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Sample records for cast duplex stainless

  1. Phase Transformations in Cast Duplex Stainless Steels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Yoon-Jun [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    2004-01-01

    Duplex stainless steels (DSS) constitute both ferrite and austenite as a matrix. Such a microstructure confers a high corrosion resistance with favorable mechanical properties. However, intermetallic phases such as σ and χ can also form during casting or high-temperature processing and can degrade the properties of the DSS. This research was initiated to develop time-temperature-transformation (TTT) and continuous-cooling-transformation (CCT) diagrams of two types of cast duplex stainless steels, CD3MN (Fe-22Cr-5Ni-Mo-N) and CD3MWCuN (Fe-25Cr-7Ni-Mo-W-Cu-N), in order to understand the time and temperature ranges for intermetallic phase formation. The alloys were heat treated isothermally or under controlled cooling conditions and then characterized using conventional metallographic methods that included tint etching, and also using electron microscopy (SEM, TEM) and wavelength dispersive spectroscopy (WDS). The kinetics of intermetallic-phase (σ + χ) formation were analyzed using the Johnson-Mehl-Avrami (MA) equation in the case of isothermal transformations and a modified form of this equation in the case of continuous cooling transformations. The rate of intermetallic-phase formation was found to be much faster in CD3MWCuN than CD3MN due mainly to differences in the major alloying contents such as Cr, Ni and Mo. To examine in more detail the effects of these elements of the phase stabilities; a series of eight steel castings was designed with the Cr, Ni and Mo contents systematically varied with respect to the nominal composition of CD3MN. The effects of varying the contents of alloying additions on the formation of intermetallic phases were also studied computationally using the commercial thermodynamic software package, Thermo-Calc. In general, σ was stabilized with increasing Cr addition and χ by increasing Mo addition. However, a delicate balance among Ni and other minor elements such as N and Si also exists. Phase equilibria in DSS can be affected by

  2. Phase transformations in cast duplex stainless steels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yoon-Jun

    Duplex stainless steels (DSS) constitute both ferrite and austenite as a matrix. Such a microstructure confers a high corrosion resistance with favorable mechanical properties. However, intermetallic phases such as sigma (sigma) and chi (chi) can also form during casting or high-temperature processing and can degrade the properties of the DSS. This research was initiated to develop time-temperature-transformation (TTT) and continuous-cooling-transformation (CCT) diagrams of two types of cast duplex stainless steels, CD3MN (Fe-22Cr-5Ni-Mo-N) and CD3MWCuN (Fe-25Cr-7Ni-Mo-W-Cu-N), in order to understand the time and temperature ranges for intermetallic phase formation. The alloys were heat treated isothermally or under controlled cooling conditions and then characterized using conventional metallographic methods that included tint etching, and also using electron microscopy (SEM, TEM) and wavelength dispersive spectroscopy (WDS). The kinetics of intermetallic-phase (sigma + chi) formation were analyzed using the Johnson-Mehl-Avrami (JMA) equation in the case of isothermal transformations and a modified form of this equation in the case of continuous cooling transformations. The rate of intermetallic-phase formation was found to be much faster in CD3MWCuN than CD3MN due mainly to differences in the major alloying contents such as Cr, Ni and Mo. To examine in more detail the effects of these elements of the phase stabilities, a series of eight steel castings was designed with the Cr, Ni and Mo contents systematically varied with respect to the nominal composition of CD3MN. The effects of varying the contents of alloying additions on the formation of intermetallic phases were also studied computationally using the commercial thermodynamic software package, Thermo-Calc. In general, a was stabilized with increasing Cr addition and chi by increasing Mo addition. However, a delicate balance among Ni and other minor elements such as N and Si also exists. Phase equilibria in

  3. Final Report, Volume 1, Metallurgical Evaluation of Cast Duplex Stainless Steels and their Weldments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wen, Songqing; Lundin, Carl, W.; Batten, Greg, W.

    2005-09-30

    Duplex stainless steels (DSS) are being specified for chloride containing environments due to their enhanced pitting and stress corrosion cracking resistance. They exhibit improved corrosion performance over the austenitic stainless steels. Duplex stainless steels also offer improved strength properties and are available in various wrought and cast forms. Selected grades of duplex stainless steel castings and their welds, in comparison with their wrought counterparts, were evaluated, regarding corrosion performance and mechanical properties and weldability. Multiple heats of cast duplex stainless steel were evaluated in the as-cast, solution annealed (SA) static cast and SA centrifugal cast conditions, while their wrought counterparts were characterized in the SA condition and in the form of as-rolled plate. Welding, including extensive assessment of autogenous welds and a preliminary study of composite welds (shielded metal arc weld (SMAW)), was performed. The evaluations included critical pitting temperature (CPT) testing, intergranular corrosion (IGC) testing, ASTM A923 (Methods A, B and C), Charpy impact testing, weldability testing (ASTM A494), ferrite measurement and microstructural evaluations. In the study, the corrosion performances of DSS castings were characterized and assessed, including the wrought counterparts for comparison. The evaluation filled the pore of lack of data for cast duplex stainless steels compared to wrought materials. A database of the pitting corrosion and IGC behavior of cast and wrought materials was generated for a greater depth of understanding for the behavior of cast duplex stainless steel. In addition, improved evaluation methods for DSS castings were developed according to ASTM A923, A262, G48 and A494. The study revealed that when properly heat treated according to the specification, (1) DSS castings have equal or better pitting and intergranular corrosion resistance than their wrought counterparts; (2) Welding reduces the

  4. Final Report, Volume 1, Metallurgical Evaluation of Cast Duplex Stainless Steels and their Weldments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wen, Songqing; Lundin, Carl, W.; Batten, Greg, W.

    2005-09-30

    Duplex stainless steels (DSS) are being specified for chloride containing environments due to their enhanced pitting and stress corrosion cracking resistance. They exhibit improved corrosion performance over the austenitic stainless steels. Duplex stainless steels also offer improved strength properties and are available in various wrought and cast forms. Selected grades of duplex stainless steel castings and their welds, in comparison with their wrought counterparts, were evaluated, regarding corrosion performance and mechanical properties and weldability. Multiple heats of cast duplex stainless steel were evaluated in the as-cast, solution annealed (SA) static cast and SA centrifugal cast conditions, while their wrought counterparts were characterized in the SA condition and in the form of as-rolled plate. Welding, including extensive assessment of autogenous welds and a preliminary study of composite welds (shielded metal arc weld (SMAW)), was performed. The evaluations included critical pitting temperature (CPT) testing, intergranular corrosion (IGC) testing, ASTM A923 (Methods A, B and C), Charpy impact testing, weldability testing (ASTM A494), ferrite measurement and microstructural evaluations. In the study, the corrosion performances of DSS castings were characterized and assessed, including the wrought counterparts for comparison. The evaluation filled the pore of lack of data for cast duplex stainless steels compared to wrought materials. A database of the pitting corrosion and IGC behavior of cast and wrought materials was generated for a greater depth of understanding for the behavior of cast duplex stainless steel. In addition, improved evaluation methods for DSS castings were developed according to ASTM A923, A262, G48 and A494. The study revealed that when properly heat treated according to the specification, (1) DSS castings have equal or better pitting and intergranular corrosion resistance than their wrought counterparts; (2) Welding reduces the

  5. Influence of Thermal Aging on Primary Water Stress Corrosion Cracking of Cast Duplex Stainless Steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamada, T.; Totsuka, N.; Nakajima, N.; Arioka, K.; Negishi, K.

    2002-01-01

    In order to evaluate the SCC (stress corrosion cracking) susceptibility of cast duplex stainless steels which are used for the main coolant piping material of pressurized water reactors (PWRs), the slow strain rate test (SSRT) and the constant load test (CLT) were performed in simulated PWR primary water at 360 C. The main coolant piping materials contain ferrite phase with ranging from 8 to 23 % and its mechanical properties are affected by long time thermal aging. The 23% ferrite material was prepared for test as the maximum ferrite content of main coolant pipes in Japanese PWRs. The brittle fracture in the non-aged materials after SSRT is mainly caused by quasi-cleavage fracture in austenitic phase. On the other hand, a mixture of quasi-cleavage fracture in austenite and ferrite phases was observed on long time aged material. Also on CLT, (2 times σ y ), after 3,000 hours exposure, microcracks were observed on the surface of non-aged and aged for 10,000 hours at 400 C materials. The crack initiation site of CLT is similar to that of SSRT. The SCC susceptibility of the materials increases with aging time. It is suggested that the ferrite hardening with aging affect SCC susceptibility of cast duplex stainless steels. (authors)

  6. Clean cast steel technology. Determination of transformation diagrams for duplex stainless steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chumbley, S. L. [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    2005-09-01

    Duplex stainless steels (DSS) constitute both ferrite and austenite as a matrix. Such a microstructure confers a high corrosion resistance with favorable mechanical properties. However, intermetallic phases such as sigma ( can also form during casting or high-temperature processing and can degrade the properties of the DSS. This research was initiated to develop time-temperature-transformation (TTT) and continuous-cooling- transformation (CCT) diagrams of two types of cast duplex stainless steels, CD3MN (Fe 22Cr-5Ni-Mo-N) and CD3MWCuN (Fe-25Cr-7Ni-Mo-W-Cu-N), in order to understand the time and temperature ranges for intermetallic phase formation. The alloys were heat treated isothermally or under controlled cooling conditions and then characterized using conventional metallographic methods that included tint etching, and also using electron microscopy (SEM, TEM) and wavelength dispersive spectroscopy (WDS). The kinetics of intermetallic-phase ( formation were analyzed using the Johnson-Mehl-Avrami (JMA) equation in the case of isothermal transformations and a modified form of this equation in the case of continuous cooling transformations, The rate of intermetallic-phase formation was found to be much faster in CD3MWCuN than CD3MN due mainly to differences in the major alloying contents such as Cr, Ni and Mo. To examine in more detail the effects of these elements of the phase stabilities, a series of eight steel castings was designed with the Cr, Ni and Mo contents systematically varied with respect to the nominal composition of CD3MN. The effects of varying the contents of alloying additions on the formation of intermetallic phases were also studied computationally using the commercial thermodynamic software package, Thermo-Calc. In general, was stabilized with increasing Cr addition and by increasing Mo addition. However, a delicate balance among Ni and other minor elements such as N and Si also exists. Phase equilibria in DSS can be affected by local

  7. Microstructural characteristics and corrosion behavior of a super duplex stainless steel casting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martins, Marcelo; Casteletti, Luiz Carlos

    2009-01-01

    The machining of super duplex stainless steel castings is usually complicated by the difficulty involved in maintaining the dimensional tolerances required for given applications. Internal stresses originating from the solidification process and from subsequent heat treatments reach levels that exceed the material's yield strength, promoting plastic strain. Stress relief heat treatments at 520 deg. C for 2 h are an interesting option to solve this problem, but because these materials present a thermodynamically metastable condition, a few precautions should be taken. The main objective of this work was to demonstrate that, after solution annealing at 1130 deg. C and water quenching, stress relief at 520 deg. C for 2 h did not alter the duplex microstructure or impair the pitting corrosion resistance of ASTM A890/A890M Grade 6A steel. This finding was confirmed by microstructural characterization techniques, including light optical and scanning electron microscopy, and X-ray diffraction. Corrosion potential measurements in synthetic sea water containing 20,000 ppm of chloride ions were also conducted at three temperatures: 5 deg. C, 25 deg. C and 60 deg. C

  8. Influence of thermal aging on primary water stress corrosion cracking of cast duplex stainless steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamada, Takuyo; Negishi, Kazuo; Totsuka, Nobuo; Nakajima, Nobuo

    2001-01-01

    In order to evaluate the SCC susceptibility of cast duplex stainless steels which are often used for the main coolant piping of pressurized water reactors (PWRs), the slow strain rate test (SSRT) and the constant load test (CLT) of the materials were performed in simulated primary water at 360degC. The stainless steel contains ferritic phase with ranging from 8 to 23% and its mechanical properties are affected by long time thermal aging. Therefore, we paid attention to the influence of its ferrite content and thermal aging on the SCC susceptibility of this stainless steel and prepared three kinds of specimen with different ferrite contents (23%, 15% and 8%). The reduction in area observed by the SSRT in simulated primary water at 360degC was smaller than that obtained by the tensile test in air at the same temperature. Microcracks were observed on the unaged specimen surfaces and aged ones at 400degC for 10,000 hours after 3,000 hours of the CLT with the load condition of two times of yield strength. The SCC susceptibility was evaluated by reduction ratio defined by the ratio of the reduction in area by the SSRT to that by the tensile test. The reduction ratio was not clear for low ferrite specimens, but apparently decreased with increasing aging time for the specimen with 23% ferrite. This change by aging time can be explained as follows: (1) the brittle fracture in the unaged specimens is mainly caused by quasi-cleavage fracture in austenitic phase. (2) After aging, it becomes a mixture of quasi-cleavage fracture in both austenitic and ferritic phases and phase boundary fracture of both phases. (author)

  9. Final Report, Volume 2, The Development of Qualification Standards for Cast Duplex Stainless Steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Russell, Steven, W.; Lundin, Carl, D.

    2005-09-30

    The scope of testing cast Duplex Stainless Steel (DSS) required testing to several ASTM specifications, while formulating and conducting industry round robin tests to verify and study the reproducibility of the results. ASTM E562 (Standard Test Method for Determining Volume Fraction by Systematic manual Point Count) and ASTM A923 (Standard Test Methods for Detecting Detrimental Intermetallic Phase in Wrought Duplex Austenitic/Ferritic Stainless Steels) were the specifications utilized in conducting this work. An ASTM E562 industry round robin, ASTM A923 applicability study, ASTM A923 industry round robin, and an ASTM A923 study of the effectiveness of existing foundry solution annealing procedures for producing cast DSS without intermetallic phases were implemented. In the ASTM E562 study, 5 samples were extracted from various cast austenitic and DSS in order to have varying amounts of ferrite. Each sample was metallographically prepared by UT and sent to each of 8 participants for volume fraction of ferrite measurements. Volume fraction of ferrite was measured using manual point count per ASTM E562. FN was measured from the Feritescope{reg_sign} and converted to volume fraction of ferrite. Results indicate that ASTM E562 is applicable to DSS and the results have excellent lab-to-lab reproducibility. Also, volume fraction of ferrite conversions from the FN measured by the Feritescope{reg_sign} were similar to volume fraction of ferrite measured per ASTM E562. In the ASTM A923 applicability to cast DSS study, 8 different heat treatments were performed on 3 lots of ASTM A890-4A (CD3MN) castings and 1 lot of 2205 wrought DSS. The heat treatments were selected to produce a wide range of cooling rates and hold times in order to study the suitability of ASTM A923 to the response of varying amounts on intermetallic phases [117]. The test parameters were identical to those used to develop ASTM A923 for wrought DSS. Charpy V-notch impact samples were extracted from the

  10. Final Report, Volume 2, The Development of Qualification Standards for Cast Duplex Stainless Steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Russell, Steven, W.; Lundin, Carl, W.

    2005-09-30

    The scope of testing cast Duplex Stainless Steel (DSS) required testing to several ASTM specifications, while formulating and conducting industry round robin tests to verify and study the reproducibility of the results. ASTM E562 (Standard Test Method for Determining Volume Fraction by Systematic manual Point Count) and ASTM A923 (Standard Test Methods for Detecting Detrimental Intermetallic Phase in Wrought Duplex Austenitic/Ferritic Stainless Steels) were the specifications utilized in conducting this work. An ASTM E562 industry round robin, ASTM A923 applicability study, ASTM A923 industry round robin, and an ASTM A923 study of the effectiveness of existing foundry solution annealing procedures for producing cast DSS without intermetallic phases were implemented. In the ASTM E562 study, 5 samples were extracted from various cast austenitic and DSS in order to have varying amounts of ferrite. Each sample was metallographically prepared by UT and sent to each of 8 participants for volume fraction of ferrite measurements. Volume fraction of ferrite was measured using manual point count per ASTM E562. FN was measured from the Feritescope® and converted to volume fraction of ferrite. Results indicate that ASTM E562 is applicable to DSS and the results have excellent lab-to-lab reproducibility. Also, volume fraction of ferrite conversions from the FN measured by the Feritescope® were similar to volume fraction of ferrite measured per ASTM E562. In the ASTM A923 applicability to cast DSS study, 8 different heat treatments were performed on 3 lots of ASTM A890-4A (CD3MN) castings and 1 lot of 2205 wrought DSS. The heat treatments were selected to produce a wide range of cooling rates and hold times in order to study the suitability of ASTM A923 to the response of varying amounts on intermetallic phases [117]. The test parameters were identical to those used to develop ASTM A923 for wrought DSS. Charpy V-notch impact samples were extracted from the castings and wrought

  11. Fine scale microstructure in cast and aged duplex stainless steels investigated by small angle neutron scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Epperson, J.E.; Lin, J.S.; Spooner, S.

    1986-02-01

    Small angle neutron scattering (SANS) allows clustering phenomena to be studied in systems for which the constituent atoms do not differ greatly in atomic number. This investigation used SANS to characterize the fine scale microstructure in two cast and aged duplex stainless steels; aging times extended up to eight years. The steels differed in ferrite content by about a factor of two. The scattering at lowest q was dominated by magnetic scattering effects associated with the ferrite phase. In the range 0.025 less than or equal to q less than or equal to 0.2A -1 , additional scattering due to a precipitating phase rich in Ni and Si was observed. This scattering was rather intense and revealed a volume fraction of precipitate, in the ferrite, estimated to be 12 to 18% after long time aging. After about 70,000 hours at 400 0 C, there were about 10 18 precipitate particles per cm 3 some 50A in mean diameter, and they were distributed in a nonrandom manner, i.e., spatially, short-range-ordered. This investigation suggests that after aging some 70,000 hours at 400 0 C, the precipitate in the ferrite phase is undergoing Ostwald ripening. The present data are insufficient to indicate at what time this ripening process began

  12. Mechanical properties and eddy current testing of thermally aged Z3CN20.09M cast duplex stainless steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Tonghua; Wang, Wei; Qiang, Wenjiang; Shu, Guogang

    2018-04-01

    To study the thermal aging embrittlement of Z3CN20.09M duplex stainless steel produced in China, accelerated thermal aging experiments were carried out at 380 °C up to 9000 h. Microhardness measurements, Charpy impact and eddy current tests were performed on aged samples to characterize their thermal aging embrittlement. The results showed that the signal amplitude of eddy current decreased with the increase in aging time. Two quantitative correlations of the eddy current signal amplitude with both the Charpy impact energy, and the Vickers microhardness of the ferrite phase are obtained. The study showed that eddy current testing could be used to non-destructively evaluate the thermal aging embrittlement of cast duplex stainless steels.

  13. Sigma phase morphologies in cast and aged super duplex stainless steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martins, Marcelo; Casteletti, Luiz Carlos

    2009-01-01

    Solution annealed and water quenched duplex and super duplex stainless steels are thermodynamically metastable systems at room temperature. These systems do not migrate spontaneously to a thermodynamically stable condition because an energy barrier separates the metastable and stable states. However, any heat input they receive, for example through isothermal treatment or through prolonged exposure to a voltaic arc in the welding process, cause them to reach a condition of stable equilibrium which, for super duplex stainless steels, means precipitation of intermetallic and carbide phases. These phases include the sigma phase, which is easily identified from its morphology, and its influence on the material's impact strength. The purpose of this work was to ascertain how 2-hour isothermal heat treatments at 920 deg. C and 980 deg. C affect the microstructure of ASTM A890/A890M GR 6A super duplex stainless steel. The sigma phase morphologies were found to be influenced by these two aging temperatures, with the material showing a predominantly lacy microstructure when heat treated at 920 deg. C and block-shaped when heat treated at 980 deg. C.

  14. Accelerated aging embrittlement of cast duplex stainless steel: Activation energy for extrapolation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, H.M.; Chopra, O.K.

    1989-05-01

    Cast duplex stainless steels, used extensively in LWR systems for primary pressure boundary components such as primary coolant pipes, valves, and pumps, are susceptible to thermal aging embrittlement at reactor operating or higher temperatures. Since a realistic aging embrittlement for end-of-life or life-extension conditions (i.e., 32--50 yr of aging at 280--320 degree C) cannot be produced, it is customary to simulate the metallurgical structure by accelerated aging at ∼400 degree C. Over the past several years, extensive data on accelerated aging have been reported from a number of laboratories. The most important information from these studies is the activation energy, namely, the temperature dependence of the aging kinetics between 280 and 400 degree C, which is used to extrapolate the aging characteristics to reactor operating conditions. The activation energies (in the range of 18--50 kcal/mole) are, in general, sensitive to material grade, chemical composition, and fabrication process, and a few empirical correlations, obtained as a function of bulk chemical composition, have been reported. In this paper, a mechanistic understanding of the activation energy is described on the basis of the results of microstructural characterization of various heats of CF-3, -8, and -8M grades that were used in aging studies at different laboratories. The primary mechanism of aging embrittlement at temperatures between 280 and 400 degree C is the spinodal decomposition of the ferrite phase, and M 23 C 6 carbide precipitation on the ferrite/austenite boundaries is the secondary mechanism for high-carbon CF-8 grade. 20 refs., 10 figs., 3 tabs

  15. Mechanical and Microstructural Effects of Thermal Aging on Cast Duplex Stainless Steels by Experiment and Finite Element Method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwarm, Samuel C.; Mburu, Sarah N.; Kolli, Ratna P.; Perea, Daniel E.; Liu, Jia; Ankem, Sreeramamurthy

    2017-02-05

    Cast duplex stainless steel piping in light water nuclear reactors expe- rience thermal aging embrittlement during operational service. Interest in extending the operational life to 80 years requires an increased understanding of the microstructural evolution and corresponding changes in mechanical behavior. We analyze the evolution of the microstructure during thermal aging of cast CF-3 and CF-8 stainless steels using electron microscopy and atom probe tomography. The evolution of the mechanical properties is measured concurrently by mechanical methods such as tensile tests, Charpy V-notch tests, and instrumented nanoinden- tation. A microstructure-based finite element method model is developed and uti- lized in conjunction with the characterization results in order to correlate the local stress-strain effects in the microstructure with the bulk measurements. This work is supported by the DOE Nuclear Energy University Programs (NEUP), contract number DE-NE0000724.

  16. Characterization of thermal aging of duplex stainless steel by SQUID

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isobe, Y.; Kamimura, A.; Aoki, K.; Nakayasu, F.

    1995-01-01

    Thermal aging is a growing concern for long-term-aged duplex stainless steel piping in nuclear power plants. Superconducting QUantum Interference Device (SQUID) was used for the detection of thermal aging of SUS329 rolled duplex stainless steel and SCS16 cast duplex stainless steel. It was found that the SQUID output signal pattern in the presence of AC magnetic field applied to the specimen was sensitive to the changes in electromagnetic properties due to thermal aging

  17. Continuous Cooling Transformation in Cast Duplex Stainless Steels CD3MN and CD3MWCuN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yoon-Jun; Chumbley, L. Scott; Gleeson, Brian

    2008-04-01

    The kinetics of brittle phase transformation in cast duplex stainless steels CD3MN and CD3MWCuN was investigated under continuous cooling conditions. Cooling rates slower than 5 °C/min. were obtained using a conventional tube furnace with a programable controller. In order to obtain controlled high cooling rates, a furnace equipped to grow crystals by means of the Bridgman method was used. Samples were soaked at 1100 °C for 30 min and cooled at different rates by changing the furnace position at various velocities. The velocity of the furnace movement was correlated to a continuous-cooling-temperature profile for the samples. Continuous-cooling-transformation (CCT) diagrams were constructed based on experimental observations through metallographic sample preparations and optical microscopy. These are compared to calculated diagrams derived from previously determined isothermal transformation diagrams. The theoretical calculations employed a modified Johnson-Mehl-Avrami (JMA) equation (or Avrami equation) under assumption of the additivity rule. Rockwell hardness tests were made to present the correlation between hardness change and the amount of brittle phases (determined by tint-etching to most likely be a combination of sigma + chi) after cooling.

  18. Effect of cooling rate and forced convection on as-cast structure of 2205 duplex stainless steel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng Zhang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available To forecast the as-cast structure and ferrite-austenite phase ratio of 2205 duplex stainless steel (DSS, the effects of cooling rate and forced convection were observed in a high-vacuum resistance furnace in which the forced convection was created by the rotation of the crucible. The as-cast structure of all 2205 DSS samples is full equiaxed grains, and the microstructure consists of a great amount of desirable intra-granular austenite inside the continuous ferrite grain matrix, besides Widmanstatten austenite and grain boundary austenite. The ferrite grain size decreases gradually with the increase in the cooling rates (20 to 60 ìC·min-1 or the forced convection, while the ferrite grains of the samples solidified with a strong convection are barely changed when the cooling rate is below 50 ìC·min-1. Moreover, a small grain size is beneficial for the austenite formation but the influence is not very obvious under the cooling rates in the range of 5 to 50 ìC·min-1. Compared with grain size, the cooling rate has a greater influence on the final ferrite content. A model based on the experimental results is established to predict the ferrite content, which could be approximated by ヤ(%=20.5·exp(c/80.0+0.34d+34.1, where c is the cooling rate in ìC·min-1 and d is the grain size in mm. By using this model, the dependence of the final ferrite content on cooling rate and grain size is well described.

  19. Final Report, Volume 4, The Develpoment of Qualification Standards forCast Super Duplex Stainless Steel (2507 Wrought Equivalent)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hariharan, Vasudevan; Lundin, Carl, D.

    2005-09-30

    The objective of the program is to determine the suitability of ASTM A923 Standard Test methods for Detecting Detrimental Intermetallic Phase in Wrought Duplex Austenitic-Ferritic Stainless Steels for 25 Cr Cast Super Duplex Stainless Steels (ASTM A890-5A). Different tests were carried out on the materials procured from various steel foundries as stated in the ASTM A923. The foundries were designated as Foundry A, B, C and D. All the materials were foundry solution annealed. Materials from Foundry D were solution heat treated at The University of Tennessee also and then they were subjected to heat treatment schedule which was derived from the testing of wrought DSS to establish the A923 specification. This was possible because the material from the same heat was sufficient for conducting the full scope of heat treatment. This was done prior to carrying out various other tests. Charpy samples were machined. The Ferrite content was measured in all the Charpy samples using Feritscope{reg_sign} and ASTM E562 Manual Point Count Method. After the ferrite content was measured the samples were sent to AMC-Vulcan, Inc. in Alabama to conduct the Charpy impact test based on ASTM A923 Test Method B. This was followed by etch testing and corrosion analysis based on ASTM A923 Test Methods A and C respectively at University of Tennessee. Hardness testing using Rockwell B and C was also carried out on these samples. A correlation was derived between all the three test methods and the best method for evaluating the presence of intermetallic in the material was determined. The ferrite content was correlated with the toughness values. Microstructural analysis was carried out on the etch test samples using Scanning Electron Microscopy in order to determine if intermetallic phases were present. The fracture surfaces from Charpy test specimens were also observed under SEM in order to determine the presence of any cracks and whether it was a brittle or a ductile fracture. A correlation

  20. Final Report, Volume 4, The Development of Qualification Standards for Cast Super Duplex Stainless Steel (2507 Wrought Equivalent)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hariharan, Vasudevan; Lundin, Carl, W.

    2005-09-30

    The objective of the program is to determine the suitability of ASTM A923 Standard Test methods for Detecting Detrimental Intermetallic Phase in Wrought Duplex Austenitic-Ferritic Stainless Steels for 25 Cr Cast Super Duplex Stainless Steels (ASTM A890-5A). Different tests were carried out on the materials procured from various steel foundries as stated in the ASTM A923. The foundries were designated as Foundry A, B, C and D. All the materials were foundry solution annealed. Materials from Foundry D were solution heat treated at The University of Tennessee also and then they were subjected to heat treatment schedule which was derived from the testing of wrought DSS to establish the A923 specification. This was possible because the material from the same heat was sufficient for conducting the full scope of heat treatment. This was done prior to carrying out various other tests. Charpy samples were machined. The Ferrite content was measured in all the Charpy samples using Feritscope® and ASTM E562 Manual Point Count Method. After the ferrite content was measured the samples were sent to AMC-Vulcan, Inc. in Alabama to conduct the Charpy impact test based on ASTM A923 Test Method B. This was followed by etch testing and corrosion analysis based on ASTM A923 Test Methods A and C respectively at University of Tennessee. Hardness testing using Rockwell B and C was also carried out on these samples. A correlation was derived between all the three test methods and the best method for evaluating the presence of intermetallic in the material was determined. The ferrite content was correlated with the toughness values. Microstructural analysis was carried out on the etch test samples using Scanning Electron Microscopy in order to determine if intermetallic phases were present. The fracture surfaces from Charpy test specimens were also observed under SEM in order to determine the presence of any cracks and whether it was a brittle or a ductile fracture. A correlation was

  1. Influence of thermal aging on primary water stress corrosion cracking of cast duplex stainless steel (second report). Consideration on fractography after slow strain rate technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamada, Takuyo; Chiba, Goro; Totsuka, Nobuo; Arioka, Koji

    2003-01-01

    In order to evaluate the stress corrosion cracking (SCC) susceptibility of cast duplex stainless steel which is used for the main coolant pipe of pressurized water reactors (PWRs), the slow strain rate technique (SSRT) and the constant load test (CLT) of the materials were performed in simulated primary water at 360degC. The cast duplex stainless steel contains ferrite phase with ranging from 8 to 23% and its mechanical properties are affected by long time thermal aging. Therefore, we paid attention to the influence of its ferrite content and thermal aging on the SCC susceptibility of this unaged and aged stainless steel and prepared three kinds of specimen with different ferrite contents (23%, 15% and 8%). The brittle fracture of the unaged specimens after SSRT mainly consists of quasi-cleavage fracture in austenitic phase. After aging, it changes to a mixture of quasi-cleavage fracture in both austenitic and ferritic phases. Microcracks were observed on the unaged specimen surfaces and aged ones for 10,000 hours at 400degC after about 10,000 hours of the CLT under the load condition of 1.2∼2.0 times of yield strength. The crack initiation sites of CLT specimens are similar to SSRT fracture surfaces. The SCC susceptibility of this 23% ferrite material increases with aging time at 400degC. The SCC susceptibility of 15% and 23% ferrite materials are higher than that of 8% ferrite material with aging condition for 30,000h at 400degC. (author)

  2. Aging degradation of cast stainless steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chopra, O.K.; Chung, H.M.

    1985-10-01

    A program is being conducted to investigate the significance of in-service embrittlement of cast-duplex stainless steels under light-water reactor operating conditions. Data from room-temperature Charpy-impact tests for several heats of cast stainless steel aged up to 10,000 h at 350, 400, and 450 0 C are presented and compared with results from other studies. Microstructures of cast-duplex stainless steels subjected to long-term aging either in the laboratory or in reactor service have been characterized. The results indicate that at least two processes contribute to the low-temperature embrittleent of duplex stainless steels, viz., weakening of the ferrite/austenite phase boundary by carbide precipitation and embrittlement of ferrite matrix by the formation of additional phases such as G-phase, Type X, or the α' phase. Carbide precipitation has a significant effect on the onset of embrittlement of CF-8 and -8M grades of stainless steels aged at 400 or 450 0 C. The existing correlations do not accurately represent the embrittlement behavior over the temperature range 300 to 450 0 C. 18 refs., 13 figs

  3. Reactor pressure vessel and reactor coolant circuit cast duplex stainless steel components contribution of the expertise for life management studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bezdikian, Georges

    2006-09-01

    The life management of French Nuclear Power Plants is a major stake from an economic and a technical point of view considering the aging management assessment of the key components of the plant. The actual life evaluation is the result of prediction of life assessment from important program of expertise for the 3-loop PWR and 4-loop PWR plants in operation. To optimize the strategic policy in order to achieve the best possible performance and to prepare the technical and economical choice and decision, the paper presents the association of life management strategy and the program of expertise considering: - the identification of degradation for different components and prediction criteria proposed; - the large database from cast reactor coolant and component removed from nuclear power plants and expertise studies to confirm the prediction; - the life evaluation of RPV with radiation surveillance program based on the expertise of irradiation capsules, it is particularly shown how the expertise is in the center of the strategic choice. The French utility has organized the life management of nuclear plant as a function of several programs of expertise of knowledge on the long term experience feedback and the maintenance program for life. This paper shows updated on RPV and reactor coolant equipment activities engaged by utility on: - periodic maintenance and volume of expertise; - Alternative maintenance actions; - Large volume of expertise and how are managed these results to predict the aging management. (author)

  4. DE-NE0000724 - Research Performance Final Report - Investigation of Thermal Aging Effects on the Evolution of Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of Cast Duplex Stainless Steels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ankem, Sreeramamurthy [University of Maryland, College Park, MD (United States); Perea, Daniel E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Kolli, R. Prakash [University of Maryland, College Park, MD (United States); Mburu, Sarah [University of Maryland, College Park, MD (United States); Schwarm, Samuel C. [University of Maryland, College Park, MD (United States)

    2017-12-11

    This report details the research activities carried out under DOE-NEUP award number DE-NE0000724 concerning the evolution of structural and mechanical properties during thermal aging of CF–3 and CF–8 cast duplex stainless steels (CDSS). The overall objective of this project was to use state-of-the-art characterization techniques to elucidate trends and phenomena in the mechanical and structural evolution of cast duplex stainless steels (CDSS) during thermal aging. These steels are commonly used as structural materials in commercial light water nuclear power plants, undergoing aging for decades in operation as cooling water pipes, pump casings, valve bodies, etc. During extended exposure to these conditions, CDSS are known to undergo a change in mechanical properties resulting in a loss of ductility, i.e. embrittlement. While it is generally accepted that structural changes within the ferrite phase, such as decomposition into iron (Fe)-rich and chromium (Cr)-rich domains, lead to the bulk embrittlement of the steels, many questions remain as to the mechanisms of embrittlement at multiple length scales. This work is intended to shed insight into the atomic level composition changes, associated kinetic mechanisms, and effects of changing phase structure on micro- and nano-scale deformation that lead to loss of impact toughness and tensile ductility in these steels. In general, this project provides a route to answer some of these major questions using techniques such as 3-dimensional (3-D) atom probe tomography (APT) and real-microstructure finite element method (FEM) modeling, which were not readily available when these steels were originally selected for service in light water reactors. Mechanical properties evaluated by Charpy V-notch impact testing (CVN), tensile testing, and microhardness and nanohardness measurements were obtained for each condition and compared with the initial baseline properties to view trends in deformation behavior during aging

  5. Diffraction study on aging duplex stainless steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishigaki, Toru; Miura, Takayuki; Kuwano, Hisashi; Torii, Syuuki; Kamiyama, Takashi

    2001-01-01

    SUS329J2L duplex stainless steels exhibit high strength and resistance to corrosion, so widely used in piping of industrial plants. However, it is known that they are brought deterioration of strength using for long time. This reason of this deterioration is that ferrite decomposes to Fe-rich α phase and Cr-rich α' phase and, Cr-rich α' phase decreases mechanical properties and resistance for corrosion. In this experiment, we made neutron diffraction experiments on long time aging (625 K, 16000 h) duplex stainless steel to observe the behavior for α phase and α' phase, using Sirius diffractometer at KENS. The result shows, the lattice parameters in α phase were decreased. In contrast to, its in austenite (γ phase) were slightly increased. (author)

  6. Aging degradation of cast stainless steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chopra, O.K.; Chung, H.M.

    1986-10-01

    A program is being conducted to investigate the significance of in-service embrittlement of cast duplex stainless steels under light-water reactor operating conditions. Microstructures of cast materials subjected to long-term aging either in reactor service or in the laboratory have been characterized by TEM, SANS, and APFIM techniques. Two precipitate phases, i.e., the Cr-rich α' and Ni- and Si-rich G phase, have been identified in the ferrite matrix of the aged steels. The results indicate that the low-temperature embrittlement is primarily caused by α' precipitates which form by spinodal decomposition. The relative contribution of G phase to loss of toughness is now known. Microstructural data also indicate that weakening of ferrite/austenite phase boundary by carbide precipitates has a significant effect on the onset and extent of embrittlement of the high-carbon CF-8 and CF-8M grades of stainless steels, particularly after aging at 400 or 450 0 C. Data from Charpy-impact, tensile, and J-R curve tests for several heats of cast stainless steel aged up to 10,000 h at 350, 400, and 450 0 C are presented and correlated with the microstructural results. Thermal aging of the steels results in an increase in tensile strength and a decrease in impact energy, J/sub IC/, and tearing modulus. The fracture toughness results show good agreement with the Charpy-impact data. The effects of compositional and metallurgical variables on loss of toughness are discussed

  7. Development of oxide dispersion strengthened 2205 duplex stainless steel composite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oladayo OLANIRAN

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Composites of duplex stainless steel were produced by oxide dispersion strengthening with comparatively improved mechanical properties by hot press sintering of partially stabilized Zirconia (PSZ, 3% yttria, mole fraction dispersion in 2205 duplex stainless steels. Ceramic oxide was added as reinforcement, while chromium (Cr and Nickel (Ni were incorporated to maintain the austenitic/ferritic phase balance of the duplex stainless steel. The powders and sintered were characterized in detail using scanning electron microscopy (SEM and X-ray diffraction (XRD. The microstructural evolution and phase formation during oxide dispersion strengthening of duplex stainless steel composites were investigated. The influence of composition variation of the reinforcements on the microstructural and corrosion behaviour in simulated mine water of the composites were investigated. In this manuscript, it was established that composition has great influence on the structure/properties relationship of the composites developed.

  8. EFFECT OF INTERMETALLIC PHASES ON CORROSION BEHAVIOR AND MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF DUPLEX STAINLESS STEEL AND SUPER-DUPLEX STAINLESS STEEL

    OpenAIRE

    Prabhu Paulraj; Rajnish Garg

    2015-01-01

    Duplex Stainless Steels (DSS) and Super Duplex Stainless Steel (SDSS) have excellent integration of mechanical and corrosion properties. However, the formation of intermetallic phases is a major problem in their usage. The mechanical and corrosion properties are deteriorated due to the presence of intermetallic phases. These phases are induced during welding, prolonged exposure to high temperatures, and improper heat treatments. The main emphasis of this review article is on intermetallic pha...

  9. New Economical 19Cr Duplex Stainless Steels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jun; Zhang, Zixing; Chen, Hong; Xiao, Xueshan; Zhao, Junliang; Jiang, Laizhu

    2012-02-01

    New economical duplex stainless steels (DSSs) containing 19Cr-6Mn- xNi-1.0Mo-0.5W-0.5Cu-0.2N ( x = 0.5 to 2.0) were developed, and the microstructure, impact property, and corrosion resistance of the alloys were studied. The ferrite content increases with the solution treatment temperature, but decreases with an increase in nickel. The sigma phase is not found precipitating in the alloys treated with solution from 1023 K to 1523 K (750 °C to 1250 °C). The low-temperature impact energy of the experimental alloys increases first and then decreases rapidly with an increase in nickel, which is mainly due to the martensite transformation with an increase in austenite. The alloys have a better mechanical property and pitting corrosion resistance than AISI 304. Among the designed DSS alloys, 19Cr-6Mn-1.3Ni-1.0Mo-0.5W-0.5Cu-0.2N is found to be an optimum alloy with proper phase proportion, a better combination of mechanical strength and elongation, and higher pitting corrosion resistance compared with those of the other alloys.

  10. Corrosion behaviour of sintered duplex stainless steels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Utrilla, M. Victoria; Urena, Alejandro; Otero, Enrique; Munez, Claudio Jose [Escuela Superior de Ciencias Experimentales y Tecnologia, Universidad Rey Juan Carlos, C/ Tulipan s/n, 28933 Mostoles, Madrid (Spain)

    2004-07-01

    Duplex austenite-ferrite stainless steels were prepared by mixing austenitic (316L) and ferritic (434L) atomized powders. Although different 316L/434L ratios were prepared, present work centred its study on 50% ferrite - 50% austenite sintered steel. The powders were mixed and pressed at 700 MPa and sintered at 1250 deg. C for 30 min in vacuum. The cooling rate was 5 deg. C/min. Solution treatment was carried out to homogenize the microstructure at 1100 deg. C during 20 min. A microstructural study of the material in solution was performed, evaluating the microstructure, proportion and shape of porosity, and ferrite percentage. This last was measured by two methods, quantitative metallography and Fischer ferrito-metry. The materials were heat treated in the range of 700 to 1000 deg. C, for 10, 30 and 60 min and water quenched, to study the microstructural changes and the influence on the intergranular corrosion resistance. The method used to evaluate the sensitization to the intergranular corrosion was the electrochemical potentio-kinetic reactivation procedure (EPR). The test solution was 0.5 M H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} + 0,01 M KSCN at 30 deg. C. The criterion used to evaluate the sensitization was the ratio between the maximum reactivation density (Ir) and the maximum activation density (Ia). The results of the electrochemical tests were discussed in relation with the microstructures observed at the different heat treatments. (authors)

  11. Heat treatment temperature influence on ASTM A890 GR 6A super duplex stainless steel microstructure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martins, Marcelo; Casteletti, Luiz Carlos

    2005-01-01

    Duplex and super duplex stainless steels are ferrous alloys with up to 26% chromium, 8% nickel, 5% molybdenum and 0.3% nitrogen, which are largely used in applications in media containing ions from the halogen family, mainly the chloride ion (Cl - ). The emergence of this material aimed at substituting Copper-Nickel alloys (Cupro-Nickel) that despite presenting good corrosion resistance, has mechanical properties quite inferior to steel properties. The metallurgy of duplex and super duplex stainless steel is complex due to high sensitiveness to sigma phase precipitation that becomes apparent, due to the temperatures they are exposed on cooling from solidification as well as from heat treatment processes. The objective of this study was to verify the influence of heat treating temperatures on the microstructure and hardness of ASTM A890/A890M Gr 6A super duplex stainless steel type. Microstructure control is of extreme importance for castings, as the chemical composition and cooling during solidification inevitably provide conditions for precipitation of sigma phase. Higher hardness in these materials is directly associated to high sigma phase concentration in the microstructure, precipitated in the ferrite/austenite interface. While heat treatment temperature during solution treatment increases, the sigma phase content in the microstructure decreases and consequently, the material hardness diminishes. When the sigma phase was completely dissolved by the heat treatment, the material hardness was influenced only due to ferrite and austenite contents in the microstructure

  12. Welding of duplex and super-duplex stainless steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Nassau, L.; Meelker, H.; Hilkes, J.

    1994-01-01

    After a recall of the commercial designation of duplex or super-duplex steels (22-27% Cr, 4-8% Ni, 0.1-0.3% N with or without Mo (1.5-4%)) and of some metallurgical properties (phase diagrams, microstructure, ferrite determination, heat treatment and aging), welding technologies are synthetically presented (advantages-disadvantages of each process, metals filler, parameters of the welding processes, heat treatments after welding, cleaning, passivation, properties (mechanical, corrosion resistance) of the welded pieces). (A.B.). 28 refs. 5 figs., 15 tabs., 1 annexe

  13. Wear resistance of WCp/Duplex Stainless Steel metal matrix composite layers prepared by laser melt injection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Do Nascimento, A. M.; Ocelik, V.; Ierardi, M. C. F.; De Hosson, J. Th. M.

    2008-01-01

    Laser Melt Injection (LMI) was used to prepare metal matrix composite layers with a thickness of about 0.7 mm and approximately 10% volume fraction of WC particles in three kinds of Cast Duplex Stainless Steels (CDSSs). WC particles were injected into the molten surface layer using Nd:YAG high power

  14. Microstructure of reaction zone in WCp/duplex stainless steels matrix composites processing by laser melt injection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Do Nascimento, A. M.; Ocelik, V.; Ierardi, M. C. F.; De Hosson, J. Th. M.

    2008-01-01

    The laser melt injection (LMI) process has been used to create a metal matrix composite consisting of 80gm sized multi-grain WC particles embedded in three cast duplex stainless steels. The microstruture was investigated by scanning electron microscopy with integrated EDS and electron back-scatter

  15. The role of duplex stainless steels for downhole tubulars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Francis, R.

    1993-01-01

    In sour conditions there is an increasing trend to turn to corrosion resistant alloys for downhole tubulars. The most commonly used CRA tubular is 13Cr, and there are thousands of feet in service. However, there are limits to the use of 13Cr, ie., the risk of sulphide stress corrosion cracking at high H 2 S levels, and the possibility of pitting or high corrosion rates in waters with high chloride contents. Where the service conditions are felt to be too severe for 13Cr alloys it has been traditional to switch to nickel base alloys such as alloys 825 and C-276 (UNS N08825 and N10276). The alloys are much more expensive than 13Cr, and in recent years the duplex stainless steels have been selected as alloys with superior corrosion and SSCC resistance compared with 13Cr, and having lower cost than nickel alloys. Originally the 22Cr duplex alloy (UNS 31803) was used, but more recently the 25Cr super duplex alloys (UNS S32760 and S32750) have become more available. The present paper reviews the data available for 13Cr and the limits of applicability. Data is also presented for laboratory tests for both the 22Cr and 25Cr super duplex alloys. There is extensive service experience with both 22Cr and 25Cr super duplex in the North Sea, covering both downhole tubulars, manifold and post wellhead equipment. Data is presented showing some of the sour condition being experienced in the North Sea by super duplex alloys. These results show that there is a substantial gap between the limits of use for 13Cr and the 25Cr super duplex stainless steel alloys. This means that in many sour environments super duplex stainless steel provides a cost effective alternative to nickel-base alloys

  16. Aging degradation of cast stainless steel: status and program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chopra, O.K.; Ayrault, G.

    1983-10-01

    A program has been initiated to investigate the significance of in-service embrittlement of cast duplex stainless steels under light-water reactor operating conditions. The existing data are reviewed to determine the critical parameters that control the aging behavior and to define the objectives and scope of the investigation. The test matrices for microstructural studies and mechanical property measurements are presented. The initial experimental effort is focussed on characterizing the microstructure of long-term, low-temperature aged material. Specimens from three heats of cast CF-8 and CF-8M stainless steel aged for up to 70,000 h at 300, 350, and 400 0 C were obtained from George Fisher Ltd., of Switzerland. Initial analyses reveal the formation of three different types of precipitates which are not α'. An FCC phase, similar to the M 23 C 6 precipitates, was present in all the long-term aged material. 15 references, 10 figures, 2 tables

  17. Duplex stainless steel—Microstructure and properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debold, Terry A.

    1989-03-01

    Literature describing the microstructure of austenitic-ferritic stainless steels is reviewed, including phases which can be deleterious, such as σ and ά. The mechanical properties and corrosion resistance of Carpenter Technology's 7-Mo PLUSsr stainless (UNS S32950) demonstrate the resistance of this material to the formation of these phases and their deleterious effects. This material was evaluated in the annealed and welded conditions and after extended thermal treatments to simulate boiler and pressure vessel service.

  18. Residual stresses and fatigue in a duplex stainless steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johansson, Johan

    1999-01-01

    Duplex stainless steels, consisting of approximately equal amounts of austenite and ferrite, often combine the best features of austenitic and ferritic stainless steels. They generally have good mechanical properties, including high strength and ductility, and the corrosion resistance is often better than conventional austenitic grades. This has lead to a growing use of duplex stainless steels as a material in mechanically loaded constructions. However, detailed knowledge regarding its mechanical properties and deformation mechanisms are still lacking. In this thesis special emphasis has been placed on the residual stresses and their influence on mechanical behaviour of duplex stainless steels. Due to the difference in coefficient of thermal expansion between the two phases, tensile microstresses are found in the austenitic phase and balancing compressive microstresses in the ferritic phase. The first part of this thesis is a literature survey, which will give an introduction to duplex stainless steels and review the fatigue properties of duplex stainless steels and the influence of residual stresses in two-phase material. The second part concerns the evolution of the residual stress state during uniaxial loading. Initial residual stresses were found to be almost two times higher in the transverse direction compared to the rolling direction. During loading the absolute value of the microstresses increased in the macroscopic elastic regime but started to decrease with increasing load in the macroscopic plastic regime. A significant increase of the microstresses was also found to occur during unloading. Finite element simulations also show stress variation within one phase and a strong influence of both the elastic and plastic anisotropy of the individual phases on the simulated stress state. In the third part, the load sharing between the phases during cyclic loading is studied. X-ray diffraction stress analysis and transmission electron microscopy show that even if

  19. Residual stresses and fatigue in a duplex stainless steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johansson, Johan

    1999-05-01

    Duplex stainless steels, consisting of approximately equal amounts of austenite and ferrite, often combine the best features of austenitic and ferritic stainless steels. They generally have good mechanical properties, including high strength and ductility, and the corrosion resistance is often better than conventional austenitic grades. This has lead to a growing use of duplex stainless steels as a material in mechanically loaded constructions. However, detailed knowledge regarding its mechanical properties and deformation mechanisms are still lacking. In this thesis special emphasis has been placed on the residual stresses and their influence on mechanical behaviour of duplex stainless steels. Due to the difference in coefficient of thermal expansion between the two phases, tensile microstresses are found in the austenitic phase and balancing compressive microstresses in the ferritic phase. The first part of this thesis is a literature survey, which will give an introduction to duplex stainless steels and review the fatigue properties of duplex stainless steels and the influence of residual stresses in two-phase material. The second part concerns the evolution of the residual stress state during uniaxial loading. Initial residual stresses were found to be almost two times higher in the transverse direction compared to the rolling direction. During loading the absolute value of the microstresses increased in the macroscopic elastic regime but started to decrease with increasing load in the macroscopic plastic regime. A significant increase of the microstresses was also found to occur during unloading. Finite element simulations also show stress variation within one phase and a strong influence of both the elastic and plastic anisotropy of the individual phases on the simulated stress state. In the third part, the load sharing between the phases during cyclic loading is studied. X-ray diffraction stress analysis and transmission electron microscopy show that even if

  20. EFFECT OF INTERMETALLIC PHASES ON CORROSION BEHAVIOR AND MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF DUPLEX STAINLESS STEEL AND SUPER-DUPLEX STAINLESS STEEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prabhu Paulraj

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Duplex Stainless Steels (DSS and Super Duplex Stainless Steel (SDSS have excellent integration of mechanical and corrosion properties. However, the formation of intermetallic phases is a major problem in their usage. The mechanical and corrosion properties are deteriorated due to the presence of intermetallic phases. These phases are induced during welding, prolonged exposure to high temperatures, and improper heat treatments. The main emphasis of this review article is on intermetallic phases and their effects on corrosion and mechanical properties. First the effect of various alloying elements on DSS and SDSS has been discussed followed by formation of various intermetallic phases. The intermetallic phases affect impact toughness and corrosion resistance significantly. Their deleterious effect on weldments has also been reviewed.

  1. The mechanism of {gamma}{sub 2} formation process in lathy ferrite microstructure of duplex stainless steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knezevic, V.R.; Cvijovic, Z.M.; Mihajlovic, D.V. [Belgrade Univ. (Yugoslavia). Faculty of Technology and Metallurgy

    2000-07-01

    The formation mechanism and morphology of secondary austenite ({gamma}{sub 2}) were investigated using light and scanning electron microscopy in lathy ferrite microstructure of a cast 22/7/2 copper-bearing duplex stainless steel isothermally transformed at temperatures from 800 C to 1150 C. It was established that its formation obeys the Johnson-Mehl equation and is temperature and time dependent. The precipitation sequence processes have been discussed and some aspects of precipitation behaviour are explained. (orig.)

  2. Effect of dual torch technique on duplex stainless steel welds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, Z.; Kuo, M.; Annergren, I.; Pan, D.

    2003-01-01

    Duplex stainless steels are characterized by balanced ferrite/austenite microstructures and are well known for their superior corrosion resistance and higher strength compared with the common austenitic stainless steels. One major concern, however, is that welding might degrade the corrosion resistance by producing unbalanced phase content, detrimental precipitates, and possible embrittlement of the weldment. In this paper, a dual-torch arc welding technique (plasma torch followed by a gas tungsten arc (GTA) torch) was proposed. Effects of the dual-torch technique on the microstructural changes and corrosion properties were investigated. The preliminary study indicated that a correlation between the welding parameters and the microstructural changes and corrosion resistance existed. It was found that the corrosion rate increases with increasing torch pitch and/or decreasing GTA welding current. By adjusting the distance between the torches, modification of weld microstructure may be realized. Although further studies are required to fine-tune the technique, the present study demonstrated the potential of using dual torch technique to improve weldability of duplex stainless steels

  3. Weld failure analysis of 2205 duplex stainless steel nozzle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingqiang Yang

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Failure analyses of weld joint between the nozzle and the head of the reactor made of 2205 duplex stainless steel was performed by optical microscopy (OM and scanning electron microscopy (SEM. Cracks were found in HAZ of the weld. The depth of the cracks is equal to the thickness of the inner weld. Localized uneven distribution of ferrite/austenite with 80–90% ferrite in weld is found. Results show that the cracks occurred along columnar granular with cleavage fracture. Poor weld process probably results in these cracks.

  4. Weld failure analysis of 2205 duplex stainless steel nozzle

    OpenAIRE

    Jingqiang Yang; Qiongqi Wang; Zhongkun Wei; Kaishu Guan

    2014-01-01

    Failure analyses of weld joint between the nozzle and the head of the reactor made of 2205 duplex stainless steel was performed by optical microscopy (OM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Cracks were found in HAZ of the weld. The depth of the cracks is equal to the thickness of the inner weld. Localized uneven distribution of ferrite/austenite with 80–90% ferrite in weld is found. Results show that the cracks occurred along columnar granular with cleavage fracture. Poor weld process pr...

  5. Toughness and other mechanical properties of the duplex stainless steel 2205

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sieurin, H.; Sandstroem, R.

    2003-01-01

    The use and range of potential applications of duplex stainless steel continuously increase. An overview of the mechanical properties of duplex stainless steel 2205 is presented with focus on toughness properties. Impact and fracture toughness as well as strength results from the European research project, EcoPress, are presented. (orig.)

  6. Crack propagation during fatigue in cast duplex stainless steels: influence of the microstructure, of the aging and of the test temperature; Propagation de fissure par fatigue dans les aciers austeno-ferritiques moules: influence de la microstructure, du vieillissement et de la temperature d'essai

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calonne, V

    2001-07-15

    Duplex stainless steels are used as cast components in nuclear power plants. At the service temperature of about 320 C, the ferrite phase is thermally aged and embrittled. This induces a significant decrease in fracture properties of these materials. The aim of this work consists in studying Fatigue Crack Growth Rates (FCGR) and Fatigue Crack Growth Mechanisms (FCGM) as a function of thermal ageing and test temperature (20 C/320 C). Two cast duplex stainless steels (30% ferrite) are tested. In order to better understand the influence of the crystallographic orientation of the phases on the FCGM, the solidification structure of the material is studied by Electron Back-Scatter Diffraction (EBSD) and by Unidirectional Solidification Quenching. Fatigue crack growth tests are also performed in equiaxed and basaltic structures. Microstructure, fatigue crack growth mechanical properties and mechanisms are thus studied in relation to each other. In the studied range of delta K, the crack propagates without any preferential path by successive ruptures of phase laths. The macroscopic crack propagation plane, as determined by EBSD, depends on the crystallographic orientation of the ferrite grain. So, according to the solidification structure, secondary cracks can appear, which in turn influences the FCGR. Fatigue crack closure, which has to be determined to estimate the intrinsic FCGR, decreases with increasing ageing. This can be explained by a decrease in the kinematic cyclic hardening. The Paris exponent as determined from intrinsic FCGR increases with ageing. Intrinsic FCGR can then be separated in two ranges: one with lower FCGR in aged materials than in un-aged and one with the reversed tendency. (author)

  7. Aging degradation of cast stainless steel: status and program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chopra, O.K.; Ayrault, G.

    1983-10-01

    A program has been initiated to investigate the significance of in-service embrittlement of cast duplex stainless steels under light-water reactor operating conditions. The existing data are reviewed to determine the critical parameters that control the aging behavior and to define the objectives and scope of the investigation. The test matrices for microstructural studies and mechanical property measurements are presented. The initial experimental effort is focussed on characterizing the microstructure of long-term, low-temperature aged material. Specimens from three heats of cast CF-8 and CF-8M stainless steel aged for up to 70,000 h at 300, 350, and 400/sup 0/C were obtained from George Fisher Ltd., of Switzerland. Initial analyses reveal the formation of three different types of precipitates which are not ..cap alpha..'. An FCC phase, similar to the M/sub 23/C/sub 6/ precipitates, was present in all the long-term aged material. 15 references, 10 figures, 2 tables.

  8. Stress corrosion cracking of duplex stainless steels in caustic solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharya, Ananya

    Duplex stainless steels (DSS) with roughly equal amount of austenite and ferrite phases are being used in industries such as petrochemical, nuclear, pulp and paper mills, de-salination plants, marine environments, and others. However, many DSS grades have been reported to undergo corrosion and stress corrosion cracking in some aggressive environments such as chlorides and sulfide-containing caustic solutions. Although stress corrosion cracking of duplex stainless steels in chloride solution has been investigated and well documented in the literature but the SCC mechanisms for DSS in caustic solutions were not known. Microstructural changes during fabrication processes affect the overall SCC susceptibility of these steels in caustic solutions. Other environmental factors, like pH of the solution, temperature, and resulting electrochemical potential also influence the SCC susceptibility of duplex stainless steels. In this study, the role of material and environmental parameters on corrosion and stress corrosion cracking of duplex stainless steels in caustic solutions were investigated. Changes in the DSS microstructure by different annealing and aging treatments were characterized in terms of changes in the ratio of austenite and ferrite phases, phase morphology and intermetallic precipitation using optical micrography, SEM, EDS, XRD, nano-indentation and microhardness methods. These samples were then tested for general and localized corrosion susceptibility and SCC to understand the underlying mechanisms of crack initiation and propagation in DSS in the above-mentioned environments. Results showed that the austenite phase in the DSS is more susceptible to crack initiation and propagation in caustic solutions, which is different from that in the low pH chloride environment where the ferrite phase is the more susceptible phase. This study also showed that microstructural changes in duplex stainless steels due to different heat treatments could affect their SCC

  9. Numerical modeling and optimization of machining duplex stainless steels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rastee D. Koyee

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The shortcomings of the machining analytical and empirical models in combination with the industry demands have to be fulfilled. A three-dimensional finite element modeling (FEM introduces an attractive alternative to bridge the gap between pure empirical and fundamental scientific quantities, and fulfill the industry needs. However, the challenging aspects which hinder the successful adoption of FEM in the machining sector of manufacturing industry have to be solved first. One of the greatest challenges is the identification of the correct set of machining simulation input parameters. This study presents a new methodology to inversely calculate the input parameters when simulating the machining of standard duplex EN 1.4462 and super duplex EN 1.4410 stainless steels. JMatPro software is first used to model elastic–viscoplastic and physical work material behavior. In order to effectively obtain an optimum set of inversely identified friction coefficients, thermal contact conductance, Cockcroft–Latham critical damage value, percentage reduction in flow stress, and Taylor–Quinney coefficient, Taguchi-VIKOR coupled with Firefly Algorithm Neural Network System is applied. The optimization procedure effectively minimizes the overall differences between the experimentally measured performances such as cutting forces, tool nose temperature and chip thickness, and the numerically obtained ones at any specified cutting condition. The optimum set of input parameter is verified and used for the next step of 3D-FEM application. In the next stage of the study, design of experiments, numerical simulations, and fuzzy rule modeling approaches are employed to optimize types of chip breaker, insert shapes, process conditions, cutting parameters, and tool orientation angles based on many important performances. Through this study, not only a new methodology in defining the optimal set of controllable parameters for turning simulations is introduced, but also

  10. Influence of the addition of gadolinium on the microstructure and mechanical properties of duplex stainless steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahn, Ji-Ho; Jung, Hyun-Do; Im, Jae-Han; Jung, Ki Ho; Moon, Byung-Moon

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the effects of gadolinium addition on the microstructure and mechanical properties of duplex stainless steel (DSS) fabricated using a normal casting method. The oxygen content in the cast DSS alloy with gadolinium decreased because of the high reactivity of gadolinium with oxygen. The area fraction and size of non-intermetallic inclusions in the alloy decreased from 0.80±0.12% to 0.58±0.04% and from 6.9±0.7 to 5.8±0.4 μm upon gadolinium addition, respectively. Notably, the ultimate tensile strength and strain at break of the cast alloy significantly increased with the addition of gadolinium from 919±25 to 969±8 MPa and from 24.8±1.9% to 28.4±1.1%, respectively. The hardness of the cast alloy with gadolinium increased from 23.6±1.3 to 25.0±1.2 HRC. A significant increase in the impact energy of the cast alloy was observed and the brittle-to-ductile transition temperature slightly decreased by approximately 10 °C with the addition of gadolinium.

  11. Effect of ultrafine grain on tensile behaviour and corrosion resistance of the duplex stainless steel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jinlong, Lv; Tongxiang, Liang; Chen, Wang; Limin, Dong

    2016-05-01

    The ultrafine grained 2205 duplex stainless steel was obtained by cold rolling and annealing. The tensile properties were investigated at room temperature. Comparing with coarse grained stainless steel, ultrafine grained sample showed higher strength and plasticity. In addition, grain size changed deformation orientation. The strain induced α'-martensite was observed in coarse grained 2205 duplex stainless steel with large strain. However, the grain refinement inhibited the transformation of α'-martensite;nevertheless, more deformation twins improved the strength and plasticity of ultrafine grained 2205 duplex stainless steel. In addition, the grain refinement improved corrosion resistance of the 2205 duplex stainless steel in sodium chloride solution. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Phase transformations evaluation on a UNS S31803 duplex stainless steel based on nondestructive testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Macedo Silva, Edgard de, E-mail: edgard@cefetpb.edu.br [Centro federal de Educacao Tecnologica da Paraiba (CEFET PB), Area da Industria, Avenida 1o de Maio, 720 - 58015-430 - Joao Pessoa/PB (Brazil); Costa de Albuquerque, Victor Hugo, E-mail: victor.albuquerque@fe.up.pt [Universidade Federal da Paraiba (UFPB), Departamento de Engenharia Mecanica (DEM), Cidade Universitaria, S/N - 58059-900 - Joao Pessoa/PB (Brazil); Pereira Leite, Josinaldo, E-mail: josinaldo@ct.ufpb.br [Universidade Federal da Paraiba (UFPB), Departamento de Engenharia Mecanica (DEM), Cidade Universitaria, S/N - 58059-900 - Joao Pessoa/PB (Brazil); Gomes Varela, Antonio Carlos, E-mail: varela@cefetpb.edu.br [Universidade Federal da Paraiba (UFPB), Departamento de Engenharia Mecanica (DEM), Cidade Universitaria, S/N - 58059-900 - Joao Pessoa/PB (Brazil); Pinho de Moura, Elineudo, E-mail: elineudo@pq.cnpq.br [Universidade Federal do Ceara (UFC), Departamento de Engenharia Metalurgica e de Materiais, Campus do Pici, Bloco 715, 60455-760 - Fortaleza/CE (Brazil); Tavares, Joao Manuel R.S., E-mail: tavares@fe.up.pt [Faculdade de Engenharia da Universidade do Porto (FEUP), Departamento de Engenharia Mecanica e Gestao Industrial (DEMEGI)/Instituto de Engenharia Mecanica e Gestao Industrial - INEGI, Rua Dr. Roberto Frias, s/n, 4200-465 Porto (Portugal)

    2009-08-15

    Duplex stainless steel presents special mechanical properties such as, for example, mechanical and corrosion strength, becoming competitive in relation to the other types of stainless steel. One of the great problems of duplex stainless steel microstructural changes study is related to embrittlement above 300 deg. C, with the precipitation of the {alpha}' phase occurring over the ferritic microstructure. Aiming to characterise embrittlement of duplex stainless steel, hardening kinetics, from 425 to 475 deg. C, was analysed through the speed of sound, Charpy impact energy, X-ray diffraction, hardness and microscopy parameters. The presence of two hardening stages, detected through the speed of sound, was observed, one being of brittle characteristic and the other ductile. Moreover, the speed of sound showed a direct correlation with the material's hardness. Thus, it is concluded that the speed of sound is a promising nondestructive parameter to follow-up embrittlement in duplex stainless steel.

  13. Phase transformations evaluation on a UNS S31803 duplex stainless steel based on nondestructive testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Macedo Silva, Edgard de; Costa de Albuquerque, Victor Hugo; Pereira Leite, Josinaldo; Gomes Varela, Antonio Carlos; Pinho de Moura, Elineudo; Tavares, Joao Manuel R.S.

    2009-01-01

    Duplex stainless steel presents special mechanical properties such as, for example, mechanical and corrosion strength, becoming competitive in relation to the other types of stainless steel. One of the great problems of duplex stainless steel microstructural changes study is related to embrittlement above 300 deg. C, with the precipitation of the α' phase occurring over the ferritic microstructure. Aiming to characterise embrittlement of duplex stainless steel, hardening kinetics, from 425 to 475 deg. C, was analysed through the speed of sound, Charpy impact energy, X-ray diffraction, hardness and microscopy parameters. The presence of two hardening stages, detected through the speed of sound, was observed, one being of brittle characteristic and the other ductile. Moreover, the speed of sound showed a direct correlation with the material's hardness. Thus, it is concluded that the speed of sound is a promising nondestructive parameter to follow-up embrittlement in duplex stainless steel.

  14. Corrosion Behavior of Austenitic and Duplex Stainless Steels in Lithium Bromide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayo Samuel AFOLABI

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available The corrosion behavior of austenitic and duplex stainless steels in various concentrations of lithium, bromide solution was investigated by using the conventional weight loss measurement method. The results obtained show that corrosion of these steels occurred due to the aggressive bromide ion in the medium. Duplex stainless steel shows a greater resistance to corrosion than austenitic stainless steel in the medium. This was attributed to equal volume proportion of ferrite and austenite in the structure of duplex stainless steel coupled with higher content of chromium in its composition. Both steels produced electrochemical noise at increased concentrations of lithium bromide due to continuous film breakdown and repair caused by reduction in medium concentration by the alkaline corrosion product while surface passivity observed in duplex stainless steel is attributed to film stability on this steel.

  15. Electromagnetic non-destructive technique for duplex stainless steel characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocha, João Vicente; Camerini, Cesar; Pereira, Gabriela

    2016-02-01

    Duplex stainless steel (DSS) is a two-phase (ferrite and austenite) material, which exhibits an attractive combination of mechanical properties and high corrosion resistance, being commonly employed for equipment of petrochemical plants, refining units and oil & gas platforms. The best properties of DSS are achieved when the phases are in equal proportions. However, exposition to high temperatures (e.g. welding process) may entail undesired consequences, such as deleterious phases precipitation (e.g. sigma, chi) and different proportion of the original phases, impairing dramatically the mechanical and corrosion properties of the material. A detailed study of the magnetic behavior of DSS microstructure with different ferrite austenite ratios and deleterious phases content was accomplished. The non destructive method evaluates the electromagnetic properties changes in the material and is capable to identify the presence of deleterious phases into DSS microstructure.

  16. Evaluation of Microstructure and Mechanical Properties in Dissimilar Austenitic/Super Duplex Stainless Steel Joint

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahmani, Mehdi; Eghlimi, Abbas; Shamanian, Morteza

    2014-10-01

    To study the effect of chemical composition on microstructural features and mechanical properties of dissimilar joints between super duplex and austenitic stainless steels, welding was attempted by gas tungsten arc welding process with a super duplex (ER2594) and an austenitic (ER309LMo) stainless steel filler metal. While the austenitic weld metal had vermicular delta ferrite within austenitic matrix, super duplex stainless steel was mainly comprised of allotriomorphic grain boundary and Widmanstätten side plate austenite morphologies in the ferrite matrix. Also the heat-affected zone of austenitic base metal comprised of large austenite grains with little amounts of ferrite, whereas a coarse-grained ferritic region was observed in the heat-affected zone of super duplex base metal. Although both welded joints showed acceptable mechanical properties, the hardness and impact strength of the weld metal produced using super duplex filler metal were found to be better than that obtained by austenitic filler metal.

  17. Law of mixture used to model the flow behavior of a duplex stainless steel at high temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Momeni, A.; Dehghani, K.; Poletti, M.C.

    2013-01-01

    In this investigation the flow curves of a duplex stainless steel were drawn by performing hot compression tests over a wide temperature range of 950–1200 °C and strain rates of 0.001–100 s −1 . The flow curves of ferrite and austenite phases in the duplex structure were depicted by conducting similar hot compression tests on two steels that were cast and prepared with the same chemical compositions. The flow curves of the austenitic steel were found typical of dynamic recrystallization. They were successfully modeled by using the experimental exponential equation proposed by Cingara and McQueen. The flow curves of the ferritic steel were typical of dynamic recovery. They were modeled by the dislocation density evolution function proposed by Estrin and Meckning. Comparing the flow curves of three studied steels, it was found that the flow curves of the duplex steel were very similar and close to those of the ferrite steel. It was understood that in a duplex structure of ferrite and austenite the flow behavior is mostly controlled by the softer phase, i.e. ferrite. The law of mixture was modified to consider the strain partitioning between ferrite and austenite. The distribution coefficients of ferrite and austenite were described and determined at different deformation conditions. The results of modeling satisfactorily predicted the experimental curves. It was shown that the influence of austenite on the flow behavior of the duplex structure is almost low. However, it increases as strain rate or temperature rises. - Highlights: ► Flow curves of austenite and ferrite in the duplex steel were modeled separately. ► The flow behavior of the duplex steel is mostly controlled by ferrite. ► The effect of austenite on flow curve increases with temperature and strain rate. ► The flow curve of the duplex steel is modeled by the modified law of mixture

  18. Tooling solutions for sheet metal forming and punching of lean duplex stainless steel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wadman, Boel; Madsen, Erik; Bay, Niels

    2012-01-01

    .4509 and lean duplex EN1.4162 in a production designed for austenitic stainless steels, such as EN1.4301 and 1.4401. The result is a guideline that summarizes how stainless material properties may affect tool degradation, and suggests tool solutions for reduced production disturbances and tool maintenance cost....

  19. Fatigue damage in coarse-grained lean duplex stainless steels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strubbia, R., E-mail: strubbia@ifir-conicet.gov.ar; Hereñú, S.; Marinelli, M.C.; Alvarez-Armas, I.

    2016-04-06

    The present investigation is focused on assessing the effect of a thermal treatment for grain coarsening on the low cycle fatigue damage evolution in two types of Lean Duplex Stainless Steels (LDSSs). The dislocation structure developed during cycling is observed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Additionally, a detailed analysis of short crack initiated and grown during low cycle fatigue (LCF) is performed by means of optical and scanning electron (SEM) microscopy in combination with automated electron back-scattered diffraction (EBSD) technique. Though in both coarse-grained LDSSs the short cracks nucleate in the ferrite phase, in each steels its origin is different. The embrittlement caused by the Cr{sub 2}N precipitation and the plastic activity sustained by each phase can explain this difference. The propagation behavior of the short cracks present two alternative growing mechanisms: the crack grows along a favorable slip plane with high Schmid Factor (SF) or the crack alternates between two slip systems. In both cases, the crack follows the path with the smallest tilt angle (β) at a grain boundary.

  20. Eddy current techniques for super duplex stainless steel characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Camerini, C.; Sacramento, R.; Areiza, M.C.; Rocha, A.; Santos, R.; Rebello, J.M.; Pereira, G.

    2015-01-01

    Super duplex stainless steel (SDSS) is a two-phase material where the microstructure consists of grains of ferrite (δ) and austenite (γ). SDSS exhibit an attractive combination of properties, such as: strength, toughness and stress corrosion cracking resistance. Nevertheless, SDSS attain these properties after a controlled solution heat treatment, leading to a similar volumetric fraction of δ and γ. Any further heat treatment, welding operation for example, can change the balance of the original phases, or may also lead to precipitation of a deleterious phase, such as sigma (σ). For these situations, the material corrosion resistance is severely impaired. In the present study, several SDSS samples with low σ phase content and non-balanced microstructure were intentionally obtained by thermally treating SDSS specimens. Electromagnetic techniques, conventional Eddy Current Testing (ECT) and Saturated Low Frequency Eddy Current (SLOFEC), were employed to characterize the SDSS samples. The results showed that ECT and SLOFEC are reliable techniques to evaluate σ phase presence in SDSS and can provide an estimation of the δ content. - Highlights: • Sigma phase precipitation, even for low amounts, dramatically affects SDSS properties. • SDSS samples were thermally treated and carefully characterized by X-Ray Diffraction. • NDT techniques detected low amounts of sigma phase in SDSS microstructure

  1. Fracture toughness of a welded super duplex stainless steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pilhagen, Johan, E-mail: pilhagen@kth.se [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm (Sweden); Sieurin, Henrik [Scania CV AB, Södertälje (Sweden); Sandström, Rolf [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2014-06-01

    Fracture toughness testing was conducted on standard single-edge notched bend bar specimens of base and weld metal. The material was the SAF 2906 super duplex stainless steel. The aim was to evaluate the susceptibility for brittle failure at sub-zero temperatures for the base and weld metal. The base metal was tested between −103 and −60 °C and was evaluated according to the crack-tip opening displacement method. The fracture event at and below −80 °C can be described as ductile until critical cleavage initiation occurs, which caused unstable failure of the specimen. The welding method used was submerged arc welding with a 7 wt% nickel filler metal. The welded specimens were post-weld heat treated (PWHT) at 1100 °C for 20 min and then quenched. Energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy analysis showed that during PWHT substitutional element partitioning occurred which resulted in decreased nickel content in the ferrite. The PWHT weld metal specimens were tested at −72 °C. The fracture sequence was critical cleavage fracture initiation after minor crack-tip blunting and ductile fracture.

  2. Eddy current techniques for super duplex stainless steel characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camerini, C.; Sacramento, R.; Areiza, M. C.; Rocha, A.; Santos, R.; Rebello, J. M.; Pereira, G.

    2015-08-01

    Super duplex stainless steel (SDSS) is a two-phase material where the microstructure consists of grains of ferrite (δ) and austenite (γ). SDSS exhibit an attractive combination of properties, such as: strength, toughness and stress corrosion cracking resistance. Nevertheless, SDSS attain these properties after a controlled solution heat treatment, leading to a similar volumetric fraction of δ and γ. Any further heat treatment, welding operation for example, can change the balance of the original phases, or may also lead to precipitation of a deleterious phase, such as sigma (σ). For these situations, the material corrosion resistance is severely impaired. In the present study, several SDSS samples with low σ phase content and non-balanced microstructure were intentionally obtained by thermally treating SDSS specimens. Electromagnetic techniques, conventional Eddy Current Testing (ECT) and Saturated Low Frequency Eddy Current (SLOFEC), were employed to characterize the SDSS samples. The results showed that ECT and SLOFEC are reliable techniques to evaluate σ phase presence in SDSS and can provide an estimation of the δ content.

  3. Eddy current techniques for super duplex stainless steel characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Camerini, C., E-mail: cgcamerini@metalmat.ufrj.br [Laboratory of Non-Destructive Testing, Corrosion and Welding, Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, Federal University of Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Sacramento, R.; Areiza, M.C.; Rocha, A. [Laboratory of Non-Destructive Testing, Corrosion and Welding, Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, Federal University of Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Santos, R. [PETROBRAS R& D Center, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Rebello, J.M.; Pereira, G. [Laboratory of Non-Destructive Testing, Corrosion and Welding, Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, Federal University of Rio de Janeiro (Brazil)

    2015-08-15

    Super duplex stainless steel (SDSS) is a two-phase material where the microstructure consists of grains of ferrite (δ) and austenite (γ). SDSS exhibit an attractive combination of properties, such as: strength, toughness and stress corrosion cracking resistance. Nevertheless, SDSS attain these properties after a controlled solution heat treatment, leading to a similar volumetric fraction of δ and γ. Any further heat treatment, welding operation for example, can change the balance of the original phases, or may also lead to precipitation of a deleterious phase, such as sigma (σ). For these situations, the material corrosion resistance is severely impaired. In the present study, several SDSS samples with low σ phase content and non-balanced microstructure were intentionally obtained by thermally treating SDSS specimens. Electromagnetic techniques, conventional Eddy Current Testing (ECT) and Saturated Low Frequency Eddy Current (SLOFEC), were employed to characterize the SDSS samples. The results showed that ECT and SLOFEC are reliable techniques to evaluate σ phase presence in SDSS and can provide an estimation of the δ content. - Highlights: • Sigma phase precipitation, even for low amounts, dramatically affects SDSS properties. • SDSS samples were thermally treated and carefully characterized by X-Ray Diffraction. • NDT techniques detected low amounts of sigma phase in SDSS microstructure.

  4. Precipitation Mechanism of Sigma Phase in Super Duplex Stainless Steels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakade, Katsuyuki; Kuroda, Toshio

    The influence of alloying elements on the precipitation behavior of sigma (σ) phase was investigated for conventional SAF2205 and SAF2507 super duplex stainless steel. Time-Temperature-Precipitation (T-T-P) diagram of sigma phase of SAF2507 were shifted toward to shorter times compared to SAF2205. The precipitation of sigma phase was accelerated with increasing Cr and Mo concentration. According to the microstructure observation, the sigma phase began to precipitate at ferrite (α) ⁄ austenite (γ) phase boundaries and grew into ferrite for SAF2507 and SAF2205 steel. In the as-received condition, Cr and Mo concentration in ferrite was clearly higher than that in austenite. Especially, it was found that Mo concentration in ferrite of SAF2507 was higher than that in ferrite of SAF2205. The result of EPMA-measurement showed that sigma phase was mainly Fe-Cr-Mo intermetallic compound and Mo was significantly enriched into sigma phase. The difference of Mo concentration in ferrite significantly affected to the sigma phase precipitation. The secondary austenite formation was also induced by sigma phase precipitation. Cr and Mo were ejected to the remained ferrite ⁄ austenite phase boundaries by secondary austenite formation. Consequently, sigma phase precipitation was more accelerated by the reheating.

  5. Microstructural morphology and stability of rapidly solidified duplex stainless steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cvijovic, Z.M.; Mihajlovic, D.V.; Knezevic, V.R. [Belgrade Univ. (Yugoslavia). Faculty of Technology and Metallurgy

    1998-10-01

    The microstructure susceptibility of duplex stainless steel alloy with high ratio of Cr{sub eq}/Ni{sub eq} to unequilibrium solidification conditions were studied after rapid solidification. Three methods of locally surface melting were used: stationary gas tungsten arc, plasma arc and electron beam arc melting. Applying relatively high cooling rates in the range from 10{sup 1} to 10{sup 3} Cs{sup -1} and undercooling of 1.5-13 C, the primary ferrite with second-phase austenite (FA) solidification mode was unchanged, but significant changes in microstructure morphology, such as intercellular austenite, very fine microstructural constituents and increase of volume fraction of retained ferrite were observed. At the critical cooling rate of the order of 10{sup 4} Cs{sup -1} and undercooling {Delta}T>75 C a transformation of solidification mode from FA to single-phase ferrite (F) and developing of ferrite grain structure with Widmanstaetten austenite was demonstrated. Based on these results the partitionless solidification of ferrite and undercooling below the ferrite T{sub 0} curve was suggested. The fact that ferritic solidification was favored, was explained by the chemical composition of the alloy. During the subsequent annealing the obtained microstructures were highly unequilibrium and hence unstable. (orig.) 19 refs.

  6. Effects of chitosan inhibitor on the electrochemical corrosion behavior of 2205 duplex stainless steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Se-fei; Wen, Ying; Yi, Pan; Xiao, Kui; Dong, Chao-fang

    2017-11-01

    The effects of chitosan inhibitor on the corrosion behavior of 2205 duplex stainless steel were studied by electrochemical measurements, immersion tests, and stereology microscopy. The influences of immersion time, temperature, and chitosan concentration on the corrosion inhibition performance of chitosan were investigated. The optimum parameters of water-soluble chitosan on the corrosion inhibition performance of 2205 duplex stainless steel were also determined. The water-soluble chitosan showed excellent corrosion inhibition performance on the 2205 duplex stainless steel. Polarization curves demonstrated that chitosan acted as a mixed-type inhibitor. When the stainless steel specimen was immersed in the 0.2 g/L chitosan solution for 4 h, a dense and uniform adsorption film covered the sample surface and the inhibition efficiency (IE) reached its maximum value. Moreover, temperature was found to strongly influence the corrosion inhibition of chitosan; the inhibition efficiency gradually decreased with increasing temperature. The 2205 duplex stainless steel specimen immersed in 0.4 g/L water-soluble chitosan at 30°C displayed the best corrosion inhibition among the investigated specimens. Moreover, chitosan decreased the corrosion rate of the 2205 duplex stainless steel in an FeCl3 solution.

  7. Deformation Induced Martensitic Transformation and Its Initial Microstructure Dependence in a High Alloyed Duplex Stainless Steel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xie, Lin; Huang, Tian Lin; Wang, Yu Hui

    2017-01-01

    Deformation induced martensitic transformation (DIMT) usually occurs in metastable austenitic stainless steels. Recent studies have shown that DIMT may occur in the austenite phase of low alloyed duplex stainless steels. The present study demonstrates that DIMT can also take place in a high alloyed...... Fe–23Cr–8.5Ni duplex stainless steel, which exhibits an unexpectedly rapid transformation from γ-austenite into α′-martensite. However, an inhibited martensitic transformation has been observed by varying the initial microstructure from a coarse alternating austenite and ferrite band structure...

  8. Influence of ageing time on hardness, microstructure and wear behaviour of AISI2507 super duplex stainless steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davanageri, Mahesh; Narendranath, S.; Kadoli, Ravikiran

    2017-08-01

    The effect of ageing time on hardness, microstructure and wear behaviour of super duplex stainless AISI 2507 is examined. The material was solution treated at 1050 °C and water quenched, further the ageing has been carried out at 850 °C for 30 min, 60 min and 90 min. The chromium (Cr) and molybdenum (Mo) enriched intermetallic sigma phase (σ) were found to precipitate at the ferrite/austenite interface and within the ferrite region. The concentration of intermetallic sigma phase (σ), which was quantified by a combination of scanning electron microscopy and image analysis, increases with increasing ageing time, leading to significant increase in the hardness. The x-ray diffraction (XRD) and energy dispersive x-ray (EDX) was employed to investigate the element distribution and phase identification. Wear characterstics of the aged super duplex stainless steel were measured by varying normal loads, sliding speeds, sliding distance and compared with solution treated (as-cast) specimens. Scanning electron microscopy was used to assist in analysis of worn out surfaces. The outcomes suggested that the increase in percentage of sigma phase increases hardness and wear resistance in heat-treated specimens compared to solution treated specimens (as-cast).

  9. Characterization of microstructure and texture across dissimilar super duplex/austenitic stainless steel weldment joint by super duplex filler metal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eghlimi, Abbas, E-mail: a.eghlimi@ma.iut.ac.ir [Department of Materials Engineering, Isfahan University of Technology, Isfahan 84156-83111 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Shamanian, Morteza [Department of Materials Engineering, Isfahan University of Technology, Isfahan 84156-83111 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Eskandarian, Masoomeh [Department of Materials Engineering, Shiraz University, Shiraz 71348-51154 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Zabolian, Azam [Department of Natural Resources, Isfahan University of Technology, Isfahan 84156-83111 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Szpunar, Jerzy A. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon SK S7N 5A9 (Canada)

    2015-08-15

    In the present paper, microstructural changes across an as-welded dissimilar austenitic/duplex stainless steel couple welded by a super duplex stainless steel filler metal using gas tungsten arc welding process is characterized with optical microscopy and electron back-scattered diffraction techniques. Accordingly, variations of microstructure, texture, and grain boundary character distribution of base metals, heat affected zones, and weld metal were investigated. The results showed that the weld metal, which was composed of Widmanstätten austenite side-plates and allotriomorphic grain boundary austenite morphologies, had the weakest texture and was dominated by low angle boundaries. The welding process increased the ferrite content but decreased the texture intensity at the heat affected zone of the super duplex stainless steel base metal. In addition, through partial ferritization, it changed the morphology of elongated grains of the rolled microstructure to twinned partially transformed austenite plateaus scattered between ferrite textured colonies. However, the texture of the austenitic stainless steel heat affected zone was strengthened via encouraging recrystallization and formation of annealing twins. At both interfaces, an increase in the special character coincident site lattice boundaries of the primary phase as well as a strong texture with <100> orientation, mainly of Goss component, was observed. - Graphical abstract: Display Omitted - Highlights: • Weld metal showed local orientation at microscale but random texture at macroscale. • Intensification of <100> orientated grains was observed adjacent to the fusion lines. • The austenite texture was weaker than that of the ferrite in all duplex regions. • Welding caused twinned partially transformed austenites to form at SDSS HAZ. • At both interfaces, the ratio of special CSL boundaries of the primary phase increased.

  10. Initial assessment of the mechanisms and significance of low-temperature embrittlement of cast stainless steels in LWR systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chopra, O.K.; Sather, A.

    1990-08-01

    This report summarizes work performed by Argonne National Laboratory on long-term embrittlement of cast duplex stainless steels in LWR systems. Metallurgical characterization and mechanical property data from Charpy-impact, tensile, and J-R curve tests are presented for several experimental and commercial heats, as well as for reactor-aged CF-3, CF-8, and CF-8M cast stainless steels. The effects of material variables on the embrittlement of cast stainless steels are evaluated. Chemical composition and ferrite morphology strongly affect the extent and kinetics of embrittlement. In general, the low-carbon CF-3 stainless steels are the most resistant and the molybdenum-containing high-carbon CF-8M stainless steels are most susceptible to embrittlement. The microstructural and mechanical-property data are analyzed to establish the mechanisms of embrittlement. The procedure and correlations for predicting the impact strength and fracture toughness of cast components during reactor service are described. The lower bound values of impact strength and fracture toughness for low-temperature-aged cast stainless steel are defined. 39 refs., 56 figs., 8 tabs

  11. On the kinetics of martensite formation in a duplex stainless steel ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Studies have been made of the kinetics of martensite transformation in a duplex stainless steel of composition 21Cr-6.6Ni, 2.5M0, 1.6Cu, <.0.03C (wt.%) Solution treatment at 1050οC for 1 hr was followed by deformation at the subzero temperatures of –70 and –196οC. The kinetics of the γ → α1 transformation in the duplex ...

  12. Influence Of Heat Treatment On Duplex Stainless Steel To Study The Material Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jithin M

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The various heat treatment processes are annealing normalizing hardening tempering spheroidising surface hardening flame and induction hardening nitriding cyaniding carbonitriding carburizing etc Heat treatment on duplex stainless steel is to improve ductility toughness strength hardness and to relieve internal stress developed in the material. Here basically the experiment of hardness test impact test wear test and compression is done to get idea about heat treated duplex stainless steel which has extensive uses in all industries and scientific research and development fields.

  13. Alpha prime effect on mechanical properties and corrosion resistance of UR 52N+ duplex stainless steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fontes, Talita Filier

    2009-01-01

    Alpha prime phase leads to decreased corrosion resistance and mechanical properties losses of duplex stainless steels. In this work mechanical and electrochemical tests were performed in duplex stainless steel UR 52N+ aged at 475 degree C for various periods in order to determine the sensibility of these tests to alpha prime presence. Hardness tests showed a gradual increase in its values; on the other hand, impact tests revealed that the material aged for 12h losses about 80% of energy absorption capacity of the solution annealed sample. Notwithstanding cyclic polarization tests showed that significant changes are only noted for aging times greater than 96h. (author)

  14. Fatigue crack propagation behavior and acoustic emission characteristics of the heat affected zone of super duplex stainless steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Do, Jae Yoon; Kim, Jin Hwan; Ahn, Seok Hwan; Park, In Duck; Kang, Chang Yong; Nam, Ki Woo

    2002-01-01

    Because duplex stainless steel shows the good strength and corrosion resistance properties, the necessity of duplex stainless steel, which has long life in severe environments, has been increased with industrial development. The fatigue crack propagation behavior of Heat Affected Zone(HAZ) has been investigated in super duplex stainless steel. The fatigue crack propagation rate of HAZ of super duplex stainless steel was faster than that of base metal of super duplex stainless steel. We also analysed acoustic emission signals during the fatigue test with time-frequency analysis method. According to the results of time-frequency analysis, the frequency ranges of 200-400 kHz were obtained by striation and the frequency range of 500 kHz was obtained due to dimple and separate of inclusion

  15. Characterization of duplex stainless steel weld metals obtained by hybrid plasma-gas metal arc welding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koray Yurtisik

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Despite its high efficiency, autogenous keyhole welding is not well-accepted for duplex stainless steels because it causes excessive ferrite in as-welded duplex microstructure, which leads to a degradation in toughness and corrosion properties of the material. Combining the deep penetration characteristics of plasma arc welding in keyhole mode and metal deposition capability of gas metal arc welding, hybrid plasma - gas metal arc welding process has considered for providing a proper duplex microstructure without compromising the welding efficiency. 11.1 mm-thick standard duplex stainless steel plates were joined in a single-pass using this novel technique. Same plates were also subjected to conventional gas metal arc and plasma arc welding processes, providing benchmarks for the investigation of the weldability of the material. In the first place, the hybrid welding process enabled us to achieve less heat input compared to gas metal arc welding. Consequently, the precipitation of secondary phases, which are known to be detrimental to the toughness and corrosion resistance of duplex stainless steels, was significantly suppressed in both fusion and heat affected zones. Secondly, contrary to other keyhole techniques, proper cooling time and weld metal chemistry were achieved during the process, facilitating sufficient reconstructive transformation of austenite in the ferrite phase.

  16. A morphological evaluation of a duplex stainless steel processed by high energy Ball Mill

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yonekubo, Ariane Emi; Cintho, Osvaldo Mitsuyuki; Aguiar, Denilson Jose Marcolino de; Capocchi, Jose Deodoro Trani

    2009-01-01

    The duplex stainless steels are formed by a ferrite and austenite mixture, giving them a combination of properties. Commercially, these steels are hot rolled, developing an anisotropic, alternated ferrite and austenite elongated lamellae microstructure. In this work, a duplex stainless steel was produced by the mixture of elementary powders with the composition Fe-19.5Cr-5Ni processed in an ATTRITOR ball mill during periods up to 15 hours. The powders obtained were compressed in specimens and were heat treated in the temperatures of 900, 1050 and 1200 °C during 1 hour and analysed by x ray diffraction, optic microscopy, scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersion spectroscopy. An optimized microstructure with ultrafine, equiaxial and regular duplex microstructure was obtained in the 15 hour milling and 1200 °C heat treatment. Afterwards, a commercially super duplex stainless steel UNS S32520 was aged at 800 °C aiming the precipitation of σ phase in order to reduce its toughness and then, milled in SPEX mill. The resulting microstructure was a very fine duplex type with irregular grain boundary morphology duo to the grain growth barrier promoted by the renascent σ phase particles during sintering process. (author)

  17. Influence of surface texture on the galling characteristics of lean duplex and austenitic stainless steels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wadman, Boel; Eriksen, J.; Olsson, M.

    2010-01-01

    Two simulative test methods were used to study galling in sheet forming of two types of stainless steel sheet: austenitic (EN 1.4301) and lean duplex LDX 2101 (EN 1.4162) in different surface conditions. The pin-on-disc test was used to analyse the galling resistance of different combinations...

  18. Investigation of Selected Surface Integrity Features of Duplex Stainless Steel (DSS) after Turning

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Krolczyk, G.; Nieslony, P.; Legutko, S.; Hloch, Sergej; Samardžić, I.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 54, č. 1 (2015), s. 91-94 ISSN 0543-5846 Institutional support: RVO:68145535 Keywords : duplex stainless steel * machining * turning * surface integrity * surface roughness Subject RIV: JQ - Machines ; Tools Impact factor: 0.959, year: 2014 http://hrcak.srce.hr/126702

  19. Yield stress of duplex stainless steel specimens estimated using a compound Hall–Petch equation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noriaki Hirota, Fuxing Yin, Tsukasa Azuma and Tadanobu Inoue

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the 0.2% yield stress of duplex stainless steel was evaluated using a compound Hall–Petch equation. The compound Hall–Petch equation was derived from four types of duplex stainless steel, which contained 0.2–64.4 wt% δ-ferrite phase, had different chemical compositions and were annealed at different temperatures. Intragranular yield stress was measured with an ultra-microhardness tester and evaluated with the yield stress model proposed by Dao et al. Grain size, volume fraction and texture were monitored by electron backscattering diffraction measurement. The kγ constant in the compound equation for duplex stainless steel agrees well with that for γ-phase SUS316L steel in the temperature range of 1323–1473 K. The derived compound Hall–Petch equation predicts that the yield stress will be in good agreement with the experimental results for the Cr, Mn, Si, Ni and N solid-solution states. We find that the intragranular yield stress of the δ-phase of duplex stainless steel is rather sensitive to the chemical composition and annealing conditions, which is attributed to the size misfit parameter.

  20. Low-Temperature Mechanical Behavior of Super Duplex Stainless Steel with Sigma Precipitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seul-Kee Kim

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Experimental studies in various aspects have to be conducted to maintain stable applications of super duplex stainless steels (SDSS because the occurrence rate of sigma phase, variable temperature and growth direction of sigma phase can influence mechanical performances of SDSS. Tensile tests of precipitated SDSS were performed under various temperatures to analyze mechanical and morphological behavior.

  1. Low-Temperature Mechanical Behavior of Super Duplex Stainless Steel with Sigma Precipitation

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Seul-Kee; Kang, Ki-Yeob; Kim, Myung-Soo; Lee, Jae-Myung

    2015-01-01

    Experimental studies in various aspects have to be conducted to maintain stable applications of super duplex stainless steels (SDSS) because the occurrence rate of sigma phase, variable temperature and growth direction of sigma phase can influence mechanical performances of SDSS. Tensile tests of precipitated SDSS were performed under various temperatures to analyze mechanical and morphological behavior.

  2. Effect of aging on impact properties of ASTM A890 Grade 1C super duplex stainless steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martins, Marcelo; Forti, Leonardo Rodrigues Nogueira

    2008-01-01

    Super duplex stainless steels in the solution annealed condition are thermodynamically metastable systems which, when exposed to heat, present a strong tendency to 'seek' the most favorable thermodynamic condition. The main purpose of this study was to characterize the microstructure of a super duplex stainless steel in the as cast and solution annealed conditions, and to determine the influence of aging heat treatments on its impact strength, based on Charpy impact tests applied to V-notched test specimens. The sigma phase was found to begin precipitating at heat treatment temperatures above 760 deg. C and to dissolve completely only above 1040 deg. C, with the highest peak concentration of this phase appearing at close to 850 deg. C. Heat treatments conducted at temperatures of 580 deg. C to 740 deg. C led to a reduction of the energy absorbed in the Charpy impact test in response to the precipitation of a particulate phase with particle sizes ranging from 0.5 μm to 1.0 μm, with a chromium and iron-rich chemical composition

  3. Influence of sigma-phase formation on the localized corrosion behavior of a duplex stainless steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adhe, K.N.; Kain, V.; Madangopal, K.; Gadiyar, H.S.

    1996-01-01

    Because of their austenitic-ferritic microstructures, duplex stainless steels offer a good combination of mechanical and corrosion resistance properties. However, heat treatments can lower the mechanical strength of these stainless steels as well as render them susceptible to intergranular corrosion (IGC) and pitting corrosion. In this study, a low-carbon (0.02%) duplex stainless steel is subjected to various heat treatments at 450 to 950 C for 30 min to 10 h. The heat-treated samples than undergo ASTM IGC and pitting corrosion tests, and the results are correlated with the microstructures obtained after each heat treatment. In the absence of Cr 23 C 6 precipitation, σ-phase precipitates render this duplex stainless steel susceptible to IGC and pitting corrosion. Even submicroscopic σ-phase precipitates are deleterious for IGC resistance. Longer-duration heat treatments (at 750 to 850 C) induce chromium diffusion to replenish the chromium-depleted regions around the σ-phase precipitates and improve IGC resistance; pitting resistance, however, is not fully restored. Various mechanisms of σ-phase formation are discussed to show that regions adjacent to σ-phase are depleted of chromium and molybdenum. The effect of chemical composition (pitting resistance equivalent) on the pitting resistance of various stainless steels is also noted

  4. Comprehensive Deformation Analysis of a Newly Designed Ni-Free Duplex Stainless Steel with Enhanced Plasticity by Optimizing Austenite Stability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moallemi, Mohammad; Zarei-Hanzaki, Abbas; Eskandari, Mostafa

    2017-01-01

    A new metastable Ni-free duplex stainless steel has been designed with superior plasticity by optimizing austenite stability using thermodynamic calculations of stacking fault energy and with reference to literature findings. Several characterization methods comprising optical microscopy, magneti...

  5. Kinetics and mechanism of thermal aging embrittlement of duplex stainless steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, H.M.; Chopra, O.K.

    1987-06-01

    Microstructural characteristics of long-term-aged cast duplex stainless steel specimens from eight laboratory heats and an actual component from a commercial boiling water reactor have been investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), small angle neutron scattering (SANS), and atom probe field ion microscopy (APFIM) techniques. Three precipitate phases, i.e., Cr-rich α' and the Ni- and Si-rich G phase, and γ 2 austenite, have been identified in the ferrite matrix of the aged specimens. For CF-8 grade materials, M 23 C 6 carbides were identified on the austenite-ferrite boundaries as well as in the ferrite matrix for aging at ≥ 450 0 C. It has been shown that Si, C, and Mo contents are important factors that influence the kinetics of the G-phase precipitation. However, TEM and APFIM analyses indicate that the embrittlement for ≤400 0 C aging is primarily associated with Fe and Cr segregation in ferrite by spinodal decomposition. For extended aging, e.g., 6 to 8 years at 350 to 400 0 C, large platelike α' formed by nucleation and growth from the structure produced by the spinodal decomposition. The Cr content appears to play an important role either to promote the platelike α' (high Cr content) or to suppress the α' in favor of γ 2 precipitation (low Cr). Approximate TTT diagrams for the spinodal, α', G, γ 2 , and the in-ferrite M 23 C 6 have been constructed for 250 to 450 0 C aging. Microstructural modifications associated with a 550 0 C reannealing and a subsequent toughness restoration are also discussed. It is shown that the toughness restoration is associated primarily with the dissolution of the Cr-rich region in ferrite

  6. Effect of solution treatment on pitting behavior of 2205 duplex stainless steel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Luo

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The effect of solution heat treatment on pitting behavior of 2205 duplex stainless steel was investigated by EDS, potentiodynamic polarization and SECM. The contrast experiments were carried out on the original steel. The results demonstrate that for the original sample, when the potential was at the open circuit potential, there were many pitting precursor areas, due to the local breakdown of passive film on the surface, the pitting current fluctuations on the scale of pA. On the contrary, after 1100 °C solution treatment, the passive film was more stable than the original one. Therefore, the solution treatment can markedly improve the pitting resistance of 2205 duplex stainless steel due to the reduction of pitting precursor areas.

  7. Microstructure and mechanical properties of friction stir welded SAF 2507 super duplex stainless steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, Y.S.; Nelson, T.W.; Sterling, C.J.; Steel, R.J.; Pettersson, C.-O.

    2005-01-01

    The microstructure and mechanical properties of friction stir (FS) welded SAF 2507 super duplex stainless steel were examined. High-quality, full-penetration welds were successfully produced in the super duplex stainless steel by friction stir welding (FSW) using polycrystalline cubic boron nitride (PCBN) tool. The base material had a microstructure consisting of the ferrite matrix with austenite islands, but FSW refined grains of the ferrite and austenite phases in the stir zone through dynamic recrystallisation. Ferrite content was held between 50 and 60% throughout the weld. The smaller grain sizes of the ferrite and austenite phases caused increase in hardness and strength within the stir zone. Welded transverse tensile specimen failed near the border between the stir zone and TMAZ at the retreating side as the weld had roughly the same strengths as the base material

  8. Ultrasonic Characterization And Micro-Structural Studies On 2205 Duplex Stainless Steel In Thermal Variations

    OpenAIRE

    Bernice Victoria; Dr. Gene George; Kevin Ark Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Due to increasing concern on potential impact of materials on human health and environment the materials used in hygienic applications should be durable corrosion resistant clean surface etc. Type 2205 duplex stainless steel is a preferred material for use in biomedical pharmaceutical nuclear pressure vessels chemical tankers etc. it exhibits good mechanical strength and high resistance to corrosion. The strength toughness hardness of such materials are usually determined by destruct...

  9. Eddy Current Transducer Dedicated for Sigma Phase Evaluation in Duplex Stainless Steel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grzegorz Psuj

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes a new transducer dedicated for evaluation of a duplex stainless steel (DSS. Different phases which exist in DSS have influence on mechanical as well as on electrical properties. Therefore, an eddy current transducer was utilized. In order to achieve high sensitivity, a differential type of the transducer was selected. The performance of the transducer was verified by utilizing the samples which had a different amount of sigma phase.

  10. Nitride alloy layer formation of duplex stainless steel using nitriding process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maleque, M. A.; Lailatul, P. H.; Fathaen, A. A.; Norinsan, K.; Haider, J.

    2018-01-01

    Duplex stainless steel (DSS) shows a good corrosion resistance as well as the mechanical properties. However, DSS performance decrease as it works under aggressive environment and at high temperature. At the mentioned environment, the DSS become susceptible to wear failure. Surface modification is the favourable technique to widen the application of duplex stainless steel and improve the wear resistance and its hardness properties. Therefore, the main aim of this work is to nitride alloy layer on the surface of duplex stainless steel by the nitriding process temperature of 400°C and 450°C at different time and ammonia composition using a horizontal tube furnace. The scanning electron microscopy and x-ray diffraction analyzer are used to analyse the morphology, composition and the nitrided alloy layer for treated DSS. The micro hardnesss Vickers tester was used to measure hardness on cross-sectional area of nitrided DSS. After nitriding, it was observed that the hardness performance increased until 1100 Hv0.5kgf compared to substrate material of 250 Hv0.5kgf. The thickness layer of nitride alloy also increased from 5μm until 100μm due to diffusion of nitrogen on the surface of DSS. The x-ray diffraction results showed that the nitride layer consists of iron nitride, expanded austenite and chromium nitride. It can be concluded that nitride alloy layer can be produced via nitriding process using tube furnace with significant improvement of microstructural and hardness properties.

  11. Relationship between microstructure and fracture types in a UNS S32205 duplex stainless steel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Victoria Biezma

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Duplex stainless steels are susceptible to the formation of sigma phase at high temperature which could potentially be responsible for catastrophic service failure of components. Thermal treatments were applied to duplex stainless steels in order to promote the precipitation of different fractions of sigma phase into a ferrite-austenite microstructure. Quantitative image analysis was employed to characterize the microstructure and Charpy impact tests were used in order to evaluate the mechanical degradation caused by sigma phase presence. The fracture morphology of the Charpy test specimens were thoroughly observed in SEM, looking for a correlation between the microstructure and the fracture types in UNS S32205 duplex stainless steel. The main conclusion is the strong embrittlement effect of sigma phase since it is possible to observe a transition from transgranular fracture to intergranular fracture as increases the percentage of sigma phase. Thus, the mixed modes of fracture are predominant in the present study with high dependence on sigma phase percentages obtained by different thermal treatments.

  12. Ultrasonic Characterization And Micro-Structural Studies On 2205 Duplex Stainless Steel In Thermal Variations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernice Victoria

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Due to increasing concern on potential impact of materials on human health and environment the materials used in hygienic applications should be durable corrosion resistant clean surface etc. Type 2205 duplex stainless steel is a preferred material for use in biomedical pharmaceutical nuclear pressure vessels chemical tankers etc. it exhibits good mechanical strength and high resistance to corrosion. The strength toughness hardness of such materials are usually determined by destructive tests. However continuous destructive measurements are generally difficult to perform during the productive process which creates a need for a fast and easy nondestructive method of material characterization. Microstructural changes in duplex stainless steel due to changes in annealing temperature are characterized by ultrasonic pulse echo technique and optical microscopy. Type 2205 duplex stainless steel are heat treated at 1000 deg C 1050 deg C 1100 deg C 1150 deg C and 1200 deg C for 15 min and water quenched. There is an appreciable change in the morphology of all the heat treated samples and the ultrasonic velocity is dependent on both ferrite and austenite ratio and the grain size.

  13. A hyper duplex stainless steel developed for oil and gas industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chai, Guocai; Kivisaekk, Ulf; Novak, Pavel [Sandvik Materials Technology (Sweden). R and D Centre; Finzetto, Leandro [Sandvik Materials Technology, Clarks Summit, PA (United States); Tokaruk, John [Sandvik Materials Technology (Norway)

    2008-07-01

    Subsea umbilical is operating under the sea as a connection between a platform's control station and the wells on the seabed to supply necessary control and chemicals to subsea oil and gas wells. The umbilical tube materials are required to have excellent corrosion resistance and high fatigue properties. The recent development and exploration in deep waters require the umbilicals with a length longer than 2500 meters. This indicates that the present umbilical tube can be so thick that they could not bear their own weight. Some new material will be needed. Another development is that some umbilicals will be used in high temperature sea water. With this background, Sandvik SAF 3207 HD has been newly developed. This paper gives an introduction of this new material. This new duplex stainless steel grade has a PRE number close to 50, which is therefore called hyper-duplex stainless steel. Sandvik SAF 3207 HD shows a yield strength 20% higher than those of super-duplex stainless steels, high fatigue properties, a service temperature up to 90 deg C and a good weldability. The benefits with this material when it comes to building umbilicals are considerable. Thinner walls and lighter installations make it possible to reach and operate ultra-deep wells that were previously too costly or too complex to exploit. At the same time, the temperature and pressure window widens - despite the thinner walls. (author)

  14. Materials Integrity Analysis for Application of Hyper Duplex Stainless Steels to Korean Nuclear Power Plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, Hyun Young; Park, Heung Bae; Park, Yong Soo; Kim, Soon Tae; Kim, Young Sik; Kim, Kwang Tae; Jhang, Yoon Young

    2010-01-01

    Hyper duplex stainless steels have been developed in Korea for the purpose of application to the seawater system of Korean nuclear power plants. This system supplies seawater to cooling water heat exchanger tubes, related pipes and chlorine injection system. In normal operation, seawater is supplied to heat exchanger through the exit of circulating water pump headers, and the heat exchanged sea water is extracted to the discharge pipes in circulating water system connected to the circulating water discharge lines. The high flow velocity of some part of seawater system in nuclear power plants accelerates damages of components. Therefore, high strength and high corrosion resistant steels need to be applied for this environment. Hyper duplex stainless steel (27Cr-7.0Ni-2.5Mo-3.2W-0.35N) has been newly developed in Korea and is being improved for applying to nuclear power plants. In this study, the physical and mechanical properties and corrosion resistance of newly developed materials are quantitatively evaluated in comparative to commercial stainless steels in other countries. The properties of weld and HAZ (heat affected zone) are analyzed and the best compositions are suggested. The optimum conditions in welding process are derived for ensuring the volume fraction of ferrite(α) and austenite(γ) in HAZ and controlling weld cracks. For applying these materials to the seawater heat exchanger, CCT and CPT in weldments are measured. As a result of all experiments, it was found that the newly developed hyper duplex stainless steel WREMBA has higher corrosion resistance and mechanical properties than those of super austenitic stainless steels including welded area. It is expected to be a promising material for seawater systems of Korean nuclear power plants

  15. Surface analysis of localized corrosion of austenitic 316L and duplex 2205 stainless steels in simulated body solutions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Conradi, Marjetka; Schön, Peter Manfred; Kocijan, Aleksandra; Jenko, M.; Vancso, Gyula J.

    2011-01-01

    We report on cyclic voltammetry and in situ electrochemical atomic force microscopy (EC-AFM) studies of localized corrosion of duplex 2205 stainless steel (DSS 2205) and austenitic stainless steel of the type AISI 316L in two model solutions, including artificial saliva (AS) and a simulated

  16. Recent Developments of Advanced Austenitic and Duplex Stainless Steels for Oil and Gas Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chai, Guocai; Kangas, Pasi

    The demands for fuel and the development of the fuel exploitation processes have made it economically possible to produce oil-gas from deeper and more corrosive wells where the parameters such as high chloride, H2S or CO2 content, high temperature and pressure, erosion and bioactivities in seawater should be considered. In these applications, special grades of stainless steels with greater corrosion resistance at a broad range of temperatures and high strength have to be used to meet the requirements. This paper provides an overview on the development, properties and applications of these advanced materials for oil & gas industry. They include recently developed advanced super austenitic stainless steels with high Mo, Ni, Cr and N contents with a PRE (pitting resistance equivalent) number up to 52 and hyper duplex stainless steels.

  17. Cast alumina forming austenitic stainless steels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muralidharan, Govindarajan; Yamamoto, Yukinori; Brady, Michael P

    2013-04-30

    An austenitic stainless steel alloy consisting essentially of, in terms of weight percent ranges 0.15-0.5C; 8-37Ni; 10-25Cr; 2.5-5Al; greater than 0.6, up to 2.5 total of at least one element selected from the group consisting of Nb and Ta; up to 3Mo; up to 3Co; up to 1W; up to 3Cu; up to 15Mn; up to 2Si; up to 0.15B; up to 0.05P; up to 1 total of at least one element selected from the group consisting of Y, La, Ce, Hf, and Zr; steel alloys is also disclosed.

  18. Passivation of duplex stainless steel in solutions simulating chloride-contaminated concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takenouti, H.

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Most studies published to date on the corrosion behaviour of stainless reinforcing steel are based on austenitic steel. The market presence of corrugated duplex steel is growing, however. The present study compared passivity in 2205 type duplex and 304 type austenitic stainless steel. Polarization tests in chloride-containing Ca(OH2 solutions confirmed the exceptional performance of duplex steels. X-ray photoelectronic spectroscopy (XPS showed that the passive layer generated on duplex stainless steel in media simulating concrete pore solutions had a higher Cr content than the layer formed on steel in contact with the air. The XPS results also revealed that in duplex steel the form adopted by the passive layer Fe oxides was Fe3O4 in the solutions simulating concrete, rather than Fe2O3, as in duplex steel exposed to air. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS can be used to monitor the transformations taking place in the passive layer and analyze the factors involved.La mayoría de los estudios publicados hasta el momento sobre el comportamiento frente a la corrosión de armaduras de acero inoxidable se basan en aceros austeníticos. Sin embargo, la presencia en el mercado de aceros corrugados dúplex es cada vez más importante. En este trabajo se analiza la pasividad de un acero inoxidable dúplex tipo 2205 en comparación con la de un inoxidable austenítico tipo 304. Los ensayos de polarización en disoluciones de Ca(OH2 con cloruros confirman el excepcional comportamiento de los aceros dúplex. La espectroscopía fotoelectrónica de rayos X (XPS informa de que la capa pasiva generada en aceros inoxidables dúplex en medios que simulan la disolución de los poros del hormigón posee mayor contenido en óxidos de Cr que la formada en aire. También se puede deducir de los resultados de XPS que los óxidos de Fe de la capa pasiva de los aceros dúplex se encuentran en forma de Fe3O4 en las disoluciones que simulan el hormigón en vez de en

  19. The Prediction of Long-Term Thermal Aging in Cast Austenitic Stainless Steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Byun, Thak Sang; Yang, Ying; Lach, Timothy G.

    2017-02-15

    Cast austenitic stainless steel (CASS) materials are extensively used for many massive primary coolant system components of light water reactors (LWRs) including coolant piping, valve bodies, pump casings, and piping elbows. Many of these components are operated in complex and persistently damaging environments of elevated temperature, high pressure, corrosive environment, and sometimes radiation for long periods of time. Since a large number of CASS components are installed in every nuclear power plant and replacing such massive components is prohibitively expensive, any significant degradation in mechanical properties that affects structural integrity, cracking resistance in particular, of CASS components will raise a serious concern on the performance of entire power plant. The CASS materials for nuclear components are highly corrosion-resistant Fe-Cr-Ni alloys with 300 series stainless steel compositions and mostly austenite (γ)–ferrite (δ) duplex structures, which result from the casting processes consisting of alloy melting and pouring or injecting liquid metal into a static or spinning mold. Although the commonly used static and centrifugal casting processes enable the fabrication of massive components with proper resistance to environmental attacks, the alloying and microstructural conditions are not highly controllable in actual fabrication, especially in the casting processes of massive components. In the corrosion-resistant Fe-Cr-Ni alloy system, the minor phase (i.e., the δ-ferrite phase) is inevitably formed during the casting process, and is in a non-equilibrium state subject to detrimental changes during exposure to elevated temperature and/or radiation. In general, relatively few critical degradation modes are expected within the current design lifetime of 40 years, given that the CASS components have been processed properly. It has been well known, however, that both the thermal aging and the neutron irradiation can cause degradation of static

  20. Some pitfalls in welding of duplex stainless steels Algumas armadilhas na soldagem de aços inoxidáveis duplex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Demian J. Kotecki

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Duplex stainless steels (DSS, including super duplex stainless steels {SDSS} have proven to be very useful engineering materials, albeit with somewhat different welding requirements than those of the more familiar austenitic stainless steels. Despite a generally good track record in welding of duplex stainless steels, certain pitfalls have been encountered with enough frequency that they deserve review. Inappropriate base metal specification often leads to unsuitable heat affected zone (HAZ properties. Autogenous fusion zones are also of concern. This issue centers around nitrogen limits. The most frequently encountered is applying the UNS S31803 composition for 2205 DSS, instead of the S32205 composition. Inappropriate welding heat input arises most frequently with SDSS. While 0.5 to 1.5 kJ/mm is a normal heat input recommendation for SDSS, either a root pass or many small beads towards the low end of this heat input range tends to result in precipitation and/or secondary austenite formation in weld metal subjected to repeated thermal cycles from multiple weld passes. Inappropriate PWHT occurs when the enhanced nickel filler metals (typically 9% Ni are used. DSS are not normally given PWHT, but extensive forming of heads, for example, or repair welding of castings, may require a postweld anneal. Specifications such as ASTM A790 and A890 call for annealing at 1040ºC minimum, and the fabricator tends to use temperatures close to that minimum. However, the enhanced nickel filler metals require higher temperatures to dissolve sigma phase that forms during heating to the annealing temperature.Aços inoxidáveis duplex (AID, incluindo os aços super duplex, AISD provaram ser materiais de engenharia muito úteis, embora com requerimentos de soldagem em alguma medida diferentes daqueles dos aços inoxidáveis austeníticos mais usuais. Apesar do histórico geralmente bom dos aços inoxidáveis duplex quanto a soldagem, algumas dificuldades têm sido

  1. Dilution and Ferrite Number Prediction in Pulsed Current Cladding of Super-Duplex Stainless Steel Using RSM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eghlimi, Abbas; Shamanian, Morteza; Raeissi, Keyvan

    2013-12-01

    Super-duplex stainless steels have an excellent combination of mechanical properties and corrosion resistance at relatively low temperatures and can be used as a coating to improve the corrosion and wear resistance of low carbon and low alloy steels. Such coatings can be produced using weld cladding. In this study, pulsed current gas tungsten arc cladding process was utilized to deposit super-duplex stainless steel on high strength low alloy steel substrates. In such claddings, it is essential to understand how the dilution affects the composition and ferrite number of super-duplex stainless steel layer in order to be able to estimate its corrosion resistance and mechanical properties. In the current study, the effect of pulsed current gas tungsten arc cladding process parameters on the dilution and ferrite number of super-duplex stainless steel clad layer was investigated by applying response surface methodology. The validity of the proposed models was investigated by using quadratic regression models and analysis of variance. The results showed an inverse relationship between dilution and ferrite number. They also showed that increasing the heat input decreases the ferrite number. The proposed mathematical models are useful for predicting and controlling the ferrite number within an acceptable range for super-duplex stainless steel cladding.

  2. Spinodal decomposition mechanism study on the duplex stainless steel UNS S31803 using ultrasonic speed measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Albuquerque, Victor Hugo C. de; Macedo Silva, Edgard de; Pereira Leite, Josinaldo; Pindo de Moura, Elineudo; Araujo Freitas, Vera Lucia de; Tavares, Joao Manuel R.S.

    2010-01-01

    This work, focuses on the spinodal decomposition mechanism study on the duplex stainless steel duplex UNS S31803, composed by austenite (γ) and ferrite (α) phases, at 425 o C and 475 o C temperatures by ultrasonic speed measurements. This temperature range is responsible for the transformation mechanism of α initial phase to α phases (poor in chromium) and α' (rich in chromium) by spinodal decomposition. The techniques to accomplish this analysis are based mainly on X-ray diffraction measures and ultrasonic speed. The obtained results show that it is possible to conclude that the use of ultrasonic speed measurements indicates a promising technique for following-up the phase transformation and spinodal decomposition on the steel studied.

  3. The Mechanical Behavior of a 25Cr Super Duplex Stainless Steel at Elevated Temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lasebikan, B. A.; Akisanya, A. R.; Deans, W. F.

    2013-02-01

    Super duplex stainless steel (SDSS) is a candidate material for production tubing in oil and gas wells and subsea pipelines used to transport corrosive hydrocarbon fluids. The suitability of this material for high temperature applications is examined in this article. The uniaxial tensile properties are determined for a 25Cr SDSS over a range of temperature relevant to high pressure-high temperature oil and gas wells. It is shown that there is a significant effect of temperature on the uniaxial tensile properties. Elevated temperature was shown to reduce the Young's modulus and increase the strain hardening index; temperature effects on these two parameters are usually neglected in the design of subsea pipelines and oil well tubulars, and this could lead to wrong predictions of the collapse pressure. The manufacturing process of the super duplex tubular did not lead to significant anisotropy in the hardness and the ultimate tensile and uniaxial yield strengths.

  4. Characterization by X ray diffraction of deleterious phases precipitated in a super duplex stainless steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pardal, Juan M.; Tavares, Sergio S. Maior; Fonseca, Maria P. Cindra; Montenegro, Talles Ribeiro; Dias, Antonio Jose N.; Almeida, Sergio L. de

    2010-01-01

    In this work the identification and quantification of deleterious phases in two super duplex stainless steels grade UNS S32750, with quite different grain sizes, was performed by X-ray diffraction. The materials were isothermally aged in the 800 . 950 deg C range. Direct comparison method was used to quantify the ferrite phase in each sample. The amount of deleterious phases (σ, χ and γ2) formed was calculated by the difference of the amount of ferrite phase measured in each specimen to the amount of ferrite initially measured in the un-aged steel. The results obtained give an useful contribution to the understanding of kinetics of deleterious phases precipitation in super duplex steels. (author)

  5. Role of Austenite in Brittle Fracture of Bond Region of Super Duplex Stainless Steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitagawa, Yoshihiko; Ikeuchi, Kenji; Kuroda, Toshio

    Weld simulation of heat-affected zone (HAZ) was performed to investigate the mechanism by which austenite affects the toughness of super duplex stainless steel. Thermal cycles of various peak temperatures in the range from 1373 K to 1673 K corresponding to the HAZ were applied to SAF2507 super duplex stainless steel specimens. Charpy impact test was carried out using the specimens after the weld simulation, and the fracture surfaces were observed by SEM using three-dimensionally reconstruction technique. Austenite content decreased with increasing the peak temperature when the peak temperature exceeded 1473 K and the impact value decreased with increasing the peak temperature and decreasing the austenite content. The thermal cycle of the peak temperature of 1673 K corresponding to weld bond region caused decreasing of austenite content which was 22% lower than that of the base metal. The ductile-brittle transition temperature was measured. As a result the temperature increased rapidly in the weld bond region, the peak temperature of which exceeded 1623 K by the grain growth of ferrite matrix occurring subsequently to the completely dissolution of austenite. The morphology of the fracture surfaces after impact testing at 77 K showed cleavage fracture of ferrite. The {100} orientations of cleavage fracture facets were measured using three-dimensional images of the fracture surfaces and the results were visualized as the orientation color maps. The results showed that there were cleavage fractures consisting of a few facets parallel to each other. It was considered that a few facets existed in one ferrite grain. It was concluded that Widmanstätten austenite divided the large fracture into smaller cleavage facets in a ferrite grain and then suppressed the degradation of bond toughness of duplex stainless steel.

  6. Process for stabilizing dimensions of duplex stainless steels for service at elevated temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hull, Frederick C.; Tobin, John C.

    1981-01-01

    Duplex stainless steel materials containing austenite plus delta ferrite, are dimensionally stabilized by heating the material to a reaction temperature between about 1050.degree.-1450.degree. F. (566.degree.-788.degree. C.), holding it at this temperature during transformation of delta ferrite to austenite plus sigma phase, and subsequently heating to a reversion temperature between about 1625.degree.-1750.degree. F. (885.degree.-954.degree. C.), whereby the sigma phase transforms back to ferrite, but the austenite remains dispersed in the ferrite phase. Final controlled cooling permits transformation of ferrite to austenite plus sigma and, later, precipitation of carbides.

  7. Microhardness changes gradient of the duplex stainless steel (DSS surface layer after dry turning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Krolczyk

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the gradient of microhardness changes as a function of the distance from the material surface after turning with a wedge provided with a coating with a ceramic intermediate layer. The investigation comprised the influence of cutting speed on surface integrity microhardness in dry machining. The tested material was duplex stainless steel (DSS with two-phase, ferritic-austenitic structure. The tests have been performed under production conditions during machining of parts for electric motors and deep-well pumps.

  8. Evaluation of the magnetic permeability for the microstructural characterization of a duplex stainless steel

    OpenAIRE

    Edgard de M. Silva; Josinaldo P. Leite; Francisco A. de França Neto; João P. Leite; Walter M. L. Fialho; Victor Hugo C. de Albuquerque; João Manuel R. S. Tavares

    2016-01-01

    Non-Destructive Testing has been commonly used to assess the presence of discontinuities that may affect the integrity of materials in service. In this study, a Hall effect sensor is used in a methodology developed to study in a non-destructive manner the microstructural variations of a material that occur due to the single-phase decomposition. The material selected was the UNS S31803 duplex stainless steel, particularly due to its behavior under temperatures below 525 °C. Measurements of mag...

  9. On the High Temperature Deformation Behaviour of 2507 Super Duplex Stainless Steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, M. K.; Balasundar, I.; Rao, A. G.; Kashyap, B. P.; Prabhu, N.

    2017-02-01

    High temperature deformation behaviour of 2507 super duplex stainless steel was investigated by conducting isothermal hot compression tests. The dominant restoration processes in ferrite and austenite phases present in the material were found to be distinct. The possible causes for these differences are discussed. Based on the dynamic materials model, processing map was developed to identify the optimum processing parameters. The microstructural mechanisms operating in the material were identified. A unified strain-compensated constitutive equation was established to describe the high temperature deformation behaviour of the material under the identified processing conditions. Standard statistical parameter such as correlation coefficient has been used to validate the established equation.

  10. Secondary Hardening Behavior in Super Duplex Stainless Steels during LCF in Dynamic Strain Ageing Regime

    OpenAIRE

    Chai, Guocai; Andersson, Marcus

    2013-01-01

    Cyclic deformation behaviors in five modified duplex stainless steel S32705 grades have been studied at 20 °C, 200 °C, 250° and 350 °C. The influence of temperature and nitrogen concentration on the occurrence of the second hardening phenomenon, in the stress response curve was focused. An increase in nitrogen concentration can have a positive effect on dynamic strain ageing by increasing the first hardening and also the second hardening behavior during cyclic deformation. Furthermore, an inc...

  11. Effects of Ce, La and Ba addition on the electrochemical behavior of super duplex stainless steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoo, Yun-Ha; Choi, Yoon-Seok; Kim, Jung-Gu; Park, Yong-Soo

    2010-01-01

    The effects of rare earth metal (REM: Ce, La) and Ba addition on aqueous corrosion properties of super duplex stainless steels (SDSS) were investigated by electrochemical tests and surface analyses. The results of potentiodynamic test indicated that the passive range increased by the addition of Ce, La, and Ba, indicating increased relative resistance to localized corrosion. The EIS measurements showed that the Ce-La-Ba-bearing alloys exhibited higher R ct and R p values than the Ce-La-Ba-free alloy at the passive and breakdown states. Furthermore, the additions of REMs and Ba together promoted the formation of dense chromium-enriched passive film.

  12. Effect of Preaging Deformation on Aging Characteristics of 2507 Super Duplex Stainless Steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, M. K.; Rao, A. G.; Sarkar, R.; Kashyap, B. P.; Prabhu, N.

    2016-02-01

    In the present study, precipitation of sigma (σ) phase was investigated over the temperature range of 700-850 °C in undeformed and deformed (60% cold rolling) samples of 2507 super duplex stainless steel. The fraction of sigma phase formed as a result of the transformation α → σ + γ2 increases with increasing time and temperature. The increase in sigma phase leads to increase in yield strength and decrease in ductility. Preaging deformation leads to accelerated precipitation of sigma phase. The activation energy for sigma phase precipitation in deformed sample is found to be lower than that in undeformed sample.

  13. Development of super duplex stainless steel for water-supply pipe and valve in nuclear plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Chan Jin; Kim, Jun Sick; Kwon, Hyuk Sang; Park, Young Hwan; Lee, Zin Hyung

    2000-01-01

    Austenitic-ferritic duplex stainless steels are very attractive as material for water-supply facilities in atomic power plants where both high mechanical strength and excellent resistance to localized and stress corrosion are required. However, these alloys have a problem to get sensitive to embrittlement when exposed to temperatures of 250 ∼ 1050 deg C. So far, there have been large efforts to improve this alloy. In this paper, a new developed alloy designed to improve not resistance to the embrittlement but also mechanical and corrosion properties compared with existing commercial alloys were introduced with some experimental results. (author)

  14. A study on the effect of solution heat treatment on the corrosion resistance of super duplex stainless steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Jee Yong; Park, Yong Soo; Kim, Soon Tae

    2001-01-01

    High temperature solution heat treatment(typically higher than 1100 .deg. C) is known generally to reduces the resistance to localized corrosion on super duplex stainless. This is attributed to the formation of zone depleted of alloying elements. In this study, the corrosion properties were investigated on super duplex stainless steels with various solution heat treatments. The corrosion resistance of these steels was evaluated in terms of critical pitting temperature and cyclic potentiodynamic polarization test. Chemical composition of the austenite and ferrite phases were analyzed by SEM-EDS. The following results were obtained. (1) By conducting furnace cooling, critical pitting temperature and repassivation potential increased. (2) By omitting furnace cooling, solution heat treatment produced Cr and Mo depleted zone in the phase boundary. (3) During furnace cooling, Cr and Mo rediffused through the phase boundary. This increased the corrosion resistance of super duplex stainless steels

  15. The low-temperature aging embrittlement in a 2205 duplex stainless steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weng, K.L.; Chen, H.R.; Yang, J.R.

    2004-01-01

    The effect of isothermal treatment (at temperatures ranging between 400 and 500 deg. C) on the embrittlement of a 2205 duplex stainless steel (with 45 ferrite-55 austenite, vol.%) has been investigated. The impact toughness and hardness of the aged specimens were measured, while the corresponding fractography was studied. The results show that the steel is susceptible to severe embrittlement when exposed at 475 deg. C; this aging embrittlement is analogous with that of the ferritic stainless steels, which is ascribed to the degenerated ferrite phase. High-resolution transmission electron microscopy reveals that an isotropic spinodal decomposition occurred during aging at 475 deg. C in the steel studied; the original δ-ferrite decomposed into a nanometer-scaled modulated structure with a complex interconnected network, which contained an iron-rich BCC phase (α) and a chromium-enriched BCC phase (α'). It is suggested that the locking of dislocations in the modulated structure leads to the severe embrittlement

  16. Environmental Degradation of Dissimilar Austenitic 316L and Duplex 2205 Stainless Steels Welded Joints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Topolska S.

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes structure and properties of dissimilar stainless steels welded joints between duplex 2205 and austenitic 316L steels. Investigations were focused on environmentally assisted cracking of welded joints. The susceptibility to stress corrosion cracking (SCC and hydrogen embrittlement was determined in slow strain rate tests (SSRT with the strain rate of 2.2 × 10−6 s−1. Chloride-inducted SCC was determined in the 35% boiling water solution of MgCl2 environment at 125°C. Hydrogen assisted SCC tests were performed in synthetic sea water under cathodic polarization condition. It was shown that place of the lowest resistance to chloride stress corrosion cracking is heat affected zone at duplex steel side of dissimilar joins. That phenomenon was connected with undesirable structure of HAZ comprising of large fractions of ferrite grains with acicular austenite phase. Hydrogen assisted SCC tests showed significant reduction in ductility of duplex 2205 steel while austenitic 316L steel remains almost immune to degradation processes. SSR tests of dissimilar welded joints revealed a fracture in the area of austenitic steel.

  17. Assessment of Lean Grade Duplex Stainless Steels for Nuclear Power Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, George A.; Tucker, Julie D.; Lewis, Nathan; Plesko, Eric; Sander, Paul

    This research assesses the thermal stability of lean grades of duplex stainless steel relative to standard grade alloys. Both hot rolled plate and gas-tungsten-arc weld deposits of selected alloys were isothermally aged in the temperature regime of α-α' phase separation (T = 800°F / 427°C) for times up to 1,000 hours. The degree of embrittlement was assessed via changes in hardness and Charpy impact energy. Additionally, the materials were characterized by light optical microscopy, electron microprobe analysis (EMPA), analytical electron microscopy (AEM), and x-ray diffraction (XRD) to better understand the factors that affect embrittlement. Impact testing shows that at equivalent thermal exposure, small changes in alloy composition have a significant effect on the degree of embrittlement. Microscopy reveals that spinodal decomposition of the ferrite occurs in all the alloys tested at 800°F (427°C). Additionally, transmission electron microscopy shows complex intermetallic formation, likely G phase, in the standard grade weld metal. Relative to their standard grade counterparts, both the lean grade plate and the lean grade weld deposit display 10X slower embrittlement kinetics for the conditions studied. Despite the relatively complex metallurgy of these alloys, this research indicates that lean grade duplex stainless steels could have broad applicability to lower temperature components in nuclear power systems.

  18. Machining Duplex Stainless Steel: Comparative Study Regarding End Mill Coated Tools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronny M. Gouveia

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The difficulties in the machining of duplex stainless steel are well known. However, research on this matter is rather limited. Suppliers offer quite different cutting tools for the same raw material, with end mills of two, three or even four knives and a huge number of distinct coatings, some of them under commercial brands, making it difficult to assess the advantages they offer. Furthermore, there is a remarkable difference among the several types of duplex stainless steel available nowadays on the market. The present work intends to assess the machining performance of different tools, analyzing the behavior and wear mechanisms with two different cutting lengths, keeping constant the machining trajectory. Some other parameters were also kept constant, such as cutting speed, depth of cut and cutting width, as well as feed per tooth. The machining process was carried out under lubricated conditions, using an emulsion of 5% oil in water. Tools provided with a different number of teeth and surface coatings were tested, analyzing the wear behavior of each cutting length using scanning electron microscopy, trying to identify wear performance and how each coating contributes to increased tool life. The surfaces produced were also analyzed by means of profilometry measurements, correlating tool wear and part surface roughness. This comparative study allows determining the advantages of different tools relative to others, based on coatings and tool geometry.

  19. Low temperature tensile properties and stress corrosion cracking resistance in the super duplex stainless steels weldments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jeung Woo; Sung, Jang Hyun; Lee, Sung Keun

    1998-01-01

    Low temperature tensile properties and SCC resistances of super duplex stainless steels and their weldments are investigated. Tensile strengths increase remarkably with decreasing test temperature, while elongations decrease steeply at -196 .deg. C after showing peak or constant value down to -100 .deg. C. Owing to the low tensile deformation of weld region, elongations of welded specimen decrease in comparison to those of unwelded specimen. The welded tensile specimen is fractured through weld region at -196 .deg. C due to the fact that the finely dispersed ferrite phase in the austenite matrix increases an opportunity to supply the crack propagation path through the brittle ferrite phase at low temperature. The stress corrosion cracking initiates preferentially at the surface ferrite phase of base metal region and propagates through ferrite phase. When the corrosion crack meets with the fibrously aligned austenite phase to the tensile direction, the ferrite phase around austenite continues to corrode. Eventually, fracture of the austenite phase begins without enduring the tensile load. The addition of Cu+W to the super duplex stainless steel deteriorates the SCC resistance in boiling MgCl 2 solution, possibly due to the increment of pits in the ferrite phase and reduction of N content in the austenite phase

  20. Precipitation of Chromium Nitrides in the Super Duplex Stainless Steel 2507

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pettersson, Niklas; Pettersson, Rachel F. A.; Wessman, Sten

    2015-03-01

    Precipitation of chromium nitrides during cooling from temperatures in the range 1373 K to 1523 K (1100 °C to 1250 °C) has been studied for the super duplex stainless steel 2507 (UNS S32750). Characterization with optical, scanning and transmission electron microscopy was combined to quantify the precipitation process. Primarily Cr2N nitrides were found to precipitate with a high density in the interior of ferrite grains. An increased cooling rate and/or an increased austenite spacing clearly promoted nitride formation, resulting in precipitation within a higher fraction of the ferrite grains, and lager nitride particles. Furthermore, formation of the meta-stable CrN was induced by higher cooling rates. The toughness seemed unaffected by nitrides. A slight decrease in pitting resistance was, however, noticed for quenched samples with large amounts of precipitates. The limited adverse effect on pitting resistance is attributed to the small size (~200 nm) of most nitrides. Slower cooling of duplex stainless steels to allow nitrogen partitioning is suggested in order to avoid large nitrides, and thereby produce a size distribution with a smaller detrimental effect on pitting resistance.

  1. Dry Sliding Wear Behavior of Super Duplex Stainless Steel AISI 2507: a Statistical Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davanageri M.

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The dry sliding wear behavior of heat-treated super duplex stainless steel AISI 2507 was examined by taking pin-on-disc type of wear-test rig. Independent parameters, namely applied load, sliding distance, and sliding speed, influence mainly the wear rate of super duplex stainless steel. The said material was heat treated to a temperature of 850°C for 1 hour followed by water quenching. The heat treatment was carried out to precipitate the secondary sigma phase formation. Experiments were conducted to study the influence of independent parameters set at three factor levels using the L27 orthogonal array of the Taguchi experimental design on the wear rate. Statistical significance of both individual and combined factor effects was determined for specific wear rate. Surface plots were drawn to explain the behavior of independent variables on the measured wear rate. Statistically, the models were validated using the analysis of variance test. Multiple non-linear regression equations were derived for wear rate expressed as non-linear functions of independent variables. Further, the prediction accuracy of the developed regression equation was tested with the actual experiments. The independent parameters responsible for the desired minimum wear rate were determined by using the desirability function approach. The worn-out surface characteristics obtained for the minimum wear rate was examined using the scanning electron microscope. The desired smooth surface was obtained for the determined optimal condition by desirability function approach.

  2. A Semiempirical Model for Sigma-Phase Precipitation in Duplex and Superduplex Stainless Steels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferro, P.; Bonollo, F.

    2012-04-01

    Sigma phase is known to reduce the mechanical properties and corrosion resistance of duplex and superduplex stainless steels. Therefore, heat treatments and welding must be carefully performed so as to avoid the appearance of such a detrimental phase, and clearly, models suitable to faithfully predict σ-phase precipitation are very useful tools. Most fully analytical models are based on thermodynamic calculations whose agreement with experimental results is not always good, so that such models should be used for qualitative purposes only. Alternatively, it is possible to exploit semiempirical models, where time-temperature-transformation (TTT) diagrams are empirically determined for a given alloy and the continuous-cooling-transformation (CCT) diagram is calculated from the TTT diagram. In this work, a semiempirical model for σ-phase precipitation in duplex and superduplex stainless steels, under both isothermal and unisothermal conditions, is proposed. Model parameters are calculated from empirical data and CCT diagrams are obtained by means of the additivity rule, whereas experimental measurements for model validation are taken from the literature. This model gives a satisfactory estimation of σ-phase precipitates during both isothermal aging and the continuous cooling process.

  3. Stress Corrosion Cracking Behaviour of Dissimilar Welding of AISI 310S Austenitic Stainless Steel to 2304 Duplex Stainless Steel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thiago AmaroVicente

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The influence of the weld metal chemistry on the stress corrosion cracking (SCC susceptibility of dissimilar weldments between 310S austenitic stainless steel and 2304 duplex steels was investigated by constant load tests and microstructural examination. Two filler metals (E309L and E2209 were used to produce fusion zones of different chemical compositions. The SCC results showed that the heat affected zone (HAZ on the 2304 base metal side of the weldments was the most susceptible region to SCC for both filler metals tested. The SCC results also showed that the weldments with 2209 duplex steel filler metal presented the best SCC resistance when compared to the weldments with E309L filler metal. The lower SCC resistance of the dissimilar joint with 309L austenitic steel filler metal may be attributed to (1 the presence of brittle chi/sigma phase in the HAZ on the 2304 base metal, which produced SC cracks in this region and (2 the presence of a semi-continuous delta-ferrite network in the fusion zone which favored the nucleation and propagation of SC cracks from the fusion zone to HAZ of the 2304 stainless steel. Thus, the SC cracks from the fusion zone associated with the SC cracks of 2304 HAZ decreased considerably the time-of-fracture on this region, where the fracture occurred. Although the dissimilar weldment with E2209 filler metal also presented SC cracks in the HAZ on the 2304 side, it did not present the delta ferrite network in the fusion zone due to its chemical composition. Fractography analyses showed that the mixed fracture mode was predominant for both filler metals used.

  4. Corrosion behaviour of hyper duplex stainless steel in various metallurgical conditions for sea water cooled condensers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, Umesh Pratap; Kain, Vivekanand; Chandra, Kamlesh

    2011-01-01

    The sea water cooled condensers have to resist severe corrosion as marine environment is the most corrosive natural environment. Copper alloys are being phased out due to difficulties in water chemistry control and Titanium base alloys are extremely expensive. Austenitic stainless steels (SS) remain prone to localized corrosion in marine environments hence not suitable. These heat exchangers operate at temperatures not exceeding 50 deg C and at very low pressures. The tubes of these heat exchangers are joined to the carbon steel tube sheets by roll expansion or by roll expansion followed by seam welding. These conditions are expected to affect the localized corrosion resistance of the tube in roll joined region due to cold working and in the tube-tube sheet welded joint due to thermal effects of welding. In this study, the localized corrosion behaviour of a Hyper Duplex Stainless Steel (HDSS) has been evaluated, and compared with other materials e.g. types 304L SS, 316L SS, Duplex SS 2205, Titanium grade - 2, and Al Brass. The evaluation is done in three metallurgical conditions (a) as received, (b) cold rolled and (c) welded condition in synthetic sea water at room temperature and at 50 deg C to assess the resistance to crevice, pitting and stress corrosion cracking using standard ASTM exposure and electrochemical techniques. The results provide comparative assessment of these alloys and show their susceptibility in the three metallurgical conditions as encountered in condensers. Hyper-duplex SS has been shown to be highly resistant in sea water for the condenser tubing application. (author)

  5. High nitrogen-dosed austenitic-stainless steels and duplex steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harzenmoser, M.A.E.

    1990-01-01

    The austenitic grades represent the most important group in the family of stainless steels. Nitrogen addition to austenitic stainless steels provides much higher yield strength. It was the goal of the present work to develop new high strength austenitic and duplex stainless steels and to investigate the beneficial influence of nitrogen. More than 40 small ingots up to a weight of 1.5 kg were melted in a specially developed high pressure induction furnace. In addition 20 more alloys produced by a pressurized electro slag remelting facility were included in this investigation. The nitrogen content was varied between 0.37 and 1.47 wt.%. New coefficients are proposed for the nickel equivalent in the Schaeffler diagram; these are from 0.12 to 0.24 for manganese and 18 for nitrogen. The increase in yield strength by interstitially dissolved nitrogen is due to solid solution hardening and to increased grain boundary hardening. The addition of 1% nitrogen gives a yield strength of more than 759 MPa. The toughness remains very good. At room temperature nitrogen alloyed Fe-Cr-Mn austenitic steels give the highest product of strength and toughness. Nitrogen containing austenitic stainless steels show a substantial increase in strength at low temperature. From room temperature to 4K the yield strength is more than tripled. Nitrogen alloyed Fe-Cr-Mn austenitic stainless steels exhibit a ductile to brittle transition as the temperature is lowered. This is due to a planar deformation mode which could be caused by low stacking fault energy. Nickel improves the low temperature toughness and also raises the stacking fault energy. In the temperature range from 600 to 900 o C, Cr 2 N precipitate. The minimal time for precipitation is longer by a factor of 10 than in Fe-Cr-Ni grade. Nitrogen decreases the corrosion rate in austenitic and duplex stainless steels. The resistance to pitting corrosion can be described by the equation W L = %Cr + 3.3 %Mo + 30 %N. (author) figs., tabs., refs

  6. Structural refinement and property optimization in an Fe-23Cr-8.5Ni duplex stainless steel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xie, L.; Huang, T. L.; Wang, Y. H.

    2017-01-01

    An Fe-23Cr-8.5Ni duplex stainless steel was used to prepare samples with different volume-fraction-weighted grain sizes (d(alpha gamma)), ranging from the nano-scale to the micrometer-scale by cold rolling and subsequent annealing. The cold rolled sample with d(alpha gamma) of 72 nm showed a high...

  7. Mechanical properties of duple stainless steels laser joints; Propiedades mecanicas de las uniones por laser de aceros inoxidables duplex

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amigo, V.; Bonache, V.; Teruel, L.; Vicente, A.

    2005-07-01

    The welded joints of stainless steels always present problems for the microstructural modifications that occur in the heat affected zone. Particularly, duplex stainless steels present very important changes when the weld pool solidifies forming fundamentally ferritic structures with some austenite in grain boundaries. These microstructural modifications, and those which occur in the HAZ, justify the mechanical properties of the joint and mainly those of plasticity, being all of them influenced by the processing conditions. In this work the influence of the laser welding speed on the tensile behaviour od duplex stainless steel welded joints is presented. The microstructure of the obtained seams and of the heat affected zone will be evaluated by means of optic and scanning electron microscopy. Also, different microhardness profiles have been obtained to evaluate the modifications in the mechanical properties both in the seam and the zone of thermal affection. (Author) 23 refs.

  8. Short fatigue cracks nucleation and growth in lean duplex stainless steel LDX 2101

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strubbia, R., E-mail: strubbia@ifir-conicet.gov.ar [Instituto de Física Rosario – CONICET, Universidad Nacional de Rosario (Argentina); Hereñú, S.; Alvarez-Armas, I. [Instituto de Física Rosario – CONICET, Universidad Nacional de Rosario (Argentina); Krupp, U. [Faculty of Engineering and Computer Science, University of Applied Sciences Osnabrück (Germany)

    2014-10-06

    This work is focused on the fatigue damage of lean duplex stainless steels (LDSSs) LDX 2101. Special interest is placed on analyzing short fatigue crack behavior. In this sense, short crack initiation and growth during low cycle fatigue (LCF) and short crack nucleation during high cycle fatigue (HCF) of this LDSS have been studied. The active slip systems and their associated Schmid factors (SF) are determined using electron backscattered diffraction (EBSD). Additionally, the dislocation structure developed during cycling is observed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Regardless of the fatigue regime, LCF and HCF, short cracks nucleate along intrusion/extrusions in ferritic grains. Moreover, during the LCF phase boundaries decelerate short crack propagation. These results are rationalized by the hardness of the constitutive phases and the dependence of screw dislocation mobility in the ferrite phase on strain rate and stress amplitude.

  9. Effect of residual stresses on individual phase mechanical properties of austeno-ferritic duplex stainless steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dakhlaoui, R.; Baczmanski, A.; Braham, C.; Wronski, S.; Wierzbanowski, K.; Oliver, E.C.

    2006-01-01

    The mechanical properties of both phases in duplex stainless steel have been studied in situ using neutron diffraction during mechanical loading. Important differences in the evolution of lattice strains are observed between tests carried out in tension and compression. An elastoplastic self-consistent model is used to predict the evolution of internal stresses during loading and to identify critical resolved shear stresses and strain hardening parameters of the material. The differences between tensile and compressive behaviours of the phases are explained when the initial stresses are taken into account in model calculations. The yield stresses in each phase of the studied steel have been experimentally determined and successfully compared with the results of the elastoplastic self-consistent model

  10. The Effect of Multiple Shot Peening on the Corrosion Behavior of Duplex Stainless Steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Qiang; She, Jia; Wu, Xueyan; Wang, Chengxi; Jiang, Chuanhai

    2018-03-01

    Various types of shot peening treatments were applied to duplex stainless steel. The effects of shot peening intensity and working procedures on the microstructure were investigated. The domain size and microstrain evolution in the surface layer were characterized utilizing the Rietveld method. As the shot peening intensity increased, the surface roughness increased in the surface layer; however, it decreased after multiple (dual and triple) shot peening. The mole fraction of strain-induced martensite as a function of the intensity of shot peening was evaluated by XRD measurements. Both potentiodynamic polarization curves and salt spray tests of shot-peened samples in NaCl solution were investigated. The results indicate that traditional shot peening has negative effects on corrosion resistance with increasing shot peening intensity; however, the corrosion rate can be reduced by means of multiple shot peening.

  11. Effect of Secondary Phase Precipitation on the Corrosion Behavior of Duplex Stainless Steels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Kai Wang; Tjong, Sie Chin

    2014-01-01

    Duplex stainless steels (DSSs) with austenitic and ferritic phases have been increasingly used for many industrial applications due to their good mechanical properties and corrosion resistance in acidic, caustic and marine environments. However, DSSs are susceptible to intergranular, pitting and stress corrosion in corrosive environments due to the formation of secondary phases. Such phases are induced in DSSs during the fabrication, improper heat treatment, welding process and prolonged exposure to high temperatures during their service lives. These include the precipitation of sigma and chi phases at 700–900 °C and spinodal decomposition of ferritic grains into Cr-rich and Cr-poor phases at 350–550 °C, respectively. This article gives the state-of the-art review on the microstructural evolution of secondary phase formation and their effects on the corrosion behavior of DSSs. PMID:28788129

  12. Studies on the Parametric Effects of Plasma Arc Welding of 2205 Duplex Stainless Steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selva Bharathi, R.; Siva Shanmugam, N.; Murali Kannan, R.; Arungalai Vendan, S.

    2018-03-01

    This research study attempts to create an optimized parametric window by employing Taguchi algorithm for Plasma Arc Welding (PAW) of 2 mm thick 2205 duplex stainless steel. The parameters considered for experimentation and optimization are the welding current, welding speed and pilot arc length respectively. The experimentation involves the parameters variation and subsequently recording the depth of penetration and bead width. Welding current of 60-70 A, welding speed of 250-300 mm/min and pilot arc length of 1-2 mm are the range between which the parameters are varied. Design of experiments is used for the experimental trials. Back propagation neural network, Genetic algorithm and Taguchi techniques are used for predicting the bead width, depth of penetration and validated with experimentally achieved results which were in good agreement. Additionally, micro-structural characterizations are carried out to examine the weld quality. The extrapolation of these optimized parametric values yield enhanced weld strength with cost and time reduction.

  13. Tribological study in roll forming of lean duplex stainless steel sheets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Peter Søe; Nielsen, Morten Strogaard; Bay, Niels

    2012-01-01

    are relatively low and surface expansion is more or less non-existent, long roll forming production runs imply large sliding/contact lengths due to relative movement between steel strip and rolls. This requires an efficient tribological system to prevent pick-up formation on the forming tools. The present work....... Production tests show that galling can be a problem but pick-up formation on the tools seems to reach a consistent level. Improvements to tool surfaces and lubricant quality are proposed with a view to optimizing the tribo-system in order to increase the produced length before galling initiates and tool...... focus on tribological issues are galling and pick-up formation as well as tool life in roll forming of stainless duplex steel sheets. The roll forming process is exemplified by production of an s-shaped profile used in interlock carcass production for flexible pipes used in off-shore oil extraction...

  14. Hydrogen assisted cracking of 2205 duplex stainless steel in synthetic sea water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michalska, J.; Łabanowski, J.; Ćwiek, J.

    2012-05-01

    The cracking behavior of 2205 duplex stainless steels (DSSs) in synthetic sea water under cathodic polarization condition was investigated. (SSRT) method was employed in aim to evaluate the susceptibility to hydrogen assisted cracking. The results showed that the reduction in the uniform elongation (UEL) and the reduction of area (RA) varied with the applied cathodic current density. Significant reductions in ductility were found, indicating its susceptibility to hydrogen-assisted fracture at current density of 10 mA cm-2. Fractographical examinations showed that increase in hydrogenation current density cause an increase in brittle character on the fracture surface. Complete brittle fractures were observed after SSRT at10 and 20 mA cm-2.

  15. Non destructive method to follow the phase sigma in a duplex stainless steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, E.M.; Andrade, A.L.S. Souza; Fialho, W.M.L.; Araujo, B.R.; Silva, J.H.R.; Leite, Josinaldo P.; Silva, Eloy M.; Leite, Joao P.

    2014-01-01

    Duplex stainless steels are subject to embrittlement due to the formation of sigma phase, which is one with the greatest effect of weakening because they are rich in chromium and deplete the matrix of this element. In this paper, a non-destructive methodology based on measurements of Hall voltage, is presented for monitoring the formation of sigma phase at temperatures of 800 deg C and 900 deg C. Different field intensities are generated by an electromagnet and the flow of field lines is detected by a Hall effect sensor. Hall voltage measurements are proportional to the formation of sigma phase generated by different times of aging methods. The results are correlated with results of microscopic, hardness and X-ray diffraction. It was showed that exist a correlation between the Hall voltage and the amount of sigma phase. The formation of this phase influences the signal voltage by reducing the voltage. (author)

  16. Effect of Secondary Phase Precipitation on the Corrosion Behavior of Duplex Stainless Steels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai Wang Chan

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Duplex stainless steels (DSSs with austenitic and ferritic phases have been increasingly used for many industrial applications due to their good mechanical properties and corrosion resistance in acidic, caustic and marine environments. However, DSSs are susceptible to intergranular, pitting and stress corrosion in corrosive environments due to the formation of secondary phases. Such phases are induced in DSSs during the fabrication, improper heat treatment, welding process and prolonged exposure to high temperatures during their service lives. These include the precipitation of sigma and chi phases at 700–900 °C and spinodal decomposition of ferritic grains into Cr-rich and Cr-poor phases at 350–550 °C, respectively. This article gives the state-of the-art review on the microstructural evolution of secondary phase formation and their effects on the corrosion behavior of DSSs.

  17. Accelerated corrosion of 2205 duplex stainless steel caused by marine aerobic Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Dake; Xia, Jin; Zhou, Enze; Zhang, Dawei; Li, Huabing; Yang, Chunguang; Li, Qi; Lin, Hai; Li, Xiaogang; Yang, Ke

    2017-02-01

    Microbiologically influenced corrosion (MIC) of 2205 duplex stainless steel (DSS) in the presence of Pseudomonas aeruginosa was investigated through electrochemical and surface analyses. The electrochemical results showed that P. aeruginosa significantly reduced the corrosion resistance of 2205 DSS. Confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) images showed that the depths of the largest pits on 2205 DSS with and without P. aeruginosa were 14.0 and 4.9μm, respectively, indicating that the pitting corrosion was accelerated by P. aeruginosa. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) results revealed that CrO 3 and CrN formed on the 2205 DSS surface in the presence of P. aeruginosa. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Effect of Secondary Phase Precipitation on the Corrosion Behavior of Duplex Stainless Steels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Kai Wang; Tjong, Sie Chin

    2014-07-22

    Duplex stainless steels (DSSs) with austenitic and ferritic phases have been increasingly used for many industrial applications due to their good mechanical properties and corrosion resistance in acidic, caustic and marine environments. However, DSSs are susceptible to intergranular, pitting and stress corrosion in corrosive environments due to the formation of secondary phases. Such phases are induced in DSSs during the fabrication, improper heat treatment, welding process and prolonged exposure to high temperatures during their service lives. These include the precipitation of sigma and chi phases at 700-900 °C and spinodal decomposition of ferritic grains into Cr-rich and Cr-poor phases at 350-550 °C, respectively. This article gives the state-of the-art review on the microstructural evolution of secondary phase formation and their effects on the corrosion behavior of DSSs.

  19. Effect of Continuous Cooling on Secondary Phase Precipitation in the Super Duplex Stainless Steel ZERON-100

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calliari, Irene; Bassani, Paola; Brunelli, Katya; Breda, Marco; Ramous, Emilio

    2013-12-01

    The precipitation of secondary phases in super duplex stainless steels (SDSS) is a subject of great relevance owing to their dangerous effects on both mechanical and corrosion-resistance properties. This paper examines the effect of continuous cooling after solution annealing treatment on secondary phase precipitation in the ZERON-100 SDSS. It considers the influence of cooling rate on volume fraction, morphology and chemical composition. It has been found that the formation of sigma and chi phases can be avoided only at cooling rates higher than 0.7 °C/s. In addition, at the lowest cooling rate the sigma phase amount approaches the equilibrium value, but the chi phase amount remains significantly low.

  20. Effects of Solution Annealing Temperature on the Galvanic Corrosion Behavior of the Super Duplex Stainless Steels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jun-Seob; Jeon, Soon-Hyeok; Park, Yong-Soo

    2013-02-01

    This study investigated the active dissolution of super duplex stainless steel (SDSS) at various solution annealing temperatures. The active dissolutions of the α-phase and γ-phase were compared, and the effects of the surface area ratio on the active dissolutions of both phases were investigated. There were two peaks in the active-passive transition region in the potentiodynamic test in the modified green-death solution. The two peaks changed as the solution annealing temperature was increased from 1050 to 1150 °C. The solution annealing temperature difference affected the critical anodic current densities. This provides useful information for determining the appropriate solution annealing temperature in the modified green-death solution for SDSS.

  1. Effects of heat input on pitting corrosion in super duplex stainless steel weld metals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Yong taek; Shin, Hak soo; Lee, Hae woo

    2012-12-01

    Due to the difference in reheating effects depending on the heat input of subsequent weld passes, the microstructure of the weld metal varies between acicular type austenite and a mixture of polygonal type and grain boundary mixed austenite. These microstructural changes may affect the corrosion properties of duplex stainless steel welds. This result indicates that the pitting resistance of the weld can be strongly influenced by the morphology of the secondary austenite phase. In particular, the ferrite phase adjacent to the acicular type austenite phase shows a lower Pitting Resistance Equivalent (PRE) value of 25.3, due to its lower chromium and molybdenum contents, whereas the secondary austenite phase maintains a higher PRE value of more than 38. Therefore, it can be inferred that the pitting corrosion is mainly due to the formation of ferrite phase with a much lower PRE value.

  2. The Localized Corrosion Behavior Associated with Microstructure of F53 Super Duplex Stainless Steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Soon-Tae; Lee, In-Sung; Kong, Kyeong-Ho; Park, Yong-Soo; Lee, Jong-Hoon; Yang, Won-Jon

    2015-01-01

    The localized corrosion behavior associated with microstructure of F53 super duplex stainless steel (SDSS) was investigated using a potentiodynamic polarization test, a critical crevice temperature test, an electron probe micro-analyzer analysis, and scanning electron microscopy-energy dispersive spectroscopy analyses. Crevice corrosion was initiated at the α/γ phase boundaries, MO x inclusions (where M is Cr, Mn, Al, Fe, or Ti), as well as Cr and Mo depleted areas adjacent to the σ-phases precipitated in the F53 SDSS alloy. This alloy had been annealed at 1050 ℃ followed by improper water-cooling, and the corrosion was propagated into the α-phases because the pitting resistance equivalent number (PREN) of the α-phase was smaller than that of the γ-phase. As cooling rate increased, the variation of the α-phases decreased, and the content of the Cr and Mo rich σ-phases decreased, thereby increasing the corrosion resistance.

  3. Relative merits of duplex and austenitic stainless steels for applications in the oil and gas industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johansson, Elisabeth; Wegrelius, Lena; Pettersson, Rachel [Outokumpu Stainless AB, Avesta (Sweden)

    2012-07-01

    The broad range of available stainless steel grades means that these materials can fulfil a wide variety of requirements within the oil and gas industry. The duplex grades have the advantage of higher strength than standard austenitic grades, while the superaustenitic grades provide a cost-effective alternative to nickel-base alloys in a number of cases. The paper presents the results of various types of laboratory testing to rank the grades in terms of resistance to pitting, crevice corrosion and stress corrosion cracking. Results from field testing in actual or simulated service conditions are discussed and a number of application examples, including process piping flexible, heat exchangers and topside equipment are presented. (author)

  4. Fatigue crack propagation of super duplex stainless steel and time-frequency analysis of acoustic emission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Sang Kee; Nam, Ki Woo; Kang, Chang Yong; Do, Jae Yoon

    2000-01-01

    On this study, the fatigue crack propagation of super duplex stainless steel is investigated in conditions of various volume fraction of austenite phase by changing heat treatment temperature. And we analysed acoustic emission signals during the fatigue test by time-frequency analysis methods. As the temperature of heat treatment increased, volume fraction of austenite decreased and coarse grain was obtained. The specimen heat treated at 1200 deg. C had longer fatigue life and slower rate of crack growth. As a result of time-frequency analyze of acoustic emission signals during fatigue test, main frequency was 200∼300 kHz having no correlation with heat treatment and crack length, and 500 kHz was obtained by dimple and separate of inclusion

  5. Effects of REM and Ba Additions on the Characteristics of the Third Generation Duplex Stainless Steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Yong Soo; Kim, Soon Tae

    2006-01-01

    The third generation super duplex stainless steel having excellent corrosion resistance, embrittlement resistance, castability, weldability and hot workability has been developed. REM and Ba added to the alloy, with larger atomic radius than those of Cr, Mo and W, seem to fill vacancies inside the matrix and around the grain boundaries, retarding formation of brittle σ and χ phases. In addition, fine oxides/ oxy-sulfides of REM and Ba (1∼3 μm in diameter) seem to enhance the retardation effects. The alloys have also shown higher strength and ductility resulting from phase and grain refinements caused by those oxides and oxy-sulfides. Accordingly it is judged that the core technology can provide the method for remarkably suppressing formation of intermetallic phases by adding new alloy elements, and improving a applied to sea water and flue gas desulfurization facility

  6. Finite element modelling and characterization of friction welding on UNS S31803 duplex stainless steel joints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Asif. M

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Solid state joining techniques are increasingly employed in joining duplex stainless steel materials due to their high integrity. Continuous drive friction welding is a solid state welding technique which is used to join similar and dissimilar materials. This joining technique is characterized by short cycle time, low heat input and narrow heat affected zones. The simulation becomes an important tool in friction welding because of short welding cycle. In the present work, a three dimensional non-linear finite element model was developed. The thermal history and axial shortening profiles were predicted using ANSYS, a software tool. This numerical model was validated using experimental results. The results show that the frictional heating stage of the process has more influence on temperature and upsetting stage has more impact on axial shortening. The knowledge of these parameters would lead to optimization of input parameters and improvement of design and machine tools.

  7. Temperature dependence of {sigma} phase formation in surface melted duplex stainless steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knezevic, V.; Cvijovic, Z.; Mihajlovic, D. [Faculty of Technology and Metallurgy, Univ. of Belgrade, Belgrade (Yugoslavia)

    2000-07-01

    The {sigma} phase formation in GTA surface melted 22/7/2 copper-bearing duplex stainless steel was investigated in the range of 800 C to 1150 C. Annealing at 1050 C and below resulted in {sigma} phase formation, which was preceded by the {delta}{yields}{gamma}{sub 2} transformation. At 800 C and 900 C, the {sigma} phase forms by the in situ transformation and via the eutectoid reaction {delta}{yields}{sigma}+{gamma}{sub 2}, while at 1050 C it precipitates directly from the {delta} ferrite. This observation is supported by the Johnson-Mehl analysis. From a C shaped TTT diagram, the precipitation is most rapid at about 950 C. At 1150 C, total {sigma} dissolution occurs. (orig.)

  8. PREDICTION OF SURFACE ROUGHNESS IN END MILLING OPERATION OF DUPLEX STAINLESS STEEL USING RESPONSE SURFACE METHODOLOGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. D. PHILIP

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Response surface methodology has been used to study the effects of the machining parameters such as spindle speed, feed rate and axial depth of cut on surface roughness of duplex stainless steel in end milling operation. Dry milling experiments were conducted with three levels of spindle speed, feed rate and axial depth of cut. A mathematical model has been developed to predict the surface roughness in terms of the machining parameters using Box-Behnken design response surface methodology. The adequacy of the model was verified using analysis of variance. The prediction equation shows that the feed rate is the most important factor that influences the surface roughness followed by axial depth of cut and spindle speed. The validity of the model was verified by conducting the confirmation experiment.

  9. Effect of Plastic Deformation on the Corrosion Behavior of a Super-Duplex Stainless Steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renton, Neill C.; Elhoud, Abdu M.; Deans, William F.

    2011-04-01

    The role of plastic deformation on the corrosion behavior of a 25Cr-7Ni super-duplex stainless steel (SDSS) in a 3.5 wt.% sodium chloride solution at 90 °C was investigated. Different levels of plastic strain between 4 and 16% were applied to solution annealed tensile specimens and the effect on the pitting potential measured using potentiodynamic electrochemical techniques. A nonlinear relationship between the pitting potential and the plastic strain was recorded, with 8 and 16% causing a significant reduction in average E p, but 4 and 12% causing no significant change when compared with the solution-annealed specimens. The corrosion morphology revealed galvanic interaction between the anodic ferrite and the cathodic austenite causing preferential dissolution of the ferrite. Mixed potential theory and the changing surface areas of the two phases caused by the plastic deformation structures explain the reductions in pitting potential at certain critical plastic strain levels. End-users and manufacturers should evaluate the corrosion behavior of specific cold-worked duplex and SDSSs using their as-produced surface finishes assessing in-service corrosion performance.

  10. Characterization of microstructure and texture across dissimilar super duplex/austenitic stainless steel weldment joint by austenitic filler metal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eghlimi, Abbas; Shamanian, Morteza; Eskandarian, Masoomeh; Zabolian, Azam; Szpunar, Jerzy A.

    2015-01-01

    The evolution of microstructure and texture across an as-welded dissimilar UNS S32750 super duplex/UNS S30403 austenitic stainless steel joint welded by UNS S30986 (AWS A5.9 ER309LMo) austenitic stainless steel filler metal using gas tungsten arc welding process was evaluated by optical micrography and EBSD techniques. Due to their fabrication through rolling process, both parent metals had texture components resulted from deformation and recrystallization. The weld metal showed the highest amount of residual strain and had large austenite grain colonies of similar orientations with little amounts of skeletal ferrite, both oriented preferentially in the < 001 > direction with cub-on-cube orientation relationship. While the super duplex stainless steel's heat affected zone contained higher ferrite than its parent metal, an excessive grain growth was observed at the austenitic stainless steel's counterpart. At both heat affected zones, austenite underwent some recrystallization and formed twin boundaries which led to an increase in the fraction of high angle boundaries as compared with the respective base metals. These regions showed the least amount of residual strain and highest amount of recrystallized austenite grains. Due to the static recrystallization, the fraction of low degree of fit (Σ) coincident site lattice boundaries, especially Σ3 boundaries, was increased in the austenitic stainless steel heat affected zone, while the formation of subgrains in the ferrite phase increased the content of < 5° low angle boundaries at that of the super duplex stainless steel. - Graphical abstract: Display Omitted - Highlights: • Extensive grain growth in the HAZ of austenitic stainless steel was observed. • Intensification of < 100 > orientated grains was observed adjacent to both fusion lines. • Annealing twins with Σ3 CSL boundaries were formed in the austenite of both HAZ. • Cub-on-cube OR was observed between austenite and ferrite in the weld

  11. Characterization of microstructure and texture across dissimilar super duplex/austenitic stainless steel weldment joint by austenitic filler metal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eghlimi, Abbas, E-mail: a.eghlimi@ma.iut.ac.ir [Department of Materials Engineering, Isfahan University of Technology, Isfahan 84156-83111 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Shamanian, Morteza [Department of Materials Engineering, Isfahan University of Technology, Isfahan 84156-83111 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Eskandarian, Masoomeh [Department of Materials Engineering, Shiraz University, Shiraz 71348-51154 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Zabolian, Azam [Department of Natural Resources, Isfahan University of Technology, Isfahan 84156-83111 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Szpunar, Jerzy A. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, SK S7N 5A9 (Canada)

    2015-08-15

    The evolution of microstructure and texture across an as-welded dissimilar UNS S32750 super duplex/UNS S30403 austenitic stainless steel joint welded by UNS S30986 (AWS A5.9 ER309LMo) austenitic stainless steel filler metal using gas tungsten arc welding process was evaluated by optical micrography and EBSD techniques. Due to their fabrication through rolling process, both parent metals had texture components resulted from deformation and recrystallization. The weld metal showed the highest amount of residual strain and had large austenite grain colonies of similar orientations with little amounts of skeletal ferrite, both oriented preferentially in the < 001 > direction with cub-on-cube orientation relationship. While the super duplex stainless steel's heat affected zone contained higher ferrite than its parent metal, an excessive grain growth was observed at the austenitic stainless steel's counterpart. At both heat affected zones, austenite underwent some recrystallization and formed twin boundaries which led to an increase in the fraction of high angle boundaries as compared with the respective base metals. These regions showed the least amount of residual strain and highest amount of recrystallized austenite grains. Due to the static recrystallization, the fraction of low degree of fit (Σ) coincident site lattice boundaries, especially Σ3 boundaries, was increased in the austenitic stainless steel heat affected zone, while the formation of subgrains in the ferrite phase increased the content of < 5° low angle boundaries at that of the super duplex stainless steel. - Graphical abstract: Display Omitted - Highlights: • Extensive grain growth in the HAZ of austenitic stainless steel was observed. • Intensification of < 100 > orientated grains was observed adjacent to both fusion lines. • Annealing twins with Σ3 CSL boundaries were formed in the austenite of both HAZ. • Cub-on-cube OR was observed between austenite and ferrite in the weld

  12. Microstructure and corrosion behavior of shielded metal arc-welded dissimilar joints comprising duplex stainless steel and low alloy steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivasan, P. Bala; Muthupandi, V.; Sivan, V.; Srinivasan, P. Bala; Dietzel, W.

    2006-12-01

    This work describes the results of an investigation on a dissimilar weld joint comprising a boiler-grade low alloy steel and duplex stainless steel (DSS). Welds produced by shielded metal arc-welding with two different electrodes (an austenitic and a duplex grade) were examined for their microstructural features and properties. The welds were found to have overmatching mechanical properties. Although the general corrosion resistance of the weld metals was good, their pitting resistance was found to be inferior when compared with the DSS base material.

  13. Microstructure characterization and corrosion testing of MAG pulsed duplex stainless steel welds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitelea, Ion; Utu, Ion Dragos; Urlan, Sorin Dumitru; Karancsi, Olimpiu [Politehnica Univ. Timisoara (Romania). Faculty of Mechanical Engineering

    2017-08-01

    Duplex stainless steels are extremely attractive construction materials for their usage in intense aggressive environments. They offer numerous advantages compared to the austenitic stainless steels having an excellent behavior to pitting and cavernous corrosion, and a high resistance to stress cracking corrosion in chlorides media. However, their corrosion properties are largely dependent on the microstructural factors such as: the quantitative ratio of the two phases ferrite/austenite (F/A), the presence of intermetallic compounds and the distribution of the alloying elements between the ferrite and austenite. As a result of the thermal cycles experienced by the base metal without a post-weld heat treatment, the mechanical properties are significantly different in the heat affected zone and the deposited metal compared with the properties of the base metal. The present paper highlights the effect of the post-weld solution treatment in order to restore the balance between austenite and ferrite in the welded joint areas and also to limit undesirable precipitation of secondary phases with implications for increasing the corrosion resistance.

  14. Sigma phase detection in duplex stainless steel by induced magnetic field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, E. M.; Fialho, W. M. L.; Silva, H. F. B. M.; Leite, J. P.; Leite, J. P.; Oliveira, A. V. G.

    2016-07-01

    Duplex stainless steels when subjected to temperatures above 600 ° C have its tenacity decreased by the formation of sigma phase. This phase has high hardness and is rich in chromium and reduces the matrix of this element. In this study, field line density measurements, obtained in the reversibility region of magnetic domains, and application of artificial neural networks are used to monitor the formation of this undesirable phase. Samples of a stainless steel SAF 2205 were subjected to aging at temperatures of 800 ° C and 900 ° C, in order to obtain different amounts of sigma phase. The amount of this phase was obtained by image processing and the density of field lines through a Hall Effect sensor. Charpy impact tests were performed. The field lines densities were used for training of an artificial neural network and correlated with the presence of sigma phase and embrittlement of the material. The results showed that the method was able to correlate the parameters studied with the presence of the sigma phase and toughness of the material studied in both temperatures.

  15. Microstructure characterization and corrosion testing of MAG pulsed duplex stainless steel welds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitelea, Ion; Utu, Ion Dragos; Urlan, Sorin Dumitru; Karancsi, Olimpiu

    2017-01-01

    Duplex stainless steels are extremely attractive construction materials for their usage in intense aggressive environments. They offer numerous advantages compared to the austenitic stainless steels having an excellent behavior to pitting and cavernous corrosion, and a high resistance to stress cracking corrosion in chlorides media. However, their corrosion properties are largely dependent on the microstructural factors such as: the quantitative ratio of the two phases ferrite/austenite (F/A), the presence of intermetallic compounds and the distribution of the alloying elements between the ferrite and austenite. As a result of the thermal cycles experienced by the base metal without a post-weld heat treatment, the mechanical properties are significantly different in the heat affected zone and the deposited metal compared with the properties of the base metal. The present paper highlights the effect of the post-weld solution treatment in order to restore the balance between austenite and ferrite in the welded joint areas and also to limit undesirable precipitation of secondary phases with implications for increasing the corrosion resistance.

  16. Microstructure, Hardness, and Corrosion Behavior of TiC-Duplex Stainless Steel Composites Fabricated by Spark Plasma Sintering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Ying; Zhang, Wei; Sun, Shicheng; Chen, Hua; Ran, Xu

    2017-08-01

    Duplex stainless steel composites with various weight fractions of TiC particles are prepared by spark plasma sintering. Ferritic 434L and austenitic 316L stainless steel powders are premixed in a 50:50 weight ratio and added with 3-9 wt.% TiC. The compacts are sintered in the solid state under vacuum conditions at 1223 K for 5 min. The effects of TiC content on the microstructure, hardness, and corrosion resistance of duplex stainless steel composites fabricated by powder metallurgy are evaluated. The results indicate that the TiC particulates as reinforcements can be distributed homogeneously in the steel matrix. Densification of sintered composites decreases with increasing TiC content. M23C6 carbide precipitates along grain boundary, and its neighboring Cr-Mo-depleted region is formed in the sintered microstructure, which can be eliminated subsequently with appropriate heat treatment. With the addition of TiC, the hardness of duplex stainless steel fabricated by powder metallurgy can be markedly enhanced despite increased porosity in the composites. However, TiC particles increase the corrosion rate and degrade the passivation capability, particularly for the composite with TiC content higher than 6 wt.%. Weakened metallurgical bonding in the composite with high TiC content provides the preferred sites for pitting nucleation and/or dissolution.

  17. Study of corrosive effect of oil in super duplex stainless steels; Estudo do efeito corrosivo do petroleo em acos super duplex

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gusmao, E.F.; Azambuja, V.M. [IFES, Coordenadoria de Metalurgia, Vitoria, ES (Brazil); Santos, D.S. [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (PEMM/COPPE/UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Pos-Graduacao em Engenharia Metalurgica e de Materiais

    2010-07-01

    The super duplex stainless steel was exposed in an environment at 75 degree C with oil for days, weeks and month to observe the change in mass. The corrosion leads to loss of weight of material which could harm the economy of a company, as this will have to stop production to replace the corroded part. Hence the great importance of studies on ways to mitigate the corrosion. There was a chemical attack by the reagent Behara and testing to study the quality of the protective coating after the tests with oil by electrochemical impedance. (author)

  18. Effect of Multipass Friction Stir Processing on Mechanical and Corrosion Behavior of 2507 Super Duplex Stainless Steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, M. K.; Gunasekaran, G.; Rao, A. G.; Kashyap, B. P.; Prabhu, N.

    2017-02-01

    The microstructure, mechanical properties, and corrosion behavior of 2507 super duplex stainless steel after multipass friction stir processing (FSP) were examined. A significant refinement in grain size of both ferrite and austenite was observed in stir zone resulting in improved yield and tensile strength. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and anodic polarization studies in 3.5 wt.% NaCl solution showed nobler corrosion characteristics with increasing number of FSP passes. This was evident from the decrease in corrosion current density, decrease in passive current density, and increase in polarization resistance. Also, the decrease in density of defects, based on Mott-Schottky analysis, further confirms the improvement in corrosion resistance of 2507 super duplex stainless steel after multipass FSP.

  19. Effects of Heat Input on Microstructure, Corrosion and Mechanical Characteristics of Welded Austenitic and Duplex Stainless Steels: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghusoon Ridha Mohammed

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects of input heat of different welding processes on the microstructure, corrosion, and mechanical characteristics of welded duplex stainless steel (DSS are reviewed. Austenitic stainless steel (ASS is welded using low-heat inputs. However, owing to differences in the physical metallurgy between ASS and DSS, low-heat inputs should be avoided for DSS. This review highlights the differences in solidification mode and transformation characteristics between ASS and DSS with regard to the heat input in welding processes. Specifically, many studies about the effects of heat energy input in welding process on the pitting corrosion, intergranular stress, stresscorrosion cracking, and mechanical properties of weldments of DSS are reviewed.

  20. Flaw evaluation of thermally aged cast stainless steel in light-water reactor applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, S.; Kuo, P.T.; Wichman, K.; Chopra, O.

    1997-01-01

    Cast stainless steel may be used in the fabrication of the primary loop piping, fittings, valve bodies, and pump casings in light-water reactors. However, this material is subject to embrittlement due to thermal aging at the reactor temperature, that is 290 o C (550 o F). The Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) recently completed a research program and the results indicate that the lower-bound fracture toughness of thermally aged cast stainless steel is similar to that of submerged arc welds (SAWs). Thus, the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) staff has accepted the use of SAW flaw evaluation procedures in IWB-3640 of Section XI of the American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code to evaluate flaws in thermally aged cast stainless steel for a license renewal evaluation. Alternatively, utilities may estimate component-specific fracture toughness of thermally aged cast stainless steel using procedures developed at ANL for a case-by-case flaw evaluation. (Author)

  1. Surface Texturing-Plasma Nitriding Duplex Treatment for Improving Tribological Performance of AISI 316 Stainless Steel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Naiming; Liu, Qiang; Zou, Jiaojuan; Guo, Junwen; Li, Dali; Yuan, Shuo; Ma, Yong; Wang, Zhenxia; Wang, Zhihua; Tang, Bin

    2016-10-27

    Surface texturing-plasma nitriding duplex treatment was conducted on AISI 316 stainless steel to improve its tribological performance. Tribological behaviors of ground 316 substrates, plasma-nitrided 316 (PN-316), surface-textured 316 (ST-316), and duplex-treated 316 (DT-316) in air and under grease lubrication were investigated using a pin-on-disc rotary tribometer against counterparts of high carbon chromium bearing steel GCr15 and silicon nitride Si₃N₄ balls. The variations in friction coefficient, mass loss, and worn trace morphology of the tested samples were systemically investigated and analyzed. The results showed that a textured surface was formed on 316 after electrochemical processing in a 15 wt % NaCl solution. Grooves and dimples were found on the textured surface. As plasma nitriding was conducted on a 316 substrate and ST-316, continuous and uniform nitriding layers were successfully fabricated on the surfaces of the 316 substrate and ST-316. Both of the obtained nitriding layers presented thickness values of more than 30 μm. The nitriding layers were composed of iron nitrides and chromium nitride. The 316 substrate and ST-316 received improved surface hardness after plasma nitriding. When the tribological tests were carried out under dry sliding and grease lubrication conditions, the tested samples showed different tribological behaviors. As expected, the DT-316 samples revealed the most promising tribological properties, reflected by the lowest mass loss and worn morphologies. The DT-316 received the slightest damage, and its excellent tribological performance was attributed to the following aspects: firstly, the nitriding layer had high surface hardness; secondly, the surface texture was able to capture wear debris, store up grease, and then provide continuous lubrication.

  2. Surface Texturing-Plasma Nitriding Duplex Treatment for Improving Tribological Performance of AISI 316 Stainless Steel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naiming Lin

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Surface texturing-plasma nitriding duplex treatment was conducted on AISI 316 stainless steel to improve its tribological performance. Tribological behaviors of ground 316 substrates, plasma-nitrided 316 (PN-316, surface-textured 316 (ST-316, and duplex-treated 316 (DT-316 in air and under grease lubrication were investigated using a pin-on-disc rotary tribometer against counterparts of high carbon chromium bearing steel GCr15 and silicon nitride Si3N4 balls. The variations in friction coefficient, mass loss, and worn trace morphology of the tested samples were systemically investigated and analyzed. The results showed that a textured surface was formed on 316 after electrochemical processing in a 15 wt % NaCl solution. Grooves and dimples were found on the textured surface. As plasma nitriding was conducted on a 316 substrate and ST-316, continuous and uniform nitriding layers were successfully fabricated on the surfaces of the 316 substrate and ST-316. Both of the obtained nitriding layers presented thickness values of more than 30 μm. The nitriding layers were composed of iron nitrides and chromium nitride. The 316 substrate and ST-316 received improved surface hardness after plasma nitriding. When the tribological tests were carried out under dry sliding and grease lubrication conditions, the tested samples showed different tribological behaviors. As expected, the DT-316 samples revealed the most promising tribological properties, reflected by the lowest mass loss and worn morphologies. The DT-316 received the slightest damage, and its excellent tribological performance was attributed to the following aspects: firstly, the nitriding layer had high surface hardness; secondly, the surface texture was able to capture wear debris, store up grease, and then provide continuous lubrication.

  3. Optimization of Heat Treatment in Aspect of Production’s Costs Reducing and Improving of Casting Quality from Duplex Cast Steel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Dyja

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper determines possibilities of cost optimisation in the production of GX2CrNiMoCu25-6-3-3 type duplex cast steel castings through selection of appropriate solution heat treatment temperature, which value depends on the content of alloying elements. Metallographic analysis was carried out for as-cast and heat treated cast steel. Hardness and impact strength of the cast steel were determined, which were correlated with the volume fraction of phases determined by means of ImagePro computer image analyser. It has been shown that increased carbon content creates a need to use higher treatment temperatures, thereby increasing the production cost. With increasing carbon content the cast steel hardness after solution heat treatment increases, however, crack resistance decreases

  4. Effect of electromagnetic interaction during fusion welding of AISI 2205 duplex stainless steel on the corrosion resistance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    García-Rentería, M.A., E-mail: marcogarciarenteria@uadec.edu.mx [Faculty of Metallurgy, Autonomous University of Coahuila, Carretera 57 Km. 5, CP 25720, Monclova, Coahuila (Mexico); López-Morelos, V.H., E-mail: vhlopez@umich.mx [Instituto de Investigación en Metalurgia y Materiales, Universidad Michoacana de San Nicolás de Hidalgo, A.P. 888, CP 58000, Morelia, Michoacán (Mexico); González-Sánchez, J., E-mail: jagonzal@uacam.mx [Centre for Corrosion Research, Autonomous University of Campeche, Av. Agustín Melgar s/n, Col. Buenavista, CP 24039, Campeche, Cam (Mexico); García-Hernández, R., E-mail: rgarcia@umich.mx [Instituto de Investigación en Metalurgia y Materiales, Universidad Michoacana de San Nicolás de Hidalgo, A.P. 888, CP 58000, Morelia, Michoacán (Mexico); Dzib-Pérez, L., E-mail: franciscocl7@yahoo.com.mx [Centre for Corrosion Research, Autonomous University of Campeche, Av. Agustín Melgar s/n, Col. Buenavista, CP 24039, Campeche, Cam (Mexico); Curiel-López, F.F., E-mail: franciscocl7@yahoo.com.mx [Faculty of Metallurgy, Autonomous University of Coahuila, Carretera 57 Km. 5, CP 25720, Monclova, Coahuila (Mexico)

    2017-02-28

    Highlights: • Application of EMILI during welding 2205 Duplex stainless steel hindered the coarsening of δ grains in HTHAZ and promoted regeneration of γ. • Welds made with simultaneous EMILI presented TPI values at the HTHAZ similar to those for BM. • Welds made under 3, 12 and 15 mT presented a mass loss by anodic polarisation similar to that observed for the as-received BM. • This behaviour is due to changes in the dynamics of microstructural evolution during welding with EMILI. - Abstract: The effect of electromagnetic interaction of low intensity (EMILI) applied during fusion welding of AISI 2205 duplex stainless steel on the resistance to localised corrosion in natural seawater was investigated. The heat affected zone (HAZ) of samples welded under EMILI showed a higher temperature for pitting initiation and lower dissolution under anodic polarisation in chloride containing solutions than samples welded without EMILI. The EMILI assisted welding process developed in the present work enhanced the resistance to localised corrosion due to a modification on the microstructural evolution in the HAZ and the fusion zone during the thermal cycle involved in fusion welding. The application of EMILI reduced the size of the HAZ, limited coarsening of the ferrite grains and promoted regeneration of austenite in this zone, inducing a homogeneous passive condition of the surface. EMILI can be applied during fusion welding of structural or functional components of diverse size manufactured with duplex stainless steel designed to withstand aggressive environments such as natural seawater or marine atmospheres.

  5. Classification of Induced Magnetic Field Signals for the Microstructural Characterization of Sigma Phase in Duplex Stainless Steels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edgard M. Silva

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Duplex stainless steels present excellent mechanical and corrosion resistance properties. However, when heat treated at temperatures above 600 ∘ C, the undesirable tertiary sigma phase is formed. This phase presents high hardness, around 900 HV, and it is rich in chromium, the material toughness being compromised when the amount of this phase is not less than 4%. This work aimed to develop a solution for the detection of this phase in duplex stainless steels through the computational classification of induced magnetic field signals. The proposed solution is based on an Optimum Path Forest classifier, which was revealed to be more robust and effective than Bayes, Artificial Neural Network and Support Vector Machine based classifiers. The induced magnetic field was produced by the interaction between an applied external field and the microstructure. Samples of the 2205 duplex stainless steel were thermal aged in order to obtain different amounts of sigma phases (up to 18% in content. The obtained classification results were compared against the ones obtained by Charpy impact energy test, amount of sigma phase, and analysis of the fracture surface by scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction. The proposed solution achieved a classification accuracy superior to 95% and was revealed to be robust to signal noise, being therefore a valid testing tool to be used in this domain.

  6. Study of the fatigue behaviour and damage of a aged duplex stainless steel; Etude du comportement et de l'endommagement en fatigue d'un acier inoxydable austeno-ferritique moule vieilli

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Le Roux, J.Ch

    2000-07-01

    Cast duplex stainless steels are commonly used in components of pressurized water reactors primary circuit. When submitted to in-service temperatures embrittlement occurs because of the nucleation and growth of a harder phase in the ferrite by spinodal composition. Macrostructure of this steel (ferritic primary grain size is about 4-5 mm) and embrittlement of ferrite due to aging lead to a very high scattering of mechanical properties for monotonous loadings. We showed that, in spite of this macrostructure, the cyclic behaviour of aged duplex stainless steels fits usual Manson-Coffin law while initial hardening is followed by softening, in part because of the demodulation of the composition. The fatigue crack propagation rate of material follows a Paris law. While crack initiation mainly appears next to the millimetric cast defects, fatigue crack propagation remains a continuous mechanism. Ferritic and austenitic elements break successively (ferrite first breaks by cleavage, then austenite breaks by ductile fatigue). In spite of the fact that the aged ferrite is embrittled, cleavage microcracks, for load levels examined, seldom appear in ferrite at the crack tip and on both sides of the main crack. Effects of cast defects and crystallographic ferrite orientation were also studied. Propagation fatigue crack behaviour was modeled assuming that the crack tip material behaves as if it was submitted to low cycle fatigue loadings. If we consider a homogeneous material, results are in good agreement with experiments. (authors)

  7. Hardness analysis of welded joints of austenitic and duplex stainless steels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Topolska, S.

    2016-08-01

    Stainless steels are widely used in the modern world. The continuous increase in the use of stainless steels is caused by getting greater requirements relating the corrosion resistance of all types of devices. The main property of these steels is the ability to overlap a passive layer of an oxide on their surface. This layer causes that they become resistant to oxidation. One of types of corrosion-resistant steels is ferritic-austenitic steel of the duplex type, which has good strength properties. It is easily formable and weldable as well as resistant to erosion and abrasive wear. It has a low susceptibility to stress-corrosion cracking, to stress corrosion, to intercrystalline one, to pitting one and to crevice one. For these reasons they are used, among others, in the construction of devices and facilities designed for chemicals transportation and for petroleum and natural gas extraction. The paper presents the results which shows that the particular specimens of the ][joint representing both heat affected zones (from the side of the 2205 steel and the 316L one) and the weld are characterized by higher hardness values than in the case of the same specimens for the 2Y joint. Probably this is caused by machining of edges of the sections of metal sheets before the welding process, which came to better mixing of native materials and the filler metal. After submerged arc welding the 2205 steel still retains the diphase, austenitic-ferritic structure and the 316L steel retains the austenitic structure with sparse bands of ferrite σ.

  8. Evaluation of aging of cast stainless steel components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, H.M.

    1991-02-01

    Cast stainless steel is used extensively in nuclear reactors for primary-pressure-boundary components such as primary coolant pipes, elbows, valves, pumps, and safe ends. These components are, however, susceptible to thermal aging embrittlement in light water reactors because of the segregation of Cr atoms from Fe and Ni by spinodal decomposition in ferrite and the precipitation of Cr-rich carbides on ferrite/austenite boundaries. A recent advance in understanding the aging kinetics is presented. Aging kinetics are strongly influenced by the synergistic effects of other metallurgical reactions that occur in parallel with spinodal decomposition, i.e., clustering of Ni, Mo, and Si solute atoms and the nucleation and growth of G-phase precipitates in the ferrite phase. A number of methods are outlined for estimating aging embrittlement under end-of-life of life-extension conditions, depending on several factors such as degree of permissible conservatism, availability of component archive material, and methods of estimating and verifying the activation energy of aging. 33 refs., 6 figs., 3 tabs

  9. The effect of σ-phase precipitation at 800°C on the corrosion resistance in sea-water of a high alloyed duplex stainless steel

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wilms, M.E.; Gadgil, V.J.; Krougman, J.M.; Ijsseling, F.P.

    1994-01-01

    Super-duplex stainless steels are recently developed high alloyed stainless steels that combine good mechanical properties with excellent corrosion resistance. Because of a high content of chromium and molybdenum, these alloys are susceptible to σ-phase precipitation during short exposure to

  10. Influence of dislocation glide on the spinodal decomposition of fatigued duplex stainless steels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herenu, S., E-mail: herenu@ifir-conicet.gov.ar [Instituto de Fisica Rosario, Bv. 27 de Febrero 210 bis, (2000) Rosario, Santa Fe (Argentina); Sennour, M. [MINES ParisTech, Centre des Materiaux - UMR CNRS 7633 - 91003, Evry Cedex (France); Balbi, M.; Alvarez-Armas, I. [Instituto de Fisica Rosario, Bv. 27 de Febrero 210 bis, (2000) Rosario, Santa Fe (Argentina); Thorel, A. [MINES ParisTech, Centre des Materiaux - UMR CNRS 7633 - 91003, Evry Cedex (France); Armas, A.F. [Instituto de Fisica Rosario, Bv. 27 de Febrero 210 bis, (2000) Rosario, Santa Fe (Argentina)

    2011-09-25

    Highlights: {center_dot} Dislocations bands and microbands are developed in {alpha} phase of fatigued aged DSS. {center_dot} Inside these structures, demodulation of spinodal decomposition (SD) were found. {center_dot} This fact could take part in the cyclic softening displayed by DSS S32750. {center_dot} Cyclic tests at 475 deg. C show a saturation stage at the end of fatigue life. {center_dot} This could be explained by the effect of demodulation and creation of SD. - Abstract: The present work is focused on assessing the influence of dislocation movement on spinodal decomposition through scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) in combination with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) analysis in aged duplex stainless steel (DSS) S32750. Dislocation bands and microbands are the prominent dislocation arrangements observed in fatigue tested aged samples. By EDS measurements it was found that the spinodal decomposition was dissolved inside these dislocations structures. Therefore, the mechanism of microband formation developed in the ferritic phase during cycling seems to be responsible for the demodulation of the spinodal decomposition and cyclic softening of the aged DSS.

  11. Microstructural evolution and pitting resistance of annealed lean duplex stainless steel UNS S32304

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Ziying; Han Dong; Jiang Yiming; Shi Chong; Li Jin

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► The relationship between pitting corrosion resistance and annealing temperature for UNS S32304 was systemically studied. ► The specimens annealed at 1080 °C for 1 h, quenched in water exhibit the best pitting corrosion resistance. ► The relationship between microstructural evolution and pitting resistance of annealed UNS S32304 was discussed in detail. ► The pitting corrosion resistance is consistent with pitting resistance equivalent number of weaker phase for UNS S32304 alloy. - Abstract: The effect of annealing temperature in the range from 1000 to 1200 °C on the pitting corrosion behavior of duplex stainless steel UNS S32304 was investigated by the potentiodynamic polarization and potentiostatic critical pitting temperature techniques. The microstructural evolution and pit morphologies were studied using a scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. The results demonstrated that the nucleation of metastable pits transformed from austenite phase to ferrite phase with the increasing annealing temperature. As the annealing temperature increased, the pitting corrosion resistance firstly increased and then decreased. The highest pitting corrosion resistance was obtained at 1080 °C with the highest critical pitting temperature value and pitting nucleation resistance. The results could be well explained by the microstructural evolution of ferrite and austenite phases induced by annealing treatment.

  12. Development of Cutting Tool Through Superplastic Boronizing of Duplex Stainless Steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jauhari, Iswadi; Harun, Sunita; Jamlus, Siti Aida; Sabri, Mohd Faizul Mohd

    2017-03-01

    In this study, a cutting tool is developed from duplex stainless steel (DSS) using the superplastic boronizing technique. The feasibility of the development process is studied, and the cutting performances of the cutting tool are evaluated and compared with commercially available carbide and high-speed steel (HSS) tools. The superplastically boronized (SPB) cutting tool yielded a dense boronized layer of 50.5 µm with a surface hardness of 3956 HV. A coefficient of friction value of 0.62 is obtained, which is lower than 1.02 and 0.8 of the carbide and HSS tools. When tested on an aluminum 6061 surface under dry condition, the SPB cutting tool is also able to produce turning finishing below 0.4 µm, beyond the travel distance of 3000 m, which is comparable to the carbide tool, but produces much better results than HSS tool. Through superplastic boronizing of DSS, it is possible to produce a high-quality metal-based cutting tool that is comparable to the conventional carbide tool.

  13. The Microstructure and Pitting Resistance of Weld Joints of 2205 Duplex Stainless Steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Mingfang; Liu, Fei; Pu, Juan; Anderson, Neil E.; Li, Leijun; Liu, Dashuang

    2017-11-01

    2205 duplex stainless steel (DSS) was welded by submerged arc welding. The effects of both heat input and groove type on the ferrite/austenite ratio and elemental diffusion of weld joints were investigated. The relationships among welding joint preparation, ferrite/austenite ratio, elemental diffusion, and pitting corrosion resistance of weld joints were analyzed. When the Ni content of the weld wire deposit was at minimum 2-4% higher than that of 2205 DSS base metal, the desired ratio of ferrite/austenite and elemental partitioning between the austenite and ferrite phases were obtained. While the pitting sensitivity of weld metal was higher than that of base metal, the self-healing capability of the passive film of weld metal was better than that of the base metal when a single V-type groove was used. Furthermore, the heat input should be carefully controlled since pitting corrosion occurred readily in the coarse-grained heat-affected zone near the fusion line of welded joints.

  14. Melting of SiC powders preplaced duplex stainless steel using TIG welding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maleque, M. A.; Afiq, M.

    2018-01-01

    TIG torch welding technique is a conventional melting technique for the cladding of metallic materials. Duplex stainless steels (DSS) show decrease in performance under aggressive environment which may lead to unanticipated failure due to poor surface properties. In this research, surface modification is done by using TIG torch method where silicon carbide (SiC) particles are fused into DSS substrate in order to form a new intermetallic compound at the surface. The effect of particle size, feed rate of SiC preplacement, energy input and shielding gas flow rate on surface topography, microstructure, microstructure and hardness are investigated. Deepest melt pool (1.237 mm) is produced via TIG torch with highest energy input of 1080 J/mm. Observations of surface topography shows rippling marks which confirms that re-solidification process has taken place. Melt microstructure consist of dendritic and globular carbides precipitate as well as partially melted silicon carbides (SiC) particles. Micro hardness recorded at value ranging from 316 HV0.5 to 1277 HV0.5 which shows increment from base hardness of 260 HV0.5kgf. The analyzed result showed that incorporation of silicon carbide particles via TIG Torch method increase the hardness of DSS.

  15. Microbiologically Influenced Corrosion of 2707 Hyper-Duplex Stainless Steel by Marine Pseudomonas aeruginosa Biofilm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Huabing; Zhou, Enze; Zhang, Dawei; Xu, Dake; Xia, Jin; Yang, Chunguang; Feng, Hao; Jiang, Zhouhua; Li, Xiaogang; Gu, Tingyue; Yang, Ke

    2016-02-01

    Microbiologically Influenced Corrosion (MIC) is a serious problem in many industries because it causes huge economic losses. Due to its excellent resistance to chemical corrosion, 2707 hyper duplex stainless steel (2707 HDSS) has been used in the marine environment. However, its resistance to MIC was not experimentally proven. In this study, the MIC behavior of 2707 HDSS caused by the marine aerobe Pseudomonas aeruginosa was investigated. Electrochemical analyses demonstrated a positive shift in the corrosion potential and an increase in the corrosion current density in the presence of the P. aeruginosa biofilm in the 2216E medium. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analysis results showed a decrease in Cr content on the coupon surface beneath the biofilm. The pit imaging analysis showed that the P. aeruginosa biofilm caused a largest pit depth of 0.69 μm in 14 days of incubation. Although this was quite small, it indicated that 2707 HDSS was not completely immune to MIC by the P. aeruginosa biofilm.

  16. Multiobjective optimization of friction welding of UNS S32205 duplex stainless steel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.M. Ajith

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The present study is to optimize the process parameters for friction welding of duplex stainless steel (DSS UNS S32205. Experiments were conducted according to central composite design. Process variables, as inputs of the neural network, included friction pressure, upsetting pressure, speed and burn-off length. Tensile strength and microhardness were selected as the outputs of the neural networks. The weld metals had higher hardness and tensile strength than the base material due to grain refinement which caused failures away from the joint interface during tensile testing. Due to shorter heating time, no secondary phase intermetallic precipitation was observed in the weld joint. A multi-layer perceptron neural network was established for modeling purpose. Five various training algorithms, belonging to three classes, namely gradient descent, genetic algorithm and Levenberg–Marquardt, were used to train artificial neural network. The optimization was carried out by using particle swarm optimization method. Confirmation test was carried out by setting the optimized parameters. In conformation test, maximum tensile strength and maximum hardness obtained are 822 MPa and 322 Hv, respectively. The metallurgical investigations revealed that base metal, partially deformed zone and weld zone maintain austenite/ferrite proportion of 50:50.

  17. SCC of 2304 Duplex Stainless Steel—Microstructure, Residual Stress and Surface Grinding Effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nian Zhou

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The influence of surface grinding and microstructure on chloride induced stress corrosion cracking (SCC behavior of 2304 duplex stainless steel has been investigated. Grinding operations were performed both parallel and perpendicular to the rolling direction of the material. SCC tests were conducted in boiling magnesium chloride according to ASTM G36; specimens were exposed both without external loading and with varied levels of four-point bend loading. Residual stresses were measured on selected specimens before and after exposure using the X-ray diffraction technique. In addition, in-situ surface stress measurements subjected to four-point bend loading were performed to evaluate the deviation between the actual applied loading and the calculated values according to ASTM G39. Micro-cracks, initiated by grinding induced surface tensile residual stresses, were observed for all the ground specimens but not on the as-delivered surfaces. Loading transverse to the rolling direction of the material increased the susceptibility to chloride induced SCC. Grinding induced tensile residual stresses and micro-notches in the as-ground surface topography were also detrimental.

  18. Influence of surface treatment on the crevice corrosion of super duplex stainless steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malik, H.

    1997-01-01

    The aim of this work was to try and discover if changes i surface condition, derived through various methods could influence the resistance to crevice corrosion of super duplex stainless teel (SDS). Such data could then be employed to elucidate the main factors controlling crevice corrosion. Through the manipulation of these parameters it was envisaged that the crevice corrosion temperature of this material may be further advanced and to increase its application within harsher industrial environments. For this reason a series of crevice tests were performed on SDSS heat exchanger tubing both in the as received condition and after various surface treatments. Such modification was carried out by; shot blasting, passivation, pickling and combinations of annealing, shot blasting, pickling and passivation. Results have indicated that the main factor controlling the resistance to crevice corrosion is the level of Cr depletion within a few microns of the steel surface. Although various treatments such as shot blasting and pickling reduce Cr depletion by removal of surface material, the nature of the surface finish itself was not found to affect the corrosion resistance. An increase in Cr content from 20 to 25% within 2 microns of the surface of the tubing was able to increase the crevice corrosion temperature by 20 sub deg. C. (author)

  19. The Localized Corrosion Behavior Associated with Microstructure of F53 Super Duplex Stainless Steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Soon-Tae; Lee, In-Sung; Kong, Kyeong-Ho; Park, Yong-Soo [Yonsei University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jong-Hoon; Yang, Won-Jon [Korea Institute of Materials Science, Changwon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-07-15

    The localized corrosion behavior associated with microstructure of F53 super duplex stainless steel (SDSS) was investigated using a potentiodynamic polarization test, a critical crevice temperature test, an electron probe micro-analyzer analysis, and scanning electron microscopy-energy dispersive spectroscopy analyses. Crevice corrosion was initiated at the α/γ phase boundaries, MO{sub x} inclusions (where M is Cr, Mn, Al, Fe, or Ti), as well as Cr and Mo depleted areas adjacent to the σ-phases precipitated in the F53 SDSS alloy. This alloy had been annealed at 1050 ℃ followed by improper water-cooling, and the corrosion was propagated into the α-phases because the pitting resistance equivalent number (PREN) of the α-phase was smaller than that of the γ-phase. As cooling rate increased, the variation of the α-phases decreased, and the content of the Cr and Mo rich σ-phases decreased, thereby increasing the corrosion resistance.

  20. Effect of Aging Treatment on Impact Toughness and Corrosion Resistance of Super Duplex Stainless Steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jae-Hwan; Oh, Eun-Ji; Lee, Byung-Chan; Kang, Chang-Yong

    2016-01-01

    The effect of aging time on impact toughness and corrosion resistance of 25%Cr-7%Ni-2%Mo-4%W-0.2%N super duplex stainless steel from the viewpoint of intermetallic secondary phase variation was investigated with scanning electron microscopic observation with energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopic analysis and transmission electron microscopy. The results clarified that R-phase is precipitated not only at the interface of ferrite and austenite but inside the ferrite at an initial stage of aging and then transformed into σ-phase from an aging time of 1 h, while the ferrite phase decomposed into γ2 and σ-phase with increase of aging time. This variation of the phases led to decrease of its impact toughness, and specifically, the R-phase was proved to be predominant in the degradation of the impact toughness at the initial stage of the aging. Additionally, these secondary phases led to deterioration of corrosion resistance because of Cr depletion.

  1. Mechanical Properties of Super Duplex Stainless Steel 2507 after Gas Phase Thermal Precharging with Hydrogen

    Science.gov (United States)

    San Marchi, C.; Somerday, B. P.; Zelinski, J.; Tang, X.; Schiroky, G. H.

    2007-11-01

    Thermal precharging of super duplex stainless steel 2507 with 125 wppm hydrogen significantly reduced tensile ductility and fracture toughness. Strain-hardened 2507 exhibited more severe ductility loss compared to the annealed microstructure. The reduction of area (RA) was between 80 and 85 pct for both microstructures in the noncharged condition, while reductions of area were 25 and 46 pct for the strain-hardened and annealed microstructures, respectively, after hydrogen precharging. Similar to the effect of internal hydrogen on tensile ductility, fracture toughness of strain-hardened 2507 was lowered from nearly 300 MPa m1/2 in the noncharged condition to less than 60 MPa m1/2 in the hydrogen-precharged condition. While precharging 2507 with hydrogen results in a considerable reduction in ductility and toughness, the absolute values are similar to high-strength austenitic steels that have been tested under the same conditions, and which are generally considered acceptable for high-pressure hydrogen gas systems. The fracture mode in hydrogen-precharged 2507 involved cleavage cracking of the ferrite phase and ductile fracture along oblique planes in the austenite phase, compared to 100 pct microvoid coalescence in the absence of hydrogen. Predictions from a strain-based micromechanical fracture toughness model were in good agreement with the measured fracture toughness of hydrogen-precharged 2507, implying a governing role of austenite for resistance to hydrogen-assisted fracture.

  2. Direct observation and quantification of nanoscale spinodal decomposition in super duplex stainless steel weld metals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shariq, Ahmed; Hättestrand, Mats; Nilsson, Jan-Olof; Gregori, Andrea

    2009-06-01

    Three variants of super duplex stainless steel weld metals with the basic composition 29Cr-8Ni-2Mo (wt%) were investigated. The nitrogen content of the three materials was 0.22%, 0.33% and 0.37%, respectively. Isothermal heat treatments were performed at 450 degrees C for times up to 243 h. The hardness evolution of the three materials was found to vary with the overall concentration of the nitrogen. Atom probe field ion microscopy (APFIM) was used to directly detect and quantify the degree of spinodal decomposition in different material conditions. 3-DAP atomic reconstruction clearly illustrate nanoscale variation of iron rich (alpha) and chromium rich (alpha') phases. A longer ageing time produces a coarser microstructure with larger alpha and alpha' domains. Statistical evaluation of APFIM data showed that phase separation was significant already after 1 h of ageing that gradually became more pronounced. Although nanoscale concentration variation was evident, no significant influence of overall nitrogen content on the degree of spinodal decomposition was found.

  3. Investigations on structure–property relationships of activated flux TIG weldments of super-duplex/austenitic stainless steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Devendranath Ramkumar, K.; Bajpai, Ankur; Raghuvanshi, Shubham; Singh, Anshuman; Chandrasekhar, Aditya; Arivarasu, M.; Arivazhagan, N.

    2015-01-01

    This research work articulated the effect of SiO 2 flux assisted tungsten inert gas (TIG) welding on the microstructure and mechanical properties of marine grade stainless steel weldments, such as super-duplex stainless steel (UNS S32750) and austenitic stainless steel (AISI 316L). The studies showed that the use of flux decreased the heat input required to obtain complete penetration. Microstructure studies revealed the presence of ferrite at the heat affected zone of AISI 316L and the fusion zone which obviated the hot cracking tendency. Tensile studies corroborated that the joint strength was sufficiently greater than that of the parent metals. Impact toughness slightly impoverished owing to the presence of large platelets of Widmanstätten austenite in the fusion zone. The study also explored the structure–property relationships of the flux assisted weldments using the combined techniques of optical and scanning electron microscopy analysis. Owing to the better metallurgical and mechanical properties, this study recommends the use of SiO 2 flux for joining the dissimilar metals involving austenitic and super-duplex stainless steels

  4. Investigations on structure–property relationships of activated flux TIG weldments of super-duplex/austenitic stainless steels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Devendranath Ramkumar, K., E-mail: ramdevendranath@gmail.com; Bajpai, Ankur; Raghuvanshi, Shubham; Singh, Anshuman; Chandrasekhar, Aditya; Arivarasu, M.; Arivazhagan, N.

    2015-06-25

    This research work articulated the effect of SiO{sub 2} flux assisted tungsten inert gas (TIG) welding on the microstructure and mechanical properties of marine grade stainless steel weldments, such as super-duplex stainless steel (UNS S32750) and austenitic stainless steel (AISI 316L). The studies showed that the use of flux decreased the heat input required to obtain complete penetration. Microstructure studies revealed the presence of ferrite at the heat affected zone of AISI 316L and the fusion zone which obviated the hot cracking tendency. Tensile studies corroborated that the joint strength was sufficiently greater than that of the parent metals. Impact toughness slightly impoverished owing to the presence of large platelets of Widmanstätten austenite in the fusion zone. The study also explored the structure–property relationships of the flux assisted weldments using the combined techniques of optical and scanning electron microscopy analysis. Owing to the better metallurgical and mechanical properties, this study recommends the use of SiO{sub 2} flux for joining the dissimilar metals involving austenitic and super-duplex stainless steels.

  5. Austenitic and duplex stainless steels in simulated physiological solution characterized by electrochemical and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kocijan, Aleksandra; Conradi, Marjetka; Schön, Peter M

    2012-04-01

    A study of oxide layers grown on 2205 duplex stainless steel (DSS) and AISI 316L austenitic stainless steel in simulated physiological solution is presented here in order to establish the possibility of replacement of AISI 316 L with 2205 DSS in biomedical applications. The results of the potentiodynamic measurements show that the extent of the passive range significantly increased for DSS 2205 compared to AISI 316L stainless steel. Cyclic voltammetry was used to investigate electrochemical processes taking place on the steel surfaces. Oxide layers formed by electrochemical oxidation at different oxidation potentials were studied by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and their compositions were analyzed as a function of depth. The main constituents on both the investigated materials were Cr- and Fe-oxides. Atomic force microscopy topography studies revealed the higher corrosion resistance of the DSS 2205 compared to the AISI 316L under the chosen experimental conditions. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Influence o the microstructure of duplex stainless steels on their failure characteristics during hot deformation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reis G.S.

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Two types of duplex stainless steels were deformed by torsion at a temperature range of 900 to 1200 °C and strain rate of 1.0 s-1 and their final microstructures were observed. The austenite volume fraction of steel A (26.5Cr - 4.9Ni - 1.6Mo is approximately 25% at room temperature, after conventional annealing, while that of steel B (24Cr - 7.5Ni - 2.3Mo is around 55%. Experimental data show that steel A is ductile at high temperatures and displays low ductility at low temperatures, while steel B has low ductility in the entire range of temperatures studied. At high temperatures, steel A is essentially ferritic and shows dynamic recrystallized grains after deformation. When steel A is strained at low temperatures and displays low austenite volume fraction, microstructural observations indicate that failure is triggered by grain boundary sliding due to the formation of an austenite net structure at the ferrite grain boundaries. At intermediate volume fraction, when austenite forms a dispersed second-phase in steels A and B, failure begins at the ferrite/ferrite boundaries since some of the new ferrite grains may become immobilized by the austenite particles. When steel B is strained at volume fraction of around 50% of austenite and both phases percolate the microstructure, failure occurs after low straining as a consequence of the different plastic behaviors of each of the phases. The failure characteristics of both steels are correlated not only with the volume fraction of austenite but also with its distribution within the ferrite matrix, which limits attainable strain without failure.

  7. Microstructural characterization and electron backscatter diffraction analysis across the welded interface of duplex stainless steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Zhiqiang; Jing, Hongyang [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300350 (China); Tianjin Key Laboratory of Advanced Joining Technology, Tianjin 300350 (China); Xu, Lianyong, E-mail: xulianyong@tju.edu.cn [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300350 (China); Tianjin Key Laboratory of Advanced Joining Technology, Tianjin 300350 (China); Han, Yongdian; Gao, Zhanqi; Zhao, Lei [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300350 (China); Tianjin Key Laboratory of Advanced Joining Technology, Tianjin 300350 (China); Zhang, Jianli [Welding laboratory, Offshore Oil Engineering (Qing Dao) Company, Qing Dao 266520 (China)

    2017-08-15

    Highlights: • Apparent change in LTHAZ was the intergranular secondary austenite precipitation. • Ferrite in HAZ maintained same distribution as ferrite texture in base metal. • Different austenite in different zones showed different orientation with ferrite. • Ferrite and austenite grains exhibited different boundary characteristics. • Local deformations were generated in grain boundary and within deformed grain. - Abstract: The microstructural evolution, orientation relationships, boundary characteristics, grain type, local deformation, and microhardness across the welded interface of duplex stainless steel (DSS) were investigated. The DSS welded joint consisted of four typical zones: base metal (BM), low-temperature heat-affected zone (LTHAZ), high-temperature heat-affected zone (HTHAZ), and weld metal (WM). The apparent microstructural changes in the HTHAZ and LTHAZ were secondary austenite and Cr{sub 2}N precipitation. A modified cooperative precipitation mechanism of secondary austenite and Cr{sub 2}N at the interface was proposed. Furthermore, the ferrite in both the HTHAZ and LTHAZ maintained the same distribution as the ferrite texture in the BM, while this ferrite texture disappeared completely in the WM. Different austenite grains in the different zones exhibited different orientation relationships with the ferrite matrix. Special grain boundaries were mainly distributed between the austenite grains, while the ferrite grains primarily contained random grain boundaries. Austenite twins constituted the largest proportion of the special boundaries. The special austenite grain boundaries in the BM and LTHAZ were higher in relative frequency than those in the HTHAZ and WM. The ferrite grains in the HTHAZ and WM mainly consisted of substructured grains. In the BM, the recrystallization degree of ferrite was significantly lower than that of austenite grains. The local deformations were mainly generated in the grain boundaries and within the deformed

  8. Burst pressure of super duplex stainless steel pipes subject to combined axial tension, internal pressure and elevated temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lasebikan, B.A.; Akisanya, A.R.

    2014-01-01

    The burst pressure of super duplex stainless steel pipe is measured under combined internal pressure, external axial tension and elevated temperature up to 160 °C. The experimental results are compared with existing burst pressure prediction models. Existing models are found to provide reasonable estimate of the burst pressure at room temperature but significantly over estimate the burst pressure at elevated temperature. Increasing externally applied axial stress and elevated temperature reduces the pressure capacity. - Highlights: • The burst pressure of super duplex steel is measured under combined loading. • Effect of elevated temperature on burst pressure is determined. • Burst pressure decreases with increasing temperature. • Existing models are reliable at room temperature. • Burst strength at elevated temperature is lower than predictions

  9. The role of nitrogen in improving pitting corrosion resistance of high-alloy austenitic and duplex stainless steel welds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vilpas, M.; Haenninen, H.

    1999-01-01

    The effects of nitrogen alloyed shielding gas on weld nitrogen content and pitting corrosion resistance of super austenitic (6%Mo) and super duplex stainless steels have been studied with special emphasis on microsegregation behaviour of Cr, Mo and N. The measurements performed with the 6%Mo steel indicate that all these elements segregate interdendritically in the fully austenitic weld metal. With nitrogen addition to the shielding gas the enrichment of nitrogen to the interdendritic regions is more pronounced than to the dendrite cores due to which the pitting corrosion resistance of the dendrite cores increases only marginally. In the super duplex steel welds nitrogen enriches in austenite increasing its pitting corrosion resistance more effectively. In these welds the pitting corrosion resistance of the ferrite phase remains lower. (orig.)

  10. Effect of Welding Process on Microstructure, Mechanical and Pitting Corrosion Behaviour of 2205 Duplex Stainless Steel Welds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammed, Raffi; Madhusudhan Reddy, G.; Srinivasa Rao, K.

    2018-03-01

    An attempt has been made to weld 2205 Duplex stainless steel of 6mm thick plate using conventional gas tungsten arc welding (GTAW) and activated gas tungsten arc welding (A- GTAW) process using silica powder as activated flux. Present work is aimed at studying the effect of welding process on depth of penetration, width of weld zone of 2205 duplex stainless steel. It also aims to observe the microstructural changes and its effect on mechanical properties and pitting corrosion resistance of 2205 duplex stainless steel welds. Metallography is done to observe the microstructural changes of the welds using image analyzer attached to the optical microscopy. Hardness studies, tensile and ductility bend tests were evaluated for mechanical properties. Potentio-dynamic polarization studies were carried out using a basic GillAC electro-chemical system in 3.5% NaCl solution to observe the pitting corrosion behaviour. Results of the present investigation established that increased depth of penetration and reduction of weld width in a single pass by activated GTAW with the application of SiO2 flux was observed when compared with conventional GTAW process. It may be attributed to the arc constriction effect. Microstructure of the weld zones for both the welds is observed to be having combination of austenite and delta ferrite. Grain boundary austenite (GBA) with Widmanstatten-type austenite (WA) of plate-like feature was nucleated from the grain boundaries in the weld zone of A-GTAW process. Mechanical properties are relatively low in activated GTAW process and are attributed to changes in microstructural morphology of austenite. Improved pitting corrosion resistance was observed for the welds made with A-GTAW process.

  11. The Effect of Constant and Pulsed Current Gas Tungsten Arc Welding on Joint Properties of 2205 Duplex Stainless Steel to 316L Austenitic Stainless Steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neissi, R.; Shamanian, M.; Hajihashemi, M.

    2016-05-01

    In this study, dissimilar 316L austenitic stainless steel/2205 duplex stainless steel (DSS) joints were fabricated by constant and pulsed current gas tungsten arc welding process using ER2209 DSS as a filler metal. Microstructures and joint properties were characterized using optical and electron scanning microscopy, tensile, Charpy V-notch impact and micro-hardness tests, and cyclic polarization measurements. Microstructural observations confirmed the presence of chromium nitride and delta ferrite in the heat-affected zone of DSS and 316L, respectively. In addition, there was some deviation in the austenite/ferrite ratio of the surface welding pass in comparison to the root welding pass. Besides having lower pitting potential, welded joints produced by constant current gas tungsten arc welding process, consisted of some brittle sigma phase precipitates, which resulted in some impact energy reduction. The tensile tests showed high tensile strength for the weld joints in which all the specimens were broken in 316L base metal.

  12. Effect of annealing treatment on microstructure evolution and the associated corrosion behavior of a super-duplex stainless steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deng, B.; Jiang, Y.M.; Gao, J.; Li, J.

    2010-01-01

    The influence of annealing temperature on the pitting corrosion of a super-duplex stainless steel (SDSS) with mischmetal addition was investigated in chloride solution by critical pitting temperature (CPT) measurement. The corrosion behavior is strongly dependent on the microstructure, namely the presence of secondary phases, elemental partitioning behavior and volume fractions of ferrite and austenite. Based on CPT results and alloying rules, the optimal annealing temperature is determined as 1070 o C and a guideline for further development of improved SDSS is formulated.

  13. Effects of rare earth metals addition on the resistance to pitting corrosion of super duplex stainless steel - Part 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Soon-Tae; Jeon, Soon-Hyeok; Lee, In-Sung; Park, Yong-Soo

    2010-01-01

    To elucidate the effects of rare earth metals addition on the resistance to pitting corrosion of super duplex stainless steel, a metallographic examination, potentiodynamic and potentiostatic polarization tests, a SEM-EDS and a SAM analysis of inclusion, austenite phase and ferrite phase were conducted. The addition of rare earth metals to the base alloy led to the formation of (Mn, Cr, Si, Al, Ce) oxides and (Mn, Cr, Si, Ce) oxides, which improved the resistance to pitting corrosion and caused a decrease in the preferential interface areas for the initiation of the pitting corrosion.

  14. Numerical simulation of a Charpy test and correlation of fracture toughness with fracture energy. Vessel steel and duplex stainless steel of the primary loop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Breban, P; Eripret, C.

    1995-01-01

    The analysis methods used to evaluate the harmlessness of defects in the components of the primary coolant circuit of pressurized water reactor are based on the knowledge of the failure properties of concerned materials. The toughness is used to be measured through tests performed on normalized samples. But in some cases, especially for the vessel steel submitted to irradiation effects or for cast components in duplex stainless steel sensitive to thermal ageing, these measurements are not available on the material aged in operation. Therefore, fracture resistance has been evaluated through Charpy tests. Toughness is thus obtained on the basis of an empirical correlation. To improve these predictions, a modeling of the Charpy test in the framework of the local approach to fracture has been performed, for both materials. For the vessel steel, a complete evaluation of toughness has been achieved on the basis of a bidimensional viscoplastic modeling under large strain assumptions and a post-treatment with a Weibull model (cleavage fracture). The main hypothesis (partition between plain stress and plain strain areas in the bidimensional modeling) was corrected after a three dimensional calculations with the finite element program Code-Aster. The fracture analysis put into evidence that damage considerations like cavity nucleation and growth have to be introduced in the model in order to improve the description of physical phenomena. Two ways of progress have been suggested and are in course of being investigated, one in the framework of local approach to failure, the other with the help of micro-macro relationship. With regard to the duplex steel, the description of a Charpy (U) test allowed to clearly discriminate between crack initiation and propagation phases. A modeling through an equivalent homogenous material with a damage law based on a modified Gurson potential enables to describe quantitatively both phases of fracture. It clearly appears that a reliable

  15. Influence of microstructure and elemental partitioning on pitting corrosion resistance of duplex stainless steel welding joints

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Zhiqiang; Jing, Hongyang [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300350 (China); Tianjin Key Laboratory of Advanced Joining Technology, Tianjin 300350 (China); Xu, Lianyong, E-mail: xulianyong@tju.edu.cn [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300350 (China); Tianjin Key Laboratory of Advanced Joining Technology, Tianjin 300350 (China); Han, Yongdian; Zhao, Lei [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300350 (China); Tianjin Key Laboratory of Advanced Joining Technology, Tianjin 300350 (China); Zhang, Jianli [Welding laboratory, Offshore Oil Engineering (Qing Dao) Company, Qing Dao 266520 (China)

    2017-02-01

    Highlights: • N{sub 2}-supplemented shielding gas promoted nitrogen solid-solution in the austenite. • Secondary austenite had higher Ni but lower Cr and Mo than primary austenite. • Pitting corrosion preferentially occurred at secondary austenite and Cr{sub 2}N. • Adding N{sub 2} in shielding gas improved pitting corrosion resistance of GTAW joint. • E2209T{sub 1} weld metal had very poor pitting corrosion resistance due to inclusions. - Abstract: The influences of microstructure and elemental partitioning on pitting corrosion resistance of duplex stainless steel joints welded by gas tungsten arc welding (GTAW) and flux-cored arc welding (FCAW) with different shielding gas compositions were studied by optical microscopy, electron backscatter diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, energy dispersive spectroscopy, electron probe microanalysis, and potentiostatic and potentiodynamic polarization methods The adding 2% N{sub 2} in shielding gas facilitated primary austenite formation in GTAW weld metal (WM) and suppressed Cr{sub 2}N precipitation in GTAW weld root. In the HAZ, the banded microstructure disappeared while the coarse ferrite grains maintained same orientation as the banded ferrite in the BM. In the WM, the ferrite had one single orientation throughout a grain, whereas several families of austenite appeared. The austenite both in BM and WM enriched in Ni and nitrogen, while Cr and Mo were concentrated in the ferrite and thus no element showed clear dendritic distribution in the WM (ER2209 and E2209T{sub 1}). In addition, the secondary austenite had higher Ni content but lower Cr and Mo content than the primary austenite. The N{sub 2}-supplemented shielding gas promoted nitrogen solid-solution in the primary and secondary austenite. Furthermore, the secondary austenite had relatively lower pitting resistance equivalent number (PREN) than the ferrite and primary austenite, thereby resulting in its preferential

  16. Prediction and optimization of friction welding parameters for super duplex stainless steel (UNS S32760) joints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Udayakumar, T.; Raja, K.; Afsal Husain, T.M.; Sathiya, P.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Corrosion resistance and impact strength – predicted by response surface methodology. • Burn off length has highest significance on corrosion resistance. • Friction force is a strong determinant in changing impact strength. • Pareto front points generated by genetic algorithm aid to fix input control variable. • Pareto front will be a trade-off between corrosion resistance and impact strength. - Abstract: Friction welding finds widespread industrial use as a mass production process for joining materials. Friction welding process allows welding of several materials that are extremely difficult to fusion weld. Friction welding process parameters play a significant role in making good quality joints. To produce a good quality joint it is important to set up proper welding process parameters. This can be done by employing optimization techniques. This paper presents a multi objective optimization method for optimizing the process parameters during friction welding process. The proposed method combines the response surface methodology (RSM) with an intelligent optimization algorithm, i.e. genetic algorithm (GA). Corrosion resistance and impact strength of friction welded super duplex stainless steel (SDSS) (UNS S32760) joints were investigated considering three process parameters: friction force (F), upset force (U) and burn off length (B). Mathematical models were developed and the responses were adequately predicted. Direct and interaction effects of process parameters on responses were studied by plotting graphs. Burn off length has high significance on corrosion current followed by upset force and friction force. In the case of impact strength, friction force has high significance followed by upset force and burn off length. Multi objective optimization for maximizing the impact strength and minimizing the corrosion current (maximizing corrosion resistance) was carried out using GA with the RSM model. The optimization procedure resulted in

  17. Surface layer investigation of duplex stainless steel S32205 after stress peening utilizing X-ray diffraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng, Qiang; Jiang, Chuanhai; Xu, Zhou

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► The stress shot peening is superior to the conventional shot peening. ► Residual stresses along the loaded direction are bigger than transverse direction. ► Higher prestress leads to smaller domain size, high density of dislocation. ► Compared to ferrite, austenite has much higher hardness and work hardening. ► Ferrite has higher recover of elastic deformation than austenite after unloading. - Abstract: Residual stresses and micro-hardness of duplex stainless steel S32205 after stress peening are measured and domain sizes and microstrain are calculated. The results show that stress peening can significantly improve the compressive residual stresses and micro-hardness in both austenite and ferrite, and the former is affected by both the prestress and the measurement directions. Microstructure investigation reveals that material deformation is enhanced after stress peening, and smaller domain sizes and higher microstrain are introduced. The compressive residual stress enhancement by stress peening in ferrite is more than that in austenite under the same stress peening, which is due to the more elastic deformation recover in ferrite. Therefore, the difference of residual stresses between ferrite and austenite can be narrowed down by conducting appropriate stress peening. Based on these investigations, it is concluded that stress peening is superior to conventional shot peening treatment to improve the surface properties of duplex stainless steel

  18. Effects of Cold Rolling and Strain-Induced Martensite Formation in a SAF 2205 Duplex Stainless Steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breda, Marco; Brunelli, Katya; Grazzi, Francesco; Scherillo, Antonella; Calliari, Irene

    2015-02-01

    Duplex stainless steels (DSSs) are biphasic steels having a ferritic-austenitic microstructure that allows them to combine good mechanical and corrosion-resistance properties. However, these steels are sensitive to microstructural modifications, such as ferrite decomposition at high temperatures and the possibility of strain-induced martensite (SIM) formation from cold-worked austenite, which can significantly alter their interesting features. In the present work, the effects of cold rolling on the developed microstructural features in a cold-rolled SAF 2205 DSS and the onset of martensitic transformation are discussed. The material was deformed at room temperature from 3 to 85 pct thickness reduction, and several characterization techniques (scanning and transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, hardness measurements, and time-of-flight-neutron diffraction) were employed in order to fully describe the microstructural behavior of the steel. Despite the low stacking fault energy of DSS austenite, which contributed to SIM formation, the steel was found to be more stable than other stainless steel grades, such as AISI 304L. Rolling textures were similar to those pertaining to single-phase materials, but the presence of the biphasic (Duplex) microstructure imposed deformation constraints that affected the developed microstructural features, owing to phases interactions. Moreover, even if an intensification of the strain field in austenite was revealed, retarded SIM transformation kinetics and lower martensite amounts with respect to AISI 304L were observed.

  19. High-Temperature Phase Equilibria of Duplex Stainless Steels Assessed with a Novel In-Situ Neutron Scattering Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pettersson, Niklas; Wessman, Sten; Hertzman, Staffan; Studer, Andrew

    2017-04-01

    Duplex stainless steels are designed to solidify with ferrite as the parent phase, with subsequent austenite formation occurring in the solid state, implying that, thermodynamically, a fully ferritic range should exist at high temperatures. However, computational thermodynamic tools appear currently to overestimate the austenite stability of these systems, and contradictory data exist in the literature. In the present work, the high-temperature phase equilibria of four commercial duplex stainless steel grades, denoted 2304, 2101, 2507, and 3207, with varying alloying levels were assessed by measurements of the austenite-to-ferrite transformation at temperatures approaching 1673 K (1400 °C) using a novel in-situ neutron scattering approach. All grades became fully ferritic at some point during progressive heating. Higher austenite dissolution temperatures were measured for the higher alloyed grades, and for 3207, the temperature range for a single-phase ferritic structure approached zero. The influence of temperatures in the region of austenite dissolution was further evaluated by microstructural characterization using electron backscattered diffraction of isothermally heat-treated and quenched samples. The new experimental data are compared to thermodynamic calculations, and the precision of databases is discussed.

  20. Detection of secondary phases in duplex stainless steel by magnetic force microscopy and scanning Kelvin probe force microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramírez-Salgado, J. [Instituto Mexicano del Petróleo, Dirección de Investigación y Posgrado, Eje Central Norte Lázaro Cárdenas, No. 152, 07730 D.F., México (Mexico); Domínguez-Aguilar, M.A., E-mail: madoming@imp.mx [Instituto Mexicano del Petróleo, Dirección de Investigación y Posgrado, Eje Central Norte Lázaro Cárdenas, No. 152, 07730 D.F., México (Mexico); Castro-Domínguez, B. [University of Tokyo, Department of Chemical System Engineering, Faculty of Engineering Bldg. 5, 7F 722, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113–8656 (Japan); Hernández-Hernández, P. [Instituto Mexicano del Petróleo, Dirección de Investigación y Posgrado, Eje Central Norte Lázaro Cárdenas, No. 152, 07730 D.F., México (Mexico); Newman, R.C. [University of Toronto, Department of Chemical Engineering and Applied Chemistry, 200 College Street, Toronto M5S 3E5 (Canada)

    2013-12-15

    The secondary phase transformations in a commercial super duplex stainless steel were investigated by micro-chemical analyses and high resolution scanning probe microscopy. Energy dispersive X-ray and electron probe detected ferrite and austenite as well as secondary phases in unetched aged duplex stainless steel type 25Cr-7Ni-3Mo. Volta potential indicated that nitride and sigma appeared more active than ferrite, while secondary austenite and austenite presented a nobler potential. Reversal order in nobility is thought to be attributable to the potential ranking provided by oxide nature diversity as a result of secondary phase surface compositions on steel. After eutectoid transformation, secondary austenite was detected by electron probe microanalysis, whereas atomic force microscopy distinguished this phase from former austenite by image contrast. Magnetic force microscopy revealed a “ghosted” effect on the latter microstructure probably derived from metal memory reminiscence of mechanical polishing at passivity and long range magnetic forces of ferrite phase. - Highlights: • Nobility detection of secondary phases by SKPFM in DSS particles is not a straightforward procedure. • As Volta potential and contrast are not always consistent SKPFM surface oxides is thought played an important role in detection. • AFM distinguished secondary austenite from former austenite by image contrast though SEM required EPMA.

  1. Effect of Aging on Precipitation Behavior and Pitting Corrosion Resistance of SAF2906 Super Duplex Stainless Steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jianchun; Li, Guoping; Liang, Wei; Han, Peide; Wang, Hongxia

    2017-09-01

    The effect of aging temperature and holding time on the precipitation of secondary phases and pitting corrosion resistance of SAF2906 super duplex stainless steel was examined. Chromium nitride and σ phase were observed to preferentially precipitate at the ferrite/austenite interface. An amount of nitrides was also observed within the ferrite grain. The precipitation of chromium nitride occurred before the σ phase. The increase in aging temperature and holding time did not affect the concentration of the nitrides but increased the area fraction of the σ phase at a faster rate. The Cr2N precipitation in SAF2906 is more evident than that of the other duplex stainless steels. The variation tendency of the precipitation concentrations is primarily consistent with the prediction results of Thermo-Calc software. The electrochemical results showed that Cr2N and σ phase significantly reduced the pitting potential. Scanning electron microscope observations revealed that pits appear mainly in regions adjacent to sigma phase and Cr2N.

  2. Detailed Microstructural Characterization and Restoration Mechanisms of Duplex and Superduplex Stainless Steel Friction-Stir-Welded Joints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, T. F. A.; Torres, E. A.; Lippold, J. C.; Ramirez, A. J.

    2016-12-01

    Duplex stainless steels are successfully used in a wide variety of applications in areas such as the food industry, petrochemical installations, and sea water desalination plants, where high corrosion resistance and high mechanical strength are required. However, during fusion welding operations, there can be changes to the favorable microstructure of these materials that compromise their performance. Friction stir welding with a non-consumable pin enables welded joints to be obtained in the solid state, which avoids typical problems associated with solidification of the molten pool, such as segregation of alloying elements and the formation of solidification and liquefaction cracks. In the case of superduplex stainless steels, use of the technique can avoid unbalanced proportions of ferrite and austenite, formation of deleterious second phases, or growth of ferritic grains in the heat-affected zone. Consolidated joints with full penetration were obtained for 6-mm-thick plates of UNS S32101 and S32205 duplex stainless steels, and S32750 and S32760 superduplex steels. The welding heat cycles employed avoided the conditions required for formation of deleterious phases, except in the case of the welded joint of the S32760 steel, where SEM images indicated the formation of secondary phases, as corroborated by decreased mechanical performance. Analysis using EBSD and transmission electron microscopy revealed continuous dynamic recrystallization by the formation of cellular arrays of dislocations in the ferrite and discontinuous dynamic recrystallization in the austenite. Microtexture evaluation indicated the presence of fibers typical of shear in the thermomechanically affected zone. These fibers were not obviously present in the stir zone, probably due to the intensity of microstructural reformulation to which this region was subjected.

  3. Estimation of fracture toughness of cast stainless steels during thermal aging in LWR systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chopra, O.K. (Argonne National Lab., IL (USA))

    1991-06-01

    A procedure and correlations are presented for predicting the change in fracture toughness of cast stainless steel components due to thermal aging during service in light water rectors (LWRs) at 280--330{degrees}C (535--625{degrees}F). The fracture toughness J-R curve and Charpy-impact energy of aged cast stainless steels are estimated from known mineral in formation. Fracture toughness of a specific cast stainless steel is estimated from the extent and kinetics of thermal embrittlement. The extent of thermal embrittlement is characterized by the room-temperature normalized'' Charpy-impact energy. A correlation for the extent of embrittlement at saturation,'' i.e., the minimum impact energy that would be achieved for the material after long-term aging, is given in terms of a material parameter, {Phi}, which is determined from the chemical composition. The fracture toughness J-R curve for the material is then obtained from correlations between room-temperature Charpy-impact energy and fracture toughness parameters. Fracture toughness as a function of time and temperature of reactor service is estimated from the kinetics of thermal embrittlement, which is determined from chemical composition. A common lower-bound'' J-R curve for cast stainless steels with unknown chemical composition is also defined for a given material specification, ferrite content, and temperature. Examples for estimating impact strength and fracture toughness of cast stainless steel components during reactor service are describes. 24 refs., 39 figs., 2 tabs.

  4. Evaluation of the degradation characteristics of CF-8A cast stainless steel using EDS and nano-indentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baek, Seung; Koo, Jae Mean; Seok, Chang Sung

    2004-01-01

    Cast austenitic stainless steel piping pump, valve casings, and elbows are susceptible to reductions in toughness and ductility because of long term exposure at the operating temperatures in LWR(Light Water Reactor). In this paper, we have measured the material properties of long term aged CF-8A cast stainless steel, accelerated aging at 400 .deg. C. These studies have been carried out using indentation tests(automated ball indentation and nano-indentation) and EDS(Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy). The fracture toughness of Cf-8A cast stainless steel was also determined by using standard fracture toughness and automated ball indentation

  5. Development of Duplex Stainless Steels by Field-Assisted Hot Pressing: Influence of the Particle Size and Morphology of the Powders on the Final Mechanical Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Junceda, A.; Rincón, M.; Torralba, J. M.

    2018-01-01

    The feasibility of processing duplex stainless steels with promising properties using a powder metallurgical route, including the consolidation by field-assisted hot pressing, is assessed in this investigation. The influence of the particle size and morphology of the raw austenitic and ferritic powders on the final microstructure and properties is also evaluated for an austenitic content of 60 wt pct. In addition, the properties of a new microconstituent generated between the initial constituents are analyzed. The maximum sintered density (98.9 pct) and the best mechanical behavior, in terms of elastic modulus, nanohardness, yield strength, ultimate tensile strength, and ductility, are reached by the duplex stainless steel processed with austenitic and ferritic gas atomized stainless steel powders.

  6. Mechanical properties of phases in austeno-ferritic duplex stainless steel-Surface stresses studied by X-ray diffraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dakhlaoui, Rim; Braham, Chedly; Baczmanski, Andrzej

    2007-01-01

    In this work the parameters characterizing the individual elastoplastic mechanical behaviour of each phase in austeno-ferritic duplex stainless steels are determined by using X-ray diffraction during a uniaxial tensile test. The interpretation of the experimental data is based on the diffraction elastic constants calculated by the self-consistent model taking the anisotropy of the studied materials into account. The elastoplastic model is used to predict the evolution of the internal stresses during loading, and to identify the critical resolved shear stresses and strain hardening parameters of the material. The effect of the chemical composition on the individual elastoplastic behaviour of the studied phases is established by comparing results from three different samples. Finally, the X-ray diffraction results are compared with those previously obtained by using neutron radiation

  7. Effect of friction stir welding speed on the microstructure and mechanical properties of a duplex stainless steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saeid, T.; Abdollah-zadeh, A.; Assadi, H.; Malek Ghaini, F.

    2008-01-01

    The present study focuses on the effect of the welding speed on the microstructure and mechanical properties of the stir zone (SZ) in friction stir welding (FSW) of SAF 2205 duplex stainless steel. A single tool, made of a WC-base material, was used to weld 2 mm-thick plates at a constant rotational speed of 600 rpm. X-ray radiography revealed that sound welds were successfully obtained for the welding speeds in the range of 50-200 mm/min, whereas a groove-like defect was formed at the higher speed of 250 mm/min. Moreover, increasing the welding speed decreased the size of the α and γ grains in the SZ, and hence, improved the mean hardness value and the tensile strength of the SZ. These results are interpreted with respect to interplay between the welding speed and the peak temperature in FSW

  8. Interactions between the phase stress and the grain-orientation-dependent stress in duplex stainless steel during deformation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jia, N.; Peng, R. Lin; Wang, Y.D.; Chai, G.C.; Johansson, S.; Wang, G.; Liaw, P.K.

    2006-01-01

    The development of phase stress and grain-orientation-dependent stress under uniaxial compression was investigated in a duplex stainless steel consisting of austenite and ferrite. Using in situ neutron diffraction measurements, the strain response of several h k l planes to the applied compressive stress was mapped as a function of applied stress and sample direction. Analysis based on the experimental results and elastoplastic self-consistent simulations shows that phase stresses of thermal origin further increase during elastic loading but decrease with increased plastic deformation. Grain-orientation-dependent stresses become significant in both austenite and ferrite after loading into the plastic region. After unloading from the plastic regime, a considerable intergranular stress remains in the austenitic phase and dominates over the phase stress. This study provides fundamental experimental inputs for future micromechanical modeling aiming at the evaluation and prediction of the mechanical performance of multiphase materials

  9. Effect of shot peening treatment in the behavior of residual stress in duplex stainless steel during medium cycle fatigue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pedrosa, Peter D.S.; Rebello, Joao Marcos A.; Fonseca, Maria P. Cindra

    2010-01-01

    The lifetime of duplex stainless steel parts experiencing cyclic fatigue is directly influenced by the residual stresses present in the ferrite and austenite phases. The motivation for this work was to analyze the behaviour of the residual stresses fields introduced by shot peening treatment in both phases, in the sample surface as in the subsurface layers, in low fatigue cycles, using the X-rays diffraction technique. The results shows that the compressive residual stresses introduced by the shot peening treatment in both phases improved fatigue life of the material. However, the cyclical loads produce partial or total relief in these residual stresses fields. It was verified that the shot peening process induced the formation of microcracks only in the ferrite phase. The largest variations in the total compressive residual stresses fields also occurred in this phase. The samples surfaces were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy. (author)

  10. Weldability, machinability and surfacing of commercial duplex stainless steel AISI2205 for marine applications - A recent review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinoth Jebaraj, A; Ajaykumar, L; Deepak, C R; Aditya, K V V

    2017-05-01

    In the present review, attempts have been made to analyze the metallurgical, mechanical, and corrosion properties of commercial marine alloy duplex stainless steel AISI 2205 with special reference to its weldability, machinability, and surfacing. In the first part, effects of various fusion and solid-state welding processes on joining DSS 2205 with similar and dissimilar metals are addressed. Microstructural changes during the weld cooling cycle such as austenite reformation, partitioning of alloying elements, HAZ transformations, and the intermetallic precipitations are analyzed and compared with the different welding techniques. In the second part, machinability of DSS 2205 is compared with the commercial ASS grades in order to justify the quality of machining. In the third part, the importance of surface quality in a marine exposure is emphasized and the enhancement of surface properties through peening techniques is highlighted. The research gaps and inferences highlighted in this review will be more useful for the fabrications involved in the marine applications.

  11. Determination of Susceptibility to Intergranular Corrosion of UNS 31803 Type Duplex Stainless Steel by Electrochemical Reactivation Method: A Comparative Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Emin Arıkan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present study as in our previous studies (Arikan and Doruk, 2008 and Arikan et al., 2012, similar specimens taken from a hot rolled cylindrical duplex stainless steel (DSS bar with 22% Cr grade were solution annealed at 1050°C and then aged at 800∘C from 100 to 31622 min for sensitization treatment. Double loop electrochemical potentiodynamic reactivation and standard weight loss immersion acid tests were conducted. The solution annealed samples were found unsensitized. The samples aged for 100 min were less sensitized whereas samples aged for 316 min and more time were sensitized. The degree of sensitization (DOS can be attributed to higher contribution of chromium and molybdenum depleted areas that result from intermetallic phases. However, especially the samples aged from 3162 to 31622 min have revealed chromium replenishment. Consequently, the degree of sensitization was lowered in comparison to the results obtained in previous studies.

  12. Determination of Susceptibility to Intergranular Corrosion of UNS 31803 Type Duplex Stainless Steel by Electrochemical Reactivation Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Emin Arıkan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Specimens taken from a hot-rolled cylindrical duplex stainless steel (DSS bar with 22% Cr grade were solution annealed at 1050∘C and then aged at 725∘C from 100 to 31622 min for sensitization treatment. Double loop electrochemical potentiodynamic reactivation and standard weight loss immersion acid tests were conducted. The solution-annealed samples were found unsensitized. Those samples aged for 100 and 316 min were less sensitized whereas samples aged for 1000 min and especially those aged for 3162, 10000, and 31622 min were heavily sensitized. The degree of sensitization (DOS can be attributed to higher contribution of chromium- and molybdenum-depleted areas resulting from intermetallic phases.

  13. Analysis of the influence of the anisotropy induced by cold rolling on duplex and super-austenitic stainless steels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martino Labanti

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available This report contains the results obtained from the mechanical characterization tests carried out on two different stainless steel (duplex 6%Ni, 22%Cr and super-austenitic 31%Ni, 28%Cr used for the manufacturing of pipes which are employed in the oil production. The activity has been performed in order to evaluate the effects of anisotropy, induced by cold rolling, on the mechanical characteristics of the investigated steels, measured in the three main directions. Considering the small size of the component, the method and the specimens used for the tests were not the standard one. The procedure carried out provided the strain measurement of the specimen during testing by means of resistive strain gages, bonded on the specimens.

  14. Change of Precipitation Behavior and Impact Toughness with Depths in Quenched Thick SAF 2507 Super Duplex Stainless Steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahiale, Godwin Kwame; Kim, Doo-Hyun; Yang, Won-Jon; Lee, Jong-Hoon; Oh, Yong-Jun

    2018-03-01

    We investigated the change of precipitation behavior and impact resistance as a function of depth from the surface of thick block of SAF 2507 super duplex stainless steel with the thickness (T) of 200 mm after water quenching from 1050 °C. The amount of detrimental sigma phase increased smoothly until the depth of 0.25T, followed by a rapid increase from 0.25T to the center. However, the impact strength decreased significantly with only 1.3% of area fraction of sigma phase as the depth increased past 0.1T. Based on fractography analysis for the samples at such small depth ranges, the distance between the sigma phase particles affected the relative amount of initiating brittle cracks in front of the notch and was one of the crucial factors that dramatically reduced impact resistance with depth.

  15. X-Ray diffraction study of strain hardening and annealing in an UNS S31803 duplex stainless steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aguiar, Denilson Jose Marcolino de; Padilha, Angelo Fernando

    2010-01-01

    In the present work the phenomena of strain hardening, formation and reversion of the strain induced alpha-prime martensite (α', CCC, Ferromagnetic) in an UNS S31803 duplex stainless steel have been studied. Initially, the microstructure of the material in the solution annealed condition was characterized with aid of several complementary techniques of microstructural analysis. The volumetric fraction, crystalline structure, chemical composition, size and morphology of the two phases (ferrite and austenite) have been determined. The phenomena of strain hardening, formation and reversion of strain induced martensite in the austenite phase and recovery of austenite and ferrite phases have been studied, predominantly by using X-ray diffraction and the Rietveld method. (author)

  16. Nanostructure evolution and mechanical property changes during aging of a super duplex stainless steel at 300 °C

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pettersson, Niklas, E-mail: niklas.pettersson@swerea.se [Swerea KIMAB AB, P.O. Box 7047, SE-164 07 Kista (Sweden); Wessman, Sten [Swerea KIMAB AB, P.O. Box 7047, SE-164 07 Kista (Sweden); Thuvander, Mattias [Department of Applied Physics Chalmers University of Technology, SE-412 96 Göteborg (Sweden); Hedström, Peter; Odqvist, Joakim [Department of Material Science and Engineering, KTH Royal Institute of Technology, SE-100 44 Stockholm (Sweden); Pettersson, Rachel F.A. [The Swedish Steel Producers' Association, Box 1721, SE-111 87 Stockholm (Sweden); Hertzman, Staffan [Outokumpu Stainless Research Foundation, Brinellvägen 23, SE-100 44 Stockholm (Sweden)

    2015-10-28

    The nanostructure evolution and the corresponding changes in mechanical properties of a super duplex stainless steel 2507 (UNS S32750) during aging at 300 °C up to 12,000 h have been investigated. Microstructural studies using transmission electron microscopy and atom probe tomography show that subtle Cr concentration fluctuations develop during aging. The amplitude of the concentration fluctuations is proportional to the hardness of the ferrite phase, and it is also proportional to the decrease in room temperature impact toughness during aging. The fracture behaviour of the alloy changes gradually from ductile to cleavage fracture, upon aging. The cracks were found to propagate through the ferrite phase, partly along deformation twin interfaces, and delamination between the austenite and ferrite phases was observed.

  17. ACPD detection and evaluation of 475 °C embrittlement of aged 2507 super duplex stainless steels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutiérrez-Vargas, Gildardo; López, Víctor H.; Carreón, Héctor; Kim, Jin-Yeon; Ruiz, Alberto

    2017-02-01

    An investigation to evaluate embrittlement of thermally aged 2507 super duplex stainless steel (SDSS) by means of an accurate measurement of the electric conductivity using an alternating current potential drop (ACPD) probe is conducted. Samples were aged for different periods up to 300 h at 475 °C. Results obtained from the ACPD measurements show appreciable increases in electric conductivity of samples with prolonged exposure to this temperature. In addition, the hardness of the samples increases significantly for long holding times, resulting in an embrittlement of the SDSS. These results are also supported by other data from sample-based laboratory techniques, i.e. microhardness and microscopy results which provide more direct evidences of the sensitization. This paper, therefore, demonstrates the feasibility of using the ACPD probe in field applications.

  18. Fatigue crack propagation of super duplex stainless steel with dispersed structure and time-frequency analysis of acoustic emission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nam, Ki-Woo; Kang, Chang-Yong; Do, Jae-Yoon; Ahn, Seok-Hwan; Lee, Sang-Kee

    2001-06-01

    The fatigue crack propagation of super duplex stainless steel was investigated for the effect of various volume fractions of the austenite phase by changing the heat treatment temperature. We also analyzed acoustic emission signals obtained during the fatigue crack propagation by the time-frequency analysis method. As the temperature of the heat treatment increased, the volume fraction of austenite decreased and coarse grain was obtained. The specimen treated at 1200 had a longer fatigue life and slower rate of crack growth. Results of time-frequency analysis of acoustic emission signals during the fatigue test showed the main frequency of 200-300 kHz to have no correlation with heat treatment and crack length, and the 500 kHz signal to be due to dimples and separation of inclusion.

  19. Short crack growth and fatigue life in austenitic-ferritic duplex stainless steel

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Polák, Jaroslav; Zezulka, Petr

    28 2005, č. 10 (2005), s. 923-935 ISSN 8756-758X R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA106/01/0376 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20410507 Keywords : crack growth * crack initiation * duplex steel Subject RIV: JL - Materials Fatigue, Friction Mechanics Impact factor: 0.673, year: 2004

  20. Cyclic plastic response and fatigue life of duplex and superduplex stainless steel

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Polák, Jaroslav

    43 2005, č. 4 (2005), s. 280-289 ISSN 0023-432X R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA106/02/0584 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20410507 Keywords : duplex steel * fatigue life * cyclic plasticity Subject RIV: JG - Metallurgy Impact factor: 0.973, year: 2005

  1. Physical and mechanical properties of cast 17-4 PH stainless steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rack, H.J.

    1981-02-01

    The physical and mechanical properties of an overaged 17-4 PH stainless steel casting have been examined. The tensile and compressive properties of cast 17-4 PH are only influenced to a slight degree by changing test temperature and strain rate. However, both the Charpy impact energy and dynamic fracture toughness exhibit a tough-to-brittle transition with decreasing temperature - this transition being related to a change in fracture mode from ductile, dimple to cleavage-like. Finally, although the overaged 17-4 PH casting had a relatively low room temperature Charpy impact energy when compared to wrought 17-4 PH, its fracture toughness was at least comparable to that of wrought 17-4 PH. This observation suggests that prior correlations between Charpy impact energies and fracture toughness, as derived from wrought materials, must be approached with caution when applied to cast alloys

  2. Effects of Rare Earth Metal addition on the cavitation erosion-corrosion resistance of super duplex stainless steels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shim, Sung-Ik; Park, Yong-Soo; Kim, Soon-Tae; Song, Chi-Bok

    2002-05-01

    Austenitic stainless steels such as AISI 316L have been used in equipment in which fluid flows at high speeds which can induce cavitation erosion on metallic surfaces due to the collapse of cavities, where the collapse is caused by the sudden change of local pressure within the liquid. Usually AISI 316L is susceptible to cavitation erosion. This research focuses on developing a better material to replace the AISI 316L used in equipment with high speed fluid flow, such as impellers. The effects of Rare Earth Metal (REM) additions on the cavitation erosion-corrosion resistance of duplex stainless steels were studied using metallographic examination, the potentiodynamic anodic polarization test, the tensile test, the X-ray diffraction test and the ultrasonic cavitation erosion test. The experimental alloys were found to have superior mechanical properties due to interstitial solid solution strengthening, by adding high nitrogen (0.4%), as well as by the refinement of phases and grains induced by fine REM oxides and oxy-sulfides. Corrosion resistance decreases in a gentle gradient as the REM content increases. However, REM containing alloys show superior corrosion resistance compared with that of other commercial alloys (SAF 2507, AISI 316L). Owing to their excellent mechanical properties and corrosion resistance, the alloys containing REM have high cavitation erosion-corrosion resistance.

  3. Ultrasonic detection and sizing of cracks in cast stainless steel samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allidi, F.; Edelmann, X.; Phister, O.; Hoegberg, K.; Pers-Anderson, E.B.

    1986-01-01

    The test consisted of 15 samples of cast stainless steel, each with a weld. Some of the specimens were provided with artificially made thermal fatique cracks. The inspection was performed with the P-scan method. The investigations showed an improvement of recognizability relative to earlier investigations. One probe, the dual type, longitudinal wave 45 degrees, low frequence 0.5-1 MHz gives the best results. (G.B.)

  4. Materials design of high nitrogen manganese austenitic stainless TWIP steels for strip casting

    OpenAIRE

    Mosecker, Linda

    2016-01-01

    High nitrogen manganese austenitic stainless TWIP steels achieve attractive mechanical properties and excellent strain hardening behavior. However, high nitrogen steel melting methods are generally associated with high pressures to enhance the nitrogen solubility in the melt. Thin strip casting offers an attractive option that not only shortens the process route but also allows the alloying with nitrogen at atmospheric pressure. In the present work, the materials design of austenitic Fe-Cr-Mn...

  5. Quantification of Damage Progression in a Thermally Aged Duplex Stainless Steel

    OpenAIRE

    Hazarabedian, A.; Marini, B.

    2002-01-01

    Ferrite of austeno-ferritic stainless steels maintained for a long time at temperatures in the range of 270 °C to 400 °C is embrittled like the known 475 °C embrittlement of ferritic stainless steels. Deformation and damage micromechanisms of a material must be known in order to apply the "local approach to fracture" (LAF) methodology. In this work we test a previous model of damage nucleation and evolution, extending its validity to low temperature - long term aging. We have determined crack...

  6. Evaluation of structural behaviour and corrosion resistant of austenitic AISI 304 and duplex AISI 2304 stainless steel reinforcements embedded in ordinary Portland cement mortars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Medina, E.; Cobo, A.; Bastidas, D. M.

    2012-01-01

    The mechanical and structural behaviour of two stainless steels reinforcements, with grades austenitic EN 1.4301 (AISI 304) and duplex EN 1.4362 (AISI 2304) have been studied, and compared with the conventional carbon steel B500SD rebar. The study was conducted at three levels: at rebar level, at section level and at structural element level. The different mechanical properties of stainless steel directly influence the behaviour at section level and structural element level. The study of the corrosion behaviour of the two stainless steels has been performed by electrochemical measurements, monitoring the corrosion potential and the lineal polarization resistance (LPR), of reinforcements embedded in ordinary Portland cement (OPC) mortar specimens contaminated with different amount of chloride over one year time exposure. Both stainless steels specimens embedded in OPC mortar remain in the passive state for all the chloride concentration range studied after one year exposure. (Author) 26 refs.

  7. 77 K Fatigue Crack Growth Rate of Modified CF8M Stainless Steel Castings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walsh, R. P.; Toplosky, V. J.; Han, K.; Heitzenroeder, P. J.; Nelson, B. E.

    2006-01-01

    The National Compact Stellerator Experiment (NCSX) is the first of a new class of stellarators. The modular superconducting coils in the NCSX have complex geometry that are manufactured on cast stainless steel (modified CF8M) winding forms. Although CF8M castings have been used before at cryogenic temperature there is limited data available for their mechanical properties at low temperatures. The fatigue life behavior of the cast material is vital thus a test program to generate data on representative material has been conducted. Fatigue test specimens have been obtained from key locations within prototype winding forms to determine the 77 K fatigue crack growth rate. The testing has successfully developed a representative database that ensures confident design. The measured crack growth rates are analyzed in terms of the Paris law parameters and the crack growth properties are related to the materials microstructure

  8. Effects of Tungsten on the Precipitation Kinetics of Secondary Phases and the Associated Susceptibility to Pitting Corrosion in Duplex Stainless Steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Chan Jin; Kwon, Hyuk Sang

    2006-01-01

    Effects of tungsten (W) on the precipitation kinetics of secondary phases and the associated resistance to pitting corrosion of 25% Cr duplex stainless steels were investigated through microstructural and electrochemical noise analyses. With the partial substitution of W for Mo in duplex stainless steel, the potential and current noises of the alloy were significantly decreased in chloride solution due to retardation of the σ phase precipitation. The preferential precipitation of the χ phase in the W-containing alloy during the early period of aging contributed to retarding the precipitation of the σ phase by depleting W and Mo along grain boundaries. In addition, the retardation of the nucleation and growth of the σ phase in the W-containing alloy appears to be attributed to the inherently low diffusivity of W compared with that of Mo

  9. Corrosion Resistance and Mechanical Properties of TIG and A-TIG Welded Joints of Lean Duplex Stainless Steel S82441 / 1.4662

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brytan Z.

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents results of pitting corrosion resistance of TIG (autogenous and with filler metal and A-TIG welded lean duplex stainless steel S82441/1.4662 evaluated according to ASTM G48 method, where autogenous TIG welding process was applied using different amounts of heat input and shielding gases like pure Ar and Ar+N2 and Ar+He mixtures. The results of pitting corrosion resistance of the welded joints of lean duplex stainless steel S82441 were studied in as weld conditions and after different mechanical surface finish treatments. The results of the critical pitting temperature (CPT determined according to ASTM G48 at temperatures of 15, 25 and 35°C were presented. Three different surface treatment after welding were applied: etching, milling, brushing + etching. The influence of post weld surface treatment was studied in respect to the pitting corrosion resistance, basing on CPT temperature.

  10. Phase-Field Modeling of Sigma-Phase Precipitation in 25Cr7Ni4Mo Duplex Stainless Steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malik, Amer; Odqvist, Joakim; Höglund, Lars; Hertzman, Staffan; Ågren, John

    2017-10-01

    Phase-field modeling is used to simulate the formation of sigma phase in a model alloy mimicking a commercial super duplex stainless steel (SDSS) alloy, in order to study precipitation and growth of sigma phase under linear continuous cooling. The so-called Warren-Boettinger-McFadden (WBM) model is used to build the basis of the multiphase and multicomponent phase-field model. The thermodynamic inconsistency at the multiple junctions associated with the multiphase formulation of the WBM model is resolved by means of a numerical Cut-off algorithm. To make realistic simulations, all the kinetic and the thermodynamic quantities are derived from the CALPHAD databases at each numerical time step, using Thermo-Calc and TQ-Interface. The credibility of the phase-field model is verified by comparing the results from the phase-field simulations with the corresponding DICTRA simulations and also with the empirical data. 2D phase-field simulations are performed for three different cooling rates in two different initial microstructures. A simple model for the nucleation of sigma phase is also implemented in the first case. Simulation results show that the precipitation of sigma phase is characterized by the accumulation of Cr and Mo at the austenite-ferrite and the ferrite-ferrite boundaries. Moreover, it is observed that a slow cooling rate promotes the growth of sigma phase, while a higher cooling rate restricts it, eventually preserving the duplex structure in the SDSS alloy. Results from the phase-field simulations are also compared quantitatively with the experiments, performed on a commercial 2507 SDSS alloy. It is found that overall, the predicted morphological features of the transformation and the composition profiles show good conformity with the empirical data.

  11. Effects of Rare Earth Metals addition and aging treatment on the corrosion resistance and mechanical properties of super duplex stainless steels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Yong-Soo; Kim, Soon-Tae; Lee, In-Sung; Song, Chi-Bok

    2002-05-01

    Effects of rare earth metals addition and aging treatment on corrosion resistance and mechanical properties of super duplex stainless steels were investigated using optical/SEM/TEM metallographic examination, an X-ray diffraction test, a potentiodynamic anodic polarization test and a tensile test. The performance of the experimental alloy with 0.32% REM addition was compared with commercial super duplex stainless steel such as SAF 2507 when they were exposed to solution annealing heat treatment and aging treatment. The corrosion resistance in Cl- environments and mechanical properties of the experimental alloy were found superior to those of the commercial duplex stainless steel. The REM with larger atomic radii than those of Cr, Mo and W may fill vacancies inside the matrix and around the grain boundaries, retarding formation of harmful intermetallic σ and η phases. In addition, fine REM oxides/oxy-sulfides (1-3 μm) seemed to enhance the retardation effects. With REM additions, strength and ductility increased due to the phase and grain refinement caused by fine REM oxides and oxy-sulfides.

  12. Microstructural Characterization and the Effect of Phase Transformations on Toughness of the UNS S31803 Duplex Stainless Steel Aged Treated at 850 °C

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zucato Igor

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Duplex stainless steels, with ferritic-austenitic microstructure, have excellent mechanical properties and corrosion resistance. However, when duplex stainless steels are exposed to temperatures between 600 and 1000 °C, some phase transformations can occur such as chromium nitrides precipitation, chromium carbides precipitation and the sigma phase formation. The formation of such compounds leads to loss in both corrosion resistance and fracture toughness. The negative effects of the formation of chromium nitrides, carbides and the sigma phase are due to the chromium depletion in the matrix. The phase transformations cited above occur initially at ferritic-austenitic interfaces and at the grain boundaries. The aim of this work is to identify and characterize the phase transformations, which occur when aging heat treatments are carried out at temperatures at which the kinetics is the fastest for the reactions mentioned. At first, the samples were annealed at 1100 °C for 40 min. The aging heat treatments were then carried out at 850 °C for 6, 40 e 600 min. Microstructural characterization was done by using optical microscopy with different etchings, in order to identify each phase formed in the duplex stainless steel during aging heat treatments. The toughness was also evaluated by using Charpy impact test. Impact tests show that loss of toughness was related to phase transformations.

  13. Quantification of Damage Progression in a Thermally Aged Duplex Stainless Steel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Hazarabedian

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available Ferrite of austeno-ferritic stainless steels maintained for a long time at temperatures in the range of 270 °C to 400 °C is embrittled like the known 475 °C embrittlement of ferritic stainless steels. Deformation and damage micromechanisms of a material must be known in order to apply the "local approach to fracture" (LAF methodology. In this work we test a previous model of damage nucleation and evolution, extending its validity to low temperature - long term aging. We have determined cracking damage evolution by taking replicas of planar tensile specimens during uniaxial traction tests. Voronoï (Dirichlet tessellation quantitative metallography was applied to characterize and quantify non-uniform damaging. Clustering criteria allowed the determination of the size, density and internal damaging rate of damage clusters.

  14. Estimation of fracture toughness of cast stainless steels during thermal aging in LWR systems-revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chopra, O.K

    1994-08-01

    This report presents a revision of the procedure and correlations presented earlier in NUREG/CR-4513, ANL-90/42 (June 1991) for predicting the change in mechanical properties of cast stainless steel components due to thermal aging during service in light water reactors at 280-330{degrees}C (535-625{degrees}F). The correlations presented in this report are based on an expanded data base and have been optimized with mechanical-property data on cast stainless steels aged up to {approx}58,000 h at 290-350{degrees}C (554-633{degrees}F). The fracture toughness J-R curve, tensile stress, and Charpy-impact energy of aged cast stainless steels are estimated from known material information. Mechanical properties of a specific cast stainless steel are estimated from the extent and kinetics of thermal embrittlement. Embrittlement of cast stainless steels is characterized in terms of room-temperature Charpy-impact energy. Charpy-impact energy as a function of time and temperature of reactor service is estimated from the kinetics of thermal embrittlement, which are also determined from the chemical composition. The initial impact energy of the unaged steel is required for these estimations. Initial tensile flow stress is needed for estimating the flow stress of the aged material. The fracture toughness J-R curve for the material is then obtained by correlating room-temperature Charpy-impact energy with fracture toughness parameters. The values of J{sub IC} are determined from the estimated J-R curve and flow stress. A common {open_quotes}predicted lower-bound{close_quotes} J-R curve for cast stainless steels of unknown chemical composition is also defined for a given grade of steel, range of ferrite content, and temperature. Examples of estimating mechanical properties of cast stainless steel components during reactor service are presented.

  15. Wearing Quality of Austenitic, Duplex Cast Steel, Gray and Spheroidal Graphite Iron

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Pietrowski

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The current work presents the research results of abrasion wear and adhesive wear at rubbing and liquid friction of new austenitic, austenitic-ferritic (“duplex” cast steel and gray cast iron EN-GJL-250, spheroidal graphite iron EN-GJS-600-3, pearlitic with ledeburitic carbides and spheroidal graphite iron with ledeburitic carbides with a microstructure of the metal matrix: pearlitic, upper bainite, mixture of upper and lower bainite, martensitic with austenite, pearlitic-martensitic-bainitic-ausferritic obtained in the raw state. The wearing quality test was carried out on a specially designed and made bench. Resistance to abrasion wear was tested using sand paper P40. Resistance to adhesive wear was tested in interaction with steel C55 normalized, hardened and sulfonitrided. The liquid friction was obtained using CASTROL oil. It was stated that austenitic cast steel and “duplex” are characterized by a similar value of abrasion wear and adhesive wear at rubbing friction. The smallest decrease in mass was shown by the cast steel in interaction with the sulfonitrided steel C55. Austenitic cast steel and “duplex��� in different combinations of friction pairs have a higher wear quality than gray cast iron EN-GJL- 250 and spheroidal graphite iron EN-GJS-600-3. Austenitic cast steel and “duplex” are characterized by a lower wearing quality than the spheroidal graphite iron with bainitic-martensitic microstructure. In the adhesive wear test using CASTROL oil the tested cast steels and cast irons showed a small mass decrease within the range of 1÷2 mg.

  16. Influence of heat input on weld bead geometry using duplex stainless steel wire electrode on low alloy steel specimens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajit Mondal

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Gas metal arc welding cladding becomes a popular surfacing technique in many modern industries as it enhances effectively corrosion resistance property and wear resistance property of structural members. Quality of weld cladding may be enhanced by controlling process parameters. If bead formation is found acceptable, cladding is also expected to be good. Weld bead characteristics are often assessed by bead geometry, and it is mainly influenced by heat input. In this paper, duplex stainless steel E2209 T01 is deposited on E250 low alloy steel specimens with 100% CO2 gas as shielding medium with different heats. Weld bead width, height of reinforcement and depth of penetration are measured. Regression analysis is done on the basis of experimental data. Results reveal that within the range of bead-on-plate welding experiments done, parameters of welding geometry are on the whole linearly related with heat input. A condition corresponding to 0.744 kJ/mm heat input is recommended to be used for weld cladding in practice.

  17. Influence of heat input in electron beam process on microstructure and properties of duplex stainless steel welded interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhiqiang; Jing, Hongyang; Xu, Lianyong; Han, Yongdian; Zhao, Lei; Lv, Xiaoqing; Zhang, Jianyang

    2018-03-01

    The influence of heat input in electron beam (EB) process on microstructure, mechanical properties, and pitting corrosion resistance of duplex stainless steel (DSS) welded interface was investigated. The rapid cooling in EB welding resulted in insufficient austenite formation. The austenite mainly consisted of grain boundary austenite and intragranular austenite, and there was abundant Cr2N precipitation in the ferrite. The Ni, Mo, and Si segregation indicated that the dendritic solidification was primarily ferrite in the weld. The weld exhibited higher hardness, lower toughness, and poorer pitting corrosion resistance than the base metal. The impact fractures of the welds were dominated by the transgranular cleavage failure of the ferrite. The ferrite was selectively attacked because of its lower pitting resistance equivalent number than that of austenite. The Cr2N precipitation accelerated the pitting corrosion. In summary, the optimised heat input slightly increased the austenite content, reduced the segregation degree and ferrite texture intensity, decreased the hardness, and improved the toughness and pitting corrosion resistance. However, the effects were limited. Furthermore, optimising the heat input could not suppress the Cr2N precipitation. Taking into full consideration the microstructure and properties, a heat input of 0.46 kJ/mm is recommended for the EB welding of DSS.

  18. Investigation of selective corrosion resistance of aged lean duplex stainless steel 2101 by non-destructive electrochemical techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao Juan; Jiang Yiming; Deng Bo; Zhang Wei; Zhong Cheng; Li Jin

    2009-01-01

    Lean duplex stainless steel 2101 (LDX2101) shows wide application potential due to its better corrosion performance and lower cost than traditional 304 austenite steel. This paper investigates the effects of thermal aging treatments at 700 deg. C for various aging times up to 100 h on the selective corrosion resistance of LDX2101 by two non-destructive electrochemical measurements: double-loop electrochemical potentiokinetic reactivation (DL-EPR) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). The evolution of microstructure was examined by optical microscopy, SEM microscopy and X-ray diffraction techniques (XRD). The results showed that the two applied electrochemical measurements agreed very well. Both methods were able to reveal the relationship between microstructure and selective corrosion resistance, which was related to the formation of chromium- and molybdenum-depleted zones around the precipitates, especially the σ phase, during aging. Nevertheless, more information could be obtained using EIS methods, including the interfacial charge transfer reaction and the corrosion product adsorption process. The results suggest that the susceptibility of the aged alloy to selective corrosion is presumably codetermined by the formation of chromium- and molybdenum-depleted areas, as well as by the replenishment of them, in these areas from the bulk during aging.

  19. Assessment of Stress Corrosion Cracking Resistance of Activated Tungsten Inert Gas-Welded Duplex Stainless Steel Joints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alwin, B.; Lakshminarayanan, A. K.; Vasudevan, M.; Vasantharaja, P.

    2017-12-01

    The stress corrosion cracking behavior of duplex stainless steel (DSS) weld joint largely depends on the ferrite-austenite phase microstructure balance. This phase balance is decided by the welding process used, heat input, welding conditions and the weld metal chemistry. In this investigation, the influence of activated tungsten inert gas (ATIG) and tungsten inert gas (TIG) welding processes on the stress corrosion cracking (SCC) resistance of DSS joints was evaluated and compared. Boiling magnesium chloride (45 wt.%) environment maintained at 155 °C was used. The microstructure and ferrite content of different weld zones are correlated with the outcome of sustained load, SCC test. Irrespective of the welding processes used, SCC resistance of weld joints was inferior to that of the base metal. However, ATIG weld joint exhibited superior resistance to SCC than the TIG weld joint. The crack initiation and final failure were in the weld metal for the ATIG weld joint; they were in the heat-affected zone for the TIG weld joint.

  20. Direct Observations of Sigma Phase Formation in Duplex Stainless Steels using In Situ Synchrotron X-Ray Diffraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elmer, J W; Palmer, T A; Specht, E D

    2006-07-03

    The formation and growth of sigma phase in 2205 duplex stainless steel was observed and measured in real time using synchrotron radiation during 10 hr isothermal heat treatments at temperatures between 700 C and 850 C. Sigma formed in near-equilibrium quantities during the isothermal holds, starting from a microstructure which contained a balanced mixture of metastable ferrite and austenite. In situ synchrotron diffraction continuously monitored the transformation, and these results were compared to those predicted by thermodynamic calculations. Differences between the calculated and measured amounts of sigma, ferrite and austenite suggest that the thermodynamic calculations underpredict the sigma dissolution temperature by approximately 50 C. The data were further analyzed using a modified Johnson-Mehl-Avrami (JMA) approach to determine kinetic parameters for sigma formation over this temperature range. The initial JMA exponent, n, at low fractions of sigma was found to be approximately 7.0, however, towards the end of the transformation, n decreased to values of approximately 0.75. The change in the JMA exponent was attributed to a change in the transformation mechanism from discontinuous precipitation with increasing nucleation rate, to growth of the existing sigma phase after nucleation site saturation occurred. Because of this change in mechanism, it was not possible to determine reliable values for the activation energy and pre-exponential terms for the JMA equation. While cooling back to room temperature, the partial transformation of austenite resulted in a substantial increase in the ferrite content, but sigma retained its high temperature value to room temperature.

  1. Investigation of Coated Cutting Tool Performance during Machining of Super Duplex Stainless Steels through 3D Wear Evaluations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yassmin Seid Ahmed

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the wear mechanisms and tribological performance of uncoated and coated carbide tools were investigated during the turning of super duplex stainless steel (SDSS—Grade UNS S32750, known commercially as SAF 2507. The tool wear was evaluated throughout the cutting tests and the wear mechanisms were investigated using an Alicona Infinite Focus microscope and a scanning electron microscope (SEM equipped with energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS. Tribo-film formation on the worn rake surface of the tool was analyzed using X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS. In addition, tribological performance was evaluated by studying chip characteristics such as thickness, compression ratio, shear angle, and undersurface morphology. Finally, surface integrity of the machined surface was investigated using the Alicona microscope to measure surface roughness and SEM to reveal the surface distortions created during the cutting process, combined with cutting force analyses. The results obtained showed that the predominant wear mechanisms are adhesion and chipping for all tools investigated and that the AlTiN coating system exhibited better performance in all aspects when compared with CVD TiCN + Al2O3 coated cutting insert and uncoated carbide insert; in particular, built-up edge formation was significantly reduced.

  2. The influence of temperature on the tensile properties of a super duplex stainless steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Girones, A.; Mateo, A.; Llanes, L.; Anglada, M

    2001-01-01

    Tensile tests, at temperatures ranging between 275 and 475 degree centigree were performed in a superduplex stainless steel EN 1.4410. The dependence of yield stress and ultimate tensile strength on temperature indicates the existence of dynamic strain aging (DSA). In order to evaluate the influence of strain rate on this phenomenon, tests were conducted at two different strain rates, both at 325 degree centigree, temperature at which DSA is maximum for this materials. The results shows that the flow stress has an inverse strain rate sensitivity which confirms the existence of DSA in the steel under study. (Author) 10 refs

  3. Kinetics of the σ Phase Precipitation in Respect of Erosion-corrosion Wear of Duplex Cast Steel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brodziak-Hyska A.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The examined material comprised two grades of corrosion-resistant cast steel, namely GX2CrNiMoN25-6-3 and GX2CrNiMoCuN25-6-3- 3, used for example in elements of systems of wet flue gas desulphurisation in power industry. The operating conditions in media heated up to 70°C and containing Cl' and SO4 ions and solid particles produce high erosive and corrosive wear.The work proposes an application of the σ phase as a component of precipitation strengthening mechanism in order to increase the functional properties of the material. The paper presents the results of examination of the kinetics of σ phase precipitation at a temperature of 800°C and at times ranging from 30 to 180 minutes. Changes in the morphology of precipitates of the σ phase were determined using the value of shape factor R. Resistance to erosion-corrosion wear of duplex cast steel was correlated with the kinetics of sigma phase precipitating.

  4. Assessment of Crack Detection in Heavy-Walled Cast Stainless Steel Piping Welds Using Advanced Low-Frequency Ultrasonic Methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, Michael T.; Crawford, Susan L.; Cumblidge, Stephen E.; Denslow, Kayte M.; Diaz, Aaron A.; Doctor, Steven R.

    2007-03-01

    Studies conducted at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory in Richland, Washington, have focused on assessing the effectiveness and reliability of novel approaches to nondestructive examination (NDE) for inspecting coarse-grained, cast stainless steel reactor components. The primary objective of this work is to provide information to the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission on the effectiveness and reliability of advanced NDE methods as related to the inservice inspection of safety-related components in pressurized water reactors (PWRs). This report provides progress, recent developments, and results from an assessment of low frequency ultrasonic testing (UT) for detection of inside surface-breaking cracks in cast stainless steel reactor piping weldments as applied from the outside surface of the components. Vintage centrifugally cast stainless steel piping segments were examined to assess the capability of low-frequency UT to adequately penetrate challenging microstructures and determine acoustic propagation limitations or conditions that may interfere with reliable flaw detection. In addition, welded specimens containing mechanical and thermal fatigue cracks were examined. The specimens were fabricated using vintage centrifugally cast and statically cast stainless steel materials, which are typical of configurations installed in PWR primary coolant circuits. Ultrasonic studies on the vintage centrifugally cast stainless steel piping segments were conducted with a 400-kHz synthetic aperture focusing technique and phased array technology applied at 500 kHz, 750 kHz, and 1.0 MHz. Flaw detection and characterization on the welded specimens was performed with the phased array method operating at the frequencies stated above. This report documents the methodologies used and provides results from laboratory studies to assess baseline material noise, crack detection, and length-sizing capability for low-frequency UT in cast stainless steel piping.

  5. Kinetics modeling of delta-ferrite formation and retainment during casting of supermartensitic stainless steel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nießen, Frank; Tiedje, Niels Skat; Hald, John

    2017-01-01

    , equilibrium calculations and the Scheil model in Thermo-Calc, and validated by using microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy for chemical analysis on a cast ingot. The kinetics model showed that micro-segregation from solidification homogenizes within 2–3 s (70 °C) of cooling, and that retained δ......The kinetics model for multi-component diffusion DICTRA was applied to analyze the formation and retainment of δ-ferrite during solidification and cooling of GX4-CrNiMo-16-5-1 cast supermartensitic stainless steel. The obtained results were compared with results from the Schaeffler diagram......-ferrite originates from the incomplete transformation to austenite. The kinetics model predicted the measured amount of δ-ferrite and the partitioning of Cr and Ni reasonably well. Further, it showed that slower cooling for the investigated alloy leads to less retained δ-ferrite, which is in excellent agreement...

  6. Structural stability of super duplex stainless weld metals and its dependence on tungsten and copper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nilsson, J.O.; Wilson, A.; Huhtala, T.; Karlsson, L.; Jonsson, P.

    1996-01-01

    Three different superduplex stainless weld metals have been produced using manual metal arc welding under identical welding conditions. The concentration of the alloying elements tungsten and copper corresponded to the concentrations in commercial superduplex stainless steels (SDSS). Aging experiments in the temperature range 700 C to 1,110 C showed that the formation of intermetallic phase was enhanced in tungsten-rich weld metal and also dissolved at higher temperatures compared with tungsten-poor and tungsten-free weld metals. It could be inferred from time-temperature-transformation (TTT) and continuous-cooling-transformation (CCT) diagrams produced in the present investigation that the critical cooling rate to avoid 1 wt pct of intermetallic phase was 2 times faster for tungsten-rich weld metal. Microanalysis in combination with thermodynamic calculations showed that tungsten was accommodated in χ phase, thereby decreasing the free energy. Experimental evidence supports the view that the formation of intermetallic phase is enhanced in tungsten-rich weld metal, owing to easier nucleation of nonequilibrium χ phase compared with σ phase. The formation of secondary austenite (γ 2 ) during welding was modeled using the thermodynamic computer program Thermo-Calc. Satisfactory agreement between theory and practice was obtained. Thermo-Calc was capable of predicting observed lower concentrations of chromium and nitrogen in γ 2 compared with primary austenite. The volume fraction of γ 2 was found to be significantly higher in tungsten-rich and tungsten + copper containing weld metal. The results could be explained by a higher driving force for precipitation of γ 2 in these

  7. Structural stability of super duplex stainless weld metals and its dependence on tungsten and copper

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilsson, J.-O.; Huhtala, T.; Jonsson, P.; Karlsson, L.; Wilson, A.

    1996-08-01

    Three different superduplex stainless weld metals have been produced using manual metal arc welding under identical welding conditions. The concentration of the alloying elements tungsten and copper corresponded to the concentrations in commercial superduplex stainless steels (SDSS). Aging experiments in the temperature range 700 °C to 1110 °C showed that the formation of intermetallic phase was enhanced in tungsten-rich weld metal and also dissolved at higher temperatures compared with tungsten-poor and tungsten-free weld metals. It could be inferred from time-temperature-transformation (TTT) and continuous-cooling-transformation (CCT) diagrams produced in the present investigation that the critical cooling rate to avoid 1 wt pct of intermetallic phase was 2 times faster for tungsten-rich weld metal. Microanalysis in combination with thermodynamic calculations showed that tungsten was accommodated in χ phase, thereby decreasing the free energy. Experimental evidence supports the view that the formation of intermetallic phase is enhanced in tungsten-rich weld metal, owing to easier nucleation of nonequilibrium χ phase compared with σ phase. The formation of secondary austenite (γ2) during welding was modeled using the thermodynamic computer program Thermo-Calc. Satisfactory agreement between theory and practice was obtained. Thermo-Calc was capable of predicting observed lower concentrations of chromium and nitrogen in γ2 compared with primary austenite. The volume fraction of γ2 was found to be significantly higher in tungsten-rich and tungsten + copper containing weld metal. The results could be explained by a higher driving force for precipitation of γ2 in these.

  8. Utilization of aluminum to obtaining a duplex type stainless steel using high energy ball milling; Obtencao de um aco inoxidavel de estrutura duplex do sistema FeMnAl processado por moagem de alta energia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pavlak, I.E.; Cintho, O.M., E-mail: eng.igorpavlak@yahoo.com.b [Universidade Estadual de Ponta Grossa (UEPG), PR (Brazil); Capocchi, J.D.T. [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil)

    2010-07-01

    The obtaining of stainless steel using aluminum in its composition - FeMnAl system, has been researches subject since the sixties, by good mechanical properties and resistance to oxidation presented, when compared with conventional FeNiCr stainless steel system. In another point, the aluminum and manganese are low cost then traditional elements. This work, metallic powders of iron, manganese and pure aluminum, were processed in a Spex type high-energy ball mill in nitrogen atmosphere. The milling products were compressed into pastille form and sintered under inert atmosphere. The final products were characterized by optical and electronic microscopy and microhardness test. The metallographic analysis shows a typical austenite and ferrite duplex type microstructure. The presence of these phases was confirmed according X ray diffraction analysis. (author)

  9. [Mineral migration from stainless steel, cast iron and soapstone (steatite) Brazilian pans to food preparations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quintaes, Késia Diego; Farfan, Jaime Amaya; Tomazini, Fernanda Mariana; Morgano, Marcelo Antônio

    2006-09-01

    Culinary utensils may release some inorganic elements during food preparation. Mineral migration can be beneficial for as long as it occurs in amounts adequate to the needs of the consumer or no toxicological implications are involved. In this study, the migrations of Fe, Mg, Mn, Cr, Ni and Ca, along seven cooking cycles were evaluated for two food preparations (polished rice and commercial tomato sauce, the latter as an acid food), performed in unused stainless steel, cast iron and soapstone pans, taking refractory glass as a blank. Minerals were determined by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP OES). The utensils studied exhibited different rates, patterns and variability of migration depending on the type of food. Regression analysis of the data revealed that, as a function of the number of cycles, the iron pans released increasing amounts of iron when tomato sauce was cooked (y = 70.76x + 276.75; R2 = 0.77). The soapstone pans released calcium (35 and 26 mg/kg), magnesium (25 and 15 mg/kg) into the tomato sauce and rice preparations, respectively. Additionally, the commercial tomato sauce drew manganese (3.9 and 0.6 mg/kg) and some undesirable nickel (1.0 mg/kg) from the soapstone material, whereas the stainless steel pans released nickel at a lower rate than steatite and in a diminishing fashion with the number o cooking cycles, while still transferring some iron and chromium to the food. We conclude that while cast iron and glass could be best for the consumer's nutritional health, stainless steel and steatite can be used with relatively low risk, provided acid foods are not routinely prepared in those materials.

  10. Effect of W substitution for Mo on stress corrosion cracking behavior of 25Cr-7Ni duplex stainless steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ha, Tae Hong; Kim, Kyoo Young

    1998-01-01

    The effect of W substitution for Mo in duplex stainless steel (DSS) was investigated with respect to microstructure and stress corrosion cracking behavior. Homogenizing treatment was performed at 1100.deg.C for 10 minutes, while aging treatment was performed at 900.deg.C with different holding times. In homogenized condition, regardless of W substitution, all the specimens had the nearly equal volume-ratio of ferrite and austenite, and had no secondary phase precipitation. On aging, the W modification on suppression of secondary phase precipitation was very effective. Total amount of secondary phase precipitates was greatly reduced in the W-modified DSS in the early stage of the ageing treatment comparing to the commercial grade DSS without W modification. However, this effect was reduced rapidly as the aging time increased. Stress corrosion cracking(SCC) was examined in boil-ing 42% MgCl 2 solution by slow strain rate test(SSRT) and constant load test (CLT). Under the homogenized condition, the beneficial effect of W was clearly observed at the low applied stress levels where the electrochemical action plays a dominant role. In the commercial grade DSS without W modification, the crack propagated in a trans-phase mode,whereas in the W-modified DSS, the crack propagated in a mixed mode of trans-phase and inter-phase due to barrier effect of austenite phase against crack growth. Under the aged condition, the signification improvement in SCC resistance of the aged DSS specimens with W modification resulted from increase in toughness due to a relatively small amount of the brittle secondary phase precipitates. However, the cracks propagated in a trans-phase mode in the DSS specimens regardless of W modification

  11. Evaluation of hydrogen trapping mechanisms during performance of different hydrogen fugacity in a lean duplex stainless steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silverstein, R., E-mail: barrav@post.bgu.ac.il [Department of Material Science and Engineering, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, Beer-Sheva (Israel); Eliezer, D. [Department of Material Science and Engineering, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, Beer-Sheva (Israel); Glam, B.; Eliezer, S.; Moreno, D. [Soreq Nuclear Research Center, Yavne, 81800 (Israel)

    2015-11-05

    Hydrogen trapping behavior in a lean duplex stainless steel (LDS) is studied by means of thermal desorption spectrometry (TDS). The susceptibility of a metal to hydrogen embrittlement is directly related to the trap characteristics: source or sink (reversible or irreversible, respectively). Since trapping affects the metal's diffusivity, it has a major influence on the hydrogen assisted cracking (HAC) phenomenon. It is known from previously published works that the susceptibility will depend on the competition between reversible and irreversible traps; meaning a direct relation to the hydrogen's initial state in the steel. In this research the trapping mechanism of LDS, exposed to different hydrogen charging environments, is analyzed by means of TDS. The TDS analysis was supported and confirmed by means of X-ray diffraction (XRD), hydrogen quantitative measurements and microstructural observations. It was found that gaseous charging (which produces lower hydrogen fugacity) creates ∼22% higher activation energy for hydrogen trapping compared with cathodic charging (which produces higher hydrogen fugacity). These results are due to the different effects on the hydrogen behavior in LDS which causes a major difference in the hydrogen contents and different hydrogen assisted phase transitions. The highest activation energy value in the cathodic charged sample was ascribed to the dominant phase transformation of γ → γ{sup ∗}, whereas in the gaseous charged sample it was ascribed to the dominant formation of intermetallic compound, sigma (σ). The relation between hydrogen distribution in LDS and hydrogen trapping mechanism is discussed in details. - Highlights: • The relation between hydrogen distribution and trapping in LDS is discussed. • Hydrogen's initial state in LDS causes different microstructural changes. • Gaseous charged LDS creates higher trapping energy compared to cathodic charged LDS. • The dominant phase transformation in

  12. Effect of ageing on phase evolution and mechanical properties of a high tungsten super-duplex stainless steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akisanya, Alfred R.; Obi, Udoka; Renton, Neill C.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Secondary phases precipitate in a high tungsten SDSS aged between 700 and 900 °C. ► The volume fraction of the sigma phase increases as the holding time increases. ► The evolution of the sigma phase agrees with Johnson–Mehl–Avrami kinetic model. ► The secondary phases enhance the Young's modulus, hardness and strength. ► The ductility decreased significantly with increasing amount of sigma phase. - Abstract: The effect of ageing temperature and holding time on the precipitation of secondary phases and the mechanical properties of a 25Cr–6.7Ni–0.32N–3.0Mo–2.5W super duplex stainless steel is examined. The ageing temperature was varied from 600 to 900 °C and the holding time was varied from 1 to 240 min. Two types of Cr and Mo enriched intermetallic phases, sigma (σ) and chi (χ), were found to precipitate preferentially at the ferrite/austenite interface and within the ferrite grain. The precipitation of the χ-phase occurred preferentially before the σ-phase. The concentration of these secondary phases, which was quantified by a combination of microscopy and image analysis, increases with increasing ageing temperature and holding time, leading to significant reduction in the uniform strain and enhancement of the modulus, hardness and yield and tensile strengths. The measured concentration of the precipitated sigma phase is in agreement with the prediction by the Johnson–Mehl–Avrami kinetic model.

  13. On the S-phase formation and the balanced plasma nitriding of austenitic-ferritic super duplex stainless steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira, Willian R.; Kurelo, Bruna C. E. S.; Ditzel, Dair G.; Serbena, Francisco C.; Foerster, Carlos E.; de Souza, Gelson B.

    2018-03-01

    The different physical responses of austenite (γ) and ferrite (α) iron structures upon nitriding result in technical challenges to the uniform modification of α-γ materials, as the super duplex stainless steel (SDSS). The effects of voltage (7-10 kV), frequency and pulse width on the nitrogen plasma immersion ion implantation of SDSS (α ∼ 56%, γ ∼ 44%) were investigated, correlated with structural, morphological and mechanical analyses. By controlling the treatment power, temperatures ranged from 292 °C to 401 °C. Despite the overall increase in hardness for any of the employed parameters (from ∼6 GPa to ∼15 GPa), the structure of individual grains was strikingly dissimilar at the same temperatures, depending on the energetic conditions of implantation. Modified-α grains containing iron nitrides (ε-Fe2-3N, γ‧ -Fe4N) presented intense brittleness, whereas the expanded phase γN (S-phase) laid principally in modified-γ grains, exhibiting ductile-like deformation features and thicker layers. The γN was the dominant phase in both α-γ grains at ∼401 °C, providing them with balanced structure and mechanical behavior. These phenomena corroborate with γN as mediator of the process, through a mechanism involving the nitrogen-promoted ferrite to austenite conversion and nitrides dissolution at high temperatures. An approximately linear correlation of the γN content with respect to the ion energy per pulse was demonstrated, which properly embodies limiting effects to the treatment. This can be a parameter for the α-γ steel surface modification, consisting in a better adjustment to obtain more precise control along with temperature.

  14. Effects of sulfur addition on pitting corrosion and machinability behavior of super duplex stainless steel containing rare earth metals: Part 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeon, Soon-Hyeok; Kim, Soon-Tae; Lee, In-Sung; Park, Yong-Soo

    2010-01-01

    Research highlights: → The mechanisms on the effects of rare earth metals (REM) and sulfur (S) additions on the initiation and propagation of pitting corrosion and machinabillity of a super duplex stainless steel (SDSS) were elucidated → It was found that, in consideration of the ratio of lifetime (the resistance to pitting corrosion) to cost (machining and raw material), a costly austenitic stainless steel with high Ni , medium Mo and low N can be replaced by the high S and REM added SDSS with 7 wt.% Ni-4 wt% Mo-0.3 wt.% N → The resistance to pitting corrosion of the tested super duplex stainless steel was affected by the type of inclusions, the preferential interface areas between inclusions and the substrate, and the PREN difference between the γ-phase and the α-phase for the initiation and propagation of the pitting corrosion. - Abstract: To elucidate the effects of sulfur addition on pitting corrosion and machinability behavior of alloys containing rare earth metals, a potentiostatic polarization test, a critical pitting temperature test, a SEM-EDS analysis of inclusions, and a tool life test were conducted. As sulfur content increased, the resistance to pitting corrosion decreased due to the formation of numerous manganese sulfides deteriorating the corrosion resistance and an increase in the preferential interface areas for the initiation of the pitting corrosion. With an increase in sulfur content, the tool life increased due to the lubricating films of manganese sulfides adhering to tool surface.

  15. Microstructural study of thermally aged duplex stainless steel deformation and fracture modes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verhaeghe, B.

    1996-01-01

    The aim of this work is to study the micro mechanisms of deformation and rupture of an austeno ferritic stainless steel (Z 3 CND 22-10 M) with 33 % of ferrite. It is studied after ageing 1 000 h at 400 deg. C and 8 000 h at 350 deg. C and compared to the 'as received' state. During ageing the ferritic phase undergoes microstructural evolutions which affects its properties. The two ageing treatments lead to roughly the same level of embrittlement. Microstructural characterisation shows that both phases percolate and exhibit orientation relationships close to Kurdjumov-Sachs ones. Mechanical properties of the steel were characterised for different ageing treatments at room temperature and at 320 deg. C. The interface is particularly strong and ensures the load transfer to ferrite even if this phase contains cleavage cracks. Moreover the interface does not oppose slip transmission which is instead controlled by localised glide in the ferritic phase. If activated slip systems of austenite are common with ferrite, slip transmission from austenite to ferrite indeed occurs through the=e interface. If they are not common, dislocations cross-slip back into the austenite. At 320 deg. C cross-slip occurs even far from the interface. Damage starts by nucleation in ferrite of cleavage cracks which propagate between austenite islands. Crack propagation is controlled by stretching of austenite ligaments. The material breaks by ductile tearing of austenite islands when the crack eventually percolates in the ferritic phase. The ductility of the material can be correctly describer using a simple model that takes into account the tearing-off the ductile-phase. (author)

  16. Engineering study for a melting, casting, rolling and fabrication facility for recycled contaminated stainless steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-01-01

    This Preliminary Report is prepared to study the facilities required for recycling contaminated stainless steel scrap into plate which will be fabricated into boxes suitable for the storage of contaminated wastes and rubble. The study is based upon the underlying premise that the most cost effective way to produce stainless steel is to use the same processes employed by companies now in production of high quality stainless steel. Therefore, the method selected for this study for the production of stainless steel plate from scrap is conventional process using an Electric Arc Furnace for meltdown to hot metal, a Continuous Caster for production of cast slabs, and a Reversing Hot Mill for rolling the slabs into plate. The fabrication of boxes from the plate utilizes standard Shears, Punch Presses and welding equipment with Robotic Manipulators. This Study presumes that all process fumes, building dusts and vapors will be cycled through a baghouse and a nuclear grade HEPA filter facility prior to discharge. Also, all process waste water will be evaporated into the hot flue gas stream from the furnace utilizing a quench tank; so there will be no liquid discharges from the facility and all vapors will be processed through a HEPA filter. Even though HEPA filters are used today in controlling radioactive contamination from nuclear facilities there is a sparsity of data concerning radioactivity levels and composition of waste that may be collected from contaminated scrap steel processing. This report suggests some solutions to these problems but it is recommended that additional study must be given to these environmental problems.

  17. Engineering study for a melting, casting, rolling and fabrication facility for recycled contaminated stainless steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    This Preliminary Report is prepared to study the facilities required for recycling contaminated stainless steel scrap into plate which will be fabricated into boxes suitable for the storage of contaminated wastes and rubble. The study is based upon the underlying premise that the most cost effective way to produce stainless steel is to use the same processes employed by companies now in production of high quality stainless steel. Therefore, the method selected for this study for the production of stainless steel plate from scrap is conventional process using an Electric Arc Furnace for meltdown to hot metal, a Continuous Caster for production of cast slabs, and a Reversing Hot Mill for rolling the slabs into plate. The fabrication of boxes from the plate utilizes standard Shears, Punch Presses and welding equipment with Robotic Manipulators. This Study presumes that all process fumes, building dusts and vapors will be cycled through a baghouse and a nuclear grade HEPA filter facility prior to discharge. Also, all process waste water will be evaporated into the hot flue gas stream from the furnace utilizing a quench tank; so there will be no liquid discharges from the facility and all vapors will be processed through a HEPA filter. Even though HEPA filters are used today in controlling radioactive contamination from nuclear facilities there is a sparsity of data concerning radioactivity levels and composition of waste that may be collected from contaminated scrap steel processing. This report suggests some solutions to these problems but it is recommended that additional study must be given to these environmental problems

  18. Investigation of the Weld Properties of Dissimilar S32205 Duplex Stainless Steel with AISI 304 Steel Joints Produced by Arc Stud Welding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aziz Barış Başyiğit

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available UNS S32205 duplex stainless steel plates with a thickness of 3 mm are arc stud welded by M8 × 40 mm AISI 304 austenitic stainless steel studs with constant stud lifts in order to investigate the effects of welding arc voltages on mechanical and microstructural behaviors of the joints. As the welding arc voltage increases starting from 140 V, the tensile strength of the weldment also increases but the higher arc values results in more spatters around the weld seam up to 180 V. Conversely, the lower arc voltages causes poor tensile strength values to weldments. Tensile tests proved that all of the samples are split from each other in the welding zone but deformation occurs in duplex plates during the tensile testing of weldments so that the elongation values are not practically notable. The satisfactory tensile strength and bending values are determined by applying 180 volts of welding arc voltage according to ISO 14555 standard. Peak values of micro hardness occurred in weld metal most probably as a consequence of increasing heat input decreasing the delta ferrite ratios. As the arc voltage increases, the width of the heat affected zone increases. Coarsening of delta-ferrite and austenite grains was observed in the weld metal peak temperature zone but it especially becomes visible closer to the duplex side in all samples. The large voids and unwelded zones up to approximately 1 mm by length are observed by macro-structure inspections. Besides visual tests and micro-structural surveys; bending and microhardness tests with radiographic inspection were applied to samples for maintaining the correct welding parameters in obtaining well-qualified weldments of these two distinct groups of stainless steel materials.

  19. Microstructural evolution during aging at 800 °C and its effect on the magnetic behavior of UNS S32304 lean duplex stainless steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dille, J., E-mail: jdille@metalmat.ufrj.br [Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, COPPE - Federal University of Rio de Janeiro Cidade Universitária, Centro de Tecnologia, Bloco F, CEP 21941-914 Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Areiza, M.C.L. [Laboratory of Nondestructive Testing, Corrosion and Welding, Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, Federal University of Rio of Janeiro, CEP 21941-596 (Brazil); Tavares, S.S.M. [Universidade Federal Fluminense – Departamento de Engenharia Mecânica, Rua Passo da Pátria, 156, CEP 24210-240 Niterói (Brazil); Pereira, G.R.; De Almeida, L.H.; Rebello, J.M.A. [Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, COPPE - Federal University of Rio de Janeiro Cidade Universitária, Centro de Tecnologia, Bloco F, CEP 21941-914 Rio de Janeiro (Brazil)

    2017-03-15

    Duplex stainless steels are high strength and corrosion resistant alloys extensively used in chemical and petrochemical industries. However, exposition to temperatures in the range 300–1000 °C leads to precipitation of different phases having a detrimental effect on the mechanical properties and on the corrosion resistance of the alloy. In this work, the microstructural evolution during aging of a UNS S32304 lean duplex stainless steel was investigated by scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy and magnetic force microscopy. Formation of secondary austenite as well as Cr{sub 2}N and Cr{sub 23}C{sub 6} precipitation and, consequently, a decrease of ferrite volume fraction were observed. EDX analysis indicated that secondary austenite is depleted in chromium which is detrimental to the corrosion resistance of the alloy. A variation of magnetic properties and Eddy current measurement parameters during aging was simultaneously detected and can be explained by the decrease of ferrite volume content. Therefore, Eddy current non-destructive testing can be successfully applied to detect the formation of deleterious phases during aging. - Highlights: • Aging of UNS S32304 lean duplex stainless steel at 800 °C is investigated. • STEM reveals formation of Cr-depleted secondary austenite and precipitation of Cr{sub 23}C{sub 6} and Cr{sub 2}N. • Microstructural transformation occurs only during the first 30 min of aging. • Microstructural evolution during aging is correlated to magnetic properties evolution. • Eddy current testing permits to survey the formation of deleterious secondary austenite.

  20. Influence of the nitrogen gas addition in the Ar shielding gas on the erosion-corrosion of tube-to-tube sheet welds of hyper duplex stainless steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Hye-Jin; Jeon, Soon-Hyeok; Kim, Soon-Tae; Lee, In-Sung; Park, Yong-Soo

    2014-01-01

    Duplex stainless steels with nearly equal fraction of the ferrite(α) phase and austenite(γ) phase have been increasingly used for various applications such as power plants, desalination facilities due to their high resistance to corrosion, good weldability, and excellent mechanical properties. Hyper duplex stainless steel (HDSS) is defined as the future duplex stainless steel with a pitting resistance equivalent (PRE= wt.%Cr+3.3(wt.%Mo+0.5wt.%W)+30wt.%N) of above 50. However, when HDSS is welded with gas tungsten arc (GTA), incorporation of nitrogen in the Ar shielding gas are very important because the volume fraction of α-phase and γ-phase is changed and harmful secondary phases can be formed in the welded zone. In other words, the balance of corrosion resistance between two phases and reduction of Cr 2 N are the key points of this study. The primary results of this study are as follows. The addition of N 2 to the Ar shielding gas provides phase balance under weld-cooling conditions and increases the transformation temperature of the α-phase to γ-phase, increasing the fraction of γ-phase as well as decreasing the precipitation of Cr2N. In the anodic polarization test, the addition of nitrogen gas in the Ar shielding gas improved values of the electrochemical parameters, compared to the Pure Ar. Also, in the erosion-corrosion test, the HDSS welded with shielding gas containing N 2 decreased the weight loss, compared to HDSS welded with the Ar pure gas. This result showed the resistance of erosion-corrosion was increased due to increasing the fraction of γ-phase and the stability of passive film according to the addition N 2 gas to the Ar shielding gas. As a result, the addition of nitrogen gas to the shielding gas improved the resistance of erosion-corrosion

  1. Evaluation of single crystal elastic constants and stacking fault energy in high-nitrogen duplex stainless steel by in-situ neutron diffraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Yanghoo; Kim, Yong Min; Koh, Ji-Yeon; Lee, Tae-Ho; Woo, Wan Chuck; Han, Heung Nam

    2016-01-01

    Single crystal elastic constants of austenite and ferrite phases in high-nitrogen duplex stainless steel were evaluated by an elastic self-consistent model combined with an optimization process using in-situ neutron diffraction data. The optimized elastic constants were validated by the indentation moduli of each phase obtained by nanoindentation. In addition, the stacking fault energy of austenite was evaluated based on the neutron diffraction profile and the single crystal elastic constants and was subsequently correlated with the observed deformation microstructure.

  2. In situ and ex situ neutron diffraction study on deformation behavior of high-nitrogen, Ni-free duplex stainless steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Tae-Ho; Ha, Heon-Young; Kang, Jun-Yun; Hwang, Byoungchul; Woo, Wanchuk; Shin, Eunjoo

    2012-01-01

    In situ and ex situ neutron diffraction were used to investigate the deformation behavior of high-nitrogen, nickel-free duplex stainless steel. During in situ deformation, both ferrite and austenite deformed plastically to the same degree. The stacking fault energy of austenite was evaluated to be 36.2 mJ m –2 from ex situ neutron profiles, which correlated well with the observed deformation microstructure of twin formation. A significant decrease in the effective particle size of austenite was due to the formation of deformation twins.

  3. A study on the mechanism of stress corrosion cracking of duplex stainless steels in hot alkaline-sulfide solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chasse, Kevin Robert

    Duplex stainless steels (DSS) generally have superior strength and corrosion resistance as compared to most standard austenitic and ferritic stainless grades owing to a balanced microstructure of austenite and ferrite. As a result of having favorable properties, DSS have been selected for the construction of equipment in pulp and paper, chemical processing, nuclear, oil and gas as well as other industries. The use of DSS has been restricted in some cases because of stress corrosion cracking (SCC), which can initiate and grow in either the ferrite or austenite phase depending on the environment. Thorough understanding of SCC mechanisms of DSS in chloride- and hydrogen sulfide-containing solutions has been useful for material selection in many environments. However, understanding of SCC mechanisms of DSS in sulfide-containing caustic solutions is limited, which has restricted the capacity to optimize process and equipment design in pulp and paper environments. Process environments may contain different concentrations of hydroxide, sulfide, and chloride, altering corrosion and SCC susceptibility of each phase. Crack initiation and growth behavior will also change depending on the relative phase distribution and properties of austenite and ferrite. The role of microstructure and environment on the SCC of standard grade UNS S32205 and lean grade UNS S32101 in hot alkaline-sulfide solution were evaluated in this work using electrochemical, film characterization, mechanical testing, X-ray diffraction, and microscopy techniques. Microstructural aspects, which included residual stress state, phase distribution, phase ratio, and microhardness, were related to the propensity for SCC crack initiation in different simulated alkaline pulping liquors at 170 °C. Other grades of DSS and reference austenitic and superferritic grades of stainless steel were studied using exposure coupons for comparison to understand compositional effects and individual phase susceptibility

  4. Optimization of Sigma Phase Precipitates with Respect to the Functional Properties of Duplex Cast Steel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Stradomski

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the results of examination concerning optimization of the σ phase precipitates with respect to the functional properties of ferritic-austenitic cast steel. The examined material comprised two grades of corrosion-resistant cast steel, namely GX2CrNiMoN25-6-3 and GX2CrNiMoCuN25-6-3-3, used for example in elements of systems of wet flue gas desulphurisation in power industry. The operating conditions in media heated up to 70°C and containing Cl- and SO4 ions and solid particles produce high erosive and corrosive wear. The work proposes an application of the σ phase as a component of precipitation strengthening mechanism in order to increase the functional properties of the material. Morphology and quantities of σ phase precipitates were determined, as well as its influence on the erosion and corrosion wear resistance. It was shown that annealing at 800°C or 900°C significantly improves tribological properties as compared with the supersaturated state, and the best erosion and corrosion wear resistance achieved due to the ferrite decomposition δ → γ’ + σ was exhibited in the case of annealing at the temperature of 800°C for 3 hours.

  5. Thermal Aging Performance of Domestic Cast Austenitic Stainless Steels in Nuclear Power Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chengliang, Li; Xiaoyun, Deng; Zhiying, Yin; Yuangang, Duan

    The domestic cast austenitic stainless steels (CASS) used for PWR main coolant lines face thermal aging phenomenon during long-term service at reactor operating temperatures in the range of 280-320°C. The accelerated thermal aging experiment of CASS at an elevated temperature of 400°C was carried out. The decrease regularity of absorbed energy of CASS at room temperature was obtained by Charpy impact test, and the variation trend of impacted specimen's fracture surfaces of CASS at different aging time was observed by scanning electron microscope. The experimental results show that: after 15,000 hours of accelerated thermal aging, the domestic CASS gradually reaches a thermal aging saturation, and its absorbed energy suffers a dramatic loss, dropping to almost 41-45% of the initial value, but still meets the assessment indicators for unaged state required by design specifications.

  6. Ultrasonic interactions with CCSS [Centrifugally Cast Stainless Steel] and guidelines for CCSS inspection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rose, J.L.; Ngok, T.D.K.; Tverdokhlebov, A.; Balasubramaniam, K.; Huang, Yimei

    1990-01-01

    The project described in this paper is a follow-up of last year's work, Software Simulation of Ultrasonic Interactions with Centrifugally Cast Stainless Steel (CCSS) and Guidelines for CCSS Inspection. Piping components made of CCSS exhibit enhanced corrosion resistance and are therefore widely used in the nuclear industry. However, the polycrystalline microstructure of CCSS forms a pattern with a unidirectional orientation of preference that makes the material distinctively anisotropic. It is now well recognized and acknowledged that anisotropic materials pose essential difficulties for traditional ultrasonic NDE techniques in terms of detection, location, sizing, and classification of defects. This report presents the computational results of the two computer programs developed as a principal fulfillment of the project

  7. The strength evaluation and σ-phase aging behavior of cast stainless steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwon, Jae Do; Park, Joong Cheul; Lee, Woo Ho; Jang, Sun Sik

    1999-01-01

    σ-phase of cast stainless steel(CF8M) was artificially precipitated by means of thermal aging at 700 deg C with various holding time (0.33, 5, 15, 50 and 150 hrs) to evaluate the behavior of thermal aging status of strength change. The structure observation, hardness test, tensile test, impact test and fatigue crack growth rates test for as-received and degraded material were also performed to evaluate static strength, toughness and fatigue crack growth behavior corresponding to the aging condition of CF8M. The results showed that the area fraction of σ-phase and hardness value increased with thermal aging time. But, for the impact values, upper shelf energy decreased and fatigue crack growth rates increased with σ-phase aging progressed than that of virgin material

  8. Properties of cast Ti-stabilised stainless steel after long-term ageing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ehrnsten, U.; Karjalainen-Roikonen, P.; Nenonen, P.; Ahlstrand, R.; Hietanen, O.; Timofeev, B.T.; Bloomin, A.A.

    2000-01-01

    Mechanical properties and microstructure are studied and compared for two kinds of specimens of cast Ti-stabilized stainless steel 08Kh18N10T used for manufacturing of valves and pumps in nuclear power plants. One set of specimens represents the main gate valve material after 106000 h (∼ 12 years) operation at 270 deg C. The comparison is made with reference specimens in as-fabricated state. The results of impact tests, hardness measurements and microscopic examination show that 12 year operation gives rise to the shift of ductile-brittle transition temperature to higher values (from - 68 deg C - 103 deg C). The microstructure of both materials is similar. The microhardness of δ-ferrite in the steel after long-term operation is slightly higher [ru

  9. Microstructure, Pitting Corrosion Resistance and Impact Toughness of Duplex Stainless Steel Underwater Dry Hyperbaric Flux-Cored Arc Welds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yu; Shen, Xiao-Qin; Wang, Zhong-Min

    2017-01-01

    Duplex stainless steel multi-pass welds were made at 0.15 MPa, 0.45 MPa, and 0.75 MPa pressure, simulating underwater dry hyperbaric welding by the flux-cored arc welding (FCAW) method, with welds of normal pressure as a benchmark. The purpose of this work was to estimate the effect of ambient pressure on the microstructure, pitting corrosion resistance and impact toughness of the weld metal. The microstructure measurement revealed that the ferrite content in the weld metal made at 0.45 MPa is the lowest, followed by that of 0.75 MPa and 0.15 MPa. The analysis of potentiodynamic polarization tests at 30 °C and 50 °C demonstrated that the pitting corrosion resistance depends on the phases of the lower pitting resistance equivalent numbers (PREN), secondary austenite and ferrite. The weld metal made at 0.45 MPa had the best resistance to pitting corrosion at 30 °C and 50 °C with the highest PRENs of secondary austenite and ferrite. The weld metal made at 0.15 MPa displayed the lowest pitting corrosion resistance at 30 °C with the lowest PREN of secondary austenite, while the weld metal made at 0.75 MPa was the most seriously eroded after being tested at 50 °C for the lowest PREN of ferrite, with large cluster pits seen in ferrite at 50 °C. The impact tests displayed a typical ductile-brittle transition because of the body-centered cubic (BCC) structure of the ferrite when the test temperature was lowered. All the weld metals met the required value of 34 J at −40 °C according to the ASTM A923. The highest ferrite content corresponded to the worst impact toughness, but the highest toughness value did not correspond to the greatest austenite content. With the decreasing of the test temperature, the drop value of absorbed energy was correlated to the ferrite content. Additionally, in this work, the weld metal made at 0.45 MPa had the best combined properties of pitting resistance and impact toughness. PMID:29258262

  10. Microstructure, Pitting Corrosion Resistance and Impact Toughness of Duplex Stainless Steel Underwater Dry Hyperbaric Flux-Cored Arc Welds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yu; Shi, Yong-Hua; Shen, Xiao-Qin; Wang, Zhong-Min

    2017-12-18

    Duplex stainless steel multi-pass welds were made at 0.15 MPa, 0.45 MPa, and 0.75 MPa pressure, simulating underwater dry hyperbaric welding by the flux-cored arc welding (FCAW) method, with welds of normal pressure as a benchmark. The purpose of this work was to estimate the effect of ambient pressure on the microstructure, pitting corrosion resistance and impact toughness of the weld metal. The microstructure measurement revealed that the ferrite content in the weld metal made at 0.45 MPa is the lowest, followed by that of 0.75 MPa and 0.15 MPa. The analysis of potentiodynamic polarization tests at 30 °C and 50 °C demonstrated that the pitting corrosion resistance depends on the phases of the lower pitting resistance equivalent numbers (PREN), secondary austenite and ferrite. The weld metal made at 0.45 MPa had the best resistance to pitting corrosion at 30 °C and 50 °C with the highest PRENs of secondary austenite and ferrite. The weld metal made at 0.15 MPa displayed the lowest pitting corrosion resistance at 30 °C with the lowest PREN of secondary austenite, while the weld metal made at 0.75 MPa was the most seriously eroded after being tested at 50 °C for the lowest PREN of ferrite, with large cluster pits seen in ferrite at 50 °C. The impact tests displayed a typical ductile-brittle transition because of the body-centered cubic (BCC) structure of the ferrite when the test temperature was lowered. All the weld metals met the required value of 34 J at -40 °C according to the ASTM A923. The highest ferrite content corresponded to the worst impact toughness, but the highest toughness value did not correspond to the greatest austenite content. With the decreasing of the test temperature, the drop value of absorbed energy was correlated to the ferrite content. Additionally, in this work, the weld metal made at 0.45 MPa had the best combined properties of pitting resistance and impact toughness.

  11. Transformation and Precipitation Reactions by Metal Active Gas Pulsed Welded Joints from X2CrNiMoN22-5-3 Duplex Stainless Steels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ion-Dragos Utu

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The high alloying degree of Duplex stainless steels makes them susceptible to the formation of intermetallic phases during their exposure to high temperatures. Precipitation of these phases can lead to a decreasing of the corrosion resistance and sometimes of the toughness. Starting from the advantages of the synergic Metal Active Gas (MAG pulsed welding process, this paper analyses the structure formation particularities of homogeneous welded joints from Duplex stainless steel. The effect of linear welding energy on the structure morphology of the welded joints was revealed by macro- and micrographic examinations, X-ray energy dispersion analyses, measurements of ferrite proportion and X-ray diffraction analysis. The results obtained showed that the transformation of ferrite into austenite is associated with the chromium, nickel, molybdenum and nitrogen distribution between these two phases and their redistribution degree is closely linked to the overall heat cycle of the welding process. The adequate control of the energy inserted in the welded components provides an optimal balance between the two microstructural constituents (Austenite and Ferrite and avoids the formation of undesirable intermetallic phases.

  12. Static tensile deformation behavior of a lean duplex stainless steel studied by in situ neutron diffraction and synchrotron radiation white x-rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsuchida, Noriyuki; Kawahata, Taiji; Ishimaru, Eiichiro; Takahashi, Akihiko; Suzuki, Hiroshi; Shobu, Takahisa

    2013-01-01

    To investigate the tensile deformation behavior of a lean duplex stainless steel (S32101) from the viewpoints of plastic deformability among phases or grains, we performed static tensile tests, in situ neutron diffraction, and white x-ray diffraction experiments at room temperature. In the static tensile tests, the S32101 steel displayed a larger uniform elongation and a better tensile strength-uniform elongation balance than a commercial SUS329J4L duplex stainless steel. A larger uniform elongation of S32101 is associated with the macroscopic work hardening behavior that a work hardening rate higher than the flow stress can maintain up until high true strains. From the experimental results of synchrotron radiation white x-ray diffraction experiments, the hard phase of S32101 was changed from the ferrite (α) phase to austenite (γ) one during tensile deformation. This led to a larger stress partitioning between the phases at the latter stage of deformation. From the experimental results of in situ neutron diffraction, it was found that the stress partitioning of the γ phase in the S32101 was the largest among the present results. Therefore, the larger work hardening rate of S32101 can be explained by the large stress partitioning of the γ phase, that between γ and α phases and γ volume fraction. (author)

  13. Microstructural evolution during aging at 800 °C and its effect on the magnetic behavior of UNS S32304 lean duplex stainless steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dille, J.; Areiza, M. C. L.; Tavares, S. S. M.; Pereira, G. R.; De Almeida, L. H.; Rebello, J. M. A.

    2017-03-01

    Duplex stainless steels are high strength and corrosion resistant alloys extensively used in chemical and petrochemical industries. However, exposition to temperatures in the range 300-1000 °C leads to precipitation of different phases having a detrimental effect on the mechanical properties and on the corrosion resistance of the alloy. In this work, the microstructural evolution during aging of a UNS S32304 lean duplex stainless steel was investigated by scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy and magnetic force microscopy. Formation of secondary austenite as well as Cr2N and Cr23C6 precipitation and, consequently, a decrease of ferrite volume fraction were observed. EDX analysis indicated that secondary austenite is depleted in chromium which is detrimental to the corrosion resistance of the alloy. A variation of magnetic properties and Eddy current measurement parameters during aging was simultaneously detected and can be explained by the decrease of ferrite volume content. Therefore, Eddy current non-destructive testing can be successfully applied to detect the formation of deleterious phases during aging.

  14. Hot-Dip Aluminizing on AISI F55–UNS S32760 Super Duplex Stainless Steel Properties: Effect of Thermal Treatments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Francesco Ciuffini

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The behavior of super duplex stainless steels AISI F55-UNS S32760 in hot-dip aluminizing process has been studied, investigating the influence of cold working and of different initial microstructures obtained through a preliminary thermal treatment. The microstructural features examined are the secondary austenite precipitation, the static recovery of ferrite and the thermal dissolution of austenite within ferritic matrix. The hot-dip aluminizing temperature has been optimized through sessile drop tests. The treatment has been performed at 1100 °C for 300 s, 900 s and 2700 s. A strong chemical interaction occurs, generating intermetallic compounds at the interface. Molten aluminum interacts exclusively with the ferritic phase due to its much higher diffusivity in this phase coupled with its marked ferrite-stabilizer behavior. Thus, the influence of cold working is not remarkable, since the strains are mainly allocated by austenitic phase. The diffusivity of aluminum increases due to lattice defects thermally generated and, mainly, to influence given by grain boundaries, multiplied by secondary austenite precipitation, which act as short-circuit diffusion paths. Ni and Cr contents in the ferritic matrix have an influence but not highly relevant. Then, the best starting condition of the super duplex stainless steel substrates, to obtain a thick interfacial layer, are the thermal annealing at 1080 °C for 360 s/mm after a solution thermal treatment at 1300 °C for 60 s/mm.

  15. Characterization of weld strength and impact toughness in the multi-pass welding of super-duplex stainless steel UNS 32750

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Devendranath Ramkumar, K.; Thiruvengatam, G.; Sudharsan, S.P.; Mishra, Debidutta; Arivazhagan, N.; Sridhar, R.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Effect of filler metals on the weldability of super-duplex stainless steel plates. • Contemplative explanations on the metallurgical and mechanical properties of the weldments. • Enhanced mechanical properties of the welds at ambient room temperature. - Abstract: This paper investigates the weldability, metallurgical and mechanical properties of the UNS 32750 super-duplex stainless steels joints by Gas Tungsten Arc Welding (GTAW) employing ER2553 and ERNiCrMo-4 filler metals. Impact and tensile studies envisaged that the weldments employing ER2553 exhibited superior mechanical properties compared to ERNiCrMo-4 weldments. Microstructure studies performed using optical and SEM analysis clearly exhibited the different forms of austenite including widmanstatten austenite on the weld zone employing ER2553 filler. Also the presented results clearly reported the effect of filler metals on strength and toughness during the multi-pass welding. This research article addressed the improvement of tensile and impact strength using appropriate filler wire without obtaining any deleterious phases

  16. Effect of Dynamic Reheating Induced by Weaving on the Microstructure of GTAW Weld Metal of 25% Cr Super Duplex Stainless Steel Weld Metal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hee-Joon Sung

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The importance of the additional growth and/or transformation of the austenite phase that occurs in weld metals of super duplex stainless steel upon reheating is known. However, the effects have not been fully investigated, especially with respect to reheating induced by weaving during single-pass welding. In this work, bead-on-pipe gas tungsten arc welding (GTAW was conducted on super duplex stainless steel to understand the effect of weaving on the microstructure of weld metal. Microstructural analysis, electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD, and focused ion beam transmission electron microscopy (FIB-TEM were carried out to investigate the relationship between weaving and microstructural change. The weaving of GTAW produced a dynamic reheated area just before the weld bead during welding. It was revealed that extensive reheated weld existed even after one welding pass, and that the content of the austenite phase in the reheated area was higher than that in the non-reheated area, indicating the existence of a large quantity of intragranular austenite phase. In addition, the Cr2N content in the reheated area was lower than that in the non-reheated area. This reduction of Cr2N was closely related to the reheating resulting from weaving. TEM analysis revealed that Cr2N in the non-reheated area was dispersed following heating and transformed to secondary austenite.

  17. X-Ray diffraction study of strain hardening and annealing in an UNS S31803 duplex stainless steel; Estudo por difracao de raios-X do encruamento e do recozimento do aco inoxidavel duplex UNS S318031

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aguiar, Denilson Jose Marcolino de; Padilha, Angelo Fernando [Universidade de Sao Paulo (EP/USP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Departamento de Engenharia Metalurgica e de Materiais; Lima, Nelson Batista de [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2010-07-01

    In the present work the phenomena of strain hardening, formation and reversion of the strain induced alpha-prime martensite (α', CCC, Ferromagnetic) in an UNS S31803 duplex stainless steel have been studied. Initially, the microstructure of the material in the solution annealed condition was characterized with aid of several complementary techniques of microstructural analysis. The volumetric fraction, crystalline structure, chemical composition, size and morphology of the two phases (ferrite and austenite) have been determined. The phenomena of strain hardening, formation and reversion of strain induced martensite in the austenite phase and recovery of austenite and ferrite phases have been studied, predominantly by using X-ray diffraction and the Rietveld method. (author)

  18. Effect of shot peening treatment in the behavior of residual stress in duplex stainless steel during medium cycle fatigue; Efeito do tratamento de shot peening no comportamento das tensoes residuais em aco inoxidavel duplex durante fadiga de medio ciclo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pedrosa, Peter D.S.; Rebello, Joao Marcos A. [Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-Graduacao de Engenharia (PEMM/COPPE/UFRJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Programa de Engenharia Metalurgica e de Materiais; Fonseca, Maria P. Cindra, E-mail: mcindra@vm.uff.b [Universidade Federal Fluminense (PGMEC/UFF), Niteroi, RJ (Brazil). Escola de Engenharia. Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Engenharia Mecanica

    2010-07-01

    The lifetime of duplex stainless steel parts experiencing cyclic fatigue is directly influenced by the residual stresses present in the ferrite and austenite phases. The motivation for this work was to analyze the behaviour of the residual stresses fields introduced by shot peening treatment in both phases, in the sample surface as in the subsurface layers, in low fatigue cycles, using the X-rays diffraction technique. The results shows that the compressive residual stresses introduced by the shot peening treatment in both phases improved fatigue life of the material. However, the cyclical loads produce partial or total relief in these residual stresses fields. It was verified that the shot peening process induced the formation of microcracks only in the ferrite phase. The largest variations in the total compressive residual stresses fields also occurred in this phase. The samples surfaces were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy. (author)

  19. Effect of inclusions on mechanical properties of Nb stabilized austenitic stainless steels (316Nb) with centrifugal and sand casting techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Türker, Mehmet; Çapan, Levon Josef

    2018-01-01

    In this study, 316Nb stabilized austenitic stainless steel pieces were produced via sand and centrifugal casting method in order to be investigated. Heat treatments were done in two stages, and cooling was made in various quenching mediums. As-cast parts and the parts with only the highest and the lowest tensile strength were investigated. Metallographical analyses were made and the content of non-metallic inclusions was examined. Various types of carbides in microstructures were determined by means of SEM-EDX analysis. The sand casting samples had more non-metallic inclusions than the centrifugal casting ones. After the tensile tests, it was seen that these inclusions had significant effect on the mechanical properties. The tensile strength, the yield strength, the elongation and the hardness values of the centrifugal casting samples were higher than the sand casting ones. Investigating the SEM-EDX analyses, it was determined that the sand cast samples had chromium carbides in small quantities, in addition to niobium carbides. Centrifugal cast parts had niobium carbides.

  20. Effect of Sintering Atmosphere and Solution Treatment on Density, Microstructure and Tensile Properties of Duplex Stainless Steels Developed from Pre-alloyed Powders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murali, Arun Prasad; Mahendran, Sudhahar; Ramajayam, Mariappan; Ganesan, Dharmalingam; Chinnaraj, Raj Kumar

    2017-10-01

    In this research, Powder Metallurgy (P/M) of Duplex Stainless Steels (DSS) of different compositions were prepared through pre-alloyed powders and elemental powders with and without addition of copper. The powder mix was developed by pot mill for 12 h to obtain the homogeneous mixture of pre-alloyed powder with elemental compositions. Cylindrical green compacts with the dimensions of 30 mm diameter and 12 mm height were compacted through universal testing machine at a pressure level of 560 ± 10 MPa. These green compacts were sintered at 1350 °C for 2 h in hydrogen and argon atmospheres. Some of the sintered stainless steel preforms were solution treated at 1050 °C followed by water quenching. The sintered as well as solution treated samples were analysed by metallography examination, Scanning Electron Microscopy and evaluation of mechanical properties. Ferrite content of sintered and solution treated DSS were measured by Fischer Ferritoscope. It is inferred that the hydrogen sintered DSS depicted better density (94% theoretical density) and tensile strength (695 MPa) than the argon sintered steels. Similarly the microstructure of solution treated DSS revealed existence of more volume of ferrite grains than its sintered condition. Solution treated hydrogen sintered DSS A (50 wt% 316L + 50 wt% 430L) exhibited higher tensile strength of 716 MPa and elongation of 17%, which are 10-13% increment than the sintered stainless steels.

  1. Nano-scale study of phase separation in ferrite of long term thermally aged Mo-bearing duplex stainless steels - Atom probe tomography and Monte Carlo simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pareige, C.; Emo, J.; Pareige, P.; Saillet, S.; Domain, C.

    2015-01-01

    Duplex stainless steels (DSS), used in primary circuit of Pressurised Water Reactor (PWR), are prone to thermal ageing at service temperature, typically between 286 and 323 C. degrees. This ageing is due to the ferrite decomposition via two kinds of phase transformations: spinodal decomposition into Fe rich α zones and Cr rich α' zones and precipitation of G-phase enriched in Ni, Si, Mn and Mo. It has been shown by atom probe tomography (APT) that the G-phase particles form at the interface between α and α' regions thereby demonstrating that α-α' decomposition and G-phase precipitation are highly dependent. The synergy between the two decomposition processes should be related to both the thermodynamics of the system and the diffusion mechanisms active during ageing. This can be studied by atomistic kinetic Monte Carlo (AKMC) with a model that can reproduce the phase transformations which take place in ferrite of duplex stainless steels. This paper presents the first simulations of the kinetics of spinodal decomposition and G-phase precipitation occurring in ferrite of duplex stainless steels. The kinetics was simulated using a simple but effective atomic kinetic Monte Carlo model in a ternary alloy. The simulations reproduced the α/α' spinodal structure with precipitates at the α/α' interface. The comparison of simulated results with experiments shows that the simulations quantitatively reproduce the kinetics of phase transformation and the synergy observed experimentally between the spinodal decomposition and G-phase precipitation: the time evolution of the wavelength of the spinodal decomposition and the radius of G-phase precipitates were quantitatively reproduced. The simulations endorse the assumption that G-phase precipitation mainly results from the rejection of G-formers from α and α' domains. By following the vacancy pathway during simulation, we show that coarsening of the G-phase precipitates must proceed via

  2. Development of Stronger and More Reliable Cast Austenitic Stainless Steels (H-Series) Based on Scientific and Design Methodology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pankiw, Roman I; Muralidharan, G. (Murali); Sikka, Vinod K.

    2006-06-30

    The goal of this project was to increase the high-temperature strength of the H-Series of cast austenitic stainless steels by 50% and the upper use temperature by 86 to 140 degrees fahrenheit (30 to 60 degrees celsius). Meeting this goal is expected to result in energy savings of 35 trillion Btu/year by 2020 and energy cost savings of approximately $230 million/year. The higher-strength H-Series cast stainless steels (HK and HP type) have applications for the production of ethylene in the chemical industry, for radiant burner tubes and transfer rolls for secondary processing of steel in the steel industry, and for many applications in the heat treating industry, including radiant burner tubes. The project was led by Duraloy Technologies, Inc., with research participation by Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and industrial participation by a diverse group of companies.

  3. Microstructures, Mechanical and Chemical Properties of TLP-Bonded Joints in a Duplex Stainless Steel with Amorphous Ni-Based Insert Alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Xinjian; Kim, Myung Bok; Cho, Young Ho; Kang, Chung Yun

    2012-06-01

    The changes in tensile strength and pitting corrosion resistance of transient liquid-phase (TLP)-bonded joints for a duplex stainless steel with MBF-80, MBF-30, and MBF-35 as functions of holding time and filler were interpreted with respect to the bond microstructure. Using MBF-80 after 300 seconds, the fracture strength of the joint reached the maximum value. The failure was dependent on the interplay between the reduction in residual liquid and the increase in interface precipitates. After 3600 seconds, the joint strength had the minimum value. At the same conditions, the tensile strength for MBF-80 was low compared with MBF-35 and MBF-30. In contrast with the tensile strength, the joint produced with MBF-80 for 3600 seconds exhibited the best corrosion resistance. Among the fillers used, the corrosion resistance of the joint using MBF-80 close to that of the substrate could be related intimately to the existence of Cr in this filler.

  4. Effects of Nitrogen and Tensile Direction on Stress Corrosion Cracking Susceptibility of Ni-Free FeCrMnC-Based Duplex Stainless Steels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heon-Young Ha

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Stress corrosion cracking (SCC behavior of Ni-free duplex stainless steels containing N and C (Febalance-19Cr-8Mn-0.25C-(0.03, 0.21N, in wt % was investigated by using a slow strain rate test (SSRT in air and aqueous NaCl solution with different tensile directions, including parallel (longitudinal and perpendicular (transverse to the rolling direction. It was found that alloying N was effective in increasing the resistance to SCC, while it was higher along the longitudinal direction than the transverse direction. The SCC susceptibility of the two alloys was assessed based on the electrochemical resistance to pitting corrosion, the corrosion morphology, and the fractographic analysis.

  5. Effect of Hydrogen Charging on the Stress Corrosion Behavior of 2205 Duplex Stainless Steel Under 3.5 wt.% NaCl Thin Electrolyte Layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Tianliang; Liu, Zhiyong; Hu, Shanshan; Du, Cuiwei; Li, Xiaogang

    2017-05-01

    The effect of hydrogen charging on the stress corrosion cracking (SCC) behavior of 2205 duplex stainless steel (DSS) under 3.5 wt.% NaCl thin electrolyte layer was investigated on precharged samples through hydrogen determination, electrochemical measurement, and slow strain rate tensile test. Results show that hydrogen charging weakens the passive film without inducing any obvious trace of localized anodic dissolution. Therefore, hydrogen charging increases the SCC susceptibility of 2205 DSS mainly through mechanism of hydrogen embrittlement rather than mechanism of localized anodic dissolution. 2205 DSS shows a more susceptibility to hydrogen under the TEL when hydrogen charging current density (HCCD) is between 20 and 50 mA cm-2. The increasing trend is remarkable when hydrogen charging current density increases from 20 to 50 mA cm-2 and fades after 50 mA cm-2.

  6. Observations of copper clustering in a 25Cr-7Ni super duplex stainless steel during low-temperature aging under load

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thuvander, M.; Zhou, J.; Odqvist, J.; Hertzman, S.; Hedström, P.

    2012-07-01

    Atom-probe tomography was used to investigate phase separation and copper (Cu) clustering in the ferrite phase of a 25Cr-7Ni super duplex stainless steel. The steel was subjected to a tensile load during aging at 325°C for 5800 h. The degree of phase separation into α (Fe-rich) and α‧ (Cr-rich) was small, but still, it was the highest in the steel subjected to the highest load. Cu was found to cluster, and the number density of clusters increased with increasing load. In the material subjected to the highest load, Cu was enriched in regions that were neither Fe-rich nor Cr-rich. These regions also had the highest number density of Cu clusters.

  7. Effect of χ Phase Formation on the Mechanical Properties of 25Cr-7Ni-4Mo-0.2N Super Duplex Stainless Steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Chang Yong; Kim, Jae Hwan

    2011-01-01

    This study was carried out to investigate the precipitation behavior of χ phase and effect of χ-phase which precipitated at the initial stage of aging on mechanical properties of 25%Cr-7%Ni-4%Mo-0.2%N super duplex stainless steel. χ-phase was precipitated mainly at the interface of ferrite / austenite phases and inside of the ferrite phase at the initial stage of aging, and it was transformed into σ-phase with an increase of aging time. The ferrite phase was decomposed into new austenite(γ 2 )phase and σ-phase by aging treatment. The hardness and tensile strength of the initial stage of aging when χ-phase was precipitated did not changed considerably, while elongation rapidly decreased. Accordingly, it is considered that χ-phase didn't affect the hardness and strength significantly, but it affected the elongation.

  8. Effects of the Substitution of the Mo Element W of Super Duplex Stainless Steel Weld on the Secondary Phase Formation and Corrosion Resistance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Hae-Ji; Lee, Hae-Woo [Dong-A University, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-03-15

    To investigate the effect of tungsten substitution of molybdenum on the formation of the second phase in Super Duplex Stainless Steel Weldments, welding wires with a composition of 3 wt% Mo, 2.2 wt% Mo-2.2 wt% W were designed for the flux cored arc welding process. As a result, the precipitation of the χ phase and σ phase increased in proportion to the decrease in the amount of δ ferrite content because the reaction, δ ferrite → σ + γ2, proceeded as the temperature rose. Under the same experimental conditions, the precipitation of the second phase, which degrades the properties of the material, was significantly reduced in the W substitution specimens compared to the Mo-only specimens. A polarization test conducted in a salt solution revealed that the pitting potential of the W substitution specimens was higher than that of the Mo-only specimens.

  9. Technical Letter Report on the Cracking of Irradiated Cast Stainless Steels with Low Ferrite Content

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Y. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Alexandreanu, B. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Natesan, K. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2014-11-01

    Crack growth rate and fracture toughness J-R curve tests were performed on CF-3 and CF-8 cast austenite stainless steels (CASS) with 13-14% of ferrite. The tests were conducted at ~320°C in either high-purity water with low dissolved oxygen or in simulated PWR water. The cyclic crack growth rates of CF-8 were higher than that of CF-3, and the differences between the aged and unaged specimens were small. No elevated SCC susceptibility was observed among these samples, and the SCC CGRs of these materials were comparable to those of CASS alloys with >23% ferrite. The fracture toughness values of unirradiated CF-3 were similar between unaged and aged specimens, and neutron irradiation decreased the fracture toughness significantly. The fracture toughness of CF-8 was reduced after thermal aging, and declined further after irradiation. It appears that while lowering ferrite content may help reduce the tendency of thermal aging embrittlement, it is not very effective to mitigate irradiation-induced embrittlement. Under a combined condition of thermal aging and irradiation, neutron irradiation plays a dominant role in causing embrittlement in CASS alloys.

  10. Influence of temperature, cold deformation and a constant mechanical load on the microstructural stability of a nitrogen alloyed duplex stainless steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weisbrodt-Reisch, A.; Brummer, M.; Hadler, B.; Wolbank, B.; Werner, E.A.

    2006-01-01

    The influence of temperature, cold deformation and constant mechanical load on the microstructural stability and the kinetics of phase decomposition of a nitrogen-alloyed duplex stainless steel (0.34 wt.% N) was investigated. Calculation of the phase equilibria was done with THERMOCALC using the steel database TCFE3 in order to predict the stability of the phases and to estimate the influence of temperature on the fraction and chemical composition of the phases. Various ageing treatments between 800 deg. C and 1300 deg. C were performed for different time intervals with controlled heating and cooling rates. In order to determine the influence of deformation, annealing at 800 deg. C after cold deformation as well as dilatometry experiments were performed under a constant mechanical compressive load at 800 deg. C and 900 deg. C. Microstructural characterization was carried out by means of light microscopy, electron microscopy and X-ray diffractometry. It was found that the microstructural evolution under a thermal load alone in the temperature range above 950 deg. C concerns mainly the transformation of austenite to ferrite, while below 950 deg. C ferrite decomposition and precipitation of nitrides occur. Since duplex stainless steels possess a microstructure consisting of paramagnetic austenite and ferromagnetic ferrite, the kinetics of ferrite decomposition can be determined easily by magnetic inductive measurements. The results of the microstructural investigations and the measurements of the saturation magnetization show that there is a satisfactory agreement with the theoretical predictions based on THERMOCALC. Ferrite decomposition is significantly accelerated by strain introduced during cold deformation. Furthermore, even under a small mechanical load the kinetics of phase decomposition behaviour at 900 deg. C is drastically changed. Whereas during short annealing times the microstructure remains nearly stable the same annealing conditions under a constant

  11. Improvement of localised corrosion resistance of AISI 2205 Duplex Stainless Steel joints made by gas metal arc welding under electromagnetic interaction of low intensity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    García-Rentería, M.A., E-mail: crazyfim@gmail.com [Instituto de Investigación en Metalurgia y Materiales, Universidad Michoacana de San Nicolás de Hidalgo, A.P. 888, CP 58000, Morelia, Michoacán (Mexico); López-Morelos, V.H., E-mail: vhlopez@umich.mx [Instituto de Investigación en Metalurgia y Materiales, Universidad Michoacana de San Nicolás de Hidalgo, A.P. 888, CP 58000, Morelia, Michoacán (Mexico); García-Hernández, R., E-mail: rgarcia@umich.mx [Instituto de Investigación en Metalurgia y Materiales, Universidad Michoacana de San Nicolás de Hidalgo, A.P. 888, CP 58000, Morelia, Michoacán (Mexico); Dzib-Pérez, L., E-mail: luirdzib@uacam.mx [Centre for Corrosion Research, Autonomous University of Campeche, Av. Agustín Melgar s/n, Col. Buenavista, CP 24039, Campeche, Cam (Mexico); García-Ochoa, E.M., E-mail: emgarcia@uacam.mx [Centre for Corrosion Research, Autonomous University of Campeche, Av. Agustín Melgar s/n, Col. Buenavista, CP 24039, Campeche, Cam (Mexico); González-Sánchez, J., E-mail: jagonzal@uacam.mx [Centre for Corrosion Research, Autonomous University of Campeche, Av. Agustín Melgar s/n, Col. Buenavista, CP 24039, Campeche, Cam (Mexico)

    2014-12-01

    Highlights: • Electromagnetic interaction in welding improved localised corrosion resistance. • Electromagnetic interaction in welding enhanced γ/δ phase balance of DuplexSS. • Welding under Electromagnetic interaction repress formation and growth of detrimental phases. • Welds made with gas protection (2% O{sub 2} + 98% Ar) have better microstructural evolution during welding. - Abstract: The resistance to localised corrosion of AISI 2205 duplex stainless steel plates joined by Gas Metal Arc Welding (GMAW) under the effect of electromagnetic interaction of low intensity (EMILI) was evaluated with sensitive electrochemical methods. Welds were made using two shielding gas mixtures: 98% Ar + 2% O{sub 2} (M1) and 97% Ar + 3% N{sub 2} (M2). Plates were welded under EMILI using the M1 gas with constant welding parameters. The modified microstructural evolution in the high temperature heat affected zone and at the fusion zone induced by application of EMILI during welding is associated with the increase of resistance to localised corrosion of the welded joints. Joints made by GMAW using the shielding gas M2 without the application of magnetic field presented high resistance to general corrosion but high susceptibility to undergo localised attack.

  12. Influence of Solution Treatment Temperature on Microstructural Properties of an Industrially Forged UNS S32750/1.4410/F53 Super Duplex Stainless Steel (SDSS Alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasile Dănuț Cojocaru

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In this present study, the influence of solution annealing temperature on microstructural properties of a forged Super Duplex Stainless Steel (SDSS was investigated by SEM-BSE (Scanning Electron Microscopy-Backscattered Electrons and SEM-EBSD (Scanning Electron Microscopy-Electron Backscatter Diffraction techniques. A brief solution treatment was applied to the forged super duplex alloy, at different temperatures between 800 °C and 1100 °C, with a constant holding time of 0.6 ks (10 min. Microstructural characteristics such as nature, weight fraction, distribution and morphology of constituent phases, average grain-size and grain misorientation were analysed in relation to the solution annealing temperature. Experimental results have shown that the constituent phases in the SDSS alloy are δ-Fe, γ-Fe and σ (Cr-Fe and that their properties are influenced by the solution treatment temperature. SEM examinations revealed microstructural modifications induced by the Cr rich precipitates along the δ/γ and δ/δ grain boundaries, which may significantly affect the toughness and the corrosion resistance of the alloy. Solution annealing at 1100 °C led to complete dissolution of σ (Cr-Fe phase, the microstructure being formed of primary δ-Fe and γ-Fe. The orientation relationship between δ/δ, γ/γ and δ/γ grains was determined by electron back scattering diffraction (EBSD. Both primary constituent phase’s microhardness and global microhardness were determined.

  13. Stress corrosion cracking and hydrogen embrittlement behaviour of high strength duplex and austenitic stainless steels in simulated concrete pore solution

    OpenAIRE

    GRIMAULT, Benoît; GAILLET, Laurent; DRISSI-HABTI, Monssef; MANTEL, Marc; CHAUVEAU, Eric; CHAUSSADENT, Thierry

    2011-01-01

    Stainless steels are playing an increasingly role in civil engineering, especially in coastal and marine constructions, where the concentration of chloride ions is higher. Their use as concrete reinforcement rebar is an interesting example of that idea. However, although some studies about the use of stainless steels in prestressing are emerging, no realistic realization has been performed. This might be due to technical lock as the high mechanical strength needed for prestressing seems to be...

  14. In situ neutron diffraction study of the low cycle fatigue of the alpha-gamma duplex stainless steel

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Lukáš, Petr; Muránsky, Ondrej; Polák, Jaroslav; Jenčuš, Peter

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 23, č. 2 (2006), s. 357-362 ISSN 0044-2968 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA1048107; GA AV ČR IAA2041201; GA ČR GA202/03/0891 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10480505; CEZ:AV0Z20410507 Keywords : neutron diffraction * fatique * duplex steel Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 1.897, year: 2006

  15. Detection of surface breaking cracks in centrifugally cast stainless steel with ultrasonic - Inspection from the cracked side

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoegberg, K.; Zetterwall, T.

    1986-01-01

    The ability of detecting surface breaking or near-surface cracks with ultrasonic techniques from the inside of centrifugally cast stainless steel pipes have been investigated by the Swedish Plant Inspectorate (SA) and AaF-Tekniska Roentgencentralen AB (AaF-TRC) on behalf of the Swedish Nuclear Power Inspectorate (SKI) and the Swedish State Power Board (SV). Fifteen specimens from the international Stainless Steel Round Robin Test (SSRRT) were used in this study. All specimens were examined from the cracked side with different ultrasonic probes. The data reported here indicate that a probe with dual elements, low frequency, longitudinal waves and short focus distance can detect almost all of the intended defects with a rather good signal-to-noise ratio. (author)

  16. Evaluation of structural behaviour and corrosion resistant of austenitic AISI 304 and duplex AISI 2304 stainless steel reinforcements embedded in ordinary Portland cement mortars; Evaluacion del comportamiento estructural y de resistencia a la corrosion de armaduras de acero inoxidable austenitico AISI 304 y duplex AISI 2304 embebidas en morteros de cemento Portland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Medina, E.; Cobo, A.; Bastidas, D. M.

    2012-07-01

    The mechanical and structural behaviour of two stainless steels reinforcements, with grades austenitic EN 1.4301 (AISI 304) and duplex EN 1.4362 (AISI 2304) have been studied, and compared with the conventional carbon steel B500SD rebar. The study was conducted at three levels: at rebar level, at section level and at structural element level. The different mechanical properties of stainless steel directly influence the behaviour at section level and structural element level. The study of the corrosion behaviour of the two stainless steels has been performed by electrochemical measurements, monitoring the corrosion potential and the lineal polarization resistance (LPR), of reinforcements embedded in ordinary Portland cement (OPC) mortar specimens contaminated with different amount of chloride over one year time exposure. Both stainless steels specimens embedded in OPC mortar remain in the passive state for all the chloride concentration range studied after one year exposure. (Author) 26 refs.

  17. Stainless steel fibre reinforced aluminium matrix composites processed by squeeze casting: relationship between processing conditions and interfacial microstructure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colin, C.; Marchal, Y.; Boland, F.; Delannay, F.

    1993-01-01

    This work investigates the influence of some processing parameters on the extent of interfacial reaction in squeeze cast aluminium matrix composites reinforced with 12 μm diameter, continuous stainless steel fibres. The average thickness of the reaction layer at fibre/matrix interfaces was measured by image analysis. When casting was made in a die at room temperature, the thickness of the reaction layer was affected on a distance of several mm from the lateral surface or from the bottom of the preform. The results indicate that the major part of the reaction occurs before solidification of the liquid metal. The control of the extent of interfacial reaction can be achieved through optimization of both infiltration parameters and features of the preform such as the volume fraction of the fibres. (orig.)

  18. Effect of post welding heat treatment on mechanical properties of duplex SAF 2205 stainless steel subjected to submerged-arc welding; Efeito do tratamento termico pos-soldagem nas propriedades mecanicas de aco inoxidavel duplex SAF 2205 submetido a soldagem por arco submerso

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borsato, Karin Soldatelli [Pontificia Univ. Catolica do Parana, Curitiba (Brazil); Paredes, Ramon Sigifredo Cortes [Parana Univ., Curitiba, PR (Brazil). Centro Politecnico. Inst. de Tecnologia para o Desenvolvimento (LACTEC)

    2004-09-15

    Duplex stainless steels unite an interesting combination of mechanical properties, corrosion resistance, wear resistance and weldability, which leaded to the selection of these steels in numerous applications Typical commercial wrought products display balance ferrite/austenite percentages, which can be significantly, and adversely, affected by a weld thermal cycle. The objective of this research was to study the influence of submerged arc welding and the post weld heat treatment on mechanical properties of duplex stainless steel UNS S31803 plates with 25 mm thickness. The main results showed that the proceedings and the welding parameters guarantee the weld joint integrity even though it reestablish only partially the mechanical properties. The post weld heat treatment do not completely eliminate the chromium nitrates which could be responsible for corrosion processes. (author)

  19. Fracture Toughness of Z3CN20.09M Cast Stainless Steel with Long-Term Thermal Aging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Weiwei; Yu, Dunji; Gao, Hongbo; Xue, Fei; Chen, Xu

    2017-09-01

    Accelerated thermal aging tests were performed at 400 °C for nearly 18,000 h on Z3CN20.09M cast stainless steel which was used for primary coolant pipes of nuclear power plants. A series of Charpy impact tests were conducted on Z3CN20.09M after different long-term thermal aging time. The test results indicated that the Charpy impact energy of Z3CN20.09M cast stainless steel decreased rapidly at an early stage and then almost saturated after thermal aging of 10,000 h. Furthermore, J-resistance curves were measured for CT specimens of longitudinal and circumferential pipe orientations. It showed that there was no obvious difference in the fracture characteristics of Z3CN20.09M in different sampling directions. In addition, the observed stretch zone width (SZW) revealed that the value of initiation fracture toughness J SZW was significantly lower than that of fracture toughness J IC, indicating a low actual crack initiation energy due to long-term thermal aging.

  20. Investigation of the Microstructural, Mechanical and Corrosion Properties of Grade A Ship Steel-Duplex Stainless Steel Composites Produced via Explosive Welding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaya, Yakup; Kahraman, Nizamettin; Durgutlu, Ahmet; Gülenç, Behçet

    2017-08-01

    Grade A ship-building steel-AISI 2304 duplex stainless steel composite plates were manufactured via explosive welding. The AISI 2304 plates were used to clad the Grade A plates. Optical microscopy studies were conducted on the joining interface for characterization of the manufactured composite plates. Notch impact, tensile-shear, microhardness, bending and twisting tests were carried out to determine the mechanical properties of the composites. In addition, the surfaces of fractured samples were examined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and neutral salt spray (NSS) and potentiodynamic polarization tests were performed to examine corrosion behavior. Near the explosion zone, the interface was completely flat, but became wavy as the distance from the explosion zone increased. The notch impact tests indicated that the impact strength of the composites decreased with increasing distance from the explosion zone. The SEM studies detected brittle behavior below the impact transition temperature and ductile behavior above this temperature. Microhardness tests revealed that the hardness values increased with increasing distance from the explosion zone and mechanical tests showed that no visible cracking or separation had occurred on the joining interface. The NSS and potentiodynamic polarization tests determined that the AISI 2304 exhibited higher corrosion resistance than the Grade A steel.

  1. Atmospheric-Induced Stress Corrosion Cracking of Grade 2205 Duplex Stainless Steel—Effects of 475 °C Embrittlement and Process Orientation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cem Örnek

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The effect of 475 °C embrittlement and microstructure process orientation on atmospheric-induced stress corrosion cracking (AISCC of grade 2205 duplex stainless steel has been investigated. AISCC tests were carried out under salt-laden, chloride-containing deposits, on U-bend samples manufactured in rolling (RD and transverse directions (TD. The occurrence of selective corrosion and stress corrosion cracking was observed, with samples in TD displaying higher propensity towards AISCC. Strains and tensile stresses were observed in both ferrite and austenite, with similar magnitudes in TD, whereas, larger strains and stresses in austenite in RD. The occurrence of 475 °C embrittlement was related to microstructural changes in the ferrite. Exposure to 475 °C heat treatment for 5 to 10 h resulted in better AISCC resistance, with spinodal decomposition believed to enhance the corrosion properties of the ferrite. The austenite was more susceptible to ageing treatments up to 50 h, with the ferrite becoming more susceptible with ageing in excess of 50 h. Increased susceptibility of the ferrite may be related to the formation of additional precipitates, such as R-phase. The implications of heat treatment at 475 °C and the effect of process orientation are discussed in light of microstructure development and propensity to AISCC.

  2. Effect of electrolyte composition on the active-to-passive transition behavior of 2205 duplex stainless steel in H2SO4/HCl solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lo, I-H.; Fu Yan; Lin, C.-J.; Tsai, W.-T.

    2006-01-01

    Selective dissolution could occur in duplex stainless steels (DSSs) due to the difference in chemical composition between the two constituent phases. In this study, the effect of H 2 SO 4 /HCl composition on the selective dissolution behavior was investigated. The results indicated that there were two distinct peaks appeared in the active-to-passive transition region in the polarization curve. The peak appeared at a lower potential region was associated with the preferential dissolution of ferrite phase while that for austenite at a higher potential. In the concentration ranges of 0.25-2 M of H 2 SO 4 and 0.25-2 M of HCl, the magnitude of the peak anodic current density and the resolution between these two peaks greatly depended on the composition of H 2 SO 4 /HCl. However, the anodic peaks corresponding to the respective dissolutions of ferrite and austenite became less distinguishable when the concentrations of HCl exceeded 1.2 M. Image analysis using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was performed to confirm the selective dissolution of each constituent phase after potentiostatic polarization at the respective anodic peak potential

  3. Influence of Solution Treatment Duration on Microstructural Features of an Industrial Forged UNS S32750/1.4410/F53 Super Duplex Stainless Steel (SDSS) Alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cojocaru, Vasile Dănuţ; Răducanu, Doina; Angelescu, Mariana Lucia; Vintilă, Adrian Nicolae; Şerban, Nicolae; Dan, Ioan; Cojocaru, Elisabeta Mirela; Cinca, Ion

    2017-08-01

    The microstructural changes induced by solution treatment of an industrial forged F53 Super Duplex Stainless Steel alloy were studied, in order to emphasize how component phases are influenced by heat treatment temperature and duration. The solution treatment was done at a temperature of 1100°C, with variable holding times: 0.6 ks (10 min), 3.6 ks (60 min) and 10.8 ks (180 min). Scanning electron microscopy-electron backscattered diffraction was used as main characterization technique, to obtain and analyse data referring to microstructural features, such as: nature and morphology of constituent phases, average grain-size and grain misorientation. It was shown that in all studied cases the microstructure consisted of a mixture of about 45% δ-Fe (ferrite) and 55% γ-Fe (austenite). Besides δ-Fe and γ-Fe phases, other phases were also identified, such as τ-phase (chromium-iron carbide), σ-phase (chromium-iron) and δ-(Cr-Fe) (ferrite).

  4. Effect of Si and Mn additions on ferrite and austenite phase fractions in 25Cr-7Ni-1.5Mo-3W base super duplex stainless steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeong, S.W.; Lee, Z.-H.; Lee, H.M.

    2000-01-01

    The effect of heat treatment and Si and Mn additions on the ferrite and austenite phase fractions of the super duplex stainless steel (SDSS), Fe-25Cr-7Ni-1.5Mo-3W-Si-Mn-0.25N (numbers are all in wt.% unless specified otherwise), was investigated. The thermodynamic calculations of phase equilibria and phase fractions were performed using the Thermo-Calc program. Based on the calculated results, specific compositions of Si and Mn were selected and alloys with these compositions were analysed by Feritscope, X-ray diffractometry and scanning electron microscopy. The calculated phase fractions and experimentally analysed ones were compared and there was a good agreement between calculations and measurements. The optimum heat treatment condition for Fe-25Cr-7Ni-1.5Mo-3W-0.5Si-0.5Mn-0.25N is to hold at 1050 to 1100 C for 2 h in considering the ferrite to austenite ratio of 50:50 and to avoid second phase precipitation such as the σ phase. It was suggested that an excessive addition of more than 0.8Si and 1.0Mn may induce the σ phase precipitation. (orig.)

  5. Kinetics of Cr/Mo-rich precipitates formation for 25Cr-6.9Ni-3.8Mo-0.3N super duplex stainless steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byun, Sang-Ho; Kang, Namhyun; Lee, Tae-Ho; Ahn, Sang-Kon; Lee, Hae Woo; Chang, Woong-Seong; Cho, Kyung-Mox

    2012-04-01

    The amount and composition of Cr-rich (σ) and Mo-rich (χ) precipitates in super duplex stainless steels was analyzed. An isothermal heat treatment was conducted at temperatures ranging from 700 °C to 1000 °C for up to 10 days. A time-temperature transformation (TTT) diagram was constructed for the mixture of σ and χ phases. The mixture of the σ and χ phases exhibited the fastest rate of formation at approximately 900 °C. Minor phases, such as Cr2N, M23C6, and M7C3, were also detected using a transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Also, a continuous cooling transformation (CCT) diagram was constructed for the mixture of σ and χ phases using the Johnson-Mehl-Avrami equation. Compared with the known CCT diagram of the σ phase, this study revealed faster kinetics with an order of magnitude difference and a new CCT diagram was also developed for a mixture of σ and χ phases. The calculated fraction of σ and χ phases obtained at a cooling speed of 0.5 °C/s was in good agreement with the experimental data.

  6. Effect of heat input on microstructure and mechanical properties of dissimilar joints between super duplex stainless steel and high strength low alloy steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sadeghian, M.; Shamanian, M.; Shafyei, A.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • The microstructure of weld metal consists of austenite and ferrite. • The HAZ of the API X-65 shows different transformation. • Impact strength of sample with low heat input was lower than base metals. • The heat input at 0.506 kJ/mm is not the suitable for dissimilar joining between UNS S32750/API X-65. - Abstract: In the present study, microstructure and mechanical properties of UNS S32750 super duplex stainless steel (SDSS)/API X-65 high strength low alloy steel (HSLA) dissimilar joint were investigated. For this purpose, gas tungsten arc welding (GTAW) was used in two different heat inputs: 0.506 and 0.86 kJ/mm. The microstructures investigation with optical microscope, scanning electron microscope and X-ray diffraction showed that an increase in heat input led to a decrease in ferrite percentage, and that detrimental phases were not present. It also indicated that in heat affected zone of HSLA base metal in low heat input, bainite and ferrite phases were created; but in high heat input, perlite and ferrite phases were created. The results of impact tests revealed that the specimen with low heat input exhibited brittle fracture and that with high heat input had a higher strength than the base metals

  7. Assessment of thermal aging embrittlement in a cast stainless steel valve and its effect on the structural integrity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cicero, S.; Setien, J.; Gorrochategui, I.

    2009-01-01

    This paper analyzes the thermal aging embrittlement occurred in a cast stainless steel valve, which is part of the reactor water clean-up (RWCU) system of a Spanish boiling water reactor (BWR) nuclear power plant. The aim is to estimate the current and future state of the material and the corresponding structural integrity of the valve. Given that there is no data available for the experimental characterization of the material, the evolution of the mechanical properties (fracture toughness, yield stress, flow stress and Ramberg-Osgood parameters) has been estimated using the ANL procedure. With the obtained estimations, the critical crack size has been calculated using the European procedure FITNET FFS and the ASME Code. This analysis considers not only the evolution of the mechanical properties up to now but also its future evolution in case there is a life extension of the plant until year 2029

  8. Ultrasonic phased array sound field mapping through large-bore coarse grained cast austenitic stainless steel (CASS) piping materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cinson, A. D.; Crawford, S. L.; Prowant, M. S.; Diaz, A. A.; Hathaway, J. E.; Anderson, M. T.

    2012-04-01

    A sound field beam mapping exercise was conducted to further understand the effects of coarse-grained microstructures found in cast austenitic stainless steel (CASS) materials on phased array ultrasonic wave propagation. Laboratory measurements were made on three CASS specimens with different microstructures; the specimens were polished and etched to reveal measurable grain sizes, shapes, and orientations. Three longitudinal, phased array probes were fixed on a specimen's outside diameter with the sound field directed toward one end (face) of the pipe segment over a fixed range of angles. A point receiver was raster scanned over the surface of the specimen face generating a sound field image. A slice of CASS material was then removed from the specimen end and the beam mapping exercise repeated. The sound fields acquired were analyzed for spot size, coherency, and beam redirection. Qualitative analyses were conducted between the resulting sound fields and the microstructural characteristics of each specimen.

  9. Effects of Thermocapillary Forces during Welding of 316L-Type Wrought, Cast and Powder Metallurgy Austenitic Stainless Steels

    CERN Document Server

    Sgobba, Stefano

    2003-01-01

    The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) is now under construction at the European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN). This 27 km long accelerator requires 1248 superconducting dipole magnets operating at 1.9 K. The cold mass of the dipole magnets is closed by a shrinking cylinder with two longitudinal welds and two end covers at both extremities of the cylinder. The end covers, for which fabrication by welding, casting or Powder Metallurgy (PM) was considered, are dished-heads equipped with a number of protruding nozzles for the passage of the different cryogenic lines. Structural materials and welds must retain high strength and toughness at cryogenic temperature. AISI 316L-type austenitic stainless steel grades have been selected because of their mechanical properties, ductility, weldability and stability of the austenitic phase against low-temperature spontaneous martensitic transformation. 316LN is chosen for the fabrication of the end covers, while the interconnection components to be welded on the protrud...

  10. Effects of the Cooling Rate After Annealing Treatment on the Microstructure and the Mechanical Properties of Super-Duplex Stainless Steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwon, Gi-Hyoun; Park, Yong-Ho; Na, Young-Sang; Yoo, Wee-Do; Lee, Jong-Hoon

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the effect of the cooling rate after heat treatment on the microstructure and mechanical properties of 2507 duplex stainless steels. Heat treatment was carried out at 1050°C for 1 hr, followed by controlled cooling. The cooling rates were 175.6 × 10 - 3°C/s, 47.8 × 10 - 3°C/s, 33.3 × 10 - 3°C/s, 16.7 × 10 - 3°C/s, 11.7 × 10 - 3°C/s, 5.8 × 10 - 3°C/s and 2.8 × 10 - 3°C/s, which resulted in variations of the microstructure, such as the fractional change of the ferrite phase and sigma phase formation. Fatigue, hardness, impact and tensile tests were performed on the specimens with different cooling rates. The precipitation of the σ phase caused a hardness increase and a sharp decrease of toughness and tensile elongation. The fatigue limit of the sample with a cooling rate of 5.8 × 10 - 3°C/s was 26 MPa higher than that of the sample with a cooling rate of 175.6 × 10 - 3°C/s. Our observations of the fracture surface confirmed that the higher fatigue resistance of the specimen with a cooling rate of 5.8 × 10 - 3°C/s was caused by the delay of the fatigue crack growth, in addition to higher yield strength.

  11. Effects of the Cooling Rate After Annealing Treatment on the Microstructure and the Mechanical Properties of Super-Duplex Stainless Steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwon, Gi-Hyoun; Park, Yong-Ho [Pusan National University, Pusan (Korea, Republic of); Na, Young-Sang; Yoo, Wee-Do; Lee, Jong-Hoon [Korea Institute of Materials Science, Changwon (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-10-15

    The aim of this study was to analyze the effect of the cooling rate after heat treatment on the microstructure and mechanical properties of 2507 duplex stainless steels. Heat treatment was carried out at 1050°C for 1 hr, followed by controlled cooling. The cooling rates were 175.6 × 10{sup -}3°C/s, 47.8 × 10{sup -}3°C/s, 33.3 × 10{sup -}3°C/s, 16.7 × 10{sup -}3°C/s, 11.7 × 10{sup -}3°C/s, 5.8 × 10{sup -}3°C/s and 2.8 × 10{sup -}3°C/s, which resulted in variations of the microstructure, such as the fractional change of the ferrite phase and sigma phase formation. Fatigue, hardness, impact and tensile tests were performed on the specimens with different cooling rates. The precipitation of the σ phase caused a hardness increase and a sharp decrease of toughness and tensile elongation. The fatigue limit of the sample with a cooling rate of 5.8 × 10{sup -}3°C/s was 26 MPa higher than that of the sample with a cooling rate of 175.6 × 10{sup -}3°C/s. Our observations of the fracture surface confirmed that the higher fatigue resistance of the specimen with a cooling rate of 5.8 × 10{sup -}3°C/s was caused by the delay of the fatigue crack growth, in addition to higher yield strength.

  12. Energy Saving Melting and Revert Reduction (E-SMARRT): Optimization of Heat Treatments on Stainless Steel Castings for Improved Corrosion Resistance and Mechanical Properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    John N. DuPont; Jeffrey D. Farren; Andrew W. Stockdale; Brett M. Leister

    2012-06-30

    It is commonly believed that high alloy steel castings have inferior corrosion resistance to their wrought counterparts as a result of the increased amount of microsegregation remaining in the as-cast structure. Homogenization and dissolution heat treatments are often utilized to reduce or eliminate the residual microsegregation and dissolve the secondary phases. Detailed electron probe microanalysis (EPMA) and light optical microscopy (LOM) were utilized to correlate the amount of homogenization and dissolution present after various thermal treatments with calculated values and with the resultant corrosion resistance of the alloys.The influence of heat treatment time and temperature on the homogenization and dissolution kinetics were investigated using stainless steel alloys CN3MN and CK3MCuN. The influence of heat treatment time and temperature on the impact toughness and corrosion reistance of cast stainless steel alloys CF-3, CF-3M, CF-8, and CF-8M was also investigated.

  13. Characterization by X ray diffraction of deleterious phases precipitated in a super duplex stainless steel; Caracterizacao por difracao de raios X de fases deleterias precipitadas em aco inoxidavel superduplex

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pardal, Juan M.; Tavares, Sergio S. Maior; Fonseca, Maria P. Cindra; Montenegro, Talles Ribeiro, E-mail: juanpardal@vm.uff.b [Universidade Federal Fluminense (PGEMEC/UFF), Niteroi, RJ (Brazil). Programa de Pos-graduacao em Engenharia Mecanica; Dias, Antonio Jose N.; Almeida, Sergio L. de [Instituto Nacional de Tecnologia (INT), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Div. de Materiais Ceramicos e Metalicos. Lab. de Tecnologia de Materiais

    2010-07-01

    In this work the identification and quantification of deleterious phases in two super duplex stainless steels grade UNS S32750, with quite different grain sizes, was performed by X-ray diffraction. The materials were isothermally aged in the 800 . 950 deg C range. Direct comparison method was used to quantify the ferrite phase in each sample. The amount of deleterious phases ({sigma}, {chi} and {gamma}2) formed was calculated by the difference of the amount of ferrite phase measured in each specimen to the amount of ferrite initially measured in the un-aged steel. The results obtained give an useful contribution to the understanding of kinetics of deleterious phases precipitation in super duplex steels. (author)

  14. Rietveld and impedance analysis of cold and hot rolled duplex and lean duplex steels for application in paper and pulp industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Esteves, Luiza; Lins, Vanessa de Freitas Cunha; Viana, Adolfo Kalergis do Nascimento

    2017-01-01

    In this study, X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) and Rietveld Refinement were performed to identify and quantify the ferrite and austenite phase of cold and hot rolled duplex stainless steels (UNS S31803) and lean duplex stainless steels (UNS S32304). Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) was applied to evaluate the chemical behavior of duplex and lean duplex stainless steels in white, green, and black liquors of paper and pulp industry. Rietveld analysis results showed a higher austenite content than the standard limit for duplex steels in the hot rolled condition. The hot rolling condition plays a major role in improving corrosion resistance in white liquor mainly for the lean duplex steel. (author)

  15. Rietveld and impedance analysis of cold and hot rolled duplex and lean duplex steels for application in paper and pulp industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Esteves, Luiza; Lins, Vanessa de Freitas Cunha, E-mail: luizaeq@yahoo.com.br [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Departamento de Engenharia Quimica; Paiva, Paulo Renato Perdigao [Centro Federal de Educacao Tecnologica de Minas Gerais (CEFET), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Viana, Adolfo Kalergis do Nascimento [APERAM South America, Timoteo, MG (Brazil)

    2017-01-15

    In this study, X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) and Rietveld Refinement were performed to identify and quantify the ferrite and austenite phase of cold and hot rolled duplex stainless steels (UNS S31803) and lean duplex stainless steels (UNS S32304). Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) was applied to evaluate the chemical behavior of duplex and lean duplex stainless steels in white, green, and black liquors of paper and pulp industry. Rietveld analysis results showed a higher austenite content than the standard limit for duplex steels in the hot rolled condition. The hot rolling condition plays a major role in improving corrosion resistance in white liquor mainly for the lean duplex steel. (author)

  16. Electrochemical noise transient analysis for 316 and Duplex 2205 stainless steels in NaCl and FeCl; Analisis de los transitorios de ruido electroquimico para aceros inoxidables 316 Y - DUPLEX 2205 en NaCl Y FeCl

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Almeraya-Calderaon, F.; Estupinan, F.; Zambrano, P.; Martinez-Villafane, A.; Borunda, A.; Colas, R.; Gaona-Tiburcio, C.

    2012-11-01

    This work shows the results obtained from electrochemical noise measurements for different materials exhibiting pitting corrosion. The transients presented in the potential and current time, correlates with the scanning electron microscopy (SEM) surface analysis. Electrochemical measurements were made at different exposure times to obtain the correlation. The materials used were stainless steel austenitic 316 and duplex 2205, immersed in ferric chloride (FeCl3) and sodium chloride (NaCl) electrolytes. SEM analysis shows that the transients observed in the time series, really correspond to the activity of pit nucleation developed over the surface of the electrodes. (Author) 31 refs.

  17. Estudo da soldagem de tubos de aço inoxidável duplex e superduplex na posição 5G Study of the welding of duplex and superduplex stainless steel pipes in the 5G position

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Ivo Guimarães de Vasconcellos

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Os aços inoxidáveis duplex e superduplex possuem uma microestrutura austeno-ferrítica com fração média de cada fase de cerca 50%. A microestrutura duplex é responsável pelas excelentes propriedades mecânicas, especialmente o limite de escoamento e a tenacidade, e pela elevada resistência a corrosão por pites e sob tensão em meios contendo cloretos. A soldagem destes aços é frequentemente uma operação crítica. Neste trabalho, um tubo de superduplex SAF 2207 foi soldado pelo processo TIG (GTAW no passe de raiz e eletrodo revestido (SMAW nos passes de enchimento, e um tubo de duplex SAF 2205 foi todo soldado pelo processo GTAW. A microestrutura do metal base, zona afetada termicamente (ZTA e metal de solda foi caracterizada e quantificada. As propriedades de tenacidade, resistência a corrosão e composição química foram avaliadas e correlacionadas. Os valores de tenacidade ao impacto Charpy-V foram considerados adequados. Não foi observada a precipitação de intermetálicos, carbonetos e nitretos. O melhor resultado no teste de corrosão da junta soldada de aço inox superduplex, comparado ao duplex, foi atribuído ao baixo teor de ferrita delta na solda e ZTA, e composição química da solda enriquecida em Cr, Mo, W e N.The duplex and superduplex stainless steels have an austenitic-ferritic microstructure with an average fraction of each phase of approximately 50%. This duplex microstructure is responsible for the excellent mechanical properties, specially the yield strength and toughness, and for the improved pitting and stress corrosion cracking resistance in chloride environments. Welding of these steels is often a critical operation. In this work, a superduplex stainless steel SAF 2507 pipe was welded by the GTAW process in the root pass and by SMAW process on filler passes, and one pipe of duplex SAF 2205 was entirely welded by the GTAW process. The microstructure of the base metal, heat affected zone (HAZ and weld

  18. Ultrasonic Characterization of Cast Austenitic Stainless Steel Microstructure: Discrimination between Equiaxed- and Columnar-Grain Material – An Interim Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramuhalli, Pradeep; Good, Morris S.; Diaz, Aaron A.; Anderson, Michael T.; Watson, Bruce E.; Peters, Timothy J.; Dixit, Mukul; Bond, Leonard J.

    2009-10-27

    Ultrasonic nondestructive evaluation (NDE) and inspection of cast austenitic stainless steel (CASS) components used in the nuclear power industry is neither as effective nor reliable as is needed due to detrimental effects upon the interrogating ultrasonic beam and interference from ultrasonic backscatter. The root cause is the coarse-grain microstructure inherent to this class of materials. Some ultrasonic techniques perform better for particular microstructural classifications and this has led to the hypothesis that an ultrasonic inspection can be optimized for a particular microstructural class, if a technique exists to reliably classify the microstructure for feedback to the inspection. This document summarizes scoping experiments of in-situ ultrasonic methods for classification and/or characterization of the material microstructures in CASS components from the outside surface of a pipe. The focus of this study was to evaluate ultrasonic methods and provide an interim report that documents results and technical progress. An initial set of experiments were performed to test the hypothesis that in-service characterization of cast austenitic stainless steel (CASS) is feasible, and that, if reliably performed, such data would provide real-time feedback to optimize in-service inspections in the field. With this objective in mind, measurements for the experiment were restricted to techniques that should be robust if carried forward to eventual field implementation. Two parameters were investigated for their ability to discriminate between different microstructures in CASS components. The first parameter was a time-of-flight ratio of a normal incidence shear wave to that of a normal incidence longitudinal wave (TOFRSL). The ratio removed dependency on component thickness which may not be accurately reported in the field. The second parameter was longitudinal wave attenuation. The selected CASS specimens provided five equiaxed-grain material samples and five columnar

  19. Mechanical property degradation and microstructural evolution of cast austenitic stainless steels under short-term thermal aging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lach, Timothy G.; Byun, Thak Sang; Leonard, Keith J.

    2017-12-01

    Mechanical testing and microstructural characterization were performed on short-term thermally aged cast austenitic stainless steels (CASS) to understand the severity and mechanisms of thermal-aging degradation experienced during extended operation of light water reactor (LWR) coolant systems. Four CASS materials-CF3, CF3M, CF8, and CF8M-were thermally aged for 1500 h at 290 °C, 330 °C, 360 °C, and 400 °C. All four alloys experienced insignificant change in strength and ductility properties but a significant reduction in absorbed impact energy. The primary microstructural and compositional changes during thermal aging were spinodal decomposition of the δ-ferrite into α/α‧, precipitation of G-phase in the δ-ferrite, segregation of solute to the austenite/ferrite interphase boundary, and growth of M23C6 carbides on the austenite/ferrite interphase boundary. These changes were shown to be highly dependent on chemical composition, particularly the concentration of C and Mo, and aging temperature. The low C, high Mo CF3M alloys experienced the most spinodal decomposition and G-phase precipitation coinciding the largest reduction in impact properties.

  20. Mechanical property degradation and microstructural evolution of cast austenitic stainless steels under short-term thermal aging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lach, Timothy G.; Byun, Thak Sang; Leonard, Keith J.

    2017-12-01

    Mechanical testing and microstructural characterization were performed on short-term thermally aged cast austenitic stainless steels (CASS) to understand the severity and mechanisms of thermal-aging degradation experienced during extended operation of light water reactor (LWR) coolant systems. Four CASS materials – CF3, CF3M, CF8, and CF8M – were thermally aged for 1500 hours at 290 °C, 330 °C, 360 °C, and 400 °C. All four alloys experienced insignificant change in strength and ductility properties but a significant reduction in absorbed impact energy. The primary microstructural and compositional changes during thermal aging were spinodal decomposition of the δ-ferrite into α/ α`, precipitation of G-phase in the δ-ferrite, segregation of solute to the austenite/ ferrite interphase boundary, and growth of M23C6 carbides on the austenite/ferrite interphase boundary. These changes were shown to be highly dependent on chemical composition, particularly the concentration of C and Mo, and aging temperature. A comprehensive model is being developed to correlate the microstructural evolution with mechanical behavior and simulation for predictive evaluations of LWR coolant system components.

  1. Evaluation of the strain rate effects on environmental fatigue life of CF8M cast stainless steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeong, Ill Seok; Ha, Gak Hyun; Jeon, Hyun Ik

    2009-01-01

    The environmental fatigue life of CF8M cast stainless steel is influenced by mechanical, environmental and metallurgical parameters, such as strain rate, strain amplitude, temperature, dissolved oxygen concentration, water flow rate and so on. In an actual plant, the mechanical and environmental parameters are changing during the plant operation. Therefore, the effect of such mechanical and environmental parameter changes on fatigue life evaluation have to be studied. Low cycle fatigue life of structural materials diminishes remarkably as functions of various parameters in high temperature and high pressure environments. Such reduction can be estimated by the fatigue life reduction factor(F en ). In this study, fatigue tests were performed under changing conditions of strain amplitude, strain rate. Fatigue life was measured in terms of the number of cycles with the variation of strain amplitudes at 0.004 %/s strain rate, and the fatigue life correction factor was evaluated according to the equation modified by U. S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission(U.S.NRC) and Japanese Environmental Fatigue Tests committee (JEFT).

  2. Development of Stronger and More Reliable Cast Austenitic Stainless Steels (H-Series) Based on Scientific Design Methodology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muralidharan, G.; Sikka, V.K.; Pankiw, R.I.

    2006-04-15

    The goal of this program was to increase the high-temperature strength of the H-Series of cast austenitic stainless steels by 50% and upper use temperature by 86 to 140 F (30 to 60 C). Meeting this goal is expected to result in energy savings of 38 trillion Btu/year by 2020 and energy cost savings of $185 million/year. The higher strength H-Series of cast stainless steels (HK and HP type) have applications for the production of ethylene in the chemical industry, for radiant burner tubes and transfer rolls for secondary processing of steel in the steel industry, and for many applications in the heat-treating industry. The project was led by Duraloy Technologies, Inc. with research participation by the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and industrial participation by a diverse group of companies. Energy Industries of Ohio (EIO) was also a partner in this project. Each team partner had well-defined roles. Duraloy Technologies led the team by identifying the base alloys that were to be improved from this research. Duraloy Technologies also provided an extensive creep data base on current alloys, provided creep-tested specimens of certain commercial alloys, and carried out centrifugal casting and component fabrication of newly designed alloys. Nucor Steel was the first partner company that installed the radiant burner tube assembly in their heat-treating furnace. Other steel companies participated in project review meetings and are currently working with Duraloy Technologies to obtain components of the new alloys. EIO is promoting the enhanced performance of the newly designed alloys to Ohio-based companies. The Timken Company is one of the Ohio companies being promoted by EIO. The project management and coordination plan is shown in Fig. 1.1. A related project at University of Texas-Arlington (UT-A) is described in Development of Semi-Stochastic Algorithm for Optimizing Alloy Composition of High-Temperature Austenitic Stainless Steels (H-Series) for Desired

  3. Cast, heat-resistant austenitic stainless steels having reduced alloying element content

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muralidharan, Govindarajan [Knoxville, TN; Sikka, Vinod Kumar [Oak Ridge, TN; Maziasz, Philip J [Oak Ridge, TN; Pankiw, Roman I [Greensburg, PA

    2010-07-06

    A cast, austenitic steel composed essentially of, expressed in weight percent of the total composition, about 0.4 to about 0.7 C, about 20 to about 30 Cr, about 20 to about 30 Ni, about 0.5 to about 1 Mn, about 0.6 to about 2 Si, about 0.05 to about 1 Nb, about 0.05 to about 1 W, about 0.05 to about 1.0 Mo, balance Fe, the steel being essentially free of Ti and Co, the steel characterized by at least one microstructural component selected from the group consisting of MC, M.sub.23C.sub.6, and M(C, N).

  4. Sigma phase transformation in super duplex steel in the range of 900-1050 oC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garin, J.L; Manheim, R.L; Rios, D

    2012-01-01

    The embrittlement phenomenon observed in duplex stainless steels obeys to the presence of intermediate phases in the microstructure, principally the so-called sigma-phase, which preferently arises by heating over the range of 540 to 850 o C. The present article describes the dissolution of sigma-phase in welded joints of cast super duplex stainless steels (ASTM A890), at temperatures from 900 to 1050 o C. The experimental procedure utilized usual techniques of quantitative metallography and X-ray diffraction. Annealing of the samples at 850 o C yielded starting contents of sigma of 40,4 % (vol) in the fusion zone and 45,4 % (vol) in the heat-affected zone. The dissolution of the compound was observed after annealing of the specimens at 900, 950, 1.000 and 1.050 o C, with a moderate kinetics at lesser temperatures, while the transformation became fully achieved at 1.050 o C

  5. Avaliação da soldagem multipasse de chapas espessas de aços inoxidáveis lean duplex UNS S32304 soldadas pelos processos SMAW, GMAW e FCAW: parte 1: propriedades mecânicas Evaluation of multipass welding of thick lean duplex stainless steel UNS S32304 plates welded by SMAW, GMAW and FCAW: part 1: Mechanical Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronaldo Cardoso Junior

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Os aços inoxidáveis duplex (AID vêm se apresentando como uma excelente alternativa para aplicações em que alta resistência à corrosão e alta resistência mecânica são requeridas. Contudo, os AID, incluindo os aços inoxidáveis lean duplex, apresentam soldabilidade inferior em relação aos aços inoxidáveis austeníticos. Nesse sentido, esse trabalho tem como objetivo a avaliação da soldagem multipasse de chapas 22 mm de espessura da liga inoxidável lean duplex UNS S32304, utilizando-se os processo SMAW, GMAW e FCAW e consumíveis com dois tipos de composição química, 22%Cr9%Ni3%Mo e 23%Cr7%Ni, totalizando seis experimentos. Foram empregados chanfros em V com 60º e suporte cerâmico para soldagem do passe de raiz, sendo que o aporte térmico foi mantido praticamente constante em 1,6 kJ.mm-1. Determinou-se os tempos de soldagem e a seqüência de passes, objetivando uma análise de produtividade, em seguida as juntas soldadas foram submetidas à END por raios x. Foram extraídos corpos de prova para ensaios de tração, dobramento, Charpy a -30 ºC e microdureza. A produtividade dos processos semi-automáticos se mostrou pelo menos 63 % maior que a do processo SMAW, enquanto o processo FCAW se mostrou de 6 a 18% mais rápido que o GMAW. Foram encontradas descontinuidades (porosidade consideradas aceitáveis segundo ASME B31.3 em alguns dos experimentos, que não influenciaram negativamente os resultados mecânicos, os quais se apresentaram acima requerimento do metal de base e especificado por normas de fabricação.The duplex stainless steels (DSS's have been placed as an excellent alternative for applications where high corrosion resistance and high mechanical strength are required. However, DSS's, including the lean duplex, present lower weldability than the austenitic stainless steels. Thus, this study aims to evaluate the multipass welding of 22 mm plates of lean duplex stainless steel alloy UNS S32304, using the process

  6. Behavior of the elements in the mechanically alloyed and cast ferritic steels and a type 316 stainless steel in a flowing sodium environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, T.; Mutoh, I.

    1988-01-01

    Sodium corrosion behavior of a mechanically alloyed ferritic steel, dispersion-strengthened with addition of Y 2 0 3 and Ti, two kinds of melted/cast ferritic steels and a Type 316 stainless steel was examined by using a non-isothermal sodium loop system, constructed of another Type 316 stainless steel, with a direct resistance electrical heater. The sodium conditions were 675 0 C, 4.0 m/s in velocity and 1-2 ppm oxygen concentration and a cumulative exposure time of the specimens was about 3000 h. The absorption of Ni and selective dissolution of Cr played an important role in the corrosion of the mechanically alloyed ferritic steel as in the case of the cast ferritic steels. However, the region of Ni absorption and Cr diminution was deeper than that of the cast ferritic steels. Peculiar finding for the mechanically alloyed ferritic steel was the corroded surface with irregularly shaped protuberance, that might be related with formation of sodium titanate, and the absorption of carbon and nitrogen to form carbide and nitride of titanium. It seems that these facts resulted in the irregular weight loss of the specimens, which depended on the downstream position and the cumulative exposure time. However, the tensile properties of the mechanically alloyed ferritic steel did not noticeably change by the sodium exposure

  7. Avaliação da proporção de fases em juntas soldadas de tubulações de aço inoxidável duplex mediante aplicação de ensaios não destrutivos Evaluation of phases proportions in welded joints of duplex stainless steel by non-destructive testing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guttemberg Chagas de Souza

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Os aços inoxidáveis Duplex (AID aliam uma excelente resistência à corrosão com elevada resistência mecânica devido à fina microestrutura bifásica composta por quantidades similares de ferrita (δ e austenita (γ. Portanto, estas ligas são utilizados em tubulações e equipamentos industriais onde se requer elevada relação resistência/peso, especialmente em empreendimentos de construção e montagem off-shore. Entretanto, as condições operacionais, na soldagem de campo, podem promover um significativo desbalanço microestrutural destas fases, resultando em decréscimo das propriedades mencionadas. A inspeção com o ferritoscópio é uma avaliação normalmente utilizada nestas atividades. Durante a avaliação com esta técnica pode ocorrer a rejeição da junta soldada quando o metal de solda se encontra com valores de ferrita fora das faixas estabelecidas pelas especificações de projeto. Assim, torna-se importante a análise destas juntas, com outras técnicas complementares, tal como a utilização das réplicas metalográficas. Este fato motivou a avaliação da proporção de fases em spools de AID de espessuras relativamente finas, soldados no campo, comparando-se as técnicas não destrutivas descritas. Os resultados denotam valores semelhantes, contudo o resultado pode ser influenciado pela forma e condições superficiais da junta soldada.Duplex stainless steels are high strength and corrosion resistant alloys, whose properties are devoted to the fine microstructure composed by similar amounts of ferrite and austenite and also to the high concentrations of Cr, Mo and N in solid solution. Not for coincidence, duplex steels are extensively used in chemical and petrochemical industries. However, welding operations conditions can promote the unbalance of the ferrite/austenite proportions mainly in the welding metal, with decrease of the properties mentioned. For this reason, non destructive measurements of ferrite content

  8. The temperature dependence and environmental enhancement mechanism of fatigue crack growth rates of A 351-CF8A cast stainless steel in LWR environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cullen, W.H.; Haenninen, H.; Toerroenen, K.; Kemppainen, M.

    1984-01-01

    The fatigue crack growth rates for A 351-CF8A cast stainless steel were determined over a range of temperatures from 93 degC to 338 degC (200 degF to 640 degF). The waveform was 17 mHz sinusoidal and the load ratio was 0.2. The environment was borated and lithiated water with a dissolved oxygen content of approximately 1 ppb. The results show an easily measurable (factors of 2 to 8) increase in crack growth rates due to the environment. However, these rates are well within the known band of results for low-alloy pressure vessel and low-carbon piping steels in LWR environments. An extensive fractographic investigation shows fatigue fracture surfaces consisting of brittle morphology. This fracture morphology is similar to that of stress corrosion cracking of stainless steels, suggesting that there is a distinctive environmental assistance mechanism resulting in the increased crack growth rates. (author)

  9. Improved tribological properties, electrochemical resistance and biocompatibility of AISI 316L stainless steel through duplex plasma nitriding and TiN coating treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kao, Wen-Hsien; Su, Yean-Liang; Horng, Jeng-Haur; Hsieh, Yun-Ting

    2017-07-01

    AISI 316L specimens were nitrided using a low temperature (390℃) plasma nitriding process and then coated with a thin layer of titanium nitride by closed field unbalanced magnetron sputtering. The microstructure, adhesion properties and hardness of the duplex-treated samples were examined using X-ray diffraction, scratch testing and nanoindentation, respectively. In addition, the tribological properties were investigated by means of reciprocating wear tests performed against 316L, Si 3 N 4 and Ti6Al4V balls under a load of 10 N for 24 min in 0.9% NaCl solution. The electrochemical resistance of the samples was evaluated by potentiodynamic polarisation tests. Finally, the biocompatibility of the samples was investigated by seeding purified mouse leukemic monocyte macrophage cells (Raw 264.7) on the sample surface for one, three and five days, respectively. In general, the results showed that the duplex nitriding and titanium nitride coating process significantly improved the tribological properties, electrochemical resistance and biocompatibility of the AISI 316L samples.

  10. Development of Cast Alumina-forming Austenitic Stainless Steel Alloys for use in High Temperature Process Environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muralidharan, Govindarajan [ORNL; Yamamoto, Yukinori [ORNL; Brady, Michael P [ORNL; Pint, Bruce A [ORNL; Pankiw, Roman [Duraloy Technologies Inc; Voke, Don [Duraloy Technologies Inc

    2015-01-01

    There is significant interest in the development of alumina-forming, creep resistant alloys for use in various industrial process environments. It is expected that these alloys can be fabricated into components for use in these environments through centrifugal casting and welding. Based on the successful earlier studies on the development of wrought versions of Alumina-Forming Austenitic (AFA) alloys, new alloy compositions have been developed for cast products. These alloys achieve good high-temperature oxidation resistance due to the formation of protective Al2O3 scales while multiple second-phase precipitation strengthening contributes to excellent creep resistance. This work will summarize the results on the development and properties of a centrifugally cast AFA alloy. This paper highlights the strength, oxidation resistance in air and water vapor containing environments, and creep properties in the as-cast condition over the temperature range of 750°C to 900°C in a centrifugally cast heat. Preliminary results for a laboratory cast AFA composition with good oxidation resistance at 1100°C are also presented.

  11. Laboratory investigation of the microbiologically influenced corrosion (MIC) resistance of a novel Cu-bearing 2205 duplex stainless steel in the presence of an aerobic marine Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Jin; Yang, Chunguang; Xu, Dake; Sun, Da; Nan, Li; Sun, Ziqing; Li, Qi; Gu, Tingyue; Yang, Ke

    2015-01-01

    The microbiologically influenced corrosion (MIC) resistance of a novel Cu-bearing 2205 duplex stainless steel (2205 Cu-DSS) against an aerobic marine Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilm was investigated. The electrochemical test results showed that Rp increased and icorr decreased sharply after long-term immersion in the inoculation medium, suggesting that 2205 Cu-DSS possessed excellent MIC resistance to the P. aeruginosa biofilm. Fluorescence microscope images showed that 2205 Cu-DSS possessed a strong antibacterial ability, and its antibacterial efficiency after one and seven days was 7.75% and 96.92%, respectively. The pit morphology comparison after 14 days between 2205 DSS and 2205 Cu-DSS demonstrated that the latter showed a considerably reduced maximum MIC pit depth compared with the former (1.44 μm vs 9.50 μm). The experimental results suggest that inhibition of the biofilm was caused by the copper ions released from the 2205 Cu-DSS, leading to its effective mitigation of MIC by P. aeruginosa.

  12. The influence of temperature on the tensile properties of a super duplex stainless steel; Influencia de la temperature en las propiedades a traccion de un acero inoxidablesuperduplex

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Girones, A.; Mateo, A.; Llanes, L.; Anglada, M

    2001-07-01

    Tensile tests, at temperatures ranging between 275 and 475 degree centigree were performed in a superduplex stainless steel EN 1.4410. The dependence of yield stress and ultimate tensile strength on temperature indicates the existence of dynamic strain aging (DSA). In order to evaluate the influence of strain rate on this phenomenon, tests were conducted at two different strain rates, both at 325 degree centigree, temperature at which DSA is maximum for this materials. The results shows that the flow stress has an inverse strain rate sensitivity which confirms the existence of DSA in the steel under study. (Author) 10 refs.

  13. Effects of long-term thermal aging on the stress corrosion cracking behavior of cast austenitic stainless steels in simulated PWR primary water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shilei; Wang, Yanli; Wang, Hui; Xin, Changsheng; Wang, Xitao

    2016-02-01

    The stress corrosion cracking (SCC) behavior of cast austenitic stainless steels of unaged and thermally aged at 400 °C for as long as 20,000 h were studied by using a slow strain rate testing (SSRT) system. Spinodal decomposition in ferrite during thermal aging leads to hardening in ferrite and embrittlement of the SSRT specimen. Plastic deformation and thermal aging degree have a great influence on the oxidation rate of the studied material in simulated PWR primary water environments. In the SCC regions of the aged SSRT specimen, the surface cracks, formed by the brittle fracture of ferrite phases, are the possible locations for SCC. In the non-SCC regions, brittle fracture of ferrite phases also occurs because of the effect of thermal aging embrittlement.

  14. Estudo dos efeitos da restrição na microestrutura, microdureza e tenacidade em juntas soldadas em aço inoxidável duplex Study of restriction effects on mMicrostructure, microhardness and toughness in welded joints of duplex stainless steel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Everton Barbosa Nunes

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Os aços inoxidáveis duplex (AID apresentam em sua microestrutura ferrita e austenita, de modo a aliar boas propriedades mecânicas e resistência à corrosão. Estes materiais possuem grande aplicação na indústria petroquímica, sendo o UNS S31803 um dos mais conhecidos. Existem poucos trabalhos referentes ao estudo da influência da restrição na soldagem da junta na formação de Widmanstätten. Logo, este trabalho tem como objetivo analisar a influência da restrição no balanceamento de fases, na morfologia da austenita, na microdureza e na tenacidade da Zona Afetada pelo Calor (ZAC e da Zona Fundida (ZF. Foram realizadas soldagens em juntas tipo V utilizando eletrodo revestido AWS E2209-17com dois níveis de energia: 15 kJ/cm e 20 kJ/cm, com e sem restrição. De maneira geral, houve maior quantidade de ferrita nos passes de acabamento em relação aos passes de enchimento e de raiz. Foram observadas maiores quantidades de Widmanstätten nas condições soldadas com restrição. A ZAC apresentou uma microestrutura mais grosseira nos passes de acabamento. No entanto, não foram observadas diferenças significativas nas microestruturas quando comparadas as condições com e sem restrição. As condições que apresentaram maior quantidade de Widmanstätten obtiveram menores níveis de microdureza. Não foram observadas diferenças na energia absorvida na ZAC e ZF.Duplex stainless steels present ferrite and austenite in their microstructure in order to join good mechanical properties and corrosion resistance. These materials are very used in petrochemical industry, being the DSS UNS S31803 one of the most commercially known. There were not much published literature to study the influence of the precipitation of Widmanstätten austenite in joins with some restriction. This work has as objective to analyze the influence of the restriction in the phase balance of austenite and ferrite, in the morphology of the austenite, in the

  15. Molecular characterization of natural biofilms from household taps with different materials: PVC, stainless steel, and cast iron in drinking water distribution system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Wenfang; Yu, Zhisheng; Chen, Xi; Liu, Ruyin; Zhang, Hongxun

    2013-09-01

    Microorganism in drinking water distribution system may colonize in biofilms. Bacterial 16S rRNA gene diversities were analyzed in both water and biofilms grown on taps with three different materials (polyvinyl chloride (PVC), stainless steel, and cast iron) from a local drinking water distribution system. In total, five clone libraries (440 sequences) were obtained. The taxonomic composition of the microbial communities was found to be dominated by members of Proteobacteria (65.9-98.9 %), broadly distributed among the classes Alphaproteobacteria, Betaproteobacteria, and Gammaproteobacteria. Other bacterial groups included Firmicutes, Acidobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Cyanobacteria, and Deinococcus-Thermus. Moreover, a small proportion of unclassified bacteria (3.5-10.6 %) were also found. This investigation revealed that the bacterial communities in biofilms appeared much more diversified than expected and more care should be taken to the taps with high bacterial diversity. Also, regular monitor of outflow water would be useful as potentially pathogenic bacteria were detected. In addition, microbial richness and diversity in taps ranked in the order as: PVC cast iron. All the results interpreted that PVC would be a potentially suitable material for use as tap component in drinking water distribution system.

  16. Effect of the Temperature in the Mechanical Properties of Austenite, Ferrite and Sigma Phases of Duplex Stainless Steels Using Hardness, Microhardness and Nanoindentation Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gorka Argandoña

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work is to study the hardness of the ferrite, austenite and sigma phases of a UNS S32760 superduplex stainless steel submitted to different thermal treatments, thus leading to different percentages of the mentioned phases. A comparative study has been performed in order to evaluate the resulting mechanical properties of these phases by using hardness, microhardness and nanoindentation techniques. In addition, optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM and X-ray diffraction (XRD have been also used to identify their presence and distribution. Finally, the experimental results have shown that the resulting hardness values were increased as a function of a longer heat treatment duration which it is associated to the formation of a higher percentage of the sigma phase. However, nanoindentation hardness measurements of this sigma phase showed lower values than expected, being a combination of two main factors, namely the complexity of the sigma phase structure as well as the surface finish (roughness.

  17. The ageing kinetics of CF3 cast stainless steel in the temperature range 3000C to 400OC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akhurst, K.N.; Pumphrey, P.H.

    1988-11-01

    The primary coolant pump casings for Sizewell 'B' are made from castings of ASME SA351 CF3 steel which, although predominantly austenitic, is required to contain a small proportion of ferrite. Previous studies have shown that such steels are susceptible to hardening of the ferrite, and associated losses in toughness, as a result of thermal ageing for long times at the service temperature (∼ 300 0 C). For this reason, toughness tests are to be carried out on representative castings made by the Sizewell 'B' pump casing manufacturer. The purpose of these tests is to demonstrate adequate end-of-life fracture resistance, using material which has been given an accelerated ageing treatment. The identification and validation of a suitable ageing treatment is the subject of this Report. Ageing kinetics have been measured for ageing temperatures in the range 300 to 400 0 C, from the results of Charpy impact tests on material from the castings procured for the main fracture programme. Castings with ferrite levels of 15, 25 and 35% have been studied. The losses in impact toughness have been related to the kinetics of ferrite strengthening using microhardness measurements, and to microstructural changes using Field Ion Atom Probe analysis. (author)

  18. Weldability of Stainless Steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saida, Kazuyoshi

    2010-01-01

    It gives an outline of metallographic properties of welding zone of stainless steels, generation and mechanisms of welding crack and decreasing of corrosion resistance of welding zone. It consists of seven chapters such as introduction, some kinds of stainless steels and properties, metallographic properties of welding zone, weld crack, toughness of welding zone, corrosion resistance and summary. The solidification modes of stainless steels, each solidification mode on the cross section of Fe-Cr-Ni alloy phase diagram, each solidification mode of weld stainless steels metal by electron beam welding, segregation state of alloy elements at each solidification mode, Schaeffler diagram, Delong diagram, effects of (P + S) mass content in % and Cr/Ni equivalent on solidification cracking of weld stainless steels metal, solidification crack susceptibility of weld high purity stainless steels metal, effects of trace impurity elements on solidification crack susceptibility of weld high purity stainless steels metal, ductile fracture susceptibility of weld austenitic stainless steels metal, effects of H2 and ferrite content on generation of crack of weld 25Cr-5N duplex stainless steels, effects of O and N content on toughness of weld SUS 447J1 metals, effect of ferrite content on aging toughness of weld austenitic stainless steel metal, corrosion morphology of welding zone of stainless steels, generation mechanism of knife line attack phenomenon, and corrosion potential of some kinds of metals in seawater at room temperature are illustrated. (S.Y.)

  19. Development of new high-performance stainless steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Yong Soo

    2002-01-01

    This paper focused on high-performance stainless steels and their development status. Effect of nitrogen addition on super-stainless steel was discussed. Research activities at Yonsei University, on austenitic and martensitic high-performance stainless, steels, and the next-generation duplex stainless steels were introduced

  20. Microstructural study of thermally aged duplex stainless steel deformation and fracture modes; Etude microstructurale des modes de deformation et de rupture d`un acier austenoferritique vieilli thermiquement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verhaeghe, B. [Institut national polytechnique, 38 - Grenoble (France)

    1996-12-31

    The aim of this work is to study the micro mechanisms of deformation and rupture of an austeno ferritic stainless steel (Z 3 CND 22-10 M) with 33 % of ferrite. It is studied after ageing 1 000 h at 400 deg. C and 8 000 h at 350 deg. C and compared to the `as received` state. During ageing the ferritic phase undergoes microstructural evolutions which affects its properties. The two ageing treatments lead to roughly the same level of embrittlement. Microstructural characterisation shows that both phases percolate and exhibit orientation relationships close to Kurdjumov-Sachs ones. Mechanical properties of the steel were characterised for different ageing treatments at room temperature and at 320 deg. C. The interface is particularly strong and ensures the load transfer to ferrite even if this phase contains cleavage cracks. Moreover the interface does not oppose slip transmission which is instead controlled by localised glide in the ferritic phase. If activated slip systems of austenite are common with ferrite, slip transmission from austenite to ferrite indeed occurs through the=e interface. If they are not common, dislocations cross-slip back into the austenite. At 320 deg. C cross-slip occurs even far from the interface. Damage starts by nucleation in ferrite of cleavage cracks which propagate between austenite islands. Crack propagation is controlled by stretching of austenite ligaments. The material breaks by ductile tearing of austenite islands when the crack eventually percolates in the ferritic phase. The ductility of the material can be correctly describer using a simple model that takes into account the tearing-off the ductile-phase. (author). 153 refs.

  1. Long-term creep and creep-rupture behavior of Types 304 and 316 stainless steel, Type 316 casting material (CF8M), and 2 1/4 Cr-1 Mo steel. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brinkman, C R; Booker, M K; Sikka, V K; McCoy, H E

    1986-06-01

    Final results of long-term creep and creep-rupture tests are compiled and summarized for a number of structural materials evaluated in support of the Liquid Metal Reactor program. These materials include type 304 stainless steel (tested to 13.4 years), type 316 stainless steel (tested to 8.2 years), CF8M or type 316 stainless casting (tested to 2.5 years), and 2 1/4 Cr-1 Mo steel (tested to 6.5 years). Creep curves of all materials evaluated, representative metallography, and hardness data taken subsequent to testing are also included. Comparisons are made between predictions made several years ago with preliminary creep and creep-rupture data and final results obtained under this program.

  2. Hybrid Laser-Arc Welding of 10-mm-Thick Cast Martensitic Stainless Steel CA6NM: As-Welded Microstructure and Mechanical Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirakhorli, Fatemeh; Cao, Xinjin; Pham, Xuan-Tan; Wanjara, Priti; Fihey, Jean-Luc

    2016-07-01

    Cast CA6NM martensitic stainless steel plates, 10 mm in thickness, were welded using hybrid laser-arc welding. The effect of different welding speeds on the as-welded joint integrity was characterized in terms of the weld bead geometry, defects, microstructure, hardness, ultimate tensile strength, and impact energy. Significant defects such as porosity, root humping, underfill, and excessive penetration were observed at a low welding speed (0.5 m/min). However, the underfill depth and excessive penetration in the joints manufactured at welding speeds above 0.75 m/min met the specifications of ISO 12932. Characterization of the as-welded microstructure revealed untempered martensite and residual delta ferrite dispersed at prior-austenite grain boundaries in the fusion zone. In addition, four different heat-affected zones in the weldments were differentiated through hardness mapping and inference from the Fe-Cr-Ni ternary phase diagram. The tensile fracture occurred in the base metal for all the samples and fractographic analysis showed that the crack path is within the martensite matrix, along primary delta ferrite-martensite interfaces and within the primary delta ferrite. Additionally, Charpy impact testing demonstrated slightly higher fracture energy values and deeper dimples on the fracture surface of the welds manufactured at higher welding speeds due to grain refinement and/or lower porosity.

  3. Effect of ferrite on the precipitation of σ phase in cast austenitic stainless steel used for primary coolant pipes of nuclear power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Yongqiang; Li, Na, E-mail: wangyongqiang1124@163.com [State Key Laboratory for Advanced Metals and Materials, University of Science and Technology, Beijing (China)

    2017-11-15

    The effect of ferrite phase on the precipitation of σ phase in a Z3CN20.09M cast austenitic stainless steel (CASS) used for primary coolant pipes of pressurized water reactor (PWR) nuclear power plants was investigated by using isothermal heat-treatment, optical microscopy (OM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and electron probe microanalysis (EPMA) techniques. The influence of different morphologies and volume fractions of ferrite in the σ phase formation mechanism was discussed. The amount of σ phase precipitated in all specimens with different microstructures increased with increasing of aging time, however, the precipitation rate is significant different. The formation of σ phase in specimens with the coarsest ferrite and the dispersively smallest ferrite is slowest. The lowest level Cr content in ferrite and fewest α/γ interfaces in specimen are the main reasons for the slowest σ precipitation due to they are unfavorable for the kinetics and thermodynamics of phase transformation respectively. By contraries, the fastest formation of σ phase takes place in specimens with narrow and long ferrite due to the most α/γ interfaces and higher Cr content in ferrite which are beneficial for preferential nucleation and formation thermodynamics of σ phase. (author)

  4. Influência da energia de soldagem na microestrutura e na microdureza de revestimentos de aço inoxidável duplex Influence of the heat input on the microstructure and microhardness of weld overlay of duplex stainless steel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Everton Barbosa Nunes

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Aços inoxidáveis duplex (AID são caracterizados por apresentar interessante boas propriedades mecânicas e resistência à corrosão, possuindo um vasto campo de aplicação na indústria química e petroquímica. Geralmente, os reparos dos equipamentos ou estruturas são realizados por soldagem, sendo importante a seleção de parâmetros. É de suma importância a obtenção do teor adequado de ferrita no metal de solda, sendo que a variação da energia de soldagem pode influenciar de forma direta no percentual de ferrita. Logo, o objetivo deste trabalho é avaliar a influência da variação da energia de soldagem na microestrutura e na microdureza do metal de solda do AID. Foram realizadas soldagens de revestimento com sobreposição de duas camadas sobre o aço estrutural ASTM A516 Gr.60, utilizando eletrodo revestido AWS E2209-17. Três níveis de energia (15, 20 e 24 kJ/cm foram empregados, variando-se a corrente e a velocidade de soldagem. Foi verificado que para os níveis de energia empregados não houve diferença significativa no percentual de ferrita, porém o primeiro cordão depositado apresentou maior teor de austenita em relação aos demais cordões. De forma geral, foi verificado que o primeiro cordão depositado obteve níveis maiores de microdureza. Todas as condições apresentaram microdurezas abaixo do valor crítico.Duplex stainless steels (DSS are characterized by the presentation of an interesting combination of good mechanical properties and corrosion resistance, having a wide application in chemical and petrochemical industry. Generally, the manufacture and repair of any industrial equipment involve welding operations, even though it is very important to evaluate the influence of welding parameters. It is very important to obtain appropriate ferrite content in the weld metal, so that the variation of heat input can influence on the ferrite content directly. Therefore, the aim this work is to evaluate the

  5. Corrosion-free precast prestressed concrete piles made with stainless steel reinforcement : construction, test and evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-03-01

    The use of duplex high-strength stainless steel (HSSS) grade 2205 prestressing strand and : austenitic stainless steel (SS) grade 304 spiral wire reinforcement is proposed as a replacement of : conventional prestressing steel, in order to provide a 1...

  6. Effects of phosphate addition on biofilm bacterial communities and water quality in annular reactors equipped with stainless steel and ductile cast iron pipes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Hyun-Jung; Choi, Young-June; Ro, Hee-Myong; Ka, Jong-Ok

    2012-02-01

    The impact of orthophosphate addition on biofilm formation and water quality was studied in corrosion-resistant stainless steel (STS) pipe and corrosion-susceptible ductile cast iron (DCI) pipe using cultivation and culture-independent approaches. Sample coupons of DCI pipe and STS pipe were installed in annular reactors, which were operated for 9 months under hydraulic conditions similar to a domestic plumbing system. Addition of 5 mg/L of phosphate to the plumbing systems, under low residual chlorine conditions, promoted a more significant growth of biofilm and led to a greater rate reduction of disinfection by-products in DCI pipe than in STS pipe. While the level of THMs (trihalomethanes) increased under conditions of low biofilm concentration, the levels of HAAs (halo acetic acids) and CH (chloral hydrate) decreased in all cases in proportion to the amount of biofilm. It was also observed that chloroform, the main species of THM, was not readily decomposed biologically and decomposition was not proportional to the biofilm concentration; however, it was easily biodegraded after the addition of phosphate. Analysis of the 16S rDNA sequences of 102 biofilm isolates revealed that Proteobacteria (50%) was the most frequently detected phylum, followed by Firmicutes (10%) and Actinobacteria (2%), with 37% of the bacteria unclassified. Bradyrhizobium was the dominant genus on corroded DCI pipe, while Sphingomonas was predominant on non-corroded STS pipe. Methylobacterium and Afipia were detected only in the reactor without added phosphate. PCR-DGGE analysis showed that the diversity of species in biofilm tended to increase when phosphate was added regardless of the pipe material, indicating that phosphate addition upset the biological stability in the plumbing systems.

  7. Tensile behavior of CF8-CPF8-304H and CF8M-CPF8M-316H stainless steel static and centrifugal castings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McEnerney, J.W.; Sikka, V.K.; Booker, M.K.

    1981-10-01

    We have analyzed the tensile behavior of 11 heats of grades CF8-CPF8-304H and 13 heats of grades CF8M-CPF8M-316H static and centrifugal castings from room temperature to 650 0 C. Except for anomalous conditions, the centrifugal castings exhibited uniform composition. All CPF8-304H centrifugal castings contained only radial columnar grains, but some CPF8M-316H castings had columnar, banded, or equiaxed structures. Ultimate tensile strength and total elongation were the properties in which castings showed the most inferiority to wrought material. With increasing ferrite content, 0.2% yield strength and ultimate tensile strength increased while uniform elongation, total elongation, and reduction of area decreased. Although centrifugal castings did not exhibit significant end-to-end variation in tensile behavior, the 0.2% yield strength displayed anisotropy, with axial and circumferential values being greater than radial

  8. Caracterização e avaliação da resistência à corrosão na soldagem de tubulação de aço inoxidável duplex UNS S31803 pelo processo a arco submerso Characterization and evaluation of corrosion resistance of welded joint of duplex stainless steel pipe UNS S31803 by submerged arc process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Manuel Pardal

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho apresenta os resultados da caracterização e avaliação da resistência à corrosão de uma junta soldada correspondente a uma tubulação de aço inoxidável duplex (AID UNS S31803 de 35 mm de espessura de parede soldada pelos processos de soldagem TIG (GTAW na raiz e arco submerso (SAW no enchimento e acabamento. Foram empregados como consumíveis de soldagem metais de adição de liga 25Cr-9Ni-4Mo (% em peso. Os resultados da caracterização das propriedades mecânicas, composição química e resistência à corrosão em diversas regiões da junta soldada foram comparados com os obtidos para o metal de base da tubulação, assim como com os valores mínimos exigidos pelas normas de projeto. Os resultados obtidos demonstram claramente a possibilidade da implementação do processo SAW na pré fabricação de tubulações de paredes espessas de AID, tendo em vista os resultados das propriedades analisadas e a grande demanda na construção e montagem de tubulações desta família de aço inoxidáveis na indústria offshore.This work presents the mechanical properties, microstructural and corrosion resistance evaluation of a welded joint of duplex stainless steel (DSS pipe with 35 mm wall thickness. The joint was welded by gas tungsten arc welding (GTAW process in the root passes and submerged arc welding (SAW in the filling and cap passes using filler metals with composition 25Cr-9Ni-4Mo (%wt.. The results of mechanical properties, chemical composition and corrosion resistance characterization in different regions of the welded joint were compared to the base metal and to the specifications required by the standards applied in the project. The main focus of this work was to show the successful utilization of SAW process in the welding of thick wall pipes of DSS. The application of high productivity process such as SAW has a crescent demand in offshore industry.

  9. Impact Strength of Austenitic and Ferritic-Austenitic Cr-Ni Stainless Cast Steel in -40 and +20°C Temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalandyk B.

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Studies described in this paper relate to common grades of cast corrosion resistant Cr-Ni steel with different matrix. The test materials were subjected to heat treatment, which consisted in the solution annealing at 1060°C followed by cooling in water. The conducted investigations, besides the microstructural characteristics of selected cast steel grades, included the evaluation of hardness, toughness (at a temperature of -40 and +20oC and type of fracture obtained after breaking the specimens on a Charpy impact testing machine. Based on the results of the measured volume fraction of ferrite, it has been found that the content of this phase in cast austenitic steel is 1.9%, while in the two-phase ferritic-austenitic grades it ranges from 50 to 58%. It has been demonstrated that within the scope of conducted studies, the cast steel of an austenitic structure is characterised by higher impact strength than the two-phase ferritic-austenitic (F-A grade. The changing appearance of the fractures of the specimens reflected the impact strength values obtained in the tested materials. Fractures of the cast austenitic Cr-Ni steel obtained in these studies were of a ductile character, while fractures of the cast ferritic-austenitic grade were mostly of a mixed character with the predominance of brittle phase and well visible cleavage planes.

  10. Tensile properties of duplex UNS S32205 and lean duplex UNS S32304 steels and the influence of short duration 475 ºC aging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sérgio Souto Maior Tavares

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Duplex stainless steels are high strength and corrosion resistant steels extensively used in the petrochemical and chemical industries. The aging at 475 ºC for long periods of time provokes embrittlement and deterioration of corrosion resistance. However, short duration aging at 475 ºC may be used as heat treatment to improve mechanical resistance with small decrease in the other properties. In this work the flow stress curves of lean duplex UNS S32304 and duplex UNS S32205 steels were modeled with Hollomon's equation and work hardening exponents (n were determined. The analyses were conducted in specimens annealed and heat treated at 475 ºC for short periods of time. The aging at 475 ºC for 4 hours, 8 hours and 12 hours promoted significant hardening with small decrease of ductility. The work hardening exponents of both steels were compared, being higher in the duplex steel than in the lean duplex grade.

  11. Numerical simulation of hydrogen-assisted crack initiation in austenitic-ferritic duplex steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mente, Tobias

    2015-01-01

    Duplex stainless steels have been used for a long time in the offshore industry, since they have higher strength than conventional austenitic stainless steels and they exhibit a better ductility as well as an improved corrosion resistance in harsh environments compared to ferritic stainless steels. However, despite these good properties the literature shows some failure cases of duplex stainless steels in which hydrogen plays a crucial role for the cause of the damage. Numerical simulations can give a significant contribution in clarifying the damage mechanisms. Because they help to interpret experimental results as well as help to transfer results from laboratory tests to component tests and vice versa. So far, most numerical simulations of hydrogen-assisted material damage in duplex stainless steels were performed at the macroscopic scale. However, duplex stainless steels consist of approximately equal portions of austenite and δ-ferrite. Both phases have different mechanical properties as well as hydrogen transport properties. Thus, the sensitivity for hydrogen-assisted damage is different in both phases, too. Therefore, the objective of this research was to develop a numerical model of a duplex stainless steel microstructure enabling simulation of hydrogen transport, mechanical stresses and strains as well as crack initiation and propagation in both phases. Additionally, modern X-ray diffraction experiments were used in order to evaluate the influence of hydrogen on the phase specific mechanical properties. For the numerical simulation of the hydrogen transport it was shown, that hydrogen diffusion strongly depends on the alignment of austenite and δ-ferrite in the duplex stainless steel microstructure. Also, it was proven that the hydrogen transport is mainly realized by the ferritic phase and hydrogen is trapped in the austenitic phase. The numerical analysis of phase specific mechanical stresses and strains revealed that if the duplex stainless steel is

  12. Corrosion resistance and in-vitro bioactivity of BaO containing Na2O-CaO-P2O5 phosphate glass-ceramic coating prepared on 316 L, duplex stainless steel 2205 and Ti6Al4V

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edathazhe, Akhila B.; Shashikala, H. D.

    2018-03-01

    The phosphate glass with composition 11Na2O-15BaO-29CaO-45P2O5 was coated on biomedical implant materials such as stainless steel 316 L, duplex stainless steel (DSS) 2205 and Ti6Al4V alloy by thermal enamelling method. The structural properties and composition of glass coated substrates were studied by x-ray diffraction (XRD), Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (EDS) analysis. The coatings were partially crystalline in nature with porous structure and pore size varied from micro to nanometer range. The polarization curve was obtained for uncoated and coated substrates from electrochemical corrosion test which was conducted at 37 °C in Hank’s balanced salt solution (HBSS). The corrosion resistance of 316 L substrate increased after coating, whereas it decreased in case of DSS 2205 and Ti6Al4V. The XRD and SEM/EDS studies indicated the bioactive hydroxyapatite (HAp) layer formation on all the coated surfaces after electrochemical corrosion test, which improved the corrosion resistance. The observed electrochemical corrosion behavior can be explained based on protective HAp layer formation, composition and diffusion of ions on glass coated surfaces. The in-vitro bioactivity test was carried out at 37 °C in HBS solution for 14 days under static conditions for uncoated and coated substrates. pH and ion release rate measurements from the coated samples were conducted to substantiate the electrochemical corrosion test. The lower ion release rates of Na+ and Ca2+ from coated 316 L supported its higher electrochemical corrosion resistance among coated samples. Among the uncoated substrates, DSS showed higher electrochemical corrosion resistance. Amorphous calcium-phosphate (ACP) layer formation on all the coated substrates after in-vitro bioactivity test was confirmed by XRD, SEM/EDS and ion release measurements. The present work is a comparative study of corrosion resistance and bioactivity of glass coated and uncoated

  13. Application of an energy efficient casting ladle heating system used in the manufacture of stainless steel; Einsatz einer energieeffizienten Pfannenaufheizstation bei der Herstellung von Edelstahl

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poeschl, Markus [Edelstahlwerke Schmees GmbH, Langenfeld (Germany); Lodde, Marcus [Effizienz-Agentur NRW, Duisburg (Germany). prisma Consult GmbH

    2011-06-15

    In the melting area, the company has been using four conventional burners to heat the ladles. The existing flame burners heat the upside down ladles from below and consume massive amount of energy. Heat radiation and all of the waste gas are released into the facility. The material around the ladles is therefore heavily affected. The company has now installed a new energy efficient casting ladle heating system with a new kind of porous burner which heats the transport ladles without exposing them to an open flame. The combustion heat is channeled to specially adapted steel pipes via infrared radiation and convection flow. By doing this, the heat is directly transferred to the ladles and can be controlled in a more balanced manner. The company now saves around 61,400 m{sup 3}/a of natural gas, approx. 60 % of the energy required for the ladle heating and, as a result, 113.8 tonnes of CO{sub 2}-equivalent. The life span of the ladles can be increased by a factor of 2 due to the reduced exposure of the fire resistant materials. The resulting waste gas is collected and the waste heat will be reused in the facility in the future (facility heating 2011). Due to reduction in cleaning and carrying time of the ladles, Fr. Schmees expects an increase in productivity of the complete process. The heat radiation from the ladles has been reduced by 75 % which has led to a reduction of breakdowns. In addition, the noise level has sunk from 78.7 dB to 67.4 db. (orig.)

  14. Problems in repair-welding of duplex-treated tool steels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Muhič

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The present paper addresses problems in laser welding of die-cast tools used for aluminum pressure die-castings and plastic moulds. To extend life cycle of tools various surface improvements are used. These surface improvements significantly reduce weldability of the material. This paper presents development of defects in repair welding of duplex-treated tool steel. The procedure is aimed at reduction of defects by the newly developed repair laser welding techniques. Effects of different repair welding process parameters and techniques are considered. A microstructural analysis is conducted to detect defect formation and reveal the best laser welding method for duplex-treated tools.

  15. The microstructural, mechanical, and fracture properties of austenitic stainless steel alloyed with gallium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolman, D. G.; Bingert, J. F.; Field, R. D.

    2004-11-01

    The mechanical and fracture properties of austenitic stainless steels (SSs) alloyed with gallium require assessment in order to determine the likelihood of premature storage-container failure following Ga uptake. AISI 304 L SS was cast with 1, 3, 6, 9, and 12 wt pct Ga. Increased Ga concentration promoted duplex microstructure formation with the ferritic phase having a nearly identical composition to the austenitic phase. Room-temperature tests indicated that small additions of Ga (less than 3 wt pct) were beneficial to the mechanical behavior of 304 L SS but that 12 wt pct Ga resulted in a 95 pct loss in ductility. Small additions of Ga are beneficial to the cracking resistance of stainless steel. Elastic-plastic fracture mechanics analysis indicated that 3 wt pct Ga alloys showed the greatest resistance to crack initiation and propagation as measured by fatigue crack growth rate, fracture toughness, and tearing modulus. The 12 wt pct Ga alloys were least resistant to crack initiation and propagation and these alloys primarily failed by transgranular cleavage. It is hypothesized that Ga metal embrittlement is partially responsible for increased embrittlement.

  16. Development of commercial nitrogen-rich stainless steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liljas, M.

    1999-01-01

    This paper reviews the development of nitrogen alloyed stainless steels. Nitrogen alloying of austenitic stainless steels started at an early stage and was to a large extent caused by nickel shortage. However, direct technical advantages such as increased strength of the nitrogen alloyed steels made them attractive alternatives to the current steels. It was not until the advent of the AOD (argon oxygen decarburisation) process in the late 1960s that nitrogen alloying could be controlled to such accuracy that it became successful commercially on a broader scale. The paper describes production aspects and how nitrogen addition influences microstructure and the resulting properties of austenitic and duplex stainless steels. For austenitic steels there are several reasons for nitrogen alloying. Apart from increasing strength nitrogen also improves structural stability, work hardening and corrosion resistance. For duplex steels nitrogen also has a decisive effect in controlling the microstructure during thermal cycles such as welding. (orig.)

  17. Short crack growth in super duplex stainless steels

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Polák, Jaroslav; Zezulka, P.

    2000-01-01

    Roč. 63, - (2000), s. 153-158 ISSN 1429-6055. [Mezinárodní sympozium "Struktura a vlastnosti konstrukčních materiálů" /15./. Brno, 06.07.2000-08.07.2000] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z2041904 Subject RIV: JL - Materials Fatigue, Friction Mechanics

  18. Study of Sigma Phase in Duplex SAF 2507

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fellicia, D. M.; Sutarsis; Kurniawan, B. A.; Wulanari, D.; Purniawan, A.; Wibisono, A. T.

    2017-05-01

    Super duplex stainless steel is one of the stainless steel which has a combination between high strength properties and excellent corrosion resistance. However, the resistance can decrease by precipitation of sigma phase which is formed at high temperature, for example after welding processes. A series of experiments has been performed to study the effect of solution annealing to existence of sigma phase on super duplex SAF 2507. Variations of solution-annealing temperatures were 1000 °C, 1065 °C and 1125 °C with holding time of 15 and 30 minutes for each temperature. Effect of solution annealing process was characterized by using XRD, SEM, and Optical Microscopy. The result showed precipitation of sigma phase completely dissolved at 1065 °C and 1125 °C because it reformed to austenite. After it was heated at 1065 °C, chromium carbide appeared in ferrite site and grain boundary. The amount of chromium carbide increased with the increasing of solution annealing temperature.

  19. Austenitic stainless steels for cryogenic service

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dalder, E.N.C.; Juhas, M.C.

    1985-01-01

    Presently available information on austenitic Fe-Cr-Ni stainless steel plate, welds, and castings for service below 77 K are reviewed with the intent (1) of developing systematic relationships between mechanical properties, composition, microstructure, and processing, and (2) of assessing the adequacy of these data bases in the design, fabrication, and operation of engineering systems at 4 K

  20. Pitting and stress corrosion cracking of stainless steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saithala, Janardhan R.

    An investigation has been performed to determine the pitting resistance of stainless steels and stress corrosion cracking of super duplex stainless steels in water containing chloride ions from 25 - 170°C. The steels studied are 12% Cr, FV520B, FV566, 304L, Uranus65, 2205, Ferallium Alloy 255, and Zeron 100. All these commercial materials used in very significant industrial applications and suffer from pitting and stress corrosion failures. The design of a new experimental setup using an autoclave enabled potentiodynamic polarisation experiments and slow strain rate tests in dilute environments to be conducted at elevated temperatures. The corrosion potentials were controlled using a three electrode cell with computer controlled potentiostat.The experimental programme to determine pitting potentials was designed to simulate the service conditions experienced in most industrial plants and develop mathematical model equations to help a design engineer in material selection decision. Stress corrosion resistance of recently developed Zeron100 was evaluated in dilute environments to propose a mechanism in chloride solutions at high' temperatures useful for the nuclear and power generation industry. Results have shown the significance of the composition of alloying elements across a wide range of stainless steels and its influence on pitting. Nitrogen and molybdenum added to modern duplex stainless steels was found to be unstable at higher temperatures. The fractographic results obtained using the scanning electron microscope (SEM) has given insight in the initiation of pitting in modem duplex and super duplex stainless steels. A mathematical model has been proposed to predict pitting in stainless steels based on the effect of environmental factors (temperature, chloride concentration, and chemical composition). An attempt has been made to identify the mechanism of SCC in Zeron100 super duplex stainless steel.The proposed empirical models have shown good correlation

  1. Adhesive wear of iron chromium nickel silicon manganese molybdenum niobium alloys with duplex structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lugscheider, E.; Deppe, E.; Ambroziak, A.; Melzer, A.

    1991-01-01

    Iron nickel chromium manganese silicon and iron chromium nickel manganese silicon molybdenum niobium alloys have a so-called duplex structure in a wide concentration range. This causes an excellent resistance to wear superior in the case of adhesive stress with optimized concentrations of manganese, silicon, molybdenum and niobium. The materials can be used for welded armouring structures wherever cobalt and boron-containing alloy systems are not permissible, e.g. in nuclear science. Within the framework of pre-investigations for manufacturing of filling wire electrodes, cast test pieces were set up with duplex structure, and their wear behavior was examined. (orig.) [de

  2. Achieving single channel, full duplex wireless communication

    KAUST Repository

    Choi, Jung Il

    2010-01-01

    This paper discusses the design of a single channel full-duplex wireless transceiver. The design uses a combination of RF and baseband techniques to achieve full-duplexing with minimal effect on link reliability. Experiments on real nodes show the full-duplex prototype achieves median performance that is within 8% of an ideal full-duplexing system. This paper presents Antenna Cancellation, a novel technique for self-interference cancellation. In conjunction with existing RF interference cancellation and digital baseband interference cancellation, antenna cancellation achieves the amount of self-interference cancellation required for full-duplex operation. The paper also discusses potential MAC and network gains with full-duplexing. It suggests ways in which a full-duplex system can solve some important problems with existing wireless systems including hidden terminals, loss of throughput due to congestion, and large end-to-end delays. Copyright 2010 ACM.

  3. Caste System

    OpenAIRE

    Hoff, Karla

    2016-01-01

    In standard economics, individuals are rational actors and economic forces undermine institutions that impose large inefficiencies. The persistence of the caste system is evidence of the need for psychologically more realistic models of decision-making in economics. The caste system divides South Asian society into hereditary groups whose lowest ranks are represented as innately polluted. ...

  4. Localized corrosion and stress-corrosion cracking behavior of stainless steel weldments. Annual progress report, June 1, 1980-February 28, 1981

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Savage, W.F.; Duquette, D.J.

    1980-02-01

    Pitting corrosion experiments were conducted on 308L stainless steel as a function of alloy microstructure (% delta ferrite) in acidified water-methanol solutions. Slow strain rate stress corrosion cracking studies were performed on single-phase and duplex 304 stainless steels as functions of solution chemistry, temperature, and sensitization

  5. Numerical simulation of hydrogen-assisted crack initiation in austenitic-ferritic duplex steels; Numerische Simulation der wasserstoffunterstuetzten Rissbildung in austentisch-ferritischen Duplexstaehlen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mente, Tobias

    2015-07-01

    Duplex stainless steels have been used for a long time in the offshore industry, since they have higher strength than conventional austenitic stainless steels and they exhibit a better ductility as well as an improved corrosion resistance in harsh environments compared to ferritic stainless steels. However, despite these good properties the literature shows some failure cases of duplex stainless steels in which hydrogen plays a crucial role for the cause of the damage. Numerical simulations can give a significant contribution in clarifying the damage mechanisms. Because they help to interpret experimental results as well as help to transfer results from laboratory tests to component tests and vice versa. So far, most numerical simulations of hydrogen-assisted material damage in duplex stainless steels were performed at the macroscopic scale. However, duplex stainless steels consist of approximately equal portions of austenite and δ-ferrite. Both phases have different mechanical properties as well as hydrogen transport properties. Thus, the sensitivity for hydrogen-assisted damage is different in both phases, too. Therefore, the objective of this research was to develop a numerical model of a duplex stainless steel microstructure enabling simulation of hydrogen transport, mechanical stresses and strains as well as crack initiation and propagation in both phases. Additionally, modern X-ray diffraction experiments were used in order to evaluate the influence of hydrogen on the phase specific mechanical properties. For the numerical simulation of the hydrogen transport it was shown, that hydrogen diffusion strongly depends on the alignment of austenite and δ-ferrite in the duplex stainless steel microstructure. Also, it was proven that the hydrogen transport is mainly realized by the ferritic phase and hydrogen is trapped in the austenitic phase. The numerical analysis of phase specific mechanical stresses and strains revealed that if the duplex stainless steel is

  6. Optimization of the A-TIG welding for stainless steels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jurica, M.; Kožuh, Z.; Garašić, I.; Bušić, M.

    2018-03-01

    The paper presents the influence of the activation flux and shielding gas on tungsten inert gas (A-TIG) welding of the stainless steel. In introduction part, duplex stainless steel was analysed. The A-TIG process was explained and the possibility of welding stainless steels using the A-TIG process to maximize productivity and the cost-effectiveness of welded structures was presented. In the experimental part duplex, 7 mm thick stainless steel has been welded in butt joint. The influence of activation flux chemical composition upon the weld penetration has been investigated prior the welding. The welding process was performed by a robot with TIG equipment. With selected A-TIG welding technology preparation of plates and consumption of filler material (containing Cr, Ni and Mn) have been avoided. Specimens sectioned from the produced welds have been subjected to tensile strength test, macrostructure analysis and corrosion resistance analysis. The results have confirmed that this type of stainless steel can be welded without edge preparation and addition of filler material containing critical raw materials as Cr, Ni and Mn when the following welding parameters are set: current 200 A, welding speed 9,1 cm/min, heat input 1,2 kJ/mm and specific activation flux is used.

  7. Characterization of Stainless Steel Welding Fume Particles : Influence of Stainless Steel Grade, Welding Parameters and Particle Size

    OpenAIRE

    Mei, Nanxuan

    2016-01-01

    Welding is a widely used method to join two pieces of stainless steel. Since it produces a large amount of fume during the process, it can cause adverse health effects. The welding fume particles contain many elements. Among them Cr, Mn and Ni are of concern. These three elements can cause diseases if inhaled by humans, especially Cr(VI). In this project, welding fume particles are collected during welding of different stainless steel grades (austenitic AISI 304L and duplex LDX2101). Furtherm...

  8. Boronization and Carburization of Superplastic Stainless Steel and Titanium-Based Alloys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masafumi Matsushita

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Bronization and carburization of fine-grain superplastic stainless steel is reviewed, and new experimental results for fine grain Ti88.5Al4.5V3Fe2Mo2 are reported. In superplastic duplex stainless steel, the diffusion of carbon and boron is faster than in non-superplastic duplex stainless steel. Further, diffusion is activated by uniaxial compressive stress. Moreover, non-superplastic duplex stainless steel shows typical grain boundary diffusion; however, inner grain diffusion is confirmed in superplastic stainless steel. The presence of Fe and Cr carbides or borides is confirmed by X-ray diffraction, which indicates that the diffused carbon and boron react with the Fe and Cr in superplastic stainless steel. The Vickers hardness of the carburized and boronized layers is similar to that achieved with other surface treatments such as electro-deposition. Diffusion of boron into the superplastic Ti88.5Al4.5V3Fe2Mo2 alloy was investigated. The hardness of the surface exposed to boron powder can be increased by annealing above the superplastic temperature. However, the Vickers hardness is lower than that of Ti boride.

  9. Hair casts

    OpenAIRE

    Sweta S Parmar; Kirti S Parmar; Bela J Shah

    2014-01-01

    Hair casts or pseudonits are circumferential concretions, which cover the hair shaft in such a way that, it could be easily removed. They are thin, cylindrical, and elongated in length. We present an unusual case of an 8-year-old girl presenting with hair casts. Occurrence of these is unusual, and they may have varied associations. This patient was suffering from developmental delay. It is commonly misdiagnosed as and very important to differentiate from pediculosis capitis.

  10. Mechanical characteristics of welded joints between different stainless steels grades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Topolska, S.; Łabanowski, J.

    2017-08-01

    Investigation of mechanical characteristics of welded joints is one of the most important tasks that allow determining their functional properties. Due to the very high, still rising, cost of some stainless steels it is justified, on economic grounds, welding austenitic stainless steel with steels that are corrosion-resistant like duplex ones. According to forecasts the price of corrosion resistant steels stil can increase by 26 ÷ 30%. For technical reasons welded joints require appropriate mechanical properties such as: tensile strength, bending, ductility, toughness, and resistance to aggressive media. Such joints are applied in the construction of chemical tankers, apparatus and chemical plants and power steam stations. Using the proper binder makes possible the welds directly between the elements of austenitic stainless steels and duplex ones. It causes that such joits behave satisfactorily in service in such areas like maritime constructions and steam and chemical plants. These steels have high mechanical properties such as: the yield strength, the tensile strength and the ductility as well as the resistance to general corrosion media. They are resistant to both pitting and stress corrosions. The relatively low cost of production of duplex steels, in comparison with standard austenitic steels, is inter alia, the result of a reduced amount of scarce and expensive Nickel, which is seen as a further advantage of these steels.

  11. Overall performance of the duplex Stirling refrigerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erbay, L. Berrin; Ozturk, M. Mete; Doğan, Bahadır

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Overall performance coefficient of duplex Stirling refrigerator was investigated. • A definite region for the coefficient of performance of the refrigerator in duplex Stirling is identified. • A definite region for the thermal efficiency of the heat engine in duplex Stirling is identified. • Benchmark values and design bounds of the duplex Stirling refrigerator were obtained. - Abstract: The duplex Stirling refrigerator is an integrated refrigerator consists of Stirling cycle engine and Stirling cycle refrigerator used for cooling. The equality of the work generation of the heat engine to the work consumption of the refrigerator is the primary constraint of the duplex Stirling. The duplex Stirling refrigerator is investigated thermodynamically by considering the effects of constructional and operational parameters which are namely the temperature ratios for heat engine and refrigerator, and the compression ratios for both sides. The primary concern is given to the parametric effects on the overall coefficient of performance of the duplex Stirling refrigerator. The given diagrams provide a design bounds and benchmark results that allows seeing the big picture about the cooling load and heat input relation. Moreover they ease to determine the corresponding work rate to the target cooling load. As regard to the obtained results, a definite region for coefficient of performance of the refrigerator and a definite region for the thermal efficiency of the heat engine of the duplex Stirling are identified.

  12. Solidification and casting

    CERN Document Server

    Cantor, Brian

    2002-01-01

    INDUSTRIAL PERSPECTIVEDirect chillcasting of aluminium alloysContinuous casting of aluminium alloysContinuous casting of steelsCastings in the automotive industryCast aluminium-silicon piston alloysMODELLING AND SIMULATIONModelling direct chill castingMold filling simulation of die castingThe ten casting rulesGrain selection in single crystal superalloy castingsDefects in aluminium shape castingPattern formation during solidificationPeritectic solidificationSTRUCTURE AND DEFECTSHetergeneous nucleation in aluminium alloysCo

  13. Pitting corrosion resistant austenite stainless steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Rooyen, D.; Bandy, R.

    A pitting corrosion resistant austenite stainless steel comprises 17 to 28 wt. % chromium, 15 to 26 wt. % nickel, 5 to 8 wt. % molybdenum, and 0.3 to 0.5 wt. % nitrogen, the balance being iron, unavoidable impurities, minor additions made in the normal course of melting and casting alloys of this type, and may optionally include up to 10 wt. % of manganese, up to 5 wt. % of silicon, and up to 0.08 wt. % of carbon.

  14. Microstructure and Abrasive Wear Resistance of 18Cr-4Ni-2.5Mo Cast Steel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Kalandyk

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available An influence of a decreased Cr content on the microstructure of the highly alloyed Cr-Ni cast steel, duplex type, melted under laboratoryconditions, was characterized in the paper. The microstructure investigations were performed in the initial state and after the heat treatment (solution annealing at 1060C as well as the phase transformation kinetics at continuous cooling was measured. The wear resistance of the investigated cast steel was tested and compared with the 24%Cr-5%Ni-2.5%Mo cast steel.The Cr content decrease, in ferritic-austenitic cast steels (duplex, from 24-26%Cr to 18% leads to the changes of the castingsmicrostructure and eliminating of a brittle  phase. In dependence of the casting cooling rate, apart from ferrite and austenite, also fine martensite precipitates occur in the casting structure. It was shown that the investigated cast steel is characterised by a slightly lower wear resistance than the typical cast steel duplex grades.

  15. Ultrasonic testing of austenitic stainless steel welds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishino, Shunichi; Hida, Yoshio; Yamamoto, Michio; Ando, Tomozumi; Shirai, Tasuku.

    1982-05-01

    Ultrasonic testing of austenitic stainless steel welds has been considered difficult because of the high noise level and remarkable attenuation of ultrasonic waves. To improve flaw detectability in this kind of steel, various inspection techniques have been studied. A series of tests indicated: (1) The longitudinal angle beam transducers newly developed during this study can detect 4.8 mm dia. side drilled holes in dissimilar metal welds (refraction angle: 55 0 from SUS side, 45 0 from CS side) and in cast stainless steel welds (refraction angle: 45 0 , inspection frequency: 1 MHz). (2) Cracks more than 5% t in depth in the heat affected zones of fine-grain stainless steel pipe welds can be detected by the 45 0 shear wave angle beam method (inspection frequency: 2 MHz). (3) The pattern recognition method using frequency analysis technology was presumed useful for discriminating crack signals from spurious echoes. (author)

  16. Hydrogen assisted stress-cracking behaviour of electron beam welded supermartensitic stainless steel weldments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bala Srinivasan, P.; Sharkawy, S.W.; Dietzel, W.

    2004-01-01

    Supermartensitic stainless steel (SMSS) grades are gaining popularity as an alternate material to duplex and super duplex stainless steels for applications in oil and gas industries. The weldability of these steels, though reported to be better when compared to conventional martensitic stainless steels, so far has been addressed with duplex stainless steel electrodes/fillers. This work addresses the stress-cracking behaviour of weldments of a high-grade supermartensitic stainless steel (11% Cr, 6.5% Ni and 2% Mo) in the presence of hydrogen. Welds were produced with matching consumables, using electron beam welding (EBW) process. Weldments were subjected to slow strain rate tests in 0.1 M NaOH solution, with introduction of hydrogen into the specimens by means of potentiostatic cathodic polarisation at a potential of -1200 mV versus Ag/AgCl electrode. Reference tests were performed in air for comparison, and the results suggest that both the SMSS base material and the EB weld metal are susceptible to embrittlement under the conditions of hydrogen charging

  17. Corrosion produced failures in valves made of micro-melted stainless steel. Valve disk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abuin, G.; Alanis, I.; Berardo, L.

    1991-01-01

    Cast stainless steels show different metallographic structure than equivalent laminated steels where the former presents good resistance in media containing chlorides. In the present work, an analysis is made of the causes for the fracture of an AISI 316 micro-melted stainless steel disk for a valve in a cleaning agents feeding circuit in a food processing plant. (Author) [es

  18. Screening of Modified RNA duplexes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schyth, Brian Dall; Bramsen, Jesper Bertram; Kjems, Jørgen

    Because of sequence specific gene targeting activity siRNAs are regarded as promising active compounds in gene medicine. But one serious problem with delivering siRNAs as treatment is the now well-established non-specific activities of some RNA duplexes. Cellular reactions towards double stranded...... RNAs include the 2´-5´ oligoadenylate synthetase system, the protein kinase R, RIG-I and Toll-like receptor activated pathways all resulting in antiviral defence mechanism. We have previously shown that antiviral innate immune reactions against double stranded RNAs could be detected in vivo as partial...... protection against a fish pathogenic virus. This protection corresponded with an interferon response in the fish. Here we use this fish model to screen siRNAs containing various chemical modifications of the RNA backbone for their antiviral activity, the overall aim being identification of an siRNA form...

  19. Block compressed sensing for feedback reduction in relay-aided multiuser full duplex networks

    KAUST Repository

    Elkhalil, Khalil

    2016-08-11

    Opportunistic user selection is a simple technique that exploits the spatial diversity in multiuser relay-aided networks. Nonetheless, channel state information (CSI) from all users (and cooperating relays) is generally required at a central node in order to make selection decisions. Practically, CSI acquisition generates a great deal of feedback overhead that could result in significant transmission delays. In addition to this, the presence of a full-duplex cooperating relay corrupts the fed back CSI by additive noise and the relay\\'s loop (or self) interference. This could lead to transmission outages if user selection is based on inaccurate feedback information. In this paper, we propose an opportunistic full-duplex feedback algorithm that tackles the above challenges. We cast the problem of joint user signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and the relay loop interference estimation at the base-station as a block sparse signal recovery problem in compressive sensing (CS). Using existing CS block recovery algorithms, the identity of the strong users is obtained and their corresponding SNRs are estimated. Numerical results show that the proposed technique drastically reduces the feedback overhead and achieves a rate close to that obtained by techniques that require dedicated error-free feedback from all users. Numerical results also show that there is a trade-off between the feedback interference and load, and for short coherence intervals, full-duplex feedback achieves higher throughput when compared to interference-free (half-duplex) feedback. © 2016 IEEE.

  20. Damage on 316LN stainless steel transformed by powder metallurgy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Couturier, R.; Burlet, H.

    1998-01-01

    This study deals with the 316 LN stainless steel elaboration by powder metallurgy. This method allows the realization of structures in austenitic steel less affected by the thermal aging than the cast austenitic-ferritic components. The components are performed by the method of HIP (Hot Isostatic Pressing). Mechanical tests are provided to control mechanical properties

  1. Studies on microstructure, mechanical and pitting corrosion behaviour of similar and dissimilar stainless steel gas tungsten arc welds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammed, Raffi; Dilkush; Srinivasa Rao, K.; Madhusudhan Reddy, G.

    2018-03-01

    In the present study, an attempt has been made to weld dissimilar alloys of 5mm thick plates i.e., austenitic stainless steel (316L) and duplex stainless steel (2205) and compared with that of similar welds. Welds are made with conventional gas tungsten arc welding (GTAW) process with two different filler wires namely i.e., 309L and 2209. Welds were characterized using optical microscopy to observe the microstructural changes and correlate with mechanical properties using hardness, tensile and impact testing. Potentio-dynamic polarization studies were carried out to observe the pitting corrosion behaviour in different regions of the welds. Results of the present study established that change in filler wire composition resulted in microstructural variation in all the welds with different morphology of ferrite and austenite. Welds made with 2209 filler showed plate like widmanstatten austenite (WA) nucleated at grain boundaries. Compared to similar stainless steel welds inferior mechanical properties was observed in dissimilar stainless steel welds. Pitting corrosion resistance is observed to be low for dissimilar stainless steel welds when compared to similar stainless steel welds. Overall study showed that similar duplex stainless steel welds having favorable microstructure and resulted in better mechanical properties and corrosion resistance. Relatively dissimilar stainless steel welds made with 309L filler obtained optimum combination of mechanical properties and pitting corrosion resistance when compared to 2209 filler and is recommended for industrial practice.

  2. Practical, real-time, full duplex wireless

    KAUST Repository

    Jain, Mayank

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents a full duplex radio design using signal inversion and adaptive cancellation. Signal inversion uses a simple design based on a balanced/unbalanced (Balun) transformer. This new design, unlike prior work, supports wideband and high power systems. In theory, this new design has no limitation on bandwidth or power. In practice, we find that the signal inversion technique alone can cancel at least 45dB across a 40MHz bandwidth. Further, combining signal inversion cancellation with cancellation in the digital domain can reduce self-interference by up to 73dB for a 10MHz OFDM signal. This paper also presents a full duplex medium access control (MAC) design and evaluates it using a testbed of 5 prototype full duplex nodes. Full duplex reduces packet losses due to hidden terminals by up to 88%. Full duplex also mitigates unfair channel allocation in AP-based networks, increasing fairness from 0.85 to 0.98 while improving downlink throughput by 110% and uplink throughput by 15%. These experimental results show that a re- design of the wireless network stack to exploit full duplex capability can result in significant improvements in network performance. © 2011 ACM.

  3. Energy balance and deformation mechanisms of duplexes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitra, Gautam; Boyer, Steven E.

    A duplex consists of a series of imbricate faults that are asymptotic to a roof thrust and a floor thrust. Depending on the final orientations of the imbricate faults and the final position of the branch lines, a duplex may be hinterland-dipping, foreland-dipping, or an antiformal stack. The exact geometry depends on various factors such as the initial dimensions of the individual slices (horses), their lithology, the amount of displacement (normalized to size of horse) on each fault, and the mechanics of movement along each fault. The energy required in duplex formation can be determined by calculating the total work involved in emplacing each horse: this is given by where W t=W p+W b+W g+W iWp is the work involved in initiating and propagating a fracture. Wb is the work involved in basal sliding, which may be frictional or some form of ductile flow, Wg is the work done against gravity during the emplacement of the horse, and Wi is the work involved in the internal deformation of the horse. By calculating and comparing these work terms it is possible to predict the conditions under which the different types of duplexes will form. Normally, the development of a hinterland-dipping duplex is most likely. However, if deformation conditions are favorable, displacements on individual imbricate faults may be very large compared to the size of the horses, leading to the formation of either antiformal stacks or foreland-dipping duplexes.

  4. Effects of Cr2N Precipitation on the Antibacterial Properties of AISI 430 Stainless Steel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Je-Kang Du

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Based on their mechanical properties and good corrosion resistance, some commercial Ni-Cr stainless steels have been widely applied as biomaterials, including the austenitic 304 stainless steel, the austenitic 316 stainless steel, the duplex 2205 stainless steel, and the ferritic 430 stainless steel. In order to reduce the occurrence of infections resulting from biomaterial implants, instruments, and medical devices, Cu2+ and Ag2+ ions have been added onto biomaterials for increasing the antibacterial properties, but they are known to damage biofilm. The occurrence of nanoparticles can also improve the antibacterial properties of biomaterials through various methods. In this study, we used Escherichia coli and analyzed the microstructures of American Iron and Steel Institute (AISI 430 stainless steel with a 0.18 mass % N alloy element. During a lower temperature aging, the microstructure of the as-quenched specimen is essentially a ferrite and martensite duplex matrix with some Cr2N precipitates formed. Additionally, the antibacterial properties of the alloy for E. coli ranged from 3% to 60%, consistent with the presence of Cr2N precipitates. When aged at a lower temperature, which resulted in nano-Cr2N precipitation, the specimen possessed the highest antibacterial activity.

  5. Casting materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudhry, Anil R [Xenia, OH; Dzugan, Robert [Cincinnati, OH; Harrington, Richard M [Cincinnati, OH; Neece, Faurice D [Lyndurst, OH; Singh, Nipendra P [Pepper Pike, OH

    2011-06-14

    A foam material comprises a liquid polymer and a liquid isocyanate which is mixed to make a solution that is poured, injected or otherwise deposited into a corresponding mold. A reaction from the mixture of the liquid polymer and liquid isocyanate inside the mold forms a thermally collapsible foam structure having a shape that corresponds to the inside surface configuration of the mold and a skin that is continuous and unbroken. Once the reaction is complete, the foam pattern is removed from the mold and may be used as a pattern in any number of conventional casting processes.

  6. Effects of microstructure on ultrasonic examination of stainless steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kupperman, D.S.; Reimann, K.J.

    1976-01-01

    Ultrasonic inspection of cast stainless steel components or stainless steel welds is difficult, and the results obtained are hard to interpret. The present study describes the effects of stainless steel microstructure on ultrasonic test results. Welded coupons, 2.5 and 5.0 cm thick, were fabricated from Type 304 stainless steel, with Type 308 stainless steel as the weld material. Metallography of the base material shows grain sizes of 15 and 80 μm, and dendrites aligned from the top to the bottom surface in cast material. X-ray diffraction and ultrasonic velocity measurements indicate a random crystal orientation in the base material, but the cast sample had aligned dendrites. The weld material exhibits a dendritic structure with a preferred (100) direction perpendicular to the weld pass. Spectral analysis of ultrasonic broad-band signals through the base materials shows drastic attenuation of higher frequencies with increasing grain size (Rayleigh scattering). Annealing and recrystallization increases the ultrasonic attenuation and produces carbide precipitation at grain boundaries. The microstructural differences of the base metal, heat-affected zone, and weld metal affect the amplitude of ultrasonic reflections from artificial flaws in these zones. Data obtained from two samples of different grain sizes indicate that grain size has little effect when a 1-MHz transducer is used. When going from a 15 to an 80-μm crystalline structure, a 5-MHz unit suffers a 30-dB attenuation in the detection of a 1.2 mm deep notch. The anisotropy of the dendritic structure in stainless steel renewed the interest in the effect of shear-wave polarization. In the (110) crystallographic orientation of stainless steel, two modes of shear waves can be generated, which have velocities differing by a factor of two. This effect may be helpful in ''tuning'' of shear waves by polarization to obtain better penetration in large grain materials such as welds

  7. Cast irons

    CERN Document Server

    1996-01-01

    Cast iron offers the design engineer a low-cost, high-strength material that can be easily melted and poured into a wide variety of useful, and sometimes complex, shapes. This latest handbook from ASM covers the entire spectrum of one of the most widely used and versatile of all engineered materials. The reader will find the basic, but vital, information on metallurgy, solidification characteristics, and properties. Extensive reviews are presented on the low-alloy gray, ductile, compacted graphite, and malleable irons. New and expanded material has been added covering high-alloy white irons used for abrasion resistance and high-alloy graphitic irons for heat and corrosion resistance. Also discussed are melting furnaces and foundry practices such as melting, inoculation, alloying, pouring, gating and rising, and molding. Heat treating practices including stress relieving, annealing, normalizing, hardening and tempering, autempering (of ductile irons), and surface-hardening treatments are covered, too. ASM Spec...

  8. Manufacture of tube billets for fuel cans by vacuum centrifugal casting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zelenskij, V.F.; Neklyudov, I.M.; Chernyj, B.P.

    1989-01-01

    Vacuum device for induction melting with centrifugal casting in the ingot mold with rotation vertical or horisontal axis is presented. Removing and grinding of nonmetallic inclusions are realized by selection of casting conditions and of chemically active reducer, sound metal with high ductility is obtained. Data on micro- and macrostructure of casted tube billets made of 08Kh18N10T and 06Kh16H15M3B stainless steels, designed for manufacture of fuel cans are presented

  9. A comparative study on microgap of premade abutments and abutments cast in base metal alloys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lalithamma, Jaini Jaini; Mallan, Sreekanth Anantha; Murukan, Pazhani Appan; Zarina, Rita

    2014-06-01

    The study compared the marginal accuracy of premade and cast abutments. Premade titanium, stainless steel, and gold abutments formed the control groups. Plastic abutments were cast in nickel-chromium, cobalt-chromium and grade IV titanium. The abutment/implant interface was analyzed. Analysis of variance and Duncan's multiple range test revealed no significant difference in mean marginal microgap between premade gold and titanium abutments and between premade stainless steel and cast titanium abutments. Statistically significant differences (P < .001) were found among all other groups.

  10. Metallic Reinforcement of Direct Squeeze Die Casting Aluminum Alloys for Improved Strength and Fracture Resistance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D. Schwam: J.F. Wallace: Y. Zhu: J.W. Ki

    2004-10-01

    The utilization of aluminum die casting as enclosures where internal equipment is rotating inside of the casting and could fracture requires a strong housing to restrain the fractured parts. A typical example would be a supercharger. In case of a failure, unless adequately contained, fractured parts could injure people operating the equipment. A number of potential reinforcement materials were investigated. The initial work was conducted in sand molds to create experimental conditions that promote prolonged contact of the reinforcing material with molten aluminum. Bonding of Aluminum bronze, Cast iron, and Ni-resist inserts with various electroplated coatings and surface treatments were analyzed. Also toughening of A354 aluminum cast alloy by steel and stainless steel wire mesh with various conditions was analyzed. A practical approach to reinforcement of die cast aluminum components is to use a reinforcing steel preform. Such performs can be fabricated from steel wire mesh or perforated metal sheet by stamping or deep drawing. A hemispherical, dome shaped casting was selected in this investigation. A deep drawing die was used to fabricate the reinforcing performs. The tendency of aluminum cast enclosures to fracture could be significantly reduced by installing a wire mesh of austenitic stainless steel or a punched austenitic stainless steel sheet within the casting. The use of reinforcements made of austenitic stainless steel wire mesh or punched austenitic stainless steel sheet provided marked improvement in reducing the fragmentation of the casting. The best strengthening was obtained with austenitic stainless steel wire and with a punched stainless steel sheet without annealing this material. Somewhat lower results were obtained with the annealed punched stainless steel sheet. When the annealed 1020 steel wire mesh was used, the results were only slightly improved because of the lower mechanical properties of this unalloyed steel. The lowest results were

  11. Low temperature gaseous nitriding and carburising of stainless steel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Thomas; Somers, Marcel A.J.

    2005-01-01

    The response of various austenitic and duplex stainless steel grades to low temperature gaseous nitriding and carburising was investigated. Gaseous nitriding was performed in ammonia/hydrogen mixtures at temperatures ,723 K; gaseous carburising was carried out in carbon monoxide/hydrogen mixtures...... for temperatures (783 K. The case developed by thermochemical treatment was examined using reflected light microscopy, X-ray diffraction analysis and microhardness testing. Both nitriding and carburising led to the development of expanded austenite in the surface adjacent zone, irrespective of the phase...... constitution of the substrate. A two step process, consisting of carburising followed by nitriding, provides great flexibility with regard to adjusting the hardness–depth profile....

  12. Full Duplex Communications in 5G Small Cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mahmood, Nurul Huda; Gatnau, Marta; Berardinelli, Gilberto

    2017-01-01

    Full duplex communication promises system performance improvement over conventional half duplex communication by allowing simultaneous transmission and reception. However, such concurrent communication results in strong self interference and an increase in the overall network interference, and ca...

  13. Microstructure and wear resistance of spray-formed supermartensitic stainless steel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guilherme Zepon

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Since the early 90's the oil industry has been encouraging the development of corrosion and wear resistant alloys for onshore and offshore pipeline applications. In this context supermartensitic stainless steel was introduced to replace the more expensive duplex stainless steel for tubing applications. Despite the outstanding corrosion resistance of stainless steels, their wear resistance is of concern. Some authors reported obtaining material processed by spray forming, such as ferritic stainless steel, superduplex stainless steel modified with boron, and iron-based amorphous alloys, which presented high wear resistance while maintaining the corrosion performance1,2. The addition of boron to iron-based alloys promotes the formation of hard boride particles (M2B type which improve their wear resistances3-9. This work aimed to study the microstructure and wear resistance of supermartensitic stainless steel modified with 0.3 wt. (% and 0.7 wt. (% processed by spray forming (SF-SMSS 0.3%B and SF-SMSS 0.7%B, respectively. These boron contents were selected in order to improve the wear resistance of supermartensitic stainless steel through the formation of uniformly distributed borides maintaining the characteristics of the corrosion resistant matrix. SF-SMSS 0.7%B presents an abrasive wear resistance considerably higher than spray-formed supermartensitic stainless steel without boron addition (SF-SMSS.

  14. The ancient Chinese casting techniques

    OpenAIRE

    Tan Derui; Lian Haiping

    2011-01-01

    In the course of Chinese civilization, which lasted more than 5,000 years, casting production has made a huge contribution. In this paper, some representative metal castings were presented. According to their forming techniques, they can be grouped into stone mould casting, clay mould casting, ablation casting, lost wax casting, stack casting, permanent mould casting, sand casting, etc. According to their materials, they can be categorized into tin bronze, bimetallic bronze, malleable cast ir...

  15. Duplex scanning using sparse data sequences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møllenbach, S. K.; Jensen, Jørgen Arendt

    2008-01-01

    The velocity distribution in vessels can be displayed using duplex scanning where B-mode acquisitions are interspaced with the velocity data. This gives an image for orientation, but lowers the maximum detectable velocity by a factor of two. Other pulse sequences either omits the B-mode image...... is scaled by the factor A/T. The approach has been investigated using in vivo RF data from the Hepatic vein, Carotid artery and Aorta from a 33 year old healthy male. A B-K Medical 3535 ultrasound scanner has been used in Duplex mode with a BK 8556, 3.2 MHz linear array probe. The sampling frequency...

  16. Full-duplex optical communication system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shay, Thomas M. (Inventor); Hazzard, David A. (Inventor); Horan, Stephen (Inventor); Payne, Jason A. (Inventor)

    2004-01-01

    A method of full-duplex electromagnetic communication wherein a pair of data modulation formats are selected for the forward and return data links respectively such that the forward data electro-magnetic beam serves as a carrier for the return data. A method of encoding optical information is used wherein right-hand and left-hand circular polarizations are assigned to optical information to represent binary states. An application for an earth to low earth orbit optical communications system is presented which implements the full-duplex communication and circular polarization keying modulation format.

  17. Color coded duplex sonography. Interdisciplinary vascular ultrasonography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kubale, R.; Stiegler, H.

    2002-01-01

    An interdisciplinary team of experts impart the state of the art in color coded duplex sonography applied for examination of all anatomic areas. Detailed information is given for every vascular area, describing the examination procedure, possible origins of mistakes or faults, and means to avoid them. In addition to the classical applications, eg. for examination of the extra- and intracranial vessels, vessels of the limbs, visceral vessels and the vessels of liver and kidney, there are chapters devoted to: haemodialysis shunts, arteriovenous malformations, duplex sonography of the penis, tumor vascularisation. (orig./CB) [de

  18. Special thermite cast irons

    OpenAIRE

    Yu. Zhiguts; I. Kurytnik

    2008-01-01

    The given paper deals with the problems of the synthesis of cast iron by metallothermy synthesis. On the basis of investigated method of calculations structures of charges have been arranged and cast iron has been synthesized further. Peculiarities metallothermic smelting were found, mechanical properties and structure of received cast iron were investigated and different technologies for cast iron receiving were worked out.

  19. Development of nuclear grade stainless steels at KCSSL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balachandran, G.; Dhere, M.; Mahadik, A.; Hinge, N.M.; Balasubramanian, V.

    2011-01-01

    Kalyani Carpenter Special Steels Ltd is an alloy steel plant, where a variety of alloy steel grades are produced for automotive, defence, nuclear and aerospace applications. The plant has developed expertise in processing of several alloy steel grades of superior quality that meets stringent specifications. Primary steel is processed through a combination of electric arc furnace, ladle furnace and vacuum degassing where stringent control over dephosphorisation, desulphurization, deoxidation is effected to get a refined high quality steel. The molten steel is cast through continuous casting of slabs or ingot casting. In grades specific to nuclear application, the primary cast products are further subjected to electroslag remelting to achieve further freedom from inclusions and to achieve a favourable solidification grain structure, which ultimately improve the hot workability of the alloy steel. Appropriate choice of slag and operating parameters are needed for realising the required ingot quality. The present study would examine the processing and quality aspects of some important grades of steels used in nuclear industry namely ferritic 9Cr-1Mo steel, martensitic stainless steels 403, 410, precipitation hardenable 17-4 PH stainless steel and austenitic 321, 316LN stainless steel, which were made and supplied for applications to Indian nuclear industry. The expertise developed in processing the steels in terms of melting, heat treatment and their relationship to structural features and mechanical properties would be highlighted. (author)

  20. Study on the wear of TiN/Ti duplex and multilayer coatings in microabrasion tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flores, M; De Las Heras, E; Ruelas, R; Rodriguez, E; Bautista, A; Pazos, L; Corengia, P

    2008-01-01

    Ionic nitriding, on steels, is used to harden the surface of components improving resistance to corrosion and wear and increasing the stress life. Duplex treatments are an alternative for resolving the limitations of very hard coatings on less hard substrates. In this case the duplex treatment consists of an ionic nitriding treatment followed by a single or multilayer coatings deposited by means of the PVD technique. This work presents the influence of the variation in the severity of contact on the kind of wear present in the microabrasion test used to measure the wear coefficient of duplex coatings, consisting of a layer nitrided by DC-pulsed plasma plus TiN coatings and multilayers of TiN/Ti deposited on non-nitrided and nitrided AISI 316L stainless steel and H13 steel. The severity of contact was modified by varying the charge (0.25 to 1 N). The abrasives used were a suspension of 0.1μm diameter diamond particles and a suspension of an average 5 μm diameter aluminum particles. The influence of the presence of relatively soft metallic layers on the determination of the wear coefficient was analyzed in the metal-ceramic multilayers. Two sphere revolving speeds of de 0.05 and 0.154 m/s were used on two microabrasion machines: one commercial and the other built in the UdeG laboratory. The wear marks were photographed and measured with an optic microscope. The value of the critical charge at which the transition occurs between the methods of wear of the substrates and the nitrited samples was determined. Resistance to the AISI 316L steel's microabrasive wear increases with the ionic nitriding treatment. The duplex coatings increase resistance to the wear from the nitrited samples. The wear resistance of the samples with multilayer coatings surpassed that of the duplex samples with multilayer coatings. The greater resistance of the multilayers may be explained by an increase in the resistance to the fracture and not by a increase in surface hardness. The transition

  1. Microstructure and Abrasive Wear Resistance of 18Cr-4Ni-2.5Mo Cast Steel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalandyk B.

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available An influence of a decreased Cr content on the microstructure of the highly alloyed Cr-Ni cast steel, duplex type, melted under laboratory conditions, was characterized in the paper. The microstructure investigations were performed in the initial state and after the heat treatment (solution annealing at 1060°C as well as the phase transformation kinetics at continuous cooling was measured. The wear resistance of the investigated cast steel was tested and compared with the 24%Cr-5%Ni-2.5%Mo cast steel.

  2. Ultra-short silicon MMI duplexer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Huaxiang; Huang, Yawen; Wang, Xingjun; Zhou, Zhiping

    2012-11-01

    The fiber-to-the-home (FTTH) systems are growing fast these days, where two different wavelengths are used for upstream and downstream traffic, typically 1310nm and 1490nm. The duplexers are the key elements to separate these wavelengths into different path in central offices (CO) and optical network unit (ONU) in passive optical network (PON). Multimode interference (MMI) has some benefits to be a duplexer including large fabrication tolerance, low-temperature dependence, and low-polarization dependence, but its size is too large to integrate in conventional case. Based on the silicon photonics platform, ultra-short silicon MMI duplexer was demonstrated to separate the 1310nm and 1490nm lights. By studying the theory of self-image phenomena in MMI, the first order images are adopted in order to keep the device short. A cascaded MMI structure was investigated to implement the wavelength splitting, where both the light of 1310nm and 1490nm was input from the same port, and the 1490nm light was coupling cross the first MMI and output at the cross-port in the device while the 1310nm light was coupling through the first and second MMI and output at the bar-port in the device. The experiment was carried on with the SOI wafer of 340nm top silicon. The cascaded MMI was investigated to fold the length of the duplexer as short as 117μm with the extinct ratio over 10dB.

  3. Friction welding of ductile cast iron using interlayers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winiczenko, Radoslaw; Kaczorowski, Mieczyslaw

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: → The results of the study of the friction welding of ductile cast iron using interlayers are presented. → The results of the analysis shows that the joint has the tensile strength compared to that of basic material. → In case of ductile cast iron, it is possible to reach the tensile strength equals even 700 MPa. → The process of friction welding was accompanied with diffusion of Cr, Ni and C atoms across the interface. -- Abstract: In this paper, ductile cast iron-austenitic stainless steel, ductile cast iron-pure Armco iron and ductile cast iron-low carbon steel interlayers were welded, using the friction welding method. The tensile strength of the joints was determined, using a conventional tensile test machine. Moreover, the hardness across the interface of materials was measured on metallographic specimens. The fracture surface and microstructure of the joints was examined using either light stereoscope microscopy as well as electron microscopy. In this case, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) were applied. The results of the analysis shows that the joint has the tensile strength compared to that of basic material. In case of ductile cast iron, it is possible to reach the tensile strength equals even 700 MPa. It was concluded that the process of friction welding was accompanied with diffusion of Cr, Ni and C atoms across the ductile cast iron-stainless steel interface. This leads to increase in carbon concentration in stainless steel where chromium carbides were formed, the size and distribution of which was dependent on the distance from the interface.

  4. Plastic casting resin poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epoxy poisoning; Resin poisoning ... Epoxy and resin can be poisonous if they are swallowed or their fumes are breathed in. ... Plastic casting resins are found in various plastic casting resin products.

  5. Casting and Splinting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-08-21

    article /80165-technigue Self Evaluation Is injured extremity in desired position? »- Empty can position »- Wrist extension 20° );;>- MCP Oexion...periodically throughout the day If cast feels tight despite elevation seek medical assistance Do not scratch under cast; do not get cast wet Get

  6. Dúplex telefónico - Duplex telephonic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santos López, Pascual

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Only 19 years after a timid introduction of telephony in Spain and seven years before the founding of the National Telephonic Company of Spain, Pascual Salmerón Gómez records his two patents: "Duplex telephonic" and "Simultaneous duplex telephonic with telegraph machines". Two high technical complexity patents, registered in 1917 in the town of Arucas, province of Gran Canaria analyzed to our readers.Nephew of the inventor of the "Float Salmerón," José Salmerón Rojas and brother of Gerónimo Gómez Salmerón, inventor of "Cerealémetro" and owner of the theater Borras and with which we ended the saga Salmerón.

  7. Influence of temperature on the hydrogen evolution reaction on stainless steels in LiBr solution by means of polarization techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guinon Pina, V.; Igual-Munoz, A.; Garcia-Anton, J. [Valencia Univ. Politecnica, Dept. de Ingenieria Quimica y Nuclear. ETSI Industriales, Valencia (Spain)

    2009-07-01

    Lithium Bromide aqueous solutions used as absorbent in refrigeration machines can cause serious corrosion problems which also facilitate the hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) in the cathodic regions. Hydrogen formation is an important problem in the operating conditions of adsorption machines because they operate under low pressure conditions. Hydrogen generation makes pressure to increase and as a consequence efficiency decreases. Duplex Stainless Steels (DSS) are iron-based alloys with a two-phase microstructure: austenite and delta ferrite in approximately similar percentages. DSS find increasing use as an alternative to austenitic stainless steels, particularly where aggressive anions such as bromide are present in high concentrations. The objective of the present work is to study the effect of temperature on the hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) of two different stainless steels, Austenitic and Duplex steels, using different electrochemical techniques: Open Circuit Potential (OCP), potentiodynamic and galvano-static measurements and image digital analysis. The HER was studied in 992 g/l LiBr at three different temperatures (25, 50 and 75 C). The results showed that the electrocatalytic activity for the HER increased with temperature. The energy consumption for hydrogen generation on Austenitic Stainless Steel, UNS N08031, is lower than on Duplex Stainless Steel, EN 1.4462, at the studied temperatures. (authors)

  8. Joint duplex mode selection, channel allocation, and power control for full-duplex cognitive femtocell networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mingjie Feng

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we aim to maximize the sum rate of a full-duplex cognitive femtocell network (FDCFN as well as guaranteeing the quality of service (QoS of users in the form of a required signal to interference plus noise ratios (SINR. We first consider the case of a pair of channels, and develop optimum-achieving power control solutions. Then, for the case of multiple channels, we formulate joint duplex model selection, power control, and channel allocation as a mixed integer nonlinear problem (MINLP, and propose an iterative framework to solve it. The proposed iterative framework consists of a duplex mode selection scheme, a near-optimal distributed power control algorithm, and a greedy channel allocation algorithm. We prove the convergence of the proposed iterative framework as well as a lower bound for the greedy channel allocation algorithm. Numerical results show that the proposed schemes effectively improve the sum rate of FDCFNs.

  9. Predicting Pattern Tooling and Casting Dimensions for Investment Casting, Phase III

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sabau, Adrian S [ORNL

    2008-04-01

    Efforts during Phase III focused mainly on the shell-alloy systems. A high melting point alloy, 17-4PH stainless steel, was considered. The experimental part of the program was conducted at ORNL and commercial foundries, where wax patterns were injected, molds were invested, and alloys were poured. Shell molds made of fused-silica and alumino-silicates were considered. A literature review was conducted on thermophysical and thermomechanical properties alumino-silicates. Material property data, which were not available from material suppliers, was obtained. For all the properties of 17-4PH stainless steel, the experimental data available in the literature did not cover the entire temperature range necessary for process simulation. Thus, some material properties were evaluated using ProCAST, based on CompuTherm database. A comparison between the predicted material property data and measured property data was made. It was found that most material properties were accurately predicted only over several temperature ranges. No experimental data for plastic modulus were found. Thus, several assumptions were made and ProCAST recommendations were followed in order to obtain a complete set of mechanical property data at high temperatures. Thermal expansion measurements for the 17-4PH alloy were conducted during heating and cooling. As a function of temperature, the thermal expansion for both the alloy and shell mold materials showed different evolution on heating and cooling. Numerical simulations were performed using ProCAST for the investment casting of 17-4PH stainless steel parts in fused silica molds using the thermal expansion obtained on heating and another one with thermal expansion obtained on cooling. Since the fused silica shells had the lowest thermal expansion properties in the industry, the dewaxing phase, including the coupling between wax-shell systems, was neglected. The shell mold was considered to be a pure elastic material. The alloy dimensions were

  10. Full Duplex Prototype of OFDM on GNURadio and USRPs

    OpenAIRE

    Zhou , Wei; Villemaud , Guillaume; Risset , Tanguy

    2014-01-01

    International audience; Full-duplex is a technology in telecommunication domain that can perform transmitting and receiving at the same time and in the same frequency band. The major obstacle of full-duplex is the self-interference (SI). Some previous works have focused on the SI cancellation in radio frequency (RF), and generally on a narrowband signal model. We have implemented a full-duplex prototype with orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing (OFDM) technology on GNURadio and Universa...

  11. Knitmesh And Duplex-Nylon Type Coalescence Aids Use In Phase Disengagement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamit Topuz

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available This study shows how dispersions consisted of droplet sizes ranging from 100 microns and above of immiscible liquids in agitated vessels coalesced and settled back to their phases by employing commercially known as knit-mesh made from stainless steel and nylon. These components known as higher surface energy and lower surface energy contained coalesce aids respectively. In addition to compare coalesce aid made purely from commercially known as duplex-nylon also used. The experimental set up was 13 scale of a single stage mixer-settler unit of the already existing unit which was in use at BNFL Springfield Works. The liquid liquid system made from 20 tri-butyl-phosphate TBP technical grade of odorless kerosene forming the light organic phase or solvent phase and 5 M nitric acid forming the heavy aqueous phase. The solvent phase contained 70 gram of uranium per liter. Uranium contained phase was supplied by above mentioned company.

  12. UNS S32750 super duplex steel welding using pulsed Nd:YAG laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Francini, O.D.; Andrade, G.G.; Clemente, M.S.; Gallego, J.; Ventrella, V.A.

    2016-01-01

    Laser is a flexible and powerful tool with many relevant applications in industry, mainly in the welding area. Lasers today provide the welding industry technical solutions to many problems. This work studied the weld metal obtained by pulsed laser welding of Nd: YAG super duplex stainless steel UNS S32750 employed in the oil and natural gas, analyzing the influence of high cooling rate, due to the laser process, the swing phase ferrite / austenite. Were performed weld beads in butt joint with different repetition rates. The different microstructures were obtained by optical microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. The results showed that the effect of varying the welding energy of Nd: YAG laser on the volume fractions of the phases ferrite/austenite in the weld metal was its ferritization and low austenite amount on the grain boundary. (author)

  13. The Origins of Microtexture in Duplex Ti Alloys (Preprint)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Glavic, M. G; Bartha, B. B; Jha, S. K; Szczepanski, C. J

    2008-01-01

    .... In addition, for a homogeneous duplex microstructures, all of the secondary alpha phase and the majority of the primary alpha grains retain crystallographic coherency, according to the Burgers...

  14. Articles comprising ferritic stainless steels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rakowski, James M.

    2016-06-28

    An article of manufacture comprises a ferritic stainless steel that includes a near-surface region depleted of silicon relative to a remainder of the ferritic stainless steel. The article has a reduced tendency to form an electrically resistive silica layer including silicon derived from the steel when the article is subjected to high temperature oxidizing conditions. The ferritic stainless steel is selected from the group comprising AISI Type 430 stainless steel, AISI Type 439 stainless steel, AISI Type 441 stainless steel, AISI Type 444 stainless steel, and E-BRITE.RTM. alloy, also known as UNS 44627 stainless steel. In certain embodiments, the article of manufacture is a fuel cell interconnect for a solid oxide fuel cell.

  15. Micromechanical behaviors of duplex steel: in situ neutron diffraction measurements and simulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jia, N; Wang, Y D; Peng, R Lin

    2008-01-01

    Recently, much attention has been paid to studying the micromechanical behavior of multiphase materials by virtue of their extensive engineering applications. A strong heterogeneity in stress exists in two-phase materials during loading due to the different thermal expansion coefficients and the respective mechanical properties of each individual phase. For one duplex stainless steel under uniaxial compression, the distributions of microstrains were characterized with the strain response of multiple reflections to the applied external stress for each phase by employing in situ neutron diffraction experiments. Based on these, the anisotropic elastoplastic properties of the duplex steel on microscales, i.e. phase size and grain size, were modeled using a two-phase viscoplastic self-consistent (VPSC) model involving lattice rotation (texture evolution). Good agreement between predictions and neutron diffraction measurements was found. The stress partition between phases and orientated grains was discussed to characterize the phase stress and the grain-orientation-dependent stress, thus the particular micromechanical properties of two-phase materials may be explored

  16. Chromium-Makes stainless steel stainless

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kropschot, S.J.; Doebrich, Jeff

    2010-01-01

    Chromium, a steely-gray, lustrous, hard metal that takes a high polish and has a high melting point, is a silvery white, hard, and bright metal plating on steel and other material. Commonly known as chrome, it is one of the most important and indispensable industrial metals because of its hardness and resistance to corrosion. But it is used for more than the production of stainless steel and nonferrous alloys; it is also used to create pigments and chemicals used to process leather.

  17. Full Duplex Emulation via Spatial Separation of Half Duplex Nodes in a Planar Cellular Network

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Henning; Kim, Dong Min; Popovski, Petar

    2016-01-01

    (HD-BSs), which is a scheme termed CoMPflex (CoMP for In-Band Wireless Full Duplex). A FD-BS can be seen as a special case of CoMPflex with separation distance zero. In this paper we study the performance of CoMPflex in a two-dimensional cellular scenario using stochastic geometry and compare...

  18. Harvesting full-duplex rate gains in cellular networks with half-duplex user terminals

    KAUST Repository

    AlAmmouri, Ahmad

    2016-07-26

    Full-Duplex (FD) transceivers may be expensive in terms of complexity, power consumption, and price to be implemented in all user terminals. Therefore, techniques to exploit in-band full-duplex communication with FD base stations (BSs) and half-duplex (HD) users\\' equipment (UEs) are required. In this context, 3-node topology (3NT) has been recently proposed for FD BSs to reuse the uplink (UL) and downlink (DL) channels with HD terminals within the same cell. In this paper, we present a tractable mathematical framework, based on stochastic geometry, for 3NT in cellular networks. To this end, we propose a design paradigm via pulse-shaping and partial overlap between UL and DL channels to maximize the harvested rate gains in 3NT. The results show that 3NT achieves a close performance to networks with FD BSs and FD UEs, denoted by 2-node topology (2NT) networks. A maximum of 5% rate loss is reported when 3NT is compared to 2NT with efficient self-interference cancellation (SIC). If the SIC in 2NT is not efficient, 3NT highly outperforms 2NT. Consequently, we conclude that, irrespective to the UE duplexing scheme, it is sufficient to have FD BSs to harvest FD rate gains.

  19. Expandable pattern casting research

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-09-01

    The Expandable Pattern Casting (EPC) Process is a developing foundry technology that allows designers the opportunity to consolidate parts, reduce machining, and minimize assembly operations. An air gauging system was developed for measuring foam patterns; exact shrinkage depended on type and density of the foam. Compaction studies showed that maximum sand densities in cavities and under overhangs are achieved with vibrational amplitudes 0.001-0.004 in., and that sand moved most freely within a few inches of the top free surface. Key to complete mold filling while minimizing casting defects lies in removing the foam decomposition products. The most precise iron castings were made by EPC in four commercial EPC foundries, with attention paid to molding and compaction. EP cast 60-45-12 ductile iron had yield strengths, ultimate strengths, and elastic modulus similar to conventionally cast ductile iron cast from the same ladle.

  20. Duplex tube steam reformer development program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lewe, C K; Nieto, J M; Papadopoulos, A

    1978-09-01

    Work done in partial fulfillment of Task 7 of the Duplex Steam Reformer Development Program is described. The DSR concept acts as a double barrier between a process heat high temperature reactor plant (PNP) and a closed loop chemical heat pipe (CHP) for the long distance transport of chemical energy to a remote industrial user. The current state of the DSR design is described as well as related systems and equipment. The PNP concept presented is based upon work currently underway in the Federal Republic of Germany.

  1. Duplex tube steam reformer development program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewe, C.K.; Nieto, J.M.; Papadopoulos, A.

    1978-09-01

    Work done in partial fulfillment of Task 7 of the Duplex Steam Reformer Development Program is described. The DSR concept acts as a double barrier between a process heat high temperature reactor plant (PNP) and a closed loop chemical heat pipe (CHP) for the long distance transport of chemical energy to a remote industrial user. The current state of the DSR design is described as well as related systems and equipment. The PNP concept presented is based upon work currently underway in the Federal Republic of Germany

  2. Caste and power

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roy, Dayabati

    2011-01-01

    This paper explores the institution of caste and its operation in a micro-level village setting of West Bengal, an Indian state, where state politics at grass roots level is vibrant with functioning local self-government and entrenched political parties. This ethnographic study reveals that caste......–ideological field, the concept of caste-hierarchy seems to continue as an influencing factor, even in the operation of leftist politics....

  3. Duplex ultrasound: Indications and findings in a newly created ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Duplex ultrasound: Indications and findings in a newly created facility at the University of Calabar Teaching Hospital, Calabar. ... It is recommended that timely referrals be made, and mobile Doppler units be acquired to save more lives and limbs in the developing world. Keywords: Calabar, deep venous thrombosis, duplex ...

  4. Acoustical and perceptual influence of duplex stringing in grand pianos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Öberg, Fredrik; Askenfelt, Anders

    2012-01-01

    This study investigates the acoustical and perceptual influence of the string parts outside the speaking length in grand pianos (front and rear duplex strings). Acoustical measurements on a grand piano in concert condition were conducted, measuring the fundamental frequencies of all main and duplex strings in the four octaves D4-C8. Considerable deviations from the nominal harmonic relations between the rear duplex and main string frequencies, as described by the manufacturer in a patent, were observed. Generally the rear duplex strings were tuned higher than the nominal harmonic relations with average and median deviations approaching +50 cent. Single keys reached +190 and -100 cent. The spread in deviation from harmonic relations within trichords was also substantial with average and median values around 25 cent, occasionally reaching 60 cent. Contributions from both front and rear duplex strings were observed in the bridge motion and sound. The audibility of the duplex strings was studied in an ABX listening test. Complete dampening of the front duplex was clearly perceptible both for an experiment group consisting of musicians and a control group with naive subjects. The contribution from the rear duplex could also be perceived, but less pronounced. © 2012 Acoustical Society of America.

  5. Evolution of halictine castes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knerer, Gerd

    1980-03-01

    Social halictine bees have female castes that range from species with no size differences to those with a discrete bimodality. Female caste differences are inversely correlated with the number of males produced in the first brood. It is proposed that the sexual dimorphism of solitary forms is being usurped by the female caste system of species in the process of turning social. Thus, caste differences and summer male suppression are greatest in the social species originating from solitary precursors with distinct sexual dimorphism, and are least in species evolving from solitary ancestors with a continuous sexual polymorphism.

  6. Caste in Itself, Caste and Class, or Caste in Class

    OpenAIRE

    Ramkrishna Mukherjee

    2015-01-01

    After the British conquered Bengal and eventually the whole of India,they set out to administer the colony. In this context they encountered two phenomena with which they were not familiar: (1) the relation of people to land for production (and not for revenue receiving, household living, etc.), and (2) the caste system of India, viz. the jati strati?cation of society.

  7. Properties of super stainless steels for orthodontic applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Keun-Taek; Kim, Young-Sik; Park, Yong-Soo; Kim, Kyoung-Nam

    2004-05-15

    Orthodontic stainless-steel appliances are considered to be corrosion resistant, but localized corrosion can occur in the oral cavity. This study was undertaken to evaluate the properties of super stainless steels in orthodontic applications. Accordingly, the metallurgical properties, mechanical properties, corrosion resistance, amount of the released nickel, cytotoxicity, and characteristics of the passive film were investigated. Corrosion resistances of the specimens were high and in the following order: super austenitic stainless steel (SR-50A) > super ferritic stainless steel (SFSS) = super duplex stainless steel (SR-6DX) > 316L SS > super martensitic stainless steel (SR-3Mo) in artificial saliva, 37 degrees C. At 500 mV (SCE), current densities of SR-50A, SFSS, SR-6DX, 316L SS, and SR-3Mo were 5.96 microA/cm(2), 20.3 microA/cm(2), 31.9 microA/cm(2), 805 microA/cm(2), and 5.36 mA/cm(2), respectively. Open circuit potentials of SR-50A, 316L SS, SR-6DX, SR-3Mo, and SFSS were - 0.2, - 0.22, - 0.24, - 0.43, and - 0.46 V (SCE), respectively. SR-50A, SFSS, and SR-6DX released below 3 ng/ml nickel for 8 weeks, and increased a little with immersion time, and 316L SS released about 3.5 ng/ml nickel, but SR-3Mo released a large amount of nickel, which increased with immersion time. The study demonstrated that SR-50A, SR-6DX, and SFSS have high corrosion resistance and mild or no cytotoxicity, due to the passive film enhanced by synergistic effect of Mo + N or by high addition effect of Cr + W. All super stainless steels showed very low cytotoxicity regardless of their nickel contents, although SR-3Mo was found to be relatively cytotoxic. From these studies, these steels are considered suitable for orthodontic applications. Copyright 2004 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Spermine Condenses DNA, but Not RNA Duplexes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Katz, Andrea M.; Tolokh, Igor S.; Pabit, Suzette A.; Baker, Nathan; Onufriev, Alexey V.; Pollack, Lois

    2017-01-01

    Interactions between the polyamine spermine and nucleic acids drive important cellular processes. Spermine condenses DNA, and some RNAs such as poly(rA):poly(rU). A large fraction of the spermine present in cells is bound to RNA, but apparently does not condense it. Here, we study the effect of spermine binding to short duplex RNA and DNA and compare our findings with predictions of molecular dynamics simulations. When small numbers of spermine are introduced, RNA with a designed sequence, containing a mixture of 14 GC pairs and 11 AU pairs, resists condensation relative to DNA of an equivalent sequence or to 25 base pair poly(rA):poly(rU) RNA. Comparison of wide-angle x-ray scattering profiles with simulation suggests that spermine is sequestered deep within the major groove of mixed sequence RNA, preventing condensation by limiting opportunities to bridge to other molecules as well as stabilizing the RNA by locking it into a particular conformation. In contrast, for DNA, simulations suggest that spermine binds external to the duplex, offering opportunities for intermolecular interaction. The goal of this study is to explain how RNA can remain soluble, and available for interaction with other molecules in the cell, despite the presence of spermine at concentrations high enough to precipitate DNA.

  9. Stainless steel-zirconium alloy waste forms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McDeavitt, S.M.; Abraham, D.P.; Keiser, D.D. Jr.; Park, J.Y.

    1996-01-01

    An electrometallurgical treatment process has been developed by Argonne National Laboratory to convert various types of spent nuclear fuels into stable storage forms and waste forms for repository disposal. The first application of this process will be to treat spent fuel alloys from the Experimental Breeder Reactor-II. Three distinct product streams emanate from the electrorefining process: (1) refined uranium; (2) fission products and actinides extracted from the electrolyte salt that are processed into a mineral waste form; and (3) metallic wastes left behind at the completion of the electrorefining step. The third product stream (i.e., the metal waste stream) is the subject of this paper. The metal waste stream contains components of the chopped spent fuel that are unaffected by the electrorefining process because of their electrochemically ''noble'' nature; this includes the cladding hulls, noble metal fission products (NMFP), and, in specific cases, zirconium from metal fuel alloys. The selected method for the consolidation and stabilization of the metal waste stream is melting and casting into a uniform, corrosion-resistant alloy. The waste form casting process will be carried out in a controlled-atmosphere furnace at high temperatures with a molten salt flux. Spent fuels with both stainless steel and Zircaloy cladding are being evaluated for treatment; thus, stainless steel-rich and Zircaloy-rich waste forms are being developed. Although the primary disposition option for the actinides is the mineral waste form, the concept of incorporating the TRU-bearing product into the metal waste form has enough potential to warrant investigation

  10. Review of the continuous casting of steel by strip casting technology. Twin roll method system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ibarrondo, I.

    2008-01-01

    In order to compete in the future steel market and to maintain market share, the steel makers will need to use new efficient technologies capable of supplying steel strip products of high quality at low cost. In this way, the strip casting technology by twin rol method is one of the most important research are in the iron and steel industry today. This review makes a general description of the strip casting technology as well as its different steps, such us; metal delivery and casting, solidification process, hot rolling reduction step, etc. Through mathematical and physical models, the influence on microstructure texture surface quality and mechanical properties of the materials obtained by this method are described as a function of processing parameters, specially the roughness of the rolls. the manufacturing of carbon, stainless and electrical steels involves smaller capital and operating cost, lower gas emissions, and an opportunity to create new grades due to a faster solidification rate that leads to a different solidification structures. In sight of all this it is likely that Strip Casting technology will make a profound impact on the manufacturing landscape of the 21 s t century. (Author) 177 refs

  11. Casting Footprints for Eternity

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-01-01

    Apollo 11 Astronaut Buzz Aldrin has his footprints casted during the dedication ceremony of the rocket fountain at Building 4200 at Marshall Space Flight Center. The casts of Aldrin's footprints will be placed in the newly constructed Von Braun courtyard representing the accomplishments of the Apollo 11 lunar landing.

  12. Higher Education's Caste System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iannone, Ron

    2004-01-01

    In this article, the author discusses the history of the present caste system in higher education. He shows how the public's perception of this caste system is based on image and not usually on the quality of teaching and curriculum in colleges and universities. Finally, he discusses a model for accessibility to higher education and how higher…

  13. Cool Cast Facts

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... sleeve to protect it in the bath or shower. A splint does the same thing as a cast: It keeps the broken or injured bone from moving so it can heal. It also usually has a soft layer of cotton inside. A splint can be made from the same materials as a cast or may be a pre- ...

  14. Decomposition and Precipitation Process During Thermo-mechanical Fatigue of Duplex Stainless Steel

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Weidner, A.; Kolmorgen, R.; Kuběna, Ivo; Kulawinski, D.; Kruml, Tomáš; Biermann, H.

    47A, č. 5 (2016), s. 2112-2124 ISSN 1073-5623 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) ED1.1.00/02.0068; GA ČR GA15-08826S Institutional support: RVO:68081723 Keywords : FE-CR ALLOYS * SPINODAL DECOMPOSITION * COMPUTER-MODELS * ATOMIC-LEVEL * AGING EMBRITTLEMENT * FERRITE * BEHAVIOR * TEMPERATURE Subject RIV: JL - Materials Fatigue, Friction Mechanics Impact factor: 1.874, year: 2016 http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s11661-016-3392-z

  15. Surface composition of Ru containing duplex stainless steel after passivation in non-oxidizing media

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Myburg, G

    1998-10-01

    Full Text Available - .tron Spectroscopy AES and X-ray Photoelectron ..Spectroscopy XPS studies of the passive layers that formed spontaneously on experimental DSSs .containing Ru 0 or 0.3% in HCl and H SO solu-24 tions in order to understand the role of the different...

  16. Super Duplex Stainless Steel Surfaces and their Effects on Marine Biofouling

    OpenAIRE

    Falk, Adrian

    2017-01-01

    Some of the world’s most ancient, but still viable, organisms have since the beginning of maritime caused problems for the industry. The problems affect both the longlivety and efficiency of ships which is caused by the mere presence of organisms attached to the ship hulls. The organisms, called biofoulers, causes problems with longlivety related to moisture and crevice corrosion which break down the hull material. The problem regarding efficiency of the ship is related to the added hydrodyna...

  17. Predicting the surface roughness in the dry machining of duplex stainless steel (DSS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Krolczyk

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the influence of cutting parameters, namely cutting speed, feed and depth of cut onto surface roughness after DSS turning process. The study included developing a mathematical model to determine the surface roughness. Verification research has been carried out on CNC lathe; hence the test plan has been adjusted to the possibility of programmable machines controlling GE Fanuc Series 0-T. The comparison of results obtained by given experimental plan was performed in industrial company.

  18. Multi-layers castings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Szajnar

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In paper is presented the possibility of making of multi-layers cast steel castings in result of connection of casting and welding coating technologies. First layer was composite surface layer on the basis of Fe-Cr-C alloy, which was put directly in founding process of cast carbon steel 200–450 with use of preparation of mould cavity method. Second layer were padding welds, which were put with use of TIG – Tungsten Inert Gas surfacing by welding technology with filler on Ni matrix, Ni and Co matrix with wolfram carbides WC and on the basis on Fe-Cr-C alloy, which has the same chemical composition with alloy, which was used for making of composite surface layer. Usability for industrial applications of surface layers of castings were estimated by criterion of hardness and abrasive wear resistance of type metal-mineral.

  19. Corrosion Testing of Stainless Steel Fuel Cell Hardware

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, M.S.; Zawodzinski, C.; Gottesfeld, S.

    1998-11-01

    Metal hardware is gaining increasing interest in polymer electrolyte fuel cell (PEFC) development as a possible alternative to machined graphite hardware because of its potential for low-cost manufacturing combined with its intrinsic high conductivity, minimal permeability and advantageous mechanical properties. A major barrier to more widespread use of metal hardware has been the susceptibility of various metals to corrosion. Few pure metals can withstand the relatively aggressive environment of a fuel cell and thus the choices for hardware are quite limited. Precious metals such as platinum or gold are prohibitively expensive and so tend to be utilized as coatings on inexpensive substrates such as aluminum or stainless steel. The main challenge with coatings has been to achieve pin-hole free surfaces that will remain so after years of use. Titanium has been used to some extent and though it is very corrosion-resistant, it is also relatively expensive and often still requires some manner of surface coating to prevent the formation of a poorly conducting oxide layer. In contrast, metal alloys may hold promise as potentially low-cost, corrosion-resistant materials for bipolar plates. The dozens of commercially available stainless steel and nickel based alloys have been specifically formulated to offer a particular advantage depending upon their application. In the case of austenitic stainless steels, for example, 316 SS contains molybdenum and a higher chromium content than its more common counterpart, 304 SS, that makes it more noble and increases its corrosion resistance. Likewise, 316L SS contains less carbon than 316 SS to make it easier to weld. A number of promising corrosion-resistant, highly noble alloys such as Hastelloy{trademark} or Duplex{trademark} (a stainless steel developed for seawater service) are available commercially, but are expensive and difficult to obtain in various forms (i.e. wire screen, foil, etc.) or in small amounts for R and D

  20. Caste in Itself, Caste and Class, or Caste in Class

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramkrishna Mukherjee

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available After the British conquered Bengal and eventually the whole of India,they set out to administer the colony. In this context they encountered two phenomena with which they were not familiar: (1 the relation of people to land for production (and not for revenue receiving, household living, etc., and (2 the caste system of India, viz. the jati strati?cation of society.

  1. High Nitrogen Stainless Steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-19

    crack growth (FCG) test (ASTM E 647-95a) - square bar specimen of 0.4x0.4x2.8 in. in L-orientation with a Charpy notch at the mid- length for SCC...Hydrogen Embrittlement in Steel by the Increment Loading Technique. Fractography: After the stress-life fatigue tests , the fracture surface morphology...NAWCADPAX/TR-2011/162 HIGH NITROGEN STAINLESS STEEL by E. U. Lee R. Taylor 19 July 2011 Approved for

  2. Buffer management in wireless full-duplex systems

    KAUST Repository

    Bouacida, Nader

    2015-10-19

    Wireless full-duplex radios can simultaneously transmit and receive using the same frequency. In theory, this can double the throughput. In fact, there is only little work addressing aspects other than throughput gains in full-duplex systems. Over-buffering in today\\'s networks or the so-called “bufferbloat” phenomenon creates excessive end-to-end delays resulting in network performance degradation. Our analysis shows that full-duplex systems may suffer from high latency caused by bloated buffers. In this paper, we address the problem of buffer management in full-duplex networks by using Wireless Queue Management (WQM), which is an active queue management technique for wireless networks. Our solution is based on Relay Full-Duplex MAC (RFD-MAC), an asynchronous media access control protocol designed for relay full-duplexing. We compare the performance of WQM in full-duplex environment to Drop Tail mechanism over various scenarios. Our solution reduces the end-to-end delay by two orders of magnitude while achieving similar throughput in most of the cases.

  3. Kinetics of steel heavy ingot formation in dies of semicontinuous-casting machines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsukerman, V.Ya.; Marchenko, I.K.

    1986-01-01

    Formation kinetics of round section ingot of up to 0.67 m in diameter was analyzed in dies of semicontinuous-casting machines on casting of the most usable assortment steels: medium-carbon low-alloyed and chromium-nickel stainless steels. It is established that solidification coefficient decreases in direct proportion to ingot diameter. Value of different-thickness ingot skin at die outlet is in direct proportion to a casted steel overheating temperature, ingot diameter and inversely proportional to the number and diameter of holes in a ladder nozzle and square root of ingot drawing rate

  4. Occupational asthma due to manual metal-arc welding of special stainless steels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannu, T; Piipari, R; Kasurinen, H; Keskinen, H; Tuppurainen, M; Tuomi, T

    2005-10-01

    Occupational asthma (OA) can be induced by fumes of manual metal-arc welding on stainless steel. In recent years, the use of special stainless steels (SSS) with high chromium content has increased. This study presents two cases of OA caused by manual metal-arc welding on SSS. In both cases, the diagnosis of OA was based on respiratory symptoms, occupational exposure and positive findings in the specific challenge tests. In the first case, a 46-yr-old welder had experienced severe dyspnoea while welding SSS (SMO steel), but not in other situations. Challenge tests with both mild steel and stainless steel using a common electrode were negative. Welding SSS with a special electrode caused a delayed 37% drop in forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1). In the second case, a 34-yr-old male had started to experience dyspnoea during the past few years, while welding especially SSS (Duplex steel). The workplace peak expiratory flow monitoring was suggestive of OA. Challenge tests with both mild steel and stainless steel using a common electrode did not cause bronchial obstruction. Welding SSS with a special electrode caused a delayed 31% drop in FEV1. In conclusion, exposure to manual metal-arc welding fumes of special stainless steel should be considered as a new cause of occupational asthma.

  5. The ancient Chinese casting techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tan Derui

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available In the course of Chinese civilization, which lasted more than 5,000 years, casting production has made a huge contribution. In this paper, some representative metal castings were presented. According to their forming techniques, they can be grouped into stone mould casting, clay mould casting, ablation casting, lost wax casting, stack casting, permanent mould casting, sand casting, etc. According to their materials, they can be categorized into tin bronze, bimetallic bronze, malleable cast iron, ductile cast iron, brass, cupronickel alloy (Packtong, etc. According to their surface decorative techniques they can be devided into gem inlay, gilding, gold and silver inlay, copper inlay, engraved decoration, surface tin-enrichment, mother-of-pearl inlay, burnished works with gold or silver inlay, surface coloring and cloisonné enamel, etc.

  6. Duplex ultrasound for identifying renal artery stenosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zachrisson, Karin; Herlitz, Hans; Lönn, Lars

    2017-01-01

    Background Renal artery duplex ultrasound (RADUS) is an established method for diagnosis of renal artery stenosis (RAS), but there is no consensus regarding optimal RADUS criteria. Purpose To define optimal cutoff values for RADUS parameters when screening for RAS using intra-arterial trans......-stenotic pressure gradient measurement (PGM) as reference. Material and Methods The renal arteries of 58 consecutive patients evaluated for renovascular hypertension were examined by RADUS and PGM. Conclusive measurements with both methods were obtained in 76 arteries. Hemodynamically significant RAS was defined...... as PGM ≥15 mmHg and was found in 43 of the 76 arteries. RADUS parameters included renal artery peak systolic velocity (PSV) and the renal-aortic ratio (RAR) of flow velocities. Receiver operating characteristic curves (ROCs) and Youden's index were used to calculate optimal RADUS criteria for RAS...

  7. Clean Metal Casting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Makhlouf M. Makhlouf; Diran Apelian

    2002-02-05

    The objective of this project is to develop a technology for clean metal processing that is capable of consistently providing a metal cleanliness level that is fit for a given application. The program has five tasks: Development of melt cleanliness assessment technology, development of melt contamination avoidance technology, development of high temperature phase separation technology, establishment of a correlation between the level of melt cleanliness and as cast mechanical properties, and transfer of technology to the industrial sector. Within the context of the first task, WPI has developed a standardized Reduced Pressure Test that has been endorsed by AFS as a recommended practice. In addition, within the context of task1, WPI has developed a melt cleanliness sensor based on the principles of electromagnetic separation. An industrial partner is commercializing the sensor. Within the context of the second task, WPI has developed environmentally friendly fluxes that do not contain fluorine. Within the context of the third task, WPI modeled the process of rotary degassing and verified the model predictions with experimental data. This model may be used to optimize the performance of industrial rotary degassers. Within the context of the fourth task, WPI has correlated the level of melt cleanliness at various foundries, including a sand casting foundry, a permanent mold casting foundry, and a die casting foundry, to the casting process and the resultant mechanical properties. This is useful in tailoring the melt cleansing operations at foundries to the particular casting process and the desired properties of cast components.

  8. Hydrogen effects in stainless steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caskey, G.R. Jr.

    1983-01-01

    The effects of hydrogen on stainless steels have been reviewed and are summarized in this paper. Discussion covers hydrogen solution and transport in stainless steels as well as the effects of hydrogen on deformation and fracture under various loading conditions. Damage is caused also by helium that arises from decay of the hydrogen isotope tritium. Austenitic, ferritic, martensite, and precipitation-hardenable stainless steels are included in the discussion. 200 references

  9. Stainless super p-branes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lue, H.; Pope, C.N.; Sezgin, E.; Stelle, K.S.

    1995-01-01

    The elementary and solitonic supersymmetric p-brane solutions to supergravity theories form families related by dimensional reduction, each headed by a maximal ('stainless') member that cannot be isotropically dimensionally oxidized into higher dimensions. We find several new families, headed by stainless solutions in various dimensions D≤9. In some cases, these occur with dimensions (D,p) that coincide with those of descendants of known families, but since the new solutions are stainless, they are necessarily distinct. The new stainless supersymmetric solutions include a 6-brane and a 5-brane in D=9, a string in D=5, and particles in all dimensions 5≤D≤9. (orig.)

  10. Symptomatic stent cast.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Keohane, John

    2012-02-03

    Biliary stent occlusion is a major complication of endoscopic stent insertion and results in repeat procedures. Various theories as to the etiology have been proposed, the most frequently studied is the attachment of gram negative bacteria within the stent. Several studies have shown prolongation of stent patency with antibiotic prophylaxis. We report the case of stent occlusion from a cast of a previously inserted straight biliary stent; a "stent cast" in an 86-year-old woman with obstructive jaundice. This was retrieved with the lithotrypter and she made an uneventful recovery. This is the first reported case of a biliary stent cast.

  11. Microstructural and Mechanical Characterization of Solidified Austenitic Stainless Steels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aktaş Çelik G.

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Among the family of stainless steels, cast austenitic stainless steels (CASSs are preferably used due to their high mechanical properties and corrosion resistance. These steels owe their properties to their microstructural features consisting of an austenitic matrix and skeletal or lathy type δ-ferrite depending on the cooling rate. In this study, the solidification behavior of CASSs (304L and 316L grades was studied using ThermoCalc software in order to determine the solidification sequence and final microstructure during cooling. Theoretical findings were supported by the microstructural examinations. For the mechanical characterization, not only hardness measurements but also tribological studies were carried out under dry sliding conditions and worn surfaces were examined by microscopy and 3D profilometric analysis. Results were discussed according to the type and amount of microstructural features.

  12. Standard test method for electrochemical critical pitting temperature testing of stainless steels

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    1999-01-01

    1.1 This test method covers a procedure for the evaluation of the resistance of stainless steel and related alloys to pitting corrosion based on the concept of the determination of a potential independent critical pitting temperature (CPT). 1.2 This test methods applies to wrought and cast products including but not restricted to plate, sheet, tubing, bar, forgings, and welds, (see Note 1). Note 1—Examples of CPT measurements on sheet, plate, tubing, and welded specimens for various stainless steels can be found in Ref (1). See the research reports (Section 14). 1.3 The standard parameters recommended in this test method are suitable for characterizing the CPT of austenitic stainless steels and other related alloys with a corrosion resistance ranging from that corresponding to solution annealed UNS S31600 (Type 316 stainless steel) to solution annealed UNS S31254 (6 % Mo stainless steel). 1.4 This test method may be extended to stainless steels and other alloys related to stainless steel that have a CPT...

  13. HFIR Fuel Casting Support

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Imhoff, Seth D. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Gibbs, Paul Jacob [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Solis, Eunice Martinez [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-09-28

    Process exploration for fuel production for the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) using cast LEU-10wt.%Mo as an initial processing step has just begun. This project represents the first trials concerned with casting design and quality. The studies carried out over the course of this year and information contained in this report address the initial mold development to be used as a starting point for future operations. In broad terms, the final billet design is that of a solid rolling blank with an irregular octagonal cross section. The work covered here is a comprehensive view of the initial attempts to produce a sound casting. This report covers the efforts to simulate, predict, cast, inspect, and revise the initial mold design.

  14. Improper Signaling for Virtual Full-Duplex Relay Systems

    KAUST Repository

    Gaafar, Mohamed

    2017-02-14

    Virtual full-duplex (VFD) is a powerful solution to compensate the rate loss of half-duplex relaying without the need to full-duplex capable nodes. Inter-relay interference (IRI) challenges the operation of VFD relaying systems. Recently, improper signaling is employed at both relays of the VFD to mitigate the IRI by imposing the same signal characteristics for both relays. To further boost the achievable rate performance, asymmetric time sharing VFD relaying system is adopted with different improper signals at the half-duplex relays. The joint tuning of the three design parameters improves the achievable rate performance at different ranges of IRI and different relays locations. Extensive simulation results are presented and analyzed to show the achievable rate gain of the proposed system and understand the system behavior.

  15. Magnetic resonance urography in duplex kidney with ectopic ureteral insertion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Conjeevaram Rajendrarao Thambidorai

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This is a report on the use of magnetic resonance urography (MRU in a 6-year-old girl who presented with urinary incontinence. She had a left duplex kidney with poorly functioning upper moiety and ectopic insertion of the dilated upper pole ureter. MRU has been shown to be superior to conventional imaging techniques in delineating poorly functioning moieties of duplex kidneys and ectopic ureters.

  16. Duplex colour Doppler sonography — role in neck metastasis

    OpenAIRE

    Puri, R.; Srinath, V. S.; Chakravarti, A. L.

    2002-01-01

    The present study was done to evaluate the rote of Duplex colour Doppler Sonography in neck metastasis. 30 patients with primary head and neck cancer were evaluated by Duplex colour Doppier sonography and results analysed. In more than 95% of cases, the vascular status could be established before any form of therapy was instituted. Compression and infiltration of carotids and internal jugular vein (IJV) could be demonstrated and a structured and dynamic relationship of metastatic nodes to the...

  17. A NEW APPROACH AT SURFACE ENGINEERING; DUPLEX SURFACE TREATMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akgün ALSARAN

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Duplex surface process was developed to deposite thin ceramic film coating on commonly manufacturing used low alloy steels. Low alloy steel having low strength by this process was first plasma nitrided with purpose enhancing load bearing capacity and then deposited with such ceramic coating. In this study, the duplex surface treatment was deal with main lines and informed about advantage and disadvantage.

  18. Compatibility of different stainless steels in molten Pb-Bi eutectic at high temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chandra, K.; Kain, Vivekanand; Laik, A.; Sharma, B.P.; Bhattacharya, S.; Debnath, A.K.

    2005-10-01

    Advanced nuclear reactors and the accelerator driven subcritical (ADS) system require the structural materials to be in contact with the molten metals/lead-bismuth eutectic at 400 degC and higher temperatures. One of the primary concerns in using the molten lead-bismuth eutectic (LBE) as a coolant in the primary circuit of these systems is the degradation of structural materials in contact with LBE. An experimental setup has been fabricated to expose the materials in the molten LBE at high temperatures in stagnant condition under inert atmosphere. Samples from five different stainless steels (types 304L, 316L, 403, duplex SS SAF 2205 and super austenitic SS 2RK65) were exposed in this setup at 450 degC for 200h and at 500 degC for 600 and 2100 h under argon atmosphere. A different setup was prepared in which type 316L SS tube in the as-welded condition was exposed in molten LBE at 500 degC for 1200 h in rotating condition. All the samples showed formation of oxide on their surfaces. The thickness and compositional profiles of these oxides analyzed by EPMA confirmed formation of a double layer oxide on type 316L SS. The oxide thickness was highest on SS 403, while it was lowest on 304L and 316L SS. SEM results showed dissolution of materials at the surface in Sandvik 2RK65 and preferential dissolution of austenite phase in duplex SS. None of the stainless steels, except the duplex and the super austenitic stainless steels, showed any localized or selective corrosion. The composition of LBE before and after the exposure tests was analyzed by XRF technique. The result showed presence of Fe, Cr and Ni in the used LBE but these elements were not present in the virgin Pb-Ei alloy. This showed that the corrosion of stainless steels in LBE at temperatures upto 500 degC is due to oxidation and dissolution of alloying elements through the oxide on stainless steels. (author)

  19. Dissolution of alpha-prime precipitates in thermally embrittled S2205-duplex steels during reversion-heat treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Shamanth

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Duplex stainless steels offer an attractive combination of strength, corrosion resistance and cost. In annealed condition duplex steels will be in thermodynamically metastable condition but when they are subjected to intermediate homologous temperature of ∼475 °C and below significant embrittlement occurs, which is one of the key material degradation properties that limits its upper service temperature in many applications. Hence the present study is aimed to study the effect of reversion heat treatment and its time on mechanical properties of the thermally embrittled steel. The results showed that 60 min reversion heat treated samples were able to recover the mechanical properties which were very close to annealed properties because when the embrittled samples were reversion heat treated at an elevated temperature of 550 °C which is above the (α + α′ miscibility gap, the ferritic phase was homogenized again. In other words, Fe-rich α and Cr-rich α′ prime precipitates which were formed during ageing become thermodynamically unstable and dissolve inside the ferritic phase.

  20. An assessment of composite repair system in offshore platform for corroded circumferential welds in super duplex steel pipe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvio de Barros

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The main aim of this study is to assess the effectiveness of a composite repair system in severely corroded circumferential welds in super duplex stainless steel pipes as a preventive measure against the premature corrosion damage at the welds. Artificial defects were fabricated on the super duplex steel tube in order to reproduce the localized corrosion damage defects found in real welded joints. Three kinds of through thickness defects were considered: 25%, 50% and 96% of the perimeter of the pipe. The performance of the repaired pipe was assessed by hydrostatic tests as per ISO 24817 standard. The results showed that the composite repair system can sustain the designed failure pressure even for the pipe damaged with through-wall defect up to 96% of the perimeter of the pipe. Hence, the composite repair system can be used as a preliminary tool to protect the unexpected or premature failure at the welds and maintain an adequate level of mechanical strength for a given operating pressure. This composite repair system can assure that the pipe will not leak until a planned maintenance of the line. Nevertheless, further work is still desirable to improve the confidence in the long-term performance of bonded composite

  1. Melt Cast High Explosives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanisław Cudziło

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available [b]Abstract[/b]. This paper reviews the current state and future developments of melt-cast high explosives. First the compositions, properties and methods of preparation of trinitrotoluene based (TNT conventional mixtures with aluminum, hexogen (RDX or octogen (HMX are described. In the newer, less sensitive explosive formulations, TNT is replaced with dinitroanisole (DNANDNANDNAN and nitrotriazolone (NTONTONTO, nitroguanidine (NG or ammonium perchlorate (AP are the replacement for RDRDX and HMX. Plasticized wax or polymer-based binder systems for melt castable explosives are also included. Hydroxyl terminated polybutadiene (HPTB is the binder of choice, but polyethylene glycol, and polycaprolactone with energetic plasticizers are also used. The most advanced melt-cast explosives are compositions containing energetic thermoplastic elastomers and novel highly energetic compounds (including nitrogen rich molecules in whose particles are nanosized and practically defect-less.[b]Keywords[/b]: melt-cast explosives, detonation parameters

  2. Effect of microstructure on the localized corrosion of Fe-Cr-Mn-N stainless steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jae Young; Park, Yong Soo; Kim, Young Sik

    1998-01-01

    This paper dealt with the effect of microstructure on the localized corrosion of Fe-Cr-Mn-N stainless steels. The experimental alloys were made by vacuum induction melting and then hot rolled. The alloys were designed by controlling Cr eq /Ni eq ratio. Two alloys had austenitic phase and one alloy showed (austenite+ferrite) du-plex phase. High nitrogen addition in austenitic alloys stabilized the austenitic structure and then suppressed the formations of ferrite and α martensite, but martensite was formed in the case of large Cr eq /Ni eq ratio and low nitrogen addition. Pitting initiation site was grain boundary in austenitic alloys and was ferrite/austenite phase boundary in duplex alloy in the HCl solution. In sulfuric acids, austenitic alloys showed uniform corrosion, but ferrite phase was preferentially corroded in duplex alloy. The preferential dissolution seems to be related with the distribution of alloying elements between ferrite and austenite. Intergranular corrosion test showed that corrosion rate by immersion Huey test had a linear relation with degree of sensitization by EPR test

  3. Comparison of marginal accuracy of castings fabricated by conventional casting technique and accelerated casting technique: an in vitro study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, S Srikanth; Revathi, Kakkirala; Reddy, S Kranthikumar

    2013-01-01

    Conventional casting technique is time consuming when compared to accelerated casting technique. In this study, marginal accuracy of castings fabricated using accelerated and conventional casting technique was compared. 20 wax patterns were fabricated and the marginal discrepancy between the die and patterns were measured using Optical stereomicroscope. Ten wax patterns were used for Conventional casting and the rest for Accelerated casting. A Nickel-Chromium alloy was used for the casting. The castings were measured for marginal discrepancies and compared. Castings fabricated using Conventional casting technique showed less vertical marginal discrepancy than the castings fabricated by Accelerated casting technique. The values were statistically highly significant. Conventional casting technique produced better marginal accuracy when compared to Accelerated casting. The vertical marginal discrepancy produced by the Accelerated casting technique was well within the maximum clinical tolerance limits. Accelerated casting technique can be used to save lab time to fabricate clinical crowns with acceptable vertical marginal discrepancy.

  4. Study of corrosion resistance of AISI 444 ferritic stainless steel for application as a biomaterial

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marques, Rogerio Albuquerque

    2014-01-01

    Ferritic stainless steels are ferromagnetic materials. This property does not allow their use in orthopedic prosthesis. Nevertheless, in some specific applications, this characteristic is very useful, such as, for fixing dental and facial prostheses by using magnetic attachments. In this study, the corrosion resistance and cytotoxicity of the AISI 444 ferritic stainless steel, with low nickel content, extra-low interstitial levels (C and N) and Ti and Nb stabilizers, were investigated for magnetic dental attachments application. The ISO 5832-1 (ASTM F-139) austenitic stainless steel and a commercial universal keeper for dental attachment (Neo-magnet System) were evaluated for comparison reasons. The first stainless steel is the most used metallic material for prostheses, and the second one, is a ferromagnetic keeper for dental prostheses (NeoM). In vitro cytotoxicity analysis was performed by the red neutral incorporation method. The results showed that the AISI 444 stainless steel is non cytotoxic. The corrosion resistance was studied by anodic polarization methods and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), in a saline phosphate buffered solution (PBS) at 37 °C. The electronic properties of the passive film formed on AISI 444 SS were evaluated by the Mott-Schottky approach. All tested materials showed passivity in the PBS medium and the passive oxide film presented a duplex nature. The highest susceptibility to pitting corrosion was associated to the NeoM SS. This steel was also associated to the highest dopant concentration. The comparatively low levels of chromium (nearly 12.5%) and molybdenum (0.3%) of NeoM relatively to the other studied stainless steels are the probable cause of its lower corrosion resistance. The NeoM chemical composition does not match that of the SUS444 standards. The AISI 444 SS pitting resistance was equivalent to the ISO 5832-1 pointing out that it is a potential candidate for replacement of commercial ferromagnetic alloys used

  5. High cycle fatigue of austenitic stainless steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gauthier, J.P.; Lehmann, D.; Picker

    1990-01-01

    This study concerns the evaluation of material data to be used in LMFBR design codes. High cycle fatigue properties of three austenitic stainless steels are evaluated: type AISI 316 (UKAEA tests), type AISI 316L (CEA tests) and type AISI 304 (Interatom tests). The data on these steels comprised some 550 data points from 14 casts. This data set covered a wide range of testing parameters: temperature from 20-625 0 C, frequency from 1-20 000 Hz, constant amplitude and random fatigue loading, with and without mean stress, etc. However, the testing conditions chosen by the three partners differed considerably because they had been fixed independently and not harmonized prior to the tests. This created considerable difficulties for the evaluations. Experimental procedures and statistical treatments used for the three subsets of data are described and discussed. Results are presented in tables and graphs. Although it is often difficult to single out the influence of each parameter due to the different testing conditions, several interesting conclusions can be drawn: The HCF properties of the three steels are consistent with the 0.2% proof stress, the fatigue limit being larger than the latter at temperatures above 550 0 C. The type 304 steel has lower tensile properties than the two other steels and hence also lower HCF properties. Parameters which clearly have a significant effect of HCF behaviour are mean stress or R-ratio (less in the non-endurance region than in the endurance region), temperature, cast or product. Other parameters have probably a weak or no effect but it is difficult to conclude due to insufficient data: environment, specimen orientation, frequency, specimen geometry

  6. Comparative evaluation of retention of prefabricated and conventional cast post: An in vitro study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choudhary, Suchismita; Begum, Zubeda; Choudhary, Prashant; Tripathi, Siddhi

    2014-05-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the retention of various prefabricated posts and to compare them with that of the conventional cast post. A sample of 60 freshly extracted single-rooted human mandibular first premolars were sectioned horizontally, 1 mm coronal to the cemento-enamel junction and randomly divided into four groups consisting of carbon fiber posts, glass fiber posts, stainless steel posts and cast metal posts. Cast metal post was the control group. Each group contained 15 specimen. The post space of 9 mm depth was prepared using specific drill supplied by the manufacturer. Resin patterns of the prepared post spaces were fabricated for 15 specimen and were cast in nickel chromium base metal alloy. All the posts were cemented with self-adhesive resin cement and mounted in acrylic cylinders. The teeth were subjected to tensile pull-out test using a universal testing machine. The force required to dislodge each post from the teeth was recorded. The data was analyzed using one-way analysis of variance and Bonferroni test. The bond strength of all the prefabricated posts was significantly lower than the conventional cast post. Among the prefabricated posts highest bond strength was obtained for prefabricated stainless steel post and lowest for carbon fiber posts. There was no significant difference in the mean bond strength obtained for stainless steel and glass fiber post. Though no single prefabricated post could achieve results close to the control group, most retentive among the experimental group were the stainless steel posts. However, conditions where nonmetallic posts are indicated most preferred type of post can be the glass fiber posts.

  7. Machine Casting of Ferrous Alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    1974-10-01

    Figure 55 Die casting machine. Shot sleeve at S, melt furnace at M, ladle preheat at L. Figure 56 Aluminum die casting top surface. Risers removed... ladle and transferred to the shot sleeve. Upon pouring the metal, the ram is actuated and the casting made. To test the mechanical operation of...mnui i .MI iiiiiuH ’ -84- Figure 55. Die casting machine. Shot sleeve at S, melt furnace at M, ladle preheat at L. ■ ■ wmmm*mm

  8. Segregation in cast products

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    are also available (Moore 1984; Ohnaka 1988; Flemings 1990; Roy et al 1992; Ghosh. 1997). In addition, some recent research papers will also be referred to as required. Original references of earlier studies are omitted for the sake of brevity. The basic principles of formation of microsegregation in castings and ingots were.

  9. ToxCast Dashboard

    Science.gov (United States)

    The ToxCast Dashboard helps users examine high-throughput assay data to inform chemical safety decisions. To date, it has data on over 9,000 chemicals and information from more than 1,000 high-throughput assay endpoint components.

  10. Study on Thermal Physical Properties of 304 Stainless Steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Dong; Jun-mao, Qie; Hao-hua, Deng

    The DIL402C thermal dilatometer and STA449C thermal analyzer were employed to test the linear expansion and contraction coefficient, CP and DSC curve of 304 stainless steel. The result showed that the linear expansion coefficient range was 20.9700×10-6˜21.5712×10-6 and the linear contraction coefficient range was 21.2528×10-6˜21.9471×10-6. The linear expansion and contraction coefficient were higher than other steel grade, so the 304 stainless steel belonged to the crack sensitive steel. Because of the crystal phase transformation occurred during the 1000˜1400 °C,the curve of CP fluctuated obviously and the defects of casting blank occurred easily. Chosen 1414°C as the liquidus temperature of 304 stainless steel based on the analysis results of DSC. The curve of DSC was unsmooth during 1450˜1100°C, the crystal phase transformation occurs and thermal stability of slab was inferior.When the initial solidified shell formed in this temperature range,the thickness of the shell would be nonuniform and the surface defects occurred more easily.

  11. Wear resistance of cast iron

    OpenAIRE

    S. Pietrowski; G. Gumienny

    2008-01-01

    In this paper investigations of abrasive and adhesive wear resistance of different cast iron grades have been presented. Examinations showed, that the most advantageous pair of materials is the cast iron – the hardened steel with low-tempered martensite. It was found, that martensitic nodular cast iron with carbides is the most resistant material.

  12. Corrosion Study of Super Ferritic Stainless Steel UNS S44660 (26Cr-3Ni-3Mo) and Several Other Stainless Steel Grades (UNS S31603, S32101, and S32205) in Caustic Solution Containing Sodium Sulfide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chasse, Kevin R.; Singh, Preet M.

    2013-11-01

    Electrochemical techniques, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) were used in this study to show how the corrosion mechanism of several commercial grades of stainless steel in hot caustic solution is strongly influenced by the presence of sodium sulfide. Experimental results from super ferritic stainless steel UNS S44660 (26Cr-3Ni-3Mo) were compared to austenitic stainless steel UNS S31603, lean duplex stainless steel (DSS) UNS S32101, and standard DSS UNS S32205 in caustic solution, with and without sodium sulfide, at 443 K (170 °C). Weight loss measurements indicated that corrosion rates of UNS44660 were much lower than the other grades of stainless steel in the presence of the sodium sulfide. Potentiodynamic polarization and linear polarization resistance measurements showed that the electrochemical behavior was altered by the adhesion of sulfur species, which reduced the polarization resistances and increased the anodic current densities. SEM and XPS results imply that the surface films that formed in caustic solution containing sodium sulfide were defective due to the adsorption of sulfide, which destabilized the passive film and led to the formation of insoluble metal sulfide compounds.

  13. Design-relevant mechanical properties of 316-type stainless steels for superconducting magnets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tobler, R.L.; Nishimura, A.; Yamamoto, J.

    1996-08-01

    Worldwide interest in austenitic alloys for structural applications in superconducting magnets has led to an expanded database for the 316-type stainless steels. We review the cryogenic mechanical properties of wrought, cast, and welded steels at liquid helium temperature (4 K), focussing on aspects of material behavior relevant to magnet design. Fracture mechanics parameters essential to structural reliability assessments are presented, including strength, toughness, and fatigue parameters that are critical for some component designs. (author). 105 refs.

  14. Design-relevant mechanical properties of 316-type stainless steels for superconducting magnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tobler, R.L.; Nishimura, A.; Yamamoto, J.

    1996-08-01

    Worldwide interest in austenitic alloys for structural applications in superconducting magnets has led to an expanded database for the 316-type stainless steels. We review the cryogenic mechanical properties of wrought, cast, and welded steels at liquid helium temperature (4 K), focussing on aspects of material behavior relevant to magnet design. Fracture mechanics parameters essential to structural reliability assessments are presented, including strength, toughness, and fatigue parameters that are critical for some component designs. (author). 105 refs

  15. Effect of polymer and additive on the structure and property of porous stainless steel hollow fiber

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma, Xiao-Hua; Bai, Yu; Cao, Yue; Xu, Zhen-Liang [East China University of Science and Technology, Shanghai (China)

    2014-08-15

    Porous stainless steel hollow fiber has been widely used due to its high mechanical strength, excellent thermal conductivity and good sealing properties compared with other porous supports. We successfully prepared porous stainless steel hollow fibers using polyacrylonitrile (PAN) as polymer via dry-wet spinning followed by sintering through temperature programming method. The PAN concentration had an obvious impact on the structure and property of porous stainless steel hollow fiber even if it would be burned off during sintering. The results showed that the morphology could be tuned by adjusting the concentration of PAN. With increasing PAN concentration in casting solution for spinning, the viscosity was increased dramatically, resulting in much compact structures with high pure water flux (higher than 3x10{sup 5} L·m{sup -2}·h{sup -1}·Pa{sup -1}). A more dense structure could be obtained by adding additive polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) as viscosity enhancer.

  16. Mechanical properties of welded joints of duplex steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawiak, M.; Nowacki, J.

    2003-01-01

    The paper presents the study results of mechanical properties of duplex steels UNS S31803 welded joints as well as duplex and NV A36 steels welded joints. They have ben welded by FCAW method in CO 2 using FCW 2205-H flux-cored wire. The joints have been subjected: tensile tests, impact tests, bending tests, hardness tests and metallographic investigations. The influence of welding parameters and mechanical properties of the joints was appreciated. The welding method assured high tensile strength of the joints (approximately 770 MPa) and high impact strength of the welds (approximately 770 J). All samples were broken outside of welds. (author)

  17. Comparison of simulated and measured quantities of a duplex reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koskela, M.; Kajava, M. [ABB Marine, Helsinki (Finland)

    1997-12-31

    The purpose of this article is to illustrate the use of an analog simulator as a design tool when designing new power electric equipment. The purpose of simulation is to predict the functionality of electrical equipment to be constructed. Duplex reactor is an electromagnetic device designed to reduce voltage harmonics and short circuit currents in the ship electrical network. In this report a comparison between simulated and measured electrical quantities of a duplex reactor has been made. The purpose of the measurements was to show the correct functioning of the reactor. The simulation results and the measured waveforms corresponds well to each other. (orig.) 4 refs.

  18. Nonmetallic inclusions in JBK-75 stainless steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brewer, A.W.; Krenzer, R.W.; Doyle, J.H.; Riefenberg, D.H.

    1977-01-01

    Stainless steel alloys that are chemically complex, such as A-286 or JBK-75, are designed to improve such high-temperature properties as strength. This is accomplished by precipitating secondary phases during aging. Such multicomponent systems, however, can also produce undesirable phases that are detrimental to forgeability and final mechanical properties. Cast segregation and numerous nonmetallic inclusions can have a degrading influence on the toughness and ductility of the alloy. Several different heats of A-286 and JBK-75 were studied, and titanium carbide and/or molybdenum carbide [(Ti, Mo)C] plus titanium carbide and/or titanium carbonitride Ti(C,N)-type phases were qualitatively identified as the major nonmetallic constituent in these alloys. The common procedure for rating the microcleanliness of steels does not classify such carbide or carbonitride phases and thus does not provide an appropriate means of controlling in-process inspection. The results of this study are discussed in terms of alternative methods for evaluating the microcleanliness of superalloys

  19. Highly porous, low elastic modulus 316L stainless steel scaffold prepared by selective laser melting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Čapek, Jaroslav; Machová, Markéta; Fousová, Michaela; Kubásek, Jiří; Vojtěch, Dalibor; Fojt, Jaroslav; Jablonská, Eva; Lipov, Jan; Ruml, Tomáš

    2016-12-01

    Recently, porous metallic materials have been extensively studied as candidates for use in the fabrication of scaffolds and augmentations to repair trabecular bone defects, e.g. in surroundings of joint replacements. Fabricating these complex structures by using common approaches (e.g., casting and machining) is very challenging. Therefore, rapid prototyping techniques, such as selective laser melting (SLM), have been investigated for these applications. In this study, we characterized a highly porous (87 vol.%) 316L stainless steel scaffold prepared by SLM. 316L steel was chosen because it presents a biomaterial still widely used for fabrication of joint replacements and, from the practical point of view, use of the same material for fabrication of an augmentation and a joint replacement is beneficial for corrosion prevention. The results are compared to the reported properties of two representative nonporous 316L stainless steels prepared either by SLM or casting and subsequent hot forging. The microstructural and mechanical properties and the surface chemical composition and interaction with the cells were investigated. The studied material exhibited mechanical properties that were similar to those of trabecular bone (compressive modulus of elasticity ~0.15GPa, compressive yield strength ~3MPa) and cytocompatibility after one day that was similar to that of wrought 316L stainless steel, which is a commonly used biomaterial. Based on the obtained results, SLM is a suitable method for the fabrication of porous 316L stainless steel scaffolds with highly porous structures. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Cast iron - a predictable material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorg C. Sturm

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available High strength compacted graphite iron (CGI or alloyed cast iron components are substituting previously used non-ferrous castings in automotive power train applications. The mechanical engineering industry has recognized the value in substituting forged or welded structures with stiff and light-weight cast iron castings. New products such as wind turbines have opened new markets for an entire suite of highly reliable ductile iron cast components. During the last 20 years, casting process simulation has developed from predicting hot spots and solidification to an integral assessment tool for foundries for the entire manufacturing route of castings. The support of the feeding related layout of the casting is still one of the most important duties for casting process simulation. Depending on the alloy poured, different feeding behaviors and self-feeding capabilities need to be considered to provide a defect free casting. Therefore, it is not enough to base the prediction of shrinkage defects solely on hot spots derived from temperature fields. To be able to quantitatively predict these defects, solidification simulation had to be combined with density and mass transport calculations, in order to evaluate the impact of the solidification morphology on the feeding behavior as well as to consider alloy dependent feeding ranges. For cast iron foundries, the use of casting process simulation has become an important instrument to predict the robustness and reliability of their processes, especially since the influence of alloying elements, melting practice and metallurgy need to be considered to quantify the special shrinkage and solidification behavior of cast iron. This allows the prediction of local structures, phases and ultimately the local mechanical properties of cast irons, to asses casting quality in the foundry but also to make use of this quantitative information during design of the casting. Casting quality issues related to thermally driven

  1. Welding Characteristics of Nitrogen Added Stainless Steels for Nuclear Application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Y. D. [Pohang Iron and Steel Co., Ltd, Pohang (Korea, Republic of)

    1997-07-01

    Characteristics of properties and manufacturing process was evaluated in development of high strength and corrosion resistant stainless steel. The continuous cast structure of STS 316L was similar to that of STS 304. The most of residual {delta}-ferrite of STS 316L was vermicular type. The residual {delta}-ferrite content increased from the surface towards the center of the slab and after reaching a maximum value at about 50mm distance from surface and steeply decreased towards the center itself. Hot ductility of STS 304L and STS 316L stainless steels containing below 1000 ppm N was appeared to be reasonably good in the range of hot rolling temperature. In case of the steels containing over 1000 ppm N, the hot ductility was decreased rapidly when sulfur content of the steel was above 20 ppm. Therefore, to achieve good hot ductility of the high nitrogen containing steel, reduction of sulfur contents is required as low as possible. The inter granular corrosion resistance and impact toughness of STS 316L were increased with increasing the nitrogen contents. Yield strength and tensile strength of 304 and 316 stainless steels are increased linearly with increasing the nitrogen contents but their elongations are decreased with increasing the nitrogen contents. Therefore, the mechanical properties of these stainless steels could be controlled with variation of nitrogen. The effects of nitrogen on the resistance of stress corrosion cracking (SCC) can be explained by improvement of the load bearing capacity with increasing tensile strength rather than inhibition of trans granular SCC crack generation and propagation. 101 refs., 17 tabs., 105 figs. (author)

  2. Melting and casting of FeAl-based cast alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sikka, V.K. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Wilkening, D. [Columbia Falls Aluminum Co., Columbia Falls, MT (United States); Liebetrau, J.; Mackey, B. [AFFCO, L.L.C., Anaconda, MT (United States)

    1998-11-01

    The FeAl-based intermetallic alloys are of great interest because of their low density, low raw material cost, and excellent resistance to high-temperature oxidation, sulfidation, carburization, and molten salts. The applications based on these unique properties of FeAl require methods to melt and cast these alloys into complex-shaped castings and centrifugal cast tubes. This paper addresses the melting-related issues and the effect of chemistry on the microstructure and hardness of castings. It is concluded that the use of the Exo-Melt{trademark} process for melting and the proper selection of the aluminum melt stock can result in porosity-free castings. The FeAl alloys can be melted and cast from the virgin and revert stock. A large variation in carbon content of the alloys is possible before the precipitation of graphite flakes occurs. Titanium is a very potent addition to refine the grain size of castings. A range of complex sand castings and two different sizes of centrifugal cast tubes of the alloy have already been cast.

  3. Complex, Precision Cast Columbium Alloy Gas Turbine Engine Nozzles Coated to Resist Oxidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-04-01

    s..ed, UNCLASIFIED SECUIv CLASIFICATION OF THiS PAGCbam Do& bwa s Block No. 20 ABSTRACT R tals of Albany, Oregon was the casting subcontractor and...Specimen 25 18 Hollow Vane Segment 25 19 Solid Vane Segment 25 20 Steel Core Pull for Investment of Hollow Wax Patterns 26 21 Cast Solid Nozzles of C129Y...schematical I: in Figure 6. The environmental chamber is a clear quartz tube with stainless steel endcaps. The seals between the pullrods and endcaps and the

  4. Improving the oxidation resistance of 316L stainless steel in simulated pressurized water reactor primary water by electropolishing treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Guangdong; Lu, Zhanpeng; Ru, Xiangkun; Chen, Junjie; Xiao, Qian; Tian, Yongwu

    2015-12-01

    The oxidation behavior of 316L stainless steel specimens after emery paper grounding, mechanical polishing, and electropolishing were investigated in simulated pressurized water reactor primary water at 310 °C for 120 and 500 h. Electropolishing afforded improved oxidation resistance especially during the early immersion stages. Duplex oxide films comprising a coarse Fe-rich outer layer and a fine Cr-rich inner layer formed on all specimens after 500 h of immersion. Only a compact layer was observed on the electropolished specimen after 120 h of immersion. The enrichment of chromium in the electropolished layer contributed to the passivity and protectiveness of the specimen.

  5. Internal adaptation of cast titanium crowns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sicknan Soares da Rocha

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available As the adaptation of titanium crowns obtained by Rematitan Plus investment, specific for titanium, is not recognized to be suitable, this study evaluated the effect of the concentration of the specific liquid and the temperature of the mold of investments on the internal misfit of crowns cast on commercially pure titanium. Individual dies of epoxy resin were obtained, representing teeth prepared for full-crown restoration with a 6-degree axial surface convergence angle and shoulder (1.0 mm. For the waxing of each crown, a ring-shaped stainless steel matrix (8.0mm internal diameter; 7.5 mm height was adapted above the individual dies of epoxy resin. The Rematian Plus investment was mixed according to the manufacturer's instructions using two different concentrations of the specific liquid: 100%, 75%. Casting was performed in a Discovery Plasma Ar-arc vacuum-pressure casting machine with molds at temperatures of 430ºC, 515ºC and 600ºC. The crowns were cleaned individually in a solution (1% HF + 13% HNO3 for 10 min using a ultrasonic cleaner, with no internal adaptations, and luted with zinc phosphate cement under a 5 kg static load. The crown and die assemblies were embedded in resin and sectioned longitudinally. The area occupied by cement was observed using stereoscopic lens (10X and measured by the Leica Qwin image analysis system (mm². The data for each experimental condition (n=8 were analyzed by Kruskal-Wallis non-parametric test (á=0.05. The results showed that liquid dilution and the increase in mold temperature did not significantly influence the levels of internal fit of the cast titanium crowns. The lowest means (±SD of internal misfit were obtained for the 430ºC/100%: (7.25 mm² ±1.59 and 600ºC/100% (8.8 mm² ±2.25 groups, which presented statistically similar levels of internal misfit.

  6. Duplex ultrasound: Indications and findings in a newly created ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2015-09-21

    Sep 21, 2015 ... Background: Peripheral limb vascular diseases form one of the most common diseases that affect the middle-aged and the ... author is credited and the new creations are licensed under the identical terms. .... Table 4: Relationship of major duplex ultrasound findings with age, gender and clinical information.

  7. Increased Y-chromosome detection by SRY duplexing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Morten Høgh; Clausen, Frederik Banch; Dziegiel, Morten Hanefeld

    2012-01-01

    Determining fetal sex noninvasively is dependent of a robust assay. We designed a novel SRY assay and combined it with a SRY assay from literature forming a duplex assay with the same fluorescent dye to increase detection of Y-chromosome at low cell-free fetal DNA or chimeric DNA concentrations....

  8. ON SECURE FULL DUPLEX COMMUNICATION IN MOBILE AD HOC NETWORK

    OpenAIRE

    S. C. Dutta; Sudha Singh; D. K. Singh

    2013-01-01

    This paper is to establish Ad Hoc network in mobile phones and start fully secured full duplex communication in any situation. This type of communication will be cost effective and it will be fastest way of communication in case of any server failure or server error.

  9. Full-duplex wireless communications systems self-interference cancellation

    CERN Document Server

    Le-Ngoc, Tho

    2017-01-01

    This book introduces the development of self-interference (SI)-cancellation techniques for full-duplex wireless communication systems. The authors rely on estimation theory and signal processing to develop SI-cancellation algorithms by generating an estimate of the received SI and subtracting it from the received signal. The authors also cover two new SI-cancellation methods using the new concept of active signal injection (ASI) for full-duplex MIMO-OFDM systems. The ASI approach adds an appropriate cancelling signal to each transmitted signal such that the combined signals from transmit antennas attenuate the SI at the receive antennas. The authors illustrate that the SI-pre-cancelling signal does not affect the data-bearing signal. This book is for researchers and professionals working in wireless communications and engineers willing to understand the challenges of deploying full-duplex and practical solutions to implement a full-duplex system. Advanced-level students in electrical engineering and computer ...

  10. Micromechanics of base pair unzipping in the DNA duplex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Volkov, Sergey N; Paramonova, Ekaterina V; Yakubovich, Alexander V; Solov’yov, Andrey V

    2012-01-01

    All-atom molecular dynamics (MD) simulations of DNA duplex unzipping in a water environment were performed. The investigated DNA double helix consists of a Drew-Dickerson dodecamer sequence and a hairpin (AAG) attached to the end of the double-helix chain. The considered system is used to examine the process of DNA strand separation under the action of an external force. This process occurs in vivo and now is being intensively investigated in experiments with single molecules. The DNA dodecamer duplex is consequently unzipped pair by pair by means of the steered MD. The unzipping trajectories turn out to be similar for the duplex parts with G⋅C content and rather distinct for the parts with A⋅T content. It is shown that during the unzipping each pair experiences two types of motion: relatively quick rotation together with all the duplex and slower motion in the frame of the unzipping fork. In the course of opening, the complementary pair passes through several distinct states: (i) the closed state in the double helix, (ii) the metastable preopened state in the unzipping fork and (iii) the unbound state. The performed simulations show that water molecules participate in the stabilization of the metastable states of the preopened base pairs in the DNA unzipping fork. (paper)

  11. Conserved guanine-guanine stacking in tetraplex and duplex DNA

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kypr, Jaroslav; Fialová, Markéta; Chládková, Jana; Tůmová, Marcela; Vorlíčková, Michaela

    2001-01-01

    Roč. 30, č. 7 (2001), s. 555-558 ISSN 0175-7571 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA5004802 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5004920 Keywords : tetraplex DNA * duplex DNA * circular dichroism spectra Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics Impact factor: 1.917, year: 2001

  12. Risk Factors of Deep Venous Thrombosis in Duplex and Colour ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Risk Factors of Deep Venous Thrombosis in Duplex and Colour Doppler Ultrasound at Tikur Anbessa Specialized Hospital, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. ... Thus early, correct and definitive diagnosis is crucial in assessing thromboembolic risk and initiating therapy. In this regard Patients at risk must be identified and given ...

  13. Full-Duplex Relay Selection in Cognitive Underlay Networks

    KAUST Repository

    Khafagy, Mohammad Galal

    2017-09-30

    In this work, we analyze the performance of full-duplex relay selection (FDRS) in spectrum-sharing networks. Contrary to half-duplex relaying, full-duplex relaying (FDR) enables simultaneous listening/forwarding at the secondary relay(s), thereby allowing for a higher spectral efficiency. However, since the source and relay simultaneously transmit in FDR, their superimposed signal at the primary receiver should now satisfy the existing interference constraint, which can considerably limit the secondary network throughput. In this regard, relay selection can offer an adequate solution to boost the secondary throughput while satisfying the imposed interference limit. We first analyze the performance of opportunistic FDRS with residual self-interference (RSI) by deriving the exact cumulative distribution function of its end-to-end signal-to-interference-plus-noise ratio under Nakagami-m fading. We also evaluate the offered diversity gain of relay selection for different full-duplex cooperation schemes in the presence/absence of a direct source-destination link. When the adopted RSI link gain model is sublinear in the relay power, which agrees with recent research findings, we show that remarkable diversity gain can be recovered even in the presence of an interfering direct link. Second, we evaluate the end-to-end performance of FDRS with interference constraints due to the presence of a primary receiver. Finally, the presented exact theoretical findings are verified by numerical simulations.

  14. Podiatry Ankle Duplex Scan: Readily Learned and Accurate in Diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Normahani, Pasha; Powezka, Katarzyna; Aslam, Mohammed; Standfield, Nigel J; Jaffer, Usman

    2018-03-01

    We aimed to train podiatrists to perform a focused duplex ultrasound scan (DUS) of the tibial vessels at the ankle in diabetic patients; podiatry ankle (PodAnk) duplex scan. Thirteen podiatrists underwent an intensive 3-hour long simulation training session. Participants were then assessed performing bilateral PodAnk duplex scans of 3 diabetic patients with peripheral arterial disease. Participants were assessed using the duplex ultrasound objective structured assessment of technical skills (DUOSATS) tool and an "Imaging Score". A total of 156 vessel assessments were performed. All patients had abnormal waveforms with a loss of triphasic flow. Loss of triphasic flow was accurately detected in 145 (92.9%) vessels; the correct waveform was identified in 139 (89.1%) cases. Participants achieved excellent DUOSATS scores (median 24 [interquartile range: 23-25], max attainable score of 26) as well as "Imaging Scores" (8 [8-8], max attainable score of 8) indicating proficiency in technical skills. The mean time taken for each bilateral ankle assessment was 20.4 minutes (standard deviation ±6.7). We have demonstrated that a focused DUS for the purpose of vascular assessment of the diabetic foot is readily learned using intensive simulation training.

  15. ON SECURE FULL DUPLEX COMMUNICATION IN MOBILE AD HOC NETWORK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. C. Dutta

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper is to establish Ad Hoc network in mobile phones and start fully secured full duplex communication in any situation. This type of communication will be cost effective and it will be fastest way of communication in case of any server failure or server error.

  16. Evaluation of stainless steel reinforcement construction project

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-02-01

    Stainless steel reinforcement has greater corrosion resistance than that of the conventional reinforcement. In this project, bridge A6059, the first in Missouri utilizing stainless steel reinforcement in the deck, was constructed, along with bridge A...

  17. On the Secrecy Degrees of Freedom with Full-Duplex Communication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mahmood, Nurul Huda; Mogensen, Preben Elgaard

    2017-01-01

    Full duplex communication enables simultaneous transmission from both ends of a communication link, thereby promising gains in terms of the throughput and the delay. Such compelling gains are conditioned on a number of design constraints. Generally, it has been shown that the throughput gain and ...... form expressions for the instantaneous and ergodic throughput gain of full duplex communication over conventional half duplex is derived. The secrecy degrees of freedom with full duplex is shown to be two as opposed to that of zero in half duplex mode....... of such an application. The potential of full duplex nodes in improving the physical layer security of a communication link is investigated in this contribution. We specifically derive the information theoretic secrecy degrees of freedom measure for a pair of nodes communicating in full duplex mode. Moreover, closed...

  18. Cast Aluminum Structures Technology (CAST) Phase VI. Technology Transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-04-01

    o Metal preparation o Ladle fill o Pouring 0 Mold shakeout o Casting cleanup o Inspection o Weld correction o Heat treatment and straightening o...presents a summary of foundry data for the 10 Hitchcock cast - ings. Included are the ladle chemistry and the pouring date, temperature, and time for each...properties, and full range stress- strain curves to failure for each specimen d. Chemistry of molten metal in ladle for each casting 3.4.3.2 The foundry

  19. Plating on stainless steel alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dini, J.W.; Johnson, H.R.

    1981-01-01

    Quantitative adhesion data are presented for a variety of electroplated stainless steel type alloys. Results show that excellent adhesion can be obtained by using a Wood's nickel strike or a sulfamate nickel strike prior to final plating. Specimens plated after Wood's nickel striking failed in the deposit rather than at the interface between the substrate and the coating. Flyer plate quantitative tests showed that use of anodic treatment in sulfuric acid prior to Wood's nickel striking even further improved adhesion. In contrast activation of stainless steels by immersion or cathodic treatment in hydrochloric acid resulted in very reduced bond strengths with failure always occurring at the interface between the coating and substrate

  20. Fracture Mechanisms in Steel Castings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stradomski Z.

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The investigations were inspired with the problem of cracking of steel castings during the production process. A single mechanism of decohesion - the intergranular one - occurs in the case of hot cracking, while a variety of structural factors is decisive for hot cracking initiation, depending on chemical composition of the cast steel. The low-carbon and low-alloyed steel castings crack due to the presence of the type II sulphides, the cause of cracking of the high-carbon tool cast steels is the net of secondary cementite and/or ledeburite precipitated along the boundaries of solidified grains. Also the brittle phosphor and carbide eutectics precipitated in the final stage solidification are responsible for cracking of castings made of Hadfield steel. The examination of mechanical properties at 1050°C revealed low or very low strength of high-carbon cast steels.