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Sample records for cassettes mediate modular

  1. Stacking multiple transgenes at a selected genomic site via repeated recombinase-mediated DNA cassette exchanges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhongsen; Moon, Bryan P; Xing, Aiqiu; Liu, Zhan-Bin; McCardell, Richard P; Damude, Howard G; Falco, S Carl

    2010-10-01

    Recombinase-mediated DNA cassette exchange (RMCE) has been successfully used to insert transgenes at previously characterized genomic sites in plants. Following the same strategy, groups of transgenes can be stacked to the same site through multiple rounds of RMCE. A gene-silencing cassette, designed to simultaneously silence soybean (Glycine max) genes fatty acid ω-6 desaturase 2 (FAD2) and acyl-acyl carrier protein thioesterase 2 (FATB) to improve oleic acid content, was first inserted by RMCE at a precharacterized genomic site in soybean. Selected transgenic events were subsequently retransformed with the second DNA construct containing a Yarrowia lipolytica diacylglycerol acyltransferase gene (DGAT1) to increase oil content by the enhancement of triacylglycerol biosynthesis and three other genes, a Corynebacterium glutamicum dihydrodipicolinate synthetase gene (DHPS), a barley (Hordeum vulgare) high-lysine protein gene (BHL8), and a truncated soybean cysteine synthase gene (CGS), to improve the contents of the essential amino acids lysine and methionine. Molecular characterization confirmed that the second RMCE successfully stacked the four overexpression cassettes to the previously integrated FAD2-FATB gene-silencing cassette. Phenotypic analyses indicated that all the transgenes expressed expected phenotypes.

  2. Site-specific recombination in the chicken genome using Flipase recombinase-mediated cassette exchange.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hong Jo; Lee, Hyung Chul; Kim, Young Min; Hwang, Young Sun; Park, Young Hyun; Park, Tae Sub; Han, Jae Yong

    2016-02-01

    Targeted genome recombination has been applied in diverse research fields and has a wide range of possible applications. In particular, the discovery of specific loci in the genome that support robust and ubiquitous expression of integrated genes and the development of genome-editing technology have facilitated rapid advances in various scientific areas. In this study, we produced transgenic (TG) chickens that can induce recombinase-mediated gene cassette exchange (RMCE), one of the site-specific recombination technologies, and confirmed RMCE in TG chicken-derived cells. As a result, we established TG chicken lines that have, Flipase (Flp) recognition target (FRT) pairs in the chicken genome, mediated by piggyBac transposition. The transgene integration patterns were diverse in each TG chicken line, and the integration diversity resulted in diverse levels of expression of exogenous genes in each tissue of the TG chickens. In addition, the replaced gene cassette was expressed successfully and maintained by RMCE in the FRT predominant loci of TG chicken-derived cells. These results indicate that targeted genome recombination technology with RMCE could be adaptable to TG chicken models and that the technology would be applicable to specific gene regulation by cis-element insertion and customized expression of functional proteins at predicted levels without epigenetic influence. © FASEB.

  3. Modular Construction of Large Non-Immune Human Antibody Phage-Display Libraries from Variable Heavy and Light Chain Gene Cassettes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Nam-Kyung; Bidlingmaier, Scott; Su, Yang; Liu, Bin

    2018-01-01

    Monoclonal antibodies and antibody-derived therapeutics have emerged as a rapidly growing class of biological drugs for the treatment of cancer, autoimmunity, infection, and neurological diseases. To support the development of human antibodies, various display techniques based on antibody gene repertoires have been constructed over the last two decades. In particular, scFv-antibody phage display has been extensively utilized to select lead antibodies against a variety of target antigens. To construct a scFv phage display that enables efficient antibody discovery, and optimization, it is desirable to develop a system that allows modular assembly of highly diverse variable heavy chain and light chain (Vκ and Vλ) repertoires. Here, we describe modular construction of large non-immune human antibody phage-display libraries built on variable gene cassettes from heavy chain and light chain repertoires (Vκ- and Vλ-light can be made into independent cassettes). We describe utility of such libraries in antibody discovery and optimization through chain shuffling.

  4. CRISPR-Mediated Integration of Large Gene Cassettes Using AAV Donor Vectors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rasmus O. Bak

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The CRISPR/Cas9 system has recently been shown to facilitate high levels of precise genome editing using adeno-associated viral (AAV vectors to serve as donor template DNA during homologous recombination (HR. However, the maximum AAV packaging capacity of ∼4.5 kb limits the donor size. Here, we overcome this constraint by showing that two co-transduced AAV vectors can serve as donors during consecutive HR events for the integration of large transgenes. Importantly, the method involves a single-step procedure applicable to primary cells with relevance to therapeutic genome editing. We use the methodology in primary human T cells and CD34+ hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells to site-specifically integrate an expression cassette that, as a single donor vector, would otherwise amount to a total of 6.5 kb. This approach now provides an efficient way to integrate large transgene cassettes into the genomes of primary human cells using HR-mediated genome editing with AAV vectors.

  5. Generation of minipigs with targeted transgene insertion by recombinase-mediated cassette exchange (RMCE) and somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Jannik E.; Johansen, Marianne Gregers; Schmidt, Mette

    2012-01-01

    Targeted transgenesis using site-specific recombinases is an attractive method to create genetically modified animals as it allows for integration of the transgene in a pre-selected transcriptionally active genomic site. Here we describe the application of recombinase-mediated cassette exchange...... minicircles in RMCE in fibroblasts with all four acceptor loci and followed by SCNT, we produced piglets with a single copy of a transgene incorporated into one of the transcriptionally active acceptor loci. The transgene, consisting of a cDNA of the Alzheimer’s disease-causing gene PSEN1M146I driven...

  6. Targeted Integration of Single-Copy Transgenes in Drosophila melanogaster Tissue-Culture Cells Using Recombination-Mediated Cassette Exchange.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manivannan, Sathiya N; Jacobsen, Thomas L; Lyon, Peter; Selvaraj, Bhavani; Halpin, Peter; Simcox, Amanda

    2015-12-01

    Transfection of transgenes into Drosophila cultured cells is a standard approach for studying gene function. However, the number of transgenes present in the cell following transient transfection or stable random integration varies, and the resulting differences in expression level affect interpretation. Here we developed a system for Drosophila cell lines that allows selection of cells with a single-copy transgene inserted at a specific genomic site using recombination-mediated cassette exchange (RMCE). We used the φC31 integrase and its target sites attP and attB for RMCE. Cell lines with an attP-flanked genomic cassette were transfected with donor plasmids containing a transgene of interest (UAS-x), a dihydrofolate reductase (UAS-DHFR) gene flanked by attB sequences, and a thymidine kinase (UAS-TK) gene in the plasmid backbone outside the attB sequences. In cells undergoing RMCE, UAS-x and UAS-DHFR were exchanged for the attP-flanked genomic cassette, and UAS-TK was excluded. These cells were selected using methotrexate, which requires DHFR expression, and ganciclovir, which causes death in cells expressing TK. Pure populations of cells with one copy of a stably integrated transgene were efficiently selected by cloning or mass culture in ∼6 weeks. Our results show that RMCE avoids the problems associated with current methods, where transgene number is not controlled, and facilitates the rapid generation of Drosophila cell lines in which expression from a single transgene can be studied. Copyright © 2015 by the Genetics Society of America.

  7. Brain Modularity Mediates the Relation between Task Complexity and Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Fengdan; Yue, Qiuhai; Martin, Randi; Fischer-Baum, Simon; Ramos-Nuã+/-Ez, Aurora; Deem, Michael

    Recent work in cognitive neuroscience has focused on analyzing the brain as a network, rather than a collection of independent regions. Prior studies taking this approach have found that individual differences in the degree of modularity of the brain network relate to performance on cognitive tasks. However, inconsistent results concerning the direction of this relationship have been obtained, with some tasks showing better performance as modularity increases, and other tasks showing worse performance. A recent theoretical model suggests that these inconsistencies may be explained on the grounds that high-modularity networks favor performance on simple tasks whereas low-modularity networks favor performance on complex tasks. The current study tests these predictions by relating modularity from resting-state fMRI to performance on a set of behavioral tasks. Complex and simple tasks were defined on the basis of whether they drew on executive attention. Consistent with predictions, we found a negative correlation between individuals' modularity and their performance on the complex tasks but a positive correlation with performance on the simple tasks. The results presented here provide a framework for linking measures of whole brain organization to cognitive processing.

  8. ATP Binding Cassette Transporter Mediates Both Heme and Pesticide Detoxification in Tick Midgut Cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flavio Alves Lara

    Full Text Available In ticks, the digestion of blood occurs intracellularly and proteolytic digestion of hemoglobin takes place in a dedicated type of lysosome, the digest vesicle, followed by transfer of the heme moiety of hemoglobin to a specialized organelle that accumulates large heme aggregates, called hemosomes. In the present work, we studied the uptake of fluorescent metalloporphyrins, used as heme analogs, and amitraz, one of the most regularly used acaricides to control cattle tick infestations, by Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus midgut cells. Both compounds were taken up by midgut cells in vitro and accumulated inside the hemosomes. Transport of both molecules was sensitive to cyclosporine A (CsA, a well-known inhibitor of ATP binding cassette (ABC transporters. Rhodamine 123, a fluorescent probe that is also a recognized ABC substrate, was similarly directed to the hemosome in a CsA-sensitive manner. Using an antibody against conserved domain of PgP-1-type ABC transporter, we were able to immunolocalize PgP-1 in the digest vesicle membranes. Comparison between two R. microplus strains that were resistant and susceptible to amitraz revealed that the resistant strain detoxified both amitraz and Sn-Pp IX more efficiently than the susceptible strain, a process that was also sensitive to CsA. A transcript containing an ABC transporter signature exhibited 2.5-fold increased expression in the amitraz-resistant strain when compared with the susceptible strain. RNAi-induced down-regulation of this ABC transporter led to the accumulation of metalloporphyrin in the digestive vacuole, interrupting heme traffic to the hemosome. This evidence further confirms that this transcript codes for a heme transporter. This is the first report of heme transport in a blood-feeding organism. While the primary physiological function of the hemosome is to detoxify heme and attenuate its toxicity, we suggest that the use of this acaricide detoxification pathway by ticks may

  9. ATP Binding Cassette Transporter Mediates Both Heme and Pesticide Detoxification in Tick Midgut Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lara, Flavio Alves; Pohl, Paula C.; Gandara, Ana Caroline; Ferreira, Jessica da Silva; Nascimento-Silva, Maria Clara; Bechara, Gervásio Henrique; Sorgine, Marcos H. F.; Almeida, Igor C.; Vaz, Itabajara da Silva; Oliveira, Pedro L.

    2015-01-01

    In ticks, the digestion of blood occurs intracellularly and proteolytic digestion of hemoglobin takes place in a dedicated type of lysosome, the digest vesicle, followed by transfer of the heme moiety of hemoglobin to a specialized organelle that accumulates large heme aggregates, called hemosomes. In the present work, we studied the uptake of fluorescent metalloporphyrins, used as heme analogs, and amitraz, one of the most regularly used acaricides to control cattle tick infestations, by Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus midgut cells. Both compounds were taken up by midgut cells in vitro and accumulated inside the hemosomes. Transport of both molecules was sensitive to cyclosporine A (CsA), a well-known inhibitor of ATP binding cassette (ABC) transporters. Rhodamine 123, a fluorescent probe that is also a recognized ABC substrate, was similarly directed to the hemosome in a CsA-sensitive manner. Using an antibody against conserved domain of PgP-1-type ABC transporter, we were able to immunolocalize PgP-1 in the digest vesicle membranes. Comparison between two R. microplus strains that were resistant and susceptible to amitraz revealed that the resistant strain detoxified both amitraz and Sn-Pp IX more efficiently than the susceptible strain, a process that was also sensitive to CsA. A transcript containing an ABC transporter signature exhibited 2.5-fold increased expression in the amitraz-resistant strain when compared with the susceptible strain. RNAi-induced down-regulation of this ABC transporter led to the accumulation of metalloporphyrin in the digestive vacuole, interrupting heme traffic to the hemosome. This evidence further confirms that this transcript codes for a heme transporter. This is the first report of heme transport in a blood-feeding organism. While the primary physiological function of the hemosome is to detoxify heme and attenuate its toxicity, we suggest that the use of this acaricide detoxification pathway by ticks may represent a new

  10. Linsitinib (OSI-906) antagonizes ATP-binding cassette subfamily G member 2 and subfamily C member 10-mediated drug resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hui; Kathawala, Rishil J; Wang, Yi-Jun; Zhang, Yun-Kai; Patel, Atish; Shukla, Suneet; Robey, Robert W; Talele, Tanaji T; Ashby, Charles R; Ambudkar, Suresh V; Bates, Susan E; Fu, Li-Wu; Chen, Zhe-Sheng

    2014-06-01

    In this study we investigated the effect of linsitinib on the reversal of multidrug resistance (MDR) mediated by the overexpression of the ATP-binding cassette (ABC) subfamily members ABCB1, ABCG2, ABCC1 and ABCC10. Our results indicate for the first time that linsitinib significantly potentiate the effect of anti-neoplastic drugs mitoxantrone (MX) and SN-38 in ABCG2-overexpressing cells; paclitaxel, docetaxel and vinblastine in ABCC10-overexpressing cells. Linsitinib moderately enhanced the cytotoxicity of vincristine in cell lines overexpressing ABCB1, whereas it did not alter the cytotoxicity of substrates of ABCC1. Furthermore, linsitinib significantly increased the intracellular accumulation and decreased the efflux of [(3)H]-MX in ABCG2-overexpressing cells and [(3)H]-paclitaxel in ABCC10-overexpressing cells. However, linsitinib, at a concentration that reversed MDR, did not significantly alter the expression levels of either the ABCG2 or ABCC10 transporter proteins. Furthermore, linsitinib did not significantly alter the intracellular localization of ABCG2 or ABCC10. Moreover, linsitinib stimulated the ATPase activity of ABCG2 in a concentration-dependent manner. Overall, our study suggests that linsitinib attenuates ABCG2- and ABCC10-mediated MDR by directly inhibiting their function as opposed to altering ABCG2 or ABCC10 protein expression. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  11. ATP binding cassette A1 (ABCA1) mediates microparticle formation during high-density lipoprotein (HDL) biogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hafiane, Anouar; Genest, Jacques

    2017-02-01

    Micro-particles (MP) are secreted by various cells. Their biological roles in health and in disease remain unknown. Here we describe formation of MP in the process of ABCA1-dependent cholesterol efflux in different cell types. The ATP-binding cassette transporter, subfamily A, member 1 (ABCA1) is the rate-limiting step in the biogenesis of high-density lipoproteins (HDL). We have found that ABCA1 and apoA-I contribute to the formation of MP. Using cell-based systems with overexpression and selective inactivation of ABCA1, pharmacological blockade and modulation of membrane cholesterol content, we characterized MP release from various cell lines. We studied MP release in BHK cells stably expressing ABCA1 under mifepristone control, human THP-1 macrophages and HepG2 cells without, or with incubation with human apoA-I. ABCA1 mediates the production of MPs containing cholesterol. This was also confirmed in primary human monocyte-derived macrophages (MDMs). Adding apoA-I markedly increases MP release from cells. Inhibition of ABCA1 with probucol or decreasing plasma membrane cholesterol with methyl-β cyclodextrin (CDX) markedly reduced MP release and nascent HDL formation. MPs do not contain apoA-I, but contain flotilin-2, a marker of plasma membrane, and CD63, an exosome marker. MPs exhibit considerable size heterogeneity (50-250 nm). We show that MPs are lipoprotein-sized structures created by the ABCA1 transporter, and contribute approximately 30% of ABCA1-and apoA-I mediated cholesterol efflux. In addition, we found that MPs release from cells consists, in part, of exosomes and depends on the same pathway used for HDL biogenesis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Modified Lentiviral LTRs Allow Flp Recombinase–mediated Cassette Exchange and In Vivo Tracing of “Factor-free” Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuehle, Johannes; Turan, Soeren; Cantz, Tobias; Hoffmann, Dirk; Suerth, Julia D; Maetzig, Tobias; Zychlinski, Daniela; Klein, Christoph; Steinemann, Doris; Baum, Christopher; Bode, Juergen; Schambach, Axel

    2014-01-01

    Methods for generating induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) for disease modeling and cell therapies have progressed from integrating vectors to transient delivery of reprogramming factors, avoiding permanent genomic modification. A major limitation of unmodified iPSCs is the assessment of their distribution and contribution to adverse reactions in autologous cell therapy. Here, we report that polycistronic lentiviral vectors with single Flp recombinase (Flp) recognition target (FRT) sites can be used to generate murine iPSCs that are devoid of the reprogramming cassette but carry an intergenic 300-bp long terminal repeat sequence. Performing quantitative polymerase chain reaction on this marker, we could determine genetic identity and tissue contribution of iPSC-derived teratomas in mice. Moreover, we generated iPSCs carrying heterospecific FRT twin sites, enabling excision and recombinase-mediated cassette exchange (RMCE) of the reprogramming cassette for another expression unit of choice. Following screening of iPSCs for “safe harbor” integration sites, expression cassettes were introduced by RMCE into various previously silenced loci of selected single-copy iPSCs. Analysis of DNA methylation showed that RMCE reverted the local epigenetic signature, which allowed transgene expression in undifferentiated iPSCs and in differentiated progeny. These findings support the concept of creating clonotypically defined exchangeable and traceable pluripotent stem cells for disease research and cell therapy. PMID:24434935

  13. A Cassette Based System for Hydrogen Storage and Delivery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Britton Wayne E.

    2006-11-29

    A hydrogen storage system is described and evaluated. This is based upon a cassette, that is a container for managing hydrogen storage materials. The container is designed to be safe, modular, adaptable to different chemistries, inexpensive, and transportable. A second module receives the cassette and provides the necessary infrastructure to deliver hydrogen from the cassette according to enduser requirements. The modular concept has a number of advantages over approaches that are all in one stand alone systems. The advantages of a cassette based system are discussed, along with results from model and laboratory testing.

  14. Efficient Recombinase-Mediated Cassette Exchange in hPSCs to Study the Hepatocyte Lineage Reveals AAVS1 Locus-Mediated Transgene Inhibition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Ordovás

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Tools for rapid and efficient transgenesis in “safe harbor” loci in an isogenic context remain important to exploit the possibilities of human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs. We created hPSC master cell lines suitable for FLPe recombinase-mediated cassette exchange (RMCE in the AAVS1 locus that allow generation of transgenic lines within 15 days with 100% efficiency and without random integrations. Using RMCE, we successfully incorporated several transgenes useful for lineage identification, cell toxicity studies, and gene overexpression to study the hepatocyte lineage. However, we observed unexpected and variable transgene expression inhibition in vitro, due to DNA methylation and other unknown mechanisms, both in undifferentiated hESC and differentiating hepatocytes. Therefore, the AAVS1 locus cannot be considered a universally safe harbor locus for reliable transgene expression in vitro, and using it for transgenesis in hPSC will require careful assessment of the function of individual transgenes.

  15. Adenosine triphosphate-binding cassette transporters mediate chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 2 secretion from reactive astrocytes: relevance to multiple sclerosis pathogenesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kooij, G.; Mizee, M.R.; van Horssen, J.; Reijerkerk, A.; Witte, M.E.; Drexhage, J.A.R.; van der Pol, SM; Van Het Hof, B; Scheffer, G.L.; Scheper, R.J.; Dijkstra, C.D.; van der Valk, P.; de Vries, H.E.

    2011-01-01

    Adenosine triphosphate-binding cassette efflux transporters are highly expressed at the blood-brain barrier and actively hinder passage of harmful compounds, thereby maintaining brain homoeostasis. Since, adenosine triphosphate-binding cassette transporters drive cellular exclusion of potential

  16. Sorafenib modulates the gene expression of multi-drug resistance mediating ATP-binding cassette proteins in experimental hepatocellular carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmann, Katrin; Franz, Clemens; Xiao, Zhi; Mohr, Elvira; Serba, Susanne; Büchler, Markus W; Schemmer, Peter

    2010-11-01

    High ATP-binding cassette (ABC) protein expression leads to intrinsic drug resistance of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). The aim of this study was to investigate the potential chemosensitizing effects of sorafenib on the multi-drug resistance (MDR) phenotype. The ABC-protein gene expression and the cellular survival were determined by RT-PCR analysis and MTT assay in HUH7 cells. Sorafenib inhibits MDR. The ABC-protein mRNA expression decreased by up to 51% (p ≤ 0.01). Addition of sorafenib to conventional chemotherapy restored the chemosensitivity. Combination of gemcitabine plus sorafenib decreased the ABC-protein mRNA levels by up to 77%, compared to gemcitabine monotherapy (p ≤ 0.001). Doxorubicin plus sorafenib decreased the ABC-protein mRNA levels up to 74% compared to doxorubicin monotherapy (p ≤ 0.001). This study provides evidence that the MDR phenotype of HCC cells can be modulated by the multi-kinase inhibitor sorafenib and consequentially may lead towards personalized therapies in patients with highly resistant tumors.

  17. SacB-SacR gene cassette as the negative selection marker to suppress Agrobacterium overgrowth in Agrobacterium-mediated plant transformation

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    Yiming Liu

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Agrobacterium overgrowth is a common problem in Agrobacterium-mediated plant transfor-mation. To suppress the Agrobacterium overgrowth, various antibiotics have been used during plant tissue culture steps. The antibiotics are expensive and may adversely affect plant cell differentiation and reduce plant transformation efficiency. The SacB-SacR proteins are toxic to most Agrobacterium tumefaciens strains when they are grown on culture medium sup¬plemented with sucrose. Therefore, SacB-SacR genes can be used as negative selection markers to suppress the overgrowth of Agrobacterium tumefaciens in the plant tissue culture process. We generated a mutant Agrobacterium tumefaciens strain GV2260 (recA-SacB/R that has the SacB-SacR cassette inserted into the bacterial genome at the recA gene locus. The mutant Agrobacterium strain is sensitive to sucrose but maintains its ability to transform plant cells in both transient and stable transformation assays. We demonstrated that the mutant strain GV2260 (recA-SacB/R can be inhibited by sucrose that reduces the overgrowth of Agrobacterium and therefore improves the plant transformation efficiency. We employed GV2260 (recA-SacB/R to generate stable transgenic N. benthamiana plants expressing a CRISPR-Cas9 for knocking out a WRKY transcrip¬tion factor.

  18. Pro Isomerization in MLL1 PHD3-Bromo Cassette Connects H3K4me Readout to CyP33 and HDAC-Mediated Repression

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Zhanxin; Song, Jikui; Milne, Thomas A.; Wang, Gang G.; Li, Haitao; Allis, C. David; Patel, Dinshaw J. (MSKCC); (Rockefeller)

    2010-09-13

    The MLL1 gene is a frequent target for recurrent chromosomal translocations, resulting in transformation of hematopoietic precursors into leukemia stem cells. Here, we report on structure-function studies that elucidate molecular events in MLL1 binding of histone H3K4me3/2 marks and recruitment of the cyclophilin CyP33. CyP33 contains a PPIase and a RRM domain and regulates MLL1 function through HDAC recruitment. We find that the PPIase domain of CyP33 regulates the conformation of MLL1 through proline isomerization within the PHD3-Bromo linker, thereby disrupting the PHD3-Bromo interface and facilitating binding of the MLL1-PHD3 domain to the CyP33-RRM domain. H3K4me3/2 and CyP33-RRM target different surfaces of MLL1-PHD3 and can bind simultaneously to form a ternary complex. Furthermore, the MLL1-CyP33 interaction is required for repression of HOXA9 and HOXC8 genes in vivo. Our results highlight the role of PHD3-Bromo cassette as a regulatory platform, orchestrating MLL1 binding of H3K4me3/2 marks and cyclophilin-mediated repression through HDAC recruitment.

  19. Film sheet cassette

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-01-01

    A novel film sheet cassette is described for handling CAT photographic films under daylight conditions and facilitating their imaging. A detailed description of the design and operation of the cassette is given together with appropriate illustrations. The resulting cassette is a low-cost unit which is easily constructed and yet provides a sure light-tight seal for the interior contents of the cassette. The individual resilient fingers on the light-trap permit the ready removal of the slide plate for taking pictures. The stippled, non-electrostatic surface of the pressure plate ensures an air layer and free slidability of the film for removal and withdrawal of the film sheet. The advantage of the daylight system is that a darkroom need not be used for inserting and removing the film in and out of the cassette resulting in a considerable time saving. (U.K.)

  20. A role for calcium in the regulation of ATP-binding cassette, sub-family C, member 3 (ABCC3) gene expression in a model of epidermal growth factor-mediated breast cancer epithelial-mesenchymal transition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Teneale A; Azimi, Iman; Thompson, Erik W; Roberts-Thomson, Sarah J; Monteith, Gregory R

    2015-03-13

    Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), a process implicated in cancer metastasis, is associated with the transcriptional regulation of members of the ATP-binding cassette superfamily of efflux pumps, and drug resistance in breast cancer cells. Epidermal growth factor (EGF)-induced EMT in MDA-MB-468 breast cancer cells is calcium signal dependent. In this study induction of EMT was shown to result in the transcriptional up-regulation of ATP-binding cassette, subfamily C, member 3 (ABCC3), a member of the ABC transporter superfamily, which has a recognized role in multidrug resistance. Buffering of cytosolic free calcium inhibited EGF-mediated ABCC3 increases, indicating a calcium-dependent mode of regulation. Silencing of TRPM7 (an ion channel involved in EMT associated vimentin induction) did not inhibit ABCC3 up-regulation. Silencing of the store operated calcium entry (SOCE) pathway components ORAI1 and STIM1 also did not alter ABCC3 induction by EGF. However, the calcium permeable ion channel transient receptor potential cation channel, subfamily C, member 1 (TRPC1) appears to contribute to the regulation of both basal and EGF-induced ABCC3 mRNA. Improved understanding of the relationship between calcium signaling, EMT and the regulation of genes important in therapeutic resistance may help identify novel therapeutic targets for breast cancer. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Selective ATP-Binding Cassette Subfamily C Gene Expression and Proinflammatory Mediators Released by BEAS-2B after PM2.5, Budesonide, and Cotreated Exposures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jarline Encarnación-Medina

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available ATP-binding cassette subfamily C (ABCC genes code for phase III metabolism proteins that translocate xenobiotic (e.g., particulate matter 2.5 (PM2.5 and drug metabolites outside the cells. IL-6 secretion is related with the activation of the ABCC transporters. This study assesses ABCC1–4 gene expression changes and proinflammatory cytokine (IL-6, IL-8 release in human bronchial epithelial cells (BEAS-2B exposed to PM2.5 organic extract, budesonide (BUD, used to control inflammation in asthmatic patients, and a cotreatment (Co-T: PM2.5 and BUD. A real-time PCR assay shows that ABCC1 was upregulated in BEAS-2B exposed after 6 and 7 hr to PM2.5 extract or BUD but downregulated after 6 hr of the Co-T. ABCC3 was downregulated after 6 hr of BUD and upregulated after 6 hr of the Co-T exposures. ABCC4 was upregulated after 5 hr of PM2.5 extract, BUD, and the Co-T exposures. The cytokine assay revealed an increase in IL-6 release by BEAS-2B exposed after 5 hr to PM2.5 extract, BUD, and the Co-T. At 7 hr, the Co-T decreases IL-6 release and IL-8 at 6 hr. In conclusion, the cotreatment showed an opposite effect on exposed BEAS-2B as compared with BUD. The results suggest an interference of the BUD therapeutic potential by PM2.5.

  2. SacB-SacR gene cassette as the negative selection marker to suppress Agrobacterium overgrowth in Agrobacterium-mediated plant transformation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agrobacterium overgrowth is a common problem in Agrobacterium-mediated plant transformation. To suppress the Agrobacterium overgrowth, various antibiotics have been used during plant tissue culture steps. The antibiotics are expensive and may adversely affect plant cell differentiation and reduce ...

  3. Scavenger Receptor Class B Type I Mediates Biliary Cholesterol Secretion Independent of ATP-Binding Cassette Transporter g5/g8 in Mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wiersma, Harmen; Gatti, Alberto; Nijstad, Niels; Elferink, Ronald P. J. Oude; Kuipers, Folkert; Tietge, Uwe J. F.

    2009-01-01

    Scavenger receptor class B type I (SR-BI) mediates selective uptake of cholesterol from high-density lipoprotein (HDL) particles by the liver and influences biliary cholesterol secretion. However, it is not dear, if this effect is direct or indirect. The aim of this study was to determine the impact

  4. Suppression of HLA expression by lentivirus-mediated gene transfer of siRNA cassettes and in vivo chemoselection to enhance hematopoietic stem cell transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hacke, Katrin; Falahati, Rustom; Flebbe-Rehwaldt, Linda; Kasahara, Noriyuki; Gaensler, Karin M L

    2009-01-01

    Current approaches for hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) and organ transplantation are limited by donor and host-mediated immune responses to allo-antigens. Application of these therapies is limited by the toxicity of preparative and post-transplant immunosuppressive regimens and a shortage of appropriate HLA-matched donors. We have been exploring two complementary approaches for genetically modifying donor cells that achieve long-term suppression of cellular proteins that elicit host immune responses to mismatched donor antigens, and provide a selective advantage to genetically engineered donor cells after transplantation. The first approach is based on recent advances that make feasible targeted down-regulation of HLA expression. Suppression of HLA expression could help to overcome limitations imposed by extensive HLA polymorphisms that restrict the availability of suitable donors. Accordingly, we have recently investigated whether knockdown of HLA by RNA interference (RNAi) enables allogeneic cells to evade immune recognition. For efficient and stable delivery of short hairpin-type RNAi constructs (shRNA), we employed lentivirus-based gene transfer vectors that integrate into genomic DNA, thereby permanently modifying transduced donor cells. Lentivirus-mediated delivery of shRNA targeting pan-Class I and allele-specific HLA achieved efficient and dose-dependent reduction in surface expression of HLA in human cells, and enhanced resistance to allo-reactive T lymphocyte-mediated cytotoxicity, while avoiding non-MHC restricted killing. Complementary strategies for genetic engineering of HSC that would provide a selective advantage for transplanted donor cells and enable successful engraftment with less toxic preparative and immunosuppressive regimens would increase the numbers of individuals to whom HLA suppression therapy could be offered. Our second strategy is to provide a mechanism for in vivo selection of genetically modified HSC and other donor cells. We have

  5. Modulation of microRNA Expression in Subjects with Metabolic Syndrome and Decrease of Cholesterol Efflux from Macrophages via microRNA-33-Mediated Attenuation of ATP-Binding Cassette Transporter A1 Expression by Statins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wei-Ming; Sheu, Wayne H-H; Tseng, Pei-Chi; Lee, Tzong-Shyuan; Lee, Wen-Jane; Chang, Pey-Jium; Chiang, An-Na

    2016-01-01

    Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is a complicated health problem that encompasses a variety of metabolic disorders. In this study, we analyzed the relationship between the major biochemical parameters associated with MetS and circulating levels of microRNA (miR)-33, miR-103, and miR-155. We found that miRNA-33 levels were positively correlated with levels of fasting blood glucose, glycosylated hemoglobin A1c, total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, and triacylglycerol, but negatively correlated with HDL-cholesterol levels. In the cellular study, miR-33 levels were increased in macrophages treated with high glucose and cholesterol-lowering drugs atorvastatin and pitavastatin. miR-33 has been reported to play an essential role in cholesterol homeostasis through ATP-binding cassette transporter A1 (ABCA1) regulation and reverse cholesterol transport. However, the molecular mechanism underlying the linkage between miR-33 and statin treatment remains unclear. In the present study, we investigated whether atorvastatin and pitavastatin exert their functions through the modulation of miR-33 and ABCA1-mediated cholesterol efflux from macrophages. The results showed that treatment of the statins up-regulated miR-33 expression, but down-regulated ABCA1 mRNA levels in RAW264.7 cells and bone marrow-derived macrophages. Statin-mediated ABCA1 regulation occurs at the post-transcriptional level through targeting of the 3'-UTR of the ABCA1 transcript by miR-33. Additionally, we found significant down-regulation of ABCA1 protein expression in macrophages treated with statins. Finally, we showed that high glucose and statin treatment significantly suppressed cholesterol efflux from macrophages. These findings have highlighted the complexity of statins, which may exert detrimental effects on metabolic abnormalities through regulation of miR-33 target genes.

  6. Modulation of microRNA Expression in Subjects with Metabolic Syndrome and Decrease of Cholesterol Efflux from Macrophages via microRNA-33-Mediated Attenuation of ATP-Binding Cassette Transporter A1 Expression by Statins.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei-Ming Chen

    Full Text Available Metabolic syndrome (MetS is a complicated health problem that encompasses a variety of metabolic disorders. In this study, we analyzed the relationship between the major biochemical parameters associated with MetS and circulating levels of microRNA (miR-33, miR-103, and miR-155. We found that miRNA-33 levels were positively correlated with levels of fasting blood glucose, glycosylated hemoglobin A1c, total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, and triacylglycerol, but negatively correlated with HDL-cholesterol levels. In the cellular study, miR-33 levels were increased in macrophages treated with high glucose and cholesterol-lowering drugs atorvastatin and pitavastatin. miR-33 has been reported to play an essential role in cholesterol homeostasis through ATP-binding cassette transporter A1 (ABCA1 regulation and reverse cholesterol transport. However, the molecular mechanism underlying the linkage between miR-33 and statin treatment remains unclear. In the present study, we investigated whether atorvastatin and pitavastatin exert their functions through the modulation of miR-33 and ABCA1-mediated cholesterol efflux from macrophages. The results showed that treatment of the statins up-regulated miR-33 expression, but down-regulated ABCA1 mRNA levels in RAW264.7 cells and bone marrow-derived macrophages. Statin-mediated ABCA1 regulation occurs at the post-transcriptional level through targeting of the 3'-UTR of the ABCA1 transcript by miR-33. Additionally, we found significant down-regulation of ABCA1 protein expression in macrophages treated with statins. Finally, we showed that high glucose and statin treatment significantly suppressed cholesterol efflux from macrophages. These findings have highlighted the complexity of statins, which may exert detrimental effects on metabolic abnormalities through regulation of miR-33 target genes.

  7. Regulatory pathways for ATP-binding cassette transport proteins in kidney proximal tubules

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Masereeuw, R.; Russel, F.G.M.

    2012-01-01

    The ATP-binding cassette transport proteins (ABC transporters) represent important determinants of drug excretion. Protective or excretory tissues where these transporters mediate substrate efflux include the kidney proximal tubule. Regulation of the transport proteins in this tissue requires

  8. Service Modularity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Avlonitis, Viktor; Hsuan, Juliana

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to investigate the studies on service modularity with a goal of informing service science and advancing contemporary service systems research. Modularity, a general systems property, can add theoretical underpinnings to the conceptual development of service science...... in general and service systems in particular. Our research is guided by the following question: how can modularity theory inform service system design? We present a review of the modularity literature and associated concepts. We then introduce the contemporary service science and service system discourse...

  9. Service Modularity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Avlonitis, Viktor; Hsuan, Juliana

    2015-01-01

    in general and service systems in particular. Our research is guided by the following question: how can modularity theory inform service system design? We present a review of the modularity literature and associated concepts. We then introduce the contemporary service science and service system discourse......The purpose of this research is to investigate the studies on service modularity with a goal of informing service science and advancing contemporary service systems research. Modularity, a general systems property, can add theoretical underpinnings to the conceptual development of service science...

  10. Modular forms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Edixhoven, B.; van der Geer, G.; Moonen, B.; Edixhoven, B.; van der Geer, G.; Moonen, B.

    2008-01-01

    Modular forms are functions with an enormous amount of symmetry that play a central role in number theory, connecting it with analysis and geometry. They have played a prominent role in mathematics since the 19th century and their study continues to flourish today. Modular forms formed the

  11. Ground Testing of the EMCS Seed Cassette for Biocompatibility with the Tardigrade, Hypsibius dujardini

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinsch, Sigrid; Myers, Zachary Alan; DeSimone, Julia Carol; Freeman, John L.; Steele, Marianne K.; Sun, Gwo-Shing; Heathcote, David

    2014-01-01

    The European Modular Cultivation System, EMCS, was developed by ESA for plant experiments. We performed ground testing to determine whether ARC EMCS seed cassettes could be adapted for use with tardigrades for future spaceflight experiments. Tardigrades (water bears) are small invertebrates that enter the tun state in response to desiccation or other environmental stresses. Tardigrade tuns have suspended metabolism and have been shown to be survive exposure to space vacuum, high pressure, temperature and other stresses. For spaceflight experiments using the EMCS, the organisms ideally must be able to survive desiccation and storage in the cassette at ambient temperature for several weeks prior to the initiation of the experiment by the infusion of water to the cassette during spaceflight. The ability of tardigrades to survive extremes by entering the tun state make them ideal candidates for growth experiments in the EMCS cassettes. The growth substratum in the cassettes is a gridded polyether sulfone (PES) membrane. A blotter beneath the PES membrane contains dried growth medium. The goals of our study were to (1) determine whether tardigrades survive and reproduce on PES membranes, (2) develop a consistent method for dehydration of the tardigrades with high recovery rates upon rehydration, (3) to determine an appropriate food source for the tardigrades that can also be dehydrated/rehydrated and (4) successful mock rehydration experiment in cassettes with appropriate food source. We present results that show successful multigenerational growth of tardigrades on PES membranes with a variety of wet food sources. We have successfully performed a mock rehydration with tardigrades and at least one candidate food, protonema of the moss Polytrichum, that supports multigenerational growth and whose spores germinate quickly enough to match tardigrade feeding patterns post rehydration. Our results indicate that experiments on the ISS using the tardigrade, Hypsibius dujardini

  12. The ITER divertor cassette project meeting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Merola, M.; Riccardi, B.; Tivey, R.

    1999-01-01

    The Divertor Cassette Project topical meeting was held on May 26-28, 1999 at the ENEA Brasimone Research Centre in Camugnano (Bologna), Italy. Specialists from all the four Parties and the JCT participated in the meeting. It was concluded that the Divertor Cassette Project has significantly contributed to solving a large part of the critical issues of the ITER divertor design

  13. Composite conserved promoter-terminator motifs (PeSLs) that mediate modular shuffling in the diverse T4-like myoviruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comeau, André M; Arbiol, Christine; Krisch, Henry M

    2014-06-19

    The diverse T4-like phages (Tquatrovirinae) infect a wide array of gram-negative bacterial hosts. The genome architecture of these phages is generally well conserved, most of the phylogenetically variable genes being grouped together in a series hyperplastic regions (HPRs) that are interspersed among large blocks of conserved core genes. Recent evidence from a pair of closely related T4-like phages has suggested that small, composite terminator/promoter sequences (promoterearly stem loop [PeSLs]) were implicated in mediating the high levels of genetic plasticity by indels occurring within the HPRs. Here, we present the genome sequence analysis of two T4-like phages, PST (168 kb, 272 open reading frames [ORFs]) and nt-1 (248 kb, 405 ORFs). These two phages were chosen for comparative sequence analysis because, although they are closely related to phages that have been previously sequenced (T4 and KVP40, respectively), they have different host ranges. In each case, one member of the pair infects a bacterial strain that is a human pathogen, whereas the other phage's host is a nonpathogen. Despite belonging to phylogenetically distant branches of the T4-likes, these pairs of phage have diverged from each other in part by a mechanism apparently involving PeSL-mediated recombination. This analysis confirms a role of PeSL sequences in the generation of genomic diversity by serving as a point of genetic exchange between otherwise unrelated sequences within the HPRs. Finally, the palette of divergent genes swapped by PeSL-mediated homologous recombination is discussed in the context of the PeSLs' potentially important role in facilitating phage adaption to new hosts and environments. © The Author(s) 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution.

  14. Design of SMART steam generator cassette

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Y. W.; Kim, J. I.; Jang, M. H.

    2001-01-01

    Basic design development for the steam generator to be installed in the integral reactor SMART has been performed. Optimization of the steam generator shape, determination of the basic dimension and confirmation of the structural strength have been carried out. Individual steam generator cassette can be replaced in the optimized design concept of steam generator. Shape design of the steam generator cassette has been done on the computer based on 3-D CAE strategy. The structural integrity of the developed steam generator was investigated by performing the dynamic analysis for the steam generator cassette, flow induced vibration analysis for the tube bundle, and the thermo-mechanical analysis for the module header and tube. As for the manufacturing of steam generator, the numerical and the experimental simulation have been carried to control the amount of spring back and to eliminate residual stress. SMART steam generator cassette was developed by a sequential research of the aforementioned activities

  15. Cassette for handling banknotes or the like

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundblad, Leif

    1981-08-11

    A cassette for banknotes and like valuable articles is provided with a displaceable lid (6) and locking means (10) for latching the lid of the cassette when the cassette is located outside a housing (25) in which it is intended to be placed. An operating means (8) is arranged to co-act with the locking means and with a latching element (15). The latching element is arranged to be released in dependence upon a pre-set program. A signal circuit is arranged to send a code signal to a detector circuit (23) when electrical contact elements on the cassette and the housing co-act with one another, which detector circuit, when the signal coincides with the signal program in the detector circuit, causes a signal to be sent for moving the latching means to a non-latching position.

  16. Metric modular spaces

    CERN Document Server

    Chistyakov, Vyacheslav

    2015-01-01

    Aimed toward researchers and graduate students familiar with elements of functional analysis, linear algebra, and general topology; this book contains a general study of modulars, modular spaces, and metric modular spaces. Modulars may be thought of as generalized velocity fields and serve two important purposes: generate metric spaces in a unified manner and provide a weaker convergence, the modular convergence, whose topology is non-metrizable in general. Metric modular spaces are extensions of metric spaces, metric linear spaces, and classical modular linear spaces. The topics covered include the classification of modulars, metrizability of modular spaces, modular transforms and duality between modular spaces, metric  and modular topologies. Applications illustrated in this book include: the description of superposition operators acting in modular spaces, the existence of regular selections of set-valued mappings, new interpretations of spaces of Lipschitzian and absolutely continuous mappings, the existe...

  17. Modularization, inter-functional integration and operational performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boer, Henrike Engele Elisabeth; Boer, Harry

    2014-01-01

    for firms to indeed use product modularity beneficially, in particular inter-functional integration between manufacturing and purchasing, design and sales, respectively. The purpose of the paper is to investigate the direct performance effects of modularization, as well as the mediating effects of the three...... forms of integration in the modularization-performance relationship....

  18. Understanding Socio Technical Modularity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thuesen, Christian Langhoff; Kudsk, Anders; Hvam, Lars

    2011-01-01

    dimension of modularity like irrational behaviors, cultural differences, learning processes, social organization and institutional influences on modularity. The paper addresses this gab offering a reinterpretation of the modularity concept from a socio-technical perspective in general and Actor Network...... Theory in particular. By formulating modularity from an ANT perspective covering social, material and process aspects, the modularity of a socio-technical system can be understood as an entanglement of product, process, organizational and institutional modularity. The theoretical framework is illustrated...

  19. AES Modular Power Systems

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The AES Modular Power Systems (AMPS) project will demonstrate and infuse modular power electronics, batteries, fuel cells, and autonomous control for exploration...

  20. Modularizing development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Müller, Anders Riel; Doucette, Jamie

    In 2007, South Korea's Ministry of Strategy and Finance (MOSF) and the Korea Development Institute (KDI) launched the Knowledge Sharing Program (KSP) to satisfy the growing interest in Korea's rapid development from high growth economies in East Asia and Africa. The KSP's mandate is "to offer...... a deeper and wider understanding of Korea’s development experience with the hope that Korea’s past can offer lessons for developing countries in search of sustainable and broad‐based development" (KSP 2011). To do so, the KSP provides users with a modularized set of policy narratives that represent Korea...... as a unique success story of sustainable and equitable development worth emulating. These narratives accord South Korea considerable international status and portray it as a country with recent, hands‐on development expertise that is directly relevant to the needs of developing economies. Furthermore...

  1. Ground Testing of the EMCS Seed Cassette for Biocompatibility with the Cellular Slime Mold, Dictyostelium Discoideum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanely, Julia C.; Reinsch, Sigrid; Myers, Zachary A.; Freeman, John; Steele, Marianne K.; Sun, Gwo-Shing; Heathcote, David G.

    2014-01-01

    The European Modular Cultivation System, EMCS, was developed by ESA for plant experiments. To expand the use of flight verified hardware for various model organisms, we performed ground experiments to determine whether ARC EMCS Seed Cassettes could be adapted for use with cellular slime mold for future space flight experiments. Dictyostelium is a cellular slime mold that can exist both as a single-celled independent organism and as a part of a multicellular colony which functions as a unit (pseudoplasmodium). Under certain stress conditions, individual amoebae will aggregate to form multicellular structures. Developmental pathways are very similar to those found in Eukaryotic organisms, making this a uniquely interesting organism for use in genetic studies. Dictyostelium has been used as a genetic model organism for prior space flight experiments. Due to the formation of spores that are resistant to unfavorable conditions such as desiccation, Dictyostelium is also a good candidate for use in the EMCS Seed Cassettes. The growth substratum in the cassettes is a gridded polyether sulfone (PES) membrane. A blotter beneath the PES membranes contains dried growth medium. The goals of this study were to (1) verify that Dictyostelium are capable of normal growth and development on PES membranes, (2) develop a method for dehydration of Dictyostelium spores with successful recovery and development after rehydration, and (3) successful mock rehydration experiments in cassettes. Our results show normal developmental progression in two strains of Dictyostelium discoideum on PES membranes with a bacterial food source. We have successfully performed a mock rehydration of spores with developmental progression from aggregation to slug formation, and production of morphologically normal spores within 9 days of rehydration. Our results indicate that experiments on the ISS using the slime mold, Dictyostelium discoideum could potentially be performed in the flight verified hardware of

  2. Dualisme Modular

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natas Setiabudhi Daryono Putra

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Dualisme merupakan konsep filsafat yang menyatakan bahwa segala sesuatu memiliki dua hal yang berlawanan atau prinsip. Hidup dan mati, laki dan perempuan, siang dan malam, jiwa dan raga, sehat dan sakit, kaya dan miskin, baik dan buruk, halal dan haram, pro dan kontra, aktif dan pasif, statis dan dinamis, tampan dan buruk rupa, besar dan kecil, panjang dan pendek, manis dan pahit, mahal dan murah, kuat dan lemah, dan seterusnya. Dalam konteks karya ini merupakan representasi dari manusia yang pada dasarnya memiliki 2 kepribadian, baik dan buruk. Keduanya diterjemahkan ke dalam konsep modular dalam menyusun sebuah konfigurasi karya. Pesan yang ingin penulis sampaikan adalah seseorang tidak bisa dinilai dari “baju atau seragam” yang ia pakai. Selain itu keseimbangan dalam baik dan buruk yang direpresentasikan dengan modul positif dan negatif menjadi ambigu dalam kaitan dengan pahala dan dosa dalam Islam. Karya ini meminjam gambar Rubin’s vase/goblet (vas/piala Rubin karya seorang psikolog gestalt Edgar Rubin asal Denmark yang ditransformasi menjadi sebuah karya keramik 3 dimensional [1]. Vas/piala Rubin ini secara perseptual memiliki 2 makna, yaitu gambar vas/piala dan siluet wajah dari samping yang saling berhadapan (pengaruh antarobjek dan latar secara bergiliran. Proses kreasi berasal dari pengalaman empirik personal yang dihubungkan dengan teori-teori pendukung. Perpaduan keduanya menghasilkan karya seni yang merupakan representasi dari realitas. Dalam penciptaan karya seni rupa sebenarnya tidak ada metode baku seperti halnya dalam riset pada umumnya. Proses kreasi kadang berdasarkan intuisi, pengalaman personal yang dominan dan mengandung narasi yang sangat subjektif. Kesemuanya itu dikaitkan dengan disiplin ilmu lainnya (sosial, ekonomi, budaya dan politik untuk menghasilkan sebuah representasi. Modular Dualism Abstract. Dualism is the concept that everything has two opposite sides or principles. Life and death, male and female, day

  3. The ITER Divertor Cassette Project meeting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akiba, M.; Tivey, R.

    2000-01-01

    The Divertor Cassette Project topical meeting took place on April 5-7, 2000 at the JAERI Naka site in Japan. The meeting focused on the progress made by the three parties under task agreements on the development of carbon-fibre composite and tungsten armored high flux plasma-facing components

  4. Utilizing ARC EMCS Seedling Cassettes as Highly Versatile Miniature Growth Chambers for Model Organism Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, John L.; Steele, Marianne K.; Sun, Gwo-Shing; Heathcote, David; Reinsch, S.; DeSimone, Julia C.; Myers, Zachary A.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of our ground testing was to demonstrate the capability of safely putting specific model organisms into dehydrated stasis, and to later rehydrate and successfully grow them inside flight proven ARC EMCS seedling cassettes. The ARC EMCS seedling cassettes were originally developed to support seedling growth during space flight. The seeds are attached to a solid substrate, launched dry, and then rehydrated in a small volume of media on orbit to initiate the experiment. We hypothesized that the same seedling cassettes should be capable of acting as culture chambers for a wide range of organisms with minimal or no modification. The ability to safely preserve live organisms in a dehydrated state allows for on orbit experiments to be conducted at the best time for crew operations and more importantly provides a tightly controlled physiologically relevant growth experiment with specific environmental parameters. Thus, we performed a series of ground tests that involved growing the organisms, preparing them for dehydration on gridded Polyether Sulfone (PES) membranes, dry storage at ambient temperatures for varying periods of time, followed by rehydration. Inside the culture cassettes, the PES membranes were mounted above blotters containing dehydrated growth media. These were mounted on stainless steel bases and sealed with plastic covers that have permeable membrane covered ports for gas exchange. The results showed we were able to demonstrate acceptable normal growth of C.elegans (nematodes), E.coli (bacteria), S.cerevisiae (yeast), Polytrichum (moss) spores and protonemata, C.thalictroides (fern), D.discoideum (amoeba), and H.dujardini (tardigrades). All organisms showed acceptable growth and rehydration in both petri dishes and culture cassettes initially, and after various time lengths of dehydration. At the end of on orbit ISS European Modular Cultivation System experiments the cassettes could be frozen at ultra-low temperatures, refrigerated, or chemically

  5. Codon cassette mutagenesis: a general method to insert or replace individual codons by using universal mutagenic cassettes.

    OpenAIRE

    Kegler-Ebo, D M; Docktor, C M; DiMaio, D

    1994-01-01

    We describe codon cassette mutagenesis, a simple method of mutagenesis that uses universal mutagenic cassettes to deposit single codons at specific sites in double-stranded DNA. A target molecule is first constructed that contains a blunt, double-strand break at the site targeted for mutagenesis. A double-stranded mutagenic codon cassette is then inserted at the target site. Each mutagenic codon cassette contains a three base pair direct terminal repeat and two head-to-head recognition sequen...

  6. Complexity in Managing Modularization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Poul H. Kyvsgård; Sun, Hongyi

    2011-01-01

    In general, the phenomenon of managing modularization is not well known. The cause-effect relationships between modularization and realized benefits are complex and comprehensive. Though a number of research works have contributed to the study of the phenomenon of efficient and effective...... modularization management it is far from clarified. Recognizing the need for further empirical research, we have studied 40 modularity cases in various companies. The studies have been designed as long-term studies leaving time for various types of modularization benefits to emerge. Based on these studies we...... have developed a framework to support the heuristic and iterative process of planning and realizing modularization benefits....

  7. Fuel cell cassette with compliant seal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karl, Haltiner, Jr. J.; Anthony, Derose J.; Klotzbach, Darasack C.; Schneider, Jonathan R.

    2017-11-07

    A fuel cell cassette for forming a fuel cell stack along a fuel cell axis includes a cell retainer, a plate positioned axially to the cell retainer and defining a space axially with the cell retainer, and a fuel cell having an anode layer and a cathode layer separated by an electrolyte layer. The outer perimeter of the fuel cell is positioned in the space between the plate and the cell retainer, thereby retaining the fuel cell and defining a cavity between the cell retainer, the fuel cell, and the plate. The fuel cell cassette also includes a seal disposed within the cavity for sealing the edge of the fuel cell. The seal is compliant at operational temperatures of the fuel cell, thereby allowing lateral expansion and contraction of the fuel cell within the cavity while maintaining sealing at the edge of the fuel cell.

  8. The stability of cassette walls in compression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voutay, Pierre-Arnaud

    Much research into the behaviour of cold formed steel columns in the last decade has focused on channel sections undergoing local, distortional and overall buckling. Light gauge steel cassette sections are a particular form of channel section which offers an alternative form of load-bearing wall assembly for use in low-rise steel framed construction. Cassette wall sections possess wide and slender flanges so that, by including intermediate stiffeners in these wide flanges, a significant increase in the ultimate load capacity may be achieved. However, the introduction of intermediate stiffeners also increases the number of buckling modes (stiffener buckling) and, therefore complicates the behaviour and increases the risk of interactive buckling between these modes. The work undertaken in this thesis aims to clarify the behaviour of wide flanges in compression with and without intermediate stiffeners. In this research, the distortional mode of web and narrow flange buckling was inhibited by connecting the narrow flanges of the cassettes together at suitable intervals. "Generalised Beam Theory" (GBT), which allows the individual buckling modes to be considered individually and in predetermined combinations, provides a particularly good tool with which to analyse and understand the buckling behaviour of cassette sections with and without intermediate stiffeners. "Generalised Beam Theory" (GBT) is used throughout this work to determine the elastic buckling stress of the sections studied (simply supported stiffened plates, as well as cassette sections). Since the economic design of cold-formed steel sections requires the consideration of post- buckling behaviour, elastic buckling values are not directly comparable with design code values which are usually based on the concept of effective width. Therefore, finite element analysis with both material and geometric nonlinearity has also been carried out in order to obtain the ultimate strength in the critical mode or mode

  9. Modularity and Economic Organization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sanchez, Ron; Mahoney, Joseph T.

    and the nature of product market competition, (ii) the organization designs firms may adopt and the industry structures that can result when significant numbers of firms adopt modular product architectures, and (iii) learning processes and knowledge structures at the firm and industry levels in modular product......This paper addresses modularity as a basis for organizing economic activity. We first define the key concepts of architecture and of modularity as a special form of architecture. We then suggest how modular systems of all types may exhibit several properties of fundamental importance...... to the organization of economic activities, including greater adaptability and evolvability than systems that lack modular properties. We draw extensively on our original 1996 paper on modularity and subsequent research to suggest broad theoretical implications of modularity for (i) firms' product strategies...

  10. Portable modular detection system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brennan, James S [Rodeo, CA; Singh, Anup [Danville, CA; Throckmorton, Daniel J [Tracy, CA; Stamps, James F [Livermore, CA

    2009-10-13

    Disclosed herein are portable and modular detection devices and systems for detecting electromagnetic radiation, such as fluorescence, from an analyte which comprises at least one optical element removably attached to at least one alignment rail. Also disclosed are modular detection devices and systems having an integrated lock-in amplifier and spatial filter and assay methods using the portable and modular detection devices.

  11. Codon cassette mutagenesis: a general method to insert or replace individual codons by using universal mutagenic cassettes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kegler-Ebo, D M; Docktor, C M; DiMaio, D

    1994-05-11

    We describe codon cassette mutagenesis, a simple method of mutagenesis that uses universal mutagenic cassettes to deposit single codons at specific sites in double-stranded DNA. A target molecule is first constructed that contains a blunt, double-strand break at the site targeted for mutagenesis. A double-stranded mutagenic codon cassette is then inserted at the target site. Each mutagenic codon cassette contains a three base pair direct terminal repeat and two head-to-head recognition sequences for the restriction endonuclease Sapl, an enzyme that cleaves outside of its recognition sequence. The intermediate molecule containing the mutagenic cassette is then digested with Sapl, thereby removing most of the mutagenic cassette, leaving only a three base cohesive overhang that is ligated to generate the final insertion or substitution mutation. A general method for constructing blunt-end target molecules suitable for this approach is also described. Because the mutagenic cassette is excised during this procedure and alters the target only by introducing the desired mutation, the same cassette can be used to introduce a particular codon at all target sites. Each cassette can deposit two different codons, depending on the orientation in which it is inserted into the target molecule. Therefore, a series of eleven cassettes is sufficient to insert all possible amino acids at any constructed target site. Thus codon cassettes are 'off-the-shelf' reagents, and this methodology should be a particularly useful and inexpensive approach for subjecting multiple different positions in a protein sequence to saturation mutagenesis.

  12. Product Architecture Modularity Strategies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkola, Juliana Hsuan

    2003-01-01

    The focus of this paper is to integrate various perspectives on product architecture modularity into a general framework, and also to propose a way to measure the degree of modularization embedded in product architectures. Various trade-offs between modular and integral product architectures...... and how components and interfaces influence the degree of modularization are considered. In order to gain a better understanding of product architecture modularity as a strategy, a theoretical framework and propositions are drawn from various academic literature sources. Based on the literature review...

  13. Product Architecture Modularity Strategies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkola, Juliana Hsuan

    2003-01-01

    and how components and interfaces influence the degree of modularization are considered. In order to gain a better understanding of product architecture modularity as a strategy, a theoretical framework and propositions are drawn from various academic literature sources. Based on the literature review......The focus of this paper is to integrate various perspectives on product architecture modularity into a general framework, and also to propose a way to measure the degree of modularization embedded in product architectures. Various trade-offs between modular and integral product architectures......, the following key elements of product architecture are identified: components (standard and new-to-the-firm), interfaces (standardization and specification), degree of coupling, and substitutability. A mathematical function, termed modularization function, is introduced to measure the degree of modularization...

  14. Versatile nourseothricin and streptomycin/spectinomycin resistance gene cassettes and their use in chromosome integration vectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehman, Stephanie S; Mladinich, Katherine M; Boonyakanog, Angkana; Mima, Takehiko; Karkhoff-Schweizer, RoxAnn R; Schweizer, Herbert P

    2016-10-01

    An obstacle for the development of genetic systems for many bacteria is the limited number of antibiotic selection markers, especially for bacteria that are intrinsically antibiotic resistant or where utilization of such markers is strictly regulated. Here we describe the development of versatile cassettes containing nourseothricin, streptomycin/spectinomycin, and spectinomycin selection markers. The antibiotic resistance genes contained on these cassettes are flanked by loxP sites with allow their in vivo excision from the chromosome of target bacteria using Cre recombinase. The respective selection marker cassettes were used to derive mini-Tn7 elements that can be used for single-copy insertion of genes into bacterial chromosomes. The utility of the selection markers was tested by insertion of the resulting mini-Tn7 elements into the genomes of Burkholderia thailandensis and B. pseudomallei efflux pump mutants susceptible to aminoglycosides, aminocyclitols, and streptothricins, followed by Cre-mediated antibiotic resistance marker excision. The versatile nourseothricin, streptomycin/spectinomycin and spectinomycin resistance loxP cassette vectors described here extend the repertoire of antibiotic selection markers for genetic manipulation of diverse bacteria that are susceptible to aminoglycosides and aminocyclitols. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Disinfection Effect of Film Cassettes by Ultraviolet Irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kweon, Dae Cheol; Park, Peom [Ajou Univ., Suwon (Korea, Republic of)

    2001-12-15

    A bacteria infection on film cassette contact surface was examined at the diagnostic radiology department. Studies have demonstrated a bactericidal effect of ultraviolet irradiation, and to assess the contamination level on film cassette contact surface as a predictor of patient prevent from nosocomial infection. The study showed that the laboratory result was identified non-pathologic and pathologic bacterial in the five different cassette size of the contact surface. Film cassettes were exposed to ultraviolet light for 1, 2 and 3 minutes. Ultraviolet light disinfection practices suitable for bacteria. The study concludes that presence of a bacterial infection will prevent a using antiseptic technique on film cassette contact surface. In conclusion, ultraviolet irradiate on film cassette over the surface more than 2 minutes. Ultraviolet dose of 1565 {mu}W {center_dot} s/cm{sup 2}Win in 30 second relative to ultraviolet dose in time.

  16. Disinfection Effect of Film Cassettes by Ultraviolet Irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kweon, Dae Cheol; Park, Peom

    2001-01-01

    A bacteria infection on film cassette contact surface was examined at the diagnostic radiology department. Studies have demonstrated a bactericidal effect of ultraviolet irradiation, and to assess the contamination level on film cassette contact surface as a predictor of patient prevent from nosocomial infection. The study showed that the laboratory result was identified non-pathologic and pathologic bacterial in the five different cassette size of the contact surface. Film cassettes were exposed to ultraviolet light for 1, 2 and 3 minutes. Ultraviolet light disinfection practices suitable for bacteria. The study concludes that presence of a bacterial infection will prevent a using antiseptic technique on film cassette contact surface. In conclusion, ultraviolet irradiate on film cassette over the surface more than 2 minutes. Ultraviolet dose of 1565 μW · s/cm 2 Win in 30 second relative to ultraviolet dose in time

  17. A study on contamination and disinfection of film cassette

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kweon, Dae Cheol; Chung, Kyung Mo; Choi, Ji Won

    2000-01-01

    In July 2000, a bacteria infection on film cassette contact surface was examined at the diagnostic radiology department of the S. hospital. The objective of this study was to assess the contamination level on film cassette contact surface as a predictor of patient to prevent from nosocomial infection. The study showed that the laboratory result was identified non-pathologic bacterial in the four different cassette size of the contact surface. The study concludes that presence of a bacterial infection will prevent a using antiseptic technique on film cassette contact surface. Also the education of nosocomial infection for radiographer will be required

  18. A study on contamination and disinfection of film cassette

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kweon, Dae Cheol; Chung, Kyung Mo [Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Ji Won [University of Sydney, Sydney (Australia)

    2000-04-15

    In July 2000, a bacteria infection on film cassette contact surface was examined at the diagnostic radiology department of the S. hospital. The objective of this study was to assess the contamination level on film cassette contact surface as a predictor of patient to prevent from nosocomial infection. The study showed that the laboratory result was identified non-pathologic bacterial in the four different cassette size of the contact surface. The study concludes that presence of a bacterial infection will prevent a using antiseptic technique on film cassette contact surface. Also the education of nosocomial infection for radiographer will be required.

  19. Mobile gene cassettes: a fundamental resource for bacterial evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael, Carolyn A; Gillings, Michael R; Holmes, Andrew J; Hughes, Lesley; Andrew, Nigel R; Holley, Marita P; Stokes, H W

    2004-07-01

    Horizontal gene transfer increases genetic diversity in prokaryotes to a degree not allowed by the limitations of reproduction by binary fission. The integron/gene cassette system is one of the most recently characterized examples of a system that facilitates horizontal gene transfer. This system, discovered in the context of multidrug resistance, is recognized in a clinical context for its role in allowing pathogens to adapt to the widespread use of antibiotics. Recent studies suggest that gene cassettes are common and encode functions relevant to many adaptive traits. To estimate the diversity of mobile cassettes in a natural environment, a molecular technique was developed to provide representative distributions of cassette populations at points within a sampling area. Subsequently, statistical methods analogous to those used for calculating species diversity were employed to assess the diversity of gene cassettes within the sample area in addition to gaining an estimate of cassette pool size. Results indicated that the number of cassettes within a 5x10-m sample area was large and that the overall mobile cassette metagenome was likely to be orders of magnitude larger again. Accordingly, gene cassettes appear to be capable of mobilizing a significant genetic resource and consequently have a substantial impact on bacterial adaptability.

  20. Designing Modular Robotic Playware

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Henrik Hautop; Marti, Patrizia

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we explore the design of modular robotic objects that may enhance playful experiences. The approach builds upon the development of modular robotics to create a kind of playware, which is flexible in both set-up and activity building for the end-user to allow easy creation of games...... robotic tiles, and discusses the challenges and opportunities of this modular playware when used by children with different cognitive abilities....

  1. Modular Robotic Wearable

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Henrik Hautop; Pagliarini, Luigi

    2009-01-01

    In this concept paper we trace the contours and define a new approach to robotic systems, composed of interactive robotic modules which are somehow worn on the body. We label such a field as Modular Robotic Wearable (MRW). We describe how, by using modular robotics for creating wearable....... Finally, by focusing on the intersection of the combination modular robotic systems, wearability, and bodymind we attempt to explore the theoretical characteristics of such approach and exploit the possible playware application fields....

  2. X-ray film cassette and method of making

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-01-01

    An x-ray film cassette which is capable of providing forces on the film that vary across the surface of the cassette is described. Methods of manufacture are discussed. The system is of particular use when large area films are used in conjunction with intensifying screens. (U.K.)

  3. Modular Forms and Weierstrass Mock Modular Forms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda Clemm

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Alfes, Griffin, Ono, and Rolen have shown that the harmonic Maass forms arising from Weierstrass ζ-functions associated to modular elliptic curves “encode” the vanishing and nonvanishing for central values and derivatives of twisted Hasse-Weil L-functions for elliptic curves. Previously, Martin and Ono proved that there are exactly five weight 2 newforms with complex multiplication that are eta-quotients. In this paper, we construct a canonical harmonic Maass form for these five curves with complex multiplication. The holomorphic part of this harmonic Maass form arises from the Weierstrass ζ-function and is referred to as the Weierstrass mock modular form. We prove that the Weierstrass mock modular form for these five curves is itself an eta-quotient or a twist of one. Using this construction, we also obtain p-adic formulas for the corresponding weight 2 newform using Atkin’s U-operator.

  4. Associations between dru Types and SCCmec Cassettes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bartels, Mette D; Boye, Kit; Oliveira, Duarte C

    2013-01-01

    types (dt) in 283 isolates, while eighteen isolates contained no dru repeats and one isolate resisted sequencing. The most common dru type, dt10a, was present in 53% of the sequenced isolates and was found in all SCCmec types, except type II. Seven (10%) of the 68 epidemiologically related patients had...... isolates with dru type variants indicating that dru typing is not useful as a first line epidemiological typing tool. However, MRSA isolates cultured from a single patient over a three year period exhibited a single dru type. The finding of dt10a in most SCCmec types suggests that dru and mecA originate......Molecular typing is an important tool in the investigation of methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) outbreaks and in following the evolution of MRSA. The staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec (SCCmec) contains a hypervariable region with a variable number of 40 bp repeats named direct...

  5. Modular tree automata

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bahr, Patrick

    2012-01-01

    Tree automata are traditionally used to study properties of tree languages and tree transformations. In this paper, we consider tree automata as the basis for modular and extensible recursion schemes. We show, using well-known techniques, how to derive from standard tree automata highly modular r...

  6. Exploring Modularity in Services

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Avlonitis, Viktor; Hsuan, Juliana

    2017-01-01

    insights on the mirroring hypothesis of modularity theory to services. Originality/value The paper provides a conceptualization of service architectures drawing on service design, modularity, and market relationships. The study enriches service design literature with elements from modularity theory......Purpose The purpose of this paper is to examine how modularity manifests in the design of services. The study brings new insights on the organization of service firms by empirically exploring and theoretically advancing the intersection of modularity and service design. Design....../methodology/approach The paper compares two companies that offer similar services in the same geographical region but represent polar case types. A framework grounded on extant literature is constructed and applied to the two cases to assess its practicality and provide theoretical insights. Findings The paper demonstrates...

  7. Parallel Relational Universes – experiments in modularity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pagliarini, Luigi; Lund, Henrik Hautop

    2015-01-01

    : We here describe Parallel Relational Universes, an artistic method used for the psychological analysis of group dynamics. The design of the artistic system, which mediates group dynamics, emerges from our studies of modular playware and remixing playware. Inspired from remixing modular playware......, where users remix samples in the form of physical and functional modules, we created an artistic instantiation of such a concept with the Parallel Relational Universes, allowing arts alumni to remix artistic expressions. Here, we report the data emerged from a first pre-test, run with gymnasium’s alumni...

  8. Transient expression of minimum linear gene cassettes in onion epidermal cells via direct transformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Yun-Qing; Yang, Jun; Xu, Feng-Ping; An, Li-Jia; Liu, Jian-Feng; Chen, Zhi-Wen

    2009-12-01

    A new method without any special devices for direct transformation of linear gene cassettes was developed. Its feasibility was verified through 5'-fluorescent dye (fluorescein isothiocyanate, FITC)-labeled fluorescent tracing and transient expression of a gus reporter gene. Minimal linear gene cassettes, containing necessary regulation elements and a gus reporter gene, was prepared by polymerase chain reaction and dissolved in transformation buffer solution to 100 ng/mL. The basic transformation solution used was Murashige and Skoog basal salt mixture (MS) liquid medium. Hypertonic pretreatment of explants and transformation cofactors, including Ca(2+), surfactant assistants, Agrobacterium LBA4404 cell culture on transformation efficiency were evaluated. Prior to the incubation of the explants and target linear cassette in each designed transformation solution for 3 h, the onion low epidermal explants were pre-cultured in darkness at 27 degrees C for 48 h and then transferred to MS solid media for 72 h. FITC-labeled linear DNA was used to trace the delivery of DNA entry into the cell and the nuclei. By GUS staining and flow-cytometry-mediated fluorescent detection, a significant increase of the ratios of fluorescent nuclei as well as expression of the gus reporter gene was observed by each designed transformation solution. This potent and feasible method showed prospective applications in plant transgenic research.

  9. A modular control system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cruz, B.; Drexler, J.; Olcese, G.; Santome, D.

    1990-01-01

    The main objective of the modular control system is to provide the requirements to most of the processes supervision and control applications within the industrial automatization area. The design is based on distribution, modulation and expansion concepts. (Author) [es

  10. Duality ensures modular covariance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Miao; Yu Ming

    1989-11-01

    We show that the modular transformations for one point functions on the torus, S(n), satisfy the polynomial equations derived by Moore and Seiberg, provided the duality property of the model is ensured. The formula for S(n) is derived by us previously and should be valid for any conformal field theory. As a consequence, the full consistency conditions for modular invariance at higher genus are completely guaranteed by duality of the theory on the sphere. (orig.)

  11. Service Modularity and Architecture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brax, Saara A.; Bask, Anu; Hsuan, Juliana

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: Services are highly important in a world economy which has increasingly become service driven. There is a growing need to better understand the possibilities for, and requirements of, designing modular service architectures. The purpose of this paper is to elaborate on the roots of the e......Purpose: Services are highly important in a world economy which has increasingly become service driven. There is a growing need to better understand the possibilities for, and requirements of, designing modular service architectures. The purpose of this paper is to elaborate on the roots...... of the emerging research stream on service modularity, provide a concise overview of existing work on the subject, and outline an agenda for future research on service modularity and architecture. The articles in the special issue offer four diverse sets of research on service modularity and architecture. Design....../methodology/approach: The paper is built on a literature review mapping the current body of literature on the topic and developing future research directions in service modularity and architecture. Findings: The growing focus on services has triggered needs to investigate the suitability and implementation of physical...

  12. Observing cassette culture: user interface implications for digital music libraries

    OpenAIRE

    Toal, Jason

    2007-01-01

    Many people keep their collections of music on cassette tape even if they rarely listen to them. Images of these collections can be found online on photo sharing websites. What can we learn from such collections and what might they tell us about designing interfaces for new digital music libraries? The author conducts an online ethnographic study of over two hundred cassette tape collections, and over sixty participants with the aim of guiding future design of music collections. The author pr...

  13. Transcription, Processing, and Function of CRISPR Cassettes in Escherichia coli

    OpenAIRE

    Pougach, Ksenia; Semenova, Ekaterina; Bogdanova, Ekaterina; Datsenko, Kirill A.; Djordjevic, Marko; Wanner, Barry L.; Severinov, Konstantin

    2010-01-01

    CRISPR/Cas, bacterial and archaeal systems of interference with foreign genetic elements such as viruses or plasmids, consist of DNA loci called CRISPR cassettes (a set of variable spacers regularly separated by palindromic repeats) and associated cas genes. When a CRISPR spacer sequence exactly matches a sequence in a viral genome, the cell can become resistant to the virus. The CRISPR/Cas systems function through small RNAs originating from longer CRISPR cassette transcripts. While laborato...

  14. On sub-modularization and morphological heterogeneity in modular robotics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lyder, A. H.; Stoy, K.; Garciá, R. F. M.

    2012-01-01

    Modular robots are a kind of robots built from mechatronic modules, which can be assembled in many different ways allowing the modular robot to assume a wide range of morphologies and functions. An important question in modular robotics is to which degree modules should be heterogeneous. In this ......Modular robots are a kind of robots built from mechatronic modules, which can be assembled in many different ways allowing the modular robot to assume a wide range of morphologies and functions. An important question in modular robotics is to which degree modules should be heterogeneous...

  15. Modular reconfigurable machines incorporating modular open architecture control

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Padayachee, J

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available is presented. By virtue of their fully modular nature these machines are able to display a variability of machining functions and cutting degrees of freedom on a single platform. A corresponding modular Open Architecture Control (OAC) system is presented..., Modular Reconfigurable Machines, Open Architecture Control, Modular Machine Control I. INTRODUCTION Reconfigurable Manufacturing Systems (RMS) is a new class of manufacturing systems, having been created to overcome the inadequacies of previous...

  16. Modular Robotic Wearable

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Henrik Hautop; Pagliarini, Luigi

    2009-01-01

    In this concept paper we trace the contours and define a new approach to robotic systems, composed of interactive robotic modules which are somehow worn on the body. We label such a field as Modular Robotic Wearable (MRW). We describe how, by using modular robotics for creating wearable......, it is possible to obtain a flexible wearable processing system, where freely inter-changeable input/output modules can be positioned on the body suit in accordance with the task at hand. We describe the first rough prototypes and show an artistic application, as well as some drawing of future works and projects....... Finally, by focusing on the intersection of the combination modular robotic systems, wearability, and bodymind we attempt to explore the theoretical characteristics of such approach and exploit the possible playware application fields....

  17. Modular High Voltage Power Supply

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Newell, Matthew R. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-05-18

    The goal of this project is to develop a modular high voltage power supply that will meet the needs of safeguards applications and provide a modular plug and play supply for use with standard electronic racks.

  18. Evolution of Modularity Literature

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frandsen, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this paper is to review and analyze the modularity literature to identify the established and emerging perspectives. Design/methodology/approach A systematic literature search and review was conducted through the use of bibliometrics and network analysis. The analysis ident...

  19. MRV - Modular Robotic Vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridley, Justin; Bluethmann, Bill

    2015-01-01

    The Modular Robotic Vehicle, or MRV, completed in 2013, was developed at the Johnson Space Center in order to advance technologies which have applications for future vehicles both in space and on Earth. With seating for two people, MRV is a fully electric vehicle modeled as a "city car", suited for busy urban environments.

  20. Modular invariant gaugino condensation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaillard, M.K.

    1991-05-09

    The construction of effective supergravity lagrangians for gaugino condensation is reviewed and recent results are presented that are consistent with modular invariance and yield a positive definite potential of the noscale type. Possible implications for phenomenology are briefly discussed. 29 refs.

  1. Modular co-ordination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blach, K.

    Notatet er på engelsk, idet det er lavet som et oplæg til den internationale standardiseringsorganisations (ISO) arbejde med målkoordinering i byggeriet. Materialet har også været forelagt ekspertgrupperne i CIB W24 og i International Modular Group. Det i notatet præsenterede materiale er blevet ...

  2. Large boiler modularization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MacKenzie, Malcolm [Babcock and Wilcox Canada Ltd (Canada)

    2011-07-01

    This paper presents the modularization strategy in boiler manufacture of Babcock and Wilcox Canada Ltd, designed specifically to provide steam capacities up to 1,000,000 lb/hr. Designed as a solution for the oil sands market, the boiler responds to the needs of steam assisted gravity drainage (SAGD) and other in situ processes. Manufacture of three modules: furnace, superheater, and saturated module, is detailed assembly phases are shown as well as the construction sequence. The boiler is bottom-supported and features a unique modularized design that maximizes shop assembly and provides certainty to delivery and overall project schedule. Moreover, it is adaptable for all liquid and gaseous fuel types, including natural gas, produced gas and emulsified liquid fuels. This highly modular solution makes it a comprehensive solution for projects where construction risks and costs would otherwise be prohibitive. Maximum modularization of the boiler and minimal site labour are key design features, ensuring compliance with the weight and dimensional constraints of Alberta's high load corridor.

  3. Calibration of charcoal cassettes for radio-Iodine sampling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levinson, S.; Pelled, O.; Ballon, I.; Oved, S.; German, U.

    2004-01-01

    131 I is considered a high hazard radioisotope due to its abundance as a fission product, and its concentration in the thyroid gland. Monitoring 131 I in laboratories and determining its concentration in air is of great importance for Radiation Protection purposes. In order to achieve good collection efficiencies, monitoring devices are based on active charcoal cassettes, usually impregnated with TEDA 5% to enhance Iodine trapping (retention) efficiency. We employ at NRCN at the radio-iodine production laboratory continuous monitoring by air sampling through a cassette containing ∼26 gram activated coal, with a diameter of 57.4 mm and a height of 22 mm (TE2C 30x50 Mesh, manufactured by F and J., USA). A monitoring device, the RIS system, was described in the past (1). The charcoal cassette is replaced periodically, and the activity of the radio-Iodine is determined by gamma counting or spectrometry

  4. Mediatization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjarvard, Stig

    2017-01-01

    Mediatization research shares media effects studies' ambition of answering the difficult questions with regard to whether and how media matter and influence contemporary culture and society. The two approaches nevertheless differ fundamentally in that mediatization research seeks answers...... research is concerned with long-term structural changes involving media, culture, and society, i.e. the influences of the media are understood in relation to how media are implicated in social and cultural changes and how these processes come to create new conditions for human communication and interaction....... From the perspective of mediatization research, the most important effect of the media stems from their embeddedness in culture and society....

  5. Regulatory pathways for ATP-binding cassette transport proteins in kidney proximal tubules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masereeuw, Rosalinde; Russel, Frans G M

    2012-12-01

    The ATP-binding cassette transport proteins (ABC transporters) represent important determinants of drug excretion. Protective or excretory tissues where these transporters mediate substrate efflux include the kidney proximal tubule. Regulation of the transport proteins in this tissue requires elaborate signaling pathways, including genetic, epigenetic, nuclear receptor mediated, posttranscriptional gene regulation involving microRNAs, and non-genomic (kinases) pathways triggered by hormones and/or growth factors. This review discusses current knowledge on regulatory pathways for ABC transporters in kidney proximal tubules, with a main focus on P-glycoprotein, multidrug resistance proteins 2 and 4, and breast cancer resistance protein. Insight in these processes is of importance because variations in transporter activity due to certain (disease) conditions could lead to significant changes in drug efficacy or toxicity.

  6. Blanket maintenance by remote means using the cassette blanket approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Werner, R.W.

    1978-01-01

    Induced radioactivity in the blanket and other parts of a fusion reactor close to the plasma zone will dictate remote assembly, disassembly, and maintenance procedures. Time will be of the essence in these procedures. They must be practicable and certain. This paper discusses the reduction of a complicated Tokamak reactor to a simpler assembly via the use of a vacuum building in which to house the reactor and the introduction in this new model of cassette blanket modules. The cassettes significantly simplify remote handling

  7. Modularization of Industrial Service Processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frandsen, Thomas; Hsuan, Juliana

    In this paper we examine how complex service processes can be dealt with through the lenses of modularization strategies. Through an illustrative case study of a manufacturer of industrial equipment for process industries we propose the use of the service modularity function to conceptualize...... and assess the service modularity of service offerings. The measured degree of modularity would allow us to sharpen our understanding of modularity in the context of industrial services, such as the role of standardization and component reuse on architecture flexibility. It would also provide a foundation...

  8. Crystal Structure of an Integron Gene Cassette-Associated Protein from Vibrio cholerae Identifies a Cationic Drug-Binding Module

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deshpande, Chandrika N.; Harrop, Stephen J.; Boucher, Yan; Hassan, Karl A.; Di Leo, Rosa; Xu, Xiaohui; Cui, Hong; Savchenko, Alexei; Chang, Changsoo; Labbate, Maurizio; Paulsen, Ian T.; Stokes, H.W.; Curmi, Paul M.G.; Mabbutt, Bridget C. (MIT); (UT-Australia); (Macquarie); (Toronto); (New South)

    2012-02-15

    The direct isolation of integron gene cassettes from cultivated and environmental microbial sources allows an assessment of the impact of the integron/gene cassette system on the emergence of new phenotypes, such as drug resistance or virulence. A structural approach is being exploited to investigate the modularity and function of novel integron gene cassettes. We report the 1.8 {angstrom} crystal structure of Cass2, an integron-associated protein derived from an environmental V. cholerae. The structure defines a monomeric beta-barrel protein with a fold related to the effector-binding portion of AraC/XylS transcription activators. The closest homologs of Cass2 are multi-drug binding proteins, such as BmrR. Consistent with this, a binding pocket made up of hydrophobic residues and a single glutamate side chain is evident in Cass2, occupied in the crystal form by polyethylene glycol. Fluorescence assays demonstrate that Cass2 is capable of binding cationic drug compounds with submicromolar affinity. The Cass2 module possesses a protein interaction surface proximal to its drug-binding cavity with features homologous to those seen in multi-domain transcriptional regulators. Genetic analysis identifies Cass2 to be representative of a larger family of independent effector-binding proteins associated with lateral gene transfer within Vibrio and closely-related species. We propose that the Cass2 family not only has capacity to form functional transcription regulator complexes, but represents possible evolutionary precursors to multi-domain regulators associated with cationic drug compounds.

  9. Crystal structure of an integron gene cassette-associated protein from Vibrio cholerae identifies a cationic drug-binding module.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chandrika N Deshpande

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The direct isolation of integron gene cassettes from cultivated and environmental microbial sources allows an assessment of the impact of the integron/gene cassette system on the emergence of new phenotypes, such as drug resistance or virulence. A structural approach is being exploited to investigate the modularity and function of novel integron gene cassettes.We report the 1.8 Å crystal structure of Cass2, an integron-associated protein derived from an environmental V. cholerae. The structure defines a monomeric beta-barrel protein with a fold related to the effector-binding portion of AraC/XylS transcription activators. The closest homologs of Cass2 are multi-drug binding proteins, such as BmrR. Consistent with this, a binding pocket made up of hydrophobic residues and a single glutamate side chain is evident in Cass2, occupied in the crystal form by polyethylene glycol. Fluorescence assays demonstrate that Cass2 is capable of binding cationic drug compounds with submicromolar affinity. The Cass2 module possesses a protein interaction surface proximal to its drug-binding cavity with features homologous to those seen in multi-domain transcriptional regulators.Genetic analysis identifies Cass2 to be representative of a larger family of independent effector-binding proteins associated with lateral gene transfer within Vibrio and closely-related species. We propose that the Cass2 family not only has capacity to form functional transcription regulator complexes, but represents possible evolutionary precursors to multi-domain regulators associated with cationic drug compounds.

  10. Modular chemiresistive sensor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alam, Maksudul M.; Sampathkumaran, Uma

    2018-02-20

    The present invention relates to a modular chemiresistive sensor. In particular, a modular chemiresistive sensor for hypergolic fuel and oxidizer leak detection, carbon dioxide monitoring and detection of disease biomarkers. The sensor preferably has two gold or platinum electrodes mounted on a silicon substrate where the electrodes are connected to a power source and are separated by a gap of 0.5 to 4.0 .mu.M. A polymer nanowire or carbon nanotube spans the gap between the electrodes and connects the electrodes electrically. The electrodes are further connected to a circuit board having a processor and data storage, where the processor can measure current and voltage values between the electrodes and compare the current and voltage values with current and voltage values stored in the data storage and assigned to particular concentrations of a pre-determined substance such as those listed above or a variety of other substances.

  11. ATP-binding cassette transporters in reproduction: a new frontier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloise, E.; Ortiga-Carvalho, T.M.; Reis, F.M.; Lye, S.J.; Gibb, W.; Matthews, S.G.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND The transmembrane ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters actively efflux an array of clinically relevant compounds across biological barriers, and modulate biodistribution of many physiological and pharmacological factors. To date, over 48 ABC transporters have been identified and shown to be directly and indirectly involved in peri-implantation events and fetal/placental development. They efflux cholesterol, steroid hormones, vitamins, cytokines, chemokines, prostaglandins, diverse xenobiotics and environmental toxins, playing a critical role in regulating drug disposition, immunological responses and lipid trafficking, as well as preventing fetal accumulation of drugs and environmental toxins. METHODS This review examines ABC transporters as important mediators of placental barrier functions and key reproductive processes. Expression, localization and function of all identified ABC transporters were systematically reviewed using PubMed and Google Scholar websites to identify relevant studies examining ABC transporters in reproductive tissues in physiological and pathophysiological states. Only reports written in English were incorporated with no restriction on year of publication. While a major focus has been placed on the human, extensive evidence from animal studies is utilized to describe current understanding of the regulation and function of ABC transporters relevant to human reproduction. RESULTS ABC transporters are modulators of steroidogenesis, fertilization, implantation, nutrient transport and immunological responses, and function as ‘gatekeepers’ at various barrier sites (i.e. blood-testes barrier and placenta) against potentially harmful xenobiotic factors, including drugs and environmental toxins. These roles appear to be species dependent and change as a function of gestation and development. The best-described ABC transporters in reproductive tissues (primarily in the placenta) are the multidrug transporters p-glycoprotein and

  12. Modular remote radiation monitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lacerda, Fabio; Farias, Marcos S.; Aghina, Mauricio A.C.; Oliveira, Mauro V.

    2013-01-01

    The Modular Remote Radiation Monitor (MRRM) is a novel radiation monitor suitable for monitoring environmental exposure to ionizing radiation. It is a portable compact-size low-power microprocessor-based electronic device which provides its monitoring data to other electronic systems, physically distant from it, by means of an electronic communication channel, which can be wired or wireless according to the requirements of each application. Besides its low-power highly-integrated circuit design, the Modular Remote Radiation Monitor is presented in a modular architecture, which promotes full compliance to the technical requirements of different applications while minimizing cost, size and power consumption. Its communication capability also supports the implementation of a network of multiple radiation monitors connected to a supervisory system, capable of remotely controlling each monitor independently as well as visualizing the radiation levels from all monitors. A prototype of the MRRM, functionally equivalent to the MRA-7027 radiation monitor, was implemented and connected to a wired MODBUS network of MRA-7027 monitors, responsible for monitoring ionizing radiation inside Argonauta reactor room at Instituto de Engenharia Nuclear. Based on the highly positive experimental results obtained, further design is currently underway in order to produce a consumer version of the MRRM. (author)

  13. Patterns of Availability and Use of Audiotape Cassettes in Special Libraries. Ph.D. Thesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, J. M., II

    1975-01-01

    The availability and use of audiotape cassettes is studied in terms of user requirements. The following factors were examined: how special libraries utilize audiotape cassettes; who the users of the medium are; how the libraries acquire and maintain their collection; and opinions of librarians as to the value of the audiotape cassette as a medium for dissemination of information.

  14. Robotic hand with modular extensions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salisbury, Curt Michael; Quigley, Morgan

    2015-01-20

    A robotic device is described herein. The robotic device includes a frame that comprises a plurality of receiving regions that are configured to receive a respective plurality of modular robotic extensions. The modular robotic extensions are removably attachable to the frame at the respective receiving regions by way of respective mechanical fuses. Each mechanical fuse is configured to trip when a respective modular robotic extension experiences a predefined load condition, such that the respective modular robotic extension detaches from the frame when the load condition is met.

  15. Modular Mobile Application Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jim Hahn

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available This article describes the development of the Minrva library app for Android phones. The decisions to build a native application with Java and use a modular design are discussed. The application includes five modules: catalog search, in-building navigation, a barcode scanning feature, and up to date notifications of circulating technology availability. A sixth module, Amazon recommendations, that is not included in the version of the app that was released is also discussed. The article also reports on the findings of two rounds of usability testing and the plans for future development of the app.

  16. Modular Cure Provision

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winther-Hansen, Casper; Frandsen, Thomas

    facilitate co-creation through open platforms and service modularity. Based on data from two pharmaceuticals we explore issues of governance related to the relative openness of platforms and their completeness. Whereas some pharmaceuticals should cater to sophisticated needs of competent users through open......Pharmaceuticals increasingly consider the potential of services, as healthcare payers require them to provide data on treatment outcomes. Ranging from corporate websites to free apps, these services are meant to increase the value of product offerings. This paper investigates how services can...

  17. ATP-binding cassette transporters ABCA1, ABCA7, and ABCG1 in mouse spermatozoa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales, Carlos R; Marat, Andrea L; Ni, Xiaoyan; Yu, Yang; Oko, Richard; Smith, Brian T; Argraves, W Scott

    2008-11-21

    Mammalian spermatozoa lose plasma membrane cholesterol during their maturation in the epididymis and during their capacitation in the female reproductive tract. While acceptors such as high-density lipoproteins (HDL) and apolipoproteins A-I (apoA-I) and J have been found in male and female reproductive tracts, transporters that mediate cholesterol efflux from plasma membranes of spermatozoa to such acceptors have not yet been defined. Candidate transporters are members of the ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter superfamily including ABCA1, ABCA7, ABCG1 and ABCG4, which have all been implicated in the transport of sterols and phospholipids to apolipoproteins and HDL. Here we show that mouse spermatozoa in the seminiferous tubules and epididymis express ABCA1, ABCA7 and ABCG1, but not ABCG4. Moreover, we show that ABCA1, ABCA7, and ABCG1 antibodies decrease cholesterol efflux from spermatozoa to lipid acceptors apoA-I and albumin and inhibit in vitro fertilization.

  18. Polycistronic transcription of fused cassettes and identification of translation initiation signals in an unusual gene cassette array from Pseudomonas aeruginosa [version 3; referees: 2 approved

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Érica L. Fonseca

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The gene cassettes found in class 1 integrons are generally promoterless units composed by an open reading frame (ORF, a short 5’ untranslated region (UTR and a 3’ recombination site (attC. Fused gene cassettes are generated by partial or total loss of the attC from the first cassette in an array, creating, in some cases, a fusion with the ORF from the next cassette. These structures are rare and little is known about their mechanisms of mobilization and expression. The aim of this study was to evaluate the dynamic of mobilization and transcription of the gcu14-blaGES-1/aacA4 gene cassette array, which harbours a fused gene cassette represented by blaGES-1/aacA4. The cassette array was analyzed by Northern blot and real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR in order to assess the transcription mechanism of blaGES-1/aacA4 fused cassette. Also, inverse polymerase chain reactions (PCR were performed to detect the free circular forms of gcu14, blaGES-1 and aacA4. The Northern blot and real time RT-PCR revealed a polycistronic transcription, in which the fused cassette blaGES-1/aacA4 is transcribed as a unique gene, while gcu14 (with a canonical attC recombination site has a monocistronic transcription. The gcu14 cassette, closer to the weak configuration of cassette promoter (PcW, had a higher transcription level than blaGES-1/aacA4, indicating that the cassette position affects the transcript amounts. The presence of ORF-11 at attI1, immediately preceding gcu14, and of a Shine-Dalgarno sequence upstream blaGES-1/aacA4 composes a scenario for the occurrence of array translation. Inverse PCR generated amplicons corresponding to gcu14, gcu14-aacA4 and gcu14-blaGES-1/aacA4 free circular forms, but not to blaGES-1 and aacA4 alone, indicating that the GES-1 truncated attC is not substrate of integrase activity and that these genes are mobilized together as a unique cassette. This study was original in showing the transcription

  19. Modular Robotic Vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borroni-Bird, Christopher E. (Inventor); Vitale, Robert L. (Inventor); Lee, Chunhao J. (Inventor); Ambrose, Robert O. (Inventor); Bluethmann, William J. (Inventor); Junkin, Lucien Q. (Inventor); Lutz, Jonathan J. (Inventor); Guo, Raymond (Inventor); Lapp, Anthony Joseph (Inventor); Ridley, Justin S. (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    A modular robotic vehicle includes a chassis, driver input devices, an energy storage system (ESS), a power electronics module (PEM), modular electronic assemblies (eModules) connected to the ESS via the PEM, one or more master controllers, and various embedded controllers. Each eModule includes a drive wheel containing a propulsion-braking module, and a housing containing propulsion and braking control assemblies with respective embedded propulsion and brake controllers, and a mounting bracket covering a steering control assembly with embedded steering controllers. The master controller, which is in communication with each eModule and with the driver input devices, communicates with and independently controls each eModule, by-wire, via the embedded controllers to establish a desired operating mode. Modes may include a two-wheel, four-wheel, diamond, and omni-directional steering modes as well as a park mode. A bumper may enable docking with another vehicle, with shared control over the eModules of the vehicles.

  20. Pouring and running a protein gel by reusing commercial cassettes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Alexander C; Grey, Paris H; Cuddy, Katrina; Oppenheimer, David G

    2012-02-12

    The evaluation of proteins using sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) analysis is a common technique used by biochemistry and molecular biology researchers. For laboratories that perform daily analyses of proteins, the cost of commercially available polyacrylamide gels (~$10/gel) can be considerable over time. To mitigate this cost, some researchers prepare their own polyacrylamide gels. Traditional methods of pouring these gels typically utilize specialized equipment and glass gel plates that can be expensive and preclude pouring many gels and storing them for future use. Furthermore, handling of glass plates during cleaning or gel pouring can result in accidental breakage creating a safety hazard, which may preclude their use in undergraduate laboratory classes. Our protocol demonstrates how to pour multiple protein gels simultaneously by recycling Invitrogen Nupage Novex minigel cassettes, and inexpensive materials purchased at a home improvement store. This economical and streamlined method includes a way to store the gels at 4°C for a few weeks. By re-using the plastic gel cassettes from commercially available gels, labs that run frequent protein gels can save significant costs and help the environment. In addition, plastic gel cassettes are extremely resistant to breakage, which makes them ideal for undergraduate laboratory classrooms.

  1. Fable: Socially Interactive Modular Robot

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Magnússon, Arnþór; Pacheco, Moises; Moghadam, Mikael

    2013-01-01

    Modular robots have a significant potential as user-reconfigurable robotic playware, but often lack sufficient sensing for social interaction. We address this issue with the Fable modular robotic system by exploring the use of smart sensor modules that has a better ability to sense the behavior...

  2. Modular Engineering of Production Plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miller, Thomas Dedenroth

    1998-01-01

    Based on a case-study on design of pharmaceutical production plants, this paper suggests that modularity may support business efficiency for companies with one-of-a-kind production and without in-house manufacturing. Modularity may support efficient management of design knowledge and may facilitate...

  3. Modular Decomposition of Boolean Functions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.C. Bioch (Cor)

    2002-01-01

    textabstractModular decomposition is a thoroughly investigated topic in many areas such as switching theory, reliability theory, game theory and graph theory. Most appli- cations can be formulated in the framework of Boolean functions. In this paper we give a uni_ed treatment of modular

  4. Configuring Product Modularity and Service Modularity for Mass Customization Strategies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bask, Anu; Hsuan, Juliana; Rajahonka, Mervi

    , and how such configurations become the foundations for mass customization strategies. As a result we identify critical characteristics that are relevant for both product and services, and suggest a conceptual framework consisting of twelve dynamic mass customization strategies with paired product......Service modularity is an emerging field of research, and there has been a growing interest on how it can contribute to service design and operations management. In this study we develop a framework to assess configurations of the bundling of products and services through modularization strategies...... and service modularity. Case examples are used for illustration of different strategies....

  5. Adaptive Modular Playware

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Henrik Hautop; Þorsteinsson, Arnar Tumi

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we describe the concept of adaptive modular playware, where the playware adapts to the interaction of the individual user. We hypothesize that there are individual differences in user interaction capabilities and styles, and that adaptive playware may adapt to the individual user...... test set, the results are important as a proof of existence of differences and of the need for adaptation. The fact that there are individual differences makes the results significant for the development of games and interaction. It indicates that it is necessary to adapt the game and interaction......, if we desire to make the most appropriate game and interaction for the individual. Hence, we investigate adaptation as an important issue for playware. With simple playware games, we show that the adaptation will speed the game up and down to find the appropriate level that matches the reaction speed...

  6. Modular weapon control unit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boccabella, M.F.; McGovney, G.N.

    1997-01-01

    The goal of the Modular Weapon Control Unit (MWCU) program was to design and develop a reconfigurable weapon controller (programmer/sequencer) that can be adapted to different weapon systems based on the particular requirements for that system. Programmers from previous systems are conceptually the same and perform similar tasks. Because of this commonality and the amount of re-engineering necessary with the advent of every new design, the idea of a modular, adaptable system has emerged. Also, the controller can be used in more than one application for a specific weapon system. Functionality has been divided into a Processor Module (PM) and an Input/Output Module (IOM). The PM will handle all operations that require calculations, memory, and timing. The IOM will handle interfaces to the rest of the system, input level shifting, output drive capability, and detection of interrupt conditions. Configuration flexibility is achieved in two ways. First, the operation of the PM is determined by a surface mount Read-Only Memory (ROM). Other surface-mount components can be added or neglected as necessary for functionality. Second, IOMs consist of configurable input buffers, configurable output drivers, and configurable interrupt generation. Further, these modules can be added singly or in groups to a Processor Module to achieve the required I/O configuration. The culmination of this LDRD was the building of both Processor Module and Input/Output Module. The MWCU was chosen as a test system to evaluate Low-Temperature Co-fired Ceramic (LTCC) technology, desirable for high component density and good thermal characteristics.

  7. Modular robotics for playful physiotherapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Henrik Hautop

    2009-01-01

    We developed modular robotic tiles to be used for playful physiotherapy, which is supposed to motivate patients to engage in and perform physical rehabilitation exercises. We tested the modular robotic tiles for an extensive period of time (3 years) in daily use in a hospital rehabilitation unit e.......g. for cardiac patients. Also, the tiles were tested for performing physical rehabilitation of stroke patients in their private home. In all pilot test cases qualitative feedback indicate that the patients find the playful use of modular robotic tiles engaging and motivating for them to perform...

  8. Disinfection efficacy of an ultraviolet light on film cassettes for preventive of the nosocomial infection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kweon, Dae Cheol [Seoul National Univ. Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Jeon, Yong Woong; Cho, Am [Dongguk Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2001-06-01

    The bacterial infection on film cassette contact surface was examined at the diagnostic radiology department of the S. hospital. The objective of this study was to assess the contamination level on film cassette contact surface as a predictor of patient prevention from nosocomial infection and for improvement of the hospital environment. The laboratory result was identified non-pathologic bacterial in the five different cassette size of the contact surface. Film cassettes were exposed to ultraviolet light for 1, 2 and 3 minutes. Ultraviolet light disinfection is proven suitable for bacterial. The study concludes that presence of a bacterial infection will prevent a using antiseptic technique on film cassette contact surface. In addition education of nosocomial infection for radiographers will be required. In conclusion, ultraviolet is considered effective to irradiate bacterial. Additionally, two minutes are required to sterilize film cassettes.

  9. Disinfection efficacy of an ultraviolet light on film cassettes for preventive of the nosocomial infection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kweon, Dae Cheol; Jeon, Yong Woong; Cho, Am

    2001-01-01

    The bacterial infection on film cassette contact surface was examined at the diagnostic radiology department of the S. hospital. The objective of this study was to assess the contamination level on film cassette contact surface as a predictor of patient prevention from nosocomial infection and for improvement of the hospital environment. The laboratory result was identified non-pathologic bacterial in the five different cassette size of the contact surface. Film cassettes were exposed to ultraviolet light for 1, 2 and 3 minutes. Ultraviolet light disinfection is proven suitable for bacterial. The study concludes that presence of a bacterial infection will prevent a using antiseptic technique on film cassette contact surface. In addition education of nosocomial infection for radiographers will be required. In conclusion, ultraviolet is considered effective to irradiate bacterial. Additionally, two minutes are required to sterilize film cassettes

  10. AES Modular Power Systems Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The goals of this project are to 1) develop modular power design concepts for human exploration flight vehicles (longer-term) and assess, develop, and/or...

  11. Modular Joints for Soft Robots

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We propose to design, optimize, and build several modular soft robotic joints which have between 3 and 6 degrees of freedom (DOF). These designs will be lighter,...

  12. Habidite: viviendas modulares industrializadas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gómez Jáuregui, V.

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper is an introduction to one of the most relevant constructive systems of the last years: The integral industrialized construction. This method, based on three-dimensional modules, produces buildings made mainly from spatial cells of big dimensions; these three-dimensional modules are fabricated entirely in factory and, once they are finished, they are carried out to the site, where they are assembled in an easy manner. Even though it’s not a totally new system (in fact, the precedents will also be mentioned in this essay, Habidite is very confident in backing this tendency and doing its part in order to obtain modular reinforced concrete buildings of extraordinary quality, with domotic implements totally integrated in the dwellings and a high degree of sustainability, eco-technology and energetic efficiency. Many advantages are exposed and explained, dealing with the optimization of the productive processes in construction by means of the most advanced technologies.En este artículo se realiza una breve introducción a uno de los sistemas constructivos que más auge está teniendo en los últimos años: la edificación industrializada integral. Realizado a base de módulos tridimensionales, es éste un método de construcción en el cual los edificios se conforman básicamente por medio de células espaciales de grandes dimensiones; estos módulos tridimensionales se elaboran íntegramente en fábrica y, una vez están totalmente terminados, se transportan a obra, donde son montados de forma sencilla y rápida. Aunque no es un sistema totalmente novedoso (de hecho sus antecedentes también serán tratados brevemente en este texto, Habidite apuesta fuertemente por esta tendencia y aporta su grano de arena para conseguir edificios modulares de hormigón armado de extraordinaria calidad, con implementos domóticos totalmente integrados en la vivienda y un alto grado de sostenibilidad, eco-tecnología y eficiencia energética. Se abordan

  13. The x-ray source application test cassette for radiation exposures at the OMEGA laser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fournier, K. B.; Rekow, V.; Emig, J. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94551 (United States); Fisher, J. H.; Newlander, C. D. [Fifth Gait Technologies, Inc., Huntsville, Alabama 35803 (United States); Horton, R. [Gray Research, Inc., Huntsville, Alabama 35806 (United States); Davis, J. [Defense Threat Reduction Agency, Fort Belvoir, Virginia 22060 (United States)

    2012-10-15

    We have designed a sample cassette that can be used to position up to six samples in the OMEGA laser chamber. The cassette accommodates round samples up to 38.1 mm (1.5{sup Double-Prime }) in diameter and square samples up to 27 mm on a side, any of which can be up to 12.7 mm thick. Smaller specimens are centered with spacers. The test cassette allows each sample to have a unique filter scheme, with multiple filter regions in front of each sample. This paper will present mechanical design considerations and operational aspects of the x-ray source application cassette.

  14. On wiping the interior walls of 37-mm closed-face cassettes: an OSHA perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendricks, Warren; Stones, Fern; Lillquist, Dean

    2009-12-01

    As early as 1976, Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) methods for analyzing metal samples collected using 37-mm polystyrene closed-face cassettes specified that any loose dust be transferred from the cassette to the digestion vessel, that the cassette be rinsed, and that, if necessary, the cassette be wiped out to help ensure that all particles that enter the cassette are included along with the filter as part of the sample for analysis. OSHA analytical methods for metal analysis were recently revised to explicitly require cassette wiping for all metal samples. This change was based on policy that any material entering the collection device constitutes part of the sample and on OSHA Salt Lake Technical Center research showing that invisible residue on the cassette walls can significantly contribute to the total sample results reported. OSHA procedures are consistent with guidance given in the NIOSH Manual of Analytical Methods. This guidance concludes that internal deposits in sampling cassettes should be included in the analysis and that one way to accomplish this would be to wipe or wash the internal surfaces of the cassette and include the material along with the filter for analysis.

  15. The Modular Adaptive Ribosome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anupama Yadav

    Full Text Available The ribosome is an ancient machine, performing the same function across organisms. Although functionally unitary, recent experiments suggest specialized roles for some ribosomal proteins. Our central thesis is that ribosomal proteins function in a modular fashion to decode genetic information in a context dependent manner. We show through large data analyses that although many ribosomal proteins are essential with consistent effect on growth in different conditions in yeast and similar expression across cell and tissue types in mice and humans, some ribosomal proteins are used in an environment specific manner. The latter set of variable ribosomal proteins further function in a coordinated manner forming modules, which are adapted to different environmental cues in different organisms. We show that these environment specific modules of ribosomal proteins in yeast have differential genetic interactions with other pathways and their 5'UTRs show differential signatures of selection in yeast strains, presumably to facilitate adaptation. Similarly, we show that in higher metazoans such as mice and humans, different modules of ribosomal proteins are expressed in different cell types and tissues. A clear example is nervous tissue that uses a ribosomal protein module distinct from the rest of the tissues in both mice and humans. Our results suggest a novel stratification of ribosomal proteins that could have played a role in adaptation, presumably to optimize translation for adaptation to diverse ecological niches and tissue microenvironments.

  16. Modular isotopic thermoelectric generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schock, A.

    1981-01-01

    A short history of the 10 Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generators (RTG) thus far flown in space, and design and fabrication of a new generation RTG for coupling with the General Purpose Heat Source is presented. The new RTG is modular and can be expanded in 24 W steps to whatever power levels are desired, requiring only modification of the cooling fin dimensions. Each module contains four Pu-238O 2 fuel pellets and eight elements, and failure of any module requires only replacement of that unit, without disturbing the others. 5% GaP added to the SiGe thermoelectric material has lowered thermal conductivity and raised efficiency from 0.083 to 0.105 hot junctions are at 1000 C, cold at 300 C. Details of the module design and fabrication, the hot shoe, housing, fins, all components and assembly procedures are presented. The modules are designed for initial use on the Solar Polar mission and the Galileo probe, and it is noted that the iridium cladding around the heat source pellets will withstand a planetary crash without breaching. Each module weighs 59.87 lb, has a power density of 4.71 W/lb, and is designed for a seven year mission life

  17. Modular Lego-Electronics

    KAUST Repository

    Shaikh, Sohail F.

    2017-10-24

    Electronic system components have thousands of individual field effect transistors (FETs) interconnected executing dedicated functions. Assembly yield of >80% will guarantee system failure since a single interconnect failure will result in undesired performance. Hence, a paradigm shift is needed in the self-assembly or integration of state-of-the-art integrated circuits (ICs) for a physically compliant system. Traditionally, most ICs share same geometry with only variations in dimensions and packaging. Here, a generic manufacturable method of converting state-of-the-art complementary metal oxide semiconductor-based ICs into modular Lego-electronics is shown with unique geometry that is physically identifiable to ease manufacturing and enhance throughput. Various geometries at the backside of the silicon die and on the destination site having the same geometry with relaxed dimension (up to 50 µm extra) allow targeted site binding like DNA assembly. Different geometries, angles, and heights for different modules provide a unique identity to each of the ICs. A two-level geometric combination presented here helps in maintaining the uniqueness of individual module to assemble at exact matching site like a perfect lock-and-key model. The assembled ICs offer uncompromised electrical performance, higher yield, and fabrication ease. In future, this method can further be expanded for fluidic assisted self-assembly.

  18. ATP-binding cassette (ABC) proteins in aquatic invertebrates: Evolutionary significance and application in marine ecotoxicology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Chang-Bum; Kim, Hui-Su; Kang, Hye-Min; Lee, Jae-Seong

    2017-04-01

    The ATP-binding cassette (ABC) protein superfamily is known to play a fundamental role in biological processes and is highly conserved across animal taxa. The ABC proteins function as active transporters for multiple substrates across the cellular membrane by ATP hydrolysis. As this superfamily is derived from a common ancestor, ABC genes have evolved via lineage-specific duplications through the process of adaptation. In this review, we summarized information about the ABC gene families in aquatic invertebrates, considering their evolution and putative functions in defense mechanisms. Phylogenetic analysis was conducted to examine the evolutionary significance of ABC gene families in aquatic invertebrates. Particularly, a massive expansion of multixenobiotic resistance (MXR)-mediated efflux transporters was identified in the absence of the ABCG2 (BCRP) gene in Ecdysozoa and Platyzoa, suggesting that a loss of Abcg2 gene occurred sporadically in these species during divergence of Protostome to Lophotrochozoa. Furthermore, in aquatic invertebrates, the ecotoxicological significance of MXR is discussed while considering the role of MXR-mediated efflux transporters in response to various environmental pollutants. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Lectures on Hilbert modular varieties and modular forms

    CERN Document Server

    Goren, Eyal Z

    2001-01-01

    This book is devoted to certain aspects of the theory of p-adic Hilbert modular forms and moduli spaces of abelian varieties with real multiplication. The theory of p-adic modular forms is presented first in the elliptic case, introducing the reader to key ideas of N. M. Katz and J.-P. Serre. It is re-interpreted from a geometric point of view, which is developed to present the rudiments of a similar theory for Hilbert modular forms. The theory of moduli spaces of abelian varieties with real multiplication is presented first very explicitly over the complex numbers. Aspects of the general theory are then exposed, in particular, local deformation theory of abelian varieties in positive characteristic. The arithmetic of p-adic Hilbert modular forms and the geometry of moduli spaces of abelian varieties are related. This relation is used to study q-expansions of Hilbert modular forms, on the one hand, and stratifications of moduli spaces on the other hand. The book is addressed to graduate students and non-exper...

  20. A survey of the radiographic cassettes disinfection of university hospitals in seoul

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kweon, Dae Cheol; Park, Peom; Kim, Moon Sun; Kim, Dong Sung

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to prevent nosocomial infection in patients through contact of radiographic cassettes. Data were collected from radiographers working in 29 university hospitals in Seoul in February and March 2001. Radiographic cassettes were disinfected daily in 5 hospitals, weekly in 4 hospitals, monthly in 5 hospitals, bimonthly in 1 hospital and once every three months in another hospital. 12 other hospitals do not practice regular disinfections of radiographic cassettes. Gauze soaked in disinfectant solution is used in 7 hospitals while 11 hospitals used cotton and cloth soaked in disinfectant solution to clean the radiographic cassettes. 26 hospitals used 99% alcohol based disinfectant solutions while 3 hospitals used 75% alcohol based disinfectant, 26 hospitals use of intercourse cassettes outpatients and in patients. In 26 hospitals, all patients shared the same set of radiographic cassettes used in the hospitals, or in 26 hospitals, separate sets of radiographic cassettes are used for outpatients and inpatients. Separate sets of cassettes are used for ICU and inpatients in 6 others hospitals. 23 hospitals used the same sets of radiographic cassettes for all their patients. radiographic cassettes are cleaned in wash area in the study room of the radiographic department in 17 hospitals. 12 other hospitals do not have designated cleaning areas for the cassettes. All radiographers practiced hands washing with soap. All 29 hospitals surveyed have infection control committee. However, only 9 out of the 29 hospitals surveyed provided Infection · disinfections control education to radiographers. Only 3 hospitals have radiographers sitting in the infection control committee. Infection management education is conducted in 63 hospitals annually, twice a year in 1 hospital and once every 3 months in 2 hospitals

  1. An investigation of infection control for x-ray cassettes in a diagnostic imaging department

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fox, Matthew [School of Allied Health Professions and Science, Faculty of Health, Wellbeing and Science, University Campus Suffolk, Rope Walk, Ipswich, Suffolk, IP4 1LT (United Kingdom); Harvey, Jane M. [School of Allied Health Professions and Science, Faculty of Health, Wellbeing and Science, University Campus Suffolk, Rope Walk, Ipswich, Suffolk, IP4 1LT (United Kingdom)], E-mail: j.harvey@ucs.ac.uk

    2008-11-15

    Introduction: This research was conducted to investigate if X-ray cassettes could be a possible source of pathogens capable of causing nosocomial infections, and if they could be a possible vector for cross infection within the hospital environment. Method: The research involved the swabbing of X-ray cassettes in a Diagnostic Imaging Department of a large hospital in the east of England. Two areas of the Diagnostic Imaging Department were included in the study. Research concentrated on X-ray cassettes used for mobile radiography, accident and emergency and inpatient use. Forty cassettes were swabbed in total specifically for general levels of bacterial contamination, also for the presence or absence of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). A mapping exercise was completed following the location of an X-ray cassette typically used in mobile radiography. The exercise noted the level of direct contact with patient's skin and other possible routes of infection. Results: The results demonstrated that there were large levels of growth of samples taken from cassettes and developed in the Microbiology Department. Coagulase-negative Staphylococcus, Micrococci, Diptheroids and species of Bacillus were all identified. The mapping exercise in which the journey of a 35/43 cm cassette used for mobile radiography was tracked found that contact with patient's skin and potential pathogens or routes of cross infection was a common occurrence whilst undertaking mobile radiography. Conclusion: The research has identified the presence of bacterial contamination on cassettes. The research established that X-ray cassettes/imaging plates are often exposed to pathogens and possible routes of cross infection; also that patient's skin often comes directly in contact with the X-ray cassette/imaging plate. The research also shows that as cassettes/imaging plates are a potential source of cross infection, the Diagnostic Imaging Department may be partly responsible

  2. An investigation of infection control for x-ray cassettes in a diagnostic imaging department

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fox, Matthew; Harvey, Jane M.

    2008-01-01

    Introduction: This research was conducted to investigate if X-ray cassettes could be a possible source of pathogens capable of causing nosocomial infections, and if they could be a possible vector for cross infection within the hospital environment. Method: The research involved the swabbing of X-ray cassettes in a Diagnostic Imaging Department of a large hospital in the east of England. Two areas of the Diagnostic Imaging Department were included in the study. Research concentrated on X-ray cassettes used for mobile radiography, accident and emergency and inpatient use. Forty cassettes were swabbed in total specifically for general levels of bacterial contamination, also for the presence or absence of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). A mapping exercise was completed following the location of an X-ray cassette typically used in mobile radiography. The exercise noted the level of direct contact with patient's skin and other possible routes of infection. Results: The results demonstrated that there were large levels of growth of samples taken from cassettes and developed in the Microbiology Department. Coagulase-negative Staphylococcus, Micrococci, Diptheroids and species of Bacillus were all identified. The mapping exercise in which the journey of a 35/43 cm cassette used for mobile radiography was tracked found that contact with patient's skin and potential pathogens or routes of cross infection was a common occurrence whilst undertaking mobile radiography. Conclusion: The research has identified the presence of bacterial contamination on cassettes. The research established that X-ray cassettes/imaging plates are often exposed to pathogens and possible routes of cross infection; also that patient's skin often comes directly in contact with the X-ray cassette/imaging plate. The research also shows that as cassettes/imaging plates are a potential source of cross infection, the Diagnostic Imaging Department may be partly responsible for adding to

  3. Modular Stirling Radioisotope Generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitz, Paul C.; Mason, Lee S.; Schifer, Nicholas A.

    2016-01-01

    High-efficiency radioisotope power generators will play an important role in future NASA space exploration missions. Stirling Radioisotope Generators (SRGs) have been identified as a candidate generator technology capable of providing mission designers with an efficient, high-specific-power electrical generator. SRGs high conversion efficiency has the potential to extend the limited Pu-238 supply when compared with current Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generators (RTGs). Due to budgetary constraints, the Advanced Stirling Radioisotope Generator (ASRG) was canceled in the fall of 2013. Over the past year a joint study by NASA and the Department of Energy (DOE) called the Nuclear Power Assessment Study (NPAS) recommended that Stirling technologies continue to be explored. During the mission studies of the NPAS, spare SRGs were sometimes required to meet mission power system reliability requirements. This led to an additional mass penalty and increased isotope consumption levied on certain SRG-based missions. In an attempt to remove the spare power system, a new generator architecture is considered, which could increase the reliability of a Stirling generator and provide a more fault-tolerant power system. This new generator called the Modular Stirling Radioisotope Generator (MSRG) employs multiple parallel Stirling convertor/controller strings, all of which share the heat from the General Purpose Heat Source (GPHS) modules. For this design, generators utilizing one to eight GPHS modules were analyzed, which provided about 50 to 450 W of direct current (DC) to the spacecraft, respectively. Four Stirling convertors are arranged around each GPHS module resulting in from 4 to 32 Stirling/controller strings. The convertors are balanced either individually or in pairs, and are radiatively coupled to the GPHS modules. Heat is rejected through the housing/radiator, which is similar in construction to the ASRG. Mass and power analysis for these systems indicate that specific

  4. Bottom-up engineering of biological systems through standard bricks: a modularity study on basic parts and devices.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorenzo Pasotti

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Modularity is a crucial issue in the engineering world, as it enables engineers to achieve predictable outcomes when different components are interconnected. Synthetic Biology aims to apply key concepts of engineering to design and construct new biological systems that exhibit a predictable behaviour. Even if physical and measurement standards have been recently proposed to facilitate the assembly and characterization of biological components, real modularity is still a major research issue. The success of the bottom-up approach strictly depends on the clear definition of the limits in which biological functions can be predictable. RESULTS: The modularity of transcription-based biological components has been investigated in several conditions. First, the activity of a set of promoters was quantified in Escherichia coli via different measurement systems (i.e., different plasmids, reporter genes, ribosome binding sites relative to an in vivo reference promoter. Second, promoter activity variation was measured when two independent gene expression cassettes were assembled in the same system. Third, the interchangeability of input modules (a set of constitutive promoters and two regulated promoters connected to a fixed output device (a logic inverter expressing GFP was evaluated. The three input modules provide tunable transcriptional signals that drive the output device. If modularity persists, identical transcriptional signals trigger identical GFP outputs. To verify this, all the input devices were individually characterized and then the input-output characteristic of the logic inverter was derived in the different configurations. CONCLUSIONS: Promoters activities (referred to a standard promoter can vary when they are measured via different reporter devices (up to 22%, when they are used within a two-expression-cassette system (up to 35% and when they drive another device in a functionally interconnected circuit (up to 44%. This paper

  5. Cassette blanket and vacuum building: key elements in fusion reactor maintenance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Werner, R.W.

    1977-01-01

    The integration of two concepts important to fusion power reactors is discussed. The first concept is the vacuum building which improves upon the current fusion reactor designs. The second concept, the use of the cassette blanket within the vacuum building environment, introduces four major improvements in blanket design: cassette blanket module, zoning concept, rectangular blanket concept, and internal tritium recovery

  6. Association of ATP-binding cassette transporter-A1 polymorphism ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    [Halalkhor S., Mesbah-Namin S. A., Daneshpour M. S., Hedayati M. and Azizi F. 2011 Association of ATP-binding cassette transporter-A1 polymorphism with apolipoprotein AI level in Tehranian population. J. Genet. 90, 129–132 ]. Introduction. The ATP-binding cassette transporter-A1 (ABCA1) plays a crucial role in reverse ...

  7. The efficient provision of culture-sensitive services - a modularization approach

    OpenAIRE

    Janson, Andreas; Peters, Christoph; Leimeister, Jan Marco

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents first guidelines for the cultural adaptation and efficient global provision of services. For this purpose, it elaborates on how to consider culture-specific components of a service on the basis of systematic service modularization. This is illustrated by the example of an IT-mediated learning service, which is usually perceived differently in diverse cultures. To this end, a process model is described based on culture theory and systematic modularization in order to identi...

  8. Evolutionary Origin of the Staphylococcal Cassette Chromosome mec (SCCmec)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rolo, Joana; Worning, Peder; Nielsen, Jesper Boye

    2017-01-01

    Several lines of evidence indicate that the most primitive staphylococcal species, those of the Staphylococcus sciuri group, were involved in the first stages of evolution of the staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec (SCCmec), the genetic element carrying the β-lactam resistance gene mecA. However......, many steps are still missing from this evolutionary history. In particular, it is not known how mecA was incorporated into the mobile element SCC prior to dissemination among Staphylococcus aureus and other pathogenic staphylococcal species. To gain insights into the possible contribution of several...... species of the Staphylococcus sciuri group to the assembly of SCCmec, we sequenced the genomes of 106 isolates, comprising S. sciuri (n = 76), Staphylococcus vitulinus (n = 18), and Staphylococcus fleurettii (n = 12) from animal and human sources, and characterized the native location of mecA and the SCC...

  9. Product modular design incorporating preventive maintenance issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Yicong; Feng, Yixiong; Tan, Jianrong

    2016-03-01

    Traditional modular design methods lead to product maintenance problems, because the module form of a system is created according to either the function requirements or the manufacturing considerations. For solving these problems, a new modular design method is proposed with the considerations of not only the traditional function related attributes, but also the maintenance related ones. First, modularity parameters and modularity scenarios for product modularity are defined. Then the reliability and economic assessment models of product modularity strategies are formulated with the introduction of the effective working age of modules. A mathematical model used to evaluate the difference among the modules of the product so that the optimal module of the product can be established. After that, a multi-objective optimization problem based on metrics for preventive maintenance interval different degrees and preventive maintenance economics is formulated for modular optimization. Multi-objective GA is utilized to rapidly approximate the Pareto set of optimal modularity strategy trade-offs between preventive maintenance cost and preventive maintenance interval difference degree. Finally, a coordinate CNC boring machine is adopted to depict the process of product modularity. In addition, two factorial design experiments based on the modularity parameters are constructed and analyzed. These experiments investigate the impacts of these parameters on the optimal modularity strategies and the structure of module. The research proposes a new modular design method, which may help to improve the maintainability of product in modular design.

  10. Modular system design and evaluation

    CERN Document Server

    Levin, Mark Sh

    2015-01-01

    This book examines seven key combinatorial engineering frameworks (composite schemes consisting of algorithms and/or interactive procedures) for hierarchical modular (composite) systems. These frameworks are based on combinatorial optimization problems (e.g., knapsack problem, multiple choice problem, assignment problem, morphological clique problem), with the author’s version of morphological design approach – Hierarchical Morphological Multicritieria Design (HMMD) – providing a conceptual lens with which to elucidate the examples discussed. This approach is based on ordinal estimates of design alternatives for systems parts/components, however, the book also puts forward an original version of HMMD that is based on new interval multiset estimates for the design alternatives with special attention paid to the aggregation of modular solutions (system versions). The second part of ‘Modular System Design and Evaluation’ provides ten information technology case studies that enriches understanding of th...

  11. Modularity in Cancer Care Provision

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gobbi, Chiara; Hsuan, Juliana

    2012-01-01

    The paper presents the findings of a case study research conducted within the Danish healthcare system aimed at analyzing how modularity is deployed in the process of delivery cancer care. Three cancer packages are presented into detailed describing the process of defining the diagnosis and treat......The paper presents the findings of a case study research conducted within the Danish healthcare system aimed at analyzing how modularity is deployed in the process of delivery cancer care. Three cancer packages are presented into detailed describing the process of defining the diagnosis...... and treatment service. Customization is obtained by combining different components in the diagnosis phase (examinations) and different treatment options in the treating phase. Findings show that the process of delivery cure for cancer is highly modularized and customization is driven by cancer specificity (type...

  12. Modular Software-Defined Radio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rhiemeier Arnd-Ragnar

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available In view of the technical and commercial boundary conditions for software-defined radio (SDR, it is suggestive to reconsider the concept anew from an unconventional point of view. The organizational principles of signal processing (rather than the signal processing algorithms themselves are the main focus of this work on modular software-defined radio. Modularity and flexibility are just two key characteristics of the SDR environment which extend smoothly into the modeling of hardware and software. In particular, the proposed model of signal processing software includes irregular, connected, directed, acyclic graphs with random node weights and random edges. Several approaches for mapping such software to a given hardware are discussed. Taking into account previous findings as well as new results from system simulations presented here, the paper finally concludes with the utility of pipelining as a general design guideline for modular software-defined radio.

  13. Emergent interfaces for feature modularization

    CERN Document Server

    Ribeiro, Márcio; Brabrand, Claus

    2014-01-01

    Developers frequently introduce errors into software systems when they fail to recognise module dependencies. Using forty-three software families and Software Product Lines (SPLs), where the majority are commonly used in industrial practice, the authors reports on the feature modularization problem and provides a study of how often it may occur in practice. To solve the problem they present the concept of emergent feature modularization which aims to establish contracts between features to prevent developers from breaking other features when performing a maintenance task.

  14. Modularity in Cancer Care Provision

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gobbi, Chiara; Hsuan, Juliana

    2012-01-01

    and treatment service. Customization is obtained by combining different components in the diagnosis phase (examinations) and different treatment options in the treating phase. Findings show that the process of delivery cure for cancer is highly modularized and customization is driven by cancer specificity (type......The paper presents the findings of a case study research conducted within the Danish healthcare system aimed at analyzing how modularity is deployed in the process of delivery cancer care. Three cancer packages are presented into detailed describing the process of defining the diagnosis...

  15. Inherent controllability in modular ALMRs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sackett, J.I.; Sevy, R.H.; Wei, T.Y.C.

    1989-01-01

    As part of recent development efforts on advanced reactor designs ANL has proposed the IFR (Integral Fast Reactor) concept. The IFR concept is currently being applied to modular sized reactors which would be built in multiple power paks together with an integrated fuel cycle facility. It has been amply demonstrated that the concept as applied to the modular designs has significant advantages in regard to ATWS transients. Attention is now being focussed on determining whether or not those advantages deriving from the traits of the IFR can be translated to the operational/DBA (design basis accident) class of transients. 5 refs., 3 figs., 3 tabs

  16. Decentralizing decision making in modularization strategies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Israelsen, Poul; Jørgensen, Brian

    2011-01-01

    Research on product modularity is dominated by an operations management (OM) perspective, through which numerous models to predict optimal modularization strategies have been developed. However, we argue that implementation of these predictions is hampered by prevailing project accounting systems...

  17. Modular envelopes, OSFT and nonsymmetric (non-$\\sum$) modular operads

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Markl, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 10, č. 2 (2016), s. 775-809 ISSN 1661-6952 Institutional support: RVO:67985840 Keywords : open string * surface * modular completion Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.625, year: 2016 http://www.ems-ph.org/journals/show_abstract.php?issn=1661-6952&vol=10&iss=2&rank=12

  18. Atovaquone and quinine anti-malarials inhibit ATP binding cassette transporter activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rijpma, Sanna R; van den Heuvel, Jeroen J M W; van der Velden, Maarten; Sauerwein, Robert W; Russel, Frans G M; Koenderink, Jan B

    2014-09-13

    Therapeutic blood plasma concentrations of anti-malarial drugs are essential for successful treatment. Pharmacokinetics of pharmaceutical compounds are dependent of adsorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion. ATP binding cassette (ABC) transport proteins are particularly involved in drug deposition, as they are located at membranes of many uptake and excretory organs and at protective barriers, where they export endogenous and xenobiotic compounds, including pharmaceuticals. In this study, a panel of well-established anti-malarial drugs which may affect drug plasma concentrations was tested for interactions with human ABC transport proteins. The interaction of chloroquine, quinine, artemisinin, mefloquine, lumefantrine, atovaquone, dihydroartemisinin and proguanil, with transport activity of P-glycoprotein (P-gp), breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP), bile salt export pump (BSEP) and multidrug resistance-associated proteins (MRP) 1-4 were analysed. The effect of the anti-malarials on the ATP-dependent uptake of radio-labelled substrates was measured in membrane vesicles isolated from HEK293 cells overexpressing the ABC transport proteins. A strong and previously undescribed inhibition of BCRP-mediated transport by atovaquone with a 50% inhibitory concentration (IC50) of 0.23 μM (95% CI 0.17-0.29 μM) and inhibition of P-gp-mediated transport by quinine with an IC50 of 6.8 μM (95% CI 5.9-7.8 μM) was observed. Furthermore, chloroquine and mefloquine were found to significantly inhibit P-gp-mediated transport. BCRP transport activity was significantly inhibited by all anti-malarials tested, whereas BSEP-mediated transport was not inhibited by any of the compounds. Both MRP1- and MRP3-mediated transport were significantly inhibited by mefloquine. Atovaquone and quinine significantly inhibit BCRP- and P-gp- mediated transport at concentrations within the clinically relevant prophylactic and therapeutic range. Co-administration of these established anti

  19. A two-cassette reporter system for assessing target gene translation and target gene product inclusion body formation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2016-01-01

    The present invention relates to a dual cassette reporter system capable of assessing target gene translation and target gene product folding. The present invention further relates to vectors and host cells comprising the dual cassette reporter system. In addition the invention relates to the use...... of the dual cassette reporter system for assessing target gene translation and target gene product folding....

  20. Modular genetic regulatory networks increase organization during pattern formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamadlou, Hamid; Podgorski, Gregory J; Flann, Nicholas S

    2016-08-01

    Studies have shown that genetic regulatory networks (GRNs) consist of modules that are densely connected subnetworks that function quasi-autonomously. Modules may be recognized motifs that comprise of two or three genes with particular regulatory functions and connectivity or be purely structural and identified through connection density. It is unclear what evolutionary and developmental advantages modular structure and in particular motifs provide that have led to this enrichment. This study seeks to understand how modules within developmental GRNs influence the complexity of multicellular patterns that emerge from the dynamics of the regulatory networks. We apply an algorithmic complexity to measure the organization of the patterns. A computational study was performed by creating Boolean intracellular networks within a simulated epithelial field of embryonic cells, where each cell contains the same network and communicates with adjacent cells using contact-mediated signaling. Intracellular networks with random connectivity were compared to those with modular connectivity and with motifs. Results show that modularity effects network dynamics and pattern organization significantly. In particular: (1) modular connectivity alone increases complexity in network dynamics and patterns; (2) bistable switch motifs simplify both the pattern and network dynamics; (3) all other motifs with feedback loops increase multicellular pattern complexity while simplifying the network dynamics; (4) negative feedback loops affect the dynamics complexity more significantly than positive feedback loops. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Theta function identities associated with Ramanujan's modular ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    that modular equations can be expressed as identities involving the theta functions φ, ψ and f . Therefore, often one first tries to derive a theta function identity and then transcribes it into an equivalent modular equation. But, proofs of some modular equations of composite degree 15 given by Berndt are quite unlike this ...

  2. Ramanujan's modular equations of degree 5

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. We provide alternative derivations of theta function identities associ- ated with modular equations of degree 5. We then use the identities to derive the corresponding modular equations. Keywords. Theta-function; elliptic integral; modular equation; multiplier. 1. Introduction. Ramanujan's general theta-function f (a, ...

  3. Integrity and change in modular ontologies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stuckenschmidt, Heiner; Klein, Michel

    2003-01-01

    The benefits of modular representations arc well known from many areas of computer science. In this paper, we concentrate on the benefits of modular ontologies with respect to local containment of terminological reasoning. We define an architecture for modular ontologies that supports local

  4. Analisis Tipe Staphylococcal Cassette Chromosome mec (SCCmec Isolat Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunarjati Sudigdoadi

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Resistance of methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA were based mainly on insertion of mobile genetic elements namely Staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec (SCCmec in the chromosome of Staphylococcus aureus. SCCmec consists of recombinase genes (ccr, mec genes complex, additional resistance genes, and insertion sequences. Recombinase genes structure mediates transfer of SCCmec from one bacteria to another. Identification of SCCmec is very important to know basic genetic resistance and to predict spreading of MRSA. The aim of this research was to analyze SCCmec type and antimicrobial susceptibility patterns. The design of this study was observational analytic study by typing SCCmec and antimicrobial susceptibility testing on July– December 2007. Isolation and identification of 45 MRSA isolates was performed in the Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Padjadjaran, whereas identification of mecA gene and typing of SCCmec by multiplex PCR was performed in the Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Medicine, Sriwijaya University, Palembang. The result showed that all isolates contained mecA gene. Multiplex PCR revealed that 40 MRSA isolates had SCCmec type III and 5 isolates with type IV. All SCCmec type III isolates were multiresistant and all of the type IV were not multiresistant. In conclusion, MRSA isolates with SCCmec type III was associated with multiresistant whereas type IV was not.

  5. Modular forms a classical approach

    CERN Document Server

    Cohen, Henri

    2017-01-01

    The theory of modular forms is a fundamental tool used in many areas of mathematics and physics. It is also a very concrete and "fun" subject in itself and abounds with an amazing number of surprising identities. This comprehensive textbook, which includes numerous exercises, aims to give a complete picture of the classical aspects of the subject, with an emphasis on explicit formulas. After a number of motivating examples such as elliptic functions and theta functions, the modular group, its subgroups, and general aspects of holomorphic and nonholomorphic modular forms are explained, with an emphasis on explicit examples. The heart of the book is the classical theory developed by Hecke and continued up to the Atkin-Lehner-Li theory of newforms and including the theory of Eisenstein series, Rankin-Selberg theory, and a more general theory of theta series including the Weil representation. The final chapter explores in some detail more general types of modular forms such as half-integral weight, Hilbert, Jacob...

  6. Rapidly Deployed Modular Telemetry System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varnavas, Kosta A. (Inventor); Sims, William Herbert, III (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    The present invention is a telemetry system, and more specifically is a rapidly deployed modular telemetry apparatus which utilizes of SDR technology and the FPGA programming capability to reduce the number of hardware components and programming required to deploy a telemetry system.

  7. Hierarchy of modular graph identities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D’Hoker, Eric; Kaidi, Justin [Mani L. Bhaumik Institute for Theoretical Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy,University of California,Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States)

    2016-11-09

    The low energy expansion of Type II superstring amplitudes at genus one is organized in terms of modular graph functions associated with Feynman graphs of a conformal scalar field on the torus. In earlier work, surprising identities between two-loop graphs at all weights, and between higher-loop graphs of weights four and five were constructed. In the present paper, these results are generalized in two complementary directions. First, all identities at weight six and all dihedral identities at weight seven are obtained and proven. Whenever the Laurent polynomial at the cusp is available, the form of these identities confirms the pattern by which the vanishing of the Laurent polynomial governs the full modular identity. Second, the family of modular graph functions is extended to include all graphs with derivative couplings and worldsheet fermions. These extended families of modular graph functions are shown to obey a hierarchy of inhomogeneous Laplace eigenvalue equations. The eigenvalues are calculated analytically for the simplest infinite sub-families and obtained by Maple for successively more complicated sub-families. The spectrum is shown to consist solely of eigenvalues s(s−1) for positive integers s bounded by the weight, with multiplicities which exhibit rich representation-theoretic patterns.

  8. "Boxnep" advanced modular underwater robot

    OpenAIRE

    Buluev, Ilia

    2016-01-01

    The article discusses the relevance of the underwater vehicles' ability to solve a wide range of problems. The idea put in the basis of this research is designing a modular underwater robot. It allows to mount various equipment and test it in underwater environment. The paper deals with the concept of the robot and its characteristics.

  9. Physical Modeling Modular Boxes: PHOXES

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gelineck, Steven; Serafin, Stefania

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents the development of a set of musical instruments, which are based on known physical modeling sound synthesis techniques. The instruments are modular, meaning that they can be combined in various ways. This makes it possible to experiment with physical interaction and sonic...

  10. Modular networks with hierarchical organization

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Several networks occurring in real life have modular structures that are arranged in a hierarchical fashion. In this paper, we have proposed a model for such networks, using a stochastic generation method. Using this model we show that, the scaling relation between the clustering and degree of the nodes is not a necessary ...

  11. Learning Modular Policies for Robotics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerhard eNeumann

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available A promising idea for scaling robot learning to more complex tasks is to use elemental behaviors as building blocks to compose more complex behaviour. Ideally, such building blocks are used in combination with a learning algorithmthat is able to learn to select, adapt, sequence and co-activate the building blocks. While there has been a lot of work on approaches that support one of theserequirements, no learning algorithm exists that unifies all these properties in one framework.%Adaptation of the parameter vector is needed to reuse the elemental behaviours for more than one situation. %Second, the learning architecture needs to learn to select between and to sequence such parametrized building blocks. Finally,%the expressibility of a modular control architecture can be drastically increased if the architecture supports co-activate the single building blocks.%In this paper we give an overview of our work on learning such a modular control architecture. In this paper we present our work on a unified approach for learning such a modular control architecture. We introduce new policy search algorithmsthat are based on information-theoretic principles and are able to learn to select, adapt and sequence the building blocks. Furthermore, we developed a new representation for the individual building block that support co-activation and principled ways for adapting the movement. Finally, we summarize our experiments for learning modular control architectures in simulation and with real robots.

  12. Modular crystals as modulated structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elcoro, L.; Perez-Mato, J.M.; Friese, K.

    2008-01-01

    The use of the superspace formalism is extended to the description and refinement of the homologous series of modular structures with two symmetry-related modules with different orientations. The lillianite homologous series has been taken as a study case. Starting from a commensurate modulated c...

  13. Context-driven discovery of gene cassettes in mobile integrons using a computational grammar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsafnat, Guy; Coiera, Enrico; Partridge, Sally R; Schaeffer, Jaron; Iredell, Jon R

    2009-09-08

    Gene discovery algorithms typically examine sequence data for low level patterns. A novel method to computationally discover higher order DNA structures is presented, using a context sensitive grammar. The algorithm was applied to the discovery of gene cassettes associated with integrons. The discovery and annotation of antibiotic resistance genes in such cassettes is essential for effective monitoring of antibiotic resistance patterns and formulation of public health antibiotic prescription policies. We discovered two new putative gene cassettes using the method, from 276 integron features and 978 GenBank sequences. The system achieved kappa = 0.972 annotation agreement with an expert gold standard of 300 sequences. In rediscovery experiments, we deleted 789,196 cassette instances over 2030 experiments and correctly relabelled 85.6% (alpha > or = 95%, E analysis demonstrated that for 72,338 missed deletions, two adjacent deleted cassettes were labeled as a single cassette, increasing performance to 94.8% (mean sensitivity = 0.92, specificity = 1, F-score = 0.96). Using grammars we were able to represent heuristic background knowledge about large and complex structures in DNA. Importantly, we were also able to use the context embedded in the model to discover new putative antibiotic resistance gene cassettes. The method is complementary to existing automatic annotation systems which operate at the sequence level.

  14. Context-driven discovery of gene cassettes in mobile integrons using a computational grammar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schaeffer Jaron

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Gene discovery algorithms typically examine sequence data for low level patterns. A novel method to computationally discover higher order DNA structures is presented, using a context sensitive grammar. The algorithm was applied to the discovery of gene cassettes associated with integrons. The discovery and annotation of antibiotic resistance genes in such cassettes is essential for effective monitoring of antibiotic resistance patterns and formulation of public health antibiotic prescription policies. Results We discovered two new putative gene cassettes using the method, from 276 integron features and 978 GenBank sequences. The system achieved κ = 0.972 annotation agreement with an expert gold standard of 300 sequences. In rediscovery experiments, we deleted 789,196 cassette instances over 2030 experiments and correctly relabelled 85.6% (α ≥ 95%, E ≤ 1%, mean sensitivity = 0.86, specificity = 1, F-score = 0.93, with no false positives. Error analysis demonstrated that for 72,338 missed deletions, two adjacent deleted cassettes were labeled as a single cassette, increasing performance to 94.8% (mean sensitivity = 0.92, specificity = 1, F-score = 0.96. Conclusion Using grammars we were able to represent heuristic background knowledge about large and complex structures in DNA. Importantly, we were also able to use the context embedded in the model to discover new putative antibiotic resistance gene cassettes. The method is complementary to existing automatic annotation systems which operate at the sequence level.

  15. Bundling Products and Services Through Modularization Strategies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bask, Anu; Hsuan, Juliana; Rajahonka, Mervi

    2012-01-01

    Modularity has been recognized as a powerful tool in improving the efficiency and management of product design and manufacturing. However, the integrated view on covering both, product and service modularity for product-service systems (PSS), is under researched. Therefore, in this paper our...... objective is to contribute to the PSS modularity. Thus, we describe configurations of PSSs and the bundling of products and services through modularization strategies. So far there have not been tools to analyze and determine the correct combinations of degrees of product and service modularities....

  16. Radiation exposure reduction by use of Kevlar cassettes in the neonatal nursery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herman, M W; Mak, H K; Lachman, R S

    1987-05-01

    A study was performed to determine whether the use of Kevlar cassettes in the neonatal intensive care nursery would reduce radiation exposure to patients. The radiation dose to the neonates was measured by using thermoluminescent dosimeters. In addition, the attenuation of the Kevlar cassettes and the sensitivity of the film-screen combination were compared with the previously used system. The greatest radiation reduction using a mobile X-ray unit was 27%; based on sensitivity measurements, the theoretical reduction averaged 38%. The reduction in radiation exposure resulted from reduced attenuation by the Kevlar cassette.

  17. A clinical trial of a rare earth screen/film system in a periapical cassette

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kogon, S.L.; Stephens, R.G.; Reid, J.A.; Lubus, N.J.

    1984-04-01

    In a clinical trial, a slow rare earth screen/film system (Siemens Titan 2D/Kodak XG) was used to obtain intraoral radiographs at conventional monitoring stages in endodontic treatment. The screen film image proved to be an effective substitute for the direct-exposure Ultraspeed periapical film. The intraoral cassettes, designed and fabricated for the study, were an adaptation of the flexible, vacuum-sealed cassettes used in mammography. It is believed that when a practicable periapical cassette is manufactured, many additional indications for the system are probable. Major reductions in patient exposure of at least 85% to 90% per periapical film would be effected.

  18. A clinical trial of a rare earth screen/film system in a periapical cassette

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kogon, S.L.; Stephens, R.G.; Reid, J.A.; Lubus, N.J.

    1984-01-01

    In a clinical trial, a slow rare earth screen/film system (Siemens Titan 2D/Kodak XG) was used to obtain intraoral radiographs at conventional monitoring stages in endodontic treatment. The screen film image proved to be an effective substitute for the direct-exposure Ultraspeed periapical film. The intraoral cassettes, designed and fabricated for the study, were an adaptation of the flexible, vacuum-sealed cassettes used in mammography. It is believed that when a practicable periapical cassette is manufactured, many additional indications for the system are probable. Major reductions in patient exposure of at least 85% to 90% per periapical film would be effected

  19. A novel flow cytometric HTS assay reveals functional modulators of ATP binding cassette transporter ABCB6.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kishore Polireddy

    Full Text Available ABCB6 is a member of the adenosine triphosphate (ATP-binding cassette family of transporter proteins that is increasingly recognized as a relevant physiological and therapeutic target. Evaluation of modulators of ABCB6 activity would pave the way toward a more complete understanding of the significance of this transport process in tumor cell growth, proliferation and therapy-related drug resistance. In addition, this effort would improve our understanding of the function of ABCB6 in normal physiology with respect to heme biosynthesis, and cellular adaptation to metabolic demand and stress responses. To search for modulators of ABCB6, we developed a novel cell-based approach that, in combination with flow cytometric high-throughput screening (HTS, can be used to identify functional modulators of ABCB6. Accumulation of protoporphyrin, a fluorescent molecule, in wild-type ABCB6 expressing K562 cells, forms the basis of the HTS assay. Screening the Prestwick Chemical Library employing the HTS assay identified four compounds, benzethonium chloride, verteporfin, tomatine hydrochloride and piperlongumine, that reduced ABCB6 mediated cellular porphyrin levels. Validation of the identified compounds employing the hemin-agarose affinity chromatography and mitochondrial transport assays demonstrated that three out of the four compounds were capable of inhibiting ABCB6 mediated hemin transport into isolated mitochondria. However, only verteporfin and tomatine hydrochloride inhibited ABCB6's ability to compete with hemin as an ABCB6 substrate. This assay is therefore sensitive, robust, and suitable for automation in a high-throughput environment as demonstrated by our identification of selective functional modulators of ABCB6. Application of this assay to other libraries of synthetic compounds and natural products is expected to identify novel modulators of ABCB6 activity.

  20. A low cost modular control and instrumentation system for accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shubaly, M.R.; Plato, J.G.; Davis, R.W.

    1984-01-01

    A modular control and instrumentation system, being developed for the RFQ1 accelerator and for ion beam test facilities, is based on an intelligent crate and interchangeable plug-in modules for specific applications. The 8085-based microcomputer used in the system can access up to 256 K of memory, has up to 64 levels of vectored interrupts and time of day, and supports terminals, printers, floppy discs and digital cassette drives. This computer is linked to a bus in the front of the crate which carries not only the usual address, data, and control signals, but also interrupt lines and interrupt chip control lines. This bus is designed for easy interfacing. Plug-in modules connect to the bus, and to monitored equipment via a separate connector leading to a terminal strip on the rear of the crate. These modules monitor absolute and differential temperature, flow-rate, voltages and currents and switch settings. A permanently installed module provides ac power switching, an RS232 serial link and full duplex fibre optic serial links for connection to a central computer. Software for the crate provides for task scheduling, data storage and limit tests, communication to higher levels of the control system and field configuration of the crate. (orig.)

  1. Use of an improved simultaneous tomography cassette in linear tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Egender, G.; Pirker, E.; Gornik, E.; Innsbruck Univ.

    1984-01-01

    An improved simultaneous tomography cassette according to P. Landau was tried out for four months using four tomographs in routine work. The mode of operation is based on accurate control of the relative speeds of the individual x-ray films resulting in simultaneous imaging of 6 equidistant tomographic levels. Clinical testing was effected in 80 cases: nephrotomography, of the lungs, the hilum, and the skeleton. In particular, the article describes imaging of the renal arteries by simultaneous tomography for the purpose of finding out the cause of hypertension, and if there is suspicion of a space-occupying growth in the kidney, basing on the urogram. The specific advantages of this technique are, on the one hand, improved diagnostic efficiency (the tomograms are taken during the same respiratory phase, more rapid diagnosis especially with accident patients), and, on the other hand, an important reduction in the x-ray exposure of the patient; furthermore, the life of the x-ray tube is prolonged, and there is a definite saving of time for both patient and personnel, the image quality being comparable with that of single-layer tomography. (orig.) [de

  2. Human ATP-binding cassette (ABC transporter family

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasiliou Vasilis

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract There exist four fundamentally different classes of membrane-bound transport proteins: ion channels; transporters; aquaporins; and ATP-powered pumps. ATP-binding cassette (ABC transporters are an example of ATP-dependent pumps. ABC transporters are ubiquitous membrane-bound proteins, present in all prokaryotes, as well as plants, fungi, yeast and animals. These pumps can move substrates in (influx or out (efflux of cells. In mammals, ABC transporters are expressed predominantly in the liver, intestine, blood-brain barrier, blood-testis barrier, placenta and kidney. ABC proteins transport a number of endogenous substrates, including inorganic anions, metal ions, peptides, amino acids, sugars and a large number of hydrophobic compounds and metabolites across the plasma membrane, and also across intracellular membranes. The human genome contains 49 ABC genes, arranged in eight subfamilies and named via divergent evolution. That ABC genes are important is underscored by the fact that mutations in at least I I of these genes are already known to cause severe inherited diseases (eg cystic fibrosis and X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy [X-ALD]. ABC transporters also participate in the movement of most drugs and their metabolites across cell surface and cellular organelle membranes; thus, defects in these genes can be important in terms of cancer therapy, pharmacokinetics and innumerable pharmacogenetic disorders.

  3. Resistance-Gene Cassettes Associated With Salmonella enterica Genotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakhshi, Bita; Ghafari, Mohsen; Pourshafie, Mohammad R; Zarbakhsh, Behnaz; Katouli, Mohammad; Rahbar, Mohammad; Hajia, Masoud; Hosseini-Aliabad, Neda; Boustanshenas, Mina

    2015-01-01

    The epidemiology of salmonellosis is complex because of the diversity and different serotypes of Salmonella enterica (S. enterica) that occur in different reservoirs and geographic incidences. To determine the genotype distribution and resistance-gene content of 2 classes of integron among S. enterica isolates. Thirty-six S. enterica species were isolated and tested for their serological distribution and the resistance-gene contents of 2 classes of integron, as well as for their genetic diversity, using the pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) genotyping method. Serogroups E (36.1%) and D (30.5%) were dominant among the isolates. All of the isolates in serogroup D belonged to the serovar enteritidis. The aadA1 gene was found within all resistance-gene cassettes. We observed 4 common and 26 single pulsotypes among the isolates, which indicated a high degree of genetic diversity among the isolates. Using the PulseNet International standard protocol, it was found that these isolates were different from those reported previously in Iran. The presence of a few common and new pulsotypes among the isolates suggests the emergence and spread of new clones of S. enterica in Iran. Copyright© by the American Society for Clinical Pathology (ASCP).

  4. Atovaquone and quinine anti-malarials inhibit ATP binding cassette transporter activity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rijpma, S.R.; Heuvel, J.J.; Velden, M. van der; Sauerwein, R.W.; Russel, F.G.; Koenderink, J.B.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Therapeutic blood plasma concentrations of anti-malarial drugs are essential for successful treatment. Pharmacokinetics of pharmaceutical compounds are dependent of adsorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion. ATP binding cassette (ABC) transport proteins are particularly

  5. amdSYM, a new dominant recyclable marker cassette for Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Solis-Escalante, D.; Kuijpers, N.G.A.; Bongaerts, N.; Bolat, I.; Bosman, L.; Pronk, J.T.; Daran, J.M.; Daran-Lapujade, P.A.S.

    2012-01-01

    Despite the large collection of selectable marker genes available for Saccharomyces cerevisiae, marker availability can still present a hurdle when dozens of genetic manipulations are required. Recyclable markers, counterselectable cassettes that can be removed from the targeted genome after use,

  6. Modularity in New Market Formation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sanchez, Ron; Hang, Chang Chieh

    2017-01-01

    the formation of an industrial base of assemblers and component suppliers, assisting new firms in building customer relationships, enabling more geographically diffused economic development within countries, and facilitating development of export markets. We also suggest directions for further research......In this paper we appraise the ways in which use of closed-system proprietary product architectures versus open-system modular product architectures is likely to influence the dynamics and trajectory of new product market formation. We compare the evolutions of new markets in China for gas...... as the basis for new kinds of products may result in very different patterns and speeds of new market formation. We then suggest some key implications of the different dynamics of market formation associated with open-system modular architectures for both the competence-based strategic management (CBSM...

  7. Modular Stellarator Fusion Reactor concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, R.L.; Krakowski, R.A.

    1981-08-01

    A preliminary conceptual study is made of the Modular Stellarator Reactor (MSR). A steady-state ignited, DT-fueled, magnetic fusion reactor is proposed for use as a central electric-power station. The MSR concept combines the physics of the classic stellarator confinement topology with an innovative, modular-coil design. Parametric tradeoff calculations are described, leading to the selection of an interim design point for a 4-GWt plant based on Alcator transport scaling and an average beta value of 0.04 in an l = 2 system with a plasma aspect ratio of 11. The physics basis of the design point is described together with supporting magnetics, coil-force, and stress computations. The approach and results presented herein will be modified in the course of ongoing work to form a firmer basis for a detailed conceptual design of the MSR

  8. Influence of cassette design on three-dimensional perfusion culture of artificial bone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Dajiang; Ushida, Takashi; Furukawa, Katsuko S

    2015-01-01

    Media perfusion is often required to maintain cell viability within topographically complex 3-dimensional scaffold cultures. Osteoblast-seeded scaffolds for bone regeneration require robust cell proliferation and survival both within the scaffold and over the exterior for optimal osteogenic capacity. Conventional press-fitting cassettes ensure internal fluid flow through the scaffold but may restrict external flow around the scaffold, resulting in a barren (cell-free) external scaffold surface. In this study, we aimed to solve this problem by modifying the cassette structure to enhance external flow in an oscillatory perfusion culture system. Mouse osteoblast-like MC 3T3-E1 cells were seeded in porous ceramic scaffolds and incubated for 3 days either under static culture conditions or in an oscillatory perfusion bioreactor. Scaffolds were held in the bioreactor with either conventional press-fitting cassettes or cassettes with rings to separate the scaffold exterior from the internal cassette wall. The external surfaces of scaffolds maintained under static conditions were well seeded, but cells failed to grow deeply into the core, reflecting poor internal chemotransport. Alternatively, scaffolds cultured by perfusion with press-fitting cassettes had poor cell viability at the cassette-external scaffold surface interface, but cells were widely distributed within the scaffold core. Scaffolds cultured using the modified cassettes with 1 or 2 rings exhibited uniformly distributed living cells throughout the internal pores and over the entire external surface, possibly because of the improved medium flow over the scaffold surface. This modified oscillatory perfusion culture system may facilitate the production of engineered bone with superior osteogenic capacity for grafting. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Design, simplified cloning, and in-silico analysis of multisite small interfering RNA-targeting cassettes

    OpenAIRE

    Baghban-Kohnehrouz, Bahram; Nayeri, Shahnoush

    2016-01-01

    Multiple gene silencing is being required to target and tangle metabolic pathways in eukaryotes and researchers have to develop a subtle method for construction of RNA interference (RNAi) cassettes. Although, several vectors have been developed due to different screening and cloning strategies but still some potential limitations remain to be dissolved. Here, we worked out a simple cloning strategy to develop multisite small interfering RNA (siRNA) cassette from different genes by two cloning...

  10. New Integron-Associated Gene Cassette Encoding a 3-N-Aminoglycoside Acetyltransferase

    OpenAIRE

    Levings, Renee S.; Partridge, Sally R.; Lightfoot, Diane; Hall, Ruth M.; Djordjevic, Steven P.

    2005-01-01

    A fifth gene cassette containing an aacC gene, aacCA5, was found in an aacCA5-aadA7 cassette array in a class 1 integron isolated from a multiply drug resistant Salmonella enterica serovar Kentucky strain. The AacC-A5 or AAC(3)-Ie acetyltransferase encoded by aacCA5 is related to other AAC(3)-I enzymes and confers resistance to gentamicin.

  11. AP1000TM plant modularization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cantarero L, C.; Demetri, K. J.; Quintero C, F. P.

    2016-09-01

    The AP1000 TM plant is an 1100 M We pressurized water reactor (PWR) with passive safety features and extensive plant simplifications that enhance construction, operation, maintenance and safety. Modules are used extensively in the design of the AP1000 plant nuclear island. The AP1000 plant uses modern, modular-construction techniques for plant construction. The design incorporates vendor-designed skids and equipment packages, as well as large, multi-ton structural modules and special equipment modules. Modularization allows traditionally sequential construction tasks to be completed simultaneously. Factory-built modules can be installed at the site in a planned construction schedule. The modularized AP1000 plant allows many more construction activities to proceed in parallel. This reduces plant construction calendar time, thus lowering the costs of plant financing. Furthermore, performing less work onsite significantly reduces the amount of skilled field-craft labor, which costs more than shop labor. In addition to labor cost savings, doing more welding and fabrication in a factory environment raises the quality of work, allowing more scheduling flexibility and reducing the amount of specialized tools required onsite. The site layout for the AP1000 plant has been established to support modular construction and efficient operations during construction. The plant layout is compact, using less space than previous conventional plant layouts. This paper provides and overview of the AP1000 plant modules with an emphasis on structural modules. Currently the Westinghouse AP1000 plant has four units under construction in China and four units under construction in the United States. All have shown successful fabrication and installation of various AP1000 plant modules. (Author)

  12. CP violation and modular symmetries

    OpenAIRE

    Dent, Thomas

    2001-01-01

    We reconsider the origin of CP violation in fundamental theory. Existing string models of spontaneous CP violation make ambiguous predictions, due to the arbitrariness of CP transformation and the apparent non-invariance of the results under duality. We find an unambiguous modular CP invariance condition, applicable to predictive models of spontaneous CP violation, which circumvents these problems; it strongly constrains CP violation by heterotic string moduli. The dilaton is also evaluated a...

  13. Modularity in Sensory Auditory Memory

    OpenAIRE

    Clement, Sylvain; Moroni, Christine; Samson, Séverine

    2004-01-01

    The goal of this paper was to review various experimental and neuropsychological studies that support the modular conception of auditory sensory memory or auditory short-term memory. Based on initial findings demonstrating that verbal sensory memory system can be dissociated from a general auditory memory store at the functional and anatomical levels. we reported a series of studies that provided evidence in favor of multiple auditory sensory stores specialized in retaining eit...

  14. Modular programming method at JAERI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asai, Kiyoshi; Katsuragi, Satoru

    1982-02-01

    In this report the histories, concepts and a method for the construction and maintenance of nuclear code systems of Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI) are presented. The method is mainly consisted of novel computer features. The development process of the features and experiences with them which required many man-months and efforts of scientists and engineers of JAERI and a computer manufacturer are also described. One of the features is a file handling program named datapool. The program is being used in code systems which are under development at JAERI. The others are computer features such as dynamic linking, reentrant coding of Fortran programs, interactive programming facility, document editor, quick system output viewer and editor, flexible man-machine interactive Fortran executor, and selective use of time-sharing or batch oriented computer in an interactive porgramming environment. In 1980 JAERI has replaced its two old computer systems by three FACOM M-200 computer systems and they have such features as mentioned above. Since 1981 most code systems, or even big single codes can be changed to modular code systems even if the developers or users of the systems will not recognize the fact that they are using modular code systems. The purpose of this report is to describe our methodology of modular programming from aspects of computer features and some of their applications to nuclear codes to get sympathetic understanding of it from persons of organizations who are concerned with the effective use of computers, especially, in nuclear research fields. (author)

  15. Developing a cassette microdosing approach to enhance the throughput of PET imaging agent screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Hao; Sun, Mingyue; Zhao, Ruiyue; Hong, Haiyan; Zhang, Aili; Zhang, Shuxian; Liu, Futao; Zhang, Yan; Liu, Yajing; Zhu, Lin; Kung, Hank F; Qiao, Jinping

    2018-03-03

    Cassette dosing is also known as N-in-One dosing: several compounds are simultaneously administrated to a single animal and then the samples are rapidly detected by LC-MS/MS. This approach is a successful strategy to enhance the efficiency of drug discovery and reduce animal usage. However, no report on the utility of the cassette approach in radiotracer discovery has appeared in the literature. This study designed a cassette microdose with LC-MS/MS method to enhance the throughput for screening radiopharmaceutical biodistribution in the rat brain directly. Three unradiolabeled compounds (FPBM FPBM2 and AV-133) were chosen as model drugs administrated intravenously to the rats as a cassette as opposed to discrete study. The rat brain biodistribution data, target localization, the differential uptake ratio (%ID/g) and the brain tissue-specific binding ratio were obtained by the LC-MS/MS analysis. These data matched very well with the values obtained by the standard radioactivity measurements. Moreover, no significant differences between discrete dosing and cassette dosing were observed. By circumventing the need for radiolabeled molecules, this method may be high-throughput and safe for the research and development of new PET imaging agents. The combination of cassette microdosing and LC-MS/MS would be a medium throughput screening tool at an early stage in the discovery/development process of PET imaging agents. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. A Preliminary Study on the Thermal Performance of a Ventilated Honey Cassette for Stingless Bees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Basrawi Firdaus

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Stingless bees are very sensitive to the changes of surrounding temperature. A report stated that fertility rate in broodcell is 0% when the broodcell temperature is higher than 34°C or lower than 26°C. In addition, propolis made honey pot in a honey cassette also could melt when temperature is high. Therefore, the objective of this research is to investigate the temperature profile of a ventilated honey cassette exposed to outdoor conditions, and to evaluate the temperature regulation in the hive using the ventilated honey cassette. To achieve these objectives, two hives with conventional and ventilated honey cassettes were exposed under sun light in cloudy and sunny day. Temperature inside each hive was measured at 3 points and was compared. It was found that there is no significant different between the hives when both hives were exposed under direct sunlight in a cloudy day. However, two significant improvements were found for ventilated hive in sunny day. It could help to reduce temperature at wall of honey cassette consistently below 33°C. This could avoid the melting of propolis around the ventilated wall area. Furthermore, it could facilitate in better temperature reduction as compared to the conventional honey cassette. However, further study when there is a colony inside the hives must also be conducted to validate the results.

  17. Characterization of the novel In1059 harbouring VIM gene cassette

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dongguo Wang

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background VIM-type enzyme encodes the most widely acquired metallo-β-lactamases in Gram- negative bacteria. To obtain current epidemiological data for integrons from enterobacteriae in hospital, the study characterizes the genetic structure in In1059 by comparison with In846 integrons harbouring VIM gene and other class 1 integrons including In37, In62, In843 and In1021 with the aim of identifying the putative mechanisms involved integron mobilization and infer evolution of relevant integrons. Methods Six of 69 recombinant plasmids from clinical strains were found to be class 1 integrons by digestion with BamHI, drug susceptibility testing, conjugation experiments, PCR amplification, integron cloning and sequencing, genome comparison, and detection of carbapenemase activity. Results The sequences of the six recombinant plasmids encoding In1021, In843, In846, In37, In62, and the novel In1059 integron had approximate lengths of ~4.8-, 4.1-, 5.1-, 5.3-, 5.3- and 6.6- kb, respectively. The genetic structures of these integrons were mapped and characterized, and the carbapenemase activities of their parental strains were assessed. Conclusions Our results suggest that the six variable integron structures and regular variations that exist in the gene cassettes provide a putative mechanism for the integron changes. Our study has also shown that the genetic features in the integrons named above fall within a scheme involving the stepwise and parallel evolution of class 1 integron variation likely under antibiotic selection pressure in clinical settings.

  18. Modularity and its effects on innovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boer, Henrike Engele Elisabeth; Hansen, Poul H. Kyvsgård

    systematic work and management type of tasks, although it conflicts with the typical characteristics associated with the entrepreneur. If not managed properly, modularization can foster the modularity trap over time. At this stage intrapreneurial activities can help the organization stay ahead of the game......Purpose Through a discussion of the link between modularity and innovation, it is assessed whether and, then, when it is appropriate for an entrepreneur to apply modularity in his company’s innovation processes. Design/Methodology/Approach A conceptual paper, which aims to combine three theoretical...... fields: Modularity, Innovation, and Entrepreneurship Findings: Modularization can provide huge advantages for entrepreneurs. However, the true benefits can first be pursued when the product and production processes are mature enough. At this point of time the entrepreneur will need to accept more...

  19. Modular Design in Treaty Verification Equipment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Macarthur, Duncan Whittemore [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Benz, Jacob [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Tolk, Keith [Milagro Consulting, Albuquerque, NM (United States); Weber, Tom [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-01-27

    It is widely believed that modular design is a good thing. However, there are often few explicit arguments, or even an agreed range of definitions, to back up this belief. In this paper, we examine the potential range of design modularity, the implications of various amounts of modularity, and the advantages and disadvantages of each level of modular construction. We conclude with a comparison of the advantages and disadvantages of each type, as well as discuss many caveats that should be observed to take advantage of the positive features of modularity and minimize the effects of the negative. The tradeoffs described in this paper will be evaluated during the conceptual design to determine what amount of modularity should be included.

  20. Modular properties of 6d (DELL) systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aminov, G.; Mironov, A.; Morozov, A.

    2017-11-01

    If super-Yang-Mills theory possesses the exact conformal invariance, there is an additional modular invariance under the change of the complex bare charge [InlineMediaObject not available: see fulltext.]. The low-energy Seiberg-Witten prepotential ℱ( a), however, is not explicitly invariant, because the flat moduli also change a - → a D = ∂ℱ/∂ a. In result, the prepotential is not a modular form and depends also on the anomalous Eisenstein series E 2. This dependence is usually described by the universal MNW modular anomaly equation. We demonstrate that, in the 6 d SU( N) theory with two independent modular parameters τ and \\widehat{τ} , the modular anomaly equation changes, because the modular transform of τ is accompanied by an ( N -dependent!) shift of \\widehat{τ} and vice versa. This is a new peculiarity of double-elliptic systems, which deserves further investigation.

  1. Modular Robotics in an African Context

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Henrik Hautop

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we review the concept, development and use of modular robotic devices for education, health improvements, and business in Africa. The modular robotics inspired technology has the advantage of allowing any user easy access to a physical construction of new and advanced technology. We...... conceptualized several educational tools inspired by modular robotics for contextualized IT education in Tanzania, leading to a novel IT degree program and the development of East Africa’s first science and business park in Iringa, Tanzania. The prototypes inspired by modular robotics were developed in the local......, rural context and tested by local users in hospitals and rehabilitation centres. In this paper, we review the development of both modular building blocks for education and modular robotic tiles for rehabilitation in Tanzania....

  2. (Automated) software modularization using community detection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Klaus Marius; Manikas, Konstantinos

    2015-01-01

    The modularity of a software system is known to have an effect on, among other, development effort, change impact, and technical debt. Modularizing a specific system and evaluating this modularization is, however, challenging. In this paper, we apply community detection methods to the graph...... of class dependencies in software systems to find optimal modularizations through communities. We evaluate this approach through a study of 111 Java systems contained in the Qualitas Corpus. We found that using the modularity function of Newman with an Erdős-Rényi null-model and using the community...... detection algorithm of Reichardt and Bornholdt improved community quality for all systems, that coupling decreased for 99 of the systems, and that coherence increased for 102 of the systems. Furthermore, the modularity function correlates with existing metrics for coupling and coherence....

  3. Problems in the theory of modular forms

    CERN Document Server

    Murty, M Ram; Graves, Hester

    2016-01-01

    This book introduces the reader to the fascinating world of modular forms through a problem-solving approach. As such, besides researchers, the book can be used by the undergraduate and graduate students for self-instruction. The topics covered include q-series, the modular group, the upper half-plane, modular forms of level one and higher level, the Ramanujan τ-function, the Petersson inner product, Hecke operators, Dirichlet series attached to modular forms and further special topics. It can be viewed as a gentle introduction for a deeper study of the subject. Thus, it is ideal for non-experts seeking an entry into the field. .

  4. Cooption of an appendage-patterning gene cassette in the head segmentation of arachnids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setton, Emily V W; Sharma, Prashant P

    2018-04-10

    The jointed appendages of arthropods have facilitated the spectacular diversity and success of this phylum. Key to the regulation of appendage outgrowth is the Krüppel-like factor (KLF)/specificity protein (Sp) family of zinc finger transcription factors. In the fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster , the Sp6-9 homolog is activated by Wnt-1/wingless ( wg ) and establishes ventral appendage (leg) fate. Subsequently, Sp6-9 maintains expression of the axial patterning gene Distal-less ( Dll ), which promotes limb outgrowth. Intriguingly, in spiders, Dll has been reported to have a derived role as a segmentation gap gene, but the evolutionary origin and regulation of this function are not understood because functional investigations of the appendage-patterning regulatory network are restricted to insects. We tested the evolutionary conservation of the ancestral appendage-patterning network of arthropods with a functional approach in the spider. RNAi-mediated knockdown of the spider Sp6-9 ortholog resulted in diminution or loss of Dll expression and truncation of appendages, as well as loss of the two body segments specified by the early Dll function. In reciprocal experiments, Dll is shown not to be required for Sp6-9 expression. Knockdown of arrow (Wnt-1 coreceptor) disrupted segmentation and appendage development but did not affect the early Sp6-9 expression domain. Ectopic appendages generated in the spider "abdomen" by knockdown of the Hox gene Antennapedia-1 ( Antp-1 ) expressed Sp6-9 comparably to wild-type walking legs. Our results support ( i ) the evolutionary conservation of an appendage-patterning regulatory network that includes canonical Wnt signaling, Sp6-9 , and Dll and ( ii ) the cooption of the Sp6-9/Dll regulatory cassette in arachnid head segmentation.

  5. The modularity of pollination networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Jens Mogens; Bascompte, J.; Dupont, Yoko

    2007-01-01

    consist of strongly connected species. The importance of modularity has been discussed for a long time, but no consensus on its prevalence in ecological networks has yet been reached. Progress is hampered by inadequate methods and a lack of large datasets. We analyzed 51 pollination networks including...... linked species within their own module), connectors linking different modules, or both. If these key species go extinct, modules and networks may break apart and initiate cascades of extinction. Thus, species serving as hubs and connectors should receive high conservation priorities.    ...

  6. CP violation and modular symmetries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dent, Thomas

    2001-01-01

    We reconsider the origin of CP violation in fundamental theory. Existing string models of spontaneous CP violation make ambiguous predictions, due to the arbitrariness of CP transformation and the apparent noninvariance of the results under duality. We find a modular CP invariance condition, applicable to any predictive model of spontaneous CP violation, which circumvents these problems; it strongly constrains CP violation by heterotic string moduli. The dilaton is also evaluated as a source of CP violation, but is likely experimentally excluded. We consider the prospects for explaining CP violation in strongly coupled strings and brane worlds

  7. Modularity in New Market Formation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sanchez, Ron; Hang, Chang Chieh

    2017-01-01

    -powered two-wheeled vehicles (G2WVs) based (initially) on closed-system proprietary architectures and for electric-powered two-wheeled vehicles (E2WVs) based on open-system modular architectures. We draw on this comparison to suggest ways in which the use of the two different kinds of architectures...... the formation of an industrial base of assemblers and component suppliers, assisting new firms in building customer relationships, enabling more geographically diffused economic development within countries, and facilitating development of export markets. We also suggest directions for further research...

  8. Modular training for career counsellors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maruša Goršak

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Exactly ten years have passed since first attempts were made in Slovenia to establish a comprehensive and formalized educational program for counsellors working in the field of lifelong career guidance. In the past, organizations providing (career guidance services have established their own non-formal employee trainings. A step forward has been made under the framework of the project “National coordination point for lifelong career guidance”, which enabled the implementation of the first joint training for (career guidance counsellors, called Modular training of career counsellors.

  9. Construction of Marker-Free Transgenic Strains of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii Using a Cre/loxP-Mediated Recombinase System.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuki Kasai

    Full Text Available The Escherichia coli bacteriophage P1 encodes a site-specific recombinase called Cre and two 34-bp target sites of Cre recombinase called loxP. The Cre/loxP system has been used to achieve targeted insertion and precise deletion in many animal and plant genomes. The Cre/loxP system has particularly been used for the removal of selectable marker genes to create marker-free transgenic organisms. For the first time, we applied the Cre/loxP-mediated site-specific recombination system to Chlamydomonas reinhardtii to construct marker-free transgenic strains. Specifically, C. reinhardtii strains cc4350 and cc124 carrying an aphVIII expression cassette flanked by two direct repeats of loxP were constructed. Separately, a synthetic Cre recombinase gene (CrCRE, the codons of which were optimized for expression in C. reinhardtii, was synthesized, and a CrCRE expression cassette was introduced into strain cc4350 carrying a single copy of the loxP-flanked aphVIII expression cassette. Among 46 transformants carrying the CrCRE expression cassette stably, the excision of aphVIII by CrCre recombinase was observed only in one transformant. We then constructed an expression cassette of an in-frame fusion of ble to CrCRE via a short linker peptide. The product of ble (Ble is a bleomycin-binding protein that confers resistance to bleomycin-related antibiotics such as Zeocin and localizes in the nucleus. Therefore, the ble-(linker-CrCRE fusion protein is expected to localize in the nucleus. When the ble-(linker-CrCRE expression cassette was integrated into the genome of strain cc4350 carrying a single copy of the loxP-flanked aphVIII expression cassette, CrCre recombinase-mediated excision of the aphVIII expression cassette was observed at a frequency higher than that in stable transformants of the CrCRE expression cassette. Similarly, from strain cc124 carrying a single loxP-flanked aphVIII expression cassette, the aphVIII expression cassette was successfully

  10. Construction of Marker-Free Transgenic Strains of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii Using a Cre/loxP-Mediated Recombinase System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasai, Yuki; Harayama, Shigeaki

    2016-01-01

    The Escherichia coli bacteriophage P1 encodes a site-specific recombinase called Cre and two 34-bp target sites of Cre recombinase called loxP. The Cre/loxP system has been used to achieve targeted insertion and precise deletion in many animal and plant genomes. The Cre/loxP system has particularly been used for the removal of selectable marker genes to create marker-free transgenic organisms. For the first time, we applied the Cre/loxP-mediated site-specific recombination system to Chlamydomonas reinhardtii to construct marker-free transgenic strains. Specifically, C. reinhardtii strains cc4350 and cc124 carrying an aphVIII expression cassette flanked by two direct repeats of loxP were constructed. Separately, a synthetic Cre recombinase gene (CrCRE), the codons of which were optimized for expression in C. reinhardtii, was synthesized, and a CrCRE expression cassette was introduced into strain cc4350 carrying a single copy of the loxP-flanked aphVIII expression cassette. Among 46 transformants carrying the CrCRE expression cassette stably, the excision of aphVIII by CrCre recombinase was observed only in one transformant. We then constructed an expression cassette of an in-frame fusion of ble to CrCRE via a short linker peptide. The product of ble (Ble) is a bleomycin-binding protein that confers resistance to bleomycin-related antibiotics such as Zeocin and localizes in the nucleus. Therefore, the ble-(linker)-CrCRE fusion protein is expected to localize in the nucleus. When the ble-(linker)-CrCRE expression cassette was integrated into the genome of strain cc4350 carrying a single copy of the loxP-flanked aphVIII expression cassette, CrCre recombinase-mediated excision of the aphVIII expression cassette was observed at a frequency higher than that in stable transformants of the CrCRE expression cassette. Similarly, from strain cc124 carrying a single loxP-flanked aphVIII expression cassette, the aphVIII expression cassette was successfully excised after

  11. Evolutionary relationships of ATP-Binding Cassette (ABC) uptake porters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Wei Hao; Västermark, Åke; Shlykov, Maksim A; Reddy, Vamsee; Sun, Eric I; Saier, Milton H

    2013-05-06

    The ATP-Binding Cassette (ABC) functional superfamily includes integral transmembrane exporters that have evolved three times independently, forming three families termed ABC1, ABC2 and ABC3, upon which monophyletic ATPases have been superimposed for energy-coupling purposes [e.g., J Membr Biol 231(1):1-10, 2009]. The goal of the work reported in this communication was to understand how the integral membrane constituents of ABC uptake transporters with different numbers of predicted or established transmembrane segments (TMSs) evolved. In a few cases, high resolution 3-dimensional structures were available, and in these cases, their structures plus primary sequence analyses allowed us to predict evolutionary pathways of origin. All of the 35 currently recognized families of ABC uptake proteins except for one (family 21) were shown to be homologous using quantitative statistical methods. These methods involved using established programs that compare native protein sequences with each other, after having compared each sequence with thousands of its own shuffled sequences, to gain evidence for homology. Topological analyses suggested that these porters contain numbers of TMSs ranging from four or five to twenty. Intragenic duplication events occurred multiple times during the evolution of these porters. They originated from a simple primordial protein containing 3 TMSs which duplicated to 6 TMSs, and then produced porters of the various topologies via insertions, deletions and further duplications. Except for family 21 which proved to be related to ABC1 exporters, they are all related to members of the previously identified ABC2 exporter family. Duplications that occurred in addition to the primordial 3 → 6 duplication included 5 → 10, 6 → 12 and 10 → 20 TMSs. In one case, protein topologies were uncertain as different programs gave discrepant predictions. It could not be concluded with certainty whether a 4 TMS ancestral protein or a 5 TMS ancestral protein

  12. Development of a full-size divertor cassette prototype for ITER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ulrickson, M.A. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Vieider, G.; Pacher, H.D. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, Garching (Germany). NET Design Team] [and others

    1996-10-01

    Production of a full-size divertor cassette involves eight major components. All of the components are mounted on the cassette body. Inner divertor channel components for the vertical target design are being provided by the Japan Home Team. Outer divertor channel components for the vertical target design are being provided by the European and United States Home Teams. Gas box liners are being provided by the Russian Home Team. The full-size components manufactured by the four parties will be shipped to the US Home Team for assembly into a full size divertor cassette. The techniques for assembly and maintenance of the cassette will be demonstrated during this process. The assembled cassette will be tested for proper flow distribution and proof of the filling and draining procedures. The testing will include vacuum leak tightness at full temperature and pressure, cyclic heating to 150 {degrees}C, verification of dimensional accuracy of the assembled components, and application of thermal gradients to measure dimensional stability. The development of the divertor for the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) depends on successful R&D efforts on materials, joining, and plasma materials interactions. Results of the development program are presented. The scale-up of the processes developed in the basic research and development tasks is accomplished by producing and high-heat-flux testing medium and full-scale mock- ups. The design of the mock-ups is discussed.

  13. Development of a full-size divertor cassette prototype for ITER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ulrickson, M.A.; Vieider, G.; Pacher, H.D.

    1996-01-01

    Production of a full-size divertor cassette involves eight major components. All of the components are mounted on the cassette body. Inner divertor channel components for the vertical target design are being provided by the Japan Home Team. Outer divertor channel components for the vertical target design are being provided by the European and United States Home Teams. Gas box liners are being provided by the Russian Home Team. The full-size components manufactured by the four parties will be shipped to the US Home Team for assembly into a full size divertor cassette. The techniques for assembly and maintenance of the cassette will be demonstrated during this process. The assembled cassette will be tested for proper flow distribution and proof of the filling and draining procedures. The testing will include vacuum leak tightness at full temperature and pressure, cyclic heating to 150 degrees C, verification of dimensional accuracy of the assembled components, and application of thermal gradients to measure dimensional stability. The development of the divertor for the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) depends on successful R ampersand D efforts on materials, joining, and plasma materials interactions. Results of the development program are presented. The scale-up of the processes developed in the basic research and development tasks is accomplished by producing and high-heat-flux testing medium and full-scale mock- ups. The design of the mock-ups is discussed

  14. Theta function identities associated with Ramanujan's modular ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. We present alternative proofs of some of Ramanujan's theta function identities associated with the modular equations of composite degree 15. Along the way we also find some new theta-function identities. We also give simple proofs of his modular equations of degree 15.

  15. Analytic properties of the Virasoro modular kernel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nemkov, Nikita [Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology (MIPT), Dolgoprudny (Russian Federation); Institute for Theoretical and Experimental Physics (ITEP), Moscow (Russian Federation); National University of Science and Technology MISIS, The Laboratory of Superconducting metamaterials, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2017-06-15

    On the space of generic conformal blocks the modular transformation of the underlying surface is realized as a linear integral transformation. We show that the analytic properties of conformal block implied by Zamolodchikov's formula are shared by the kernel of the modular transformation and illustrate this by explicit computation in the case of the one-point toric conformal block. (orig.)

  16. Theta function identities associated with Ramanujan's modular ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In Chapter 20 of his second notebook [6], Ramanujan recorded several theta function identities associated with modular equations of composite degree 15. These identities have previously been proved by Berndt in [3]. But he proved most of these theta function identities using modular equations. These identities can also ...

  17. Modular networks with hierarchical organization: The dynamical ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    For both of these, we find that, increasing modularity or the number of hierarchical levels tends to increase the probability of instability. As both hierarchy and modularity are seen in natural systems, which necessarily have to be robust against environmental fluctuations, we conclude that additional constraints are necessary ...

  18. The Algorithmic Complexity of Modular Decomposition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.C. Bioch (Cor)

    2001-01-01

    textabstractModular decomposition is a thoroughly investigated topic in many areas such as switching theory, reliability theory, game theory and graph theory. We propose an O(mn)-algorithm for the recognition of a modular set of a monotone Boolean function f with m prime implicants and n variables.

  19. ATP-Binding Cassette Transporters, Atherosclerosis, and Inflammation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westerterp, Marit; Bochem, Andrea E.; Yvan-Charvet, Laurent; Murphy, Andrew J.; Wang, Nan; Tall, Alan R.

    2014-01-01

    Although recent genome-wide association studies have called into question the causal relationship between high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol levels and cardiovascular disease, ongoing research in animals and cells has produced increasing evidence that cholesterol efflux pathways mediated by

  20. RoboMusic with Modular Playware

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Henrik Hautop; Bærendsen, Niels Kristian; Nielsen, Jacob

    2010-01-01

    , immediate feedback to stimulate engagement, creative exploration of play activities, and in some cases activity design by end-users (e.g. DJ’s). We exemplify the approach with the development of 11 rock genres and 6 pop music pieces for modular I-BLOCKS, which are exhibited and in daily use at the Rock Me......Based on the concepts of RoboMusic and Modular Playware, we developed a system composed of modular playware devices, which allow any user to perform music in a simple, interactive manner. The key features exploited from the Modular Playware approach are modularity, flexibility, and construction...... exhibition and used at several international music events in Japan and USA. A key finding is that the professional music design is essential for the development of primitives in a musical behaviourbased system and this professional aesthetics is necessary for engaging the users in the activity of assembling...

  1. RoboMusic with modular playware

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Falkenberg, Kasper; Bærendsen, Niels Kristian; Nielsen, Jacob

    2011-01-01

    , immediate feedback to stimulate engagement, creative exploration of play activities, and in some cases activity design by end-users (e.g., DJs). We exemplify the approach with the development of 11 rock genres and 6 pop music pieces for modular I-BLOCKS, which are exhibited and in daily use at the Rock Me......Based on the concepts of RoboMusic and modular playware, we developed a system composed of modular playware devices which allow any user to perform music in a simple, interactive manner. The key features exploited in the modular playware approach are modularity, fl exibility, construction...... exhibition, and have been used at several international music events in Japan and the USA. A key fi nding is that professional music design is essential for the development of primitives in a musical behavior-based system, and this professional esthetics is necessary to engage the users in the activity...

  2. The ancient small mobilizable plasmid pALWED1.8 harboring a new variant of the non-cassette streptomycin/spectinomycin resistance gene aadA27.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurakov, Anton; Mindlin, Sofia; Beletsky, Alexey; Shcherbatova, Natalya; Rakitin, Andrey; Ermakova, Aleksandra; Mardanov, Andrey; Petrova, Mayya

    2016-01-01

    The small mobilizable plasmid pALWED1.8 containing a novel variant of the streptomycin/spectinomycin resistance gene aadA27 was isolated from the permafrost strains of Acinetobacter lwoffii. The 4135bp plasmid carries mobА and mobC genes that mediate its mobilization by conjugative plasmids. The nucleotide sequences of mobА and mobC are similar to those of mobilization genes of the modern plasmid pRAY* and its variants, which contain aadB gene, and are widespread among the pathogenic strains of Acinetobacter baumannii. Almost identical pALWED1.8 variants were detected in modern environmental Аcinetobacter strains. A highly similar plasmid was revealed in a strain of Acinetobacter parvus isolated from mouse intestine. Furthermore, we discovered six previously unidentified variants of plasmids related to pALWED1.8 and pRAY* in public databases. In contrast to most known variants of aadA which are cassette genes associated with integrons, the aadA27 variant harbored by pALWED1.8 is a non-cassette, autonomously transcribed gene. Non-cassette aadA genes with 96% sequence identity to aadA27 were detected in the chromosomes of Acinetobacter gyllenbergii and several uncharacterized strains of Аcinetobacter sp. Moreover, we revealed that the autonomous aadA-like genes are present in the chromosomes of many gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria. The phylogenetic analysis of amino acid sequences of all identified AadA proteins showed the following: (i) cassette aadA genes form a separate monophyletic group and mainly reside on plasmids and (ii) chromosomal non-cassette aadA genes are extremely diverse and can be inherited both vertical and via horizontal gene transfer. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Small Modular Reactors: Institutional Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joseph Perkowski, Ph.D.

    2012-06-01

    ? Objectives include, among others, a description of the basic development status of “small modular reactors” (SMRs) focused primarily on domestic activity; investigation of the domestic market appeal of modular reactors from the viewpoints of both key energy sector customers and also key stakeholders in the financial community; and consideration of how to proceed further with a pro-active "core group" of stakeholders substantially interested in modular nuclear deployment in order to provide the basis to expedite design/construction activity and regulatory approval. ? Information gathering was via available resources, both published and personal communications with key individual stakeholders; published information is limited to that already in public domain (no confidentiality); viewpoints from interviews are incorporated within. Discussions at both government-hosted and private-hosted SMR meetings are reflected herein. INL itself maintains a neutral view on all issues described. Note: as per prior discussion between INL and CAP, individual and highly knowledgeable senior-level stakeholders provided the bulk of insights herein, and the results of those interviews are the main source of the observations of this report. ? Attachment A is the list of individual stakeholders consulted to date, including some who provided significant earlier assessments of SMR institutional feasibility. ? Attachments B, C, and D are included to provide substantial context on the international status of SMR development; they are not intended to be comprehensive and are individualized due to the separate nature of the source materials. Attachment E is a summary of the DOE requirements for winning teams regarding the current SMR solicitation. Attachment F deserves separate consideration due to the relative maturity of the SMART SMR program underway in Korea. Attachment G provides illustrative SMR design features and is intended for background. Attachment H is included for overview

  4. Overexpression of the ATP-binding cassette half-transporter, ABCG2 (Mxr/BCrp/ABCP1), in flavopiridol-resistant human breast cancer cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Robey, R W; Medina-Pérez, W Y; Nishiyama, K

    2001-01-01

    We sought to characterize the interactions of flavopiridol with members of the ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter family. Cells overexpressing multidrug resistance-1 (MDR-1) and multidrug resistance-associated protein (MRP) did not exhibit appreciable flavopiridol resistance, whereas cell lines...... overexpressing the ABC half-transporter, ABCG2 (MXR/BCRP/ABCP1), were found to be resistant to flavopiridol. Flavopiridol at a concentration of 10 microM was able to prevent MRP-mediated calcein efflux, whereas Pgp-mediated transport of rhodamine 123 was unaffected at flavopiridol concentrations of up to 100...... microM. To determine putative mechanisms of resistance to flavopiridol, we exposed the human breast cancer cell line MCF-7 to incrementally increasing concentrations of flavopiridol. The resulting resistant subline, MCF-7 FLV1000, is maintained in 1,000 nM flavopiridol and was found to be 24-fold...

  5. Overexpression of the ATP-binding cassette half-transporter, ABCG2 (Mxr/BCrp/ABCP1), in flavopiridol-resistant human breast cancer cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Robey, R W; Medina-Pérez, W Y; Nishiyama, K

    2001-01-01

    We sought to characterize the interactions of flavopiridol with members of the ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter family. Cells overexpressing multidrug resistance-1 (MDR-1) and multidrug resistance-associated protein (MRP) did not exhibit appreciable flavopiridol resistance, whereas cell lines...... overexpressing the ABC half-transporter, ABCG2 (MXR/BCRP/ABCP1), were found to be resistant to flavopiridol. Flavopiridol at a concentration of 10 microM was able to prevent MRP-mediated calcein efflux, whereas Pgp-mediated transport of rhodamine 123 was unaffected at flavopiridol concentrations of up to 100...... resistant to flavopiridol, as well as highly cross-resistant to mitoxantrone (675-fold), topotecan (423-fold), and SN-38 (950-fold), the active metabolite of irinotecan. Because this cross-resistance pattern is consistent with that reported for ABCG2-overexpressing cells, cytotoxicity studies were repeated...

  6. Development and clinical application of digital book cassette tomography within an emergency radiology department

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milos, M.J.; Widoff, B.E.; Nichols, T.

    1988-01-01

    This paper describes a rapid means of acquiring digital book cassette tomographic images designed and evaluated within an emergency radiology setting. A conventional Bucky tray was modified to accept a 2-cm book cassette. Body phantom experiments using a variety of imaging plates, screens and spacers preceded a clinical series of nine patient studies. The use of imaging plates of increasing sensitivity resulted in superior images, improved efficiency, a 70% reduction in radiation dose, and no need for collimation, scout views, or a darkroom

  7. MODULAR MANIPULATOR FOR ROBOTICS APPLICATIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joseph W. Geisinger, Ph.D.

    2001-07-31

    ARM Automation, Inc. is developing a framework of modular actuators that can address the DOE's wide range of robotics needs. The objective of this effort is to demonstrate the effectiveness of this technology by constructing a manipulator from these actuators within a glovebox for Automated Plutonium Processing (APP). At the end of the project, the system of actuators was used to construct several different manipulator configurations, which accommodate common glovebox tasks such as repackaging. The modular nature and quickconnects of this system simplify installation into ''hot'' boxes and any potential modifications or repair therein. This work focused on the development of self-contained robotic actuator modules including the embedded electronic controls for the purpose of building a manipulator system. Both of the actuators developed under this project contain the control electronics, sensors, motor, gear train, wiring, system communications and mechanical interfaces of a complete robotics servo device. Test actuators and accompanying DISC{trademark}s underwent validation testing at The University of Texas at Austin and ARM Automation, Inc. following final design and fabrication. The system also included custom links, an umbilical cord, an open architecture PC-based system controller, and operational software that permitted integration into a completely functional robotic manipulator system. The open architecture on which this system is based avoids proprietary interfaces and communication protocols which only serve to limit the capabilities and flexibility of automation equipment. The system was integrated and tested in the contractor's facility for intended performance and operations. The manipulator was tested using the full-scale equipment and process mock-ups. The project produced a practical and operational system including a quantitative evaluation of its performance and cost.

  8. MODULAR MANIPULATOR FOR ROBOTICS APPLICATIONS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geisinger, Joseph W. Ph.D.

    2001-01-01

    ARM Automation, Inc. is developing a FR-amework of modular actuators that can address the DOE's wide range of robotics needs. The objective of this effort is to demonstrate the effectiveness of this technology by constructing a manipulator FR-om these actuators within a glovebox for Automated Plutonium Processing (APP). At the end of the project, the system of actuators was used to construct several different manipulator configurations, which accommodate common glovebox tasks such as repackaging. The modular nature and quickconnects of this system simplify installation into ''hot'' boxes and any potential modifications or repair therein. This work focused on the development of self-contained robotic actuator modules including the embedded electronic controls for the purpose of building a manipulator system. Both of the actuators developed under this project contain the control electronics, sensors, motor, gear train, wiring, system communications and mechanical interfaces of a complete robotics servo device. Test actuators and accompanying DISC(trademark)s underwent validation testing at The University of Texas at Austin and ARM Automation, Inc. following final design and fabrication. The system also included custom links, an umbilical cord, an open architecture PC-based system controller, and operational software that permitted integration into a completely functional robotic manipulator system. The open architecture on which this system is based avoids proprietary interfaces and communication protocols which only serve to limit the capabilities and flexibility of automation equipment. The system was integrated and tested in the contractor's facility for intended performance and operations. The manipulator was tested using the full-scale equipment and process mock-ups. The project produced a practical and operational system including a quantitative evaluation of its performance and cost

  9. Metabolomic Modularity Analysis (MMA) to Quantify Human Liver Perfusion Dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sridharan, Gautham Vivek; Bruinsma, Bote; Bale, Shyam Sundhar; Swaminathan, Anandh; Saeidi, Nima; Yarmush, Martin L; Uygun, Korkut

    2017-11-13

    Large-scale -omics data are now ubiquitously utilized to capture and interpret global responses to perturbations in biological systems, such as the impact of disease states on cells, tissues, and whole organs. Metabolomics data, in particular, are difficult to interpret for providing physiological insight because predefined biochemical pathways used for analysis are inherently biased and fail to capture more complex network interactions that span multiple canonical pathways. In this study, we introduce a nov-el approach coined Metabolomic Modularity Analysis (MMA) as a graph-based algorithm to systematically identify metabolic modules of reactions enriched with metabolites flagged to be statistically significant. A defining feature of the algorithm is its ability to determine modularity that highlights interactions between reactions mediated by the production and consumption of cofactors and other hub metabolites. As a case study, we evaluated the metabolic dynamics of discarded human livers using time-course metabolomics data and MMA to identify modules that explain the observed physiological changes leading to liver recovery during subnormothermic machine perfusion (SNMP). MMA was performed on a large scale liver-specific human metabolic network that was weighted based on metabolomics data and identified cofactor-mediated modules that would not have been discovered by traditional metabolic pathway analyses.

  10. Size reduction of complex networks preserving modularity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arenas, A; Duch, J; Fernandez, A; Gomez, S

    2007-01-01

    The ubiquity of modular structure in real-world complex networks is the focus of attention in many trials to understand the interplay between network topology and functionality. The best approaches to the identification of modular structure are based on the optimization of a quality function known as modularity. However this optimization is a hard task provided that the computational complexity of the problem is in the non-deterministic polynomial-time hard (NP-hard) class. Here we propose an exact method for reducing the size of weighted (directed and undirected) complex networks while maintaining their modularity. This size reduction allows use of heuristic algorithms that optimize modularity for a better exploration of the modularity landscape. We compare the modularity obtained in several real complex-networks by using the extremal optimization algorithm, before and after the size reduction, showing the improvement obtained. We speculate that the proposed analytical size reduction could be extended to an exact coarse graining of the network in the scope of real-space renormalization

  11. Specialization can drive the evolution of modularity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Espinosa-Soto

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Organismal development and many cell biological processes are organized in a modular fashion, where regulatory molecules form groups with many interactions within a group and few interactions between groups. Thus, the activity of elements within a module depends little on elements outside of it. Modularity facilitates the production of heritable variation and of evolutionary innovations. There is no consensus on how modularity might evolve, especially for modules in development. We show that modularity can increase in gene regulatory networks as a byproduct of specialization in gene activity. Such specialization occurs after gene regulatory networks are selected to produce new gene activity patterns that appear in a specific body structure or under a specific environmental condition. Modules that arise after specialization in gene activity comprise genes that show concerted changes in gene activities. This and other observations suggest that modularity evolves because it decreases interference between different groups of genes. Our work can explain the appearance and maintenance of modularity through a mechanism that is not contingent on environmental change. We also show how modularity can facilitate co-option, the utilization of existing gene activity to build new gene activity patterns, a frequent feature of evolutionary innovations.

  12. Sequencing of IncX-plasmids suggests ubiquity of mobile forms of a biofilm-promoting gene cassette recruited from Klebsiella pneumoniae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mette Burmølle

    Full Text Available Plasmids are a highly effective means with which genetic traits that influence human health, such as virulence and antibiotic resistance, are disseminated through bacterial populations. The IncX-family is a hitherto sparsely populated group of plasmids that are able to thrive within Enterobacteriaceae. In this study, a replicon-centric screening method was used to locate strains from wastewater sludge containing plasmids belonging to the IncX-family. A transposon aided plasmid capture method was then employed to transport IncX-plasmids from their original hosts (and co-hosted plasmids into a laboratory strain (Escherichia coli Genehogs® for further study. The nucleotide sequences of the three newly isolated IncX-plasmids (pLN126_33, pMO17_54, pMO440_54 and the hitherto un-sequenced type-plasmid R485 revealed a remarkable occurrence of whole or partial gene cassettes that promote biofilm-formation in Klebsiella pneumonia or E. coli, in all four instances. Two of the plasmids (R485 and pLN126_33 were shown to directly induce biofilm formation in a crystal violet retention assay in E. coli. Sequence comparison revealed that all plasmid-borne forms of the type 3 fimbriae encoding gene cassette mrkABCDF were variations of a composite transposon Tn6011 first described in the E. coli IncX plasmid pOLA52. In conclusion, IncX-plasmids isolated from Enterobacteriaceae over almost 40 years and on three different continents have all been shown to carry a type 3 fimbriae gene cassette mrkABCDF stemming from pathogenic K. pneumoniae. Apart from contributing general knowledge about IncX-plasmids, this study also suggests an apparent ubiquity of a mobile form of an important virulence factor and is an illuminating example of the recruitment, evolution and dissemination of genetic traits through plasmid-mediated horizontal gene transfer.

  13. Sequencing of IncX-plasmids suggests ubiquity of mobile forms of a biofilm-promoting gene cassette recruited from Klebsiella pneumoniae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burmølle, Mette; Norman, Anders; Sørensen, Søren J; Hansen, Lars Hestbjerg

    2012-01-01

    Plasmids are a highly effective means with which genetic traits that influence human health, such as virulence and antibiotic resistance, are disseminated through bacterial populations. The IncX-family is a hitherto sparsely populated group of plasmids that are able to thrive within Enterobacteriaceae. In this study, a replicon-centric screening method was used to locate strains from wastewater sludge containing plasmids belonging to the IncX-family. A transposon aided plasmid capture method was then employed to transport IncX-plasmids from their original hosts (and co-hosted plasmids) into a laboratory strain (Escherichia coli Genehogs®) for further study. The nucleotide sequences of the three newly isolated IncX-plasmids (pLN126_33, pMO17_54, pMO440_54) and the hitherto un-sequenced type-plasmid R485 revealed a remarkable occurrence of whole or partial gene cassettes that promote biofilm-formation in Klebsiella pneumonia or E. coli, in all four instances. Two of the plasmids (R485 and pLN126_33) were shown to directly induce biofilm formation in a crystal violet retention assay in E. coli. Sequence comparison revealed that all plasmid-borne forms of the type 3 fimbriae encoding gene cassette mrkABCDF were variations of a composite transposon Tn6011 first described in the E. coli IncX plasmid pOLA52. In conclusion, IncX-plasmids isolated from Enterobacteriaceae over almost 40 years and on three different continents have all been shown to carry a type 3 fimbriae gene cassette mrkABCDF stemming from pathogenic K. pneumoniae. Apart from contributing general knowledge about IncX-plasmids, this study also suggests an apparent ubiquity of a mobile form of an important virulence factor and is an illuminating example of the recruitment, evolution and dissemination of genetic traits through plasmid-mediated horizontal gene transfer.

  14. A Modular Approach to Redundant Robot Control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, R.J.

    1997-12-01

    This paper describes a modular approach for computing redundant robot kinematics. First some conventional redundant control methods are presented and shown to be `passive control laws`, i.e. they can be represented by a network consisting of passive elements. These networks are then put into modular form by applying scattering operator techniques. Additional subnetwork modules can then be added to further shape the motion. Modules for obstacle detection, joint limit avoidance, proximity sensing, and for imposing nonlinear velocity constraints are presented. The resulting redundant robot control system is modular, flexible and robust.

  15. Enablers & Barriers for Realizing Modularity Benefits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Storbjerg, Simon Haahr; Brunø, Thomas Ditlev; Thyssen, Jesper

    2012-01-01

    far less attention compared to the theories and methods concerning modularization of technical systems. Harvesting the full potential of modularization, particularly in relation to product development agility, depends on more than an optimal architecture. Key enablers in this context...... are the organizational and systems related aspects. Recognizing the need for guidance to realize the benefits of modularity, the purpose of this study is through a literature study and a case study to improve the insight into the organizational and systems related enablers and barriers with regard to obtaining the full...

  16. Towards a Standard for Modular Petri Nets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kindler, Ekkart; Petrucci, Laure

    2009-01-01

    When designing complex systems, mechanisms for structuring, composing, and reusing system components are crucial. Today, there are many approaches for equipping Petri nets with such mechanisms. In the context of defining a standard interchange format for Petri nets, modular PNML was defined...... as a mechanism for modules in Petri nets that is independent from a particular version of Petri nets and that can mimic many composition mechanisms by a simple import and export concept. Due to its generality, the semantics of modular PNML was only informally defined. Moreover, modular PNML did not define which...

  17. Modular robotic tiles: experiments for children with autism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Henrik Hautop; Dam Pedersen, Martin; Beck, Richard

    2009-01-01

    We developed a modular robotic tile and a system composed of a number of these modular robotic tiles. The system composed of the modular robotic tiles engages the user in physical activities, e.g., physiotherapy, sports, fitness, and entertainment. The modular robotic tiles motivate the user to p...

  18. Conceptual design of divertor cassette handling by remote handling system of JT-60SA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayashi, Takao; Sakurai, Shinji; Masaki, Kei; Tamai, Hiroshi; Yoshida, Kiyoshi; Matsukawa, Makoto

    2008-01-01

    The JT-60SA aims to contribute and supplement ITER toward demonstration fusion reactor based on tokamak concept. One of the features of JT-60SA is its high power long pulse heating, causing the large annual neutron fluence. Because the expected dose rate at the vacuum vessel (VV) may exceed 1 mSv/hr after 10 years operation and three month cooling, the human access inside the VV is restricted. Therefore a remote handling (RH) system is necessary for the maintenance and repair of in-vessel components. This paper described the RH system of JT-60SA, especially the expansion of the RH rail and exchange of the divertor cassettes. The RH rail is divided into nine and three-point mounting. The nine sections can cover 225 degrees in toroidal direction. A divertor cassette, which is 10 degrees wide in toroidal direction and weighs 500 kg itself due to the limitations of port width and handling weight, can be exchanged by heavy weight manipulator (HWM). The HWM brings the divertor cassette to the front of the other RH port, which is used for supporting the rail and/or carrying in and out equipments. Then another RH device receives and brings out the cassette by a pallet installed from outside the VV. (author)

  19. A fluorescent cassette-based strategy for engineering multiple domain fusion proteins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khorchid Ahmad

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The engineering of fusion proteins has become increasingly important and most recently has formed the basis of many biosensors, protein purification systems, and classes of new drugs. Currently, most fusion proteins consist of three or fewer domains, however, more sophisticated designs could easily involve three or more domains. Using traditional subcloning strategies, this requires micromanagement of restriction enzymes sites that results in complex workaround solutions, if any at all. Results Therefore, to aid in the efficient construction of fusion proteins involving multiple domains, we have created a new expression vector that allows us to rapidly generate a library of cassettes. Cassettes have a standard vector structure based on four specific restriction endonuclease sites and using a subtle property of blunt or compatible cohesive end restriction enzymes, they can be fused in any order and number of times. Furthermore, the insertion of PCR products into our expression vector or the recombination of cassettes can be dramatically simplified by screening for the presence or absence of fluorescence. Conclusions Finally, the utility of this new strategy was demonstrated by the creation of basic cassettes for protein targeting to subcellular organelles and for protein purification using multiple affinity tags.

  20. Engineered XcmI cassette-containing vector for PCR-based ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    A simple and general method is described to construct a new vector bearing a synthetic XcmI cassette for direct cloning of PCR-amplified genes of interest. Cleavage of the vector with XcmI generates a linearized molecule with a single thymidine (T) overhang at the 3′ ends (T-vector) that facilitates TA cloning of PCR ...

  1. A chloride-inducible gene expression cassette and its use in induced lysis of Lactococcus lactis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sanders, Jan Willem; Venema, Gerard; Kok, Jan

    1997-01-01

    A chloride-inducible promoter previously isolated from the chromosome of Lactococcus lactis (J. W. Sanders, G. Venema, J. Kok, and K. Leenhouts, Mol. Gen. Genet., in press) was exploited for the inducible expression of homologous and heterologous gens. An expression cassette consisting of the

  2. Structure-function analysis of peroxisomal ATP-binding cassette transporters using chimeric dimers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geillon, Flore; Gondcaille, Catherine; Charbonnier, Soëli; van Roermund, Carlo W.; Lopez, Tatiana E.; Dias, Alexandre M. M.; Pais de Barros, Jean-Paul; Arnould, Christine; Wanders, Ronald J.; Trompier, Doriane; Savary, Stéphane

    2014-01-01

    ABCD1 and ABCD2 are two closely related ATP-binding cassette half-transporters predicted to homodimerize and form peroxisomal importers for fatty acyl-CoAs. Available evidence has shown that ABCD1 and ABCD2 display a distinct but overlapping substrate specificity, although much remains to be learned

  3. Serum albumin promotes ATP-binding cassette transporter-dependent sterol uptake in yeast

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marek, Magdalena; Silvestro, Daniele; Fredslund, Maria D.

    2014-01-01

    Sterol uptake in fungi is a multistep process that involves interaction between external sterols and the cell wall, incorporation of sterol molecules into the plasma membrane, and subsequent integration into intracellular membranes for turnover. ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters have been i...

  4. Metabolism of ATP-binding cassette drug transporter inhibitors: complicating factor for multidrug resistance.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cnubben, N.H.; Wortelboer, H.M.; Zanden, J.J. van; Rietjens, I.M.; Bladeren, P.J. van

    2005-01-01

    Membrane transport proteins belonging to the ATP-binding cassette (ABC) family of transport proteins play a central role in the defence of organisms against toxic compounds, including anticancer drugs. However, for compounds that are designed to display a toxic effect, this defence system diminishes

  5. Engineered XcmI cassette-containing vector for PCR-based ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    and pT7Blue (Novagen), are expensive and cannot be re- generated in the laboratory for further use. We describe here the development of a simple and general method for constructing T-vectors bearing an oligonucleotide cassette that produces complementary 3′ thymidine overhangs by restriction enzyme digestion.

  6. Construction of heterologous gene expression cassettes for the development of recombinant Clostridium beijerinckii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Young Hoon; Eom, Gyeong Tae; Kang, Kyoung Hee; Joo, Jeong Chan; Jang, Young-Ah; Choi, Jae Woo; Song, Bong Keun; Lee, Seung Hwan; Park, Si Jae

    2016-04-01

    Gene-expression cassettes for the construction of recombinant Clostridium beijerinckii were developed as potential tools for metabolic engineering of C. beijerinckii. Gene expression cassettes containing ColE1 origin and pAMB origin along with the erythromycin resistance gene were constructed, in which promoters from Escherichia coli, Lactococcus lactis, Ralstonia eutropha, C. acetobutylicum, and C. beijerinckii are examined as potential promoters in C. beijerinckii. Zymogram analysis of the cell extracts and comparison of lipase activities of the recombinant C. beijerinckii strains expressing Pseudomonas fluorescens tliA gene suggested that the tliA gene was functionally expressed by all the examined promoters with different expression level. Also, recombinant C. beijerinckii expressing C. beijerinckii secondary alcohol dehydrogenase by the constructed expression cassettes successfully produced 2-propanol from glucose. The best promoter for TliA expression was the R. eutropha phaP promoter while that for 2-propanol production was the putative C. beijerinckii pta promoter. Gene expression cassettes developed in this study may be useful tools for the construction of recombinant C. beijerinckii strains as host strains for the valuable chemicals and fuels from renewable resources.

  7. Engineered XcmI cassette-containing vector for PCR-based ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    T-vector; direct cloning; XcmI cassette; sequencing; PCR; marine population genetics. Author Affiliations. Futoshi Aranishi1 2 Takane Okimoto1 3. Molecular Biology Division, National Institute of Fisheries Science, Yokohama 236-8648, Japan; Department of Biological and Environmental Sciences, Mirjazaki University, ...

  8. Modular Solar Electric Power (MSEP) Systems (Presentation)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hassani, V.

    2000-06-18

    This presentation discusses the development and deployment of Modular Solar Electric Power (MSEP) systems, the feasibility of application of existing binary power cycles to solar trough technology, and identification of next action items.

  9. Automatic Modeling and Simulation of Modular Robots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, C.; Wei, H.; Zhang, Y.

    2018-03-01

    The ability of reconfiguration makes modular robots have the ability of adaptable, low-cost, self-healing and fault-tolerant. It can also be applied to a variety of mission situations. In this manuscript, a robot platform which relied on the module library was designed, based on the screw theory and module theory. Then, the configuration design method of the modular robot was proposed. And the different configurations of modular robot system have been built, including industrial mechanical arms, the mobile platform, six-legged robot and 3D exoskeleton manipulator. Finally, the simulation and verification of one system among them have been made, using the analyses of screw kinematics and polynomial planning. The results of experiments demonstrate the feasibility and superiority of this modular system.

  10. Modular Stirling Power System (MSPS), Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Infinia Technology Corporation's (ITC) proposed Modular Stirling Power System (MSPS) is a free-piston Stirling system that addresses NASA needs in 12-kW increments....

  11. Identification of drivers for modular production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brunoe, Thomas Ditlev; Bossen, Jacob; Nielsen, Kjeld

    2015-01-01

    Todays competitive environment in industry creates a need for companies to enhance their ability to introduce new products faster. To increase rampup speed reconfigurable manufacturing systems is a promising concept, however to implement this production platforms and modular manufacturing...

  12. Automatic Specialization of Modular Robot Limbs

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Modular robotic systems have the potential to be adapted to varying tasks using a single platform and enable customizable robots to be developed faster and more...

  13. Understanding Complex Construction Systems Through Modularity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Tor Clarke; Bekdik, Baris; Thuesen, Christian

    2014-01-01

    finds that the main driver of complexity is the fragmentation of the design and production, which causes the production modules to construct and install new product types and variants for each project as the designers are swapped for every project. The many interfaces are characteristics of an integral......This paper develops a framework for understanding complexity in construction projects by combining theories of complexity management and modularization. The framework incorporates three dimensions of product, process, and organizational modularity with the case of gypsum wall elements. The analysis...... system, rather than a modular, although the industry forces modular organizational structures. This creates a high complexity degree caused by the non-alignment of building parts and organizations and the frequent swapping of modules....

  14. Modular Product Families and Assembly Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thyssen, Jesper

    2005-01-01

    of the rela-tionship between variables associated with configuration of modular product families and the interacting assembly system. One core result is the development of a system model based on the longitudinal case study incorporating both structural and performance elements. Based on the system model......This research centres on assembly systems designed for utilizing product modularization. Altogether, the task for companies has become an issue of managing the overall trade-off between the external market’s desire for variety and the internal efficiency and effectiveness. Product modularization...... is often claimed to be the answer to this trade-off in the extant literature. The overall research purpose has been to investigate the phenomena of product modularization as an apparently both powerful and com-plex means. The focal research objective is to obtain an improved insight and understanding...

  15. Modular networks with hierarchical organization: The dynamical ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    constraint optimization as shown by us previously. Keywords. Modular network; hierarchical organization; stability; robustness. PACS Nos 89.75.Hc; 05.45.-a; 89.75.Fb. 1. Introduction. Structural patterns in complex networks occurring in biological, ...

  16. Modular Actuators for Space Applications, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Rocketstar Robotics is proposing the development of a modern dual drive actuator. Rocketstar has put together numerous modern concepts for modular actuators that...

  17. Massive Modularity of Space and Surface Systems

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This project will conduct a systems level investigation of a modular design and operations approach for future NASA exploration systems. Particular emphasis will be...

  18. Modular modelling with Physiome standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nickerson, David P.; Nielsen, Poul M. F.; Hunter, Peter J.

    2016-01-01

    Key points The complexity of computational models is increasing, supported by research in modelling tools and frameworks. But relatively little thought has gone into design principles for complex models.We propose a set of design principles for complex model construction with the Physiome standard modelling protocol CellML.By following the principles, models are generated that are extensible and are themselves suitable for reuse in larger models of increasing complexity.We illustrate these principles with examples including an architectural prototype linking, for the first time, electrophysiology, thermodynamically compliant metabolism, signal transduction, gene regulation and synthetic biology.The design principles complement other Physiome research projects, facilitating the application of virtual experiment protocols and model analysis techniques to assist the modelling community in creating libraries of composable, characterised and simulatable quantitative descriptions of physiology. Abstract The ability to produce and customise complex computational models has great potential to have a positive impact on human health. As the field develops towards whole‐cell models and linking such models in multi‐scale frameworks to encompass tissue, organ, or organism levels, reuse of previous modelling efforts will become increasingly necessary. Any modelling group wishing to reuse existing computational models as modules for their own work faces many challenges in the context of construction, storage, retrieval, documentation and analysis of such modules. Physiome standards, frameworks and tools seek to address several of these challenges, especially for models expressed in the modular protocol CellML. Aside from providing a general ability to produce modules, there has been relatively little research work on architectural principles of CellML models that will enable reuse at larger scales. To complement and support the existing tools and frameworks, we develop a set

  19. Reliability and diagnostic of modular systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Kohlas

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Reliability and diagnostic are in general two problems discussed separately. Yet the two problems are in fact closely related to each other. Here, this relation is considered in the simple case of modular systems. We show, how the computation of reliability and diagnostic can efficiently be done within the same Bayesian network induced by the modularity of the structure function of the system.

  20. A Framework for Determining Product Modularity Levels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvam, Lars; Herbert-Hansen, Zaza Nadja Lee; Haug, Anders

    2017-01-01

    products have been implemented in specific types companies (mostly mass producers), but little guidance exists on how to identify the right level of modularity for other types of companies (such as engineer-to-order companies). In this article, we address this gap by suggesting a framework that categorizes...... in practice is illustrated. This paper thereby contributes with new theoretical developments as well as a practical tool for practitioners in industries using partial modularization, such as, for example, the construction and building industry....

  1. Safety-oriented Modular Function Deployment

    OpenAIRE

    Kohl, Markus; Roth, Michael; Lindemann, Udo

    2016-01-01

    While markets demand for individual products, the importance of safety also continuously increases. Modularization methods are a common approach, but they mainly focus on technical dependencies or other module drivers. From a safety perspective, this leads to non-optimal module concepts, which further increase the efforts connected to safety. To avoid this, safety aspects should be better considered. Thus, this paper presents the safety-oriented Modular Function Deployment (sMFD), which integ...

  2. Recombinogenic engineering of conjugative plasmids with fluorescent marker cassettes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reisner, A.; Molin, Søren; Zechner, E.L.

    2002-01-01

    that in the presence of additional homologous regions in the targeting DNA, strand exchanges occurred exclusively within the longest regions of homology. A versatile panel of vectors was created to facilitate convenient PCR amplification of targeting DNAs containing various combinations of different antibiotic......An efficient approach for the insertion of fluorescent marker genes with sequence specificity into conjugative plasmids in Escherichia coli is described. For this purpose, homologous recombination of linear double-stranded targeting DNA was mediated by the bacteriophage lambda recombination...... functions using very short regions of homology. Initial manipulation of the IncFII target plasmids R1 and R1drd19 indicated that the linear targeting DNA should be devoid of all extraneous homologies to. the target molecule for optimal insertion specificity. Indeed, a simple recombination assay proved...

  3. Managing in an age of modularity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldwin, C Y; Clark, K B

    1997-01-01

    Modularity is a familiar principle in the computer industry. Different companies can independently design and produce components, suck as disk drives or operating software, and those modules will fit together into a complex and smoothly functioning product because the module makers obey a given set of design rules. Modularity in manufacturing is already common in many companies. But now a number of them are beginning to extend the approach into the design of their products and services. Modularity in design should tremendously boost the rate of innovation in many industries as it did in the computer industry. As businesses as diverse as auto manufacturing and financial services move toward modular designs, the authors say, competitive dynamics will change enormously. No longer will assemblers control the final product: suppliers of key modules will gain leverage and even take on responsibility for design rules. Companies will compete either by specifying the dominant design rules (as Microsoft does) or by producing excellent modules (as disk drive maker Quantum does). Leaders in a modular industry will control less, so they will have to watch the competitive environment closely for opportunities to link up with other module makers. They will also need to know more: engineering details that seemed trivial at the corporate level may now play a large part in strategic decisions. Leaders will also become knowledge managers internally because they will need to coordinate the efforts of development groups in order to keep them focused on the modular strategies the company is pursuing.

  4. The TOTEM modular trigger system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bagliesi, M.G., E-mail: mg.bagliesi@pi.infn.i [University of Siena and INFN Pisa (Italy); Berretti, M.; Cecchi, R.; Greco, V.; Lami, S.; Latino, G.; Oliveri, E.; Pedreschi, E.; Scribano, A.; Spinella, F.; Turini, N. [University of Siena and INFN Pisa (Italy)

    2010-05-21

    The TOTEM experiment will measure the total cross-section with the luminosity independent method and study elastic and diffractive scattering at the LHC. We are developing a modular trigger system, based on programmable logic, that will select meaningful events within 2.5{mu}s. The trigger algorithm is based on a tree structure in order to obtain information compression. The trigger primitive is generated directly on the readout chip, VFAT, that has a specific fast output that gives low resolution hits information. In two of the TOTEM detectors, Roman Pots and T2, a coincidence chip will perform track recognition directly on the detector readout boards, while for T1 the hits are transferred from the VFATs to the trigger hardware. Starting from more than 2000 bits delivered by the detector electronics, we extract, in a first step, six trigger patterns of 32 LVDS signals each; we build, then, on a dedicated board, a 1-bit (L1) trigger signal for the TOTEM experiment and 16 trigger bits to the CMS experiment global trigger system for future common data taking.

  5. The TOTEM modular trigger system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bagliesi, M.G.; Berretti, M.; Cecchi, R.; Greco, V.; Lami, S.; Latino, G.; Oliveri, E.; Pedreschi, E.; Scribano, A.; Spinella, F.; Turini, N.

    2010-01-01

    The TOTEM experiment will measure the total cross-section with the luminosity independent method and study elastic and diffractive scattering at the LHC. We are developing a modular trigger system, based on programmable logic, that will select meaningful events within 2.5μs. The trigger algorithm is based on a tree structure in order to obtain information compression. The trigger primitive is generated directly on the readout chip, VFAT, that has a specific fast output that gives low resolution hits information. In two of the TOTEM detectors, Roman Pots and T2, a coincidence chip will perform track recognition directly on the detector readout boards, while for T1 the hits are transferred from the VFATs to the trigger hardware. Starting from more than 2000 bits delivered by the detector electronics, we extract, in a first step, six trigger patterns of 32 LVDS signals each; we build, then, on a dedicated board, a 1-bit (L1) trigger signal for the TOTEM experiment and 16 trigger bits to the CMS experiment global trigger system for future common data taking.

  6. The Role of Modular Robotics in Mediating Nonverbal Social Exchanges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marti, P; Giusti, L; Lund, Henrik Hautop

    2009-01-01

    in interacting with dementia-affected patients. The RPs are semitransparent plastic tubes that are capable of measuring their orientation and the speed of their rotation; at a local level, they have three types of feedback: red, green, and blue light, sound, and vibration. The peculiarity of the RPs...... is that they are able to communicate with each other or with other devices equipped with the same radio communication technology. The RPs are usually used in pairs, as the local feedback of an RP can be set depending not only on its own speed and orientation but also on the speed and the orientation of the peer RP...

  7. Molecular Detection of Schistosome Infections with a Disposable Microfluidic Cassette.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinzhao Song

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Parasitic helminths such as schistosomes, as well as filarial and soil-transmitted nematodes, are estimated to infect at least a billion people worldwide, with devastating impacts on human health and economic development. Diagnosis and monitoring of infection dynamics and efficacy of treatment depend almost entirely on methods that are inaccurate, labor-intensive, and unreliable. These shortcomings are amplified and take on added significance in mass drug administration programs, where measures of effectiveness depend on accurate monitoring of treatment success (or failure, changes in disease transmission rates, and emergence of possible drug resistance. Here, we adapt isothermal molecular assays such as loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP to a simple, hand-held, custom-made field-ready microfluidic device that allows sensitive and specific detection of schistosome cell-free nucleic acids in serum and plasma (separated with a point-of-care plasma separator from Schistosoma mansoni-infected mice. Cell-free S. mansoni DNA was detected with our device without prior extraction from blood. Our chip exhibits high sensitivity (~2 x 10(-17 g/μL, with a positive signal for S. mansoni DNA detectable as early as one week post infection, several weeks before parasite egg production commences. These results indicate that incorporation of isothermal amplification strategies with our chips could represent a strategy for rapid, simple, low-cost diagnosis of both pre-patent and chronic schistosome infections as well as potential monitoring of treatment efficacy.

  8. Modular Packaging Development: Incorporating a modular perspective in the packaging design process

    OpenAIRE

    Karlsson, John

    2013-01-01

    This report presents the result of a research project conducted in 2012-2013 that aimed to adjust the existing modularity theories so that they could be used in packaging development. The study resulted in a model that can be incorporated into an existing packaging design process, thereby complementing this with aspects of modularity. The research project was conducted in close collaboration with Ericsson.

  9. Advanced Modular Inverter Technology Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adam Szczepanek

    2006-02-04

    Electric and hybrid-electric vehicle systems require an inverter to convert the direct current (DC) output of the energy generation/storage system (engine, fuel cells, or batteries) to the alternating current (AC) that vehicle propulsion motors use. Vehicle support systems, such as lights and air conditioning, also use the inverter AC output. Distributed energy systems require an inverter to provide the high quality AC output that energy system customers demand. Today's inverters are expensive due to the cost of the power electronics components, and system designers must also tailor the inverter for individual applications. Thus, the benefits of mass production are not available, resulting in high initial procurement costs as well as high inverter maintenance and repair costs. Electricore, Inc. (www.electricore.org) a public good 501 (c) (3) not-for-profit advanced technology development consortium assembled a highly qualified team consisting of AeroVironment Inc. (www.aerovironment.com) and Delphi Automotive Systems LLC (Delphi), (www.delphi.com), as equal tiered technical leads, to develop an advanced, modular construction, inverter packaging technology that will offer a 30% cost reduction over conventional designs adding to the development of energy conversion technologies for crosscutting applications in the building, industry, transportation, and utility sectors. The proposed inverter allows for a reduction of weight and size of power electronics in the above-mentioned sectors and is scalable over the range of 15 to 500kW. The main objective of this program was to optimize existing AeroVironment inverter technology to improve power density, reliability and producibility as well as develop new topology to reduce line filter size. The newly developed inverter design will be used in automotive and distribution generation applications. In the first part of this program the high-density power stages were redesigned, optimized and fabricated. One of the main

  10. Modular supervisory controller for hybrid power systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lemos Pereira, A. de

    2000-06-01

    The power supply of remote places has been commonly provided by thermal power plants, usually diesel generators. Although hybrid power systems may constitute the most economical solution in many applications their widespread application to the electrification schemes of remote areas still depends on improvements in the issues of design and operation control. The main limitations of the present hybrid power systems technology, which are identified in this work, are related to the control and supervision of the power system. Therefore this thesis focuses on the modularity of supervisory controllers in order to design cost-competitive and reliable hybrid power systems. The modular supervisory controller created in this project is considered an important part of a system design approach that aims to overcome the technical difficulties of the current engineering practice and contribute to open the market of hybrid power systems. The term modular refers to a set of design characteristics that allows the use of basically the same supervisory controller in different projects. The modularization and standardisation of the controller include several issues such as interfacing components, communication protocols, modelling, programming and control strategies. The modularity can reduce the highly specialised system engineering related to the integration of components, operation and control. It can also avoid the high costs for installation, service and maintenance. A modular algorithm for supervisory controllers has been developed (a Matlab program called SuperCon) using an object-oriented design and it has been tested through several simulations using different hybrid system configurations and different control strategies. This thesis presents a complete control system design process which can be used as the basis for the development and implementation of intelligent and autonomous supervisory controllers for hybrid power systems with modular characteristics. (au)

  11. Endomorphisms on half-sided modular inclusions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Svegstrup, Rolf Dyre

    2006-01-01

    In algebraic quantum field theory we consider nets of von Neumann algebras indexed over regions of the space time. Wiesbrock [''Conformal quantum field theory and half-sided modular inclusions of von Neumann algebras,'' Commun. Math. Phys. 158, 537-543 (1993)] has shown that strongly additive nets of von Neumann algebras on the circle are in correspondence with standard half-sided modular inclusions. We show that a finite index endomorphism on a half-sided modular inclusion extends to a finite index endomorphism on the corresponding net of von Neumann algebras on the circle. Moreover, we present another approach to encoding endomorphisms on nets of von Neumann algebras on the circle into half-sided modular inclusions. There is a natural way to associate a weight to a Moebius covariant endomorphism. The properties of this weight have been studied by Bertozzini et al. [''Covariant sectors with infinite dimension and positivity of the energy,'' Commun. Math. Phys. 193, 471-492 (1998)]. In this paper we show the converse, namely, how to associate a Moebius covariant endomorphism to a given weight under certain assumptions, thus obtaining a correspondence between a class of weights on a half-sided modular inclusion and a subclass of the Moebius covariant endomorphisms on the associated net of von Neumann algebras. This allows us to treat Moebius covariant endomorphisms in terms of weights on half-sided modular inclusions. As our aim is to provide a framework for treating endomorphisms on nets of von Neumann algebras in terms of the apparently simpler objects of weights on half-sided modular inclusions, we lastly give some basic results for manipulations with such weights

  12. Hierarchical modularity in human brain functional networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Meunier

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available The idea that complex systems have a hierarchical modular organization originates in the early 1960s and has recently attracted fresh support from quantitative studies of large scale, real-life networks. Here we investigate the hierarchical modular (or “modules-within-modules” decomposition of human brain functional networks, measured using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI in 18 healthy volunteers under no-task or resting conditions. We used a customized template to extract networks with more than 1800 regional nodes, and we applied a fast algorithm to identify nested modular structure at several hierarchical levels. We used mutual information, 0 < I < 1, to estimate the similarity of community structure of networks in different subjects, and to identify the individual network that is most representative of the group. Results show that human brain functional networks have a hierarchical modular organization with a fair degree of similarity between subjects, I=0.63. The largest 5 modules at the highest level of the hierarchy were medial occipital, lateral occipital, central, parieto-frontal and fronto-temporal systems; occipital modules demonstrated less sub-modular organization than modules comprising regions of multimodal association cortex. Connector nodes and hubs, with a key role in inter-modular connectivity, were also concentrated in association cortical areas. We conclude that methods are available for hierarchical modular decomposition of large numbers of high resolution brain functional networks using computationally expedient algorithms. This could enable future investigations of Simon's original hypothesis that hierarchy or near-decomposability of physical symbol systems is a critical design feature for their fast adaptivity to changing environmental conditions.

  13. Modular Manufacturing Simulator: Users Manual

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-01-01

    The Modular Manufacturing Simulator (MMS) has been developed for the beginning user of computer simulations. Consequently, the MMS cannot model complex systems that require branching and convergence logic. Once a user becomes more proficient in computer simulation and wants to add more complexity, the user is encouraged to use one of the many available commercial simulation systems. The (MMS) is based on the SSE5 that was developed in the early 1990's by the University of Alabama in Huntsville (UAH). A recent survey by MSFC indicated that the simulator has been a major contributor to the economic impact of the MSFC technology transfer program. Many manufacturers have requested additional features for the SSE5. Consequently, the following features have been added to the MMS that are not available in the SSE5: runs under Windows, print option for both input parameters and output statistics, operator can be fixed at a station or assigned to a group of stations, operator movement based on time limit, part limit, or work-in-process (WIP) limit at next station. The movement options for a moveable operators are: go to station with largest WIP, rabbit chase where operator moves in circular sequence between stations, and push/pull where operator moves back and forth between stations. This user's manual contains the necessary information for installing the MMS on a PC, a description of the various MMS commands, and the solutions to a number of sample problems using the MMS. Also included in the beginning of this report is a brief discussion of technology transfer.

  14. A high capacity data recording device based on a digital audio processor and a video cassette recorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bezanilla, F

    1985-01-01

    A modified digital audio processor, a video cassette recorder, and some simple added circuitry are assembled into a recording device of high capacity. The unit converts two analog channels into digital form at 44-kHz sampling rate and stores the information in digital form in a common video cassette. Bandwidth of each channel is from direct current to approximately 20 kHz and the dynamic range is close to 90 dB. The total storage capacity in a 3-h video cassette is 2 Gbytes. The information can be retrieved in analog or digital form. PMID:3978213

  15. pTransgenesis: a cross-species, modular transgenesis resource.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Love, Nick R; Thuret, Raphael; Chen, Yaoyao; Ishibashi, Shoko; Sabherwal, Nitin; Paredes, Roberto; Alves-Silva, Juliana; Dorey, Karel; Noble, Anna M; Guille, Matthew J; Sasai, Yoshiki; Papalopulu, Nancy; Amaya, Enrique

    2011-12-01

    As studies aim increasingly to understand key, evolutionarily conserved properties of biological systems, the ability to move transgenesis experiments efficiently between organisms becomes essential. DNA constructions used in transgenesis usually contain four elements, including sequences that facilitate transgene genome integration, a selectable marker and promoter elements driving a coding gene. Linking these four elements in a DNA construction, however, can be a rate-limiting step in the design and creation of transgenic organisms. In order to expedite the construction process and to facilitate cross-species collaborations, we have incorporated the four common elements of transgenesis into a modular, recombination-based cloning system called pTransgenesis. Within this framework, we created a library of useful coding sequences, such as various fluorescent protein, Gal4, Cre-recombinase and dominant-negative receptor constructs, which are designed to be coupled to modular, species-compatible selectable markers, promoters and transgenesis facilitation sequences. Using pTransgenesis in Xenopus, we demonstrate Gal4-UAS binary expression, Cre-loxP-mediated fate-mapping and the establishment of novel, tissue-specific transgenic lines. Importantly, we show that the pTransgenesis resource is also compatible with transgenesis in Drosophila, zebrafish and mammalian cell models. Thus, the pTransgenesis resource fosters a cross-model standardization of commonly used transgenesis elements, streamlines DNA construct creation and facilitates collaboration between researchers working on different model organisms.

  16. [Characterization of class 1 and class 2 integron gene cassettes in Escherichia coli strains isolated from urine cultures: a multicenter study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çopur Çiçek, Ayşegül; Sandallı, Cemal; Budak, Emine Esra; Yağmur, Gülhan; Çizmeci, Zeynep; Ak, Sibel; Balcı, Pervin Özlem; Şay Coşkun, Safiye Umut; Ay Altıntop, Yasemin; Fırat, Mehmet; Sarı, Fatma; Çalışkan, Ahmet; Yıldız, Nazan; Sancaktar, Metin; Özgümüş, Osman Birol

    2016-04-01

    %-3.2%), respectively. The frequency of positive IntI1 gene and class 1 integron gene cassettes were found as 25.8% (162/626) and 16.6% (104/626), respectively, whereas the frequency of positive intI2 gene II and class 2 integron gene cassettes were 5.1% (32/626) and 3% (19/626), respectively. The lowest intI1 gene frequency was detected in the isolates from Kayseri (16.6%) and the highest in the isolates from Kahramanmaraş (35.4%) provinces. While there was no intI2 gene in the isolates from Denizli and Kayseri, the highest frequency was 12.1% in the isolates from Şanlıurfa province. dfrA1 gene, the most frequent gene among integron gene cassettes was positive in 31 class 1 integron gene cassette alone, and positive with aadA1 gene in 18 class 1 integron gene cassettes. dfrA1 gene was positive with aadA1a just in one isolate. dfrA17 allele was positive in one isolate alone, in 28 isolates with aadA1, and in 15 isolates with aadA5. aadA1 gene was detected in four isolates. dfrA17-sat-aadA5 co-existence was detected among class 2 integron gene cassette in isolates from six provinces. dfrA1-sat-aadA1 was detected in one isolate from Ankara province and dfrA1 was detected in one isolate in Niğde province only. As a result, dfrA1 and aadA1 genes are the most common types of genes among class 1 and class 2 integron gene cassettes in E.coli isolated from urine cultures. It was concluded that high resistance against streptomycin (31.2%) and SXT (41.2%) supported the dissemination of integron-mediated genes dfr, sul1 and aad in the isolates.

  17. Measuring Modularity in Open Source Code Bases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Milev

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Modularity of an open source software code base has been associated with growth of the software development community, the incentives for voluntary code contribution, and a reduction in the number of users who take code without contributing back to the community. As a theoretical construct, modularity links OSS to other domains of research, including organization theory, the economics of industry structure, and new product development. However, measuring the modularity of an OSS design has proven difficult, especially for large and complex systems. In this article, we describe some preliminary results of recent research at Carleton University that examines the evolving modularity of large-scale software systems. We describe a measurement method and a new modularity metric for comparing code bases of different size, introduce an open source toolkit that implements this method and metric, and provide an analysis of the evolution of the Apache Tomcat application server as an illustrative example of the insights gained from this approach. Although these results are preliminary, they open the door to further cross-discipline research that quantitatively links the concerns of business managers, entrepreneurs, policy-makers, and open source software developers.

  18. Modular low-voltage electron emitters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berejka, Anthony J.

    2005-01-01

    Modular, low-voltage electron emitters simplify electron beam (EB) technology for many industrial uses and for research and development. Modular electron emitters are produced in quantity as sealed systems that are evacuated at the factory, eliminating the need for vacuum pumps at the point of use. A plug-out-plug-in method of replacement facilitates servicing. By using an ultra-thin 6-7 μm titanium foil window, solid-state power supplies, an innovative design to extract and spread the beam (enabling systems to be placed adjacent to each other to extend beam width) and touch-screen computer controls, these modular units combine ease of use and electrical transfer efficiency at voltages that can be varied between 80 kV and 150 kV with beam currents up to 40 mA per 25 cm across the beam window. These new devices have been made in three widths: 5 cm, 25 cm, and 40 cm. Details of the beam construction and illustrations of industrial uses will be presented. Traditional uses in the graphic arts and coatings areas have welcomed this modular technology as well as uses for surface sterilization. Being compact and lightweight (∼15 kg/emitter), these modular beams have been configured around complex shapes to achieve three-dimensional surface curing at high production rates

  19. Modular low-voltage electron emitters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berejka, Anthony J.

    2005-12-01

    Modular, low-voltage electron emitters simplify electron beam (EB) technology for many industrial uses and for research and development. Modular electron emitters are produced in quantity as sealed systems that are evacuated at the factory, eliminating the need for vacuum pumps at the point of use. A plug-out-plug-in method of replacement facilitates servicing. By using an ultra-thin 6-7 μm titanium foil window, solid-state power supplies, an innovative design to extract and spread the beam (enabling systems to be placed adjacent to each other to extend beam width) and touch-screen computer controls, these modular units combine ease of use and electrical transfer efficiency at voltages that can be varied between 80 kV and 150 kV with beam currents up to 40 mA per 25 cm across the beam window. These new devices have been made in three widths: 5 cm, 25 cm, and 40 cm. Details of the beam construction and illustrations of industrial uses will be presented. Traditional uses in the graphic arts and coatings areas have welcomed this modular technology as well as uses for surface sterilization. Being compact and lightweight (∼15 kg/emitter), these modular beams have been configured around complex shapes to achieve three-dimensional surface curing at high production rates.

  20. Personal cassette players ('Walkman'). Do they cause noise-induced hearing loss?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turunen-Rise, I; Flottorp, G; Tvete, O

    1991-01-01

    Playing selected types of music on five different personal cassette players (PCPs) and using different gain (volume) settings, A-weighted maximum and equivalent sound pressure levels (SPLs) were measured on KEMAR (Knowles Electronics Manikin for Acoustic Research). The octave band SPLs were measured on KEMAR ear and transformed to field values in order to compare measured values with the Norwegian noise risk criteria. Temporary threshold shifts (TTS) measured in 6 subjects after listening to two different pop music cassettes on one PCP in two separate sessions, are presented. Based upon these studies we conclude that the risk of acquiring permanent noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL) from use of PCP is very small for what we found to be normal listening conditions.

  1. Design, simplified cloning, andin-silicoanalysis of multisite small interfering RNA-targeting cassettes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baghban-Kohnehrouz, Bahram; Nayeri, Shahnoush

    2016-03-01

    Multiple gene silencing is being required to target and tangle metabolic pathways in eukaryotes and researchers have to develop a subtle method for construction of RNA interference (RNAi) cassettes. Although, several vectors have been developed due to different screening and cloning strategies but still some potential limitations remain to be dissolved. Here, we worked out a simple cloning strategy to develop multisite small interfering RNA (siRNA) cassette from different genes by two cloning steps. In this method, effective siRNA sites in the target messenger RNAs (mRNAs) were determined using in silico analysis and consecutively arranged to reduce length of inverted repeats. Here, we used one-step (polymerase chain reaction) PCR by designed long primer sets covering the selected siRNA sites. Rapid screening, cost-effective and shorten procedure are advantages of this method compare to PCR classic cloning. Validity of constructs was confirmed by optimal centroid secondary structures with high stability in plants.

  2. Rare codons effect on expression of recombinant gene cassette in Escherichia coli BL21(DE3

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aghil Esmaeili-Bandboni

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To demonstrate the sensitivity of expression of fusion genes to existence of a large number of rare codons in recombinant gene sequenced. Methods: Primers for amplification of cholera toxin B, Shiga toxin B and gfp genes were designed by Primer3 software and synthesized. All of these 3 genes were cloned. Then the genes were fused together by restriction sites and enzymatic method. Two linkers were used as a flexible bridge in connection of these genes. Results: Cloning and fusion of cholera toxin B, Shiga toxin B and gfp genes were done correctly. After that, expression of the recombinant gene construction was surveyed. Conclusions: According to what was seen, because of the accumulation of 12 rare codons of Shiga toxin B and 19 rare codons of cholera toxin B in this gene cassette, the expression of the recombinant gene cassette, in Escherichia coli BL21, failed.

  3. A novel Bxb1 integrase RMCE system for high fidelity site-specific integration of mAb expression cassette in CHO Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inniss, Mara C; Bandara, Kalpanie; Jusiak, Barbara; Lu, Timothy K; Weiss, Ron; Wroblewska, Liliana; Zhang, Lin

    2017-08-01

    As CHO cell line development for biotherapeutic production becomes more sophisticated through the availability of the CHO genome sequence, the ability to accurately and reproducibly engineer the host cell genome has become increasingly important. Multiple well characterized systems for site-specific integration will enable more complex cell line engineering to generate cell lines with desirable attributes. We built and characterized a novel recombinase mediated cassette exchange (RMCE) system using Bxb1 integrase and compared it to the commonly used Flp/FRT RMCE system. We first integrated a DNA construct flanked by either Bxb1 attachment sites or FRT sequences (referred to as a landing pad) into the Fer1L4 genomic locus of CHO-S cells using CRISPR/Cas9 mediated homologous recombination. We characterized the resulting clones harboring either the Bxb1 or Flp/FRT landing pad using whole genome resequencing to compare their genomes with the parental host cell line. We determined that each landing pad was specifically integrated into the Fer1L4 locus in the selected clones and observed no major structural changes in the genome or variations in copy number as a result of CRISPR/Cas9 modification. We subsequently tested the ability of the Bxb1 and Flp/FRT landing pad clones to perform proper RMCE with donor vectors containing identical mAb expression cassettes flanked by either Bxb1 attachment sites or FRT sites. We demonstrated that both RMCE systems were able to generate stable pools in a similar time frame with comparable mAb expression. Through genetic characterization of up to 24 clones derived from either system, we determined that the BxB1 RMCE system yielded higher fidelity RMCE events than the Flp/FRT system as evidenced by a higher percentage of clones with expected integration of the mAb cassette into the landing pad in the respective cell lines. We conclude that Bxb1 RMCE is an excellent alternative to Flp/FRT RMCE and valuable addition to our toolbox

  4. Functional Analysis of an ATP-Binding Cassette Transporter Gene in Botrytis cinerea by Gene Disruption

    OpenAIRE

    Masami, NAKAJIMA; Junko, SUZUKI; Takehiko, HOSAKA; Tadaaki, HIBI; Katsumi, AKUTSU; School of Agriculture, Ibaraki University; School of Agriculture, Ibaraki University; School of Agriculture, Ibaraki University; Department of Agriculture and Environmental Biology, The University of Tokyo; School of Agriculture, Ibaraki University

    2001-01-01

    The BMR1 gene encoding an ABC transporter was cloned from Botrytis cinerea. To examine the function of BMR1 in B.cinerea, we isolated BMR1-deficient mutants after gene disruption. Disruption vector pBcDF4 was constructed by replacing the BMR1-coding region with a hygromycin B phosphotransferase gene(hph)cassette. The BMR1 disruptants had an increased sensitivity to polyoxin and iprobenfos. Polyoxin and iprobenfos, structurally unrelated compounds, may therefore be substrates of BMR1.

  5. A new type of gene-disruption cassette with a rescue gene for Pichia pastoris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shibui, Tatsuro; Hara, Hiroyoshi

    2017-09-01

    Pichia pastoris has been used for the production of many recombinant proteins, and many useful mutant strains have been created. However, the efficiency of mutant isolation by gene-targeting is usually low and the procedure is difficult for those inexperienced in yeast genetics. In order to overcome these issues, we developed a new gene-disruption system with a rescue gene using an inducible Cre/mutant-loxP system. With only short homology regions, the gene-disruption cassette of the system replaces its target-gene locus containing a mutation with a compensatory rescue gene. As the cassette contains the AOX1 promoter-driven Cre gene, when targeted strains are grown on media containing methanol, the DNA fragment, i.e., the marker, rescue and Cre genes, between the mutant-loxP sequences in the cassette is excised, leaving only the remaining mutant-loxP sequence in the genome, and consequently a target gene-disrupted mutant can be isolated. The system was initially validated on ADE2 gene disruption, where the disruption can easily be detected by color-change of the colonies. Then, the system was applied for knocking-out URA3 and OCH1 genes, reported to be difficult to accomplish by conventional gene-targeting methods. All three gene-disruption cassettes with their rescue genes replaced their target genes, and the Cre/mutant-loxP system worked well to successfully isolate their knock-out mutants. This study identified a new gene-disruption system that could be used to effectively and strategically knock out genes of interest, especially whose deletion is detrimental to growth, without using special strains, e.g., deficient in nonhomologous end-joining, in P. pastoris. © 2017 American Institute of Chemical Engineers Biotechnol. Prog., 33:1201-1208, 2017. © 2017 American Institute of Chemical Engineers.

  6. Structure, function, and evolution of bacterial ATP-binding cassette systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davidson, A.L.; Dassa, E.; Orelle, C.; Chen, J. (Purdue)

    2010-07-27

    The ATP-binding cassette (ABC) systems constitute one of the largest superfamilies of paralogous sequences. All ABC systems share a highly conserved ATP-hydrolyzing domain or protein (the ABC; also referred to as a nucleotide-binding domain [NBD]) that is unequivocally characterized by three short sequence motifs (Fig. 1): these are the Walker A and Walker B motifs, indicative of the presence of a nucleotide-binding site, and the signature motif, unique to ABC proteins, located upstream of the Walker B motif (426). Other motifs diagnostic of ABC proteins are also indicated in Fig. 1. The biological significance of these motifs is discussed in Structure, Function, and Dynamics of the ABC. ABC systems are widespread among living organisms and have been detected in all genera of the three kingdoms of life, with remarkable conservation in the primary sequence of the cassette and in the organization of the constitutive domains or subunits (203, 420). ABC systems couple the energy of ATP hydrolysis to an impressively large variety of essential biological phenomena, comprising not only transmembrane (TM) transport, for which they are best known, but also several non-transport-related processes, such as translation elongation (62) and DNA repair (174). Although ABC systems deserve much attention because they are involved in severe human inherited diseases (107), they were first discovered and characterized in detail in prokaryotes, as early as the 1970s (13, 148, 238, 468). The most extensively analyzed systems were the high-affinity histidine and maltose uptake systems of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium and Escherichia coli. Over 2 decades ago, after the completion of the nucleotide sequences encoding these transporters in the respective laboratories of Giovanna Ames and Maurice Hofnung, Hiroshi Nikaido and colleagues noticed that the two systems displayed a global similarity in the nature of their components and, moreover, that the primary sequences of MalK and

  7. The Staphylococcal Cassette Chromosome mec type V from Staphylococcus aureus ST398 is packaged into bacteriophage capsids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chlebowicz, Monika A.; Mašlaňová, Ivana; Kuntová, Lucie; Grundmann, Hajo; Pantůček, Roman; Doškař, Jiří; van Dijl, Jan Maarten; Buist, Girbe

    The Staphylococcal Cassette Chromosome mec (SCCmec) confers methicillin resistance to Staphylococcus aureus. While SCCmec is generally regarded as a mobile genetic element, the precise mechanisms by which large SCCmec elements are exchanged between staphylococci have remained enigmatic. In the

  8. Role of the SRRz/Rz1lambdoid lysis cassette in the pathoadaptive evolution of Shigella.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leuzzi, Adriano; Grossi, Milena; Di Martino, Maria Letizia; Pasqua, Martina; Micheli, Gioacchino; Colonna, Bianca; Prosseda, Gianni

    2017-06-01

    Shigella, the etiological agent of bacillary dysentery (shigellosis), is a highly adapted human pathogen. It evolved from an innocuous ancestor resembling the Escherichia coli strain by gain and loss of genes and functions. While the gain process concerns the acquisition of the genetic determinants of virulence, the loss is related to the adaptation of the genome to the new pathogenic status and occurs by pathoadaptive mutation of antivirulence genes. In this study, we highlight that the SRRz/Rz 1 lambdoid lysis cassette, even though stably adopted in E. coli K12 by virtue of its beneficial effect on cell physiology, has undergone a significant decay in Shigella. Moreover, we show the antivirulence nature of the SRRz/Rz 1 lysis cassette in Shigella. In fact, by restoring the SRRz/Rz 1 expression in this pathogen, we observe an increased release of peptidoglycan fragments, causing an unbalance in the fine control exerted by Shigella on host innate immunity and a mitigation of its virulence. This strongly affects the virulence of Shigella and allows to consider the loss of SRRz/Rz 1 lysis cassette as another pathoadaptive event in the life of Shigella. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  9. Use of video cassette recorders for combined video and PCM data recording

    Science.gov (United States)

    McQuillan, R. J.; Gallo, L.

    Analog tape recorders are commonly used in aircraft flight testing to record PCM digital data. These recorders require considerable space and add significantly to the cost of test instrumentation. For limited test programs in densely packed aircraft, such as the modern fighter, the burden of a conventional reel to reel analog recorder is oppressive. With this condition in mind, the desirability of recording PCM data on a video cassette recorder surfaced. The video cassette recorder (VCR) offers greatly improved size and cost efficiency over conventional reel to reel recorders for many data acquisition requirements. Not only are cost and size improved, but several other benefits are realized. For instance, video cassettes are easily stored and transported. Automatic synchronization of the digital data and video images is inherent in the combined recording system. The system described in this paper makes use of a small electronic interface unit to combine and synchronize the video and PCM data signals. This composite signal is then recorded on a standard VHS video recorder. PCM data rates of up to thirty kilobits per second can be accomodated with only a minor reduction of picture area.

  10. Conceptual Design Studies of the KSTAR Bay-Nm Cassette and Thomson Scattering Optics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feder, R.; Ellis, R.; Johnson, D.; Park, H.; Lee, H. G.

    2005-09-26

    A Multi-Channel Thomson Scattering System viewing the edge and core of the KSTAR plasma will be installed at the mid-plane port Bay-N. An engineering design study was undertaken at PPPL in collaboration with the Korea Basic Science Institute (KBSI) to determine the optimal optics and cassette design. Design criteria included environmental, mechanical and optical factors. All of the optical design options have common design features; the Thomson Scattering laser, an in-vacuum shutter, a quartz heat shield and primary vacuum window, a set of optical elements and a fiber optic bundle. Neutron radiation damage was a major factor in the choice of competing lens-based and mirror-based optical designs. Both the mirror based design and the lens design are constrained by physical limits of the Bay-N cassette and interference with the Bay-N micro-wave launcher. The cassette will contain the optics and a rail system for maintenance of the optics.

  11. Genomic donor cassette sharing during VLRA and VLRC assembly in jawless vertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Sabyasachi; Li, Jianxu; Holland, Stephen J; Iyer, Lakshminarayan M; Hirano, Masayuki; Schorpp, Michael; Aravind, L; Cooper, Max D; Boehm, Thomas

    2014-10-14

    Lampreys possess two T-like lymphocyte lineages that express either variable lymphocyte receptor (VLR) A or VLRC antigen receptors. VLRA(+) and VLRC(+) lymphocytes share many similarities with the two principal T-cell lineages of jawed vertebrates expressing the αβ and γδ T-cell receptors (TCRs). During the assembly of VLR genes, several types of genomic cassettes are inserted, in step-wise fashion, into incomplete germ-line genes to generate the mature forms of antigen receptor genes. Unexpectedly, the structurally variable components of VLRA and VLRC receptors often possess partially identical sequences; this phenomenon of module sharing between these two VLR isotypes occurs in both lampreys and hagfishes. By contrast, VLRA and VLRC molecules typically do not share their building blocks with the structurally analogous VLRB receptors that are expressed by B-like lymphocytes. Our studies reveal that VLRA and VLRC germ-line genes are situated in close proximity to each other in the lamprey genome and indicate the interspersed arrangement of isotype-specific and shared genomic donor cassettes; these features may facilitate the shared cassette use. The genomic structure of the VLRA/VLRC locus in lampreys is reminiscent of the interspersed nature of the TCRA/TCRD locus in jawed vertebrates that also allows the sharing of some variable gene segments during the recombinatorial assembly of TCR genes.

  12. Conceptual Design Studies of the KSTAR Bay-Nm Cassette and Thomson Scattering Optics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feder, R.; Ellis, R.; Johnson, D.; Park, H.; Lee, H.G.

    2005-01-01

    A Multi-Channel Thomson Scattering System viewing the edge and core of the KSTAR plasma will be installed at the mid-plane port Bay-N. An engineering design study was undertaken at PPPL in collaboration with the Korea Basic Science Institute (KBSI) to determine the optimal optics and cassette design. Design criteria included environmental, mechanical and optical factors. All of the optical design options have common design features; the Thomson Scattering laser, an in-vacuum shutter, a quartz heat shield and primary vacuum window, a set of optical elements and a fiber optic bundle. Neutron radiation damage was a major factor in the choice of competing lens-based and mirror-based optical designs. Both the mirror based design and the lens design are constrained by physical limits of the Bay-N cassette and interference with the Bay-N micro-wave launcher. The cassette will contain the optics and a rail system for maintenance of the optics

  13. Conservation of gene cassettes among diverse viruses of the human gut.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel Minot

    Full Text Available Viruses are a crucial component of the human microbiome, but large population sizes, high sequence diversity, and high frequencies of novel genes have hindered genomic analysis by high-throughput sequencing. Here we investigate approaches to metagenomic assembly to probe genome structure in a sample of 5.6 Gb of gut viral DNA sequence from six individuals. Tests showed that a new pipeline based on DeBruijn graph assembly yielded longer contigs that were able to recruit more reads than the equivalent non-optimized, single-pass approach. To characterize gene content, the database of viral RefSeq proteins was compared to the assembled viral contigs, generating a bipartite graph with functional cassettes linking together viral contigs, which revealed a high degree of connectivity between diverse genomes involving multiple genes of the same functional class. In a second step, open reading frames were grouped by their co-occurrence on contigs in a database-independent manner, revealing conserved cassettes of co-oriented ORFs. These methods reveal that free-living bacteriophages, while usually dissimilar at the nucleotide level, often have significant similarity at the level of encoded amino acid motifs, gene order, and gene orientation. These findings thus connect contemporary metagenomic analysis with classical studies of bacteriophage genomic cassettes. Software is available at https://sourceforge.net/projects/optitdba/.

  14. Harmonic Maass forms and mock modular forms

    CERN Document Server

    Bringmann, Kathrin; Ono, Ken

    2017-01-01

    Modular forms and Jacobi forms play a central role in many areas of mathematics. Over the last 10-15 years, this theory has been extended to certain non-holomorphic functions, the so-called "harmonic Maass forms". The first glimpses of this theory appeared in Ramanujan's enigmatic last letter to G. H. Hardy written from his deathbed. Ramanujan discovered functions he called "mock theta functions" which over eighty years later were recognized as pieces of harmonic Maass forms. This book contains the essential features of the theory of harmonic Maass forms and mock modular forms, together with a wide variety of applications to algebraic number theory, combinatorics, elliptic curves, mathematical physics, quantum modular forms, and representation theory.

  15. Genome modularity and synthetic biology: Engineering systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mol, Milsee; Kabra, Ritika; Singh, Shailza

    2018-01-01

    Whole genome sequencing projects running in various laboratories around the world has generated immense data. A systematic phylogenetic analysis of this data shows that genome complexity goes on decreasing as it evolves, due to its modular nature. This modularity can be harnessed to minimize the genome further to reduce it with the bare minimum essential genes. A reduced modular genome, can fuel progress in the area of synthetic biology by providing a ready to use plug and play chassis. Advances in gene editing technology such as the use of tailor made synthetic transcription factors will further enhance the availability of synthetic devices to be applied in the fields of environment, agriculture and health. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Contrasting platform thinking and product modularization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boer, Henrike Engele Elisabeth; Persson, Magnus

    2015-01-01

    into an already existing product structure. Without using TRL classification and defined goals and gates, these firms can risk that immature technology is incorporated in their core platform and that their long-term platform-based plan for future product variants and successive generations is disrupted.......Product modularization and platform thinking are both practices that seek to alleviate the negative impact of product customization and variety on internal operations by relying on economies of substitution. Through the use of a standardized pool of components and interfaces, these practices aim...... to create a broad spectrum of product choices. At first sight, product modularization and platform thinking are very similar. The difference between these practices can, however, be found in the manner in which they employ standardization. Where product modularization focuses on creating standardized...

  17. Harmonic maass forms and mock modular forms

    CERN Document Server

    Bringmann, Kathrin; Ono, Ken

    2017-01-01

    Modular forms and Jacobi forms play a central role in many areas of mathematics. Over the last 10-15 years, this theory has been extended to certain non-holomorphic functions, the so-called "harmonic Maass forms". The first glimpses of this theory appeared in Ramanujan's enigmatic last letter to G. H. Hardy written from his deathbed. Ramanujan discovered functions he called "mock theta functions" which over eighty years later were recognized as pieces of harmonic Maass forms. This book contains the essential features of the theory of harmonic Maass forms and mock modular forms, together with a wide variety of applications to algebraic number theory, combinatorics, elliptic curves, mathematical physics, quantum modular forms, and representation theory.

  18. Polymer Vesicles: Modular Platforms for Cancer Theranostics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Fangyingkai; Xiao, Jiangang; Chen, Shuai; Sun, Hui; Yang, Bo; Jiang, Jinhui; Zhou, Xue; Du, Jianzhong

    2018-02-16

    As an emerging field that is receiving an increasing amount of interest, theranostics is becoming increasingly important in the field of nanomedicine. Among the various smart platforms that have been proposed for use in theranostics, polymer vesicles (or polymersomes) are among the most promising candidates for integration of designated functionalities and modalities. Here, a brief summary of typical theranostic platforms is presented with a focus on modular polymer vesicles. To highlight modularity, the different methodologies for designing therapeutic and diagnostic modules are classified and current examples of theranostic vesicles that excel in both performance and design principle are provided. Finally, future prospects for theranostic polymer vesicles that can be readily prepared with functional modules are proposed. Overall, theranostic polymer vesicles with modular modalities and functions are more promising in nanomedicine than simply being "over-engineered". © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. Novel streptomycin and spectinomycin resistance gene as a gene cassette within a class 1 integron isolated from Escherichia coli

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandvang, D.

    1999-01-01

    The aadA genes, encoding resistance to streptomycin and spectinomycin, have been found as gene cassettes in different gram-negative and gram-positive bacterial species. The present study has revealed the sequence of a new gene, aadA5, integrated as a gene cassette together with the trimethoprim...... resistance gene dfr7 in a class 1 integron. The integron was located on a plasmid and was identified in a pathogenic porcine Escherichia coli isolate....

  20. Novel Streptomycin and Spectinomycin Resistance Gene as a Gene Cassette within a Class 1 Integron Isolated from Escherichia coli

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandvang, Dorthe

    1999-01-01

    The aadA genes, encoding resistance to streptomycin and spectinomycin, have been found as gene cassettes in different gram-negative and gram-positive bacterial species. The present study has revealed the sequence of a new gene, aadA5, integrated as a gene cassette together with the trimethoprim resistance gene dfr7 in a class 1 integron. The integron was located on a plasmid and was identified in a pathogenic porcine Escherichia coli isolate. PMID:10582907

  1. Mapping Modular SOS to Rewriting Logic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Braga, Christiano de Oliveira; Haeusler, Edward Hermann; Meseguer, José

    2003-01-01

    and verification of MSOS specifications, we have defined a mapping, named , from MSOS to rewriting logic (RWL), a logic which has been proposed as a logical and semantic framework. We have proven the correctness of and implemented it as a prototype, the MSOS-SL Interpreter, in the Maude system, a high......Modular SOS (MSOS) is a framework created to improve the modularity of structural operational semantics specifications, a formalism frequently used in the fields of programming languages semantics and process algebras. With the objective of defining formal tools to support the execution...

  2. Modularity for Modulating Exercises and Levels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Henrik Hautop; Nielsen, Camilla Balslev

    2011-01-01

    The modular interactive tiles aim at engaging anybody (elderly, carer, hospital personnel, children) in performing playful and motivating physical activities. Inspired by modular robotics, each tile is a self-contained module with processing power and communication to neighbouring modules......, and a number of these can be put together in any physical shape by the user within a minute. The tiles light up in different colors and can perceive the pressure when people press them with their hands or jump on them with their feet. Numerous games (exercises) are running on the tiles, and these games aim...

  3. Robustness and modular structure in networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bagrow, James P.; Lehmann, Sune; Ahn, Yong-Yeol

    2015-01-01

    -12]. Many complex systems, from power grids and the Internet to the brain and society [13-15], can be modeled using modular networks comprised of small, densely connected groups of nodes [16, 17]. These modules often overlap, with network elements belonging to multiple modules [18, 19]. Yet existing work...... on robustness has not considered the role of overlapping, modular structure. Here we study the robustness of these systems to the failure of elements. We show analytically and empirically that it is possible for the modules themselves to become uncoupled or non-overlapping well before the network disintegrates...

  4. Mapping Modular SOS to Rewriting Logic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Braga, Christiano de Oliveira; Haeusler, Erik Hermann; Meseguer, José

    and verification of MSOS specifications, we have defined a mapping, named , from MSOS to rewriting logic (RWL), a logic which has been proposed as a logical and semantic framework. We have proven the correctness of and implemented it as a prototype, the MSOS-SL Interpreter, in the Maude system, a high......Modular SOS (MSOS) is a framework created to improve the modularity of structural operational semantics specifications, a formalism frequently used in the fields of programming languages semantics and process algebras. With the objective of defining formal tools to support the execution...

  5. Model engineering in a modular PSA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Friedlhuber, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    For the purpose of PSA (Probabilistic Safety Analysis) for complex industrial systems, often PSA models in the form of fault and event trees are developed to model the risk of unwanted situations (hazards). While the recent decades, PSA models have gained high acceptance and have been developed massively. This lead to an increase in model sizes and complexity. Today, PSA models are often difficult to understand and maintain. This manuscript presents the concept of a modular PSA. A modular PSA tries to cope with the increased complexity by the techniques of modularization and instantiation. Modularization targets to treat a model by smaller pieces (the 'modules') to regain control over models. Instantiation aims to configure a generic model to different contexts. Both try to reduce model complexity. A modular PSA proposes new functionality to manage PSA models. Current model management is rather limited and not efficient. This manuscript shows new methods to manage the evolutions (versions) and deviations (variants) of PSA models in a modular PSA. The concepts of version and variant management are presented in this thesis. In this context, a model comparison and fusion of PSA models is precised. Model comparison provides important feedback to model engineers and model fusion kind of combines the work from different model engineers (concurrent model engineering). Apart from model management, methods to understand the content of PSA models are presented. The methods focus to highlight the dependencies between modules rather than their contents. Dependencies are automatically derived from a model structure. They express relations between model objects (for example a fault tree may have dependencies to basic events). To visualize those dependencies (for example in form of a model cartography) can constitute a crucial aid to model engineers for understanding complex interrelations in PSA models. Within the scope of this thesis, a software named 'Andromeda' has been

  6. Enhanced performance of methamphetamine lateral flow cassettes using an electronic lateral flow reader.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Jerome P; Sammons, Deborah L; Robertson, Shirley A; Snawder, John E

    2015-01-01

    Surface contamination from methamphetamine in meth labs continues to be a problem. We had previously developed a lateral flow assay cassette for field detection of methamphetamine contamination that is commercially available and has been used by a number of groups to assess contamination. This cassette uses the complete disappearance of the test line as an end point for detection of 50 ng/100 cm2 of methamphetamine contamination for surface sampling with cotton swabs. In the present study, we further evaluate the response of the cassettes using an electronic lateral flow reader to measure the intensities of the test and control lines. The cassettes were capable of detecting 0.25 ng/ml for calibration solutions. For 100 cm2 ceramic tiles that were spiked with methamphetamine and wiped with cotton-tipped wooden swabs wetted in assay/sampling buffer, 1 ng/tile was detected using the reader. Semi-quantitative results can be produced over the range 0-10 ng/ml for calibration solutions and 0-25 ng/tile for spiked tiles using either a 4-parameter logistic fit of test line intensity versus concentration or spiked mass or the ratio of the control line to the test line intensity fit to concentration or spiked mass. Recovery from the tiles was determined to be about 30% using the fitted curves. Comparison of the control line to the test line was also examined as a possible visual detection end point and it was found that the control line became more intense than the test line at 0.5 to 1 ng/ml for calibration solutions or 1 to 2 ng/tile for spiked tiles. Thus the lateral flow cassettes for methamphetamine have the potential to produce more sensitive semi-quantitative results if an electronic lateral flow reader is used and can be more sensitive for detection if the comparison of the control line to the test line is used as the visual end point.

  7. Fixed Points of Multivalued Maps in Modular Function Spaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kutbi MarwanA

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to study the existence of fixed points for contractive-type and nonexpansive-type multivalued maps in the setting of modular function spaces. We also discuss the concept of -modular function and prove fixed point results for weakly-modular contractive maps in modular function spaces. These results extend several similar results proved in metric and Banach spaces settings.

  8. Understanding the Modularity of Socio-technical Production Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thuesen, Christian Langhoff

    , material and process aspects, the modularity of a socio-technical system can be understood as an entanglement of product, process, organizational and institutional modularity dimension. The developed theoretical framework is used for analyzing the modularity of three different production systems the pre-modern......, modern and post-modern construction practices....

  9. The evolution of modularity in bacterial metabolic networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreimer, Anat; Borenstein, Elhanan; Gophna, Uri; Ruppin, Eytan

    2008-05-13

    Deciphering the modular organization of metabolic networks and understanding how modularity evolves have attracted tremendous interest in recent years. Here, we present a comprehensive large scale characterization of modularity across the bacterial tree of life, systematically quantifying the modularity of the metabolic networks of >300 bacterial species. Three main determinants of metabolic network modularity are identified. First, network size is an important topological determinant of network modularity. Second, several environmental factors influence network modularity, with endosymbionts and mammal-specific pathogens having lower modularity scores than bacterial species that occupy a wider range of niches. Moreover, even among the pathogens, those that alternate between two distinct niches, such as insect and mammal, tend to have relatively high metabolic network modularity. Third, horizontal gene transfer is an important force that contributes significantly to metabolic modularity. We additionally reconstruct the metabolic network of ancestral bacterial species and examine the evolution of modularity across the tree of life. This reveals a trend of modularity decrease from ancestors to descendants that is likely the outcome of niche specialization and the incorporation of peripheral metabolic reactions.

  10. Pick'n'Fix: Capturing Control Flow in Modular Compilers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Day, Laurence E.; Bahr, Patrick

    2014-01-01

    We present a modular framework for implementing languages with effects and control structures such as loops and conditionals. This framework enables modular definitions of both syntax and semantics as well as modular implementations of compilers and virtual machines. In order to compile control...

  11. Analysis of enabling factors in realizing modularization benefits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Storbjerg, Simon Haahr; Brunø, Thomas Ditlev

    2012-01-01

    Although modularization is becoming a welldescribed and broadly applied concept, many of today’s firms still struggle to realize the promised benefits of this approach. Managing modularization is a complex matter, and in spite of this, a topic that has received far less attention compared...... with regard to obtaining the full potential of modularization....

  12. Theoretical Analysis of the Relationships Between Modularity in Design and Modularity in Production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kubota, Flávio Issao; Hsuan, Juliana; Cauchick-Miguel, Paulo Augusto

    2017-01-01

    This paper investigates the relationships between modularity in design (MID) and modularity in production (MIP) in the automotive industry in terms of how automotive companies obtain benefits and/or drawbacks through MID/MIP relationships. A literature analysis was conducted in order to identify...... the possible relationships between MID and MIP as well as the concepts behind these connections. Sixty-one papers were identified to portray relationships between modular product architecture and modular production systems. Results show a representation of MID and MIP relationships by illustrating that many...... propositions are offered for future field research. Finally, relationships between MID and MIP might be connected with modularity’s maturity level in companies. This is a literature review paper; therefore, empirical evidence is needed to further support current findings. Future studies could analyze...

  13. Modular Engineering Concept at Novo Nordisk Engineering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moelgaard, Gert; Miller, Thomas Dedenroth

    1997-01-01

    This report describes the concept of a new engineering method at Novo Nordisk Engineering: Modular Engineering (ME). Three tools are designed to support project phases with different levels of detailing and abstraction. ME supports a standard, cross-functional breakdown of projects that facilitates...

  14. Modular Regiospecific Synthesis of Nitrated Fatty Acids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hock, Katharina J.; Grimmer, Jennifer; Göbel, Dominik

    2016-01-01

    Endogenous nitrated fatty acids are an important class of signaling molecules. Herein a modular route for the efficient and regiospecific preparation of nitrooleic acids as well as various analogues is described. The approach is based on a simple set of alkyl halides as common building blocks...

  15. Modular Infrastructure for Rapid Flight Software Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pires, Craig

    2010-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the use of modular infrastructure to assist in the development of flight software. A feature of this program is the use of model based approach for application unique software. A review of two programs that this approach was use on are: the development of software for Hover Test Vehicle (HTV), and Lunar Atmosphere and Dust Environment Experiment (LADEE).

  16. Modular networks with hierarchical organization: The dynamical ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    terms hierarchy and modularity have been used almost interchangeably, although, as shown in figure 1, they represent distinct properties of the network. However, it is interesting to note that these two properties have been found to coexist in many networks occurring in real life [3–6], including the Internet [7,8] and the ...

  17. Modular interpreters with implicit context propagation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.A. Inostroza Valdera (Pablo); T. van der Storm (Tijs)

    2017-01-01

    textabstractModular interpreters are a crucial first step towards component-based language development: instead of writing language interpreters from scratch, they can be assembled from reusable, semantic building blocks. Unfortunately, traditional language interpreters can be hard to extend because

  18. Modular Stellarator Reactor conceptual design study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, R.L.; Bathke, C.G.

    1983-01-01

    A conceptual design study of the Modular Stellarator Reactor is summarized. The physics basis of the approach is elucidated with emphasis on magnetics performance optimization. Key engineering features of the fusion power core are described. Comparisons with an analogous continuous-helical-coil (torsatron) system are made as the basis of a technical and economic assessment

  19. Modular microfluidic system for biological sample preparation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, Klint A.; Mariella, Jr., Raymond P.; Bailey, Christopher G.; Ness, Kevin Dean

    2015-09-29

    A reconfigurable modular microfluidic system for preparation of a biological sample including a series of reconfigurable modules for automated sample preparation adapted to selectively include a) a microfluidic acoustic focusing filter module, b) a dielectrophoresis bacteria filter module, c) a dielectrophoresis virus filter module, d) an isotachophoresis nucleic acid filter module, e) a lyses module, and f) an isotachophoresis-based nucleic acid filter.

  20. Modular stellarator reactor conceptual design study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, R.L.; Krakowski, R.A.; Bathke, C.G.

    1983-01-01

    A conceptual design study of the Modular Stellarator Reactor is summarized. The physics basis of the approach is elucidated with emphasis on magnetics performance optimization. Key engineering features of the fusion power core are described. Comparisons with an analogous continuous-helical-coil (torsatron) system are made as the basis of a technical and economic assessment

  1. Uncovering the structures of modular polyketide synthases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weissman, Kira J

    2015-03-01

    The modular polyketide synthases (PKSs) are multienzyme proteins responsible for the assembly of diverse secondary metabolites of high economic and therapeutic importance. These molecular 'assembly lines' consist of repeated functional units called 'modules' organized into gigantic polypeptides. For several decades, concerted efforts have been made to understand in detail the structure and function of PKSs in order to facilitate genetic engineering of the systems towards the production of polyketide analogues for evaluation as drug leads. Despite this intense activity, it has not yet been possible to solve the crystal structure of a single module, let alone a multimodular subunit. Nonetheless, on the basis of analysis of the structures of modular fragments and the study of the related multienzyme of animal fatty acid synthase (FAS), several models of modular PKS architecture have been proposed. This year, however, the situation has changed - three modular structures have been characterized, not by X-ray crystallography, but by the complementary methods of single-particle cryo-electron microscopy and small-angle X-ray scattering. This review aims to compare the cryo-EM structures and SAXS-derived structural models, and to interpret them in the context of previously obtained data and existing architectural proposals. The consequences for genetic engineering of the systems will also be discussed, as well as unresolved questions and future directions.

  2. Modularity, Working Memory and Language Acquisition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baddeley, Alan D.

    2017-01-01

    The concept of modularity is used to contrast the approach to working memory proposed by Truscott with the Baddeley and Hitch multicomponent model. This proposes four sub components comprising the "central executive," an executive control system of limited attentional capacity that utilises storage based on separate but interlinked…

  3. Traceability and Modularity in Software Design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wieringa, Roelf J.

    A software design specification consists of a number of documents that describe various aspect of the design at different levels of detail, that are linked in many ways. This paper shows how different designs may use different modularization criteria, and how documents describing these designs may

  4. Consciousness in SLA: A Modular Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truscott, John

    2015-01-01

    Understanding the place of consciousness in second language acquisition (SLA) is crucial for an understanding of how acquisition occurs. Considerable work has been done on this topic, but nearly all of it assumes a highly non-modular view, according to which language and its development is "nothing special". As this assumption runs…

  5. Origami, Modular Packing and the Soma Puzzle

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 8; Issue 11. Origami, Modular Packing and the Soma Puzzle. Subramania Ranganathan. General Article Volume 8 Issue 11 November 2003 pp 71-77. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link:

  6. Experiments on a modular magnetic refrigeration device

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engelbrecht, Kurt; Jensen, Jesper Buch; Bahl, Christian

    2012-01-01

    An experimental magnetic refrigeration test device has been built at Risø DTU. The device is designed to be modular, and thus all parts of the device can easily be replaced depending on the experiment. This makes the device highly versatile, with the possibility of performing a wide variety...

  7. Creating Modular Platforms for Strategic Flexibility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sanchez, Ron

    2004-01-01

    In developing products, long‐term success depends on designing components that facilitate the creation of a family of current and future product options. Ron Sanchez emphasizes that this requires careful planning of shared technologies and production processes. The payoff is a modular approach...

  8. A Modular SOS for Action Notation - Revisited

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mosses, Peter David

    A draft modular SOS for the new version of AN, referred to as AN-2, has been available since 2000. It is written in CASL and has been checked for well-formedness using CATS (CASL Tool Set). It appears to be significantly more accessible than the original SOS of AN-1. However, it now appears that ...

  9. Principles for Implementing Modularity in Healthcare

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Soffers, Ruter; Meijboom, Bert; Hsuan, Juliana

    in a modular way. We identify three principles to do so: 1) the service architecture should be decomposable; 2) a proper service specification process should be introduced; and 3) the presence of interfaces should be ensured. Followingthese principles should help policy makers as well as managers to implement...

  10. Optimization of modular coils for stellarator fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chu, T.K.; Furth, H.P.; Johnson, J.L.; Ludescher, C.; Weimer, K.E.

    1982-02-01

    Introduction of a non-sinusoidal deformation can enhance the efficacy of modular coils for generating magnetic fields with a built-in rotational transform. Techniques are developed that provide an understanding of how specific deformations affect the harmonic content of the magnetic field and thus the properties of the vacuum configuration. This provides an optimization procedure for coil design

  11. A Comparison of Modular Verification Techniques

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Henrik Reif; Staunstrup, Jørgen; Maretti, Niels

    1997-01-01

    This paper presents and compares three techniques for mechanized verification of state oriented design descriptions. One is a traditional forwardgeneration of a fixed point characterizing the reachable states. The two others can utilize a modular structure provided by the designer. Onerequires a ...

  12. A modular approach to simulator architecture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ray, R.N.

    1980-01-01

    A modular design of hardware and software for power plant training simulators is discussed. The hardware consists of a multicomputer configuration using TDC-316 minicomputers with shared memory. Model software, which represents the major share of software development effort is developed using Model Statement Language (MSL). Salient features of MSL are also discussed. (auth.)

  13. Modular Power Architectures for Microgrid Clusters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lin, Hengwei; Liu, Leo; Guerrero, Josep M.

    2014-01-01

    One of the most important elements in microgrids is the configuration architecture which includes installed capacity, devices location, converter topologies, as well as system control and management strategies. Reliability, security and stability in microgrids require global communication systems...... approach is proposed and evaluated to effectively optimize and manage modular microgrid architectures....

  14. Modularized study of human calcium signalling pathway

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    PRAKASH KUMAR

    Modularization is a process by which we can break a network into small units for better analysis of the original network. The idea is used here to break human calcium signalling pathway into simple entities known as modules. Since there is no single definition of a module, we have followed certain criteria to create them.

  15. Modularized study of human calcium signalling pathway

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    PRAKASH KUMAR

    The idea is used here to break human calcium signalling pathway into simple entities known as ... [Nayak L and De R K 2007 Modularized study of human calcium signalling pathway; J. Biosci. 32 1009–1017] http://www.ias.ac.in/ ..... cellular physiology of intracellular calcium stores; Physiol. Rev. 74 595–636. Bertram R ...

  16. 48 CFR 39.103 - Modular contracting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... those objectives; (3) Provide for delivery, implementation, and testing of workable systems or solutions... increments to take advantage of any evolution in technology or needs that occur during implementation and use... CATEGORIES OF CONTRACTING ACQUISITION OF INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY General 39.103 Modular contracting. (a) This...

  17. Siegel Modular Forms and Black Hole Entropy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Belin, Alexandre; Castro, Alejandra; Vieira Gomes, Joao; Keller, Christoph A.

    2017-01-01

    We discuss the application of Siegel Modular Forms to Black Hole entropy counting. The role of the Igusa cusp form $\\chi_{10}$ in the D1D5P system is well-known, and its transformation properties are what allows precision microstate counting in this case. We apply a similar method to extract the

  18. Honeywell Modular Automation System Computer Software Documentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    CUNNINGHAM, L.T.

    1999-01-01

    This document provides a Computer Software Documentation for a new Honeywell Modular Automation System (MAS) being installed in the Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP). This system will be used to control new thermal stabilization furnaces in HA-211 and vertical denitration calciner in HC-230C-2

  19. Conformal branching rules and modular invariants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walton, M.A.

    1989-01-01

    Using the outer automorphisms of the affine algebra SU(n), we show how the branching rules for the conformal subalgebra SU(pq) contains SU(p) x SU(q) may be simply calculated. We demonstrate that new modular invariant combinations of SU(n) characters are obtainable from the branching rules. (orig.)

  20. INFORMATION SECURITY IN MOBILE MODULAR MEASURING SYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. N. Tkhishev

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A special aspect of aircraft test is carrying out both flight evaluation and ground operation evaluation in a structure of flying aids and special tools equipment. The specific of flight and sea tests involve metering in offshore zone, which excludes the possibility of fixed geodetically related measuring tools. In this regard, the specific role is acquired by shipbased measurement systems, in particular the mobile modular measuring systems. Information processed in the mobile modular measurement systems is a critical resource having a high level of confidentiality. When carrying out their functions, it should be implemented a proper information control of the mobile modular measurement systems to ensure their protection from the risk of data leakage, modification or loss, i.e. to ensure a certain level of information security. Due to the specific of their application it is difficult to solve the problems of information security in such complexes. The intruder model, the threat model, the security requirements generated for fixed informatization objects are not applicable to mobile systems. It was concluded that the advanced mobile modular measuring systems designed for flight experiments monitoring and control should be created due to necessary information protection measures and means. The article contains a diagram of security requirements formation, starting with the data envelopment analysis and ending with the practical implementation. The information security probabilistic model applied to mobile modular measurement systems is developed. The list of current security threats based on the environment and specific of the mobile measurement system functioning is examined. The probabilistic model of the information security evaluation is given. The problems of vulnerabilities transformation of designed information system into the security targets with the subsequent formation of the functional and trust requirements list are examined.

  1. Cranial modularity and sequence heterochrony in mammals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goswami, Anjali

    2007-01-01

    Heterochrony, the temporal shifting of developmental events relative to each other, requires a degree of autonomy among those processes or structures. Modularity, the division of larger structures or processes into autonomous sets of internally integrated units, is often discussed in relation to the concept of heterochrony. However, the relationship between the developmental modules derived from studies of heterochrony and evolutionary modules, which should be of adaptive importance and relate to the genotype-phenotype map, has not been explicitly studied. I analyzed a series of sectioned and whole cleared-and-stained embryological and neonatal specimens, supplemented with published ontogenetic data, to test the hypothesis that bones within the same phenotypic modules, as determined by morphometric analysis, are developmentally integrated and will display coordinated heterochronic shifts across taxa. Modularity was analyzed in cranial bone ossification sequences of 12 therian mammals. A dataset of 12-18 developmental events was used to assess if modularity in developmental sequences corresponds to six phenotypic modules, derived from a recent morphometric analysis of cranial modularity in mammals. Kendall's tau was used to measure rank correlations, with randomization tests for significance. If modularity in developmental sequences corresponds to observed phenotypic modules, bones within a single phenotypic module should show integration of developmental timing, maintaining the same timing of ossification relative to each other, despite differences in overall ossification sequences across taxa. Analyses did not find any significant conservation of developmental timing within the six phenotypic modules, meaning that bones that are highly integrated in adult morphology are not significantly integrated in developmental timing.

  2. ATP-Binding Cassette (ABC) Transporters of the Human Respiratory Tract Pathogen, Moraxella catarrhalis: Role in Virulence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Timothy F; Brauer, Aimee L; Johnson, Antoinette; Kirkham, Charmaine

    2016-01-01

    Moraxella catarrhalis is a human respiratory tract pathogen that causes otitis media (middle ear infections) in children and respiratory tract infections in adults with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. In view of the huge global burden of disease caused by M. catarrhalis, the development of vaccines to prevent these infections and better approaches to treatment have become priorities. In previous work, we used a genome mining approach that identified three substrate binding proteins (SBPs) of ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters as promising candidate vaccine antigens. In the present study, we performed a comprehensive assessment of 19 SBPs of 15 ABC transporter systems in the M. catarrhalis genome by engineering knockout mutants and studying their role in assays that assess mechanisms of infection. The capacity of M. catarrhalis to survive and grow in the nutrient-limited and hostile environment of the human respiratory tract, including intracellular growth, account in part for its virulence. The results show that ABC transporters that mediate uptake of peptides, amino acids, cations and anions play important roles in pathogenesis by enabling M. catarrhalis to 1) grow in nutrient-limited conditions, 2) invade and survive in human respiratory epithelial cells and 3) persist in the lungs in a murine pulmonary clearance model. The knockout mutants of SBPs and ABC transporters showed different patterns of activity in the assay systems, supporting the conclusion that different SBPs and ABC transporters function at different stages in the pathogenesis of infection. These results indicate that ABC transporters are nutritional virulence factors, functioning to enable the survival of M catarrhalis in the diverse microenvironments of the respiratory tract. Based on the role of ABC transporters as virulence factors of M. catarrhalis, these molecules represent potential drug targets to eradicate the organism from the human respiratory tract.

  3. Plasmodium falciparum expressing domain cassette 5 type PfEMP1 (DC5-PfEMP1 bind PECAM1.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanne S Berger

    Full Text Available Members of the Plasmodium falciparum Erythrocyte Membrane protein 1 (PfEMP1 family expressed on the surface of malaria-infected erythrocytes mediate binding of the parasite to different receptors on the vascular lining. This process drives pathologies, and severe childhood malaria has been associated with the expression of particular subsets of PfEMP1 molecules. PfEMP1 are grouped into subtypes based on upstream sequences and the presence of semi-conserved PfEMP1 domain compositions named domain cassettes (DCs. Earlier studies have indicated that DC5-containing PfEMP1 (DC5-PfEMP1 are more likely to be expressed in children with severe malaria disease than in children with uncomplicated malaria, but these PfEMP1 subtypes only dominate in a relatively small proportion of the children with severe disease. In this study, we have characterised the genomic sequence characteristic for DC5, and show that two genetically different parasite lines expressing DC5-PfEMP1 bind PECAM1, and that anti-DC5-specific antibodies inhibit binding of DC5-PfEMP1-expressing parasites to transformed human bone marrow endothelial cells (TrHBMEC. We also show that antibodies against each of the four domains characteristic for DC5 react with native PfEMP1 expressed on the surface of infected erythrocytes, and that some of these antibodies are cross-reactive between the two DC5-containing PfEMP1 molecules tested. Finally, we confirm that anti-DC5 antibodies are acquired early in life by individuals living in malaria endemic areas, that individuals having high levels of these antibodies are less likely to develop febrile malaria episodes and that the antibody levels correlate positively with hemoglobin levels.

  4. The Impact of Product and Service Modularity on Business Performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hsuan, Juliana; Frandsen, Thomas; Raja, Jawwad

    Modularity has been proposed as a powerful way of managing complexity. The emerging literature points to the importance of modularity of service architecture, with case based studies in logistics and healthcare. Little is known about the relationship between product and service modularity...... and their effects on business performance, both empirically and theoretically. This paper explores the relationship between product and service modularity and their effects on business performance based on a survey of Danish manufacturers. We provide empirical and theoretical insights into the emerging fields...... of service modularity and industrial services....

  5. The ITER divertor cassette. Steady state characterisation and draining and drying transient hydraulic analyses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pietro Alessandro Di Maio; Valerio Tomarchio; Giuseppe Vella; Irene Zammuto; Giovanni Dell'Orco

    2005-01-01

    Full text of publication follows: The divertor is one of the most challenging components of the next step ITER nuclear fusion reactor. It is aimed at controlling the characteristics of boundary plasma, reducing the impurities in the plasma and sustaining the heat and particle fluxes arising from it, during normal and transient operations as well as during disruption events. The ITER divertor consists of 54 cassettes, each one mainly composed of three Plasma-Facing Components (PFCs), namely the inner vertical target, the outer vertical target and the dome-liner, actively cooled by subcooled pressurized water. Each PFC consists in a number of plasma facing units, cooled in parallel and assembled onto a supporting structure. The water maximum total flow rate, for the whole divertor, should be 1000 kg/s, with 100-150 deg. C inlet/outlet temperatures, 4.2 MPa inlet pressure and a maximum pressure drop of 1.4 MPa. The PFCs are cooled in series, with a maximum water velocity in the channel of 11 m/s, whilst the water coolant is routed via the cassette body. Due to the extremely high heat loads expected onto the PFCs (up to 20 MW/m 2 over 20 s), the hydraulic design of the divertor is particularly demanding. It shall ensure that the foreseen flow rate actually reaches each plasma-facing unit to ensure an adequate cooling and to prevent any risk of Critical Heat Flux (CHF). Sufficient margin ( > 40 %) to avoid the reaching of a CHR limit on the PFCs could be obtained by using hypervapotron design inside the flat channels and swirl flow turbulence tape promoters inside the vertical target cooling tubes. Furthermore the overall pressure drop and flow rate shall be within the specified design limit to avoid an unduly high pumping power. Another important issue is the definition of a proper procedure to drain the coolant and dry the divertor components prior to the maintenance operations as well as to refill them with water after maintenance, ensuring a complete elimination of

  6. The ITER divertor cassette. Steady state characterisation and draining and drying transient hydraulic analyses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pietro Alessandro Di Maio; Valerio Tomarchio; Giuseppe Vella; Irene Zammuto [Dipartimento di Ingegneria Nucleare, Viale delle Scienze, 90128 Palermo, (Italy); Giovanni Dell' Orco [ENEA-Brasimone, 40032 Camugnano, Bologna (Italy)

    2005-07-01

    Full text of publication follows: The divertor is one of the most challenging components of the next step ITER nuclear fusion reactor. It is aimed at controlling the characteristics of boundary plasma, reducing the impurities in the plasma and sustaining the heat and particle fluxes arising from it, during normal and transient operations as well as during disruption events. The ITER divertor consists of 54 cassettes, each one mainly composed of three Plasma-Facing Components (PFCs), namely the inner vertical target, the outer vertical target and the dome-liner, actively cooled by subcooled pressurized water. Each PFC consists in a number of plasma facing units, cooled in parallel and assembled onto a supporting structure. The water maximum total flow rate, for the whole divertor, should be 1000 kg/s, with 100-150 deg. C inlet/outlet temperatures, 4.2 MPa inlet pressure and a maximum pressure drop of 1.4 MPa. The PFCs are cooled in series, with a maximum water velocity in the channel of 11 m/s, whilst the water coolant is routed via the cassette body. Due to the extremely high heat loads expected onto the PFCs (up to 20 MW/m{sup 2} over 20 s), the hydraulic design of the divertor is particularly demanding. It shall ensure that the foreseen flow rate actually reaches each plasma-facing unit to ensure an adequate cooling and to prevent any risk of Critical Heat Flux (CHF). Sufficient margin ( > 40 %) to avoid the reaching of a CHR limit on the PFCs could be obtained by using hypervapotron design inside the flat channels and swirl flow turbulence tape promoters inside the vertical target cooling tubes. Furthermore the overall pressure drop and flow rate shall be within the specified design limit to avoid an unduly high pumping power. Another important issue is the definition of a proper procedure to drain the coolant and dry the divertor components prior to the maintenance operations as well as to refill them with water after maintenance, ensuring a complete

  7. SMEX-Lite Modular Solar Array Architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, John

    2002-01-01

    For the most part, Goddard solar arrays have been custom designs that are unique to each mission. The solar panel design has been frozen prior to issuing an RFP for their procurement. There has typically been 6-9 months between RFP release and contract award, followed by an additional 24 months for performance of the contract. For Small Explorer (SMEX) missions, with three years between mission definition and launch, this has been a significant problem. The SMEX solar panels have been sufficiently small that the contract performance period has been reduced to 12-15 months. The bulk of this time is used up in the final design definition and fabrication of flight solar cell assemblies. Even so, it has been virtually impossible to have the spacecraft design at a level of maturity sufficient to freeze the solar panel geometry and release the RFP in time to avoid schedule problems with integrating the solar panels to the spacecraft. With that in mind, the SMEX-Lite project team developed a modular architecture for the assembly of solar arrays to greatly reduce the cost and schedule associated with the development of a mission- specific solar array. In the modular architecture, solar cells are fabricated onto small substrate panels. This modular panel (approximately 8.5" x 17" in this case) becomes the building block for constructing solar arrays for multiple missions with varying power requirements and geometrical arrangements. The mechanical framework that holds these modules together as a solar array is the only mission-unique design, changing in size and shape as required for each mission. There are several advantages to this approach. First, the typical solar array development cycle requires a mission unique design, procurement, and qualification including a custom qualification panel. With the modular architecture, a single qualification of the SMEX-Lite modules and the associated mechanical framework in a typical configuration provided a qualification by

  8. Increased Versatility of Modular Robots through Layered Heterogeneity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Jørgen Christian; Støy, Kasper; Garcia, Ricardo Franco Mendoza

    2011-01-01

    it possible to create dynamic, power-efficient and robust locomotive modular robots, extending the usability of modular robots. Early tests show that the system is able to perform dynamic locomotion with speeds up to 11.8cm/sec with a specific resistance of 9.65. Also static structures have been constructed......, forming a tower that is able to withstand a load of 29 times its own weight placed on top of the tower, without any power consumption. These tests show that the system is comparable in performance to those of non-modular robots.......This paper introduces a new class of modular robots, called: “layered heterogeneous modular robots”, which is a type of modular robot, where the functionality of a robot is modularized into three layers of heterogeneous modules: mechanics, actuation and electronics. This novel approach may make...

  9. Antimicrobial resistance and class 1 integron-associated gene cassettes in Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium isolated from pigs at slaughter and abattoir environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, Graciela Volz; Michael, Geovana Brenner; Cardoso, Marisa; Schwarz, Stefan

    2016-10-15

    Forty-five multi-resistant Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar (S.) Typhimurium isolates obtained at five pig abattoirs in Southern Brazil were characterized. Their relatedness was determined by XbaI-macrorestriction analysis. Resistance genes, integrons and plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance genes (PMQR) were investigated by PCR. Amplicons for the variable part of class 1 integrons and the quinolone resistance-determining regions (QRDR) were sequenced. Plasmids were characterized by conjugation assays and replicon typing. Eighteen XbaI-macrorestriction patterns and 19 plasmid profiles were seen. Resistance to ampicillin (bla TEM ), chloramphenicol (catA1 and floR), streptomycin (strA-strB), streptomycin/spectinomycin (aadA variants), sulphonamides (sul1, sul2, sul3) and tetracyclines [tet(A) and tet(B)] were commonly found. A trimethoprim resistance gene, dfrA8, was identified on a 100-kb plasmid. Single substitutions in the QRDR of GyrA but no PMQR genes were found. Twenty-five isolates carried class 1 integrons with an aadA23 gene cassette or unusual class 1 integrons with a dfrA12-orfF-aadA27 gene cassette array. Both integrons were found on large conjugative plasmids. Salmonella plasmid-located virulence genes spvR, spvA, spvB, rck and pefA were found on an IncFIB resistance plasmid. Hybrid virulence-resistance plasmids or plasmids harbouring class 1 integrons may play a role in the maintenance and dissemination of antimicrobial resistance among S. Typhimurium in this pig production system. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Natural transformation facilitates transfer of transposons, integrons and gene cassettes between bacterial species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domingues, Sara; Harms, Klaus; Fricke, W Florian; Johnsen, Pål J; da Silva, Gabriela J; Nielsen, Kaare Magne

    2012-01-01

    We have investigated to what extent natural transformation acting on free DNA substrates can facilitate transfer of mobile elements including transposons, integrons and/or gene cassettes between bacterial species. Naturally transformable cells of Acinetobacter baylyi were exposed to DNA from integron-carrying strains of the genera Acinetobacter, Citrobacter, Enterobacter, Escherichia, Pseudomonas, and Salmonella to determine the nature and frequency of transfer. Exposure to the various DNA sources resulted in acquisition of antibiotic resistance traits as well as entire integrons and transposons, over a 24 h exposure period. DNA incorporation was not solely dependent on integrase functions or the genetic relatedness between species. DNA sequence analyses revealed that several mechanisms facilitated stable integration in the recipient genome depending on the nature of the donor DNA; homologous or heterologous recombination and various types of transposition (Tn21-like and IS26-like). Both donor strains and transformed isolates were extensively characterized by antimicrobial susceptibility testing, integron- and cassette-specific PCRs, DNA sequencing, pulsed field gel electrophoreses (PFGE), Southern blot hybridizations, and by re-transformation assays. Two transformant strains were also genome-sequenced. Our data demonstrate that natural transformation facilitates interspecies transfer of genetic elements, suggesting that the transient presence of DNA in the cytoplasm may be sufficient for genomic integration to occur. Our study provides a plausible explanation for why sequence-conserved transposons, IS elements and integrons can be found disseminated among bacterial species. Moreover, natural transformation of integron harboring populations of competent bacteria revealed that interspecies exchange of gene cassettes can be highly efficient, and independent on genetic relatedness between donor and recipient. In conclusion, natural transformation provides a much

  11. Hygromycin B and apramycin antibiotic resistance cassettes for use in Campylobacter jejuni.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Cameron

    Full Text Available Campylobacter jejuni genetic manipulation is restricted by the limited number of antibiotic resistance cassettes available for use in this diarrheal pathogen. In this study, two antibiotic resistance cassettes were developed, encoding for hygromycin B and apramycin resistance, for use in mutagenesis or for selection of gene expression and complementation constructs in C. jejuni. First, the marker genes were successfully modified to allow for insertional mutagenesis or deletion of a gene-of-interest, and were bracketed with restriction sites for the facilitation of site-specific cloning. These hygromycin B and apramycin markers are encoded by plasmids pAC1H and pAC1A, respectively. We also modified an insertional gene-delivery vector to create pRRH and pRRA, containing the hygromycin B and apramycin resistance genes, and 3 unique restriction sites for the directional introduction of genes into the conserved multi-copy rRNA gene clusters of the C. jejuni chromosome. We determined the effective antibiotic concentrations required for selection, and established that no harmful effects or fitness costs were associated with carrying hygromycin B or apramycin resistance under standard C. jejuni laboratory conditions. Using these markers, the arylsulfatase reporter gene astA was deleted, and the ability to genetically complement the astA deletion using pRRH and pRRA for astA gene insertion was demonstrated. Furthermore, the relative levels of expression from the endogenous astA promoter were compared to that of polycistronic mRNA expression from the constitutive promoter upstream of the resistance gene. The development of additional antibiotic resistance cassettes for use in Campylobacter will enable multiple gene deletion and expression combinations as well as more in-depth study of multi-gene systems important for the survival and pathogenesis of this important bacterium.

  12. Zinc finger nuclease and homing endonuclease-mediated assembly of multigene plant transformation vectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeevi, Vardit; Liang, Zhuobin; Arieli, Uri; Tzfira, Tzvi

    2012-01-01

    Binary vectors are an indispensable component of modern Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated plant genetic transformation systems. A remarkable variety of binary plasmids have been developed to support the cloning and transfer of foreign genes into plant cells. The majority of these systems, however, are limited to the cloning and transfer of just a single gene of interest. Thus, plant biologists and biotechnologists face a major obstacle when planning the introduction of multigene traits into transgenic plants. Here, we describe the assembly of multitransgene binary vectors by using a combination of engineered zinc finger nucleases (ZFNs) and homing endonucleases. Our system is composed of a modified binary vector that has been engineered to carry an array of unique recognition sites for ZFNs and homing endonucleases and a family of modular satellite vectors. By combining the use of designed ZFNs and commercial restriction enzymes, multiple plant expression cassettes were sequentially cloned into the acceptor binary vector. Using this system, we produced binary vectors that carried up to nine genes. Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) protoplasts and plants were transiently and stably transformed, respectively, by several multigene constructs, and the expression of the transformed genes was monitored across several generations. Because ZFNs can potentially be engineered to digest a wide variety of target sequences, our system allows overcoming the problem of the very limited number of commercial homing endonucleases. Thus, users of our system can enjoy a rich resource of plasmids that can be easily adapted to their various needs, and since our cloning system is based on ZFN and homing endonucleases, it may be possible to reconstruct other types of binary vectors and adapt our vectors for cloning on multigene vector systems in various binary plasmids.

  13. Marine integrons containing novel integrase genes, attachment sites, attI, and associated gene cassettes in polluted sediments from Suez and Tokyo Bays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elsaied, Hosam; Stokes, Hatch W; Kitamura, Keiko; Kurusu, Yasurou; Kamagata, Yoichi; Maruyama, Akihiko

    2011-07-01

    In order to understand the structure and biological significance of integrons and associated gene cassettes in marine polluted sediments, metagenomic DNAs were extracted from sites at Suez and Tokyo Bays. PCR amplicons containing new integrase genes, intI, linked with novel gene cassettes, were recovered and had sizes from 1.8 to 2.5 kb. This approach uncovered, for the first time, the structure and diversity of both marine integron attachment site, attI, and the first gene cassette, the most efficiently expressed integron-associated gene cassette. The recovered 13 and 20 intI phylotypes, from Suez and Tokyo Bay samples, respectively, showed a highly divergence, suggesting a difference in integron composition between the sampling sites. Some intI phylotypes showed similarity with that from Geobacter metallireducens, belonging to Deltaproteobacteria, the dominant class in both sampling sites, as determined by 16S rRNA gene analysis. Thirty distinct families of putative attI site, as determined by the presence of an attI-like simple site, were recovered. A total of 146 and 68 gene cassettes represented Suez and Tokyo Bay unsaturated cassette pools, respectively. Gene cassettes, including a first cassette, from both sampling sites encoded two novel families of glyoxalase/bleomycin antibiotic-resistance protein. Gene cassettes from Suez Bay encoded proteins similar to haloacid dehalogenases, protein disulfide isomerases and death-on-curing and plasmid maintenance system killer proteins. First gene cassettes from Tokyo Bay encoded a xenobiotic-degrading protein, cardiolipin synthetase, esterase and WD40-like β propeller protein. Many of the first gene cassettes encoded proteins with no ascribable function but some of them were duplicated and possessed signal functional sites, suggesting efficient adaptive functions to their bacterial sources. Thus, each sampling site had a specific profile of integrons and cassette types consistent with the hypothesis that the

  14. Distinct effects of struvite and biochar amendment on the class 1 integron antibiotic resistance gene cassettes in phyllosphere and rhizosphere.

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Xin-Li; Chen, Qing-Lin; Zhu, Dong; Su, Jian-Qiang

    2018-03-11

    Struvite recovered from wastewater is promising for recycling phosphorus into soil as fertilizers. However, struvite application may prompt the proliferation of antibiotic resistance in soil and plant. This study examined the impacts of struvite application and biochar amendment on integrons abundance and gene cassette contexts in rhizosphere soil and phyllosphere using quantitative PCR and clone library analysis. Microcosm experiments revealed that class 1 integron was the most prevalent in all samples, with higher concentration and higher relative abundance in rhizosphere than those in phyllosphere. The majority of resistance gene cassettes were associated with genes encoding resistance to aminoglycosides, beta-lactams and chloramphenicols. Struvite application significantly increased the genetic diversity of antibiotic resistance gene cassettes in both rhizosphere and phyllosphere. However, biochar amendment attenuated the increasing effect of struvite application exerting on the class 1 integron antibiotic resistance gene cassette pool in phyllosphere. These findings highlighted human activities to be the source of integron gene cassette pool and raised the possibility of using biochar amendment as an alternative mean for mitigating antibiotic resistance in environments. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Homothallic switching of yeast mating type cassettes is initiated by a double-stranded cut in the MAT locus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strathern, J N; Klar, A J; Hicks, J B; Abraham, J A; Ivy, J M; Nasmyth, K A; McGill, C

    1982-11-01

    A double-stranded DNA cut has been observed in the mating type (MAT) locus of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae in cultures undergoing homothallic cassette switching. Cutting is observed in exponentially growing cells of genotype HO HML alpha MAT alpha HMR alpha or HO HMLa MATa HMRa, which switch continuously, but not in a/alpha HO/HO diploid strains, in which homothallic switching is known to be shut off. Stationary phase cultures do not exhibit the cut. Although this site-specific cut occurs in a sequence (Z1) common to the silent HML and HMR cassettes and to MAT, only the Z1 sequence at the MAT locus is cut. The cut at MAT occurs in the absence of the HML and HMR donor cassettes, suggesting that cutting initiates the switching process. An assay for switching on hybrid plasmids containing mata- cassettes has been devised, and deletion mapping has shown that the cut site is required for efficient switching. Thus a double-stranded cut at the MAT locus appears to initiate cassette transposition-substitution and defines MAT as the recipient in this process.

  16. Modularity Design Approach for Preventive Machine Maintenance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ernawati, D.; Pudji, E.; Ngatilah, Y.; Handoyo, R.

    2018-01-01

    In a company, machine maintenance system will be very influential in production process activity. The company should have a scheduled engine maintenance system that does not require high costs when repairing and replacing machine parts. Modularity Design method is able to provide solutions to the engine maintenance scheduling system and can prevent fatal damage to the engine components. It can minimize the cost of repair and replacement of these machine components.The paper provides a solution to machine maintenance problems. The paper is also completed with case study of milling machines. That case studies can give us a real description about impact implementation of modularity design to prevent fatal damage to components and minimize the cost of repair and replacement of components of the machine.

  17. Modular Chemical Process Intensification: A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yong-Ha; Park, Lydia K; Yiacoumi, Sotira; Tsouris, Costas

    2017-06-07

    Modular chemical process intensification can dramatically improve energy and process efficiencies of chemical processes through enhanced mass and heat transfer, application of external force fields, enhanced driving forces, and combinations of different unit operations, such as reaction and separation, in single-process equipment. These dramatic improvements lead to several benefits such as compactness or small footprint, energy and cost savings, enhanced safety, less waste production, and higher product quality. Because of these benefits, process intensification can play a major role in industrial and manufacturing sectors, including chemical, pulp and paper, energy, critical materials, and water treatment, among others. This article provides an overview of process intensification, including definitions, principles, tools, and possible applications, with the objective to contribute to the future development and potential applications of modular chemical process intensification in industrial and manufacturing sectors. Drivers and barriers contributing to the advancement of process intensification technologies are discussed.

  18. Discrete optimization in architecture extremely modular systems

    CERN Document Server

    Zawidzki, Machi

    2017-01-01

    This book is comprised of two parts, both of which explore modular systems: Pipe-Z (PZ) and Truss-Z (TZ), respectively. It presents several methods of creating PZ and TZ structures subjected to discrete optimization. The algorithms presented employ graph-theoretic and heuristic methods. The underlying idea of both systems is to create free-form structures using the minimal number of types of modular elements. PZ is more conceptual, as it forms single-branch mathematical knots with a single type of module. Conversely, TZ is a skeletal system for creating free-form pedestrian ramps and ramp networks among any number of terminals in space. In physical space, TZ uses two types of modules that are mirror reflections of each other. The optimization criteria discussed include: the minimal number of units, maximal adherence to the given guide paths, etc.

  19. On the Hereditary Properties of Modular Nets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. A. Bashkin

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Hereditary graph properties are those that can be inherited from the graph to all its subgraphs (such as planarity. Modular nets of active resources is a (Petri nets- powerful formalism with simple modular syntax. Boundedness and liveness are fundamental semantic properties for Petri net models. It is shown that boundedness and liveness, being not hereditary in general, are downward-hereditary (net-to-subnet and upward-hereditary (subnet-to-net for the particular types of AR-subnets. It is also shown that boundedness is downward-hereditary and unboundedness is upward-hereditary for arbitrary subnets after a specific module interface transformation (so-called R-normalization.

  20. Integrating modular mechatronic systems for immersive performances

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pagliarini, Luigi; Lund, Henrik Hautop

    2015-01-01

    and video output in a very easy manner, thanks to mechatronical wearable interfaces. In this light, we describe two of our systems that explore the concept of run-time composition of a variety of input and output modalities, e.g. both music and graphical expression. Indeed, we developed both hardware......As a branch of mechatronic research in interactivity, and in robot art, we describe the concept of implementing Playware based tools inspired by modern AI robotic systems for audio-video performances. We develop immersive and personalizable tools that can allow any user to manipulate both audio...... to create a run-time audio-video performance that is original and unique. This can further be combined with modular wearable – inspired by modular robotics – to interact and control the performance. This mechatronic wearable concept and its implementations exemplify how to convey a user-centered experience...

  1. Reasoning about modular datatypes with Mendler induction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo Torrini

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In functional programming, datatypes a la carte provide a convenient modular representation of recursive datatypes, based on their initial algebra semantics. Unfortunately it is highly challenging to implement this technique in proof assistants that are based on type theory, like Coq. The reason is that it involves type definitions, such as those of type-level fixpoint operators, that are not strictly positive. The known work-around of impredicative encodings is problematic, insofar as it impedes conventional inductive reasoning. Weak induction principles can be used instead, but they considerably complicate proofs. This paper proposes a novel and simpler technique to reason inductively about impredicative encodings, based on Mendler-style induction. This technique involves dispensing with dependent induction, ensuring that datatypes can be lifted to predicates and relying on relational formulations. A case study on proving subject reduction for structural operational semantics illustrates that the approach enables modular proofs, and that these proofs are essentially similar to conventional ones.

  2. PLM system support for modular product development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruun, Hans Peter Lomholt; Mortensen, Niels Henrik; Harlou, Ulf

    2015-01-01

    is the description of an empirical tested approach using a visual product architecture representation in combination with a PLM system to support the development of a product family of products. The results from the study encompass new PLM capabilities for handling multiple product structures, visualising multiple......A modular design strategy both enables, but also demands, parallelism in design activities and collaboration between a diversity of disciplines in companies, which often involves supporting computer-based tools for enhancing interaction, design management, and communication. Product data management...... (PDM) and product lifecycle management (PLM) systems offer support by automating and managing some of the operational complexity of modular design activities. PLM system tools are used for handling a variety of product definitions, to manage workflow of development activities, and to measure relational...

  3. Implementing a modular system of computer codes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vondy, D.R.; Fowler, T.B.

    1983-07-01

    A modular computation system has been developed for nuclear reactor core analysis. The codes can be applied repeatedly in blocks without extensive user input data, as needed for reactor history calculations. The primary control options over the calculational paths and task assignments within the codes are blocked separately from other instructions, admitting ready access by user input instruction or directions from automated procedures and promoting flexible and diverse applications at minimum application cost. Data interfacing is done under formal specifications with data files manipulated by an informed manager. This report emphasizes the system aspects and the development of useful capability, hopefully informative and useful to anyone developing a modular code system of much sophistication. Overall, this report in a general way summarizes the many factors and difficulties that are faced in making reactor core calculations, based on the experience of the authors. It provides the background on which work on HTGR reactor physics is being carried out

  4. Modular PEM Fuel Cell SCADA & Simulator System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisca Segura

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a Supervision, Control, Data Acquisition and Simulation (SCADA & Simulator system that allows for real-time training in the actual operation of a modular PEM fuel cell system. This SCADA & Simulator system consists of a free software tool that operates in real time and simulates real situations like failures and breakdowns in the system. This developed SCADA & Simulator system allows us to properly operate a fuel cell and helps us to understand how fuel cells operate and what devices are needed to configure and run the fuel cells, from the individual stack up to the whole fuel cell system. The SCADA & Simulator system governs a modular system integrated by three PEM fuel cells achieving power rates higher than tens of kilowatts.

  5. A modular approach to adaptive structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagitz, Markus; Pagitz, Manuel; Hühne, Christian

    2014-10-07

    A remarkable property of nastic, shape changing plants is their complete fusion between actuators and structure. This is achieved by combining a large number of cells whose geometry, internal pressures and material properties are optimized for a given set of target shapes and stiffness requirements. An advantage of such a fusion is that cell walls are prestressed by cell pressures which increases, decreases the overall structural stiffness, weight. Inspired by the nastic movement of plants, Pagitz et al (2012 Bioinspir. Biomim. 7) published a novel concept for pressure actuated cellular structures. This article extends previous work by introducing a modular approach to adaptive structures. An algorithm that breaks down any continuous target shapes into a small number of standardized modules is presented. Furthermore it is shown how cytoskeletons within each cell enhance the properties of adaptive modules. An adaptive passenger seat and an aircrafts leading, trailing edge is used to demonstrate the potential of a modular approach.

  6. Modular, bluetooth enabled, wireless electroencephalograph (EEG) platform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovelace, Joseph A; Witt, Tyler S; Beyette, Fred R

    2013-01-01

    A design for a modular, compact, and accurate wireless electroencephalograph (EEG) system is proposed. EEG is the only non-invasive measure for neuronal function of the brain. Using a number of digital signal processing (DSP) techniques, this neuronal function can be acquired and processed into meaningful representations of brain activity. The system described here utilizes Bluetooth to wirelessly transmit the digitized brain signal for an end application use. In this way, the system is portable, and modular in terms of the device to which it can interface. Brain Computer Interface (BCI) has become a popular extension of EEG systems in modern research. This design serves as a platform for applications using BCI capability.

  7. AP1000{sup TM} plant modularization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cantarero L, C.; Demetri, K. J. [Westinghouse Electric Co., 1000 Westinghouse Drive, Cranberry Township, PA 16066 (United States); Quintero C, F. P., E-mail: cantarc@westinghouse.com [Westinghouse Electric Spain, Padilla 17, 28006 Madrid (Spain)

    2016-09-15

    The AP1000{sup TM} plant is an 1100 M We pressurized water reactor (PWR) with passive safety features and extensive plant simplifications that enhance construction, operation, maintenance and safety. Modules are used extensively in the design of the AP1000 plant nuclear island. The AP1000 plant uses modern, modular-construction techniques for plant construction. The design incorporates vendor-designed skids and equipment packages, as well as large, multi-ton structural modules and special equipment modules. Modularization allows traditionally sequential construction tasks to be completed simultaneously. Factory-built modules can be installed at the site in a planned construction schedule. The modularized AP1000 plant allows many more construction activities to proceed in parallel. This reduces plant construction calendar time, thus lowering the costs of plant financing. Furthermore, performing less work onsite significantly reduces the amount of skilled field-craft labor, which costs more than shop labor. In addition to labor cost savings, doing more welding and fabrication in a factory environment raises the quality of work, allowing more scheduling flexibility and reducing the amount of specialized tools required onsite. The site layout for the AP1000 plant has been established to support modular construction and efficient operations during construction. The plant layout is compact, using less space than previous conventional plant layouts. This paper provides and overview of the AP1000 plant modules with an emphasis on structural modules. Currently the Westinghouse AP1000 plant has four units under construction in China and four units under construction in the United States. All have shown successful fabrication and installation of various AP1000 plant modules. (Author)

  8. DIY Hybrid Analog/Digital Modular Synthesis

    OpenAIRE

    Surges, Greg

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes three hardware devices for integrating modular synthesizers with computers, each with a different approach to the relationship between hardware and software. The devices discussed are the USB-Octomod, an 8-channel OSC-compatible computer-controlled control-voltage generator, the tabulaRasa, a hardware table-lookup oscillator synthesis module with corresponding waveform design software, and the pucktronix.snake.corral, a dual 8x8 computer-controlled analog signal routing m...

  9. Good families of Drinfeld modular curves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bassa, Alp; Beelen, Peter; Nguyen, Nhut

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we investigate examples of good and optimal Drinfeld modular towers of function fields. Surprisingly, the optimality of these towers has not been investigated in full detail in the literature. We also give an algorithmic approach for obtaining explicit defining equations for some...... of these towers and, in particular, give a new explicit example of an optimal tower over a quadratic finite field....

  10. Workflow and cost analysis on MODULAR ANALYTICS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stolz, Herbert; Dossler, Bettina; Keller, Franz; Steigerwald, Udo

    2003-01-01

    Four stand-alone analyzers in a centralized laboratory were replaced by two modular analytical systems processing 45 methods of the general chemistry and specific protein segment. This consolidation led to a reduction of the daily workflow and operational costs. The cost saving with 1.3 million reported results per year was 53,000 Euro, which can be assessed as an important contribution to cost reduction in the health care system.

  11. Generalized modular multilevel converter and modulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Hui; Loh, Poh Chiang; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2014-01-01

    Modular multilevel converter (MMC) has gained popularity recently with its modulation, capacitor voltage balancing and circulating current issues widely discussed. Contributing to this effort, a study is presented here to show how the MMC topology can be derived from the viewpoint of two series....... For controlling the GMMC, a simple modulation scheme is also presented, where the goal is to achieve the desired performance at a minimized complexity. Simulation results are presented to illustrate the operation of the proposed topology....

  12. Modularity, cognitive penetration and perceptual justification

    OpenAIRE

    Cecchi, Ariel Sebastianos

    2014-01-01

    This thesis defends the cognitive penetration of perception. Cognitive penetration can be roughly defined as those cognitive influences on perceptual systems which have consequences for the modularity of mind and epistemic theories of perceptual justification. The thesis focuses mainly on the visual system and shows that cognitive penetration occurs in early and late vision. The results of this thesis are supported by philosophical arguments as well as empirical evidence.

  13. Modular Zero Energy. BrightBuilt Home

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aldrich, Robb [Steven Winter Associates, Inc., Norwalk, CT (United States); Butterfield, Karla [Steven Winter Associates, Inc., Norwalk, CT (United States)

    2016-03-01

    With funding from the Building America Program, part of the U.S. Department of Energy Building Technologies Office, the Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings (CARB) worked with BrightBuilt Home (BBH) to evaluate and optimize building systems. CARB’s work focused on a home built by Black Bros. Builders in Lincolnville, Maine (International Energy Conservation Code Climate Zone 6). As with most BBH projects to date, modular boxes were built by Keiser Homes in Oxford, Maine.

  14. Fully Automated Data Collection Using PAM and the Development of PAM/SPACE Reversible Cassettes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiraki, Masahiko; Watanabe, Shokei; Chavas, Leonard M. G.; Yamada, Yusuke; Matsugaki, Naohiro; Igarashi, Noriyuki; Wakatsuki, Soichi; Fujihashi, Masahiro; Miki, Kunio; Baba, Seiki; Ueno, Go; Yamamoto, Masaki; Suzuki, Mamoru; Nakagawa, Atsushi; Watanabe, Nobuhisa; Tanaka, Isao

    2010-06-01

    To remotely control and automatically collect data in high-throughput X-ray data collection experiments, the Structural Biology Research Center at the Photon Factory (PF) developed and installed sample exchange robots PAM (PF Automated Mounting system) at PF macromolecular crystallography beamlines; BL-5A, BL-17A, AR-NW12A and AR-NE3A. We developed and installed software that manages the flow of the automated X-ray experiments; sample exchanges, loop-centering and X-ray diffraction data collection. The fully automated data collection function has been available since February 2009. To identify sample cassettes, PAM employs a two-dimensional bar code reader. New beamlines, BL-1A at the Photon Factory and BL32XU at SPring-8, are currently under construction as part of Targeted Proteins Research Program (TPRP) by the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology of Japan. However, different robots, PAM and SPACE (SPring-8 Precise Automatic Cryo-sample Exchanger), will be installed at BL-1A and BL32XU, respectively. For the convenience of the users of both facilities, pins and cassettes for PAM and SPACE are developed as part of the TPRP.

  15. Ratiometric Matryoshka biosensors from a nested cassette of green- and orange-emitting fluorescent proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ast, Cindy; Foret, Jessica; Oltrogge, Luke M; De Michele, Roberto; Kleist, Thomas J; Ho, Cheng-Hsun; Frommer, Wolf B

    2017-09-05

    Sensitivity, dynamic and detection range as well as exclusion of expression and instrumental artifacts are critical for the quantitation of data obtained with fluorescent protein (FP)-based biosensors in vivo. Current biosensors designs are, in general, unable to simultaneously meet all these criteria. Here, we describe a generalizable platform to create dual-FP biosensors with large dynamic ranges by employing a single FP-cassette, named GO-(Green-Orange) Matryoshka. The cassette nests a stable reference FP (large Stokes shift LSSmOrange) within a reporter FP (circularly permuted green FP). GO- Matryoshka yields green and orange fluorescence upon blue excitation. As proof of concept, we converted existing, single-emission biosensors into a series of ratiometric calcium sensors (MatryoshCaMP6s) and ammonium transport activity sensors (AmTryoshka1;3). We additionally identified the internal acid-base equilibrium as a key determinant of the GCaMP dynamic range. Matryoshka technology promises flexibility in the design of a wide spectrum of ratiometric biosensors and expanded in vivo applications.Single fluorescent protein biosensors are susceptible to expression and instrumental artifacts. Here Ast et al. describe a dual fluorescent protein design whereby a reference fluorescent protein is nested within a reporter fluorescent protein to control for such artifacts while preserving sensitivity and dynamic range.

  16. THE REAL ISSUE WITH WALL DEPOSITS IN CLOSED FILTER CASSETTES - WHAT'S THE SAMPLE?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brisson, M.

    2009-09-12

    The measurement of aerosol dusts has long been utilized to assess the exposure of workers to metals. Tools used to sample and measure aerosol dusts have gone through many transitions over the past century. In particular, there have been several different techniques used to sample for beryllium, not all of which might be expected to produce the same result. Today, beryllium samples are generally collected using filters housed in holders of several different designs, some of which are expected to produce a sample that mimics the human capacity for dust inhalation. The presence of dust on the interior walls of cassettes used to hold filters during metals sampling has been discussed in the literature for a number of metals, including beryllium, with widely varying data. It appears that even in the best designs, particulates can enter the sampling cassette and deposit on the interior walls rather than on the sampling medium. The causes are not well understood but are believed to include particle bounce, electrostatic forces, particle size, particle density, and airflow turbulence. Historically, the filter catch has been considered to be the sample, but the presence of wall deposits, and the potential that the filter catch is not representative of the exposure to the worker, puts that historical position into question. This leads to a fundamental question: What is the sample? This article reviews the background behind the issue, poses the above-mentioned question, and discusses options and a possible path forward for addressing that question.

  17. Electricity generation from cattle manure slurry by cassette-electrode microbial fuel cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue, Kengo; Ito, Toshihiro; Kawano, Yoshihiro; Iguchi, Atsushi; Miyahara, Morio; Suzuki, Yoshihiro; Watanabe, Kazuya

    2013-11-01

    Cassette-electrode microbial fuel cells (CE-MFCs) are efficient and scalable devices for electricity production from organic waste. Previous studies have demonstrated that CE-MFCs are capable of generating electricity from artificial wastewater at relatively high efficiencies. In this study, a single-cassette CE-MFC was constructed, and its capacity for electricity generation from cattle manure suspended in water (solid to water ratio of 1:50) was examined. The CE-MFC reactor was operated in batch mode for 49 days; electricity generation became stable 2 weeks after initiating the operation. The maximum power density was measured at 16.3 W m⁻³ on day 26. Sequencing analysis of PCR-amplified 16S rRNA gene fragments obtained from the original manure and from anode biofilms suggested that Chloroflexi and Geobacteraceae were abundant in the anode biofilm (29% and 18%, respectively), whereas no Geobacteraceae sequences were detected in the original manure sample. The results of this study suggest that CE-MFCs can be used to generate electricity from water-suspended cattle manure in a scalable MFC system. Copyright © 2013 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Cassette-based in-situ TEM sample inspection in the dual-beam FIB

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kendrick, A B; Moore, T M; Zaykova-Feldman, L; Amador, G; Hammer, M

    2008-01-01

    A novel method is presented, combining site-specific TEM sample preparation and in-situ STEM analysis in a dual-beam microscope (FIB/SEM) fitted with a chamber mounted nano-manipulator. TEM samples are prepared using a modified in-situ, lift-out method, whereby the samples are thinned and oriented for immediate in-situ STEM analysis using the tilt, translation, and rotation capabilities of a FIB/SEM sample stage, a nano-manipulator, and a novel cassette. This cassette can provide a second tilt axis, orthogonal to the stage tilt axis, so that the STEM image contrast can be optimized to reveal the structural features of the sample (true STEM imaging in the FIB/SEM). The angles necessary for stage rotation and probe shaft rotation are calculated based on the position of the nano-manipulator relative to the stage and door and the stage tilt angle. A FIB/SEM instrument, equipped with a high resolution scanning electron column, can provide sufficiently high image resolution to enable many failure analysis and process control applications to be successfully carried out without requiring the use of a separate dedicated TEM/STEM instrument. The benefits of this novel approach are increased throughput and reduced cost per sample. Comparative analysis of different sample preparation methods is provided, and the STEM images obtained are shown.

  19. United States Geological Survey (USGS) FM cassette seismic-refraction recording system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murphy, J.M.

    1988-12-31

    In this two chapter report, instrumentation used to collect seismic data is described. This data acquisition system has two parts: (1) portable anolog seismic recorders and related ``hand-held-testers`` (HHT) and (2) portable digitizing units. During the anolog recording process, ground motion is sensed by a 2-Hz vertical-component seismometer. The voltage output from the seismometer is split without amplification and sent to three parallel amplifier circuit boards. Each circuit board amplifiers the seismic signal in three stages and then frequency modulates the signal. Amplification at the last two stages can be set by the user. An internal precision clock signal is also frequency modulated. The three data carrier frequencies, the clock carrier frequency, and a tape-speed compensation carrier frequency are summed and recorded on a recorded on a cassette tape. During the digitizing process, the cassette tapes are played back and the signals are demultiplexed and demodulated. An anolog-to-digital converter converts the signals to digital data which are stored on 8-inch floppy disks. 7 refs., 19 figs., 6 tabs.

  20. RAMS (Risk Analysis - Modular System) methodology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stenner, R.D.; Strenge, D.L.; Buck, J.W. [and others

    1996-10-01

    The Risk Analysis - Modular System (RAMS) was developed to serve as a broad scope risk analysis tool for the Risk Assessment of the Hanford Mission (RAHM) studies. The RAHM element provides risk analysis support for Hanford Strategic Analysis and Mission Planning activities. The RAHM also provides risk analysis support for the Hanford 10-Year Plan development activities. The RAMS tool draws from a collection of specifically designed databases and modular risk analysis methodologies and models. RAMS is a flexible modular system that can be focused on targeted risk analysis needs. It is specifically designed to address risks associated with overall strategy, technical alternative, and `what if` questions regarding the Hanford cleanup mission. RAMS is set up to address both near-term and long-term risk issues. Consistency is very important for any comparative risk analysis, and RAMS is designed to efficiently and consistently compare risks and produce risk reduction estimates. There is a wide range of output information that can be generated by RAMS. These outputs can be detailed by individual contaminants, waste forms, transport pathways, exposure scenarios, individuals, populations, etc. However, they can also be in rolled-up form to support high-level strategy decisions.

  1. Modular load flow for restructured power systems

    CERN Document Server

    Hariharan, M V; Gupta, Pragati P

    2016-01-01

    In the subject of power systems, authors felt that a re-look is necessary at some conventional methods of analysis. In this book, the authors have subjected the time-honoured load flow to a close scrutiny. Authors have discovered and discussed a new load flow procedure – Modular Load Flow. Modular Load Flow explores use of power – a scalar – as source for electrical circuits which are conventionally analysed by means of phasors – the ac voltages or currents. The method embeds Kirchhoff’s circuit laws as topological property into its scalar equations and results in a unique wonderland where phase angles do not exist! Generators are shown to have their own worlds which can be superimposed to obtain the state of the composite power system. The treatment is useful in restructured power systems where stakeholders and the system operators may desire to know individual generator contributions in line flows and line losses for commercial reasons. Solution in Modular Load Flow consists of explicit expression...

  2. Modular low-voltage electron beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berejka, A.J.; Avnery, Tovi; Carlson, Carl

    2004-01-01

    Modular, low-voltage systems have simplified electron beam (EB) technology for industrial uses and for research and development. Modular EB units are produced in quantity as sealed systems that are evacuated at the factory eliminating the need for vacuum pumps at the point of use. A simple plug-out--plug-in method of replacement eliminates downtime for servicing. Use of ultra-thin beam windows (<10 μm of titanium foil), solid-state 19 in. (48 cm) rack-mounted power supplies, an innovative design to extract and spread the beam (enabling systems to be placed adjacent to each other to extend beam width) and touch-screen computer controls, combine for ease of use and electrical transfer efficiency at voltages that can be varied between 80 and 150 kV and with high beam currents (up to 40 mA across the 25 cm window). These electron systems are available in three widths, the standard 25 cm and new 5 and 40 cm beams. Traditional uses in the graphic arts and coatings areas as well as uses in surface sterilization have found these compact, lightweight (approximately 15 kg) modular beams of interest. Units have been configured around complex shapes to enable three-dimensional surface curing (as for coatings on aluminum tubing) to be achieved at high production rates. Details of the beam construction and some industrial uses are discussed

  3. Modular low-voltage electron beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berejka, Anthony J.; Avnery, Tovi; Carlson, Carl

    2004-09-01

    Modular, low-voltage systems have simplified electron beam (EB) technology for industrial uses and for research and development. Modular EB units are produced in quantity as sealed systems that are evacuated at the factory eliminating the need for vacuum pumps at the point of use. A simple plug-out—plug-in method of replacement eliminates downtime for servicing. Use of ultra-thin beam windows (innovative design to extract and spread the beam (enabling systems to be placed adjacent to each other to extend beam width) and touch-screen computer controls, combine for ease of use and electrical transfer efficiency at voltages that can be varied between 80 and 150 kV and with high beam currents (up to 40 mA across the 25 cm window). These electron systems are available in three widths, the standard 25 cm and new 5 and 40 cm beams. Traditional uses in the graphic arts and coatings areas as well as uses in surface sterilization have found these compact, lightweight (approximately 15 kg) modular beams of interest. Units have been configured around complex shapes to enable three-dimensional surface curing (as for coatings on aluminum tubing) to be achieved at high production rates. Details of the beam construction and some industrial uses are discussed.

  4. Preliminary feasibility study of modular reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamaji, Kenji

    1987-01-01

    In the future, electric utilities will be required to make a switch-over to a more flexible and dynamic form of power supply due to the slowing growth of power demand, increasing uncertainty, the stagnating economy of increasing scale, the bottleneck of transmission and so on. Nuclear technology would also be required to adapt to this changing environment surrounding its development. The long term prospect of energy demand and nuclear power growth, and the evolution of commercial reactors in Japan are shown. The design of 1,300 MWe advanced LWRs has been completed, and as the reactors of next generation, the ultralarge LWRs of 1,500 - 1,800 MWe are suggested. However, there can be an alternative future for nuclear power development, and in this paper, the possibility for altering the image of conventional nuclear power technology by developing modular reactors which are economical even at small capacity, and can be sited in urban areas just like conventional thermal power plants is examined. The factors for the economical evaluation of modular reactors, learning effect and scale effect on the economy, the case study on a modular high temperature reactor designed by Interatom-GHT, and the possibility of siting in urban areas due to the system of inherent safety are reported. (Kako, I.)

  5. Modular Zero Energy. BrightBuilt Home

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aldrich, Robb [Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings (CARB), Norwalk, CT (United States). Steven Winters Associates, Inc.; Butterfield, Karla [Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings (CARB), Norwalk, CT (United States). Steven Winters Associates, Inc.

    2016-03-01

    Kaplan Thompson Architects (KTA) has specialized in sustainable, energy-efficient buildings, and they have designed several custom, zero-energy homes in New England. These zero-energy projects have generally been high-end, custom homes with budgets that could accommodate advanced energy systems. In an attempt to make zero energy homes more affordable and accessible to a larger demographic, KTA explored modular construction as way to provide high-quality homes at lower costs. In the mid-2013, KTA formalized this concept when they launched BrightBuilt Home (BBH). The BBH mission is to offer a line of architect-designed, high-performance homes that are priced to offer substantial savings off the lifetime cost of a typical home and can be delivered in less time. For the past two years, CARB has worked with BBH and Keiser Homes (the primary modular manufacturer for BBH) to discuss challenges related to wall systems, HVAC, and quality control. In Spring of 2014, CARB and BBH began looking in detail on a home to be built in Lincolnville, ME by Black Bros. Builders. This report details the solution package specified for this modular plan and the challenges that arose during the project.

  6. Adaptive multi-resolution Modularity for detecting communities in networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shi; Wang, Zhi-Zhong; Bao, Mei-Hua; Tang, Liang; Zhou, Ji; Xiang, Ju; Li, Jian-Ming; Yi, Chen-He

    2018-02-01

    Community structure is a common topological property of complex networks, which attracted much attention from various fields. Optimizing quality functions for community structures is a kind of popular strategy for community detection, such as Modularity optimization. Here, we introduce a general definition of Modularity, by which several classical (multi-resolution) Modularity can be derived, and then propose a kind of adaptive (multi-resolution) Modularity that can combine the advantages of different Modularity. By applying the Modularity to various synthetic and real-world networks, we study the behaviors of the methods, showing the validity and advantages of the multi-resolution Modularity in community detection. The adaptive Modularity, as a kind of multi-resolution method, can naturally solve the first-type limit of Modularity and detect communities at different scales; it can quicken the disconnecting of communities and delay the breakup of communities in heterogeneous networks; and thus it is expected to generate the stable community structures in networks more effectively and have stronger tolerance against the second-type limit of Modularity.

  7. Generation of a gene cassette for genetically engineered Salmonella Enteritidis in the specific region of the sipC gene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Ghasemi

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Salmonellosis is an infection caused by eating contaminated food with Salmonella, and it can occur in humans and other animals. Salmonella has acquired the ability to create the infection due to the presence of several virulence genes. One of the virulence genes of salmonella is sipC gene that coding the SipC protein. The aim of this study was creating the gene cassette to genetically engineered Salmonella enteritidis in the specific region of the sipC gene. Methods: In this study, after DNA extraction from Salmonella, the upstream and downstream regions of the sipC gene was amplified based on PCR method. The PCR products were cloned with T/A cloning method and they were inserted into the pGEM vector. In order to generate the final gene cassette, each of the upstream and downstream regions of the sipC gene was subcloned into the pET32 vector, and cloning accuracy was assessed by PCR and enzyme digestion methods. Results: Amplification of the 320 bp upstream and 206 bp downstream of sipC gene was successful by PCR method. T/A cloning of these fragments were caused the formation of two pGEM-up and pGEM-down recombinant vectors. Results that were confirmed the sub-cloning accuracy indicate the formation of the final pET32-up-down gene cassette. Conclusion: The generated gene cassette in this study was considered as a multi-purpose cassette that is able to specific gene manipulation of Salmonella sipC gene by homologous recombination matched. This gene cassette has the necessary potential for sipC gene deletion or insertion of any useful gene instead of sipC gene.

  8. Modularization and nuclear power. Report by the Technology Transfer Modularization Task Team

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-06-01

    This report describes the results of the work performed by the Technology Transfer Task Team on Modularization. This work was performed as part of the Technology Transfer work being performed under Department of Energy Contract 54-7WM-335406, between December, 1984 and February, 1985. The purpose of this task team effort was to briefly survey the current use of modularization in the nuclear and non-nuclear industries and to assess and evaluate the techniques available for potential application to nuclear power. A key conclusion of the evaluation was that there was a need for a study to establish guidelines for the future development of Light Water Reactor, High Temperature Gas Reactor and Liquid Metal Reactor plants. The guidelines should identify how modularization can improve construction, maintenance, life extension and decommissioning

  9. α-Lipoic acid ameliorates foam cell formation via liver X receptor α-dependent upregulation of ATP-binding cassette transporters A1 and G1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Li-Ching; Su, Kuo-Hui; Kou, Yu Ru; Shyue, Song-Kun; Ching, Li-Chieh; Yu, Yuan-Bin; Wu, Yuh-Lin; Pan, Ching-Chian; Lee, Tzong-Shyuan

    2011-01-01

    α-Lipoic acid (α-LA), a key cofactor in cellular energy metabolism, has protective activities in atherosclerosis, yet the detailed mechanisms are not fully understood. In this study, we examined whether α-LA affects foam cell formation and its underlying molecular mechanisms in murine macrophages. Treatment with α-LA markedly attenuated oxidized low-density lipoprotein (oxLDL)-mediated cholesterol accumulation in macrophages, which was due to increased cholesterol efflux. Additionally, α-LA treatment dose-dependently increased protein levels of ATP-binding cassette transporter A1 (ABCA1) and ABCG1 but had no effect on the protein expression of SR-A, CD36, or SR-BI involved in cholesterol homeostasis. Furthermore, α-LA increased the mRNA expression of ABCA1 and ABCG1. The upregulation of ABCA1 and ABCG1 by α-LA depended on liver X receptor α (LXRα), as evidenced by an increase in the nuclear levels of LXRα and LXRE-mediated luciferase activity and its prevention of the expression of ABCA1 and ABCG1 after inhibition of LXRα activity by the pharmacological inhibitor geranylgeranyl pyrophosphate (GGPP) or knockdown of LXRα expression with small interfering RNA (siRNA). Consistently, α-LA-mediated suppression of oxLDL-induced lipid accumulation was abolished by GGPP or LXRα siRNA treatment. In conclusion, LXRα-dependent upregulation of ABCA1 and ABCG1 may mediate the beneficial effect of α-LA on foam cell formation. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. A Cassette Containing Thiostrepton, Gentamicin Resistance Genes, and dif sequences Is Effective in Construction of Recombinant Mycobacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mugweru, Julius; Makafe, Gaelle; Cao, Yuanyuan; Zhang, Yang; Wang, Bangxing; Huang, Shaobo; Njire, Moses; Chhotaray, Chiranjibi; Tan, Yaoju; Li, Xinjie; Liu, Jianxiong; Tan, Shouyong; Deng, Jiaoyu; Zhang, Tianyu

    2017-01-01

    The genetic manipulation of Mycobacterium tuberculosis genome is limited by the availability of selection markers. Spontaneous resistance mutation rate of M. tuberculosis to the widely used kanamycin is relatively high which often leads to some false positive transformants. Due to the few available markers, we have created a cassette containing thiostrepton resistance gene ( tsr ) for selection in M. tuberculosis and M. bovis BCG, and gentamicin resistance gene ( aacC1 ) for Escherichia coli and M. smegmatis mc 2 155, flanked with dif sequences recognized by the Xer system of mycobacteria. This cassette adds to the limited available selection markers for mycobacteria.

  11. Microarray study of single nucleotide polymorphisms and expression of ATP-binding cassette genes in breast tumors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsyganov, M. M.; Ibragimova, M. K.; Karabut, I. V.; Freydin, M. B.; Choinzonov, E. L.; Litvyakov, N. V.

    2015-11-01

    Our previous research establishes that changes of expression of the ATP-binding cassette genes family is connected with the neoadjuvant chemotherapy effect. However, the mechanism of regulation of resistance gene expression remains unclear. As many researchers believe, single nucleotide polymorphisms can be involved in this process. Thereupon, microarray analysis is used to study polymorphisms in ATP-binding cassette genes. It is thus found that MDR gene expression is connected with 5 polymorphisms, i.e. rs241432, rs241429, rs241430, rs3784867, rs59409230, which participate in the regulation of expression of own genes.

  12. Failure of Emperion modular femoral stem with implant analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin M. Stronach, MD, MS

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Modularity in total hip arthroplasty provides multiple benefits to the surgeon in restoring the appropriate alignment and position to a previously damaged hip joint. The vast majority of modern implants incorporate modularity into their design with some implants having multiple modular interfaces. There is the potential for failure at modular junctions because of fretting and crevice corrosion in combination with mechanical loading. This case report details the failure of an Emperion (Smith and Nephew, Memphis, TN femoral stem in a 67-year-old male patient 6 years after total hip replacement. Analysis of the implant revealed mechanically assisted crevice corrosion that likely accelerated fatigue crack initiation in the hip stem. The benefits of modularity come with the potential drawback of a combination of fretting and crevice corrosion at the modular junction, which may accelerate fatigue, crack initiation and ultimately reduce the hip longevity.

  13. Summer School and Conference : Computations with Modular Forms

    CERN Document Server

    Wiese, Gabor

    2014-01-01

    This volume contains original research articles, survey articles and lecture notes related to the Computations with Modular Forms 2011 Summer School and Conference, held at the University of Heidelberg. A key theme of the Conference and Summer School was the interplay between theory, algorithms and experiment. The 14 papers offer readers both, instructional courses on the latest algorithms for computing modular and automorphic forms, as well as original research articles reporting on the latest developments in the field. The three Summer School lectures provide an introduction to modern algorithms together with some theoretical background for computations of and with modular forms, including computing cohomology of arithmetic groups, algebraic automorphic forms, and overconvergent modular symbols. The 11 Conference papers cover a wide range of themes related to computations with modular forms, including lattice methods for algebraic modular forms on classical groups, a generalization of the Maeda conjecture, ...

  14. A New Modular Multilevel Converter with Integrated Energy Storage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trintis, Ionut; Munk-Nielsen, Stig; Teodorescu, Remus

    2011-01-01

    This paper introduces a new modular converter with integrated energy storage based on the cascaded half-bridge modular multilevel converter with common DC bus. It represents a complete modular solution with power electronics and energy storage building blocks, for medium and high voltage...... in the future HVDC meshed grids. Its functionality and flexibility makes the converter independent on the energy storage unit characteristic. The converter concept with its basic functions and control schemes are described and evaluated in this paper....

  15. Modular invariants from simple currents. An explicit proof

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schellekens, A.N.; Yankielowicz, S.

    1989-01-01

    In a previous paper an orbifold construction was used to demonstrate that the existence of primary fields with simple fusion rules in a conformal field theory implies the existence of non-diagonal modular invariant partition functions. Here we present a direct and explicit proof of modular invariance, which also covers a few cases that could not be obtained with the orbifold method. We also give a very simple general formula for the modular matrix M. (orig.)

  16. Detection of staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec type XI carrying highly divergent mecA, mecI, mecR1, blaZ, and ccr genes in human clinical isolates of clonal complex 130 methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Shore, Anna C

    2011-08-01

    Methicillin resistance in staphylococci is mediated by penicillin binding protein 2a (PBP 2a), encoded by mecA on mobile staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec (SCCmec) elements. In this study, two clonal complex 130 (CC130) methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) isolates from patients in Irish hospitals were identified that were phenotypically PBP 2a positive but lacked mecA by conventional PCR and by DNA microarray screening. The isolates were identified as methicillin-susceptible S. aureus using the GeneXpert real-time PCR assay. Whole-genome sequencing of one isolate (M10\\/0061) revealed a 30-kb SCCmec element encoding a class E mec complex with highly divergent blaZ-mecA-mecR1-mecI, a type 8 cassette chromosome recombinase (ccr) complex consisting of ccrA1-ccrB3, an arsenic resistance operon, and flanking direct repeats (DRs). The SCCmec element was almost identical to that of SCCmec type XI (SCCmec XI) identified by the Sanger Institute in sequence type 425 bovine MRSA strain LGA251 listed on the website of the International Working Group on the Classification of Staphylococcal Cassette Chromosome Elements. The open reading frames (ORFs) identified within SCCmec XI of M10\\/0061 exhibited 21 to 93% amino acid identity to ORFs in GenBank. A third DR was identified ca. 3 kb downstream of SCCmec XI, indicating the presence of a possible SCC remnant. SCCmec XI was also identified in the second CC130 MRSA isolate by PCR and sequencing. The CC130 MRSA isolates may be of animal origin as previously reported CC130 S. aureus strains were predominantly from bovine sources. The highly divergent nature of SCCmec XI relative to other SCCmec elements indicates that it may have originated in another taxon.

  17. Modularity-like objective function in annotated networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Jia-Rong; Wang, Bing-Hong

    2017-12-01

    We ascertain the modularity-like objective function whose optimization is equivalent to the maximum likelihood in annotated networks. We demonstrate that the modularity-like objective function is a linear combination of modularity and conditional entropy. In contrast with statistical inference methods, in our method, the influence of the metadata is adjustable; when its influence is strong enough, the metadata can be recovered. Conversely, when it is weak, the detection may correspond to another partition. Between the two, there is a transition. This paper provides a concept for expanding the scope of modularity methods.

  18. Modular playware as a playful diagnosis tool for autistic children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Henrik Hautop

    2009-01-01

    Based upon user-configurable modular robotics and design principles for modular playware, we developed modular robotic tiles to be used as playful, interactive tools for children with autism. The modular playware can make automatic documentation of the construction play activities by the autistic...... robotic tiles. Preliminary experiments with 7 autistic children show that the automatic neural network classification with post-processing can be done with a 100% accuracy for this small sample set, and thereby give some preliminary indications of the potential of the approach....

  19. Inventory and comparative analysis of rice and Arabidopsis ATP-binding cassette (ABC) systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Olivier; Bouige, Philippe; Forestier, Cyrille; Dassa, Elie

    2004-10-08

    ATP-binding cassette (ABC) proteins constitute a large superfamily found in all kingdoms of living organisms. The recent completion of two draft sequences of the rice (Oryza sativa) genome allowed us to analyze and classify its ABC proteins and to compare to those in Arabidopsis thaliana. We identified a similar number of ABC proteins in rice and Arabidopsis (121 versus 120), despite the rice genome being more than three times the size of Arabidopsis. Both Arabidopsis and rice have representative members in all seven major subfamilies of ABC ATPases (A to G) commonly found in eukaryotes. This comparative analysis allowed the detection of 29 potential orthologous sequences in Arabidopsis and rice. However, plant share with prokaryotes a specific set of ABC systems that is not detected in animals. These ABC systems might be inherited from the cyanobacterial ancestor of chloroplasts. The present work provides the first complete inventory of rice ABC proteins and an updated inventory of those proteins in Arabidopsis.

  20. Cell and molecular biology of ATP-binding cassette proteins in plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yazaki, Kazufumi; Shitan, Nobukazu; Sugiyama, Akifumi; Takanashi, Kojiro

    2009-01-01

    ATP-binding cassette (ABC) proteins constitute a large and diverse superfamily of membrane-bound and soluble proteins, which are involved in a wide range of biological processes in all organisms from prokaryotes to eukaryotes. Genome analyses of model plants, for example, Arabidopsis and rice, have revealed that plants have more than double numbers of this family member in their genomes compared to animals and insects. In recent years, various biochemical and physiological functions of ABC proteins in plants have been reported. Some are relevant for the defense mechanisms to biotic and abiotic stresses, whereas others are involved in the basic functions necessary for maintaining the plant life. Here, we provide an updated inventory of plant ABC proteins and summarize their tissue specificities, membrane localizations, and physiological functions.

  1. Interfaces in service modularity : A typology developed in modular health care provision

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Blok, C.; Meijboom, B.R.; Luijkx, K.G.; Schols, J.M.G.A.; Schroeder, R.G.

    2014-01-01

    We conduct case research in a particular service context, i.e. the sector for elderly care, in order to explore characteristics of interfaces and the role they play in service customization. Even though the study of modularity in areas other than goods production is increasing, little is known about

  2. Modular functionalization of allenes to aminated stereotriads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Christopher S; Boralsky, Luke A; Guzei, Ilia A; Schomaker, Jennifer M

    2012-07-04

    Nitrogen-containing stereotriads, compounds with three adjacent stereodefined carbons, are commonly found in biologically important molecules. However, the preparation of molecules bearing these motifs can be challenging. Herein, we describe a modular oxidation protocol which converts a substituted allene to a triply functionalized amine of the form C-X/C-N/C-Y. The key step employs a Rh-catalyzed intramolecular conversion of the allene to a strained bicyclic methylene aziridine. This reactive intermediate is further elaborated to the target products, often in one reaction vessel and with effective transfer of the axial chirality of the allene to point chirality in the stereotriad.

  3. Playful Interaction with Voice Sensing Modular Robots

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heesche, Bjarke; MacDonald, Ewen; Fogh, Rune

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes a voice sensor, suitable for modular robotic systems, which estimates the energy and fundamental frequency, F0, of the user’s voice. Through a number of example applications and tests with children, we observe how the voice sensor facilitates playful interaction between...... children and two different robot configurations. In future work, we will investigate if such a system can motivate children to improve voice control and explore how to extend the sensor to detect emotions in the user’s voice....

  4. Morphology Independent Learning in Modular Robots

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, David Johan; Bordignon, Mirko; Schultz, Ulrik Pagh

    2009-01-01

    Hand-coding locomotion controllers for modular robots is difficult due to their polymorphic nature. Instead, we propose to use a simple and distributed reinforcement learning strategy. ATRON modules with identical controllers can be assembled in any configuration. To optimize the robot’s locomotion...... speed its modules independently and in parallel adjust their behavior based on a single global reward signal. In simulation, we study the learning strategy’s performance on different robot configurations. On the physical platform, we perform learning experiments with ATRON robots learning to move as fast...

  5. Some Learning Properties of Modular Network SOMs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeda, Manabu; Ikeda, Kazushi; Furukawa, Tetsuo

    The Modular Network Self-Organizing Map (mnSOM) is a generalization of the SOM, where each node represents a parametric function such as a multi-layer perceptron or another SOM. Since given datasets are, in general, fewer than nodes, some nodes never win in competition and have to update their parameters from the winners in the neighborhood. This is a process that can be regarded as interpolation. This study derives the interpolation curve between winners in simple cases and discusses the distribution of winners based on the neighborhood function.

  6. The axion mass in modular invariant supergravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Butter, Daniel; Gaillard, Mary K.

    2005-01-01

    When supersymmetry is broken by condensates with a single condensing gauge group, there is a nonanomalous R-symmetry that prevents the universal axion from acquiring a mass. It has been argued that, in the context of supergravity, higher dimension operators will break this symmetry and may generate an axion mass too large to allow the identification of the universal axion with the QCD axion. We show that such contributions to the axion mass are highly suppressed in a class of models where the effective Lagrangian for gaugino and matter condensation respects modular invariance (T-duality)

  7. Automorphism modular invariants of current algebras

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gannon, T.; Walton, M.A.

    1996-01-01

    We consider those two-dimensional rational conformal field theories (RCFTs) whose chiral algebras, when maximally extended, are isomorphic to the current algebra formed from some untwisted affine Lie algebra at fixed level. In this case the partition function is specified by an automorphism of the fusion ring and corresponding symmetry of the Kac-Peterson modular matrices. We classify all such partition functions when the underlying finite-dimensional Lie algebra is simple. This gives all possible spectra for this class of RCFTs. While accomplishing this, we also find the primary fields with second smallest quantum dimension. (orig.). With 3 tabs

  8. Testing programs for the Multimission Modular Spacecraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenwell, T. J.

    1978-01-01

    The Multimission Modular Spacecraft (MMS) provides a standard spacecraft bus to a user for a variety of space missions ranging from near-earth to synchronous orbits. The present paper describes the philosophy behind the MMS module test program and discusses the implementation of the test program. It is concluded that the MMS module test program provides an effective and comprehensive customer buy-off at the subsystem contractor's plant, is an optimum approach for checkout of the subsystems prior to use for on-orbit servicing in the Shuttle Cargo Bay, and is a cost-effective technique for environmental testing.

  9. Modular invariance and covariant loop calculus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petersen, J.L.; Roland, K.O.; Sidenius, J.R.

    1988-01-01

    The covariant loop calculus provides an efficient technique for computing explicit expressions for the density on moduli space corresponding to arbitrary (bosonic string) loop diagrams. Since modular invariance is not manifest, however, we carry out a detailed comparison with known explicit two- and three-loop results derived using analytic geometry (one loop is known to be okay). We establish identity to 'high' order in some moduli and exactly in others. Agreement is found as a result of various nontrivial cancellations, in part related to number theory. We feel our results provide very strong support for the correctness of the covariant loop calculus approach. (orig.)

  10. Modular solid-state detector cell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoffman, D.M.; Ehlert, R.C.; Loomis, N.W.; Shelley, P.S.

    1983-01-01

    A modular solid-state detector cell is disclosed which intimately associates a scintillator body with a pair of photoresponsive semiconductors so as to present on a single collimator plate all of the elements necessary for transforming incident X-radiation into a measurable electrical signal. The detector is provided with a precision slotted mounting arrangement for receiving the unit cells, and the cells when positioned within the detector assembly have the photoresponsive semiconductors enclosed within the light tight cell. The unit is adaptable to off-line testing of the separate cells for screening before assembly

  11. Modular invariance and covariant loop calculus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petersen, J.L.; Roland, K.O.; Sidenius, J.R.

    1988-01-01

    The covariant loop calculus provides and efficient technique for computing explicit expressions for the density on moduli space corresponding to arbitrary (bosonic string) loop diagrams. Since modular invariance is not manifest, however, we carry out a detailed comparison with known explicit 2- and 3- loop results derived using analytic geometry (1 loop is known to be ok). We establish identity to 'high' order in some moduli and exactly in others. Agreement is found as a result of various non-trivial cancellations, in part related to number theory. We feel our results provide very strong support for the correctness of the covariant loop calculus approach. (orig.)

  12. Honeywell Modular Automation System Computer Software Documentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    STUBBS, A.M.

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of this Computer Software Document (CSWD) is to provide configuration control of the Honeywell Modular Automation System (MAS) in use at the Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP). This CSWD describes hardware and PFP developed software for control of stabilization furnaces. The Honeywell software can generate configuration reports for the developed control software. These reports are described in the following section and are attached as addendum's. This plan applies to PFP Engineering Manager, Thermal Stabilization Cognizant Engineers, and the Shift Technical Advisors responsible for the Honeywell MAS software/hardware and administration of the Honeywell System

  13. Modular system design for plastic euro pallets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Tepić

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Although pallet, as a tool, yields significant and widely recognized economic effects in production and distribution systems, it is still not fully utilized, indicating that it needs to be defined and developed as a specific product. Euro pallet product was designed using PRO/ENGINEER software system CAD module, as one of the most popular Cax systems, yielding a pallet of novel modular design that meets all the operational requirements of the existing range. The chosen material ensures high pallet longevity and durability, in line with the concept of sustainable development.

  14. Synchronous Control of Modular Multilevel Converters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oleschuk, Valentin; Blaabjerg, Frede; Bose, Bimal K.

    2002-01-01

    A novel method of direct synchronous pulsewidth modulation (PWM) is applied for control of modular multilevel converters consisting from three standard triphase inverter modules along with an 0.33 p.u. output transformer. The proposed method provides synchronisation of the voltage waveforms...... for each module and the composed voltage at the output of the converter. Multilevel output voltage of the converter has quarter-wave symmetry during the whole range including the zone of overmodulation. Both continuous and discontinuous versions of synchronous PWM, based on vector approach...

  15. Anatomy-Based Organization of Modular Robots

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, David Johan; Campbell, Jason

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents a novel biologically inspired hierarchical approach to organizing and controlling modular robots. The purpose of our approach is to decompose the complexity of assembling and commanding a functional robot made of numerous simple modules (thousands to millions) by introducing...... a hierarchy of structure and control. The robots we describe incorporate anatomically inspired parts such as muscles, bones and joints, and these parts in turn are assembled from modules. Each of those parts encapsulates one or more functions, e.g. a muscle can contract. Control of the robot can then be cast...

  16. Modularization as an avenue to economic competitiveness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cottrell, J.H.

    1990-01-01

    There are many features of the emerging next generation of nuclear power which impact the competitiveness of the facilities. We will focus on the equipment fabrication and erection phase of the work. Utility plants, like other complex facilities, require comprehensive program management skills. While any project is sensitive to cost, schedule and quality control, nuclear plants have strict and regulated requirements associated with quality control, and its associated materials source and record keeping. The industry has developed an increasing interest in the adaptation of prefabrication, or modularization, to the design, engineering and construction of power plants. Avondale Industries has been actively involved for the past several years with the DOE/EPRI sponsored Westinghouse design for an advanced passive 600 MWe PWR nuclear power plant (the AP-600). The Westinghouse team is currently working on the detailed design and NRC licensing/design certification phase. This program is a part of the current industry advanced light water (ALWR) efforts aimed at re-establishing the nuclear power option to meet U.S. electric generation needs in the 1990s and beyond. The Westinghouse program has the objective of developing the conceptual design of a greatly simplified 600 MWe pressurized water reactor plant with major improvements in safety, licensing certainty, life cycle cost, and construction schedule. One of the major tasks of the program is the development of an optimized plant arrangement and construction approach using modular construction to assist in achieving a short construction schedule and cost-effective plant configuration. Although the finite effect of modularization has yet to be tested in the dynamics of the erection of a commercial nuclear power plant, we feel that there is sufficient evidence from experience in other major manufacturing areas to warrant its application to future construction programs. In order to focus on the potential for modular

  17. Modular Brain Network Organization Predicts Response to Cognitive Training in Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallen, Courtney L; Baniqued, Pauline L; Chapman, Sandra B; Aslan, Sina; Keebler, Molly; Didehbani, Nyaz; D'Esposito, Mark

    2016-01-01

    Cognitive training interventions are a promising approach to mitigate cognitive deficits common in aging and, ultimately, to improve functioning in older adults. Baseline neural factors, such as properties of brain networks, may predict training outcomes and can be used to improve the effectiveness of interventions. Here, we investigated the relationship between baseline brain network modularity, a measure of the segregation of brain sub-networks, and training-related gains in cognition in older adults. We found that older adults with more segregated brain sub-networks (i.e., more modular networks) at baseline exhibited greater training improvements in the ability to synthesize complex information. Further, the relationship between modularity and training-related gains was more pronounced in sub-networks mediating "associative" functions compared with those involved in sensory-motor processing. These results suggest that assessments of brain networks can be used as a biomarker to guide the implementation of cognitive interventions and improve outcomes across individuals. More broadly, these findings also suggest that properties of brain networks may capture individual differences in learning and neuroplasticity. Trail Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT#00977418.

  18. Modular Brain Network Organization Predicts Response to Cognitive Training in Older Adults.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Courtney L Gallen

    Full Text Available Cognitive training interventions are a promising approach to mitigate cognitive deficits common in aging and, ultimately, to improve functioning in older adults. Baseline neural factors, such as properties of brain networks, may predict training outcomes and can be used to improve the effectiveness of interventions. Here, we investigated the relationship between baseline brain network modularity, a measure of the segregation of brain sub-networks, and training-related gains in cognition in older adults. We found that older adults with more segregated brain sub-networks (i.e., more modular networks at baseline exhibited greater training improvements in the ability to synthesize complex information. Further, the relationship between modularity and training-related gains was more pronounced in sub-networks mediating "associative" functions compared with those involved in sensory-motor processing. These results suggest that assessments of brain networks can be used as a biomarker to guide the implementation of cognitive interventions and improve outcomes across individuals. More broadly, these findings also suggest that properties of brain networks may capture individual differences in learning and neuroplasticity. Trail Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT#00977418.

  19. A precisely regulated gene expression cassette potently modulates metastasis and survival in multiple solid cancers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kun Yu

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Successful tumor development and progression involves the complex interplay of both pro- and anti-oncogenic signaling pathways. Genetic components balancing these opposing activities are likely to require tight regulation, because even subtle alterations in their expression may disrupt this balance with major consequences for various cancer-associated phenotypes. Here, we describe a cassette of cancer-specific genes exhibiting precise transcriptional control in solid tumors. Mining a database of tumor gene expression profiles from six different tissues, we identified 48 genes exhibiting highly restricted levels of gene expression variation in tumors (n = 270 compared to nonmalignant tissues (n = 71. Comprising genes linked to multiple cancer-related pathways, the restricted expression of this "Poised Gene Cassette" (PGC was robustly validated across 11 independent cohorts of approximately 1,300 samples from multiple cancer types. In three separate experimental models, subtle alterations in PGC expression were consistently associated with significant differences in metastatic and invasive potential. We functionally confirmed this association in siRNA knockdown experiments of five PGC genes (p53CSV, MAP3K11, MTCH2, CPSF6, and SKIP, which either directly enhanced the invasive capacities or inhibited the proliferation of AGS cancer cells. In primary tumors, similar subtle alterations in PGC expression were also repeatedly associated with clinical outcome in multiple cohorts. Taken collectively, these findings support the existence of a common set of precisely controlled genes in solid tumors. Since inducing small activity changes in these genes may prove sufficient to potently influence various tumor phenotypes such as metastasis, targeting such precisely regulated genes may represent a promising avenue for novel anti-cancer therapies.

  20. Structure-Function Analysis of Peroxisomal ATP-binding Cassette Transporters Using Chimeric Dimers*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geillon, Flore; Gondcaille, Catherine; Charbonnier, Soëli; Van Roermund, Carlo W.; Lopez, Tatiana E.; Dias, Alexandre M. M.; Pais de Barros, Jean-Paul; Arnould, Christine; Wanders, Ronald J.; Trompier, Doriane; Savary, Stéphane

    2014-01-01

    ABCD1 and ABCD2 are two closely related ATP-binding cassette half-transporters predicted to homodimerize and form peroxisomal importers for fatty acyl-CoAs. Available evidence has shown that ABCD1 and ABCD2 display a distinct but overlapping substrate specificity, although much remains to be learned in this respect as well as in their capability to form functional heterodimers. Using a cell model expressing an ABCD2-EGFP fusion protein, we first demonstrated by proximity ligation assay and co-immunoprecipitation assay that ABCD1 interacts with ABCD2. Next, we tested in the pxa1/pxa2Δ yeast mutant the functionality of ABCD1/ABCD2 dimers by expressing chimeric proteins mimicking homo- or heterodimers. For further structure-function analysis of ABCD1/ABCD2 dimers, we expressed chimeric dimers fused to enhanced GFP in human skin fibroblasts of X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy patients. These cells are devoid of ABCD1 and accumulate very long-chain fatty acids (C26:0 and C26:1). We checked that the chimeric proteins were correctly expressed and targeted to the peroxisomes. Very long-chain fatty acid levels were partially restored in transfected X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy fibroblasts regardless of the chimeric construct used, thus demonstrating functionality of both homo- and heterodimers. Interestingly, the level of C24:6 n-3, the immediate precursor of docosahexaenoic acid, was decreased in cells expressing chimeric proteins containing at least one ABCD2 moiety. Our data demonstrate for the first time that both homo- and heterodimers of ABCD1 and ABCD2 are functionally active. Interestingly, the role of ABCD2 (in homo- and heterodimeric forms) in the metabolism of polyunsaturated fatty acids is clearly evidenced, and the chimeric dimers provide a novel tool to study substrate specificity of peroxisomal ATP-binding cassette transporters. PMID:25043761

  1. Structure-function analysis of peroxisomal ATP-binding cassette transporters using chimeric dimers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geillon, Flore; Gondcaille, Catherine; Charbonnier, Soëli; Van Roermund, Carlo W; Lopez, Tatiana E; Dias, Alexandre M M; Pais de Barros, Jean-Paul; Arnould, Christine; Wanders, Ronald J; Trompier, Doriane; Savary, Stéphane

    2014-08-29

    ABCD1 and ABCD2 are two closely related ATP-binding cassette half-transporters predicted to homodimerize and form peroxisomal importers for fatty acyl-CoAs. Available evidence has shown that ABCD1 and ABCD2 display a distinct but overlapping substrate specificity, although much remains to be learned in this respect as well as in their capability to form functional heterodimers. Using a cell model expressing an ABCD2-EGFP fusion protein, we first demonstrated by proximity ligation assay and co-immunoprecipitation assay that ABCD1 interacts with ABCD2. Next, we tested in the pxa1/pxa2Δ yeast mutant the functionality of ABCD1/ABCD2 dimers by expressing chimeric proteins mimicking homo- or heterodimers. For further structure-function analysis of ABCD1/ABCD2 dimers, we expressed chimeric dimers fused to enhanced GFP in human skin fibroblasts of X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy patients. These cells are devoid of ABCD1 and accumulate very long-chain fatty acids (C26:0 and C26:1). We checked that the chimeric proteins were correctly expressed and targeted to the peroxisomes. Very long-chain fatty acid levels were partially restored in transfected X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy fibroblasts regardless of the chimeric construct used, thus demonstrating functionality of both homo- and heterodimers. Interestingly, the level of C24:6 n-3, the immediate precursor of docosahexaenoic acid, was decreased in cells expressing chimeric proteins containing at least one ABCD2 moiety. Our data demonstrate for the first time that both homo- and heterodimers of ABCD1 and ABCD2 are functionally active. Interestingly, the role of ABCD2 (in homo- and heterodimeric forms) in the metabolism of polyunsaturated fatty acids is clearly evidenced, and the chimeric dimers provide a novel tool to study substrate specificity of peroxisomal ATP-binding cassette transporters. © 2014 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  2. Practical experience in the determination of the tube voltage using the Ardran-Crooks cassette

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ewen, K.; Roesner, W.

    1984-01-01

    Within the framework of quality control measures in X-ray diagnostics and therapy, it is desirable to employ for the determination of tube voltage (e.g. in diagnostic X-ray equipment) methods which are as economical as possible while saving time and being simple to apply in spite of the fact that they are as highly accurate as ever possible. The absorber method described here, represented by the Ardran-Crooks cassette, possesses the advantage of low price and easy application. However, if it is operated in such a way that time is saved (assessment by the eye), it is not so accurate, whereas in accurate operation (assessment via luxmeter) it does require a relatively large amount of time. After the film has been exposed, it is necessary to estimate or measure the agreement of blackenings on one and the same film in order to determine the tube voltage. This voltage is then read off by means of a calibration curve. The error in the determination of the tube voltage via the Ardran-Crooks cassette depends on the accuracy of the calibration curve, which, in turn, depends on the number of measurements performed when producing the curve, and on the correct voltage of the standard X-ray equipment used in producing the calibration curve. In addition, assessment by eye adds a total error of 2.3% to 8%, depending on the amount of tube voltage. If the luxmeter is used instead of the eye, this additional error is less than 1% in relation to the magnitude of the tube voltage. (orig./BWU) [de

  3. Regional dissemination of a trimethoprim-resistance gene cassette via a successful transposable element.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amy S Labar

    Full Text Available Antimicrobial resistance is a growing international problem. We observed a 50% increase in the prevalence of trimethoprim resistance among fecal Escherichia coli from healthy Nigerian students between 1998 and 2005, a trend to increase that continued in 2009.A PCR-based screen revealed that 131 (43.1% of isolates obtained in Nigeria in 2005 and 2009 carried integron-borne dfrA cassettes. In the case of 67 (51.1% of these isolates, the cassette was a class 1-integron-borne dfrA7 gene, which has been reported at high prevalence from E. coli isolates from other parts of Africa. Complete sequencing of a 27 Kb dfrA7-bearing plasmid from one isolate located the dfrA7 gene within a Tn21-type transposon. The transposon also contained an IS26-derived bla/sul/str element, encoding resistance to β-lactams, sulphonamides and streptomycin, and mercury resistance genes. Although the plasmid backbone was only found in 12 (5.8% of trimethoprim-resistant isolates, dfrA7 and other transposon-borne genes were detected in 14 (16.3% and 32 (26.3% of trimethoprim resistant isolates collected in Nigeria in 2005 and 2009, respectively. Additionally, 37 (19.3% of trimethoprim-resistant E. coli isolates collected between 2006 and 2008 from Ghana were positive for the dfrA7 and a transposon marker, but only 4 (2.1% harbored the plasmid backbone.Our data point to transposition as a principal mechanism for disseminating dfrA7 among E. coli from Nigeria and Ghana. On-going intensive use of the affordable broad-spectrum antibacterials is likely to promote selective success of a highly prevalent transposable element in West Africa.

  4. The role of ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters in pathogenesis and multidrug resistance of the wheat pathogen Mycosphaerella graminicola

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stergiopoulos, I.

    2003-01-01

    ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters are membrane proteins that utilise the energy derived from the hydrolysis of ATP to drive the transport of compounds over biological membranes. They are members of one of the largest protein families to date, present in both pro- and eukaryotic

  5. ROLE OF ATP BINDING CASSETTE SUB-FAMILY MEMBER 2 (ABCG2) IN MOUSE EMBRYONIC STEM CELL DEVELOPMENT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    ATP binding cassette sub-family member 2 (ABCG2), is a member of the ABC transporter superfamily and a principal xenobiotic transporter. ABCG2 is also highly expressed in certain stem cell populations where it is thought to be related to stem cell plasticity, although the role o...

  6. Integron gene cassettes and degradation of compounds associated with industrial waste: the case of the Sydney tar ponds.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeremy E Koenig

    Full Text Available Integrons are genetic platforms that accelerate lateral gene transfer (LGT among bacteria. They were first detected on plasmids bearing single and multiple drug resistance determinants in human pathogens, and it is abundantly clear that integrons have played a major role in the evolution of this public health menace. Similar genetic elements can be found in nonpathogenic environmental bacteria and in metagenomic environmental DNA samples, and it is reasonable to suppose that integrons have facilitated microbial adaptation through LGT in niches outside infectious disease wards. Here we show that a heavily impacted estuary, exposed for almost a century to products of coal and steel industries, has developed a rich and unique cassette metagenome, containing genes likely to aid in the catabolism of compounds associated with industrial waste found there. In addition, we report that the most abundant cassette recovered in this study is one that encodes a putative LysR protein. This autoregulatory transcriptional regulator is known to activate transcription of linked target genes or unlinked regulons encoding diverse functions including chlorocatechol and dichlorophenol catabolism. Finally, only class 1 integrase genes were amplified in this study despite using different primer sets, and it may be that the cassettes present in the Tar Ponds will prove to be associated with class 1 integrase genes. Nevertheless, our cassette library provides a snapshot of a complex evolutionary process involving integron-meditated LGT likely to be important in natural bioremediation.

  7. Characterization of New Staphylococcal Cassette Chromosome mec (SCCmec) and Topoisomerase Genes in Fluoroquinolone- and Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus pseudintermedius▿

    OpenAIRE

    Descloux, Sybill; Rossano, Alexandra; Perreten, Vincent

    2008-01-01

    Fluoroquinolone- and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus pseudintermedius isolates harbor two new staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec (SCCmec) elements that belong to class A, allotype 3 (SCCmec II-III), and to the new allotype 5 (SCCmec VII). Analysis of the complete nucleotide sequences of the topoisomerase loci gyrB/gyrA and grlB/grlA revealed mutations involved in fluoroquinolone resistance.

  8. Molecular cloning and characterisation of three new ATP-binding cassette transporter genes from the wheat pathogen Mycosphaerella graminicola

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stergiopoulos, I.; Gielkens, M.M.C.; Goodall, S.D.; Venema, K.; Waard, De M.A.

    2002-01-01

    Three single copy ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter encoding genes, designated MgAtr3, MgAtr4, and MgAtr5, were cloned and sequenced from the plant pathogenic fungus Mycosphaerella graminicola. The encoded ABC proteins all exhibit the [NBD-TMS6]2 configuration and can be classified as novel

  9. Characterization of new staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec (SCCmec) and topoisomerase genes in fluoroquinolone- and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus pseudintermedius.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Descloux, Sybill; Rossano, Alexandra; Perreten, Vincent

    2008-05-01

    Fluoroquinolone- and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus pseudintermedius isolates harbor two new staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec (SCCmec) elements that belong to class A, allotype 3 (SCCmec II-III), and to the new allotype 5 (SCCmec VII). Analysis of the complete nucleotide sequences of the topoisomerase loci gyrB/gyrA and grlB/grlA revealed mutations involved in fluoroquinolone resistance.

  10. Engineered modular biomaterial logic gates for environmentally triggered therapeutic delivery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badeau, Barry A.; Comerford, Michael P.; Arakawa, Christopher K.; Shadish, Jared A.; Deforest, Cole A.

    2018-03-01

    The successful transport of drug- and cell-based therapeutics to diseased sites represents a major barrier in the development of clinical therapies. Targeted delivery can be mediated through degradable biomaterial vehicles that utilize disease biomarkers to trigger payload release. Here, we report a modular chemical framework for imparting hydrogels with precise degradative responsiveness by using multiple environmental cues to trigger reactions that operate user-programmable Boolean logic. By specifying the molecular architecture and connectivity of orthogonal stimuli-labile moieties within material cross-linkers, we show selective control over gel dissolution and therapeutic delivery. To illustrate the versatility of this methodology, we synthesized 17 distinct stimuli-responsive materials that collectively yielded all possible YES/OR/AND logic outputs from input combinations involving enzyme, reductant and light. Using these hydrogels we demonstrate the first sequential and environmentally stimulated release of multiple cell lines in well-defined combinations from a material. We expect these platforms will find utility in several diverse fields including drug delivery, diagnostics and regenerative medicine.

  11. Spaceflight studies of tropisms in the European Modular Cultivation System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiss, J. Z.; Correll, M. J.; Edelmann, R. E.

    Phototropism and gravitropism play key roles in the oriented growth of roots in flowering plants. In blue or white light, roots exhibit negative phototropism, but red light induces positive phototropism in Arabidopsis roots. The blue-light response is controlled by the phototropins while the red-light response is mediated by the phytochrome family of photoreceptors. In order to better characterize root phototropism, we plan to perform experiments in microgravity so that this tropism can be more effectively studied without the interactions with the gravity response. Our experiments are to be performed on the European Modular Cultivation System (EMCS), which provides an incubator, lighting system, and high resolution video that are on a centrifuge palette. These experiments will be performed at μ g, 1g (control) and fractional g-levels. In order to ensure success of this mission on the International Space Station (ISS), we have been performing ground-based studies on growth, phototropism, and gravitropism in experimental unique equipment (EUE) that was designed for our experiments that will use Arabidopsis seedlings. Currently, the EMCS and our EUE are scheduled for launch on space shuttle mission STS-121. This project should provide insight into how the blue-light and red-light signaling systems interact with each other, and also with the gravisensing system.

  12. Combined gauge-mediated and anomaly-mediated supersymmetry breaking and conformal sequestering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sundrum, Raman

    2005-01-01

    Anomaly-mediated supersymmetry breaking in the context of 4D conformally sequestered models is combined with Poppitz-Trivedi D-type gauge-mediation. The implementation of the two mediation mechanisms naturally leads to visible soft masses at the same scale so that they can cooperatively solve the μ and flavor problems of weak scale supersymmetry, as well as the tachyonic-slepton problem of pure anomaly-mediation. The tools are developed in a modular fashion for more readily fitting into the general program of optimizing supersymmetric dynamics in hunting for the most attractive weak scale phenomenologies combined with Planck-scale plausibility

  13. MACOP Modular Architecture with Control Primitives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tim eWaegeman

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Walking, catching a ball and reaching are all tasks in which humans and animals exhibit advanced motor skills. Findings in biological research concerning motor control suggest a modular control hierarchy which combines movement/motor primitives into complex and natural movements. Engineers inspire their research on these findings in the quest for adaptive and skillful control for robots. In this work we propose a modular architecture with control primitives (MACOP which uses a set of controllers, where each controller becomes specialized in a subregion of its joint and task-space. Instead of having a single controller being used in this subregion (such as MOSAIC on which MACOP is inspired, MACOP relates more to the idea of continuously mixing a limited set of primitive controllers. By enforcing a set of desired properties on the mixing mechanism, a mixture of primitives emerges unsupervised which successfully solves the control task. We evaluate MACOP on a numerical model of a robot arm by training it to generate desired trajectories. We investigate how the tracking performance is affected by the number of controllers in MACOP and examine how the individual controllers and their generated control primitives contribute to solving the task. Furthermore, we show how MACOP compensates for the dynamic effects caused by a fixed control rate and the inertia of the robot.

  14. Metastring theory and modular space-time

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freidel, Laurent; Leigh, Robert G.; Minic, Djordje

    2015-01-01

    String theory is canonically accompanied with a space-time interpretation which determines S-matrix-like observables, and connects to the standard physics at low energies in the guise of local effective field theory. Recently, we have introduced a reformulation of string theory which does not rely on an a priori space-time interpretation or a pre-assumption of locality. This metastring theory is formulated in such a way that stringy symmetries (such as T-duality) are realized linearly. In this paper, we study metastring theory on a flat background and develop a variety of technical and interpretational ideas. These include a formulation of the moduli space of Lorentzian worldsheets, a careful study of the symplectic structure and consequently consistent closed and open boundary conditions, and the string spectrum and operator algebra. What emerges from these studies is a new quantum notion of space-time that we refer to as a quantum Lagrangian or equivalently a modular space-time. This concept embodies the standard tenets of quantum theory and implements in a precise way a notion of relative locality. The usual string backgrounds (non-compact space-time along with some toroidally compactified spatial directions) are obtained from modular space-time by a limiting procedure that can be thought of as a correspondence limit.

  15. Modular packaging concept for MEMS and MOEMS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stenchly, Vanessa; Reinert, Wolfgang; Quenzer, Hans-Joachim

    2017-11-01

    Wherever technical systems detect objects in their environment or interact with people, optical devices may play an important role. Light can be relatively easily produced and spatially and temporally modulated. Laser can project sharp images over long distances or cut materials in short distances. Depending on the wavelength an invisible scanning in near infrared for gesture recognition is possible as well as a projection of brilliant colour images. For several years, the Fraunhofer ISIT develops Opto-Packaging processes based on the viscous reshaping of glass wafers: First, hermetically sealed laser micro-mirror scanners WLP with inclined windows deflect in the central light reflex of the window out of the image area. Second, housing with lateral light exit permits hermetic sealing of edge-emitting lasers for highest reliability and durability. Such systems are currently experiencing an extremely high interest of the industry in all segments, from consumer to automotive through to materials processing. Our modular Opto-Packaging platform enables fast product developments. Housing for opto mechanical MEMS devices are equipped with inclined windows to minimize distortion, stray light and reflection losses. The hot viscous glass forming technology is also applied to functionalized substrate wafers which possess areas with high heat dissipation in addition to thermally insulating areas. Electrical contacts may be realized with metal filled vias or TGV (Through Glass Vias). The modular system reduces the development times for new, miniaturized optical systems so that manufacturers can focus on the essentials in their development, namely their product functionalities.

  16. The Modular Optical Underwater Survey System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruhul Amin

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center deploys the Modular Optical Underwater Survey System (MOUSS to estimate the species-specific, size-structured abundance of commercially-important fish species in Hawaii and the Pacific Islands. The MOUSS is an autonomous stereo-video camera system designed for the in situ visual sampling of fish assemblages. This system is rated to 500 m and its low-light, stereo-video cameras enable identification, counting, and sizing of individuals at a range of 0.5–10 m. The modular nature of MOUSS allows for the efficient and cost-effective use of various imaging sensors, power systems, and deployment platforms. The MOUSS is in use for surveys in Hawaii, the Gulf of Mexico, and Southern California. In Hawaiian waters, the system can effectively identify individuals to a depth of 250 m using only ambient light. In this paper, we describe the MOUSS’s application in fisheries research, including the design, calibration, analysis techniques, and deployment mechanism.

  17. Quantification of complex modular architecture in plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeb, Catherine; Kaandorp, Jaap; Jansson, Fredrik; Puillandre, Nicolas; Dubuisson, Jean-Yves; Cornette, Raphaël; Jabbour, Florian; Coudert, Yoan; Patiño, Jairo; Flot, Jean-François; Vanderpoorten, Alain

    2018-04-01

    Morphometrics, the assignment of quantities to biological shapes, is a powerful tool to address taxonomic, evolutionary, functional and developmental questions. We propose a novel method for shape quantification of complex modular architecture in thalloid plants, whose extremely reduced morphologies, combined with the lack of a formal framework for thallus description, have long rendered taxonomic and evolutionary studies extremely challenging. Using graph theory, thalli are described as hierarchical series of nodes and edges, allowing for accurate, homologous and repeatable measurements of widths, lengths and angles. The computer program MorphoSnake was developed to extract the skeleton and contours of a thallus and automatically acquire, at each level of organization, width, length, angle and sinuosity measurements. Through the quantification of leaf architecture in Hymenophyllum ferns (Polypodiopsida) and a fully worked example of integrative taxonomy in the taxonomically challenging thalloid liverwort genus Riccardia, we show that MorphoSnake is applicable to all ramified plants. This new possibility of acquiring large numbers of quantitative traits in plants with complex modular architectures opens new perspectives of applications, from the development of rapid species identification tools to evolutionary analyses of adaptive plasticity. © 2018 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2018 New Phytologist Trust.

  18. Modular control of fusion power heating applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Demers, D. R.

    2012-01-01

    This work is motivated by the growing demand for auxiliary heating on small and large machines worldwide. Numerous present and planned RF experiments (EBW, Lower Hybrid, ICRF, and ECH) are increasingly complex systems. The operational challenges are indicative of a need for components of real-time control that can be implemented with a moderate amount of effort in a time- and cost-effective fashion. Such a system will improve experimental efficiency, enhance experimental quality, and expedite technological advancements. The modular architecture of this control-suite serves multiple purposes. It facilitates construction on various scales from single to multiple controller systems. It enables expandability of control from basic to complex via the addition of modules with varying functionalities. It simplifies the control implementation process by reducing layers of software and electronic development. While conceived with fusion applications in mind, this suite has the potential to serve a broad range of scientific and industrial applications. During the Phase-I research effort we established the overall feasibility of this modular control-suite concept. We developed the fundamental modules needed to implement open-loop active-control and demonstrated their use on a microwave power deposition experiment

  19. Recent ARC developments: Through modularity to interoperability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smirnova, O; Cameron, D; Ellert, M; Groenager, M; Johansson, D; Kleist, J [NDGF, Kastruplundsgade 22, DK-2770 Kastrup (Denmark); Dobe, P; Joenemo, J; Konya, B [Lund University, Experimental High Energy Physics, Institute of Physics, Box 118, SE-22100 Lund (Sweden); Fraagaat, T; Konstantinov, A; Nilsen, J K; Saada, F Ould; Qiang, W; Read, A [University of Oslo, Department of Physics, P. O. Box 1048, Blindern, N-0316 Oslo (Norway); Kocan, M [Pavol Jozef Safarik University, Faculty of Science, Jesenna 5, SK-04000 Kosice (Slovakia); Marton, I; Nagy, Zs [NIIF/HUNGARNET, Victor Hugo 18-22, H-1132 Budapest (Hungary); Moeller, S [University of Luebeck, Inst. Of Neuro- and Bioinformatics, Ratzeburger Allee 160, D-23538 Luebeck (Germany); Mohn, B, E-mail: oxana.smirnova@hep.lu.s [Uppsala University, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Div. of Nuclear and Particle Physics, Box 535, SE-75121 Uppsala (Sweden)

    2010-04-01

    The Advanced Resource Connector (ARC) middleware introduced by NorduGrid is one of the basic Grid solutions used by scientists worldwide. While being well-proven in daily use by a wide variety of scientific applications at large-scale infrastructures like the Nordic DataGrid Facility (NDGF) and smaller scale projects, production ARC of today is still largely based on conventional Grid technologies and custom interfaces introduced a decade ago. In order to guarantee sustainability, true cross-system portability and standards-compliance based interoperability, the ARC community undertakes a massive effort of implementing modular Web Service (WS) approach into the middleware. With support from the EU KnowARC project, new components were introduced and the existing key ARC services got extended with WS technology based standard-compliant interfaces following a service-oriented architecture. Such components include the hosting environment framework, the resource-coupled execution service, the re-engineered client library, the self-healing storage solution and the peer-to-peer information system, to name a few. Gradual introduction of these new services and client tools into the production middleware releases is carried out together with NDGF and thus ensures a smooth transition to the next generation Grid middleware. Standard interfaces and modularity of the new component design are essential for ARC contributions to the planned Universal Middleware Distribution of the European Grid Initiative.

  20. Recent ARC developments: Through modularity to interoperability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smirnova, O; Cameron, D; Ellert, M; Groenager, M; Johansson, D; Kleist, J; Dobe, P; Joenemo, J; Konya, B; Fraagaat, T; Konstantinov, A; Nilsen, J K; Saada, F Ould; Qiang, W; Read, A; Kocan, M; Marton, I; Nagy, Zs; Moeller, S; Mohn, B

    2010-01-01

    The Advanced Resource Connector (ARC) middleware introduced by NorduGrid is one of the basic Grid solutions used by scientists worldwide. While being well-proven in daily use by a wide variety of scientific applications at large-scale infrastructures like the Nordic DataGrid Facility (NDGF) and smaller scale projects, production ARC of today is still largely based on conventional Grid technologies and custom interfaces introduced a decade ago. In order to guarantee sustainability, true cross-system portability and standards-compliance based interoperability, the ARC community undertakes a massive effort of implementing modular Web Service (WS) approach into the middleware. With support from the EU KnowARC project, new components were introduced and the existing key ARC services got extended with WS technology based standard-compliant interfaces following a service-oriented architecture. Such components include the hosting environment framework, the resource-coupled execution service, the re-engineered client library, the self-healing storage solution and the peer-to-peer information system, to name a few. Gradual introduction of these new services and client tools into the production middleware releases is carried out together with NDGF and thus ensures a smooth transition to the next generation Grid middleware. Standard interfaces and modularity of the new component design are essential for ARC contributions to the planned Universal Middleware Distribution of the European Grid Initiative.

  1. A neural network with modular hierarchical learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldi, Pierre F. (Inventor); Toomarian, Nikzad (Inventor)

    1994-01-01

    This invention provides a new hierarchical approach for supervised neural learning of time dependent trajectories. The modular hierarchical methodology leads to architectures which are more structured than fully interconnected networks. The networks utilize a general feedforward flow of information and sparse recurrent connections to achieve dynamic effects. The advantages include the sparsity of units and connections, the modular organization. A further advantage is that the learning is much more circumscribed learning than in fully interconnected systems. The present invention is embodied by a neural network including a plurality of neural modules each having a pre-established performance capability wherein each neural module has an output outputting present results of the performance capability and an input for changing the present results of the performance capabilitiy. For pattern recognition applications, the performance capability may be an oscillation capability producing a repeating wave pattern as the present results. In the preferred embodiment, each of the plurality of neural modules includes a pre-established capability portion and a performance adjustment portion connected to control the pre-established capability portion.

  2. Modular adaptive implant based on smart materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bîzdoacă, N; Tarniţă, Daniela; Tarniţă, D N

    2008-01-01

    Applications of biological methods and systems found in nature to the study and design of engineering systems and modern technology are defined as Bionics. The present paper describes a bionics application of shape memory alloy in construction of orthopedic implant. The main idea of this paper is related to design modular adaptive implants for fractured bones. In order to target the efficiency of medical treatment, the implant has to protect the fractured bone, for the healing period, undertaking much as is possible from the daily usual load of the healthy bones. After a particular stage of healing period is passed, using implant modularity, the load is gradually transferred to bone, assuring in this manner a gradually recover of bone function. The adaptability of this design is related to medical possibility of the physician to made the implant to correspond to patient specifically anatomy. Using a CT realistic numerical bone models, the mechanical simulation of different types of loading of the fractured bones treated with conventional method are presented. The results are commented and conclusions are formulated.

  3. A modular platform for targeted RNAi therapeutics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kedmi, Ranit; Veiga, Nuphar; Ramishetti, Srinivas; Goldsmith, Meir; Rosenblum, Daniel; Dammes, Niels; Hazan-Halevy, Inbal; Nahary, Limor; Leviatan-Ben-Arye, Shani; Harlev, Michael; Behlke, Mark; Benhar, Itai; Lieberman, Judy; Peer, Dan

    2018-01-01

    Previous studies have identified relevant genes and signalling pathways that are hampered in human disorders as potential candidates for therapeutics. Developing nucleic acid-based tools to manipulate gene expression, such as short interfering RNAs1-3 (siRNAs), opens up opportunities for personalized medicine. Yet, although major progress has been made in developing siRNA targeted delivery carriers, mainly by utilizing monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) for targeting4-8, their clinical translation has not occurred. This is in part because of the massive development and production requirements and the high batch-to-batch variability of current technologies, which rely on chemical conjugation. Here we present a self-assembled modular platform that enables the construction of a theoretically unlimited repertoire of siRNA targeted carriers. The self-assembly of the platform is based on a membrane-anchored lipoprotein that is incorporated into siRNA-loaded lipid nanoparticles that interact with the antibody crystallizable fragment (Fc) domain. We show that a simple switch of eight different mAbs redirects the specific uptake of siRNAs by diverse leukocyte subsets in vivo. The therapeutic potential of the platform is demonstrated in an inflammatory bowel disease model by targeting colon macrophages to reduce inflammatory symptoms, and in a Mantle Cell Lymphoma xenograft model by targeting cancer cells to induce cell death and improve survival. This modular delivery platform represents a milestone in the development of precision medicine.

  4. Modular inverse reinforcement learning for visuomotor behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothkopf, Constantin A; Ballard, Dana H

    2013-08-01

    In a large variety of situations one would like to have an expressive and accurate model of observed animal or human behavior. While general purpose mathematical models may capture successfully properties of observed behavior, it is desirable to root models in biological facts. Because of ample empirical evidence for reward-based learning in visuomotor tasks, we use a computational model based on the assumption that the observed agent is balancing the costs and benefits of its behavior to meet its goals. This leads to using the framework of reinforcement learning, which additionally provides well-established algorithms for learning of visuomotor task solutions. To quantify the agent's goals as rewards implicit in the observed behavior, we propose to use inverse reinforcement learning, which quantifies the agent's goals as rewards implicit in the observed behavior. Based on the assumption of a modular cognitive architecture, we introduce a modular inverse reinforcement learning algorithm that estimates the relative reward contributions of the component tasks in navigation, consisting of following a path while avoiding obstacles and approaching targets. It is shown how to recover the component reward weights for individual tasks and that variability in observed trajectories can be explained succinctly through behavioral goals. It is demonstrated through simulations that good estimates can be obtained already with modest amounts of observation data, which in turn allows the prediction of behavior in novel configurations.

  5. Some aspects of modular stellarator reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harmeyer, E.; Kisslinger, J.; Rau, F.; Wobig, H.

    1985-01-01

    The Advanced Stellarator (AS) configuration and a helical axis stellarator with modular coils have been extrapolated to reactor dimensions with the condition of 1.8 m distance between plasma and modular coils. For five-field periods, this leads to reactor dimensions of Rsub(omicron)=25 m and an averaged plasma radius of 1.6 m, Bsub(omicron)=5.3 T(ASR). In a burn experiment with 1.2 m space between plasma and coils the dimensions are: Rsub(omicron)=15 m; a-bar=0.9 m; Bsub(omicron)=7 T(ASB). Force and stress in the ASR were analysed assuming a ring-type support structure. Maximum reference stresses of 80 MPa were found. With a simple neoclassical transport model, ignition conditions are calculated. A minimum heating power of 30 MW is necessary for the startup phase. An AS-type power reactor requires a β-bar-value of 5%, with a thermal output of 3.6 GW. In ASB, the necessary β-bar-value is 2-2.5% and the output power is 0.4 GW. The same startup power of 30 MW is needed. (author)

  6. The Potential for Computer Based Systems in Modular Engineering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miller, Thomas Dedenroth

    1998-01-01

    The paper elaborates on knowledge management and the possibility for computer support of the design process of pharmaceutical production plants in relation to the ph.d. project modular engineering.......The paper elaborates on knowledge management and the possibility for computer support of the design process of pharmaceutical production plants in relation to the ph.d. project modular engineering....

  7. Simultaneous versus incremental learning of multiple skills by modular robots

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rossi, C.; Eiben, A.E.

    2014-01-01

    This paper is concerned with the problem of learning multiple skills by modular robots. The main question we address is whether it is better to learn multiple skills simultaneously (all-at-once) or incrementally (one-by-one). We conduct an experimental study with modular robots of various

  8. TRIZ based Interface conflict resolving strategies for modular product architectures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wits, Wessel Willems; Vaneker, Thomas H.J.; Rizzi, C.

    2010-01-01

    In product development, the chosen product architecture often possesses characteristics of both modular and integral design. Within a modular architecture, a Function-Behavior-Structure (FBS) model has been applied to describe modules and their interfaces. To resolve emerging interface conflicts,

  9. Procedure-Modular Verification of Control Flow Safety Properties

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Soleimanifard, Siavash; Gurov, Dilian; Huisman, Marieke

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes a novel technique for fully automated procedure-modular verification of Java programs equipped with method-local and global assertions that specify safety properties of sequences of method invocations. Modularity of verification is achieved by relativizing the correctness of

  10. An investigation of the effectiveness of the modular general English ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An investigation of the effectiveness of the modular general English language teaching preparatory program at a Turkish university. ... South African Journal of Education ... Therefore, this study aims to evaluate the modular intensive general English language teaching program applied at a university in Turkey by

  11. Plant systems/components modularization study. Final report. [PWR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1977-07-01

    The final results are summarized of a Plant Systems/Components Modularization Study based on Stone and Webster's Pressurized Water Reactor Reference Design. The program has been modified to include evaluation of the most promising areas for modular consideration based on the level of the Sundesert Project engineering design completion and the feasibility of their incorporation into the plant construction effort.

  12. Hyperbolic lattice-point counting and modular symbols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    N. Petridis, Yiannis; Risager, Morten S.

    2009-01-01

    For a cocompact group $\\G$ of $\\slr$ we fix a real non-zero harmonic 1-form $\\alpha$. We study the asymptotics of the hyperbolic lattice-counting problem for $\\G$ under restrictions imposed by the modular symbols $\\modsym{\\gamma}{\\a}$. We prove that the normalized values of the modular symbols...

  13. What professionals consider when designing a modular service architecture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broekhuis, Manda; van Offenbeek, Marjolein; van der Laan, Monique

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Purpose: The paper explores how functional and appropriateness arguments influence the adoption of modularity principles during the design of a professional service architecture. Design: Action design research was conducted to examine the design process of a modular service architecture for

  14. Dynamics of modular expansion joints: The Martinus Nijhoff Bridge

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zuada Coelho, B.A.; Vervuurt, A.H.J.M.; Peelen, W.H.A.; Leendertz, J.S.

    2013-01-01

    Modular expansion joints are structures that are submitted to severe fatigue load conditions. This may lead to unexpected premature damage of the structure which, besides the economic cost of repair, may limit the regular service of the bridge. To better understand the dynamic behaviour of modular

  15. 17 CFR 232.501 - Modular submissions and segmented filings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ..., EDGAR will suspend the modular submission and notify the electronic filer by electronic mail. After six... COMMISSION REGULATION S-T-GENERAL RULES AND REGULATIONS FOR ELECTRONIC FILINGS Edgar Functions § 232.501 Modular submissions and segmented filings. An electronic filer may use the following procedures to submit...

  16. Modular functors are determined by their genus zero data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jørgen Ellegaard; Ueno, Kenji

    2012-01-01

    We prove in this paper that the genus zero data of a modular functor determines the modular functor. We do this by establishing that the S-matrix in genus one with one point labeled arbitrarily can be expressed in terms of the genus zero information and we give an explicit formula. We do not assume...

  17. On Modularity in (V)Shorad Air Defense

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veen, E.M. van der

    2001-01-01

    This paper addresses the concept of modularity in the context of (V)Shorads Air Defence. Modularity is a technical concept that provides improved operational flexibility to (V)Shorad systems. Such improved flexibility is specifically relevant to mobile crisis reaction forces. The discussion is

  18. Modularity, Working Memory, and Second Language Acquisition: A Research Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truscott, John

    2017-01-01

    Considerable reason exists to view the mind, and language within it, as modular, and this view has an important place in research and theory in second language acquisition (SLA) and beyond. But it has had very little impact on the study of working memory and its role in SLA. This article considers the need for modular study of working memory,…

  19. Modularization in construction processes New Nuclear Power Plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinez, I.; Cobos, A.; Herrera Ropero, D.

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this work is that it has the capacity and expertise to analyze the suitability of modular technology design and construction compared to conventional nuclear plants. It will define the criteria for selecting the areas of modularity and the impact on design and its interfaces with engineering, supply, including logistics and construction.

  20. Product modularity and its effects on firm performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boer, Henrike Engele Elisabeth; Hansen, Poul H. Kyvsgård

    2013-01-01

    The literature promises a large range of benefits to firms that adopt product modularity. However, the term product modularity is ambiguously understood and its benefits have not been empirically validated through large-scale studies. By reviewing existing literature, this paper seeks...... to operationalise product modularity and firm performance, to support further and more detailed empirical studies of product modularity’s performance effects. The review shows that, so far, the operationalisation of product modularity has been incomplete, and suggests that modularity needs to be operationalised...... by assessing the level of 1) standardisation of a product portfolio’s modules (including functional specificity) and 2) standardisation of module interfaces (including decomposability). Furthermore, in order for the research community to move forward, performance effects need to be examined on a more...

  1. Towards Versatile Robots Through Open Heterogeneous Modular Robots

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lyder, Andreas

    Robots are important tools in our everyday life. Both in industry and at the consumer level they serve the purpose of increasing our scope and extending our capabilities. Modular robots take the next step, allowing us to easily create and build various robots from a set of modules. If a problem...... arises, a new robot can be assembled rapidly from the existing modules, in contrast to conventional robots, which require a time consuming and expensive development process. In this thesis we define a modular robot to be a robot consisting of dynamically reconfigurable modules. The goal of this thesis...... is to increase the versatility and practical usability of modular robots by introducing new conceptual designs. Until now modular robots have been based on a pre-specified set of modules, and thus, their functionality is limited. We propose an open heterogeneous design concept, which allows a modular robot...

  2. Local modular Hamiltonians from the quantum null energy condition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koeller, Jason; Leichenauer, Stefan; Levine, Adam; Shahbazi-Moghaddam, Arvin

    2018-03-01

    The vacuum modular Hamiltonian K of the Rindler wedge in any relativistic quantum field theory is given by the boost generator. Here we investigate the modular Hamiltonian for more general half-spaces which are bounded by an arbitrary smooth cut of a null plane. We derive a formula for the second derivative of the modular Hamiltonian with respect to the coordinates of the cut which schematically reads K''=Tv v . This formula can be integrated twice to obtain a simple expression for the modular Hamiltonian. The result naturally generalizes the standard expression for the Rindler modular Hamiltonian to this larger class of regions. Our primary assumptions are the quantum null energy condition—an inequality between the second derivative of the von Neumann entropy of a region and the stress tensor—and its saturation in the vacuum for these regions. We discuss the validity of these assumptions in free theories and holographic theories to all orders in 1 /N .

  3. A Comprehensive View On Benefits From Product Modularization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Poul H. Kyvsgård; Sun, Hongyi

    2010-01-01

    . Definitely, the many various aspects of product modularization have demonstrated substantial potentials regarding improved and enhanced competitiveness, but our empirical studies illustrate that the efforts in regards to realizing specific product modularization benefits need to be managed carefully. Our...... studies illustrates that the expected and the realized benefits from a product modularization effort rarely match. In most cases the companies have only weak estimations about both the type and the magnitude of the potential benefits when planning the modularization project. This indicates a serious need...... for tools and methods to support companies in being more specific about the expected benefits. Furthermore, this indicates a need for more precise perceptions of the challenges of managing product modularization efforts. This paper deals with three challenges according to the outset as described initially...

  4. Development of a Novel AAV Gene Therapy Cassette with Improved Safety Features and Efficacy in a Mouse Model of Rett Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamal K.E. Gadalla

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Rett syndrome (RTT, caused by loss-of-function mutations in the MECP2 gene, is a neurological disorder characterized by severe impairment of motor and cognitive functions. The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of vector design, dosage, and delivery route on the efficacy and safety of gene augmentation therapy in mouse models of RTT. Our results show that AAV-mediated delivery of MECP2 to Mecp2 null mice by systemic administration, and utilizing a minimal endogenous promoter, was associated with a narrow therapeutic window and resulted in liver toxicity at higher doses. Lower doses of this vector significantly extended the survival of mice lacking MeCP2 or expressing a mutant T158M allele but had no impact on RTT-like neurological phenotypes. Modifying vector design by incorporating an extended Mecp2 promoter and additional regulatory 3′ UTR elements significantly reduced hepatic toxicity after systemic administration. Moreover, direct cerebroventricular injection of this vector into neonatal Mecp2-null mice resulted in high brain transduction efficiency, increased survival and body weight, and an amelioration of RTT-like phenotypes. Our results show that controlling levels of MeCP2 expression in the liver is achievable through modification of the expression cassette. However, it also highlights the importance of achieving high brain transduction to impact the RTT-like phenotypes.

  5. IMB2026791, a Xanthone, Stimulates Cholesterol Efflux by Increasing the Binding of Apolipoprotein A-I to ATP-Binding Cassette Transporter A1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zijian Xie

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available It is known that the ATP-binding cassette transporter A1 (ABCA1 plays a major role in cholesterol homeostasis and high density lipoprotein (HDL metabolism. Several laboratories have demonstrated that ABCA1 binding to lipid-poor apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I will mediate the assembly of nascent HDL and cellular cholesterol efflux, which suggests a possible receptor-ligand interaction between ABCA1 and apoA-I. In this study, a cell-based-ELISA-like high-throughput screening (HTS method was developed to identify the synthetic and natural compounds that can regulate binding activity of ABCA1 to apoA-I. The cell-based-ELISA-like high-throughput screen was conducted in a 96-well format using Chinese hamster ovary (CHO cells stably transfected with ABCA1 pIRE2-EGFP (Enhanced Green Fluorecence Protein expression vector and the known ABCA1 inhibitor glibenclamide as the antagonist control. From 2,600 compounds, a xanthone compound (IMB 2026791 was selected using this HTS assay, and it was proved as an apoA-I binding agonist to ABCA1 by a flow cytometry assay and western blot analysis. The [3H] cholesterol efflux assay of IMB2026791 treated ABCA1-CHO cells and PMA induced THP-1 macrophages (human acute monocytic leukemia cell further confirmed the compound as an accelerator of cholesterol efflux in a dose-dependent manner with an EC50 of 25.23 μM.

  6. Commercialization of the modular modeling system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bartells, P.S.

    1987-01-01

    The Modular Modeling System (MMS) was developed by the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) to provide an efficient, economical, and user-friendly computer code for use in the analysis of the dynamic performance of nuclear and fossil power plants. The MMS has been under development since 1978 and is now ready for general release to the industry. To most effectively transfer the MSS technology on a worldwide basis, EPRI has licensed the Babcock and Wilcox Company (B and W) to act as the MMS code coordinator and commercial licensing agent. B and W is responsible for promoting the use of MMS and assisting users in the effective utilization of this new analysis tool. The history behind the commercialization of the MMS and the mechanism by which the MMS technology will be effectively transferred to provide for a self-sustaining and technically current analysis tool are outlined

  7. Kahler stabilized, modular invariant heterotic string models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaillard, Mary K.; Gaillard, Mary K.; Nelson, Brent D.

    2007-03-19

    We review the theory and phenomenology of effective supergravity theories based on orbifold compactifications of the weakly-coupled heterotic string. In particular, we consider theories in which the four-dimensional theory displays target space modular invariance and where the dilatonic mode undergoes Kahler stabilization. A self-contained exposition of effective Lagrangian approaches to gaugino condensation and heterotic string theory is presented, leading to the development of the models of Binétruy, Gaillard and Wu. Various aspects of the phenomenology of this class of models are considered. These include issues of supersymmetry breaking and superpartner spectra, the role of anomalous U(1) factors, issues of flavor and R-parity conservation, collider signatures, axion physics, and early universe cosmology. For the vast majority of phenomenological considerations the theories reviewed here compare quite favorably to other string-derived models in the literature. Theoretical objections to the framework and directions for further research are identified and discussed.

  8. Modularized TGFbeta-Smad Signaling Pathway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yongfeng; Wang, M.; Carra, C.; Cucinotta, F. A.

    2011-01-01

    The Transforming Growth Factor beta (TGFbeta) signaling pathway is a prominent regulatory signaling pathway controlling various important cellular processes. It can be induced by several factors, including ionizing radiation. It is regulated by Smads in a negative feedback loop through promoting increases in the regulatory Smads in the cell nucleus, and subsequent expression of inhibitory Smad, Smad7 to form a ubiquitin ligase with Smurf targeting active TGF receptors for degradation. In this work, we proposed a mathematical model to study the radiation-induced Smad-regulated TGF signaling pathway. By modularization, we are able to analyze each module (subsystem) and recover the nonlinear dynamics of the entire network system. Meanwhile the excitability, a common feature observed in the biological systems, along the TGF signaling pathway is discussed by mathematical analysis and numerical simulation.

  9. Modular Multilevel Converters: Control and Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Martinez-Rodrigo

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available This review article is mainly oriented to the control and applications of modular multilevel converters (MMC. The main topologies of the switching modules are presented, for normal operation and for the elimination of DC faults. Methods to keep the capacitor voltage balanced are included. The voltage and current modulators, that are the most internal loops of control, are detailed. Voltage control and current control schemes are included which regulate DC link voltage and reactive power. The cases of unbalanced and distorted networks are analyzed, and schemes are proposed so that MMC contribute to improve the quality of the grid in these situations. The main applications in high voltage direct current (HVDC transmission along with other medium voltage (MV and low voltage (LV applications are included. Finally, the application to offshore wind farms is specifically analyzed.

  10. Temperature Sensing in Modular Microfluidic Architectures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krisna C. Bhargava

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A discrete microfluidic element with integrated thermal sensor was fabricated and demonstrated as an effective probe for process monitoring and prototyping. Elements were constructed using stereolithography and market-available glass-bodied thermistors within the modular, standardized framework of previous discrete microfluidic elements demonstrated in the literature. Flow rate-dependent response due to sensor self-heating and microchannel heating and cooling was characterized and shown to be linear in typical laboratory conditions. An acid-base neutralization reaction was performed in a continuous flow setting to demonstrate applicability in process management: the ratio of solution flow rates was varied to locate the equivalence point in a titration, closely matching expected results. This element potentially enables complex, three-dimensional microfluidic architectures with real-time temperature feedback and flow rate sensing, without application specificity or restriction to planar channel routing formats.

  11. A modular guitar for teaching musical acoustics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marozeau, Jeremy

    2016-01-01

    In order to keep students activated in a course on musical acoustics, they were asked to build a modular guitar, designed to be updated throughout the course. In the first stage, dedicated to the physics of strings, a guitar was made out of three strings attached to a long piece of wood....... The students measured the effect of the place of plucking on the mode of the vibrations of the strings. The second stage was dedicated to the acoustic resonances. Using a laser cutter, the students built a wooden box that was coupled to their guitar using straps. New acoustical measurements were made to study...... the effect of the shape of the resonator on the spectrum of the sound. In the third stage, as the different tuning systems were learned, the students built a fingerboard with the appropriated positions of the frets. In the last stage, the students have implemented some digital effects and tested them...

  12. Generic small modular reactor plant design.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lewis, Tom Goslee,; Cipiti, Benjamin B.; Jordan, Sabina Erteza; Baum, Gregory A.

    2012-12-01

    This report gives an overview of expected design characteristics, concepts, and procedures for small modular reactors. The purpose of this report is to provide those who are interested in reducing the cost and improving the safety of advanced nuclear power plants with a generic design that possesses enough detail in a non-sensitive manner to give merit to their conclusions. The report is focused on light water reactor technology, but does add details on what could be different in a more advanced design (see Appendix). Numerous reactor and facility concepts were used for inspiration (documented in the bibliography). The final design described here is conceptual and does not reflect any proposed concept or sub-systems, thus any details given here are only relevant within this report. This report does not include any design or engineering calculations.

  13. Modular Chemical Descriptor Language (MCDL: Stereochemical modules

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gakh Andrei A

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In our previous papers we introduced the Modular Chemical Descriptor Language (MCDL for providing a linear representation of chemical information. A subsequent development was the MCDL Java Chemical Structure Editor which is capable of drawing chemical structures from linear representations and generating MCDL descriptors from structures. Results In this paper we present MCDL modules and accompanying software that incorporate unique representation of molecular stereochemistry based on Cahn-Ingold-Prelog and Fischer ideas in constructing stereoisomer descriptors. The paper also contains additional discussions regarding canonical representation of stereochemical isomers, and brief algorithm descriptions of the open source LINDES, Java applet, and Open Babel MCDL processing module software packages. Conclusions Testing of the upgraded MCDL Java Chemical Structure Editor on compounds taken from several large and diverse chemical databases demonstrated satisfactory performance for storage and processing of stereochemical information in MCDL format.

  14. Modular Stellarator Fusion Reactor (MSR) concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, R.L.; Krakowski, R.A.

    1981-01-01

    A preliminary conceptual study has been made of the Modulator Stellarator Reactor (MSR) as a stedy-state, ignited, DT-fueled, magnetic fusion reactor. The MSR concept combines the physics of classic stellarator confinement with an innovative, modular-coil design. Parametric tradeoff calculations are described, leading to the selection of an interim design point for a 4.8-GWt plant based on Alcator transport scaling and an average beta value of 0.04 in an l = 2 system with a plasma aspect ratio of 11. Neither an economic analysis nor a detailed conceptual engineering design is presented here, as the primary intent of this scoping study is the elucidation of key physics tradeoffs, constraints, and uncertainties for the ultimate power-reactor embodiment

  15. Hidden Costs and the Role of Modularity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Marcus M.

    2013-01-01

    This paper addresses estimation errors in strategic decision-making processes due to hidden costs. While previous research has investigated the antecedents of hidden costs, this paper investigates performance consequences. Using unique data on 221 offshoring implementations, it is argued...... that the inability to effectively estimate the costs of implementing an activity in a foreign location has a negative impact on the process performance of that activity. Performance is deterred as operations are likely to be disrupted by opportunity costs and managerial responses. However, this relationship...... is mitigated by the degree of modularity in the activity as it reduces the need for costly coordination in offshoring. This paper contributes to research on offshoring and strategic decision-making by emphasizing the importance of organizational design and of estimating the costs of internal organizational...

  16. RSA and its Correctness through Modular Arithmetic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meelu, Punita; Malik, Sitender

    2010-11-01

    To ensure the security to the applications of business, the business sectors use Public Key Cryptographic Systems (PKCS). An RSA system generally belongs to the category of PKCS for both encryption and authentication. This paper describes an introduction to RSA through encryption and decryption schemes, mathematical background which includes theorems to combine modular equations and correctness of RSA. In short, this paper explains some of the maths concepts that RSA is based on, and then provides a complete proof that RSA works correctly. We can proof the correctness of RSA through combined process of encryption and decryption based on the Chinese Remainder Theorem (CRT) and Euler theorem. However, there is no mathematical proof that RSA is secure, everyone takes that on trust!.

  17. Jargon and Graph Modularity on Twitter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dowling, Chase P.; Corley, Courtney D.; Farber, Robert M.; Reynolds, William

    2013-09-01

    The language of conversation is just as dependent upon word choice as it is on who is taking part. Twitter provides an excellent test-bed in which to conduct experiments not only on language usage but on who is using what language with whom. To this end, we combine large scale graph analytical techniques with known socio-linguistic methods. In this article we leverage both expert curated vocabularies and naive mathematical graph analyses to determine if network behavior on Twitter corroborates with the current understanding of language usage. The results reported indicate that, based on networks constructed from user to user communication and communities identified using the Clauset- Newman greedy modularity algorithm we find that more prolific users of these curated vocabularies are concentrated in distinct network communities.

  18. Modular Hydropower Engineering and Pilot Scale Manufacturing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chesser, Phillip C. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2017-09-01

    Emrgy has developed, prototyped and tested a modular hydropower system for renewable energy generation. ORNL worked with Emrgy to demonstrate the use of additive manufacturing in the production of the hydrofoils and spokes for the hydrokinetic system. Specifically, during Phase 1 of this effort, ORNL printed and finished machined patterns for both the hydrofoils and spokes that were subsequently used in a sand casting manufacturing process. Emrgy utilized the sand castings for a pilot installation in Denver, CO, where the parts represented an 80% cost savings from the previous prototype build that was manufactured using subtractive manufacturing. In addition, the castings were completed with ORNL’s newly developed AlCeMg alloy that will be tested for performance improvements including higher corrosion resistance in a water application than the 6160 alloy used previously

  19. Modular manual control device for manipulators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dzholdasbekov, U.A.; Lukyanov, A.T.; Slutsky, L.I.; Safontsev, E.A.; Dzhamalov, N.K.

    1991-01-01

    The device described in this patent comprises a base, a series of connected modules, each with a position pickup and a handle. One module is provided for each degree of mobility of the manipulator being controlled; the modular construction enables the control of manipulators with differing degrees of mobility. One rotary movement module and three orthogonal linear movement modules are provided. Each linear module has two parallel guides between which a carriage is supported for movement by balls. The position pickup is provided on the carriage. The rotary module comprises inner and outer casings, relative movement of which is detected by pickup. Further rotary pickups may be provided for rotation about axes. A close/open switch and a speed control pickup may also be provided. (author)

  20. The ESKOM pebble bed modular reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gittus, J.H.

    1999-01-01

    An audit has been made of the design, construction, safety, economics and marketability of the ESKOM pebble bed modular reactor (PBMR). In this paper that audit is briefly summarized. The principal conclusions of the audit are as follows. The design is sound. It is a logical development of the designs proposed for other, modern, high-temperature gas-cooled reactors. More than 80% of the cost of constructing and commissioning a series of PBMRs would be spent in South Africa. The PBMR is much safer than existing nuclear power reactors and for many practical purposes it may be treated as a conventional chemical plant. The PBMR is economically competitive with thermal power stations. There is a substantial global market for the PBMR. (author)

  1. Development of a Modular Robotic Platform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudiu Ioan Cirebea

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper a modular robotic platform is presented, for students and researchers laboratory work based on the Matlab-Simulink and dSpace real time control platform. The goal of this combination is to stimulate and to experiment with real time hardware and software in courses where mobile robotics is adopted as a motivating platform to introduce mechatronics competencies. Its many possibilities for modifications and extensions make experiments very easy. We used, for example, an omnidirectional mobile robot configuration with three Swedish wheels, whose kinematic model was simulated using Simulink. For real-time control, of the robot, the developed model has been implemented using DSpace platform DS1103.

  2. A Modular and Extensible Remote Electronic Laboratory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giancarlo Parodi

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available The remote control of instrumentation is not enough to set up a remote laboratory. Several pedagogical, technical, and structural issues must be faced to obtain modular and scalable systems. This paper reports our experience in developing a remote laboratory system to teach electronics to information engineering students. Our target is to develop proper architectures and tools, to obtain an easy management of the system and a better pedagogical effectiveness. The approach used in describing the compo-nents of online experiments facilitates the upgrade of the laboratory and the sharing of experiments, defined as stan-dard learning objects. A particular attention has been paid to pedagogical issues. The main problems being investigated are: the lack of the support that students used to have in traditional labs, the reduced interaction with the objects under test, and the necessity of providing feedback to the experimenters.

  3. Morphology Independent Learning in Modular Robots

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, David Johan; Bordignon, Mirko; Schultz, Ulrik Pagh

    2009-01-01

    Hand-coding locomotion controllers for modular robots is dif?cult due to their polymorphic nature. Instead, we propose to use a simple and distributed reinforcement learning strategy. ATRON modules with identical controllers can be assembled in any con?guration. To optimize the robot?s locomotion...... speed its modules independently and in parallel adjust their behavior based on a single global reward signal. In simulation, we study the learning strategy?s performance on different robot con?gurations. On the physical platform, we perform learning experiments with ATRON robots learning to move as fast...... as possible. We conclude that the learning strategy is effective and may be a practical approach to design gaits....

  4. Experience in Reviewing Small Modular Reactor Technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmad Nabil Abdul Rahim; Alfred, S.L.; Phongsakorn, P.

    2015-01-01

    Malaysia is in the stage of conducting Preliminary Technical Feasibility Study for the Deployment of Small Modular Reactor (SMR). There are different types of SMR, some already under construction in Argentina (CAREM) and China (HTR-PM) - (light water reactor and high temperature reactor technologies), others with near-term deployment such as SMART in South Korea, ACP100 in China, mPower and NuScale in the US, and others with longer term deployment prospects (liquid-metal cooled reactor technologies). The study was mainly to get an overview of the technology available in the market. The SMR ranking in the study was done through listing out the most deployable technology in the market according to their types. As a new comer country, the proven technology with an excellent operation history will usually be the main consideration points. (author)

  5. Human Reliability Analysis for Small Modular Reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ronald L. Boring; David I. Gertman

    2012-06-01

    Because no human reliability analysis (HRA) method was specifically developed for small modular reactors (SMRs), the application of any current HRA method to SMRs represents tradeoffs. A first- generation HRA method like THERP provides clearly defined activity types, but these activity types do not map to the human-system interface or concept of operations confronting SMR operators. A second- generation HRA method like ATHEANA is flexible enough to be used for SMR applications, but there is currently insufficient guidance for the analyst, requiring considerably more first-of-a-kind analyses and extensive SMR expertise in order to complete a quality HRA. Although no current HRA method is optimized to SMRs, it is possible to use existing HRA methods to identify errors, incorporate them as human failure events in the probabilistic risk assessment (PRA), and quantify them. In this paper, we provided preliminary guidance to assist the human reliability analyst and reviewer in understanding how to apply current HRA methods to the domain of SMRs. While it is possible to perform a satisfactory HRA using existing HRA methods, ultimately it is desirable to formally incorporate SMR considerations into the methods. This may require the development of new HRA methods. More practicably, existing methods need to be adapted to incorporate SMRs. Such adaptations may take the form of guidance on the complex mapping between conventional light water reactors and small modular reactors. While many behaviors and activities are shared between current plants and SMRs, the methods must adapt if they are to perform a valid and accurate analysis of plant personnel performance in SMRs.

  6. Developing construction labor through modular training

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moody, J.R.; Amos, T.M. Jr.

    1976-01-01

    Traditionally, the construction industry has depended on apprenticeship, technical and vocational schools, and experience through informal on-the-job training to meet the industry's demands for skilled manpower. However, as increasingly larger heavy construction projects, such as nuclear power plants, have come to demand more and more skilled craftsmen, the traditional methods of developing construction labor have become insufficient both in terms of the number of workers made available and in the quality of their skills. Over the past eight years, Brown and Root, Inc., has developed a task oriented modular system for training construction workers which supplements a worker's on-the-job training and decreases the time it requires the individual to become a productive member of the project workforce in his work. This training approach is not a series of the semester-long courses which have typified apprenticeship and vocational training in the past, but a systems approach to designing and implementing a program of classroom modules for craft development programs which emphasize both the hands-on tasks a construction worker must perform in his craft as well as the related theory required. The system consists of a number of modular courses which can be sequenced, for each craft, to develop construction skills in each worker according to both his needs and the needs of the project. The training modules for a particular craft program are developed utilizing Instructional Systems Development (ISD). This process is divided into five major phases: analysis, establishment of objectives, preparation of tests, planning and developing instructional content, and evaluation

  7. Modular helium reactor design, technology, and applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baxter, A.; Shenoy, A.; Campbell, M.

    2006-01-01

    The Modular Helium Reactor (MHR) combines ceramic coated fuel, helium coolant, graphite moderator, negative temperature coefficient of reactivity, and a unique annular core configuration, with passive decay heat removal capability. This means that it is inherently safe and the fuel can retain fission products without failure even under loss of coolant flow or pressure conditions. The reactor does not require a containment building and the small (600MWt) modular size lends itself to factory fabrication to minimize construction costs. The MHR can operate on several different fuel cycles with no change in plant operating conditions or requirements, including a low enriched uranium or LEU cycle (19.8% U-235), and an LEU/Th cycle. In addition it can also be used to destroy weapons-grade plutonium and the discharged transuranic (TRU) waste from LWRs. ''Self-Cleaning'' fuel cycles which combine LEU fuel with its own reprocessed TRU waste are also feasible. Because of its design and operating conditions, the MHR is a very efficient high temperature heat source with multiple, applications. It can produce electricity at over 47% efficiency using a direct Brayton cycle gas turbine, and it can produce hydrogen at over 50% efficiency using the Sulphur-Iodine process. The high coolant outlet temperature also allows multiple process heat applications including methane or synthetic gasoline production from various feedstocks, methanol from coal, heavy oil recovery from tar sands or oil shale, and both steel and aluminum mill applications. Desalinization is also feasible using a bottoming cycle. The latest MHR designs are discussed in this paper, along with a brief review of the various applications. The fuel cycle options are also discussed, in particular the destruction of TRU waste and the ''Self Cleaning'' fuel cycle

  8. Modular hydride beds for mobile applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malinowski, M.E.; Stewart, K.D.

    1997-08-01

    Design, construction, initial testing and simple thermal modeling of modular, metal hydride beds have been completed. Originally designed for supplying hydrogen to a fuel cell on a mobile vehicle, the complete bed design consists of 8 modules and is intended for use on the Palm Desert Vehicle (PDV) under development at the Schatz Energy Center, Humbolt State University. Each module contains approximately 2 kg of a commercially available, low temperature, hydride-forming metal alloy. Waste heat from the fuel cell in the form of heated water is used to desorb hydrogen from the alloy for supplying feed hydrogen to the fuel cell. In order to help determine the performance of such a modular bed system, six modules were constructed and tested. The design and construction of the modules is described in detail. Initial testing of the modules both individually and as a group showed that each module can store {approximately} 30 g of hydrogen (at 165 PSIA fill pressure, 17 C), could be filled with hydrogen in 6 minutes at a nominal, 75 standard liters/min (slm) fueling rate, and could supply hydrogen during desorption at rates of 25 slm, the maximum anticipated hydrogen fuel cell input requirement. Tests made of 5 modules as a group indicated that the behavior of the group run in parallel both in fueling and gas delivery could be directly predicted from the corresponding, single module characteristics by using an appropriate scaling factor. Simple thermal modeling of a module as an array of cylindrical, hydride-filled tubes was performed. The predictions of the model are in good agreement with experimental data.

  9. Small modular reactors: Simpler, safer, cheaper?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vujić, Jasmina; Bergmann, Ryan M.; Škoda, Radek; Miletić, Marija

    2012-01-01

    Nuclear energy can play a very significant long-term role for meeting the world’s increasing energy demands, while simultaneously addressing challenges associated with global climate and environmental impact. Many nations of the world, particularly the Asia/Pacific Rim countries, are actively engaged in a major expansion of their nuclear energy complex. The degree to which nuclear energy can address long-term energy needs, either globally or regionally, will be dictated by the pace and adequacy of technical and policy solutions for waste, safety, security, and non-proliferation issues, as well as the capital cost of construction. Small Modular Reactors (SMRs) could successfully address several of these issues. SMRs offer simpler, standardized, and safer modular design by being factory built, requiring smaller initial capital investment, and having shorter construction times. The SMRs could be small enough to be transportable, could be used in isolated locations without advanced infrastructure and without power grid, or could be clustered in a single site to provide a multi-module, large capacity power plant. This paper summarizes some of the basic features of SMRs for early deployment, several advanced SMR concepts, and points out the benefits and challenges in regulatory, economical, safety and security issues. -- Highlights: ► We held a summer forum on SMR technologies at UC Berkeley in July 2010. ► Advantages and disadvantages, technical and economic, of each design were discussed. ► Further literature searches were also done and this paper summarizes prominent designs. ► We conclude SMRs have no large problems preventing their introduction into the nuclear market.

  10. Does habitat variability really promote metabolic network modularity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takemoto, Kazuhiro

    2013-01-01

    The hypothesis that variability in natural habitats promotes modular organization is widely accepted for cellular networks. However, results of some data analyses and theoretical studies have begun to cast doubt on the impact of habitat variability on modularity in metabolic networks. Therefore, we re-evaluated this hypothesis using statistical data analysis and current metabolic information. We were unable to conclude that an increase in modularity was the result of habitat variability. Although horizontal gene transfer was also considered because it may contribute for survival in a variety of environments, closely related to habitat variability, and is known to be positively correlated with network modularity, such a positive correlation was not concluded in the latest version of metabolic networks. Furthermore, we demonstrated that the previously observed increase in network modularity due to habitat variability and horizontal gene transfer was probably due to a lack of available data on metabolic reactions. Instead, we determined that modularity in metabolic networks is dependent on species growth conditions. These results may not entirely discount the impact of habitat variability and horizontal gene transfer. Rather, they highlight the need for a more suitable definition of habitat variability and a more careful examination of relationships of the network modularity with horizontal gene transfer, habitats, and environments.

  11. Application and development analysis of nuclear power plant modular construction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fang Xiaopeng

    2015-01-01

    Modular Construction is currently one of the major development trends for the nuclear power plant construction technology worldwide. In the first-of-a-kind AP1000 Nuclear Power Project practiced in China, the large-scale structural modules and mechanical modules have been successfully fabricated, assembled and installed. However, in the construction practice of the project, some quality issues are identified with the assembly and installation process of large-scale structural modules in addition to the issue of incomplete supply of mechanical modules, which has failed to fully demonstrate the features and merits of modular construction. This paper collects and consolidates the issues of modular construction of AP1000 first of a kind reactor, providing root cause analysis in the aspects of process design, quality control, site construction logic, interface management in the process of module fabrication, assembly and installation; modular construction feasibility assessment index is proved based on the quantification and qualitative analysis of the impact element. Based on the modular construction feasibility, NPP modular construction improvement suggestions are provided in the aspect of modular assembly optimization definition, tolerance control during the fitting process and the construction logic adjustment. (author)

  12. Fasting Induces Nuclear Factor E2-Related Factor 2 and ATP-Binding Cassette Transporters via Protein Kinase A and Sirtuin-1 in Mouse and Human

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulkarni, Supriya R.; Donepudi, Ajay C.; Xu, Jialin; Wei, Wei; Cheng, Qiuqiong C.; Driscoll, Maureen V.; Johnson, Delinda A.; Johnson, Jeffrey A.; Li, Xiaoling

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Aims: The purpose of this study was to determine whether 3′-5′-cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP)-protein kinase A (PKA) and Sirtuin-1 (SIRT1) dependent mechanisms modulate ATP-binding Cassette (ABC) transport protein expression. ABC transport proteins (ABCC2–4) are essential for chemical elimination from hepatocytes and biliary excretion. Nuclear factor-E2 related-factor 2 (NRF2) is a transcription factor that mediates ABCC induction in response to chemical inducers and liver injury. However, a role for NRF2 in the regulation of transporter expression in nonchemical models of liver perturbation is largely undescribed. Results: Here we show that fasting increased NRF2 target gene expression through NRF2- and SIRT1–dependent mechanisms. In intact mouse liver, fasting induces NRF2 target gene expression by at least 1.5 to 5-fold. In mouse and human hepatocytes, treatment with 8-Bromoadenosine-cAMP, a cAMP analogue, increased NRF2 target gene expression and antioxidant response element activity, which was decreased by the PKA inhibitor, H-89. Moreover, fasting induced NRF2 target gene expression was decreased in liver and hepatocytes of SIRT1 liver-specific null mice and NRF2-null mice. Lastly, NRF2 and SIRT1 were recruited to MAREs and Antioxidant Response Elements (AREs) in the human ABCC2 promoter. Innovation: Oxidative stress mediated NRF2 activation is well described, yet the influence of basic metabolic processes on NRF2 activation is just emerging. Conclusion: The current data point toward a novel role of nutrient status in regulation of NRF2 activity and the antioxidant response, and indicates that cAMP/PKA and SIRT1 are upstream regulators for fasting-induced activation of the NRF2-ARE pathway. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 20, 15–30. PMID:23725046

  13. Mutant Allele-Specific Uncoupling of PENETRATION3 Functions Reveals Engagement of the ATP-Binding Cassette Transporter in Distinct Tryptophan Metabolic Pathways1[OPEN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Xunli; Dittgen, Jan; Piślewska-Bednarek, Mariola; Molina, Antonio; Schneider, Bernd; Doubský, Jan; Schneeberger, Korbinian; Schulze-Lefert, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) PENETRATION (PEN) genes quantitatively contribute to the execution of different forms of plant immunity upon challenge with diverse leaf pathogens. PEN3 encodes a plasma membrane-resident pleiotropic drug resistance-type ATP-binding cassette transporter and is thought to act in a pathogen-inducible and PEN2 myrosinase-dependent metabolic pathway in extracellular defense. This metabolic pathway directs the intracellular biosynthesis and activation of tryptophan-derived indole glucosinolates for subsequent PEN3-mediated efflux across the plasma membrane at pathogen contact sites. However, PEN3 also functions in abiotic stress responses to cadmium and indole-3-butyric acid (IBA)-mediated auxin homeostasis in roots, raising the possibility that PEN3 exports multiple functionally unrelated substrates. Here, we describe the isolation of a pen3 allele, designated pen3-5, that encodes a dysfunctional protein that accumulates in planta like wild-type PEN3. The specific mutation in pen3-5 uncouples PEN3 functions in IBA-stimulated root growth modulation, callose deposition induced with a conserved peptide epitope of bacterial flagellin (flg22), and pathogen-inducible salicylic acid accumulation from PEN3 activity in extracellular defense, indicating the engagement of multiple PEN3 substrates in different PEN3-dependent biological processes. We identified 4-O-β-d-glucosyl-indol-3-yl formamide (4OGlcI3F) as a pathogen-inducible, tryptophan-derived compound that overaccumulates in pen3 leaf tissue and has biosynthesis that is dependent on an intact PEN2 metabolic pathway. We propose that a precursor of 4OGlcI3F is the PEN3 substrate in extracellular pathogen defense. These precursors, the shared indole core present in IBA and 4OGlcI3F, and allele-specific uncoupling of a subset of PEN3 functions suggest that PEN3 transports distinct indole-type metabolites in distinct biological processes. PMID:26023163

  14. Cholesterol transporter ATP-binding cassette A1 (ABCA1) is elevated in prion disease and affects PrPC and PrPSc concentrations in cultured cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Rajeev; McClain, Denise; Young, Rebecca; Carlson, George A

    2008-06-01

    Prion diseases are transmissible neurodegenerative disorders of prion protein (PrP) conformation. Prion replication by conversion of benign PrPC isoforms into disease-specific PrPSc isoforms is intimately involved in prion disease pathogenesis and may be initiated in cholesterol-rich caveolae-like domains (CLD). Concentrations of the cholesterol transporter ATP-binding cassette A1 protein (ABCA1) are elevated in pre-clinical scrapie prion-infected mice and in prion-infected cells in vitro. Elevation of ABCA1 in prion-infected brain is not a direct consequence of local PrPSc accumulation, indeed levels of ABCA1 are comparable in brain regions that differ dramatically in the amount of PrPSc. Similarly, ABCA1 concentrations are identical in normal mice, transgenic mice overexpressing PrP and PrP knockout mice. In contrast, PrPC and PrPSc levels, but not Prnp mRNA, were increased by overexpression of ABCA1 in N2a neuroblastoma cells and scrapie prion-infected N2a cells (ScN2a). Conversely, RNAi-mediated knock down of Abca1 expression decreased the concentrations of PrPC in N2a cells and of PrPSc in ScN2a cells. These results suggest that ABCA1's effects on PrPC levels are post-translational and may reflect an increase in of PrPC stability, mediated either indirectly by increasing membrane cholesterol and CLD formation or by other functions of ABCA1. The increased supply of PrPC available for conversion would lead to increased PrPSc formation.

  15. A study of the possibility of acquiring noise-induced hearing loss by the use of personal cassette players (walkman).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turunen-Rise, I; Flottorp, G; Tvete, O

    1991-01-01

    Playing various types of music on five selected personal cassette players (PCPs), A-weighted sound pressure levels (SPLs), together with octave band spectrum, were measured on KEMAR (Knowles Electronics Manikin for Acoustic Research). Maximum and equivalent SPLs were measured for various types of music, PCPs and for different gain (volume) settings. The measured SPL-values on KEMAR ear were transformed to field values outside the ear canal by means of corrections based on KEMAR's ear canal resonance curve--in order to compare measured values with the Norwegian national noise risk criteria. Temporary threshold shift (TTS) was measured after listening to PCP music for one hour in order to obtain additional information about possible risk of hearing damage. TTS values are presented for six subjects when playing two different pop music cassettes on one type PCP. Our analysis indicates that the risk for permanent noise-induced hearing loss from listening to PCP is very small for normal listening conditions.

  16. Beta, gamma contamination analysis of thermo luminescence dosimeter cassettes using Geiger Muller counting set up and gamma spectrometry techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prasad, S.K.; Sudheer, T.S.; Sahoo, L.; Vinayagam, Bhakti; Kamble, Mahesh; Khuspe, R.R.; Anilkumar, Rekha; Verma, K.K.

    2009-01-01

    Β-γ contamination cheek up of TLD cassettes were carried out and the isotopes found were 137 Cs, 106 Ru, 60 Co, 64 Cu, 144 Ce and 95 Nb with activity per square cm varying from 0.05-4.70 Bq/cm 2 with median value 1.3. The assessed dose in TLD was in the range of 2.10 mSv to 22.05 mSv for beta, 0.05 mSv to 5.25 mSv for gamma. The beta doses have median value of 6.19 mSv. This contamination may be due to active water contamination on TLD's of personnel working for irradiated fuel handling or work in fuel rod (under water) storage area. This gives a method to estimate skin exposure of personnel due to skin contamination during work. Chances of getting TLD's contaminated due to various reasons were studied. Contamination was found maximum inside the cassette box having area 16 cm 2 . In case of plastic pouch of TLD disc contamination was detected in three cases. Contamination level on TLD cassettes using GM counter was found in the range of 0.30-3.6 Bq/cm 2 for cassettes. By opening the window of the surveymeter contamination and field of these cassettes in closed condition were found to increase by 20% due to the measurement of beta dose. With the same condition contamination of TLD cassette in open condition was found five times more. This is due to the a-contamination which is five times more than a contamination, The most prominent isotope 137 Cs in common chemical forms are soluble in water and if inhaled or ingested are rapidly and completely absorbed in the lungs and across the gastrointestinal tract. Thus a skin contamination of most prominent isotope 137 Cs can lead to intake in addition to skin dose. Fading studies of contamination of TLD cassettes were carried out. It was found negligible after counting with GM counting set up after a period of 3 months. But one of the TLD cassettes was showing an 80% reduction of contamination after 3 months with GM counting set up, the contaminants being 141 Ce, 103 Ru and 95 Nb. The gamma peaks in the external exposure

  17. Tests on the integration of the ITER divertor dummy armour prototype on a simplified model of cassette body

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dell'Orco, G.; Canneta, A.; Cattadori, G.; Gaspari, G.P.; Merola, M.; Polazzi, G.; Vieider, G.; Zito, D.

    2001-01-01

    In 1998, in the frame of the European R and D on ITER high heat flux components, the fabrication of a full scale ITER Divertor Outboard mock-up was launched. It comprised a Cassette Body, designed with some mechanical and hydraulic simplifications with respect to the reference body, and the actively cooled Dummy Armour Prototype (DAP). This DAP consists of the Vertical Target, the Wing and the Dump Target, manufactured by the European industry, which are integrated with the Gas Box Liner supplied by the Russian Federation Home Team. In order to simplify the manufacturing, the DAP was layered with an equivalent CuCrZr thickness simulating the real armour (CFC or W tiles). In parallel with the manufacturing activity, the ITER European HT decided to assign to ENEA the Task EU-DV1 for the 'Component Integration and Thermal-Hydraulic Testing of the ITER Divertor Targets and Wing Dummy Prototypes and Cassette Body'

  18. Detection of Integrons and Staphylococcal Cassette ChromosomemecTypes in Clinical Methicillin-resistant Coagulase Negative Staphylococci Strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajiahmadi, Fahimeh; Ghale, Elham Salimi; Alikhani, Mohammad Yousef; Mordadi, Alireza; Arabestani, Mohammad Reza

    2017-02-01

    Integrons are thought to play an important role in the spread of antibiotic resistance. This study investigates class 1 and 2 integron-positive methicillin-resistant coagulase-negative staphylococci strains isolated in Iran and characterizes their patterns of antimicrobial resistance. Hundred clinical isolates of coagulase-negative staphylococci were characterized for integron content and staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec (SCCmec) type. Sixteen isolates carried class 1 ( intI1 ) integrons and four isolates carried class 2 ( intI2 ) integrons. One resistance gene array was identified among the class 1 integrons ( aadA1 cassette). The distribution of SCCmec types in 50 methicillin-resistant coagulase-negative staphylococci strains showed that SCCmec types III and V dominated among the tested strains. This is the first report of methicillin-resistant coagulase-negative staphylococci strains that carry two mobile genetic elements, including class 1 and 2 integrons and SCCmec, in Iran.

  19. Expression of some ATP-binding cassette transporters in acute myeloid leukemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonella Maria Salvia

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Hematopoietic cells express ATP binding cassette (ABC transporters in relation to different degrees of differentiation. One of the known multidrug resistance mechanisms in acute myeloid leukemia (AML is the overexpression of efflux pumps belonging to the superfamily of ABC transporters such as ABCB1, ABCG2 and ABCC1. Although several studies were carried out to correlate ABC transporters expression with drug resistance, little is known about their role as markers of diagnosis and progression of the disease. For this purpose we investigated the expression, by real-time PCR, of some ABC genes in bone marrow samples of AML patients at diagnosis and after induction therapy. At diagnosis, ABCG2 was always down-regulated, while an up regulated trend for ABCC1 was observed. After therapy the examined genes showed a different expression trend and approached the values of healthy subjects suggesting that this event could be considered as a marker of AML regression. The expression levels of some ABC transporters such as ABCC6, seems to be related to gender, age and to the presence of FLT3/ITD gene mutation.

  20. ATP-Binding Cassette Proteins: Towards a Computational View of Mechanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Jielou

    2004-03-01

    Many large machine proteins can generate mechanical force and undergo large-scale conformational changes (LSCC) to perform varying biological tasks in living cells by utilizing ATP. Important examples include ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters. They are membrane proteins that couple ATP binding and hydrolysis to the translocation of substrates across membranes [1]. To interpret how the mechanical force generated by ATP binding and hydrolysis is propagated, a coarse-grained ATP-dependent harmonic network model (HNM) [2,3] is applied to the ABC protein, BtuCD. This protein machine transports vitamin B12 across membranes. The analysis shows that subunits of the protein move against each other in a concerted manner. The lowest-frequency modes of the BtuCD protein are found to link the functionally critical domains, and are suggested to be responsible for large-scale ATP-coupled conformational changes. [1] K. P. Locher, A. T. Lee and D. C. Rees. Science 296, 1091-1098 (2002). [2] Atilgan, A. R., S. R. Durell, R. L. Jernigan, M. C. Demirel, O. Keskin, and I. Bahar. Biophys. J. 80, 505-515(2002); M. M Tirion, Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 1905-1908 (1996). [3] J. -L. Liao and D. N. Beratan, 2003, to be published.

  1. Autonomous bioluminescent expression of the bacterial luciferase gene cassette (lux in a mammalian cell line.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan M Close

    Full Text Available The bacterial luciferase (lux gene cassette consists of five genes (luxCDABE whose protein products synergistically generate bioluminescent light signals exclusive of supplementary substrate additions or exogenous manipulations. Historically expressible only in prokaryotes, the lux operon was re-synthesized through a process of multi-bicistronic, codon-optimization to demonstrate for the first time self-directed bioluminescence emission in a mammalian HEK293 cell line in vitro and in vivo.Autonomous in vitro light production was shown to be 12-fold greater than the observable background associated with untransfected control cells. The availability of reduced riboflavin phosphate (FMNH(2 was identified as the limiting bioluminescence substrate in the mammalian cell environment even after the addition of a constitutively expressed flavin reductase gene (frp from Vibrio harveyi. FMNH(2 supplementation led to a 151-fold increase in bioluminescence in cells expressing mammalian codon-optimized luxCDE and frp genes. When injected subcutaneously into nude mice, in vivo optical imaging permitted near instantaneous light detection that persisted independently for the 60 min length of the assay with negligible background.The speed, longevity, and self-sufficiency of lux expression in the mammalian cellular environment provides a viable and powerful alternative for real-time target visualization not currently offered by existing bioluminescent and fluorescent imaging technologies.

  2. ATP-binding cassette systems in Burkholderia pseudomallei and Burkholderia mallei

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Titball Richard W

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background ATP binding cassette (ABC systems are responsible for the import and export of a wide variety of molecules across cell membranes and comprise one of largest protein superfamilies found in prokarya, eukarya and archea. ABC systems play important roles in bacterial lifestyle, virulence and survival. In this study, an inventory of the ABC systems of Burkholderia pseudomallei strain K96243 and Burkholderia mallei strain ATCC 23344 has been compiled using bioinformatic techniques. Results The ABC systems in the genomes of B. pseudomallei and B. mallei have been reannotated and subsequently compared. Differences in the number and types of encoded ABC systems in belonging to these organisms have been identified. For example, ABC systems involved in iron acquisition appear to be correlated with differences in genome size and lifestyles between these two closely related organisms. Conclusion The availability of complete inventories of the ABC systems in B. pseudomallei and B. mallei has enabled a more detailed comparison of the encoded proteins in this family. This has resulted in the identification of ABC systems which may play key roles in the different lifestyles and pathogenic properties of these two bacteria. This information has the potential to be exploited for improved clinical identification of these organisms as well as in the development of new vaccines and therapeutics targeted against the diseases caused by these organisms.

  3. Melanin binding study of clinical drugs with cassette dosing and rapid equilibrium dialysis inserts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelkonen, Laura; Tengvall-Unadike, Unni; Ruponen, Marika; Kidron, Heidi; Del Amo, Eva M; Reinisalo, Mika; Urtti, Arto

    2017-11-15

    Melanin pigment is a negatively charged polymer found in pigmented human tissues. In the eye, iris, ciliary body, choroid and retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) are heavily pigmented. Several drug molecules are known to bind to melanin, but larger sets of drugs have not been compared often in similar test conditions. In this study, we introduce a powerful tool for screening of melanin binding. The binding of a set of 34 compounds to isolated porcine RPE melanin was determined by cassette (n-in-one) dosing in rapid equilibrium dialysis inserts and the binding was quantitated with LC-MS/MS analytics. The compounds represented large variety in melanin binding (from 8.6%, ganciclovir) to over 95% bound (ampicillin and ciprofloxacin). The data provides information on melanin binding of small molecular weight compounds that are used for ocular (e.g. brinzolamide, ganciclovir) and systemic (e.g. tizanidine, indomethacin) therapy. Interestingly, competition among compounds was seen for melanin binding and the binding did not show any correlation with plasma protein binding. These results increase the understanding of melanin binding of ocular drugs and can be further exploited to predict pharmacokinetics in the eye. Pigment binding provides an interesting option for improved drug distribution to retina and choroid that are difficult target tissues in drug delivery. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. ATP-binding cassette B10 regulates early steps of heme synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayeva, Marina; Khechaduri, Arineh; Wu, Rongxue; Burke, Michael A; Wasserstrom, J Andrew; Singh, Neha; Liesa, Marc; Shirihai, Orian S; Langer, Nathaniel B; Paw, Barry H; Ardehali, Hossein

    2013-07-19

    Heme plays a critical role in gas exchange, mitochondrial energy production, and antioxidant defense in cardiovascular system. The mitochondrial transporter ATP-binding cassette (ABC) B10 has been suggested to export heme out of the mitochondria and is required for normal hemoglobinization of erythropoietic cells and protection against ischemia-reperfusion injury in the heart; however, its primary function has not been established. The aim of this study was to identify the function of ABCB10 in heme synthesis in cardiac cells. Knockdown of ABCB10 in cardiac myoblasts significantly reduced heme levels and the activities of heme-containing proteins, whereas supplementation with δ-aminolevulinic acid reversed these defects. Overexpression of mitochondrial δ-aminolevulinic acid synthase 2, the rate-limiting enzyme upstream of δ-aminolevulinic acid export, failed to restore heme levels in cells with ABCB10 downregulation. ABCB10 and heme levels were increased by hypoxia, and reversal of ABCB10 upregulation caused oxidative stress and cell death. Furthermore, ABCB10 knockdown in neonatal rat cardiomyocytes resulted in a significant delay of calcium removal from the cytoplasm, suggesting a relaxation defect. Finally, ABCB10 expression and heme levels were altered in failing human hearts and mice with ischemic cardiomyopathy. ABCB10 plays a critical role in heme synthesis pathway by facilitating δ-aminolevulinic acid production or export from the mitochondria. In contrast to previous reports, we show that ABCB10 is not a heme exporter and instead is required for the early mitochondrial steps of heme biosynthesis.

  5. Predictive Structure and Topology of Peroxisomal ATP-Binding Cassette (ABC) Transporters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreoletti, Pierre; Raas, Quentin; Gondcaille, Catherine; Cherkaoui-Malki, Mustapha; Trompier, Doriane; Savary, Stéphane

    2017-01-01

    The peroxisomal ATP-binding Cassette (ABC) transporters, which are called ABCD1, ABCD2 and ABCD3, are transmembrane proteins involved in the transport of various lipids that allow their degradation inside the organelle. Defective ABCD1 leads to the accumulation of very long-chain fatty acids and is associated with a complex and severe neurodegenerative disorder called X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy (X-ALD). Although the nucleotide-binding domain is highly conserved and characterized within the ABC transporters family, solid data are missing for the transmembrane domain (TMD) of ABCD proteins. The lack of a clear consensus on the secondary and tertiary structure of the TMDs weakens any structure-function hypothesis based on the very diverse ABCD1 mutations found in X-ALD patients. Therefore, we first reinvestigated thoroughly the structure-function data available and performed refined alignments of ABCD protein sequences. Based on the 2.85  Å resolution crystal structure of the mitochondrial ABC transporter ABCB10, here we propose a structural model of peroxisomal ABCD proteins that specifies the position of the transmembrane and coupling helices, and highlight functional motifs and putative important amino acid residues. PMID:28737695

  6. Predictive Structure and Topology of Peroxisomal ATP-Binding Cassette (ABC Transporters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierre Andreoletti

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The peroxisomal ATP-binding Cassette (ABC transporters, which are called ABCD1, ABCD2 and ABCD3, are transmembrane proteins involved in the transport of various lipids that allow their degradation inside the organelle. Defective ABCD1 leads to the accumulation of very long-chain fatty acids and is associated with a complex and severe neurodegenerative disorder called X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy (X-ALD. Although the nucleotide-binding domain is highly conserved and characterized within the ABC transporters family, solid data are missing for the transmembrane domain (TMD of ABCD proteins. The lack of a clear consensus on the secondary and tertiary structure of the TMDs weakens any structure-function hypothesis based on the very diverse ABCD1 mutations found in X-ALD patients. Therefore, we first reinvestigated thoroughly the structure-function data available and performed refined alignments of ABCD protein sequences. Based on the 2.85  Å resolution crystal structure of the mitochondrial ABC transporter ABCB10, here we propose a structural model of peroxisomal ABCD proteins that specifies the position of the transmembrane and coupling helices, and highlight functional motifs and putative important amino acid residues.

  7. Eliminating blurry bands in gels with a simple cost-effective repair to the gel cassette.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bingaman, Jamie L; Frankel, Erica A; Hull, Chelsea M; Leamy, Kathleen A; Messina, Kyle J; Mitchell, David; Park, Hongmarn; Ritchey, Laura E; Babitzke, Paul; Bevilacqua, Philip C

    2016-12-01

    Gel electrophoresis and subsequent imaging using phosphorimagers is one of the most important and widely used techniques in RNA and DNA analysis. Radiolabeling nucleic acids with 32 P and detecting bands using a phoshorimager are useful both in a qualitative sense for nucleic acid detection and in a quantitative sense for structural, kinetic, or binding-based assays. Because of this, good resolution of gel bands based on molecular weight and size of RNA or DNA is essential for analysis. The appearance of blurry gel bands of 32 P-labeled RNA and DNA thus represents a serious problem in the laboratory. A quick search on the Internet uncovers numerous reports begrudging the appearance of blurry bands, as well as attempts to fix them without success. Indeed, our laboratories were beset by the intermittent problem of blurry gels for over one year before we found a solution. Herein we describe a simple and cost-effective solution to a problem that we show originates from the phosphorimager cassettes rather than the integrity of the gel itself. We hope that the information provided here will lead to immediate help for other laboratories experiencing similar issues with labeled nucleic acid gel-based assays. The improvement in the clarity of the gels is nothing short of astonishing in many instances and will lead to higher resolution images for analysis and publications. © 2016 Bingaman et al.; Published by Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press for the RNA Society.

  8. Energy use of televisions and video cassette recorders in the U.S.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meier, Alan; Rosen, Karen

    1999-03-01

    In an effort to more accurately determine nationwide energy consumption, the U.S. Department of Energy has recently commissioned studies with the goal of improving its understanding of the energy use of appliances in the miscellaneous end-use category. This study presents an estimate of the residential energy consumption of two of the most common domestic appliances in the miscellaneous end-use category: color televisions (TVs) and video cassette recorders (VCRs). The authors used a bottom-up approach in estimating national TV and VCR energy consumption. First, they obtained estimates of stock and usage from national surveys, while TV and VCR power measurements and other data were recorded at repair and retail shops. Industry-supplied shipment and sales distributions were then used to minimize bias in the power measurement samples. To estimate national TV and VCR energy consumption values, ranges of power draw and mode usage were created to represent situations in homes with more than one unit. Average energy use values for homes with one unit, two units, etc. were calculated and summed to provide estimates of total national TV and VCR energy consumption.

  9. Membrane porters of ATP-binding cassette transport systems are polyphyletic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Bin; Dukarevich, Maxim; Sun, Eric I; Yen, Ming Ren; Saier, Milton H

    2009-09-01

    The ATP-binding cassette (ABC) superfamily consists of both importers and exporters. These transporters have, by tradition, been classified according to the ATP hydrolyzing constituents, which are monophyletic. The evolutionary origins of the transmembrane porter proteins/domains are not known. Using five distinct computer programs, we here provide convincing statistical data suggesting that the transmembrane domains of ABC exporters are polyphyletic, having arisen at least three times independently. ABC1 porters arose by intragenic triplication of a primordial two-transmembrane segment (TMS)-encoding genetic element, yielding six TMS proteins. ABC2 porters arose by intragenic duplication of a dissimilar primordial three-TMS-encoding genetic element, yielding a distinctive protein family, nonhomologous to the ABC1 proteins. ABC3 porters arose by duplication of a primordial four-TMS-encoding genetic element, yielding either eight- or 10-TMS proteins. We assign each of 48 of the 50 currently recognized families of ABC exporters to one of the three evolutionarily distinct ABC types. Currently available high-resolution structural data for ABC porters are fully consistent with our findings. These results provide guides for future structural and mechanistic studies of these important transport systems.

  10. ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter expression and localization in sea urchin development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shipp, Lauren E; Hamdoun, Amro

    2012-06-01

    ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters are membrane proteins that regulate intracellular concentrations of myriad compounds and ions. There are >100 ABC transporter predictions in the Strongylocentrotus purpuratus genome, including 40 annotated ABCB, ABCC, and ABCG "multidrug efflux" transporters. Despite the importance of multidrug transporters for protection and signaling, their expression patterns have not been characterized in deuterostome embryos. Sea urchin embryos expressed 20 ABCB, ABCC, and ABCG transporter genes in the first 58 hr of development, from unfertilized egg to early prism. We quantified transcripts of ABCB1a, ABCB4a, ABCC1, ABCC5a, ABCC9a, and ABCG2b, and found that ABCB1a mRNA was 10-100 times more abundant than other transporter mRNAs. In situ hybridization showed ABCB1a was expressed ubiquitously in embryos, while ABCC5a was restricted to secondary mesenchyme cells and their precursors. Fluorescent protein fusions showed localization of ABCB1a on apical cell surfaces, and ABCC5a on basolateral surfaces. Embryos use many ABC transporters with predicted functions in cell signaling, lysosomal and mitochondrial homeostasis, potassium channel regulation, pigmentation, and xenobiotic efflux. Detailed characterization of ABCB1a and ABCC5a revealed that they have different temporal and spatial gene expression profiles and protein localization patterns that correlate to their predicted functions in protection and development, respectively. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Distributed interactive simulation virtual cassette recorder (DIS VCR); A datalogger with variable speed replay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortner, Jonathan L.

    1994-12-01

    The overall objective of the Distributed Interactive Simulation Virtual Cassette Recorder (DIS VCR) is to add a flexible replay capability to any DIS environment and specifically to the Remote Debriefing Tool (RDT). The DIS VCR's abilities include selective filtering of incoming DIS Protocol Data Units (PDUs), variable-speed replays, ability to pause, fast-forward, rewind, efficient data storage and retrieval, and an interface that simplifies the execution of those functions. The thesis includes a DIS VCR-compatible design for concurrent replay of audio extracted from signal PDUs and an extension to the replay design that supports unmodifiable rendering or receiving applications. For variable-speed replays, the authors created a scalable simulation clock and a new PDU (the Replay PDU). Applications modified for replays use the simulation clock to govern their dead reckoning algorithms while the DIS VCR uses it to control the timed release of stored PDUs. The Replay PDU communicates mode and speed changes between the DIS VCR and replay-modified applications. The DIS VCR's full functionality was successfully demonstrated at the 1994 AFA convention.

  12. A conserved mitochondrial ATP-binding cassette transporter exports glutathione polysulfide for cytosolic metal cofactor assembly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaedler, Theresia A; Thornton, Jeremy D; Kruse, Inga; Schwarzländer, Markus; Meyer, Andreas J; van Veen, Hendrik W; Balk, Janneke

    2014-08-22

    An ATP-binding cassette transporter located in the inner mitochondrial membrane is involved in iron-sulfur cluster and molybdenum cofactor assembly in the cytosol, but the transported substrate is unknown. ATM3 (ABCB25) from Arabidopsis thaliana and its functional orthologue Atm1 from Saccharomyces cerevisiae were expressed in Lactococcus lactis and studied in inside-out membrane vesicles and in purified form. Both proteins selectively transported glutathione disulfide (GSSG) but not reduced glutathione in agreement with a 3-fold stimulation of ATPase activity by GSSG. By contrast, Fe(2+) alone or in combination with glutathione did not stimulate ATPase activity. Arabidopsis atm3 mutants were hypersensitive to an inhibitor of glutathione biosynthesis and accumulated GSSG in the mitochondria. The growth phenotype of atm3-1 was strongly enhanced by depletion of the mitochondrion-localized, GSH-dependent persulfide oxygenase ETHE1, suggesting that the physiological substrate of ATM3 contains persulfide in addition to glutathione. Consistent with this idea, a transportomics approach using mass spectrometry showed that glutathione trisulfide (GS-S-SG) was transported by Atm1. We propose that mitochondria export glutathione polysulfide, containing glutathione and persulfide, for iron-sulfur cluster assembly in the cytosol. © 2014 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  13. Application of Engineered Cementitious Composites (ECC) in modular floor panels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lárusson, Lárus Helgi; Fischer, Gregor; Jönsson, Jeppe

    2008-01-01

    with adaptability to various loading requirements, and the efficient utilization of material resources and industrial byproducts. The work described in this paper is a continuation of previous activities on composite floor panels in which light gage steel joists were integrally cast with the ECC slab. The modular......This paper describes the design, manufacturing, and structural behavior of a prefabricated floor panel consisting of a modular assembly of a thin-walled ECC slab and steel truss girders. The features of this composite structure include light weight, the modular manufacturing process...

  14. Solution Concept of Modular Single Phase Active Power Filters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marek Roch

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates a modular or a decentralised single-phase active power filter control strategy. It is based on the evaluation of the harmonic reference load currents for the active power filter blocks operating under specific harmonic frequencies. The underlying principle of the modular active power filter is explained and it is shown how the required reference harmonic currents can be evaluated. Simulation results demonstrated the improvement in the dynamic performance of the modular active power filter presented here in comparison with the conventional type.

  15. Novel relationships between superoscillations, weak values, and modular variables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tollaksen, Jeff

    2007-01-01

    We present several novel, unexpected relationships between superoscillations, weak values and modular variables. For example, we show how an uncertain phase, which characterizes the process of projecting a particle onto a superoscillatory region, can create the high-momentum associated with the super-oscillation. If an uncertain phase can localize the particle, then a definite phase can also localize it. This introduction of a relative phase corresponds to a nonlocal exchange of modular variables. We also present a new way to measure the nonlocality in the equation of motion for modular variables by using weak measurements

  16. Modular PNML revisited: Some ideas for strict typing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kindler, Ekkart

    2007-01-01

    The Petri Net Markup Language (PNML) is currently standardised by ISO/IEC JTC1/SC7 WG 19 as Part 2 of ISO/IEC 15909. But, there is not yet a mechanism for structuring large Petri nets and for constructing Petri nets from modules. To this end, modular PNML has been proposed some time ago. But......, modular PNML has some problems. These problems along with ideas for their solution will be discussed in this paper. As a first step toward standardising a module concept for PNML in Part 3 of ISO/IEC 15909, this paper proposes a refined concept of modular PNML, which is independent of a particular kind...

  17. Focal plane array with modular pixel array components for scalability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kay, Randolph R; Campbell, David V; Shinde, Subhash L; Rienstra, Jeffrey L; Serkland, Darwin K; Holmes, Michael L

    2014-12-09

    A modular, scalable focal plane array is provided as an array of integrated circuit dice, wherein each die includes a given amount of modular pixel array circuitry. The array of dice effectively multiplies the amount of modular pixel array circuitry to produce a larger pixel array without increasing die size. Desired pixel pitch across the enlarged pixel array is preserved by forming die stacks with each pixel array circuitry die stacked on a separate die that contains the corresponding signal processing circuitry. Techniques for die stack interconnections and die stack placement are implemented to ensure that the desired pixel pitch is preserved across the enlarged pixel array.

  18. Modular forms and special cycles on Shimura curves (AM-161)

    CERN Document Server

    Kudla, Stephen S; Yang, Tonghai

    2006-01-01

    Modular Forms and Special Cycles on Shimura Curves is a thorough study of the generating functions constructed from special cycles, both divisors and zero-cycles, on the arithmetic surface ""M"" attached to a Shimura curve ""M"" over the field of rational numbers. These generating functions are shown to be the q-expansions of modular forms and Siegel modular forms of genus two respectively, valued in the Gillet-Soulé arithmetic Chow groups of ""M"". The two types of generating functions are related via an arithmetic inner product formula. In addition, an analogue of the classical Siegel-Weil

  19. Characteriz ation of integrons and associated gene cassettes in Acinetobacter baumannii strains isolated from intensive care unit in Tehran, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossein Goudarzi

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To determine the antimicrobial susceptibility patterns, the frequency of integrons and associated gene cassettes in Acinetobacter baumannii (A. baumannii strains isolated from selected hospital intensive care units. Methods: During a ten-month period, 120 A. baumannii isolates were studied. The resistance rates to different classes of antimicrobial agents were determined. PCR was used to detect different types of integrons and associated gene cassettes. Results: The resistance rates to the majority of antibiotics tested were found to be between 39.3% and 99.1%. No isolate was observed to be resistant to colistin and polymyxin B. The rate of extensive drug-resistance among these clinical isolates was 62.5%. The prevalence of class 1 and 2 integrons was found to be 74.1% and 12.5%, respectively. Seven different gene cassettes (ampC, aacA4-catB8, ISAba1-blaOXA-23-GES-14, aadA2-cm1A6-GES-14-qacF, VIM-25-GES-24-qacF, dfrA5-ISAba1-blaOXA-51-blaOXA-40 and aadA2-GES-11-IMP-1 were observed in Class 1 integron-carrying strains. Three gene cassettes (IMP-4, VIM-2-VEB-aacA4 and dfrA2-sat-2-aadA4 were detected in class 2 integron-bearing A. baumannii strains. Conclusions: A high prevalence of integron was described among multidrug resistant A. baumannii in the hospital. The findings highlighted the need for continuous surveillance in order to prevent dissemination of multidrug resistance among A. baumannii strains in Iran.

  20. Structural design of DEMO Divertor Cassette Body: provisional FEM analysis and introductive application of RCC-MRx design rules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frosi, Paolo, E-mail: paolo.frosi@enea.it [Unità Tecnica Fusione-ENEA C.R. Frascati, Via E. Fermi 45, 00044 Frascati (Italy); Mazzone, Giuseppe [Unità Tecnica Fusione-ENEA C.R. Frascati, Via E. Fermi 45, 00044 Frascati (Italy); You, Jeong-Ha [Max Planck Institute of Plasma Physics, Boltzmann Str. 2, 85748 Garching (Germany)

    2016-11-01

    This paper deals with the early steps in developing a structural fem model of DEMO Divertor. The study is focused on the thermal and structural analysis of the Cassette Body: a new geometry has been developed for this component: it is foreseen that the plasma facing component (PFC) will be directly placed on the cassette but for the Dome no choice has been adopted yet. For now the model contains only a suitable schematization of the Cassette Body and its objective is to analyze the effect produced by the main loads (electromagnetic loads, coolant pressure, thermal neutron and convective loads) on itself: an available estimate of loads is that one derived from ITER: for a proper translation some assumptions have been made and they are described in the paper. Now it is not a primary purpose to obtain some definitive statements about stresses, displacements, temperatures and so on; the authors want to construct a set of FEM models that will help all the decisions of DEMO Divertor design in its future development. This set is conceived as a tool that shall be improved to account for all the main enhancements that will be found in geometry, in material properties data and in load evaluations. Moreover, the main design variables (loads, material properties, some geometric items, mesh element size) are defined as parameters. This work considers also an introductive approach for future structural verification of the Divertor Cassette Body: so a concern of the Design and Construction Rules for Mechanical Components of Nuclear Installation (RCC-MRx) has been implemented. The FEM code used is Ansys rel. 15.