IRS-1, and reduced PTP-1B levels in gastrocnemius muscle. The present findings suggest that G. biloba might be efficient in preventing and treating obesity-induced insulin signaling impairment.

  10. Beneficial effects of Ginkgo biloba extract on insulin signaling cascade, dyslipidemia, and body adiposity of diet-induced obese rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.M. Banin

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Ginkgo biloba extract (GbE has been indicated as an efficient medicine for the treatment of diabetes mellitus type 2. It remains unclear if its effects are due to an improvement of the insulin signaling cascade, especially in obese subjects. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of GbE on insulin tolerance, food intake, body adiposity, lipid profile, fasting insulin, and muscle levels of insulin receptor substrate 1 (IRS-1, protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP-1B, and protein kinase B (Akt, as well as Akt phosphorylation, in diet-induced obese rats. Rats were fed with a high-fat diet (HFD or a normal fat diet (NFD for 8 weeks. After that, the HFD group was divided into two groups: rats gavaged with a saline vehicle (HFD+V, and rats gavaged with 500 mg/kg of GbE diluted in the saline vehicle (HFD+Gb. NFD rats were gavaged with the saline vehicle only. At the end of the treatment, the rats were anesthetized, insulin was injected into the portal vein, and after 90s, the gastrocnemius muscle was removed. The quantification of IRS-1, Akt, and Akt phosphorylation was performed using Western blotting. Serum levels of fasting insulin and glucose, triacylglycerols and total cholesterol, and LDL and HDL fractions were measured. An insulin tolerance test was also performed. Ingestion of a hyperlipidic diet promoted loss of insulin sensitivity and also resulted in a significant increase in body adiposity, plasma triacylglycerol, and glucose levels. In addition, GbE treatment significantly reduced food intake and body adiposity while it protected against hyperglycemia and dyslipidemia in diet-induced obesity rats. It also enhanced insulin sensitivity in comparison to HFD+V rats, while it restored insulin-induced Akt phosphorylation, increased IRS-1, and reduced PTP-1B levels in gastrocnemius muscle. The present findings suggest that G. biloba might be efficient in preventing and treating obesity-induced insulin signaling impairment.

  11. Beneficial effects of Ginkgo biloba extract on insulin signaling cascade, dyslipidemia, and body adiposity of diet-induced obese rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ginkgo biloba extract (GbE) has been indicated as an efficient medicine for the treatment of diabetes mellitus type 2. It remains unclear if its effects are due to an improvement of the insulin signaling cascade, especially in obese subjects. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of GbE on insulin tolerance, food intake, body adiposity, lipid profile, fasting insulin, and muscle levels of insulin receptor substrate 1 (IRS-1), protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP-1B), and protein kinase B (Akt), as well as Akt phosphorylation, in diet-induced obese rats. Rats were fed with a high-fat diet (HFD) or a normal fat diet (NFD) for 8 weeks. After that, the HFD group was divided into two groups: rats gavaged with a saline vehicle (HFD+V), and rats gavaged with 500 mg/kg of GbE diluted in the saline vehicle (HFD+Gb). NFD rats were gavaged with the saline vehicle only. At the end of the treatment, the rats were anesthetized, insulin was injected into the portal vein, and after 90s, the gastrocnemius muscle was removed. The quantification of IRS-1, Akt, and Akt phosphorylation was performed using Western blotting. Serum levels of fasting insulin and glucose, triacylglycerols and total cholesterol, and LDL and HDL fractions were measured. An insulin tolerance test was also performed. Ingestion of a hyperlipidic diet promoted loss of insulin sensitivity and also resulted in a significant increase in body adiposity, plasma triacylglycerol, and glucose levels. In addition, GbE treatment significantly reduced food intake and body adiposity while it protected against hyperglycemia and dyslipidemia in diet-induced obesity rats. It also enhanced insulin sensitivity in comparison to HFD+V rats, while it restored insulin-induced Akt phosphorylation, increased IRS-1, and reduced PTP-1B levels in gastrocnemius muscle. The present findings suggest that G. biloba might be efficient in preventing and treating obesity-induced insulin signaling impairment

  12. Effect of prior immobilization on muscular glucose clearance in resting and running rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vissing, J; Ohkuwa, T; Ploug, Thorkil;

    1988-01-01

    In vitro studies have shown that prior disuse impairs the glucose clearance of red skeletal muscle because of a developed insensitivity to insulin. We studied whether an impaired glucose clearance is present in vivo in 42-h immobilized muscles of resting rats and, furthermore, whether the exercise......-induced increase in glucose clearance of red muscles is affected by prior immobilization. The 2-[3H]deoxy-D-glucose (2DG) bolus injection method was used to determine glucose clearance of individual muscles. At rest, glucose clearance was markedly impaired in rats with previously immobilized red muscles compared...... with nonimmobilized control rats (red gastrocnemius 0.46 +/- 0.02 vs. 0.99 +/- 0.08 and soleus 1.10 +/- 0.30 vs. 3.97 +/- 0.54 ml.min-1.100 g-1, P less than 0.005). During running (18 m/min), glucose clearance did not differ between muscles in previously immobilized and control rats. Insulin levels...

  13. Reduced Renshaw Recurrent Inhibition after Neonatal Sciatic Nerve Crush in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liang Shu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Renshaw recurrent inhibition (RI plays an important gated role in spinal motion circuit. Peripheral nerve injury is a common disease in clinic. Our current research was designed to investigate the change of the recurrent inhibitory function in the spinal cord after the peripheral nerve crush injury in neonatal rat. Sciatic nerve crush was performed on 5-day-old rat puppies and the recurrent inhibition between lateral gastrocnemius-soleus (LG-S and medial gastrocnemius (MG motor pools was assessed by conditioning monosynaptic reflexes (MSR elicited from the sectioned dorsal roots and recorded either from the LG-S and MG nerves by antidromic stimulation of the synergist muscle nerve. Our results demonstrated that the MSR recorded from both LG-S or MG nerves had larger amplitude and longer latency after neonatal sciatic nerve crush. The RI in both LG-S and MG motoneuron pools was significantly reduced to virtual loss (15–20% of the normal RI size even after a long recovery period upto 30 weeks after nerve crush. Further, the degree of the RI reduction after tibial nerve crush was much less than that after sciatic nerve crush indicatig that the neuron-muscle disconnection time is vital to the recovery of the spinal neuronal circuit function during reinnervation. In addition, sciatic nerve crush injury did not cause any spinal motor neuron loss but severally damaged peripheral muscle structure and function. In conclusion, our results suggest that peripheral nerve injury during neonatal early development period would cause a more sever spinal cord inhibitory circuit damage, particularly to the Renshaw recurrent inhibition pathway, which might be the target of neuroregeneration therapy.

  14. MUSCULAR OXIDATIVE CAPACITY IN OVARIECTOMIZED RATS DISCUSSION ON THE ENDURANCE PERFORMANCE OF FEMALE ATHLETES WITH SPORTS-RELATED-AMENORRHEA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natsuo Yasui

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of ovariectomy on intramuscular energy metabolism in adult rats. Based on the results, we discussed the skeletal muscle metabolism in female athlete with sports related amenorrhea. Twenty-five adult (20-week-old Sprague-Dawley female rats were used. Fifteen rats underwent ovariectomy (OVX group, and the other ten rats were sham-operated (Sham group. One and four weeks after surgery, muscular oxidative capacity was measured using 31P-MR spectra of the gastrocnemius-plantaris-soleus (GPS muscles group at rest and during electric stimulation. Wet weight and maximum tension of the whole GPS muscles group were also measured. From the MRS measurements, the muscle oxidative capacity in the OVX group was significantly lower than that in the Sham group (p < 0.05 at both one and four weeks after surgery. The muscle's wet weight one week after surgery in the OVX group was the same as the Sham group, while four weeks after surgery it was significantly greater than that in the Sham group (p < 0.05. There were no significant differences in maximum tension among the groups. In conclusion, in adult rats the oxidative capacity decreased due to ovariectomy despite the increase in muscle weight. It is suggested that the muscular endurance capacity in female adult athletes with sports related amenorrhea may deteriorate.

  15. Cafeteria diet-induced insulin resistance is not associated with decreased insulin signaling or AMPK activity and is alleviated by physical training in rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brandt, Nina; De Bock, Katrien; Richter, Erik;

    2010-01-01

    counteracted by training. In the perfused hindlimb, insulin-stimulated glucose transport in red gastrocnemius muscle was completely abolished in CAF and rescued by exercise training. Apart from a tendency toward an approximately 20% reduction in both basal and insulin-stimulated Akt Ser(473) phosphorylation (P......) among the groups. In conclusion, surplus energy intake of a palatable but low-fat cafeteria diet resulted in obesity and insulin resistance that was rescued by exercise training. Interestingly, insulin resistance was not accompanied by major defects in the insulin-signaling cascade or in altered AMPK......Excess energy intake via a palatable low-fat diet (cafeteria diet) is known to induce obesity and glucose intolerance in rats. However, the molecular mechanisms behind this adaptation are not known, and it is also not known whether exercise training can reverse it. Male Wistar rats were assigned to...

  16. Effect of Treadmill Exercise on Interleukin-15 Expression and Glucose Tolerance in Zucker Diabetic Fatty Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hee-Jae Kim

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundInterleukin-15 (IL-15, a well-known myokine, is highly expressed in skeletal muscle and is involved in muscle-fat crosstalk. Recently, a role of skeletal muscle-derived IL-15 in the improvement of glucose homeostasis and insulin sensitivity has been proposed. However, little is known regarding the influence of endurance training on IL-15 expression in type 2 diabetic skeletal muscles. We investigated the effect of endurance exercise training on glucose tolerance and IL-15 expression in skeletal muscles using type 2 diabetic animal models.MethodsMale Zucker diabetic fatty (ZDF and ZDF lean control (ZLC rats were randomly divided into three groups: sedentary ZLC, sedentary ZDF (ZDF-Con, and exercised ZDF (ZDF-Ex. The ZDF-Ex rats were forced to run a motor-driven treadmill for 60 minutes once a day 5 times per week for 12 weeks. Intraperitoneal glucose tolerance test (IPGTT was performed after 12 weeks. Expression of IL-15 was measured using ELISA in extracted soleus (SOL and gastrocnemius medial muscles.ResultsAfter 12 weeks of treadmill training, reduction of body weight was observed in ZDF-Ex compared to ZDF-Con rats. Glucose tolerance using IPGTT in diabetic rats was significantly improved in ZDF-Ex rats. Furthermore, the expression of IL-15 was significantly increased (P<0.01 only in the SOL of ZDF-Ex rats compared to ZDF-Con. Additionally, IL-15 expression in SOL muscles was negatively correlated with change of body weight (R=-0.424, P=0.04.ConclusionThe present study results suggest that 12 weeks of progressive endurance training significantly improved glucose tolerance with concomitant increase of IL-15 expression in SOL muscles of type 2 diabetic rats.

  17. Aerobic training and l-arginine supplementation promotes rat heart and hindleg muscles arteriogenesis after myocardial infarction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranjbar, Kamal; Rahmani-Nia, Farhad; Shahabpour, Elham

    2016-09-01

    Arteriogenesis is a main defense mechanism to prevent heart and local tissues dysfunction in occlusive artery disease. TGF-β and angiostatin have a pivotal role in arteriogenesis. We tested the hypothesis that aerobic training and l-arginine supplementation promotes cardiac and skeletal muscles arteriogenesis after myocardial infarction (MI) parallel to upregulation of TGF-β and downregulation of angiostatin. For this purpose, 4 weeks after LAD occlusion, 50 male Wistar rats were randomly distributed into five groups: (1) sham surgery without MI (sham, n = 10), (2) control-MI (Con-MI, n = 10), (3) l-arginine-MI (La-MI, n = 10), (4) exercise training-MI (Ex-MI, n = 10), and (5) exercise and l-arginine-MI (Ex + La-MI). Exercise training groups running on a treadmill for 10 weeks with moderate intensity. Rats in the l-arginine-treated groups drank water containing 4 % l-arginine. Arteriolar density with different diameters (11-25, 26-50, 51-75, and 76-150 μm), TGF-β, and angiostatin gene expression were measured in cardiac (area at risk) and skeletal (soleus and gastrocnemius) muscles. Smaller arterioles decreased in cardiac after MI. Aerobic training and l-arginine increased the number of cardiac arterioles with 11-25 and 26-50 μm diameters parallel to TGF-β overexpression. In gastrocnemius muscle, the number of arterioles/mm(2) was only increased in the 11 to 25 μm in response to training with and without l-arginine parallel to angiostatin downregulation. Soleus arteriolar density with different size was not different between experimental groups. Results showed that 10 weeks aerobic exercise training and l-arginine supplementation promotes arteriogenesis of heart and gastrocnemius muscles parallel to overexpression of TGF-β and downregulation of angiostatin in MI rats. PMID:27121159

  18. Effects of tacrolimus (FK506) on sciatic nerve regeneration in rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Weiguo Zhang; Decheng Lü; Shouyu Wang; Chongyang Fu

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Tacrolimus (FK506) protects peripheral nerves located in damaged regions by inhibiting T lymphocyte proliferation and activation.OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effect of FK506 on promoting regeneration of rat sciatic nerve. DESIGN, TIME AND SETTING: A randomized, controlled, animal study was performed at the Laboratory of the Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Dalian Medical University, China, from September 2007 to September 2008.MATERIALS: A total of 60 adult, male, Sprague-Dawley rats were equally and randomly divided into model, local administration and systemic administration groups. All rats received a neurotomy of bilateral sciatic nerves to establish models of nerve regeneration chambers. The powder and injection of FK506 were supplied by Fujisawa Pharmaceutical, Japan.METHODS: The regeneration chambers of the model group were infused with 0.2 mL saline. The systemic group were injected with 0.2 mL saline, followed by daily subcutaneous injections of FK506 (1 mg/kg), for 14 days. The local administration group was infused with 0.2 mL FK506 (1 μg/mL).MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Local immune response was observed using hematoxylin-eosin staining. Myelinated nerve fiber number, myelin sheath and nerve fiber thickness were observed using toluidine blue staining. Wet weight of gastrocnemius was evaluated. Compound muscle action potential amplitude, latency, and conduction time were recorded, and motor nerve conduction velocity was calculated using electrophysiology.RESULTS: The total number of myeiinated nerve fibers in the local and systemic administration groups was significantly higher than in the model group. The density of myelinated nerve fibers, myelin sheath thickness and mean axon diameter were significantly increased in the systemic administration group compared with the model group (P < 0.05). Lymphocyte infiltration was decreased in the local and systemic administration groups compared with the model group. The wet weight of rat gastrocnemius in

  19. Comparison of short-term effects of insulin and essential fatty acids on the slowed nerve conduction of streptozotocin diabetes in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Julu, P O; Mutamba, A

    1991-11-01

    Early effects of insulin and essential fatty acids on nerve conduction were studied. Insulin-dependent diabetes was induced in rats using streptozocin (65 mg/kg, i.p.); control rats were treated with buffer. Five weeks later, diabetic rats were divided into 5 groups. Two groups were given oral essential fatty acids (75% linoleic and 9% gamma-linolenic acids) for a further 3 and 5 days, respectively. Two other groups received subcutaneous insulin for a further 3 or 5 days. A group of diabetic rats were left without further treatment. Motor nerve conduction velocity was measured terminally in all rats by stimulating the sciatic nerve and recording EMGs in the gastrocnemius muscle under urethane anaesthesia. Sensory nerve conduction velocity was measured by stimulating and recording from the saphenous nerve trunk. Diabetic rats had significantly slowed motor and sensory nerve conduction velocities after 5 weeks (16.7%, P less than 0.001). Three days treatment with either insulin or fatty acids corrected the slowed motor nerve conduction velocity to a normal level. Conduction velocity in myelinated sensory nerves was still 10% slower in diabetic rats treated with insulin for 3 days (P less than 0.01). It was above the control level by 11% in diabetic rats treated with fatty acids for the same period (P less than 0.01). Conduction velocities in both sensory and motor nerves were normal in diabetic rats treated with either insulin or fatty acids for 5 days. It was concluded that both insulin and essential fatty acids had early effects on nerve conduction in diabetic rats. The speed of their actions, and the magnitudes of responses were different in sensory and motor nerves. PMID:1663993

  20. Interactive effects of growth hormone and exercise on muscle mass in suspended rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grindeland, Richard E.; Roy, Roland R.; Edgerton, V. Reggie; Grossman, Elena J.; Mukku, Venkat R.; Jiang, Bian; Pierotti, David J.; Rudolph, Ingrid

    1994-01-01

    Measures to attenuate muscle atrophy in rats in response to simulated microgravity (hindlimb suspension (HS)) have been only partially successful. In the present study, hypophysectomized rats were in HS for 7 days, and the effects of recombinant human growth hormone (GH), exercise (Ex), or GH+Ex on the weights, protein concentrations, and fiber cross-sectional areas (CSAs) of hindlimb muscles were determined. The weights of four extensor muscles, i.e., the soleus (Sol), medial (MG) and lateral (LG) gastrocnemius, and plantaris (Plt), and one adductor, i.e., the adductor longus (AL), were decreased by 10-22% after HS. Fiber CSAs were decreased by 34% in the Sol and by 1 17% in the MG after HS. In contrast, two flexors, i.e., the tibialis anterior (TA) and extensor digitorum longus (EDL), did not atrophy. In HS rats, GH treatment alone maintained the weights of the fast extensors (MG, LG, Plt) and flexors (TA, EDL) at or above those of control rats. This effect was not observed in the slow extensor (Sol) or AL. Exercise had no significant effect on the weight of any muscle in HS rats. A combination of GH and Ex treatments yielded a significant increase in the weights of the fast extensors and in the CSA of both fast and slow fibers of the MG and significantly increased Sol weight and CSA of the slow fibers of the Sol. The AL was not responsive to either GH or Ex treatments. Protein concentrations of the Sol and MG were higher only in the Sol of Ex and GH+Ex rats. These results suggest that while GH treatment or intermittent high intensity exercise alone have a minimal effect in maintaining the mass of unloaded muscle, there is a strong interactive effect of these two treatments.

  1. Gated 31P NMR study of tetanic contraction in rat muscle depleted of phosphocreatine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rats were fed a diet containing 1% β-guanidino-propionic acid (GPA) for 6-12 wk to deplete their muscles of phosphocreatine (PCr). Gated 31P nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectra were obtained from the gastrocnemius-plantaris muscle at various time points during either a 1- or 3-s isometric tetanic contraction using a surface coil. The energy cost of a 1-s tetanus in unfatigued control rat muscle was 48.4 μmol ATP x g dry wt-1 x s-1 and was largely supplied by PCr; anaerobic glycogenolysis was negligible. In GPA-fed rats PCr was undetectable after 400 ms. This had no effect on initial force generated per gram, which was not significantly different from controls. Developed tension in a 3-s tetanus in GPA-fed rats could be divided into a peak phase (duration 0.8-0.9 s) and a plateau phase (65% peak tension) in which PCr was undetectable and the [ATP] was < 20% of that in control muscle. Energy from glycogenolysis was sufficient to maintain force generation at this submaximal level. Mean net glycogen utilization per 3-s tetanus was 78% greater than in control muscle. However, the observed decrease in intracellular pH was less than that expected from energy budget calculations, suggesting either increased buffering capacity or modulation of ATP hydrolysis in the muscles of GPA-fed rats. The results demonstrate that the transport role of PCr is not essential in contracting muscle in GPA-fed rats. PCr is probably important in this regard in the larger fibers of control muscle. Although fast-twitch muscles depleted of PCr have nearly twice the glycogen reserves of control muscle, glycogenolysis is limited in its capacity to fill the role of PCr as an energy buffer under conditions of maximum ATP turnover

  2. Consumption of resistant starch decreases postprandial lipogenesis in white adipose tissue of the rat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brown Marc A

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Chronic consumption of diets high in resistant starch (RS leads to reduced fat cell size compared to diets high in digestible starch (DS in rats and increases total and meal fat oxidation in humans. The aim of the present study was to examine the rate of lipogenesis in key lipogenic organs following a high RS or DS meal. Following an overnight fast, male Wistar rats ingested a meal with an RS content of 2% or 30% of total carbohydrate and were then administered an i.p bolus of 50 μCi 3H2O either immediately or 1 hour post-meal. One hour following tracer administration, rats were sacrificed, a blood sample collected, and the liver, white adipose tissue (WAT, and gastrocnemius muscle excised and frozen until assayed for total 3H-lipid and 3H-glycogen content. Plasma triglyceride and NEFA concentrations and 3H-glycogen content did not differ between groups. In all tissues, except the liver, there was a trend for the rate of lipogenesis to be higher in the DS group than the RS group which reached significance only in WAT at 1 h (p

  3. Ginseng administration protects skeletal muscle from oxidative stress induced by acute exercise in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Voces

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Enzymatic activity was analyzed in the soleus, gastrocnemius (red and white and plantaris muscles of acutely exercised rats after long-term administration of Panax ginseng extract in order to evaluate the protective role of ginseng against skeletal muscle oxidation. Ginseng extract (3, 10, 100, or 500 mg/kg was administered orally for three months to male Wistar rats weighing 200 ± 50 g before exercise and to non-exercised rats (N = 8/group. The results showed a membrane stabilizing capacity of the extract since mitochondrial function measured on the basis of citrate synthase and 3-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase activities was reduced, on average, by 20% (P < 0.05 after exercise but the activities remained unchanged in animals treated with a ginseng dose of 100 mg/kg. Glutathione status did not show significant changes after exercise or treatment. Lipid peroxidation, measured on the basis of malondialdehyde levels, was significantly higher in all muscles after exercise, and again was reduced by about 74% (P < 0.05 by the use of ginseng extract. The administration of ginseng extract was able to protect muscle from exercise-induced oxidative stress irrespective of fiber type.

  4. Proteomic analysis of rat skeletal muscle submitted to one bout of incremental exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gandra, P G; Valente, R H; Perales, J; Pacheco, A G; Macedo, D V

    2012-04-01

    Exercise can alter gene transcriptional and protein translational rates leading to changes in protein abundance toward adaptation to exercise. We investigated the alterations in protein abundance in skeletal muscle after one bout of an exhaustive exercise through proteomic analysis. Gastrocnemius muscles were sampled from non-exercised control rats and from rats exercised on a treadmill with incremental increases in speed until exhaustion (approximately 30 min). Rats were sacrificed 3 and 24 h after exercise cessation. Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis was performed and spots with a significant alteration in relative volume were identified by mass spectrometry. Six spots presented statistically significant altered abundances after exercise. The spots identified as the metabolic related proteins triosephosphate isomerase 1, glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, the β subunit of pyruvate dehydrogenase E(1) and carnitine palmitoyltransferase 2 were all more abundant after exercise. One spot identified as heat shock cognate 70 was also more abundant after exercise. One spot demonstrated a decreased abundance after exercise and was identified as α-actin. These results suggest that a single session of exhaustive incremental exercise in untrained muscle can alter thin filaments synthesis/degradation rate and enhance cytosolic and mitochondrial proteins synthesis. The identified proteins may be important to a general preconditioning of skeletal muscle for subsequent exercise sessions. PMID:20973830

  5. Creatine supplementation spares muscle glycogen during high intensity intermittent exercise in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Costa André

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The effects of creatine (CR supplementation on glycogen content are still debatable. Thus, due to the current lack of clarity, we investigated the effects of CR supplementation on muscle glycogen content after high intensity intermittent exercise in rats. Methods First, the animals were submitted to a high intensity intermittent maximal swimming exercise protocol to ensure that CR-supplementation was able to delay fatigue (experiment 1. Then, the CR-mediated glycogen sparing effect was examined using a high intensity intermittent sub-maximal exercise test (fixed number of bouts; six bouts of 30-second duration interspersed by two-minute rest interval (experiment 2. For both experiments, male Wistar rats were given either CR supplementation or placebo (Pl for 5 days. Results As expected, CR-supplemented animals were able to exercise for a significant higher number of bouts than Pl. Experiment 2 revealed a higher gastrocnemius glycogen content for the CR vs. the Pl group (33.59%. Additionally, CR animals presented lower blood lactate concentrations throughout the intermittent exercise bouts compared to Pl. No difference was found between groups in soleus glycogen content. Conclusion The major finding of this study is that CR supplementation was able to spare muscle glycogen during a high intensity intermittent exercise in rats.

  6. Near-infrared oxymeter prototype for noninvasive analysis of rat brain oxygenation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crespi, Francesco; Donini, Maurizio; Bandera, Andrea; Heidbreder, Christian; Salvatori, Giorgia; Rovati, Luigi

    2004-09-01

    The feasibility of non-invasive analysis of brain activities was studied in the attempt to overcome the major limitation of actual in vivo methodologies i.e. invasiveness. Optic fibre probes were used as optical head of a novel, highly sensitive near infrared continuous wave spectroscopy (CW-NIR) instrument. This prototype was designed for non-invasive analysis of the two main forms of haemoglobin: oxy-haemoglobin (HbO2) and deoxy-haemoglobin (Hb), chromophores present in biological tissues. It was tested in peripheral tissue (human gastrocnemius muscle) and then reset to perform measurement on rat brain. In animal studies, the optical head was firmly placed using stereotaxic apparatus upon the sagittal line of anaesthetised adult rat's head, without any surgery. Then pharmacological treatments with saline (300μl s.c.) amphetamine (2mg/kg) or nicotine (0.4mg/kg) were performed. Within 10-20 min amphetamine substantially increased HbO2 and reduced Hb control levels. Nicotine produced a rapid initial increase followed by a decrease of HbO2. In contrast to amphetamine, nicotine treatment also reduced Hb and blood volume. These results support the capacity of our CW-NIR prototype to measure non-invasively HbO2 and Hb levels in the rat brain, markers of the degree of tissue oxygenation, index of blood level then of the state of brain metabolism.

  7. Insulin binding to individual rat skeletal muscles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Studies of insulin binding to skeletal muscle, performed using sarcolemmal membrane preparations or whole muscle incubations of mixed muscle or typical red (soleus, psoas) or white [extensor digitorum longus (EDL), gastrocnemius] muscle, have suggested that red muscle binds more insulin than white muscle. We have evaluated this hypothesis using cryostat sections of unfixed tissue to measure insulin binding in a broad range of skeletal muscles; many were of similar fiber-type profiles. Insulin binding per square millimeter of skeletal muscle slice was measured by autoradiography and computer-assisted densitometry. We found a 4.5-fold range in specific insulin tracer binding, with heart and predominantly slow-twitch oxidative muscles (SO) at the high end and the predominantly fast-twitch glycolytic (FG) muscles at the low end of the range. This pattern reflects insulin sensitivity. Evaluation of displacement curves for insulin binding yielded linear Scatchard plots. The dissociation constants varied over a ninefold range (0.26-2.06 nM). Binding capacity varied from 12.2 to 82.7 fmol/mm2. Neither binding parameter was correlated with fiber type or insulin sensitivity; e.g., among three muscles of similar fiber-type profile, the EDL had high numbers of low-affinity binding sites, whereas the quadriceps had low numbers of high-affinity sites. In summary, considerable heterogeneity in insulin binding was found among hindlimb muscles of the rat, which can be attributed to heterogeneity in binding affinities and the numbers of binding sites. It can be concluded that a given fiber type is not uniquely associated with a set of insulin binding parameters that result in high or low binding

  8. Short-term strength training and the expression of myostatin and IGF-I isoforms in rat muscle and tendon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heinemeier, K M; Olesen, J L; Schjerling, P;

    2007-01-01

    In skeletal muscle, an increased expression of insulin like growth factor-I isoforms IGF-IEa and mechano-growth factor (MGF) combined with downregulation of myostatin is thought to be essential for training-induced hypertrophy. However, the specific effects of different contraction types on......, and the combined changes in myostatin and IGF-IEa/MGF expression could explain the important effect of eccentric actions for muscle hypertrophy....... regulation of these factors in muscle are still unclear, and in tendon the functions of myostatin, IGF-IEa, and MGF in relation to training are unknown. Female Sprague-Dawley rats were subjected to 4 days of concentric, eccentric, or isometric training (n = 7-9 per group) of the medial gastrocnemius, by...

  9. [Effect of weightlessness on the course of the reparative process in the muscles of the biosatellite Kosmos-2044 rats].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Il'ina-Kakueva, E I; Burkovskaia, T E

    1991-01-01

    The repair process in the soleus and gastrocnemius muscles of SPF Wistar rats flown for 14 days on the biosatellite Cosmos-2044 was investigated. The muscles were injured 2 days before launch by means of clamp forceps. The exposure inhibited the process but did not impair its phasic development. As a result, the reparative field diminished and took the size of an atrophic muscle; thinner myofibers appeared that originated from the ends of injured atrophic fibers and fibers that underwent splitting. It is postulated that repair inhibition is caused by the same mechanisms that produce muscle atrophy in microgravity. It is suggested that both repair inhibition and muscle atrophy are induced by disorders in the neurotrophic regulation of metabolism due to partial disuse. PMID:8577135

  10. Muscle and liver protein synthesis in growing rats fed diets containing raw legumes as the main source of protein

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Although legumes are widely used as protein sources, their effects on protein metabolism remain quite unexplored. The authors have measured the rates of gastrocnemius muscle and liver protein synthesis in growing rats fed ad libitum over periods of 12 days on diets containing raw field bean (Vicia faba L.), raw kidney bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.), and raw bitter vetch (Vicia ervilia L.) as the major sources of protein. Diets were isocaloric and contained about 12% protein. Protein synthesis was evaluated by the constant-intravenous-infusion method, using L-/14C/-tyrosine, as well as by the determination of the RNA-activity (g of newly synthesized protein/day/g RNA). Results showed that, as compared to well-fed control animals, those fed the raw legume diets exhibited a marked reduction in the rate of growth with no changes in the amount of food intake (per 100 g b.wt.). These changes were accompanied by a significant reduction in the rate of muscle protein synthesis in all legume-treated rats, being this reduction greater in the animals fed the Ph. vulgaris and V. ervilia diets. Liver protein synthesis was slightly higher in the rats fed the V. faba and V. ervilia diets, and smaller in the Ph. vulgaris-fed rats. It is suggested that both sulfur amino acid deficiency and the presence of different anti-nutritive factors in raw legumes may account for these effects

  11. [Effects of acute hypobaric hypoxia and exhaustive exercise on AMP-activated protein kinase phosphorylation in rat skeletal muscle].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Tao; Huang, Qing-Yuan; Shan, Fa-Bo; Guan, Li-Bin; Cai, Ming-Chun

    2012-04-25

    The present study was aimed to explore the changes of phosphorylated AMP-activated protein kinase (pAMPK) level in skeletal muscle after exposure to acute hypobaric hypoxia and exhaustive exercise. Thirty-two male Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were randomly divided into sea level and high altitude groups. The rats in high altitude group were submitted to simulated 5 000 m of high altitude in a hypobaric chamber for 24 h, and sea level group was maintained at normal conditions. All the rats were subjected to exhaustive swimming exercise. The exhaustion time was recorded. Before and after the exercise, blood lactate and glycogen content in skeletal muscle were determined; AMPK and pAMPK levels in skeletal muscle were detected by Western blot. The results showed that the exhaustion time was significantly decreased after exposure to high altitude. At the moment of exhaustion, high altitude group had lower blood lactate concentration and higher surplus glycogen content in gastrocnemius compared with sea level group. Exhaustive exercise significantly increased the pAMPK/AMPK ratio in rat skeletal muscles from both sea level and high altitude groups. However, high altitude group showed lower pAMPK/AMPK ratio after exhaustion compared to sea level group. These results suggest that, after exposure to acute hypobaric hypoxia, the decrement in exercise capacity may not be due to running out of glycogen, accumulation of lactate or disturbance in energy status in skeletal muscle. PMID:22513470

  12. Electrical stimulation accelerates nerve regeneration and functional recovery in delayed peripheral nerve injury in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jinghui; Zhang, Yongguang; Lu, Lei; Hu, Xueyu; Luo, Zhuojing

    2013-12-01

    The present study aims to investigate the potential of brief electrical stimulation (ES; 3 V, 20 Hz, 20 min) in improving functional recovery in delayed nerve injury repair (DNIR). The sciatic nerve of Sprague Dawley rats was transected, and the repair of nerve injury was delayed for different time durations (2, 4, 12 and 24 weeks). Brief depolarizing ES was applied to the proximal nerve stump when the transected nerve stumps were bridged with a hollow nerve conduit (5 mm in length) after delayed periods. We found that the diameter and number of regenerated axons, the thickness of myelin sheath, as well as the number of Fluoro-Gold retrograde-labeled motoneurons and sensory neurons were significantly increased by ES, suggesting that brief ES to proximal nerve stumps is capable of promoting nerve regeneration in DNIR with different delayed durations, with the longest duration of 24 weeks. In addition, the amplitude of compound muscle action potential (gastrocnemius muscle) and nerve conduction velocity were also enhanced, and gastrocnemius muscle atrophy was partially reversed by brief ES, indicating that brief ES to proximal nerve stump was able to improve functional recovery in DNIR. Furthermore, brief ES was capable of increasing brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) expression in the spinal cord in DNIR, suggesting that BDNF-mediated neurotrophin signaling might be one of the contributing factors to the beneficial effect of brief ES on DNIR. In conclusion, the present findings indicate the potential of using brief ES as a useful method to improve functional recovery for delayed repair of peripheral nerve lesions. PMID:24118464

  13. MUSCLE FIBER SPECIFIC ANTIOXIDATIVE SYSTEM ADAPTATION TO SWIM TRAINING IN RATS: INFLUENCE OF INTERMITTENT HYPOXIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Gonchar

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to examine the influence of intermittent hypoxia at rest and in combination with long-term high-intensity swimming exercise on lipid peroxidation and antioxidant defense system adaptation in skeletal muscles differing in fiber type composition. High-intensity chronic exercise was performed as swimming training with load that corresponded to ~ 75 % VO2max (30 min·day-1, 5 days·wk-1, for 4 wk. Intermittent hypoxic training (IHT consisted of repeated episodes of hypoxia (12%O2, 15 min, interrupted by equal periods of recovery (5 sessions/day, for 2 wk. Sessions of IHT were used during the first two weeks and during the last two weeks of chronic exercise. Oxidative (red gastrocnemius and soleus, mix and glycolytic (white gastrocnemius muscles were sampled. Our results indicated that high-intensity swim training in combination with sessions of IHT induced more profound antioxidative adaptations in skeletal muscles than the exercise training only. This adaptation has muscle fiber type specificity and is reflected in significantly elevated superoxide dismutase and catalase activities in highly oxidative muscle only. Training adaptation of GSH system (reduced glutathione content, activities of glutathione reductase, glutathione peroxidase, NADPH-supplying enzyme glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase occurred both in slow- and fast-twitch muscles. However, this process was more effective in oxidative muscles. IHT attenuated the increase in TBARS content induced by high-intensity swimming training. The test on exercise tolerance demonstrated a significant elevation of the swimming time to exhaustion after IHT at rest and after IHT in conjunction with high-intensity exercise in comparison with untrained and chronically exercised rats. These results confirmed that sessions of IHT might improve exercise tolerance and increase maximal work capacity

  14. Augmented glucoregulatory hormone concentrations during exhausting exercise in mildly iron-deficient rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zinker, B A; Dallman, P R; Brooks, G A

    1993-10-01

    We hypothesized that augmented responses of glucoregulatory hormones in iron deficiency would enhance liver and muscle glycogenolysis, leading to increased gluconeogenic precursor (lactate) supply and upregulation of hepatic gluconeogenesis. Female weanling rats were randomly placed on either a mildly iron-deficient (-Fe; 15 mg Fe/kg diet) or an iron-sufficient (+Fe; 50 mg Fe/kg diet) diet for 4 wk and studied at rest and during exhaustive treadmill running. Hemoglobin was 9.0 +/- 0.2 and 13.1 +/- 0.3 g/dl in -Fe and +Fe, respectively, after 3.5 wk of dietary iron deficiency. Arterial plasma epinephrine (Epi), norepinephrine (NE), adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), corticosterone, insulin, and glucagon levels were similar at rest in both groups, as were liver, gastrocnemius, and superficial and deep vastus medialis glycogen levels. Liver and kidney phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK) activities were similar in both groups. Maximum O2 consumption was decreased (22%) in -Fe. Respiratory exchange ratio (CO2 production/O2 consumption) was unaffected at rest but increased at maximum O2 consumption in -Fe. Time to exhaustion during a standardized running test (13.4 m/min, 0% grade) was decreased 45% in -Fe (63 +/- 5 vs. 116 +/- 10 min). During exercise, euglycemia was maintained in both groups, but blood lactate was elevated in -Fe. The mean net glycogen utilization during exercise was increased in liver (43%), soleus (33%), and superficial vastus medialis (106%) and decreased in the gastrocnemius (36%) in -Fe. Liver and kidney PEPCK activities were increased similarly at exhaustion in both groups.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8238458

  15. Procedures for rat in situ skeletal muscle contractile properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacIntosh, Brian R; Esau, Shane P; Holash, R John; Fletcher, Jared R

    2011-01-01

    There are many circumstances where it is desirable to obtain the contractile response of skeletal muscle under physiological circumstances: normal circulation, intact whole muscle, at body temperature. This includes the study of contractile responses like posttetanic potentiation, staircase and fatigue. Furthermore, the consequences of disease, disuse, injury, training and drug treatment can be of interest. This video demonstrates appropriate procedures to set up and use this valuable muscle preparation. To set up this preparation, the animal must be anesthetized, and the medial gastrocnemius muscle is surgically isolated, with the origin intact. Care must be taken to maintain the blood and nerve supplies. A long section of the sciatic nerve is cleared of connective tissue, and severed proximally. All branches of the distal stump that do not innervate the medial gastrocnemius muscle are severed. The distal nerve stump is inserted into a cuff lined with stainless steel stimulating wires. The calcaneus is severed, leaving a small piece of bone still attached to the Achilles tendon. Sonometric crystals and/or electrodes for electromyography can be inserted. Immobilization by metal probes in the femur and tibia prevents movement of the muscle origin. The Achilles tendon is attached to the force transducer and the loosened skin is pulled up at the sides to form a container that is filled with warmed paraffin oil. The oil distributes heat evenly and minimizes evaporative heat loss. A heat lamp is directed on the muscle, and the muscle and rat are allowed to warm up to 37°C. While it is warming, maximal voltage and optimal length can be determined. These are important initial conditions for any experiment on intact whole muscle. The experiment may include determination of standard contractile properties, like the force-frequency relationship, force-length relationship, and force-velocity relationship. With care in surgical isolation, immobilization of the origin of the

  16. Asymmetric deformation of contracting human gastrocnemius muscle

    OpenAIRE

    Kinugasa, Ryuta; Hodgson, John A.; Edgerton, V. Reggie; Sinha, Shantanu

    2011-01-01

    Muscle fiber deformation is related to its cellular structure, as well as its architectural arrangement within the musculoskeletal system. While playing an important role in aponeurosis displacement, and efficiency of force transmission to the tendon, such deformation also provides important clues about the underlying mechanical structure of the muscle. We hypothesized that muscle fiber cross section would deform asymmetrically to satisfy the observed constant volume of muscle during a contra...

  17. Metabolic and morphologic properties of single muscle fibers in the rat after spaceflight, Cosmos 1887

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miu, B.; Martin, T. P.; Roy, R. R.; Oganov, V.; Ilyina-Kakueva, E.; Marini, J. F.; Leger, J. J.; Bodine-Fowler, S. C.; Edgerton, V. R.

    1990-01-01

    The adaptation of a slow (soleus, Sol) and a fast (medial gastrocnemius, MG) skeletal muscle to spaceflight was studied in five young male rats. The flight period was 12.5 days and the rats were killed approximately 48 h after returning to 1 g. Five other rats that were housed in cages similar to those used by the flight rats were maintained at 1 g for the same period of time to serve as ground-based controls. Fibers were classified as dark or light staining for myosin adenosine triphosphatase (ATPase). On the average, the fibers in the Sol of the flight rats atrophied twice as much as those in the MG. Further, the fibers located in the deep (close to the bone and having the highest percentage of light ATPase and high oxidative fibers in the muscle cross section) region of the MG atrophied more than the fibers located in the superficial (away from the bone and having the lowest percentage of light ATPase and high oxidative fibers in the muscle cross-section) region of the muscle. Based on quantitative histochemical assays of single muscle fibers, succinate dehydrogenase (SDH) activity per unit volume was unchanged in fibers of the Sol and MG. However, in the Sol, but not the MG, the total amount of SDH activity in a 10-microns-thick section of a fiber decreased significantly in response to spaceflight. Based on population distributions, it appears that the alpha-glycerophosphate dehydrogenase (GPD) activities were elevated in the dark ATPase fibers in the Sol, whereas the light fibers in the Sol and both fiber types in the MG did not appear to change. The ratio of GPD to SDH activities increased in the dark (but not light) fibers of the Sol and was unaffected in the MG. Immunohistochemical analyses indicate that approximately 40% of the fibers in the Sol of flight rats expressed a fast myosin heavy chain compared with 22% in control rats. Further, 31% of the fibers in the Sol of flight rats expressed both fast and slow myosin heavy chains compared with 8% in

  18. Leucine-rich diet alters the eukaryotic translation initiation factors expression in skeletal muscle of tumour-bearing rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mello Maria

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cancer-cachexia induces a variety of metabolic disorders on protein turnorver, decreasing protein synthesis and increasing protein degradation. Controversly, insulin, other hormones, and branched-chain amino acids, especially leucine, stimulate protein synthesis and modulate the activity of translation initiation factors involved in protein synthesis. Since the tumour effects are more pronounced when associated with pregnancy, ehancing muscle-wasting proteolysis, in this study, the influence of a leucine-rich diet on the protein synthesis caused by cancer were investigated. Methods Pregnant rats with or without Walker 256 tumour were distributed into six groups. During 20 days of experiment, three groups were fed with a control diet: C – pregnant control, W – tumour-bearing, and P – pair-fed, which received the same amount of food as ingested by the W group; three other groups of pregnant rats were fed a leucine-rich diet: L – pregnant leucine, WL – tumour-bearing, and PL – pair-fed, which received the same amount of food as ingested by the WL group. Results The gastrocnemius muscle of WL rats showed increased incorporation of leucine in protein compared to W rats; the leucine-rich diet also prevented the decrease in plasma insulin normally seen in W. The expression of translation initiation factors increased when tumour-bearing rats fed leucine-rich diet, with increase of ~35% for eIF2α and eIF5, ~17% for eIF4E and 20% for eIF4G; the expression of protein kinase S6K1 and protein kinase C was also highly enhanced. Conclusion The results suggest that a leucine-rich diet increased the protein synthesis in skeletal muscle in tumour-bearing rats possibly through the activation of eIF factors and/or the S6kinase pathway.

  19. Leucine-rich diet alters the eukaryotic translation initiation factors expression in skeletal muscle of tumour-bearing rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cancer-cachexia induces a variety of metabolic disorders on protein turnorver, decreasing protein synthesis and increasing protein degradation. Controversly, insulin, other hormones, and branched-chain amino acids, especially leucine, stimulate protein synthesis and modulate the activity of translation initiation factors involved in protein synthesis. Since the tumour effects are more pronounced when associated with pregnancy, ehancing muscle-wasting proteolysis, in this study, the influence of a leucine-rich diet on the protein synthesis caused by cancer were investigated. Pregnant rats with or without Walker 256 tumour were distributed into six groups. During 20 days of experiment, three groups were fed with a control diet: C – pregnant control, W – tumour-bearing, and P – pair-fed, which received the same amount of food as ingested by the W group; three other groups of pregnant rats were fed a leucine-rich diet: L – pregnant leucine, WL – tumour-bearing, and PL – pair-fed, which received the same amount of food as ingested by the WL group. The gastrocnemius muscle of WL rats showed increased incorporation of leucine in protein compared to W rats; the leucine-rich diet also prevented the decrease in plasma insulin normally seen in W. The expression of translation initiation factors increased when tumour-bearing rats fed leucine-rich diet, with increase of ~35% for eIF2α and eIF5, ~17% for eIF4E and 20% for eIF4G; the expression of protein kinase S6K1 and protein kinase C was also highly enhanced. The results suggest that a leucine-rich diet increased the protein synthesis in skeletal muscle in tumour-bearing rats possibly through the activation of eIF factors and/or the S6kinase pathway

  20. Neuromuscular interaction is required for neurotrophins-mediated locomotor recovery following treadmill training in rat spinal cord injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Qinfeng; Cao, Yana; Dong, Chuanming; Wang, Hongxing; Wang, Qinghua; Tong, Weifeng; Li, Xiangzhe

    2016-01-01

    Recent results have shown that exercise training promotes the recovery of injured rat distal spinal cords, but are still unclear about the function of skeletal muscle in this process. Herein, rats with incomplete thoracic (T10) spinal cord injuries (SCI) with a dual spinal lesion model were subjected to four weeks of treadmill training and then were treated with complete spinal transection at T8. We found that treadmill training allowed the retention of hind limb motor function after incomplete SCI, even with a heavy load after complete spinal transection. Moreover, treadmill training alleviated the secondary injury in distal lumbar spinal motor neurons, and enhanced BDNF/TrkB expression in the lumbar spinal cord. To discover the influence of skeletal muscle contractile activity on motor function and gene expression, we adopted botulinum toxin A (BTX-A) to block the neuromuscular activity of the rat gastrocnemius muscle. BTX-A treatment inhibited the effects of treadmill training on motor function and BDNF/TrKB expression. These results indicated that treadmill training through the skeletal muscle-motor nerve-spinal cord retrograde pathway regulated neuralplasticity in the mammalian central nervous system, which induced the expression of related neurotrophins and promoted motor function recovery.

  1. Use of FK506 and bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells for rat hind limb allografts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Youxin Song; Zhujun Wang; Zhixue Wang; Hong Zhang; Xiaohui Li; Bin Chen

    2012-01-01

    Dark Agouti rat donor hind limbs were orthotopically transplanted into Lewis rat recipients to verify the effects of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells on neural regeneration and functional recovery of allotransplanted limbs in the microenvironment of immunotolerance. bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells were intramuscularly (gluteus maximus) injected with FK506 (tacrolimus) daily, and were transplanted to the injured nerves. Results indicated that the allograft group not receiving therapy showed severe rejection, with transplanted limbs detaching at 10 days after transplantation with complete necrosis. The number of myelinated axons and Schwann cells in the FK506 and FK506 + bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells groups were significantly increased. We observed a lesser degree of gastrocnemius muscle degeneration, and increased polymorphic fibers along with other pathological changes in the FK506 + bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells group. The FK506 + bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells group showed significantly better recovery than the autograft and FK506 groups. The results demonstrated that FK506 improved the immune microenvironment. FK506 combined with bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells significantly promoted sciatic nerve regeneration, and improved sensory recovery and motor function in hind limb allotransplant.

  2. Glutathione depletion and acute exercise increase O-GlcNAc protein modification in rat skeletal muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peternelj, Tina Tinkara; Marsh, Susan A; Strobel, Natalie A; Matsumoto, Aya; Briskey, David; Dalbo, Vincent J; Tucker, Patrick S; Coombes, Jeff S

    2015-02-01

    Post-translational modification of intracellular proteins with O-linked β-N-acetylglucosamine (O-GlcNAc) profoundly affects protein structure, function, and metabolism. Although many skeletal muscle proteins are O-GlcNAcylated, the modification has not been extensively studied in this tissue, especially in the context of exercise. This study investigated the effects of glutathione depletion and acute exercise on O-GlcNAc protein modification in rat skeletal muscle. Diethyl maleate (DEM) was used to deplete intracellular glutathione and rats were subjected to a treadmill run. White gastrocnemius and soleus muscles were analyzed for glutathione status, O-GlcNAc and O-GlcNAc transferase (OGT) protein levels, and mRNA expression of OGT, O-GlcNAcase and glutamine:fructose-6-phosphate amidotransferase. DEM and exercise both reduced intracellular glutathione and increased O-GlcNAc. DEM upregulated OGT protein expression. The effects of the interventions were significant 4 h after exercise (P exercise. PMID:25416863

  3. A model for hypokinesia: Effects on muscle atrophy in the rat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musacchia, X. J.; Deavers, D. R.; Meininger, G. A.; Davis, T. P.

    1980-01-01

    Hypokinesia in the hindlimbs of rats was induced by suspension; a newly developed harness system was used. The animal was able to use its forelimbs to maneuver, within a 140 deg arc, to obtain food and water and to permit limited grooming of the forequarters. The hindlimbs were nonload bearing for 7 days; following a 7-day period of hypodynamia, selected animals were placed in metabolic cages for 7 days to study recovery from hypokinesia. During the 7-day period of hypokinesia there was evidence of muscle atrophy. Gastrocnemius weight decreased, renal papillary urea content increased, and daily urinary losses of NH3 and 3-methylhistidine increased. During the 7-day recovery period muscle mass and excretion rate of urea, NH3 and 3-methylhistidine returned to control levels. Calcium balance was positive throughout the 7-day period of hypokinesia. Hypertrophy of the adrenals suggested the occurrence of some level of stress despite the apparent behavioral adjustment to the suspension harness. It was concluded that significant muscle atrophy and parallel changes in nitrogen metabolism occur in suspended rats and these changes are readily reversible.

  4. Induction of amino acid transporters expression by endurance exercise in rat skeletal muscle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murakami, Taro, E-mail: tamuraka@sgk.ac.jp; Yoshinaga, Mariko

    2013-10-04

    Highlights: •Regulation of amino acid transporter expression in working muscle remains unclear. •Expression of amino acid transporters for leucine were induced by a bout of exercise. •Requirement of leucine in muscle cells might regulate expression of its transporters. •This information is beneficial for understanding the muscle remodeling by exercise. -- Abstract: We here investigated whether an acute bout of endurance exercise would induce the expression of amino acid transporters that regulate leucine transport across plasma and lysosomal membranes in rat skeletal muscle. Rats ran on a motor-driven treadmill at a speed of 28 m/min for 90 min. Immediately after the exercise, we observed that expression of mRNAs encoding L-type amino acid transporter 1 (LAT1) and CD98 was induced in the gastrocnemius, soleus, and extensor digitorum longus (EDL) muscles. Sodium-coupled neutral amino acid transporter 2 (SNAT2) mRNA was also induced by the exercise in those three muscles. Expression of proton-assisted amino acid transporter 1 (PAT1) mRNA was slightly but not significantly induced by a single bout of exercise in soleus and EDL muscles. Exercise-induced mRNA expression of these amino acid transporters appeared to be attenuated by repeated bouts of the exercise. These results suggested that the expression of amino acid transporters for leucine may be induced in response to an increase in the requirement for this amino acid in the cells of working skeletal muscles.

  5. Coupling of albumin flux to volume flow in skin and muscles of anesthetized rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bovine serum albumin (BSA) labeled with 131I or 125I was injected intravenously in pentobarbital sodium-anesthetized rats, and tracer clearances into leg skin and muscles were measured over 30, 60, and 120 min. BSA labeled with the alternate tracer was used as vascular volume reference. Two minutes before injection of the tracer, a ligature was tied around one femoral vein to occlude outflow partially and raise capillary pressure in that leg. The unoccluded leg served as control. Skin and muscles of the occluded leg had variably and substantially higher water contents (delta W) than paired control tissues and slightly but consistently increased albumin clearances (CA). The delta CA/delta W, equivalent to the albumin concentration of capillary filtrate relative to plasma determined by linear regression, were as follows: leg skin 0.004 (95% confidence limits -0.001 to +0.009), muscle biceps femoris 0.005 (0.001-0.010), muscle gastrocnemius 0.011 (0.004-0.019), muscle tibialis anterior 0.016 (0.012-0.021). All these values are significantly less than 0.10, which corresponds to a reflection coefficient for serum albumin (sigma A) of 0.90. Convective coupling of albumin flux to volume flux in skin and muscles of intact, anesthetized rats is low, with sigma AS in the range 0.98 to greater than 0.99

  6. The GLP-1 Analogue Exenatide Improves Hepatic and Muscle Insulin Sensitivity in Diabetic Rats: Tracer Studies in the Basal State and during Hyperinsulinemic-Euglycemic Clamp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui Wu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1 analogues (e.g., exenatide increase insulin secretion in diabetes but less is known about their effects on glucose production or insulin-stimulated glucose uptake in peripheral tissues. Methods. Four groups of Sprague-Dawley rats were studied: nondiabetic (control, C; nondiabetic + exenatide (C + E; diabetic (D; diabetic + exenatide (D + E with diabetes induced by streptozotocin and high fat diet. Infusion of 3-3H-glucose and U-13C-glycerol was used to measure basal rates of appearance (Ra of glucose and glycerol and gluconeogenesis from glycerol (GNG. During hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp, glucose uptake into gastrocnemius muscles was measured with 2-deoxy-D-14C-glucose. Results. In the diabetic rats, exenatide reduced the basal Ra of glucose (P<0.01 and glycerol (P<0.01 and GNG (P<0.001. During the clamp, Ra of glucose was also reduced, whereas the rate of disappearance of glucose increased and there was increased glucose uptake into muscle (P<0.01 during the clamp. In the nondiabetic rats, exenatide had no effect. Conclusion. In addition to its known effects on insulin secretion, administration of the GLP-1 analogue, exenatide, is associated with increased inhibition of gluconeogenesis and improved glucose uptake into muscle in diabetic rats, implying improved hepatic and peripheral insulin sensitivity.

  7. Impairment of mitochondrial β-oxidation in rats under cold-hypoxic environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutta, Arkadeb; Vats, Praveen; Singh, Vijay K.; Sharma, Yogendra K.; Singh, Som N.; Singh, Shashi B.

    2009-09-01

    Mitochondrial ß-oxidation of fatty acid provides a major source of energy in mammals. High altitude (HA), characterized by hypobaric hypoxia and low ambient temperatures, causes alteration in metabolic homeostasis. Several studies have depicted that hypoxic exposure in small mammals causes hypothermia due to hypometabolic state. Moreover, cold exposure along with hypoxia reduces hypoxia tolerance in animals. The present study investigated the rate of β-oxidation and key enzymes, carnitine palmitoyl transferase-I (CPT-I) and hydroxyacyl CoA dehydrogenase (HAD), in rats exposed to cold-hypobaric hypoxic environment. Male Sprague Dawley rats (190-220 g) were randomly divided into eight groups ( n = 6 rats in each group): 1 day hypoxia (H1); 7 days hypoxia (H7); 1 day cold (C1); 7 days cold (C7); 1 day cold-hypoxia (CH1); 7 days cold-hypoxia (CH7) exposed; and unexposed control for 1 and 7 days (UC1 and UC7). After exposure, animals were anaesthetized with ketamine (50 mg/kg body weight) and xylazine (10 mg/kg body weight) intraperitonialy and sacrificed. Mitochondrial CPT-I, HAD, 14C-palmitate oxidation in gastrocnemius muscle and liver, and plasma leptin were measured. Mitochondrial CPT-I was significantly reduced in muscle and liver in CH1 and CH7 as compared to respective controls. HAD activity was significantly reduced in H1 and CH7, and in H1, H7, CH1, and CH7 as compared to unexposed controls in muscle and liver, respectively. A concomitant decrease in 14C-palmitate oxidation was found. Significant reduction in plasma leptin in hypoxia and cold-hypoxia suggested hypometabolic state. It can be concluded that ß-oxidation of fatty acids is reduced in rats exposed to cold-hypoxic environment due to the persisting hypometabolic state in cold-hypoxia exposure.

  8. Exercise at simulated high altitude facilitates the increase in capillarity in skeletal muscle of rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    AIM: To study the changes in capillarity of skeletal muscle during acclimation to high altitude, and explore the effects of a certain extent physical activity under hypoxia on capillary formation and the role of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in this process. METHODS: 48 Wistar rats were divided into 3 groups: Ⅰ normoxic control; Ⅱ hypoxia and Ⅲ hypoxia+exercise. Rats of Ⅱ and Ⅲ groups were subjected to hypobaric hypoxia for 5 weeks (23 h/d). They were first brought to simulated 4 000 m altitude, where rats of the Ⅲgroup were forced to swim for 1 h/d (6 d/week). Then the animals were ascent to 5 000 m. Biomicrosphere method was used to determine blood flow of skeletal muscle. The mean fiber cross-sectional area (FCSA), capillary density (CD) and capillary/fiber ratio (C/F) of red portion of the lateral head of the gastrocneminus were assayed by myofibrillar ATPase histochemistry. VEGF and its receptor KDR were assayed with immunohistochemistry method.RESULTS: By comparison with the normoxic control, 5-week hypoxic exposure resulted in a decrease in cross-sectional area of skeletal muscle fiber and an increase in CD, but the C/F remained unchanged. The blood supply to the gastrocnemius was not changed. After 5-week-exercise at high altitude, the muscle fibers did not undergo atrophy. CD, C/F, and the blood flow at rest increased significantly. VEGF protein was found primarily in the matrix between muscle fibers; KDR were shown mainly in endothelial cells of capillary. VEGF was more strongly stained in the skeletal muscle of hypoxia-exercise rats.CONCLUSION: Hypoxia itself can not induce neovascularization. While exercise during hypoxic exposure can lead to capillary formation. VEGF and KDR may play roles in it. New capillary formation benefits the blood supply, oxygen delivery and working performance at high altitude.

  9. EFFECT OF TAURINE SUPPLEMENTATION ON THE ALTERATIONS IN AMINO ACID CONTENT IN SKELETAL MUSCLE WITH EXERCISE IN RAT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keisuke Ishikura

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Taurine included abundantly in skeletal muscle, particularly in the slow-twitch fibers, enhances exercise performance. However, the exact mechanisms for this effect have been unclear. The present study investigated the influence of taurine supplementation on amino acids profile in skeletal muscles as one of mechanisms in the enhancement of exercise performance induced by taurine. In the rats that received taurine solution, amino acids concentrations were comprehensively quantified in two portions with different fiber compositions in the fast-twitch fiber dominant (FFD gastrocnemius muscle after 2 weeks, and in the gastrocnemius and additional other FFD muscles, liver, and plasma with exhausted exercise after 3 weeks. In the FFD muscles after 2 weeks, a common phenomenon that decreased concentrations of threonine (-16%, serine (-15~-16%, and glycine (-6~-16% were observed, and they are categorized in the pyruvate precursors for hepatic gluconeogenesis rather than biosynthesis, polar, and side-chain structures. The decreases in the three amino acids were significantly emphasized after an additional week of taurine supplementation in the FFD muscles (p values in three amino acids in these tissues were less than 0.001-0.05, but not in the liver and plasma, accompanied with significantly increase of running time to exhaustion (p <0.05. In contrast, the three amino acids (threonine and serine; p < 0.05, glycine; p < 0.01 and alanine (p < 0.01 in the liver were significantly decreased and increased, respectively, following the exhaustive exercise. In conclusion, the taurine-induced reductions of these amino acids in skeletal muscle might be one of the mechanisms which underpin the enhancement of exercise performance by taurine

  10. Effect of taurine supplementation on the alterations in amino Acid content in skeletal muscle with exercise in rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishikura, Keisuke; Miyazaki, Teruo; Ra, Song-Gyu; Endo, Shoji; Nakamura, Yusuke; Matsuzaka, Takashi; Miyakawa, Shumpei; Ohmori, Hajime

    2011-01-01

    Taurine included abundantly in skeletal muscle, particularly in the slow-twitch fibers, enhances exercise performance. However, the exact mechanisms for this effect have been unclear. The present study investigated the influence of taurine supplementation on amino acids profile in skeletal muscles as one of mechanisms in the enhancement of exercise performance induced by taurine. In the rats that received taurine solution, amino acids concentrations were comprehensively quantified in two portions with different fiber compositions in the fast-twitch fiber dominant (FFD) gastrocnemius muscle after 2 weeks, and in the gastrocnemius and additional other FFD muscles, liver, and plasma with exhausted exercise after 3 weeks. In the FFD muscles after 2 weeks, a common phenomenon that decreased concentrations of threonine (-16%), serine (-15~-16%), and glycine (-6~-16%) were observed, and they are categorized in the pyruvate precursors for hepatic gluconeogenesis rather than biosynthesis, polar, and side-chain structures. The decreases in the three amino acids were significantly emphasized after an additional week of taurine supplementation in the FFD muscles (p values in three amino acids in these tissues were less than 0.001-0.05), but not in the liver and plasma, accompanied with significantly increase of running time to exhaustion (p exhaustive exercise. In conclusion, the taurine-induced reductions of these amino acids in skeletal muscle might be one of the mechanisms which underpin the enhancement of exercise performance by taurine. Key pointsTaurine ingestion significantly decreased certain amino acids in skeletal muscles accompanied with enhanced exercise performance.The decreased amino acids in common were threonine, serine, and glycine, but not alanine; pyruvate precursor for gluconeogenesis.The alteration of three amino acids in muscles was maintained after exhausted exercise.The muscular alterations of them might be one of taurine-induced roles on exercise

  11. Maintenance of myonuclear domain size in rat soleus after overload and growth hormone/IGF-I treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCall, G. E.; Allen, D. L.; Linderman, J. K.; Grindeland, R. E.; Roy, R. R.; Mukku, V. R.; Edgerton, V. R.

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of functional overload (FO) combined with growth hormone/insulin-like growth factor I (GH/IGF-I) administration on myonuclear number and domain size in rat soleus muscle fibers. Adult female rats underwent bilateral ablation of the plantaris and gastrocnemius muscles and, after 7 days of recovery, were injected three times daily for 14 days with GH/IGF-I (1 mg/kg each; FO + GH/IGF-I group) or saline vehicle (FO group). Intact rats receiving saline vehicle served as controls (Con group). Muscle wet weight was 32% greater in the FO than in the Con group: 162 +/- 8 vs. 123 +/- 16 mg. Muscle weight in the FO + GH/IGF-I group (196 +/- 14 mg) was 59 and 21% larger than in the Con and FO groups, respectively. Mean soleus fiber cross-sectional area of the FO + GH/IGF-I group (2,826 +/- 445 microm2) was increased compared with the Con (2,044 +/- 108 microm2) and FO (2,267 +/- 301 microm2) groups. The difference in fiber size between the FO and Con groups was not significant. Mean myonuclear number increased in FO (187 +/- 15 myonuclei/mm) and FO + GH/IGF-I (217 +/- 23 myonuclei/mm) rats compared with Con (155 +/- 12 myonuclei/mm) rats, although the difference between FO and FO + GH/IGF-I animals was not significant. The mean cytoplasmic volume per myonucleus (myonuclear domain) was similar across groups. These results demonstrate that the larger mean muscle weight and fiber cross-sectional area occurred when FO was combined with GH/IGF-I administration and that myonuclear number increased concomitantly with fiber volume. Thus there appears to be some mechanism(s) that maintains the myonuclear domain when a fiber hypertrophies.

  12. Autophagic signaling and proteolytic enzyme activity in cardiac and skeletal muscle of spontaneously hypertensive rats following chronic aerobic exercise.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elliott M McMillan

    Full Text Available Hypertension is a cardiovascular disease associated with deleterious effects in skeletal and cardiac muscle. Autophagy is a degradative process essential to muscle health. Acute exercise can alter autophagic signaling. Therefore, we aimed to characterize the effects of chronic endurance exercise on autophagy in skeletal and cardiac muscle of normotensive and hypertensive rats. Male Wistar Kyoto (WKY and spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR were assigned to a sedentary condition or 6 weeks of treadmill running. White gastrocnemius (WG of hypertensive rats had higher (p<0.05 caspase-3 and proteasome activity, as well as elevated calpain activity. In addition, skeletal muscle of hypertensive animals had elevated (p<0.05 ATG7 and LC3I protein, LAMP2 mRNA, and cathepsin activity, indicative of enhanced autophagic signaling. Interestingly, chronic exercise training increased (p<0.05 Beclin-1, LC3, and p62 mRNA as well as proteasome activity, but reduced (p<0.05 Beclin-1 and ATG7 protein, as well as decreased (p<0.05 caspase-3, calpain, and cathepsin activity. Left ventricle (LV of hypertensive rats had reduced (p<0.05 AMPKα and LC3II protein, as well as elevated (p<0.05 p-AKT, p-p70S6K, LC3I and p62 protein, which collectively suggest reduced autophagic signaling. Exercise training had little effect on autophagy-related signaling factors in LV; however, exercise training increased (p<0.05 proteasome activity but reduced (p<0.05 caspase-3 and calpain activity. Our results suggest that autophagic signaling is altered in skeletal and cardiac muscle of hypertensive animals. Regular aerobic exercise can effectively alter the proteolytic environment in both cardiac and skeletal muscle, as well as influence several autophagy-related factors in skeletal muscle of normotensive and hypertensive rats.

  13. Muscle protein turnover in rats treated with corticosterone (CC) or/and nandrolone decanoate (ND) and fed an adequate or a low-protein diet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santidrian, S.; Cuevillas, F.; Goena, M.; Larralde, J.

    1986-03-01

    In order to investigate the possible antagonistic effect between glucocorticoids and androgens on muscle protein turnover, the authors have measured the fractional rates of gastrocnemius muscle protein synthesis (k/sub s/) and degradation (k/sub d/) by the constant-intravenous-infusion method using L-//sup 14/C/-tyrosine in rats receiving via s.c. per 100 g b.wt. 10 mg of CC, or 2 mg of ND or CC+ND at the indicated doses, and fed either an 18% or 5% protein diets over a period of 5 days. As an additional index of protein synthesis, RNA activity (g of synthesized protein/day/g RNA) was determined as well. Results showed that as compared to vehicle-injected animals fed the adequate diet, CC-treated rats exhibited a reduction of muscle k/sub d/, while ND-treated rats had an outstanding increase of muscle k/sub s/. However, rats receiving CC+ND showed k/sub s/ and k/sub d/ values similar to those displayed by control animals. Nevertheless, when the steroids were injected to rats fed the low-protein diet, CC has a catabolic effect on muscle protein but by reducing k/sub s/, while the anabolic action of ND is still displayed but by a significant reduction of muscle k/sub d/. CC+ND given to these protein-deficient rats caused an increase in muscle k/sub s/ and a reduction in k/sub d/. These results might indicate that, at least in part, ND antagonizes the catabolic action of high doses of CC on muscle protein metabolism.

  14. Dietary HMB and β-alanine co-supplementation does not improve in situ muscle function in sedentary, aged male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russ, David W; Acksel, Cara; Boyd, Iva M; Maynard, John; McCorkle, Katherine W; Edens, Neile K; Garvey, Sean M

    2015-12-01

    This study evaluated the effects of dietary β-hydroxy-β-methylbutyrate (HMB) combined with β-alanine (β-Ala) in sedentary, aged male rats. It has been suggested that dietary HMB or β-Ala supplementation may mitigate age-related declines in muscle strength and fatigue resistance. A total of 20 aged Sprague-Dawley rats were studied. At age 20 months, 10 rats were administered a control, purified diet and 10 rats were administered a purified diet supplemented with both HMB and β-Ala (HMB+β-Ala) for 8 weeks (approximately equivalent to 3 and 2.4 g per day human dose). We measured medial gastrocnemius (MG) size, force, fatigability, and myosin composition. We also evaluated an array of protein markers related to muscle mitochondria, protein synthesis and breakdown, and autophagy. HMB+β-Ala had no significant effects on body weight, MG mass, force or fatigability, myosin composition, or muscle quality. Compared with control rats, those fed HMB+β-Ala exhibited a reduced (41%, P = 0.039) expression of muscle RING-finger protein 1 (MURF1), a common marker of protein degradation. Muscle from rats fed HMB+β-Ala also exhibited a 45% reduction (P = 0.023) in p70s6K phosphorylation following fatiguing stimulation. These data suggest that HMB+β-Ala at the dose studied may reduce muscle protein breakdown by reducing MURF1 expression, but has minimal effects on muscle function in this model of uncomplicated aging. They do not, however, rule out potential benefits of HMB+β-Ala co-supplementation at other doses or durations of supplementation in combination with exercise or in situations where extreme muscle protein breakdown and loss of mass occur (e.g., bedrest, cachexia, failure-to-thrive). PMID:26579948

  15. Rat Genome Database (RGD)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Rat Genome Database (RGD) is a collaborative effort between leading research institutions involved in rat genetic and genomic research to collect, consolidate,...

  16. Functional recovery of sciatic nerve through inside-out vein graft in rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Rahim Mohammadi; Saeed Azizi; Nowruz Delirezh; Rahim Hobbenaghi; Keyvan Amini

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Present study aimed at further comprehensive functional, histomorphometrical and immunohistochemical assessment of peripheral nerve regeneration using rat sciatic nerve transection model.Methods: The 10-mm rat sciatic nerve gap was created in rats. In control group nerve stumps were sutured to adjacent muscle and in treatment group the gap was bridged using an inside-out vein graft. In sham-operated group the nerve was manipulated and left intact. All animals underwent walking track analysis test 4, 8, and 12 weeks after surgery.Subsequently, muscle mass measurement was performed to assess reenervation, histological examination to observe the sciatic nerve regeneration morphologically and immunohistochemistry to detect Schwann cells using anti S-100. Results were analyzed using a factorial ANOVA with two between-subjects factors. Bonferroni test for pairwise comparisons was used to examine the effect of treatments.Results: Functional analysis ofmyelinated nerve fibers showed that nerve function improved significantly in the time course in treatment group. However, quantitative morphometrical analysis of myelinated nerve fibers showed that there was no significant difference between 8 and 12 weeks in treatment group. Muscle weight ratio was bigger and weight loss of the gastrocnemius muscle was ameliorated by inside-out vein grafting. The position of positive immunohistochemical reactions further implied that regenerated axons and Schwann cell-like cells existed after vein grafting was performed, and was accompanied by the process of myelination and structural recovery of regenerated nerves.Conclusion: Functional analysis of peripheral nerve repair is far more reliable than quantitative morphometrical analysis

  17. Zinc asparaginate supplementation induces redistribution of toxic trace elements in rat tissues and organs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Skalny Andrey A.

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The primary objective of the current study was the investigation of the influence of zinc asparaginate supplementation for 7 and 14 days on toxic metal and metalloid content in rat organs and tissues. Rats obtained zinc asparaginate in doses of 5 and 15 mg/kg/day for 7 and 14 days. At the end of the experiment rat tissues and organs (liver, kidney, heart, m. gastrocnemius, serum, and hair were collected for subsequent analysis. Estimation of Zn, Al, As, Li, Ni, Sn, Sr content in the harvested organs was performed using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry at NexION 300D. The obtained data showed that intragastric administration of zinc significantly increased liver, kidney and serum zinc concentrations. Seven-day zinc treatment significantly affected the toxic trace element content in the animals’ organs. Zinc supplementation significantly decreased particularly liver aluminium, nickel, and tin content, whereas lead tended to increase. Zinc-induced changes in kidney metal content were characterized by elevated lithium and decreased nickel concentration. Zinc-induced alteration of myocardical toxic element content was multidirectional. Muscle aluminium and lead concentration were reduced in response to zinc supplementation. At the same time, serum and hair toxic element concentrations remained relatively stable after 7-day zinc treatment. Zinc asparaginate treatment of 14 days significantly depressed liver and elevated kidney lithium content, whereas a significant zinc-associated decrease was detected in kidney strontium content. Zinc supplementation for 14 days resulted also in multidirectional changes in the content of heart toxic elements. At the same time, significant zinc-associated decrease in muscle lithium and nickel levels was observed. Fourteen-day zinc treatment resulted in significantly increased serum arsenic and tin concentrations, whereas hair trace element content remained relatively stable. Generally, the obtained data

  18. Manipulating training intensity and volume in already well-trained rats: effect on skeletal muscle oxidative and glycolytic enzymes and buffering capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laursen, Paul B; Marsh, Susan A; Jenkins, David G; Coombes, Jeff S

    2007-06-01

    Well-trained endurance athletes undergo periods of high-intensity interval training (HIT) or high-volume training (HVT) to improve exercise performance, but little is known about the mechanistic changes that occur during this time. The purpose of this study was to examine the influence of HIT and HVT on the activities of citrate synthase (CS) and phosphofructokinase (PFK), and on intramuscular buffering capacity (betam) in already well-trained rats. At 4 weeks of age, Wistar rats were divided into sedentary (SED; n=18) and exercise training groups (n=38). Following a 10 week preliminary training program, trained rats were divided randomly into 3 further groups that completed 4 additional weeks of continued endurance (CON, n=14), high-intensity training (HIT, n=12), or high-volume training (HVT, n=12). Soleus (SOL), red and white gastrocnemius (RG and WG), and red and white vastus (RV and WV) muscles were removed 24-48 h after a final run-to-fatigue performance test (30 m.min(-1) 25% grade) to determine the activities of CS, PFK, and betam. No differences in run time to exhaustion were found between the groups. However the HIT group possessed CS and PFK activities and betam in WV muscle that were 60%, 24%, and 10% higher, respectively (all prats resulted in significantly higher oxidative and glycolytic capacities of fast-contracting fibres. No differences were shown in fast-contracting muscle between HIT and CON. PMID:17510678

  19. Beta-hydroxy-beta-methyl-butyrate blunts negative age-related changes in body composition, functionality and myofiber dimensions in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilson Jacob M

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Purpose To determine the effects of 16 wk. of beta-hydroxy-beta-methylbutyrate (HMB administration on age-related changes in functionality and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI determined myofiber dimensions. Methods Twelve young (44 wk., 6 middle-aged (60 wk., 10 old (86 wk., and 5 very old (102 wk. male Fisher-344 rat's body composition and grip strength were assessed at baseline. Following, 6 young, 6 middle-aged, 5 old and 5 very old rats were sacrificed for baseline myofiber dimensions and gene transcript factor expression in the soleus (SOL and gastrocnemius (GAS. The remaining 6 young and 5 old rats were given HMB for 16 wk. and then sacrificed. Results Fat mass increased in the middle-aged control condition (+49% but not the middle-aged HMB condition. In addition, fat mass declined (-56% in the old HMB condition but not the old control condition. Normalized strength declined and maintained respectively in the control and HMB conditions from 44 to 60 wk. and increased (+23% (p Conclusions HMB may blunt age-related losses of strength and myofiber dimensions, possibly through attenuating the rise in protein breakdown.

  20. Electrical characteristics of rat skeletal muscle in immaturity, adulthood and after sciatic nerve injury, and their relation to muscle fiber size

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Localized impedance methods can provide useful approaches for assessing neuromuscular disease. The mechanism of these impedance changes remains, however, uncertain. In order to begin to understand the relation of muscle pathology to surface impedance values, 8 immature rats, 12 mature rats and 8 mature rats that had undergone sciatic crush were killed. Measurement was made on tissue from the gastrocnemius muscle from each animal in an impedance cell, and the conductivity and relative permittivity of the tissue were calculated in both the longitudinal and transverse directions for frequencies of 2 kHz to 1 MHz. In addition, quantitative histological analysis was performed on the tissue. Significant elevations in transverse conductivity and transverse relative permittivity were found with animal growth, but longitudinal values showed no difference. After sciatic crush, both transverse and longitudinal conductivity increased significantly, with no change in the relative permittivity in either direction. The frequency dependence of the values also changed after nerve injury. In the healthy animals, there was a strong linear relation between measured conductivity and relative permittivity with cell area, but not for the sciatic crush animals. These results provide a first step toward developing a comprehensive understanding of how the electrical properties of muscle alter in neuromuscular disease states

  1. Effects of Phellinus linteus administration on serotonin synthesis in the brain and expression of monocarboxylate transporters in the muscle during exhaustive exercise in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Jin-Hee; Sung, Yun-Hee; Kim, Ki-Jeong; Shin, Mal-Soon; Lee, Eun-Kyu; Kim, Chang-Ju

    2011-01-01

    This study was conducted to determine the effects of Phellinus linteus (PL) on serotonin synthesis in the brain and on the expression of monocarboxylate transporters (MCTs) in muscles during exhaustive exercise in rats. In this study, 60 male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into the following 6 groups: control; exercise; exercise and 50 mg/kg of PL treatment; exercise and 100 of mg/kg PL treatment; exercise and 200 mg/kg of PL treatment; and exercise and 100 mg/kg of caffeine treatment. Treatment with 200 mg/kg of PL led to a significant increase in the time to exhaustion in response to running on a treadmill and a significant decrease in 5-hydroxytryptamine synthesis and tryptophan hydroxylase expression in the dorsal raphe of rats. MCT1 and MCT4 expression of the gastrocnemius muscles was also increased in response to treatment with 200 mg/kg of PL. The results of the present study demonstrated that the administration of PL increased endurance exercise performance through inhibition of serotonin production in the brain and increased the expression of MCT1 and MCT4 in muscles. These results suggest that PL exerts an ergogenic effect. PMID:21512297

  2. Near-infrared oxymeter biosensor prototype for non-invasive in vivo analysis of rat brain oxygenation: effects of drugs of abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crespi, F.; Donini, M.; Bandera, A.; Congestri, F.; Formenti, F.; Sonntag, V.; Heidbreder, C.; Rovati, L.

    2006-07-01

    The feasibility of non-invasive analysis of brain activities was studied in the attempt to overcome the major limitation of actual in vivo methodologies, i.e. invasiveness. Optic fibre probes were used as the optical head of a novel, highly sensitive near-infrared continuous wave spectroscopy (CW-NIR) instrument. This prototype was designed for non-invasive analysis of the two main forms of haemoglobin: oxy-haemoglobin (HbO2) and deoxy-haemoglobin (Hb), chromophores present in biological tissues. It was tested in peripheral tissue (human gastrocnemius muscle) and then reset to perform the measurement on rat brain. In animal studies, the optical head was firmly placed using stereotaxic apparatus upon the sagittal line of the head of anaesthetized adult rats, without any surgery. Then pharmacological treatments with saline (300 µl s.c.) amphetamine (2 mg kg-1) or nicotine (0.4 mg kg-1) were performed. Within 10-20 min amphetamine substantially increased HbO2 and reduced Hb control levels. Nicotine produced a rapid initial increase followed by a decrease in HbO2. In contrast to amphetamine, nicotine treatment also reduced Hb and blood volume. These results support the capacity of our CW-NIR prototype to measure non-invasively HbO2 and Hb levels in the rat brain, that are markers of the degree of tissue oxygenation, thus providing an index of blood levels and therefore of brain metabolism.

  3. Effect of previous strength training episode and retraining on facilitation of skeletal muscle hypertrophy and contractile properties after long-term detraining in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sukho; Hong, Kwang-Seok; Kim, Kijeong

    2016-04-01

    In the present study, we investigated the effects of previous strength training and retraining following long-term cessation of exercise on muscle mass and contractile properties. Female Sprague-Dawley rats (n=24) aged eight weeks were randomly assigned one of the four groups: control (CON), detraining (DT), training (TR), and retraining (RT). The training regimen consisted of climbing ladder 5×3 sets, once every third day for eight weeks with weight attached to the tail. The weight carried during each training session was initially 50% of body weight and progressively increased by 10% per session. The rats in DT were detained for 20 weeks followed by eight weeks strength training. The rats in the both TR and RT groups underwent eight weeks training. DT was age matched new training group while RT was retraining group after 20 weeks of detraining. Soleus, gastrocnemius, tibialis anterior, and flexor hallucis longus (FHL) muscles were harvested in order to measure the weight, and in situ contractile properties of FHL were measured including specific twitch tension (Spt) and specific tetanic tension (Spo). TR showed significant increase in muscle mass compared to CON (Pmuscle mass when compared to all other groups (Pmuscle hypertrophy following long-term cessation of exercise. PMID:27162768

  4. Effect of previous strength training episode and retraining on facilitation of skeletal muscle hypertrophy and contractile properties after long-term detraining in rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sukho; Hong, Kwang-Seok; Kim, Kijeong

    2016-01-01

    In the present study, we investigated the effects of previous strength training and retraining following long-term cessation of exercise on muscle mass and contractile properties. Female Sprague-Dawley rats (n=24) aged eight weeks were randomly assigned one of the four groups: control (CON), detraining (DT), training (TR), and retraining (RT). The training regimen consisted of climbing ladder 5×3 sets, once every third day for eight weeks with weight attached to the tail. The weight carried during each training session was initially 50% of body weight and progressively increased by 10% per session. The rats in DT were detained for 20 weeks followed by eight weeks strength training. The rats in the both TR and RT groups underwent eight weeks training. DT was age matched new training group while RT was retraining group after 20 weeks of detraining. Soleus, gastrocnemius, tibialis anterior, and flexor hallucis longus (FHL) muscles were harvested in order to measure the weight, and in situ contractile properties of FHL were measured including specific twitch tension (Spt) and specific tetanic tension (Spo). TR showed significant increase in muscle mass compared to CON (P<0.05). DT and RT showed significant increase in muscle mass when compared to all other groups (P<0.05). There was no statistical difference in Spt and Spo among the groups. The present study showed that previous strength training facilitates retraining-induced muscle hypertrophy following long-term cessation of exercise. PMID:27162768

  5. GLUT4 content decreases along with insulin resistance and high levels of inflammatory markers in rats with metabolic syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leguisamo Natalia M

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Metabolic syndrome is characterized by insulin resistance, which is closely related to GLUT4 content in insulin-sensitive tissues. Thus, we evaluated the GLUT4 expression, insulin resistance and inflammation, characteristics of the metabolic syndrome, in an experimental model. Methods Spontaneously hypertensive neonate rats (18/group were treated with monosodium glutamate (MetS during 9 days, and compared with Wistar-Kyoto (C and saline-treated SHR (H. Blood pressure (BP and lipid levels, C-reactive protein (CRP, interleukin 6 (IL-6, TNF-α and adiponectin were evaluated. GLUT4 protein was analysed in the heart, white adipose tissue and gastrocnemius. Studies were performed at 3 (3-mo, 6 (6-mo and 9 (9-mo months of age. Results MetS rats were more insulin resistant (pvs H, but adiponectin was lower in MetS at 9 months (MetS: 32 ± 2, H: 42 ± 2, C: 45 ± 2 pg/mL; p Conclusions MSG-treated SHR presented all metabolic syndrome characteristics, as well as reduced GLUT4 content, which must play a key role in the impaired glycemic homeostasis of the metabolic syndrome.

  6. Local Effect of Heparin Binding Neurotrophic Factor Combined With Chitosan Entubulization on Sciatic Nerve Repair in Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehrshad, Ali; Seddighnia, Ashkan; Shadabi, Mohammadreza; Najafpour, Alireza; Mohammadi, Rahim

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To assess the effect of on sciatic nerve regeneration in animal model of rat. Methods: Seventy-five male Wistar rats were divided into five experimental groups randomly (each group containing 15 animals): Sham operation group (SHAM), autograft group (AUTO), transected control (TC), chitosan conduit (CHIT) and heparin binding neurotrophic factor treated group (CHIT/HBNF). In AUTO group a segment of sciatic nerve was transected and reimplanted reversely. In SHAM group sciatic nerve was exposed and manipulated. In transected group left sciatic nerve was transected and stumps were fixed in adjacent muscle (TC). In treatment group defect was bridged using a chitosan conduit (CHIT) filled with 10 µL HBNF (CHIT/HBNF). Each group was subdivided into four subgroups of five animals each and nerve fibers were studied in a 12-week period. Results: Behavioral, functional, biomechanical, electrophysiological and gastrocnemius muscle mass findings and morphometric indices confirmed faster recovery of regenerated axons in treatment group than in CHIT group (P=0.001). Immunohistochemical reactions to S-100 in treatment group were more positive than that in CHIT group. Conclusion: Local administration of improved functional recovery and morphometric indices of sciatic nerve. It could be considered as an effective treatment for peripheral nerve repair in practice. PMID:27331064

  7. Effects of alprostadil and iloprost on renal, lung, and skeletal muscle injury following hindlimb ischemia–reperfusion injury in rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erer, Dilek; Özer, Abdullah; Demirtaş, Hüseyin; Gönül, İpek Işık; Kara, Halil; Arpacı, Hande; Çomu, Faruk Metin; Oktar, Gürsel Levent; Arslan, Mustafa; Küçük, Ayşegül

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To evaluate the effects of alprostadil (prostaglandin [PGE1] analog) and iloprost (prostacyclin [PGI2] analog) on renal, lung, and skeletal muscle tissues after ischemia reperfusion (I/R) injury in an experimental rat model. Materials and methods Wistar albino rats underwent 2 hours of ischemia via infrarenal aorta clamping with subsequent 2 hours of reperfusion. Alprostadil and iloprost were given starting simultaneously with the reperfusion period. Effects of agents on renal, lung, and skeletal muscle (gastrocnemius) tissue specimens were examined. Results Renal medullary congestion, cytoplasmic swelling, and mean tubular dilatation scores were significantly lower in the alprostadil-treated group than those found in the I/R-only group (P<0.0001, P=0.015, and P<0.01, respectively). Polymorphonuclear leukocyte infiltration, pulmonary partial destruction, consolidation, alveolar edema, and hemorrhage scores were significantly lower in alprostadil- and iloprost-treated groups (P=0.017 and P=0.001; P<0.01 and P<0.0001). Polymorphonuclear leukocyte infiltration scores in skeletal muscle tissue were significantly lower in the iloprost-treated group than the scores found in the nontreated I/R group (P<0.0001). Conclusion Alprostadil and iloprost significantly reduce lung tissue I/R injury. Alprostadil has more prominent protective effects against renal I/R injury, while iloprost is superior in terms of protecting the skeletal muscle tissue against I/R injury. PMID:27601882

  8. Role of histidyl dipeptides in contractile function of fast and slow motor units in rat skeletal muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaczmarek, Dominik; Łochyński, Dawid; Everaert, Inge; Pawlak, Maciej; Derave, Wim; Celichowski, Jan

    2016-07-01

    The physiological role of the muscle histidyl dipeptides carnosine and anserine in contractile function of various types of muscle fibers in vivo is poorly understood. Ten adult male Wistar rats were randomly assigned to two groups: control and supplemented for 10 wk with beta-alanine, the precursor of carnosine (∼640 mg·kg body wt(-1)·day(-1)). Thereafter, contractile properties and fatigability of isolated fast fatigable (FF), fast resistant to fatigue (FR), and slow motor units (MUs) from the medial gastrocnemius were determined in deeply anaesthetized animals. The fatigue resistance was tested with a 40-Hz fatigue protocol followed by a second protocol at 40 Hz in fast and 20 Hz in slow units. In the supplemented rats, histidyl dipeptide concentrations significantly increased (P carnosine increased by 94% in the white portion. The twitch force of FF units and maximum tetanic force of FR units were significantly increased (P Carnosine and anserine seem to play an important yet divergent role in various MUs. PMID:27197862

  9. Increase in skeletal muscle protein content by the ß-2 selective adrenergic agonist clenbuterol exacerbates hypoalbuminemia in rats fed a low-protein diet

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    A.L. Sawaya

    1998-06-01

    Full Text Available This investigation examined how the nutritional status of rats fed a low-protein diet was affected when the animals were treated with the ß-2 selective agonist clenbuterol (CL. Males (4 weeks old from an inbred, specific-pathogen-free strain of hooded rats maintained at the Dunn Nutritional Laboratory were used in the experiments (N = 6 rats per group. CL treatment (Ventipulmin, Boehringer-Ingelheim Ltd., 3.2 mg/kg diet for 2 weeks caused an exacerbation of the symptoms associated with protein deficiency in rats. Plasma albumin concentrations, already low in rats fed a low-protein diet (group A, were further reduced in CL rats (A = 25.05 ± 0.31 vs CL = 23.64 ± 0.30 g/l, P<0.05. Total liver protein decreased below the level seen in either pair-fed animals (group P or animals with free access to the low-protein diet (A = 736.56 ± 26 vs CL = 535.41 ± 54 mg, P<0.05, whereas gastrocnemius muscle protein was higher than the values normally described for control (C animals (C = 210.88 ± 3.2 vs CL = 227.14 ± 1.7 mg/g, P<0.05. Clenbuterol-treated rats also showed a reduction in growth when compared to P rats (P = 3.2 ± 1.1 vs CL = -10.2 ± 1.9 g, P<0.05. This was associated with a marked decrease in fat stores (P = 5.35 ± 0.81 vs CL = 2.02 ± 0.16 g, P<0.05. Brown adipose tissue (BAT cytochrome oxidase activity, although slightly lower than in P rats (P = 469.96 ± 16.20 vs CL = 414.48 ± 11.32 U/BAT x kg body weight, P<0.05, was still much higher than in control rats (C = 159.55 ± 11.54 vs CL = 414.48 ± 11.32 U/BAT x kg body weight, P<0.05. The present findings support the hypothesis that an increased muscle protein content due to clenbuterol stimulation worsened amino acid availability to the liver and further reduced albumin synthesis causing exacerbation of hypoalbuminemia in rats fed a low-protein diet.

  10. Voluntary Running Aids to Maintain High Body Temperature in Rats Bred for High Aerobic Capacity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karvinen, Sira M.; Silvennoinen, Mika; Ma, Hongqiang; Törmäkangas, Timo; Rantalainen, Timo; Rinnankoski-Tuikka, Rita; Lensu, Sanna; Koch, Lauren G.; Britton, Steven L.; Kainulainen, Heikki

    2016-01-01

    The production of heat, i.e., thermogenesis, is a significant component of the metabolic rate, which in turn affects weight gain and health. Thermogenesis is linked to physical activity (PA) level. However, it is not known whether intrinsic exercise capacity, aging, and long-term voluntary running affect core body temperature. Here we use rat models selectively bred to differ in maximal treadmill endurance running capacity (Low capacity runners, LCR and High capacity Runners, HCR), that as adults are divergent for aerobic exercise capacity, aging, and metabolic disease risk to study the connection between PA and body temperature. Ten high capacity runner (HCR) and ten low capacity runner (LCR) female rats were studied between 9 and 21 months of age. Rectal body temperature of HCR and LCR rats was measured before and after 1-year voluntary running/control intervention to explore the effects of aging and PA. Also, we determined whether injected glucose and spontaneous activity affect the body temperature differently between LCR and HCR rats at 9 vs. 21 months of age. HCRs had on average 1.3°C higher body temperature than LCRs (p < 0.001). Aging decreased the body temperature level of HCRs to similar levels with LCRs. The opportunity to run voluntarily had a significant impact on the body temperature of HCRs (p < 0.001) allowing them to maintain body temperature at a similar level as when at younger age. Compared to LCRs, HCRs were spontaneously more active, had higher relative gastrocnemius muscle mass and higher UCP2, PGC-1α, cyt c, and OXPHOS levels in the skeletal muscle (p < 0.050). These results suggest that higher PA level together with greater relative muscle mass and higher mitochondrial content/function contribute to the accumulation of heat in the HCRs. Interestingly, neither aging nor voluntary training had a significant impact on core body temperature of LCRs. However, glucose injection resulted in a lowering of the body temperature of LCRs (p < 0

  11. Size and metabolic properties of fibers in rat fast-twitch muscles after hindlimb suspension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Roland R.; Bello, Maureen A.; Bouissou, Phillip; Edgerton, V. Reggie

    1987-01-01

    The effect of hind-limb suspension (HS) on single fibers of the medial gastrocnemius (MG) and the tibialis anterior (TA) muscles were studied in rats. Fiber area and the activities of succinate dehydrogenase (SDH) and alpha-glycerophosphate dehydrogenase (GPD) were determined in tissue sections using an image analysis system. After 28 days of HS, the MG atrophied 28 percent, whereas the TA weight was maintained. Both dark- and light-ATPase fibers in the deep region of the MG had decreased cross-sectional areas following HS, with the atrophic response being twice as great in the light-ATPase fibers than in the dark-ATPase fibers. Following HS, mean SDH activities of both fiber types were significantly lower in the MG and TA than in the CON; by contrast, mean GPD activities were either maintained at the CON level or were higher in both MG and TA muscles. The data suggest an independence of the mechanisms determining the muscle fiber size and the metabolic adaptations associated with HS.

  12. Expression of Dihydropyridine and Ryanodine Receptors in Type IIA Fibers of Rat Skeletal Muscle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this study, the fiber type specificity of dihydropyridine receptors (DHPRs) and ryanodine receptors (RyRs) in different rat limb muscles was investigated. Western blot and histochemical analyses provided for the first time evidence that the expression of both receptors correlates to a specific myosin heavy chain (MHC) composition. We observed a significant (p=0.01) correlation between DHP as well as Ry receptor density and the expression of MHC IIa (correlation factor r=0.674 and r=0.645, respectively) in one slow-twitch, postural muscle (m. soleus), one mixed, fast-twitch muscle (m. gastrocnemius) and two fast-twitch muscles (m. rectus femoris, m. extensor digitorum longus). The highest DHP and Ry receptor density was found in the white part of m. rectus femoris (0.058±0.0060 and 0.057±0.0158 ODu, respectively). As expected, the highest relative percentage of MHC IIa was also found in the white part of m. rectus femoris (70.0±7.77%). Furthermore, histochemical experiments revealed that the IIA fibers stained most strongly for the fluorophore-conjugated receptor blockers. Our data clearly suggest that the expression of DHPRs and RyRs follows a fiber type-specific pattern, indicating an important role for these proteins in the maintenance of an effective Ca2+ cycle in the fast contracting fiber type IIA

  13. Vascular endothelial growth factor promotes peripheral nerve regeneration after sciatic nerve transection in rat

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Rahim Mohammadi; Sima Ahsan; Masoume Masoumi; Keyvan Amini

    2013-01-01

    Objective:To evaluate the local effect of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) on transected sciatic nerve regeneration.Methods:Sixty male white Wistar rats were divided into four experimental groups randomly (n=15).In transected group the left sciatic nerve was transected and the stump was fixed to adjacent muscle.In treatment group the defect was bridged using a silicone graft filled with 10μL VEGF.In silicone group the graft was filled with phosphate-buffered saline.In sham-operated group the sciatic nerve was exposed and manipulated.Each group was subdivided into three subgroups with five animals in each and nerve fibers were studied 4,8 and 12 weeks after operation.Results:Behavioral test,functional study of sciatic nerve,gastrocnemius muscle mass and morphometric indices confirmed a faster recovery of regenerated axons in VEGF group than in silicone group (P<0.05).In immunohistochemical assessment,reactions to S-100 in VEGF group were more positive than that in silicone group.Conclusion:Local administration of VEGF will improve functional recovery and morphometric indices of sciatic nerve.

  14. Echinochrome A Improves Exercise Capacity during Short-Term Endurance Training in Rats

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    Dae Yun Seo

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Echinochrome A (Echi A improves mitochondrial function in the heart; however, its effects on skeletal muscle are still unclear. We hypothesized that Echi A administration during short-term exercise may improve exercise capacity. Twenty-four male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into the following groups: control group (CG, Echi A-treated group (EG, aerobic exercise group (AG, and aerobic exercise treated with Echi A group (AEG (n = 6 per group. Echi A was administered intra-peritoneally (0.1 mg/kg of Echi A in 300 µL phosphate-buffered saline daily 30 min before each exercise training. The AG and AEG groups performed treadmill running (20 m/min, 60 min/day five days/week for two weeks. The exercise capacity was significantly higher in the AG and AEG groups compared to other groups. Interestingly, the exercise capacity increased more effectively in the AEG group. The body weight in the EG tended to be slightly lower than that in the other groups. There were no significant changes in the plasma lipids among the groups. However, the gastrocnemius muscle mitochondria content was greater in the EG and AEG groups. These findings show that Echi A administration after short-term endurance training enhances exercise capacity, which was associated with an increase in skeletal muscle mitochondrial content.

  15. The anabolic effects of recombinant human growth hormone and glutamine on parenterally fed, short bowel rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yan Gu; Zhao-Han Wu

    2002-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the metabolic effects associated withadministration of rhGH and/or Gln in parenterally fed,short-bowel rats.METHODS: Forty SD rats subjected to 75 % intestinalresection and maintained with parenteral nutritionwere randomly divided into 4 groups as follows: -rhGH,-Gln; -rhGH, +Gln; +rhGH, -Gln; +rhGH, +Gln.Bodyweight and nitrogen balance were evaluated daily. After6 days of PN, rats were killed, various organs weredissected and weighted, the carcasses were used foranalysis of body composition. Serum GH and IGF-1 weredetermined by RIA method.RESULTS: Weight loss in rats with rhGH (17.4±12.8 g)and rhGH+Gln (23.8±3.5 g) was significantly less thanrats with PN alone (29.6±6. 9 g) and rats with Gln-supplemented PN (31.85±12.8 g), P<0.05. Theaccumulated NB in rats with rhGH (1252.9±294.3 mgN/d) and rhGH+Gin (1261.7±85.5 mg N/d) wassignificantly greater than those with PN alone (704.8±379.0 mg N/d) and with Gln-supplemented PN(856.7±284.4 mg N/d), P<0.05. The absolute weightof gastrocnemius muscle in rats with rhGH (2683.9±341.6 mg) and rhGH+Gln (2579.1±359.5 mg) wasgreater than those with PN alone (2176.3±167.1 mg)and with Gln-supplemented PN (2141.9±353.6 mg).Although the absolute weight of remnant smallintestine itself was not significantly different in 4experimental groups, the weight/length of thesegments was greater in rats with rhGH and/or Gln(48.7±5.5, 52.7±4.1 and 67.4±5.3 respectively) thanthose with PN alone(47.8±5.0), there were synergisticeffects between rhGH and Gln in improvement of theweight/length of remnant small intestine, P<0.05.Analyses of body carcass composition showed that ahigher percentage of carcass weight as protein and alower percentage of carcass weight as fat wereoccurred in rats with rhGH (20.8±4.0,6.0±2.6) andrhGH+Gin(21.3±2.4,4.4±1.5) than those with PNalone (16.4±2.4,9.2+3.7) and with Gln-supplementedPN (17.8±3.0,6.3±2.0), rhGH had significant effectson alteration of body composition, P<0

  16. Mechanisms of spinal motoneurons survival in rats under simulated hypogravity on earth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islamov, R. R.; Mishagina, E. A.; Tyapkina, O. V.; Shajmardanova, G. F.; Eremeev, A. A.; Kozlovskaya, I. B.; Nikolskij, E. E.; Grigorjev, A. I.

    2011-05-01

    It was previously shown that different cell types in vivo and in vitro may die via apoptosis under weightlessness conditions in space as well as in simulated hypogravity on the Earth. We assessed survivability of spinal motoneurons of rats after 35-day antiorthostatic hind limb suspension. Following weight bearing, unloading the total protein content in lumbar spinal cord is dropped by 21%. The electrophysiological studies of m. gastrocnemius revealed an elevated motoneurons' reflex excitability and conduction disturbances in the sciatic nerve axons. The number of myelinated fibers in the ventral root of experimental animals was insignificantly increased by 35-day of antiorthostatic hind limb suspension, although the retrograde axonal transport was significantly decreased during the first week of simulated hypogravity. The results of the immunohistochemical assay with antibodies against proapoptotic protein caspase 9 and cytotoxicity marker neuron specific nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) and the TUNEL staining did not reveal any signs of apoptosis in motoneurons of suspended and control animals. To examine the possible adaptation mechanisms activated in motoneurons in response to simulated hypogravity we investigated immunoexpression of Hsp25 and Hsp70 in lumbar spinal cord of the rats after 35-day antiorthostatic hind limb suspension. Comparative analysis of the immunohistochemical reaction with anti-Hsp25 antibodies revealed differential staining of motoneurons in intact and experimental animals. The density of immunoprecipitate with anti-Hsp25 antibodies was substantially higher in motoneurons of the 35-day suspended than control rats and the more intensive precipitate in this reaction was observed in motoneuron neuritis. Quantitative analysis of Hsp25 expression demonstrated an increase in the Hsp25 level by 95% in experimental rats compared to the control. The immunoexpression of Hsp70 found no qualitative and quantitative differences in control and experimental

  17. Continuous Aerobic Training in Individualized Intensity Avoids Spontaneous Physical Activity Decline and Improves MCT1 Expression in Oxidative Muscle of Swimming Rats

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    Pedro Paulo Menezes Scariot

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Although aerobic training has been shown to affect the lactate transport of skeletal muscle, there is no information concerning the effect of continuous aerobic training on spontaneous physical activity (SPA. Because every movement in daily life (i.e. SPA is generated by skeletal muscle, we think that it is possible that an improvement of SPA could affect the physiological properties of muscle with regard to lactate transport. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of 12 weeks of continuous aerobic training in individualized intensity on SPA of rats and their gene expressions of monocarboxylate transporters (MCT 1 and 4 in soleus (oxidative and white gastrocnemius (glycolytic muscles. We also analyzed the effect of continuous aerobic training on aerobic and anaerobic parameters using the lactate minimum test (LMT. 60-day-old rats were randomly divided into three groups: a baseline group in which rats were evaluated prior to initiation of the study; a control group (Co in which rats were kept without any treatment during 12 weeks; and a chronic exercise group (Tr in which rats swam for 40min/day, 5 days/week at 80% of anaerobic threshold during 12 weeks. After the experimental period, SPA of rats was measured using a gravimetric method. Rats had their expression of MCTs determined by RT-PCR analysis. In essence, aerobic training is effective in maintaining SPA, but did not prevent the decline of aerobic capacity and anaerobic performance, leading us to propose that the decline of SPA is not fully attributed to a deterioration of physical properties. Changes in SPA were concomitant with changes in MCT1 expression in the soleus muscle of trained rats, suggestive of an additional adaptive response toward increased lactate clearance. This result is in line with our observation showing a better equilibrium on lactate production-remotion during the continuous exercise (LMT. We propose an approach to combat the decline of SPA of rats in their

  18. Continuous Aerobic Training in Individualized Intensity Avoids Spontaneous Physical Activity Decline and Improves MCT1 Expression in Oxidative Muscle of Swimming Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scariot, Pedro P M; Manchado-Gobatto, Fúlvia de Barros; Torsoni, Adriana S; Dos Reis, Ivan G M; Beck, Wladimir R; Gobatto, Claudio A

    2016-01-01

    Although aerobic training has been shown to affect the lactate transport of skeletal muscle, there is no information concerning the effect of continuous aerobic training on spontaneous physical activity (SPA). Because every movement in daily life (i.e., SPA) is generated by skeletal muscle, we think that it is possible that an improvement of SPA could affect the physiological properties of muscle with regard to lactate transport. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of 12 weeks of continuous aerobic training in individualized intensity on SPA of rats and their gene expressions of monocarboxylate transporters (MCT) 1 and 4 in soleus (oxidative) and white gastrocnemius (glycolytic) muscles. We also analyzed the effect of continuous aerobic training on aerobic and anaerobic parameters using the lactate minimum test (LMT). Sixty-day-old rats were randomly divided into three groups: a baseline group in which rats were evaluated prior to initiation of the study; a control group (Co) in which rats were kept without any treatment during 12 weeks; and a chronic exercise group (Tr) in which rats swam for 40 min/day, 5 days/week at 80% of anaerobic threshold during 12 weeks. After the experimental period, SPA of rats was measured using a gravimetric method. Rats had their expression of MCTs determined by RT-PCR analysis. In essence, aerobic training is effective in maintaining SPA, but did not prevent the decline of aerobic capacity and anaerobic performance, leading us to propose that the decline of SPA is not fully attributed to a deterioration of physical properties. Changes in SPA were concomitant with changes in MCT1 expression in the soleus muscle of trained rats, suggestive of an additional adaptive response toward increased lactate clearance. This result is in line with our observation showing a better equilibrium on lactate production-remotion during the continuous exercise (LMT). We propose an approach to combat the decline of SPA of rats in their home

  19. Continuous Aerobic Training in Individualized Intensity Avoids Spontaneous Physical Activity Decline and Improves MCT1 Expression in Oxidative Muscle of Swimming Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scariot, Pedro P. M.; Manchado-Gobatto, Fúlvia de Barros; Torsoni, Adriana S.; dos Reis, Ivan G. M.; Beck, Wladimir R.; Gobatto, Claudio A.

    2016-01-01

    Although aerobic training has been shown to affect the lactate transport of skeletal muscle, there is no information concerning the effect of continuous aerobic training on spontaneous physical activity (SPA). Because every movement in daily life (i.e., SPA) is generated by skeletal muscle, we think that it is possible that an improvement of SPA could affect the physiological properties of muscle with regard to lactate transport. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of 12 weeks of continuous aerobic training in individualized intensity on SPA of rats and their gene expressions of monocarboxylate transporters (MCT) 1 and 4 in soleus (oxidative) and white gastrocnemius (glycolytic) muscles. We also analyzed the effect of continuous aerobic training on aerobic and anaerobic parameters using the lactate minimum test (LMT). Sixty-day-old rats were randomly divided into three groups: a baseline group in which rats were evaluated prior to initiation of the study; a control group (Co) in which rats were kept without any treatment during 12 weeks; and a chronic exercise group (Tr) in which rats swam for 40 min/day, 5 days/week at 80% of anaerobic threshold during 12 weeks. After the experimental period, SPA of rats was measured using a gravimetric method. Rats had their expression of MCTs determined by RT-PCR analysis. In essence, aerobic training is effective in maintaining SPA, but did not prevent the decline of aerobic capacity and anaerobic performance, leading us to propose that the decline of SPA is not fully attributed to a deterioration of physical properties. Changes in SPA were concomitant with changes in MCT1 expression in the soleus muscle of trained rats, suggestive of an additional adaptive response toward increased lactate clearance. This result is in line with our observation showing a better equilibrium on lactate production-remotion during the continuous exercise (LMT). We propose an approach to combat the decline of SPA of rats in their home

  20. Evaluation of low level laser therapy irradiation parameters on rat muscle inflammation through systemic blood cytokines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mantineo, Matias; Pinheiro, João. P.; Morgado, António M.

    2014-02-01

    Low level laser therapy (LLLT) has been used for inflammation treatment. Here, we evaluate the effect of different doses, using continuous (830 and 980 nm) and pulsed illumination (830 nm), in the treatment of inflammation induced in the gastrocnemius muscle of Wistar rats, through cytokines concentration in systemic blood and histological analysis of muscle tissue. Animals were randomly divided into five groups per wavelength (5 animals per group: 10, 20, 30, 40 and 50 mW) plus a control group. LLLT was applied during five days, with constant exposure time and irradiated area (3 minutes; 0.5026 cm2). Blood was collected on days 0, 3 and 6. TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-2 and IL-6 cytokines were quantified by ELISA. Rats were killed on day 6. Muscle inflammatory cells were counted using optical microscopy. Treatment effects occurred for all applied doses (largest effect at 40 mW: 7.2 J, 14 J/cm2 per irradiation), with reduction of proinflammatory TNF-α, IL-1β and IL-6 cytokines and lower number of inflammatory cells. Results were better for 830 nm. Identical methodology was used with pulsed illumination. Average power (40 mW) and duty cycle were kept constant (80%) at five frequencies (5, 25, 50, 100 and 200 Hz). Treatment effects were observed at higher frequencies, with no significant differences between them. However, the treatment effect was lower than for continuous illumination. LLLT effect on inflammation treatment can be monitored by measuring systemic blood cytokines. A larger treatment effect was observed with continuous illumination, where results seem to be compatible with a biphasic dose response.

  1. LED therapy or cryotherapy between exercise intervals in Wistar rats: anti-inflammatory and ergogenic effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Costa Santos, Vanessa Batista; de Paula Ramos, Solange; Milanez, Vinícius Flávio; Corrêa, Julio Cesar Molina; de Andrade Alves, Rubens Igor; Dias, Ivan Frederico Lupiano; Nakamura, Fábio Yuzo

    2014-03-01

    The aim of this study was to test, between two bouts of exercise, the effects of light-emitting diode (LED) therapy and cryotherapy regarding muscle damage, inflammation, and performance. Male Wistar rats were allocated in four groups: control, passive recovery (PR), cryotherapy (Cryo), and LED therapy. The animals were submitted to 45 min of swimming exercise followed by 25 min of recovery and then a second bout of either 45 min of exercise (muscle damage analysis) or time to exhaustion (performance). During the rest intervals, the rats were kept in passive rest (PR), submitted to cold water immersion (10 min, 10 °C) or LED therapy (940 nm, 4 J/cm(2)) of the gastrocnemius muscle. Blood samples were collected to analyze creatine kinase activity (CK), C-reactive protein (CRP), and leukocyte counts. The soleus muscles were evaluated histologically. Time to exhaustion was recorded during the second bout of exercise. After a second bout of 45 min, the results demonstrated leukocytosis in the PR and Cryo groups. Neutrophil counts were increased in all test groups. CK levels were increased in the Cryo group. CRP was increased in PR animals. The PR group presented a high frequency of necrosis, but the LED group had fewer necrotic areas. Edema formation was prevented, and fewer areas of inflammatory cells were observed in the LED group. The time to exhaustion was greater in both the LED and Cryo groups, without differences in CK levels. CRP was decreased in LED animals. We conclude that LED therapy and cryotherapy can improve performance, although LED therapy is more efficient in preventing muscle damage and local and systemic inflammation. PMID:23780711

  2. Selenium bioavailability from naturally produced high-selenium peas and oats in selenium-deficient rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Lin; Johnson, LuAnn K

    2011-06-01

    This study determined the bioavailability of selenium (Se) from yellow peas and oats harvested from the high-Se soil of South Dakota, United States. The Se concentrations were 13.5 ± 0.2 and 2.5 ± 0.1 mg/kg (dry weight) for peas and oats, respectively. Male weanling Sprague-Dawley rats were depleted of Se by feeding them a 30% Torula yeast-based diet (4.1 μg Se/kg) for 56 days, and then they were replenished with Se for an additional 50 days by feeding them the same diet supplemented with 20, 30, or 40 μg Se/kg from peas or oats, respectively. Selenium bioavailability was determined on the basis of the restoration of Se-dependent enzyme activities and tissue Se concentrations in Se-depleted rats, comparing those responses for yellow peas and oats to those for l-selenomethionine (SeMet; used as a reference) by using a slope-ratio method. Dietary supplementation with peas or oats resulted in linear or log-linear, dose-dependent increases in glutathione peroxidase activities in blood and liver and in thioredoxin reductase activity in liver. Supplementation with peas or oats resulted in linear or log-linear, dose-dependent increases in Se concentrations of plasma, liver, gastrocnemius muscle, and kidneys. The overall bioavailability was approximately 88% for Se from yellow peas and 92% from oats, compared to SeMet. It was concluded that Se from naturally produced high-Se yellow peas or oats is highly bioavailable in this model and that these high-Se foods may be a good dietary source of Se. PMID:21553810

  3. Colgajo de avance en V-Y de gastrocnemio medial basado en perforante para cierre de defectos del tercio medio de la pierna V-Y advancement gastrocnemius perforant based flap for closure of defects of the medial third of the leg

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Spröhnle

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Los colgajos de avance en V-Y han sido una alternativa popular para el cierre de heridas profundas, pero su movilidad es limitada. Los colgajos basados en perforantes son especialmente útiles cuando se necesita un mayor avance y cobertura. Diseñamos un colgajo de gastrocnemio que utiliza ambas técnicas para cubrir los defectos del tercio medio y superior de la pierna en sus caras lateral y posterolateral. Evaluamos en forma retrospectiva 5 pacientes con heridas en el tercio medio y superior de la pierna, tratados entre enero de 2005 y septiembre de 2007 en un solo centro y por un mismo cirujano. Todos fueron varones, con un promedio de edad de 48 años y la etiología fue traumática en todos los casos. El vaso perforante se evaluó preoperatoriamente por medio de doppler color en todos los casos. Valoramos telefónicamente la satisfacción del paciente en el postoperatorio tardío. En todos los casos, encontramos los vasos perforantes identificados en el preoperatorio; el tiempo operatorio promedio fue de 1.8 horas. No hubo complicaciones; la cobertura fue exitosa en todos los casos y los pacientes se mostraron satisfechos en la encuesta realizada. El tiempo medio de seguimiento postoperatorio fue de 19 meses. En conclusión, creemos que el colgajo de avance en V-Y de gastrocnemio basado en perforante se presenta como una alternativa segura para el cierre de defectos del tercio medial y superior de la pierna, en un sólo tiempo quirúrgico y con buenos resultados estéticos y funcionales a largo plazo.Advancement V-Y flaps have been a popular choice for closure of deep wounds but their mobility is limited. Perforant based flaps are specially useful when greater advancement and bigger coverage are needed. We designed a gastrocnemius based flap that uses both techniques for covering the defects of the medial third of the leg. We follow a retrospective evaluation of 5 patients that had their wounds in the medial and superior third of the leg

  4. Influence of the gastrocnemius muscle on the sit-and-reach test assessed by angular kinematic analysis Influência do músculo gastrocnêmio sobre o teste sentar e alcançar avaliada pela análise cinemática angular

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcio M. Kawano

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The sit-and-reach test (SRT used to measure low back and hamstring flexibility is more adequate when combined with hip joint angle (HJA measurement. It is supposed that shortening of the gastrocnemius muscle could affect the SRT results. OBJECTIVES: The purposes of the study were to investigate the relationship between the HJA and SRT and to verify the influence of the gastrocnemius. METHODS: This is a cross-sectional study on healthy subjects. Two hundred subjects took part in the study: 100 males and 100 females aged 21.2 years (SD=1.7. The materials used were a sit-and-reach box with an adapted door to evaluate the influence of the gastrocnemius and a digital camera. Skin markers were positioned on the anterior superior iliac spine and greater trochanter. Two pictures were taken in the final position of the test, one with the door closed (with ankle dorsiflexed - DF and the other with the door opened (with ankle plantarflexed - PF. RESULTS: Moderate correlation was found between the HJA and SRT for DF and PF (r=0.48 e 0.44. The HJA with DF and PF were 95.5º±18.6º and 99.7º±18º (PCONTEXTUALIZAÇÃO: O teste sentar e alcançar (TSA usado para medir a flexibilidade lombar e dos músculos isquiotibiais é mais adequado quando usado concomitantemente para avaliar o ângulo da articulação do quadril (AAQ. Acredita-se que o encurtamento do músculo gastrocnêmio afetaria os resultados desse teste. OBJETIVOS: As propostas deste estudo foram correlacionar os resultados do ângulo do quadril e do teste sentar e alcançar e verificar a influência do músculo gastrocnêmio. MÉTODOS: Foi realizado um estudo transversal que envolveu sujeitos saudáveis. Duzentos sujeitos participaram do estudo: 100 homens e 100 mulheres, com idade média de 21,2 anos (DP=1,7. Os materiais usados foram um banco do TSA com uma porta adaptada para avaliar a influência do músculo gastrocnêmio e câmera fotográfica digital. Marcadores cutâneos foram

  5. Skeletal muscle wasting occurs in adult rats under chronic treatment with paracetamol when glutathione-dependent detoxification is highly activated.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mast, C; Joly, C; Savary-Auzeloux, I; Remond, D; Dardevet, D; Papet, I

    2014-10-01

    The use of glutathione (GSH) and sulfate for the detoxification of paracetamol (acetaminophen, APAP) could occur at the expense of the physiological uses of cysteine (Cys). Indeed GSH and sulfate both originate from Cys. Significant APAP-induced Cys loss could generate alterations in GSH and protein metabolisms leading to muscle wasting. The study aimed to investigate the effects of chronic treatment with APAP on whole-body and tissue homeostasis (mass, GSH, proteins, and nitrogen balance) in relation to sulfur losses through APAP-detoxification pathways. Adult male Wistar rats were fed 0% APAP, 0.5% APAP or 1% APAP diets for 17 days. APAP doses were respectively around and largely above the threshold of sulfation saturation for rats. During the last days, the rats were placed in metabolic cages in order to quantify N balance and urinary APAP metabolites. Gastrocnemius muscle mass, protein and GSH contents, N balance and plasma free cyst(e)ine were 8% (P=0.02), 7% (P=0.03), 26% (P=0.01), 37% (P=0.01), and 33% (P=0.003) lower in the 1% APAP group than in the 0% APAP group, respectively. There was no significant difference in these parameters between the 0.5% APAP group and the 0% APAP group. Muscle wasting occurred when the detoxification of APAP through the GSH-dependent pathway was highly activated. Muscle protein synthesis could have been reduced due to a shortage in Cys and/or an increase in protein degradation in response to intra-muscular oxidative stress. Hence, without dietary sulphur amino acid increase, peripheral bioavailability of Cys and muscle GSH are potential players in the control of muscle mass under chronic treatment with APAP, an analgesic medication of widespread use, especially in the elderly. PMID:25371521

  6. [Effect of gravitation loading and retabolil on development of atrophy in muscles and bones of rats due to suspension].

    Science.gov (United States)

    KaplanskiI, A S; Il'ina-Kakueva, E I; Durnova, G N; Alekseev, E A; Loginov, V I

    1999-01-01

    In a 3-wk experiment with tail-suspended rats histological and histomorphometric methods were used to determine the effects of graded gravitational loading (GGL) and anabolic steroid retabolil (nortestosterone decanoate) on the course of atrophy in soleus m. (SM), gastrocnemius m. (GM), tibia and humerus, and functioning of somatotrophic hormones (STH) of the pituitary and thyrocytes of the thyroid. Suspension was found to produce atrophy in SM and, to a less degree, in GM, partial transformation of SM slow fibers into the fast ones, suppression of the tibial longitudinal growth, demineralization of the tibial and humeral spongious metaphyses; besides, functional activities of STH-cells and thyrocytes were inhibited. Graded gravitational loading of rats by intermittence of suspension for 2 hrs slowed down atrophy in both muscles and osteopenia in tibia, stimulated the synthetic and secretory functions of STH-cells without any marked effect on thyrocytes or humeral osteopenia. GGL failed to influence the slow-to-fast transformation of SM fibers. Two injections of retabolil at the total dose of 3 mg/kg of the body mass somewhat interfered with the SM atrophy and humoral osteopenia, and were favorable to the synthetic but not secretory activity of STH-cells. Neither SM and tibial atrophies nor thyroid activity of the gland were improved. The prophylactic action of GGL upon the SM and humeral atrophies was significantly higher when combined with retabolil, whereas GM and tibia were not noticeably cured by retabolil. Inhibition of the SM atrophy and humeral osteopenia in rats treated with GGL and retabolil concurred with elevated activities of STH-cells and thyrocytes indirectly suggesting their more intensive production of the growth hormone and thyroid hormones, respectively. PMID:10590810

  7. Functional and morphological assessment of a standardized rat sciatic nerve crush injury with a non-serrated clamp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varejão, Artur S P; Cabrita, António M; Meek, Marcel F; Bulas-Cruz, José; Melo-Pinto, Pedro; Raimondo, Stefania; Geuna, Stefano; Giacobini-Robecchi, Maria G

    2004-11-01

    Peripheral nerve researchers frequently use the rat sciatic nerve crush as a model for axonotmesis. Unfortunately, studies from various research groups report results from different crush techniques and by using a variety of evaluation tools, making comparisons between studies difficult. The purpose of this investigation was to determine the sequence of functional and morphologic changes after an acute sciatic nerve crush injury with a non-serrated clamp, giving a final standardized pressure of p = 9 MPa. Functional recovery was evaluated using the sciatic functional index (SFI), the extensor postural thrust (EPT) and the withdrawal reflex latency (WRL), before injury, and then at weekly intervals until week 8 postoperatively. The rats were also evaluated preoperatively and at weeks 2, 4, and 8 by ankle kinematics, toe out angle (TOA), and gait-stance duration. In addition, the motor nerve conduction velocity (MNCV) and the gastrocnemius-soleus weight parameters were measured just before euthanasia. Finally, structural, ultrastructural and histomorphometric analyses were carried out on regenerated nerve fibers. At 8 weeks after the crush injury, a full functional recovery was predicted by SFI, EPT, TOA, and gait-stance duration, while all the other parameters were still recovering their original values. On the other hand, only two of the histomorphometric parameters of regenerated nerve fibers, namely myelin thickness/axon diameter ratio and fiber/axon diameter ratio, returned to normal values while all other parameters were significantly different from normal values. The employment of traditional methods of functional evaluation in conjunction with the modern techniques of computerized analysis of gait and histomorphometric analysis should thus be recommended for an overall assessment of recovery in the rat sciatic nerve crush model. PMID:15684656

  8. Interaction of vitamin E and exercise training on oxidative stress and antioxidant enzyme activities in rat skeletal muscles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Chen-Kang; Huang, Hui-Yu; Tseng, Hung-Fu; Hsuuw, Yan-Der; Tso, Tim K

    2007-01-01

    It has been shown that free radicals are increased during intensive exercise. We hypothesized that vitamin E (vit E) deficiency, which will increase oxidative stress, would augment the training-induced adaptation of antioxidant enzymes. This study investigated the interaction effect of vit E and exercise training on oxidative stress markers and activities of antioxidant enzymes in red quadriceps and white gastrocnemius of rats in a 2x2 design. Thirty-two male rats were divided into trained vit E-adequate, trained vit E-deficient, untrained vit E-adequate, and untrained vit E-deficient groups. The two trained groups swam 6 h/day, 6 days/week for 8 weeks. The two vit E-deficient groups consumed vit E-free diet for 8 weeks. Vitamin E-training interaction effect was significant on thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARSs), glutathione peroxidase (GPX), and superoxide dismutase (SOD) in both muscles. The trained vit E-deficient group showed the highest TBARS and GPX activity and the lowest SOD activity in both muscles. A significant vit E effect on glutathione reductase and catalase was present in both muscles. Glutathione reductase and catalase activities were significantly lower in the two vit E-adequate groups combined than in the two vit E-deficient groups combined in both muscles. This study shows that vit E status and exercise training have interactive effect on oxidative stress and GPX and SOD activities in rat skeletal muscles. Vitamin E deprivation augmented the exercise-induced elevation in GPX activity while inhibiting exercise-induced SOD activity, possibly through elevated oxidative stress. PMID:16644199

  9. Effect of acetic acid feeding on the circadian changes in glycogen and metabolites of glucose and lipid in liver and skeletal muscle of rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fushimi, Takashi; Sato, Yuzo

    2005-11-01

    The aim of the present study is to investigate the effect of acetic acid feeding on the circadian changes in glycogen concentration in liver and skeletal muscle. Rats were provided meal once daily (09.00-13.00 hours) for 10 d. On the 11th day, they were either killed immediately or given 9 g diet containing either 0 (control) or 0.7 g/kg-diet acetic acid beginning at 09.00 hours for 4 h, as in the previous regimen. Rats in the fed group were killed at 4, 8 or 24 h after the start of feeding. At 4 h after the start of feeding, the acetic acid group had significantly greater liver and gastrocnemius muscle glycogen concentrations (Psupercompensation, a large increase in the glycogen level that is beneficial in improving performance, in liver and skeletal muscle by transitory inhibition of glycolysis. Further, we indicate the possibility of a transient enhancement of fatty acid oxidation in liver by acetic acid feeding. PMID:16277773

  10. SWEEP Project RAT

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ibsen, Lars Bo; Madsen, Søren; Petersen, L. B.;

    This report presents the results from the design analyses made for the clustered suction caisson used as foundation for a Riser Access Tower (RAT). The RAT is intended built next to the K15-FA-1 Platform in the Dutch Sector of the North Sea....

  11. A fermented soy permeate improves the skeletal muscle glucose level without restoring the glycogen content in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malardé, Ludivine; Vincent, Sophie; Lefeuvre-Orfila, Luz; Efstathiou, Théo; Groussard, Carole; Gratas-Delamarche, Arlette

    2013-02-01

    Exercise is essential into the therapeutic management of diabetic patients, but their level of exercise tolerance is lowered due to alterations of glucose metabolism. As soy isoflavones have been shown to improve glucose metabolism, this study aimed to assess the effects of a dietary supplement containing soy isoflavones and alpha-galactooligosaccharides on muscular glucose, glycogen synthase (GSase), and glycogen content in a type 1 diabetic animal model. The dietary supplement tested was a patented compound, Fermented Soy Permeate (FSP), developed by the French Company Sojasun Technologies. Forty male Wistar rats were randomly assigned to control or diabetic groups (streptozotocin, 45 mg/kg). Each group was then divided into placebo or FSP-supplemented groups. Both groups received by oral gavage, respectively, water or diluted FSP (0.1 g/day), daily for a period of 3 weeks. At the end of the protocol, glycemia was noticed after a 24-h fasting period. Glucose, total GSase, and the glycogen content were determined in the skeletal muscle (gastrocnemius). Diabetic animals showed a higher blood glucose concentration, but a lower glucose and glycogen muscle content than controls. Three weeks of FSP consumption allowed to restore the muscle glucose concentration, but failed to reduce glycemia and to normalize the glycogen content in diabetic rats. Furthermore, the glycogen content was increased in FSP-supplemented controls compared to placebo controls. Our results demonstrated that diabetic rats exhibited a depleted muscle glycogen content (-25%). FSP-supplementation normalized the muscle glucose level without restoring the glycogen content in diabetic rats. However, it succeeded to increase it in the control group (+20%). PMID:23356441

  12. Effect of HIV-1-related protein expression on cardiac and skeletal muscles from transgenic rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guidot David M

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1 infection and the consequent acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS has protean manifestations, including muscle wasting and cardiomyopathy, which contribute to its high morbidity. The pathogenesis of these myopathies remains partially understood, and may include nutritional deficiencies, biochemical abnormalities, inflammation, and other mechanisms due to viral infection and replication. Growing evidence has suggested that HIV-1-related proteins expressed by the host in response to viral infection, including Tat and gp120, may also be involved in the pathophysiology of AIDS, particularly in cells or tissues that are not directly infected with HIV-1. To explore the potentially independent effects of HIV-1-related proteins on heart and skeletal muscles, we used a transgenic rat model that expresses several HIV-1-related proteins (e.g., Tat, gp120, and Nef. Outcome measures included basic heart and skeletal muscle morphology, glutathione metabolism and oxidative stress, and gene expressions of atrogin-1, muscle ring finger protein-1 (MuRF-1 and Transforming Growth Factor-β1 (TGFβ1, three factors associated with muscle catabolism. Results Consistent with HIV-1 associated myopathies in humans, HIV-1 transgenic rats had increased relative heart masses, decreased relative masses of soleus, plantaris and gastrocnemius muscles, and decreased total and myosin heavy chain type-specific plantaris muscle fiber areas. In both tissues, the levels of cystine (Cyss, the oxidized form of the anti-oxidant cysteine (Cys, and Cyss:Cys ratios were significantly elevated, and cardiac tissue from HIV-1 transgenic rats had altered glutathione metabolism, all reflective of significant oxidative stress. In HIV-1 transgenic rat hearts, MuRF-1 gene expression was increased. Further, HIV-1-related protein expression also increased atrogin-1 (~14- and ~3-fold and TGFβ1 (~5-fold and ~3-fold in heart and

  13. A Comparative Study of the Effects of Magnetic Stimulation and Electric Stimulation on Peripheral Nerve Injury in Rat

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The influence of pulsed magnetic stimulation (MS) on the sciatic nerve injury was investigated. Thirty rats were divided into three groups equally: MS group (A), electric stimulation (ES) group (B) and the control group (C). The MS and ES were applied immediately after the first 10 min of the sciatic nerve crush. Sciatic function index (SFI), toe spreading reflex (TSR), muscular weight and volume were measured after the experiment. The TSR of in the groups A and B occurred at 4th day while in the control group it occurs at 10th day. There was statistically significant difference in SFI between groups A and B (P<0.01). The weight and volume of the gastrocnemius muscle were statistically greater in the groups A and B than in the control group (P<0.01). The effect of MS was similar to that of ES. It was suggested that the application of MS immediately after the nerve injury might have an important clinical value as it can accelerate functional recovery and prevent or minimize muscle atrophy. The technique is easily to operate, non-invasion, painless and permits tolerance of high intensity output to be used.

  14. Assessment of Neuroprotective Effects of Local Administration of 17- Beta- Estradiol on Peripheral Nerve Regeneration in Ovariectomized Female Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nobakhti-Afshar, Ahmadreza; Najafpour, Alireza; Mohammadi, Rahim; Zarei, Leila

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To assess the neuroprotective effects of local administration of 17- beta- estradiol on nerve regeneration. Methods: Sixty female Wistar rats were overiectomized and divided into four experimental groups (n = 15), randomly: In autograft group a segment of sciatic nerve was transected and re-implanted reversely. In sham-surgery group sciatic nerve was exposed and manipulated. In transected group left sciatic nerve was transected and stumps were fixed in adjacent muscle. In treatment group defect was bridged using a silicon conduit filled with 10 µL (0.1 mg/mL) 17- beta- estradiol. Each group was subdivided into four subgroups of five animals each and nerve fibers were studied in a 12-week period. Results: Behavioral, functional, biomechanical, electrophysiological and gastrocnemius muscle mass findings and morphometric indices confirmed faster recovery of regenerated axons in treatment group than in other groups (p<0.05). Immunohistochemical reactions to S-100 in treatment group were more positive than that in other groups. Conclusion: Local administration of 17-beta-estradiol improved functional recovery and morphometric indices of sciatic nerve. It could have clinical implications for the surgical management of patients after facial nerve transection. PMID:27540548

  15. [THE INDICATORS OF GROWTH AND MYOGENESIS IN THE GLYCOLYTIC AND OXIDATIVE MUSCLES OF THE RAT AFTER INDIRECT ELECTROSTIMULATION].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borzykh, A A; Kuzmin, I V; Lysenko, E A; Sharova, A P; Tarasova, O S; Vinogradova, O L

    2015-11-01

    A comparative analysis of the signaling pathways activity and gene expression in the red (RG) and white (WG) parts of the gastrocnemius muscle of rat after a series of short (1 s) tetanic contractions induced by motor nerve stimulation at a frequency of 100 Hz and with an amplitude that provides activation of all motor units of the muscle. WG compared to RG demonstrated a marked increase in the phosphorylation level of ERK1/2, although the increase in the phosphorylation of AMPK was not different in two muscles 2 h after the stimulation. Along with that, content of MyoD and myogenin mRNA in WG increased much higher than in RG, whereas the effect of stimulation on IGF-1, MaFbx and MuRF genes expression was weak and comparable in WG and RG. There was an increase of myostatin mRNA in RG. Thus, glycolytic muscle fibers of WG exhibit more pronounced regulatory shifts of hypertrophic character than oxidative muscle fibers of RG. PMID:26995957

  16. Assessment of Neuroprotective Effects of Local Administration of 17- Beta- Estradiol on Peripheral Nerve Regeneration in Ovariectomized Female Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmadreza Nobakhti-Afshar

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To assess the neuroprotective effects of local administration of 17- beta- estradiol on nerve regeneration. Methods: Sixty female Wistar rats were overiectomized and divided into four experimental groups (n = 15, randomly: In autograft group a segment of sciatic nerve was transected and re-implanted reversely. In sham-surgery group sciatic nerve was exposed and manipulated. In transected group left sciatic nerve was transected and stumps were fixed in adjacent muscle. In treatment group defect was bridged using a silicon conduit filled with 10 µL (0.1 mg/mL 17- beta- estradiol. Each group was subdivided into four subgroups of five animals each and nerve fibers were studied in a 12-week period. Results: Behavioral, functional, biomechanical, electrophysiological and gastrocnemius muscle mass findings and morphometric indices confirmed faster recovery of regenerated axons in treatment group than in other groups (p<0.05. Immunohistochemical reactions to S-100 in treatment group were more positive than that in other groups. Conclusion: Local administration of 17-beta-estradiol improved functional recovery and morphometric indices of sciatic nerve. It could have clinical implications for the surgical management of patients after facial nerve transection.

  17. Rat liver insulin receptor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Using insulin affinity chromatography, the authors have isolated highly purified insulin receptor from rat liver. When evaluated by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis under reducing conditions, the rat liver receptor contained the M/sub r/ 125,000 α-subunit, the M/sub r/ 90,000 β-subunit, and varying proportions of the M/sub r/ 45,000 β'-subunit. The specific insulin binding of the purified receptor was 25-30 μg of 125I-insulin/mg of protein, and the receptor underwent insulin-dependent autophosphorylation. Rat liver and human placental receptors differ from each other in several functional aspects: (1) the adsorption-desorption behavior from four insulin affinity columns indicated that the rat liver receptor binds less firmly to immobilized ligands; (2) the 125I-insulin binding affinity of the rat liver receptor is lower than that of the placental receptor; (3) partial reduction of the rat liver receptor with dithiothreitol increases its insulin binding affinity whereas the binding affinity of the placental receptor is unchanged; (4) at optimal insulin concentration, rat liver receptor autophosphorylation is stimulated 25-50-fold whereas the placental receptor is stimulated only 4-6-fold. Conversion of the β-subunit to β' by proteolysis is a major problem that occurs during exposure of the receptor to the pH 5.0 buffer used to elute the insulin affinity column. Proteolytic destruction and the accompanying loss of insulin-dependent autophosphorylation can be substantially reduced by proteolysis inhibitors. In summary, rat liver and human placental receptors differ functionally in both α- and β-subunits. Insulin binding to the α-subunit of the purified rat liver receptor communicates a signal that activates the β-subunit; however, major proteolytic destruction of the β-subunit does not affect insulin binding to the α-subunit

  18. Light aerobic physical exercise in combination with leucine and/or glutamine-rich diet can improve the body composition and muscle protein metabolism in young tumor-bearing rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salomão, Emilianne Miguel; Gomes-Marcondes, Maria Cristina Cintra

    2012-12-01

    Nutritional supplementation with some amino acids may influence host's responses and also certain mechanism involved in tumor progression. It is known that exercise influences body weight and muscle composition. Previous findings from our group have shown that leucine has beneficial effects on protein composition in cachectic rat model as the Walker 256 tumor. The main purpose of this study was to analyze the effects of light exercise and leucine and/or glutamine-rich diet in body composition and skeletal muscle protein synthesis and degradation in young tumor-bearing rats. Walker tumor-bearing rats were subjected to light aerobic exercise (swimming 30 min/day) and fed a leucine-rich (3%) and/or glutamine-rich (4%) diet for 10 days and compared to healthy young rats. The carcasses were analyzed as total water and fat body content and lean body mass. The gastrocnemious muscles were isolated and used for determination of total protein synthesis and degradation. The chemical body composition changed with tumor growth, increasing body water and reducing body fat content and total body nitrogen. After tumor growth, the muscle protein metabolism was impaired, showing that the muscle protein synthesis was also reduced and the protein degradation process was increased in the gastrocnemius muscle of exercised rats. Although short-term exercise (10 days) alone did not produce beneficial effects that would reduce tumor damage, host protein metabolism was improved when exercise was combined with a leucine-rich diet. Only total carcass nitrogen and protein were recovered by a glutamine-rich diet. Exercise, in combination with an amino acid-rich diet, in particular, leucine, had effects beyond reducing tumoral weight such as improving protein turnover and carcass nitrogen content in the tumor-bearing host. PMID:22460363

  19. D-TRP(8)-γMSH Prevents the Effects of Endotoxin in Rat Skeletal Muscle Cells through TNFα/NF-KB Signalling Pathway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-SanMiguel, Ana Belén; Villanúa, María Ángeles; Martín, Ana Isabel; López-Calderón, Asunción

    2016-01-01

    Sepsis induces anorexia and muscle wasting secondary to an increase in muscle proteolysis. Melanocyte stimulating hormones (MSH) is a family of peptides that have potent anti-inflammatory effects. Melanocortin receptor-3 (MC3-R) has been reported as the predominant anti-inflammatory receptor for melanocortins. The aim of this work was to analyse whether activation of MC3-R, by administration of its agonist D-Trp(8)-γMSH, is able to modify the response of skeletal muscle to inflammation induced by lipopolysaccharide endotoxin (LPS) or TNFα. Adult male rats were injected with 250 μg/kg LPS and/or 500 μg/kg D-Trp(8)-γMSH 17:00 h and at 8:00 h the following day, and euthanized 4 hours afterwards. D-Trp(8)-γMSH decreased LPS-induced anorexia and prevented the stimulatory effect of LPS on hypothalamic IL-1β, COX-2 and CRH as well as on serum ACTH and corticosterone. Serum IGF-I and its expression in liver and gastrocnemius were decreased in rats injected with LPS, but not in those that also received D-Trp(8)-γMSH. However, D-Trp(8)-γMSH was unable to modify the effect of LPS on IGFBP-3. In the gastrocnemius D-Trp(8)-γMSH blocked LPS-induced decrease in pAkt, pmTOR, MHC I and MCH II, as well as the increase in pNF-κB(p65), FoxO1, FoxO3, LC3b, Bnip-3, Gabarap1, atrogin-1, MuRF1 and in LC3a/b lipidation. In L6 myotube cultures, D-Trp(8)-γMSH was able to prevent TNFα-induced increase of NF-κB(p65) phosphorylation and decrease of Akt phosphorylation as well as of IGF-I and MHC I expression. These data suggest that MC3-R activation prevents the effect of endotoxin on skeletal wasting by modifying inflammation, corticosterone and IGF-I responses and also by directly acting on muscle cells through the TNFα/NF-κB(p65) pathway. PMID:27177152

  20. D-TRP(8-γMSH Prevents the Effects of Endotoxin in Rat Skeletal Muscle Cells through TNFα/NF-KB Signalling Pathway.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Belén Gómez-SanMiguel

    Full Text Available Sepsis induces anorexia and muscle wasting secondary to an increase in muscle proteolysis. Melanocyte stimulating hormones (MSH is a family of peptides that have potent anti-inflammatory effects. Melanocortin receptor-3 (MC3-R has been reported as the predominant anti-inflammatory receptor for melanocortins. The aim of this work was to analyse whether activation of MC3-R, by administration of its agonist D-Trp(8-γMSH, is able to modify the response of skeletal muscle to inflammation induced by lipopolysaccharide endotoxin (LPS or TNFα. Adult male rats were injected with 250 μg/kg LPS and/or 500 μg/kg D-Trp(8-γMSH 17:00 h and at 8:00 h the following day, and euthanized 4 hours afterwards. D-Trp(8-γMSH decreased LPS-induced anorexia and prevented the stimulatory effect of LPS on hypothalamic IL-1β, COX-2 and CRH as well as on serum ACTH and corticosterone. Serum IGF-I and its expression in liver and gastrocnemius were decreased in rats injected with LPS, but not in those that also received D-Trp(8-γMSH. However, D-Trp(8-γMSH was unable to modify the effect of LPS on IGFBP-3. In the gastrocnemius D-Trp(8-γMSH blocked LPS-induced decrease in pAkt, pmTOR, MHC I and MCH II, as well as the increase in pNF-κB(p65, FoxO1, FoxO3, LC3b, Bnip-3, Gabarap1, atrogin-1, MuRF1 and in LC3a/b lipidation. In L6 myotube cultures, D-Trp(8-γMSH was able to prevent TNFα-induced increase of NF-κB(p65 phosphorylation and decrease of Akt phosphorylation as well as of IGF-I and MHC I expression. These data suggest that MC3-R activation prevents the effect of endotoxin on skeletal wasting by modifying inflammation, corticosterone and IGF-I responses and also by directly acting on muscle cells through the TNFα/NF-κB(p65 pathway.

  1. D-TRP(8)-γMSH Prevents the Effects of Endotoxin in Rat Skeletal Muscle Cells through TNFα/NF-KB Signalling Pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-SanMiguel, Ana Belén; Villanúa, María Ángeles; Martín, Ana Isabel; López-Calderón, Asunción

    2016-01-01

    Sepsis induces anorexia and muscle wasting secondary to an increase in muscle proteolysis. Melanocyte stimulating hormones (MSH) is a family of peptides that have potent anti-inflammatory effects. Melanocortin receptor-3 (MC3-R) has been reported as the predominant anti-inflammatory receptor for melanocortins. The aim of this work was to analyse whether activation of MC3-R, by administration of its agonist D-Trp(8)-γMSH, is able to modify the response of skeletal muscle to inflammation induced by lipopolysaccharide endotoxin (LPS) or TNFα. Adult male rats were injected with 250 μg/kg LPS and/or 500 μg/kg D-Trp(8)-γMSH 17:00 h and at 8:00 h the following day, and euthanized 4 hours afterwards. D-Trp(8)-γMSH decreased LPS-induced anorexia and prevented the stimulatory effect of LPS on hypothalamic IL-1β, COX-2 and CRH as well as on serum ACTH and corticosterone. Serum IGF-I and its expression in liver and gastrocnemius were decreased in rats injected with LPS, but not in those that also received D-Trp(8)-γMSH. However, D-Trp(8)-γMSH was unable to modify the effect of LPS on IGFBP-3. In the gastrocnemius D-Trp(8)-γMSH blocked LPS-induced decrease in pAkt, pmTOR, MHC I and MCH II, as well as the increase in pNF-κB(p65), FoxO1, FoxO3, LC3b, Bnip-3, Gabarap1, atrogin-1, MuRF1 and in LC3a/b lipidation. In L6 myotube cultures, D-Trp(8)-γMSH was able to prevent TNFα-induced increase of NF-κB(p65) phosphorylation and decrease of Akt phosphorylation as well as of IGF-I and MHC I expression. These data suggest that MC3-R activation prevents the effect of endotoxin on skeletal wasting by modifying inflammation, corticosterone and IGF-I responses and also by directly acting on muscle cells through the TNFα/NF-κB(p65) pathway. PMID:27177152

  2. A RAPID UP-REGULATION IN UCP3 TRANSCRIPTIONAL ACTIVITY IN RESPONSE TO MODERATE INTENSITY EXERCISE IN RAT SKELETAL MUSCLE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keiko Kusuhara

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Uncoupling protein 3 (UPC3 is a candidate protein transporter that uncouples oxidative phosphorylation of mitochondrial respiration in skeletal muscle. A number of studies on UCP3 functions under various physiological conditions have suggested that the function of UCP3 is not limited only to regulation of whole-body energy metabolism but is also involved in regulation of substrate (lipids and glucose metabolism. The purpose of the present study was to clarify the time course of UCP3 mRNA expression in rat skeletal muscle during a 1 h bout of treadmill exercise and to examine whether changes in fat/glucose metabolism modulates UCP3 mRNA expression. The pattern of UCP3 mRNA expression during the exercise was biphasic in both the soleus and gastrocnemius muscles. UCP3 expression increased at 5 min of exercise (soleus: 232%, p < 0.05, gastrocnemius: 185%, p < 0.05, respectively, and at the end of the exercise (196%, p < 0.05 and 193%, p < 0.05, respectively. UCP3 mRNA expression was still increased at 3 h post-exercise in both muscles, 200% (p < 0.05 and 237% (p < 0.05, respectively. However, at 20 min of the exercise, UCP3 mRNA expression was similar to control levels in both muscles (104% and 97%, respectively. The time course of plasma free fatty acid (FFA did not follow the same time course as UCP3 mRNA expression. Plasma FFA peaked at the end of the exercise, suggesting that FFA did not play a role in inducing UCP3 mRNA expression. Glucose transporter 4 (GLUT4 mRNA expression did not change during or after exercise. These data indicated a rapid acceleration in UCP3's transcription activity in response to exercise, and suggest that potential factor(s other than changes in fat/glucose metabolism regulate UCP3 gene expression during moderate exercise

  3. 8周中等强度低负荷量训练对老龄雌性大鼠骨骼肌Bax和Bcl-2蛋白及SIRT1/SIRT3信号轴基因表达的影响%Effects of 8-week medium intensity low load training on proteins Bax and Bcl-2 and the gene expression of signal axis SIRT1/SIRT3 of skeletal muscle of aged female rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李方晖; 肖琳; 覃飞; 刘承宜

    2014-01-01

    In order to observe the effects of 8-week medium intensity low load training on the levels of proteins Bax and Bcl-2 and the gene messenger RNA (mRNA) expression of axis sirtuin 1 (SIRT1)/sirtuin 3 (SIRT3) of gastrocne-mius of aged rats, the authors divided 16 18-month old female SD rats randomly into a control group and an exercise group, each of which contained 8 rats, let the rats in the exercise group do an aerobic exercise on a treadmill for con-secutive 8 weeks, at a speed of 15 km/h (with 60%~75%VO2max), 15 minutes a day, 5 days a week, let the rats in the control group live freely, in 24 hours after rat exercising at the end of week 8, killed the rats, measured gastrocnemius index, measured the levels of proteins Bax and Bcl-2 of gastrocnemius by means of Western blot analysis, measured the mRNA levels of SIRT3, SIRT1, manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD), Caspase 3, peroxisome prolifera-tor-activated receptor-γcoactivator-1 (PGC-1α), mitochondrial transcription factor A (TFAM) and nuclear respiratory factor 1 (NRF1) by means of RT-PCR, and revealed the following findings:as for the rats in the exercise group, their gastrocnemius mass and gastrocnemius index increased significantly (P<0.05 and P<0.01 respectively), their protein Bax level decreased significantly (P<0.05), their protein Bcl-2 level and Bcl-2/Bax ratio increased significantly (P<0.05);their mRNA levels of SIRT3, SIRT1, PGC-1α, NRF1, TFAM and MnSOD increased significantly (P<0.05), their mRNA level of Caspase-3 decreased significantly (P<0.05). The said findings indicated the followings:medium intensity low load training could delay the changing of muscle cell apoptosis signal of aged rats; the homeostatic mechanism mediated by axis SIRT1/SIRT3 played an important role in medium intensity low load training increasing the mitochondria refreshing rate and antioxidase level of skeletal muscle of aged rats.%观察8周中等强度低负荷量训练对老龄雌性大鼠腓肠肌Bax和Bcl-2

  4. Beneficial effects of a Q-ter based nutritional mixture on functional performance, mitochondrial function, and oxidative stress in rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinze Xu

    Full Text Available Mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative stress are central mechanisms underlying the aging process and the pathogenesis of many age-related diseases. Selected antioxidants and specific combinations of nutritional compounds could target many biochemical pathways that affect both oxidative stress and mitochondrial function and, thereby, preserve or enhance physical performance.In this study, we evaluated the potential anti-aging benefits of a Q-ter based nutritional mixture (commercially known as Eufortyn mainly containing the following compounds: terclatrated coenzyme Q(10 (Q-ter, creatine and a standardized ginseng extract. We found that Eufortyn supplementation significantly ameliorated the age-associated decreases in grip strength and gastrocnemius subsarcolemmal mitochondria Ca(2+ retention capacity when initiated in male Fischer344 x Brown Norway rats at 21 months, but not 29 months, of age. Moreover, the increases in muscle RNA oxidation and subsarcolemmal mitochondrial protein carbonyl levels, as well as the decline of total urine antioxidant power, which develop late in life, were mitigated by Eufortyn supplementation in rats at 29 months of age.These data imply that Eufortyn is efficacious in reducing oxidative damage, improving the age-related mitochondrial functional decline, and preserving physical performance when initiated in animals at early midlife (21 months. The efficacy varied, however, according to the age at which the supplementation was provided, as initiation in late middle age (29 months was incapable of restoring grip strength and mitochondrial function. Therefore, the Eufortyn supplementation may be particularly beneficial when initiated prior to major biological and functional declines that appear to occur with advancing age.

  5. Gum Guar fiber associated with fructose reduces serum triacylglycerol but did not improve the glucose tolerance in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Motoyama Caio SM

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction The increased intake of dietary fructose can be associated with alterations on energy homeostasis and lipid/carbohydrate metabolism, such as insulin resistance and dislipidemia. On the other hand, the ingestion of soluble fiber gum guar could improve benefic mechanism on glucose tolerance and lipids profile. Objective The aim of the present study were to investigate the effects of the supplemental feeding partially hydrolyzed gum guar on glucose and lipid homeostasis, in rats fed with fructose solution. Methods The study was performed on thirty day-old male Wistar rats randomly assigned into four groups: control(C or treated with fructose (F-20%, fiber (FB-5%, or fructose plus fiber (F-20% + FB-5% = FF solution for 30 days on glucose tolerance (OGTT, triacylglycerol concentration in the liver by chloroform/methanol method, glucose, triacylglycerol and total cholesterol serum concentration by assayed by enzymatic colorimetric method, insulin receptor (IR concentration in the liver by Western Blotting. Results The total body weight gain was not different between groups; in regards of total caloric intake, in the F group was significantly higher and in the FB group was lower than other groups. The triacylglycerol concentration in the liver of FF group was significantly higher than F group, the triacylglycerol concentration in the serum was higher the F group compared with other groups. The OGTT reveal impaired on glucose tolerance in the F, FB, FF compared with C. The IR concentration in the liver was lower in the F, FB, FF compared with C, no significant difference was observed between groups for IR concentration in the gastrocnemius muscle. No significant difference was observed between groups for carcass fat content and serum total cholesterol. Conclusion Fructose induced important alterations on glucose tolerance and lipid metabolism, despite of fiber showed reversion of part this alterations. The association fructose plus

  6. EFFECTS OF ELECTRIC STIMULATION ON THE HEALING OF TENDON OF THE GASTROCNEMIUS MUSCLE IN RABBITS (Oryctolagus cunicullus EFEITOS DA ESTIMULAÇÃO ELÉTRICA NA CICATRIZAÇÃO DO TENDÃO DO MÚSCULO GASTROCNÊMIO EM COELHOS (Oryctolagus cunicullus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weslay Souza de Oliveira

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of transcutaneous electrical stimulation with alternate electrical current on gastrocnemius muscle tendon healing, in rabbits submitted to experimental tenotomy and tenorrhaphy. Twenty-four male rabbits, New Zealand breed, were divided into four groups of the same number, in order to evaluate the cicatricial tendon repair at 7, 15, 21 and 30 days post-surgery. The middle third of the tendon of the gastocnemius muscle was sectioned transversall and submitted to a synthesis with Kessler modified suture. After 24 hours, daily at the same schedule, were done near the cutaneous wound of the right pelvic member, applications of 2 mA of alternative current, during six minutes, at a frequence of 100 Hz. The material collected was examined by light microscopy. Significant difference wasn´t found between the treated member and the control. Transcutaneous electrotherapy was used in our experimental protocol, despite not leading to tissue damage and being less invasive in comparison to other methods, was incapable to promote a more efficient healing response on the gastrocnemius muscle tendon repair in rabbits.

    KEY WORDS: Achilles tendon, electrotherapy, surgery, tenotomy, tissue repair. Este trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar o efeito da estimulação elétrica transcutânea de corrente alternada na regeneração do tendão do músculo gastrocnêmio, em coelhos submetidos à tenotomia e tenorrafia experimental. Dividiram-se vinte e quatro coelhos adultos da raça Nova Zelândia em quatro grupos iguais para avaliação da cicatrização tendínea aos sete, quinze, vinte e um e trinta dias de pós-operatório. Após incisão cutânea de aproximadamente três centímetros, o terço médio do tendão do músculo gastrocnêmio foi individualizado, seccionado transversalmente e suturado com sutura de Kessler modificada. Decorridas 24 horas, diariamente em um mesmo horário aplicaram-se, próxima

  7. Clinical application of branch artery of the sural medial gastrocnemius muscle flap combine with sural nerve nutritional vessel axial%腓肠肌内侧头穿支动脉与腓肠神经营养血管联合蒂肌皮瓣的临床应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邵新中; 喻伟光; 王巧君; 王英彩; 吕莉; 王立; 孙建涛

    2011-01-01

    Objective To investigate the clinical efficiency of branch artery of the sural medial gastrocnemius muscle flap combine with sural nerve nutritional vessel axial.Methods From February 2006to March 2010,according to the position and size of the soft tissue defects,the muscle flap combined with branch artery of the sural medial gastrocnemius and sural nerve nutritional vessel axial were desingned and obtained to repair 7 cases of sofi tissue defects of the upper-region of the tibial.The flap size ranged from 8.0 cm × 8.0 cm to 12.0 cm × 10.0 cm.The vessel pedicle of branches ranged from 1.8-3.0 cm.The distribution of the vessel pedicle of branches ranged from 10.0-17.0 cm on the distant popliteal fossa,and ranged from 2.0-5.0 cm on the back of medial line.Results The outline and function were satisfactory during 6-15 months follow-up.Conclusion The blood supply of this flap is reliable without sacrifice of major arteries.Flap elevation is easy.It can transfer to a long distance and can repair large skin defects.It is very useful in repairing upper-region of the tibial large soft tissue defect.%目的 探讨腓肠肌内侧头穿支动脉与腓肠神经营养血管联合蒂肌皮瓣的临床应用效果.方法 自2006年2月至2010年3月,根据缺损部位及大小设计以腓肠肌内侧头穿支动脉与腓肠神经营养血管轴的联合蒂,沿腓肠肌内侧头血管轴切取皮瓣,顺行移位修复膑前及胫骨上段皮肤及软组织缺损7例.皮瓣切取范围8.0 cm×8.0 cm~12.0 cm×10.0 cm,联合血管蒂长1.8~3.0 cm,联合血管蒂发出位于腘褶皱以远10.0 ~ 17.0 cm,距后正中线2.0~5.0 cm的范围内.结果 6例伤口一期愈合.1例发生皮瓣远端表浅干性坏死,面积约1 cm×2 cm,经换药后逐渐愈合.随访6~ 15个月,无任何并发症,肌皮瓣质地优良,外观满意.结论 腓肠肌内侧头穿支动脉与腓肠神经营养血管联合蒂肌皮瓣手术操作简便,血供可靠且不牺牲主要动脉,切取面

  8. Transplantation of muscle-derived stem cells plus biodegradable fibrin glue restores the urethral sphincter in a pudendal nerve-transected rat model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Xu

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available We investigated whether fibrin glue (FG could promote urethral sphincter restoration in muscle-derived stem cell (MDSC-based injection therapies in a pudendal nerve-transected (PNT rat, which was used as a stress urinary incontinence (SUI model. MDSCs were purified from the gastrocnemius muscles of 4-week-old inbred female SPF Wistar rats and labeled with green fluorescent protein. Animals were divided into five groups (N = 15: sham (S, PNT (D, PNT+FG injection (F, PNT+MDSC injection (M, and PNT+MDSC+FG injection (FM. Each group was subdivided into 1- and 4-week groups. One and 4 weeks after injection into the proximal urethra, leak point pressure (LPP was measured to assess urethral resistance function. Histology and immunohistochemistry were performed 4 weeks after injection. LPP was increased significantly in FM and M animals after implantation compared to group D (P < 0.01, but was not different from group S. LPP was slightly higher in the FM group than in the M group but there was no significant difference between them at different times. Histological and immunohistochemical examination demonstrated increased numbers of surviving MDSCs (109 ± 19 vs 82 ± 11/hpf, P = 0.026, increased muscle/collagen ratio (0.40 ± 0.02 vs 0.34 ± 0.02, P = 0.044, as well as increased microvessel density (16.9 ± 0.6 vs 14.1 ± 0.4/hpf, P = 0.001 at the injection sites in FM compared to M animals. Fibrin glue may potentially improve the action of transplanted MDSCs to restore the histology and function of the urethral sphincter in a SUI rat model. Injection of MDSCs with fibrin glue may provide a novel cellular therapy method for SUI.

  9. Changes in tetrodotoxin-resistant C-fibre activity during fatiguing isometric contractions in the rat.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivana Kalezic

    Full Text Available It is by now well established that tetrodotoxin-resistant (TTX-R afferent fibres from muscle in the rat exhibit a multisensitive profile, including nociception. TTX-R afferent fibres play an important role in motor control, via spinal and supraspinal loops, but their activation and function during muscle exercise and fatigue are still unknown. Therefore, the specific effect of isometric fatiguing muscle contraction on the responsiveness of TTX-R C-fibres has been investigated in this study. To quantify the TTX-R afferent input we recorded the cord dorsum potential (CDP, which is the result of the electrical fields set up within the spinal cord by the depolarisation of the interneurons located in the dorsal horn, activated by an incoming volley of TTX-R muscle afferents. The changes in TTX-R CDP size before, during and after fatiguing electrical stimulation of the gastrocnemius-soleus (GS muscle have been taken as a measure of TTX-R C-unit activation. At the end of the fatiguing protocol, following an exponential drop in force, TTX-R CDP area decreased in the majority of trials (9/14 to 0.75 ± 0.03% (mean ± SEM of the pre-fatigue value. Recovery to the control size of the TTX-R CDP was incomplete after 10 min. Furthermore, fatiguing trials could sensitise a fraction of the TTX-R C-fibres responding to muscle pinch. The results suggest a long-lasting activation of the TTX-R muscle afferents after fatiguing stimulation. The role of this behaviour in chronic muscle fatigue in connection with pain development is discussed. Accumulation of metabolites released into the interstitium during fatiguing stimulation might be one of the reasons underlying the C-fibres' long-lasting activation.

  10. Lymphatic metastasis from tumors transplanted into the pre-irradiated footpad of the rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background: In the literature there is some evidence that the incidence of metastases may increase after radiation treatment. Methods: In order to investigate whether radiation-induced changes in the lymphatic drainage may alter the rate of lymph node metastasis, the center part of the left hind foot of rats was irradiated with a dose of 1 x 55 Gy before inoculation of tumor cells into the irradiated part of the footpad at different time intervals. Cells of 2 different tumor lines were employed. A rarely metastasising rhabdomyosarcoma, R-1, to look for a possible enhancement of lymphatic metastases, and a readily metastasising mammary carcinoma, Cl-2, in case of a possible decrease in the rate of lymphatic metastasis from tumors growing in pre-irradiated footpads. Results: The incidence of regional lymph node metastasis decreased for R-1 tumors growing in pre-irradiated footpads, but not for Cl-2 tumors. Furthermore, the average time required for lymph node metastasis to attain a reference volume of 100 mm3 is not significantly influenced by pre-irradiation of the footpad. No difference was observed in average times for doubling in volume of lymph node metastases originating from primary tumors in pre-irradiated footpads. Abscopal effects after footpad irradiation may cause a 50-fold increase in size of regional lymph nodes and, therefore, histological examination is essential for verification of lymph node metastases. Conclusions: Damage to the lymphatic system to be expected in the irradiated footpad did not enhance the incidence of regional metastasis of R-1 tumors. A reduced rate of lymphatic metastasis contradicts earlier findings of enhanced lymphatic metastasis development of R-1 tumors, growing in pre-irradiated gastrocnemius muscles. The influence of irradiation on regional metastasis formation seems to be 'tumor bed' dependent for R-1 tumors. (orig.)

  11. Regional blood flow in rats after a single low-protein, high-carbohydrate test meal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glick, Z; Wickler, S J; Stern, J S; Horwitz, B A

    1984-07-01

    It was previously observed that a single low-protein, high-carbohydrate test meal results in increased in vitro thermic activity of brown adipose tissue. In the present study, we have examined whether such a meal increases the in vivo thermic activity, estimated from measurement of the rate of blood flow. With radioactively labeled microspheres, blood flows into brown fat and several other tissues were determined in meal-deprived (n = 11) and meal-fed (n = 11) rats. The microspheres were injected into the heart of anesthetized animals about 2-2.5 h after the test meal, one injection in the resting state and one during maximal norepinephrine stimulation. In the resting state, blood flow per gram tissue more than doubled in the brown fat (P less than 0.05) and was increased more than 50% in the heart (P less than 0.01) of the fed group. Blood flows into liver and retroperitoneal white fat were reduced by 40 (P less than 0.01) and 30%, respectively, in the fed group. During norepinephrine infusion, significant meal-associated increases in blood flow were evident only in brown fat (P less than 0.05) and the soleus muscle (P less than 0.05), whereas a significant decrease was observed in the liver (P less than 0.05). No statistically significant meal-associated changes in norepinephrine-stimulated blood flow were found in the other tissues examined (i.e., heart, gastrocnemius, and diaphragm muscles, kidneys, white fat, spleen, and adrenals). Our in vivo data thus support the view that brown fat plays a role in the thermic effect of a meal. PMID:6742226

  12. Passive Repetitive Stretching for a Short Duration within a Week Increases Myogenic Regulatory Factors and Myosin Heavy Chain mRNA in Rats' Skeletal Muscles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yurie Kamikawa

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Stretching is a stimulation of muscle growth. Stretching for hours or days has an effect on muscle hypertrophy. However, differences of continuous stretching and repetitive stretching to affect muscle growth are not well known. To clarify the difference of continuous and repetitive stretching within a short duration, we investigated the gene expression of muscle-related genes on stretched skeletal muscles. We used 8-week-old male Wistar rats ( for this study. Animals medial gastrocnemius muscle was stretched continuously or repetitively for 15 min daily and 4 times/week under anesthesia. After stretching, muscles were removed and total RNA was extracted. Then, reverse transcriptional quantitative real-time PCR was done to evaluate the mRNA expression of MyoD, myogenin, and embryonic myosin heavy chain (MyHC. Muscles, either stretched continuously or repetitively, increased mRNA expression of MyoD, myogenin, and embryonic MyHC more than unstretched muscles. Notably, repetitive stretching resulted in more substantial effects on embryonic MyHC gene expression than continuous stretching. In conclusion, passive stretching for a short duration within a week is effective in increasing myogenic factor expression, and repetitive stretching had more effects than continuous stretching for skeletal muscle on muscle growth. These findings are applicable in clinical muscle-strengthening therapy.

  13. Effect of Dietary Leucine Supplementation on Plasma Leptin Level and Protein Metabolism of Skeletal Muscles in Rats%日粮中添加亮氨酸对生长大鼠血浆瘦素水平和骨骼肌蛋白质代谢的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    毛湘冰; 曾祥芳; 蔡传江; 任曼; 谯仕彦

    2011-01-01

    试验旨在探讨添加亮氨酸的日粮对生长大鼠生长性能、骨骼肌蛋白质代谢和瘦素分泌的影响.试验选用24只4周龄雄性Sprague-Dawley大鼠作为试验动物,分别饲喂添加3% L-亮氨酸的试验日粮和添加2.04% L-丙氨酸的对照日粮,试验期为12 d.试验第12天,所有大鼠大剂量一次性腹腔注射L- [ring-2H5]苯丙氨酸注射液.结果表明:日粮添加亮氨酸对大鼠生长性能没有显著影响(P>0.05);试验组大鼠血浆中瘦素浓度显著高于对照组(P<0.01).持续饲喂试验日粮的大鼠腓肠肌和比目鱼肌的蛋白质分解均显著低于对照组大鼠(P<0.01),但仅腓肠肌蛋白质合成显著高于对照组(P<0.01).总之,长期饲喂添加L-亮氨酸的日粮可以提高生长大鼠血浆中瘦素浓度,并可显著调节生长大鼠骨骼肌蛋白质代谢.%To explore the effects of dietary leucine supplementation on the growth performance, leptin production, and protein metabolism of skeletal muscle in growing rats, 24 male Sprague-Dawley rats aged 4 weeks were randomly allotted to feed one of the two diets added 2.04% alanine (control diet) or 3% leucine (experimental diet) for 12 days. There were 12 replicates per treatment. On the evening of d 11, all rats were food-deprived. On the morning of d 12, all rats were injected intraperitoneally with L-phenylalanine containing L-[ring-2H5] phenylalanine in 1.5 h after refed. The growth performance was not significantly affected by dietary leucine supplementation (P>0.10). However, plasma leptin concentrations of the rats fed the experimental diet were significantly increased (P<0.01). The protein breakdown of gastrocnemius and soleus of rats fed the experimental diet was significantly lower than that of rats fed the control diet (P< 0.01). The protein synthesis of gastrocnemius of rats fed the experimental diet was significantly higher than that of rats fed the control diet (P<0.01). In conclusion, dietary leucine

  14. Rat Endovascular Perforation Model

    OpenAIRE

    Sehba, Fatima A.

    2014-01-01

    Experimental animal models of aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) have provided a wealth of information on the mechanisms of brain injury. The Rat endovascular perforation model (EVP) replicates the early pathophysiology of SAH and hence is frequently used to study early brain injury following SAH.

  15. The academic rat race

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Landes, Xavier; Andersen, Martin Marchman; Nielsen, Morten Ebbe Juul

    2012-01-01

    increased pressure to produce articles (in peer-reviewed journals) has created an unbalanced emphasis on the research criterion at the expense of the latter two. More fatally, this pressure has turned academia into a rat race, leading to a deep change in the fundamental structure of academic behaviour, and...

  16. Source memory in the rat

    OpenAIRE

    Crystal, Jonathon D.; Alford, Wesley T.; Zhou, Wenyi; Hohmann, Andrea G.

    2013-01-01

    Source memory is a representation of the origin (source) of information. When source information is bound together, it makes a memory episodic, allowing us to differentiate one event from another [1, 2]. Here we asked if rats remember the source of encoded information. Rats foraged for distinctive flavors of food that replenished (or failed to replenish) at its recently encountered location according to a source-information rule. To predict replenishment, rats needed to remember where they ha...

  17. The Year of the Rat

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Do you know what your Chinese sign of the zodiac is? According to the Chinese lunar calendar,every year corre- sponds to one of twelve animals(rat,ox,tiger,rabbit,dragon, snake,horse,sheep,monkey,rooster,dog and pig)and these animals are used to identify years. After the Lunar New Year in 2008 we enter the rat year. All those born in 1996,1984,1972.1960,1948,1936 or 1924, also have a rat as their sign.

  18. Postconditioning in rats and mice

    OpenAIRE

    2006-01-01

    Objective . For subsequent studies on the molecular mechanisms of postconditioning, we aimed to identify a robust postconditioning protocol in rat and mouse heart. Design. Isolated rat hearts were subjected to different postconditioning protocols (study 1 and 2). The protection was compared to preconditioning. Rats (study 3) in vivo in two different laboratories were postconditioned. Isolated mouse hearts (study 4) and mice in vivo (study 5) were postconditioned. Results. Postconditioning did...

  19. Laughing rats are optimistic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rygula, Rafal; Pluta, Helena; Popik, Piotr

    2012-01-01

    Emotions can bias human decisions- for example depressed or anxious people tend to make pessimistic judgements while those in positive affective states are often more optimistic. Several studies have reported that affect contingent judgement biases can also be produced in animals. The animals, however, cannot self-report; therefore, the valence of their emotions, to date, could only be assumed. Here we present the results of an experiment where the affect-contingent judgement bias has been produced by objectively measured positive emotions. We trained rats in operant Skinner boxes to press one lever in response to one tone to receive a food reward and to press another lever in response to a different tone to avoid punishment by electric foot shock. After attaining a stable level of discrimination performance, the animals were subjected to either handling or playful, experimenter-administered manual stimulation - tickling. This procedure has been confirmed to induce a positive affective state in rats, and the 50-kHz ultrasonic vocalisations (rat laughter) emitted by animals in response to tickling have been postulated to index positive emotions akin to human joy. During the tickling and handling sessions, the numbers of emitted high-frequency 50-kHz calls were scored. Immediately after tickling or handling, the animals were tested for their responses to a tone of intermediate frequency, and the pattern of their responses to this ambiguous cue was taken as an indicator of the animals' optimism. Our findings indicate that tickling induced positive emotions which are directly indexed in rats by laughter, can make animals more optimistic. We demonstrate for the first time a link between the directly measured positive affective state and decision making under uncertainty in an animal model. We also introduce innovative tandem-approach for studying emotional-cognitive interplay in animals, which may be of great value for understanding the emotional-cognitive changes

  20. Laughing rats are optimistic.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafal Rygula

    Full Text Available Emotions can bias human decisions- for example depressed or anxious people tend to make pessimistic judgements while those in positive affective states are often more optimistic. Several studies have reported that affect contingent judgement biases can also be produced in animals. The animals, however, cannot self-report; therefore, the valence of their emotions, to date, could only be assumed. Here we present the results of an experiment where the affect-contingent judgement bias has been produced by objectively measured positive emotions. We trained rats in operant Skinner boxes to press one lever in response to one tone to receive a food reward and to press another lever in response to a different tone to avoid punishment by electric foot shock. After attaining a stable level of discrimination performance, the animals were subjected to either handling or playful, experimenter-administered manual stimulation - tickling. This procedure has been confirmed to induce a positive affective state in rats, and the 50-kHz ultrasonic vocalisations (rat laughter emitted by animals in response to tickling have been postulated to index positive emotions akin to human joy. During the tickling and handling sessions, the numbers of emitted high-frequency 50-kHz calls were scored. Immediately after tickling or handling, the animals were tested for their responses to a tone of intermediate frequency, and the pattern of their responses to this ambiguous cue was taken as an indicator of the animals' optimism. Our findings indicate that tickling induced positive emotions which are directly indexed in rats by laughter, can make animals more optimistic. We demonstrate for the first time a link between the directly measured positive affective state and decision making under uncertainty in an animal model. We also introduce innovative tandem-approach for studying emotional-cognitive interplay in animals, which may be of great value for understanding the emotional

  1. Attachment behavior in rats

    OpenAIRE

    Sigling, H.O.

    2009-01-01

    This thesis describes studies into the rat as an animal model for attachment, along the lines of Bowlby's attachment theory. First, the relation between attachment and human psychopathology is reviewed. The conclusion is that psychopathology is more frequent in insecure attached persons and that there is a relationship between specific types of insecure attachment and specific types of psychiatric disorders. Next, a reinterpretation of the literature on social preference experiments in rodent...

  2. Electroejaculation of chimeric rats

    OpenAIRE

    McCoy, Marina R.; Montonye, Daniel; Bryda, Elizabeth C.

    2013-01-01

    With the advent of genetic engineering of rodents came the need to assess fertility and germline competency, especially in chimeric rodents generated using embryonic stem cells. Traditional methods rely on natural mating and progeny testing, which is time- and cost-intensive. Electroejaculation is a faster method of collecting sperm for genetic analysis and offers the additional benefit of using fewer animals. This column describes a refined electroejaculation technique for chimeric rats usin...

  3. Estudo morfológico no músculo gastrocnêmio de camundongos C57 BL10 submetidos à ingestão prolongada de etanol Study of ultrastructural alterations in gastrocnemius muscle of C57 BL10 mice after prolonged ethanol ingestion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Batista Guedes e Silva

    1996-06-01

    foi vista no citoplasma dos hepatócitos parecendo constituir uma evidência a mais da ação tóxica do etanol sobre o organismo. Concluímos que a ingestão prolongada de etanol, representando 14,4% de calorias totais, produz no músculo gastrocnêmio de camundongos C57BL10 bem nutridos um elenco de alterações ultraestruturais que refletem um efeito tóxico direto sobre o músculo esquelético. As alterações constatadas são semelhantes àquelas descritas na miopatia alcoólica crônica humanaThe effects of chronic alcoholism on gastrocnemius muscle of well-nourished mice were morphologically studied to test the direct toxic role of ethanol on skeletal muscle. Thirty male young adult C57BL10 mice were divided in two groups: Group A (control consisting of ten mice that drank water and Group B (alcoholic consisting of twenty mice that drank 25% ethanol. All mice were allowed a balanced laboratory chow. The animals were kept on this ad libitum regimen under the same conditions of environment for 48 weeks and were weighed once a week. The daily dietary consumption and caloric intake were estimated, the animals having had a substantial weight gain, showing no signs of malnutrition. At the end of the experiment the animals were killed for morphological studies. No abnormalities were observed by conventional microscopy.Striking deviations from normal were verified by electron microscopy in all specimens. Dilatation of sarcoplasmic reticulum was a common feature, sometimes resulting in the formation of large vesicles and involving the terminal cisternae with the displacement of the triads. Areas of narrowing, splitting and loss of myofibrils were seen. Zones of complete disorganization of miofibrils could be occasionally observed. Mitochondria were generally normal. Peculiar tubular aggregates seen commonly in periodic paralysis and other human pathological conditions, were encountered in both control and alcoholic mice. Intramuscular nerves and neuromuscular junctions

  4. Prevention of 3-methylcholanthrene-induced fibrosarcomas in rats pre-inoculated with endogenous rat retrovirus.

    OpenAIRE

    Fish, D C; Demarais, J T; Djurickovic, D B; Huebner, R J

    1981-01-01

    Weanling Fischer 344 rats received a single intraperitoneal injection of a 1000-fold concentrated preparation of endogenous nontransforming rat retrovirus. Ten days later, the rats were each given a single subcutaneous injection of 3-methylcholanthrene. The rats inoculated with the endogenous rat retrovirus were significantly protected against the development of cancer, whereas uninoculated rats and rats given one of several murine retroviruses or baboon retrovirus were not protected.

  5. Thoracic 9 Spinal Transection-Induced Model of Muscle Spasticity in the Rat: A Systematic Electrophysiological and Histopathological Characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corleto, Jose A.; Bravo-Hernández, Mariana; Kamizato, Kota; Kakinohana, Osamu; Santucci, Camila; Navarro, Michael R.; Platoshyn, Oleksandr; Cizkova, Dasa; Lukacova, Nadezda; Taylor, Julian; Marsala, Martin

    2015-01-01

    The development of spinal hyper-reflexia as part of the spasticity syndrome represents one of the major complications associated with chronic spinal traumatic injury (SCI). The primary mechanism leading to progressive appearance of muscle spasticity is multimodal and may include loss of descending inhibitory tone, alteration of segmental interneuron-mediated inhibition and/or increased reflex activity to sensory input. Here, we characterized a chronic thoracic (Th 9) complete transection model of muscle spasticity in Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats. Isoflurane-anesthetized rats received a Th9 laminectomy and the spinal cord was transected using a scalpel blade. After the transection the presence of muscle spasticity quantified as stretch and cutaneous hyper-reflexia was identified and quantified as time-dependent changes in: i) ankle-rotation-evoked peripheral muscle resistance (PMR) and corresponding electromyography (EMG) activity, ii) Hoffmann reflex, and iii) EMG responses in gastrocnemius muscle after paw tactile stimulation for up to 8 months after injury. To validate the clinical relevance of this model, the treatment potency after systemic treatment with the clinically established anti-spastic agents baclofen (GABAB receptor agonist), tizanidine (α2-adrenergic agonist) and NGX424 (AMPA receptor antagonist) was also tested. During the first 3 months post spinal transection, a progressive increase in ankle rotation-evoked muscle resistance, Hoffmann reflex amplitude and increased EMG responses to peripherally applied tactile stimuli were consistently measured. These changes, indicative of the spasticity syndrome, then remained relatively stable for up to 8 months post injury. Systemic treatment with baclofen, tizanidine and NGX424 led to a significant but transient suppression of spinal hyper-reflexia. These data demonstrate that a chronic Th9 spinal transection model in adult SD rat represents a reliable experimental platform to be used in studying the

  6. Thoracic 9 Spinal Transection-Induced Model of Muscle Spasticity in the Rat: A Systematic Electrophysiological and Histopathological Characterization.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose A Corleto

    Full Text Available The development of spinal hyper-reflexia as part of the spasticity syndrome represents one of the major complications associated with chronic spinal traumatic injury (SCI. The primary mechanism leading to progressive appearance of muscle spasticity is multimodal and may include loss of descending inhibitory tone, alteration of segmental interneuron-mediated inhibition and/or increased reflex activity to sensory input. Here, we characterized a chronic thoracic (Th 9 complete transection model of muscle spasticity in Sprague-Dawley (SD rats. Isoflurane-anesthetized rats received a Th9 laminectomy and the spinal cord was transected using a scalpel blade. After the transection the presence of muscle spasticity quantified as stretch and cutaneous hyper-reflexia was identified and quantified as time-dependent changes in: i ankle-rotation-evoked peripheral muscle resistance (PMR and corresponding electromyography (EMG activity, ii Hoffmann reflex, and iii EMG responses in gastrocnemius muscle after paw tactile stimulation for up to 8 months after injury. To validate the clinical relevance of this model, the treatment potency after systemic treatment with the clinically established anti-spastic agents baclofen (GABAB receptor agonist, tizanidine (α2-adrenergic agonist and NGX424 (AMPA receptor antagonist was also tested. During the first 3 months post spinal transection, a progressive increase in ankle rotation-evoked muscle resistance, Hoffmann reflex amplitude and increased EMG responses to peripherally applied tactile stimuli were consistently measured. These changes, indicative of the spasticity syndrome, then remained relatively stable for up to 8 months post injury. Systemic treatment with baclofen, tizanidine and NGX424 led to a significant but transient suppression of spinal hyper-reflexia. These data demonstrate that a chronic Th9 spinal transection model in adult SD rat represents a reliable experimental platform to be used in studying the

  7. Thoracic 9 Spinal Transection-Induced Model of Muscle Spasticity in the Rat: A Systematic Electrophysiological and Histopathological Characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corleto, Jose A; Bravo-Hernández, Mariana; Kamizato, Kota; Kakinohana, Osamu; Santucci, Camila; Navarro, Michael R; Platoshyn, Oleksandr; Cizkova, Dasa; Lukacova, Nadezda; Taylor, Julian; Marsala, Martin

    2015-01-01

    The development of spinal hyper-reflexia as part of the spasticity syndrome represents one of the major complications associated with chronic spinal traumatic injury (SCI). The primary mechanism leading to progressive appearance of muscle spasticity is multimodal and may include loss of descending inhibitory tone, alteration of segmental interneuron-mediated inhibition and/or increased reflex activity to sensory input. Here, we characterized a chronic thoracic (Th 9) complete transection model of muscle spasticity in Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats. Isoflurane-anesthetized rats received a Th9 laminectomy and the spinal cord was transected using a scalpel blade. After the transection the presence of muscle spasticity quantified as stretch and cutaneous hyper-reflexia was identified and quantified as time-dependent changes in: i) ankle-rotation-evoked peripheral muscle resistance (PMR) and corresponding electromyography (EMG) activity, ii) Hoffmann reflex, and iii) EMG responses in gastrocnemius muscle after paw tactile stimulation for up to 8 months after injury. To validate the clinical relevance of this model, the treatment potency after systemic treatment with the clinically established anti-spastic agents baclofen (GABAB receptor agonist), tizanidine (α2-adrenergic agonist) and NGX424 (AMPA receptor antagonist) was also tested. During the first 3 months post spinal transection, a progressive increase in ankle rotation-evoked muscle resistance, Hoffmann reflex amplitude and increased EMG responses to peripherally applied tactile stimuli were consistently measured. These changes, indicative of the spasticity syndrome, then remained relatively stable for up to 8 months post injury. Systemic treatment with baclofen, tizanidine and NGX424 led to a significant but transient suppression of spinal hyper-reflexia. These data demonstrate that a chronic Th9 spinal transection model in adult SD rat represents a reliable experimental platform to be used in studying the

  8. [Changes in the ultrastructure of neuromuscular synapses in rats under the effects of space flight factors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pozdniakov, O M; Babakova, L L; Demorzhi, M S; Il'ina-Kakueva, E I

    1988-06-01

    The influence of a 7-day space flight on board the biosputnik "Kosmos-1669" on the neuro-muscular synapses (NMS) of soleus, gastrocnemius and diaphragm muscles distinct in their functions has been studied. The synapse restructuring on the basis of destructive- regenerative process has been discovered. It is manifested to a great extent in the soleus muscle, to a lesser extent in the gastrocnemius muscle and the least of all in the diaphragm muscle. The changes observed in synapses may be caused by the attenuation of their function in weightlessness. PMID:3390600

  9. THE EFFECTS OF AEROBIC EXERCISE ON SKELETAL MUSCLE METABOLISM, MORPHOLOGY AND IN SITU ENDURANCE IN DIABETIC RATS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilay Ergen

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available The effects of aerobic exercise training on skeletal muscle endurance capacity were examined in diabetic rats in situ. Moderate diabetes was induced by iv injection of streptozotocin and an exercise training program on a treadmill was carried out for 8 weeks. The animals randomly assigned to one of the four experimental groups: control-sedentary (CS, control-exercise (CE, diabetic-sedentary (DS or diabetic-exercise (DE. The changes in the muscle endurance capacity were evaluated through the square wave impulses (supramaximal of 0.2-ms duration at 1 Hz in the in situ gastrocnemius-soleus muscle complex. Muscle was stimulated continuously until tension development reduced to the half of this maximal value. Time interval between the beginning and the end of stimulation period is defined as contraction duration. Following the training period, blood glucose level reduced significantly in the DE group compared to DS group (p < 0.05. The soles muscle citrate synthase activity was increased significantly in both of the trained groups compared to sedentary animals (p < 0.05. Fatigued muscle lactate values were not significantly different from each other. Ultrastractural abnormality of the skeletal muscle in DS group disappeared with training. Presence of increased lipid droplets, mitochondria clusters and glycogen accumulation was observed in the skeletal muscle of DE group. The contraction duration was longer in the DE group than others (p < 0.001. Fatigue resistance of exercised diabetic animals may be explained by increased intramyocellular lipid droplets, high blood glucose level and muscle citrate synthase activity

  10. Lentiviral-mediated transfer of CDNF promotes nerve regeneration and functional recovery after sciatic nerve injury in adult rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: •CDNF was successfully transfected by a lentiviral vector into the distal sciatic nerve. •CDNF improved S-100, NF200 expression and nerve regeneration after sciatic injury. •CDNF improved the remyelination and thickness of the regenerated sciatic nerve. •CDNF improved gastrocnemius muscle weight and sciatic functional recovery. -- Abstract: Peripheral nerve injury is often followed by incomplete and unsatisfactory functional recovery and may be associated with sensory and motor impairment of the affected limb. Therefore, a novel method is needed to improve the speed of recovery and the final functional outcome after peripheral nerve injuries. This report investigates the effect of lentiviral-mediated transfer of conserved dopamine neurotrophic factor (CDNF) on regeneration of the rat peripheral nerve in a transection model in vivo. We observed notable overexpression of CDNF protein in the distal sciatic nerve after recombinant CDNF lentiviral vector application. We evaluated sciatic nerve regeneration after surgery using light and electron microscopy and the functional recovery using the sciatic functional index and target muscle weight. HE staining revealed better ordered structured in the CDNF-treated group at 8 weeks post-surgery. Quantitative analysis of immunohistochemistry of NF200 and S-100 in the CDNF group revealed significant improvement of axonal and Schwann cell regeneration compared with the control groups at 4 weeks and 8 weeks after injury. The thickness of the myelination around the axons in the CDNF group was significantly higher than in the control groups at 8 weeks post-surgery. The CDNF group displayed higher muscle weights and significantly increased sciatic nerve index values. Our findings suggest that CDNF gene therapy could provide durable and stable CDNF protein concentration and has the potential to enhance peripheral nerve regeneration, morphological and functional recovery following nerve injury, which suggests a

  11. Effects of maternal diet and exercise during pregnancy on glucose metabolism in skeletal muscle and fat of weanling rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mukesh Raipuria

    Full Text Available Obesity during pregnancy contributes to the development of metabolic disorders in offspring. Maternal exercise may limit gestational weight gain and ameliorate these programming effects. We previously showed benefits of post-weaning voluntary exercise in offspring from obese dams. Here we examined whether voluntary exercise during pregnancy influences lipid and glucose homeostasis in muscle and fat in offspring of both lean and obese dams. Female Sprague-Dawley rats were fed chow (C or high fat (F diet for 6 weeks before mating. Half underwent voluntary exercise (CE/FE with a running wheel introduced 10 days prior to mating and available until the dams delivered; others remained sedentary (CS/FS. Male and female pups were killed at postnatal day (PND19 and retroperitoneal fat and gastrocnemius muscle were collected for gene expression. Lean and obese dams achieved similar modest levels of exercise. At PND1, both male and female pups from exercised lean dams were significantly lighter (CE versus CS, with no effect in those from obese dams. At PND19, maternal obesity significantly increased offspring body weight and adiposity, with no effect of maternal exercise. Exercise significantly reduced insulin concentrations in males (CE/FE versus CS/FS, with reduced glucose in male FE pups. In males, maternal obesity significantly decreased muscle myogenic differentiation 1 (MYOD1 and glucose transporter type 4 (GLUT4 mRNA expressions (FS vs CS; these were normalized by exercise. Maternal exercise upregulated adipose GLUT4, interleukin-6 (IL-6, tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α, and peroxisome proliferator activated receptor gamma coactivator 1 alpha (PGC1α mRNA expression in offspring of dams consuming chow. Modest voluntary exercise during pregnancy was associated with lower birth weight in pups from lean dams. Maternal exercise appeared to decrease the metabolic risk induced by maternal obesity, improving insulin/glucose metabolism, with greater

  12. Lentiviral-mediated transfer of CDNF promotes nerve regeneration and functional recovery after sciatic nerve injury in adult rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheng, Lei; Liu, Yi; Zhao, Hua; Zhang, Wen; Guo, Ying-Jun; Nie, Lin, E-mail: chengleiyx@126.com

    2013-10-18

    Highlights: •CDNF was successfully transfected by a lentiviral vector into the distal sciatic nerve. •CDNF improved S-100, NF200 expression and nerve regeneration after sciatic injury. •CDNF improved the remyelination and thickness of the regenerated sciatic nerve. •CDNF improved gastrocnemius muscle weight and sciatic functional recovery. -- Abstract: Peripheral nerve injury is often followed by incomplete and unsatisfactory functional recovery and may be associated with sensory and motor impairment of the affected limb. Therefore, a novel method is needed to improve the speed of recovery and the final functional outcome after peripheral nerve injuries. This report investigates the effect of lentiviral-mediated transfer of conserved dopamine neurotrophic factor (CDNF) on regeneration of the rat peripheral nerve in a transection model in vivo. We observed notable overexpression of CDNF protein in the distal sciatic nerve after recombinant CDNF lentiviral vector application. We evaluated sciatic nerve regeneration after surgery using light and electron microscopy and the functional recovery using the sciatic functional index and target muscle weight. HE staining revealed better ordered structured in the CDNF-treated group at 8 weeks post-surgery. Quantitative analysis of immunohistochemistry of NF200 and S-100 in the CDNF group revealed significant improvement of axonal and Schwann cell regeneration compared with the control groups at 4 weeks and 8 weeks after injury. The thickness of the myelination around the axons in the CDNF group was significantly higher than in the control groups at 8 weeks post-surgery. The CDNF group displayed higher muscle weights and significantly increased sciatic nerve index values. Our findings suggest that CDNF gene therapy could provide durable and stable CDNF protein concentration and has the potential to enhance peripheral nerve regeneration, morphological and functional recovery following nerve injury, which suggests a

  13. siRNA-induced silencing of hypoxia-inducible factor 3α (HIF3α) increases endurance capacity in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drozdovska, S; Gavenauskas, B; Drevytska, T; Nosar, V; Nagibin, V; Mankovska, I; Dosenko, V

    2016-06-01

    Molecular mechanisms of adaptation to exercise despite a large number of studies remain unclear. One of the crucial factors in this process is hypoxia inducible factor (HIF) that regulates transcription of many target genes encoding proteins that are implicated in molecular adaptation to hypoxia. Experiments were conducted on 24 adult male Fisher rats. Real-time PCR analysis was performed for quantitative evaluation of Hif3α, Igf1, Glut-4 and Pdk-1 in m. gastrocnemius, m. soleus, in lung and heart tissues. Mitochondrial respiratory function and electron microscopy were performed. Knockdown of Hif3α using siRNA increases time of swimming to exhaustion by 1.5 times. Level of mitochondrial NAD- and FAD-dependent oxidative pathways is decreased, however efficiency of phosphorylation is increased after Hif3α siRNA treatment. Expression of HIF target genes in muscles was not changed significantly, except for increasing of Pdk-1 expression in m. soleus by 2.1 times. More prominent changes were estimated in lung and heart: Igf1 gene expression was increased by 32.5 and 37.5 times correspondingly. Glut4 gene expression in lungs was increased from undetected level till 0.3 rel. units and by 84.2 times in heart. Level of Pdk1 gene expression was increased by 249.2 in lungs and by 35.1 times in hearts, correspondingly. Some destructive changes in muscle tissue were detected in animals with siRNA-inducing silencing of Hif3α. PMID:27274101

  14. The three-kidney rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In contrast to the numerous research into the adaption of renal function when nephons are lost, much less attention has been paid to the effects of an extra kidney. Through the availability of inbred rat strains, techniques to transplant rat kidneys, and methods to measure total and individual kidney function repeatedly in the same animal, it became possible to study the renal function in rats with three kidneys. Adult male rats of a highly inbred Wistar strain were used. Nine recipients of a third kidney (3-K) were compared with 5 sham operated control (2-K) rats. The total GFR, as measured by the plasma clearance of Cr-5l EDTA, was taken 1,3,6,9, and 15 weeks after operation. The contribution of each kidney to the total renal function was determined by a Tc-99m DTPA scan performed at weeks 10 and 16. After transplantation the total GFR of 3-K rats was, in general, not different from the value before transplantation or from that of 2-K rats. The lack of increase of the GFR of 3-K rats was not the result of a non-functioning graft

  15. Electroejaculation of chimeric rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCoy, Marina R; Montonye, Daniel; Bryda, Elizabeth C

    2013-06-01

    With the advent of genetic engineering of rodents came the need to assess fertility and germline competency, especially in chimeric rodents generated using embryonic stem cells. Traditional methods rely on natural mating and progeny testing, which is time- and cost-intensive. Electroejaculation is a faster method of collecting sperm for genetic analysis and offers the additional benefit of using fewer animals. This column describes a refined electroejaculation technique for chimeric rats using light gas anesthesia and a custom-made platform for sperm collection. PMID:23689457

  16. RAT I OKOLIŠ

    OpenAIRE

    Stanić, Sanja; Kutleša, Anja

    2008-01-01

    U radu se razmatraju utjecaji suvremenog rata na okoliš. Prvi dio rada donosi koncept rata u vidu kratkog prikaza društvene misli o ratu, te se obrazlaže pojam okoliša kao cjelokupnost prirodnog i socijalnog okruženja. Odnosi rata na okoliš analiziraju se kroz četiri konkretna rata, od kojih je kod svakoga naglašena specifična manifestacija na okoliš. Na primjeru Vijetnamskog rata ukazuje se kako destrukcija okoliša može biti u okviru ratnih operacija i poslužiti kao ratna strategija. Rat u P...

  17. Postural development in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lelard, T; Jamon, M; Gasc, J-P; Vidal, P-P

    2006-11-01

    Mammals adopt a limited number of postures during their day-to-day activities. These stereotyped skeletal configurations are functionally adequate and limit the number of degrees of freedom to be controlled by the central nervous system. The temporal pattern of emergence of these configurations in altricial mammals is unknown. We therefore carried out an X-ray study in unrestrained rats from birth (P0) until postnatal day 23 (P23). The X-rays showed that many of the skeletal configurations described in adult rodents were already present at birth. By contrast, limb placement changed abruptly at around P10. These skeletal configurations, observed in anesthetized pups, required the maintenance of precise motor control. On the other hand, motor control continued to mature, as shown by progressive changes in resting posture and head movements from P0 to P23. We suggest that a few innate skeletal configurations provide the necessary frames of reference for the gradual construction of an adult motor repertoire in altricial mammals, such as the rat. The apparent absence of a requirement for external sensorial cues in the maturation of this repertoire may account for the maturation of postural and motor control in utero in precocial mammals (Muir et al., 2000 for a review on the locomotor behavior of altricial and precocial animals). PMID:16814770

  18. The Rat Race

    CERN Multimedia

    Stephen Haywood

    Dear Muriel, Being an animal, you are probably more familiar with rats than most of us. Yet it seems to me that our Community (not just ATLAS) is stuck in a huge "rat race". I am somewhat mystified as to how we have got ourselves into this and I wonder whether you or your readers could explain this - I give my own observations below. In HEP and ATLAS specifically, we are all working long hours and we are all becoming exhausted. There are people at Point 1 who are working day and night, every day of the week; there are people writing software who send emails round the clock, including weekends. It is one thing to have bursts of activity which require us to put in some longer hours, but in ATLAS, the bursts last months or years. I have been on ATLAS 14 years and it has felt like one endless rush. Why do we do this? We are all highly motivated, we love our work and want to succeed individually and collectively. We are parts of various teams, and we do not want to let the side down. We worked hard at school an...

  19. Beta-endorphin in genetically hypoprolactinemic rat: IPL nude rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beta-endorphin has been reported to regulate not only stress- and suckling-induced but also basal prolactin secretion. In the aim to better evaluate the endogenous beta-endorphin-prolactin interrelation, the authors measured beta-endorphin levels in a new rat strain, genetically hypoprolactinemic and characterized by a total lack of lactation: IPL nude rat. Beta-endorphin was measured using a specific anti-h-β endorphin in plasma and extracts of anterior and neurointermediate lobes of the pituitary, hypothalamus and brain. Pituitary extracts were also chromatographed on Sephadex G50 column. Results obtained showed that in IPL nude females on diestrus and males, the beta-endorphin contents of the neurointermediate lobe was significantly lower than in normal rats, while the values found in the other organs and plasma were similar. However, elution pattern of the anterior pituitary extracts from male rats showed greater immunoactivity eluting as I125 h-beta-endorphin than in normal rat; this was not the case for the female rat. These results are consistent with a differential regulation of beta-endorphin levels of anterior and neurointermediate lobe by catecholamines. Moreover they suggest that PRL secretion was more related to neurointermediate beta-endorphin. 40 references, 2 figures, 4 tables

  20. Efeitos da estimulação elétrica neuromuscular sobre o membro posterior imobilizado de ratos durante 15 dias: análises metabólicas e morfométricas Effects of neuromuscular electrical stimulation on rat hind limbs immobilized for 15 days: metabolic and morphometric analyses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JLQ Durigan

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar o efeito da estimulação elétrica (EE sobre o perfil metabólico e morfométrico dos músculos do membro posterior de ratos submetidos à imobilização durante 15 dias. MÉTODO: Ratos Wistar foram divididos em 3 grupos (n=5: controle, imobilizado por 15 dias e imobilizado associado à EE por 15 dias. Foram avaliados: reserva de glicogênio (RG dos músculos sóleo (S, extensor longo dos dedos (ELD, gastrocnêmio branco (GB, gastrocnêmio vermelho (GV e tibial anterior (TA, além do peso do sóleo, área das fibras e tecido conjuntivo do S. A análise estatística foi feita pelos testes ANOVA e Kruskal-Wallis (pOBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effect of electrical stimulation on the metabolic and morphometric profile of rat hind limb muscles subjected to immobilization for 15 days. METHOD: Wistar rats were divided into three groups (n=5: control; immobilized for 15 days; and immobilized for 15 days with electrical stimulation. The glycogen reserves of the soleus, extensor digitorum longus (EDL, white gastrocnemius (WG, red gastrocnemius (RG and tibialis anterior (TA muscles were evaluated, along with the weight, fibrous area and conjunctive tissue of the soleus. The statistical analysis was performed using the Anova and Kruskal-Wallis tests (p<0.05. RESULTS: Immobilization promoted significant alterations (p<0.05, such as: reductions in the glycogen reserves (soleus: 44.73%, WG: 47.82%, RG: 46.34%, EDL: 41.66%, TA: 48.38% and in the weight (7.2% and fibrous area (35% of the soleus, and also increased connective tissue density (160%. Electrical stimulation promoted a significant increase (p<0.05 in the glycogen reserves of all the immobilized muscles: (soleus: 90.47%, WG: 62.5%, RG: 95.45%, EDL: 76.19%, TA: 56.25% and in the weight (20.94% and fibrous area (19.65% of the soleus, and also promoted a significant reduction (15.38%, p<0.05 in connective tissue density. CONCLUSION: Electrical stimulation minimized the reduction in

  1. Identified ankle extensor and flexor motoneurons display different firing profiles in the neonatal rat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cotel, Florence; Antri, Myriam; Barthe, Jean-Yves;

    2009-01-01

    synaptically isolated and identified by antidromic stimulations of the central stump of flexor or extensor muscle nerves: tibialis anterior (ankle flexor) and gastrocnemius medialis or lateralis (ankle extensors). Two protocols were applied to establish the four firing profiles previously described (type I...

  2. Intramitochondrial autonomy in rat tissues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The biogenesis of mitochondria in rat liver and their protein turnover has been investigated using 1-14C leucine. The results indicate that intramitochondrial autonomy exists both with respect to their genesis and turnover. (M.G.B.)

  3. Neutron dosimetry for rat irradiations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monoenergetic neutron irradiations of rats described in last year's Annual Report (COO-4733-1) were continued in collaboration with the Department of Radiology of Thomas Jefferson University. Three groups of 24 rats received absorbed doses of 0.43 MeV neutrons corresponding to 300, 400, or 560 mGy (30, 40, or 56 rad), respectively, of total tissue kerma in free air at the center of the animal positions. In all cases the absorbed dose contributed by gamma rays was about 3 percent of the total absorbed dose. In order to alleviate some of the traumatic effects of the experimental procedure upon the pregnant rats, extra air holes were drilled in the aluminum end caps of the rat holders, thus providing increased ventilation for respiration and cooling. It was also found to be desirable to postpone transporting them for one day after irradiation

  4. Population Structure of Rat-Derived Pneumocystis carinii in Danish Wild Rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Palmer, Robert J.; Settnes, Osvald P.; Lodal, Jens; Wakefield, Ann E.

    2000-01-01

    examined the diversity in the internally transcribed spacer (ITS) regions of the nuclear rRNA operon of Pneumocystis carinii f. sp. carinii by using samples from wild rats and laboratory rats and spore trap samples. We report a lack of by using samples from wild rats and laboratory rats and spore trap......The rat model of Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia is frequently used to study human P. carinii infection, but there are many differences between the rat and human infections. We studied naturally acquired P. carinii in wild rats to examine the relevance of the rat model for human infection. P....... carinii DNA was detected in 47 of 51 wild rats and in 10 of 12 nonimmunosuppressed laboratory rats. Evidence for three novel formae speciales of rat-derived P. carinii was found, and these were provisionally named Pneumocystis carinii f. sp. rattus-secundi, Pneumocystis carinii f. sp. rattus-tertii, and...

  5. Hematological alterations in diabetic rats

    OpenAIRE

    Mahmoud, Ayman M.

    2013-01-01

    Dysfunction in adipocytes is associated with insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes. Diabetes-associated anemia has been reported due to the increased non-enzymatic glycosylation of RBC membrane proteins, which correlates with hyperglycemia. The present study was hypothesized to assess the effect of citrus flavonoids on hematological parameters and adipose tissue interleukin-6 and adiponectin in type 2 diabetic rats. Diabetes was induced by feeding rats with a high fat diet for 2 weeks follow...

  6. The thymus reconstituted nude rat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hougen, H P; Klausen, B

    1987-01-01

    The monoclonal antibodies OX6, OX19, W3/13, OX7, OX8, and W3/25 were used to gain information about the distribution of different lymphocyte subpopulations in peripheral lymphoid organs of neonatally isogeneic and allogeneic thymus reconstituted nude rats. Splenic mitogen responsiveness, xenogeneic...... cell response is far better following isografting. We, therefore, conclude that isogeneic thymus grafting is an easy method of reconstituting the nude rat immunologically....

  7. infarction in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keyvan Yousefi

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Nowadays, finding new therapeutic compounds from natural products for treatment and prevention of a variety of diseases including cardiovascular disorders is getting a great deal of attention. This approach would result in finding new drugs which are more effective and have fewer side effects than the conventional medicines. The present study was designed to investigate the anti-inflammatory effect of the methanolic extract of Marrubium vulgare, a popular traditional medicinal herb, on isoproterenol-induced myocardial infarction (MI in rat model. Methods: Male Wistar rats were assigned to 6 groups of control, sham, isoproterenol, and treatment with 10, 20, and 40 mg/kg/12h of the extract given orally concurrent with MI induction. A subcutaneous injection of isoproterenol (100 mg/kg/day for two consecutive days was used to induce MI. Then, histopathological changes and inflammatory markers were evaluated. Results: Isoproterenol injection increased inflammatory response, as shown by a significant increase in peripheral neutrophil count, myocardial myeloperoxidase (MPO activity and serum levels of creatinine kinase-MB (CK-MB and TNF-α (pM.vulgare extract serum CK-MB was subsided by 55.4%, 52.2% and 69%, respectively. Also treatment with the extract (40 mg/kg significantly reduced (p<0.001 MPO activity in MI group. The levels of TNF-α was also considerably declined in the serums of MI group (p<0.001. In addition, peripheral neutrophil count, was significantly lowered by all doses of the extract (p<0.001. Interstitial fibrosis significantly was attenuated in treated groups compared with control MI group.Conclusion:The results of study demonstrate that the M. vulgare extract has strong protective effects against isoproterenol-induced myocardial infarction and it seems possible that this protection is due to its anti-inflammatory effects.

  8. Metformina interage com o treinamento físico diminuindo a glicemia e aumentando o armazenamento de glicogênio em ratos diabéticos Metformin interacts with physical training decreasing glycemia and increasing glycogen supply in diabetic rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eunice da Silva-Costa

    2008-08-01

    glycemia can improve the metabolic control. Metformin increased glycogen while decreased glycemia in normal rats stressed by exercise. OBJECTIVE: In this work we investigated if regular exercise and metformin effects improve the metabolism of diabetic rats. METHODS: Alloxan diabetic Wistar rats treated with metformin (DTM or not (DT were trained. Training consisted of 20 sessions of 30 min, 5 days a week. Sedentary diabetic rats served as control (SD and SDM. Metformin (5.6 µg/g was given in the drinking water. After 48 h resting, glucose (mg/dl and insulin (ng/mL was measured in plasma and glycogen (mg/100 mg of wet tissue in liver, soleus and gastrocnemius. RESULTS: Glycemia decreased in DM group from 435±15 to 230±20, in DT group to 143±8.1 and in DTM group to 138±19 mg/dl. DM group had proportional increase in the hepatic glycogen from 1.69±0.22 to 3.53±0.24, and the training increased to 3.36 ± 0.16 mg/100 mg. Metformin induced the same proportional increase in the muscles (soleus from 0.21±0.008 to 0.42±0.03 and gastrocnemius from 0.33±0.02 to 0.46±0.03, while the training promoted increase on gastrocnemius to 0,53 ± 0,03, only. A high interaction was observed in liver (glycogen increased to 6.48±0.34. CONCLUSION: Very small oral doses of metformin and/or, partially restored glycemia in diabetic rats and decreased glycogen in tissues. Its association with an exercise program was beneficial, helping lower glycemia further and increase glycogen stores on liver of diabetic rats.

  9. MicroRNA-338 and microRNA-21 co-transfection for the treatment of rat sciatic nerve injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jianyong; Muheremu, Aikeremujiang; Zhang, Ming; Gong, Kai; Huang, Chuyi; Ji, Yuchen; Wei, Yujun; Ao, Qiang

    2016-06-01

    The objective of this study is to find if co-transfecting microRNA-338 and microRNA-21 into the neurons in the spinal cord can promote functional recovery after peripheral nerve injury in rats. Animals were divided into three groups: 20 animals in the GFP control vector group (group A), 20 animals in the GFP experimental vector group (group B) and ten animals in the normal control group. Right sciatic nerves of animals in groups A and B were transected and were bridged with collagen nerve conduits with 10 mm distance between the stumps. 3 µl GFP control vector or 3 µl lentiviral vectors encoding the sequence of microRNA-338 and microRNA-21 were injected in the conduit. 8 weeks after the surgery, the treatment effect was evaluated by functional analysis, electrophysiological analysis, immunohistochemical analysis as well as transmitting electronic microscope observations in all the rats. Animals treated with microRNA-338 and microRNA-21 showed significantly better recovery than GFP control group animals by means of functional analysis (Sciatic nerve index -47.7 ± 2.5 vs -59.4 ± 3.7), electrophysiological analysis (Conduction velocity 20.5 ± 2.8 vs 10.5 ± 1.4 m/s), ratio of wet weight of the gastrocnemius muscles (0.83 ± 0.03 vs 0.55 ± 0.06), axon diameter (5.0 ± 1.8 µm vs 4.0 ± 2.2), myelin sheath thickness (1.4 ± 0.43 vs 0.80 ± 0.31 µm) and G-ratio (0.80 ± 0.06 vs 0.75 ± 0.04). Lentiviral vectors encoding microRNA 338 and 21 might be explored in the future as potential therapeutic intervention to promote nerve regeneration. PMID:26909749

  10. Comportamento das reservas de glicogênio no músculo desnervado de ratas tratadas com diferentes doses de estrógeno Glycogen reserve behavior in denervated muscles of female rats treated with different estrogen doses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MTM Severi

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar a ação estrogênica sobre o perfil glicogênico do músculo esquelético desnervado de ratas. MÉTODOS: Os animais foram divididos em seis grupos experimentais (n=6: controle; desnervado durante 15 dias; desnervado tratado com estrógeno na concentração de 20µg/peso/dia; desnervado tratado com estrógeno na concentração de 40µg/peso/dia; desnervado tratado com estrógeno na concentração de 80µg/peso/dia e desnervado tratado com estrógeno na concentração de 160µg/peso/dia. Os animais foram tratados com a substância cipionato de estradiol durante 15 dias. As análises realizadas foram: conteúdo de glicogênio dos músculos sóleo, gastrocnêmio branco e gastrocnêmio vermelho (misto, realizadas por meio do método do fenol sulfúrico, além do peso corporal e do músculo sóleo. A análise estatística incluiu ANOVA e teste post-hoc de Tukey (pOBJECTIVE: To evaluate the action of estrogen on the glycogen profile of denervated skeletal muscle in female rats. METHODS: The animals were divided into six experimental groups (n=6: control; denervated for 15 days; denervated and treated with estrogen at a concentration of 20µg/weight/day; denervated and treated with estrogen at a concentration of 40µg/weight/day; denervated and treated with estrogen at a concentration of 80µg/weight/day; and denervated and treated with estrogen at a concentration of 160µg/weight/day. The animals were treated with estradiol cypionate for 15 days. The following analyses were carried out: glycogen content of the soleus, white gastrocnemius and red (mixed gastrocnemius, by means of the phenol-sulfuric acid method as well as body weight and soleus muscle weight. The statistical analysis included ANOVA and the post-hoc Tukey test (p<0.05. RESULTS: The denervation induced a reduction in glycogen content in the soleus and the white and mixed gastrocnemius muscles. In contrast, there was a progressive elevation of glycogen content

  11. Treatment of Rats with a Self-Selected Hyperlipidic Diet, Increases the Lipid Content of the Main Adipose Tissue Sites in a Proportion Similar to That of the Lipids in the Rest of Organs and Tissues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero, María del Mar; Roy, Stéphanie; Pouillot, Karl; Feito, Marisol; Esteve, Montserrat; Grasa, María del Mar; Fernández-López, José-Antonio; Alemany, Marià; Remesar, Xavier

    2014-01-01

    Adipose tissue (AT) is distributed as large differentiated masses, and smaller depots covering vessels, and organs, as well as interspersed within them. The differences between types and size of cells makes AT one of the most disperse and complex organs. Lipid storage is partly shared by other tissues such as muscle and liver. We intended to obtain an approximate estimation of the size of lipid reserves stored outside the main fat depots. Both male and female rats were made overweight by 4-weeks feeding of a cafeteria diet. Total lipid content was analyzed in brain, liver, gastrocnemius muscle, four white AT sites: subcutaneous, perigonadal, retroperitoneal and mesenteric, two brown AT sites (interscapular and perirenal) and in a pool of the rest of organs and tissues (after discarding gut contents). Organ lipid content was estimated and tabulated for each individual rat. Food intake was measured daily. There was a surprisingly high proportion of lipid not accounted for by the main macroscopic AT sites, even when brain, liver and BAT main sites were discounted. Muscle contained about 8% of body lipids, liver 1–1.4%, four white AT sites lipid 28–63% of body lipid, and the rest of the body (including muscle) 38–44%. There was a good correlation between AT lipid and body lipid, but lipid in “other organs” was highly correlated too with body lipid. Brain lipid was not. Irrespective of dietary intake, accumulation of body fat was uniform both for the main lipid storage and handling organs: large masses of AT (but also liver, muscle), as well as in the ”rest” of tissues. These storage sites, in specialized (adipose) or not-specialized (liver, muscle) tissues reacted in parallel against a hyperlipidic diet challenge. We postulate that body lipid stores are handled and regulated coordinately, with a more centralized and overall mechanisms than usually assumed. PMID:24603584

  12. Population Structure of Rat-Derived Pneumocystis carinii in Danish Wild Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Palmer, Robert J.; Settnes, Osvald P.; Lodal, Jens; Wakefield, Ann E.

    2000-01-01

    The rat model of Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia is frequently used to study human P. carinii infection, but there are many differences between the rat and human infections. We studied naturally acquired P. carinii in wild rats to examine the relevance of the rat model for human infection. P. carinii DNA was detected in 47 of 51 wild rats and in 10 of 12 nonimmunosuppressed laboratory rats. Evidence for three novel formae speciales of rat-derived P. carinii was found, and these were provisiona...

  13. Effects of recombinant human erythropoietin postconditioning on inducible nitric oxide synthase and nitric oxide in rabbit hindlimb gastrocnemius before and after ischemia/reperfusion injury%重组人促红细胞生成素后处理缺血/再灌注前后骨骼肌诱导型一氧化氮合酶及一氧化氮的变化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张谦; 耿喜林; 杨同群; 冯宝明; 李惠萍; 史继德; 王秉义

    2011-01-01

    背景:促红细胞生成素对包括心脑在内的多种组织器官的缺血/再灌注损伤有保护作用.目的:观察重组人促红细胞生成素后处理对家兔后肢腓肠肌缺血/再灌注前后诱导型一氧化氮合酶、一氧化氮和超微结构的影响.方法:将家兔随机分为空白对照组、模型组和重组人促红细胞生成素组,后2组建立兔左后肢腓肠肌缺血/再灌注实验模型,其中重组人促红细胞生成素组在兔左后肢缺血2 h后静脉注射重组人促红细胞生成素.结果与结论:再灌注后4,12 h,重组人促红细胞生成素组诱导型一氧化氮合酶表达水平及一氧化氮浓度增高幅度较模型组低(P < 0.05).电镜下腓肠肌细胞超微结构显示,模型组内皮细胞膜溶解,肿胀明显,肌纤维内线粒体水肿.重组人促红细胞生成素组肌纤维损伤较轻,肌节内Z线及肌节内各带结构基本正常,大部分线粒体结构正常,显示重组人促红细胞生成素组超微结构损伤程度明显轻于模型组.结果证实,重组人促红细胞生成素后处理可通过抑制诱导型一氧化氮合酶蛋白的表达,减少再灌注后过量一氧化氮生成,改善骨骼肌缺血/再灌注损伤.%BACKGROUND: In recent years, many studies have shown that erythropoietin plays a protective role in many tissues andorgans from ischemia/reperfusion injury including the heart and brain.OBJECTIVE: To observe the effects of recombinant human erythropoietin postconditioning on inducible nitric oxide synthase,nitric oxide and ultrastructure in rabbit hindlimb gastrocnemius before and after ischemia/reperfusion injury.METHODS: Adult rabbits were randomly divided into three groups: blank control, model, and recombinant human erythropoietinpostconditioning. The rabbits in the latter two groups were created into experimental models of ischemia/reperfusion injury of lefthind limb gastrocnemius. At 2 hours after ischemia, the rabbits in the recombinant human

  14. False Context Fear Memory in Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bae, Sarah; Holmes, Nathan M.; Westbrook, R. Frederick

    2015-01-01

    Four experiments used rats to study false context fear memories. In Experiment 1, rats were pre-exposed to a distinctive chamber (context A) or to a control environment (context C), shocked after a delay in a second chamber (context B) and tested either in B or A. Rats pre-exposed to A froze just as much as control rats in B but more than control…

  15. A Novel Rat Model of Type 2 Diabetes: The Zucker Fatty Diabetes Mellitus ZFDM Rat

    OpenAIRE

    Norihide Yokoi; Masayuki Hoshino; Shihomi Hidaka; Eri Yoshida; Masayuki Beppu; Ritsuko Hoshikawa; Katsuko Sudo; Akihiko Kawada; Sadaaki Takagi; Susumu Seino

    2013-01-01

    The Zucker fatty (ZF) rat harboring a missense mutation (fatty, fa) in the leptin receptor gene (Lepr) develops obesity without diabetes; Zucker diabetic fatty (ZDF) rats derived from the ZF strain exhibit obesity with diabetes and are widely used for research on type 2 diabetes (T2D). Here we establish a novel diabetic strain derived from normoglycemic ZF rats. In our ZF rat colony, we incidentally found fa/fa homozygous male rats having reproductive ability, which is generally absent in the...

  16. Tuberculosis Detection by Giant African Pouched Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poling, Alan; Weetjens, Bart; Cox, Christophe; Beyene, Negussie; Durgin, Amy; Mahoney, Amanda

    2011-01-01

    In recent years, operant discrimination training procedures have been used to teach giant African pouched rats to detect tuberculosis (TB) in human sputum samples. This article summarizes how the rats are trained and used operationally, as well as their performance in studies published to date. Available data suggest that pouched rats, which can…

  17. Phosphodiesterases in the rat ovary

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Tonny Studsgaard; Stahlhut, Martin; Andersen, Claus Yding

    2015-01-01

    augmented cAMP levels stimulate primordial follicle growth. The present study examined the gene expression, enzyme activity and immunolocalization of the different cAMP hydrolysing PDEs families in the rat ovary. Further, the effect of PDE4 inhibition on primordial follicle activation in cultured neonatal...... rat ovaries was also evaluated. We found varied expression of all eight families in the ovary with Pde7b and Pde8a having the highest expression each accounting for more than 20% of the total PDE mRNA. PDE4 accounted for 15-26% of the total PDE activity. Immunoreactive PDE11A was found in the oocytes...... and PDE2A in the corpora lutea. Incubating neonatal rat ovaries with PDE4 inhibitors did not increase primordial follicle activation or change the expression of the developing follicle markers Gdf9, Amh, Inha, the proliferation marker Mki67 or the primordial follicle marker Tmeff2. In addition, the c...

  18. Rats are sensitive to ambiguity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fast, Cynthia D; Blaisdell, Aaron P

    2011-12-01

    In the present study, we investigated response decisions made under conditions of incomplete information in rats. In Experiment 1, rats were trained on either a positive patterning (PP; A-, B-, AB+) or a negative patterning (NP; A+, B+, AB-) instrumental lever-press discrimination. Subjects that had learned an NP discrimination responded less to Cue A when Cue B was covered at test. The cover did not, however, affect test responses to Cue A in the PP condition. In Experiment 2, rats received concurrent training on both PP and NP discriminations. After concurrent training, responses to Cue A were different with B covered versus uncovered for both NP and PP discriminations. We discuss possible accounts for why exposure to a nonlinearly soluble discrimination (NP) may have affected sensitivity to cue ambiguity produced by the cover. These results have interesting implications for representational processes engaged in problem solving. PMID:21968926

  19. Metabolism of Deltamethrin in Rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    S.EL-MAGHRABY

    2007-01-01

    Objective To study the membolism of 14C-deltamethrin in rats. Methods Rats were dosed orally and i.p.with a single dose of 14C-deltamethrin(0.64 mg/Kg)body weight.The required dose was applied daily for 3 days.At the end of the experiment,selected organs,such as liver,kidney,fat,intestine,and blood were excised for radioassay of 14C-content.Results Deltamethrin was almost eliminated from the body within 1-3 days.The main portion of 14C-residues Was extracted from urine(38%,32%)and feces(20%,24%)with a little amount remained in various organs. Conclusion The elimination and distribution of 14C-radioactivity in rats treated orally and intraperitoneally signify th6at deltamethrin is bioavailable in urine and feces.

  20. Renal Function and Hemodynamic Study in Obese Zucker Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Park, Sung Kwang; Kang, Sung Kyew

    1995-01-01

    Objectives To investigate the renal function and hemodynamic changes in obesity and hyperinsulinemia which are characteristics of type II diabetes. Methods Studies were carried out in two groups of female Zucker rats. Group 1 rats were obese Zucker rats with hereditary insulin resistance. Group 2 rats were lean Zucker rats and served as controls. In comparison with lean Zucker rats, obese Zucker rats exhibited hyperinsulinemia but normoglycemia. Micropuncture studies and morphologic studies w...

  1. Establishment and evaluation of a diabetic rat model of hindlimb ischemia%糖尿病后肢缺血大鼠模型的建立与评估

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    齐一侠; 张超; 崔世军; 罗涛; 谷涌泉; 李建新; 张建; 汪忠镐

    2015-01-01

    目的:研究糖尿病肢体缺血模型的建立方法,为糖尿病下肢缺血和糖尿病足研究提供试验方法。方法取25只Wistar大鼠分为模型组、对照组及假手术组,模型组腹腔注射链脲佐菌素(60 mg/kg)诱发糖尿病,血糖达16.8 mmol/L模型成功。糖尿病造模成功后,手术结扎大鼠左侧股动脉、剪断周围动脉分支,建立左后肢缺血模型。术后激光多普勒监测动态监测双后肢血流,同时观察血糖、体重及尿量变化。术后21 d取后肢腓肠肌行肌肉HE染色,取结扎处股动脉免疫荧光染色观察血管平滑肌增殖情况,CD31免疫组织化学染色检测后肢肌肉毛细血管密度。结果在治疗后21 d时,无论是最大膀胱容量、漏尿点压力还是收缩力/肌重比,IGF-1组、电刺激组治疗效果更佳;而IGF-1组与电刺激组两组之间比较差异无显著性( P>0.05)。结论成功建立有效、简便易行的糖尿病后肢缺血模型,可用于糖尿病肢体缺血及糖尿病足的药物干预研究。%Objective To establish a diabetic rat model of hindlimb ischemia, and provide a test method for dia-betic limb ischemia and diabetic foot study.Methods Twenty-five Wistar rats were divided into three groups:the model group and control group ( n=10) , and sham operated group ( n=5) .The rats of model group were induced by intraperito-neal injection of streptozotocin ( STZ, 60 mg/kg) , with the blood glucose level over 16.8 mmol/L, while the rats of control group were injected with normal saline.All the rats had the left femoral artery and its branches ligated, and then Doppler scan blood flow analysis was performed for the two hind limbs after operation at different time points.In the meantime, the changes of body weight and blood glucose were observed.The animals were sacrificed at 21days after operation.HE stai-ning was used to observe the pathological changes of gastrocnemius and femoral

  2. Pathophysiology of the Belgrade rat

    OpenAIRE

    Veuthey, Tania; Wessling-Resnick, Marianne

    2014-01-01

    The Belgrade rat is an animal model of divalent metal transporter 1 (DMT1) deficiency. This strain originates from an X-irradiation experiment first reported in 1966. Since then, the Belgrade rat’s pathophysiology has helped to reveal the importance of iron balance and the role of DMT1. This review discusses our current understanding of iron transport homeostasis and summarizes molecular details of DMT1 function. We describe how studies of the Belgrade rat have revealed key roles for DMT1 in ...

  3. Pathophysiology of the Belgrade Rat

    OpenAIRE

    MarianneWessling-Resnick

    2014-01-01

    The Belgrade rat is an animal model of Divalent Metal Transporter-1 (DMT1) deficiency. This strain originates from an X-irradiation experiment first reported in 1966. Since then, the Belgrade rat’s pathophysiology has helped to reveal the importance of iron balance and the role of DMT1. This review discusses our current understanding of iron transport homeostasis and summarizes molecular details of DMT1 function. We describe how studies of the Belgrade rat have revealed key roles for DMT1 i...

  4. Rat ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF)

    OpenAIRE

    Carroll, P.; Sendtner, M.; Meyer, Michael; Thoenen, Hans

    1993-01-01

    The structure of the rat ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF) gene and the regulation of CNTF mRNA levels in cultured glial cells were investigated. The rat mRNA is encoded by a simple two-exon transcription unit. Sequence analysis of the region upstream of the transcription start-site did not reveal a typical TATA-box consensus sequence. Low levels of CNTF mRNA were detected in cultured Schwann cells, and CNTF mRNA was not increased by a variety of treatments. Three-week-old astrocyte-enriched...

  5. Automatic Training of Rat Cyborgs for Navigation

    OpenAIRE

    Yu, Yipeng; Wu, Zhaohui; Xu, Kedi; Gong, Yongyue; Zheng, Nenggan; Zheng, Xiaoxiang; Pan, Gang

    2016-01-01

    A rat cyborg system refers to a biological rat implanted with microelectrodes in its brain, via which the outer electrical stimuli can be delivered into the brain in vivo to control its behaviors. Rat cyborgs have various applications in emergency, such as search and rescue in disasters. Prior to a rat cyborg becoming controllable, a lot of effort is required to train it to adapt to the electrical stimuli. In this paper, we build a vision-based automatic training system for rat cyborgs to rep...

  6. Swimming-based pica in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakajima, Sadahiko

    2016-09-01

    We have recently demonstrated that voluntary or forced running in activity wheels yields pica behavior (kaolin clay intake) in rats (Nakajima, 2016; Nakajima and Katayama, 2014). The present study provides experimental evidence that a single 40-min session of swimming in water also generates pica in rats, while showering rats with water does not produce such behavior. Because kaolin intake has been regarded as a measure of nausea in rats, this finding suggests that swimming activity, as well as voluntary or forced running, induces nausea in rats. PMID:27370361

  7. 脊髓损伤后大鼠行为学改变及早期腓肠肌的变化%Change of Ethology and Gastronomies of Rats after Spinal Cord Injury

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋伟; 蒲放

    2012-01-01

    目的 探索脊髓损伤后大鼠行为学改变及早期腓肠肌变化.方法 108 只Wistar 大鼠,其中38 只为假手术组(n=38),其余制作脊髓切除模型,分为损伤组(n=38)和康复训练组(n=32).应用BBB 法评价大鼠脊髓损伤后不同时间点的行为学变化;通过免疫组织化学法观察腓肠肌的变化.结果 康复训练组BBB 评分从术后3 周开始高于损伤组,但两组得分始终未超过10 分.Dystrophin 免疫荧光染色显示,脊髓损伤后损伤组和康复训练组腓肠肌肌纤维横截面积均减小,但康复训练组萎缩程度较轻.结论 脊髓损伤后大鼠后肢运动功能可出现一定的自发性恢复,康复训练有利于脊髓损伤大鼠运动功能的恢复,并能减缓后肢肌肉萎缩.%Objective To explore the alteration in ethology and change of muscle fibers of gastronomies of rats following spinal cord injury (SCI). Methods 108 Wistar rats were divided into sham operation group (n=38) and SCI group (n=38) and rehabilitation group (n=32). The ethology was evaluated by Basso, Beattie, and Bresnahan Locomotor Rating Scale (BBB Scale), and the alteration of muscle tissue's reactivity was observed by immunohistochemistry staining. Results The BBB scores of rehabilitation group were higher than SCI group 3 weeks after injury, but all was lower than 10. The cross section areas of gastrocnemius in both groups were getting smaller, but the rehabilitation group was slighter. Conclusion Spontaneous recovery occurred in some degree for rats' hind limb after spinal cord injury. Rehabilitation training is beneficial for the recovery of rats' motor function, and alleviates the atrophy of hind limb after spinal cord injury.

  8. Struvite Urolithiasis in Long-Evans Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pang, Jassia; Borjeson, Tiffany M; Parry, Nicola M A; Fox, James G

    2015-12-01

    Struvite urinary calculi, which are composed of magnesium, ammonium, and phosphate, can cause complications including sepsis and renal failure. Struvite calculi were identified within the urinary bladder and renal pelvis of 2 Long-Evans rats that died within days after arrival from a commercial vendor. The remaining rats in the shipment were screened by physical examination, radiography, and ultrasonography, revealing an additional 2 animals that were clinically affected. These rats were euthanized, necropsied, and yielded similar findings to those from the first 2 rats. In addition, urine samples had an alkaline pH and contained numerous bacteria (predominantly Proteus mirabilis), leukocytes, and crystals. All calculi were composed completely of struvite. Another 7 rats in the shipment had alkaline urine with the presence of blood cells; 6 of these rats also had abundant struvite crystals, and P. mirabilis was cultured from the urine of 3 rats. Further investigation by the vendor identified 2 of 100 rats with struvite calculi from the same colony. Although no specific cause could be implicated, the fact that all the affected rats came from the same breeding area suggests a genetic or environmental triggering event; a contribution due to diet cannot be ruled out. Our findings suggest that the affected rats had metabolic disturbances coupled with bacterial infection that predisposed them to develop struvite calculi. During sudden increases of struvite urinary calculi cases in rats, urine cultures followed by appropriate surgical intervention and antibiotic therapy is warranted. Additional factors, including diet, merit attention as well. PMID:26678365

  9. Whiskers aid anemotaxis in rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yan S. W.; Graff, Matthew M.; Bresee, Chris S.; Man, Yan B.; Hartmann, Mitra J. Z.

    2016-01-01

    Observation of terrestrial mammals suggests that they can follow the wind (anemotaxis), but the sensory cues underlying this ability have not been studied. We identify a significant contribution to anemotaxis mediated by whiskers (vibrissae), a modality previously studied only in the context of direct tactile contact. Five rats trained on a five-alternative forced-choice airflow localization task exhibited significant performance decrements after vibrissal removal. In contrast, vibrissal removal did not disrupt the performance of control animals trained to localize a light source. The performance decrement of individual rats was related to their airspeed threshold for successful localization: animals that found the task more challenging relied more on the vibrissae for localization cues. Following vibrissal removal, the rats deviated more from the straight-line path to the air source, choosing sources farther from the correct location. Our results indicate that rats can perform anemotaxis and that whiskers greatly facilitate this ability. Because air currents carry information about both odor content and location, these findings are discussed in terms of the adaptive significance of the interaction between sniffing and whisking in rodents. PMID:27574705

  10. State Space Methods in RATS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Doan

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper uses several examples to show how the econometrics program RATS can be used to analyze state space models. It demonstrates Kalman filtering and smoothing, estimation of hyperparameters, unconditional and conditional simulation. It also provides a more complicated example where a dynamic simultaneous equations model is transformed into a proper state space representation and its unknown parameters are estimated.

  11. Acute renal failure in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It was demonstrated in rats that renal injury which follows transient renal hypoxia is potentiated by the contrast media metrizoate, ioxaglate, iopamidol and iohexol. Intravenous injection of 1 g I/kg of all four media alone to 82 rats caused no significant increase in serum urea 1, 3 and 7 days later. The percentage increase of serum urea is given in median values and interquartile range (in parentheses). Bilateral renal arterial occlusion alone for 40 minutes in 42 rats increased serum urea one day later by 40% (20-130). Intravenous injection of the media followed in one hour by bilateral renal arterial occlusion for 40 minutes in 104 rats caused serum urea to increase one day later by 130% (70-350) after metrizoate, by 220% (50-380) after ioxaglate, by 290 % (60-420) after iopamidol and by 160% (50-330) after iohexol. There were no significant differences between the potentiating effects of the various media on ischemic renal failure. (orig.)

  12. Tubuloglomerular feedback in Dahl rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karlsen, F M; Leyssac, P P; Holstein-Rathlou, N H

    1998-01-01

    We have previously demonstrated a loss of autoregulation in Dahl salt-sensitive (Dahl-S) rats rendered hypertensive on a high-salt diet. To determine whether this was due to a decreased activity of either the myogenic or the tubuloglomerular feedback (TGF) response, we tested the TGF response in...

  13. Kangaroo rat bone compared to white rat bone after short-term disuse and exercise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muths, E.; Reichman, O. J.

    1996-01-01

    Kangaroo rats (Dipodomys ordii) were used to study the effects of confinement on mechanical properties of bone with a long range objective of proposing an alternative to the white rat model for the study of disuse osteoporosis. Kangaroo rats exhibit bipedal locomotion, which subjects their limbs to substantial accelerative forces in addition to the normal stress of weight bearing. We subjected groups of kangaroo rats and white rats (Rattus norvegicus) to one of two confinement treatments or to an exercise regime; animals were exercised at a rate calculated to replicate their (respective) daily exercise patterns. White laboratory rats were used as the comparison because they are currently the accepted model used in the study of disuse osteoporosis. After 6 weeks of treatment, rats were killed and the long bones of their hind limbs were tested mechanically and examined for histomorphometric changes. We found that kangaroo rats held in confinement had less ash content in their hind limbs than exercised kangaroo rats. In general, treated kangaroo rats showed morphometric and mechanical bone deterioration compared to controls and exercised kangaroo rats appeared to have slightly “stronger” bones than confined animals. White rats exhibited no significant differences between treatments. These preliminary results suggest that kangaroo rats may be an effective model in the study of disuse osteoporosis.

  14. Radio-sensitivity of the LEC rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The LEC rat is known to be a mutant strain which spontaneously develops heritable hepatitis due to copper accumulation, caused by mutation of the copper transporting ATPase gene (Atp7b). In addition, immunodeficiency and radio-sensitivity have also been observed. Hayashi et al. extensively examined the radio-sensitivity of the LEC rat and concluded that its hypersensitivity is controlled by a single autosomal gene. Furthermore, they suggested the possibility that it correlates to copper accumulation due to the Atp7b gene mutation, because ionizing radiation-induced hydroxyl radicals might act in concert with copper-induced hydroxyl radicals. Firstly, we analyzed linkage between radio-sensitivity and the mutation responsible for LEC hepatitis in F1 animals of cross with the F344 rat. Our results clearly demonstrated an absence of any significant association. In addition, partial dominance for radio-sensitivity was observed and radio-sensitive (F1 x LEC) backcross rats were twice as numerous as their radio-resistant counterparts, suggesting the possibility of control by two or more recessive genes. In order to select the radio-sensitivity gene in the LEC rat, we wished to develop congenic line of F344 rats using a phenotype-driven breeding protocol: rats of each backcross generation were mated with LEC rats and their progeny were irradiated with 4.5 Gy X rays, which dose cause death in LEC rats but did not in F344 rats, and judged 30 days later. Lately we also combined using genomic-wide genotyping in each backcross generation and their progeny to select heterogeneous rat. Although congenic rat line is not yet established until March of 2003, backcross exceeded 16 generations. This radio-sensitivity gene was demonstrated to locate in the region within 10Mb on the rat chromosome 4

  15. 电毁损锥体束与内囊出血法建立痉挛性脑瘫大鼠模型的比较%Comparison of electronic lesion of pyramidal tract and internal capsule hemorrhage in establishing spastic rat models

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李深; 蓝晓艳; 白玉萌; 秦华民; 宋品; 王苏平

    2014-01-01

    目的 比较电毁损锥体束与内囊出血2种方法建立痉挛性脑瘫大鼠模型的差异.方法 84只SD大鼠按随机数字表法分为电毁损模型组、内囊出血模型组和对照组,每组28只,每组再分为4个不同的观察时间亚组(术后7d、14d、21d及28 d组),每组7只.记录每组动物一般状况及行为学评分,检测腓肠肌Hoffman反射,采用骨骼肌肌球蛋白ATP酶染色计算股四头肌Ⅰ型肌纤维比例. 结果 与对照组比较,电毁损模型组及内囊出血模型组大鼠术后各项神经功能缺损症状持续时间更长,腓肠肌Hoffman反射波幅增高且潜伏期缩短更明显,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05),并分别持续至术后28 d和14 d.电毁损模型组及内囊出血模型组大鼠的股四头肌Ⅰ型肌纤维比例较对照组大鼠明显增高,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05),并分别持续至术后21d和14d.其中电毁损模型组大鼠的行为学评分、腓肠肌Hoffman反射的潜伏期、波峰值和股四头肌Ⅰ型肌纤维比例异常,与内囊出血模型组大鼠相比更高,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05). 结论 电毁损模型较内囊出血模型肌张力增高更加显著,持续时间更长.%Objective To compare the differences between electronic lesion of pyramidal tract and internal capsule hemorrhage in establishing spastic rat models.Methods Experimental animals were randomly assigned into three groups:electronic lesion group (EL),internal capsule hemorrhage group (ICH) and control group (CON,n=28).Seven,14,21 and 28 d after each treatment,the general conditions of the rats and behavioral tests on them were recorded; and the gastrocnemius Hoffman reflex (H reflex) was detected; and the percentage of type Ⅰ muscle fiber in quadriceps femoris were examined by skeletal muscle myosin ATP staining.Results Rats in EL group and ICH group showed significant differences in behavioral tests as compared with CON group (P<0.05); the duration of symptoms of

  16. Immortalized Rat Astrocyte Strain Genetically Modified by Rat Preprogalanin Gene

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    To construct an immortalized rat astrocyte strain genetically modified by rat preprogalanin gene (IAST/GAL) and detect its galanin (GAL) expression and secretion, a cDNA fragment of rat GAL in plasmid of pBS KS(+)-GAL was inserted into eukaryotic expression vector pcDNA3.1(+) by DNA recombinant technology, then the restriction enzyme digestion and DNA sequencing were carried out to evaluate the recombinant. The pcDNA3.1 (+)-GAL and pcDNA3.1 (+) construct were transfected into immortalized rat astrocyte strain (IAST) by lipofectamine and the population of cells which stably integrated the construct was selected with 600 μg/mL G418. Individual clones were screened and expanded into clonal cell strains. Detection of Neo gene was used to validate the success of the transfection. Immunocytochemical staining, RT-PCR and radioimmunoassay were used to detect the expression and secretion level of GAL. The recombinant had been successfully constructed by restriction enzyme digestion and DNA sequencing. Detection of Neo gene showed that the pcDNA3.1 (+)-GAL and pcDNA3.1 (+) have been successfully transfected into IAST. After selection by using G418, IAST/GAL and IAST/Neo cell strains were obtained.IAST/GAL, IAST/Neo and IAST were immunostained positively for GAL, but the GAL average optical density of IAST/GAL was significantly higher than that of IAST/Neo and IAST (P<0.01). The level of GAL mRNA expression and the supernatant concentration of GAL in cultured IAST/GAL were significantly higher than those of IAST and IAST/Neo (P<0.01), but no significant differences were found between the IAST and IAST/Neo (P>0.05). It was concluded that IAST/GAL strain was constructed successfully and it might provide a basis for the further study of pain therapy.

  17. Chronic study on BHT in rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Würtzen, G.; Olsen, P.

    1986-01-01

    Groups of 40, 29, 39 and 44 F0 rats of each sex were fed a semi-synthetic diet containing butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) in concentrations to provide intakes of 0, 25, 100 or 500 mg/kg body weight/day, respectively. The F0 rats were mated, and groups of 100, 80, 80 and 100 F1 rats of each sex were...... formed. After weaning, the highest dose of BHT was lowered to 250 mg/kg/day for the F1 rats. At weaning the BHT-treated F1 rats, especially the males, had lower body weights than the controls and the effect was dose related. The survival of the BHT-treated rats of both sexes was higher than that of the...

  18. 蒺藜提取物对大强度耐力运动大鼠运动能力的影响及作用机制%Interaction Mechanisms and Influence of Tribulus terrestris L. Ext ract on the Exercise Capacity of Rats with strengthen Endurance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李小莉

    2015-01-01

    min rat blood lactate and glucose. Finally, the day of exhaustive exercise movement, recording two groups of rats after exhaustive time.3 days after the end of the exercise whichever blood, rat plasma testosterone in the blood, red blood cells and Hb. After the rats were sacrificed whichever gastrocnemius and soleus muscle weight were compared both rats and its protein concentration above. Results showed that the fourth week of rat body weight level drug+exercise group and the exercise group increased significantly compared, compared to the results of two sets of data were statistically significant (P 0.05). T. terrestris extract can significantly improve the ability of high-intensity exercise endurance exercise in rats, T. terrestris extract on the movement of red blood cells in rats and Hb content showed no significant effect;Extract mechanism of action may be related to a significant increase in plasma testosterone levels in rats movement, gastrocnemius protein concentration and blood glucose levels after exercise have a greater relationship.

  19. Possible antiosteoporotic mechanism of Cicer arietinum extract in ovariectomized rats

    OpenAIRE

    Fahmy, Sohair R; Amel M. Soliman; Sayed, Amany A; Marzouk, Mohamed

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The present study aimed to throw the light on the anti-osteoprotic mechanism of Cicer arietinum extract (CAE) seeds against ovariectomized (OVX) rats. Methods: Seventy female rats were divided into two groups. The first group (14 rats/group) represented normal rats (Sham operated) while the second group (56 rats/group) underwent bilateral ovariectomy (OVX). After one week of recovery from ovariectomy surgery, the second group was randomly subdivided into 4 subgroups (14 rats/ each ...

  20. Evaluation of the Lactate Threshold during Downhill Running in Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Tsumiyama, Wakako; Oki, Sadaaki; Umei, Namiko; Shimizu, Michele Eisemann; Ono, Takeya; Otsuka, Akira

    2014-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of the present study was to investigate if lactate thresholds in rats could be accurately determined during downhill running in rats. [Subjects] Twenty-four female Wistar rats were used in this study. Rats were randomly divided into two groups: the level running group and downhill running group. [Methods] Catheters were inserted into the right external jugular veins of the rats. Two days after the operation, the rats performed incremental exercise tests. The level runnin...

  1. Penile autotransplantation in rats: An animal model

    OpenAIRE

    Seyam, Raouf M.; Said A Kattan; Assad, Lina W.; Raafat M El-Sayed; Falah H Almohanna

    2013-01-01

    Context: Penile allotransplantation might be a viable option for patients who need penile reconstruction. Aims: A successful autotransplantation rat model is the first step toward proceeding for allotransplantation. We herein evaluate autotransplantation following transaction of the rat penis just distal to the urethral bulb. Settings and Design: Experimental animal study. Materials and Methods: Five Sprague-Dawely rats weighing 520 g (SD 19) were used. Utilizing a magnification o...

  2. Rat Neutrophils Prevent the Development of Tuberculosis

    OpenAIRE

    Sugawara, Isamu; Udagawa, Tadashi; Yamada, Hiroyuki

    2004-01-01

    To understand the role of neutrophils in the development of rat tuberculosis in vivo, we utilized lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced neutrophilia in the lungs. LPS (50 μg/ml) was administered intratracheally to male Fischer rats. Rats were then infected with Mycobacterium tuberculosis by an airborne route. Intratracheal injection of LPS significantly blocked the development of pulmonary granulomas and significantly reduced pulmonary CFU (P < 0.01). LPS treatment with amphotericin B (an LPS inhi...

  3. Suppression of infanticide in mother rats

    OpenAIRE

    Peters, L. C.; Kristal, M. B.

    1983-01-01

    In order to test the hypothesis that infanticidal tendencies are suppressed when rats become mothers, very young newborn pups, either naturally born or cesarean-delivered, were presented to virgin females and to newly delivered mothers. Provided that the pups were lively, uncleaned of fetal fluids or membranes, and presented without placentas, nearly all virgins killed and nearly all mothers did not. Newborns were also presented to Day 22 pregnant rats and to rats whose pregnancies had recent...

  4. Sticky Glues for Rat Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.C. Gupta

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available A number of polymeric glues based on linseed oil, animal hide and hydroxy-terminated polybutadiene (HTPB-derived polyurethanes have been synthesised. These glues are sticky in natureand characterised by viscosity, FTIR spectra and adhesive strength. These glues were evaluated for rat control. The HTPB-derived polyurethane, p l y [mB-hexamethylene-diisocyanate (HMDI] and linseed oil-based glues were found to be effective in controlling the rats. Storage ageing studies of these glues were also carried out. It was found that the exposed layer of linseed oil-based glue dried up after 9 months but still remained effective after removing top layer and the HTPB-HMDI-derived polyurethane is effective for 18 months.

  5. Isolation of rat adrenocortical mitochondria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► A method for isolation of adrenocortical mitochondria from the adrenal gland of rats is described. ► The purified isolated mitochondria show excellent morphological integrity. ► The properties of oxidative phosphorylation are excellent. ► The method increases the opportunity of direct analysis of adrenal mitochondria from small animals. -- Abstract: This report describes a relatively simple and reliable method for isolating adrenocortical mitochondria from rats in good, reasonably pure yield. These organelles, which heretofore have been unobtainable in isolated form from small laboratory animals, are now readily accessible. A high degree of mitochondrial purity is shown by the electron micrographs, as well as the structural integrity of each mitochondrion. That these organelles have retained their functional integrity is shown by their high respiratory control ratios. In general, the biochemical performance of these adrenal cortical mitochondria closely mirrors that of typical hepatic or cardiac mitochondria.

  6. Rats Train As Landmine Detectors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    单献心

    2000-01-01

    鼠,也有“改邪归正”之日!比利时的研究人员正在训练老鼠当地雷侦察员。收效甚奇:Trained rats may be the best and cheapest form of landmine(地雷)detector. 不过,老鼠心甘情愿地去发现地雷,并非被灌输了什么“为民除害”的思想,而是为了食物,为了生存: Once the minefield has been mapped,the rats sniff out a landmine and sitbeside it waiting to be rewarded with food.

  7. Isolation of rat adrenocortical mitochondria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Solinas, Paola [Department of Pharmacology, School of Medicine, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, OH 44106 (United States); Department of Medicine, Center for Mitochondrial Disease, School of Medicine, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, OH 44106 (United States); Fujioka, Hisashi [Electron Microscopy Facility, Department of Pharmacology, Center for Mitochondrial Disease, School of Medicine, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, OH 44106 (United States); Tandler, Bernard [Department of Biological Sciences, School of Dental Medicine, Center for Mitochondrial Disease, School of Medicine, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, OH 44106 (United States); Hoppel, Charles L., E-mail: charles.hoppel@case.edu [Department of Pharmacology, School of Medicine, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, OH 44106 (United States); Department of Medicine, Center for Mitochondrial Disease, School of Medicine, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, OH 44106 (United States)

    2012-10-12

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A method for isolation of adrenocortical mitochondria from the adrenal gland of rats is described. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The purified isolated mitochondria show excellent morphological integrity. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The properties of oxidative phosphorylation are excellent. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The method increases the opportunity of direct analysis of adrenal mitochondria from small animals. -- Abstract: This report describes a relatively simple and reliable method for isolating adrenocortical mitochondria from rats in good, reasonably pure yield. These organelles, which heretofore have been unobtainable in isolated form from small laboratory animals, are now readily accessible. A high degree of mitochondrial purity is shown by the electron micrographs, as well as the structural integrity of each mitochondrion. That these organelles have retained their functional integrity is shown by their high respiratory control ratios. In general, the biochemical performance of these adrenal cortical mitochondria closely mirrors that of typical hepatic or cardiac mitochondria.

  8. Modeling nicotine addiction in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caille, Stephanie; Clemens, Kelly; Stinus, Luis; Cador, Martine

    2012-01-01

    Among the human population, 15% of drug users develop a pathological drug addiction. This figure increases substantially with nicotine, whereby more than 30% of those who try smoking develop a nicotine addiction. Drug addiction is characterized by compulsive drug-seeking and drug-taking behaviors (craving), and loss of control over intake despite impairment in health, social, and occupational functions. This behavior can be accurately modeled in the rat using an intravenous self-administration (IVSA) paradigm. Initial attempts at establishing nicotine self-administration had been problematic, yet in recent times increasingly reliable models of nicotine self-administration have been developed. The present article reviews different characteristics of the nicotine IVSA model that has been developed to examine nicotine reinforcing and motivational properties in rats. PMID:22231818

  9. Analysis of Heme oxygenase isomers in rat

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yun-ZhuLi; Wen-JunCui; Xue-HongZhang; Qing-XiangShen; JianWang; She

    2002-01-01

    AIM:To purify and identify heme oxygenase(HO) isomers which exist in rat liver,spleen and brain treated with hematin and phenylhydrazine and in untrated rat liver and to investigate the characteristics of HO isomers,to isolate and confirm the rat HO-1 cDNA that actually encodes HO-1 by expressing cDNA in monkey Kidney cells(COS-1 cells),to prepare the rat heme oxygenase-1(HO-1)mutant and to detect inhibition of HO-1 mutated enzyme.

  10. Toxicity and repellency to rats of actidione

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traub, R.; DeWitt, J.B.; Welch, J.F.; Newman, D.

    1950-01-01

    The antibiotic actidione was found to be highly repellent to laboratory rats and to significantly reduce gnawing attacks upon treated paperboards. Rats refused to accept food or water containing this material even under conditions of acute starvation and died of starvation and thirst,rather than accept water containing l.0 mg. of actidione per liter. The compound is highly toxic to .rats with the minimum .lethal dose by oral administration being approximately l.0 mg./Kg body weight. Paperboard treated with the compound resisted gnawing attacks by specially trained and motivated rats for periods of two hundred hours, although similar .untreated boards were pierced within thirty-to sixty minutes.

  11. Automatic Training of Rat Cyborgs for Navigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yipeng; Wu, Zhaohui; Xu, Kedi; Gong, Yongyue; Zheng, Nenggan; Zheng, Xiaoxiang; Pan, Gang

    2016-01-01

    A rat cyborg system refers to a biological rat implanted with microelectrodes in its brain, via which the outer electrical stimuli can be delivered into the brain in vivo to control its behaviors. Rat cyborgs have various applications in emergency, such as search and rescue in disasters. Prior to a rat cyborg becoming controllable, a lot of effort is required to train it to adapt to the electrical stimuli. In this paper, we build a vision-based automatic training system for rat cyborgs to replace the time-consuming manual training procedure. A hierarchical framework is proposed to facilitate the colearning between rats and machines. In the framework, the behavioral states of a rat cyborg are visually sensed by a camera, a parameterized state machine is employed to model the training action transitions triggered by rat's behavioral states, and an adaptive adjustment policy is developed to adaptively adjust the stimulation intensity. The experimental results of three rat cyborgs prove the effectiveness of our system. To the best of our knowledge, this study is the first to tackle automatic training of animal cyborgs.

  12. Rat model for human cryptosporidiosis.

    OpenAIRE

    BRASSEUR, P; Lemeteil, D; Ballet, J J

    1988-01-01

    Effective treatment for Cryptosporidium infection in immunocompromised patients has yet to be found. We report a rodent model of persistent Cryptosporidium infection. Sprague-Dawley rats were injected subcutaneously twice a week for 8 weeks with 25 mg of hydrocortisone acetate. Fed a regular low-protein diet for 9 weeks, they were challenged once with 10(5) calf Cryptosporidium oocysts 5 weeks after the start of the hydrocortisone acetate regimen. Oocyst shedding was evaluated in feces daily ...

  13. A Novel Rat Model of Type 2 Diabetes: The Zucker Fatty Diabetes Mellitus ZFDM Rat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norihide Yokoi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The Zucker fatty (ZF rat harboring a missense mutation (fatty, fa in the leptin receptor gene (Lepr develops obesity without diabetes; Zucker diabetic fatty (ZDF rats derived from the ZF strain exhibit obesity with diabetes and are widely used for research on type 2 diabetes (T2D. Here we establish a novel diabetic strain derived from normoglycemic ZF rats. In our ZF rat colony, we incidentally found fa/fa homozygous male rats having reproductive ability, which is generally absent in these animals. During maintenance of this strain by mating fa/fa males and fa/+ heterozygous females, we further identified fa/fa male rats exhibiting diabetes. We then performed selective breeding using the fa/fa male rats that exhibited relatively high blood glucose levels at 10 weeks of age, resulting in establishment of a diabetic strain that we designated Hos:ZFDM-Leprfa (ZFDM. These fa/fa male rats developed diabetes as early as 10 weeks of age, reaching 100% incidence by 21 weeks of age, while none of the fa/+ male rats developed diabetes. The phenotypic characteristics of this diabetic strain are distinct from those of normoglycemic ZF rats. ZFDM rat strain having high reproductive efficiency should serve as a more useful animal model of T2D.

  14. Modulation of rat behaviour by using a rat-like robot

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper, we study the response of a rat to a rat-like robot capable of generating different types of behaviour (stressful, friendly, neutral). Experiments are conducted in an open-field where a rat-like robot called WR-4 is put together with live rats. The activity level of each rat subject is evaluated by scoring its locomotor activity and frequencies of performing rearing (rising up on its hind limbs) and body grooming (body cuddling and head curling) actions, whereas the degree of preference of that is indicated by the robot–rat distance and the frequency of contacting WR-4. The moving speed and behaviour of WR-4 are controlled in real-time based on the feedback from rat motion. The activity level and degree of preference of rats for each experimental condition are analysed and compared to understand the influence of robot behaviour. The results of this study show that the activity level and degree of preference of the rat decrease when exposed to a stressful robot, and increase when the robot exhibit friendly behaviour, suggesting that a rat-like robot can modulate rat behaviour in a controllable, predictable way. (paper)

  15. Arylsulfatase B-deficient mucopolysaccharidosis in rats.

    OpenAIRE

    Yoshida, M; Noguchi, J.; Ikadai, H; Takahashi, M; Nagase, S.

    1993-01-01

    A rat colony with mucopolysaccharidosis VI was established and the clinical, pathological, and biochemical features were characterized. Affected rats had facial dysmorphia, dysostosis multiplex, and increased urinary excretion of glucosaminoglycans (GAGs). Ultrastructural studies revealed storage of GAGs throughout the reticuloendothelial cells, cartilage, and other connective tissues, but no deposition was observed in the nervous system. Biochemical analyses demonstrated that the excreted GA...

  16. Distal axonopathy in streptozotocin diabetes in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chokroverty, S; Seiden, D; Navidad, P; Cody, R

    1988-05-15

    We noted the earliest morphological changes in the motor endplates 8 weeks after the induction of streptozotocin diabetes in rats. Morphometric measurements showed reduced axonal areas of the lateral plantar and the sciatic nerves in the diabetic rats 28 but not 2 and 8 weeks after the experiment. These findings suggested distal axonopathy. PMID:3371449

  17. Same-Different Categorization in Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasserman, Edward A.; Castro, Leyre; Freeman, John H.

    2012-01-01

    Same-different categorization is a fundamental feat of human cognition. Although birds and nonhuman primates readily learn same-different discriminations and successfully transfer them to novel stimuli, no such demonstration exists for rats. Using a spatial discrimination learning task, we show that rats can both learn to discriminate arrays of…

  18. Chronic study on BHT in rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Würtzen, G.; Olsen, P.

    1986-01-01

    Groups of 40, 29, 39 and 44 F0 rats of each sex were fed a semi-synthetic diet containing butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) in concentrations to provide intakes of 0, 25, 100 or 500 mg/kg body weight/day, respectively. The F0 rats were mated, and groups of 100, 80, 80 and 100 F1 rats of each sex were...... formed. After weaning, the highest dose of BHT was lowered to 250 mg/kg/day for the F1 rats. At weaning the BHT-treated F1 rats, especially the males, had lower body weights than the controls and the effect was dose related. The survival of the BHT-treated rats of both sexes was higher than that of the...... controls. Dose-related increases in the numbers of hepatocellular adenomas and carcinomas were statistically significant in male F1 rats when all groups together were tested for heterogeneity or analysis for trend. The increases in hepatocellular adenomas and carcinomas in treated female F1 rats were only...

  19. A rat model for embolic encephalitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Astrup, Lærke Boye; Agerholm, Jørgen Steen; Aalbæk, Bent;

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To establish a rat model for embolic encephalitis. Methods: 63 Male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly assigned to three groups: control, sterile and septic. The right external carotid artery (ECA) was catheterized after anesthesia and 300µl blood was aspired. The blood was mixed with 30...

  20. Experimental Salmonella typhimurium infections in rats. I

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hougen, H P; Jensen, E T; Klausen, B

    1989-01-01

    The course of experimentally induced Salmonella typhimurium infection was studied in three groups of inbred LEW rats: homozygous +/+, athymic rnu/rnu and isogeneic thymus-grafted rnu/rnu rats. In the first experiment the animals were inoculated intraperitoneally with 10(8) bacteria and all animals...... very low in the athymic nude animals. Polyclonal antibody production was only observed in the euthymic animals and only regarding IgG. Athymic rats were not able to clear the infection, while the thymus-grafted animals reacted like euthymic rats: Very few animals housed the bacteria four weeks after...... inoculation, and no bacteria could be detected after four months. Immunohistochemical studies of lymphoid organs revealed that the infection caused a drop in the percentages of T non-helper cells, indicating low suppressor activity. The study shows that athymic nude rats are well suited for studies of...

  1. Adrenergic blockade in diabetic and uninephrectomized rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thulesen, J; Poulsen, Steen Seier; Jørgensen, P E;

    1999-01-01

    The present study reports on the effects of adrenergic blocking agents on the renal growth and on the renal content and urinary excretion of epidermal growth factor (EGF) in streptozotocin-induced diabetic or uninephrectomized rats. Diabetic and uninephrectomized rats were allocated to groups...... treated with either saline or adrenergic antagonists and compared to controls and sham-operated controls, respectively. 24-hour urine samples were obtained on days 7, 14, and 21 and renal tissue samples on day 21. The 24-hour urinary excretion of EGF from controls and saline-treated diabetic rats was...... comparable. In adrenergic antagonist treated diabetic rats, it was reduced by at least 40% throughout the study period. Uninephrectomy caused a 50% reduction in the urinary excretion of EGF. This was not influenced by treatment with an adrenergic antagonist. After 3 weeks, saline-treated diabetic rats had an...

  2. Metabolism of methylphenidate in dog and rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The urinary metabolites of methylphenidate in the dog and rat were investigated. After oral administration of 14C-labeled methylphenidate, approximately 86% and 63% of the dose was recovered in the urine of the dog and rat, respectively. Less than 1% of the dose was excreted as unchanged drug. Metabolism involved oxidation, hydrolysis, and conjugation processes. The primary hydrolytic product was alpha-phenyl-2-piperidineacetic acid (24%, dog; 35-40%, rat). The primary metabolites of oxidation were methyl 6-oxo-alpha-phenyl-2-piperidineacetate (3%, dog; 1.5%, rat) and the glucuronide of alpha-(p-hydroxyphenyl)-2-piperidineacetic acid (10%, rat). The former also underwent extensive biotransformation, including: 1) hydrolysis to the lactam acid (27%, dog; 7-10%, rat) and subsequent carboxylic acid O-glucuronidation (15%, dog); or 2) hydroxylation at the 5-position (1%, dog; 2%, rat) and subsequent hydrolysis (4%, dog; 15-17%, rat); or 3) 5-O-glucuronidation (12%, dog). Additional minor metabolites from methyl-6-oxo-alpha-phenyl-2-piperidineacetate were the phenolic O-glucuronide of methyl alpha-(p-hydroxyphenyl)-6-oxo-2-piperidineacetate (1%, dog), and the 4-O-glucuronide of methyl 4-hydroxy-6-oxo-alpha-phenyl-2-piperidineacetate (1%, dog), and the taurine amide conjugate of alpha-(p-hydroxyphenyl)-6-oxo-2-piperidineacetic acid (1%, dog). Additional products from methylphenidate conjugation included methyl 1-carbamoyl-alpha-phenyl-2-piperidineacetate (1%, dog or rat) and its carboxylic acid hydrolysis product (1%, rat). The chirality of the major metabolites isolated from dog urine showed that metabolism was partially stereoselective in all investigated cases, except in the formation of alpha-phenyl-2-piperidineacetic acid

  3. Social exclusion intensifies anxiety-like behavior in adolescent rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hyunchan; Noh, Jihyun

    2015-05-01

    Social connection reduces the physiological reactivity to stressors, while social exclusion causes emotional distress. Stressful experiences in rats result in the facilitation of aversive memory and induction of anxiety. To determine the effect of social interaction, such as social connection, social exclusion and equality or inequality, on emotional change in adolescent distressed rats, the emotional alteration induced by restraint stress in individual rats following exposure to various social interaction circumstances was examined. Rats were assigned to one of the following groups: all freely moving rats, all rats restrained, rats restrained in the presence of freely moving rats and freely moving rats with a restrained rat. No significant difference in fear-memory and sucrose consumption between all groups was found. Change in body weight significantly increased in freely moving rats with a restrained rat, suggesting that those rats seems to share the stressful experience of the restrained rat. Interestingly, examination of the anxiety-like behavior revealed only rats restrained in the presence of freely moving rats to have a significant increase, suggesting that emotional distress intensifies in positions of social exclusion. These results demonstrate that unequally excluded social interaction circumstances could cause the amplification of distressed status and anxiety-related emotional alteration. PMID:25680679

  4. 0027,KND/Tky,KND, Komeda non-diabetic rat [

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NBRP Rat No: 0027 系統名 : KND/Tky 通称: KND, Komeda non-diabetic rat Rat Genome Database 研究責 ... -prone and non-diabetic, from Long-Evans Tokushima Lean ... (LETL) rats. Endocr J. 45(6):737-44, 1998 系統情報 ...

  5. 全身麻醉下顺式阿曲库铵对大鼠坐骨神经复合肌肉动作电位的影响%Effects of cisatracurium on compound muscle action potential of sciatic nerve in rats under general anesthesia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    臧光辉; 孟祥虎; 樊龙昌; 李新华; 刘继红; 张传汉; 罗爱林; 田玉科

    2013-01-01

    目的:研究水合氯醛全麻状态下顺式阿曲库铵对大鼠坐骨神经复合肌肉动作电位(CMAP)的影响.方法:60只SD大鼠随机分为2组,7%水合氯醛腹腔注射麻醉后,实验组腹腔注射顺式阿曲库铵(0.93 mg/kg),对照组腹腔注射等体积生理盐水,立即刺激坐骨神经,记录大鼠腓肠肌CMAP变化,刺激间隔5 min.结果:麻醉生效后18 ~ 48 min 2组间峰峰值及潜伏期差异有统计学意义(P<0.05).实验组CMAP变化分3个阶段:诱导期,表现为峰峰值逐步下降,潜伏期延长,持续约10 min;抑制期,表现为峰峰值进一步降低,潜伏期进一步延长,之后有恢复趋势,持续约30 min;恢复期,表现为峰峰值、潜伏期恢复至用药前水平.对照组CMAP峰峰值与潜伏期均无显著变化(均P>0.05).结论:顺式阿曲库铵对大鼠腓肠肌CMAP有显著影响,而且呈阶段性变化,准确了解这种变化趋势,有助于术中及时为术者反馈信息,减少神经损伤.%Objective: To study the effects of cisatracurium on compound muscle action potential (CMAP) of sciatic nerve in rats under general anesthesia by chloral hydrate. Methods: A total of 60 SD rats were divided into two groups randomly. Cisatracurium (0. 93mg/kg) was injected intraperitoneally into the rats of the experimental group, and isotonic saline of the same volume in the control group after anesthetized by 7% chloral hydrate, respectively. Sciatic nerve was stimulated after injection at 5 minutes'intervals, and recorded the changes of CMAPs of gastrocnemius muscle. Results: Significant differences existed in peak-to-peak values and latencies between two groups 18-48 minutes after general anesthesia (P0. 05). Conclusions: The CMAPs of gastrocnemius muscles can be significantly impacted by cisatracurium, and present phase changes. Accurate understanding the trend of variation of CMAPs conduces to gather feedback information for operater during surgery, and thus may reduce nerve injury.

  6. Perinatal Manganese Exposure and Hydroxyl Radical Formation in Rat Brain

    OpenAIRE

    Bałasz, Michał; Szkilnik, Ryszard; Brus, Ryszard; Malinowska-Borowska, Jolanta; Kasperczyk, Sławomir; Nowak, Damian; Kostrzewa, Richard M.; Nowak, Przemysław

    2014-01-01

    The present study was designed to investigate the role of pre- and postnatal manganese (Mn) exposure on hydroxyl radical (HO•) formation in the brains of dopamine (DA) partially denervated rats (Parkinsonian rats). Wistar rats were given tap water containing 10,000 ppm manganese chloride during the duration of pregnancy and until the time of weaning. Control rat dams consumed tap water without added Mn. Three days after birth, rats of both groups were treated with 6-hydroxydopamine at one of ...

  7. The long pursued Holy Grail of the true "alcoholic" rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gessa, Gian Luigi

    2016-08-15

    An anthology of microdialysis and electrophysiological studies on ethanol effect on mesolimbic dopaminergic neurons is presented. The usefulness of rats with innate preference for ethanol, such as the Sardinian alcohol-preferring (sP), in studying ethanol rewarding and reinforcing effects is signaled. The generation of the long sought "alcoholics rat" from sP rats is announced. Rats of the sP line avoid the shortcomings of using rats non selected for ethanol preference. PMID:26867703

  8. Toxicity of group B Streptococcus agalactiae in adult rats.

    OpenAIRE

    Warejcka, D. J.; Goodrum, K J; Spitznagel, J K

    1985-01-01

    Several strains of group B Streptococcus agalactiae were found to be lethal for young adult rats. When bacteria were heat killed and then injected intraperitoneally into rats, rapid death (14 to 18 h) of the rats occurred, characterized by labored breathing, hemolyzed serum, hemoglobinuria, and subungual hemorrhages. Sections of tissues from these rats failed to reveal the cause of death. Rats injected with toxic or nontoxic strains of group B S. agalactiae had reduced numbers of circulating ...

  9. Diabetic Retinal and Choroidal Edema in SDT Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Fumihiko Toyoda; Yoshiaki Tanaka; Machiko Shimmura; Nozomi Kinoshita; Hiroko Takano; Akihiro Kakehashi

    2015-01-01

    We evaluated the features of diabetic retinal and choroidal edema in Spontaneously Diabetic Torii (SDT) rats. We measured the retinal and choroidal thicknesses in normal Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats (n = 9) and SDT rats (n = 8). The eyes were enucleated 40 weeks later after they were diagnosed with diabetes, and 4-micron sections were cut for conventional histopathologic studies. The mean retinal and choroidal thicknesses were significantly thicker in the SDT rats than in the normal SD rats. The ...

  10. Creatine supplementation and oxidative stress in rat liver

    OpenAIRE

    Araújo, Michel B; Moura, Leandro P; Junior, Roberto C Vieira; Junior, Marcelo C; Dalia, Rodrigo A; Sponton, Amanda C; Ribeiro, Carla; Mello, Maria Alice R

    2013-01-01

    Background The objective of this study was to determine the effects of creatine supplementation on liver biomarkers of oxidative stress in exercise-trained rats. Methods Forty 90-day-old adult male Wistar rats were assigned to four groups for the eight-week experiment. Control group (C) rats received a balanced control diet; creatine control group (CCr) rats received a balanced diet supplemented with 2% creatine; trained group (T) rats received a balanced diet and intense exercise training eq...

  11. Properties of Flicker ERGs in Rat Models with Retinal Degeneration

    OpenAIRE

    Jing An; Qun Guo; Li Li(State Key Laboratory of Theoretical Physics, Institute of Theoretical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190, China); Zuoming Zhang

    2012-01-01

    Purpose. To describe the characteristics of rod and cone functions in rat models for congenital stationary night blindness (CSNB) and retinal cone dysfunction (RCD). Methods. Rod and cone function were isolated by recording the rod-/cone-driven flicker and blue light flicker electroretinograms (ERGs). Results. During dark adaptation, the amplitudes of flicker ERGs in CSNB rats were lower than those in control rats; the responses of RCD rats were similar to control rats. During light adaptatio...

  12. The Petit Rat (pet/pet), a New Semilethal Mutant Dwarf Rat with Thymic and Testicular Anomalies

    OpenAIRE

    Chiba, Junko; Suzuki, Katsushi; Suzuki, Hiroetsu

    2008-01-01

    The petit rat (pet/pet) is a recently discovered semilethal mutant dwarf. The neonatal pet/pet rats had a low body weight and small thymus and testis. During the first 3 d after birth, 50% of the male and 80% of the female pet/pet pups were lost or found dead. Surviving pet/pet rats showed marked retardation of postnatal growth, and their body weights were 41% (female rats) and 32% (male rats) of those of normal rats at the adult stage. The pet/pet rats exhibited proportional dwarfism, and th...

  13. Analysis of vkorc1 polymorphisms in Norway rats using the roof rat as outgroup

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Borchert Jeff N

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Certain mutations in the vitamin K epoxide reductase subcomponent 1 gene (vkorc1 mediate rodent resistance to warfarin and other anticoagulants. Testing for resistance often involves analysis of the vkorc1. However, a genetic test for the roof rat (Rattus rattus has yet to be developed. Moreover, an available roof rat vkorc1 sequence would enable species identification based on vkorc1 sequence and the evaluation of natural selection on particular vkorc1 polymorphisms in the Norway rat (R. norvegicus. Results We report the coding sequence, introns and 5' and 3' termini for the vkorc1 gene of roof rats (R. r. alexandrinus and R. r. frugivorus from Uganda, Africa. Newly designed PCR primers now enable genetic testing of the roof rat and Norway rat. Only synonymous and noncoding polymorphisms were found in roof rats from Uganda. Both nominal subspecies of roof rats were indistinguishable from each other but were distinct from R. losea and R. flavipectus; however, the roof rat also shares at least three coding sequence polymorphisms with R. losea and R. flavipectus. Many of recently published vkorc1 synonymous and non-synonymous single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs in Norway rats are likely SNPs from roof rats and/or other Rattus species. Tests applied to presumably genuine Norway rat vkorc1 SNPs are consistent with a role for selection in two populations carrying the derived Phe63Cys and Tyr139Cys mutations. Conclusion Geographic mapping of vkorc1 SNPs in roof rats should be facilitated by our report. Our assay should be applicable to most species of Rattus, which are intermediate in genetic distance from roof and Norway rats. Vkorc1-mediated resistance due to non-synonymous coding SNPs is not segregating in roof rats from Uganda. By using the roof rat sequence as a reference vkorc1, SNPs now can be assigned to the correct rat species with more confidence. Sampling designs and genotyping strategies employed so far have helped

  14. Toxicity of Methamidophos in Rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present in viro study deals with determining the relation between the concentration of the pesticide methamidophos and the activity of the neurotration acetylcholine esterase (AChE) in brain and erythrocytes of rats and also the concentration of the pesticide that cause 50% inhibition of the enzymes. The in vivo study deals with the effect of methamidophops on the female sex hormones, estradiol and progesterone, following five successive oral treatments with 10mg kg week. The in vitro relation between pesticide concentrations and AChE activities were studied by preincubating different concentration of methamidophos with rat brain homogenates and hemolyzed erythrocytes for different periods. The data showed that AChE activity was clearly decreased. The interaction may be considered irreversible inhibition because it finally leads to a complete block of the enzyme activity that clarified by permanent inhibition. The concentration of the pesticide that cause 50% inhibition for brain and erythrocytes-AChE were found to be 3.2x10-5M and 10-4M respectively, following 30 min preincubation period

  15. The rat GPRC6A

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wellendorph, Petrine; Burhenne, Nicole; Christiansen, Bolette;

    2007-01-01

    showed that the mRNA is widely but weakly distributed, except for a high expression in the soft palate, the so-called geschmacksstreifen. On the protein level, rGPRC6A was shown to be glycosylated and most likely oligomeric, and using immunochemistry we observed that rGPRC6A is expressed at the plasma......GPRC6A is a novel member of family C of G protein-coupled receptors with so far elusive biological function. GPRC6A has been described in human and mouse as a promiscuous l-alpha-amino acid receptor. We now report the cloning, expression analysis and, functional characterization of the rat...... orthologue of GPRC6A. Full-length cloning of rat GPRC6A (rGPRC6A) was accomplished using amplification of cDNA from taste tissue, and the identity of rGPRC6A confirmed at both the genomic and the protein level by similarity studies. Using selective primers, reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction...

  16. Lessons From Experiments in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albert Gramsbergen

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available In this essay a few relevant aspects of the neural and behavioral development of the brain in the human and in the rat are reviewed and related to the consequences of lesions in the central and peripheral nervous system at early and later age. Movements initially are generated by local circuits in the spinal cord and without the involvement of descending projections. After birth, both in humans and in rats it seems that the devlopment of postural control is the limiting factor for several motor behaviors to mature. Strong indications exist that the cerebellum is significantly involved in this control. Lesions in the CNS at early stages interfere with fundamental processes of neural development, such as the establishment of fiber connections and cell death patterns. Consequently, the functional effects are strongly dependent on the stage of development. The young and undisturbed CNS, on the other hand, has a much greater capacity than the adult nervous system for compensating abnormal reinnervation in the peripheral nervous system. Animal experiments indicated that the cerebellar cortex might play an important part in this compensation. This possibility should be investigated further as it might offer important perspectives for treatment in the human.

  17. Culture of cryopreserved rat hepatocyte

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Haitao Yin; Gaojun Teng; Lifeng Wang; Baorui Liu; Xiaoping Qian

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To study the method of cryopreserving rat hepatocytes and double collagen gel culture measurement after its cryopreservation. Methods: Rat hepatocytes, isolated by two-step perfusion with collagenase using an extra corporeal perfusion apparatus, were cryopreserved in double collagen gel with culture medium added by epidermal growth factor(EGF).The expression of cell function and cellular morphology were examined during culture. Results: The hepatocytes cryopreserved in double collagen gel concluding EGF showed good morphology and biological characteristics. After thawing, the MTT metabolism and protein synthesis of hepatocytes in sandwich ± EGF groups were better than those in control group. And the morphology and function of hepatocytes in sandwich group was better than that in EGF group(P < 0.05). Conclusion: Double collagen gel culture can keep hepatocyte's activities. Thawed hepatocytes can be cultivated with collagenous matrix, which provides an environment that more closely resembles that in vivo and maintain the expression of certain liver-specific function of hepatocytes.

  18. Trichosomoides crassicauda infection in wistar rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bahrami, S.,

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Laboratory animals, including rats, play an important role in biomedical research and advances. The human care and management of these animals is an ongoing concern. Since, Trichosomoides infections in rat colonies can interfere with research protocols it is important to know rate of infection and pathology of the infection in the animals used in experimental studies. 275 rats were eviscerated and urinary bladders were collected. The numbers of collected nematodes from each of the urinary bladders were counted under a stereomicroscope and identified on the basis of morphological criteria. Tissue sections were collected and processed routinely for histopathological studies. Out of 275 urinary bladder of adult laboratory Wistar rats examined, 156 (56.72% were infected with the nematode, Trichosomoides crassicauda. There was significant difference (P<0.05 in infection in female and male rats, with rate of 47.73% and 80.26%, respectively. The number of nematodes collected from each infected rats ranged from one to fourteen with an average of three nematodes per animal. Histopathological evaluation revealed multiple parasites with variable degree of lesions in transitional epithelium of urinary bladder. Parasites were lying upon the epithelium or located in chambers between epithelial cells. Also immature and embryonated eggs were seen in female worms. Other lesions were as follow: Hyperplasia of epithelium, erosions, ulcers and eosinophilic cystitis. This study reports the data on the presence of helminth parasites in laboratory rat colonies, and suggests paying attention on controlling the sanitary conditions of animal houses.

  19. Renal function in streptozotocin-diabetic rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, P K; Christiansen, J S; Steven, K;

    1981-01-01

    Renal function was examined with micropuncture methods in the insulin-treated streptozotocin-diabetic rat. Kidney glomerular filtration rate was significantly higher in the diabetic rats (1.21 ml/min) than in the control group (0.84 ml/min) Nephron glomerular filtration rate increased in proportion...... to the rise in kidney glomerular filtration rate (diabetic rats: 37.0 nl/min; control rats: 27.9 nl/min). Likewise renal plasma flow was significantly higher in the diabetic rats (4.1 ml/min) than in the control group (3.0 ml/min). Glomerular capillary pressure was identical in both groups (56.0 and...... 56.0 mmHg, respectively). The proximal intratubular pressure was significantly reduced in the diabetic rats (10.4 mmHg; control value: 12.5 mmHg). The effective glomerular ultrafiltration coefficient was slightly but not significantly higher in the diabetic rats (0.027 nl s-1mmHg-1) than in the...

  20. Epidermal growth factor reactivity in rat milk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raaberg, Lasse; Nexø, Ebba; Tollund, L;

    1990-01-01

    The concentration of EGF immunoreactivity in rat whey increases from 0.3 pmol/ml at lactation day 1 to 2.0 pmol/ml at lactation day 19. The concentration of EGF is not influenced when the rats undergo sialoadenectomy prior to mating. On S-200 gel chromatography, almost all EGF-reactivity in rat...... whey elutes as a broad peak corresponding to a Stokes radius of 4.0 nm (an approximate molecular weight of 80 kDa). Almost no 6 kDa EGF is present. Judged by gel filtration of whey pre-incubated with 125I-EGF (6 kDa), no binding protein for EGF is present in rat whey. When rat milk is incubated...... in rat whey behaves as a peptide with a Stokes radius of 2.7 nm, corresponding to a molecular weight of approximately 35 kDa at gel filtration. Comparative binding studies between EGF purified from the submandibular glands and the EGF purified from rat whey confirm differences in the binding to...

  1. Assessment of arthritis in rats with CIA:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jasemian, Yousef

    computerized digital infrared thermal imaging, and its association with stages of clinical scores in a rat collagen induced arthritis model. Arthritis was induced with collagen immunization in eight Lewis rats.  Four of the animals were treated with dexamethasone as a negative control. Disease progression was...... monitored by paw edema and body weight. On the basis of paw edema a clinical score was given each paw of the animals involved in the study. The mean temperature of a region covering the metatarsal joint was compared with a reference area on the back of the same rat. The temperature ratios were compared with...

  2. Averaging of Temporal Memories by Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Swanton, Dale N.; Gooch, Cynthia M.; Matell, Matthew S.

    2009-01-01

    Rats were trained on a mixed fixed-interval schedule in which stimulus A (tone or light) indicated food availability after 10 s and stimulus B (the other stimulus) indicated food availability after 20 s. Testing consisted of non-reinforced probe trials in which the stimulus was A, B, or the compound AB. On single-stimulus trials, rats responded with a peak of activity around the programmed reinforced time. On compound-stimulus trials, rats showed a single scalar peak of responding at a time m...

  3. Rat embryonic stem cells create new era in development of genetically manipulated rat models

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kazushi; Kawaharada; Masaki; Kawamata; Takahiro; Ochiya

    2015-01-01

    Embryonic stem(ES) cells are isolated from theinner cell mass of a blastocyst, and are used for the generation of gene-modified animals. In mice, the transplantation of gene-modified ES cells into recipient blastocysts leads to the creation of gene-targeted mice such as knock-in and knock-out mice; these gene-targeted mice contribute greatly to scientific development. Although the rat is considered a useful laboratory animal alongside the mouse, fewer genemodified rats have been produced due to the lack of robust establishment methods for rat ES cells. A new method for establishing rat ES cells using signaling inhibitors was reported in 2008. By considering the characteristics of rat ES cells, recent research has made progress in improving conditions for the stable culture of rat ES cells in order to generate gene-modified rats efficiently. In this review, we summarize several advanced methods to maintain rat ES cells and generate gene-targeted rats.

  4. A Music Preference Test System for Rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chun-Peng Zhang; Guang-Zhan Fang; Yang Xia; Tie-Jun Liu; De-Zhong Yao

    2009-01-01

    In music preference experiments,housing conditions and the control of parameters for animals can affect experimental results.However,the needs of animals are indeed insufficiently considered in many reports of animal experiments.In order to evaluate which music rats prefer,we developed a new music preference test system.Dwelling time and visiting frequency can be recorded automatically when rats moving among different compartments of the system.We can also observe the behaviors of rats captured by a video camera.By this system,the music preference can be found,and then the related music can be used in following various studies.In this paper,we described the design of this music preference test system of rat,and some primary results were reported.

  5. Penile autotransplantation in rats: An animal model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raouf M Seyam

    2013-01-01

    Conclusions: Penile autotransplantation in rats is feasible and provides the basis for evaluation of the corpora cavernosa in an allotransplantation model. Long-term urethral continuity and dorsal neurovascular bundle survival in this model is difficult to establish.

  6. Intestinal microecology in rats with ulcerative colitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩晓霞

    2013-01-01

    Objective To study the abundance and diversity ofthe gut flora in rats with dextran sulfate sodium(DSS)-induced ulcerative colitis(UC)to provide new knowledge about the pathogenesis of this disease.Methods Twenty-six

  7. Rat Bite Fever Resembling Rheumatoid Arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akter, Ripa; Boland, Paul; Daley, Peter; Rahman, Proton; Al Ghanim, Nayef

    2016-01-01

    Rat bite fever is rare in Western countries. It can be very difficult to diagnose as blood cultures are typically negative and a history of rodent exposure is often missed. Unless a high index of suspicion is maintained, the associated polyarthritis can be mistaken for rheumatoid arthritis. We report a case of culture-positive rat bite fever in a 46-year-old female presenting with fever and polyarthritis. The clinical presentation mimicked rheumatoid arthritis. Infection was complicated by discitis, a rare manifestation. We discuss the diagnosis and management of this rare zoonotic infection. We also review nine reported cases of rat bite fever, all of which had an initial presumptive diagnosis of a rheumatological disorder. Rat bite fever is a potentially curable infection but can have a lethal course if left untreated. PMID:27366177

  8. Rat Bite Fever Resembling Rheumatoid Arthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ripa Akter

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Rat bite fever is rare in Western countries. It can be very difficult to diagnose as blood cultures are typically negative and a history of rodent exposure is often missed. Unless a high index of suspicion is maintained, the associated polyarthritis can be mistaken for rheumatoid arthritis. We report a case of culture-positive rat bite fever in a 46-year-old female presenting with fever and polyarthritis. The clinical presentation mimicked rheumatoid arthritis. Infection was complicated by discitis, a rare manifestation. We discuss the diagnosis and management of this rare zoonotic infection. We also review nine reported cases of rat bite fever, all of which had an initial presumptive diagnosis of a rheumatological disorder. Rat bite fever is a potentially curable infection but can have a lethal course if left untreated.

  9. Corona Discharge Influences Ozone Concentrations Near Rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goheen, Steven C.; Gaither, Kari A.; Anantatmula, Shantha M.; Mong, Gary M.; Sasser, Lyle B.; Lessor, Delbert L.

    2004-02-26

    Ozone is produced by corona discharge in air. Its production is enhanced near grounded water. Whether grounded animals behave like grounded water, producing more ozone was investigated. Rats were exposed to corona discharge in a plastic cage. The concentration of ozone in the gas phase was monitored. The ozone concentration exceeded ambient levels only in the presence of corona discharge and either rats or water. When water or rats were exposed to corona discharge, ozone levels were more than 10 times higher than controls. Ozone levels increased rapidly with applied voltage. There was also a correlation between the distance of the corona needle to the rats and the amount of ozone produced. As the distance increased, ozone production decreased. These results are discussed in relation to the potential exposure of mammals to ozone in the vicinity of corona discharge and electric fields.

  10. Anxiolytic Treatment Impairs Helping Behavior in Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben-Ami Bartal, Inbal; Shan, Haozhe; Molasky, Nora M. R.; Murray, Teresa M.; Williams, Jasper Z.; Decety, Jean; Mason, Peggy

    2016-01-01

    Despite decades of research with humans, the biological mechanisms that motivate an individual to help others remain poorly understood. In order to investigate the roots of pro-sociality in mammals, we established the helping behavior test, a paradigm in which rats are faced with a conspecific trapped in a restrainer that can only be opened from the outside. Over the course of repeated test sessions, rats exposed to a trapped cagemate learn to open the door to the restrainer, thereby helping the trapped rat to escape (Ben-Ami Bartal et al., 2011). The discovery of this natural behavior provides a unique opportunity to probe the motivation of rodent helping behavior, leading to a deeper understanding of biological influences on human pro-sociality. To determine if an affective response motivates door-opening, rats receiving midazolam, a benzodiazepine anxiolytic, were tested in the helping behavior test. Midazolam-treated rats showed less helping behavior than saline-treated rats or rats receiving no injection. Yet, midazolam-treated rats opened a restrainer containing chocolate, highlighting the socially specific effects of the anxiolytic. To determine if midazolam interferes with helping through a sympatholytic effect, the peripherally restricted beta-adrenergic receptor antagonist nadolol was administered; nadolol did not interfere with helping. The corticosterone response of rats exposed to a trapped cagemate was measured and compared to the rats’ subsequent helping behavior. Rats with the greatest corticosterone responses showed the least helping behavior and those with the smallest responses showed the most consistent helping at the shortest latency. These results are discussed in terms of their implications for the interaction between stress and pro-social behavior. Finally, we observed that door-opening appeared to be reinforcing. A novel analytical tool was designed to interrogate the pattern of door-opening for signs that a rat’s behavior on one

  11. Rat growth during chronic centrifugation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitts, G. C.; Oyama, J.

    1978-01-01

    Female weanling rats were chronically centrifuged at 4.15 G with controls at terrestrial gravity. Samples were sacrificed for body composition studies at 0, 28, 63, 105 and 308 days of centrifugation. The centrifuged group approached a significantly lower mature body mass than the controls (251 and 318g) but the rate of approach was the same in both groups. Retirement to 1G on the 60th day resulted in complete recovery. Among individual components muscle, bone, skin, CNS, heart, kidneys, body water and body fat were changed in the centrifuged group. However, an analysis of the growth of individual components relative to growth of the total fat-free compartment revealed that only skin (which increased in mass) was responding to centrifugation per se.

  12. Expression of somatostatin mRNA and peptide in rat hippocampus after cerebral ischemia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bering, Robert; Johansen, Flemming Fryd

    Somatostatin, ischemia, hippocampus, rat, in situ hybridisation, immunocytochemistry, neuropathology......Somatostatin, ischemia, hippocampus, rat, in situ hybridisation, immunocytochemistry, neuropathology...

  13. Binding of episodic memories in the rat

    OpenAIRE

    Crystal, Jonathon D; Smith, Alexandra E.

    2014-01-01

    People remember an event as a coherent scene [1-4]. Memory of such an episode is thought to reflect binding of a fully integrated representation, rather than memory of unconnected features [4-7]. However, it is not known if rodents form bound representations. Here we show that rats remember episodes as bound representations. Rats were presented with multiple features of unique episodes at memory encoding: what (food flavor), where (maze location), source (self-generated food seeking–running t...

  14. Dietary models for inducing hypercholesterolemia in rats

    OpenAIRE

    Sheyla Leite Matos; Heberth de Paula; Maria Lúcia Pedrosa; Rinaldo Cardoso dos Santos; Eduardo Luiz de Oliveira; Deoclécio Alves Chianca Júnior; Marcelo Eustáquio Silva

    2005-01-01

    The present work aimed at finding a dietetical model capable of promoting the highest hypercholesterolemia without affecting the development of the rats. Sixty female Fisher rats were divided into five groups. The first one was fed a control diet; the remaining four were fed hypercholesterolemic diets with cholesterol and different contents of soybean oil, starch, casein, micronutrients and fiber and, consequently, different caloric values. After eight weeks animals were evaluated in relation...

  15. Streptozotocin induced diabetes in lyon hypertensive rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LeaEMONNOT; JeanSASSARD; MingLO

    2004-01-01

    AIM: Lyon hypertensive (LH) rats, compared to their normotensive controls (LL) exhibit an increased blood pressure (BP)associated with a marked proteinuria and a metabolic syndrom including elevated plasma lipids and insulin/glucose ratio. The aim of the present work was to determine wether a type 2 diabetes could be induced in LH rats so as to obtain a model suitable for study of the relationships between diabetes and hypertension.

  16. Oxidative stress in normal and diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, M D; Canal, J R; Pérez, C

    1999-01-01

    Parameters related to oxidative stress were studied in a group of 10 Wistar diabetic rats and 10 control rats. The levels of total erythrocyte catalase activity in the diabetic animals were significantly (pvitaminA/TG, vitaminA/PUFA, vitaminA/C 18:2) were higher in the control group. Our work corroborates the findings that fatty acid metabolism presents alterations in the diabetes syndrome and that the antioxidant status is affected. PMID:10523056

  17. Epidermal growth factor in the rat prostate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tørring, Niels; Jørgensen, P E; Poulsen, Steen Seier;

    1998-01-01

    Epidermal growth factor (EGF) induces proliferation in prostate epithelial and stromal cells in primary culture. This investigation was set up to characterize the time and spatial expression of EGF in the rat prostate.......Epidermal growth factor (EGF) induces proliferation in prostate epithelial and stromal cells in primary culture. This investigation was set up to characterize the time and spatial expression of EGF in the rat prostate....

  18. The Virginia Military Institute Rat Challenge Evaluation

    OpenAIRE

    Bednarczyk, Karen M.

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the Virginia Military Institute (VMI) Rat Challenge program. The Rat Challenge is designed to foster self-confidence and physical conditioning in Fourth Classmen by creating training situations which are stressful enough to show them they are capable of doing tasks which surpass their previously self-imposed mental and physical limits. The program is designed to provide leadership development opportunities for the cadre. It places the responsibility o...

  19. Impaired oxidative phosphorylation in overtrained rat myocardium

    OpenAIRE

    Kadaja, Lumme; Eimre, Margus; Paju, Kalju; Roosimaa, Mart; Põdramägi, Taavi; Kaasik, Priit; Pehme, Ando; Orlova, Ehte; Mudist, Margareeta; Peet, Nadezhda; Piirsoo, Andres; Seene, Teet; Gellerich, Frank N; Seppet, Enn K

    2010-01-01

    The present study was undertaken to characterize and review the changes in energy metabolism in rat myocardium in response to chronic exhaustive exercise. It was shown that a treadmill exercise program applied for six weeks led the rats into a state characterized by decreased performance, loss of body weight and enhanced muscle catabolism, indicating development of overtraining syndrome. Electron microscopy revealed disintegration of the cardiomyocyte structure, cellular swelling and appearan...

  20. Marginal Hepatectomy in the Rat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madrahimov, Nodir; Dirsch, Olaf; Broelsch, Christoph; Dahmen, Uta

    2006-01-01

    Objective: Based on the 3-dimensional visualization of vascular supply and drainage, a vessel-oriented resection technique was optimized. The new surgical technique was used to determine the maximal reduction in liver mass enabling a 50% 1-week survival rate. Background Data: Determination of the minimal liver mass is necessary in clinical as well as in experimental liver surgery. In rats, survival seems to depend on the surgical technique applied. Extended hepatectomy with removal of 90% of the liver mass was long regarded as a lethal model. Introduction of a vessel-oriented approach enabled long-term survival in this model. Methods: The lobar and vascular anatomy of rat livers was visualized by plastination of the whole organ, respectively, by corrosion casts of the portal vein, hepatic artery and liver veins. The three-dimensional models were used to extract the underlying anatomic structure. In 90% partial hepatectomy, the liver parenchyma was clamped close to the base of the respective liver lobes (left lateral, median and right, liver lobe). Piercing sutures were placed through the liver parenchyma, so that the stem of portal vein and the accompanying hepatic artery but also the hepatic vein were included. Results: A 1-week survival rate of 100% was achieved after 90% hepatectomy. Extending the procedure to 95% resection by additional removal of the upper caudate lobe led to a 1-week survival rate of 66%; 97% partial hepatectomy, accomplished by additional resection of the lower caudate lobe only leaving the paracaval parts of the liver behind, resulted in 100% lethality within 4 days. Conclusions: Using a anatomically based, vessel-oriented, parenchyma-preserving surgical technique in 95% liver resections led to long-term survival. This represents the maximal reduction of liver mass compatible with survival. PMID:16794393

  1. High Intensity Interval Training (HIIT) Induces Specific Changes in Respiration and Electron Leakage in the Mitochondria of Different Rat Skeletal Muscles

    Science.gov (United States)

    de-Souza-Ferreira, Eduardo; Guerra Martinez, Camila; Kurtenbach, Eleonora; Casimiro-Lopes, Gustavo; Galina, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    High intensity interval training (HIIT) is characterized by vigorous exercise with short rest intervals. Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) plays a key role in muscle adaptation. This study aimed to evaluate whether HIIT promotes similar H2O2 formation via O2 consumption (electron leakage) in three skeletal muscles with different twitch characteristics. Rats were assigned to two groups: sedentary (n=10) and HIIT (n=10, swimming training). We collected the tibialis anterior (TA-fast), gastrocnemius (GAST-fast/slow) and soleus (SOL-slow) muscles. The fibers were analyzed for mitochondrial respiration, H2O2 production and citrate synthase (CS) activity. A multi-substrate (glycerol phosphate (G3P), pyruvate, malate, glutamate and succinate) approach was used to analyze the mitochondria in permeabilized fibers. Compared to the control group, oxygen flow coupled to ATP synthesis, complex I and complex II was higher in the TA of the HIIT group by 1.5-, 3.0- and 2.7-fold, respectively. In contrast, oxygen consumed by mitochondrial glycerol phosphate dehydrogenase (mGPdH) was 30% lower. Surprisingly, the oxygen flow coupled to ATP synthesis was 42% lower after HIIT in the SOL. Moreover, oxygen flow coupled to ATP synthesis and complex II was higher by 1.4- and 2.7-fold in the GAST of the HIIT group. After HIIT, CS activity increased 1.3-fold in the TA, and H2O2 production was 1.3-fold higher in the TA at sites containing mGPdH. No significant differences in H2O2 production were detected in the SOL. Surprisingly, HIIT increased H2O2 production in the GAST via complex II, phosphorylation, oligomycin and antimycin by 1.6-, 1.8-, 2.2-, and 2.2-fold, respectively. Electron leakage was 3.3-fold higher in the TA with G3P and 1.8-fold higher in the GAST with multiple substrates. Unexpectedly, the HIIT protocol induced different respiration and electron leakage responses in different types of muscle. PMID:26121248

  2. High Intensity Interval Training (HIIT Induces Specific Changes in Respiration and Electron Leakage in the Mitochondria of Different Rat Skeletal Muscles.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dionizio Ramos-Filho

    Full Text Available High intensity interval training (HIIT is characterized by vigorous exercise with short rest intervals. Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2 plays a key role in muscle adaptation. This study aimed to evaluate whether HIIT promotes similar H2O2 formation via O2 consumption (electron leakage in three skeletal muscles with different twitch characteristics. Rats were assigned to two groups: sedentary (n=10 and HIIT (n=10, swimming training. We collected the tibialis anterior (TA-fast, gastrocnemius (GAST-fast/slow and soleus (SOL-slow muscles. The fibers were analyzed for mitochondrial respiration, H2O2 production and citrate synthase (CS activity. A multi-substrate (glycerol phosphate (G3P, pyruvate, malate, glutamate and succinate approach was used to analyze the mitochondria in permeabilized fibers. Compared to the control group, oxygen flow coupled to ATP synthesis, complex I and complex II was higher in the TA of the HIIT group by 1.5-, 3.0- and 2.7-fold, respectively. In contrast, oxygen consumed by mitochondrial glycerol phosphate dehydrogenase (mGPdH was 30% lower. Surprisingly, the oxygen flow coupled to ATP synthesis was 42% lower after HIIT in the SOL. Moreover, oxygen flow coupled to ATP synthesis and complex II was higher by 1.4- and 2.7-fold in the GAST of the HIIT group. After HIIT, CS activity increased 1.3-fold in the TA, and H2O2 production was 1.3-fold higher in the TA at sites containing mGPdH. No significant differences in H2O2 production were detected in the SOL. Surprisingly, HIIT increased H2O2 production in the GAST via complex II, phosphorylation, oligomycin and antimycin by 1.6-, 1.8-, 2.2-, and 2.2-fold, respectively. Electron leakage was 3.3-fold higher in the TA with G3P and 1.8-fold higher in the GAST with multiple substrates. Unexpectedly, the HIIT protocol induced different respiration and electron leakage responses in different types of muscle.

  3. Colonic Fermentation Promotes Decompression sickness in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Maistre, Sébastien; Vallée, Nicolas; Gempp, Emmanuel; Lambrechts, Kate; Louge, Pierre; Duchamp, Claude; Blatteau, Jean-Eric

    2016-01-01

    Massive bubble formation after diving can lead to decompression sickness (DCS). During dives with hydrogen as a diluent for oxygen, decreasing the body's H2 burden by inoculating hydrogen-metabolizing microbes into the gut reduces the risk of DCS. So we set out to investigate if colonic fermentation leading to endogenous hydrogen production promotes DCS in fasting rats. Four hours before an experimental dive, 93 fasting rats were force-fed, half of them with mannitol and the other half with water. Exhaled hydrogen was measured before and after force-feeding. Following the hyperbaric exposure, we looked for signs of DCS. A higher incidence of DCS was found in rats force-fed with mannitol than in those force-fed with water (80%, [95%CI 56, 94] versus 40%, [95%CI 19, 64], p < 0.01). In rats force-fed with mannitol, metronidazole pretreatment reduced the incidence of DCS (33%, [95%CI 15, 57], p = 0.005) at the same time as it inhibited colonic fermentation (14 ± 35 ppm versus 118 ± 90 ppm, p = 0.0001). Pre-diveingestion of mannitol increased the incidence of DCS in fasting rats when colonic fermentation peaked during the decompression phase. More generally, colonic fermentation in rats on a normal diet could promote DCS through endogenous hydrogen production. PMID:26853722

  4. Glucocorticoid-induced osteoporosis in growing rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Sien; Huang, Jianping; Zheng, Liang; Liu, Yanzhi; Liu, Guihua; Li, Nan; Wang, Kuixing; Zou, Liyi; Wu, Tie; Qin, Ling; Cui, Liao; Li, Gang

    2014-10-01

    This study evaluated whether growing rats were appropriate animal models of glucocorticoid-induced osteoporosis. The 3-month-old male rats were treated with either vehicle or prednisone acetate at 1.5, 3.0, and 6.0 mg/kg/day by oral gavage, respectively. All rats were injected with tetracycline and calcein before sacrificed for the purpose of double in vivo labeling. Biochemistry, histomorphometry, mechanical test, densitometry, micro-CT, histology, and component analysis were performed. We found that prednisone treatments dose dependently decreased body weight, serum biomarkers, biomechanical markers, bone formation, and bone resorption parameters in both tibial and femoral trabecular bone without trabecular bone loss. We also found that significant bone loss happened in femoral cortical bone in the glucocorticoid-treated rats. The results suggested that prednisone not only inhibited bone formation, but also inhibited bone resorption which resulted in poor bone strength but with no cancellous bone loss in growing rats. These data also suggested that the effects of glucocorticoid on bone metabolism were different between cortical bone and trabecular bone, and different between tibia and femur. Growing rats may be a glucocorticoid-induced osteoporosis animal model when evaluated the effects of drugs upon juvenile patients exposed to GC for a long time. PMID:25086673

  5. Elimination of mercury from amalgam in rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galic, N. [Dept. of Dental Pathology, School of Dentistry, Zagreb (Croatia); Prpic-Mehicic, G.; Prester, Lj.; Blanusa, M. [Inst. for Medical Research and Occupational Health, Zagreb (Croatia); Krnic, Z.; Erceg, D. [Pliva Pharmaceutical Co., Biomedicine Research Inst. ' ' Pliva' ' , Zagreb (Croatia)

    2001-07-01

    The aim of this study was to measure the urinary mercury excretion in rats exposed to amalgam over a two months period. Animals were either exposed to mercury from 4 dental amalgams or fed the diet containing powdered amalgams. The results showed significantly higher mercury amount in urine of both exposed groups than in control. Even two months after the amalgam had been placed in rats teeth, the amount of mercury in the urine remained 4-5 times higher than in control, and 4 times higher than in rats exposed to diet containing powdered amalgam. The elevated urinary Hg amount was accompanied by an increased level of total protein in urine. In the same exposure period the excretion of total protein in urine of rats with amalgam fillings was 2 times higher than in control and 1.5 times higher than in rats exposed to amalgam through diet. Concentrations of mercury in the sera of all groups were below the detection limit of the method. The results show that amount of mercury and protein in the urine of rats were related to the mercury release from dental amalgam. (orig.)

  6. Antioxidant property of aminophylline in rat brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mrinal Pal

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Free radicals being considered an important component of secondary damage during ischemia, trauma, and neurodegenerative diseases in the CNS. Aminophylline has been reported to possess free radical scavenging effect in lung tissue. But there is no information regarding aminophylline's neuroprotective effect against lipid peroxidation in the brain. Aim: The present study was to locate the region of brain that is particularly susceptible to oxidative damage and also aimed at investigating the antioxidant action of aminophylline in rat brain homogenates against in vitro induced lipid peroxidation. Method: Male Wister rats (n = 34 were randomly selected and divided into three groups. The whole rat brains all rats were homogenized in 1:10 cold Tris–HCl buffer by using homogenizer. Peroxidation was induced with ferrous iron (Fe2+, ascorbate and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2 in Group I (n = 12. Aminophylline was added into the reaction mixtures just before the induction of peroxidation in Group III (n = 12. Result: The highest lipid peroxidation was obtained with Fe2+, Ascorbate and H202-induced group and aminophylline showed definite free radical scavenging effect on rat brain. Conclusion: Analysis of the results demonstrated that aminophylline has no antioxidant effect on rat brain and spinal cord homogenates in vitro. Further in vitro and in vivo studies are needed to evaluate the free radical scavenging effect of aminophylline.

  7. Renotropic stimulation in rat kidney cell culture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A circulating renotropic factor specific for renal cells has been described in rats. The addition of sera obtained from unilaterally nephrectomized (uni) rats 24h after operation compared to sham-operated (sham) rats augments 3H-thymidine incorporation into the DNA of incubating kidney slices approximately 10% - 30%. Attempting to amplify the sensitivity of the assay for this renotropic agent, the authors replaced slices with primary rat kidney cultures. The assay system was based on one previously used for rabbits. The cultured cells were synchronized in their growth phase by a period of protein-free starvation. Compared to sera from sham rats, sera from uni rats showed significant stimulation of thymidine incorporation into DNA, 35.5% +/- 9.3 (SEM), p < .0001, at 16 h; 63.3% +/- 10.0 (SEM), p < .001, at 24 h; and 19.5% +/- 6.5 (SEM), p < .01, at 48 h post operation. Accordingly, the maximal stimulation at 24 h was greater than that previously found using the kidney slice assay. Measurable renotropic activity occurred earlier and over a shorter duration than in rabbits. Stimulation was similar when a D-valine medium, relatively specific for renal epithelial cells, replaced DME medium

  8. Radiation nephropathy in young and adult rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effects of bilateral kidney irradiation were compared in young and adult rats. During a 1 year period after a single dose of 0, 7.5, 10, 12.5, or 15 Gy on both kidneys, renal function (glomerular filtration rate and effective renal plasma flow), urine composition, and systolic blood pressure were measured periodically. The first changes after irradiation were observed in the glomerular filtration rate and urine osmolality. One month after 10, 12.5, and 15 Gy, glomerular filtration rate (GFR) and urine osmolality had declined below control values in the young rats. After this initial decline, renal function increased at control rate or even more during the third and fourth month after irradiation but decreased progressively thereafter. In the adult rats, GFR and urine osmolality started to decrease 3 months after 10, 12.5, and 15 Gy. A rise in systolic blood pressure and proteinuria started 2-3 months after 12.5 and 15 Gy in both age groups. Early changes in the glomerular filtration rate with a drop in urine osmolality in young rats, occurring during a period of rapid renal development indicated an irradiation-induced inhibition of glomerular and tubular development. Although renal function deteriorated at a later time in adult rats, dose-response relationships obtained in young and adult rats did not show significant differences

  9. Muscle Response to the Association of Statin and Physical Exercise in Rats Respuestas Musculares de la Asociación de Estatina y Ejercicio Físico Aeróbico en Ratas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Rotta Bonfim

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Physical exercise and statins, which are recommended for the treatment of dyslipidemia, are independently associated to the occurrence of muscle injury. The objective is analyze the effect of aerobic exercise associated to the use of simvastatin on the morphology of the gastrocnemius muscle. Thirty Wistar rats were divided into six groups, two of which received a standard diet (1 sedentary and 1 exercised and four (1 sedentary with medication, 1 sedentary without medication, 1 exercised with medication, 1 exercised without medication received a hypercholesterolemic diet (standard diet with the addition of cholesterol and coconut oil. Simvastatin (20 mg/Kg was administered five days a week for eight weeks, together with aerobic training on a treadmill (9.75 m/min for 60 minutes a day. The gastrocnemius muscle was removed, sliced, stained with Hematoxylin-Eosin and submitted to a histochemical reaction to determine mitochondrial activity. The data were analyzed using a paired t-test, analysis of variance and Scheffé's post hoc test (pEl ejercicio físico y las estatinas, son intervenciones recomendadas para el tratamiento de la dislipidemia y están independientemente asociadas con la ocurrencia de lesiones musculares. El objetivo fue analizar el efecto del ejercicio aeróbico asociado al uso de la sinvastatina en la morfología del músculo gastrocnemio. 30 ratas macho Wistar fueron divididos en 6 grupos, de los cuales 2 recibieron ración padrón, sedentarios, ejercitados y 4 recibieron dieta con alto nivel de colesterol, sedentarios con y sin medicamento, ejercitados con y sin medicamentos. La dieta fue elaborada a partir de una dieta padrón aumentada de colesterol y aceite de coco. La Sinvastatina (20 mg fue administrada por 5 días por semana durante 8 semanas (20 mg/kg, junto al entrenamiento aeróbico en la estera (9,75 m/min por 60 minutos por día. El músculo gastrocnemio colectado fue cortado y colorido por el método Hematoxilina

  10. Magnetic orientation in the giant mole-rat and the silvery mole-rat

    OpenAIRE

    OLIVERIUSOVÁ, Ludmila

    2008-01-01

    The magnetic orientation was study in several species of rodents. Aim of this work was verify magnetic sense in two species of subterranean rodents: the giant mole-rat and the silvery mole-rat. A spontaneous directional preference in the magnetic field was tested in circular arena.

  11. The passive coping Roman Low Avoidance rat, a non-obese rat model for insulin resistance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boersma, G. J.; Scheurink, A. J. W.; Wielinga, P. Y.; Steimer, T. J.; Benthem, L.

    2009-01-01

    The aim of the study was develop to an animal model that links coping style to insulin resistance. We hypothesized that the psychogenetically selected Roman Low Avoidance (RLA) rats may serve as such a model. To test this hypothesis, we submitted both RLA and Roman High avoidance (RHA) rats to a ser

  12. Effect of orlistat on fat absorption in rats: A comparison of normal rats and rats with diverted bile and pancreatic juice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Porsgaard, Trine; Straarup, Ellen Marie; Mu, Huiling; Høy, Carl-Erik

    2003-01-01

    Orlistat is a specific inhibitor of pancreatic and gastric lipases leading to decreased absorption of fat. In the present study, we measured the effect of orlistat on lymphatic fat transport in rats following intake of oils very different in FA composition and TAG structure, and compared this with...... the transport in normal rats and rats with fat malabsorption. Rats were subjected to cannulation of the main mesenteric lymph duct, and a feeding catheter was inserted into the stomach. In addition, malabsorbing rats were cannulated in the common bile and pancreatic duct. Emulsified safflower, fish...

  13. The experimental research of peripheral nerve regeneration with rat bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells induced by GD-NF gene%GDNF 基因诱导大鼠骨髓间充质干细胞促周围神经再生的实验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    尚修超; 顾加祥; 张乃臣; 刘宏君; 田恒; 潘俊博

    2014-01-01

    Objective To clarify the role of Glial cell derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF)inducing bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells in promoting regeneration of peripheral nerve.Methods Sciatic nerve injury models of rats were established,Experiment was divided into two groups:experimental group was BMSCs group induced by GDNF gene,and control group was BMSCs group un-induced by GDNF gene ,each group had 20 SD rats.① Observe index of sciatic nerve and gastrocnemius wet quality recovery rate after 4 weeks and 8 weeks.② Measured axon diameter ,thick-ness of myelin sheath and myelinated nerve fiber numbers of regeneration nerve fiber 8 weeks postoperative.③The gas-trocnemius muscle cells were stained with DAPI after 4 weeks postoperative.④ Neurofilament regeneration crosslink-ing of the sciatic nerve were obsvered by sweep electron microscope after 8 weeks.Results Test index of the BMSCs group induced by the GDNF gene is better than those of the control group,peripheral nerve regeneration of experimen-tal group observed by scanning electron microscopy was better than those of control group.Conclusion bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells induced by GDNF gene have significant effection for the regeneration of peripheral nerve.%目的:探讨胶质细胞源性神经营养因子(GDNF)诱导骨髓间充质干细胞(BMSCs)促周围神经再生。方法建立大鼠坐骨神经损伤模型,实验分为2组:对照组为未经诱导 BMSCs 组,实验组为 GDNF 基因诱导后 BMSCs组。每组20只 SD 大鼠。①术后4周和8周观察坐骨神经指数和腓肠肌湿质量恢复率。②术后8周测量再生神经纤维轴突直径、髓鞘厚度及有髓神经纤维计数。③术后4周腓肠肌肌细胞行 DAPI 染色。④术后8周坐骨神经扫面电镜观察神经丝再生交联情况。结果经 GDNF 基因诱导 BMSCs 组各方面检测指标均较对照组为好,其中诱导后实验组扫描电镜下观察周围神经再生更加明显。结论GDNF

  14. Intermittent heat exposure and thirst in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barney, Christopher C; Kuhrt, David M

    2016-04-01

    Adequate water intake, supporting both cardiovascular function and evaporative cooling, is a critical factor in mitigating the effects of heat waves, which are expected to increase with global warming. However, the regulation of water intake during periods of intermittent heat exposure is not well understood. In this study, the effects of access to water or no access during intermittent heat exposure were assessed using male Sprague-Dawley rats exposed to 37.5°C for 4 h/day. After 7 days of intermittent heat exposure, reductions in evaporative water loss were observed in all animals and reductions in water intake following heat exposure occurred as the days of heat exposure increased. Rats that were not allowed water during the 7 days of exposure had decreased rehydration levels, however, rats allowed access to water increased water intake during exposure and exhibited higher overall rehydration levels over the same time period. Peripheral administration of angiotensinII, mimicking activation of volemic thirst, or hypertonic saline solution, activating intracellular thirst, did not result in alteration of water intake in rats exposed to heat with access to water compared to control rats. In contrast, rats exposed to heat without access to water had reduced water intake after administration of hypertonic saline and increased water intake after administration of angiotensinIIcompared to control rats. These experiments demonstrate that thirst responses to intermittent heat exposure are altered by providing water during heat exposure and that intermittent heat exposure without access to water alters drinking responses to both intracellular and extracellular thirst challenges. PMID:27095836

  15. The rat as an animal model for infant botulism.

    OpenAIRE

    Moberg, L J; Sugiyama, H

    1980-01-01

    Susceptibility to intraintestinal Clostridium botulinum colonization of conventional infant and germfree adult rats is comparable to that of mice. C. botulinum-monoassociated rats pass C. botulinum toxin in their milk.

  16. Patterns of blood pressure variability in normotensive and hypertensive rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holstein-Rathlou, N H; He, J; Wagner, A J;

    1995-01-01

    We sought patterns in mean arterial pressure of normotensive rats and alterations in chronic hypertension. Pressure was recorded for 4-6 days by telemetry from conscious, unrestrained rats and sampled digitally at 3 Hz, using normotensive Sprague-Dawley rats, spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR)...... active and lowest during the day; less pronounced in 2K,1C; and not detectable in SHR. There are regular patterns of blood pressure fluctuations and specific modifications to the patterns by different forms of hypertension.......We sought patterns in mean arterial pressure of normotensive rats and alterations in chronic hypertension. Pressure was recorded for 4-6 days by telemetry from conscious, unrestrained rats and sampled digitally at 3 Hz, using normotensive Sprague-Dawley rats, spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR...

  17. Classical clinical signs in rats experimemtally infected with Trypanosoma brucei

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nwoha Rosemary Ijeoma Ogechi

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate clinical signs in Trypanosoma brucei infection in albino rats. Methods: Fourteen rats grouped into 2 with 7 rats in each group were used to determine classical clinical manifestation of Trypanosoma brucei infection in rats. Group A rats were uninfected control and Group B rats were infected with Trypanosoma brucei. Results: Parasitaemia was recorded in Group B by (3.86±0.34 d and the peak of parasitaemia was observed at Day 5 post infection. Classical signs observed included squint eyes, raised whiskers, lethargy, no weight loss, pyrexia, isolation from the other rats, and starry hair coat. Conclusions: These signs could be diagnostic or aid in diagnosis of Trypanosoma brucei infection in rats.

  18. Absorption of plutonium in the iron-deficient rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iron deficiency did not enhance absorption of plutonium following intragastric gavage of rats. Absorption of plutonium citrate in both control and iron-deficient rats was about 0.03% of the administered dose

  19. Diabetic Retinal and Choroidal Edema in SDT Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toyoda, Fumihiko; Tanaka, Yoshiaki; Shimmura, Machiko; Kinoshita, Nozomi; Takano, Hiroko; Kakehashi, Akihiro

    2016-01-01

    We evaluated the features of diabetic retinal and choroidal edema in Spontaneously Diabetic Torii (SDT) rats. We measured the retinal and choroidal thicknesses in normal Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats (n = 9) and SDT rats (n = 8). The eyes were enucleated 40 weeks later after they were diagnosed with diabetes, and 4-micron sections were cut for conventional histopathologic studies. The mean retinal and choroidal thicknesses were significantly thicker in the SDT rats than in the normal SD rats. The choroidal thickness was correlated strongly with the retinal thickness in both rat models. Diabetic retinopathy (DR) and diabetic choroidopathy appeared as edema in the SDT rats. The retinal thickness was correlated strongly with the choroidal thickness in the SDT rats, which is an ideal animal model of both DR and choroidopathy. PMID:26783535

  20. Water metabolism and modification of tritium excretion in the rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1. The intake and excretion of tritium were studied in rats exposed to tritiated water vapor. The metabolism of tritium was also investigated in rats given single administrations of tritiated water and in rats given daily administrations (per os or i.p.). The results were essentially in accord with those reported previously. 2. Amounts of drinking water consumed and urine excreted by rats drinking water with 0.15% saccharin were 1.5 to 2 times higher than in rats drinking tap water. The tritium activity in various tissues of rats drinking water with 0.15% saccharin decreased to about half of that of rats drinking tap water. A similar tendency was observed also in rats drinking beer. The diuretic agent sodium acetazolamide also enhanced the urinary excretion of tritium. (author)

  1. Effect of simulated weightlessness on energy metabolism in the rat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, J. P.; Sykes, H. A.; Crownover, J. C.; Schatte, C. L.; Simmons, J. B., II; Jordan, D. P.

    1982-01-01

    Results of measurements of food uptake and body weight changes occurring in rats suspended from a harness so that the antigravity muscles were not used for locomotion are presented. The rats were tested in pairs, with both in a harness but only one suspended off its hind legs; this section lasted 7 days. A second phase of the experiment involved feeding the nonsuspended rat the same amount of food the experimental rat had consumed the previous day. All rats experienced decreased in body weight and food intake in the first stage, while in the second stage the suspended rat lost more weight. The total oxygen uptake, CO2 output, and rate of C-14O2 production were depressed in the suspended rats, then returned to normal levels once the rats were back on the ground. It is concluded that the gross metabolic processes are unaffected by simulated weightlessness.

  2. In vitro biotransformation of flavonoids by rat liver microsomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, S. E.; Breinholt, V.; Justesen, U.;

    1998-01-01

    1. Sixteen naturally occurring flavonoids were investigated as substrates for cytochrome P450 in uninduced and Aroclor 1254-induced rat liver microsomes. Naringenin, hesperetin, chrysin, apigenin, tangeretin, kaempferol, galangin and tamarixetin were all metabolized extensively by induced rat liv...

  3. INTERCEPTIVE EFFECTS OF EPOSTANE IN RATS AND RHESUS MONKEYS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LINZhong-Ming; LIUChang-Guan; CHENHui-Qing; LIWei-Kang; XURui-Ying

    1989-01-01

    Interceptives arc defined as agents which interrupt pregnancy after implantation.Epostane, a potent 3β-hydroxysteruid dehydrogenase inhibitor, possessed interceptive activities in rats and rhesus monkeys. In rats, day 10 and day 11 of pregnancy were the

  4. Classical clinical signs in rats experimemtally infected with Trypanosoma brucei

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Nwoha Rosemary Ijeoma Ogechi; Omamegbe Joseph Omolathebu

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To investigate clinical signs in Trypanosoma brucei infection in albino rats. Methods:Fourteen rats grouped into 2 with 7 rats in each group were used to determine classical clinical manifestation of Trypanosoma brucei infection in rats. Group A rats were uninfected control and Group B rats were infected with Trypanosoma brucei. Results:Parasitaemia was recorded in Group B by (3.86±0.34) d and the peak of parasitaemia was observed at Day 5 post infection. Classical signs observed included squint eyes, raised whiskers, lethargy, no weight loss, pyrexia, isolation from the other rats, and starry hair coat. Conclusions:These signs could be diagnostic or aid in diagnosis of Trypanosoma brucei infection in rats.

  5. Reduction of serum cholesterol in hypercholesterolemic rats by Guar gum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeed Samarghandian

    2011-07-01

    Conclusion: These results suggested that guar gum may be effective as hypocholesterolemic agent and may prevent hypercholesteromia in hypercholesteromic rats. The results also suggested that guar gum may be important for reducing body weight in hyperlipidemic rats.

  6. Characterization of factors that direct transcription of rat ribosomal DNA.

    OpenAIRE

    Smith, S D; Oriahi, E; Lowe, D.; Yang-Yen, H F; O'Mahony, D.; Rose, K.; Chen, K.; Rothblum, L I

    1990-01-01

    The protein components that direct and activate accurate transcription by rat RNA polymerase I were studied in extracts of Novikoff hepatoma ascites cells. A minimum of at least two components, besides RNA polymerase I, that are necessary for efficient utilization of templates were identified. The first factor, rat SL-1, is required for species-specific recognition of the rat RNA polymerase I promoter and may be sufficient to direct transcription by pure RNA polymerase I. Rat SL-1 directed th...

  7. Insulin is ubiquitous in extrapancreatic tissues of rats and humans.

    OpenAIRE

    Rosenzweig, J L; Havrankova, J; Lesniak, M A; Brownstein, M; Roth, J

    1980-01-01

    Insulin has been detected, at levels higher than those in plasma, in a broad range of extrapancreatic tissues in both rats and humans. Rat liver insulin was shown to be indistinguishable from genuine insulin by radioimmunoassay, Sephadex chromatography, bioassay, and antibody neutralization. Liver insulin (like brain insulin) was unchanged in ob/ob mice, in rats treated with streptozotocin, or in fasted rats, despite marked alterations in pancreatic secretion of insulin and in liver content o...

  8. Regional tissue immune responses after sciatic nerve injury in rats

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Yu-ming; Shen, Ruo-Wu; Zhang, Bei; Zhang, Wei-Ning

    2015-01-01

    Inflammatory cells play a critical role during nerve regeneration following peripheral nerve injury. In this study, we investigated immune responses in rat sciatic nerve after injury. Wistar rats were randomly divided into the sciatic nerve injury (model) group and control group. The right sciatic nerve of rats in the model group was transected and sutured end-to-end. Our results showed that rats in the model group functionally recovered following sciatic nerve injury. We detected inflammator...

  9. Voluntary Exercise Protects Heart from Oxidative Stress in Diabetic Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Roya Naderi; Gisou Mohaddes; Mustafa Mohammadi; Rana Ghaznavi; Rafigheh Ghyasi; Amir Mansour Vatankhah

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Oxidative stress plays a key role in the onset and development of diabetes complications. In this study, we evaluated whether voluntary exercise could alleviate oxidative stress in the heart and blood of streptozotocin - induced diabetic rats. Methods: 28 male Wistar rats were randomly divided into four groups (n=7): control, exercise, diabetes and exercise + diabetes. Diabetes was induced by injection of streptozotocin in male rats. Rats in the trained groups were sub...

  10. Dihydroartemisinin-Stimulated Hyperplasia of Rat Lung Smooth Muscles

    OpenAIRE

    Utoh-Nedosa U. Anastasia

    2012-01-01

    Problem statement: Dihydroartemisinin was shown to produce two types of inhibitory effects on the cardiac muscles of rats. It was also shown to stimulate haemopoiesis in the lungs, liver, spleen, intestine and kidney of rats. This study attempted to find out the nature of the effect of oral dihydroartemisinin on the lungs of Wistar albino rats. Approach: The effects of dihydroartemisinin on the tissues of the lungs of wistar albino rats were investigated with five doses of Dihydroartemisinin ...

  11. Pathoetiology and prevention of NIDDM Lessons from the OLETF rat *

    OpenAIRE

    Shima, Kenji; Zhu, Min; Mizuno, Akira

    1999-01-01

    The OLETF rat, a genetic model of spontaneous development of NIDDM, exhibits hyperglycemic obesity with hyperinsulinemia and insulin resistance similar to that in humans. It is still unclear whether a defect in the β-cell proliferation per se is the primary pathogenetic event in this model rat. To clarify this matter, we used partially pancreatectomized rats as a model. Male rats of 6weeks of age were allocated at random to two groups:70% pancreatectomy (Px) and sham-pancreatectomy (sham). Ea...

  12. Biological effects of 137Cs, incorporated into organism of rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Results of investigating mutagenous and hemotoxic effects of 137Cs on blood lymphocytes of rats are presented. 137Cs was orally administrated into organism of rats as 270 kBq/g chloride solution. 137Cs mutagenous effect was studied on metaphase plates of rat blood lymphocytes in course of rats lifetime experiment. It is stated that 137Cs inducing severe disturbances of genetic material in a great quantity of blood lymphocytes, causes their total killing

  13. Alteration in the expression of Na+-K+-adenosine triphosphatase in denervated rat skeletal muscle%去除神经支配大鼠骨骼肌中钠钾三磷酸腺苷酶表达的变化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵海燕; Hundal HS

    2006-01-01

    苷酶亚基的表达机制被破坏.%BACKGROUND: Insulin-induced alteration in ion transport has impact on metabolic regulation and reduced Na+-K+-adenosine triphosphatase(ATPase) activity in insulin resistauce results in hypertension and decrease in glycolysis, glucose oxidation and production of ATP.OBJECTIVE: To investigate the regulation of expression of Na+-K+-AT-Pase in insulin resistance model system.DESIGN: Controlled experiment.SETTING: Division of Molecular Physiology, Faculty of Life Sciences, University of Dundee, UK.MATERIALS: The study was performed from October 1999 to February2000,in which, 15 adult male Sprague Dawley rats (200-250 g) of clean grade were employed. The experiment was performed with 5 rats each time and repeated for 3 times.METHODS:Unilateral hindlimbs innervation of rats were severed. Four days later, skeletal muscle was dissected from denervated and contralateral control hindlimbs. Grude muscle membranes were prepared from red muscle (soleus and red gastrocnemius) and white gastrocnemius. Western Blotting and Northern Blotting analysis were employed to examine protein and mRNA expression of Na+-K+-ATPase subunit isoforms respectively.The intensity of protein and mRNA signals was quantitated with a BioRad GS-670 imaging densitometer.MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Levels of protein and mRNA of Na+-K+-ATPase subunit isoforms in control and denervated hindlimb skeletal muscles.RESULTS: Fifteen rats all entered the stage of results analysis. Compared with control, in denervated hindlimb ① the protein levels of α2-and β1-subunit in red muscle were reduced markedly by 46% and 77% respectively. The abundance of α1 protein was increased in red and white muscle by 20% and 15% respectively. There was no significant change in protein expression of β2-subunit in red and white gastrocnemius (WG). ② The mRNA level of α2-subunit decreased by 29% and 39% in red gastrocnemius (RG) and soleus, respectively, and that of β1-subunit decreased 80%and

  14. Somatostatin ontogenesis in the gastrointestinal and pancreatic tract: study in normal rats and during a induced diabetes in neonates rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The ontogenic studies of somatostatin of pancreas, ileum and duodenum of Wistar rats and the rats with induced diabetes were done. The radioimmunologic method to dose the somatostatin was used. (L.M.J.)

  15. Opiates and cerebral functional activity in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cerebral activity was measured using the free-fatty acid [1-14C] octanoate as a fast functional tracer in conscious, unrestrained rats 5 minutes after intravenous injection of heroin, cocaine or saline vehicle. Regional changes of octanoate labeling density in the autoradiograms relative to saline-injected animals were used to determine the functional activity effects of each drug. Heroin and cocaine each produced a distinctive pattern of activity increases and suppression throughout the rat brain. Similar regional changes induced by both drugs were found in limbic brain regions implicated in drug reinforcement. Labeled octanoate autoradiography was used to measure the cerebral functional response to a tone that had previously been paired to heroin injections. Rats were trained in groups of three consisting of one heroin self-administration animal, and two animals receiving yoked infusion of heroin or saline. A tone was paired with each infusion during training. Behavioral experiments in similarly trained rats demonstrated that these training conditions impart secondary reinforcing properties to the tone in animals previously self-administering heroin, while the tone remains behaviorally neutral in yoked-infusion rats. Cerebral functional activity was measured during presentation of the tone without drug infusion. Octanoate labeling density changed in fifteen brain areas in response to the tone previously paired to heroin without response contingency. Labeling density was significantly modified in sixteen regions as a result of previously pairing the tone to response-contingent heroin infusions

  16. Pharmacokinetics of azithromycin in rats and dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shepard, R M; Falkner, F C

    1990-01-01

    After intravenous or oral administration to rats and dogs, azithromycin was rapidly distributed into the tissues, where concentrations frequently exceeded those in serum by 100-fold or more within 24 h of a single dose. Tissue concentrations were proportional to the dose following single administrations of 10 to 40 mg/kg in rats and dogs. Tissue concentrations were higher after multiple dosing and became greater as the dose was increased from 10 to 40 mg/kg. Elimination half-lives were similar in most tissues and were about 40 h in rats after seven doses of 20 mg/kg and about 90 h in dogs after five doses of 30 mg/kg. Serum concentrations declined in a multi-exponential manner, reflecting initial rapid distribution into tissues and then slow return to serum from tissues. Azithromycin had good oral bioavailability in rats and dogs (46% and 97%, respectively). Rapid uptake of azithromycin by tissues from serum and slow redistribution from tissues to serum are apparently factors governing the pharmacokinetics of azithromycin in rats and dogs. Serum concentrations do not reflect the availability of azithromycin in tissues. PMID:2154438

  17. Proteomic analysis of hippocampus in the rat

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Bo; WANG Ren-zhi; LIAN Zhi-gang; YAO Yong

    2004-01-01

    Objective To analyze the protein expression in the rat hippocampus by the proteomic approach.Methods Proteins from hippocampal tissue homogenates of the rat were separated by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis(2-DE),and stained with colloidal Coomassie blue to produce a high-resolution map of the rat hippocampus proteome.Selected proteins from this map were digested with trypsin,and the resulting tryptic peptides were analyzed by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry(MALDI-TOF-MS).The mass spectrometric data were used to identify the proteins through searches of the NCBI protein sequence database.Results 37 prominent proteins with various functional characteristics were identified.The identified brain protein classes covered metabolism enzymes,cytoskeleton proteins,heat shock proteins,antioxidant proteins,signalling proteins,proteasome-related proteins,neuron-specific proteins and glial-associated proteins.Furthermore,3 hypothetical proteins,unknown proteins so far only proposed from their nucleic acid structure,were identified.Conclusion This study provides the first unbiased characterization of proteins of the rat hippocampus and will be used for future studies of differential protein expression in rat models of neurological disorders.

  18. Effect of thiabendazole on some rat hepatic xenobiotic metabolising enzymes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Price, R.J.; Scott, M.P.; Walters, D.G.; Stierum, R.H.; Groten, J.P.; Meredith, C.; Lake, B.G.

    2004-01-01

    The effect of thiabendazole (TB) on some rat hepatic xenobiotic metabolising enzymes has been investigated. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were fed control diet or diets containing 102-5188 ppm TB for 28 days. As a positive control for induction of hepatic xenobiotic metabolism, rats were also fed diets c

  19. Estimation of restraint stress in rats using salivary amylase activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuura, Tetsuya; Takimura, Ryo; Yamaguchi, Masaki; Ichinose, Mitsuyuki

    2012-09-01

    The rat is an ideal model animal for studying physical and psychological stresses. Recent human studies have shown that salivary amylase activity is a useful biomarker of stress in our social life. To estimate the usefulness of amylase activity as a biomarker of stress in rats, we analyzed changes in physiological parameters including amylase activity and anatomical variables, which were induced by a mild restraint of paws (10 min, 3 times/week, 9 weeks). The quantities of food and water intake and excretion amount of the stress rats were smaller than those of the control rats during the experimental period (5-13 weeks). The body weight of the stress rats decreased compared with that of the control rats. Moreover, the enlargement of the adrenal gland was confirmed in the stress rats, indicating that the mild restraint caused a chronic stress response. The amylase activities of the stress rats were significantly greater than those of the control rats at 5 weeks of age. However, the amylase activity of the stress rats decreased compared with that of the control rats after 6 weeks of age. These results indicate that amylase activity is increased by acute stress and reduced by chronic stress, which is caused by repeated restraint stress. In conclusion, amylase activity is a useful biomarker of acute and chronic stresses in rats. PMID:22753135

  20. Research of Fast Neutron Radiation Effect on Rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    In order to research the fast neutron radiation effect on rats,the 8 weeks Wistar male rats were wholly irradiated by 14 MeV fast neutron with 5 Gy. In the experiment,the rats were divided into normal and irradiation group, and killed

  1. Androgen-linked control of rat liver carbonic anhydrase III.

    OpenAIRE

    Shiels, A.; Jeffery, S; Phillips, I. R.; Shephard, E A; Wilson, C. A.; Carter, N D

    1983-01-01

    The concentration of carbonic anhydrase III (CAIII) in male rat liver was found to be 30 times greater than that in the female. Castration of male rats led to marked reduction in liver CAIII concentrations which could be partially restored to control levels by testosterone replacement. Marked developmental and senescence changes in liver CAIII were also observed in male rats.

  2. Phenotypic Characterization of LEA Rat: A New Rat Model of Nonobese Type 2 Diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tadashi Okamura

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Animal models have provided important information for the genetics and pathophysiology of diabetes. Here we have established a novel, nonobese rat strain with spontaneous diabetes, Long-Evans Agouti (LEA rat derived from Long-Evans (LE strain. The incidence of diabetes in the males was 10% at 6 months of age and 86% at 14 months, while none of the females developed diabetes. The blood glucose level in LEA male rats was between 200 and 300 mg/dl at 120 min according to OGTT. The glucose intolerance in correspondence with the impairment of insulin secretion was observed in male rats, which was the main cause of diabetes in LEA rats. Histological examination revealed that the reduction of β-cell mass was caused by progressive fibrosis in pancreatic islets in age-dependent manner. The intracytoplasmic hyaline droplet accumulation and the disappearance of tubular epithelial cell layer associated with thickening of basement membrane were evident in renal proximal tubules. The body mass index and glycaemic response to exogenous insulin were comparable to those of control rats. The unique characteristics of LEA rat are a great advantage not only to analyze the progression of diabetes, but also to disclose the genes involved in type 2 diabetes mellitus.

  3. Regulation of Taurine transporter activity in cultured rat retinal ganglion cells and rat retinal Muller Cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diabetic retinopathy is one of the most common complications of diabetes. The amino acid taurine is believed to play an antioxidant protective role in diabetic retinopathy through the scavenging of the reactive species. It is not well established whether taurine uptake is altered in retina cells during diabetic conditions. Thus, the present study was designed to investigate the changes in taurine transport in cultures of rat retinal Muller cells and rat retinal ganglion cells under conditions associated with diabetes. Taurine was abundantly taken up by retinal Muller cells and rat retinal ganglion cells under normal glycemic condition. Taurine was actively transported to rat Muller cells and rat retinal ganglion cells in a Na and Cl dependant manner. Taurine uptake further significantly elevated in both type of cells after the incubation with high glucose concentration. This effect could be attributed to the increase in osmolarity. Because Nitric Oxide (NO) is a molecule implicated in the pathogenesis of diabetes, we also determined the activity of taurine transporter in cultured rat retinal Muller cells and rat retinal ganglion cells in the presence of the NO donors, SIN-1 and SNAP. Taurine uptake was elevated above control value after 24-h incubation with low concentration of NO donors. We finally investigated the ability of neurotoxic glutamate to change taurine transporter activity in both types of cells. Uptake of taurine was significantly increased in rat retinal ganglion cells when only incubated with high concentration of glutamate. Our data provide evidence that taurine transporter is present in cultured rat retinal ganglion and Muller cells and is regulated by hyperosmolarity. The data are relevant to disease such as diabetes and neuronal degeneration where retinal cell volume may dramatically change. (author)

  4. Phenotypic Characterization of LEA Rat: A New Rat Model of Nonobese Type 2 Diabetes

    OpenAIRE

    Tadashi Okamura; Xiang Yuan Pei; Ichiro Miyoshi; Yukiko Shimizu; Rieko Takanashi-Yanobu; Yasumasa Mototani; Takao Kanai; Jo Satoh; Noriko Kimura; Noriyuki Kasai

    2013-01-01

    Animal models have provided important information for the genetics and pathophysiology of diabetes. Here we have established a novel, nonobese rat strain with spontaneous diabetes, Long-Evans Agouti (LEA) rat derived from Long-Evans (LE) strain. The incidence of diabetes in the males was 10% at 6 months of age and 86% at 14 months, while none of the females developed diabetes. The blood glucose level in LEA male rats was between 200 and 300 mg/dl at 120 min according to OGTT. The glucose into...

  5. Removal of plutonium from the neonatal rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plutonium bound to neonatal rat gut was readily mobilized by Ca-DTPA. A single dose of Ca-DTPA, 7-10X the usual human intravenous dose level (HID = 28.7 μmol/kg), given by gavage 2 hr after 2-day-old rats received 1.46 μCi 238Pu(NO3)2 by gavage, lowered Pu bound to the gut by 82% as compared to untreated animals. Rats similarly treated 5 days after gavage with 1.89 μCi 238Pu lost a similar amount (85%). Prompt treatment with Ca-DTPA reduced Pu in most tissues to one-third and delayed treatment reduced Pu to one-half, compared to control tissue content. The two treatment routes (gavage and intraperitoneal) were comparably effective except that removal of Pu from the skeleton, as represented by femur levels, was greater by the parenteral route

  6. Renal alterations in prediabetic rats with periodontitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Carla Cruvinel Pontes; Holmstrup, Palle; Buschard, Karsten;

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Periodontitis was shown to have an impact on glucose levels in prediabetic and diabetic rats. The Zucker fatty rat (ZFR) is a well-characterized model of prediabetes presenting with impaired glucose tolerance, hyperinsulinemia, dyslipidemia, and moderate hypertension. The aim of the...... present study was to investigate whether periodontitis influences kidney changes in ZFRs. METHODS: Male adult ZFRs (N = 19) and their lean littermates (N = 18) were studied. Periodontitis was induced with ligatures in half of the ZFRs and lean rats, whereas the other half served as controls. After 4 weeks......, collagen IValpha1, fibronectin, and nephrin. Urinary albumin excretion and creatinine clearance were also evaluated. RESULTS: In prediabetic ZFRs, periodontitis was associated with kidney hypertrophy (P = 0.03) and a tendency for increased glomerular volume (P = 0.06). In lean littermates, elevated...

  7. Renin responses to hemorrhage to conscious rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The authors investigated the role of beta adrenergic inhibition on the renin response to graded hemorrhage (hem) in conscious rats. Chronic femoral arterial (for measurement of mean arterial pressure - MAP) and venous (for drug infusion) catheters were implanted at least 5 days before experimentation. Hem was administered in < 2 min. 10 rats (CTL) were exposed to a total of 21 episodes of hemorrhage. 13 rats (B-block) were given 1 mg/kg propranolol hydrochloride iv 20 min prior to hem (24 episodes total). Plasma renin activity (PRA) was measured by radioimmunoassay. Pre-hem PRA levels were measured in the first 1 ml of hem blood. Hem resulted in hem volume-dependent decreases in blood pressure and increases in PRA. B-block did not significantly alter the mean renin response to hemorrhage

  8. Opportunity Leaves a Trail of 'Rat' Holes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity's rock abrasion tool, known informally as the 'Rat,' has nibbled seven holes into the slope of 'Endurance Crater.' This image from the rover's navigation camera was released previously (PIA06716) without the Rat holes labeled so that viewers could try to find the holes themselves. Here, the holes have been identified. Starting from the uppermost pictured (closest to the crater rim) to the lowest, the Rat hole targets are: 'Tennessee,' 'Cobblehill,' 'Virginia,' 'London,' 'Grindstone,' 'Kettlestone,' and 'Drammensfjorden.' These holes were drilled on sols 138 (June 13, 2004), 143 (June 18), 145 (June 20), 148 (June 23), 151 (June 26), 153 (June 28) and 161 (July 7), respectively. Each hole is 4.5 centimeters (1.8 inches) in diameter.

  9. Blastomogenic effect of 210Po on rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A single intraperitoneal administration of 210Po (0.3-20.0 μ Ci/kg) to rats induced development of tumors of thyroid gland (25% of cumulative incidence of tumors), kidneys (11.7%), mammary gland (9.2%), hypophysis (9.2%), large intestine (8.3%), liver, adrenal glands, ovaries, parathyroid gland, prostate, subcutaneous connective tissue and leukosis (8.3%). With the dose increase from 0.3 to 2.4 μ Ci/kg, the incidence of tumors increases from 25 to 50% of total number of rats with a latency period of 580-425 days, respectively. It can be assumed that the ''virtually ineffective'' dose of 210Po, as determined by the criterion of tumor occurrence in rats, constitutes 0.006 μ Ci/kg

  10. Threonine phosphorylation of rat liver glycogen synthase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    32P-labeled glycogen synthase specifically immunoprecipitated from 32P-phosphate incubated rat hepatocytes contains, in addition to [32P] phosphoserine, significant levels of [32P] phosphothreonine. When the 32P-immunoprecipitate was cleaved with CNBr, the [32P] phosphothreonine was recovered in the large CNBr fragment (CB-2, Mapp 28 Kd). Homogeneous rat liver glycogen synthase was phosphorylated by all the protein kinases able to phosphorylate CB-2 in vitro. After analysis of the immunoprecipitated enzyme for phosphoaminoacids, it was observed that only casein kinase II was able to phosphorylate on threonine and 32P-phosphate was only found in CB-2. These results demonstrate that rat liver glycogen synthase is phosphorylated at threonine site(s) contained in CB-2 and strongly indicate that casein kinase II may play a role in the ''in vivo'' phosphorylation of liver glycogen synthase. This is the first protein kinase reported to phosphorylate threonine residues in liver glycogen synthase

  11. Rats exhibit reference-dependent choice behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatti, Mehwish; Jang, Hyeran; Kralik, Jerald D; Jeong, Jaeseung

    2014-07-01

    Human preferences depend on whether a chosen outcome appears to be a loss or a gain compared with what had been expected, i.e., in comparison to a reference point. Because reference dependence has such a strong influence on human decision-making, it is important to uncover its origins, which will in turn help delineate the underlying mechanisms. It remains unknown whether rats use reference points in decision-making, and yet, the study of rats could help address the question of whether reference dependence is evolutionarily conserved among mammals and could provide a nonhuman animal model to investigate the neural mechanisms underlying this important cognitive process. The aim of the current study was to determine whether rats show reference-dependent choice behavior. We developed a novel paradigm by modifying the "T" maze by installing "pockets" to the left and right of the "T" stem that held reward pellets so rats would potentially develop reference values for each option prior to choice. We found that the rats were indeed sensitive to the way alternatives were presented. That is, they exhibited reference-dependent choice behavior by avoiding the choice option framed as a loss (e.g., having four reward pellets in the pocket, but receiving only one), at least under conditions with certain outcomes and clear differences between the reference and outcome quantities. Despite the small number of rats in this study, this species-level capacity suggests that reference dependence in general and loss aversion in particular may be conserved traits that evolved at or before the emergence of mammals. PMID:24657593

  12. Toxicity of oleic acid anilide in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, M F; Kaphalia, B S; Palafox, A; Jerrells, T R; Ansari, G A

    1991-11-01

    In the present investigation, we have studied the toxic potential of oleic acid anilide (OAA) and heated oleic acid anilide (HOAA) in relation to the toxic oil syndrome (TOS). Male Sprague-Dawley rats were given 250 mg/kg of OAA or HOAA in mineral oil by gavage, on alternate days for 2 weeks (total 7 doses). The control rats received an equal volume of mineral oil only. The animals were sacrificed at days 1, 7, and 28 following the last dose. Ratio of organ-to-body weight showed increases in spleen and kidney of HOAA and OAA treated rats, respectively, at day 1 while this ratio for liver in HOAA treated group showed a decrease at day 1. Among blood parameters, white blood cells increased in HOAA treated group at day 1 and in both OAA and HOAA groups at day 28. Mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH) and mean cell volume (MCV) also showed increases in the HOAA treated rats at days 7 and 28. Serum lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) decreased in both OAA and HOAA treated rats at day 1, while at day 7 the decrease was confined only to the HOAA group. Serum glutamic oxalacetic transaminase (GOT) and glutamic pyruvic transaminase (GPT) activities also decreased at most of the time points. Liver mitochondrial ATPase activity decreased in the HOAA group at day 7 and in the OAA group at day 28. Among serum immunoglobulins, IgA levels increased throughout the study but the changes were more pronounced in HOAA treated rats.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1759851

  13. Aspartame and the rat brain monoaminergic system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perego, C; De Simoni, M G; Fodritto, F; Raimondi, L; Diomede, L; Salmona, M; Algeri, S; Garattini, S

    1988-12-01

    A high dose of aspartame (APM) was administered to rats to study possible effects on brain monoaminergic systems. APM and its metabolite phenylalanine (Phe) were given orally at doses of 1000 and 500 mg/kg, respectively. Significant increases were seen in brain Phe and tyrosine (Tyr) levels. Two different approaches were used to study monoaminergic systems: whole tissue measurements by HPLC-ED and in vivo voltammetry in freely moving rats. Dopamine, serotonin and their metabolites were taken as indexes of neuronal activity. In spite of the high dose used, no modification was found in monoamines or their metabolites in striatum, hippocampus and nucleus accumbens. PMID:2464204

  14. Developmental neurotoxicity of propylthiouracil in rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Marta Axelstad; Hansen, Pernille Reimer; Christiansen, Sofie;

    2007-01-01

    early in pregnancy may cause adverse effects on the offspring. This has led to increased concern about thyroid hormone disrupting chemicals (TDCs) in our environment. We have studied how developmental exposure to the known antithyroid agent propylthiouracil (PTU) affects the development of rat pups. The...... overall aim was to provide detailed knowledge on the relationship between effects on thyroid hormone levels and long-lasting developmental neurotoxicity effects. Groups of 16–18 pregnant rats (HanTac:WH) were dosed with PTU (0, 0.8, 1.6 or 2.4 mg/(kg day)) from gestation day 7 to postnatal day (PND) 16...

  15. Ritalin Use Modifies Alcohol Effects in Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Blake R. Sonne; Nachum Dafny

    2014-01-01

    Methylphenidate (MPD), known as Ritalin, is a common drug prescribed for those diagnosed with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD).There are reports that many MPD users consume alcohol, resulting in toxic effects and hospitalization. The goal of this study was to investigate the effects of ethanol in rats concomitant with acute and repetitive MPD exposure. Rats were divided into four groups, control (saline), 0.6 mg/kg MPD, 2.5 mg/kg MPD, and 10.0 mg/kg MPD groups and lasted for 12...

  16. Immunity to Fasciola hepatica in the rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Experiments were carried out which demonstrated an acquired immunity to Fasciola hapatica in the rat. It was shown that this immunity could be transferred to recipients using either lymphoid cells or serum from infected donor rats. The extent of the protection obtained by cells appeared to be related to the quantity and persistence of the antigenic stimulus in the donor. Likewise, the degree of immunity conferred by immune serum was dependent upon the volume transferred. The significance of these results in relation to the mechanism of immunity to fascioliasis is discussed

  17. The rat as an animal model of Alzheimer's disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Benedikz, Eirikur; Kloskowska, Ewa; Winblad, Bengt

    2009-01-01

    As a disease model, the laboratory rat has contributed enormously to neuroscience research over the years. It has also been a popular animal model for Alzheimer's disease but its popularity has diminished during the last decade, as techniques for genetic manipulation in rats have lagged behind that...... of mice. In recent years, the rat has been making a comeback as an Alzheimer's disease model and the appearance of increasing numbers of transgenic rats will be a welcome and valuable complement to the existing mouse models. This review summarizes the contributions and current status of the rat as an...... animal model of Alzheimer's disease....

  18. Pharmacokinetic interaction of curcumin and glibenclamide in diabetic rats

    OpenAIRE

    Devi, P. R. Sakunthala; Reddy, A. Gopala; Rao, G. S.; Kumar, C. S. V. Satish; Boobalan, G.

    2015-01-01

    Aim: The aim was to assess the pharmacokinetic (PK) interaction of curcumin and glibenclamide (GL) in diabetic rats. Materials and Methods: Sprague-Dawley rats induced with diabetes were divided into 2 groups of six rats in each. Group I: GL (6 mg/kg po once daily) treatment in diabetic rats and group 2: Curcumin (50 mg/Kg po once daily) + GL (dose as above) in diabetic rats. Blood samples were collected at pre-determined time intervals for kinetic analysis after the first and last oral dosin...

  19. The oncogenic action of ionizing radiation on rat skin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Progress has occurred in several areas corresponding to the specific aims of the proposal: (1) Progression and multiple events in radiation carcinogenesis of rat skin as a function of LET; (2) cell cycle kinetics of irradiated rat epidermis as determined by double labeling and double emulsion autoradiography; (3) oncogene activation detected by in situ hybridization in radiation-induced rat skin tumors; (4) amplification of the c-myc oncogene in radiation-induced rat skin tumors as a function of LET; and (5) transformation of rat skin keratinocytes by ionizing radiation in combination with c-Ki-ras and c-myc oncogenes. 111 refs., 13 figs., 12 tabs

  20. The oncogenic action of ionizing radiation on rat skin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burns, F.J.

    1991-01-01

    Progress has occurred in several areas corresponding to the specific aims of the proposal: (1) Progression and multiple events in radiation carcinogenesis of rat skin as a function of LET; (2) cell cycle kinetics of irradiated rat epidermis as determined by double labeling and double emulsion autoradiography; (3) oncogene activation detected by in situ hybridization in radiation-induced rat skin tumors; (4) amplification of the c-myc oncogene in radiation-induced rat skin tumors as a function of LET; and (5) transformation of rat skin keratinocytes by ionizing radiation in combination with c-Ki-ras and c-myc oncogenes. 111 refs., 13 figs., 12 tabs.

  1. In the Rat Cerebellar Cortex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gokhan Ordek

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The changes of excitability in affected neural networks can be used as a marker to study the temporal course of traumatic brain injury (TBI. The cerebellum is an ideal platform to study brain injury mechanisms at the network level using the electrophysiological methods. Within its crystalline morphology, the cerebellar cortex contains highly organized topographical subunits that are defined by two main inputs, the climbing and mossy fibers. Here we demonstrate the use of cerebellar evoked potentials (EPs mediated through these afferent systems for monitoring the injury progression in a rat model of fluid percussion injury (FPI. A mechanical tap on the dorsal hand was used as a stimulus, and EPs were recorded from the paramedian lobule (PML of the posterior cerebellum via multi-electrode arrays (MEA. Post-injury evoked response amplitudes (EPAs were analyzed on a daily basis for one week and compared with pre-injury values. We found a trend of consistently decreasing EPAs in all nine animals, losing as much as 72±4% of baseline amplitudes measured before the injury. Notably, our results highlighted two particular time windows; the first 24 hours of injury in the acute period and day-3 to day-7 in the delayed period where the largest drops (~50% and 24% were observed in the EPAs. In addition, cross-correlations of spontaneous signals between electrode pairs declined (from 0.47±0.1 to 0.35±0.04, p<0.001 along with the EPAs throughout the week of injury. In support of the electrophysiological findings, immunohistochemical analysis at day-7 post-injury showed detectable Purkinje cell loss at low FPI pressures and more with the largest pressures used. Our results suggest that sensory evoked potentials recorded from the cerebellar surface can be a useful technique to monitor the course of cerebellar injury and identify the phases of injury progression even at mild levels.

  2. Rats demonstrate helping behavior toward a soaked conspecific.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Nobuya; Tan, Ling; Tate, Kazushi; Okada, Maya

    2015-09-01

    Helping behavior is a prosocial behavior whereby an individual helps another irrespective of disadvantages to him or herself. In the present study, we examined whether rats would help distressed, conspecific rats that had been soaked with water. In Experiment 1, rats quickly learned to liberate a soaked cagemate from the water area by opening the door to allow the trapped rat into a safe area. Additional tests showed that the presentation of a distressed cagemate was necessary to induce rapid door-opening behavior. In addition, it was shown that rats dislike soaking and that rats that had previously experienced a soaking were quicker to learn how to help a cagemate than those that had never been soaked. In Experiment 2, the results indicated that rats did not open the door to a cagemate that was not distressed. In Experiment 3, we tested behavior when rats were forced to choose between opening the door to help a distressed cagemate and opening a different door to obtain a food reward. Irrespective of how they learned to open the door, in most test trials, rats chose to help the cagemate before obtaining a food reward, suggesting that the relative value of helping others is greater than the value of a food reward. These results suggest that rats can behave prosocially and that helper rats may be motivated by empathy-like feelings toward their distressed cagemate. PMID:25964095

  3. Cecal infusion of nutrients improves nutritional status of rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aghdassi, E; Raina, N; Allard, J P

    1995-11-01

    The role of colonic fermentation in providing energy was investigated in rats with small bowel transection (T) or 80% resection (SBR). Rats were randomized to receive for 12 d either saline (S) or the enteral solution (E) through a cecostomy to meet 30% of energy requirement; the rest (70%) was provided by parenteral nutrition. Although SBR-S rats lost weight significantly compared with d 1 of the study, SBR-E rats gained. Significantly greater carcass wet weight and fat were found in SBR-E and T-E rats compared with SBR-S and T-S rats. SBR-E and T-E rats had significantly greater colonic mucosal dry weight and protein compared with SBR-S and T-S rats. Cecal short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) contents were also significantly higher in SBR-E and T-E rats compared with SBR-S and T-S rats. There was no significant effect of surgery (T vs. SBR) on any of the variables studied. These results suggest that the products of fermentation of an enteral solution infused through a cecostomy contribute substantially to energy requirement, maintenance of body composition and nutritional status of rats. PMID:7472670

  4. Neural plasticity occurs in the adrenal medulla of asthmatic rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FENG Jun-tao; LI Xiao-zhao; HU Cheng-ping; WANG Jun; NIE Hua-ping

    2010-01-01

    Background Airway symptoms in asthma are related to decrease of epinephrine secretion, which may be ascribed to elevated nerve growth factor (NGF) in the organism.The aim of this study was to monitor the neuroendocrine alteration in the adrenal medulla of asthmatic rats.Methods Sixteen rats were randomly divided into two groups (n=8), control group and asthma group, and the asthmatic rats were sensitized and challenged with ovalbumin (OVA).The levels of NGF, epinephrine and norepinephrine in serum were detected by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), the NGF expression in adrenal medulla was detected by immunohistochemistry, and the changes in the ultrastructure of the adrenal medulla was observed by electron microscopy.Results The NGF expression was increased in asthmatic rats compared with control rats.Compared with control rats,the results indicated that the epinephrine level was decreased in asthmatic rats, but no significant difference was found in norepinephrine levels.We found more ganglion cells in the adrenal medulla of asthmatic rats than in control rats, with NGF immunostaining mainly located in these ganglion cells.Electron microscopic images showed the density of chromaffin granula decreased and there was shrunken nucleolemma in the adrenal medullary cells of asthmatic rats.Conclusion The innervation of the adrenal medulla is changed in asthmatic rats, and it may contribute to the epinephrine decrease in asthma.

  5. [Foci of the rat mite Ornithonyssus bacoti (Mesostigmata, Macronyssidae) and rat-mite dermatitis in Moscow].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopatina, Iu V; Sokolova, T V; Niiazova, M V

    1992-01-01

    High density of the rat population in Moscow in 1990-1991 resulted in the appearance of Ornithonyssus bacoti foci and of cases of the rat-mite dermatitis in humans. A total of 36 foci of the disease were examined and eradicated. A method for the detection of such foci has been developed. Two types of foci are distinguished, communal and industrial, and their specific features as regards the rodent and mite populations and clinical features of dermatitis in humans are described. A system of measures for liquidation of foci of rat mites is suggested, including rat and mite eradication and treatment of the patients. Specific features of these measures for various types of foci and in case of a focus reappearance are enumerated. PMID:1299760

  6. Core temperature of tailless rats exposed to centrifugation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monson, C. B.; Oyama, J.

    1984-01-01

    The role of the tail in the altered thermoregulation of rats during acute exposure to hypergravity was investigated, using groups of rats of two ages: 55 days (young) and 138 days (old). Rectal and foot temperature changes were measured in intact and tailless rats subjected to 1 h centrifugation of 2.8 G, with preceding (1 h) and following (1-3 h) 1 G periods. At 22 C, the loss of body heat from the tail per se does not measurably contribute to the hypothermia induced by hypergravity. However, the heat loss from the feet was greater in the tailless rats than in the intact rats from the young group of animals, although there was no significant difference between the tailless and intact rats in the old animal group. It is concluded that the inhibition of heat production is a significant factor in the hypothermia of centrifuged tailless rats, as it has been previously shown to be in the intact animals.

  7. Potential neoplastic effects of parathion-methyl on rat liver

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    M. Nisa UNALDI CORAL; Sonay UCMAN; Hasan YILDIZ; Haydar OZTAS; Semih DALKILIC

    2009-01-01

    The mutagenic and carcinogenic effects of parathion-methyl were examined by bacterial reverse assay and a long term experiment with Wistar rats. The potential mutagenic effect of parathion-methyl in Salmonella typhimurium TA100 bacterial cells was observed without rat liver S9 metabolic activation. Parathion-methyl was further investigated for pathological changes in rat pancreas and liver. The long-term rat experiments showed that parathion-methyl exposure for 3 months can cause pathological changes in rat pancreases acinar cells and pancreatic hepatocytes. Atypical acinar cell focuses (AACF) were determined in the liver and pancreas of the rats. The results from short-term Ames test and long-term rat experiments suggest that parathion-methyl would be potential carcinogenic.

  8. Guanethidine-induced sympathectomy in the nude rat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juul, A; Juul, P; Christensen, H B

    1989-01-01

    Guanethidine sulphate 40 mg/kg was administered intraperitoneally daily for 14 days to normal Lewis rats and athymic nude rats of a Lewis background (rnu/rnu). Histological examination of the superior cervical ganglia demonstrated a pronounced chromatolysis of the neurones and a loss of the major...... part of the nerve cells accompanied by an increased number of small mononuclear inflammatory cells. The extent of chromatolysis and nerve cell death induced by guanethidine did not differ between normal and nude rats, whereas the increase of the number of mononuclear cells was lower in the nude rats...... than in the normal rats (163 and 268 per cent respectively of the saline treated controls, P less than 0.01). Since guanethidine induced nerve cell death in the T-cell deficient nude rat to the same extent as in normal rats, it is concluded, that the effect is caused by either a thymus...

  9. The passive coping Roman Low Avoidance rat, a non-obese rat model for insulin resistance

    OpenAIRE

    Boersma, G.J.; Scheurink, A. J. W.; Wielinga, P Y; Steimer, T. J.; Benthem, L.

    2009-01-01

    The aim of the study was develop to an animal model that links coping style to insulin resistance. We hypothesized that the psychogenetically selected Roman Low Avoidance (RLA) rats may serve as such a model. To test this hypothesis, we submitted both RLA and Roman High avoidance (RHA) rats to a series of intravenous glucose tolerance tests (IVGTT). These IVGTT were followed by post mortem metabolic characterization of the selection lines. It was found that plasma insulin levels are markedly ...

  10. Palmitoylated PrRP analog decreases body weight in DIO rats but not in ZDF rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holubová, Martina; Zemenová, Jana; Mikulášková, Barbora; Panajotova, Vladimíra; Stöhr, Jiří; Haluzík, Martin; Kuneš, Jaroslav; Železná, Blanka; Maletínská, Lenka

    2016-05-01

    Anorexigenic neuropeptides produced and acting in the brain have the potential to decrease food intake and ameliorate obesity, but are ineffective after peripheral application, owing to a limited ability to cross the blood-brain barrier. We have designed lipidized analogs of prolactin-releasing peptide (PrRP), which is involved in energy balance regulation as demonstrated by obesity phenotypes of both Prrp-knockout and Prrp receptor-knockout mice. The aim of this study was to characterize the subchronic effect of a palmitoylated PrRP analog in two rat models of obesity and diabetes: diet-induced obese Sprague-Dawley rats and leptin receptor-deficient Zucker diabetic (ZDF) rats. In the rats with diet-induced obesity (DIO), a two-week intraperitoneal treatment with palmitoylated PrRP lowered food intake by 24% and body weight by 8%. This treatment also improved glucose tolerance and tended to decrease leptin levels and adipose tissue masses in a dose-dependent manner. In contrast, in ZDF rats, the same treatment with palmitoylated PrRP lowered food intake but did not significantly affect body weight or glucose tolerance, probably in consequence of severe leptin resistance due to a nonfunctional leptin receptor. Our data indicate a good efficacy of lipidized PrRP in DIO rats. Thus, the strong anorexigenic, body weight-reducing, and glucose tolerance-improving effects make palmitoylated PrRP an attractive candidate for anti-obesity treatment. PMID:26906745

  11. Expression of exogenous rat collagenase in vitro and in a rat model of liver fibrosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ji-Yao Wang; Jin-Sheng Guo; Chang-Qing Yang

    2002-01-01

    AIM: The present study was conducted to test thehypothesis that the introduction of the collagenase geneinto tissue culture cells and into a rat model of liver fibrosiswould result in the expression of enzymatically active product.METHODS: FLAG-tagged full-length rat collagenase cDNAwas PCR amplified and cloned into a mammalian expressionvector. NIH3T3 cells were then transiently transfected withthis construct. Expression of exogenous collagenase mRNAwas assessed by RT-PCR, and the exogenous collagenasedetected by Western blotting using anti-FLAG monoclonalantibodyEnzymatic activity was detected by gelatinzymography. To determine the effects of exogenouscollagenase production in vivo, the construct was boundto glycosyl-poly-L-lysine and then transduced into rats thathad developed liver fibrosis as a result of CCI4 plus ethanoltreatment. The hepatic expression of the construct and itseffect on the formation of liver fibrosis were demonstratedusing RT-PCR and immunohistochemistry.RESULTS: It was found that exogenously expressed ratcollagenase mRNA could be detected in NTH3T3 cellsfollowing transfection. Enzymatic ally active collagenase couldalso be detected in the culture medium. The recombinantplasmid was also expressed in rat liver after in vivo genetransfer. Expression of exogenous rat collagenase correlatedwith decreased deposition of collagen types I and Ⅲ in thelivers of rats with experimentally induced liver fibrosis.CONCLUSION: The expression of active exogenous ratcollagenase could be achieved in vitro and in vivo. It wassuggested that in vivo expression of active exogenouscollagenase may have therapeutic effects on the formationof liver fibrosis.

  12. The effects of gastrocnemius-soleus muscle forces on ankle biomechanics during triple arthrodesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hejazi, Shima; Rouhi, Gholamreza; Rasmussen, John

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a finite element model of the ankle, taking into account the effects of muscle forces, determined by a musculoskeletal analysis, to investigate the contact stress distribution in the tibio-talar joint in patients with triple arthrodesis and in normal subjects. Forces of major a...

  13. Rcpititative magnetic stimulation of gastrocnemius muscle evokes cerebral potentials in Duchcnnc muscular dystrophy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cui Liying; Guan Yuzhou; Tang Xiaofu; Li Benhong

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To study the function and mechanism of the ccrebral evoked potentials by repititative stimulation of calf muscle in Duchcnne mucular dystrophy (DMD) patients with obvious muscular dystrophy and pseudohyocrtrophy. METHODS: Wc measured cerebral cvoked potcntials by stimulation of calf muscles and SEP by stimulation of posterior tibial nerves at ankle in ten patients with DMD and ten normal controls matched with sex and age. The intensity of the magnetic stimulation was at 30% of maximal output (2.1 Tcsla) and the trcquency was I Hz. The low intensity of magnetic stimulation was just sufficient to produce a contraction of the muscle belly underncath the coil. Recording electrode was placed at 2 cm posterior to the Cz. referencc to Fpz. Thc latencics of N33. P38, N48 and P55 and amplitude (P38-N48) were recorded. SEP was recorded by routine methods. RESULTS: in normal subjects. thc amplitude of magnetic stimulation of calf muscle was 40% lower. and the latency of P38 was 2.9±2.1 ms longer compared with electrical stimulation of the posterior tibial nerves at ankle. In 6 patients. P38 latency from magnetic stimulation was remarkable prolonged (P<0.01). and in 4 patients. there no any response was found. SElP from electrical stimulation was normal in all patients. CONCLUSTION: DMD is an available model for the study of meclhanism of cerebral evoked potentials by magnetic stimulating muscles. Wc can coneludc that thc responses were produced by muscle input. The abnormal responses in patients may relate to decreased input of muscle by muscular dystrophy and pscudohypcrtrophy.

  14. THE MECHANISM OF CEREBRAL EVOKED POTENTIALS BYREPETITIVE MAGNETIC STIMULATION OF GASTROCNEMIUS MUSCLE IN DUCHENNE MUSCULAR DYSTROPHY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    管宇宙; 崔丽英; 汤晓芙; 李本红; 杜华

    2001-01-01

    Objective. To study the features and mechanism of the cerebral evoked potentials by repetitive stimulation of calf muscle in Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) patients with obvious muscular dystrophy and psuedohypertrophy. Methods. Cerebral evoked potentials by stimulation of calf muscles and somatusensory evoked potentials(SEPs) by the stimulation of posterior tibial nerves at ankle were measured in 10 patients with DMD and 10 norreal controls matched with gender and age. The intensity of the magnetic stimulation was at 30% of maximal output (2. 1 Tesla, MagPro magnetic stimulator, Dantec) and the frequency was 1 Hz. The low intensity of magnet-ic stimulation was just sufficient to produce a contraction of the muscle belly underneath the coil. Recording electrode was placed at 2 cm posterior to the Cz, reference to Fpz. The latencies of N33, P38, N48 and P55 and ampli-tude (P38 - N48) were recorded. SEPs were recorded by routine methods. Results. In normal subjects, the amphtudes of cerebral evoked potentials by magnetic stimulation of calf mus-cle was 40% lower than that by electrical stimulation of the posterior tibial nerves at ankle. The latency of P38 was 2. 9 ± 2. 1 ms longer compared with electrical stimulation of the posterior tibial nerves at ankle. In 6 patients, P38 latency from magnetic stimulation was remarkably prolonged ( P < 0. 01), and in 4 patients, there was no remarkable response. SEPs evoked by electrical stimulation were normal in all of the patients. Conclusion. DMD is an available model for the study of mechanism of cerebral evoked potentials by magnetic stimulating muscle. We can conclude that the responses from magnetic stimulation were produced by muscle input. The abnormal responses in patients may relate to decreased input of muscle by stimulating dystrophic and psedohypertrophic muscle.

  15. Comparative study on influence of fetal bovine serum and serum of adult rat on cultivation of newborn rat neural cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sukach A. N.

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To study the influence of fetal bovine serum and serum of adult rats on behavior of newborn rat isolated neural cells during their cultivation in vitro. Methods. The isolation of neural cells from neonatal rat brain. The determination of the dynamics of cellular monolayer formation. Immunocytochemical staining of cells for β-tubulin III, nestin and vimentin. Results. It has been determined that the addition of serum of adult rats to the cultivation medium creates more favorable conditions for survival, attachment and spread of differentiated, and proliferation of the stem/progenitor neural cells of newborn rats during cultivation in vitro compared with the fetal bovine serum. Conclusions. Using the serum of adult rats is preferable for the cultivation of isolated neural cells of newborn rats compared with the fetal bovine serum.

  16. Efeito do sulfato de vanadil sobre o comprometimento metabólico muscular induzido pela imobilização de membro posterior de ratos Efecto del sulfato de vanadil sobre comprometimiento metabólico muscular inducido por la inmovilización del miembro posterior en ratones Effect of the vanadyl sulphate on the muscular metabolic compromising induced by immobilization of posterior limb of rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Borges Delfino

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available A proposta deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito do sulfato de vanadil (SV no perfil metabólico muscular de membro posterior imobilizado de ratos. Ratos Wistar foram divididos nos grupos (n = 6: controle (C, imobilizado em posição neutra do tornozelo (I, tratado com sulfato de vanadil (SV, 0,25mM, VO e imobilizado tratado com SV (I + SV durante sete dias. Após o período experimental, foram avaliadas as reservas de glicogênio (RG dos músculos sóleo (S, gastrocnêmio branco (GB e vermelho (GV, tibial anterior (TA e extensor longo dos dedos (ELD, além do peso do S e ELD. A análise estatística foi realizada pela ANOVA seguida pelo teste de Tukey (p La propuesta de este trabajo ha sido la de evaluar el efecto del sulfato de vanadil (SV en el perfil metabólico muscular de miembro posterior inmovilizado de ratones. Ratones Wistar fueron divididos en grupos (n = 6: control (C, inmovilizado en posición neutra de tobillo (I, tratado con sulfato de vanadil (SV, 0,25mM, VO e inmovilizado tratado con SV (I + SV durante 7 días. Después del periodo experimental, fueron evaluadas las reservas de glicógeno (RG de los músculos soleo (S, gastrocnemio blanco (GB y colorado (GV, tibial anterior (TA y extensor largo de los dedos (ELD, además del peso de S y ELD. El análisis estadístico fue realizado por ANOVA seguido del test de Tukey (p The purpose of this study was to evaluate the metabolic performance of immobilized skeletal muscle in rats treated with vanadyl sulphate. Male Wistar rats were divided in groups (n = 6: control (C, immobilized (I, treated with vanadyl sulphate (VS, 0,25 mM and immobilized treated with vanadyl sulphate (I + VS during seven days. The concentration of vanadyl sulphate diluted in water was 0,25 mM. After experimental stage, the glycogen content (GC was evaluated in soleus (S, white gastrocnemius (WG, red gastrocnemius (RG, tibialis anterior (TA and extensor digitorum longus (EDL muscles, besides S and EDL weight. The

  17. Effect of orlistat on fat absorption in rats: A comparison of normal rats and rats with diverted bile and pancreatic juice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Porsgaard, Trine; Straarup, Ellen Marie; Mu, Huiling; Høy, Carl-Erik

    2003-01-01

    the transport in normal rats and rats with fat malabsorption. Rats were subjected to cannulation of the main mesenteric lymph duct, and a feeding catheter was inserted into the stomach. In addition, malabsorbing rats were cannulated in the common bile and pancreatic duct. Emulsified safflower, fish......, and randomized oils were administered, and lymph was collected for 24 h and analyzed for FA composition. Administration of 25 mg orlistat together with the dietary oils resulted in very small changes from baseline lymphatic transport, indicating that inhibition of the fat absorption was almost...

  18. Toluene depresses plasma corticosterone in pregnant rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hougaard, K. S.; Hansen, A. M.; Hass, Ulla;

    2003-01-01

    corticosteroids from the maternal to the foetal compartment. Pregnant rats were subjected to either 1500 ppm toluene 6 hr/day and/or a schedule of "Chronic mild stress" during the last two weeks of gestation. Exposure to toluene was associated with reduced birth weight and lower maternal weight gain, the latter...

  19. ULTRASTRUCTURE OF THE RAT MESENCEPHALIC TRIGEMINAL NUCLEUS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    LIEM, RSB; COPRAY, JCVM; VANWILLIGEN, JD

    1991-01-01

    The subcellular morphology of the mesencephalic trigeminal (Me5) nucleus in the rat was studied by transmission electron microscopy. Most neurons in the thin rostral as well as in the major caudal part of Me5 appeared as large (40-50-mu-m), round-to ovoid-shaped unipolar cells. A few neurons (estima

  20. Pulmonary cryptococcosis induces chitinase in the rat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Casadevall Arturo

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We previously demonstrated that chronic pulmonary infection with Cryptococcus neoformans results in enhanced allergic inflammation and airway hyperreactivity in a rat model. Because the cell wall of C. neoformans consists of chitin, and since acidic mammalian chitinase (AMCase has recently been implicated as a novel mediator of asthma, we sought to determine whether such infection induces chitinase activity and expression of AMCase in the rat. Methods We utilized a previously-established model of chronic C. neoformans pulmonary infection in the rat to analyze the activity, expression and localization of AMCase. Results Our studies indicate that intratracheal inoculation of C. neoformans induces chitinase activity within the lung and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid of infected rats. Chitinase activity is also elicited by pulmonary infection with other fungi (e.g. C. albicans, but not by the inoculation of dead organisms. Enhanced chitinase activity reflects increased AMCase expression by airway epithelial cells and alveolar macrophages. Systemic cryptococcosis is not associated with increased pulmonary chitinase activity or AMCase expression. Conclusion Our findings indicate a possible link between respiratory fungal infections, including C. neoformans, and asthma through the induction of AMCase.