WorldWideScience

Sample records for cassava

  1. Cassava Commercialization in Mozambique

    OpenAIRE

    Donovan, Cynthia; Haggblade, Steven; Salegua, Venancio Alexandre; Cuambe, Constantino; Mudema, Joao; Tomo, Alda

    2011-01-01

    Cassava supplies roughly 30% of all calories consumed in Mozambique, making it the country’s most important food security crop. Over the past several decades, growing urbanization and shifting demand patterns have led to growing opportunities for cassava processing and commercialization. This paper examines the commercial dynamics in Mozambique’s cassava value chain as well as the food security implications of growing cassava commercialization.

  2. Cassava Commercialization in Malawi

    OpenAIRE

    Kambewa, Emma

    2010-01-01

    Malawi continues to rely on maize for household food security. Policies to enhance food security continue to target maize production. Traditionally production and use of cassava was localized in lakeshore areas until the past two decades when maize production was increasingly affected by rainfall variability. Cassava as an alternate food crop has rapidly gained popularity and commercialization of the cassava sector is steadily taking off. Policy and institutional support to diversify the food...

  3. Cassava For Space Diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katayama, Naomi; Yamashita, Masamichi; Njemanze, Philip; Nweke, Felix; Mitsuhashi, Jun; Hachiya, Natumi; Miyashita, Sachiko; Hotta, Atuko

    Space agriculture is an advanced life support enginnering concept based on biological and ecological system ot drive the materials recycle loop and create pleasant life environment on distant planetary bodies. Choice of space diet is one of primary decision required ot be made at designing space agriculture. We propose cassava, Manihot esculenta and, for one major composition of space food materials, and evaluate its value and feasibility of farming and processing it for space diet. Criteria to select space crop species could be stated as follows. 1) Fill th enutritional requirements. There is no perfect food material to meet this requirements without making a combination with others. A set of food materials which are adopted inthe space recipe shall fit to the nutritional requirement. 2) Space food is not just for maintaining physiological activities of human, but an element of human culture. We shall consider joy of dining in space life. In this context, space foos or recipe should be accepted by future astronauts. Food culture is diverse in the world, and has close relatioship to each cultural background. Cassava root tuber is a material to supply mainly energy in the form of carbohydrate, same as cereals and other tuber crops. Cassava leaf is rich in protein high as 5.1 percents about ten times higher content than its tuber. In the food culture in Africa, cassava is a major component. Cassava root tuber in most of its strain contains cyanide, it should be removed during preparation for cooking. However certain strain are less in this cyanogenic compound, and genetically modified cassava can also aboid this problem safely.

  4. Recent growth in African cassava

    OpenAIRE

    Nweke, Felix; Haggblade, Steven; Zulu, Ballard

    2004-01-01

    According to the authors, "Cassava serves as a staple food for 200 million Africans, second only to maize in its calorie contribution. In response to a series of devastating attacks by cassava diseases and pests over the past several decades, the International Institute of Tropical Agriculture (IITA) and several national agricultural research services have launched successful cassava research programs... " This brief describes some of the programs, their impact and the drivers of change. It c...

  5. Feeding cassava foliage to sheep

    OpenAIRE

    Hue, Khuc Thi

    2012-01-01

    The potential of cassava foliage (Manihot esculenta Crantz) as a protein-rich feed in sheep production in Vietnam was examined by studying cassava foliage yield, hydrogen cyanide (HCN) content, toxicity and performance of lambs fed the foliage as a supplement. Cassava foliage fed ad libitum as a protein supplement to a basal diet of urea-treated rice straw gave similar lamb live weight gain (LWG) as diets supplemented with commercial concentrate or protein-rich foliage of stylosanthes (S...

  6. Resistant starch in cassava products

    OpenAIRE

    Bruna Letícia Buzati Pereira; Magali Leonel

    2014-01-01

    Found in different foods, starch is the most important source of carbohydrates in the diet. Some factors present in starchy foods influence the rate at which the starch is hydrolyzed and absorbed in vivo. Due the importance of cassava products in Brazilian diet, the objective of this study was to analyze total starch, resistant starch, and digestible starch contents in commercial cassava products. Thirty three commercial cassava products from different brands, classifications, and origin were...

  7. Cassava as an energy crop

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Søren Bech Pilgaard; Birch-Thomsen, Torben; Rasmussen, Kjeld;

    2014-01-01

    imperative to investigate opportunities and barriers for expansion of cassava production. This paper investigates the potential for an expansion of cassava cultivation for bioethanol production in Southern Mali. It is based on a questionnaire survey with 65 households in 2 villages in Loulouni municipality......, which represent two major agro-ecological environments in the Soudan-zone in Mali. The results reveal that farmers are experienced cassava producers and are interested in an expansion of cassava cultivation for bioethanol production and that suitable areas are available, especially for an expansion of......Cassava based bioethanol production is a promising alternative to conventional fossil fuels and commercial production is already well established in several countries. A production based on small holder production may involve a transformation of the existing production system and it is therefore...

  8. Sensorial evolution of cassava flour (Manihot esculenta crantz) added to protein concentrate cassava leaves

    OpenAIRE

    Lima, Elaine C S; Feijo, Márcia B S; Freitas, Maria C J; dos Santos, Edna R; SABAA-SRUR Armando U. O.; Moura, Luciana S M

    2012-01-01

    Cassava is regarded as the nutritional base of populations in developing countries, and flour, product made of cassava, is the most consumed in the world. The cassava leaves are very rich in vegetable proteins, but a big amount is lost in processing the crop. The objective of this study was to do a sensory evaluation of cassava flour to which a protein concentrate obtained from cassava leaves (CPML) was added. The CPML was obtained from cassava leaves by isoelectric precipitation and added to...

  9. Cassava biology and physiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Sharkawy, Mabrouk A

    2004-11-01

    Cassava or manioc (Manihot esculenta Crantz), a perennial shrub of the New World, currently is the sixth world food crop for more than 500 million people in tropical and sub-tropical Africa, Asia and Latin America. It is cultivated mainly by resource-limited small farmers for its starchy roots, which are used as human food either fresh when low in cyanogens or in many processed forms and products, mostly starch, flour, and for animal feed. Because of its inherent tolerance to stressful environments, where other food crops would fail, it is often considered a food-security source against famine, requiring minimal care. Under optimal environmental conditions, it compares favorably in production of energy with most other major staple food crops due to its high yield potential. Recent research at the Centro Internacional de Agricultura Tropical (CIAT) in Colombia has demonstrated the ability of cassava to assimilate carbon at very high rates under high levels of humidity, temperature and solar radiation,which correlates with productivity across all environments whether dry or humid. When grown on very poor soils under prolonged drought for more than 6 months, the crop reduce both its leaf canopy and transpiration water loss, but its attached leaves remain photosynthetically active, though at greatly reduced rates. The main physiological mechanism underlying such a remarkable tolerance to drought was rapid stomatal closure under both atmospheric and edaphic water stress, protecting the leaf against dehydration while the plant depletes available soil water slowly during long dry periods. This drought tolerance mechanism leads to high crop water use efficiency values. Although the cassava fine root system is sparse, compared to other crops, it can penetrate below 2 m soil,thus enabling the crop to exploit deep water if available. Leaves of cassava and wild Manihot possess elevated activities of the C4 enzyme PEP carboxylase but lack the leaf Kranz anatomy typical of C4

  10. An Integrated Investment Appraisal of Cassava Starch Production in Rwanda: The Case of Kinazi Cassava Plant

    OpenAIRE

    Alice Nsenkyire; Glenn P. Jenkins; Mikhail Miklyaev; Octave Semwaga

    2015-01-01

    In April 2012, Kinazi Cassava Plant was established as a government initiative to produce high quality cassava flour, and other value added cassava products. After the successful establishment of the cassava flour plant in Ruhango district, KCP now plans to diversify into cassava starch production to feed the emerging manufacturing industries such as the pharmaceuticals, food processing, breweries, textiles etc. both domestically and for exportation. The study assesses the financial and econo...

  11. Effect of Cassava Flour Characteristics on Properties of Cassava-Wheat-Maize Composite Bread Types

    OpenAIRE

    Maria Eduardo; Ulf Svanberg; Jorge Oliveira; Lilia Ahrné

    2013-01-01

    Replacement of wheat flour by other kinds of flour in bread making is economically important in South East Africa as wheat is mainly an imported commodity. Cassava is widely available in the region, but bread quality is impaired when large amounts of cassava are used in the bread formulation. Effect of differently processed cassavas (sun-dried, roasted and fermented) on composite cassava-wheat-maize bread quality containing cassava levels from 20 to 40% (w/w) was evaluated in combination with...

  12. Phenotypic Approaches to Drought in Cassava: Review

    OpenAIRE

    Emmanuel eOkogbenin; SETTER, TIM L.; Morag eFerguson; Rose eMutegi; Hernan eCeballos; Bunmi eOlasanmi; Martin eFregene

    2013-01-01

    Cassava is an important crop in Africa, Asia, Latin America and the Caribbean. Cassava can be produced adequately in drought conditions making it the ideal food security crop in marginal environments. Although cassava can tolerate drought stress, it can be genetically improved to enhance productivity in such environments. Drought adaptation studies in over three decades in cassava have identified relevant mechanisms which have been explored in conventional breeding. Drought is a quantitativ...

  13. Phenotypic approaches to drought in cassava: review

    OpenAIRE

    Okogbenin, Emmanuel; SETTER, TIM L.; Ferguson, Morag; Mutegi, Rose; Ceballos, Hernan; Olasanmi, Bunmi; Fregene, Martin

    2013-01-01

    Cassava is an important crop in Africa, Asia, Latin America, and the Caribbean. Cassava can be produced adequately in drought conditions making it the ideal food security crop in marginal environments. Although cassava can tolerate drought stress, it can be genetically improved to enhance productivity in such environments. Drought adaptation studies in over three decades in cassava have identified relevant mechanisms which have been explored in conventional breeding. Drought is a quantitative...

  14. Cassava starch in the Brazilian food industry

    OpenAIRE

    Ivo Mottin Demiate; Valesca Kotovicz

    2011-01-01

    Cassava starch is a valued raw material for producing many kinds of modified starches for food applications. Its physicochemical properties, as well as its availability, have made it an interesting and challenging ingredient for the food industry. In the present work, food grade modified cassava starches were purchased from producers and analyzed for selected physicochemical characteristics. Samples of sour cassava starch were included, as well as one sample of native cassava starch. Results ...

  15. Exploiting the Combination of Natural and Genetically Engineered Resistance to Cassava Mosaic and Cassava Brown Streak Viruses Impacting Cassava Production in Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Hervé Vanderschuren; Isabel Moreno; Anjanappa, Ravi B.; Ima M Zainuddin; Wilhelm Gruissem

    2012-01-01

    Cassava brown streak disease (CBSD) and cassava mosaic disease (CMD) are currently two major viral diseases that severely reduce cassava production in large areas of Sub-Saharan Africa. Natural resistance has so far only been reported for CMD in cassava. CBSD is caused by two virus species, Cassava brown streak virus (CBSV) and Ugandan cassava brown streak virus (UCBSV). A sequence of the CBSV coat protein (CP) highly conserved between the two virus species was used to demonstrate that a CBSV...

  16. Cassava is not a goitrogen in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To examine the effect of cassava on the thyroid function of mice, the authors fed fresh cassava root to mice and compared this diet with low iodine diet and Purina. Cassava provided a low iodine intake and increased urine thiocyanate excretion and serum thiocyanate levels. Mice on cassava lost weight. The thyroid glands of mice on cassava were not enlarged, even when normalized for body weight. The 4- and 24-hr thyroid uptakes of mice on cassava were similar to those of mice on low iodine diets. Protein-bound [125I]iodine at 24 hr was high in mice on either the cassava or low iodine diets. The thyroid iodide trap (T/M) was similar in mice on cassava and low iodine diets. When thiocyanate was added in vitro to the incubation medium, T/M was reduced in all groups of mice; under these conditions, thiocyanate caused a dose-related inhibition of T/M. The serum thyroxine (T4) and triiodothyronine (T3) concentrations of mice on cassava were reduced compared with mice on Purina diet. Thyroid T4 and T3 contents of mice on cassava were relatively low compared with mice on Purina diet. Hepatic T3 content and T4 5'-monodeiodination in liver homogenates were reduced in mice on cassava compared with other groups. The data show that cassava does not cause goiter in mice. The thiocyanate formed from ingestation of cassava is insufficient to inhibit thyroid iodide transport or organification of iodide. The cassava diet leads to rapid turnover of hormonal iodine because it is a low iodine diet. It also impairs 5'-monodeiodination of T4 which may be related to nutritional deficiency. These data in mice do not support the concept that cassava per se has goitrogenic action in man

  17. A Comparative Study of Some Properties of Cassava and Tree Cassava Starch Films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belibi, P. C.; Daou, T. J.; Ndjaka, J. M. B.; Nsom, B.; Michelin, L.; Durand, B.

    Cassava and tree cassava starch films plasticized with glycerol were produced by casting method. Different glycerol contents (30, 35, 40 and 45 wt. % on starch dry basis) were used and the resulting films were fully characterized. Their water barrier and mechanical properties were compared. While increasing glycerol concentration, moisture content, water solubility, water vapour permeability, tensile strength, percent elongation at break and Young's modulus decreased for both cassava and tree cassava films. Tree cassava films presented better values of water vapour permeability, water solubility and percent elongation at break compared to those of cassava films, regardless of the glycerol content.

  18. Sensorial evolution of cassava flour (Manihot esculenta crantz) added to protein concentrate cassava leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, Elaine C S; Feijo, Márcia B S; Freitas, Maria C J; Dos Santos, Edna R; Sabaa-Srur, Armando U O; Moura, Luciana S M

    2013-09-01

    Cassava is regarded as the nutritional base of populations in developing countries, and flour, product made of cassava, is the most consumed in the world. The cassava leaves are very rich in vegetable proteins, but a big amount is lost in processing the crop. The objective of this study was to do a sensory evaluation of cassava flour to which a protein concentrate obtained from cassava leaves (CPML) was added. The CPML was obtained from cassava leaves by isoelectric precipitation and added to cassava paste for preparation of flour in three parts 2.5, 5, and 10%. The acceptance test was done by 93 consumers of flour, using hedonic scale of 7 points to evaluate characteristics like color, scent, flavor, bitterness, texture, and overall score. By the method of quantitative descriptive analysis (QDA), eight trained tasters evaluated the following characteristics: whitish color, greenish color, cassava flavor, bitter flavor, characteristic flavor, lumpiness, raw texture, leaf scent, and cassava scent. The acceptability test indicated that flour cassava with 2.5 was preferred. Whitish color, greenish color, cassava flavor, bitter flavor, salty flavor, characteristic flavor, lumpiness texture, raw texture, and the smell of the leaves and cassava flour were the main descriptors defined for flour cassava with CPML has better characteristics. PMID:24804041

  19. Commercial Dynamics in Zambia’s Cassava Value Chain

    OpenAIRE

    Haggblade, Steven; Nyembe, Misheck

    2008-01-01

    Cassava production has grown rapidly in Zambia since the early 1990’s. Available evidence suggests that volumes of traded cassava have been increasing roughly twice as fast as production. Yet this cassava production boom could stall unless commercial markets for it develop. To help accelerate commercial development of cassava and cassava-based products at the national level, Zambia’s Agricultural Consultative Forum (ACF) initiated an Acceleration of Cassava Utilization (ACU) Task Force, begin...

  20. Solid Substrate Fermentation of Cassava Peel for Poultry Feed Ingredient

    OpenAIRE

    Stephanie; Purwadaria T

    2013-01-01

    Cassava peel which is not used during cassava starch extraction is one of potential resources for animal feed. However, cassava peel has low level protein content, high level crude fiber, and high level of toxic cyanogenic compound. These problems limit the utilization of cassava peel as feed. Solid substrate fermentation using mold may be a solution process to increase its nutritional value and decrease toxic level of cassava peel. In this paper, matters that related with cassava peel fermen...

  1. Cassava virus diseases: biology, epidemiology, and management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legg, James P; Lava Kumar, P; Makeshkumar, T; Tripathi, Leena; Ferguson, Morag; Kanju, Edward; Ntawuruhunga, Pheneas; Cuellar, Wilmer

    2015-01-01

    Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz.) is the most important vegetatively propagated food staple in Africa and a prominent industrial crop in Latin America and Asia. Its vegetative propagation through stem cuttings has many advantages, but deleteriously it means that pathogens are passed from one generation to the next and can easily accumulate, threatening cassava production. Cassava-growing continents are characterized by specific suites of viruses that affect cassava and pose particular threats. Of major concern, causing large and increasing economic impact in Africa and Asia are the cassava mosaic geminiviruses that cause cassava mosaic disease in Africa and Asia and cassava brown streak viruses causing cassava brown streak disease in Africa. Latin America, the center of origin and domestication of the crop, hosts a diverse set of virus species, of which the most economically important give rise to cassava frog skin disease syndrome. Here, we review current knowledge on the biology, epidemiology, and control of the most economically important groups of viruses in relation to both farming and cultural practices. Components of virus control strategies examined include: diagnostics and surveillance, prevention and control of infection using phytosanitation, and control of disease through the breeding and promotion of varieties that inhibit virus replication and/or movement. We highlight areas that need further research attention and conclude by examining the likely future global outlook for virus disease management in cassava. PMID:25591878

  2. Genetic modification of cassava enhances starch production

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    @@ Recently, a field test of transgenic cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) for enhanced starch production by the Shanghai Institute of Plant Physiology & Ecology (SIPPE), the CAS Shanghai Institutes for Biological Sciences, proved successful. Through application of transgenic technologies in cassava, the starch quality of this tropical root crop was largely improved. The new cassava cultivars are believed to have a tremendous potential for industrial application in the future.

  3. Cassava and corn starch in maltodextrin production

    OpenAIRE

    Geovana Rocha Plácido Moore; Luciana Rodrigues do Canto; Edna Regina Amante; Valdir Soldi

    2005-01-01

    Maltodextrin was produced from cassava and corn starch by enzymatic hydrolysis with alpha-amylase. The cassava starch hydrolysis rate was higher than that of corn starches in maltodextrin production with shorter dextrose equivalent (DE). DE values do not show directly the nature of the obtained oligosaccharides. Maltodextrin produced from cassava and corn starch was analysed by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), and the analysis showed that maltodextrin production differs accordin...

  4. Bemisia tabaci (Homoptera: Aleyrodidae) and Indian cassava mosaic virus transmission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) adults from colonies reared on cassava or sweet potato plants were studied to determine their ability to transmit Indian cassava mosaic virus (ICMV) (Geminiviridae: Begomovirus) from cassava to cassava. Virus acquisition access (feeding) periods (AAP) of 48 h on ICMV-infec...

  5. Strategies for developing the cassava industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The centralization of the cassava industry in tropical (and especially African) countries should be considered as a very important part of general strategy directed to the provision of the population with nutritionally balanced cassava foods. The Irish model of the development of dairy industry during the last 45 years had been a classical example of small involved groups in dairy farming getting together to pool their resources and family requirements to make a common objective succeed. This model based on a co-operative concept could be recommended for the cassava producing areas in order to improve this industry. The identification of the research areas required to improve the quality of the cassava fermented food products is another important part of the cassava strategy. These areas should include (i) fundamental studies of the various bacterial groups involved in the fermentation process and identification of the key groups involved at the various stages of fermentation (ii) strain screening programmes of these identified bacteria to select those which are most important to the fermentation of cassava (iii) studies to determine the appropriate methods for the propagation and the storage of these strains and (iv) systems to distribute these strains to the industries/small farmers/local co-operatives in cassava processing. Other technological and research aspects of improvement of the traditional fermentation practice of cassava are discussed in the paper. (author)

  6. Cassava Mutation Breeding: Current Status and Trends

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) is an important energy source in the diets of millions of people in the tropical and subtropical regions of the world, especially the poor. Also its industrial uses are steadily growing for starch, animal feed and bio-ethanol. Although it has high economic and social relevance, few major scientific efforts have been made to improve the crop until the 1970s. With the goals and objectives of cassava improvement through breeding, different strategies have been developed during the last several decades, such as evaluation and selection of the local landraces, introduced germplasm (as clones or segregating F1 population), hybridization (including inbreeding by both recurrent back-cross schemes and double haploids (DH)), interspecific hybridization, polyploidy breeding, genetic transformation, use of molecular markers and mutation breeding. Induced mutation breeding on cassava has been explored in the last several decades with few published papers. Yet, the production of novel genotypes, such as high amylose and small granule mutants and mutants with tolerance to post harvest physiological deterioration (PPD), has been reported. These results suggest that mutagenesis could be an effective alternative for cassava breeding. However, many drawbacks still exist in cassava mutation breeding, such as the occurrence of chimeras. Validated and developing protocols for different biotechnologies, such as TILLING protocol, cassava genome sequencing and cassava somatic embryogenesis, will significantly ameliorate the drawbacks to traditional mutation breeding, and consequently aid the routine application of induced mutation in both cassava improvement and in gene discovery and elucidation. (author)

  7. Fermented cassava waste and its utilization in broiler chickens rations

    OpenAIRE

    Supriyati,

    2003-01-01

    Cassava waste is a by-product of cassava flour industry and its amount is increasing following the increasing of cassava flour industry. Its utilization as a feedstuff, is limited by its low protein content. The cassava waste is only utilized as the energy source. One of the alternative technology in improving the utilization of cassava waste as a feedstuff, by improving the nutritive value through fermentation process. Fermentation was carried out by solid substrate fermentation using Asperg...

  8. Cassava starch in the Brazilian food industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivo Mottin Demiate

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Cassava starch is a valued raw material for producing many kinds of modified starches for food applications. Its physicochemical properties, as well as its availability, have made it an interesting and challenging ingredient for the food industry. In the present work, food grade modified cassava starches were purchased from producers and analyzed for selected physicochemical characteristics. Samples of sour cassava starch were included, as well as one sample of native cassava starch. Results showed that almost all modified starches were resistant to syneresis, produced pastes more stable to stirred cooking, and some of them were difficult to cook. The sour cassava starches presented high acidity and resulted in clear and unstable pastes during stirred cooking, susceptible to syneresis.

  9. Solid Substrate Fermentation of Cassava Peel for Poultry Feed Ingredient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Cassava peel which is not used during cassava starch extraction is one of potential resources for animal feed. However, cassava peel has low level protein content, high level crude fiber, and high level of toxic cyanogenic compound. These problems limit the utilization of cassava peel as feed. Solid substrate fermentation using mold may be a solution process to increase its nutritional value and decrease toxic level of cassava peel. In this paper, matters that related with cassava peel fermentation process are subsequently described, namely: (i problems of cassava peel; (ii biodegradation and detoxification process; (iii solid state fermentation methods on cassava peel; (iv nutritional quality of fermented cassava peel; and (v application of fermented cassava peel in poultry feed. The fermented cassava peel application is compared with those of cassava root and waste (onggok. Addition of nitrogen inorganic in the fermentation process increases the mold growth and protein content of the product, while fiber and cyanogenic contents are decreased due to mold degradation activity. The fermentation process may be carried out using only the cassava peel as the substrate or mixed with wheat flour, using indigenous microbes, Aspergillus niger or a white rot fungus, Panus tigrinus as inoculum. As well as fermented cassava root and waste, fermented cassava peel can be used to substitute maize as poultry feed, although it is reported that the optimum substitution in broiler ration is only 10%.

  10. Cassava; African perspective on space agriculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katayama, Naomi; Njemanze, Philip; Nweke, Felix; Space Agriculture Task Force, J.; Katayama, Naomi; Yamashita, Masamichi

    Looking on African perspective in space agriculture may contribute to increase diversity, and enforce robustness for advanced life support capability. Cassava, Manihot esculentaand, is one of major crop in Africa, and could be a candidate of space food materials. Since resource is limited for space agriculture in many aspects, crop yield should be high in efficiency, and robust as well. The efficiency is measured by farming space and time. Harvest yield of cassava is about 41 MJ/ m2 (70 ton/ha) after 11 months of farming. Among rice, wheat, potato, and sweet potato, cassava is ranked to the first place (40 m2 ) in terms of farming area required to supply energy of 5 MJ/day, which is recommended for one person. Production of cassava could be made under poor condition, such as acidic soil, shortage of fertilizer, draught. Laterite, similar to Martian regolith. Propagation made by stem cutting is an advantage of cassava in space agriculture avoiding entomophilous or anemophilous process to pollinate. Feature of crop storage capability is additional factor that determines the efficiency in the whole process of agriculture. Cassava root tuber can be left in soil until its consumption. Cassava might be an African contribution to space agriculture.

  11. Cassava based diets for sustainable ruminant production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cassava (Manihot esculenta, Crantz) is an annual crop grown widely in the tropical regions of Africa, Asia and Latin America. It thrives in sandy-loam soils with low organic matter and in climate with low rainfall and high temperature. Cassava could also response more with manure fertilization. Cassava tubers contain high levels of energy and minimal levels of crude protein, have been used as readily fermentable energy in ruminant rations, and have been used extensively as a feed for livestock. Recent attempts have been made to develop new products using cassava chips as an energy source with urea as non-protein nitrogen (NPN). Two new cassava based products have been developed: cassarea and cassaya. Cassarea was formulated to contain the following ingredients: 57.1% Cassava chips + 9.9% urea and 3% tallow (Cassarea I, 30% CP); 83.6% Cassava chips + 13.4% urea and 3% tallow (Cassarea II, 40% CP); 80.2% Cassava chips + 16.8% urea and 3% tallow (Cassarea III, 50% CP). Cassarea was tested for rumen degradability using the nylon bag technique and was found to have a 46.2 to 56.7% effective DM degradability. Further investigations with Cassarea II (40% CP) showed that it could be used to replace SBM in the rations of lactating cows, but supplementation with a rumen by-pass protein such as cottonseed meal would be recommended. Cassaya (30% CP) is a product formulated using chopped whole cassava crop hay (85%) + soybean meal (5%) + cassava chips (5%) + urea (2%) + tallow (2%) + sulphur (1%), mixing with water, pressed through a pelleting machine and sun-dried to at least 85% DM. The use of Cassaya in lactating dairy cows as a protein source proved to be efficient in promoting rumen fermentation, improved milk yield and composition and providing an increased economical return. Moreover, cassava hay (CH) has been applied in ruminant nutrition as a high-quality protein supplement for dairy cattle, beef and buffalo production. CH consists of whole crop of cassava harvested at

  12. LINAMARIN: THE TOXIC COMPOUND OF CASSAVA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. P. CEREDA

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available Cassava is a widely grown root crop which accumulates two cyanogenic glucosides, linamarin and lotaustralin. Linamarin accounts for more than 80% of the cassava cyanogenic glucosides. It is a ß-glucoside of acetone cyanohydrin and ethyl-methyl-ketone-cyanohydrin. Linamarin ß-linkage can only be broken under high pressure, high temperature and use of mineral acids, while its enzymatic break occurs easily. Linamarase, an endogenous cassava enzyme, can break this ß-linkage. The enzymatic reaction occurs under optimum conditions at 25ºC, at pH 5.5 to 6.0. Linamarin is present in all parts of the cassava plant, being more concentrated on the root and leaves. If the enzyme and substrate are joined, a good detoxification can occur. All the cassava plant species are known to contain cyanide. Toxicity caused by free cyanide (CN¯ has already been reported, while toxicity caused by glucoside has not. The lethal dose of CN¯ is 1 mg/kg of live weight; hence, cassava root classification into toxic and non-toxic depending on the amount of cyanide in the root. Should the cyanide content be high enough to exceed such a dose, the root is regarded as toxic. Values from 15 to 400 ppm (mg CN¯/kg of fresh weight of hydrocyanic acid in cassava roots have been mentioned in the literature. However, more frequent values in the interval 30 to 150 ppm have been observed. Processed cassava food consumed in Brazil is safe in regard to cyanide toxicity.

  13. Electrical and absorption properties of fresh cassava tubers and cassava starch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of this study was to analyze the electrical and absorption properties of fresh cassava tubers and cassava starch at various frequencies using electric impedance spectroscopy and near-infrared spectroscopy, as well as determine the classification of the electrical parameters of both materials using the principle component analysis (PCA) method. All samples were measured at room temperature. The electrical and absorption parameters consisted of dielectric constant, dissipation factor, parallel capacitance, resistance, reactance, impedance and absorbance. It was found that the electrical and absorption properties of fresh cassava tubers and cassava starch were a function of frequency, and there were significant differences between the materials. The dielectric constant, parallel capacitance, resistance and impedance of fresh cassava tubers and cassava starch had similar dramatic decreases with increasing frequency. However, the reactance of both materials increased with an increasing frequency. The electrical parameters of both materials could be classified into two groups. Moreover, the dissipation factor and phase of impedance were the parameters that could be used in the separation of both materials. According to the absorbance patterns of the fresh cassava tubers and cassava starch, there were significant differences

  14. The BioCassava Plus program: Biofortification of cassava for sub-Saharan Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    More than 250 million Africans rely on the starchy root crop cassava (Manihot esculenta) as their staple source of calories. A typical cassava-based diet, however, provides less than 30% of the minimum daily requirement for protein and only 10-20% of that for iron, zinc, and vitamin A. The BioCassav...

  15. Electrical and absorption properties of fresh cassava tubers and cassava starch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harnsoongnoen, S.; Siritaratiwat, A.

    2015-09-01

    The objective of this study was to analyze the electrical and absorption properties of fresh cassava tubers and cassava starch at various frequencies using electric impedance spectroscopy and near-infrared spectroscopy, as well as determine the classification of the electrical parameters of both materials using the principle component analysis (PCA) method. All samples were measured at room temperature. The electrical and absorption parameters consisted of dielectric constant, dissipation factor, parallel capacitance, resistance, reactance, impedance and absorbance. It was found that the electrical and absorption properties of fresh cassava tubers and cassava starch were a function of frequency, and there were significant differences between the materials. The dielectric constant, parallel capacitance, resistance and impedance of fresh cassava tubers and cassava starch had similar dramatic decreases with increasing frequency. However, the reactance of both materials increased with an increasing frequency. The electrical parameters of both materials could be classified into two groups. Moreover, the dissipation factor and phase of impedance were the parameters that could be used in the separation of both materials. According to the absorbance patterns of the fresh cassava tubers and cassava starch, there were significant differences.

  16. Consumer preferences for table cassava characteristics in Pernambuco, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Gonzalez, Carolina; Johnson, Nancy L.

    2009-01-01

    Cassava is a major source of carbohydrate for populations in the tropics; however, there is little information about the preferences of consumers toward the quality characteristics of this crop. This paper analyzes the demand for different cassava attributes, and applies the hedonic price method to estimate the values that consumers give to implicit attributes of cassava. The results show that ease of peeling, time of cooking and texture of cassava are the most important characteristics consu...

  17. Phenotypic approaches to drought in cassava: review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okogbenin, Emmanuel; Setter, Tim L; Ferguson, Morag; Mutegi, Rose; Ceballos, Hernan; Olasanmi, Bunmi; Fregene, Martin

    2013-01-01

    Cassava is an important crop in Africa, Asia, Latin America, and the Caribbean. Cassava can be produced adequately in drought conditions making it the ideal food security crop in marginal environments. Although cassava can tolerate drought stress, it can be genetically improved to enhance productivity in such environments. Drought adaptation studies in over three decades in cassava have identified relevant mechanisms which have been explored in conventional breeding. Drought is a quantitative trait and its multigenic nature makes it very challenging to effectively manipulate and combine genes in breeding for rapid genetic gain and selection process. Cassava has a long growth cycle of 12-18 months which invariably contributes to a long breeding scheme for the crop. Modern breeding using advances in genomics and improved genotyping, is facilitating the dissection and genetic analysis of complex traits including drought tolerance, thus helping to better elucidate and understand the genetic basis of such traits. A beneficial goal of new innovative breeding strategies is to shorten the breeding cycle using minimized, efficient or fast phenotyping protocols. While high throughput genotyping have been achieved, this is rarely the case for phenotyping for drought adaptation. Some of the storage root phenotyping in cassava are often done very late in the evaluation cycle making selection process very slow. This paper highlights some modified traits suitable for early-growth phase phenotyping that may be used to reduce drought phenotyping cycle in cassava. Such modified traits can significantly complement the high throughput genotyping procedures to fast track breeding of improved drought tolerant varieties. The need for metabolite profiling, improved phenomics to take advantage of next generation sequencing technologies and high throughput phenotyping are basic steps for future direction to improve genetic gain and maximize speed for drought tolerance breeding. PMID

  18. Phenotypic Approaches to Drought in Cassava: Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanuel eOkogbenin

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Cassava is an important crop in Africa, Asia, Latin America and the Caribbean. Cassava can be produced adequately in drought conditions making it the ideal food security crop in marginal environments. Although cassava can tolerate drought stress, it can be genetically improved to enhance productivity in such environments. Drought adaptation studies in over three decades in cassava have identified relevant mechanisms which have been explored in conventional breeding. Drought is a quantitative trait and its multigenic nature makes it very challenging to effectively manipulate and combine genes in breeding for rapid genetic gain and selection process. Cassava has a long growth cycle of 12 - 18 months which invariably contributes to a long breeding scheme for the crop. Modern breeding using advances in genomics and improved genotyping, is facilitating the dissection and genetic analysis of complex traits including drought tolerance, thus helping to better elucidate and understand the genetic basis of such traits. A beneficial goal of new innovative breeding strategies is to shorten the breeding cycle using minimized, efficient or fast phenotyping protocols. While high throughput genotyping have been achieved, this is rarely the case for phenotyping for drought adaptation. Some of the storage root phenotyping in cassava are often done very late in the evaluation cycle making selection process very slow. This paper highlights some modified traits suitable for early-growth phase phenotyping that may be used to reduce drought phenotyping cycle in cassava. Such modified traits can significantly complement the high throughput genotyping procedures to fast track breeding of improved drought tolerant varieties. The need for metabolite profiling, improved phenomics to take advantage of next generation sequencing technologies and high throughput phenotyping are basic steps for future direction to improve genetic gain and maximize speed for drought tolerance

  19. Sequences enhancing cassava mosaic disease symptoms occur in the cassava genome and are associated with South African cassava mosaic virus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maredza, A T; Allie, F; Plata, G; Rey, M E C

    2016-06-01

    Cassava is an important food security crop in Sub-Saharan Africa. Two episomal begomovirus-associated sequences, named Sequences Enhancing Geminivirus Symptoms (SEGS1 and SEGS2), were identified in field cassava affected by the devastating cassava mosaic disease (CMD). The sequences reportedly exacerbated CMD symptoms in the tolerant cassava landrace TME3, and the model plants Arabidopsis thaliana and Nicotiana benthamiana, when biolistically co-inoculated with African cassava mosaic virus-Cameroon (ACMV-CM) or East African cassava mosaic virus-UG2 (EACMV-UG2). Following the identification of small SEGS fragments in the cassava EST database, the intention of this study was to confirm their presence in the genome, and investigate a possible role for these sequences in CMD. We report that multiple copies of varying lengths of both SEGS1 and SEGS2 are widely distributed in the sequenced cassava genome and are present in several other cassava accessions screened by PCR. The endogenous SEGS1 and SEGS2 are in close proximity or overlapping with cassava genes, suggesting a possible role in regulation of specific biological processes. We confirm the expression of SEGS in planta using EST data and RT-PCR. The sequence features of endogenous SEGS (iSEGS) are unique but resemble non-autonomous transposable elements (TEs) such as MITEs and helitrons. Furthermore, many SEGS-associated genes, some involved in virus-host interactions, are differentially expressed in susceptible (T200) and tolerant TME3) cassava landraces infected by South African cassava mosaic virus (SACMV) of susceptible (T200) and tolerant (TME3) cassava landraces. Abundant SEGS-derived small RNAs were also present in mock-inoculated and SACMV-infected T200 and TME3 leaves. Given the known role of TEs and associated genes in gene regulation and plant immune responses, our observations are consistent with a role of these DNA elements in the host's regulatory response to geminiviruses. PMID:25920485

  20. Improvement of cassava for resistance to insect pests and diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The African cassava mosaic virus and cassava mealybug are devastating the cassava crop in Uganda. Because of the severe widespread occurrence of the virus and mealybug, in vitro cultured cassava plantlets instead of stem cuttings will be irradiated. In addition, the project has incorporated sweet potato. Installation of tissue culture laboratory at Namulonge was completed in early 1993. Work is in progress to establish efficient in vitro culture micropropagation techniques for the two crops. Small numbers of cassava plantlets of varieties 'TMS 30337' and 'TMS 4(2)1425' and sweet potato entry 30 are in vitro culture. Mass irradiation of plantlets is planned in future. (author). 4 refs

  1. Study of Products Distilled Spirits with Cassava Dregs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG le; WANG Jun-gao; LIU Wen-long

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, Cassava dregs are an outgrowth produced during starchy production which uses cassava as raw material. It is usually dropped out or used as cheap feedstuff. In order to make the best use of cassava dregs, increase industries' benefits and reduce castoff this study developed a new technique which used cassava dregs as raw material to produce distilled spirits based on cassava dregs characteristics. The technique adopt solid-ferment procedure. At first, the ferment is processed by solid-state distilling, and then rectification extra care refinement: at last the tequila was produced with characteristics of simple and elegant fragrance and mellow-tasting.

  2. MOISTURE ISOTHERMS OF CASSAVA BAGASSE COMPOSITES IMPREGNATED WITH CASSAVA STARCH ACETATE SOLUTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kátia N. MATSUI

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available

    The industrial processing of cassava to obtain starch generates a great variety of residues, with bagasse being the main solid residue produced. The improper disposal of this material represents an environmental problem and could be avoided by using this residue as a raw material to obtain biodegradable products. The bagasse produced during the process to obtain starch from cassava was used to prepare composites for disposable trays. Samples of the composites were impregnated with cassava starch acetate at atmospheric pressure and under vacuum condition. Moisture isotherms were determined and adjusted by GAB model. It was observed that the impregnation promoted an important decrease in sample higroscopicity, mainly at high relative humidities. These results suggest that starch acetate impregnation can be an alternative to water proofing biological materials like the composites obtained in this work. KEYWORDS: Cassava; bagasse; starch acetate; impregnation; isotherms.

  3. MOISTURE ISOTHERMS OF CASSAVA BAGASSE COMPOSITES IMPREGNATED WITH CASSAVA STARCH ACETATE SOLUTIONS

    OpenAIRE

    KáTIA N. MATSUI; FáBIO D. S. LAROTONDA; Alfredo T. N. Pires; JOãO B. LAURINDO

    2009-01-01

    The industrial processing of cassava to obtain starch generates a great variety of residues, with bagasse being the main solid residue produced. The improper disposal of this material represents an environmental problem and could be avoided by using this residue as a raw material to obtain biodegradable products. The bagasse produced during the process to obtain starch from cassava was used to prepare composites for disposable trays. Samples of the composites were imp...

  4. SCREENING OF CHEMICAL COMPOSITIONS OF CRUDE WATER EXTRACT OF DIFFERENT CASSAVA VARIETIES

    OpenAIRE

    Olajumoke Oke FAYINMINNU; Olubunmi Omowunmi FADINA; Alex Adeoluwa ADEDAPO

    2013-01-01

    Chemical composition of three sources of crude cassava water extract (CCWE) was evaluated in different varieties of cassava (MS6 Manihot Selection (local variety), TMS 30555 Tropical Manihot Selection (Improved variety) and Bulk (crude cassava water from cassava processing site). Crude cassava water extract from the pulp of cassava fresh roots was prepared and the chemical composition was determined in the analytical laboratory. The result of the analysis showed that, hydrocyanic acid (HCN) ...

  5. High-resolution mapping of resistance to cassava mosaic geminiviruses in cassava using genotyping-by-sequencing and its implications for breeding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassava mosaic disease (CMD), caused by different species of cassava mosaic geminiviruses (CMGs), is the most important disease of cassava in Africa and the Indian sub-continent. The cultivated cassava species is protected from CMD by polygenic resistance introgressed from the wild species Manihot g...

  6. The Cassava Genome: Current Progress, Future Directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prochnik, Simon; Marri, Pradeep Reddy; Desany, Brian; Rabinowicz, Pablo D; Kodira, Chinnappa; Mohiuddin, Mohammed; Rodriguez, Fausto; Fauquet, Claude; Tohme, Joseph; Harkins, Timothy; Rokhsar, Daniel S; Rounsley, Steve

    2012-03-01

    The starchy swollen roots of cassava provide an essential food source for nearly a billion people, as well as possibilities for bioenergy, yet improvements to nutritional content and resistance to threatening diseases are currently impeded. A 454-based whole genome shotgun sequence has been assembled, which covers 69% of the predicted genome size and 96% of protein-coding gene space, with genome finishing underway. The predicted 30,666 genes and 3,485 alternate splice forms are supported by 1.4 M expressed sequence tags (ESTs). Maps based on simple sequence repeat (SSR)-, and EST-derived single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) already exist. Thanks to the genome sequence, a high-density linkage map is currently being developed from a cross between two diverse cassava cultivars: one susceptible to cassava brown streak disease; the other resistant. An efficient genotyping-by-sequencing (GBS) approach is being developed to catalog SNPs both within the mapping population and among diverse African farmer-preferred varieties of cassava. These resources will accelerate marker-assisted breeding programs, allowing improvements in disease-resistance and nutrition, and will help us understand the genetic basis for disease resistance. PMID:22523606

  7. The Post-Genomic Era of Cassava

    Science.gov (United States)

    The genomics era revolutionized our efficiency at gathering and disseminating scientific information required for advancing our understanding of plant biology. In the case of cassava, the genomics revolution has not kept pace with other staple food and fiber crops important to global economies. As a...

  8. Recent advances in cassava pest management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellotti, A C; Smith, L; Lapointe, S L

    1999-01-01

    Cassava (Manihot esculenta) occupies a uniquely important position as a food security crop for smallholder farmers in ares of the tropics where climate, soils, or societal stresses constrain production. Given its reliability and productivity, cassava is the most important locally produced food in a third of the world's low-income, food-deficit countries. It is the fourth most important source of carbohydrates for human consumption in the tropics, after rice, sugar, and maize. World production of cassava from 1994-1996 averaged 166 million tons/year grown on 16.6 million hectares (ha), for an average yield of 9.9 tons/ha. Approximately 57% is used for human consumption, 32% for animal feed and industrial purposes, and 11% is waste. Africa accounts for 51.3% of the production; Asia, 29.4%; and Latin America, 19.3%. The area planted to cassava in Africa, Asia, and Latin America is 10.3, 3.7, and 2.6 million ha, respectively. PMID:9990720

  9. Economic Analysis of Cassava Production in Benue State, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.U. Odoemenem

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The study was undertaken to analyze the economics of cassava production in Benue State. Data for this study were collected from a sample of one hundred and sixteen small-scale cassava farmers randomly selected. The objectives of the study were to determine and rank the cost elements of cassava production in the study area; determine the returns to cassava production; and evaluate the profitability of cassava production in the study area. Socio-economic factors include age, educational background, marital status, sex, sources of labour, awareness of extension services, method of weed control, and method of farm land acquisition were identified. Data collected for the study were analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics. The coefficient of determination (R2 is 0.616, suggesting that the used model has a high goodness of fit. Furthermore, the result of the statistical analysis shows that investing in cassava production enterprise is profitable.

  10. Public attitudes towards genetically modified provitamin A Cassava in Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Gonzalez Rojas, María Carolina

    2010-01-01

    Cassava is a basic staple food crop with worldwide distribution, mainly in developing countries. A fundamental source of energy for the poor, cassava grows well on marginal soils and resists pests and drought. In Latin America, Brazil is the largest cassava producer and consumer. The crop is especially important in the northeastern (NE) part of the country, where poverty and malnutrition rates are higher than in the rest of the country. However, despite the crop?s dietary importance, relative...

  11. New challenges in the cassava transformation in Nigeria and Ghana:

    OpenAIRE

    Nweke, Felix

    2004-01-01

    "This paper describes the dramatic cassava transformation that has taken place in Nigeria and Ghana over the past 50 years. From a rural subsistence crop, cassava has become a major cash crop sold in urban markets, a source of livestock feed, industrial starch and urban convenience foods. This paper documents the key factors driving the cassava transformation in Nigeria and Ghana. Differences in timing, promotional efforts and performance provide an instructive contrast which helps to identif...

  12. Slow Pyrolysis of Cassava Wastes for Biochar Production and Characterization

    OpenAIRE

    Nurhidayah Mohamed Noor; Adilah Shariff; Nurhayati Abdullah

    2012-01-01

    Production of biochar from slow pyrolysis of biomass is a promising carbon negative procedure since it removes the net carbon dioxide in the atmosphere and produce recalcitrant carbon suitable for sequestration in soil. Biochar production can vary significantly with the pyrolysis parameter. This study investigated the impact of temperature and heating rate on the yield and properties of biochar derived from cassava plantations residues which are cassava stem (CS) and cassava rhizome (CR). The...

  13. Effect of chemical and mechanical weed control on cassava yield, soil quality and erosion under cassava cropping system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islami, Titiek; Wisnubroto, Erwin; Utomo, Wani

    2016-04-01

    Three years field experiments were conducted to study the effect of chemical and mechanical weed control on soil quality and erosion under cassava cropping system. The experiment were conducted at University Brawijaya field experimental station, Jatikerto, Malang, Indonesia. The experiments were carried out from 2011 - 2014. The treatments consist of three cropping system (cassava mono culture; cassava + maize intercropping and cassava + peanut intercropping), and two weed control method (chemical and mechanical methods). The experimental result showed that the yield of cassava first year and second year did not influenced by weed control method and cropping system. However, the third year yield of cassava was influence by weed control method and cropping system. The cassava yield planted in cassava + maize intercropping system with chemical weed control methods was only 24 t/ha, which lower compared to other treatments, even with that of the same cropping system used mechanical weed control. The highest cassava yield in third year was obtained by cassava + peanuts cropping system with mechanical weed control method. After three years experiment, the soil of cassava monoculture system with chemical weed control method possessed the lowest soil organic matter, and soil aggregate stability. During three years of cropping soil erosion in chemical weed control method, especially on cassava monoculture, was higher compared to mechanical weed control method. The soil loss from chemical control method were 40 t/ha, 44 t/ha and 54 t/ha for the first, second and third year crop. The soil loss from mechanical weed control method for the same years was: 36 t/ha, 36 t/ha and 38 t/ha. Key words: herbicide, intercropping, soil organic matter, aggregate stability.

  14. Comparative petiole anatomy of cassava (Manihot) species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graciano-Ribeiro, D; Hashimoto-Freitas, D Y; Nassar, N M A

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we describe the petiole anatomy of six wild cassava (Manihot) species, one hybrid, and two cultivars of Manihot esculenta, in order to identify their dominant anatomical patterns and relate them to possible adaptations to abiotic factors in the Cerrado biome. The median parts of several petiole samples were transversally and longitudinally sectioned and stained. The results include data for the taxonomic classification of the genus, including distinctive anatomical characteristics of hybrid varieties of cassava and wild species, such as the presence/absence of trichomes and a hypodermis, layer type and number in the cortex, number of vascular bundles, cell types in the pith, and type of organization. Morphological analysis revealed differences in length and shape of the petiole insertion. The presence of trichomes, a hypodermis, the amount and type of supporting tissue in the cortex, as well as gelatinous fibers, may be related to drought tolerance. PMID:26909917

  15. Rehydration characteristics and modeling of cassava chips

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajala, A.S

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Cassava chips with dimension 4x2x0.2cm were re-hydrated in distilled water at 200C, 300C and 400C in a laboratory water bath. Kinetics of re-hydration was investigated using three different re-hydration models namely Peleg, exponential and Weibull. The pattern of water absorption was observed to be faster at the initial period of soaking. Higher temperature induces faster moisture absorption in the chips. Non linear regression analysis was used to fit in the experimental data and the coefficient of determination was found to be greater than 0.72 for all the models. The values of R2 , RMSE, MBE and reduced chi square showed that Weibull model best described the re-hydrating behaviour of the cassava chips.

  16. Studies on the cryopreservation of cassava meristems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Efforts toward improving the efficiency of the droplet freezing method for the cryopreservation of cassava meristems were undertaken. The use of 15% DMSO as a cryoprotectant resulted in a meristem survival rate ranging from 0 to 38% following retrieval from liquid nitrogen and culturing on solid OMS medium. A method using a freezing solution consisting of OMS medium with 1 M sorbitol, 9% sucrose and 5% DMSO resulted in the highest survival rates (up to 62%)

  17. Fermented cassava waste and its utilization in broiler chickens rations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Supriyati

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available Cassava waste is a by-product of cassava flour industry and its amount is increasing following the increasing of cassava flour industry. Its utilization as a feedstuff, is limited by its low protein content. The cassava waste is only utilized as the energy source. One of the alternative technology in improving the utilization of cassava waste as a feedstuff, by improving the nutritive value through fermentation process. Fermentation was carried out by solid substrate fermentation using Aspergillus niger as an inoculant and mixing with urea and ammonium sulphate as inorganic nitrogen sources. The nutritive value of the product was evaluated by feeding trial using 144 “Shaver Stabro” strain 3 days old chicks with 3 treatments i.e. 0 (control, 5.0 and 10.0% fermented cassava waste. The results showed that the true protein content of fermented cassava increased from 2.2 to 18.4%. The inclusion of fermented cassava waste up to 10% in chicken broiler ration for 4 weeks feeding did not affect the feed consumption, bodyweight gain, FCR, weight of liver and gibblets. All parameter results from 10% inclusion were not significantly different (P>0.05 with the control (0% inclusion.

  18. Evaluation of cryogenic procedures for cryopreservation of Cassava genotypes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassava (Manihot esculent Crantz) is a perennial plant widely grown in many tropical countries as one of the most important commercial crops. The global cassava production in 2009 was at 242 million tons. Because of its economic importance to a large number of developing world, the application of ad...

  19. Examining cassava's potential to enhance food security under climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recent advances in the biofortification of cassava, a substantial yield gap and cassava's potential for increased productivity and its inherent potential to respond positively to globally increasing CO2 are synergistic and encouraging in an otherwise bleak global view of the future of food security ...

  20. Cassava leaves as protein source for pigs in Central Vietnam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2007-01-01

    The aim of the studies described in this thesis was to evaluate the use of cassava leaves as protein sources for pigs when used at high levels in the diet, either in fresh form or with simplified methods of processing. In twenty cassava varieties taken from the upper part of the plant at the root

  1. Properties of thermoplastic starch from cassave bagasse and cassava starch and their blends with poly (lactic acid).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassava bagasse is an inexpensive and broadly available waste byproduct from cassava starch production. It contains roughly 50% cassava starch along with mostly fiber and could be a valuable feedstock for various bioproducts. Cassava bagasse and cassava starch were used in this study to make fiber-r...

  2. Aflatoxin-producing Aspergillus spp. and aflatoxin levels in stored cassava chips as affected by processing practices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Essono, G.; Ayodele, M.; Akoa, A.;

    2009-01-01

    Cassava chips (cassava balls, and cassava pellets) are derived cassava products traditionally produced by farmers in sub-Saharan Africa following fermentation, and drying of fresh roots of cassava, and are widely consumed in Cameroon. Once produced, this food commodity can be stored for more than...

  3. Socio-economic Analysis of Cassava Marketing in Benue State, Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Benjamin C. Asogwa; J. A. C. Ezihe; Ater, P.I.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to analyze the socio-economics of cassava marketing in Benue State, Nigeria. Data were collected from randomly sampled 107 cassava marketers in Benue State, using a structured questionnaire. The study revealed that most of the cassava marketers had secondary education (72.9%). The study also revealed that marketing of cassava is mostly undertaken by females (57%). The result showed that married people (59.8%) were mostly involved in the marketing of cassava. The s...

  4. Modelling potential β-carotene intake and cyanide exposure from consumption of biofortified cassava

    OpenAIRE

    Katz, Josh M.; La Frano, Michael R.; Winter, Carl K.; Burri, Betty J

    2013-01-01

    Vitamin A (VA) deficiency causes disability and mortality. Cassava can be crossbred to improve its β-carotene (BC) content; typical white cassava contains negligible amounts of BC. However, cassava contains cyanide and its continued consumption may lead to chronic disability. Our objective was to estimate the risk–benefit of consuming BC-enhanced cassava to increase VA intake. A total of ten American women were fed white and BC-enhanced cassava. BC and cyanide data from the feeding study were...

  5. Expanding the Application of Cassava Value Chain Technologies Through UPoCA Project

    OpenAIRE

    Braima Dama James; P. Bramel; E. Witte; R. Asiedu; D. Watson; R. Okechuckwu.

    2013-01-01

    Cassava can play a key role in rural economic growth in Africa, but are we there yet? Cassava varieties with 50% more yielding potential and technologies to boost processing and marketing of cassava are available. However, the sub-sector is constrained by low productivity and marketing difficulties. In 2008, USAID and IITA initiated the project “Unleashing the Power of Cassava in Response to Food Price Crisis (UPOCA) as a multi-country and inter-institutional partnership enabling cassava sub-...

  6. CASSAVA (Manihot esculenta crantz): AN AFFORDABLE ENERGY SOURCE IN DAIRY RATIONS

    OpenAIRE

    F.R., ANJOS; L. TIVANA; J. DA CRUZ FRANCISCO; S. M. KAGANDE

    2014-01-01

    The current paper explores the evidence that exists on the potential use of cassava plant (Manihot esculenta Crantz) as an energy source for dairy cattle. Several studies have proven cassava roots, leaves and processing residues to be an important ruminant animal feed resource. Cassava root chip and meal are a potentially good rumen fermentable energy for dairy cows in the tropics. The vegetative parts of cassava are considered to be wastes since human beings grow cassava for its tubers. Feed...

  7. Study on the Rheological Property of Cassava Starch Adhesives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junjun Liu

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The main goal of this study was to use cassava starch in the production of environmentally sound adhesives. ‘Three-formaldehyde glue’ pollutes the environment and harms to human health strongly, which widely used for wood-based panels preparation. Environment-friendly cassava starch adhesives were prepared using method of oxidation-gelatinization, insteading of the three formaldehyde glue. The effects of the quality ratio of starch and water, temperature and shear rate on the apparent viscosity of the adhesive were studied. The rheological eigenvalue of apparent viscosity was studied through nonlinear regression. The results showed that the apparent viscosity of cassava starch adhesives decreased with the increasing of temperature; the apparent viscosity decreased slowly with the increasing of rotor speed; the phenomenon of shear thinning appeared within cassava starch adhesives which was pseudo-plastic fluids. Cassava starch adhesives with characteristics of non-toxic, no smell and pollution could be applied in interior and upscale packaging.

  8. Cassava Genetic Transformation and its Application in Breeding

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jia Liu; Qijie Zheng; Qiuxiang Ma; Kranthi Kumar Gadidasu; Peng Zhang

    2011-01-01

    As a major source of food, cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) is an important root crop in the tropics and subtropics of Africa and Latin America, and serves as raw material for the production of starches and bioethanol in tropical Asia. Cassava improvement through genetic engineering not only overcomes the high heterozygosity and serious trait separation that occurs in its traditional breeding, but also quickly achieves improved target traits. Since the first report on genetic transformation in cassava in 1996, the technology has gradually matured over almost 15 years of development and has overcome cassava genotype constraints, changing from mode cultivars to farmer-preferred ones.Significant progress has been made in terms of an increased resistance to pests and diseases, biofortification, and improved starch quality,building on the fundamental knowledge and technologies related to planting, nutrition, and the processing of this important food crop that has often been neglected. Therefore, cassava has great potential in food security and bioenergy development worldwide.

  9. Modification of cell wall polysaccharides during retting of cassava roots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngolong Ngea, Guillaume Legrand; Guillon, Fabienne; Essia Ngang, Jean Justin; Bonnin, Estelle; Bouchet, Brigitte; Saulnier, Luc

    2016-12-15

    Retting is an important step in traditional cassava processing that involves tissue softening of the roots to transform the cassava into flour and various food products. The tissue softening that occurs during retting was attributed to the degradation of cell wall pectins through the action of pectin-methylesterase and pectate-lyase that possibly originated from a microbial source or the cassava plant itself. Changes in cell wall composition were investigated during retting using chemical analysis, specific glycanase degradation and immuno-labelling of cell wall polysaccharides. Pectic 1,4-β-d-galactan was the main cell wall polysaccharide affected during the retting of cassava roots. This result suggested that better control of pectic galactan degradation and a better understanding of the degradation mechanism by endogenous endo-galactanase and/or exogenous microbial enzymes might contribute to improve the texture properties of cassava products. PMID:27451197

  10. Unveiling the Micronome of Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogans, Sarah Jane; Rey, Chrissie

    2016-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are an important class of endogenous non-coding single-stranded small RNAs (21-24 nt in length), which serve as post-transcriptional negative regulators of gene expression in plants. Despite the economic importance of Manihot esculenta Crantz (cassava) only 153 putative cassava miRNAs (from multiple germplasm) are available to date in miRBase (Version 21), and identification of a number of miRNAs from the cassava EST database have been limited to comparisons with Arabidopsis. In this study, mature sequences of all known plant miRNAs were used as a query for homologous searches against cassava EST and GSS databases, and additional identification of novel and conserved miRNAs were gleaned from next generation sequencing (NGS) of two cassava landraces (T200 from southern Africa and TME3 from West Africa) at three different stages post explant transplantation and acclimatization. EST and GSS derived data revealed 259 and 32 miRNAs in cassava, and one of the miRNA families (miR2118) from previous studies has not been reported in cassava. NGS data collectively displayed expression of 289 conserved miRNAs in leaf tissue, of which 230 had not been reported previously. Of the 289 conserved miRNAs identified in T200 and TME3, 208 were isomiRs. Thirty-nine novel cassava-specific miRNAs of low abundance, belonging to 29 families, were identified. Thirty-eight (98.6%) of the putative new miRNAs identified by NGS have not been previously reported in cassava. Several miRNA targets were identified in T200 and TME3, highlighting differential temporal miRNA expression between the two cassava landraces. This study contributes to the expanding knowledge base of the micronome of this important crop. PMID:26799216

  11. Identification of Cassava MicroRNAs under Abiotic Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballén-Taborda, Carolina; Plata, Germán; Ayling, Sarah; Rodríguez-Zapata, Fausto; Becerra Lopez-Lavalle, Luis Augusto; Duitama, Jorge; Tohme, Joe

    2013-01-01

    The study of microRNAs (miRNAs) in plants has gained significant attention in recent years due to their regulatory role during development and in response to biotic and abiotic stresses. Although cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) is tolerant to drought and other adverse conditions, most cassava miRNAs have been predicted using bioinformatics alone or through sequencing of plants challenged by biotic stress. Here, we use high-throughput sequencing and different bioinformatics methods to identify potential cassava miRNAs expressed in different tissues subject to heat and drought conditions. We identified 60 miRNAs conserved in other plant species and 821 potential cassava-specific miRNAs. We also predicted 134 and 1002 potential target genes for these two sets of sequences. Using real time PCR, we verified the condition-specific expression of 5 cassava small RNAs relative to a non-stress control. We also found, using publicly available expression data, a significantly lower expression of the predicted target genes of conserved and nonconserved miRNAs under drought stress compared to other cassava genes. Gene Ontology enrichment analysis along with condition specific expression of predicted miRNA targets, allowed us to identify several interesting miRNAs which may play a role in stress-induced posttranscriptional regulation in cassava and other plants. PMID:24328029

  12. Identification of Cassava MicroRNAs under Abiotic Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Ballén-Taborda

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The study of microRNAs (miRNAs in plants has gained significant attention in recent years due to their regulatory role during development and in response to biotic and abiotic stresses. Although cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz is tolerant to drought and other adverse conditions, most cassava miRNAs have been predicted using bioinformatics alone or through sequencing of plants challenged by biotic stress. Here, we use high-throughput sequencing and different bioinformatics methods to identify potential cassava miRNAs expressed in different tissues subject to heat and drought conditions. We identified 60 miRNAs conserved in other plant species and 821 potential cassava-specific miRNAs. We also predicted 134 and 1002 potential target genes for these two sets of sequences. Using real time PCR, we verified the condition-specific expression of 5 cassava small RNAs relative to a non-stress control. We also found, using publicly available expression data, a significantly lower expression of the predicted target genes of conserved and nonconserved miRNAs under drought stress compared to other cassava genes. Gene Ontology enrichment analysis along with condition specific expression of predicted miRNA targets, allowed us to identify several interesting miRNAs which may play a role in stress-induced posttranscriptional regulation in cassava and other plants.

  13. Vertical Differentiation of Cassava Marketing Channels in Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enete, AA.

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Farming systems in sub-Saharan Africa are inherently risky because they are fundamentally dependent on vagaries of weather. Sub-Saharan Africa is also a region in crises; poverty, civil strife and HIV/AIDS. Attention must therefore be focused on improving the production and marketing of crops that could thrive under these circumstances. Because of its tolerance of extreme drought and low input use conditions, Cassava is perhaps the best candidate in this regard. And cassava is a basic food staple and a major source of farm income for the people of the region. Efficiency in cassava marketing is a very important determinant of both consumers' living cost and producers' income in Africa. Vertical differentiation of marketing channels improves marketing efficiency. Identified in this paper are factors that drive vertical differentiation of cassava marketing channels. The paper is based on primary data collected within the framework of the Collaborative Study of Cassava in Africa. High population density, good market access conditions, availability of mechanized cassava processing technology and cassava price information stimulate vertical differentiation of the marketing channels.

  14. Melatonin attenuates postharvest physiological deterioration of cassava storage roots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Qiuxiang; Zhang, Ting; Zhang, Peng; Wang, Zhen-Yu

    2016-05-01

    Melatonin reportedly increases abiotic and biotic stress tolerance in plants, but information on its in vivo effects during postharvest physiological deterioration (PPD) in cassava is limited. In this study, we investigated the effect of melatonin in regulating cassava PPD. Treatment with 500 mg/L melatonin significantly delayed cassava PPD and reduced the accumulation of hydrogen peroxide (H2 O2 ) while increasing the activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and glutathione reductase (GR), but not ascorbate peroxidase (APX). Transcript analysis further showed that expression of copper/zinc SOD (MeCu/ZnSOD), MeCAT1, glutathione peroxidase (MeGPX), peroxidase 3 (MePX3), and glutathione S-transferases (MeGST) was higher in cassava roots sliced treated with 500 mg/L melatonin than in those not exposed to exogenous melatonin. These data demonstrate that melatonin delays cassava PPD by directly or indirectly maintaining homoeostasis of cellular reactive oxygen species (ROS). We also found that accumulation of endogenous melatonin and the transcript levels of melatonin biosynthesis genes changed dynamically during the PPD process. This finding suggested that endogenous melatonin acts as a signal modulator for maintaining cassava PPD progression and that manipulation of melatonin biosynthesis genes through genetic engineering might prevent cassava root deterioration. PMID:26989849

  15. An EST resource for cassava and other species of Euphorbiaceae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, James V; Delseny, Michel; Fregene, Martin A; Jorge, Veronique; Mba, Chikelu; Lopez, Camilo; Restrepo, Silvia; Soto, Mauricio; Piegu, Benoit; Verdier, Valerie; Cooke, Richard; Tohme, Joe; Horvath, David P

    2004-11-01

    Cassava (Manihot esculenta) is a major food staple for nearly 600 million people in Africa, Asia, and Latin America. Major losses in yield result from biotic and abiotic stresses that include diseases such as Cassava Mosaic Disease (CMD) and Cassava Bacterial Blight (CBB), drought, and acid soils. Additional losses also occur from deterioration during the post-harvest storage of roots. To help cassava breeders overcome these obstacles, the scientific community has turned to modern genomics approaches to identify key genetic characteristics associated with resistance to these yield-limiting factors. One approach for developing a genomics program requires the development of ESTs (expressed sequence tags). To date, nearly 23,000 ESTs have been developed from various cassava tissues, and genotypes. Preliminary analysis indicates existing EST resources contain at least 6000-7000 unigenes. Data presented in this report indicate that the cassava ESTs will be a valuable resource for the study of genetic diversity, stress resistance, and growth and development, not only in cassava, but also other members of the Euphorbiaceae family. PMID:15630617

  16. Regulation of starch synthesis in cassava

    OpenAIRE

    Baguma, Yona

    2004-01-01

    Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) is a root crop, one of the world’s most important but under-exploited staple food crops and source of income. It is a high starch producer with levels between 73.7 and 84.9% of its total storage root dry weight. Increasingly, there is a need for diverse novel starches for both food and non-food applications. In response, sbeII encoding starch branching enzyme II was cloned. The relationship between spatial-temporal expression patterns of starch synthesis gen...

  17. Mathematical Modelling of Cassava Wastewater Treatment Using Anaerobic Baffled Reactor

    OpenAIRE

    A.O. Ibeje

    2013-01-01

    The performance of an anaerobic baffled reactor (ABR) was evaluated in the treatment of cassava wastewater as a pollutant residue. An ABR divided in four equal volume compartments (total volume 4L) and operated at 35°C was used in cassava wastewater treatment. Feed tank chemical oxygen demand (COD) was varied from 2000 to 7000mg L-1. The objective of the study was to formulate an improved mathematical model to describe cassava wastewater treatment without taking into account its inhibition ch...

  18. Utilization of cassava waste through fermentation technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Over 400 isolates of molds were screened for raw starch digesting enzymes and aspergillus J8 ad Rhizopus N37 were selected for further investigations. Crude enzymes obtained from wheat bran was higher than from rice bran. Crude enzymes from Aspergillus is active at pH 4.0, whereas that from Rhizopus is active at pH 5.0. Aspergillus J8 gave higher yield of silage fermentation. Selection of yeast strain was accomplished, it was found that Saccharomyces cerevisiae SC90, the local commercial strain (non-flocculent) performed best in fermentation of cassava mash. Another strain AM12, a flocculent fusant strain derived from fusion between flocculent strain and sake brewing strain was comparable to that of commercial strain at normal temperature but performed better at higher temperature up to 40 deg C. It is unlikely that fuel alcohol produced from raw cassava will be able to compete with petroleum fuel at this moment. However, silage fermentation to increase nutritional quality of the silage through selected strains of microorganisms has a good prospect to pursue. (author)

  19. Mathematical Modelling Of Cyanide Inhibition on Cassava Wastewater Treatment

    OpenAIRE

    E. Onukwugha

    2013-01-01

    Anaerobic Baffled Reactors (ABR) is used to evaluate the extent of cyanide inhibition of cassava wastewater treatment. The reactor has aspect ratio of 4:1:1. Kinetic analyses of specific growth rate μmax and half saturation constant

  20. Properties of baked foams from citric acid modified cassava starch and native cassava starch blends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pornsuksomboon, Kanlaya; Holló, Berta Barta; Szécsényi, Katalin Mészáros; Kaewtatip, Kaewta

    2016-01-20

    Starch foams from native cassava starch (NS) and citric acid modified cassava starch (CNS) were prepared using baking processes with blend ratios of 80/20, 60/40, 50/50, 40/60 and 20/80. The density, thickness, morphology, thermal stability and water absorption of the NS, CNS and blended starch foams were determined. The ratio of the two starch components had a significant influence on the density and thickness of the blended starch foams. All blended starch foams showed good water resistance. Moreover, the morphology of the blended starch foam with the NS/CNS ratio of 50/50 showed a more ordered distribution of cell sizes with thicker cell walls than for the NS and CNS foams. The thermal stability of the blended starch foams was somewhat lower than the stability of the NS foam but not to the extent that it affected any potential practical applications. PMID:26572335

  1. Sustainable Process Design of Biofuels: Bioethanol Production from Cassava rhizome

    OpenAIRE

    Mangnimit, S.; Malakul, P.; Gani, Rafiqul

    2013-01-01

    This study is focused on the sustainable process design of bioethanol production from cassava rhizome. The study includes: process simulation, sustainability analysis, economic evaluation and life cycle assessment (LCA). A steady state process simulation if performed to generate a base case design of the bioethanol conversion process using cassava rhizome as a feedstock. The sustainability analysis is performed to analyze the relevant indicators in sustainability metrics, todefinedesign/retro...

  2. Biogas Production From Cassava Starch Effluent Using Microalgae As Biostabilisator

    OpenAIRE

    B. Budiyono; Tutuk Djoko Kusworo

    2011-01-01

    The rapid growing of Indonesian population is emerging several critical national issues i.e. energy, food, environmental, water, transportation, as well as law and human right. As an agricultural country, Indonesia has abundant of biomass wastes such as agricultural wastes include the cassava starch wastes. The problem is that the effluent from cassava starch factories is released directly into the river before properly treatment. It has been a great source of pollution and has caused environ...

  3. Local domestication of lactic acid bacteria via cassava beer fermentation

    OpenAIRE

    Colehour, Alese M.; Meadow, James F.; Liebert, Melissa A.; Tara J. Cepon-Robins; Theresa E. Gildner; Urlacher, Samuel S.; Bohannan, Brendan J.M.; Snodgrass, J. Josh; Lawrence S. Sugiyama

    2014-01-01

    Cassava beer, or chicha, is typically consumed daily by the indigenous Shuar people of the Ecuadorian Amazon. This traditional beverage made from cassava tuber (Manihot esculenta) is thought to improve nutritional quality and flavor while extending shelf life in a tropical climate. Bacteria responsible for chicha fermentation could be a source of microbes for the human microbiome, but little is known regarding the microbiology of chicha. We investigated bacterial community composition of chic...

  4. In vitro Micropropagation of Cassava Through Low Cost Tissue Culture

    OpenAIRE

    Kwame O. Ogero; Gitonga N. Mburugu; Maina Mwangi; Omwoyo Ombori; Michael Ngugi

    2012-01-01

    Adoption of drought-tolerant crops such as cassava can help alleviate food insecurity in sub-Saharan Africa. However, production is constrained by lack of disease-free planting materials. This can be circumvented through tissue culture but the technology is costly limiting its adoption. There is therefore, need to put in place interventions that will reduce the cost of production hence making tissue culture products affordable. In this research, a low cost protocol for cassava tissue culture ...

  5. Cassava crop improvement through in vitro mutation techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cassava is of great economic significance in Zambia due to its increasing role as a food security crop in drought prone areas of the country.Studies to improve the quality of the cassava tuber and the quality and quantity of the planting material using in vitro techniques is being conducted in several areas of Zambia. The preliminary results are encouraging from the field trials conducted so far

  6. Corrosion of Steels in Steel Reinforced Concrete in Cassava Juice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oluwadare, G. O.; Agbaje, O.

    The corrosion of two types of construction steels, ST60Mn and RST37-2♦, in a low cyanide concentration environment (cassava juice) and embedded in concrete had been studied. The ST60 Mn was found to be more corrosion resistant in both ordinary water and the cassava juice environment. The cyanide in cassava juice does not attack the steel but it provides an environment of lower pH around the steel in the concrete which leads to breakdown of the passivating film provided by hydroxyl ions from cement. Other factors such as the curing time of the concrete also affect the corrosion rates of the steel in the concrete. The corrosion rate of the steel directly exposed to cassava juice i.e., steel not embedded in concrete is about twice that in concrete. Long exposure of concrete structure to cassava processing effluent might result in deterioration of such structures. Careful attention should therefore be paid to disposal of cassava processing effluents, especially in a country like Nigeria where such processing is now on the increase.

  7. A unigene catalogue of 5700 expressed genes in cassava.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, Camilo; Jorge, Véronique; Piégu, Benoît; Mba, Chickelu; Cortes, Diego; Restrepo, Silvia; Soto, Mauricio; Laudié, Michèle; Berger, Christel; Cooke, Richard; Delseny, Michel; Tohme, Joe; Verdier, Valérie

    2004-11-01

    Two economically important characters, starch content and cassava bacterial blight resistance, were targeted to generate a large collection of cassava ESTs. Two libraries were constructed from cassava root tissues of varieties with high and low starch contents. Other libraries were constructed from plant tissues challenged by the pathogen Xanthomonas axonopodis pv.manihotis. We report here the single pass sequencing of 11,954 cDNA clones from the 5' ends, including 111 from the 3' ends. Cluster analysis permitted the identification of a unigene set of 5,700 sequences. Sequence analyses permitted the assignment of a putative functional category for 37% of sequences whereas approximately 16% sequences did not show any significant similarity with other proteins present in the database and therefore can be considered as cassava specific genes. A group of genes belonging to a large multigene family was identified. We characterize a set of genes detected only in infected libraries putatively involved in the defense response to pathogen infection. By comparing two libraries obtained from cultivars contrasting in their starch content a group of genes associated to starch biosynthesis and differentially expressed was identified. This is the first large cassava EST resource developed today and publicly available thus making a significant contribution to genomic knowledge of cassava. PMID:15630618

  8. Microbial population, chemical composition and silage fermentation of cassava residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Napasirth, Viengsakoun; Napasirth, Pattaya; Sulinthone, Tue; Phommachanh, Kham; Cai, Yimin

    2015-09-01

    In order to effectively use the cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) residues, including cassava leaves, peel and pulp for livestock diets, the chemical and microbiological composition, silage preparation and the effects of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) inoculants on silage fermentation of cassava residues were studied. These residues contained 10(4) to 10(5) LAB and yeasts, 10(3) to 10(4) coliform bacteria and 10(4) aerobic bacteria in colony forming units (cfu) on a fresh matter (FM) basis. The molds were consistently at or below the detectable level (10(2) cfu of FM) in three kinds of cassava residues. Dry matter (DM), crude protein (CP) and neutral detergent fiber (NDF) content of cassava residues were 17.50-30.95%, 1.30-16.41% and 25.40-52.90% on a DM basis, respectively. The silage treatments were designed as control silage without additive (CO) or with LAB inoculants Chikuso-1 (CH, Lactobacillus plantarum) and Snow Lacto (SN, Lactobacillus rhamnosus) at a rate of 5 mg/kg of FM basis. All silages were well preserved with a low pH (below 4.0) value and when cassava residues silage treated with inoculants CH and SN improved fermentation quality with a lower pH, butyric acid and higher lactic acid than control silage. PMID:25781881

  9. Yield and Properties of Ethanol Biofuel Produced from Different Whole Cassava Flours

    OpenAIRE

    Ademiluyi, F. T.; Mepba, H. D.

    2013-01-01

    The yield and properties of ethanol biofuel produced from five different whole cassava flours were investigated. Ethanol was produced from five different whole cassava flours. The effect of quantity of yeast on ethanol yield, effect of whole cassava flour to acid and mineralized media ratio on the yield of ethanol produced, and the physical properties of ethanol produced from different cassava were investigated. Physical properties such as distillation range, density, viscosity, and flash poi...

  10. Exploring the potential of cassava in promoting agricultural growth in Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Sanzidur Rahman; Brodrick O. Awerije

    2016-01-01

    Cassava is one of the major food crops in Nigeria, with multiple uses from human consumption to industrial applications. This study explores the potential of cassava in Nigerian agriculture based on a review of cassava development policies; performs a trend analysis of the cultivation area, production, productivity, and real price of cassava and other competing crops for the period 1961–2013; identifies the sources of growth in production; and examines the production constraints at the local ...

  11. EFFECT OF PROCESSING ON THE CYANIDE CONTENT OF CASSAVA PRODUCTS IN FIJI

    OpenAIRE

    Chand Bandna

    2012-01-01

    In Fiji cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz, Euphorbiaceae) is one of the most important root crops. According to the 2004 National Nutrition Survey, 59.2% of the Fijian population consumes cassava on a daily basis while 31% of the Indian population consumes cassava on a weekly basis. Substantial quantity of anti-nutrient factor cyanogenic glucoside, linamarine and a small amount of lotaustralin is also present in cassava that interferes with digestion and uptake of nutrients. This study was ai...

  12. Cost benefit analysis of cassava production in Sherpur district of Bangladesh

    OpenAIRE

    Afreen, N.; Haque, M.S.

    2014-01-01

    The present study was designed to analyze the cost, benefit and profitability of cassava production in selected areas of Sherpur district in Bangladesh. Data were collected by interviewing a representative sample of 100 practicing cassava farmers, taking each 50 sample from traditional farmers of Jhinaigati and commercial cassava farmers of Sreebardi Upazila. Analyses showed that per hectare cost incurred for cassava was BDT 41,417.22 in Jhinaigati whereas BDT 53,642.59 in Sreebardi Upazila. ...

  13. Correlation of Chemical Compositions of Cassava Varieties to Their Resistance to Prostephanus truncatus Horn (Coleoptera: Bostrichidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Osipitan, Adebola A.; Sangowusi, Victoria T.; Lawal, Omoniyi I.; Popoola, Kehinde O.

    2015-01-01

    The preference of cassava as a major host by Prostephanus truncatus Horn is a major constraint to ample production of cassava, Manihot esculenta Crantz and storage. This study analyzed the nutritional and secondary metabolite compositions in 15 cassava varieties, evaluated levels of damage and reproduction by P. truncatus, and assessed their resistance to attack. One hundred grams of dried cassava chips in 250-ml Kilner jars were infested with 10 adult larger grain borerof 0–10 days old and h...

  14. PROCESSORS’ PERCEPTION OF THE EFFECTIVENESS OF SOME CASSAVA PROCESSING INNOVATIONS IN OGUN STATE, NIGERIA

    OpenAIRE

    Adebayo, K.; Sangosina, M.A.

    2005-01-01

    The current drive towards higher levels of commercialisation of cassava processing under the Presidential Initiative on Cassava requires that the scale of cassava processing be increased in Nigeria. Primary data obtained from 112 respondents selected from the 4 extension zones of Ogun State was used to examine the perception of effectiveness of innovations by cassava processors and the factors responsible for adoption of these innovations. The processors’ perception of effectiveness of cassav...

  15. Robust transformation procedure for the production of transgenic farmer-preferred cassava landraces

    OpenAIRE

    Zainuddin Ima M; Schlegel Kim; Gruissem Wilhelm; Vanderschuren Hervé

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Recent progress in cassava transformation has allowed the robust production of transgenic cassava even under suboptimal plant tissue culture conditions. The transformation protocol has so far been used mostly for the cassava model cultivar 60444 because of its good regeneration capacity of embryogenic tissues. However, for deployment and adoption of transgenic cassava in the field it is important to develop robust transformation methods for farmer- and industry-preferred landraces an...

  16. CASSAVA PULP AS A BIOFUEL FEEDSTOCK OF AN ENZYMATIC HYDROLYSIS PROCESS

    OpenAIRE

    Wahono Sumaryono; Dyah Primarini; Sumarno; Nonot Soewarno; Djuma’ali

    2011-01-01

    Cassava pulp, a low cost solid byproduct of cassava starch industry, has been proposed as a high potential ethanolic fermentation substrate due to its high residual starch level, low ash content and small particle size of the lignocellulosic fibers. As the economic feasibility depends on complete degradation of the polysaccharides to fermentable glucose, the comparative hydrolytic potential of cassava pulp by six commercial enzymes were studied. Raw cassava pulp (12%w/v, particle size

  17. PHYTOPHARMACOLOGICAL ASPECTS OF MANIHOT ESCULENTA CRANTZ (CASSAVA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bahekar S

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The plant kingdom has been the best source of remedies for curing a variety of diseases since ancient times. Plants continue to serve as possible sources for new drugs and chemicals derived from various parts of plants. Manihot esculenta Crantz, popularly known as cassava is one of the most neglected medicinal herbs found all over the world. It is not so commonly used in herbal medicine because of some of its potentially toxic components, but still various literatures have mentioned that this plant has numerous medicinal indications. Generally roots and leaves of this plant have been used in various parts of world for dietary as well as medicinal purposes. Though neglected, this is one of the most useful medicinal plants. In this review, we have tried to highlight various phytochemicals found and medicinal uses of this neglected plant.

  18. Developing GM super cassava for improved health and food security: future challenges in Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adenle Ademola A

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is an urgent need to solve the problem of micronutrient malnutrition that is prevalent among young children and women in Africa. Genetically modified (GM biofortified cassava has great potential to solve part of this problem, but controversy surrounding GM technology and lack of awareness, limited facilities, biased news and other factors may hinder the adoption of GM cassava in the future. Method Using semi-structured interviews in Ghana and Nigeria, this paper examines the perspectives of scientists, including the BioCassava Plus (BC+ team, on the potential adoption of GM cassava for improving health and food security in Africa. The article also examines issues around the regulatory system and transfer and acceptance of GM cassava among scientists. Results and discussion The result suggests that an overwhelming majority of scientists agree that GM biofortified cassava will benefit the health of millions in Africa, and that GM cassava conferred with disease and pest resistance will increase cassava production as it is currently plagued by cassava mosaic diseases (CMD. However, respondents are wary of long-term effects of GM cassava on the environment and lack of a regulatory framework to facilitate the adoption of GM cassava. Even though scientists expressed little or no concern about health risks of GM cassava, they were concerned that consumers may express such concerns given limited understanding of GM technology. Conclusion The article concludes with a summary of priorities for policy development with regard to adopting biofortified food products.

  19. Diversity in oil content and fatty acid profile in seeds of wild cassava germplasm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassava (Manihot esculenta) is the only commercial species of the Manihot genus, cultivated for its starchy tuber roots. However, cassava seeds are known to be rich in oils and fats, there are scant reports on the content and properties of oil from cassava seeds and its wild relatives. Wild Manihot ...

  20. Slow Pyrolysis of Cassava Wastes for Biochar Production and Characterization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurhidayah Mohamed Noor

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Production of biochar from slow pyrolysis of biomass is a promising carbon negative procedure since it removes the net carbon dioxide in the atmosphere and produce recalcitrant carbon suitable for sequestration in soil. Biochar production can vary significantly with the pyrolysis parameter. This study investigated the impact of temperature and heating rate on the yield and properties of biochar derived from cassava plantations residues which are cassava stem (CS and cassava rhizome (CR. The pyrolysis temperatures ranged from 400°C to 600°C while the heating rate parameter was varied from 5°C/min to 25°C/min. The experiment was conducted using the lab scale slow pyrolysis system. The increment of temperature and heating rate of slow pyrolysis for both cassava wastes had raised the fixed carbon content of the biochar but decreased the biochar yield. More biochar was produced at lower temperature and lower heating rate. Temperature gave more influence on the biochar yield as compared to the heating rate parameter. The highest biochar yield of more than 35 mf wt. % can be obtained from both CS and CR at 400°C and heating rate of 5°C/min. From the proximate analysis, the results showed that cassava wastes contain high percentage of volatile matter which is more than 80 mf wt. %. Meanwhile, the biochar produced from cassava wastes contain high percentage of fixed carbon which is about 5−8 times higher than their raw samples. This suggested that, it is a good step to convert CS and CR into high carbon biochar via slow pyrolysis process that can substantially yield more biochar, up to 37 mf wt. % in this study. Since the fixed carbon content for both CS and CR biochar produced in any studied parameter were found to be more than 75 mf wt. %, it is suggested that biochar from cassava wastes is suitable for carbon sequestration.

  1. Characterization of Brown Streak Virus-Resistant Cassava.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anjanappa, Ravi B; Mehta, Devang; Maruthi, M N; Kanju, Edward; Gruissem, Wilhelm; Vanderschuren, Hervé

    2016-07-01

    Cassava brown streak disease (CBSD) has become a major constraint to cassava production in East and Central Africa. The identification of new sources of CBSD resistance is essential to deploy CBSD mitigation strategies, as the disease is progressing westwards to new geographical areas. A stringent infection method based on top cleft-grafting combined with precise virus titer quantitation was utilized to screen 14 cassava cultivars and elite breeding lines. When inoculated with mixed infections of Cassava brown streak virus (CBSV) and Ugandan cassava brown streak virus (UCBSV), the scions of elite breeding lines KBH 2006/18 and KBH 2006/26 remained symptom-free during a 16-week period of virus graft inoculation, while susceptible varieties displayed typical CBSD infection symptoms at 4 weeks after grafting. The identified CBSD resistance was stable under the coinoculation of CBSV and UCBSV with cassava geminiviruses. Double-grafting experiments revealed that transmission of CBSV and UCBSV to CBSD-susceptible top scions was delayed when using intermediate scions of elite breeding lines KBH 2006/18 and KBH 2006/26. Nonetheless, comparison of virus systemic movement using scions from KBH2006/18 and a transgenic CBSD resistant 60444 line (60444-Hp9 line) showed that both CBSV and UCBSV move at undetectable levels through the stems. Further, protoplast-based assays of virus titers showed that the replication of CBSV is inhibited in the resistant line KBH2006/18, suggesting that the identified CBSD resistance is at least partially based on inhibition of virus replication. Our molecular characterization of CBSD resistance in cassava offers a robust virus-host system to further investigate the molecular determinants of CBSD resistance. PMID:27070326

  2. Nutritious value of co-products of the cassava Valor nutritivo de co-produtos da mandioca

    OpenAIRE

    André Luiz Rodrigues Magalhães; Elyzabeth da Cruz Cardoso; Ronaldo Lopes Oliveira; Geane Dias Gonçalves Ferreira; Elieldo Lameira Brito

    2007-01-01

    The present study evaluated the chemical composition, protein and total carbohydrates content, energy estimative of industrial co-products of cassava from the North of Brazil (cassava scraping, cassava co-products flower, cassava mass and the superior third of cassava silage STSRM). The results were evaluated by description of the statistical analysis. Highest mean values were found for STSRM Crude Protein (CP) and Neutral Detergent Fiber (NDF). Variation values occurred in protein content, t...

  3. Use of irradiation to extend shelf life of cassava tubers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fresh cassava tubers (manihot esculenta crantz) were gamma irradiated at 0, 0.2, 0.5 and 1.0 KGy doses using cobalt-60 source. A portion of the irradiated cassava tubers was stored at room temperature (25-30 degree C) and the rest was packed in polyethylene bags and stored in refrigerator (5 1 degree C). Samples were analyzed for moisture, crude protein, starch and fibers percentages. Rotting ratio and weight loss percentages were also determined. The results indicated that the irradiation with gamma-rays followed by refrigeration extended the shelf-life of cassava tubers being more than 21 days. The lowest value of weight loss of cassava tubers during storage was observed by gamma irradiation and cold storage. Moreover, the irradiation treatments had no effect on protein content of cassava tubers, while it decreased moisture, starch and fiber contents especially those subjected to 1 kGy. As for the interaction between gamma-irradiation doses and periods of storage the crude protein slightly increased while the moisture, starch and fibers showed a gradual decrease up to the end of storage period as compared to unirradiated ones. 4 tabs

  4. Chemical safety of cassava products in regions adopting cassava production and processing - experience from Southern Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nyirenda, D.B.; Chiwona-Karltun, L.; Chitundu, M.;

    2011-01-01

    perceptions concerning cassava and chemical food safety. Chips, mixed biscuits and flour, procured from households and markets in three regions of Zambia (Luapula-North, Western and Southern) as well as products from the Northern, Central and Southern regions of Malawi, were analyzed for total cyanogenic...... products commercially available on the market. Risk assessments disclose that effects harmful to the developing central nervous system (CNS) may be observed at a lower exposure than previously anticipated. We interviewed farmers in Zambia and Malawi about their cultivars, processing procedures and...

  5. CASSAVA (Manihot esculenta crantz: AN AFFORDABLE ENERGY SOURCE IN DAIRY RATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F.R., ANJOS

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The current paper explores the evidence that exists on the potential use of cassava plant (Manihot esculenta Crantz as an energy source for dairy cattle. Several studies have proven cassava roots, leaves and processing residues to be an important ruminant animal feed resource. Cassava root chip and meal are a potentially good rumen fermentable energy for dairy cows in the tropics. The vegetative parts of cassava are considered to be wastes since human beings grow cassava for its tubers. Feeding trials with cattle have shown cassava hay to have a dry matter intake levels DMI of around 3.2% of BW and a digestibility (71%. The hay also contains tannin-protein complexes that may be a good source of rumen un-degradable protein that will be available to the animal post-ruminally. It has also be shown that supplementing 1-2 kg/head/day of cassava to dairy cattle may go a long way in reducing feeding costs and significantly increasing milk quality and quantity produced. Cassava hay was also noted to be anthelminthic and therapeutic since it contains condensed tannins. Condensed tannins have been proven to reduce gastrointestinal nematodes. Use of cassava as a substitute of maize in dairy rations can significantly lower the feed costs in smallholder dairy farms in cassava producing countries like Mozambique. It was concluded that cassava is potentially an affordable substitute for conventional energy source for small scale dairy farmers.

  6. Robust transformation procedure for the production of transgenic farmer-preferred cassava landraces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zainuddin Ima M

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Recent progress in cassava transformation has allowed the robust production of transgenic cassava even under suboptimal plant tissue culture conditions. The transformation protocol has so far been used mostly for the cassava model cultivar 60444 because of its good regeneration capacity of embryogenic tissues. However, for deployment and adoption of transgenic cassava in the field it is important to develop robust transformation methods for farmer- and industry-preferred landraces and cultivars. Because dynamics of multiplication and regeneration of embryogenic tissues differ between cassava genotypes, it was necessary to adapt the efficient cv. 60444 transformation protocol to genotypes that are more recalcitrant to transformation. Here we demonstrate that an improved cassava transformation protocol for cv. 60444 could be successfully modified for production of transgenic farmer-preferred cassava landraces. The modified transformation method reports on procedures for optimization and is likely transferable to other cassava genotypes reportedly recalcitrant to transformation provided production of high quality FEC. Because the three farmer-preferred cassava landraces selected in this study have been identified as resistant or tolerant to cassava mosaic disease (CMD, the adapted protocol will be essential to mobilize improved traits into cassava genotypes suitable for regions where CMD limits production.

  7. Effects of Processing on the Chemical and Anti-nutritional Properties of Cassava Roots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omosuli SV

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The nutritive and antinutritive composition of cassava roots (raw and boiled was investigated. The proximate composition of raw and boiled cassava tubers was not significantly different (P> 0.05, except in moisture, fat, carbohydrate and Energy value. High levels of the antinutrients in raw cassava tubers (20.56mg/100g Tannins; 1,16mg/100g oxalate and 3.36mg/100g phytate make them unsafe and unsuitable for human consumption except after processing. Mineral contents of cassava tubers were not affected significantly by boiling except in Iron. Calcium was the most abundant mineral present (0.33% and 0.26% for raw and boiled cassava roots and the low Ca/P ratio of 6.19 in boiled cassava roots will facilitate calcinations of calcium more than the raw cassava roots with a Ca/P ratio of 8.68.

  8. Linamarase production by some microbial isolates and a comparison of the rate of degradation of cassava cyanide by microbial and cassava linamarases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ogbonnaya Nwokoro

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Production of linamarase and the effects of media composition on enzyme production were studied. A total of eight linamarase-producing bacteria were isolated from fermenting cassava tubers and soil samples. Selection of the isolates was based on their high growth in media containing 800 mg/L potassium cyanide solution. Eight of the isolates which showed very high growth in the growth medium as demonstrated by increase in their optical density readings to at least 0.6 in the cyanide containing media were selected for further studies. The isolates were identified as Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus fermentum, Lactobacillus amylovorus, Lactobacillus cellobiosus, Leuconostoc mesenteroides, Pseudomonas stutzeri, Bacillus pumilus and Bacillus subtilis. All the isolates were grown in media containing Tween 80 solution and in control media without the surfactant. Best enzyme activity of 6.82 U/mL was obtained in the medium containing Tween 80 solution and Lactobacillus fermentum as the test bacterium. Comparatively, linamarase production by the isolates in media without Tween 80 showed lower enzyme productivity. Cassava endogenous and microbial enzymes were tested for their abilities to hydrolyze cyanide in cassava flour samples pretreated to either remove the endogenous or microbial enzyme. Residual cyanide in cassava flour samples treated with linamarase of Lactobacillus plantarum was undecteded in 30 h, while in contrast, the residual cyanide in cassava flour samples treated with endogenous linamarase was 0.39 mg/10g cassava flour after 80 h. Residual cyanide in the untreated control sample was 1.98 mg HCN /10g cassava flour after 80 h. The results from this finding demonstrated improved cassava cyanide degradation with microbial linamarase as compared to endogenous cassava linamarase. Massive inoculation of fermenting cassava tubers with the isolates reported in this study would enable better control of the cassava fermentation process and may

  9. Analyses of Twelve New Whole Genome Sequences of Cassava Brown Streak Viruses and Ugandan Cassava Brown Streak Viruses from East Africa: Diversity, Supercomputing and Evidence for Further Speciation

    OpenAIRE

    Ndunguru, Joseph; Sseruwagi, Peter; Tairo, Fred; Stomeo, Francesca; Maina, Solomon; Djinkeng, Appolinaire; Kehoe, Monica; Boykin, Laura M

    2015-01-01

    Cassava brown streak disease is caused by two devastating viruses, Cassava brown streak virus (CBSV) and Ugandan cassava brown streak virus (UCBSV) which are frequently found infecting cassava, one of sub-Saharan Africa’s most important staple food crops. Each year these viruses cause losses of up to $100 million USD and can leave entire families without their primary food source, for an entire year. Twelve new whole genomes, including seven of CBSV and five of UCBSV were uncovered in this re...

  10. Biogas Production From Cassava Starch Effluent Using Microalgae As Biostabilisator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Budiyono

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The rapid growing of Indonesian population is emerging several critical national issues i.e. energy, food, environmental, water, transportation, as well as law and human right. As an agricultural country, Indonesia has abundant of biomass wastes such as agricultural wastes include the cassava starch wastes. The problem is that the effluent from cassava starch factories is released directly into the river before properly treatment. It has been a great source of pollution and has caused environmental problems to the nearby rural population. The possible alternative to solve the problem is by converting waste to energy biogas in the biodigester. The main problem of the biogas production of cassava starch effluent is acid forming-bacteria quickly produced acid resulting significantly in declining pH below the neutral pH and diminishing growth of methane bacteria. Hence, the only one of the method to cover this problem is by adding microalgae as biostabilisator of pH. Microalgae can also be used as purifier agent to absorb CO2.The general objective of this research project was to develop an integrated process of biogas production and purification from cassava starch effluent by using biostabilisator agent microalgae. This study has been focused on the used of urea, ruminant, yeast, microalgae, the treatment of gelled and ungelled feed for biogas production, pH control during biogas production using buffer Na2CO3, and feeding management in the semi-continuous process of biogas production. The result can be concluded as follows: i The biogas production increased after cassava starch effluent and yeast was added, ii Biogas production with microalgae and cassava starch effluent, yeast, ruminant bacteria, and urea were 726.43 ml/g total solid, iii Biogas production without  microalgae was 189 ml/g total solid.

  11. Life cycle cost of ethanol production from cassava in Thailand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To increase the security of energy supply, lessen dependence on crude oil import and buffer against the impacts of large change in crude oil prices, the Thai government initiated and officially announced the national ethanol fuel program in year 2000. Since then, domestic ethanol demand has grown rapidly. Presently, all commercial ethanol in Thailand is produced from molasses as Thai law prohibits producing it from sugar cane directly. This is likely to limit ethanol supply in the near future. One possible solution is to supply more ethanol from cassava which is widely cultivated in this country. However, its production cost has not yet been known for certain. The objective of this study is to estimate the life cycle cost of ethanol production from cassava and to assess its economic competitiveness with gasoline in the Thai fuel market. Based on the record of cassava prices during the years 2002-2005, it was found that using it as feedstock would share more than 50% of the ethanol from cassava total production cost. It was also found that a bio-ethanol plant, with a capacity of 150,000 l/day, can produce ethanol from cassava in a range of ex-factory costs from 16.42 to 20.83 baht/l of gasoline equivalent (excluding all taxes), with an average cost of 18.15 baht/l of gasoline equivalent (41, 52 and 45 US cents/l gasoline equivalent respectively, based on 2005 exchange rate). In the same years, the range of 95-octane gasoline prices in Thailand varied from 6.18 baht to 20.86 baht/l, with an average price of 11.50 baht/l (15, 52 and 29 US cents/l respectively, based on 2005 exchange rate) which were much cheaper than the costs of ethanol made from cassava. Thus, we conclude that under the scenario of low to normal crude oil price, ethanol from cassava is not competitive with gasoline. The gasoline price has to rise consistently above 18.15 baht (45 US cents)/l before ethanol made from cassava can be commercially competitive with gasoline. (author)

  12. Life cycle cost of ethanol production from cassava in Thailand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sorapipatana, Chumnong; Yoosin, Suthamma [Joint Graduate School of Energy and Environment, King Mongkut' s University of Technology Thonburi, Pracha-Uthit Rd., Tungkru, Bangmod, Bangkok 10140 (Thailand); Center for Energy Technology and Environment, Commission on Higher Education, Ministry of Education, Bangkok (Thailand)

    2011-02-15

    To increase the security of energy supply, lessen dependence on crude oil import and buffer against the impacts of large change in crude oil prices, the Thai government initiated and officially announced the national ethanol fuel program in year 2000. Since then, domestic ethanol demand has grown rapidly. Presently, all commercial ethanol in Thailand is produced from molasses as Thai law prohibits producing it from sugar cane directly. This is likely to limit ethanol supply in the near future. One possible solution is to supply more ethanol from cassava which is widely cultivated in this country. However, its production cost has not yet been known for certain. The objective of this study is to estimate the life cycle cost of ethanol production from cassava and to assess its economic competitiveness with gasoline in the Thai fuel market. Based on the record of cassava prices during the years 2002-2005, it was found that using it as feedstock would share more than 50% of the ethanol from cassava total production cost. It was also found that a bio-ethanol plant, with a capacity of 150,000 l/day, can produce ethanol from cassava in a range of ex-factory costs from 16.42 to 20.83 baht/l of gasoline equivalent (excluding all taxes), with an average cost of 18.15 baht/l of gasoline equivalent (41, 52 and 45 US cents/l gasoline equivalent respectively, based on 2005 exchange rate). In the same years, the range of 95-octane gasoline prices in Thailand varied from 6.18 baht to 20.86 baht/l, with an average price of 11.50 baht/l (15, 52 and 29 US cents/l respectively, based on 2005 exchange rate) which were much cheaper than the costs of ethanol made from cassava. Thus, we conclude that under the scenario of low to normal crude oil price, ethanol from cassava is not competitive with gasoline. The gasoline price has to rise consistently above 18.15 baht (45 US cents)/l before ethanol made from cassava can be commercially competitive with gasoline. (author)

  13. Cassava leaves as protein source for pigs in Central Vietnam

    OpenAIRE

    2007-01-01

    The aim of the studies described in this thesis was to evaluate the use of cassava leaves as protein sources for pigs when used at high levels in the diet, either in fresh form or with simplified methods of processing. In twenty cassava varieties taken from the upper part of the plant at the root harvesting, the crude protein varied from 23.7 to 29.5 % in DM and the HCN from 610 to 1840 mg/kg DM. Chopping, washing and wilting the leaves are simple ways to process the. There was a 58% reductio...

  14. Radiation processing of cassava starch hydrogel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper consists of two topics on cassava starch (CS). The first paper deals with radiation-induced graft polymerization of 1-vinyl-2-pyrrolidinone (VP) onto CS. The results from PVP -grafted-starch were subsequently compared with those of PVP hydrogels and PVP-blended-starch hydrogels. It was found that the PVP-grafted-starch hydrogels, with gel fraction higher than 80%, could be prepared at the dose of 20 kGy, while PVP and PVP-blended-starch hydrogels require at least 30 kGy to obtain gels with more than 80% gel fraction. And at the same dose used for irradiation, the gel strength of the PVP-grafted-starch hydrogels is significantly higher than that of the PVP and PVP-blended-starch hydrogels. Radiation crosslinking of carboxymethyl CS is the second topic. CS was chemically modified by sodium monochloroacetate (SMCA) to yield carboxymethyl starch (CMS). The aqueous solution of CMS was irradiated and underwent radiation-induced crosslinking, resulting in a crosslinked CMS (XLCMS) hydrogel. The optimum condition for obtaining hydrogels with desirable properties is irradiation at low dose, 2 kGy. At higher doses, the gel fraction tends to diminish, due to the domination of degradation over crosslinking. (author)

  15. Comparative analysis of virus-derived small RNAs within cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) infected with cassava brown streak viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogwok, Emmanuel; Ilyas, Muhammad; Alicai, Titus; Rey, Marie E C; Taylor, Nigel J

    2016-04-01

    Infection of plant cells by viral pathogens triggers RNA silencing, an innate antiviral defense mechanism. In response to infection, small RNAs (sRNAs) are produced that associate with Argonaute (AGO)-containing silencing complexes which act to inactivate viral genomes by posttranscriptional gene silencing (PTGS). Deep sequencing was used to compare virus-derived small RNAs (vsRNAs) in cassava genotypes NASE 3, TME 204 and 60444 infected with the positive sense single-stranded RNA (+ssRNA) viruses cassava brown streak virus (CBSV) and Ugandan cassava brown streak virus (UCBSV), the causal agents of cassava brown streak disease (CBSD). An abundance of 21-24nt vsRNAs was detected and mapped, covering the entire CBSV and UCBSV genomes. The 21nt vsRNAs were most predominant, followed by the 22 nt class with a slight bias toward sense compared to antisense polarity, and a bias for adenine and uracil bases present at the 5'-terminus. Distribution and frequency of vsRNAs differed between cassava genotypes and viral genomes. In susceptible genotypes TME 204 and 60444, CBSV-derived sRNAs were seen in greater abundance than UCBSV-derived sRNAs. NASE 3, known to be resistant to UCBSV, accumulated negligible UCBSV-derived sRNAs but high populations of CBSV-derived sRNAs. Transcript levels of cassava homologues of AGO2, DCL2 and DCL4, which are central to the gene-silencing complex, were found to be differentially regulated in CBSV- and UCBSV-infected plants across genotypes, suggesting these proteins play a role in antiviral defense. Irrespective of genotype or viral pathogen, maximum populations of vsRNAs mapped to the cytoplasmic inclusion, P1 and P3 protein-encoding regions. Our results indicate disparity between CBSV and UCBSV host-virus interaction mechanisms, and provide insight into the role of virus-induced gene silencing as a mechanism of resistance to CBSD. PMID:26811902

  16. Socio-economic Analysis of Cassava Marketing in Benue State, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin C. Asogwa

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to analyze the socio-economics of cassava marketing in Benue State, Nigeria. Data were collected from randomly sampled 107 cassava marketers in Benue State, using a structured questionnaire. The study revealed that most of the cassava marketers had secondary education (72.9%. The study also revealed that marketing of cassava is mostly undertaken by females (57%. The result showed that married people (59.8% were mostly involved in the marketing of cassava. The study revealed that cassava marketing is operated in a competitive market environment and the marketing margin obtained by an average cassava marketer is 31%. Cassava marketing is a profitable venture in the study area. It was also revealed that greater percentage of cassava traded in the study area was primarily obtained from the farmers. Majority of the respondents (92.5% belong to cassava marketing association. The most pressing problem (46.73% faced by the marketers is high taxes during transportation. Majority of the cassava marketers use the revenue generated from cassava business to train their children in schools and buildings of modern houses (57.0.There is the need to: open centralized cassava market in the study area; construct good network of feeder roads; establish processing companies/facilities; restructure the entire marketing system. Traders should be encouraged to form agricultural marketing cooperatives in order to eliminate the exploitative activities of the middlemen. Marketing agencies should be enforced by government to take care of the marketing problems that are associated with the speculative activities of the middlemen.

  17. Transcriptome response of cassava leaves under natural shade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Zehong; Zhang, Yang; Xiao, Yi; Liu, Fangfang; Wang, Minghui; Zhu, Xinguang; Liu, Peng; Sun, Qi; Wang, Wenquan; Peng, Ming; Brutnell, Tom; Li, Pinghua

    2016-01-01

    Cassava is an important staple crop in tropical and sub-tropical areas. As a common farming practice, cassava is usually cultivated intercropping with other crops and subjected to various degrees of shading, which causes reduced productivity. Herein, a comparative transcriptomic analysis was performed on a series of developmental cassava leaves under both full sunlight and natural shade conditions. Gene expression profiles of these two conditions exhibited similar developmental transitions, e.g. genes related to cell wall and basic cellular metabolism were highly expressed in immature leaves, genes involved in lipid metabolism and tetrapyrrole synthesis were highly expressed during the transition stages, and genes related to photosynthesis and carbohydrates metabolism were highly expressed in mature leaves. Compared with the control, shade significantly induced the expression of genes involved in light reaction of photosynthesis, light signaling and DNA synthesis/chromatin structure; however, the genes related to anthocyanins biosynthesis, heat shock, calvin cycle, glycolysis, TCA cycle, mitochondrial electron transport, and starch and sucrose metabolisms were dramatically depressed. Moreover, the shade also influenced the expression of hormone-related genes and transcriptional factors. The findings would improve our understanding of molecular mechanisms of shade response, and shed light on pathways associated with shade-avoidance syndrome for cassava improvement. PMID:27539510

  18. Mathematical Modelling Of Cyanide Inhibition on Cassava Wastewater Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Onukwugha

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Anaerobic Baffled Reactors (ABR is used to evaluate the extent of cyanide inhibition of cassava wastewater treatment. The reactor has aspect ratio of 4:1:1. Kinetic analyses of specific growth rate μmax and half saturation constant

  19. Functional genomic analysis of cassava proteins with TIR domains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Proteins containing a TIR domain (toll interleukin receptor) are involved in plant and animal immunity. The aim of this work was to carry out an overall genomic analysis of cassava proteins with a TIR domain and discern their possible role in resistance to cassava bacterial blight. In total 46 proteins with a TIR domain were identified in the cassava proteome and were classed in four categories according the presence or absence of other domains: TIR (T), TIR -NB (TN), TIR - lRR (TL) and TIR - NB - lRR (TNL). 56.6 % of these 46 proteins have TIR, NB and lRR domains. Using multiple alignments it was possible to demonstrate that not all cassava TIR domains contain the AE region, involved in dimerization and activation of immune responses. Three of the four proteins categories (T, TNL and TN) presented a higher number of synonymous substitutions suggesting that they are not involved in recognition process. two TIR domains not presenting the ae region were analyzed by yeast two hybrid assays and by agro-infiltration, finding that both are able to form homo and heterodimers, but they do not trigger defense responses. With this study it was possible to conclude that TIR domains can function as adaptors in the signal transduction with other resistance proteins. In addition, it became clear that not always the AE region is important for TIR dimerization but it seems necessary to activate defense responses signals.

  20. Transcriptional response to petiole heat girdling in cassava

    Science.gov (United States)

    The heat-girdling technique, which is known to inhibit photoassimilate translocation, was performed on the petiole of cassava leaves at the end of the light cycle to inhibit starch remobilization during the night. The inhibition of starch remobilization caused significant starch accumulation at the ...

  1. Ethanol production of banana shell and cassava starch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this work the acid hydrolysis of the starch was evaluated in cassava and the cellulose shell banana and its later fermentation to ethanol, the means of fermentation were adjusted for the microorganisms saccharomyces cerevisiae nrrl y-2034 and zymomonas mobilis cp4. The banana shell has been characterized, which possesses a content of starch, cellulose and hemicelluloses that represent more than 80% of the shell deserve the study of this as source of carbon. The acid hydrolysis of the banana shell yield 20g/l reducing sugar was obtained as maximum concentration. For the cassava with 170 g/l of starch to ph 0.8 in 5 hours complete conversion is achieved to you reducing sugars and any inhibitory effect is not noticed on the part of the cultivations carried out with banana shell and cassava by the cyanide presence in the cassava and for the formation of toxic compounds in the acid hydrolysis the cellulose in banana shell. For the fermentation carried out with saccharomyces cerevisiae a concentration of ethanol of 7.92± 0.31% it is achieved and a considerable production of ethanol is not appreciated (smaller than 0.1 g/l) for none of the means fermented with zymomonas mobilis

  2. Properties of Cassava Starch Modified by Amylomaltase from Corynebacterium glutamicum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suriyakul Na Ayudhaya, Pitcha; Pongsawasdi, Piamsook; Laohasongkram, Kalaya; Chaiwanichsiri, Saiwarun

    2016-06-01

    Amylomaltase (α-1,4-glucanotransferase, AM; EC 2.4.1.25) from Corynebacterium glutamicum expressed in Escherichia coli was used to prepare the enzyme-modified cassava starch for food application. About 5% to 15% (w/v) of cassava starch slurries were incubated with 1, 3, or 5 units of amylomaltase/g starch. Apparent amylose, amylopectin chain length distribution, thermal properties, freeze-thaw stability, thermo-reversibility, and gel strength of the obtained modified starches were measured. The apparent amylose content and retrogradation enthalpy were lower, whereas the retrogradation temperatures, freeze-thaw stability, and thermo-reversibility were higher than those of the native cassava starch. However, when amylomaltase content was increased to 20 units of amylomaltase/g starch and for 24 h, the modified starch showed an improvement in the thermo-reversibility property. When used in panna cotta, the gel strength of the sample using the 20 units/24 h modified cassava starch was similar to that of using gelatin. PMID:27105125

  3. Determination of aflatoxin in processed dried cassava root

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gnonlonfin, Gbemenou Joselin Benoit; Katerere, David R.; Adjovi, Yann;

    2010-01-01

    A new method that uses HPLC with a photochemical reactor for enhanced detection was developed and validated for the determination of aflatoxins in cassava flour. Samples were spiked with a mixture of four aflatoxins at 5, 10, and 20 microg/kg mixed with either 1 or 5 g NaCI and extracted with...

  4. Sino-Swiss center for cassava technology launched in Shanghai

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    @@ Under the joint sponsorship of the Shanghai Institutes for Biological Sciences (SIBS) and Swiss Federal Institute of Technology (ETH Zurich), the Shanghai Center for Cassava Biotechnology (SCCB) has been established at the Shanghai Institute of Plant Physiology and Ecology(SIPE), SIBS.

  5. Cassava tissue culture and long-term preservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) is cultivated mainly for its starchy roots as an important staple food for the tropics. M. esculenta is the only cultivated species in the genus Manihot, which contains 98 species, mostly native to Brazil. In recent years several research groups have reported metho...

  6. Response of cassava genotypes to different micropropagation media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassava is one of the most important staple foods in the human diet in the tropics, where it ranks fourth as a source of energy, after rice, sugar cane and maize. Since it is a vegetative propagated crop, the use of in vitro propagation is very important to preserve the germplasm free of pest and di...

  7. Field experiment on transgenic cassava proves successful in South China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    @@ A pioneer study on field tests of transgenic cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) by a Sino-Swiss research consortium has proved successful. The experiment was carried out in 2006 at an experimental station in Haikou, capital of south China's Hainan Province.

  8. Quality management manual for production of high quality cassava flour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dziedzoave, Nanam Tay; Abass, Adebayo Busura; Amoa-Awua, Wisdom K.;

    The high quality cassava flour (HQCF) industry has just started to evolve in Africa and elsewhere. The sustainability of the growing industry, the profitability of small- and medium-scale enterprises (SMEs) that are active in the industry and good-health of consumers can best be guaranteed throug...

  9. Development of comprehensive medium for micropropagation of cultivated Cassava accessions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassava is one of the most important foods in the human diet in the tropics, where it ranks fifth as a source of energy, after rice, sugar cane, and maize. Since it is a vegetative propagated crop, the use of in vitro propagation is very important to preserve germplasm free of pest and diseases. M...

  10. Genome-wide association and prediction analysis in African cassava (Manihot esculenta) reveals the genetic architecture of resistance to cassava mosaic disease and prospects for rapid genetic improvement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassava (Manihot esculenta) is a crucial, under-researched crop feeding millions worldwide, especially in Africa. Cassava mosaic disease (CMD) has plagued production in Africa for over a century. Bi-parental mapping studies suggest primarily a single major gene mediates resistance. To be certain and...

  11. Labour Arrangements in Cassava Production in Oyo State, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abila, N.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The study examined the effects of labour arrangements on the profitability of cassava enterprises in Oyo North Area of Oyo State, Nigeria. A multi-stage sampling technique was adopted for data collection, while data were analysed using descriptive statistics and budgetary analysis. The results show that the prevalent labour arrangements for cassava enterprises are: a combination of Family, Hired and Contract labour (38.9%; Family-Hired labour (27.8%; Family-Contract labour (31.1%. The gross margin per hectares across labour arrangements are N279481.99 (all-labour, N286044.24 (family-hired, N216940.10 (familycontract, and N235000.00 (family only. The returns on a naira invested on variable costs across different labour arrangements for cassava enterprises are N2.04 (all-labour, N3.66 (family-hired, N2.37 (familycontract, and N2.61 (family only. This implies that a unit (N1 variable cost in the various labour arrangements of all-labour, family/hired, family/contract and family only in cassava production will yield a marginal return of N3.04, N3.66, N2.37 and N2.61 respectively. Family-hired labour arrangement yields higher marginal return per unit of manday and one naira spent than all other arrangements. The study recommends among others the application of laboursaving technologies and an optimum combination of various labour arrangements to reduce the cost of labour used in cassava production.

  12. Analyses of Twelve New Whole Genome Sequences of Cassava Brown Streak Viruses and Ugandan Cassava Brown Streak Viruses from East Africa: Diversity, Supercomputing and Evidence for Further Speciation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph Ndunguru

    Full Text Available Cassava brown streak disease is caused by two devastating viruses, Cassava brown streak virus (CBSV and Ugandan cassava brown streak virus (UCBSV which are frequently found infecting cassava, one of sub-Saharan Africa's most important staple food crops. Each year these viruses cause losses of up to $100 million USD and can leave entire families without their primary food source, for an entire year. Twelve new whole genomes, including seven of CBSV and five of UCBSV were uncovered in this research, doubling the genomic sequences available in the public domain for these viruses. These new sequences disprove the assumption that the viruses are limited by agro-ecological zones, show that current diagnostic primers are insufficient to provide confident diagnosis of these viruses and give rise to the possibility that there may be as many as four distinct species of virus. Utilizing NGS sequencing technologies and proper phylogenetic practices will rapidly increase the solution to sustainable cassava production.

  13. Analyses of Twelve New Whole Genome Sequences of Cassava Brown Streak Viruses and Ugandan Cassava Brown Streak Viruses from East Africa: Diversity, Supercomputing and Evidence for Further Speciation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ndunguru, Joseph; Sseruwagi, Peter; Tairo, Fred; Stomeo, Francesca; Maina, Solomon; Djikeng, Appolinaire; Djinkeng, Appolinaire; Kehoe, Monica; Boykin, Laura M

    2015-01-01

    Cassava brown streak disease is caused by two devastating viruses, Cassava brown streak virus (CBSV) and Ugandan cassava brown streak virus (UCBSV) which are frequently found infecting cassava, one of sub-Saharan Africa's most important staple food crops. Each year these viruses cause losses of up to $100 million USD and can leave entire families without their primary food source, for an entire year. Twelve new whole genomes, including seven of CBSV and five of UCBSV were uncovered in this research, doubling the genomic sequences available in the public domain for these viruses. These new sequences disprove the assumption that the viruses are limited by agro-ecological zones, show that current diagnostic primers are insufficient to provide confident diagnosis of these viruses and give rise to the possibility that there may be as many as four distinct species of virus. Utilizing NGS sequencing technologies and proper phylogenetic practices will rapidly increase the solution to sustainable cassava production. PMID:26439260

  14. Uncertainty in life cycle economical analysis of cassava-based ethanol fuel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LENG Ru-bo; DAI Du; CHEN Xiao-jun; WANG Cheng-tao

    2005-01-01

    Biomass ethanol fuel is not only renewable but also environmental-friendly. Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region is developing the cassava-based ethanol fuel. Economical performance of the project is the key issue.The traditional life cycle economical analysis is just a static calculation process. Uncertainty is the character of cassava yield, cost of cassava plant, cassava price, tax rate and gasoline price, and the economical performance of the project is determined by these aspects. This study proposes an economical model of cassava-based ethanol fuel. The method of Monte Carol is used to simulate the economical performance. This method conquers the shortage of the traditional way. The results show that cassava-based ethanol fuel can get survived when the tax is exempted. Finally, the study also evaluates the potential of the economical performance.

  15. Induced mutation breeding in Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) cultivar 'Bosom Nsia'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cassava is one of the most important staple food crops in the lowland tropics. In most cassava producing countries, it is mainly utilized for human consumption. Cassava leaves are a good source of protein and vitamins, and are used as food in Africa. In Ghana, 'Bosom Nsia' is one of the most widely grown cultivars probably because of its good cooking quality and fast maturation in six months. However, this cultivar is highly susceptible to cassava mosaic virus disease (CMV), hence the need to improve its resistance to the disease. Various in vitro techniques have been developed for cassava research, Klu and Lamptey reported irradiation doses of 25 and 30 Gy to be ideal for in vitro mutagenesis of cassava. These doses were applied to in vivo and in vitro mutation for breeding CMV resistance in the cultivar 'Bosom Nsia'. 6 refs

  16. Relationship of Soilborne Mycoflora of Cassava Growing Fields to Incidence of Postharvest Rots of Cassava Tubers in Sokoto, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maccido Ibrahim

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available In this study the fungi associated with cassava growing fields in Sokoto were isolated and identified using soil dilution technique. A total of 215 fungal colonies from 9 fungal species were isolated from soil samples of different cassava fields between the month of June and August, 2012. It was observed that soil samples from Lambara recorded the highest number (64 of fungal species followed by Damba and the least number (44 of fungal species was observed in Wamakko.The fungi isolated were Alternaria species, Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus fumigatus, Cylindrocarpon lichenicola, Fusarium oxysporum, Geotrichum candidum, Mucor hiemalis, Rhizopus orgyzae and Scopulariopsis candida.The highest percentage frequency of occurrence was observed in Aspergillus niger (39.5% seconded by Fusarium oxysporum (18.2% and the least was seen in Rhizopus oryzae ( 2.3%. The pathogenicity test indicated that all the fungal isolates were pathogenic on cassava tubers.The fungus M. hiemalis is the most pathogenic followed by F. oxysporum and the least was recorded by R. oryzae. Therefore, it would be concluded that there is relationship between soilborne fungi and incidence of postharvest rots of cassava tubers.

  17. Cassava about-FACE: Greater than expected yield stimulation of cassava (Manihot esculenta) by future CO2 levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    The potential for tuber crops such as cassava, yams and potatoes to enhance food security in the future is underestimated. In tuber crops there is the potential for a much higher ratio of edible to non-edible components than in above ground grain and bean crops such as rice, wheat, maize or soybean....

  18. Ipomoviruses: Squash vein yellowing virus, Cucumber vein yellowing virus, Cassava brown streak virus, and Ugandan cassava brown streak virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ipomoviruses including Squash vein yellowing virus, Cucumber vein yellowing virus and Cassava brown streak virus are currently causing significant economic impact on crop production in several regions of the world. Only recently have results of detailed characterization of their whitefly transmissi...

  19. Limitations of Cassava Bacterial Blight: New Advances Limitaciones de la bacteriosis vascular de yuca: Nuevos avances

    OpenAIRE

    Verdier Valérie; López Camilo; Restrepo Silvia

    2006-01-01

    Cassava (Manihot esculenta), a starchy root crop, constitutes the source of alimentation for over 600 million people worldwide. Cassava Bacterial Blight (CBB) is caused bythe bacterium Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. manihotis (Xam). This review will focus on the current knowledge on the molecular cassava-Xam interaction. We will present the different molecular techniques developed to assess the genetic diversity and dynamics of Xam populations. We will also present different methods developed for...

  20. Cassava stillage and its anaerobic fermentation liquid as external carbon sources in biological nutrient removal*

    OpenAIRE

    Bu, Fan; Hu, Xiang; Xie, Li; Zhou, Qi

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of one kind of food industry effluent, cassava stillage and its anaerobic fermentation liquid, on biological nutrient removal (BNR) from municipal wastewater in anaerobic-anoxic-aerobic sequencing batch reactors (SBRs). Experiments were carried out with cassava stillage supernatant and its anaerobic fermentation liquid, and one pure compound (sodium acetate) served as an external carbon source. Cyclic studies indicated that the cassava by-p...

  1. Physiological and molecular characterization of drought responses and identification of candidate tolerance genes in cassava

    OpenAIRE

    Turyagyenda, Laban F.; Kizito, Elizabeth B.; Ferguson, Morag; Baguma, Yona; Agaba, Morris; Jagger J W Harvey; Osiru, David S. O.

    2013-01-01

    Cassava is an important root crop to resource-poor farmers in marginal areas, where its production faces drought stress constraints. Given the difficulties associated with cassava breeding, a molecular understanding of drought tolerance in cassava will help in the identification of markers for use in marker-assisted selection and genes for transgenic improvement of drought tolerance. This study was carried out to identify candidate drought-tolerance genes and expression-based markers of droug...

  2. SACCHARIFICATION OF NATIVE CASSAVA STARCH AT HIGH DRY SOLIDS IN AN ENZYMATIC MEMBRANE REACTOR

    OpenAIRE

    I Nyoman Widiasa; I Gede Wenten

    2012-01-01

    This study is aimed to develop a novel process scheme for hydrolysis of native cassava starch at high dry solids using an enzymatic membrane reactor (EMR). Firstly, liquefied cassava starch having solids content up to 50% by weight was prepared by three stage liquefactions in a conventional equipment using a commercially available heat stable a-amylase (Termamyl 120L). The liquefied cassava starch was further saccharified in an EMR using glucoamylase (AMG E). By using the developed process sc...

  3. Thermoanalytical and starch content evaluation of cassava bagasse as agro-industrial residue

    OpenAIRE

    Luiz Gustavo Lacerda; Rafael Ramires Almeida; Ivo Mottin Demiate; Marco Aurélio Silva Carvalho Filho; Eliane Carvalho Vasconcelos; Adenise Lorenci Woiciechowski; Gilbert Bannach; Egon Schnitzler; Carlos Ricardo Soccol

    2009-01-01

    Starch nutritional fractions as well as thermal properties and other analysis are essential for food and industrial application. Cassava bagasse is an important agro-industrial residue and its starch content was evaluated using two alternative methods. Thermal characterization and microscopy analyses helped to understand how hydrolysis digests starchy fraction of cassava bagasse. The melting point of cassava starch occurred at 169.2ºC. Regarding TG analyses, after moisture content, there were...

  4. Effect of carboxymethyl cellulose concentration on physical properties of biodegradable cassava starch-based films

    OpenAIRE

    Sriburi Pensiri; Wongruong Sasitorn; Mauer Lisa J; Tongdeesoontorn Wirongrong; Rachtanapun Pornchai

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Cassava starch, the economically important agricultural commodity in Thailand, can readily be cast into films. However, the cassava starch film is brittle and weak, leading to inadequate mechanical properties. The properties of starch film can be improved by adding plasticizers and blending with the other biopolymers. Results Cassava starch (5%w/v) based films plasticized with glycerol (30 g/100 g starch) were characterized with respect to the effect of carboxymethyl cellu...

  5. False beliefs on the socio-economic drivers of cassava cropping

    OpenAIRE

    Fermont, van, A.M.; Babirye, A.; Obiero, H.M.; Abele, S; Giller, K.E.

    2010-01-01

    General belief has it that cassava is (i) a subsistence crop, grown to avoid hunger (ii) by poor farmers, (iii) predominantly as an intercrop, (iv) requiring less labour than other crops and (v) no inputs. These beliefs influence policy, project development and implementation, and if wrong, may have far-reaching consequences for the success and sustainability of interventions. This study examines five beliefs about cassava and discusses consequences for interventions targeting cassava. From 2...

  6. A crop of one's own? Women’s experiences of cassava commercialization in Nigeria and Malawi

    OpenAIRE

    Forsythe, Lora; Posthumus, Helena; Martin, Adrienne

    2016-01-01

    Improving the effectiveness of agricultural markets for economic growth and poverty reduction has been a central focus for development initiatives, particularly in Sub-Saharan Africa. Staple crops with low input requirements and drought tolerance, such as cassava, are being promoted for market development due to their accessibility for poor smallholder farmers. Narratives often equate commercialization of cassava to benefits for women, as cassava is commonly labelled a ‘women’s crop’. However...

  7. Fermentation Methods for Protein Enrichment of Cassava and Corn with Candida tropicalis

    OpenAIRE

    Azoulay, Edgard; Jouanneau, Françoise; Bertrand, Jean-Claude; Raphael, Alain; Janssens, Jacques; LEBEAULT, Jean Michel

    1980-01-01

    Candida tropicalis grows on soluble starch, corn, and cassava powders without requiring that these substrates be previously hydrolyzed. C. tropicalis possesses the enzyme needed to hydrolyze starch, namely, an α-amylase. That property has been used to develop a fermentation process whereby C. tropicalis can be grown directly on corn or cassava powders so that the resultant mixture of biomass and residual corn or cassava contains about 20% protein, which represents a balanced diet for either a...

  8. Kinetics of the solid state fermentation of raw cassava flour by Rhizopus formosa 28422

    OpenAIRE

    Rodriguez-Leon, J.A.; Stertz, S.C.; Soccol, S.R.; Raimbault, Maurice

    1998-01-01

    The strain #Rhizopus formosa$ 28422 was selected from the stock of ten strains from genera #Rhizopus$, for their capacity to attack raw cassava starch by solid substrate fermentation and showed the highest growth in this substrate. The optimal substrate composition, estimated by surface response design experiments, was 10% cassava bagasse, 10% soybean flour and 80% cassava flour. Optimal fermentation conditions were temperature, 32°C, moisture, 64%, initial pH, 6.5 and inoculum rate, 10exp6 s...

  9. Effects of Processing on the Chemical and Anti-nutritional Properties of Cassava Roots

    OpenAIRE

    Omosuli SV

    2014-01-01

    The nutritive and antinutritive composition of cassava roots (raw and boiled) was investigated. The proximate composition of raw and boiled cassava tubers was not significantly different (P> 0.05), except in moisture, fat, carbohydrate and Energy value. High levels of the antinutrients in raw cassava tubers (20.56mg/100g Tannins; 1,16mg/100g oxalate and 3.36mg/100g phytate) make them unsafe and unsuitable for human consumption except after processing. Mineral contents of cassava tubers were n...

  10. Promoting Cassava as an Industrial Crop in Ghana: Effects on Soil Fertility and Farming System Sustainability

    OpenAIRE

    Adjei-Nsiah, S.; Owuraku Sakyi-Dawson

    2012-01-01

    Cassava is an important starchy staple crop in Ghana with per capita consumption of 152.9 kg/year. Besides being a staple food crop, cassava can be used as raw material for the production of industrial starch and ethanol. The potential of cassava as an industrial commercial crop has not been exploited to a large extent because of perceptions that cassava depletes soils. Recent finding from field studies in the forest/savannah transitional agroecological zone of Ghana indicates that when integ...

  11. Molecular Evidence for the Association of a Strain of Uganda Variant of East African Cassava Mosaic Virus to Symptom Severity in Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) Fields in Togo

    OpenAIRE

    K. D. Adjata; Muller, E; Peterschmitt, M.; Traore, O; Y. M.D. Gumedzoe

    2009-01-01

    Problem statement: This study was carried out to demonstrate that the severity of Cassava Mosaic Disease (CMD) in Togo, is not only influenced by synergism between cassava Begomoviruses in presence, but essentially by recombination between the different Begomoviruses infecting cassava. Approach: Foliar samples presenting typical biological features of Begomoviruses infection were collected from cassava and wild infected plants from different regions of Togo and analysed by PCR targeting the C...

  12. Natural variation in expression of genes associated with biosynthesis and accumulation in cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) storage root

    Science.gov (United States)

    Several groups have reported on massive accumulation of total carotenoids in cassava storage root (CSR). Naturally occurring color variation associated with carotenoid accumulation was observed in cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) storage root of landraces from Amazon. Here carotenoid profiles from...

  13. Effects of Climate Change on the Production and Profitability of Cassava in the Niger Delta Region of Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Ajayi, J. O.

    2015-01-01

    Nigeria is the single largest producer of cassava in the world with the bulk of the cassava coming out from the Niger Delta region. Human, economic and agricultural activities are currently threatened in the region by vagaries in climatic factors. These vagaries affect the production and profitability of cassava. The study was therefore conducted to assess the effects of climate change on the production and profitability of cassava in the Niger Delta region of Nigeria. The study made use of a...

  14. Cloning of a peroxidase gene from cassava with potential as a molecular marker for resistance to bacterial blight

    OpenAIRE

    Luiz Filipe Pereira; Goodwin, Paul H.; Larry Erickson

    2003-01-01

    Cassava bacterial blight (CBB), caused by Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. manihotis, is considered one of the most important bacterial diseases of cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz). In order to characterize the cassava genes involved in resistance to this disease, a genomic clone of a cationic peroxidase gene, MEPX1, was isolated by PCR from cassava cultivar MCOL 22. The DNA sequence of MEPX1 showed high homology with other plant peroxidase genes and contained a large intron typical of peroxidase...

  15. Transcriptome Analysis Using a High-Density Oligomicroarray under Drought Stress in Various Genotypes of Cassava: An Important Tropical Crop

    OpenAIRE

    Utsumi, Yoshinori; Tanaka, Maho; Morosawa, Taeko; Kurotani, Atsushi; Yoshida, Takuhiro; Mochida, Keiichi; Matsui, Akihiro; Umemura, Yoshimi; Ishitani, Manabu; Shinozaki, Kazuo; Sakurai, Tetsuya; Seki, Motoaki

    2012-01-01

    Cassava is an important crop that provides food security and income generation in many tropical countries and is known for its adaptability to various environmental conditions. Despite its global importance, the development of cassava microarray tools has not been well established. Here, we describe the development of a 60-mer oligonucleotide Agilent microarray representing ∼20 000 cassava genes and how it can be applied to expression profiling under drought stress using three cassava genotyp...

  16. RESOURCE UTILIZATION BEHAVIOUR OF CASSAVA PRODUCERS IN EPE AREA OF LAGOS STATE: STOCHASTIC FRONTIER PRODUCTION FUNCTION APPROACH

    OpenAIRE

    Ogunbameru, A.; Okeowo, T.A.

    2013-01-01

    The Stochastic frontier production function was used to assess the technical efficiency of cassava production in Epe Area of Lagos State, Nigeria. Results show that cassava farmers in the study area experienced increasing positive return-to-scale (2.2675. The study also reveals that a significant relationship exists between farm size, labour, planting materials, cost of other input and cassava output in the study area. Cassava farmers with large farmers are found to have higher net farm incom...

  17. Comparison of three cyanogen assays for total cyanogens in cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saka, J.D.K.; Mhone, A.R.K.; Brimer, Leon

    1997-01-01

    The sensitivity and reproducibility of three methods for determining the total cyanogenic potential (CNp) of 7 fresh and processed cassava varieties were determined and compared. The total cyanogen content of fresh cassava roots and three cassava products (kondowole, makaka, and starch) were anal...

  18. Factors Influencing Rural Women Cassava Processors' Intention to Participate in an Agricultural Extension Education Program. Summary of Research 80.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ojomo, Christian O.; McCaslin, N. L.

    A study examined factors influencing female cassava processors' intentions regarding participation in an extension education program on cassava processing in rural Nigeria. Interviews were conducted with 224 women who were purposely selected from areas of zone 3 of Ondo State, Nigeria, which has large concentrations of cassava processors.…

  19. Assessing the potential of biofortified cassava for improving indices of vitamin A status: Update on human studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassava usually contains essentially no beta-carotene (BC). However, cassava is being bred to increase its BC content. Our objective was to test how effective biofortified cassava is at increasing serum BC and vitamin A (VA) concentrations in healthy adult women. Ten American women participated in ...

  20. Analysis of cassava (Manihot esculenta) ESTs: A tool for the discovery of genes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cassava (Manihot esculenta) is the main source of calories for more than 1,000 millions of people around the world and has been consolidated as the fourth most important crop after rice, corn and wheat. Cassava is considered tolerant to abiotic and biotic stress conditions; nevertheless these characteristics are mainly present in non-commercial varieties. Genetic breeding strategies represent an alternative to introduce the desirable characteristics into commercial varieties. A fundamental step for accelerating the genetic breeding process in cassava requires the identification of genes associated to these characteristics. One rapid strategy for the identification of genes is the possibility to have a large collection of ESTs (expressed sequence tag). In this study, a complete analysis of cassava ESTs was done. The cassava ESTs represent 80,459 sequences which were assembled in a set of 29,231 unique genes (unigen), comprising 10,945 contigs and 18,286 singletones. These 29,231 unique genes represent about 80% of the genes of the cassava's genome. Between 5% and 10% of the unigenes of cassava not show similarity to any sequences present in the NCBI database and could be consider as cassava specific genes. a functional category was assigned to a group of sequences of the unigen set (29%) following the Gene Ontology Vocabulary. the molecular function component was the best represented with 43% of the sequences, followed by the biological process component (38%) and finally the cellular component with 19%. in the cassava ESTs collection, 3,709 microsatellites were identified and they could be used as molecular markers. this study represents an important contribution to the knowledge of the functional genomic structure of cassava and constitutes an important tool for the identification of genes associated to agricultural characteristics of interest that could be employed in cassava breeding programs.

  1. Comparative analysis of virus-derived small RNAs within cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) infected with cassava brown streak viruses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogwok, Emmanuel; Ilyas, Muhammad; Alicai, Titus; Rey, Marie E.C.; Taylor, Nigel J.

    2016-01-01

    Infection of plant cells by viral pathogens triggers RNA silencing, an innate antiviral defense mechanism. In response to infection, small RNAs (sRNAs) are produced that associate with Argonaute (AGO)-containing silencing complexes which act to inactivate viral genomes by posttranscriptional gene silencing (PTGS). Deep sequencing was used to compare virus-derived small RNAs (vsRNAs) in cassava genotypes NASE 3, TME 204 and 60444 infected with the positive sense single-stranded RNA (+ssRNA) viruses cassava brown streak virus (CBSV) and Ugandan cassava brown streak virus (UCBSV), the causal agents of cassava brown streak disease (CBSD). An abundance of 21–24 nt vsRNAs was detected and mapped, covering the entire CBSV and UCBSV genomes. The 21 nt vsRNAs were most predominant, followed by the 22 nt class with a slight bias toward sense compared to antisense polarity, and a bias for adenine and uracil bases present at the 5′-terminus. Distribution and frequency of vsRNAs differed between cassava genotypes and viral genomes. In susceptible genotypes TME 204 and 60444, CBSV-derived sRNAs were seen in greater abundance than UCBSV-derived sRNAs. NASE 3, known to be resistant to UCBSV, accumulated negligible UCBSV-derived sRNAs but high populations of CBSV-derived sRNAs. Transcript levels of cassava homologues of AGO2, DCL2 and DCL4, which are central to the gene-silencing complex, were found to be differentially regulated in CBSV- and UCBSV-infected plants across genotypes, suggesting these proteins play a role in antiviral defense. Irrespective of genotype or viral pathogen, maximum populations of vsRNAs mapped to the cytoplasmic inclusion, P1 and P3 protein-encoding regions. Our results indicate disparity between CBSV and UCBSV host-virus interaction mechanisms, and provide insight into the role of virus-induced gene silencing as a mechanism of resistance to CBSD. PMID:26811902

  2. NOTE - Genetic variability among cassava accessions based on SSR markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcia de Nazaré Oliveira Ribeiro

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to characterize and estimate the genetic similarity among 93 cassava accessions. The DNAamplification was performed with 14 microsatellite primers. The amplification products were separated by a polyacrylamide gelelectrophoresis, showing a polymorphism formation, through which the accessions were discriminated against. The genetic similarityamong accessions of cassava was estimated by the Dice coefficient. Cluster analysis was carried out using the UPGMA method. Thepolymorphic primers amplified a total of 26 alleles with 2-4 alleles per loci. The genetic similarity ranged from 0.16 to 0.96. Theaverage values for observed and expected heterozygosity were 0.18 and 0.46, respectively. Twenty genetic similarity clusters weredetermined, demonstrating diversity among accessions, suggesting the possibility of heterotic hybrid generation.

  3. Sustainable Process Design of Biofuels: Bioethanol Production from Cassava rhizome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mangnimit, S.; Malakul, P.; Gani, Rafiqul

    2013-01-01

    This study is focused on the sustainable process design of bioethanol production from cassava rhizome. The study includes: process simulation, sustainability analysis, economic evaluation and life cycle assessment (LCA). A steady state process simulation if performed to generate a base case design........ Also, simultaneously with sustainability analysis, the life cycle impact on environment associated with bioethanol production is performed. Finally, candidate alternative designs are generated and compared with the base case design in terms of LCA, economics, waste, energy usage and enviromental impact...... of the bioethanol conversion process using cassava rhizome as a feedstock. The sustainability analysis is performed to analyze the relevant indicators in sustainability metrics, to definedesign/retrofit targets for process improvements. Economic analysis is performed to evaluate the profitability of the process...

  4. Antioxidant Phenolic Compounds of Cassava (Manihot esculenta from Hainan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haofu Dai

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available An activity-directed fractionation and purification process was used to isolate antioxidant components from cassava stems produced in Hainan. The ethyl acetate and n-butanol fractions showed greater DPPH˙and ABTS·+ scavenging activities than other fractions. The ethyl acetate fraction was subjected to column chromatography, to yield ten phenolic compounds: Coniferaldehyde (1, isovanillin (2, 6-deoxyjacareubin (3, scopoletin (4, syringaldehyde (5, pinoresinol (6, p-coumaric acid (7, ficusol (8, balanophonin (9 and ethamivan (10, which possess significant antioxidant activities. The relative order of DPPH· scavenging capacity for these compounds was ascorbic acid (reference > 6 > 1 > 8 > 10 > 9 > 3 > 4 > 7 > 5 > 2, and that of ABTS·+ scavenging capacity was 5 > 7 > 1 > 10 > 4 > 6 > 8 > 2 > Trolox (reference compound > 3 > 9. The results showed that these phenolic compounds contributed to the antioxidant activity of cassava.

  5. Fermentation protocols for the nutritive upgrading and detoxification of cassava

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper outlines common recommended procedures to be followed by those working in the area to facilitate the comparison of the results obtained. The report contains the wide spectrum of recommendations towards (i) the methods of preliminary preparation fo the cassava root for further fermentation reprocessing; (ii) optimization of the environmental parameters of the fermentation process, including pretreatment manipulations, moisture content, pH, temperature, aeration, form/size of inoculum, etc., (iii) optimization of the incubation time and selecting the fermentation systems and (iv) the analytical and quality control aspects. Some problems connected with the use of exogenous nitrogen sources to enhance the protein/aminoacid synthesis (supplementation of the fermenting mash with inorganic nitrogen salts, yeast extracts, indigenous sources of vegetable/animal nature, nitrogen fixing bacteria, etc.) are discussed and considered depending on their cost and effectiveness. Concerns about the safety aspects possibly arising from the alteration of the traditional practice of the cassava fermentation are also reported. (author)

  6. Improvement of cassava cooking quality through mutation breeding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Many high-yielding cassava varieties do not have the desired cooking quality. The objective of this project was to induce mutations to produce varieties with improved cooking quality while maintaining the disease-resistance and high-yielding characteristics. A cassava mutant (ISU-W) was obtained after irradiation of a variety from IITA with gamma rays and selection. Cuttings of the mutant were grown for 12 months in a field trial and investigated for tuber yield and cooking quality. Pest and disease incidence were monitored during the entire growth period. The results showed that the mutant retained the high-yield and disease resistant characters of the parent, and had improved cooking quality based on increased smoothness, mealiness and elasticity of the flour. (author). 7 refs, 5 tabs

  7. Study of cassava starch enzymatic modification for maltodextrins obtention

    OpenAIRE

    Miguel Angel Díaz; María Isabel Filella; Velásquez, Mario E.

    2012-01-01

    It was pretended to investigate the effect of the most relevant variables in cassava starch enzymatic hydrolysis process, on laboratory scale, to determine appropriate industrial conditions for the obtention of different kinds of maltodextrins. An a-Amylase enzyme, from genetically modified strain of Bacillus lichenijormis, was used to hydrolize the starch. Once the variables were chosen, an experimental fractioned factorial design was established with two levels. The Dextrose Equivalent (DE)...

  8. Use of Cassava Starch Waste as Adjoined of Covering Mortar

    OpenAIRE

    Eliane Hermes; Patrícia Gracieli Zembrzuski Pelissari; Djuliano Paz; Luana Boron; Carlos Alberto Mucelin

    2010-01-01

    This work aimed to study the reuse of the residual fiber of the cassava as material excels in civil construction, as adjoined of covering mortar. The waste used was obtained from an industry located in Missal - Paraná. Four different treatments were applied with 0, 10, 20 and 30% of fiber adding, assessing the mechanical and physical performance with respect to compression resistance, water retention, mass density, incorporated air content and retraction test. The compression resistance test ...

  9. Antioxidant Phenolic Compounds of Cassava (Manihot esculenta) from Hainan

    OpenAIRE

    Haofu Dai; Ying Luo; Hui Wang; Kaibing Zhou; Wenli Mei; Bo Yi; Lifei Hu; Xiaoyi Wei

    2011-01-01

    An activity-directed fractionation and purification process was used to isolate antioxidant components from cassava stems produced in Hainan. The ethyl acetate and n-butanol fractions showed greater DPPH˙and ABTS·+ scavenging activities than other fractions. The ethyl acetate fraction was subjected to column chromatography, to yield ten phenolic compounds: Coniferaldehyde (1), isovanillin (2), 6-deoxyjacareubin (3), scopoletin (4), syringaldehyde (5), pinoresinol (6), p-coumaric acid (7), fic...

  10. Modification of Foamed Articles Based on Cassava Starch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work reports the influence of radiation, plasticizers and poly vinyl alcohol (PVA) on the barrier properties [water vapour permeability (WVP)) and mechanical properties (tensile strength and elongation; compression resistance and flexibility) of foamed articles based on cassava starch. The starch foam was obtained by thermopressing process. Poly ethylene glycol (PEG, 300) was selected as plasticizer and water was necessary for the preparation of the foams. The foamed articles based on cassava starch were irradiated at low doses of 2 and 5 kGy, commonly used in food irradiation. The mechanical properties of starch foams are influenced by the plasticizer concentration and by irradiation dose. An increase in PEG content showed a considerable increase in elongation percentage and a decrease in the tensile strength of the foams; also increase the permeability of the foams in water. After irradiation, the barrier properties and mechanical properties of the foams were improved due to chemical reactions among polymer molecules. Irradiated starch cassava foams with poly vinyl alcohol (PVA) have good flexibility and low water permeability. WVP can be reduced by low doses of gamma radiation

  11. Acid whey powder modification of gari from cassava

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okezie, B.O.; Kosikowski, F.V.

    1981-01-01

    Gari, a staple food consumed in Nigeria, is made from peeled and ground cassava tubers. The ground material is pressed with a stone slab for 2-4 days to remove moisture, and the partially fermented product is then baked over an open fire. Since gari mainly contributes energy to the diet, attempts were made to develop a more nutritious product without altering organoleptic and textural properties. In laboratory tests, ground cassava was fermented in stainless steel cheese vats for 4 days (to produce gari flavour) and then partially dehydrated by pressing in cheese cloth. A reduction in HCN content from 6.2 to 3.4 mg/100 g resulted. Various combinations of spray-dried acid whey, soya protein and freeze-dried Candida tropicalis were added to the fermented cassava, which was then pressure-cooked for 10 minutes at 121 degrees Celcius, dried and ground in a hammer mill. Product (i), made with gari fortified with 15% soya concentrate and 5% dried acid whey, was as acceptable as traditional gari and had a protein score of 75.8 vs. 9.91 for traditional gari. Product (ii), gari fortified with 20% yeast and 10% dried acid whey, had significantly lower scores for flavour and texture than traditional gari and the protein score was only 29.45. Supplementing gari with relatively inexpensive whey concentrates appears to be a means of overcoming protein energy malnutrition in children.

  12. Stability of cassava flour-based food bars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erica Caroline da Silva

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The consumption of Brazilian cassava has been reduced due to a lack of adjustment to the modern lifestyle. To reverse this trend, new products could be developed specifically targeted to high-value niche markets. Cereal bars stand out as fast food high in nutritional value. A bar formula mimicking cereal bars was prepared using a mixture of Brazilian cassava flour, hydrogenated vegetable fat, dried bananas, ground cashew nuts, and glucose syrup. After being pressed, the bars were dried for 1 hour at 65 °C, packaged in films, and stored under ambient conditions. Its stability was continuously monitored for 210 days in order to ensure its safety and enable its introduction to the market. Texture loss was observed in the packed bars after 90 days of storage, but the sensory characteristics allowed the testers to perceive this tendency after only 30 days of storage. However, chemical, physical, and microbial analyses confirmed that the bars were safe for consumption for 180 days. The results showed that a 45 g cassava flour-based bar enriched with nuts and dried fruits can meet 6% of the recommended daily fiber intake with a caloric value between that of the common cereal bar and that of an energy bar. Adapting the formula with ingredients (fruits, nuts from different regions of Brazil may add value to this traditional product as a fast food.

  13. Cassava Market Participation Decisions of Producing Households in Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enete, AA.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Cassava is a basic staple and a major source of farm income for the people of sub-Saharan Africa. Efficiency in cassava marketing therefore becomes a very important determinant of both consumer's living cost and producer's income. At the farmer's level, which is the beginning of the marketing chain, food must produced in reasonable quantity to attract enough market participants that will make for efficient distribution. The use of food price policy to stimulate short-run marketed surplus of producing households has often been questioned. This is because some households are deficit producers who purchase crops they also produce. Increasing producer prices will therefore have adverse distributional effects on food buying, while bypassing autarkic households. An alternative would therefore be to find non-price strategic variables that motivate farm households to participate in commodity markets. This is the objective of this paper. The paper is based on primary data collected within the framework by the collaborative study of cassava in Africa (COSCA. Good market access conditions, improved market information especially on prices, the production of granules instead of dried roots or pastes increased market participation for sellers, while rising grain prices, younger and less educated heads of households encouraged participation for buyers.

  14. Emergy analysis of cassava-based fuel ethanol in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Emergy analysis considers both energy quality and energy used in the past, and compensates for the inability of money to value non-market inputs in an objective manner. Its common unit allows all resources to be compared on a fair basis. As feedstock for fuel ethanol, cassava has some advantages over other feedstocks. The production system of cassava-based fuel ethanol (CFE) was evaluated by emergy analysis. The emergy indices for the system of cassava-based fuel ethanol (CFE) are as follows: transformity is 1.10 E + 5 sej/J, EYR is 1.07, ELR is 2.55, RER is 0.28, and ESI is 0.42. Compared with the emergy indices of wheat ethanol and corn ethanol, CFE is the most sustainable. CFE is a good alternative to substitute for oil in China. Non-renewable purchased emergy accounts for 71.15% of the whole input emergy. The dependence on non-renewable energy increases environmental degradation, making the system less sustainable relative to systems more dependent on renewable energies. For sustainable development, it is vital to reduce the consumption of non-renewable energy in the production of CFE. (author)

  15. Characters related to higher starch accumulation in cassava storage roots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, You-Zhi; Zhao, Jian-Yu; Wu, San-Min; Fan, Xian-Wei; Luo, Xing-Lu; Chen, Bao-Shan

    2016-01-01

    Cassava (Manihot esculenta) is valued mainly for high content starch in its roots. Our understanding of mechanisms promoting high starch accumulation in the roots is, however, still very limited. Two field-grown cassava cultivars, Huanan 124(H124) with low root starch and Fuxuan 01(F01) with high root starch, were characterised comparatively at four main growth stages. Changes in key sugars in the leaves, stems and roots seemed not to be strongly associated with the final amount of starch accumulated in the roots. However, when compared with H124, F01 exhibited a more compact arrangement of xylem vascular bundles in the leaf axils, much less callose around the phloem sieve plates in the stems, higher starch synthesis-related enzymatic activity but lower amylase activity in the roots, more significantly up-regulated expression of related genes, and a much higher stem flow rate (SFR). In conclusion, higher starch accumulation in the roots results from the concurrent effects of powerful stem transport capacity highlighted by higher SFR, high starch synthesis but low starch degradation in the roots, and high expression of sugar transporter genes in the stems. A model of high starch accumulation in cassava roots was therefore proposed and discussed. PMID:26892156

  16. Emergy analysis of cassava-based fuel ethanol in China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Hui; Chen, Li; Yan, Zongcheng; Wang, Honglin [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou, Guangdong 510640 (China)

    2011-01-15

    Emergy analysis considers both energy quality and energy used in the past, and compensates for the inability of money to value non-market inputs in an objective manner. Its common unit allows all resources to be compared on a fair basis. As feedstock for fuel ethanol, cassava has some advantages over other feedstocks. The production system of cassava-based fuel ethanol (CFE) was evaluated by emergy analysis. The emergy indices for the system of cassava-based fuel ethanol (CFE) are as follows: transformity is 1.10 E + 5 sej/J, EYR is 1.07, ELR is 2.55, RER is 0.28, and ESI is 0.42. Compared with the emergy indices of wheat ethanol and corn ethanol, CFE is the most sustainable. CFE is a good alternative to substitute for oil in China. Non-renewable purchased emergy accounts for 71.15% of the whole input emergy. The dependence on non-renewable energy increases environmental degradation, making the system less sustainable relative to systems more dependent on renewable energies. For sustainable development, it is vital to reduce the consumption of non-renewable energy in the production of CFE. (author)

  17. Characterization of different cassava samples by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cassava root (Manihot esculenta Crantz) is grown in all Brazilian states, being an important product in the diet of Brazilians. For many families of the North and Northeast states, it may represent the main energy source. The cassava root flour has high levels of starch, in addition to containing fiber, lipids and some minerals. There is, however, great genetic variability, which results in differentiation in its chemical composition and structural aspect. Motivated by the economic, nutritional and pharmacological importance of this product, this work is aimed at characterizing six cassava flour samples by NMR spectroscopy. The spectra revealed the main chemical groups. Furthermore, the results confirmed differences on chemical and structural aspect of the samples. For instance, the F1 sample is richer in carbohydrates, while the F4 sample has higher proportion of glycolipids, the F2 sample has higher amylose content and the F6 sample exhibits a greater diversity of glycolipid types. Regarding the molecular structure, the NMR spectra indicated that the F1 sample is more organized at the molecular level, while the F3 and F5 samples are similar in amorphicity and in the molecular packing. (author)

  18. Optimization of enzymatic hydrolysis of cassava to obtain fermentable sugars

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Renata M. COLLARES; Luiza V. S. MIKLASEVICIUS; Mariana M. BASSACO; Nina P. G. SALAU; Marcio A. MAZUTTI; Dilson A. BISOGNIN; Lisiane M. TERRA

    2012-01-01

    This work evaluates the enzymatic hydrolysis of starch from cassava using pectinase,α-amylase,and amyloglucosidase.A central composite rotational design (CCRD) was carried out to evaluate the effects of amyloglucosidase,pectinase,reaction time,and solid to liquid ratio.All the experiments were carried out in a bioreactor with working volume of 2 L.Approximately 98% efficiency hydrolysis was obtained,resulting in a concentration of total reducing sugar released of 160 g/L.It was concluded that pectinase improved the hydrolysis of starch from cassava.Reaction time was found to be significant until 7 h of reaction.A solid to liquid ratio of 1.0 was considered suitable for hydrolysis of starch from cassava.Amyloglucosidase was a significant variable in the process:after its addition to the reaction media,a 30%-50% increase in the amount of total reducing sugar released was observed.At optimal conditions the maximum productivity obtained was 22.9 g/(L·h).

  19. Exploring the potential of cassava in promoting agricultural growth in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanzidur Rahman

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Cassava is one of the major food crops in Nigeria, with multiple uses from human consumption to industrial applications. This study explores the potential of cassava in Nigerian agriculture based on a review of cassava development policies; performs a trend analysis of the cultivation area, production, productivity, and real price of cassava and other competing crops for the period 1961–2013; identifies the sources of growth in production; and examines the production constraints at the local level based on a survey of 315 farmers/processors and 105 marketers from Delta State. The results revealed that several policies and programmes were implemented to develop the cassava sector with mixed outcomes. Although cassava productivity grew at 1.5% per annum (p.a. during the post-structural adjustment programme period (1993–2013, its real price declined at a rate of 3.5% p.a. The effect of yield is the main source of growth in production, contributing 76.4% of the total growth followed by the area effect (28.2%. The cassava sector is constrained by inadequate market infrastructure, processing facilities, and lack of information and unstable prices at the local level. The widespread diffusion of improved tropical manioc selection technologies and investments in market and marketing infrastructure, processing technologies, irrigation/water provision and information dissemination are recommended to enhance the potential of the cassava sector to support agricultural growth in Nigeria.

  20. Isolation and characterisation of starch biosynthesis genes from cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz).

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Munyikwa, T.R.I.

    1997-01-01

    Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) is a tropical crop grown for its starchy thickened roots, mainly by peasant farmers, in the tropics, for whom it is a staple food. There is an increasing demand for the use of cassava in processed food and feed products, and in the paper and textile industries amon

  1. Expanding the Application of Cassava Value Chain Technologies Through UPoCA Project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Braima Dama James

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Cassava can play a key role in rural economic growth in Africa, but are we there yet? Cassava varieties with 50% more yielding potential and technologies to boost processing and marketing of cassava are available. However, the sub-sector is constrained by low productivity and marketing difficulties. In 2008, USAID and IITA initiated the project “Unleashing the Power of Cassava in Response to Food Price Crisis (UPOCA as a multi-country and inter-institutional partnership enabling cassava sub-sectors to realize their full potential in rural economies. By end 2009, small holder beneficiaries associated with 55 partner organizations and 11 agricultural related firms established 306 community cassava stem multiplication sites and root production farms totalling 10,097ha with 58 improved varieties. Through experiential learning, 345 men and 142 women learnt improved techniques in cassava production, processing, product development, and packaging/labelling. The evolving achievements show that a longer-term cassava R4D partnership platform of this nature will enable the sub-sector to contribute significantly to rural economic growth in Africa.

  2. Genetic mapping using genotyping-by-sequencing in the clonally-propagated cassava

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassava (Manihot esculenta L.) is one of the most important food crops in the tropics, but yields are far below their potential. The gene-pool of cassava contains natural genetic diversity relevant to many important breeding goals, but breeding progress has been slow, partly due to insufficient geno...

  3. The retail market for fresh cassava root tubers in the European Union (EU)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kolind-Hansen, Lotte; Brimer, Leon

    2010-01-01

    A number of retail shops in Copenhagen sell fresh cassava roots. Cassava roots contain the toxic cyanogenic glucoside linamarin. A survey was made of the shop characteristics, origin of the roots, buyers, shop owner's knowledge of toxicity levels, and actual toxicity levels....

  4. Gene-based Microsatellites for Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz): Prevalence, Polymorphisms, and Cross-taxa Utility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz), a starchy root crop grown in tropical and subtropical climates, is the sixth most important crop in the world after wheat, rice, maize, potato and barley. The repertoire of simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers for cassava is limited and warrants a need for a large...

  5. Microbiological and Biochemical Characterization of Cassava Retting, a Traditional Lactic Acid Fermentation for Foo-Foo (Cassava Flour) Production

    OpenAIRE

    Brauman, A.; Keleke, S.; Malonga, M.; Miambi, E.; Ampe, F

    1996-01-01

    The overall kinetics of retting, a spontaneous fermentation of cassava roots performed in central Africa, was investigated in terms of microbial-population evolution and biochemical and physicochemical parameters. During the traditional process, endogenous cyanogens were almost totally degraded, plant cell walls were lysed by the simultaneous action of pectin methylesterase and pectate lysate, and organic acids (C2 to C4) were produced. Most microorganisms identified were found to be facultat...

  6. Biorefinery approach for cassava-based industrial wastes: Current status and opportunities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ming; Xie, Li; Yin, Zhixuan; Khanal, Samir Kumar; Zhou, Qi

    2016-09-01

    Cassava, an important food crop, has been extensively employed as raw materials for various agri-industries to produce starch, bioethanol and other biobased products/chemicals. These cassava-based industries also generate large quantities of wastes/residues, rich in organic matter and suspended solids, and pose significant environmental issues. Their complex biochemical composition with high organic content endows them with a great potential for bioconversion into value-added products via biorefinery thereby providing economic and environmental sustainability to cassava industries. This state-of-the-art review covers the source, composition and characteristics of cassava industrial wastes and residues, and their bioconversion into value-added products, mainly biofuels (ethanol and butanol), biogas, biosurfactant, organic acids and other valuable biochemicals among others. This paper also outlines future perspectives with respect to developing more effective and efficient bioconversion processes for converting the cassava wastes and residues into high-value products. PMID:27117291

  7. Simultaneous saccharification and fermentation of cassava to succinic acid by Escherichia coli NZN111.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Cuixia; Ding, Shaopeng; Wang, Dezheng; Li, Zhimin; Ye, Qin

    2014-07-01

    In this study, the production of succinic acid from cassava starch and raw cassava instead of glucose by Escherichia coli NZN111 was investigated. During the two-stage fermentation, simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) was applied in the anaerobic stage. The results showed that both the productivity and specific productivity in the process conducted at 40°C were higher than those in the cultivation conducted at 37°C. The yield of succinic acid based on the amount of added starch reached the highest level 0.86 g/g and cassava starch was almost totally hydrolyzed in the SSF process. With the improved cell density, 127.13 g/L of succinic acid was obtained. When the liquefied crude cassava powder was used directly in SSF, 106.17 g/L of succinic acid was formed. The result showed that crude cassava powder could be another cheap raw material for succinic acid formation. PMID:24787322

  8. Optimizing The Use of Cassava Plant and its Byproduct as Ruminant Feed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Risa Antari

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available An alternative to overcome the lack of feed is to use local feed resources. Cassava (Manihot utilissima is a tropical plant that grows easily in all types of soil. At the time of harvest, the price is relatively cheap. Cassava has a low nutritive value, especially in crude protein, but it is a potential source of energy. The research to optimize the use of cassava as feed is by enrichment of its nutritional value, production of single cell protein or supplementation with other feed ingredient. Cassava leaves or hay contain high protein level so that it can be used as protein source. However, its utilization is limited by anti nutritive compounds, such as cyanide acid and linamarin. It can be overcome by physical, chemical and biological treatments as detoxification. The use of cassava in livestock feed requires a formulation strategy to obtain the optimal productivity.

  9. Characterisation of Cassava Bagasse and Composites Prepared by Blending with Low-Density Polyethylene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiane Oliveira Farias

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this study was to characterise the cassava bagasse and to evaluate its addition in composites. Two cassava bagasse samples were characterised using physicochemical, thermal and microscopic techniques, and by obtaining their spectra in the mid-infrared region and analysing them by using x-ray diffraction. Utilising sorption isotherms, it was possible to establish the acceptable conditions of temperature and relative humidity for the storage of the cassava bagasse. The incorporation of cassava bagasse in a low-density polyethylene (LDP matrix was positive, increasing the elasticity modulus values from 131.90 for LDP to 186.2 for 70% LDP with 30% SP bagasse. These results were encouraging because cassava bagasse could serve as a structural reinforcement, as well as having environmental advantages for its application in packaging, construction and automotive parts.

  10. Reprogramming of cassava (Manihot esculenta) microspores towards sporophytic development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perera, P I P; Ordoñez, C A; Dedicova, B; Ortega, P E M

    2014-01-01

    Gametes have the unique potential to enter the sporophytic pathway, called androgenesis. The plants produced are usually haploid and recombinant due to the preceding meiosis and they can double their chromosome number to form doubled haploids, which are completely homozygous. Availability of the doubled haploids facilitates mapping the genes of agronomically important traits, shortening the time of the breeding process required to produce new hybrids and homozygous varieties, and saving the time and cost for inbreeding. This study aimed to test the feasibility of using isolated and in vitro cultured immature cassava (Manihot esculenta) microspores to reprogramme and initiate sporophytic development. Different culture media and different concentrations of two ion components (Cu(2+) and Fe(2+)) were tested in two genotypes of cassava. External structural changes, nuclear divisions and cellular changes during reprogramming were analysed by scanning electron microscopy, by staining with 4',6-diamidino-2-phenylindole, and through classical histology and transmission electron microscopy. In two cassava genotypes, different developmental stages of microspores were found to initiate sporophytic cell divisions, that is, with tetrads of TMS 60444 and with mid or late uni-nucleate microspores of SM 1219-9. In the modified NLN medium (NLNS), microspore enlargements were observed. The medium supplemented with either sodium ferrous ethylene-diamine-tetraacetic acid (NaFeEDTA) or CuSO4·5H2O induced sporophytic cell division in both genotypes. A low frequency of the reprogramming and the presence of non-responsive microspores among the responsive ones in tetrads were found to be related to the viability and exine formation of the microspores. The present study clearly demonstrated that reprogramming occurs much faster in isolated microspore culture than in anther culture. This paves the way for the development of an efficient technique for the production of homozygous lines in

  11. The effect of microbial starter composition on cassava chips fermentation for the production of fermented cassava flour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kresnowati, M. T. A. P.; Listianingrum, Zaenudin, Ahmad; Trihatmoko, Kharisrama

    2015-12-01

    The processing of cassava into fermented cassava flour (fercaf) or the widely known as modified cassava flour (mocaf) presents an alternative solution to improve the competitiveness of local foods and to support national food security. However, the mass production of fercaf is being limited by several problems, among which is the availability of starter cultures. This paper presents the mapping of the effect of microbial starter compositions on the nutritional content of fercaf in order to obtain the suitable nutritional composition. Based on their enzymatic activities, the combination of Lactobacillus plantarum, Bacillus subtilis, and Aspergillus oryzae were tested during the study. In addition, commercial starter was also tested. During the fermentation, the dynamics in microbial population were measured as well as changes in cyanogenic glucoside content. The microbial starter composition was observed to affect the dynamics in microbial populationcynaogenic glucoside content of the produced fercaf. In general, steady state microbial population was reached within 12 hours of fermentation. Cyanogenic glucoside was observed to decrease along the fermentation.

  12. Marker-assisted selection in common beans and cassava

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marker-assisted selection (MAS) in common beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) and cassava (Manihot esculenta) is reviewed in relation to the breeding system of each crop and the breeding goals of International Agricultural Research Centres (IARCs) and National Agricultural Research Systems (NARS). The importance of each crop is highlighted and examples of successful use of molecular markers within selection cycles and breeding programmes are given for each. For common beans, examples are given of gene tagging for several traits that are important for bean breeding for tropical environments and aspects considered that contribute to successful application of MAS. Simple traits that are tagged with easy-to-use markers are discussed first as they were the first traits prioritized for breeding at the International Center for Tropical Agriculture (CIAT) and with NARS partners in Central America, Colombia and eastern Africa. The specific genes for MAS selection were the bgm-1 gene for bean golden yellow mosaic virus (BGYMV) resistance and the bc-3 gene for bean common mosaic virus (BCMV) resistance. MAS was efficient for reducing breeding costs under both circumstances as land and labour savings resulted from eliminating susceptible individuals. The use of markers for other simply inherited traits in marker-assisted backcrossing and introgression across Andean and Mesoamerican gene pools is suggested. The possibility of using MAS for quantitative traits such as low soil phosphorus adaptation is also discussed as are the advantages and disadvantages of MAS in a breeding programme. For cassava, the use of multiple flanking markers for selection of a dominant gene, CMD2 for cassava mosaic virus (CMV) resistance at CIAT and the International Institute of Tropical Agriculture (IITA) as well as with NARS partners in the United Republic of Tanzania using a participatory plant breeding scheme are reviewed. MAS for the same gene is important during introgression of cassava green mite

  13. Cassava stillage and its anaerobic fermentation liquid as external carbon sources in biological nutrient removal*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bu, Fan; Hu, Xiang; Xie, Li; Zhou, Qi

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of one kind of food industry effluent, cassava stillage and its anaerobic fermentation liquid, on biological nutrient removal (BNR) from municipal wastewater in anaerobic-anoxic-aerobic sequencing batch reactors (SBRs). Experiments were carried out with cassava stillage supernatant and its anaerobic fermentation liquid, and one pure compound (sodium acetate) served as an external carbon source. Cyclic studies indicated that the cassava by-products not only affected the transformation of nitrogen, phosphorus, poly-β-hydroxyalkanoates (PHAs), and glycogen in the BNR process, but also resulted in higher removal efficiencies for phosphorus and nitrogen compared with sodium acetate. Furthermore, assays for phosphorus accumulating organisms (PAOs) and denitrifying phosphorus accumulating organisms (DPAOs) demonstrated that the proportion of DPAOs to PAOs reached 62.6% (Day 86) and 61.8% (Day 65) when using cassava stillage and its anaerobic fermentation liquid, respectively, as the external carbon source. In addition, the nitrate utilization rates (NURs) of the cassava by-products were in the range of 5.49–5.99 g N/(kg MLVSS∙h) (MLVSS is mixed liquor volatile suspended solids) and 6.63–6.81 g N/(kg MLVSS∙h), respectively. The improvement in BNR performance and the reduction in the amount of cassava stillage to be treated in-situ make cassava stillage and its anaerobic fermentation liquid attractive alternatives to sodium acetate as external carbon sources for BNR processes. PMID:25845364

  14. Cassava: The Drought, War and Famine Crop in a Changing World

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Burns

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Cassava is the sixth most important crop, in terms of global annual production. Cassava is grown primarily for its starchy tuberous roots, which are an important staple for more than 800 million people, mostly in sub-Saharan Africa, but also in other parts of Africa, Asia, the Pacific and South America. Cassava is important for both small-scale farmers and larger-scale plantations due to its low requirement for nutrients, ability to tolerate dry conditions and easy low-cost propagation. It is sometimes referred to as the “drought, war and famine crop of the developing world” and reliance upon this crop is expected to increase in the coming years as the global climate changes. As with all crops, cassava presents some challenges which need to be addressed, especially if its production is to continue to expand. We highlight here a number of key issues around the continued and increased reliance upon cassava as a staple food crop. Cassava contains cyanogenic glycosides that release hydrogen cyanide and many cultivars are toxic if not processed before consumption. The degree of toxicity is altered by plant breeding, agricultural practice, environmental conditions and methods of food preparation. We conclude that use of cassava has the potential to help many countries achieve food security in a sustainable manner, in the face of significant environmental change, but that its introduction should be accompanied by appropriate education about its toxicity.

  15. Evaluation of synergistic effect in vacuum pack, refrigeration and irradiated treatments of minimally processed cassava

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cassava is cultivated almost all over the world and it is considered one of the most important nutritious sources of calories in the human diet. Cassava is a viable food against starvation in several poor areas of the world because it is an extremely resistant culture and may reach satisfactory economical yield. We utilized vacuum packed industrialized cassava irradiated with 0,1 kGy, 3kGy and 5kGy and stored under refrigeration for 1, 21, 30 and 50 days. Our objective was to analyse the synergistic effect of vacuum packing, irradiation and refrigeration on the preservation of minimally processed cassava. The samples were analyzed for pH, acidity, weight, humidity, texture and color. The irradiation did not affect the chemical characteristics of the cassava. Neither the pH nor the acidity, the most relevant variables to verify deterioration in cassava, presented significant alterations during the period of storage. Comparing the irradiated treatments, the dose of 1kGy and 3kGy affected the physic-chemical characteristics of the cassava the least during the period of storage and refrigeration for 50 days; the doses of 1kGy,3kGy and 5kGy scored the highest rates the sensorial analysis during the period of storage for 21 days. (author)

  16. Milk production and economic assessment of cassava bagasse in the feed of dairy cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leandro Pereira Lima

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The addition of 0; 5; 10 and 15% cassava bagasse, based on the dry matter of the total diet of crossbred Holstein v. Zebu cows, was evaluated on milk production and composition and on the impacts of diet costs. The animals, weighing an average of 478.5 kg, were in the middle third lactation period. Diet with 15% cassava bagasse provided a 13.2% increase in production when compared to control. Feed conversion had a quadratic effect with minimum point at 4.2% of cassava bagasse inclusion. Crude protein, the only milk component that changed, increased linearly with the inclusion of cassava bagasse levels. Treatment with 15% cassava bagasse caused a more effective operational cost (42.8% higher when compared to control and the highest leveling point for milk production and price. The lowest leveling points were treatments with 5 and 10% inclusion of cassava bagasse, which had the best economic results. Concentrates caused cost increase, particularly when roughage : concentrate ratio decreased due to higher cassava bagasse inclusion levels.

  17. Sequencing wild and cultivated cassava and related species reveals extensive interspecific hybridization and genetic diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bredeson, Jessen V; Lyons, Jessica B; Prochnik, Simon E; Wu, G Albert; Ha, Cindy M; Edsinger-Gonzales, Eric; Grimwood, Jane; Schmutz, Jeremy; Rabbi, Ismail Y; Egesi, Chiedozie; Nauluvula, Poasa; Lebot, Vincent; Ndunguru, Joseph; Mkamilo, Geoffrey; Bart, Rebecca S; Setter, Tim L; Gleadow, Roslyn M; Kulakow, Peter; Ferguson, Morag E; Rounsley, Steve; Rokhsar, Daniel S

    2016-05-01

    Cassava (Manihot esculenta) provides calories and nutrition for more than half a billion people. It was domesticated by native Amazonian peoples through cultivation of the wild progenitor M. esculenta ssp. flabellifolia and is now grown in tropical regions worldwide. Here we provide a high-quality genome assembly for cassava with improved contiguity, linkage, and completeness; almost 97% of genes are anchored to chromosomes. We find that paleotetraploidy in cassava is shared with the related rubber tree Hevea, providing a resource for comparative studies. We also sequence a global collection of 58 Manihot accessions, including cultivated and wild cassava accessions and related species such as Ceará or India rubber (M. glaziovii), and genotype 268 African cassava varieties. We find widespread interspecific admixture, and detect the genetic signature of past cassava breeding programs. As a clonally propagated crop, cassava is especially vulnerable to pathogens and abiotic stresses. This genomic resource will inform future genome-enabled breeding efforts to improve this staple crop. PMID:27088722

  18. Improvement of the nutrient qualities of cassava fermented end-products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The yeast strains Saccharomycopsis fibuliger NRRL (Y-2388), Saccharomyces diastaticus NRRL (Y-2416 and Y-4238), Schwaniomyces occidentalis NRRLY-2477 as well as nor-leucine resistant and amylase-overproducing mutants of NRRL-Y-2338 (obtained with the help of NTG-mutagenesis) were used to study their abilities to increase the yield of protein into the cassava fermenting pulp. Their growth kinetics, amylase activity and biomass production initially studied on 2% MYPS medium. S. fibuliger (Y-2388) gave the highest biomass concentration (13,4 g/e) and was found to be superior to other wild strains for protein enrichment of cassava through fermentation. The optimization of the condition for fermentation revealed that 5% w/v of the cassava pulp at pH 6 with an addition of the yeast extract increased the protein content of cassava from 2.8% to 5.6%. The use of amylase overproducing mutants of S. fibuliger Y-2388 inoculated singly or in combination with others did not promote the enrichment of cassava, whereas nor-leucine resistant mutants considerable increased the protein content in the cassava pulp and no supplementation of the pulp with any nutrients is required. Hence, both S. fibuligera Y-2388 wild and its nor-leucine resistant mutant should be considered as a potential inocula with respect to protein enrichment of the cassava fermented end-product. (author). 3 figs, 9 tabs

  19. Production and Purification of Bioethanol from Molasses and Cassava

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maryana, Roni; Wahono, Satriyo Krido

    2009-09-01

    This research aim to analysis bioethanol purification process. Bioethanol from cassava has been produced in previous research and the ethanol from molasses was taken from Bekonang region. The production of bioethanol from cassava was carried out through several processes such as homogenization, adding of α-amylase, β-amylase and yeast (Saccharomyces c). Two types of laboratory scale distillator have been used, the first type is 50 cm length and 4 cm diameter. The second type distillator is 30 cm length and 9 cm diameter. Both types have been used to distill bioethanol The initial concentration after the fermentation process is 15% for bioethanol from cassava and 20-30% ethanol from molasses. The results of first type distillator are 90% of bioethanol at 50° C and yield 2.5%; 70% of bioethanol at 60° C and yield 11.2%. 32% of bioethanol at 70° C and yield 42%. Meanwhile the second distillator results are 84% of bioethanol at 50° C with yield 12%; 51% of bioethanol at 60° C with yield 35.5%; 20% of bioethanol at 70° C with yield 78.8%; 16% of bioethanol at 80° C with yield 81.6%. The ethanol from molasses has been distillated once times in Bekonang after the fermentation process, the yield was about 20%. In this research first type distillator and the initial concentration is 20% has been used. The results are 95% of bioethanol at 75° C with yield 8%; 94% of bioethanol at 85° C with yield 13% when vacuum pump was used. And 94% of bioethanol at 90° C with yield 3.7% and 94% of bioethanol at 96° C with yield 10.27% without vacuum pump. The bioethanol purification use second type distillator more effective than first type distillator.

  20. Analysis of in vitro regenerated cassava plants using RAPD technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cassava is an important tuber crop grown in tropical and subtropical regions. Protocols for regeneration from tissue culture are very genotype dependent and in many cultivars quite ineffective, therefore improvement programmes through genetic engineering are restricted. Recently, protocols were developed for efficient somatic embryogenesis and/or organogenesis using zygotic embryos and nodal axillary meristems to minimize genotype dependency. Buds were regenerated directly from the exercised explants after a two step culture procedure. In the embryo explants, profilic shoot formation occurred within 2-3 weeks on a medium containing 0.5 mg I-1 BAP alone, or in combination with 0.1 mg I-1 NAA. Nodal explants with an axillary meristem were used to initiate a round, compact, 'bulb like' structure in the high cytokinin containing medium. In the presence of NAA (0.1 mg I-1), BAP (1 mg I-1) and GA3 (0.1 mg I-1), these structures produced multiple shoots. Efficient somatic embryogenesis was obtained from the cotyledon explants. Plants were obtained from all the African genotypes tested, although at different frequencies. The rooting of regenerated shoots exceeded 95% in phytohormone free medium. The polidy of the regenerants was examined using flow cytometry; no change in their ploidy level was observed. The random amplified polymorphic DAN (RAPD)-polymerase chain reaction (PCR) technique was employed to investigate molecular differences and also to generate polymorphic DNA markers in the in vitro regenerated Cassava plants. Twenty primers were used to generate patterns from several regenerants of two Cassava cultivars. The validity of using RAPD markers in such studies is discussed. (author). 3 refs, 1 tab

  1. Density Equation of Cassava-Stalk Briquettes Under Moderate Die-Pressure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patomsok Wilaipon

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Agricultural residues seem to be the most promising energy resources for developing countries. However, the majority of them have low energy density. One of the favorable technologies for enhancing that property is briquetting. For the case of Phitsanulok, a province in Northern Thailand, cassava is one of the most important crops. Therefore, a large amount of cassava stalk is left in the field after harvest. This study was aimed to investigate the quantity of cassava stalk in this province and to study cassava stalk briquette production. Approach: The potential energy from cassava stalk was calculated based on the productivity, residue-to-product ratio, residue returned to soil ratio and its heating value. Besides, the effects of moderate-range compression pressure, 70-110 bar, and the binder ratio, 10-20%, on briquette density were investigated. An empirical model was also developed and validated. Results: Base on the estimation, the quantity of usable cassava stalk in this area was approximately 18 kton year-1. The heating value of cassava stalk was found to be 16.39 MJ kg-1. Therefore, the total energy over 289 TJ year-1 can be obtained from this agricultural waste. According to the experiment, briquette density was in the range of 0.40-0.77 g cm-3. The coefficient of multiple determination for prediction of the proposed model was about 94.7%. Conclusion: It appeared that cassava stalk has high potential as energy source for this area. The density of cassava stalk briquette was increased with an increase in compaction pressure. Besides, it was found that the proposed model can be used for density prediction over the studied range.

  2. Genotype × environment interaction effects on early fresh storage root yield and related traits in cassava

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robooni Tumuhimbise

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz is an important root crop worldwide. It exhibits substantial differential genotypic responses to varying environmental conditions, a phenomenon termed genotype × environment interaction (GEI. A significant GEI presents challenges in the selection of superior genotypes. The objective of this study was to examine the effect of genotype, environment and GEI on early fresh storage root yield (FSRY and related traits in cassava. Accordingly, 12 cassava genotypes were evaluated in a randomised complete block design at three contrasting locations (Jinja, Nakasongola and Namulonge in Uganda. Trials were harvested nine months after planting and the data collected were analysed using the additive main effects and multiplicative interaction (AMMI model. The AMMI analysis of variance showed significant variation among genotypes for early FSRY and all other traits assessed. Locations were significantly different for all traits except for cassava brown streak disease root necrosis. The GEI effect was non-significant for early FSRY, but significant for other traits. For early FSRY, 48.5% of the treatment sum of squares was attributable to genotypes, 27.3% to environments, and 24.1% to GEI, indicating a predominance of genotypic variation for this trait. Predominance of genotypic variation was also observed for all the other traits. A majority of the genotypes (67% had low interaction effects with locations for early FSRY, with Akena, CT2, CT4 and NASE14 being the most stable genotypes for the trait. Significant negative correlation was observed between cassava mosaic disease severity and early FSRY and storage root number, indicating significant negative effects of cassava mosaic disease on early FSRY and stability in cassava. The information generated will inform future selection initiatives for superior early-yielding cassava genotypes combining resistance to cassava mosaic and brown streak diseases in Uganda.

  3. Genotype × environment interaction effects on early fresh storage root yield and related traits in cassava

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Robooni; Tumuhimbise; Rob; Melis; Paul; Shanahan; Robert; Kawuki

    2014-01-01

    Cassava(Manihot esculenta Crantz) is an important root crop worldwide. It exhibits substantial differential genotypic responses to varying environmental conditions, a phenomenon termed genotype × environment interaction(GEI). A significant GEI presents challenges in the selection of superior genotypes. The objective of this study was to examine the effect of genotype,environment and GEI on early fresh storage root yield(FSRY) and related traits in cassava.Accordingly, 12 cassava genotypes were evaluated in a randomised complete block design at three contrasting locations(Jinja, Nakasongola and Namulonge) in Uganda. Trials were harvested nine months after planting and the data collected were analysed using the additive main effects and multiplicative interaction(AMMI) model. The AMMI analysis of variance showed significant variation among genotypes for early FSRY and all other traits assessed.Locations were significantly different for all traits except for cassava brown streak disease root necrosis. The GEI effect was non-significant for early FSRY, but significant for other traits. For early FSRY, 48.5% of the treatment sum of squares was attributable to genotypes, 27.3% to environments, and 24.1% to GEI, indicating a predominance of genotypic variation for this trait.Predominance of genotypic variation was also observed for all the other traits. A majority of the genotypes(67%) had low interaction effects with locations for early FSRY, with Akena, CT2, CT4 and NASE14 being the most stable genotypes for the trait. Significant negative correlation was observed between cassava mosaic disease severity and early FSRY and storage root number,indicating significant negative effects of cassava mosaic disease on early FSRY and stability in cassava. The information generated will inform future selection initiatives for superior early-yielding cassava genotypes combining resistance to cassava mosaic and brown streak diseases in Uganda.

  4. Cassava root meal as substitute for maize in layers ration

    OpenAIRE

    M Anaeto; LC Adighibe

    2011-01-01

    The effect of replacing maize with graded levels of cassava root meal (CRM) as energy source in the diet of laying hens was evaluated during the eight weeks of feeding experiment on performance and cost benefits on layers. Forty-five Nera black laying hens of 24 weeks of age were allocated to five dietary treatments, with nine birds per treatment in a completely randomized design. CRM was used to formulate the diets at 0, 25, 50, 75, and 100%. The result showed that the feed intake of birds i...

  5. Energy and greenhouse gas balances of cassava-based ethanol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biofuel production has been promoted to save fossil fuels and reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. However, there have been concerns about the potential of biofuel to improve energy efficiency and mitigate climate change. This paper investigates energy efficiency and GHG emission saving of cassava-based ethanol as energy for transportation. Energy and GHG balances are calculated for a functional unit of 1 km of road transportation using life-cycle assessment and considering effects of land use change (LUC). Based on a case study in Vietnam, the results show that the energy input for and GHG emissions from ethanol production are 0.93 MJ and 34.95 g carbon dioxide equivalent per megajoule of ethanol respectively. The use of E5 and E10 as a substitute for gasoline results in energy savings, provided that their fuel consumption in terms of liter per kilometer of transportation is not exceeding the consumption of gasoline per kilometer by more than 2.4% and 4.5% respectively. It will reduce GHG emissions, provided that the fuel consumption of E5 and E10 is not exceeding the consumption of gasoline per kilometer by more than 3.8% and 7.8% respectively. The quantitative effects depend on the efficiency in production and on the fuel efficiency of E5 and E10. The variations in results of energy input and GHG emissions in the ethanol production among studies are due to differences in coverage of effects of LUC, CO2 photosynthesis of cassava, yields of cassava, energy efficiency in farming, and by-product analyses. -- Highlights: ► Cassava-based ethanol substitution for gasoline in form of E5 could save 1.4 MJ km−1 ► Ethanol substitution for gasoline in form of E5 reduces a CO2e emission of 156 g km−1 ► We examined changes in fuel efficiency of blends affecting energy and GHG balances. ► LUC and change in soil management lead to a CO2e emission of 942 g L−1 of ethanol. ► LUC effects, energy inputs, yields, and by-products explain results among studies

  6. Cassava flour and starch : progress in research and development

    OpenAIRE

    Giraud, Eric; Brauman, Alain; Kéléke, S.; Gosselin, Laurent; Raimbault, Maurice

    1996-01-01

    An amylolytic lactic acid bacterium, identified as #Lactobacillus plantarum$, was isolated from cassava roots (#Manihot esculenta$ var. Ngansa) during retting. Cultured on starch, the strain displayed a growth rate of 0.43 per hour, a biomass yield of 0.19 g/g, and a lactate yield of 0.81 g/g. The growth kinetics were similar on starch and glucose. Enough enzyme was synthesized, and starch hydrolysis was not a limiting factor for growth. The synthesized amylolytic enzyme was purified by fract...

  7. Aerobic cyanide degradation by bacterial isolates from cassava factory wastewater

    OpenAIRE

    Sujatha Kandasamy; Balachandar Dananjeyan; Kumar Krishnamurthy; Gero Benckiser

    2015-01-01

    Ten bacterial strains that utilize cyanide (CN) as a nitrogen source were isolated from cassava factory wastewater after enrichment in a liquid media containing sodium cyanide (1 mM) and glucose (0.2% w/v). The strains could tolerate and grow in cyanide concentrations of up to 5 mM. Increased cyanide levels in the media caused an extension of lag phase in the bacterial growth indicating that they need some period of acclimatisation. The rate of cyanide removal by the strains depends on the in...

  8. Alterations of reproduction system in a polyploidized cassava interspecific hybrid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nassar, Nagib M A; Graciano-Ribeiro, Dalva; Gomes, Paula F; Hashimoto, Danielle Y C

    2010-04-01

    The objective of this research was to examine how much polyploidy may affect seed and root formation in cassava interspecific hybrids Manihot esculenta Crantz xM. oligantha Pax. A polyploid type was induced by colchicine treatment to lateral buds followed by propagating vegetatively arising stems. Cytogenetic and anatomical analyses were made on both polyploid and diploid types. The polyploid type showed extensive chromosome pairing and pollen viability. Multiembryonic ovule frequency increased in polyploid plants. Stalks became woody and propagation through roots difficult, the edible roots increased, however, in size. PMID:20536543

  9. Water Quality Changes Associated with Cassava Production: Case Study of White Volta Bain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awotwi, Alfred; Bediako, Michael Asare; Harris, Emmanuel; Forkuo, Eric Kwabena

    2016-08-01

    The outcome reveal that as the land use in the catchment areas change from mixed agricultural to cassava cultivation, the simulated loads and concentrations of nitrogen species from cassava land-use scenario recorded reduction. The resultant concentrations of nitrate and nitrite for both current and future land-use scenarios are all below the daily limit suggested by the WHO, (World Health Organization). For the phosphate concentration, an increase of 4.21% was depicted under cassava land-use scenario. The results show that SWAT is a reliable water quality model, capable of simulating accurate information for developing environmental management plans. PMID:27626092

  10. Cassava: The Drought, War and Famine Crop in a Changing World

    OpenAIRE

    Anna Burns; Roslyn Gleadow; Julie Cliff; Anabela Zacarias; Timothy Cavagnaro

    2010-01-01

    Cassava is the sixth most important crop, in terms of global annual production. Cassava is grown primarily for its starchy tuberous roots, which are an important staple for more than 800 million people, mostly in sub-Saharan Africa, but also in other parts of Africa, Asia, the Pacific and South America. Cassava is important for both small-scale farmers and larger-scale plantations due to its low requirement for nutrients, ability to tolerate dry conditions and easy low-cost propagation. It is...

  11. Effect of processing conditions on the texture of reconstituted cassava dough

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Rodríguez-Sandoval

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Deformability modulus, hardness, cohesiveness and adhesiveness of cassava dough reconstituted from precooked flour were evaluated using a lubricated compression test and texture profile analysis. Cassava parenchyma processed under different cooking conditions and left at either -5ºC or -20ºC for 24 h was used to make flour, which was reconstituted into dough. As temperature decreased to -20ºC during the storage period of cooked parenchyma, deformability modulus, hardness and cohesiveness of dough increased significantly. The temperature during the storage period was the most important factor affecting the textural properties of cassava dough.

  12. Enhanced thermophilic fermentative hydrogen production from cassava stillage by chemical pretreatments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Wen; Luo, Gang; Xie, Li;

    2013-01-01

    Acid and alkaline pretreatments for enhanced hydrogen production from cassava stillage were investigated in the present study. The result showed that acid pretreatment was suitable for enhancement of soluble carbohydrate while alkaline pretreatment stimulated more soluble total organic carbon...... production from cassava stillage. Acid pretreatment thereby has higher capacity to promote hydrogen production compared with alkaline pretreatment. Effects of pretreatment temperature, time and acid concentration on hydrogen production were also revealed by response surface methodology. The results showed...... highest hydrogen production of 434 mL, 67% higher than raw cassava stillage....

  13. Resistance to Sri Lankan Cassava Mosaic Virus (SLCMV) in Genetically Engineered Cassava cv. KU50 through RNA Silencing

    KAUST Repository

    Ntui, Valentine Otang

    2015-04-22

    Cassava ranks fifth among the starch producing crops of the world, its annual bioethanol yield is higher than for any other crop. Cassava cultivar KU50, the most widely grown cultivar for non-food purposes is susceptible to Sri Lankan cassava mosaic virus (SLCMV). The objective of this work was to engineer resistance to SLCMV by RNA interference (RNAi) in order to increase biomass yield, an important aspect for bioethanol production. Here, we produced transgenic KU50 lines expressing dsRNA homologous to the region between the AV2 and AV1 of DNA A of SLCMV. High level expression of dsRNA of SLCMV did not induce any growth abnormality in the transgenic plants. Transgenic lines displayed high levels of resistance to SLCMV compared to the wild-type plants and no virus load could be detected in uninoculated new leaves of the infected resistant lines after PCR amplification and RT-PCR analysis. The agronomic performance of the transgenic lines was unimpaired after inoculation with the virus as the plants presented similar growth when compared to the mock inoculated control plants and revealed no apparent reduction in the amount and weight of tubers produced. We show that the resistance is correlated with post-transcriptional gene silencing because of the production of transgene specific siRNA. The results demonstrate that transgenic lines exhibited high levels of resistance to SLCMV. This resistance coupled with the desirable yield components in the transgenic lines makes them better candidates for exploitation in the production of biomass as well as bioethanol.

  14. Resistance to Sri Lankan cassava mosaic virus (SLCMV in genetically engineered cassava cv. KU50 through RNA silencing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentine Otang Ntui

    Full Text Available Cassava ranks fifth among the starch producing crops of the world, its annual bioethanol yield is higher than for any other crop. Cassava cultivar KU50, the most widely grown cultivar for non-food purposes is susceptible to Sri Lankan cassava mosaic virus (SLCMV. The objective of this work was to engineer resistance to SLCMV by RNA interference (RNAi in order to increase biomass yield, an important aspect for bioethanol production. Here, we produced transgenic KU50 lines expressing dsRNA homologous to the region between the AV2 and AV1 of DNA A of SLCMV. High level expression of dsRNA of SLCMV did not induce any growth abnormality in the transgenic plants. Transgenic lines displayed high levels of resistance to SLCMV compared to the wild-type plants and no virus load could be detected in uninoculated new leaves of the infected resistant lines after PCR amplification and RT-PCR analysis. The agronomic performance of the transgenic lines was unimpaired after inoculation with the virus as the plants presented similar growth when compared to the mock inoculated control plants and revealed no apparent reduction in the amount and weight of tubers produced. We show that the resistance is correlated with post-transcriptional gene silencing because of the production of transgene specific siRNA. The results demonstrate that transgenic lines exhibited high levels of resistance to SLCMV. This resistance coupled with the desirable yield components in the transgenic lines makes them better candidates for exploitation in the production of biomass as well as bioethanol.

  15. Cassava root meal as substitute for maize in layers ration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Anaeto

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The effect of replacing maize with graded levels of cassava root meal (CRM as energy source in the diet of laying hens was evaluated during the eight weeks of feeding experiment on performance and cost benefits on layers. Forty-five Nera black laying hens of 24 weeks of age were allocated to five dietary treatments, with nine birds per treatment in a completely randomized design. CRM was used to formulate the diets at 0, 25, 50, 75, and 100%. The result showed that the feed intake of birds in the control group was significantly (p<0.05 different from those fed the CRM diets. The average weight gain of layers receiving up to 50% CRM was similar to the control birds, but significantly different from layers fed 75 and 100% CRM. No mortality was recorded. Egg production per hen per day and average egg weight were significantly different (p<0.05 for birds consuming more than 50% CRM in T4 and T5. Layer feed ration was made cheaper by the replacement of maize with cassava root meal in the diets.

  16. Local domestication of lactic acid bacteria via cassava beer fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colehour, Alese M; Meadow, James F; Liebert, Melissa A; Cepon-Robins, Tara J; Gildner, Theresa E; Urlacher, Samuel S; Bohannan, Brendan J M; Snodgrass, J Josh; Sugiyama, Lawrence S

    2014-01-01

    Cassava beer, or chicha, is typically consumed daily by the indigenous Shuar people of the Ecuadorian Amazon. This traditional beverage made from cassava tuber (Manihot esculenta) is thought to improve nutritional quality and flavor while extending shelf life in a tropical climate. Bacteria responsible for chicha fermentation could be a source of microbes for the human microbiome, but little is known regarding the microbiology of chicha. We investigated bacterial community composition of chicha batches using Illumina high-throughput sequencing. Fermented chicha samples were collected from seven Shuar households in two neighboring villages in the Morona-Santiago region of Ecuador, and the composition of the bacterial communities within each chicha sample was determined by sequencing a region of the 16S ribosomal gene. Members of the genus Lactobacillus dominated all samples. Significantly greater phylogenetic similarity was observed among chicha samples taken within a village than those from different villages. Community composition varied among chicha samples, even those separated by short geographic distances, suggesting that ecological and/or evolutionary processes, including human-mediated factors, may be responsible for creating locally distinct ferments. Our results add to evidence from other fermentation systems suggesting that traditional fermentation may be a form of domestication, providing endemic beneficial inocula for consumers, but additional research is needed to identify the mechanisms and extent of microbial dispersal. PMID:25071997

  17. Local domestication of lactic acid bacteria via cassava beer fermentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alese M. Colehour

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Cassava beer, or chicha, is typically consumed daily by the indigenous Shuar people of the Ecuadorian Amazon. This traditional beverage made from cassava tuber (Manihot esculenta is thought to improve nutritional quality and flavor while extending shelf life in a tropical climate. Bacteria responsible for chicha fermentation could be a source of microbes for the human microbiome, but little is known regarding the microbiology of chicha. We investigated bacterial community composition of chicha batches using Illumina high-throughput sequencing. Fermented chicha samples were collected from seven Shuar households in two neighboring villages in the Morona-Santiago region of Ecuador, and the composition of the bacterial communities within each chicha sample was determined by sequencing a region of the 16S ribosomal gene. Members of the genus Lactobacillus dominated all samples. Significantly greater phylogenetic similarity was observed among chicha samples taken within a village than those from different villages. Community composition varied among chicha samples, even those separated by short geographic distances, suggesting that ecological and/or evolutionary processes, including human-mediated factors, may be responsible for creating locally distinct ferments. Our results add to evidence from other fermentation systems suggesting that traditional fermentation may be a form of domestication, providing endemic beneficial inocula for consumers, but additional research is needed to identify the mechanisms and extent of microbial dispersal.

  18. Biofuels and Biotechnology: Cassava (Manihot esculenta) as a Research Model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuels such as ethanol and biodiesel, obtained from plants and their constituents, have recently received the world's attention as a true alternative to the global energy supply, mainly because they are cheaper and less contaminant of the environment than the currently used, non-renewable fossil fuels. Due to the pushing biofuel market, the world is currently experiencing an increase of agricultural land devoted to grow crops used to obtain them, like maize and sugar cane, as well as crops that have the potential to become new sources of biofuels. Similarly, this emerging market is boosting the basic research oriented towards obtaining better quality and yield in these crops. Plants that store high quantities of starch, simple sugars or oils, are the target of the biofuel industry, although the newest technologies use also cellulose as raw material to produce fuels. Cassava (Manihot esculenta) is widely grown in the tropics and constitutes a staple food for approximately 10% of the world population. The high starch content of its storage roots, together with the use of conventional and non-conventional breeding turn this crop into an option to obtain better adapted varieties for ethanol production. This manuscript reviews the current state of biofuels worldwide and at the national level,and discusses the benefits and challenges faced in terms of effect on the environment and the human food chain. Finally, it discusses the potential of cassava as a source of raw material for obtaining biofuels in Colombia.

  19. Biofuels and Biotechnology: Cassava (Manihot esculenta) as a Research Model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuels such as ethanol and biodiesel, obtained from plants and their constituents, have recently received the world's attention as a true alternative to the global energy supply, mainly because they are cheaper and less contaminant of the environment than the currently used, non-renewable fossil fuels. Due to the pushing biofuel market, the world is currently experiencing an increase of agricultural land devoted to grow crops used to obtain them, like maize and sugar cane, as well as crops that have the potential to become new sources of biofuels. Similarly, this emerging market is boosting the basic research oriented towards obtaining better quality and yield in these crops. Plants that store high quantities of starch, simple sugars or oils, are the target of the biofuel industry, although the newest technologies use also cellulose as raw material to produce fuels. Cassava (Manihot esculenta) is widely grown in the tropics and constitutes a staple food for approximately 10% of the world population. The high starch content of its storage roots, together with the use of conventional and non-conventional breeding turn this crop into an option to obtain better adapted varieties for ethanol production. This manuscrip reviews the current state of biofuels worldwide and at the national level, and discusses the benefits and challenges faced in terms of effect on the environment and the human food chain. Finally, it discusses the potential of cassava as a source of raw material for obtaining biofuels in Colombia.

  20. Aerobic cyanide degradation by bacterial isolates from cassava factory wastewater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sujatha Kandasamy

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Ten bacterial strains that utilize cyanide (CN as a nitrogen source were isolated from cassava factory wastewater after enrichment in a liquid media containing sodium cyanide (1 mM and glucose (0.2% w/v. The strains could tolerate and grow in cyanide concentrations of up to 5 mM. Increased cyanide levels in the media caused an extension of lag phase in the bacterial growth indicating that they need some period of acclimatisation. The rate of cyanide removal by the strains depends on the initial cyanide and glucose concentrations. When initial cyanide and glucose concentrations were increased up to 5 mM, cyanide removal rate increased up to 63 and 61 per cent by Bacillus pumilus and Pseudomonas putida. Metabolic products such as ammonia and formate were detected in culture supernatants, suggesting a direct hydrolytic pathway without an intermediate formamide. The study clearly demonstrates the potential of aerobic treatment with cyanide degrading bacteria for cyanide removal in cassava factory wastewaters.

  1. Enzyme activities and substrate degradation by fungal isolates on cassava waste during solid state fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pothiraj, C; Eyini, M

    2007-12-01

    The growth and bioconversion potential of selected strains growing on cassava waste substrate during solid state fermentation were assessed. Rhizopus stolonifer showed the highest and the fastest utilization of starch and cellulose in the cassava waste substrate. It showed 70% starch utilization and 81% cellulose utilization within eight days. The release of reducing sugars indicating the substrate saccharification or degradation potential of the organisms reached the highest value of 406.5 mg/g by R. stolonifer on cassava waste during the eighth day of fermentation. The protein content was gradually increased (89.4 mg/g) on the eighth day of fermentation in cassava waste by R. stolonifer. The cellulase and amylase activity is higher in R. stolonifer than A. niger and P. chrysosporium. The molecular mass of purified amylase and cellulase seemed to be 75 KDal, 85 KDal respectively. PMID:24015097

  2. CONTRIBUTIONS OF MICROFINANCE INSTITUTIONS TO ECONOMIC EFFICIENCY OF CASSAVA FARMERS IN ABIA STATE, NIGERIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kingsley Chukwuemeka OBIKE

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The study examined contributions of microfinance institutions to economic efficiency of cassava farmers in Abia state, Nigeria. A multistage random sampling technique was adopted in collecting cross sectional data on a sample size of 240 respondents (120 MFI beneficiaries and 120 non beneficiaries. Primary Data was collected by administering questionnaire on cassava farmers. The result showed that economic efficiency of MFI beneficiaries was influenced by wage rate, price of fertilizer and adjusted Y (output, while wage rate, price of fertilizer and price of cassava cutting s are variables that influenced economic efficiency of non beneficiaries. The t – test analysis confirmed that MFI beneficiaries had higher economic efficiency advantage compared with non beneficiaries. It is recommended that government agricultural policy should take positive steps to reduce interest rate to encourage MFI efforts in providing the necessary platform to encourage higher efficiency in cassava production in Abia state, Nigeria.

  3. The sustainability of cassava-based bioethanol production in southern Mali

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Kjeld; Birch-Thomsen, Torben; Bruun, Thilde Bech;

    2015-01-01

    The demand for biofuels has been rising, which has led developing countries to focus on production of feedstocks for biodiesel and bioethanol production. This has caused concerns for the impacts on food security, food prices and environmental sustainability. This paper examines a hypothetical case...... of cassava-based bioethanol production in southern Mali, assessing its environmental, economic and social sustainability. Results demonstrate that environmental sustainability of cassava-based bioethanol production depends on the ‘baseline’ chosen: Compared to the situation before the decline in cotton...... of labour input. Analysis of the significance of current cassava production for food security shows that bioethanol production should be based on the attiéké variety of cassava, thereby avoiding interference with the important role of the bonouma in assuring food security in northern Mali. The key factor...

  4. Application of thermophilic enzymes and water jet system to cassava pulp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaikaew, Siriporn; Maeno, Yuka; Visessanguan, Wonnop; Ogura, Kota; Sugino, Gaku; Lee, Seung-Hwan; Ishikawa, Kazuhiko

    2012-12-01

    Co-production of fermentable sugars and nanofibrillated cellulose from cassava pulp was achieved by the combination of thermophilic enzymes (endoglucanase, β-glucosidase, and α-amylase) and a new atomization system (Star Burst System; SBS), which employs opposing water jets. The SBS represents a key technology for providing cellulose nanofibers and improving the enzymatic saccharification of cassava pulp. Depending on the enzymes used, the production of glucose from cassava pulp treated with the SBS was 1.2- to 2.5-fold higher than that from pulp not treated with the SBS. Nanofibrillated cellulose with the gel-like property in suspension was produced (yield was over 90%) by α-amylase treatment, which completely released trapped starch granules from the fibrous cell wall structure of cassava pulp pretreated with the SBS. The SBS provides an environmentally low-impact pretreatment system for processing biomass material into value-added products. PMID:23073093

  5. Iron oxide/cassava starch-supported Ziegler-Natta catalysts for in situ ethylene polymerization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chancharoenrith, Sittikorn; Kamonsatikul, Choavarit; Namkajorn, Montree; Kiatisevi, Supavadee; Somsook, Ekasith

    2015-03-01

    Iron oxide nanoparticles were used as supporters for in situ polymerization to produce polymer nanocomposites with well-dispersed fillers in polymer matrix. Iron oxide could be sustained as colloidal solutions by cassava starch to produce a good dispersion of iron oxide in the matrix. New supports based on iron oxide/cassava starch or cassava starch for Ziegler-Natta catalysts were utilized as heterogeneous supporters for partially hydrolyzed triethylaluminum. Then, TiCl4 was immobilized on the supports as catalysts for polymerization of ethylene. High-density polyethylene (HDPE) composites were obtained by the synthesized catalysts. A good dispersion of iron oxide/cassava starch particles was observed in the synthesized polymer matrix promoting to good mechanical properties of HDPE. PMID:25498641

  6. Application of pure strains to standardize the acidification process and the amylolytic activity in cassava fermentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The report describes some aspects of the optimization of the traditional fermentation of cassava and potential role of the acidification process in the development of microflora at the different stages of the fermentation. It was shown that the inoculation of the cassava fermenting pulp by pure cultures of lactic acid bacteria such as Lactobacillus cellobiosus and L. plantarum had resulted in sufficient acceleration of the fermentation process and the desired condition of the fermented end-product could reach in 7-24 hours instead of 72 hours (natural fermentation). The effects similar to these were obtained in the experiments on inoculation of cassava with the fermented mass (or with drained liquor) from the previous bath. The optimal condition for the exhibition of the amylolytic activity in fresh cassava was: pH 6,0 at 40 deg. C, out of this range the activity falls down sharply. (author). 22 figs, 3 tabs

  7. Research Progress on the Comprehensive Utilization of Cassava Waste%木薯废弃物综合利用研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘倩; 刘光华; 李月仙; 严炜; 娄予强; 郭容琦; 张林辉; 段春芳

    2012-01-01

    木薯在种植、收获、加工过程中会产生木薯叶、木薯杆、木薯渣、术薯皮等废弃物,其中,木薯叶可食用、饲用;木薯杆、小薯渣均可作为栽培食用菌的基质,木薯杆还可粉碎还田作为肥料,木薯渣也可生产肥料、饲料、沼气:木薯皮则能制成表面活性炭或作为有机生态无土栽培的主要基质。%Cassava waste materials such as cassava leaf, cassava stem, cassava bagasse, cassava bark, etc. resulted from cassava planting, harvesting and processing. Comprehensive utilization of cassava waste materials was discussed in this paper. Cassava leaf can be used for food and feed. Cassava stem, cassava bagasse can be used for matrix of cultivating edible fungi. Crushed cassava stem also can be used as fertilizer. Fertilizer, feed and biogas can be produced from cassava bagasse. Cassava bark can be used for surface active carbon and matrix of eco-organic type soiUess culture system.

  8. Field testing and exploitation of genetically modified cassava with low-amylose or amylose-free starch in Indonesia

    OpenAIRE

    Koehorst-van Putten, H. J. J.; Sudarmonowati, E.; Herman, M; Pereira-Bertram, I. J.; Wolters, A. M. A.; Meima, H.; Vetten, de, N.; Raemakers, C.J.J.M.; Visser, R. G. F.

    2012-01-01

    The development and testing in the field of genetically modified -so called- orphan crops like cassava in tropical countries is still in its infancy, despite the fact that cassava is not only used for food and feed but is also an important industrial crop. As traditional breeding of cassava is difficult (allodiploid, vegetatively propagated, outbreeding species) it is an ideal crop for improvement through genetic modification. We here report on the results of production and field testing of g...

  9. Biological implications in cassava for the production of amylose-free starch: impact on root yield and related traits.

    OpenAIRE

    Amanda eKarlström; Sandra eSalazar; Fernando eCalle; Nelson eMorante; Dominique eDufour; Hernán eCeballos

    2016-01-01

    Cassava (Manihot esculenta, Crantz) is an important food security crop, but it is becoming an important raw material for different industrial applications. Cassava is the second most important source of starch worldwide. Novel starch properties are of interest to the starch industry, and one them is the recently identified amylose-free (waxy) cassava starch. Waxy mutants have been found in different crops and have been often associated with a yield penalty. There are ongoing efforts to develo...

  10. Biological Implications in Cassava for the Production of Amylose-Free Starch: Impact on Root Yield and Related Traits

    OpenAIRE

    Karlström, Amanda; Calle, Fernando; Salazar, Sandra; Morante, Nelson; Dufour, Dominique; Ceballos, Hernán

    2016-01-01

    Cassava (Manihot esculenta, Crantz) is an important food security crop, but it is becoming an important raw material for different industrial applications. Cassava is the second most important source of starch worldwide. Novel starch properties are of interest to the starch industry, and one them is the recently identified amylose-free (waxy) cassava starch. Waxy mutants have been found in different crops and have been often associated with a yield penalty. There are ongoing efforts to develo...

  11. Determinants Of Export-Led Cassava Production Intensification Among Small-Holder Farmers in Delta State, Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Achoja, F. O.; Idoge, D. E.; Ukwuaba, S. I.; Esowhode, A.E.

    2012-01-01

    Determinants of export-led cassava production intensification among small-holder farmers were investigated. Primary data collected with structured questionnaire from randomly selected 60 respondents, were analysed using appropriate statistics. The result showed a slow increasing trend in response to export opportunities. Farm size, credit availability, cassava product domestic prices, labour and frequency of extension contact had positive effect on cassava output while existence of efficient ...

  12. Perception of Infestation Problems on Cassava Farms and Preference for Weed Management Practices in Humid Agro- Ecological Zone of Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Anthony Agumagu; Olufemi Martins Adesope; Edna Chioma Matthews-Njoku

    2008-01-01

    The problem of weed infestation on cassava farms is a major factor for low crop yield. This problem has caused untold hardship on the small-scale cassava farms where production at the subsistence level and where farmers still manage to produce some quantity for sale. The study examines cassava farmers’ perception of problems of infestation and preference for weed management practices in the humid agro-ecological zone of Nigeria. Data was collected with the aid of questionnaire and interviews....

  13. UV-visible scanning spectrophotometry and chemometric analysis as tools for carotenoids analysis in cassava genotypes (Manihot esculenta Crantz)

    OpenAIRE

    Moresco, Rodolfo; Uarrota, Virgílio Gavicho; Pereira, Aline; Tomazzoli, Maíra Maciel; Nunes, Eduardo da C.; Peruch, Luiz Augusto Martins; Gazzola, Jussara; Costa, Christopher Borges; Rocha, Miguel; Maraschin, Marcelo

    2015-01-01

    In this study, the metabolomics characterization focusing on the carotenoid composition of ten cassava (Manihot esculenta) genotypes cultivated in southern Brazil by UV-visible scanning spectrophotometry and reverse phase-high performance liquid chromatography was performed. Cassava roots rich in -carotene are an important staple food for populations with risk of vitamin A deficiency. Cassava genotypes with high pro-vitamin A activity have been identified as a strategy to reduce the prevalenc...

  14. Infochemical use by predatory mites of the cassava green mite in a multitrophic context

    OpenAIRE

    Gnanvossou, D.

    2002-01-01

    This thesis describes research on multitrophic interactions in a system consisting of (1) cassava plants ( Manihot esculenta ), (2) three herbivorous mites, i.e. the cassava green mite Mononychellus tanajoa, the red spider mite Oligonychus gossypii and the two-spotted spider mite Tetranychus urticae and (3) two exotic predatory mites Typhlodromalus manihoti and T. aripo , in Africa. The objectives are to understand how the two exotic predators (i) exploit chemical information to locate the ta...

  15. Production of freeze-dried lactic acid bacteria starter culture for cassava fermentation into gari.

    OpenAIRE

    Yao, Amenan Anastasie; Dortu, Carine; Egounlety, Moutairu; Pinto, Cristina; Vinodh, A. Edward; Huch, Melanie; Franz, Charles M. A. P.; Holzapfel, Willhelm; Mbugua, Samuel; Mengu, Moses; Thonart, Philippe

    2009-01-01

    Sixteen lactic acid bacteria, eight Lactobacillus plantarum, three L. pentosus, 2 Weissella paramesenteroides, two L. fermemtum and one Leuconostoc mesenteroides ssp. mesenteroides were previously isolated from cassava fermentation and selected on the basis of their biochemical properties with a view to selecting appropriate starter cultures during cassava fermentation for gari production. In this study, the potential of these pre-selected strains as suitable freeze-dried cultures was eval...

  16. Factors affecting the relative competitiveness of cassava production in southwestern Trinidad

    OpenAIRE

    Patterson-Andrews, Hazel; Pemberton, Carlisle

    2010-01-01

    This study sought to determine the factors affecting the relative competitiveness (RC) measured as the normalized profit per acre, of cassava farmers in South Western Trinidad through a determination of the factors affecting the mean and variance of the RC inefficiency term of the farmers. A sample of 112 small farmers growing cassava as their main crop provided the data for the study. A normalized translog stochastic RC frontier model was estimated. The model also determined the factors affe...

  17. Developing GM super cassava for improved health and food security: future challenges in Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Adenle Ademola A; Aworh Ogugua C; Akromah Richard; Parayil Govindan

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background There is an urgent need to solve the problem of micronutrient malnutrition that is prevalent among young children and women in Africa. Genetically modified (GM) biofortified cassava has great potential to solve part of this problem, but controversy surrounding GM technology and lack of awareness, limited facilities, biased news and other factors may hinder the adoption of GM cassava in the future. Method Using semi-structured interviews in Ghana and Nigeria, this paper exa...

  18. Determinants of profitability among small scale cassava processors in South Western Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    EHINMOWO O.O.; AFOLABI J.A.; FATUASE A.I.

    2015-01-01

    This study empirically analyzed the determinants of profitability among small scale cassava processors in Southwest, Nigeria. Three States were considered for the study which was Ogun, Oyo and Ondo. A multistage sampling technique was employed to randomly select 373 respondents. The data collected were analyzed using descriptive statistics and multiple regression models. The findings revealed that the cassava processing business was profitable in the study area given the value of gross margin...

  19. Effect of the improved fermentation on physicochemical properties and sensorial acceptability of sour cassava starch

    OpenAIRE

    Maria Janete Angeloni Marcon; Gisele Cristina Netto Vieira; Karina Nunes de Simas; Karina Santos; Manoela Alano Vieira; Renata Dias de Mello Castanho Amboni; Edna Regina Amante

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this work was to study the effect of improved fermentation on sour cassava starch, aiming to reduce its fermentation time and to enhance its expansion capacity as well as its viscoamylographic properties and its sensorial acceptability. Results showed that the improved process of cassava starch production did not harm starch expansion, physicochemical properties or sensorial acceptability; it also produced starches with different viscoamylographic properties, which compared favoura...

  20. Physicochemical and microbiological characterization of cassava flower honey samples produced by africanized honeybees

    OpenAIRE

    Lucimar Peres de Moura Pontara; Edmar Clemente; Dalany Menezes Oliveira; Angela Kwiatkowski; Cássia Inês Lourenzi Franco Rosa; Valter Eugênio Saia

    2012-01-01

    Cassava producers in the region of Marília-São Paulo are integrating their farming activity with beekeeping to diversify their income. The aim of this study was to evaluate the physicochemical and microbiological quality of honey samples produced by Africanized honeybees Apis mellifera from cassava flower in 2008. Analysis were carried out for pH, total soluble solids (TSS), acidity, moisture, reducing and total sugars, apparent sucrose, hydroxymethylfurfural, color, ash, proteins, water inso...

  1. Effects of Contract Farming Scheme on Cassava Production Enterprise in Oyo State, Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Fawole, Pippy; Thomas, Kehinde A.

    2011-01-01

    There are indications that the domestic demand for cassava particularly as staple food may in no time outweigh that of the industrial sector, except contract and non-contract farming entrepreneurs operate within the framework of sustainable agriculture. The study thus examines the effects of contract farming scheme on cassava production in Oyo State, Nigeria. Multistage sampling technique was used. Oyo and Ibadan/Ibarapa zones were randomly selected from the four Agricultural Development Proj...

  2. Isolation and characterisation of starch biosynthesis genes from cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz).

    OpenAIRE

    Munyikwa, T.R.I.

    1997-01-01

    Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) is a tropical crop grown for its starchy thickened roots, mainly by peasant farmers, in the tropics, for whom it is a staple food. There is an increasing demand for the use of cassava in processed food and feed products, and in the paper and textile industries amongst others. This thesis describes research on the cloning of the genes encoding ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase small and large subunits (AGPase B and S, respectively) and granule bound starch syntha...

  3. Post-harvest conservation of organic strawberries coated with cassava starch and chitosan

    OpenAIRE

    Raquel P Campos; Angela Kwiatkowski; Edmar Clemente

    2011-01-01

    The strawberry is as non-climacteric fruit, but has a high post-harvest respiration rate, which leads to a rapid deterioration at room temperature. This study aimed to evaluate the application of biodegradable coating on postharvest conservation of organic strawberries, cv. Camarosa, packed in plastic hinged boxes and stored at 10ºC. The treatments consisted of: a) control; b) 2% cassava starch; c) 1% chitosan; and d) 2% cassava starch + 1% chitosan. Physical and chemical characteristics of f...

  4. Enzyme Activities and Substrate Degradation by Fungal Isolates on Cassava Waste During Solid State Fermentation

    OpenAIRE

    Pothiraj, C.; Eyini, M.

    2007-01-01

    The growth and bioconversion potential of selected strains growing on cassava waste substrate during solid state fermentation were assessed. Rhizopus stolonifer showed the highest and the fastest utilization of starch and cellulose in the cassava waste substrate. It showed 70% starch utilization and 81% cellulose utilization within eight days. The release of reducing sugars indicating the substrate saccharification or degradation potential of the organisms reached the highest value of 406.5 m...

  5. Physiological Investigation and Transcriptome Analysis of Polyethylene Glycol (PEG)-Induced Dehydration Stress in Cassava

    OpenAIRE

    Lili Fu; Zehong Ding; Bingying Han; Wei Hu; Yajun Li; Jiaming Zhang

    2016-01-01

    Cassava is an important tropical and sub-tropical root crop that is adapted to drought environment. However, severe drought stress significantly influences biomass accumulation and starchy root production. The mechanism underlying drought-tolerance remains obscure in cassava. In this study, changes of physiological characters and gene transcriptome profiles were investigated under dehydration stress simulated by polyethylene glycol (PEG) treatments. Five traits, including peroxidase (POD) act...

  6. Effect of carboxymethyl cellulose concentration on physical properties of biodegradable cassava starch-based films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sriburi Pensiri

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cassava starch, the economically important agricultural commodity in Thailand, can readily be cast into films. However, the cassava starch film is brittle and weak, leading to inadequate mechanical properties. The properties of starch film can be improved by adding plasticizers and blending with the other biopolymers. Results Cassava starch (5%w/v based films plasticized with glycerol (30 g/100 g starch were characterized with respect to the effect of carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC concentrations (0, 10, 20, 30 and 40%w/w total solid and relative humidity (34 and 54%RH on the mechanical properties of the films. Additionally, intermolecular interactions were determined by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR, melting temperature by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC, and morphology by scanning electron microscopy (SEM. Water solubility of the films was also determined. Increasing concentration of CMC increased tensile strength, reduced elongation at break, and decreased water solubility of the blended films. FT-IR spectra indicated intermolecular interactions between cassava starch and CMC in blended films by shifting of carboxyl (C = O and OH groups. DSC thermograms and SEM micrographs confirmed homogeneity of cassava starch-CMC films. Conclusion The addition of CMC to the cassava starch films increased tensile strength and reduced elongation at break of the blended films. This was ascribed to the good interaction between cassava starch and CMC. Cassava starch-CMC composite films have the potential to replace conventional packaging, and the films developed in this work are suggested to be suitable for low moisture food and pharmaceutical products.

  7. Cassava Processing and Marketing by Rural Women in the Central Region of Cameroon

    OpenAIRE

    SHIOYA, Akiyo

    2013-01-01

    This study examines the development of rural women's commercial activities in Central Cameroon, particularly the Department of Lekié, which is adjacent to Yaoundé, the capital of Cameroon. I focused on cassava processing technologies and the sale of cassavabased processed foods undertaken by women in a suburban farming village. Cassava is one of the main staple foods in central Cameroon, including in urban areas. One of its characteristics is that it keeps for a long period in the ground but ...

  8. Characteristics of cassava starch fermentation wastewater based on structural degradation of starch granules

    OpenAIRE

    Juliane Mascarenhas Pereira; Ana Carolina Moura de Sena Aquino; Daiana Cardoso de Oliveira; Gabriela Rocha; Alícia de Francisco; Pedro Luiz Manique Barreto; Edna Regina Amante

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT: Sour cassava starch is a naturally modified starch produced by fermentation and sun drying, achieving the property of expansion upon baking. Sour cassava starch' bakery products can be prepared without the addition of yeast and it is gluten free. The fermentation process associated with this product has been well studied, but the wastewater, with high acidity and richness in other organic compounds derived from starch degradation, requires further investigation. In this study, the s...

  9. Effects of Simulated Acid Rain on Growth and Yield of Cassava Manihot esculenta (Crantz)

    OpenAIRE

    B. O. ODIYI; J. J. F. Bamidele

    2013-01-01

    Southern Nigeria is a major cassava producing area that has been subjected to air pollution from increasing industrial activities and population explosion in the coastal towns and cities. The level of pollution is not expected to change drastically in the immediate future. Investigations were carried out to study the changes in the morphology, survival, growth and yield of TMS 96/1672 cultivar of cassava Manihot esculenta (Crantz) to simulated acid rain. The plants were exposed to simulated a...

  10. Effects of sweet cassava polysaccharide extracts on endurance exercise in rats

    OpenAIRE

    Yen, Chia Hung; Tsao, Te Hung; Huang, Cheng Uan; Yang, Chang Bin; Kuo, Chung Sheng

    2013-01-01

    Background Sweet cassava tubers have abundant carbohydrates consisting of monosaccharides and polysaccharides. In addition, polysaccharides extracted from plants improve sports performance, according to recent studies. We therefore examined whether the administration of sweet cassava polysaccharides (SCPs) benefited endurance performance in rats Methods Male Sprague–Dawley rats (n = 30, 7 weeks old) were divided into three groups: control (C), exercise (Ex), and exercise plus SCPs administrat...

  11. Radiosensitivity of the reproductive organs exposed to the flow of cassava mixed neutron/gamma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A preliminary study of seeds and cuttings radiosensitivity for Cassava mutation breeding was performed. Three Cassava clones were irradiated at different times morder to determine the maximum mutagenic treatment. Data obtained show that treatments of which irradiated time is greater than 6 seconds are lethals for cutting regeneration. Duration inferior or equal to 6 seconds have no negative effect. The cutting regeneration is maximum for 3 seconds treatment and decreases with irradiation time. For irradiated seeds, germination has been completely inhibited.

  12. Technical Efficiency Analysis of Nigerian Cassava Farmers: A Guide for Food Security Policy

    OpenAIRE

    B.C. Asogwa; Umeh, Joseph Chinedu; P.I. Ater

    2006-01-01

    This study analyzed relationship between techn ical efficiency and socio-economic variables of cassava farmers in Nigeria. Data were collected from randomly sampled 360 cassava farmers in Nigeria using a structured questionnaire. The data were analyzed using descriptive statistics comprising mean, minimum value, maximum value and standard deviation, as well as inferential statistics, which comprised correlation and regression. The findings of the s tudy indicated that a significant relationsh...

  13. Molecular genetic tools to modulate post-harvest physiology in cassava

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Within 24-72 hours of harvest the starchy storage roots of cassava deteriorate rapidly depending on variety and environmental conditions. This post-harvest physiological deterioration (PPD) necessitates their prompt consumption or processing. In traditional village society, cassava roots are left in the ground until required; but, with increased urbanisation and the entry of cassava into the cash economy, distances have increased and PPD has become a major constraint to the development of this important crop, which impacts on farmers, processors and consumers alike. Improvement of cassava with respect to its PPD response via breeding is fraught with difficulties due to the high heterozygosity of the crop, a strong association between PPD and high dry matter content, and a high genetic X environment interaction. Molecular genetic tools may offer alternative approaches via insights into the PPD response itself, the provision of molecular markers for use in marker assisted selection and via the direct manipulation of the cassava genome. cDNA microarrays identify 73 genes whose expression changes significantly during the time-course of PPD; these clones are available to the cassava community for mapping or other research. These data support the hypothesis that reactive oxygen species mediated programmed cell death is at the heart of the PPD response. Currently we are further testing this hypothesis through the genetic modification of cassava using genes with the ability to alter the reactive oxygen defence status of the roots or to enhance the root's antiprogrammed cell death response. These modifications have the potential to extend the shelf-life of the cassava roots and ultimately to benefit resource-poor farmers. (author)

  14. Carotenoid analysis of Cassava genotypes roots (Manihot Esculenta Crantz) cultivated in Southern Brazil using chemometric tools

    OpenAIRE

    Moresco, Rodolfo; Uarrota, Virgílio Gavicho; Pereira, Aline; Tomazzoli, M. M.; Nunes, Eduardo da Costa; Peruch, Luiz Augusto Martins; Costa, Christopher; Rocha, Miguel; Maraschin, Marcelo

    2015-01-01

    Manihot esculenta roots rich in -carotene are an important staple food for populations with risk of vitamin A deficiency. Cassava genotypes with high pro-vitamin A activity have been identified as a strategy to reduce the prevalence of deficiency of this vitamin, In this study, the metabolomics characterization focusing on the carotenoid composition of ten cassava genotypes cultivated in southern Brazil by UV-visible scanning spectrophotometry and reverse phase-high performance liquid chromat...

  15. Profitability and Value Addition in Cassava Processing in Buton District of Southeast Sulawesi Province, Indonesia

    OpenAIRE

    Haji Saediman; Asmiati Amini; Rosmawaty Basiru; La Ode Nafiu

    2015-01-01

    This study was carried out to examine profitability of and value addition from cassava processing into kaopi based on the type of graters being used. A two-stage random sampling technique was employed to obtain primary data from 53 respondents selected for this study. Data were analyzed using cost and return analysis, R/C ratio, Break Even Point, and production structure. The study revealed that cassava processing into kaopi is profitable and a significant value adding process, but the level ...

  16. Batch and Continuous Lactic Acid Production from Cassava by Streptococcus bovis

    OpenAIRE

    Fachrul Razi; S D Yuwono

    2006-01-01

    Process variables were optimized for the production of lactic acid from cassava by Streptococcus bovis for batch and continuous fermentations. In the batch fermentation, maximum yield 82.5% and maximum lactic acid productivity 2.43 was achieved at 39 oC, pH 5.5 with 50 g/l cassava concentration. In the continuous fermentation maximum productivity lactic acid 1.25 g/l.h was obtained at dilution rate 0.05 /h.

  17. Beef production based on cassava products and legume foliage in Vietnam

    OpenAIRE

    Chu Manh, Thang

    2010-01-01

    The overall aim of this thesis was to determine the associative effects of supplemental sources of protein, or protein and energy, using cassava products and legume foliage on rumen degradability, in vivo digestibility, feed intake and growth rate of crossbred growing cattle. First it was hypothesized that the substitution of a part of a conventional concentrate with mixed cassava and legume foliage will positively influence rumen degradability and improve the performance of growing cattle. T...

  18. Microbiological and biochemical characterization of cassava retting, a traditional lactic Acid fermentation for foo-foo (cassava flour) production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brauman, A; Keleke, S; Malonga, M; Miambi, E; Ampe, F

    1996-08-01

    The overall kinetics of retting, a spontaneous fermentation of cassava roots performed in central Africa, was investigated in terms of microbial-population evolution and biochemical and physicochemical parameters. During the traditional process, endogenous cyanogens were almost totally degraded, plant cell walls were lysed by the simultaneous action of pectin methylesterase and pectate lyase, and organic acids (C(inf2) to C(inf4)) were produced. Most microorganisms identified were found to be facultative anaerobes which used the sugars (sucrose, glucose, and fructose) present in the roots as carbon sources. After 24 h of retting, the fermentation reached an equilibrium that was reproducible in all the spontaneous fermentations studied. Lactic acid bacteria were largely predominant (over 99% of the total flora after 48 h) and governed the fermentation. The epiphytic flora was first replaced by Lactococcus lactis, then by Leuconostoc mesenteroides, and finally, at the end of the process, by Lactobacillus plantarum. These organisms produced ethanol and high concentrations of lactate, which strongly acidified the retting juice. In addition, the rapid decrease in partial oxygen pressure rendered the process anaerobic. Strict anaerobes, such as Clostridium spp., developed and produced the volatile fatty acids (mainly butyrate) responsible, together with lactate, for the typical flavor of retted cassava. Yeasts (mostly Candida spp.) did not seem to play a significant role in the process, but their increasing numbers in the last stage of the process might influence the flavor and the preservation of the end products. PMID:16535378

  19. Biology and management of Bemisia whitefly vectors of cassava virus pandemics in Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legg, James P; Shirima, Rudolph; Tajebe, Lensa S; Guastella, Devid; Boniface, Simon; Jeremiah, Simon; Nsami, Elibariki; Chikoti, Patrick; Rapisarda, Carmelo

    2014-10-01

    Cassava mosaic disease and cassava brown streak disease are caused by viruses transmitted by Bemisia tabaci and affect approximately half of all cassava plants in Africa, resulting in annual production losses of more than $US 1 billion. A historical and current bias towards virus rather than vector control means that these diseases continue to spread, and high Bemisia populations threaten future virus spread even if the extant strains and species are controlled. Progress has been made in parts of Africa in replicating some of the successes of integrated Bemisia control programmes in the south-western United States. However, these management efforts, which utilise chemical insecticides that conserve the Bemisia natural enemy fauna, are only suitable for commercial agriculture, which presently excludes most cassava cultivation in Africa. Initiatives to strengthen the control of B. tabaci on cassava in Africa need to be aware of this limitation, and to focus primarily on control methods that are cheap, effective, sustainable and readily disseminated, such as host-plant resistance and biological control. A framework based on the application of force multipliers is proposed as a means of prioritising elements of future Bemisia control strategies for cassava in Africa. PMID:24706604

  20. Cassava leaves in combination with sera onggok and rice bran as supplements in buffaloes ration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two experiments have been undertaken to evaluate the utilization of cassava leaves in combination with sera onggok or rice bran as supplements in buffalo ration under traditional village condition. In experiment 1, 16 buffaloes were divided in four groups, each receiving a different ration ranging from mixed forage alone to mixed forage supplemented with a combination of cassava leaves and sera onggok or rice bran. Changes in dry metter consumption, daily weight gain, feed convertion ratio and incom over feed cost were assesed. Experiments 2 covered an in vitro study on the changes in rumen fermentation as affected by different rations. The results of experiment 1 indicated the lack of differences in dry matter consumption. However, the daily weight gain, feed convertion ratio and income over feed cost (IOFC) higher in animal receiving mixed forage suplement with cassava leaves in combination with either sera onggok or rice bran as compared to those of animal receiving mixed forage or mixed forage supplemented with cassava leaves. Experiment 2 revealed that amonia concentration and volatile fatty acid production were able to support a higher microbil activity supplemented with cassava leaves in combination with either sera onggok or rice bran as compared to those receiving the other two rations. In conclusion it is obvious that cassava leaves in combination with either sera onggok or rice bran used as supplements could promote a better production in animal in the villages. (author). 7 refs, 1 fig, 5 tabs

  1. Acid and enzymatic hydrolysis to recover reducing sugars from cassava bagasse: an economic study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Woiciechowski Adenise Lorenci

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to study the acid and enzymatic hydrolysis of cassava bagasse for the recovery of reducing sugars and to establish the operational costs. A statistical program "Statistica", based on the surface response was used to optimize the recovery of reducing sugars in both the processes. The process economics was determined considering the values of reducing sugars obtained at laboratory scale, and the operations costs of a cylindrical reactor of 1500 L, with flat walls at the top and bottom. The reactor was operated with 150 kg of cassava bagasse and 1350 kg of water. The yield of the acid hydrolysis was 62.4 g of reducing sugars from 100 g of cassava bagasse containing 66% starch. It represented 94.5% of reducing sugar recovery. The yield of the enzymatic hydrolysis was 77.1 g of reducing sugars from 120 g of cassava bagasse, which represented 97.3% of reducing sugars recovery. Concerning to the time, a batch of acid hydrolysis required 10 minutes, plus the time to heat and cool the reactor, and a batch of the enzymatic hydrolysis needed 25 hours and 20 minutes, plus the time to heat and to cool the reactor. Thus, the acid hydrolysis of 150 kg of cassava bagasse required US$ 34.27, and the enzymatic hydrolysis of the same amount of cassava bagasse required US$ 2470.99.

  2. Comparison of leaf proteomes of cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz cultivar NZ199 diploid and autotetraploid genotypes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feifei An

    Full Text Available Cassava polyploid breeding has drastically improved our knowledge on increasing root yield and its significant tolerance to stresses. In polyploid cassava plants, increases in DNA content highly affect cell volumes and anatomical structures. However, the mechanism of this effect is poorly understood. The purpose of the present study was to compare and validate the changes between cassava cultivar NZ199 diploid and autotetraploid at proteomic levels. The results showed that leaf proteome of cassava cultivar NZ199 diploid was clearly differentiated from its autotetraploid genotype using 2-DE combined MS technique. Sixty-five differential protein spots were seen in 2-DE image of autotetraploid genotype in comparison with that of diploid. Fifty-two proteins were identified by MALDI-TOF-MS/MS, of which 47 were up-regulated and 5 were down-regulated in autotetraploid genotype compared with diploid genotype. The classified functions of 32 up-regulated proteins were associated with photosynthesis, defense system, hydrocyanic acid (HCN metabolism, protein biosynthesis, chaperones, amino acid metabolism and signal transduction. The remarkable variation in photosynthetic activity, HCN content and resistance to salt stress between diploid and autotetraploid genotypes is closely linked with expression levels of proteomic profiles. The analysis of protein interaction networks indicated there are direct interactions between the 15 up-regulation proteins involved in the pathways described above. This work provides an insight into understanding the protein regulation mechanism of cassava polyploid genotype, and gives a clue to improve cassava polyploidy breeding in increasing photosynthesis and resistance efficiencies.

  3. Instant blend from cassava derivatives produced by extrusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Rossi Moretti Trombini

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: The current research aimed to evaluate the effects of extrusion parameters on the physical characteristics of extruded blends of cassava leaf flour and starch. A factorial central composite design with four independent variables and the response surface methodology were used to evaluate the results of color parameters (L*, a*, b*, water absorption index, water solubility index and paste properties, according to the variations in the leaf flour percentage (1.5 to 7.5%, extrusion temperature (60 to 100ºC, screw speed (175 to 231rpm and moisture (20 to 30%. Extrusion conditions affect color, water absorption and water solubility indexes and paste properties of blends. The intermediate tested conditions of variable parameters lead to obtain extruded products with higher cold viscosity and water absorption index and light color, desirable qualities for rapid preparation products.

  4. Study of the reproductive characteristics of nine cassava accessions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reproductive behaviour of two cultivars (AF and AN) and seven breeding lines (BA, AS, LA, BS-1, HO-008, ME and SE) of cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) was studied to obtain information pertaining to flowering habits and other reproductive characteristics of these potential parents required for future hybridization programmes. The accessions were grown on the Research Farm of the Biotechnology and Nuclear Agriculture Research Institute in the coastal savannah agro-ecological zone of Ghana between April 2008 and December 2009. For each accession, 40 stem cuttings, each bearing five to eight nodes, were prepared from the mid-section of healthy cassava stems and planted at a spacing of 1.5 m × 1.0 m while accessions were separated by a distance of 2 m. Ten plants were tagged per accession for the collection of data on key reproductive characteristics. All accessions flowered, suggesting that flower production may not be a limiting factor under the prevailing climatic conditions. Light microscopy revealed that one accession (BA) produced dysfunctional male flowers which were devoid of pollen. Mean days to flowering and fruiting varied significantly (P < 0.05) among the accessions, indicating the need to use different planting dates for different accessions to ensure synchronization of flowering. The accessions also differed significantly (P < 0.05) with respect to plant height at various levels of branching, as well as number of inflorescences, staminate and pistillate flowers, and fruit produced per branching level. There was also variation in percent seed set, embryo formation and fruit drop. The extensive variability observed among the accessions provides breeders with immense opportunities for carrying out cross combinations to generate new genotypes to meet specific objectives. (au)

  5. Radiation induced mutants in cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Stem cuttings and true seeds of three promising cultivars of cassava were exposed respectively to 1 to 5 kR and 10 to 50 kR acute gamma rays from a 60Co source. Treatments of stem cuttings beyond 5 kR and seeds beyond 50 kR were lethal. One mutant each in the cultivars M4, H-165 and H-2304 was obtained from the stem irradiated populations. Another mutant was found in the seed irradiated progeny of H-2304. The mutant of M4 is characterised by light green (chlorina) leaves. The mutant of H-165 shows significantly shorter petiole (22,5 against 35.2 cm) and narrow leaf lobes, while the H-2304 mutant shows speckled leaves, branching and early flowering. The mutant found in the seed irradiated progeny of H-2304 is having yellow tuber flesh indicating the presence of carotene. The mutants may be useful in studies related to basic information as well as in practical breeding. The chlorina mutant in M4 showed slow growth and high HCN content in leaves. Late branching may be a useful trait in the traditionally non-branching clones of cassava to maintain the desirable leaf area index during high leaf fall period. Early flowering could be useful in a recombinant breeding programme. The tuber yield of the short petiole mutant in H-165 increased by 20% - 25% through closer planting. The narrow leaf lobes of this mutant permit better light penetration to lower leaves. (author)

  6. Physiological Investigation and Transcriptome Analysis of Polyethylene Glycol (PEG-Induced Dehydration Stress in Cassava

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    Lili Fu

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Cassava is an important tropical and sub-tropical root crop that is adapted to drought environment. However, severe drought stress significantly influences biomass accumulation and starchy root production. The mechanism underlying drought-tolerance remains obscure in cassava. In this study, changes of physiological characters and gene transcriptome profiles were investigated under dehydration stress simulated by polyethylene glycol (PEG treatments. Five traits, including peroxidase (POD activity, proline content, malondialdehyde (MDA, soluble sugar and soluble protein, were all dramatically induced in response to PEG treatment. RNA-seq analysis revealed a gradient decrease of differentially expressed (DE gene number in tissues from bottom to top of a plant, suggesting that cassava root has a quicker response and more induced/depressed DE genes than leaves in response to drought. Overall, dynamic changes of gene expression profiles in cassava root and leaves were uncovered: genes related to glycolysis, abscisic acid and ethylene biosynthesis, lipid metabolism, protein degradation, and second metabolism of flavonoids were significantly induced, while genes associated with cell cycle/organization, cell wall synthesis and degradation, DNA synthesis and chromatin structure, protein synthesis, light reaction of photosynthesis, gibberelin pathways and abiotic stress were greatly depressed. Finally, novel pathways in ABA-dependent and ABA-independent regulatory networks underlying PEG-induced dehydration response in cassava were detected, and the RNA-Seq results of a subset of fifteen genes were confirmed by real-time PCR. The findings will improve our understanding of the mechanism related to dehydration stress-tolerance in cassava and will provide useful candidate genes for breeding of cassava varieties better adapted to drought environment.

  7. Physiological Investigation and Transcriptome Analysis of Polyethylene Glycol (PEG)-Induced Dehydration Stress in Cassava.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Lili; Ding, Zehong; Han, Bingying; Hu, Wei; Li, Yajun; Zhang, Jiaming

    2016-01-01

    Cassava is an important tropical and sub-tropical root crop that is adapted to drought environment. However, severe drought stress significantly influences biomass accumulation and starchy root production. The mechanism underlying drought-tolerance remains obscure in cassava. In this study, changes of physiological characters and gene transcriptome profiles were investigated under dehydration stress simulated by polyethylene glycol (PEG) treatments. Five traits, including peroxidase (POD) activity, proline content, malondialdehyde (MDA), soluble sugar and soluble protein, were all dramatically induced in response to PEG treatment. RNA-seq analysis revealed a gradient decrease of differentially expressed (DE) gene number in tissues from bottom to top of a plant, suggesting that cassava root has a quicker response and more induced/depressed DE genes than leaves in response to drought. Overall, dynamic changes of gene expression profiles in cassava root and leaves were uncovered: genes related to glycolysis, abscisic acid and ethylene biosynthesis, lipid metabolism, protein degradation, and second metabolism of flavonoids were significantly induced, while genes associated with cell cycle/organization, cell wall synthesis and degradation, DNA synthesis and chromatin structure, protein synthesis, light reaction of photosynthesis, gibberelin pathways and abiotic stress were greatly depressed. Finally, novel pathways in ABA-dependent and ABA-independent regulatory networks underlying PEG-induced dehydration response in cassava were detected, and the RNA-Seq results of a subset of fifteen genes were confirmed by real-time PCR. The findings will improve our understanding of the mechanism related to dehydration stress-tolerance in cassava and will provide useful candidate genes for breeding of cassava varieties better adapted to drought environment. PMID:26927071

  8. Utilization of cassava leaf (Manihot esculenta, Crantz) in concentrate mixtures for swamp buffaloes in Thailand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A study was made to evaluate dried cassava leaf (Manihot esculenta, Crantz) as a protein supplement in diets for buffaloes. Five swamp buffaloes aged 2.5 years (average liveweight 249 ± 6.1 kg) were randomly allotted to five concentrate mixture containing 0, 7.5, 15, 22.5 and 30g/kg dry matter (DM) dried cassava leaf containing 11.8-13.9% crude protein, 11.3-13.0 MJ metabolisable energy/kg DM, 9.7-18.4% neutral detergent fibre acid, 6.9-13.9% acid detergent fibre. The buffaloes were given urea-treated rice straw (UTS) ad libitum and one of the concentrate mixtures during each of five measurement periods according to a 5 x 5 Latin square design. Each period had a 21-d preliminary interval followed by a 7-d collection interval while the animals were in metabolic crates. Digestibilities of nutrients and N-balances were higher when cassava leaf was present in the concentrate mixtures, being highest for the 7.5% cassava leaf mixture. The ammonia and total VFA concentrations in rumen fluid and total volatile fatty acids (TVFA) and blood urea concentrations did not differ significantly between treatments. As the level of dried cassava leaf increased, the price of the mixtures decreased markedly. Dried cassava leaf therefore proved to be a good supplement for ruminants during seasonal dry periods when other feed supplies were not abundant. Incorporation of the dried cassava leaf in the concentrate up to 30% DM, and possible higher, could reduce the cost of diets for buffaloes relative to diets containing other protein sources such as soyabean meal. (author). 17 refs, 4 tabs

  9. Validation of Reference Genes for Relative Quantitative Gene Expression Studies in Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) by Using Quantitative Real-Time PCR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Meizhen; Hu, Wenbin; Xia, Zhiqiang; Zhou, Xincheng; Wang, Wenquan

    2016-01-01

    Reverse transcription quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (real-time PCR, also referred to as quantitative RT-PCR or RT-qPCR) is a highly sensitive and high-throughput method used to study gene expression. Despite the numerous advantages of RT-qPCR, its accuracy is strongly influenced by the stability of internal reference genes used for normalizations. To date, few studies on the identification of reference genes have been performed on cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz). Therefore, we selected 26 candidate reference genes mainly via the three following channels: reference genes used in previous studies on cassava, the orthologs of the most stable Arabidopsis genes, and the sequences obtained from 32 cassava transcriptome sequence data. Then, we employed ABI 7900 HT and SYBR Green PCR mix to assess the expression of these genes in 21 materials obtained from various cassava samples under different developmental and environmental conditions. The stability of gene expression was analyzed using two statistical algorithms, namely geNorm and NormFinder. geNorm software suggests the combination of cassava4.1_017977 and cassava4.1_006391 as sufficient reference genes for major cassava samples, the union of cassava4.1_014335 and cassava4.1_006884 as best choice for drought stressed samples, and the association of cassava4.1_012496 and cassava4.1_006391 as optimal choice for normally grown samples. NormFinder software recommends cassava4.1_006884 or cassava4.1_006776 as superior reference for qPCR analysis of different materials and organs of drought stressed or normally grown cassava, respectively. Results provide an important resource for cassava reference genes under specific conditions. The limitations of these findings were also discussed. Furthermore, we suggested some strategies that may be used to select candidate reference genes. PMID:27242878

  10. Biofortified cassava increases ß-carotene and vitamin A concentrations in the TAG-rich plasma layer of American women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: Biofortification of cassava with the provitamin A (PVA) carotenoid beta-carotene (BC) is a potential mechanism for alleviating vitamin A (VA) deficiency. Cassava is a staple food in the African diet, but the human bioavailability of BC within this food is unknown. Objective: To evaluat...

  11. Cassava (Manihot esculenta) transcriptome analysis in response to infection by the fungus Colletotrichum gloeosporioides using an oligonucleotide-DNA microarray.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Utsumi, Yoshinori; Tanaka, Maho; Kurotani, Atsushi; Yoshida, Takuhiro; Mochida, Keiichi; Matsui, Akihiro; Ishitani, Manabu; Sraphet, Supajit; Whankaew, Sukhuman; Asvarak, Thipa; Narangajavana, Jarunya; Triwitayakorn, Kanokporn; Sakurai, Tetsuya; Seki, Motoaki

    2016-07-01

    Cassava anthracnose disease (CAD), caused by the fungus Colletotrichum gloeosporioides f. sp. Manihotis, is a serious disease of cassava (Manihot esculenta) worldwide. In this study, we established a cassava oligonucleotide-DNA microarray representing 59,079 probes corresponding to approximately 30,000 genes based on original expressed sequence tags and RNA-seq information from cassava, and applied it to investigate the molecular mechanisms of resistance to fungal infection using two cassava cultivars, Huay Bong 60 (HB60, resistant to CAD) and Hanatee (HN, sensitive to CAD). Based on quantitative real-time reverse transcription PCR and expression profiling by the microarray, we showed that the expressions of various plant defense-related genes, such as pathogenesis-related (PR) genes, cell wall-related genes, detoxification enzyme, genes related to the response to bacterium, mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), genes related to salicylic acid, jasmonic acid and ethylene pathways were higher in HB60 compared with HN. Our results indicated that the induction of PR genes in HB60 by fungal infection and the higher expressions of defense response-related genes in HB60 compared with HN are likely responsible for the fungal resistance in HB60. We also showed that the use of our cassava oligo microarray could improve our understanding of cassava molecular mechanisms related to environmental responses and development, and advance the molecular breeding of useful cassava plants. PMID:27138000

  12. Morphological and mechanical characterization of thermoplastic starch and its blends with polylactic acid using cassava starch and bagasse

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study aims the use of an agro waste coming from the industrialization of cassava starch, known as cassava bagasse (BG). This material contains residual starch and cellulose fibers which can be used to obtain thermoplastic starch (TPS) and /or blends reinforced with fibers. In this context, it w...

  13. Effects of processing, cooking, and storage on ß-carotene retention and bioaccessibility in biofortified cassava (Manihot esculenta)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biofortification of cassava with beta-carotene is currently being tested in African populations where cassava is a staple food and vitamin A deficiency is a public health problem. Measuring the impact of traditional African processing and cooking on beta-carotene concentration and bioaccessibility ...

  14. Characterization of an 18,166 EST dataset for cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) enriched for drought-responsive genes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) is a staple food for over 600 million people in the tropics and subtropics and is increasingly used as an industrial crop for starch production. Cassava has a high growth rate under optimal conditions but also performs well in drought-prone areas and on marginal so...

  15. Biofortified Cassava with Pro-Vitamin A is sensory and culturally acceptable for consumption by primary school children in Kenya

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Talsma, E.F.; Boonstra, A.; Kok, de B.P.H.; Mbera, G.N.K.; Mwangi, A.M.; Brouwer, I.D.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Biofortification of cassava with pro-vitamin A can potentially reduce vitamin A deficiency in low-income countries. However, little is known about consumer acceptance of this deep yellow variety of cassava compared to the commonly available white varieties. We aimed to determine the sens

  16. Cloning of a peroxidase gene from cassava with potential as a molecular marker for resistance to bacterial blight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pereira Luiz Filipe

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Cassava bacterial blight (CBB, caused by Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. manihotis, is considered one of the most important bacterial diseases of cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz. In order to characterize the cassava genes involved in resistance to this disease, a genomic clone of a cationic peroxidase gene, MEPX1, was isolated by PCR from cassava cultivar MCOL 22. The DNA sequence of MEPX1 showed high homology with other plant peroxidase genes and contained a large intron typical of peroxidase genes. The predicted translation product showed a heme-ligand motif, also a characteristic of peroxidases, as well as phosphorylation, myristoylation and glycosylation sites. The amino acid sequence had 75 % homology with two Arabidopsis thaliana peroxidases. A Southern blot of 17 cassava cultivars, probed with MEPX1, showed multiple hybridization bands. Polymorphisms between cultivars generally reflected geographic origin, but there was also an association with resistance to CBB, indicating that MEPX1 could be a potentially useful marker for this trait.

  17. Rheological behavior of gamma-irradiated cassava (Manihot esculenta crantz) starch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cassava starch is the by-product of the process of pressing water out of cassava to make cassava meal. The juice has a fine starch, similar to rice or potato starch that, when dried, yields polvilho doce (sweet manioc starch); from the fermented juice comes polvilho azedo (sour manioc starch). Cassava starch can perform most of the functions where maize, rice and wheat starch are currently used. The aim of the present work was to determine the influence or ionizing radiation on the rheological behavior of aqueous preparations of gamma-irradiated cassava starch at different concentrations. Samples of polvilho doce and polvilho azedo were obtained at the local market and irradiated in plastic bags in a Gammacell 220 with doses of 1, 3 e 5 kGy, dose rate ∼ 1.2 kGy h-1. A Brooksfield viscometer was employed for the viscosity measurements. The results showed a strong dependence of the viscosity with the concentration of the starch solutions. In most of the cases there was a decrease of viscosity with the increase of the radiation dose usually seen in irradiated polysaccharides. Nevertheless, the dose response relation of the two kind of starch was different. (author)

  18. Carcass and non-carcass characteristics of sheep fed on cassava (Manihot pseudoglaziovii Pax & K. Hoffm.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michel V Maciel

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Sheep production systems installed in the semi-arid region of Brazil depend on the forage support the 'caatinga' biome. This study aimed at evaluating the substitution of hybrid 'Tifton 85' (Cynodon spp. by cassava (Manihotpseudoglaziovii Pax & K. Hoffm. hay or silage on the components of sheep's' body weight. Twenty-four animals, with no defined breed, were used for the study, with an initial body weight of 19.77 ± 1.95 kg and an average age of 6-mo, being divided into three treatments ('Tifton 85' hay, cassava silage, and cassava hay. The animals were slaughtered at 56 d and all the body parts of the animals were weighed. Data were subjected to ANOVA and mean comparison test (P = 0.05. Means were superior (P 0.05 for body weight at slaughter and cold carcass weight, which had means of 28.10 and 12.38 kg, respectively. The hot carcass and leg yields showed values of 58% and 34%, respectively, and were not influenced (P > 0.05 by different forages. The constituents that were not components of the carcass, organs, offal, and by-products were not affected by the replacement of 'Tifton 85' hay by cassava hay or silage. Cassava hay or silage can replace 'Tifton 85' hay for feeding sheep in complete diets without compromising their body components' yields and weights.

  19. Study of the effects of hydrogen cyanide exposure in Cassava workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priya Kali Dhas

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background : Hydrogen cyanide is the chemical responsible for tissue hypoxia. Chronic exposure to HCN may cause neurological, respiratory, cardiovascular and thyroid defects. Onset of symptoms depends on dose and duration of exposure. Large scale of Cassava processing could be disastrous due to discharge of hydrocyanic acid into the air. Cassava processing is the major industrial work in and around Salem. Hence the present study is taken to assess the effects of HCN exposure in Cassava workers. Materials and Methods: Thirty-nine workers from a Cassava processing unit at Salem and age-matched controls of the same economic status were taken up for this study. Clinical history was obtained with a questionnaire and their Blood sugar, lipid profile, serum total protein, urea, creatinine, AST, ALT and T 3 , T 4 , TSH were estimated using a fasting blood sample and AIP was calculated. Statistical analysis was done by student t test. Results: Our study reveals a significant increase in triglyceride in Cassava workers when compared to the control. Atherogenic index of plasma (AIP is statistically highly significant. A significant decrease was seen in T 4. Conclusion: An increase in TGL and AIP shows a higher degree of cardiovascular risk. A decrease in T4 suggests an insufficient iodine uptake by thyroid gland. Hence a periodic medical evaluation should be done on such workers for their safety and to prevent the health hazard.

  20. Rheological behavior of gamma-irradiated cassava (Manihot esculenta crantz) starch

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Orelio L.; Uehara, Vanessa B.; Mastro, Nelida L. del, E-mail: nlmastro@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    Cassava starch is the by-product of the process of pressing water out of cassava to make cassava meal. The juice has a fine starch, similar to rice or potato starch that, when dried, yields polvilho doce (sweet manioc starch); from the fermented juice comes polvilho azedo (sour manioc starch). Cassava starch can perform most of the functions where maize, rice and wheat starch are currently used. The aim of the present work was to determine the influence or ionizing radiation on the rheological behavior of aqueous preparations of gamma-irradiated cassava starch at different concentrations. Samples of polvilho doce and polvilho azedo were obtained at the local market and irradiated in plastic bags in a Gammacell 220 with doses of 1, 3 e 5 kGy, dose rate ∼ 1.2 kGy h-1. A Brooksfield viscometer was employed for the viscosity measurements. The results showed a strong dependence of the viscosity with the concentration of the starch solutions. In most of the cases there was a decrease of viscosity with the increase of the radiation dose usually seen in irradiated polysaccharides. Nevertheless, the dose response relation of the two kind of starch was different. (author)

  1. Design, Construction and Performance Evaluation of a Modified Cassava Milling Machine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.N. Nwaigwe

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available This study on the design and construction of a modified cassava milling machine was done, owing to the inability of existing mills to meet the demand of cassava flour in bakery industries. Rational design by drawing and calculations and fabrication in the Centre for Industrial Studies (CIS FUTO were used to bring this mill to reality. The modified cassava milling machine has a milling efficiency of 82.3%, it is dust free and self-cleaning and due to proper air circulation does not destroy the cassava flour produced by overheating. The cassava flour produced was found to have a fineness modulus (fm of 0.31, Uniformity index (U of 0: 1: 9 (coarse: medium: fine and effective size (D10 of 0.075 mm which is better than that produced by an existing mill (hammer mill of fineness modulus (fm 2.32, uniformity index (U of 4:1:5 and effective size (D10 of 0.085 mm.

  2. Determinants of economically optimal cassava-to-ethanol plant capacities with consideration of GHG emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The successful realization of biofuel plants depends on a number of economic and ecological factors. In this work, the production of bioethanol from cassava in China's Guangxi province is investigated by combining an economic optimization approach with results from corresponding Life Cycle Assessments. By using the potential plant's capacity as the optimization variable, it becomes possible to show the trade-offs associated with different capacities, especially with regard to the achievable profitability and the corresponding greenhouse gas emissions. In contrast to distinct case studies, this approach aims for the identification of optimal capacities from a continuous range of potential capacities. The combined assessment is then applied to a Chinese scenario to determine the effects of factors such as fertilizer application and of the conversion of fresh cassava to cassava chips to identify favorable options for potential future cassava-to-ethanol plants. In general, such modeling approaches are expected to facilitate the bioenergy plant planning by approximating the economic and ecological consequences of plants of different capacities. - Highlights: • A Life Cycle Assessment of a cassava-to-ethanol plant in China is performed. • Optimization methods are used to enhance the understanding of biomass logistics. • The two methods are combined to investigate trade-offs between economy and ecology. • Transportation-related specific GHG emissions are constant for optimal capacities. • Ethanol/product price and conversion ratio are among the most important parameters

  3. Water use impact of ethanol at a gasoline substitution ratio of 5% from cassava in Nigeria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adeoti, O. [Dept. of Agricultural Engineering, The Federal Polytechnic, Along Ikare Road, Ado Ekiti, Ekiti State (Nigeria)

    2010-07-15

    The process of fuel ethanol production from cassava root is connected to a chain of impacts on the water resource of the country where the cassava plant is grown and the root processed into fuel ethanol. The paper assesses the impact of the domestic production of 5 per cent ethanol (E5) needed under the Nigerian biofuel programme from cassava root on the water resource of Nigeria. Using the 2007 Premium Motor Spirit (PMS) consumption as the baseline, Nigeria will require about 0.49 hm{sup 3} of ethanol to blend 9.32 hm{sup 3} of PMS to arrive at the 2007 consumption estimates. The impact of the domestic production of this ethanol requirement translates to about 6.0 km{sup 3} of water; out of which about 48 per cent is green and about 52 per cent is blue. Addressing future impact typical of a developing economy like Nigeria, a three-scenario analysis was adopted to examine the impact of future growth in cassava-fuel ethanol requirement on the water resource of Nigeria, and also, the impact of improved water use on the future water footprint of E5. The projected water impact of cassava-ethanol production into the future ranges from 6.02 to 7.28 km{sup 3}, while improved water use could lower these values by about 0.04-2.35 km{sup 3} for the same period, 2010 to 2020, under the projection assumptions made. (author)

  4. Strategy of gene silencing in cassava for validation of resistance genes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cassava (Manihot esculenta) is a major source of food for more than 1000 million people in the world and constitutes an important staple crop. Cassava bacterial blight, caused by the gram negative bacterium Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. manihotis, is one of the most important constraints for this crop. A candidate resistance gene against cassava bacterial blight, named RXam1, has been identified previously. In this work, we employed the gene silencing approach using the African cassava mosaic virus (ACMV) to validate the function of the RXam1 gene. We used as positive control the su gen, which produce photo blanching in leaves when is silenced. Plants from the SG10735 variety were bombardment with the ACMV-A-SU+ACMV-B y ACMV-A-RXam1+ACMV-B constructions. The silencing efficiency employing the su gene was low, only one of seven plants showed photo blanching. In the putative silenced plants for the RXam1 gene, no presence of siRNAs corresponding to RXam1 was observed; although a low diminution of the RXam1 gene expression was obtained. The growth curves for the Xam strain CIO136 in cassava plants inoculated showing a little but no significance difference in the susceptibility in the silenced plants compared to not silenced

  5. Comparative Economic Study of Mixed and Sole Cassava Cropping Systems in Nigeria

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    J. O. Ajayi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Agricultural economists continue to argue if mixed or sole cassava cropping system is more economically profitable and in terms of yield and returns to farmers particularly for Nigeria which is the world’s largest producer of the crop. The study was carried out to analyse the economics comparatively of mixed and sole cassava cropping systems in Nigeria. The study made use of both primary and secondary data. Primary data were collected with the aid of well-structured questionnaires assisted with interview schedules. Field data collection was conducted between March and April, 2014. Multi-stage sampling technique was used to select four hundred and eighty (480 respondents across the six major cassava-producing states in Nigeria (Benue, Cross Rivers, Enugu, Kogi, Ondo, and Oyo. Data collected were analysed using descriptive statistics and comparative budgetary analysis. The study showed that mixed cropping system is more male-dominated than sole cropping system. The study also revealed that sole cassava cropping system is more economically profitable than mixed cassava cropping system while the later provides opportunities of all-year-round farm incomes to serve as a better poverty- alleviating mechanism.

  6. Enhancing fermentable sugar yield from cassava pulp for bioethanol production: microwave-coupled enzymatic hydrolysis approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudha, A; Sivakumar, V; Sangeetha, V; Devi, K S Priyenka

    2015-08-01

    Cassava pulp, a potential biological feedstock for ethanol production has been subjected to microwave-assisted alkali pretreatment and microwave-coupled enzymatic hydrolysis. Microwave pretreatment may be a good alternative as it can reduce the pretreatment time and improve the enzymatic activity during hydrolysis. Liquid to solid ratio for the pretreatment of cassava pulp was found to be 20:1. Cassava pulp was pretreated at various NaOH concentration, microwave temperature and gave maximum yield of reducing sugar with 1.5% NaOH at 90 °C in 30 min than conventional alkali pretreatment after enzymatic hydrolysis. The subsequent enzymatic saccharification of pretreated cassava pulp using α amylase dosage of 400 IU at microwave temperature of 90 °C resulted in highest reducing sugar yield of 723 mg/g pulp. Microwave-assisted alkali pretreatment improved the enzymatic saccharification of cassava pulp by increasing its accessibility to hydrolytic enzymes. Microwave-assisted alkali pretreatment and microwave-coupled enzymatic hydrolysis are found to be efficient for improving the yield of reducing sugar. PMID:25832789

  7. Nuclear and related techniques in the improvement of traditional fermentation processing of cassava

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cassava, a starchy, cyanide-containing tuber root grown throughout the tropical areas, is one of the world's important food staples. The cassava root is very low in protein: its typical content for many cultivars is around one or two percent and thus is completely unable to provide the consumer with sufficient protein. The main goal of the Agency's Co-ordinated Research Programme (CRP) on ''Nuclear Techniques in the Improvement of Traditional Fermentation Practice in Developing Countries with Particular Emphasis on Cassava'' was to assist researchers from the tropical countries in the development of the techniques utilizing ionizing radiation for producing genetically improved mutants of the cassava-fermenting microorganisms with high abilities to eliminate poisonous glucosides and to increase the yield of desired nutrients to the fermented end-product. This document consists of fourteen final reports submitted by the scientists concerned to the final RCM as well as discussion materials covering main approaches to the problem of the improvement of traditional reprocessing of cassava, such as general microbiological aspects of the fermentation process and the genetic improvement of the selected specific microorganisms with the help of classical microbial mutagenesis methods and modern molecular gene-engineering techniques and tools. Refs, figs and tabs

  8. Effect of Harvest and Cook Processing on Cyanides Content of Cassava Cultivars and Cassava-Based Dough Consumed In Lomé, Togo

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    T. Tchacondo

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Cassava is a staple food for many populations, but it can be a source of poisoning due to its content of cyanide (CN. This study aimed to evaluate the influence of harvest and cook processing on the reduction of cyanide content in cassava-based foods. Ten cassava cultivars were collected from the National Collection in Togo. The CN content was measured to examine the influence of the following factors: cultivars, time of harvest, drying, grinding, boiling flour and the mixture of flour with corn flour. The results showed significant variation of CN content in the range of 375±3.32 and 27±14.28 mg/kg, within cultivars. The maximum CN content was obtained when the crop was harvested during the dry season (375.3±3.32 mg/kg and the minimum in the rainy season (93.05±2.35 mg/kg. A circadian variation was also observed, with high concentration in the morning (67.3±1.75 mg/kg and low concentration in the evening (50.55±4.32 mg/kg. For the same cultivar, the cyanide content of fresh tuber was at least two times greater than that of the dried one and five times higher than that of the dough. The mixture of cassava flour with corn flour significantly reduced the CN content of the dough. But this decline was stabilized for corn flour above 40%. Thus, by acting on the various studied factors, the amount of cyanide in cassava-based food can be sufficiently reduced.

  9. Post-harvest conservation of organic strawberries coated with cassava starch and chitosan

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    Raquel P Campos

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The strawberry is as non-climacteric fruit, but has a high post-harvest respiration rate, which leads to a rapid deterioration at room temperature. This study aimed to evaluate the application of biodegradable coating on postharvest conservation of organic strawberries, cv. Camarosa, packed in plastic hinged boxes and stored at 10ºC. The treatments consisted of: a control; b 2% cassava starch; c 1% chitosan; and d 2% cassava starch + 1% chitosan. Physical and chemical characteristics of fruits were evaluated at 3, 6 and 9 days of storage, and microbiological and sensory analyses were carried out at the end of the storage period. The treatments influenced positively the post-harvest quality of organic strawberries. The coating cassava starch + chitosan provided the best results, with less than 6% of loss in fruit mass, lower counts of yeast and psychrophilic microorganisms and the best appearance according to the sensory analysis.

  10. Optimization of cassava root sieviate medium to an enriched animal feed by Aspergillus niger

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    Mbah G.O

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available - Optimization of the media components cassava root sieviate with Aspergellus Niger was carried out using Face-Centered Central Composite Design (FCCCD of the Response Surface Methodology (RSM and the responses were measured in terms of protein and crude fiber contents. Statistical Analysis (ANOVA of the result showed that time and substrate concentration had effect on biodegraded cassava root sieviate (p-value was 0.00 ie. 0.00 < 0.05. The optimum value of enriched cassava root sieviate with Aspergellus Niger were found to be on 10 days (time and 6g/10ml concentration resulting to 9.42% from 1.85% enrichment in protein content and degrading crude fiber to 8.38%, from 70.3%, thus indicating the potency of Aspergillus niger for the production of economical livestock feed from renewable source.

  11. Thin layer drying of cassava starch using continuous vibrated fluidized bed dryer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suherman, Trisnaningtyas, Rona

    2015-12-01

    This paper present the experimental work and thin layer modelling of cassava starch drying in continuous vibrated fluidized bed dryer. The experimental data was used to validate nine thin layer models of drying curve. Cassava starch with 0.21 initial moisture content was dried in different air drying temperature (50°C, 55°C, 60°C, 65°C, 70°C), different weir height in bed (0 and 1 cm), and different solid feed flow (10 and 30 gr.minute-1). The result showed air dryer temperature has a significant effect on drying curve, while the weir height and solid flow rate are slightly. Based on value of R2, χ2, and RMSE, Page Model is the most accurate simulation for thin layer drying model of cassava starch.

  12. Bio-ethanol production from non-food parts of Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nuwamanya, Ephraim; Kawuki, Robert S.; Baguma, Yona [National Agricultural Research organization, National Crops Resources Research Inst. (NaCRRI), Kampala (Uganda); Chiwona-Karltun, Linley [Dept. of Urban and Rural Development, Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala (Sweden)], email: Linley.karltun@slu.se

    2012-03-15

    Global climate issues and a looming energy crisis put agriculture under pressure in Sub-Saharan Africa. Climate adaptation measures must entail sustainable development benefits, and growing crops for food as well as energy may be a solution, removing people from hunger and poverty without compromising the environment. The present study investigated the feasibility of using non-food parts of cassava for energy production and the promising results revealed that at least 28% of peels and stems comprise dry matter, and 10 g feedstock yields >8.5 g sugar, which in turn produced >60% ethanol, with pH {approx} 2.85, 74-84% light transmittance and a conductivity of 368 mV, indicating a potential use of cassava feedstock for ethanol production. Thus, harnessing cassava for food as well as ethanol production is deemed feasible. Such a system would, however, require supportive policies to acquire a balance between food security and fuel.

  13. Radiosensitivity and in vitro mutagenesis in African accessions of cassava, Manihot esculenta Crantz

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Induced mutagenesis holds promise for the subtle manipulation of traits of interest in crop plants. For a vegetatively propagated crop like cassava with severe constraints posed on its genetic improvement by inherent biological systems, the adoption of this methodology seems even the more appealing. However, there is scant information on protocols for inducing mutations in this crop. We present in this report the preliminary data on the determination of radiosensitivities for some African cassava accessions. The optimal doses of gamma ray irradiation varied from as low 12 Gy to 25 Gy. The probable implication of genotypic variation in response to gamma irradiation as was found in this study buttresses the need to carry out this larger scale study in order to avail cassava scientists intending to adopt induced mutagenesis of requisite information in this regard. A modified in vitro culture medium, half strength MS without growth hormones, was also shown to greatly enhance the growth of the plantlets without producing callus. (author)

  14. Toward better understanding of postharvest deterioration: biochemical changes in stored cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) roots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uarrota, Virgílio Gavicho; Nunes, Eduardo da Costa; Peruch, Luiz Augusto Martins; Neubert, Enilto de Oliveira; Coelho, Bianca; Moresco, Rodolfo; Domínguez, Moralba Garcia; Sánchez, Teresa; Meléndez, Jorge Luis Luna; Dufour, Dominique; Ceballos, Hernan; Becerra Lopez-Lavalle, Luis Augusto; Hershey, Clair; Rocha, Miguel; Maraschin, Marcelo

    2016-05-01

    Food losses can occur during production, postharvest, and processing stages in the supply chain. With the onset of worldwide food shortages, interest in reducing postharvest losses in cassava has been increasing. In this research, the main goal was to evaluate biochemical changes and identify the metabolites involved in the deterioration of cassava roots. We found that high levels of ascorbic acid (AsA), polyphenol oxidase (PPO), dry matter, and proteins are correlated with overall lower rates of deterioration. On the other hand, soluble sugars such as glucose and fructose, as well as organic acids, mainly, succinic acid, seem to be upregulated during storage and may play a role in the deterioration of cassava roots. Cultivar Branco (BRA) was most resilient to postharvest physiological deterioration (PPD), while Oriental (ORI) was the most susceptible. Our findings suggest that PPO, AsA, and proteins may play a distinct role in PPD delay. PMID:27247771

  15. Development of starter culture for improved processing of Lafun, an African fermented cassava food product

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Padonou, S.W.; Nielsen, Dennis Sandris; Akissoe, N.H.;

    2010-01-01

    AIMS: To select appropriate micro-organisms to be used as starter culture for reliable and reproducible fermentation of Lafun. METHODS AND RESULTS: A total of 22 cultures consisting of yeast, lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and Bacillus cereus strains predominant in traditionally fermented cassava...... during Lafun processing were tested as potential starter cultures. In an initial screening, Saccharomyces cerevisiae 2Y48P22, Lactobacillus fermentum 2L48P21, Lactobacillus plantarum 1L48P35 and B. cereus 2B24P31 were found to be the most promising of the cultures and were subsequently tested in...... different combinations as mixed starter cultures to ferment submerged cassava roots. Saccharomyces cerevisiae, inoculated singly or combined with B. cereus, gave the softest cassava root after 48 h of fermentation according to determination of compression profile and stress at fracture. Overall, sensory...

  16. Gene expression analysis during cassava defense response to bacterial blight disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soto-Suárez Mauricio

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Cassava bacterial blight (CBB caused by Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. manihotis (Xam is a destructive disease in the South América and África and yield losses range between 12 and 100%. Cytochemistry and biochemistry of defense response to CBB have been well studied. However, the response of the plant to pathogen attack at the molecular and cellular level remains uncharacterized. Identification of genes associated with defense responses is one of most critical steps leading to the elucidation of disease resistance mechanisms in cassava. In this study, we identified differentially expressed genes during pathogen attack by subtractive hybridization, using the Differential Subtraction Chain method (DSC. A population of cDNA obtained from infected plants was used as ";treatment"; and a population of cDNA obtained from healthy plants was used as ";control";. 1536 clones were isolated from the resistant varieties (MBRA 685 and SG 107-35. Of these, 110 randomly selected clones were sequenced and a homology search was conducted. The sequence analysis showed that 14 cDNA clones shared homology with plant genes involved in defense responses, 70 clones were either homologous to plant genes of unknown function or showed no homology, representing new genes potentially involved in cassava defense responses. A cDNA microarray was constructed by spotting the clones identified from our subtractive libraries. Other clones potentially involved in cassava defense responses were also included. The cassava defense cDNA microarray was used to confirm the differential expression of the clones. Keywords: cassava, bacterial blight, gene expression, subtractive library, microarrays.

  17. Non-destructive determination of photosynthetic rates of eight varieties of cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cassava is an important food security crop in Ghana and in the wake of climate change there is the need for plant breeders to develop varieties with high water use efficiency as well as high photosynthetic rate in order to adapt to the changing climate. Thus, the photosynthetic rates of eight cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) varieties were non-destructively evaluated using photosynthesis meter miniPPM300, from June 2014 to May 2015, with the aim of selecting varieties with high photosynthetic rate for future breeding programmes. The mean photosynthetic rate varied depending on the varieties ranging from 40.5 μmol/m2s in Bosom nsia to 45.2 μmol/m2s in Gbenze. However, the presence of African cassava mosaic disease (ACMD) marginally reduced the photosynthetic rate to below 40 μmol/m2s in all the varieties. Similarly, the chlorophyll content index (CCI) as measured by chlorophyll meter and spectrophotometer also varied from one variety to another; it was low in Nandom (17.9 CCI) and high in Gbenze (39.93 CCI) using the chlorophyll meter and was also reduced by the presence of the virus. Although, the stomatal density varied between the varieties it was not influenced by virus infection. Furthermore, ACMD significantly decreased the leaf surface area from 5705.8mm2 in uninfected plants to 1251.6mm2 in infected plants, consequently reducing the number and weight of tubers produced 11 month after planting (MAP). Molecular Testing of the viruses using virus specific primers JSP001/JSP002, EAB555F/EAB555R, EACMV1e/EACMV2e at 6 MAP and 11MAP, showed that the mosaic symptoms were caused by African Cassava Mosaic virus disease. Cassava varieties with high photosynthetic efficiency and low virus infection can be used in cassava improvement programmes in Ghana. (au)

  18. Carotenoid stability during storage of yellow gari made from biofortified cassava or with palm oil

    OpenAIRE

    Bechoff, Aurelie; Chijioke, Ugo; Tomlins, Keith I.; Govinden, Pesila; Ilona, Paul; Westby, Andrew; Boy, Erick

    2015-01-01

    The carotenoid composition of gari made from biofortified cassava (BG) was compared to that of existing gari of similar appearance but made from white cassava with added red palm oil (RPG). Storage of both yellow gari products was modelled at ambient temperatures typical of tropical areas (19-40 °C) over a 3 month-period at constant relative humidity. Carotenoid content and hence vitamin A activity of the gari products decreased markedly with time and temperature. Trans-β-carotene degradation...

  19. EXPLORING OPTIMAL FEED TO MICROBES RATIO FOR ANAEROBIC ACIDOGENIC FERMENTATION OF CASSAVA RESIDUE FROM BREWERY

    OpenAIRE

    Xinying Wang; Shuting Zhang; Jing Wang; Xiaoyan Yu; Xuebin Lu

    2012-01-01

    Cassava residue from breweries is being generated in large amounts in Guangxi Province of China, and this has potential to cause serious environmental problems if disposed of improperly. Two-stage anaerobic fermentation is a promising method for the treatment of such residue. In this study, the effect of feed to microbes ratio (F/M ratio) on the anaerobic acidogenic fermentation of cassava residue was studied to determine the optimal F/M ratio and to maximize the performance in a subsequent m...

  20. Leaf consumption and duration of instars of the cassava defoliator Erinnyis ello (L., 1758) (Lepidoptera, Sphingidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Dirceu Pratissoli; José Cola Zanúncio; Reginaldo Barros; Harley Nonato de Oliveira

    2002-01-01

    The objectives of this research were to evaluate leaf consumption and the developmental time of the larvae of Erynnyis ello (L., 1758) (Lepidoptera, Sphingidae) reared on cassava, in order to obtain information for the integrated management of this pest. The larvae were reared on excised cassava leaves in Petri dishes and later in gerbox, and kept in chambers at 24 ± 2 ºC and 75 ± 10% RH. The total leaf area consumed by the larva to complete its development was 589.67 cm²; each of the five in...

  1. Comparative Economic Study of Mixed and Sole Cassava Cropping Systems in Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Ajayi, J. O.

    2014-01-01

    Agricultural economists continue to argue if mixed or sole cassava cropping system is more economically profitable and in terms of yield and returns to farmers particularly for Nigeria which is the world’s largest producer of the crop. The study was carried out to analyse the economics comparatively of mixed and sole cassava cropping systems in Nigeria. The study made use of both primary and secondary data. Primary data were collected with the aid of well-structured questionnaires assisted ...

  2. Determination of Juice Removal Difficulty from Mash Cake in Cassava Mash Dewatering Operation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oladele Peter KOLAWOLE

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Cassava processing equipment operators have limited knowledge; this militates against the success recorded in the research so far in cassava mash dewatering. New dewatering schemes to make food processing economical to handle are in progress. Common dewatering processes use a variety of mechanical means such as screw presses and belt presses. Experiments were conducted using three samples of TMS 4(2 1425 variety while evaluating the difficulty of separating juice from mash cake. Average specific cake resistance (a of 5×1011 m/kg was obtained confirming that it is moderately easy to dewatering.

  3. Study of cassava starch enzymatic modification for maltodextrins obtention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Angel Díaz

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available It was pretended to investigate the effect of the most relevant variables in cassava starch enzymatic hydrolysis process, on laboratory scale, to determine appropriate industrial conditions for the obtention of different kinds of maltodextrins. An a-Amylase enzyme, from genetically modified strain of Bacillus lichenijormis, was used to hydrolize the starch. Once the variables were chosen, an experimental fractioned factorial design was established with two levels. The Dextrose Equivalent (DE was taken as the response variable. The variables studied were: temperature (80-90°C, pH (5.5-6.5, dry-weight starch concentration (30-40% w/w, enzyme dosage (0.583-0.833 ul/g starch and calcium concentration (50-70 mgIL of CaClJ Some assays were settle in order to define the rheologic behavior and to determine the most relevant variables that affect the functional properties of the maltodextrin suspensions. Both, temperature and enzyme concentration were the variables that affect the most the initial convertion rate and the characteristics of the product convertion. For the interval of time considered, the highest DE obtained was 30 and the highest initial rate was 21.7 DE/hour. The functional properties of the maltodextrin solutions were affected by temperature and dry-weight starch concentration.

  4. Use of Cassava Starch Waste as Adjoined of Covering Mortar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliane Hermes

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available This work aimed to study the reuse of the residual fiber of the cassava as material excels in civil construction, as adjoined of covering mortar. The waste used was obtained from an industry located in Missal - Paraná. Four different treatments were applied with 0, 10, 20 and 30% of fiber adding, assessing the mechanical and physical performance with respect to compression resistance, water retention, mass density, incorporated air content and retraction test. The compression resistance test demonstrated that the fibers addition decreased the mortar resistance, while concentrations of 10 and 20% have values close to the resistance offered by full mortar (0%. The addition of fibers caused a small decrease in the specific mass of composites with 20 and 30% of fibers and the incorporated air content showed a low variability in relation of the composites with fiber added and the full cementations matrix. In the test on the water retention the composition with the addition of 10% of fiber is that most resembles the full cementations matrix. The retraction tests showed that no had mass retraction in the differents percentages tested.

  5. Fast pyrolysis of cassava rhizome in the presence of catalysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pattiya, Adisak; Titiloye, James O.; Bridgwater, A.V. [Bio-Energy Research Group, Chemical Engineering and Applied Chemistry, SEAS, Aston University, Aston Triangle, Birmingham B4 7ET (United Kingdom)

    2008-01-15

    Cassava rhizome was catalytically pyrolysed at 500 C using analytical pyrolysis-gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (Py-GC/MS) in order to investigate the effect of catalysts on bio-oil properties. The catalysts studied were zeolite ZSM-5, two aluminosilicate mesoporous materials Al-MCM-41 and Al-MSU-F, and a proprietary commercial catalyst alumina-stabilised ceria MI-575. The influence of catalysts on pyrolysis products was observed through the yields of aromatic hydrocarbons, phenols, lignin-derived compounds, carbonyls, methanol and acetic acid. Results showed that all the catalysts produced aromatic hydrocarbons and reduced oxygenated lignin derivatives, thus indicating an improvement of bio-oil heating value and viscosity. Among the catalysts, ZSM-5 was the most active to all the changes in pyrolysis products. In addition, all the catalysts with the exception of MI-575 enhanced the formation of acetic acid. This is clearly a disadvantage with respect to the level of pH in the liquid bio-fuel. (author)

  6. Structure and properties of pregelatinized cassava starch/kaolin composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► Pregelatinized starch/kaolin composites were prepared using compression molding. ► The tensile strengths of the composites were higher than for thermoplastic starch. ► Degradation temperatures of the composites were higher than for thermoplastic starch. ► The retrogradation behavior of the composites was hindered by kaolin. -- Abstract: Pregelatinized cassava starch/kaolin composites were prepared using compression molding. The morphology of the fractured surfaces, retrogradation behavior, thermal decomposition temperatures and mechanical properties of the composites were investigated using scanning election microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA) and tensile testing, respectively. The tensile strengths and thermal degradation temperatures of the composites were higher than for thermoplastic starch (TPS). The retrogradation behavior of the composites was hindered by kaolin. The water absorption was measured after aging for 12 and 45 days at a relative humidity (RH) of 15% and 55%. It indicated that all the composites displayed lower water absorption values than TPS.

  7. Biological Implications in Cassava for the Production of Amylose-Free Starch: Impact on Root Yield and Related Traits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karlström, Amanda; Calle, Fernando; Salazar, Sandra; Morante, Nelson; Dufour, Dominique; Ceballos, Hernán

    2016-01-01

    Cassava (Manihot esculenta, Crantz) is an important food security crop, but it is becoming an important raw material for different industrial applications. Cassava is the second most important source of starch worldwide. Novel starch properties are of interest to the starch industry, and one them is the recently identified amylose-free (waxy) cassava starch. Waxy mutants have been found in different crops and have been often associated with a yield penalty. There are ongoing efforts to develop commercial cassava varieties with amylose-free starch. However, little information is available regarding the biological and agronomic implications of starch mutations in cassava, nor in other root and tuber crops. In this study, siblings from eight full-sib families, segregating for the waxy trait, were used to determine if the mutation has implications for yield, dry matter content (DMC) and harvest index in cassava. A total of 87 waxy and 87 wild-type starch genotypes from the eight families were used in the study. The only significant effect of starch type was on DMC (p cassava varieties will have competitive FRYs but special efforts will be required to attain adequate DMCs. This study contributes to the limited knowledge available of the impact of starch mutations on the agronomic performance of root and tuber crops. PMID:27242813

  8. Effects of Climate Change on the Production and Profitability of Cassava in the Niger Delta Region of Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. O. Ajayi

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Nigeria is the single largest producer of cassava in the world with the bulk of the cassava coming out from the Niger Delta region. Human, economic and agricultural activities are currently threatened in the region by vagaries in climatic factors. These vagaries affect the production and profitability of cassava. The study was therefore conducted to assess the effects of climate change on the production and profitability of cassava in the Niger Delta region of Nigeria. The study made use of a multi-stage sampling technique to select three hundred and sixty respondents across the three highest cassava-producing states (Awka Ibom, Cross Rivers and Ondo in the region. Data for the study were collected with the aid of well-structured questionnaires assisted with interview schedules. Data collected were analysed using descriptive statistics and regression model. The determinants of cassava profitability were farm size, farmers’ experience in cassava cultivation, farmers’ experience in adopting climate change coping strategies, number of climate change coping strategies adopted, costs of input materials in Naira and labour cost in Naira.

  9. An Analysis of Partial DNA Sequence of Meisa1 Gene on Sweet and Bitter Cassavas (Manihot esculenta Crantz.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dewi Indriyani Roslim

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Sweet and bitter taste on cassava tuber is affected by starch metabolisms. Meisa1 gene is a gene in cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz. encoding isoamylase1 enzyme involved in starch metabolisms. This study aimed to analyze partial DNA sequences of Meisa1 gene on sweet and bitter cassavas collected by Genetics Laboratory, Department Biology, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Riau University, Indonesia. Methods included total DNA extraction from fresh young leaves of cassava using CTAB buffer, polymerase chain reaction (PCR, electrophoresis, and sequencing. The obtained data were analyzed using MEGA software version 5. The results showed that there were nucleotide variations in the intron region, not in the exon region. The variations were caused by the transition substitution mutation (35.39% and transversion substitution mutation (64.61%. The genetic distance range between seven cassava genotypes was approximately 0% to 11%. Partial DNA sequence variations of Meisa1 gene located in intron region were unable to cluster seven cassava genotypes separately into two groups based on tuber taste.How to CiteRoslim, D., Nisa, F., & Herman, H. (2016. An Analysis of Partial DNA Sequence of Meisa1 Gene on Sweet and Bitter Cassavas (Manihot esculenta Crantz.. Biosaintifika: Journal of Biology & Biology Education, 8(1 103-110.

  10. Growth performance and carcass characteristics of feedlot Thai native × Lowline Angus crossbred steer fed with fermented cassava starch residue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilajun, Ruangyote; Wanapat, Metha

    2016-04-01

    Ten Thai native × Lowline Angus crossbred (50:50) steers were used in a completely randomized design to receive two treatments including concentrate containing cassava chips (Control) and fermented cassava starch residue (FCSR) as major carbohydrate sources. FCSR was prepared as yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) inoculates with exogenous enzyme addition. All steers received ad libitum rice straw and concentrate in equal proportions (1:1). Replacement of cassava chip with FCSR increased neutral detergent fiber and acid detergent fiber intakes but decreased non-protein nitrogen intake of steers. Digestibility of dry matter, organic matter, and crude protein were decreased with replacement of cassava chip by FCSR; however, digested nutrients were similar between groups. Replacement of cassava chip in the concentrate with FCSR resulted in comparable growth performance and feed efficiency of the feedlot steers. Moreover, carcass characteristics in terms of yield and meat quality of the steers were not affected by cassava chips replaced by FCSR as a major carbohydrate source in the concentrate. In conclusion, replacement of cassava chip in the concentrate with FCSR decreased feed digestibility; however, it did not impact negatively on growth performance and carcass traits of feedlot Thai native × Lowline Angus crossbred steers. PMID:26942915

  11. Genome-wide survey and expression analysis of the calcium-dependent protein kinase gene family in cassava.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Wei; Hou, Xiaowan; Xia, Zhiqiang; Yan, Yan; Wei, Yunxie; Wang, Lianzhe; Zou, Meiling; Lu, Cheng; Wang, Wenquan; Peng, Ming

    2016-02-01

    Calcium-dependent protein kinases (CPKs) play important roles in regulating plant tolerance to abiotic stress and signal transduction; however, no data are currently available regarding the CPK family in cassava. Herein, we identified 27 CPK genes from cassava based on our previous genome sequencing data. Phylogenetic analysis showed that cassava CPKs could be clustered into three groups, which was further supported by gene structure and conserved protein motif analyses. Global expression analysis suggested that MeCPK genes showed distinct expression patterns in different tissues between wild subspecies and cultivated varieties, indicating their involvement in the functional diversity of different varieties. Transcriptomics, interaction networks, and co-expression assays revealed a broad transcriptional response of cassava CPKs and CPK-mediated networks to drought stress and their differential expression profiles in different varieties, implying their contribution to drought stress tolerance in cassava. Expression analysis of eight MeCPK genes suggested a comprehensive response to osmotic stress, salt, cold, abscisic acid, and H2O2, which indicated that cassava CPKs might be convergence points for different signaling pathways. This study provides a basis for crop improvements and understanding of abiotic stress responses and signal transduction mediated by CPKs in cassava. PMID:26272723

  12. Tensile and Water Absorption Properties of Biodegradable Composites Derived from Cassava Skin/ Polyvinyl Alcohol with Glycerol as Plasticizer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Natural organic and abundant resources biopolymers received more attention due to their low cost, availability and degradability after usage. Cassava skin was used as natural fillers to the polyvinyl alcohol (PVA). Cassava skin/ poly vinyl alcohol blends were compounded using melt extrusion twin screw extruder and test samples were prepared using the compression method. Various ratios of cassava skin and glycerol were investigated to identify suitable composition based on the water absorption and tensile properties. The water absorption of the cassava skins/ PVA samples increased at higher composition of cassava skin due to their hydrophilic properties but decrease with glycerol content. The strength of the cassava skins/ PVA samples increased with the higher composition of cassava skin up to 70 wt % while gradually decreased with the increasing composition of glycerol. The Young modulus increased with glycerol content but decreased with fibre loading up to 70 wt %. Elongation at break decreased with fibre loading and glycerol up to 70 wt % and 30 phr, respectively. (author)

  13. Perception of Infestation Problems on Cassava Farms and Preference for Weed Management Practices in Humid Agro- Ecological Zone of Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony Agumagu

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The problem of weed infestation on cassava farms is a major factor for low crop yield. This problem has caused untold hardship on the small-scale cassava farms where production at the subsistence level and where farmers still manage to produce some quantity for sale. The study examines cassava farmers’ perception of problems of infestation and preference for weed management practices in the humid agro-ecological zone of Nigeria. Data was collected with the aid of questionnaire and interviews. Random sampling technique was used to select 117 small-scale cassava farmers in the study area. Data analysis was done by simple descriptive statistics such as frequency, percentage and mean. Findings of the study revealed that majority of the respondents (73.5% grow cassava for both household use and for sale. The major source of labour identified by respondents was family labour (51.3%. About 55% of the respondents obtained cassava planting materials from the open market. Findings showed that the commonest weed control measures used by cassava farmers were hand pulling (100%, and hoes/cutlass (100%. However, the most preferred weed control measures identified include hoes/cutlass (100%, use of machines (100%, and a combination of methods (100%. Major problems affecting cassava farms as identified by respondents include grasses (88%, broadleaf weeds (66.6%, rodents (64.1%, other animals (63.3%, cassava rot (53.9% and insect pests (48.7%. Extension education should focus on the preferred weed control measures identified by respondents so as to work out modalities for their adequate use. This can be possible if regular extension farmer forum is ensured.

  14. The effect of cassava-based bioethanol production on above-ground carbon stocks: A case study from Southern Mali

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Increasing energy use and the need to mitigate climate change make production of liquid biofuels a high priority. Farmers respond worldwide to this increasing demand by converting forests and grassland into biofuel crops, but whether biofuels offer carbon savings depends on the carbon emissions that occur when land use is changed to biofuel crops. This paper reports the results of a study on cassava-based bioethanol production undertaken in the Sikasso region in Southern Mali. The paper outlines the estimated impacts on above-ground carbon stocks when land use is changed to increase cassava production. The results show that expansion of cassava production for bioethanol will most likely lead to the conversion of fallow areas to cassava. A land use change from fallow to cassava creates a reduction in the above-ground carbon stocks in the order of 4–13 Mg C ha−1, depending on (a) the age of the fallow, (b) the allometric equation used and (c) whether all trees are removed or the larger, useful trees are preserved. This ‘carbon debt’ associated with the above-ground biomass loss would take 8–25 years to repay if fossil fuels are replaced with cassava-based bioethanol. - Highlights: ► Demands for biofuels make production of cassava-based bioethanol a priority. ► Farmers in Southern Mali are likely to convert fallow areas to cassava production. ► Converting fallow to cassava creates reductions in above-ground carbon stocks. ► Estimates of carbon stock reductions include that farmers preserve useful trees. ► The carbon debt associated with above-ground biomass loss takes 8–25 years to repay.

  15. Determination of aflatoxin in processed dried cassava root: validation of a new analytical method for cassava flour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gnonlonfin, G J Benoit; Katerere, David R; Adjovi, Yann; Brimer, Leon; Shephard, Gordon S; Sanni, Ambaliou

    2010-01-01

    A new method that uses HPLC with a photochemical reactor for enhanced detection was developed and validated for the determination of aflatoxins in cassava flour. Samples were spiked with a mixture of four aflatoxins at 5, 10, and 20 microg/kg mixed with either 1 or 5 g NaCI and extracted with methanol-water (80 + 20, v/v) by shaking for 10 or 30 min. An immunoaffinity column was used for cleanup. HPLC with postcolumn derivatization, for enhancement of aflatoxin fluorescence, and fluorescence determination were used for quantitation of the toxin concentration. The method was validated for recovery, linearity, and precision at the three concentrations tested. Recovery ranges were 52-70, 69-85, and 80-89% for the spiking levels of 5.0, 10.0, and 20.0 microg/kg, respectively. It appears that the amount of salt (NaCl) and the shaking time are critical factors in this method; optimal performance was obtained when 1 g salt was used and the shaking time was 10 min. The good linearity and precision of the method allowed baseline separation from interferences, e.g., coumarins. PMID:21313816

  16. The effect of chemical treatments on the pH & microbial flora of cassava residues during storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thaísa Anders Carvalho Souza

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Cassava starch factories produce residues that can be commercialized as food ingredients. The objective of this study was to evaluate the microbiological safety of cassava peel and bagasse during storage, with and without chemical treatment. The bagasse was acidified with lactic acid, and the peel was immersed in a sodium hypochlorite solution. The microbiological analyses were carried out for 72 h after harvest. All of the samples showed the absence of pathogenic microorganisms, and the acidification and sanitization were effective in controlling total coliforms. Cassava bagasse and peel samples can be considered safe for consumption by humans as ingredients for other food products.

  17. HOUSEHOLDS’ PERCEPTION AND WILLINGNESS TO PAY FOR BREAD WITH CASSAVA FLOUR INCLUSION IN OSOGBO METROPOLIS, OSUN STATE, NIGERIA

    OpenAIRE

    Adepoju, Abimbola O.; Oyewole, Olaniyi O.

    2013-01-01

    The rising cost of wheat importation for the production of bread, a well-established and accepted food product relished by the general public, has been a matter of great concern to the Nigerian government in recent times. This has led to the increased interest in cassava flour which has been identified as a close, cost-effective substitute to wheat flour in bread production. Motivated by the far-reaching benefits of the new cassava policy on the substitution of wheat flour with cassava flour ...

  18. Biofortified cassava with pro-vitamin A is sensory and culturally acceptable for consumption by primary school children in Kenya.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elise F Talsma

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Biofortification of cassava with pro-vitamin A can potentially reduce vitamin A deficiency in low-income countries. However, little is known about consumer acceptance of this deep yellow variety of cassava compared to the commonly available white varieties. We aimed to determine the sensory and cultural acceptability of the consumption of pro-vitamin A rich cassava in order to identify key factors predicting the intention to consume pro-vitamin A rich cassava by families with school-aged children in Eastern Kenya. METHODS: Sensory acceptability was measured by replicated discrimination tests and paired preference tests among 30 children (7-12 yr and 30 caretakers (18-45 yr in three primary schools. Cultural acceptability was assessed with a questionnaire based on the combined model of The Theory of Planned Behavior and The Health Belief Model in one primary school among 140 caretakers of children aged 6 to 12 years. Correlations and multivariate analyses were used to determine associations between summed scores for model constructs. RESULTS: Caretakers and children perceived a significant difference in taste between white and pro-vitamin A rich cassava. Both preferred pro-vitamin A rich cassava over white cassava because of its soft texture, sweet taste and attractive color. Knowledge about pro-vitamin A rich cassava and it's relation to health ('Knowledge' ((β = 0.29, P = <.01 was a strong predictor of 'Health behavior identity'. Worries related to bitter taste and color ('Perceived barriers 1' (β = -0.21, P = .02, the belief of the caretaker about having control to prepare cassava ('Control beliefs' (β = 0.18, P = .02 and activities like information sessions about pro-vitamin A rich cassava and recommendations from health workers ('Cues to action'(β = 0.51, P = <.01 were the best predictors of intention to consume pro-vitamin A rich cassava. CONCLUSIONS: Pro-vitamin A rich cassava is well

  19. Study on Development of Cassava Industry in Guizhou%贵州木薯产业发展研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    欧珍贵; 黎青; 罗亚红; 田大清; 周正邦

    2011-01-01

    By analyzing the current situation of the scientific research and production, the feasibility of developing cassava industry and the existent problems in the development of cassava industry in Guizhou, the author puts forward the developmental strategy of cassava industry in Guizhou.%通过对贵州的科研生产现状、贵州发展木薯的可行性及贵州木薯发展存在的问题进行分析,提出了贵州木薯产业的发展策略,旨在为贵州木薯产业发展提供决策参考.

  20. PENAMBAHAN TEPUNG PORANG PADA PEMBUATAN MI DENGAN SUBSTITUSI TEPUNG MOCAF (Modified cassava FLOUR) [Addition of Porang Flour in Noodle as Mocaf Substitution (Modified cassava Flour)

    OpenAIRE

    Anni Faridah; Simon Bambang Widjanarko3)

    2014-01-01

    Noodle is one of the staple foods that are widely consumed and preferred by the Asian. However, wet noodles with modified cassava flour (mocaf) substitution resulted in lower quality compared to 100% wheat noodle. Addition of a certain amount of konjac glucomannan (Amorphophallus oncophyllus flour) to wet noodle is strongly recommended due to the fact that the food additive has a health benefit. Porang or konjac flour, which was used in the research, has soluble fiber properties, low calorie ...

  1. Linamarase production by some microbial isolates and a comparison of the rate of degradation of cassava cyanide by microbial and cassava linamarases

    OpenAIRE

    Ogbonnaya Nwokoro

    2016-01-01

    Production of linamarase and the effects of media composition on enzyme production were studied. A total of eight linamarase-producing bacteria were isolated from fermenting cassava tubers and soil samples. Selection of the isolates was based on their high growth in media containing 800 mg/L potassium cyanide solution. Eight of the isolates which showed very high growth in the growth medium as demonstrated by increase in their optical density readings to at...

  2. Artificial microRNA-derived resistance to Cassava brown streak disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagaba, Henry; Patil, Basavaprabhu L.; Mukasa, Settumba; Alicai, Titus; Fauquet, Claude M.; Taylor, Nigel J.

    2016-01-01

    Artificial miRNAs (amiRNA) were generated targeting conserved sequences within the genomes of the two causal agents of Cassava brown streak disease (CBSD): Cassava brown streak virus (CBSV) and Ugandan cassava brown streak virus (UCBSV). Transient expression studies on ten amiRNAs targeting 21 nt conserved sequences of P1(CBSV and UCBSV), P3(CBSV and UCBSV), CI(UCBSV), NIb(CBSV and UCBSV), CP(UCBSV) and the un-translated region (3′-UTR) were tested in Nicotiana benthamiana. Four out of the ten amiRNAs expressed the corresponding amiRNA at high levels. Transgenic N. benthamiana plants were developed for the four amiRNAs targeting the P1 and NIb genes of CBSV and the P1 and CP genes of UCBSV and shown to accumulate miRNA products. Transgenic plants challenged with CBSV and UCBSV isolates showed resistance levels that ranged between ∼20–60% against CBSV and UCBSV and correlated with expression levels of the transgenically derived miRNAs. MicroRNAs targeting P1 and NIb of CBSV showed protection against CBSV and UCBSV, while amiRNAs targeting the P1 and CP of UCBSV showed protection against UCBSV but were less efficient against CBSV. These results indicate a potential application of amiRNAs for engineering resistance to CBSD-causing viruses in cassava. PMID:26912232

  3. CASSAVA ENTREPRENEURSHIP AND GENDER PARTICIPATION IN UDI LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA OF ENUGU STATE, NIGERIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Ogbonna EMEROLE

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This Study on cassava entrepreneurship and gender participation was carried out in Udi local Government Area of Enugu State, Nigeria. Quarterly data from a panel of thirty male-headed and thirty female-headed cassava-based farm households randomly selected followings a multistage sampling of ten out of 24 autonomous communities of the study area was subjected to descriptive and inferential statistical analyses. Both male and female entrepreneurs engaged more on three of cassava products namely Garri, Fufu and Tapioca on account of relatively better profits from them. Segregating male from female entrepreneurs, participation of males in cassava enterprise was negatively influenced by adult number of males, time spent on housework, and daily non-farm wage while participation of females in the enterprise was influenced by adult number of females in household, daily non-farm wage, time spent on housework and frequency of contact with extension agency with challenges of high operational costs, and poor packaging on the enterprise in the area. To bring male and female entrepreneurs at par in terms of resource needs, all social and cultural constraints on female access to arable land and credit should be addressed by law such that that there will be prohibition against any discrimination on women. We recommended provision of financial credit and grants for SMEs development to enable entrepreneurs (especially women purchase fertilizers and automated machines for processing, and packaging of the products to attract better prices.

  4. Effect of addition of different hydrocolloids on pasting, thermal, and rheological properties of cassava starch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana Dias Leite

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Starches and gums are hydrocolloids frequently used in food systems to provide proper texture, moisture, and water mobility. Starch-gum interaction in food systems can change the starch granule swelling and its gelatinization and rheological properties. In this study, the effect of the addition of xanthan gum (XG, sodium carboxymethyl cellulose (SCMC, and carrageenan (CAR at the concentrations of the 0.15, 0.25, 0.35 and 0.45% (w/v on the pasting, thermal, and rheological properties of cassava starch was studied. The swelling power (SP and the scanning electron microscopy (SEM of the starch gels were also evaluated. The results obtained showed that xanthan gum (XG had a strong interaction with the cassava starch penetrating between starch granules causing increase in pasting viscosities, SP, storage and loss (G', and G", respectively modulus and reduction in the setback of the starch; sodium carboxymethyl cellulose (SCMC greatly increased the pasting viscosities, the SP, and the storage and loss (G', and G", respectively modulus of the starch-mixtures, mainly due to its greater capacity to hold water and not due to the interaction with cassava starch. Carrageenan (CAR did not change any of the starch properties since there was no interaction between this gum and cassava starch at the concentrations used.

  5. Modelling potential ß-carotene intake and cyanide exposure from consumption of biofortified cassava

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: Vitamin A (VA) deficiency causes disability and mortality. Cassava, a staple crop in Africa, can be crossbred to improve its pro-vitamin A (PVA) content and used as an alternative to capsule supplementation. However it contains cyanide and its continued consumption may lead to chronic...

  6. Physicochemical and microbiological characterization of cassava flower honey samples produced by africanized honeybees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucimar Peres de Moura Pontara

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Cassava producers in the region of Marília-São Paulo are integrating their farming activity with beekeeping to diversify their income. The aim of this study was to evaluate the physicochemical and microbiological quality of honey samples produced by Africanized honeybees Apis mellifera from cassava flower in 2008. Analysis were carried out for pH, total soluble solids (TSS, acidity, moisture, reducing and total sugars, apparent sucrose, hydroxymethylfurfural, color, ash, proteins, water insoluble solids, diastasic activity, mineral content, microbiological evaluations, and mineral and hydrocyanic acid (HCN content. The honey samples showed physicochemical and microbiological characteristics favorable to commercialization, with the exception of apparent sucrose and acidity, which show the need for a narrow focus of attention to the honey maturation degree at the harvest time and more careful monitoring during production and processing. The commercialization of Brazilian cassava honey, still little explored, can be widely spread in the market since the levels of hydrocyanic acid (HCN showed no consumption risk; in addition the simultaneous production of honey and cassava provides an alternative to family income increase.

  7. Preparation and physico-chemical properties of hydrogels from carboxymethyl cassava starch crosslinked with citric acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boonkham, Sasikan; Sangseethong, Kunruedee; Chatakanon, Pathama; Niamnuy, Chalida; Nakasaki, Kiyohiko; Sriroth, Klanarong

    2014-06-01

    Recently, environmentally friendly hydrogels prepared from renewable bio-based resources have drawn significant attention from both industrial and academic sectors. In this study, chemically crosslinked hydrogels have been developed from cassava starch which is a bio-based polymer using a non-toxic citric acid as a crosslinking agent. Cassava starch was first modified by carboxymethylation to improve its water absorbency property. The carboxymethyl cassava starch (CMCS) obtained was then crosslinked with citric acid at different concentrations and reaction times. The gel fraction of hydrogels increased progressively with increasing citric acid concentration. Free swelling capacity of hydrogels in de-ionized water, saline solution and buffers at various pHs as well as absorption under load were investigated. The results revealed that swelling behavior and mechanical characteristic of hydrogels depended on the citric acid concentration used in reaction. Increasing citric acid concentration resulted in hydrogels with stronger network but lower swelling and absorption capacity. The cassava starch hydrogels developed were sensitive to ionic strength and pH of surrounding medium, showing much reduced swelling capacity in saline salt solution and acidic buffers.

  8. Analysis of the potential for sustainable, cassava-based bioethanol production in Mali

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Kjeld; Bruun, Thilde Bech; Birch-Thomsen, Torben;

    The present project is covered in five main reports: 1) Analyses of the potential for sustainable, cassava-based bio-ethanol production in Mali 2) Agricultural residues for energy production in Mali 3) Pre-feasibility study for an electric power plant based on rice straw 4) Estimation of wind...

  9. Behavior of Fermentable Sugars in the Traditional Production Process of Cassava Bioethanol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Diakabana

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of study is to evaluate the ferment ability of cassava must in the ethanol production process from cassava in Congo. Three traditional methods of ethyl fermentation were tested: spontaneous fermentation, fermentation with yeast inoculation and fermentation led with yeasting and sugaring. Consumption of fermentable sugars was further in the case of directed fermentation with yeast inoculation (3° Brix residual extract from 48 h compared to spontaneous fermentation without yeast inoculation (3.8° Brixresidual extract from 120 heures. Total sugars have been consumed only partially (66.7% of limit attenuation, while reducing sugars have been almost completely (about 91%. The addition of yeast in the cassava wort have led to a lower assessment of dextrins (2.7% glucose equivalent compared to spontaneous fermentation (3.6%. It have also assured a better overall ethanol productivity PTE= 0.83 g ethanol/L.h than sugaring proceeding (PTE = 0.61 g/L.h and without yeast additional (PTE = 0.32 g/L.h. Among the fermentable sugars developed in the cassava mash there are reducing sugars, such as glucose and maltose. Non-fermentable sugars represent a significant slice of stock of soluble carbohydrate (on average 3.24% dextrose equivalent of the must in the three cases of fermentation tested.

  10. GROWTH RATE AND CARCASS CHARACTERISTICS OF LARGE WHITE PIGS FED ON ENSILED CASSAVA PULP DIETS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.W.A. RHULE

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Twenty four Large White (LW grower pigs at an average live weight of 27 kg were distributed over three treatments made up of diets containing 0, 25 and 30 percent ensiled cassava pulp. Diets were made similar to contain 15% Crude protein. Pigs were taken off the study on attaining an individual live weight of 60±5 kg slaughtered and carcass characteristics determined. The average live weight gains by the pigs were 0.40, 0.42 and 0.44 kg/day on Diet 1 (0%, Diet 2 (25% and Diet 3 (30% respectively. The feed conversion ratios by the pigs were 4.20, 4.30 and 5.00 kg feed /kg live-weight gain for Diets 1, 2 and 3 respectively. Eye muscle area of the pigs were 33.2, 27.3 and 37.7cm2 on Diets 1, 2 and 3 respectively. Trimmed fat on the carcasses were 3.3, 2.6 and 2.4 kg respectively. The study indicated that cassava pulp could be preserved by ensiling for feeding pigs over the grower phase at least: That the cassava pulp fed at an inclusion rate of 30% gave pig performance comparable to that on the cereal-based diet. It was indicated that maize, could be completely replaced in the diet of the grower pig with ensiled cassava pulp.

  11. EXPLORING OPTIMAL FEED TO MICROBES RATIO FOR ANAEROBIC ACIDOGENIC FERMENTATION OF CASSAVA RESIDUE FROM BREWERY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinying Wang,

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Cassava residue from breweries is being generated in large amounts in Guangxi Province of China, and this has potential to cause serious environmental problems if disposed of improperly. Two-stage anaerobic fermentation is a promising method for the treatment of such residue. In this study, the effect of feed to microbes ratio (F/M ratio on the anaerobic acidogenic fermentation of cassava residue was studied to determine the optimal F/M ratio and to maximize the performance in a subsequent methanogenic stage. The experiments were carried out at the F/M ratios of 0.2, 0.61, 1.02, 2.05, 3.07, and 4.09 g cassava-TS/g sludge-VSS in six laboratory-scale, completely stirred, tank reactors (CSTR at mesophilic temperature (35°C. An F/M ratio of 1.02 g cassava-TS/g sludge-VSS resulted in the highest solid removal efficiency and VFA/COD ratio, while starch removal efficiency was still near 100 percent, and acidification was relatively high. As a further benefit, the VFA distribution was more suitable for the subsequent methanogenic fermentation stage.

  12. Properties of cassava starch-based edible coating containing essential oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oriani, Vivian Boesso; Molina, Gustavo; Chiumarelli, Marcela; Pastore, Gláucia Maria; Hubinger, Miriam Dupas

    2014-02-01

    Edible coatings were produced using cassava starch (2% and 3% w/v) containing cinnamon bark (0.05% to 0.30% v/v) or fennel (0.05% to 0.30% v/v) essential oils. Edible cassava starch coating at 2% and 3% (w/v) containing or not containing 0.30% (v/v) of each essential oils conferred increased in water vapor resistance and decreased in the respiration rates of coated apple slices when compared with uncoated fruit. Cassava starch coatings (2% w/v) added 0.10% or 0.30% (v/v) fennel or cinnamon bark essential oils showed antioxidant capacity, and the addition of 0.30% (v/v) of each essential oil demonstrated antimicrobial properties. The coating containing cinnamon bark essential oil showed a significant antioxidant capacity, comparing to fennel essential oil. Antimicrobial tests showed that the addition of 0.30% (v/v) cinnamon bark essential oil to the edible coating inhibited the growth of Staphylococcus aureus and Salmonella choleraesuis, and 0.30% fennel essential oil inhibited just S. aureus. Treatment with 2% (w/v) of cassava starch containing 0.30% (v/v) of the cinnamon bark essential oil showed barrier properties, an antioxidant capacity and microbial inhibition. PMID:24410449

  13. Stoking residue from extraction of cassava starch without the use of storage technologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cleovani Rossi Javorski

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper was to study the storage of the residue from the extraction of cassava starch without the use of storage technologies, through chemical evaluation, pH values, temperature, development of microorganisms and mycotoxins. A randomized block design was used with eight treatments (different storage periods: 0, 3, 6, 9, 12, 15, 18 and 21 days and five replications. There was a significant difference for DM content, as a function of days in storage. The chemical composition of the residue from the extraction of cassava starch did not changed throughout the storage period. A negative linear effect was obtained for the pH values, which decreased with days in storage. There was significance of the storage period only for the fungus and yeast population, which increased up to 17 days of storage, with subsequent reduction. Mycotoxins were detected in the residue from the extraction of cassava starch. Despite it did not showed changes in the chemical composition the storage of residue from the extraction of cassava starch for 21 days proved to be an inefficient preservation process, due to the development of molds and mycotoxins

  14. Technical and Socioeconomic Potential of Biogas from Cassava Waste in Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francis Kemausuor

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study analyses technical potential and ex ante socioeconomic impacts of biogas production using cassava waste from agroprocessing plants. An analysis was performed for two biodigesters in two cassava processing communities in Ghana. The results showed that the two communities generate an excess of 4,500 tonnes of cassava peels per year. Using approximately 5% of the peels generated and livestock manure as inoculum can generate approximately 75,000 m3 of gas with an estimated 60% methane content from two separate plants of capacities 500 m3 and 300 m3 in the two communities. If used internally as process fuel, the potential gas available could replace over 300 tonnes of firewood per year for cassava processing. The displacement of firewood with gas could have environmental, economic, and social benefits in creating sustainable development. With a 10 percent discount rate, an assumed 20-year biodigester will have a Net Present Value of approximately US$ 148,000, 7-year Payback Period, and an Internal Rate of Return of 18.7%. The project will create 10 full-time unskilled labour positions during the investment year and 4 positions during operation years.

  15. Bulk H analysis using neutrons for routine quality control of cassava and products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuclear and related techniques are useful in addressing the issues of food security and safety facing the world today, via quality control of raw materials and products. In this work, experimental investigations were performed to assess the use of total hydrogen content in cassava and products as a quality control indicator of starch and cyanide contents. The work was carried out using a neutron reflection facility at the Centre for Energy Research and Training, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria, Nigeria. Cassava samples and products were obtained from retail outlets of Ibadan, Umudike and Zaria, representing three major regions of Nigeria. In general, data obtained indicate a total hydrogen content range of 4.47±0.11-10.71±0.27 wt% for the various samples, including raw, dry and processed cassava. Results show that samples having low hydrogen content are generally rich in cyanide compounds and demonstrate an inverse relationship between hydrogen content and cyanide content. The implication of this is that the neutron reflection facility can be used as a quality control setup for routine determination of hydrogen as an indicator of the cyanide content in cassava and products.

  16. Process for producing cassava hydroxypropyl distarch phosphate and study of the properties

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邵亚东; 王艳楠; 刘大伟; 刘晓成

    2014-01-01

    In the experiment, the nature cassava starch reacted with 1,2-epoxypropane and sodium trimetaphosphate under basic condition to producing hydroxypropyl distarch phosphate.At same time ,prepared to researching characteristics of the starch, including the substitution degree, gelatinization temperature and peak viscosity.

  17. Bulk H analysis using neutrons for routine quality control of cassava and products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jonah, S.A., E-mail: jonahsa2001@yahoo.co [Centre for Energy Research and Training, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria (Nigeria); Okunade, I.O. [Centre for Energy Research and Training, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria (Nigeria); Abolude, O. [Department of Physics, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria (Nigeria); Onyike, E.; Inuwa, I.M. [Department of Biochemistry, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria (Nigeria)

    2011-07-15

    Nuclear and related techniques are useful in addressing the issues of food security and safety facing the world today, via quality control of raw materials and products. In this work, experimental investigations were performed to assess the use of total hydrogen content in cassava and products as a quality control indicator of starch and cyanide contents. The work was carried out using a neutron reflection facility at the Centre for Energy Research and Training, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria, Nigeria. Cassava samples and products were obtained from retail outlets of Ibadan, Umudike and Zaria, representing three major regions of Nigeria. In general, data obtained indicate a total hydrogen content range of 4.47{+-}0.11-10.71{+-}0.27 wt% for the various samples, including raw, dry and processed cassava. Results show that samples having low hydrogen content are generally rich in cyanide compounds and demonstrate an inverse relationship between hydrogen content and cyanide content. The implication of this is that the neutron reflection facility can be used as a quality control setup for routine determination of hydrogen as an indicator of the cyanide content in cassava and products.

  18. Data supporting the role of enzymes and polysaccharides during cassava postharvest physiological deterioration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uarrota, Virgílio Gavicho; Moresco, Rodolfo; Schmidt, Eder Carlos; Bouzon, Zenilda Laurita; da Costa Nunes, Eduardo; de Oliveira Neubert, Enilto; Peruch, Luiz Augusto Martins; Rocha, Miguel; Maraschin, Marcelo

    2016-03-01

    This data article is referred to the research article entitled The role of ascorbate peroxidase, guaiacol peroxidase, and polysaccharides in cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) roots under postharvest physiological deterioration by Uarrota et al. (2015). Food Chemistry 197, Part A, 737-746. The stress duo to PPD of cassava roots leads to the formation of ROS which are extremely harmful and accelerates cassava spoiling. To prevent or alleviate injuries from ROS, plants have evolved antioxidant systems that include non-enzymatic and enzymatic defence systems such as ascorbate peroxidase, guaiacol peroxidase and polysaccharides. In this data article can be found a dataset called "newdata", in RData format, with 60 observations and 06 variables. The first 02 variables (Samples and Cultivars) and the last 04, spectrophotometric data of ascorbate peroxidase, guaiacol peroxidase, tocopherol, total proteins and arcsined data of cassava PPD scoring. For further interpretation and analysis in R software, a report is also provided. Means of all variables and standard deviations are also provided in the Supplementary tables ("data.long3.RData, data.long4.RData and meansEnzymes.RData"), raw data of PPD scoring without transformation (PPDmeans.RData) and days of storage (days.RData) are also provided for data analysis reproducibility in R software. PMID:26900596

  19. Development of retrotransposon-based markers IRAP and REMAP for cassava (Manihot esculenta).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhn, B C; Mangolin, C A; Souto, E R; Vicient, C M; Machado, M F P S

    2016-01-01

    Retrotransposons are abundant in the genomes of plants. In the present study, inter-retrotransposon amplified polymorphism (IRAP) and retrotransposon-microsatellite amplified polymorphism (REMAP) markers were developed for the cassava genome (Manihot esculenta Crantz). Four cassava cultivars (Fécula Branca, IPR-União, Olho Junto, and Tamboara, two samples per cultivar) were used to obtain IRAP and REMAP fingerprints. Twelve designed primers were amplified alone and in combinations. The 42 IRAP/REMAP primer combinations amplified 431 DNA segments (bands; markers) of which 36 (8.36%) were polymorphic. The largest number of informative markers (16) was detected using the primers AYF2 and AYF2xAYF4. The number of bands for each primer varied from 3 to 16, with an average of 10.26 amplified segments per primer. The size of the amplified products ranged between 100 and 7000 bp. The AYF2 primer generated the highest number of amplified segments and showed the highest number of polymorphic bands (68.75%). Two samples of each cassava cultivar were used to illustrate the usefulness and the polymorphism of IRAP/REMAP markers. IRAP and REMAP markers produced a high number of reproducible bands, and might be informative and reliable for investigation of genetic diversity and relationships among cassava cultivars. PMID:27173210

  20. Concentrations of radionuclides in cassava growing in high background radiation area and their transfer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The concentrations of several natural radionuclides in common cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) growing in Yangjiang County, a high background radiation area in Guangdong Province, and their uptake from soil and distribution in the plant were investigated. The results show that the concentrations of natural uranium and thorium in cassava root are of the order of 10-6 g/kg, and those of radium-226, radium-228, lead-210 and polonium-210 are of the order of 10-11 Ci/kg. The highest level is 9.30 +- 0.30 x 10-11 Ci/kg (lead-210), and the lowest is 3.99 +- 0.20 x 10-11 Ci/kg (radium-226). The levels of natural uranium, thorium, radium-226 and polonium-210 in cassava are below the limits stipulated by the regulations for food hygiene in China, while the lead-210 level approaches the limit. It is noticeable that the highest level of radium-228 is 7.28 +- 1.03 x 10-11 Ci/kg, 10.4 times higher than the limit. The transfer of all he nuclides from soil to different parts of cassava shows a pattern contrary to that of he nuclides in the other regions where uranium-and radium-containing waste water and phosphate fertilizer are used in agriculture

  1. Anaerobic co-digestion of cyanide containing cassava pulp with pig manure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glanpracha, Naraporn; Annachhatre, Ajit P

    2016-08-01

    Anaerobic co-digestion of cyanide-containing cassava pulp with pig manure was evaluated using laboratory scale mesophilic digester. The digester was operated in a semi-continuous mode with the mixed feedstock having C/N ratio of 35:1. Digester startup was accomplished in 60days with loading of 0.5-1kgVS/m(3)d. Subsequently, the loading to digester was increased step-wise from 2 to 9kgVS/m(3)d. Digester performance was stable at loading between 2 and 6kgVS/m(3)d with an average volatile solid removal and methane yield of 82% and 0.38m(3)/kgVSadded, respectively. However, beyond loading of 7kgVS/m(3)d, solubilization of particulate matter did not take place efficiently. Cyanide present in cassava pulp was successfully degraded indicating that anaerobic sludge in the digester was well acclimatized to cyanide. The results show that cassava pulp can be successfully digested anaerobically with pig manure as co-substrate without any inhibitory effect of cyanide present in the cassava pulp. PMID:27128196

  2. EFFECTS OF INGREDIENTS AND EXTRUSION PARAMETERS ON AQUAFEEDS CONTAINING DDGS AND CASSAVA STARCH

    Science.gov (United States)

    Twenty seven isocaloric (3.05 kcal/g) ingredient blends were factorially formulated using three levels each of DDGS (20, 25, and 30% db), protein (30, 32.5, and 35% db), and feed moisture content (25, 35, and 45% db), along with appropriate quantities of cassava starch, soybean meal, fish meal, whey...

  3. Identification of rapid markers linked to pubescent trait in cassava (manihot esculenta crantz)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The presence of pubescence on the leaves of cassava confers resistance to mealybug, an important pest of cassava in Africa. We therefore, investigated RAPD markers linked to the pubescent trait in four descendants of cassava clones TMS 4(2) 1425, namely, diploid (2X) 4(2)1425 pubescent, diploid (2X) 4(2)1425 non-pubescent, tetraploid (4X) 4(2)1425 pubescent, diploid (2X) 4(2)1425 non pubescent as well as forty-eight F1 plants obtained from crossing diploid pubescent and diploid non-pubescent lines. Segments of the extracted DNAs were amplified under standard amplification conditions using Operon primer series A, B, and C making a total of 60 primers. Most primers produced monomorphic fragments. However, two primers, OPA 13 and OPC 19 produced 798bp and 752 bp polymorphic fragments respectively. These were present in non-pubescent but absent in pubescent clones. The 48 F1 hybrids segregated for these markers in a ratio close to 1:1. The markers 798bp-OPA13 and 752bp-OPC19 may be useful for distinguishing between pubescent and non-pubescent cassava clones. (au)

  4. Artificial microRNA-derived resistance to Cassava brown streak disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagaba, Henry; Patil, Basavaprabhu L; Mukasa, Settumba; Alicai, Titus; Fauquet, Claude M; Taylor, Nigel J

    2016-05-01

    Artificial miRNAs (amiRNA) were generated targeting conserved sequences within the genomes of the two causal agents of Cassava brown streak disease (CBSD): Cassava brown streak virus (CBSV) and Ugandan cassava brown streak virus (UCBSV). Transient expression studies on ten amiRNAs targeting 21nt conserved sequences of P1(CBSV and UCBSV), P3(CBSV and UCBSV), CI(UCBSV), NIb(CBSV and UCBSV), CP(UCBSV) and the un-translated region (3'-UTR) were tested in Nicotiana benthamiana. Four out of the ten amiRNAs expressed the corresponding amiRNA at high levels. Transgenic N. benthamiana plants were developed for the four amiRNAs targeting the P1 and NIb genes of CBSV and the P1 and CP genes of UCBSV and shown to accumulate miRNA products. Transgenic plants challenged with CBSV and UCBSV isolates showed resistance levels that ranged between ∼20-60% against CBSV and UCBSV and correlated with expression levels of the transgenically derived miRNAs. MicroRNAs targeting P1 and NIb of CBSV showed protection against CBSV and UCBSV, while amiRNAs targeting the P1 and CP of UCBSV showed protection against UCBSV but were less efficient against CBSV. These results indicate a potential application of amiRNAs for engineering resistance to CBSD-causing viruses in cassava. PMID:26912232

  5. Removal of Cu (II and Zn (II from water with natural adsorbents from cassava agroindustry residues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Schwantes

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Current study employs solid residues from the processing industry of the cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz (bark, bagasse and bark + bagasse as natural adsorbents for the removal of metal ions Cu(II and Zn(II from contaminated water. The first stage comprised surface morphological characterization (SEM, determination of functional groups (IR, point of zero charge and the composition of naturally existent minerals in the biomass. Further, tests were carried out to evaluate the sorption process by kinetic, equilibrium and thermodynamic studies. The adsorbents showed a surface with favorable adsorption characteristics, with adsorption sites possibly derived from lignin, cellulose and hemicellulose. The dynamic equilibrium time for adsorption was 60 min. Results followed pseudo-second-order, Langmuir and Dubinin-Radushkevich models, suggesting a chemisorption monolayer. The thermodynamic parameters suggested that the biosorption process of Cu and Zn was endothermic, spontaneous or independent according to conditions. Results showed that the studied materials were potential biosorbents in the decontamination of water contaminated by Cu(II and Zn(II. Thus, the above practice complements the final stages of the cassava production chain of cassava, with a new disposal of solid residues from the cassava agroindustry activity.

  6. Addition of enzymes to improve sensory quality of composite wheat–cassava bread

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Serventi, Luca; Jensen, Sidsel; Skibsted, Leif Horsfelt;

    2016-01-01

    cassava flour (Polvilho Azedo) at 30 % level resulted in bread of lower volume with chewier texture and smaller crumb pores. Fungamyl, Novamyl and Panzea enhanced loaf volume of wheat bread; however, they decreased volume and conferred stickiness when added to the WC bread. Lipopan increased loaf volume...

  7. Changes in scopoletin concentration in cassava chips from four varieties during storage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gnonlonfin, Gbemenou Joselin Benoit; Gbaguidi, Fernand; Gbenou, Joachim D.;

    2011-01-01

    pathway, during the time course of postharvest deterioration. In this investigation the scopoletin level in parenchymal samples of four cassava cultivars used in Benin, i.e. Kpaki kpika, Kpaki soan, Logoguesse kotorou and BEN 86052, was investigated by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)....

  8. Identification and distribution of the NBS-LRR gene family in the cassava genome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plant resistance genes (R genes) exist in large families and usually contain both a nucleotide-binding site domain and a leucine-rich repeat domain, denoted NBS-LRR. The genome sequence of cassava (Manihot esculenta) is a valuable resource for analyzing the genomic organization of resistance genes i...

  9. Augmenting Iron Accumulation in Cassava by the Beneficial Soil Bacterium Bacillus subtilis (GBO3

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    Monica A Freitas

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Cassava (Manihot esculenta, a major staple food in the developing world, provides a basic carbohydrate diet for over half a billion people living in the tropics. Despite the iron abundance in most soils, cassava provides insufficient iron for humans as the edible roots contain 3-12 times less iron than other traditional food crops such as wheat, maize, and rice. With the recent identification that the beneficial soil bacterium Bacillus subtilis (strain GB03 activates iron acquisition machinery to increase metal ion assimilation in Arabidopsis, the question arises as to whether this plant-growth promoting rhizobacterium (PGPR also augments iron assimilation to increase endogenous iron levels in cassava. Biochemical analyses reveal that shoot-propagated cassava with GB03-inoculation exhibit elevated iron accumulation after 140 days of plant growth as determined by X-ray microanalysis and total foliar iron analysis. Growth promotion and increased photosynthetic efficiency were also observed for greenhouse-grown plants with GB03-exposure. These results demonstrate the potential of microbes to increase iron accumulation in an important agricultural crop and is consistent with idea that microbial signaling can regulate plant photosynthesis.

  10. Thermal characterization of partially hydrolyzed cassava (Manihot esculenta starch granules

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    Luiz Gustavo Lacerda

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Cassava starch, partially hydrolyzed by fungal á-amylase, was characterized using thermal analysis, light microscopy and X-ray diffraction. Thermal degradation was initiated at lower degradation temperatures after enzymatic treatment and the DSC (Differential scanning calorimetry analysis showed almost similar range of gelatinization temperature, but the enthalpies of gelatinization were quite increased for the partially hydrolyzed starch granules. The results suggested that the partial degradation of the starch granules was concentrated in the amorphous regions.Amilases fúngicas são comumente empregadas a amidos com o intuito de otimizar o rendimento de leveduras, modificar a textura de produtos panificados e prolongar a vida de prateleira do produto final. A hidrólise parcial enzimática pode auxiliar no entendimento da estrutura do amido ganular. Amido de mandioca parcialmente hidrolisado por á-amilase fúngica foi investigado utilizando-se técnicas termoanalíticas, microscopia ótica e difratometria por raios X. A degradação térmica iniciou-se a temperaturas menores após o tratamento enzimático e a análise por DSC mostrou uma próxima faixa de temperatura de gelatinização, porém, a entalpia necessária para o evento foi maior para os grânulos parcialmente hidrolisados. Os resultados sugerem que a degradação parcial do amido granular foi concentrada em regiões amorfas.

  11. Cassava Intake and Vitamin A Status among Women and Preschool Children in Akwa-Ibom, Nigeria.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiana F De Moura

    Full Text Available As part of the HarvestPlus provitamin A-biofortified cassava program in Nigeria we conducted a survey to determine the cassava intake and prevalence of vitamin A deficiency among children 6-59 months and women of childbearing age in the state of Akwa Ibom.A cluster-randomized cross-sectional survey was conducted in 2011 in Akwa Ibom, Nigeria. The usual food and nutrient intakes were estimated using a multi-pass 24-hour recall with repeated recall on a subsample. Blood samples of children and women were collected to analyze for serum retinol, serum ferritin, and acute phase proteins as indicators of infection. Vitamin A deficiency was defined as serum retinol <0.70 μmol/L adjusted for infection.A total of 587 households of a mother-child dyad participated in the dietary intake assessment. Cassava was very widely consumed in Akwa Ibom, mainly as gari or foofoo. Daily cassava consumption frequency was 92% and 95% among children and women, respectively. Mean (±SD cassava intake (expressed as raw fresh weight was 348 ± 317 grams/day among children and 940 ± 777 grams/day among women. Intakes of most micronutrients appeared to be adequate with the exception of calcium. Median vitamin A intake was very high both for children (1038 μg RAE/day and women (2441 μg RAE/day. Red palm oil and dark green leafy vegetables were the main sources of vitamin A in the diet, with red palm oil alone contributing almost 60% of vitamin A intake in women and children. Prevalence of vitamin A deficiency ranged from moderate (16.9 % among children to virtually non-existent (3.4 % among women.Consumption of cassava and vitamin A intake was high among women and children in Akwa Ibom with a prevalence of vitamin A deficiency ranging from moderate in children to non-existent among women. The provitamin A biofortified cassava and other vitamin A interventions should focus dissemination in states where red palm oil is not widely consumed.

  12. LIMITACIONES DE LA BACTERIOSIS VASCULAR DE YUCA: NUEVOS AVANCES Limitations of Cassava Bacterial Blight: New Advances

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    CAMILO LÓPEZ

    Full Text Available La yuca (Manihot esculenta constituye la base de la alimentación de más de 600 millones de personas en el mundo. Una de las principales limitaciones de este cultivo es la bacteriosis vascular, ocasionada por la bacteria Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. manihotis (Xam. Este artículo revisa el conocimiento actual acerca de la interacción Xanthomonasyuca. Se presentan estudios recientes llevados a cabo sobre la diversidad y dinámica de las poblaciones de Xam empleando diferentes estrategias moleculares. Se describen los diferentes métodos desarrollados para la detección y diagnóstico de la bacteria en plantas y semillas de yuca y su contribución para reducir el impacto de la enfermedad. Se presentan los estudios encaminados a comprender los mecanismos moleculares y los genes responsables en la resistencia de la yuca a la bacteriosis vascular incluyendo los últimos avances obtenidos gracias a la aplicación de estrategias de genómica funcional. El conocimiento adquirido en los últimos años en este patosistema permitirá desarrollar mejores estrategias para el manejo de la enfermedad así como desarrollar a corto plazo variedades de yuca resistentes a la bacteriosis lo que contribuiría a resolver uno de los principales problemas de los productores pobres de yuca y le abriría un horizonte promisorio al cultivo de la yuca en el mundo.Cassava (Manihot esculenta, a starchy root crop, constitutes the source of alimentation for over 600 million people worldwide. Cassava Bacterial Blight (CBB is caused the bacterium Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. manihotis (Xam. This review will focus on the current knowledge on the molecular cassava-Xam interaction. We will present the different molecular techniques developed to assess the genetic diversity and dynamics of Xam populations. We will also present different methods developed for detecting the pathogen in vegetative planting materials and true seeds and their contribution to reduce the impact of the

  13. Limitations of Cassava Bacterial Blight: New Advances Limitaciones de la bacteriosis vascular de yuca: Nuevos avances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verdier Valérie

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Cassava (Manihot esculenta, a starchy root crop, constitutes the source of alimentation for over 600 million people worldwide. Cassava Bacterial Blight (CBB is caused bythe bacterium Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. manihotis (Xam. This review will focus on the current knowledge on the molecular cassava-Xam interaction. We will present the different molecular techniques developed to assess the genetic diversity and dynamics of Xam populations. We will also present different methods developed for detecting the pathogen in vegetative planting materials and true seeds and their contribution to reduce the impact of the disease. We will review different studies conducted to gain a better understanding on the molecular mechanisms and the genes involved in the cassava bacterial resistance, including the recent advances obtained using functional
    genomics. The acquired knowledge in the last years for this pathosystem will help to establish better disease control strategies and generate, in a short term, resistant cassava varieties contributing to solve one of the main problems of poor cassava farmers and this effort will open a new horizon to the cassava crop in the world.La yuca (Manihot esculenta constituye la base de la alimentación de más de 600 millones de personas en el mundo. Una de las principales limitaciones de este cultivo es la bacteriosis vascular, ocasionada por la bacteria Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. manihotis (Xam. Este artículo revisa el conocimiento actual acerca de la interacción Xanthomonas-yuca. Se presentan estudios recientes llevados a cabo sobre la diversidad y dinámica de las poblaciones de Xam empleando diferentes estrategias moleculares. Se describen los diferentes métodos desarrollados para la detección y diagnóstico de la bacteria en plantas y semillas de yuca y su contribución para reducir el impacto de la enfermedad. Se presentan los estudios encaminados a comprender los mecanismos moleculares y los genes

  14. Elaboration of gluten free cupcakes from xanthosoma flours, taro, rice, cassava and their mixtures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effect of taro flour, xanthosoma, cassava and rice, their possible mixtures and two different percentages of egg protein in cupcakes with total substitution of wheat flour are studied. Flours of xanthosoma and taro were elaborated and have utilized flours of cassava and rice existing in market. The moisture was evaluated and found that taro flour presents a lower water content compared to rice flour, xanthosoma and cassava in all flours. 22 formulations of cupcakes were elaborated using the flours (100% substitutions), flour mixture (substitution 50:50 of each flour) and wheat as control, also the egg content (standard content to egg and lower content to egg), to analyze their sensory characteristics and consumer preferences. The study data was carried out with two independents groups of people, a trained panel that has conducted the descriptive analysis and a consumer group that has made the study of acceptance. An analysis of variance was applied to data, test Fisher LSD and external preference mapping, an analysis of ''cluster '' for proof of acceptance, with witch were identified the three consumer groups, composed by 19, 51, 35 people. All three groups have preferred the control samples with wheat in groups 2 and 3 cupcakes with rice-cassava with content standard and less content of egg, and cassava with less egg, have showed without significant differences in preference (p<0,0001). The group 1 has preferred to wheat samples, taro-cassava with the two egg protein contents, xanthosoma-rice, rice-cassava and xanthosoma with less egg content. An external preferred mapping was made in order to understand which characteristics of each type of cupcake have liked to consumers. The cupcakes with greater acceptance by the segments was observed that were cassava and mixtures with cassava, which have been more spongy, yellow or beige in the crumb and sweet flavor. The taro cupcakes with substitution 100%, blends and samples 100% rice have had less acceptance because

  15. Interactive effects of temperature and drought on cassava growth and toxicity: implications for food security?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Alicia L; Cavagnaro, Timothy R; Gleadow, Ros; Miller, Rebecca E

    2016-10-01

    Cassava is an important dietary component for over 1 billion people, and its ability to yield under drought has led to it being promoted as an important crop for food security under climate change. Despite its known photosynthetic plasticity in response to temperature, little is known about how temperature affects plant toxicity or about interactions between temperature and drought, which is important because cassava tissues contain high levels of toxic cyanogenic glucosides, a major health and food safety concern. In a controlled glasshouse experiment, plants were grown at 2 daytime temperatures (23 °C and 34 °C), and either well-watered or subject to a 1 month drought prior to harvest at 6 months. The objective was to determine the separate and interactive effects of temperature and drought on growth and toxicity. Both temperature and drought affected cassava physiology and chemistry. While temperature alone drove differences in plant height and above-ground biomass, drought and temperature × drought interactions most affected tuber yield, as well as foliar and tuber chemistry, including C : N, nitrogen and cyanide potential (CNp; total cyanide released from cyanogenic glucosides). Conditions that most stimulated growth and yield (well-watered × high temperature) effected a reduction in tuber toxicity, whereas drought inhibited growth and yield, and was associated with increased foliar and tuber toxicity. The magnitude of drought effects on tuber yield and toxicity were greater at high temperature; thus, increases in tuber CNp were not merely a consequence of reduced tuber biomass. Findings confirm that cassava is adaptable to forecast temperature increases, particularly in areas of adequate or increasing rainfall; however, in regions forecast for increased incidence of drought, the effects of drought on both food quality (tuber toxicity) and yield are a greater threat to future food security and indicate an increasing necessity for processing of

  16. Loss of CMD2-mediated resistance to cassava mosaic disease in plants regenerated through somatic embryogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beyene, Getu; Chauhan, Raj Deepika; Wagaba, Henry; Moll, Theodore; Alicai, Titus; Miano, Douglas; Carrington, James C; Taylor, Nigel J

    2016-09-01

    Cassava mosaic disease (CMD) and cassava brown streak disease (CBSD) are the two most important viral diseases affecting cassava production in Africa. Three sources of resistance are employed to combat CMD: polygenic recessive resistance, termed CMD1, the dominant monogenic type, named CMD2, and the recently characterized CMD3. The farmer-preferred cultivar TME 204 carries inherent resistance to CMD mediated by CMD2, but is highly susceptible to CBSD. Selected plants of TME 204 produced for RNA interference (RNAi)-mediated resistance to CBSD were regenerated via somatic embryogenesis and tested in confined field trials in East Africa. Although micropropagated, wild-type TME 204 plants exhibited the expected levels of resistance, all plants regenerated via somatic embryogenesis were found to be highly susceptible to CMD. Glasshouse studies using infectious clones of East African cassava mosaic virus conclusively demonstrated that the process of somatic embryogenesis used to regenerate cassava caused the resulting plants to become susceptible to CMD. This phenomenon could be replicated in the two additional CMD2-type varieties TME 3 and TME 7, but the CMD1-type cultivar TMS 30572 and the CMD3-type cultivar TMS 98/0505 maintained resistance to CMD after passage through somatic embryogenesis. Data are presented to define the specific tissue culture step at which the loss of CMD resistance occurs and to show that the loss of CMD2-mediated resistance is maintained across vegetative generations. These findings reveal new aspects of the widely used technique of somatic embryogenesis, and the stability of field-level resistance in CMD2-type cultivars presently grown by farmers in East Africa, where CMD pressure is high. PMID:26662210

  17. Cassava Peels for Alternative Fibre in Pulp and Paper Industry: Chemical Properties and Morphology Characterization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashuvila Mohd Aripin

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Without a proper waste management, the organic wastes such as cassava peels could result in increased amount of solid waste dump into landfill. This study aims to use non-wood organic wastes as pulp for paper making industries; promoting the concept of ‘from waste to wealth and recyclable material’. The objective  of this study is to determine the potential of casssava peel as alternative fibre in pulp and paper based on its chemical properties and surface morphology characteristic. Quantified parameters involved are holocellulose, cellulose, hemicellulose, lignin, one percent of sodium hydroxide, hot water solubility and ash content. The chemical characterization was in accordance with relevant TAPPI Test, Kurscher-Hoffner and Chlorite methods. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM was used to observe and determine the morphological characteristic of untreated cassava peels fibre. In order to propose the suitability of the studied plant as an alternative fibre resource in pulp and paper making, the obtained results are compared to other published literatures especially from wood sources. Results indicated that the amount of holocellulose contents in cassava peels (66% is the lowest than of wood (70 - 80.5% and canola straw (77.5%; however this value is still within the limit suitability to produce paper. The lignin content (7.52% is the lowest than those of all wood species (19.9-26.22%. Finally, the SEM images showed that untreated cassava peel contains abundance fibre such as hemicellulose and cellulose that is hold by the lignin in it. In conclusion, chemical properties and morphological characteristics of cassava peel indicated that it is suitable to be used as an alternative fibre sources for pulp and paper making industry, especially in countries with limited wood resources

  18. Phenolics, Flavonoids, Antioxidant Activity and Cyanogenic Glycosides of Organic and Mineral-base Fertilized Cassava Tubers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Puteri Edaroyati Megat Wahab

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available A field study was conducted to determine the effect of organic and mineral-based fertilizers on phytochemical contents in the tubers of two cassava varieties. Treatments were arranged in a split plot design with three replicates. The main plot was fertilizer source (vermicompost, empty fruit bunch compost and inorganic fertilizer and sub-plot was cassava variety (Medan and Sri Pontian. The amount of fertilizer applied was based on 180 kg K2O ha−1. The tubers were harvested and analyzed for total flavonoids, total phenolics, antioxidant activity and cyanogenic glucoside content. Total phenolic and flavonoid compounds were determined using the Folin-Ciocalteu assay and aluminium chloride colorimetric method, respectively. Different sources of fertilizer, varieties and their interactions were found to have a significant effect on phytochemical content. The phenolic and flavonoid content were significantly higher (p < 0.01 in the vermicompost treatment compared to mineral fertilizer and EFB compost. The total flavonoids and phenolics content of vermicompost treated plants were 39% and 38% higher, respectively, than those chemically fertilized. The antioxidant activity determined using the DPPH and FRAP assays were high with application of organic fertilizer. Cyanogenic glycoside levels were decreased with the application of organic fertilizer. Among the two types of compost, vermicompost resulted in higher nutritional value of cassava tubers. Medan variety with application of vermicompost showed the most promising nutritional quality. Since the nutritional quality of cassava can be improved by organic fertilization, organic fertilizer should be used in place of chemical fertilizer for environmentally sustainable production of better quality cassava.

  19. Current knowledge and future research perspectives on cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) chemical defenses: An agroecological view.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto-Zevallos, Delia M; Pareja, Martín; Ambrogi, Bianca G

    2016-10-01

    Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) is one of the most important staple crops worldwide. It constitutes the major source of carbohydrates for millions of low-income people living in rural areas, as well as a cash crop for smallholders in tropical and sub-tropical regions. The Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations predicts that cassava plantations will increase and production systems will intensify in the future, highlighting the need for developing strategies that improve the sustainability of production. Plant chemical defenses hold the potential for developing pest management strategies, as these plant traits can influence the behavior and performance of both pests and beneficial arthropods. Cassava plants are well-defended and produce a number of compounds involved in direct defense, such as cyanogenic glycosides, flavonoid glycosides, and hydroxycoumarins. In addition, volatile organic compounds induced upon herbivory and the secretion of extrafloral nectar act as indirect defense against herbivores by recruiting natural enemies. Here, cassava chemical defenses against pest arthropods are reviewed, with the aim of identifying gaps in our knowledge and areas of research that deserve further investigation for developing sound pest control strategies to improve sustainable production of this crop, and how these defenses can be used to benefit other crops. Cyanogenic content in cassava is also highly toxic to humans, and can cause irreversible health problems even at sub-lethal doses when consumed over prolonged periods. Therefore, the promotion of chemical defense in this crop should not aggravate these problems, and must be accompanied with the education on processing methods that reduce human exposure to cyanide. PMID:27316676

  20. Variation in cassava germplasm for tolerance to post-harvest physiological deterioration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venturini, M T; Santos, L R; Vildoso, C I A; Santos, V S; Oliveira, E J

    2016-01-01

    Tolerant varieties can effectively control post-harvest physiological deterioration (PPD) of cassava, although knowledge on the genetic variability and inheritance of this trait is needed. The objective of this study was to estimate genetic parameters and identify sources of tolerance to PPD and their stability in cassava accessions. Roots from 418 cassava accessions, grown in four independent experiments, were evaluated for PPD tolerance 0, 2, 5, and 10 days post-harvest. Data were transformed into area under the PPD-progress curve (AUP-PPD) to quantify tolerance. Genetic parameters, stability (Si), adaptability (Ai), and the joint analysis of stability and adaptability (Zi) were obtained via residual maximum likelihood (REML) and best linear unbiased prediction (BLUP) methods. Variance in the genotype (G) x environment (E) interaction and genotypic variance were important for PPD tolerance. Individual broad-sense heritability (hg(2)= 0.38 ± 0.04) and average heritability in accessions (hmg(2)= 0.52) showed high genetic control of PPD tolerance. Genotypic correlation of AUP-PPD in different experiments was of medium magnitude (ȓgA = 0.42), indicating significant G x E interaction. The predicted genotypic values o f G x E free of interaction (û + ĝi) showed high variation. Of the 30 accessions with high Zi, 19 were common to û + ĝi, Si, and Ai parameters. The genetic gain with selection of these 19 cassava accessions was -55.94, -466.86, -397.72, and -444.03% for û + ĝi, Si, Ai, and Zi, respectively, compared with the overall mean for each parameter. These results demonstrate the variability and potential of cassava germplasm to introduce PPD tolerance in commercial varieties. PMID:27173317

  1. Cassava as a non-conventional filler in comminuted meat products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annor-Frempong, I E; Annan-Prah, A; Wiredu, R

    1996-11-01

    Cassava (Manihot esculenta) was used as an unconventional filler to produce affordable comminuted meat products that stored well under tropical conditions without refrigeration. The study involved two experiments. In experiment 1, five different emulsion-type pork sausages containing 5.4, 9.0 and 10.0% mould-free cassava flour, 5.4% crude full fat soy flour and a control without filler were assessed 0 and 7 days after preparation. A 40-member taste panel sensorily assessed the products in a 5 × 2 factorial (treatment × storage occasion) experiment based on the external appearance of the uncooked products and the external and internal colour, consistency, texture, aroma and taste of the cooked products. Although the panel judged products with 5.4% cassava flour as the best, the 9% inclusion level of cassava flour was found not to compromise the organoleptic qualities of the product. At this level 54 000 cedis (US$150) was saved on the cost of producing 1t of the product. In experiment 2, the sausages were pasteurised at 80 °C for 1 h and stored in a 4:1 vinegar-sugar solution or a 1:1:50 vinegar-sugar-water solution at 5 and 30 °C. Storage in 4:1 vinegar-sugar medium arrested bacterial growth over the 7-day monitoring period. It was concluded that 9% cassava flour could conveniently replace fat in comminuted meat products and a combination of pasteurisation and storage in vinegar-sugar solution is an effective method of storage of such products in the tropics. PMID:22060829

  2. Influence of cassava genotype and composite flours’ substitution level on rheological behaviour during bread-making

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Henao Osorio

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Given increasing dependence on imported wheat, studies have been carried out in Colombia regarding the use of composite wheat-cassava flour in bread-making. A project was carried out from 1986-1991 in which different cassava genotypes, harvest ages, substitution levels and bread acceptability were evaluated. However, these studies did not have any effect on the baking sector because a constant supply of high quality, high volume and reasonably-priced cassava flour was lacking. Based on these studies, this work was aimed at determining the influence of three industrial cassava market genotypes (CMC-40, HMC-1, MCOL-1505, using four wheat-cassava flour composite substitution levels (0%, 5%, 10%, 15% regarding the rheological and fermentative characteristics of dough in bread-making. Farinogram, alveogram, amylogram and falling number index analysis were analysed. Specific volume and acceptability of three types of bread (common, mold and hamburger were evaluated. It was determined that composite flours had higher fiber and reduced sugar content than the wheat flour pattern, thereby increasing wa-ter absorption and available sugar content during fermentation. Dough development time for the composite flours was half the a-verage required for wheat flour and the tolerance index was higher; its stability became reduced due to increased substitution le-vels and its firmness increased due to a rise in water absorption. Falling number values came within an acceptable range (250-400 s. The specific volume of all bread having 5% and 10% substitution was higher than that for the pattern. The best general acceptability was assigned to common and mold type bread from all varieties and substitution levels.

  3. Fusarium species from the cassava root rot complex in west Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandyopadhyay, Ranajit; Mwangi, Maina; Aigbe, Sylvester O; Leslie, John F

    2006-06-01

    ABSTRACT Fusarium species are a significant component of the set of fungi associated with cassava root rot. Yield losses due to root rot average 0.5 to 1 ton/ha but losses >3 ton/ha, an equivalent of 15 to 20% yield, often occur. This paper reviews previous work on cassava root rot and summarizes a few recent studies on Fusarium species associated with the disease. Our studies in Cameroon showed that 30% of rotted tubers were infected by Fusarium spp. 12 months after planting and represented 25% of all the fungal isolates recovered. Other commonly recovered fungi were Botryodiplodia theobromae and Armillaria spp. Numerous and diverse species of Fusarium were associated with rotted cassava roots in Nigeria and Cameroon. At least 13 distinct amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) groups of Fusarium were distinguishable, each group probably a distinct species, and many of them might represent previously undescribed Fusarium species. The two largest of the AFLP groups correspond to F. oxysporum and F. solani species complex. The distribution of Fusarium spp. varied among countries and among locations within a country, suggesting that germ plasm resistant at one location may not be resistant at another. Fusarium spp. also cause seedling blight of cassava and can be recovered from the stems of infected plants up to 1 m above the ground. Therefore, the pathogen can spread with stems cut as planting material. Fusarium spp. also can colonize Chromolaena odorata, the dominant weed in short fallows, which could further complicate management efforts by serving as an alternative host for strains that colonize cassava. PMID:18943189

  4. Comparative Proteome Analysis of the Tuberous Roots of Six Cassava (Manihot esculenta) Varieties Reveals Proteins Related to Phenotypic Traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitz, Gabriela Justamante Händel; de Magalhães Andrade, Jonathan; Valle, Teresa Losada; Labate, Carlos Alberto; do Nascimento, João Roberto Oliveira

    2016-04-27

    Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) is a staple food and an important source of starch, and the attributes of its tuberous root largely depend on the variety. The proteome of cassava has been investigated; however, to date, no study has focused on varieties that reveal the molecular basis of phenotypical characteristics. Therefore, we aimed to compare the proteome of the tuberous roots of six cassava varieties that differed in carbohydrates, carotenoids, and resistance to diseases, among other attributes. Two-dimensional gels showed 146 differential spots between the varieties, and the functional roles of some differential proteins were correlated to phenotypic characteristics of the varieties, such as the amount of carbohydrates or carotenoids and the resistance to biotic or abiotic stresses. The results obtained here highlight elements that might help to direct the improvement of new cultivars of cassava, which is an economically and socially relevant crop worldwide. PMID:26982619

  5. Differentiated Gender Ownership of Cassava Fields and Implications for Root Yield Variations in Small Holder Agriculture of Southeast Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enete, AA.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available As a result of their relatively limited access to production resources, it has been variously reported that women obtain lower yields from their individual crop fields than men. Cassava root yields obtained from farmers' fields in three villages of southeast Nigeria were compared using separate ownership of fields by gender as a factor. The result of the analysis fails to confirm lower yields from women's fields. Instead, mean fresh root yield was lower for fields owned individually by men than for those owned individually by women, and about the same for fields owned jointly by the whole family and those owned individually by women. This was apparently because of differences in the use of purchased inputs, especially hired labor and improved cassava varieties, and perhaps also due to differences in the age of cassava at harvest and the intercropping of cassava as a minor crop with yam.

  6. Analysis of the cost and return to management of small scale cassava production in the humid zone of Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guobadia, E.

    1993-01-01

    Full Text Available Cassava is a major staple food in Nigeria. Available literature showed that not much work had been done on the return to management (RTM of this crop particularly in recent times. Crop production variables of capital, hired labour, family labour and fertilizer-use were studied. Costs and returns of cassava production in the study area were computed. The study showed that the average cost of producing an hectare of cassava irf N 10, 343.99. The total return was valued at N 45, 165.57 with an average RTM of N 34, 821.58. The study also revealed that labour and fertilizer are crucial variables to productivity of the farm-firm in terms of output per hectare. It was concluded that cassava production is a profitable venture and comparable to any Government Service which the unemployed and young school leavers should be encouraged to go into.

  7. RESPONSE OF NIGERIAN CASSAVA EXPANSION INITIATIVES TO CLIMATE CHANGES, ECONOMIC GROWTH AND SOME POLICY INSTRUMENT (1970-2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Onwumere Joseph

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This study considered the limiting response of Nigeria cassava expansion initiative to climate changes, economic growth and some policy instruments. The presidential initiative to make cassava a foreign exchange earner as well as ensuring that national demand are satisfied has made cassava a significant economic crop and resource input of industrial and international status. Currently, its derivatives such as animal feed, starch, ethanol, cassava chip, cassava flour, cassava liquor etc are in high demand. Having gained international recognition some factors need be examined to ascertain the limiting response of this economic crop some exogenous factors. The specific objectives of interest were to ascertain the response of cassava output expansion to rainfall, temperature, imports, exports, credit allocation to agribusiness, exchange rate, nominal interest rate, inflation and GDP from 1970 – 2012. Also, it examined the short and long run effects of these variables to cassava output so as to know how much adjustment it makes to reach the equilibrium. Secondary data were used for this research work. The technique of data analysis was auto- regressive modeling regression. To capture the long run and short run dynamics of cassava output behavior, the error correction model (ECM using the Engle-Granger methodology was adopted. The result revealed a very high rate of adjustment to long run equilibrium and the variables are correlated which means that impact of each variable on cassava output behavior in the economy is inseparable. The Error correction coefficient of -0.975 measures the speed of adjustment towards long run equilibrium earned the expected negative sign and is statistically significant at 1% risk level. Thus, this study recommends that the emerging cassava economy of Nigeria would be adequately empowered for efficient productivity if the Government stipulate policies that will encourage domestic output expansion to meet the national and

  8. 我国木薯产业的发展趋势与市场分析①%Development Trend of Cassava Industry and Market Analysis in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    文玉萍

    2014-01-01

    对我国的木薯种植,木薯淀粉(变性淀粉),木薯酒精行业的发展现状进行阐述,展望其发展趋势。%Expatiating on domestic current progress in cassava planting, cassava starch (modified starch) and cassava alcohol, and prospects of their future development tendency.

  9. The effect of chemical treatments on the pH & microbial flora of cassava residues during storage

    OpenAIRE

    Thaísa Anders Carvalho Souza; Manoel Soares Júnior; Maria Raquel Hidalgo Campos; Thaynara Stella Carvalho Souza; Lívia Cunha Bandeira

    2013-01-01

    Cassava starch factories produce residues that can be commercialized as food ingredients. The objective of this study was to evaluate the microbiological safety of cassava peel and bagasse during storage, with and without chemical treatment. The bagasse was acidified with lactic acid, and the peel was immersed in a sodium hypochlorite solution. The microbiological analyses were carried out for 72 h after harvest. All of the samples showed the absence of pathogenic microorganisms, and the acid...

  10. Physical characteristics of extruded cassava starch Características físicas de amido de mandioca extrusado

    OpenAIRE

    Magali Leonel; Taila Santos de Freitas; Martha Maria Mischan

    2009-01-01

    Considering the importance of cassava starch for Brazilian industries, the current work aimed at evaluating the effects of extrusion parameters on the physical characteristics, mainly viscosity properties of extruded cassava starch. A factorial central composite design (2³) with three independent variables and the response surface methodology were used to evaluate the results of expansion index, specific volume, water absorption index, water solubility index, color and paste properties, accor...

  11. Effect of the Addition of Catfish Meat on Improving of Jerked Meat Protein from Cassava Leaves (Manihot utilissima)

    OpenAIRE

    Sahadi Didi Ismanto; Surini Siswardjono; Silvia Nengsih

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to determine the effect of catfish meat to increase protein of jerked meat cassava leaves (Manihot utilissima) and  to find the best products from cassava leaves jerked meat. This research was conducted at the Laboratory of Engineering and Process Technology,  Chemical Agricultural Products and Nutrition Department of Agricultural Technology Andalas University from August to October 2014. The method used in this study experimental method, using a completely randomized design ...

  12. Economic impact analysis of marker-assisted breeding for resistance to pests and post harvest deterioration in cassava

    OpenAIRE

    Rudi, Nderim; Norton, George W.; Alwang, Jeffrey Roger; Asumugha, Godwin N.

    2010-01-01

    Marker-assisted breeding could have a major impact in relieving productivity constraints that cannot as easily or rapidly be relieved by conventional breeding alone. This paper estimates the benefits of using marker-assisted breeding, as compared to conventional breeding alone, in developing cassava varieties resistant to cassava mosaic disease, green mite, whitefly and post-harvest physiological deterioration in Nigeria, Ghana and Uganda. Marker-assisted breeding is estimated to save at leas...

  13. Post-Harvest Deterioration of Cassava and its Control Using Extracts of Azadirachta Indica and Aframomum Melegueta

    OpenAIRE

    R. N. Okigbo; Ramesh Putheti; C. T. Achusi

    2009-01-01

    Post-harvest deterioration is the most important cause of loss in cassava production and this is mainly as a result of microbial invasion of the tubers. This research was therefore carried out to identify and control the organisms responsible for post-harvest deterioration of cassava tubers. Ethanolic and water extractions of Azadirachta Indica (A. Juss) leaves and Aframomum melegueta (Schumann) seeds were used as antifungal agents and the susceptibility of four of the isolated pathogenic fun...

  14. Large-Scale SNP Discovery through RNA Sequencing and SNP Genotyping by Targeted Enrichment Sequencing in Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz)

    OpenAIRE

    Pootakham, Wirulda; Shearman, Jeremy R.; Ruang-areerate, Panthita; Sonthirod, Chutima; Sangsrakru, Duangjai; Jomchai, Nukoon; Yoocha, Thippawan; Triwitayakorn, Kanokporn; Tragoonrung, Somvong; Tangphatsornruang, Sithichoke

    2014-01-01

    Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) is one of the most important crop species being the main source of dietary energy in several countries. Marker-assisted selection has become an essential tool in plant breeding. Single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) discovery via transcriptome sequencing is an attractive strategy for genome complexity reduction in organisms with large genomes. We sequenced the transcriptome of 16 cassava accessions using the Illumina HiSeq platform and identified 675,559 EST-...

  15. Interaction Between An Insect Pseudotheraptus devastans dist And A Fungus Colletotrichum gloeosporioides penz On Setting Of Anthracnose On Cassava Cuttings

    OpenAIRE

    Makambila, C.

    1994-01-01

    Interaction of an insect Pseudotheraptus devastans and of a fungus Colletotrichum gloeosporioides on cassava anthracnose development has been studied. Disease setting is made in two stages : realization of wounds on cassava cuttings by Pseudotheraptus devastans, then invasion of those ones by Colletotrichum gloeosporioides. Infection also needs a high level of relative humidity (87 %) and a favourable temperature. Optimal values are situated between 24 and 28°C.

  16. Effect of elevated CO2 concentration and nitrate: ammonium ratios on gas exchange and growth of cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz)

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study evaluated how different nitrogen forms affect growth and photosynthetic responses of cassava to CO2 concentration. Cassava was grown in 12-L pots in a greenhouse (30/25o C day / night) at 390 or 750 ppm of CO2. Three nitrogen treatments were applied: (a) 12 mM NO3-, (b) 6 mM NO3- + 6 mM N...

  17. Nutritional composition of fufu analog flour produced from Cassava root (Manihot esculenta) and Cocoyam (Colocasia esculenta) tuber

    OpenAIRE

    Bamidele, Oluwaseun P.; Fasogbon, Mofoluwaso B; Oladiran, Dolapo A.; Akande, Ebunoluwa O.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Nutritional properties of fufu analog produced from co‐processing of cassava and cocoyam were studied. Cassava and cocoyam were fermented for 72 h, dried to obtain fufu flour. Proximate, functional, minerals, antinutritional factor, pasting properties, and sensory evaluation of various samples were determined. The results revealed that the moisture contents of the samples showed significant difference from control with values between 6.50 and 7.30%. The protein contents (1.68–4.98%),...

  18. Interaction Between An Insect Pseudotheraptus devastans dist And A Fungus Colletotrichum gloeosporioides penz On Setting Of Anthracnose On Cassava Cuttings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Makambila, C.

    1994-01-01

    Full Text Available Interaction of an insect Pseudotheraptus devastans and of a fungus Colletotrichum gloeosporioides on cassava anthracnose development has been studied. Disease setting is made in two stages : realization of wounds on cassava cuttings by Pseudotheraptus devastans, then invasion of those ones by Colletotrichum gloeosporioides. Infection also needs a high level of relative humidity (87 % and a favourable temperature. Optimal values are situated between 24 and 28°C.

  19. A New Method for the Determination of Cyanide Ions and Their Quantification in Some Senegalese Cassava Varieties

    OpenAIRE

    Younoussa Diallo; Momar Talla Gueye; Cheikh Ndiaye; Mama Sakho; Amadou Kane; Jean Paul Barthelemy; Georges Lognay

    2014-01-01

    Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) is a starchy staple food that previous researches have showed to contain cyanogenic compounds, precursors of hydrocyanic acid, undoubtedly toxic for humans. With the aim to determine food security in cassava, this study developed a simple, fast and less expensive step for quantifying cyanide ions by using micro-diffusion with modified Conway cells. After an enzymatic degradation, the cyanide ions were quantified by electrochemical proc...

  20. Comparasion of iles-iles and cassava tubers as a Saccharomyces cerevisiae substrate fermentation for bioethanol production

    OpenAIRE

    KUSMIYATI

    2010-01-01

    Kusmiyati (2010) Comparasion of iles-iles and cassava tubers as a Saccharomyces cerevisiae substrate fermentation for bioethanol production. Nusantara Bioscience 2: 7-13. The production of bioethanol increase rapidly because it is renewable energy that can be used to solve energy crisis caused by the depleting of fossil oil. The large scale production bioethanol in industry generally use feedstock such as sugarcane, corn, and cassava that are also required as food resouces. Therefore, many st...

  1. Domestication and defence: Foliar tannins and C/N ratios in cassava and a close wild relative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mondolot, Laurence; Marlas, Amandine; Barbeau, Damien; Gargadennec, Annick; Pujol, Benoît; McKey, Doyle

    2008-09-01

    Plant domestication is accompanied by shifts in resource allocation, as a result of farmer selection for genotypes that give high yields in agricultural habitats. Relaxed natural selection for chemical and physical defences in these habitats could facilitate resource allocation to yield. We compared the concentrations of tannins, and C/N ratios, which are often correlated with investment in cell-wall compounds, in leaves of landraces of domesticated cassava ( Manihot esculenta) and a close wild relative in French Guiana. Foliar concentrations of tannins were about 1.9 times higher in the wild relative than in domesticated cassava. Histochemical analyses showed that tannins were present in nearly all palisade and spongy parenchyma cells of the wild taxon, but in only some cells of these tissues in M. esculenta. C/N ratios were also 1.9 times higher in leaves of the wild relative than in those of domesticated cassava. Tannins accounted for only a small proportion of total carbon, and the higher C/N ratio in wild than in domesticated cassava may reflect higher investment in carbon-containing compounds additional to tannins, such as cell-wall compounds. The divergence in these traits between cassava and this close wild relative mirrors a broad pattern observed in wild plant species across habitats varying in resource availability. One explanation for our results is that domestication in cassava may have favoured a shift from a resource conservation strategy to a resource acquisition strategy.

  2. 木薯杆粉碎还田机的研制%The development of cassava stem returning crushing machine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴锡毅; 关意昭; 周世英; 黄正文; 邵仁清

    2014-01-01

    Aiming at the need of cassava harvest, research and development a cassava stem (hereinafter generally referred to as the cassava stem) returning grinding machine. According to the characteristics of cassava stem deforestation, collection, crushing homework, the machine adopts the tractor front suspension arrangement, by the hydraulic system transfer the power, the collection of cassava stem cutting, collection, crushing function, is an important part of cassava full mechanization planting.%针对木薯收获的需要,研究开发一款木薯茎杆(以下统称木薯杆)粉碎还田机械。根据木薯杆砍伐、收集、粉碎作业的特点,该机器采用拖拉机前悬挂布置方式,由液压系统传递动力,集合木薯杆砍伐、收集、粉碎功能,是木薯全程机械化种植的重要组成部分。

  3. The use of blends of cassava flour and extruded full-fat soybeans in diets for broiler chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waldroup, P W; Ritchie, S J; Reese, G L; Ramsey, B E

    1984-09-01

    A study was conducted to determine the effects of blending different levels of a low-prussic acid cassava flour with extruded full-fat soybeans in diets for growing broiler chickens. The full-fat soybeans contribute oil which increases the energy content of the diet, aids in overcoming the dusty nature of cassava, and provide high-quality protein. One-third, two-thirds, and all of the maize was replaced by cassava in diets with none, 12.5 and 25% extruded full-fat soybeans. Diets were fed in pelleted form to broiler chickens for a 47-day feeding trial. Replacement of one-third of the maize with cassava had no adverse effects on body weight gains in this study with a reduction in weight at higher levels at the conclusion of the study. Feed utilization was reduced more severely than was anticipated. However, growth rate on the higher levels of cassava was reasonably good, indicating that producers might feed these diets for a slightly longer period of time and produce chickens more economically if cassava meal were available at a cost significantly less than that of maize. PMID:6544063

  4. Genome-Wide Identification and Expression Analysis of the Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase Gene Family in Cassava.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Yan; Wang, Lianzhe; Ding, Zehong; Tie, Weiwei; Ding, Xupo; Zeng, Changying; Wei, Yunxie; Zhao, Hongliang; Peng, Ming; Hu, Wei

    2016-01-01

    Mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) play central roles in plant developmental processes, hormone signaling transduction, and responses to abiotic stress. However, no data are currently available about the MAPK family in cassava, an important tropical crop. Herein, 21 MeMAPK genes were identified from cassava. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that MeMAPKs could be classified into four subfamilies. Gene structure analysis demonstrated that the number of introns in MeMAPK genes ranged from 1 to 10, suggesting large variation among cassava MAPK genes. Conserved motif analysis indicated that all MeMAPKs had typical protein kinase domains. Transcriptomic analysis suggested that MeMAPK genes showed differential expression patterns in distinct tissues and in response to drought stress between wild subspecies and cultivated varieties. Interaction networks and co-expression analyses revealed that crucial pathways controlled by MeMAPK networks may be involved in the differential response to drought stress in different accessions of cassava. Expression of nine selected MAPK genes showed that these genes could comprehensively respond to osmotic, salt, cold, oxidative stressors, and abscisic acid (ABA) signaling. These findings yield new insights into the transcriptional control of MAPK gene expression, provide an improved understanding of abiotic stress responses and signaling transduction in cassava, and lead to potential applications in the genetic improvement of cassava cultivars. PMID:27625666

  5. Gene-based microsatellites for cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz: prevalence, polymorphisms, and cross-taxa utility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ugwu Chike D

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz, a starchy root crop grown in tropical and subtropical climates, is the sixth most important crop in the world after wheat, rice, maize, potato and barley. The repertoire of simple sequence repeat (SSR markers for cassava is limited and warrants a need for a larger number of polymorphic SSRs for germplasm characterization and breeding applications. Results A total of 846 putative microsatellites were identified in silico from an 8,577 cassava unigene set with an average density of one SSR every 7 kb. One hundred and ninety-two candidate SSRs were screened for polymorphism among a panel of cassava cultivars from Africa, Latin America and Asia, four wild Manihot species as well as two other important taxa in the Euphorbiaceae, leafy spurge (Euphorbia esula and castor bean (Ricinus communis. Of 168 markers with clean amplification products, 124 (73.8% displayed polymorphism based on high resolution agarose gels. Of 85 EST-SSR markers screened, 80 (94.1% amplified alleles from one or more wild species (M epruinosa, M glaziovii, M brachyandra, M tripartita whereas 13 (15.3% amplified alleles from castor bean and 9 (10.6% amplified alleles from leafy spurge; hence nearly all markers were transferable to wild relatives of M esculenta while only a fraction was transferable to the more distantly related taxa. In a subset of 20 EST-SSRs assessed by fluorescence-based genotyping the number of alleles per locus ranged from 2 to 10 with an average of 4.55 per locus. These markers had a polymorphism information content (PIC from 0.19 to 0.75 with an average value of 0.55 and showed genetic relationships consistent with existing information on these genotypes. Conclusion A set of 124 new, unique polymorphic EST-SSRs was developed and characterized which extends the repertoire of SSR markers for cultivated cassava and its wild relatives. The markers show high PIC values and therefore will be useful for

  6. Evaluation of Jatropha curcas as an alternative host of African cassava mosaic virus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A study was conducted to evaluate ten local accessions of Jatropha curcas L. (physic nut) as an alternative host of African cassava mosaic virus (ACMV). The ten local accessions of J. curcas were planted in a field trial at the research farm of the Biotechnology and Nuclear Agriculture Research Institute, intercropped with ACMV-infected cassava cultivar 'Afisiafi' and left to natural spread of ACMV from the cassava to J. curcas. The J. curcas plants which became infected generally showed mild symptoms, with severity ranging from 1.00 at eight weeks after planting (WAP) to 3.00 at 16 WAP on a scale of 1 (no symptoms) to 5 (severe symptoms). Whitefly populations recorded on the J. curcas accessions in the wet (Sept. - Oct., 2008) and dry (Jan. - Feb., 2009) seasons were generally low. However, significant differences (p < 0.05) were found in the mean whitefly numbers found on the individual J. curcas accessions in the dry season. Disease incidence as determined by symptom expression varied among accessions at eight, twelve and sixteen weeks after planting, though the differences not statistically significant. Leaf samples from the ten J. curcas accessions were tested at six, nine and twelve months after planting (MAP) for the presence of ACMV by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA) and by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). ELISA tests using monoclonal antibody SCRI 33, in a double antibody sandwich ELISA (DAS-ELISA) showed ACMV infection in the J. curcas accessions. Infection ranged from 0% at 6MAP to 50% at 12MAP. Molecular analysis by PCR with a virus-specific primer (JSP001/JSP002) of the viral DNA extracted from leaves of the number of samples tested, as against 37.7% by ELISA. Infection among the accessions as shown by to PCR varied significantly (p < 0.05) and ranged from as low as 16.6% to as high as 91.6%. ACMV infection of the J. curcas plants was further confirmed by infectivity tests on Nicotiana benthamiana indicator plants. Three of (3) out of 132

  7. Evaluating Changes In Fertility Status Of An Alfisol Under Different Growth Stages Of Cassava Manihot Esculenta Crantz

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Osundare

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Evaluating changes in soil nutrient status under different growth stages of cassava makes possible determination of the most critical stage in its vegetative growth phase when its demand for nutrients is highest. Determining the most critical stage in cassava vegetative growth phase when its nutrient demand is highest will enhance properly timed fertilizer application in such a way the application will coincide with the most critical stage in cassava vegetative phase when its demand for nutrients is highest. In view of this a two year field experiment was designed to assess changes in nutrient status of an Alfisol under different growth stages of cassava during 2010 and 2011 cropping seasons at the Teaching and Research Farm of the Ekiti State University Ado Ekiti Ekiti State Nigeria. The experiment was laid out in a randomized complete block design with three replicates. The different growth stages of cassava when changes in nutrient status of Alfisol were evaluated included 3 6 9 and 12 months after planting MAP. The results indicated existence of significant P 0.05 differences among the different growth stages of cassava as regards their effects on chemical properties of Alfisol. During 2010 cropping season the significant decreases in soil organic carbon SOC under growth stages of cassava were from 0.96 g kg-1 for ISNSPTC to 0.88 0.80 0.72 and0.64 g kg-1 for ages 3 6 9 and 12 MAP respectively. Similarly during 2011 cropping season the significant decreases in soil organic carbon SOC under growth stages of cassava were from 0.96 g kg-1 for ISNSPTC to 0.80 0.73 0.66 and0.58 g kg-1 for ages 3 6 9 and 12 MAP respectively. During 2010 cropping season the significant decreases in total N under growth stages of cassava were from 0.68 g kg-1 for ISNSPTC to 0.57 0.50 0.43 and0.35 g kg-1 for ages 3 6 9 and 12 MAP respectively. During 2011 cropping season the significant decreases in total N under growth stages of cassava were from 0.68 g kg-1

  8. 国内木薯病害普查及细菌性萎蔫病安全性评估%General Survey on Cassava Diseases and Safety Assessment of Cassava Bacterial Blight

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李超萍; 时涛; 刘先宝; 蔡吉苗; 裴月令; 黄贵修

    2011-01-01

    2007~2010年,对广西、海南、云南等木薯主产区进行病害普查.结果发现,至今危害国内木薯的主要病害有7种,包括真菌病害6种[褐斑病(Cercosporidium henningsii)、炭疽病(colletotrichum gloeosPorioides)、离孺孢叶斑病(Bipolaris setariae)、棒孢霉叶斑病(Corynespora cassiicola)、白点病(phaeoramularia manihotis)和萎蔫叶斑病(Cercospora vicosae)],细菌病害1种[细菌性萎蔫病(Xanthomonas axonopodis pv manihotis)],其中离孺孢叶斑病和棒孢霉叶斑病为新发病害;7种病害中褐斑病和细菌性萎蔫病发生面积最大,危害最为严重.风险评估结果表明,细菌性萎蔫病菌为高度危险性有害生物.%During 2007 to 2010, cassava(Manihot esculenta Crantz)diseases survey was conducted in Guangxi, Hainan and Yunnan, the main cassava planting areas of China. The results showed that only seven diseases, six fungal diseases and one bacterial disease, were found. The cassava brown leaf spot caused by Cercosporidium henningsii and the bacterial blight caused by Xanthomonas axonopodis pv Manihotis prevailed in most cassava planting areas and caused serious damage. The safety assessment indicated that the cassava bacterial blight was a high risk disease. At present, cassava diseases are becoming one of the most important limiting factors for the development of cassava industry and would have a very serious,potential economic risk on correlative industry and the ecology of the tropic area.

  9. Polymeric flocculant based on cassava starch grafted polydiallyldimethylammonium chloride: Flocculation behavior and mechanism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Razali, M.A.A.; Ariffin, A., E-mail: srazlan@usm.my

    2015-10-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Flocculation performance of cassava grafted polyDADMAC was studied. • Turbidity and TSS removal increased with increasing grafting percentage. • The grafted polymer showed good removal in acidic and neutral region. • Zeta potential results pointed to the charge neutralization mechanism. • Flocs increased with increasing grafting percentage and molecular weight. - Abstract: In this work, flocculation properties of cassava starch grafted polydiallyldimethylammonium chloride (polyDADMAC) with different grafting percentages were investigated. Flocculation performance was evaluated in simulated kaolin suspension. The grafting percentages used were 1.76 %, 14.84 %, and 21.98 %. The effectiveness of the flocculation was measured based on the reduction of the turbidity and total suspended solids (TSSs), zeta potential measurements, particle size, and atomic force microscopy imaging. Grafted polymers improved the removal rate of turbidity and TSS compared with gelatinized starch, and the removal rate increased with increasing grafting percentage and dosage.

  10. Mutagenesis for ACMV resistance in a Ghanian cassava cultivar 'Bosom nsia'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Breeding for resistance to the African Cassava Mosaic Virus (ACMV) disease in the Ghanian cassava cultivar 'Bosom nsia' has been on-going for the past four years at the Biotechnology and Nuclear Agricultural Research Institute. Protocols for in vitro culture from shoot meristems and acclimation of plantlets were established. Radiosensitivity tests on the regenerated plantlets indicated LD50 of 40 Gy, and doses of 25, 30 and 35 Gy were suitable for mutagenesis. These doses were applied to in vivo and in vitro grown plants, and selection was carried out in three propagations. Four variants, selected under field conditions with high viral incidence, were analyzed for virus particles with three virus indexing techniques. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) product analysis of DNA extracts from Nicotiana benthamiana test plants, inoculated with sap from the leaves of variants, confirmed the presence of virus particles in all variants. Inoculation and ELISA tests suggested ACMV tolerance in selected variants. (author). 24 refs, 3 figs, 1 tab

  11. Evaluation of phenotypic stability of cassava clones by AMMI analysis in northwestern Paraná state

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcus Vinícius Kvitschal

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available High yield stability and adaptability of storage root are highly desirable attributes of cassava clones. Theobjective of this study was therefore to evaluate the effect of the genotype x environment interaction (G x E and the stability ofcassava clones developed at IAC. A subset of eight cassava genotypes was chosen in trials of storage root yield, arranged ina randomized complete block design with four replications, in two counties (Araruna and Maringá, in the northwesternregion of Paraná State, over five growing seasons (1997-2001. The G x E interaction was evaluated by joint varianceanalysis and stability and adaptability by AMMI analysis. The G x E interaction was significant (P<0.05 for storage rootyield. Results indicated AMMI analysis as an efficient tool for the evaluation of phenotypic adaptability and stability of cassavaclones and IAC 190 as the most promising clone.

  12. Cassava and turmeric flour blends as new raw materials to extruded snacks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra Mussato Spinello

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Short cooking time and ability to blend varieties of food ingredients have made extrusion cooking a medium for low-cost and nutritionally improved food products. The effect of moisture, extrusion temperature and amount of turmeric flour mixed with cassava flour on physical characteristic of puffed snacks was evaluated in this work. Extrusion process was carried out using a single-screw extruder in a factorial central composite design with four factors. Results showed effect of extrusion parameters on dependents variables. High expansion, low browning, low water solubility index, intermediate water absorption index and high crispness desirable characteristics to puffed snacks are obtained in conditions of 12% moisture, 5% turmeric flour, 105º C of temperature and 250 rpm of screw speed. These paper point to the potential still unexplored of the use of flours of cassava and turmeric as raw materials in the development of extruded puffed snacks.

  13. Cassava Starch Edible Film Incorporated with Lemongrass Oil: Characteristics and Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Dani Supardan

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research is to evaluate the effect of the addition of lemongrass essential oil (LGO on the characteristics and antimicrobial properties of cassava starch based films. Edible films were prepared from a mixture of cassava starch and glycerol. LGO was added to edible films as natural antimicrobial agent. There was a reduction in tensile strength of edible film because of incorporation of LGO. The presence of LGO also caused to a reduction in roughness of the edible film. The experimental results showed that Trichoderma and Penicillium was not appear upon the film until the third day of incubation. Meanwhile, the use of edible films containing LGO as antimicrobial agents caused to a reduction in microbial counts of meat during storage.

  14. Microbial control of the invasive spiraling whitefly on cassava with entomopathogenic fungi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thangavel Boopathi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available AbstractThe entomopathogenic fungi Beauveria bassiana, Metarhizium anisopliae, Lecanicillium lecanii and Isaria fumosorosea were tested for their efficacy in managing the exotic spiraling whitefly Aleurodicus dispersus (Hemiptera, Aleyrodidae on cassava (Manihot esculenta during 2 seasons (2011-2012 and 2012-2013. The fungi I. fumosorosea and L. lecanii exhibited promising levels of control (> 70% mortality of the A. dispersus population. The percent mortality increased over time in both seasons. Application of I. fumosorosea was highly pathogenic to A. dispersusin both seasons compared to the other entomopathogenic fungi. Analysis of the percent mortality in both seasons revealed differences in efficacy between 3 and 15 days after treatment. The season also influenced the effects of the fungi on the A. dispersus population. Thus, entomopathogenic fungi have the potential to manage A. dispersus infestation of cassava.

  15. Preparation of metal adsorbent from poly(methyl acrylate)-grafted-cassava starch via gamma irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suwanmala, Phiriyatorn; Hemvichian, Kasinee; Hoshina, Hiroyuki; Srinuttrakul, Wannee; Seko, Noriaki

    2012-08-01

    Metal adsorbent containing hydroxamic acid groups was successfully synthesized by radiation-induced graft copolymerization of methyl acrylate (MA) onto cassava starch. The optimum conditions for grafting were studied in terms of % degree of grafting (Dg). Conversion of the ester groups present in poly(methyl acrylate)-grafted-cassava starch copolymer into hydroxamic acid was carried out by treatment with hydroxylamine (HA) in the presence of alkaline solution. The maximum percentage conversion of the ester groups of the grafted copolymer, % Dg=191 (7.63 mmol/g of MA), into the hydroxamic groups was 70% (5.35 mmol/g of MA) at the optimum condition. The adsorbent of 191%Dg had total adsorption capacities of 2.6, 1.46, 1.36, 1.15 and 1.6 mmol/g-adsorbent for Cd2+, Al3+, UO22+, V5+ and Pb2+, respectively, in the batch mode adsorption.

  16. Gamma radiation use to avoid enzymatic browning of cassava root (Manihot utilissima Pohl) in natura, peeled

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cassava root was treated with gamma radiation at doses of 2, 4, 6, 8 and 10 kGy to avoid enzymatic browning. The irradiated samples were kept for 9 days at room temperature and evaluated for color and sensorial analysis. Two days after harvest, the control sample showed black spots and alterations of organoleptic characteristics. The irradiated sample with 2 to 6 kGy showed good appearance and acceptability. However, after 9 days of storage, the control and the irradiated (2 to 6 kGy) samples were not safe to eat, only the irradiated cassava with doses of 8 and 10 kGy did not show enzymatic browning and kept the good sensorial characteristics. (author)

  17. Effect of acid additives on grafting efficiency and water absorption of hydrolyzed cassava starch grafted polymers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gelatinized cassava starch was radiation graft copolymerized with acrylamide, acrylic acid or their mixture in the presence of sulphuric acid or maleic acid. Various acid concentrations were used from 0.001 to 0.1 M of sulphuric acid while the maleic acid concentrations were varied from 1 to 3% (by weight). The optimum total dose and dose rate were investigated. The saponification temperature and time had the marked effects on grafting characteristics and water absorption capacity. We found that the effect of maleic acid addition gave a profound effect on water absorption. The CHNS/O analyses indicated significant changes in the nitrogen content in the hydrolyzed starch grafted polyacrylamide with 2% maleic acid. The article explains the possible causes for the enhancement influence of mineral acid and maleic acid on grafting behavior and water absorption of the saponified cassava starch grafted polyacrylamide super absorbent polymer. (author)

  18. Assay of Antioxidant Potential of Two Filamentous Fungi Isolated from the Indonesian Fermented Dried Cassava.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugiharto, Sugiharto; Yudiarti, Turrini; Isroli, Isroli

    2016-01-01

    The antioxidant capacity and antioxidant constituents of two filamentous fungi (Acremonium charticola and Rhizopus oryzae) isolated from the Indonesian fermented dried cassava (gathot) were evaluated in the present study. The antioxidant capacity of the fungal crude extracts was assessed based on the 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethyl-benzthiazolin-6-sulfonicacid) (ABTS) method. Total phenolics were determined based on the Folin-Ciocalteu method, while the flavonoids content in the fungal extracts was determined by the spectrophotometric method with aluminum chloride. Total tannins were estimated by the Folin-Denis method. The ABTS⁺ radical scavenging activity was higher (p cassava exhibited antioxidant potentials as indicated by their capabilities to scavenge ABTS⁺. A. charticola had a higher antioxidant capacity than R. oryzae. The antioxidant capacity of A. charticola was attributed mainly to its phenolics and tannins contents. PMID:26848695

  19. Super absorbent Prepared by Radiation Induced Graft Copolymerization of Acrylic Acid onto Cassava Starch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Super absorbent was synthesized by radiation-induced graft polymerization of acrylic acid onto cassava starch. Parameters such as the absorbed dose and the amount of monomer were investigated in order to determine the optimum conditions for the grafting polymerization. Water retention, germination percentage and germination energy were determined in order to evaluate the possibility of super absorbent in agricultural applications, especially in arid regions. The graft copolymer was characterized by FTIR. Results indicated that the sand mixed with 0.1%wt super absorbent can absorb more water than the sand without super absorbent. The germination energy of corn seeds mixed with 0.5% super absorbent was obviously higher than those without super absorbent. These experimental results showed that the super absorbent has considerable effect on seed germination and the growth of young plants. Keywords: Super absorbent, Radiation, Acrylic acid, Cassava starch

  20. Response of Cassava canopy to mid-day pseudo sunrise induced by solar eclipse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latha, R.; Murthy, B. S.

    2013-07-01

    Variations in CO2 concentration over a cassava canopy were measured during a solar eclipse at Thiruvananthapuram, India. The analysis presented attempts to differentiate between the eclipse effect and the possible effect of thick clouds, taking CO2 as a proxy for photosynthesis. CO2 and water vapor were measured at a rate of 10 Hz, and radiation at 1 Hz, together with other meteorological parameters. A rapid reduction in CO2 observed post-peak eclipse, due apparently to intense photosynthesis, appears similar to what happens at daybreak/post-sunrise. The increase in CO2 (4 ppm) during peak eclipse, with radiation levels falling below the photosynthesis cut-off for cassava, indicates domination of respiration due to the light-limiting conditions.

  1. Polymeric flocculant based on cassava starch grafted polydiallyldimethylammonium chloride: Flocculation behavior and mechanism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Flocculation performance of cassava grafted polyDADMAC was studied. • Turbidity and TSS removal increased with increasing grafting percentage. • The grafted polymer showed good removal in acidic and neutral region. • Zeta potential results pointed to the charge neutralization mechanism. • Flocs increased with increasing grafting percentage and molecular weight. - Abstract: In this work, flocculation properties of cassava starch grafted polydiallyldimethylammonium chloride (polyDADMAC) with different grafting percentages were investigated. Flocculation performance was evaluated in simulated kaolin suspension. The grafting percentages used were 1.76 %, 14.84 %, and 21.98 %. The effectiveness of the flocculation was measured based on the reduction of the turbidity and total suspended solids (TSSs), zeta potential measurements, particle size, and atomic force microscopy imaging. Grafted polymers improved the removal rate of turbidity and TSS compared with gelatinized starch, and the removal rate increased with increasing grafting percentage and dosage

  2. Soil mycoflora of banana and cassava in peatland and alluvial soil in Bengkulu

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SUCIATMIH

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available In order to discover the diversity and population of soil fungi, a study was carried out at banana (Musa paradisiaca and cassava (Manihot utilissima plants where both those plants planted in peatland and alluvial soil. Soil fungi were isolated using serial dilution plate method and they were incubated at both room temperature (27-28oC and 45oC. This process was replicated two times for each sample. The result indicated that from 4 soil samples, 24 genera of fungi representing 4 Ascomycotina, 15 Deuteromycotina, and 5 Zygomycotina were detected. The highest soil fungi population was found in cassava planted in peat land and incubated at room temperature (8.5 105 cfu/ g dry soil, while the lower soil fungi population came from banana plant that was planted in peat land and incubated at 45oC (7.1 103 cfu/g dry soil.

  3. Analysis of Cassava Product (Garri Marketing in Ekiti Local Government Area, Kwara State, Nigeria

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    Olasore Abiodun Amos

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This study is on analysis of cassava product (garri marketing in Ekiti Local Government Area, Kwara State, Nigeria. Data for the study were obtained from 150 respondents from the target group using a two-stage sampling procedure and analyzed using descriptive statistics, Gini Coefficient and Lorenz Curve. Gini Coefficient for all cassava product traders was estimated to be 0.624 or 62.4%. The estimated Gini Coefficient show high degree of inequality in the sales/income distribution. The Lorenz Curve plotted further revealed sales/income inequality among the traders. A wide gap between line of inequality and the plotted Lorenz Curve showed that there is a high inequality in the distribution of income among traders.

  4. Functionality of maize, wheat, teff and cassava starches with stearic acid and xanthan gum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maphalla, Thabelang Gladys; Emmambux, Mohammad Naushad

    2016-01-20

    Consumer concerns to synthetic chemicals have led to strong preference for 'clean' label starches. Lipid and hydrocolloids are food friendly chemicals. This study determines the effects of stearic acid and xanthan gum alone and in combination on the functionality of maize, wheat, teff and cassava starches. An increase in viscosity was observed for all starches with stearic acid and xanthan gum compared to the controls with cassava having the least increase. A further increase in viscosity was observed for the cereal starches with combination of stearic acid and xanthan gum. Stearic acid reduced retrogradation, resulting in soft textured pastes. Combination of stearic acid and xanthan gum reduced the formation of type IIb amylose-lipid complexes, syneresis, and hysteresis in cereal starches compared to stearic acid alone. A combination of stearic acid and xanthan gum produce higher viscosity non-gelling starches and xanthan gum addition increases physical stability to freezing and better structural recovery after shear. PMID:26572436

  5. Bioinformatic identification of cassava miRNAs differentially expressed in response to infection by Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. manihotis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pérez-Quintero Álvaro L

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background microRNAs (miRNAs are short RNA molecules that control gene expression by silencing complementary mRNA. They play a crucial role in stress response in plants, including biotic stress. Some miRNAs are known to respond to bacterial infection in Arabidopsis thaliana but it is currently unknown whether these responses are conserved in other plants and whether novel species-specific miRNAs could have a role in defense. Results This work addresses the role of miRNAs in the Manihot esculenta (cassava-Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. manihotis (Xam interaction. Next-generation sequencing was used for analyzing small RNA libraries from cassava tissue infected and non-infected with Xam. A full repertoire of cassava miRNAs was characterized, which included 56 conserved families and 12 novel cassava-specific families. Endogenous targets were predicted in the cassava genome for many miRNA families. Some miRNA families' expression was increased in response to bacterial infection, including miRNAs known to mediate defense by targeting auxin-responding factors as well as some cassava-specific miRNAs. Some bacteria-repressed miRNAs included families involved in copper regulation as well as families targeting disease resistance genes. Putative transcription factor binding sites (TFBS were identified in the MIRNA genes promoter region and compared to promoter regions in miRNA target genes and protein coding genes, revealing differences between MIRNA gene transcriptional regulation and other genes. Conclusions Taken together these results suggest that miRNAs in cassava play a role in defense against Xam, and that the mechanism is similar to what's known in Arabidopsis and involves some of the same families.

  6. Involvement of miR160/miR393 and their targets in cassava responses to anthracnose disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinweha, Nattaya; Asvarak, Thipa; Viboonjun, Unchera; Narangajavana, Jarunya

    2015-02-01

    Cassava is a starchy root crop for food and industrial applications in many countries around the world. Among the factors that affect cassava production, diseases remain the major cause of yield loss. Cassava anthracnose disease is caused by the fungus Colletotrichum gloeosporioides. Severe anthracnose attacks can cause tip die-backs and stem cankers, which can affect the availability of planting materials especially in large-scale production systems. Recent studies indicate that plants over- or under-express certain microRNAs (miRNAs) to cope with various stresses. Understanding how a disease-resistant plant protects itself from pathogens should help to uncover the role of miRNAs in the plant immune system. In this study, the disease severity assay revealed different response to C. gloeosporioides infection in two cassava cultivars. Quantitative RT-PCR analysis uncovered the differential expression of the two miRNAs and their target genes in the two cassava cultivars that were subjected to fungal infection. The more resistant cultivar revealed the up-regulation of miR160 and miR393, and consequently led to low transcript levels in their targets, ARF10 and TIR1, respectively. The more susceptible cultivar exhibited the opposite pattern. The cis-regulatory elements relevant to defense and stress responsiveness, fungal elicitor responsiveness and hormonal responses were the most prevalent present in the miRNAs gene promoter regions. The possible dual role of these specific miRNAs and their target genes associated with cassava responses to C. gloeosporioides is discussed. This is the first study to address the molecular events by which miRNAs which might play a role in fungal-infected cassava. A better understanding of the functions of miRNAs target genes should greatly increase our knowledge of the mechanism underlying susceptibility and lead to new strategies to enhance disease tolerance in this economically important crop. PMID:25462963

  7. Toxicity of neem oil to the cassava green mite Mononychellus tanajoa (Bondar) (Acari: Tetranychidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Amanda C.B Silva; Adenir V. Teodoro; Oliveira, Eugênio E.; Adriano S Rêgo; Silva, Rafael R.

    2013-01-01

    Neem (Azadirachta indica A. Juss.)-derived pesticides have been used against a wide range of agricultural pests including tetranychid mites. Approaches combining lethal and sublethal toxicity studies of neem pesticides towards tetranychid mites are necessary to a comprehensive evaluation of such products. Here, we evaluated the lethal and sublethal toxicity of the neem oil Bioneem to the cassava green mite Mononychellus tanajoa (Bondar) by integrating lethal concentration (LC) with population...

  8. Economic Analysis of Cassava Production in Obubra Local Government Area of Cross River State, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James A. Nandi

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The study is conducted to examine the economics of Cassava production in Obubra Local government Area. Multistage random sampling technique was used to select a sample size of 156 respondents for the study. Data analysis was carried out using descriptive statistics such as frequency counts and percentages. The result show that females made up 63.7%, with 72% of the farmers married, having family size of 4-9 (75% people, using mostly hired labor. Majority (86.2% of the respondents have formal education, with 6 years and above farming experience, 75% of them acquired their capital through personal savings and operating on farm holdings of less than 2 ha. Costs and returns were analyzed using gross margin and profitability ratio. Gross margin result indicate that farmer obtain a net return of x123, 160.45 per ha with a benefit-cost ratio of 1.96. Gender, capital, farm size, labor and non-farm incomes are significant at 1% level of significance while education, farming experience and cassava cuttings are significant at 5% significance level. Whereas, age and family size are insignificant at all levels tested. Findings showed that the farmers were inefficient in their resource use. This suggests that for the farmers to increase cassava output in the area, they should employ more of the productive resources such as improved varieties and labor to boost their productivity. The study concludes that cassava farming is profitable and so new innovation should be passed to the farmers to adopt.

  9. Residual Influence of Early Season Crop Fertilization and Cropping System on Growth and Yield of Cassava

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    E. A. Makinde

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: In assessing fertilizer effects to sustain an intensive cropping system, the residual effects of fertilizer applied to preceding maize on the growth and yield of cassava and the effects of intercropping with soybean were studied in field experiments at Ibadan, Nigeria. Approach: Maize, established in April was fertilized using either organic manure or inorganic fertilizer or a mixture of organic manure and inorganic fertilizers. Organic manure was an equal mixture of domestic waste collected from a composted refuse dumping site applied at l0 t ha-1. Inorganic fertilizer was 150kg N supplied as urea and 50 kg P ha-1 as Single Super phosphate fertilizer. The mixture of organic and inorganic fertilizer treatment was 5 tonnes organic manure and 75kg N+25 kg P ha-1. Cassava was established in June and soybean planted in July, after harvesting maize. Results: Organic fertilizer treatment gave the tallest plants of 53 cm. Plants from sole inorganic fertilizer and from a mixture of organic and inorganic fertilizers had comparable heights but were significantly lower than plants from sole organic fertilizer application. Organic fertilizer application gave the highest seed yield of 481 kg ha-1 that was significantly higher than 380 kg ha-1 observed from a mixture of organic and inorganic fertilizers. Stover yield followed the same trend as seed yield. Cassava plant height was increased with fertilization but was reduced with intercropping. Sole organic fertilization had the tallest plants. Plant leaf area was neither significantly affected by fertilizer type nor cropping system. Fresh root yield was significantly reduced by 16% with soybean intercropping. Sole organic fertilizer application gave the highest yields of 22 tons ha-1 in sole crop and 18 tons ha-1 in intercrop with soybean. Conclusion: Cultivating an early season maize crop, followed by a cassava-soybean intercrop is more

  10. Theory of a mechanical method of peeling cassava tubers with knives

    OpenAIRE

    O.B. Aluko; L.O. Adekoya; D.A. Adetan

    2006-01-01

    A newbut highly promising mechanical cassava peeling concept was investigated. The concept is based on the principle of peel-flesh separation through compression and peel removal with knives. The mechanism of this principle was described and mathematically modelled. Preliminary experiments were carried out on root slices of 100 mm length using a peeling machine developed earlier on the basis of this principle. The data collected were used to validate the model. The model developed predicts th...

  11. Sustainable Energy Crop Production: A Case Study for Sugarcane and Cassava Production in Yunnan, China

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Yu; Ni, Jianhong; Zhang, Sizhu

    2011-01-01

    The possibility of using biomass as a source of energy in reducing the greenhouse-effect imposed by carbon dioxide emission and relieving energy crisis is a matter of great interest, such as bioethanol production. Nevertheless, the cultivation of dedicated energy crops dose meet with some criticisms (conflict with food security and environmental degradation, for example). Nowadays sugarcane and cassava are regarded as the potential energy crops for bioethanol production. Endowed with natural ...

  12. Cassava leaf methanolic extract as an alternative to control of fall armyworm and leaf cutter ants

    OpenAIRE

    Mírian Aparecida Isidro Santos; Angelita Duarte Corrêa; Ana Paula de Carvalho Alves; Anderson Assaid Simão; Dejane Santos Alves; Rodrigo Lopes de Oliveira; Adelir Aparecida Saczk; Geraldo Andrade Carvalho

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to characterize phenolic compounds and evaluate the effect, under laboratory conditions, of the cassava leaf powder methanol extract on the development of fall armyworm Spodoptera frugiperda and of leaf-cutting ant Atta sexdens rubropilosa. The extract was incorporated into an artificial diet, to which the armyworm was exposed, at concentrations of 250, 500, 1,000 and 1,500 mg kg-1, in order to evaluate biological characteristics. Soon after the insects emergen...

  13. Changes in physical properties of extruded sour cassava starch and quinoa flour blend snacks

    OpenAIRE

    Lívia Giolo Taverna; Magali Leonel; Martha Maria Mischan

    2012-01-01

    Given the broad acceptance of sour cassava starch biscuits in Brazil and the nutritional quality of quinoa flour, this study aimed to evaluate the effect of extrusion temperature, screw speed, moisture, and amount of quinoa flour on the physical properties of puffed snacks. Extrusion process was carried out using a single-screw extruder in a factorial central composite design with four factors. Effects of moisture and amount of quinoa flour on the expansion index and specific volume of snacks...

  14. Use of cassava wastewater treated anaerobically with alkaline agents as fertilizer for maize (Zea mays L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Maria Magdalena Ferreira Ribas; Marney Pascoli Cereda; Roberto Lyra Villas Bôas

    2010-01-01

    The wastewater of the processing of cassava's flour (manipueira) was submitted to the anaerobic treatment in two phases: acidogenic and methanogenic. In the acidogenic phase, the wastewater was stabilized with NaOH (ASH) and with limestone (ASL). After that, both stabilized effluents were treated by a methanogenic reactor. Then, the effluent of the methanogenic reactor was used as fertilizer on maize in the initial growth stage (30 days), cultivated in pots in a greenhouse. The treatments wer...

  15. Genome-wide identification and expression analysis of the WRKY gene family in cassava

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunxie eWei

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The WRKY family, a large family of transcription factors (TFs found in higher plants, plays central roles in many aspects of physiological processes and adaption to environment. However, little information is available regarding the WRKY family in cassava (Manihot esculenta. In the present study, 85 WRKY genes were identified from the cassava genome and classified into three groups according to conserved WRKY domains and zinc-finger structure. Conserved motif analysis showed that all of the identified MeWRKYs had the conserved WRKY domain. Gene structure analysis suggested that the number of introns in MeWRKY genes varied from 1 to 5, with the majority of MeWRKY genes containing 3 exons. Expression profiles of MeWRKY genes in different tissues and in response to drought stress were analyzed using the RNA-seq technique. The results showed that 72 MeWRKY genes had differential expression in their transcript abundance and 78 MeWRKY genes were differentially expressed in response to drought stresses in different accessions, indicating their contribution to plant developmental processes and drought stress resistance in cassava. Finally, the expression of 9 WRKY genes was analyzed by qRT-PCR under osmotic, salt, ABA, H2O2, and cold treatments, indicating that MeWRKYs may be involved in different signaling pathways. Taken together, this systematic analysis identifies some tissue-specific and abiotic stress-responsive candidate MeWRKY genes for further functional assays in planta, and provides a solid foundation for understanding of abiotic stress responses and signal transduction mediated by WRKYs in cassava.

  16. Inducing autotetraploids in cassava using oryzalin and colchicine and their in vitro morphophysiological effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de J da S de Carvalho, M; Gomes, V B; da S Souza, A; Aud, F F; Santos-Serejo, J A; Oliveira, E J

    2016-01-01

    Polyploid induction has been used for plant breeding to produce bigger and more robust plants than diploid types. The present study aimed to develop a methodology for in vitro induction of polyploidy in cassava. Apical and lateral microcuttings from the BRS Formosa variety were treated with six oryzalin concentrations for 24 and 48 h. The same methodology was used for colchicine with different concentrations. After 45 days of cultivation and an additional 45 days of subculture, the viability of the explants was assessed and plant acclimatization was performed. Ploidy was determined using flow cytometry. Oryzalin dose and exposure negatively affected cassava explant growth and development compared to untreated explants. Furthermore, apical and lateral explants responded differently to the treatments, showing a diversity in antimitotic sensitivity and effect that is tissue-type specific. In contrast, the doses of 1.25 to 6.25 mM colchicine resulted in high mortality of cassava explants. Therefore, the type of antimitotic affects the morphophysiological behavior of cassava plants in vitro, although apical explants have higher viability and regenerative capacity compared to lateral explants. In addition, the lateral explants have lower mixoploid rates compared to apical explants. Of the 310 plants generated by oryzalin treatments, 277 were diploid, 31 were mixoploid, and 2 were tetraploid. Exposure to oryzalin led to low rate of tetraploids and colchicine caused phytotoxic reactions and death of the explants. The tetraploids were multiplied in vitro to evaluate their yield in the field as well as their behavior against abiotic and biotic stress. PMID:27420952

  17. Influence of nanoparticles on the properties of bionanocomposites from cassava starch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plastics are widely used packaging materials for food and non-food products due to their desirable material properties and low cost. However, the merits of plastic products have been overshadowed by its non-degradable nature, thereby leading to waste disposal problems. Because of the environmental problem, many researchers are facing to minimize non-degradable to biodegradable materials. Starch is one of the most promising natural polymers because of its inherent biodegradability, overwhelming abundance and its renewability. One of the abundant starch is cassava. The Manihot exculenta Crantz, is known as camoteng-kahoy or balinghoy in the Philippines. The production of thermoplastic starch (also known as plasticized starch or TPS) basically involves three essential components, namely: starch, plasticizer and thermomechanical energy. However, this material has high water solubility and may lose their mechanical properties in humid conditions. One of the possible ways to overcome this problem is through nanocomposite in which consist of a polymer matrix reinforced with nano-dimensional particles. This research involves the processing of cassava starch into thermoplastic starch for packaging application that can be biodegraded in soil or compostable after its usage. Thermoplastic starchs from cassava starch and different nanomaterials were processed by melt-blending method in a twin-screw extruder. The four nanofillers - nanoclay (NC), halloysite nanotube (HNT), nanozeolite (NZ), and nanocalcium carbonate (NCC) were incorporated into the starch matrix in a 3 phr concentration. The resulting biocomposites were characterized in terms of mechanical properties, morphology, thermal properties, moisture absorption, and crystallinity. The newly developed technology based on cassava starch/nano-scale particles nanocomposites upgrade the hdydrophylic and mechanical properties of starch based films. Homogeneously dispersing nanometer size materials, with high length

  18. Natural genetic variation in cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) landraces as a tool for gene discovery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cassava landraces are the earliest form of the modern cultivars and represents the first step in cassava domestication. Our forward genetic analysis uses this resource to discover spontaneous mutations in the sucrose/starch and carotenoid synthesis/accumulation and to develop both evolutionary and breeding perspective of gene function related to those traits. Biochemical phenotype variants for the synthesis and accumulation of carotenoid, free sugar and starch were identified. Six subtractive cDNA libraries were prepared to construct a high quality (phred > 20) EST database with 1645 entries. Macroarray analysis was performed to identify differentially expressed gene aiming to identify candidate gene related to sugary phenotype. cDNA sequence for gene coding for specific enzymes in the two pathways were obtained. Gene expression analysis for coding specific enzymes was performed by RNA blot and Real Time PCR analysis. Chromoplastassociated proteins of yellow storage root were fractionated and a peptide sequence data base with 906 entries sequences (MASCOT validated) was constructed. For the sucrose/starch metabolism a sugary class of cassava was identified carrying mutation in the BEI and GBSS mutation. For the pigmented cassava a pink color phenotype showed absence of expression of the gene CasLYB while an intense yellow phenotype showed a down regulation of the gene CasHYb. Heat shock proteins were identified as the major proteins associated with chromoplast. Genetic diversity for the GBSS gene in the natural population identified 22 haplotype and a large nucleotide diversity in four subset of population. Single segregating population derived from F2, half sib and S1 population showed segregation for sugary phenotype (93% of the individuals), waxy phenotype (38% of the individuals) and glycogen like starch (2% of the individuals). Here we summarize our current results for the genetic analysis of this variants and recent progress in the direction of mapping of

  19. Effect of cassava pulp supplement on 1,3-propanediol production by Clostridium butyricum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apiwatanapiwat, Waraporn; Vaithanomsat, Pilanee; Tachaapaikoon, Chakrit; Ratanakhanokchai, Khanok; Kosugi, Akihiko

    2016-07-20

    To improve its 1,3-propanediol (1,3-PD) production, Clostridium butyricum was cultivated on glycerol medium supplemented with cassava pulp (CP). At small concentrations, the CP improved the 1,3-PD productivity of C. butyricum from (0.25±0.01)g/L/h (glycerol alone) to (0.43±0.02)g/L/h (glycerol+2g/L CP) after 24h fermentation. PMID:27184427

  20. Natural Genetic Variation in Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) Landraces: A Tool for Gene Discovery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cassava landraces are the earliest form of the modern cultivars and represent the first step in cassava domestication. Our forward genetic analysis uses this resource to discover spontaneous mutations in the sucrose/ starch and carotenoid synthesis/accumulation and to develop both an evolutionary and breeding perspective of gene function related to those traits. Biochemical phenotype variants for the synthesis and accumulation of carotenoid, free sugar and starch were identified. Six subtractive cDNA libraries were prepared to construct a high quality (phred > 20) EST database with 1,645 entries. Macroarray and micro-array analysis was performed to identify differentially expressed genes aiming to identify candidate genes related to sugary phenotype and carotenoid diversity. cDNA sequence for gene coding for specific enzymes in the two pathways was obtained. Gene expression analysis for coding specific enzymes was performed by RNA blot and Real Time PCR analysis. Chromoplast-associated proteins of yellow storage root were fractionated and a peptide sequence database with 906 entries sequences (MASCOT validated) was constructed. For the sucrose/starch, metabolism a sugary class of cassava was identified, carrying a mutation in the BEI and GBSS genes. For the pigmented cassava, a pink color phenotype showed absence of expression of the gene CasLYB, while an intense yellow phenotype showed a down regulation of the gene CasHYb. Heat shock proteins were identified as the major proteins associated with carotenoid. Genetic diversity for the GBSS gene in the natural population identified 22 haplotypes and a large nucleotide diversity in four subsets of population. Single segregating population derived from F2, half-sibling and S1 population showed segregation for sugary phenotype (93% of individuals), waxy phenotype (38% of individuals) and glycogen like starch (2% of individuals). Here we summarize our current results for the genetic analysis of these variants and recent

  1. Kinetics of mass transfer during deep fat frying of yellow fleshed cassava root slices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oyedeji, A. B.; Sobukola, O. P.; Henshaw, F. O.; Adegunwa, M. O.; Sanni, L. O.; Tomlins, K. I.

    2016-05-01

    Kinetics of mass transfer [moisture content, oil uptake, total carotenoid (TC) and shrinkage] during frying of yellow fleshed cassava roots (TMS 01/1371) was investigated. Slices were divided into (i) fresh and (ii) pre-dried to 75 % moisture content before atmospheric frying and (iii) vacuum fried. Percentage TC and activation energies of vacuum, fresh and pre-dried fried samples were 76, 63 and 61 %; and 82, 469.7, 213.7 kJ/mol, respectively.

  2. Effects of Growth Environment and Ulking Rate on Cyanogenic Potential of Cassava Tuerous Roots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Various abiotic factors affect the pattern of growth and accumulation of cyanogenic glucosides in cassava plants. Five cassava genotypes were planted in a wet and a dry agro-ecological zone and analyzed at 4, 6, 8, 10 and 12 months after planting for tuberous root bulking rate and cyanogenic potential. Cassava plants at Ibadan (the wetter zone) had higher tuberous roots bulking rate and lower cynogenic potential than those planted at Minjibir (the drier zone). Root bulking rate at Ibadan increased from 4 to 6 months after planting, fell to 10 months, and then levelled off thereafter. At Majorana, bulking rate increased from 4 to 6 months, levelling off u pto 8 months after planting, and then falling slightly u pto to 10 months, and rising gradually u pto 12 months after planting. At Minijibir, the 6-8 months after planting period coincided with drought and the highest root bulking rate but increasing cyanogenic potential. Similarly, at Ibadan the 6-8 months after planting period coincided with drought and the highest root bulking rate but increasing cyanogenic potential. Despite the onset of drought, bulking continued up to 8 months after planting, falling u pto 10 months and levelling off thereafter at both agro-ecological zones. However, whereas cyanogenic potential rose rapidly after 8 months to peak at 10 months, and levelling off up to 12 months at Minjibir, cyanogenic potential levelled of after 8 u pto 12 months at Ibadan. Correlation and regression analysis suggested that root bulking rate and cyanogenic potential were negatively associated, meaning that an increase in root bulking rate would lead to corresponding decrease in it's cyanogenic potential which is highly desirable. This study has demonstrated that whereas the plant age and genotypic effects are not important factors in determining tuberous roots bulking rate and cyanogenic potential of cassava, the agro-ecological zone effect is an important factor in determining them

  3. Acid and enzymatic hydrolysis to recover reducing sugars from cassava bagasse: an economic study

    OpenAIRE

    Woiciechowski Adenise Lorenci; Nitsche Saul; Pandey Ashok; Soccol Carlos Ricardo

    2002-01-01

    The objective of this work was to study the acid and enzymatic hydrolysis of cassava bagasse for the recovery of reducing sugars and to establish the operational costs. A statistical program "Statistica", based on the surface response was used to optimize the recovery of reducing sugars in both the processes. The process economics was determined considering the values of reducing sugars obtained at laboratory scale, and the operations costs of a cylindrical reactor of 1500 L, with flat walls ...

  4. Structural Bionic Design for Digging Shovel of Cassava Harvester Considering Soil Mechanics

    OpenAIRE

    Shihao Liu; Shaojie Weng; Yulan Liao; Dongyun Zhu

    2014-01-01

    In order to improve the working performance of cassava harvester, structural bionic design for its digging shovel was conducted. Taking the oriental mole cricket's paws as bionic prototype, a new structural bionic design method for digging shovel was established, which considers the morphology-configuration-function coupling bionic. A comprehensive performance comparison method was proposed, which is used to select the bionic design schemes. The proposed bionic design method was used to impro...

  5. Characterization of foams obtained from cassava starch, cellulose fibres and dolomitic limestone by a thermopressing process

    OpenAIRE

    Vivian Consuelo Reolon Schmidt; João Borges Laurindo

    2010-01-01

    Cassava starch, dolomitic limestone and eucalypt cellulose fibres were used to prepare foam trays that could be used to pack foodstuffs. The influence of the cellulose fibre concentration in the composite formulation was investigated using 5, 10, 15, 20, 30 and 40% of fibres. The results indicated that an increase in cellulose fibre concentration promoted a decrease in density and tensile strength of the foam samples. The tensile strength at break for foam trays containing 5% of cellulose fib...

  6. The growth of cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) on various alternative gelling agents

    OpenAIRE

    DODY PRIADI; HANI FITRIANI; ENNY SUDARMONOWATI

    2008-01-01

    Gelling agents which is an important component in plant tissue culture media is considered expensive which causes high cost of plant micropropagation in developing countries. The objective of the study was to evaluate various commercial starches (hunkue, sago, tapioca, maize and arrowroot) and food agars for substitution of standard technical agar which commonly used in tissue culture medium. Young stem cuttings with five buds of cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz. genotype Iding and Gebang) c...

  7. Traditional anthropology and geographical information systems in the collaborative study of Cassava in Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romanoff, Steven

    1991-01-01

    Cross-cultural, village-level, and farmer surveys have been used with a geographical information system to describe the distribution and relative importance of cassava (manioc, yuca, Manihot esculenta) in its cultural, economic, and ecological contexts. It presents examples of data management for mapping, sample selection, cross-tabulation of characteristics, combination of data types for indices and hypothesis testing. The methods used are reviewed, and some of the main conclusions of the study are presented.

  8. Expected economic benefits of meeting nutritional needs through biofortified cassava in Nigeria and Kenya

    OpenAIRE

    Nguema, Abigail; Norton, George W.; Fregene, Martin; Sayre, Richard; Manary, Mark

    2011-01-01

    Vitamin and mineral deficiencies are a significant health problem in much of the developing world, causing illness, disability, mortality and reduced productivity. Biofortification of staple food crops has been proposed as a cost-effective solution. This paper calculates disabilityadjusted life years (DALYs) and economic surplus in order to analyze the potential health and economic benefits of cassava varieties developed to reduce vitamin A and iron deficiency in Nigeria and Kenya. Potential ...

  9. Molecular diversity of Cuban cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz cultivars assessed by simple sequences repeats (SSR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beovides, Y.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A total of 36 microsatellites (SSR markers were used to analyze the genetic diversity of 163 accessions of cultivated cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz, 94 accessions of them from the Cuban Cassava Germplasm Collection and 69 genotypes from different countries and conserved at the International Center for Tropical Agriculture (Colombia. This study was carried out to determine genetic diversity within and between all accessions to promote their better use and conservation strategies. Thirty-four of those markers were used for the genetic diversity study based on their higher polymorphism. The Cuban cultivars showed the highest average allele number per loci with 5.8 and 100% of the loci were polymorphic, as well as those from Guatemala. The average proportion of individual heterozygocity observed (HO was high (0.5918 ± 0.0351, while the highest HO rates were observed in groups of genotypes from Cuba (0.6016 and Tanzania (0.6459. The total heterozygocity (HT was high (0.6538 ± 0.1770, but only 7.4% (GST = 0.0740 ± 0.0377 was due to differences between the five countries studied. Genetic differentiation coefficients (estimated by F-statistics were low to moderate (FST > 0.04 and 17 unique alleles with low frequency were found in Cuban cultivars. The results provide the first molecular characterization of Cuban cassava genotypes and showed a wide diversity among landraces from Cuba. Application of this valuable information can be used for genetic diversity conservation and genotype identification studies for the genetic breeding program of cassava.

  10. Selection of Indonesia Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) Genotype as Source of β-Carotene

    OpenAIRE

    DODY PRIADI; DJUMHAWAN RATMAN PERMANA; SRI ELIN DONA; SRI HARTATI; ENNY SUDARMONOWATI

    2009-01-01

    Fourteen genotypes of Indonesia cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) of two generations were evaluated for β-carotene content. The β-carotene content of tubers and leaves were determined by spectrophotometry method. Other parameters such as water and ash contents were also evaluated. Results showed that β-carotene content of tubers of fourth generation (planted in 2006-2007) was higher than that of first generation (planted in 2002-2003), with the exception of Apuy, Iding and Sarewen genotypes....

  11. Biofortification of essential nutritional compounds and trace elements in rice and cassava.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sautter, C; Poletti, S; Zhang, P; Gruissem, W

    2006-05-01

    Plant biotechnology can make important contributions to food security and nutritional improvement. For example, the development of 'Golden Rice' by Professor Ingo Potrykus was a milestone in the application of gene technology to deliver both increased nutritional qualities and health improvement to wide sections of the human population. Mineral nutrient and protein deficiency as well as food security remain the most important challenges for developing countries. Current projects are addressing these issues in two major staple crops, cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) and rice. The tropical root crop cassava is a major source of food for approximately 600 million of the population worldwide. In sub-Saharan Africa >200 million of the population rely on cassava as their major source of dietary energy. The nutritional quality of the cassava root is not sufficient to meet all dietary needs. Rice is the staple food for half the world population, providing approximately 20% of the per capita energy and 13% of the protein for human consumption worldwide. In many developing countries the dietary contributions of rice are substantially greater (29.3% dietary energy and 29.1% dietary protein). The current six most popular 'mega' rice varieties (in terms of popularity and acreage), including Chinese hybrid rice, have an incomplete amino acid profile and contain limited amounts of essential micronutrients. Rice lines with improved Fe contents have been developed using genes that have functions in Fe absorption, translocation and accumulation in the plant, as well as improved Fe bioavailability in the human intestine. Current developments in biotechnology-assisted plant improvement are reviewed and the potential of the technology in addressing human nutrition and health are discussed. PMID:16672076

  12. Sugar-mediated semidian oscillation of gene expression in the cassava storage root regulates starch synthesis

    OpenAIRE

    Baguma, Yona; Sun, Chuanxin; Borén, Mats; Olsson, Helena; Rosenqvist, Sara; Mutisya, Joel; Patrick R. Rubaihayo; Jansson, Christer

    2008-01-01

    Starch branching enzyme (SBE) activity in the cassava storage root exhibited a diurnal fluctuation, dictated by a transcriptional oscillation of the corresponding SBE genes. The peak of SBE activity coincided with the onset of sucrose accumulation in the storage, and we conclude that the oscillatory mechanism keeps the starch synthetic apparatus in the storage root sink in tune with the flux of sucrose from the photosynthetic source. When storage roots were uncoupled from the source, SBE expr...

  13. Structural Bionic Design for Digging Shovel of Cassava Harvester Considering Soil Mechanics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shihao Liu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to improve the working performance of cassava harvester, structural bionic design for its digging shovel was conducted. Taking the oriental mole cricket's paws as bionic prototype, a new structural bionic design method for digging shovel was established, which considers the morphology-configuration-function coupling bionic. A comprehensive performance comparison method was proposed, which is used to select the bionic design schemes. The proposed bionic design method was used to improve digging shovel structure of a digging-pulling style cassava harvester, and nine bionic-type digging shovels were obtained with considering the impact of soil mechanics. After conducting mechanical properties comparative analysis for bionic-type digging shovels, the bionic design rules were summed up, and the optimal design scheme of digging shovel was obtained through combining the proposed comprehensive performance comparison method with Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP. Studies have shown that bionic design method not only can improve the overall mechanical properties of digging shovel, but also can help to improve the harvesting effect of cassava harvester, which provides a new idea for crops harvesting machinery's structural optimization design.

  14. Expression Profiling of Cassava Storage Roots Reveals an Active Process of Glycolysis/Gluconeogenesis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jun Yang; Dong An; Peng Zhang

    2011-01-01

    Mechanisms related to the development of cassava storage roots and starch accumulation remain largely unknown. To evaluate genome-wide expression patterns during tuberization, a 60 mer oligonucleotide microarray representing 20 840 cassava genes was designed to identify differentially expressed transcripts in fibrous roots, developing storage roots and mature storage roots. Using a random variance model and the traditional twofold change method for statistical analysis, 912 and 3 386 upregulated and downregulated genes related to the three developmental phases were identified. Among 25 significantly changed pathways identified, glycolysislgluconeogenesis was the most evident one. Rate-limiting enzymes were identified from each individual pathway, for example, enolase, L-lactate dehydrogenase and aldehyde dehydrogenase for glycolysis/gluconeogenesis, and ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase, starch branching enzyme and glucan phosphorylase for sucrose and starch metabolism. This study revealed that dynamic changes in at least 16% of the total transcripts, including transcription fac-tors, oxidoreductasesltransferaseslhydrolases, hormone-related genes, and effectors of homeostasis. The reliability of these differentially expressed genes was verified by quantitative real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. These studies should facilitate our understanding of the storage root formation and cassava improvement.

  15. Water Footprints of Cassava- and Molasses-Based Ethanol Production in Thailand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mangmeechai, Aweewan, E-mail: aweewan.m@nida.ac.th [National Institute of Development Administration, International College (Major in Public Policy and Management) (Thailand); Pavasant, Prasert [Chulalongkorn University, Department of Chemical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering (Thailand)

    2013-12-15

    The Thai government has been promoting renewable energy as well as stimulating the consumption of its products. Replacing transport fuels with bioethanol will require substantial amounts of water and enhance water competition locally. This study shows that the water footprint (WF) of molasses-based ethanol is less than that of cassava-based ethanol. The WF of molasses-based ethanol is estimated to be in the range of 1,510-1,990 L water/L ethanol, while that of cassava-based ethanol is estimated at 2,300-2,820 L water/L ethanol. Approximately 99% of the water in each of these WFs is used to cultivate crops. Ethanol production requires not only substantial amounts of water but also government interventions because it is not cost competitive. In Thailand, the government has exploited several strategies to lower ethanol prices such as oil tax exemptions for consumers, cost compensation for ethanol producers, and crop price assurances for farmers. For the renewable energy policy to succeed in the long run, the government may want to consider promoting molasses-based ethanol production as well as irrigation system improvements and sugarcane yield-enhancing practices, since molasses-based ethanol is more favorable than cassava-based ethanol in terms of its water consumption, chemical fertilizer use, and production costs.

  16. Isolation of a yeast strain able to produce a polygalacturonase with maceration activity of cassava roots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Alicia Martos

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study was the isolation of a yeast strain, from citrus fruit peels, able to produce a polygalacturonase by submerged fermentation with maceration activity of raw cassava roots. Among 160 yeast strains isolated from citrus peels, one strain exhibited the strongest pectinolytic activity. This yeast was identified as Wickerhamomyces anomalus by 5.8S-ITS RFLP analysis and confirmed by amplification of the nucleotide sequence. The yeast produced a polygalacturonase (PG in Erlenmeyer shake flasks containing YNB, glucose, and citrus pectin. PG synthesis occurred during exponential growth phase, reaching 51 UE.mL-1 after 8 hours of fermentation. A growth yield (Yx/s of 0.43 gram of cell dry weight per gram of glucose consumed was obtained, and a maximal specific growth rate (µm of 0.346 h-1 was calculated. The microorganism was unable to assimilate sucrose, galacturonic acid, polygalacturonic acid, or citrus pectin, but it required glucose as carbon and energy source and polygalacturonic acid or citrus pectin as inducers of enzyme synthesis. The crude enzymatic extract of Wickerhamomyces anomalus showed macerating activity of raw cassava. This property is very important in the production of dehydrated mashed cassava, a product of regional interest in the province of Misiones, Argentina.

  17. A new alkalophilic isolate of Bacillus as a producer of cyclodextrin glycosyltransferase using cassava flour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheila Lorena de Araújo Coelho

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Cyclodextrin glycosyltransferase (CGTase catalyzes the conversion of starch into non-reducing cyclic sugars, cyclodextrins, which have several industrial applications. This study aimed to establish optimal culture conditions for β-CGTase production by Bacillus sp. SM-02, isolated from soil of cassava industries waste water lake. The optimization was performed by Central Composite Design (CCD 2, using cassava flour and corn steep liquor as substrates. The maximum production of 1087.9 U mL−1 was obtained with 25.0 g L−1 of cassava flour and 3.5 g L−1 of corn steep after 72 h by submerged fermentation. The enzyme showed optimum activity at pH 5.0 and temperature 55 °C, and maintained thermal stability at 55 °C for 3 h. The enzymatic activity was stimulated in the presence of Mg+2, Ca+2, EDTA, K+, Ba+2 and Na+ and inhibited in the presence of Hg+2, Cu+2, Fe+2 and Zn+2. The results showed that Bacillus sp. SM-02 have good potential for β-CGTase production.

  18. Inactivation of E. coli and B. subtilis spores in ozonized cassava starch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emanuele Oliveira Cerqueira Amorim

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, the efficacy of ozone inactivation of B. subtilis spores and E. coli in cassava starch was evaluated. Cassava starch with 18 and 30% moisture content was processed with ozone at concentrations of 40-118 ppm and exposure times of 15-120 minutes. The processing at 113 ppm/120 minutes (maximum exposure level to ozone evaluated at 18% of moisture content did not cause significant reduction of B. subtilis spores and caused the reduction of only 2 decimal of E. coli. On the other hand, when the ozonation process was carried out for 120 minutes at 30% of moisture content, 3.6 decimal reduction of B. subtilis was achieved at 40 ppm of ozone and total B. subtilis load reduction (>5 log cycles was observed at 118 ppm of ozone. Similarly, total E. coli load reduction (>7 log cycles was achieved at 40 ppm of ozone exposure for 60 minutes. Therefore, the results indicate that the ozone efficacy against microorganisms in cassava starch was mainly dependent on the sample moisture content and to ozone concentration and exposure time. Moreover, it was observed that ozone is a promising technology to reduce microbial counts in dried food.

  19. A new alkalophilic isolate of Bacillus as a producer of cyclodextrin glycosyltransferase using cassava flour

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Araújo Coelho, Sheila Lorena; Magalhães, Valter Cruz; Marbach, Phellippe Arthur Santos; Cazetta, Marcia Luciana

    2016-01-01

    Cyclodextrin glycosyltransferase (CGTase) catalyzes the conversion of starch into non-reducing cyclic sugars, cyclodextrins, which have several industrial applications. This study aimed to establish optimal culture conditions for β-CGTase production by Bacillus sp. SM-02, isolated from soil of cassava industries waste water lake. The optimization was performed by Central Composite Design (CCD) 2, using cassava flour and corn steep liquor as substrates. The maximum production of 1087.9 U mL−1 was obtained with 25.0 g L−1 of cassava flour and 3.5 g L−1 of corn steep after 72 h by submerged fermentation. The enzyme showed optimum activity at pH 5.0 and temperature 55 °C, and maintained thermal stability at 55 °C for 3 h. The enzymatic activity was stimulated in the presence of Mg+2, Ca+2, EDTA, K+, Ba+2 and Na+ and inhibited in the presence of Hg+2, Cu+2, Fe+2 and Zn+2. The results showed that Bacillus sp. SM-02 have good potential for β-CGTase production. PMID:26887234

  20. Macronutrient and sodium content in maize plants under cassava wastewater fertilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana G. Magalhães

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT This study aimed to evaluate the content of macronutrients and sodium in corn ( Zea mays plants as a function of different doses of cassava wastewater and ages of the plants after emergence. The experiment was conducted in a greenhouse in pots with capacity for 25 dm3 of soil, using a 5 × 3 factorial design with four replicates. The studied factors were doses of cassava wastewater: 0; 12.6; 25.2; 50.4; 75.6 m3 ha-1, and plant age: 20, 40 and 52 days after emergence (DAE. Potassium, calcium, magnesium, nitrogen, phosphorus, sodium and sulfur contents were evaluated in leaves and stalks. Nutritional deficiency of calcium was visible at 20 DAE. The increment in cassava wastewater doses increased N, P and K contents in plant shoots, but decreased Ca and Mg absorption. The contents of N, P and K in the leaves and N in stalks at 20 DAE were higher than at 40 and 52 DAE. The highest contents of P and K in the stalks occurred at 40 DAE.

  1. Leaf consumption and duration of instars of the cassava defoliator Erinnyis ello (L., 1758 (Lepidoptera, Sphingidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dirceu Pratissoli

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this research were to evaluate leaf consumption and the developmental time of the larvae of Erynnyis ello (L., 1758 (Lepidoptera, Sphingidae reared on cassava, in order to obtain information for the integrated management of this pest. The larvae were reared on excised cassava leaves in Petri dishes and later in gerbox, and kept in chambers at 24 ± 2 ºC and 75 ± 10% RH. The total leaf area consumed by the larva to complete its development was 589.67 cm²; each of the five instars consumed, respectively: 1.89 cm²; 5.74 cm²; 17.48 cm²; 76.66 cm²; and 487.90 cm². The consumption by the first three instars was insignificant, and did not reach 5% altogether; the 4th represented 13%; the 5th presented a consumption significantly higher, about 82.7%. The total time for the larval development was 22.61 days, and the duration for each of the five larval instar was, respectively: 4.35; 3.19; 3.32; 4.52; and 4.94 days. The pre-pupal period lasted 2.29 days. Since the highest consumption is by the 5th instar larva, the control should be applied before this age to avoid heavier damages to the cassava crop.

  2. The role of institutions as actors influencing Uganda’s cassava sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cedric Mutyaba

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available We aim at mapping out a detailed framework that reveals the proportionate flow of cassava and its products along the value chain (VC. Furthermore, we aim at establishing the role of institutions and the linkages between institutions and other VC actors that influence the cassava VC in Uganda. We use both primary and secondary data obtained from four regions in Uganda. Results show that farmers, processors, transporters, traders, consumers and institutions are the major actors. There are four categories of institutions, viz, government, non-government, community based organisations and international agencies. Roles performed by institutions include: development and enforcement of policies, Research and Development (R&D, capacity building, and creation of market access linkages for cassava and its products. Findings reveal that there is no clear nexus and no coordination among farmers/producers, processors, traders, transporters and consumers. However, institutions are well coordinated and play various roles along the VC to influence the dynamics of actors. Policy-wise it is important to establish strong private-public partnerships to bridge the impaired linkages between the actors (farmers/producers, processors, traders, transporters, and consumers and institutions. Strong partnerships are envisaged to reduce the associated transaction costs amongst the actors.

  3. Water Footprints of Cassava- and Molasses-Based Ethanol Production in Thailand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Thai government has been promoting renewable energy as well as stimulating the consumption of its products. Replacing transport fuels with bioethanol will require substantial amounts of water and enhance water competition locally. This study shows that the water footprint (WF) of molasses-based ethanol is less than that of cassava-based ethanol. The WF of molasses-based ethanol is estimated to be in the range of 1,510–1,990 L water/L ethanol, while that of cassava-based ethanol is estimated at 2,300–2,820 L water/L ethanol. Approximately 99% of the water in each of these WFs is used to cultivate crops. Ethanol production requires not only substantial amounts of water but also government interventions because it is not cost competitive. In Thailand, the government has exploited several strategies to lower ethanol prices such as oil tax exemptions for consumers, cost compensation for ethanol producers, and crop price assurances for farmers. For the renewable energy policy to succeed in the long run, the government may want to consider promoting molasses-based ethanol production as well as irrigation system improvements and sugarcane yield-enhancing practices, since molasses-based ethanol is more favorable than cassava-based ethanol in terms of its water consumption, chemical fertilizer use, and production costs

  4. Effects of Radiation on Mechanical Properties of Poly (butylene succinate) and Cassava Starch Blends

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This research compared the effects of gamma and electron beam irradiation at different doses on the mechanical properties of polymer blends between poly(butylene succinate) (PBS) and cassava starch. Two types of starch were used to prepare thermoplastic starch (TPS), native cassava starch and hydrophobic starch. PBS/TPS blends were compounded at five different weight ratios using a twin-screw extruder. Mechanical properties and degradation were evaluated in comparison to unirradiated samples. Results indicated that the incorpora- tion of TPS prepared from native cassava starch decreased the mechanical properties of PBS/TPS blends, whereas the addition of TPS prepared from hydrophobic starch improved the mechanical properties of the blends. In addition, the maximum mechanical properties of PBS/TPS blends were achieved when samples were exposed to irradiation at 120 kGy. Using soil burial evaluation, the degradation rate of blends was found to increase with the addition of TPS. Therefore we have demonstrated in this study that the type of TPS and irradiation treatment can significantly alter the mechanical properties and degradation of PBS/TPS blends.

  5. Rumen metabolism of swamp buffaloes fed rice straw supplemented with cassava hay and urea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ampapon, Thiwakorn; Wanapat, Metha; Kang, Sungchhang

    2016-04-01

    The objectives of this experiment were to investigate effects of cassava hay (CH) and urea (U) supplementation on feed intake, digestibility, rumen fermentation, and microbial protein synthesis of swamp buffaloes fed on rice straw. Four rumen-fistulated swamp buffaloes, 365 ± 15.0 kg, were randomly assigned according to a 4 × 4 Latin square design to receive four dietary treatments: T1 = CH 400 g/head/day + U 0 g/head/day, T2 = CH + U 30 g/head/day, T3 = CH + U 60 g/head/day, and T4 = CH + U 90 g/head/day, respectively. Results revealed that feed intake was not affected while nutrient digestibilities were increased (P cassava hay for buffaloes fed rice straw improved rumen ecology and increased fermentation end products and microbial protein synthesis while reducing protozoal populations and methane production. Urea supplements of 60-90 g/head/day when fed with cassava hay are recommended for swamp buffaloes consuming rice straw. PMID:26898691

  6. Radiation modification of water absorption of cassava starch by acrylic acid/acrylamide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graft co polymerizations of acrylamide and/or acrylic acid onto cassava starch by a simultaneous irradiation technique using gamma-rays as the initiator were studied with regard to various parameters of importance: the monomer-to-cassava starch ratio, total dose (kGy), dose rate (kGy h-1), acrylamide-to-acrylic acid ratio, and the addition of nitric acid and maleic acid as the additives. Grafting parameters were determined in relation to the water absorption of the saponified graft copolymer. The water absorption of the saponified graft copolymer in salt and buffer solutions of different ionic strengths was also measured, from which the super absorbent properties are found to be P H sensitive. The starch graft copolymers of acrylamide and acrylic acid give higher water absorption than the starch graft copolymers of either acrylamide or acrylic acid alone. The porosity of the saponified starch graft copolymers prepared by the acrylamide/acrylic acid ratios of 70:30 and 50:50 was much higher than the porosity of copolymers in terms of fine networks. Ionic strength and multi-oxidation states of the saline and buffer solutions markedly decreased the water absorption of the saponified cassava starch grafted super absorbent polymers.

  7. Cassava Stillage Treatment by Thermophilic Anaerobic Continuously Stirred Tank Reactor (CSTR)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Gang; Xie, Li; Zou, Zhonghai; Zhou, Qi

    2010-11-01

    This paper assesses the performance of a thermophilic anaerobic Continuously Stirred Tank Reactor (CSTR) in the treatment of cassava stillage under various organic loading rates (OLRs) without suspended solids (SS) separation. The reactor was seeded with mesophilic anaerobic granular sludge, and the OLR increased by increments to 13.80 kg COD/m3/d (HRT 5d) over 80 days. Total COD removal efficiency remained stable at 90%, with biogas production at 18 L/d (60% methane). Increase in the OLR to 19.30 kg COD/m3/d (HRT 3d), however, led to a decrease in TCOD removal efficiency to 79% due to accumulation of suspended solids and incomplete degradation after shortened retention time. Reactor performance subsequently increased after OLR reduction. Alkalinity, VFA and pH levels were not significantly affected by OLR variation, indicating that no additional alkaline or pH adjustment is required. More than half of the SS in the cassava stillage could be digested in the process when HRT was 5 days, which demonstrated the suitability of anaerobic treatment of cassava stillage without SS separation.

  8. Determination of some mineral components of cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) using instrumental neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Some mineral elements in the leaves, peel (periderm) and the tuber (edible portion) of seven cassava cultivars were determined using instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA). The cassava specimens were made up of three improved cultivars namely, TMS 30572, (Afisiafi), TMS 50395 (Gblomaduade) and TMS 4 (2) 1425 (Abasa fitaa). The others are a locally produced mutant 'Tek bankye' and two landraces 'Ankrah' and 'Akosua tumtum'. A total of 10 elements (Al, Ca, Mg, V, Mn, Na, Br, Cl, Zn, and K) were identified in all the cultivars studied. The tuber portion contained 10 elements while the leaves and the peel contained 8 and 9 elements, respectively. Five of the elements identified (Ca, Na, K, Mg, and Cl) are classified as major elements in human nutrition while three (Mn, V, and Zn) are trace elements. The major elements were detected in high concentration in the peel of most of the cultivars than the edible tuber or leaves. Al was found in very high concentrations ranging from 643.6 to 12610.0 mg/kg in the peel except in 'Akosua tumtum' where its concentration was below 100 mg/kg. The concentration of Ca and Mg meets the recommendations made by Subcommittee on Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA). The presence of five major and three trace elements in the tuber indicates that cassava has a rich mineral source which makes it safe for human consumption. (author)

  9. Micropropagation of Yam (Dioscorea rotundata: Assessment of Performance in Cassava Starch-gelled Medium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.N.A. Mbanaso

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Cassava starches from nine different cassava varieties (TMS 97/2205, 97/0162, 92/0057, 98/0505, 92/0326, 30572, 82/0058 TME 419 and NR 8082 were evaluated as gelling agents substitute for in vitro propagation of yam (Dioscorea rotndata. In vitro yam explants (nodal segments were seeded singly into culture tubes containing 1 mL of yam multiplication medium with no gelling agent (liquid medium-control I and 15 mL of yam multiplication medium gelled differently in 0.2% gelrite (control II, 0.7% agar (control III and in 7% starch from the nine different cassava varieties. Cultures were maintained at 28C2 illumination and 16 h photoperiod (30-40 mole m-2 sec-1 supplied by white fluorescent tubes on shelves for four weeks. The overall percentage survival ranged from 86.67-100% after 60 days in culture. Explants in TMS 97/2205 performed relatively better in terms of height, number of leaves and nodes compared to those in liquid, gelrite or agar-gelled medium. This is significant because survival and multiplication is a key factor in the choice of a gelling agent.

  10. SACCHARIFICATION OF NATIVE CASSAVA STARCH AT HIGH DRY SOLIDS IN AN ENZYMATIC MEMBRANE REACTOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Nyoman Widiasa

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available This study is aimed to develop a novel process scheme for hydrolysis of native cassava starch at high dry solids using an enzymatic membrane reactor (EMR. Firstly, liquefied cassava starch having solids content up to 50% by weight was prepared by three stage liquefactions in a conventional equipment using a commercially available heat stable a-amylase (Termamyl 120L. The liquefied cassava starch was further saccharified in an EMR using glucoamylase (AMG E. By using the developed process scheme, a highly clear hydrolysate with dextrose equivalent (DE approximately 97 could be produced, provided the increase of solution viscosity during the liquefaction was precisely controlled. The excessive space time could result in reduction in conversion degree of starch. Moreover, a residence time distribution study confirmed that the EMR could be modelled as a simple continuous stirred tank reactor (CSTR. Using Lineweaver-Burk analysis, the apparent Michaelis-Menten constant (Km and glucose production rate constant (k2 were 552 (g/l and 4.04 (min-1, respectively. Application of simple CSTR model with those kinetic parameters was quietly appropriate to predict the reactor’s performance at low space time.

  11. A rapid and non-destructive method to assess leaf injury caused by the cassava green mite, Mononychellus tanajoa (Bondar) (Acarina: Tetranychidae)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tomkiewicz, Jonna; Skovgård, Henrik; Nachman, Gösta;

    1993-01-01

    A relative scale of Leaf Damage Indices (LDI) from 0 to 5 describes the visible injury to leaves of cassava, Manihot esculenta Crantz caused by the cassava green mite, Mononychellus tanajoa (Bondar). As the scale is ordinal and thus not quantitative, the observed LDIs are converted individually to...

  12. Studies on variation of carotenoid-proteins content in Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) storage root reveal implications for breeding and the use of induced mutations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Protein content in storage roots of cassava is low but variable and characterization of this variability is lacking. Total buffer extractable proteins (TBEP) content in pigmented cassava landraces varied from 0.9-7.5 (mg/gDWt.) and correlated with total carotenoid content (R2=0.4757). More than 3x T...

  13. Screening Landraces for Additional Sources of Field Resistance to Cassava Mosaic Disease and Green Mite for Integration into the Cassava Improvement Program

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Adebola Raji; Oluseyi Ladeinde; Alfred Dixon

    2008-01-01

    Twelve cassava landraces were evaluated for sources of resistance genes to diseases and pests of major economic importance in Africa. The objective was to assess their levels of field resistance to mosaic disease (ACMD), bacterial blight (CBB), anthracnose (CAD), and green mite (CGM), compared to TMS30572, an elite cultivar widely adopted in Africa. Considerable genotypic variation was observed among cultivars for resistance to ACMD and CGM but not for CBB and CAD. The lowest mean Incidence of 12% and severity of 1.8 on a scale of 1-5 for ACMD was recorded for Atu, a landrace with farmer acceptable qualities. In comparison, the improved cultivar, TMS 30572, had a mean disease incidence of 72% and a severity score of 2.8. Another landrace, MS-20 had the lowest CGM damage score (2.1) while TMS 30572 emerged as one of the susceptible cultivars with a damage score of 3. Additional sources of resistance to ACMD and CGM that may possibly be better than the popular improved cultivar, TMS 30572, were identified in this study. These could serve as novel sources of additional genes to complement existing resources for elite cassava breeding in Africa.

  14. Study on Development of Cassava Industry in Hunan Province%湖南省木薯产业发展研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    戴声佩; 刘恩平

    2011-01-01

    分析湖南省木薯产业的发展现状.发展木薯的可行性及湖南省木薯发展存在的问题,提出湖南省木薯产业的发展策略,为湖南省木薯产业发展提供决策参考。%The current situation of cassava industry, the feasibility of developing cassava industry and the existent problems in the development of cassava industry in Hunan Province are analyzed. The developmental strategy for cassava industry in Human Province is put forward to provide reference for the development of cassava industry in Hunan Province.

  15. Energy, Environment, Economic Life Cycle Assessment of Cassava-based Ethanol Used as Automotive Fuel in Guangxi Province, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HU Zhi-yuan; ZHANG Cheng; PU Geng-qiang; WANG Cheng-tao

    2005-01-01

    A life-cycle assessment (LCA) was carried out to compare the energy, environmental and economic impacts of converting cassava to fuel ethanol in Guangxi Province, China. The entire life cycle is a system that includes stages from cassava farming to ethanol fuel combustion. A computer-based model was developed to assess energy, environmental, and economic (EEE) life cycle implication of cassava-based ethanol fuel. The LCA results for fuel ethanol were compared to conventional gasoline (CG) as a base-line case. On the life-cycle bases, the use of cassava-based ethanol fuel in Guangxi may consume more energy but reduce greenhouse gas, VOC, and CO emissions. Life cycle cost results indicate that although fuel ethanol currently is not competitive compared to conventional gasoline, it has great potentials when there are subsidies and/or yields of cassava planting are improved. In terms of balancing the energy, environmental and economical, the introduction form of cassavabased ethanol fuel would be E10. The assessment results generated from this study provide an important reference for Guangxi policy makers to better understand the trade-offs among energy, environmental effects, and economics for the most effective using of regional energy resources.

  16. Summarization of Cassava Starch Deep Processing Products%木薯淀粉深加工产品概述

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姚丹; 梁智

    2012-01-01

    木薯是广西的一大经济作物,是"三薯"作物之一。木薯的块茎是做淀粉的主要原料,木薯淀粉以其特有的特性,制淀粉和深加工制变性淀粉,具有优势,应用也十分广泛。除此之外,其它衍生物产品应用广泛,不断研究出新的产品。%Cassava is one important economic crop in Guangxi,one of three main tuber crops(cassava,potato and sweet potato) in the world.Tuber of cassava is key raw material for production of starch.Native starch and modified starch made from cassava possess great advantages and can be applied in a wide variety of fields.Moreover,derivatives of cassava starch can be used for many aims and new products keep emerging from continuous research.

  17. Saccharification of cassava starch by Saccharomycopsis fibuligera YCY1 isolated from Loog-Pang (rice cake starter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aran H-Kittikun

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available The main objectives of this study were to select amylolytic yeasts from Loog-Pang, a traditional starter culture for production of alcoholic foods and drinks in southern Thailand, and to optimize the saccharification of cassava starch to reducing sugar by the selected yeast isolate. Seventy-four yeast isolates were obtained from ten samples of Loog-Pang. The isolates were tested for amylolytic activity on Yeast-Peptone Cassava medium (YPC contained 30 g/l of cassava starch.Only three isolates showed amylolytic activity which produced clear zone on the YPC agar. The best amylolytic strain with clear zone of 8 mm was identified by 26s rDNA as Saccharomycopsis fibuligera. The optimum medium for saccharification by Saccharomycopsis fibuligera. YCY1 was only 50 g/l of cassava starch in distilled water without nitrogen sources added and pH adjustment. The optimal saccharification conditions were 200 ml cassava starch (50 g/l in 500 ml Erlenmeyer flask, shaking at 100 rpm and 37oC. Under these conditions, the highest reducing sugar was obtained 46±0.53 g/l after 120 h cultivation (84% of the theoretical yield.

  18. Effect of lactic acid and UV irradiation on the cassava and corn starches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Célia Maria Landi Franco

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available In this work, the effect of lactic acid and UV irradiation on the physicochemical and structural characteristics of cassava and corn starches was evaluated. Only the modified cassava starch presented baking expansion capacity. From RVA, reduction of viscosity values, greater internal stability and none set back for modified cassava starch were observed. Modified corn starch did not show any peak viscosity. There were no significant differences in DSC thermal properties of treated and native starches. Amylopectin and amylose molecules from both the modified starches displayed some degradation. Molecular weight of cassava amylopectin was mostly preserved, whereas corn amylopectin was evenly attacked through the granule. Nevertheless, the B long branched chains of cassava amylopectin, with DP~37, were degraded whereas they were unchanged for corn amylopectin.Amido de mandioca modificado com ácido lático e radiação ultravioleta antes da secagem artificial têm mostrado boa capacidade de expansão, a exemplo da encontrada para o polvilho azedo. Neste trabalho, os efeitos do ácido lático e radiação UV sobre as características físico-químicas e estruturais de amidos de mandioca e milho foram investigados. Apenas o amido de mandioca modificado apresentou capacidade de expansão durante o forneamento. Do RVA, redução dos valores de viscosidade, boa estabilidade interna e nenhuma tendência a retrogradação para este amido modificado foi observado. O amido de milho não apresentou qualquer pico de viscosidade após modificação. Não foram observadas diferenças significativas nas propriedades térmicas, determinadas em DSC, entre os amidos nativos e modificados de ambas as fontes. As moléculas de amilopectina e amilose de ambos os amidos modificados mostraram alguma degradação. O peso molecular da amilopectina do amido de mandioca foi mais preservado, enquanto a amilopectina do amido de milho foi mais atacada em todo o grânulo. As

  19. Characterization of F1 hybrid lines of cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Studies were carried out to characterise 27 putative F1 Hybrid lines of cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz), obtained through artificial hybridization among five parents, based on agro-morphological data generated by using 30 descriptors from IBPGR and IITA. Further investigations were conducted to establish the true genetic identity of the presumed hybrids and to determine genetic relationships among them using data generated from agro-morphological studies, supported by molecular traits data. Scoring for molecular work was done at 12 months after planting using all 27 hybrid lines whilst that for agro-morphological traits was done at 18 months after planting (harvest) and involved 24 hybrid lines which survived up to this stage Data obtained were subjected to Principal Component Analysis (PCA), bi-dimensional graph and one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA). Phenotypic coefficient of variation (PCV) was calculated for each trait and correlations among traits determined. Jaccard similarity between accessions was calculated from the standardised trait mean values and accessions grouped together based on hierarchical cluster analysis. The results show that the 27 lines differed from the parents in agro-morphological traits (i.e. 6.67%) but differed for 28 others (i.e. 93.33%). Medium to high heterosis was detected among most hybrids for yield parameters studied with AFxSEC02, AFxSEC03, AFxSEC07 AFxSEC09 and AFxSEC13 exhibiting high heterotic effects over the others. Number of levels of branching and distribution of anthocyanin pigmentation; have been identified as traits conferring resistance to Cassava Mosaic and Cassava Bacterial Blight Diseases. The total of 23 SSR markers used showed a total of 382 bands out of which 290 were polymorphic, at a rate off 85.52% per locus, indicating the highly hybrid status of the lines investigated. Gene diversity per locus was 42.3. Overall heterozygosity (Ht) was 64.9% with one individual expressing 75.7% heterozygosity. Fis over

  20. Synthesis and property characterization of cassava starch grafted poly(acrylamide-co-(maleic acid)) superabsorbent via γ-irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graft copolymerizations of acrylamide and maleic acid onto cassava starch by a simultaneous irradiation technique using γ-rays as a initiator were carried out. Various important parameters of total dose, dose rate, monomer-to-cassava starch ratio and maleic acid content were studied. Addition of 2% ww-1 diprotic acid of maleic acid into the reaction mixture yields a saponified starch graft copolymer with a water absorption in distilled water as high as 2256g g -1 of its dried weight. The water absorption of these saponified graft copolymers insaline and buffer solutions was also measured. The water absorption depends largely on the cationic type and concentration of these solutions in terms of ionic strength. This research explains a charge transfer mechanism for graft copolymerization of maleic acid and acrylamide onto cassava starch, and describes the influential parameters that affect grafting efficiency and water absorption. (author)

  1. Studying a new technique and implementing a pilot-line process for obtaining dextrins from cassava starch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johanna Aristizábal Galvis

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available This study proposes and develops a new technique for dry-route dextrin production consisting of converting cassava starch pellets on a fixed-bed dryer; this technique is more applicable to rural Colombian agro-business in technical, economic, social and environmental terms, particularly to so-called “rallanderías” compared to currently available dextrin production technology. The proposed process is practically clean, requires low investment, allows humid starch-cake to be directly used without the need for expensive pre-drying equipment, eliminates large quantities of dust being produced thereby leading to an easily-handled and packaged product being obtained. Different dex-trinisation technologies were compared; a pilot-line was implemented which included blending, granulation and drying units. The variables evaluated were cassava-starch variety, catalyst concentration and agglutinant type and concentration; pellet-size, bed-thickness and air-speed were also evaluated during blending, granulation and drying stages, respectively. It was determined that using 0.1-0.3% HCl on cassava starch, 1.5-3% cassava starch paste, L/D=1.25 pellets, a 55ºC pre -drying phase and 150ºC final conversion on 2 cm thickness fixed-bed dryer at 2-3 m/s air speed led to obtaining low friability (13%, high rupture force (1.3 kg-f, high solubility (90-100% and low fluidity (50-70 s dextrin pellets. An adhesive was then obtained from the dextrin resulting from the process described above for sealing cardboard-boxes and cartons having greater stickiness, tensile strength and stability compared to corn dextrin adhesive, suggesting that the proposed new cassava dextrin production technique constitutes a good technological option for adding value to Colombian cassava production at small “rallandería” level.

  2. An evaluation of cassava, sweet potato and field corn as potential carbohydrate sources for bioethanol production in Alabama and Maryland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ziska, Lewis H.; Tomecek, Martha; Sicher, Richard [United States Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, Crop Systems and Global Change Lab, 10300 Baltimore Avenue, Building 1, Beltsville, MD 20705 (United States); Runion, G. Brett; Prior, Stephen A.; Torbet, H. Allen [United States Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, National Soil Dynamics Laboratory, 411 South Donahue Drive, Auburn, AL 36832 (United States)

    2009-11-15

    The recent emphasis on corn production to meet the increasing demand for bioethanol has resulted in trepidation regarding the sustainability of the global food supply. To assess the potential of alternative crops as sources of bioethanol production, we grew sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas) and cassava (Manihot esculentum) at locations near Auburn, Alabama and Beltsville, Maryland in order to measure root carbohydrate (starch, sucrose, glucose) and root biomass. Averaged for both locations, sweet potato yielded the highest concentration of root carbohydrate (ca 80%), primarily in the form of starch (ca 50%) and sucrose (ca 30%); whereas cassava had root carbohydrate concentrations of (ca 55%), almost entirely as starch. For sweet potato, overall carbohydrate production was 9.4 and 12.7 Mg ha{sup -1} for the Alabama and Maryland sites, respectively. For cassava, carbohydrate production in Maryland was poor, yielding only 2.9 Mg ha{sup -1}. However, in Alabama, carbohydrate production from cassava averaged {proportional_to}10 Mg ha{sup -1}. Relative to carbohydrate production from corn in each location, sweet potato and cassava yielded approximately 1.5 x and 1.6 x as much carbohydrate as corn in Alabama; 2.3 x and 0.5 x for the Maryland site. If economical harvesting and processing techniques could be developed, these data suggest that sweet potato in Maryland, and sweet potato and cassava in Alabama, have greater potential as ethanol sources than existing corn systems, and as such, could be used to replace or offset corn as a source of biofuels. (author)

  3. Introduction of East African cassava mosaic Zanzibar virus to Oman harks back to "Zanzibar, the capital of Oman".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Akhtar J; Akhtar, Sohail; Al-Matrushi, Abdulrahman M; Fauquet, Claude M; Briddon, Rob W

    2013-02-01

    Cassava mosaic disease (CMD) is the most devastating disease of the subsistence crop cassava (Manihot esculenta) across Africa and the Indian subcontinent. The disease is caused by viruses of the genus Begomovirus (family Geminiviridae)-seven species have been identified so far. The Sultanate of Oman is unusual among countries in Arabia in growing cassava on a small scale for local consumption. During a recent survey in A'Seeb wilayat of Muscat governorate, Oman, cassava plants were identified with symptoms typical of CMD. A begomovirus, East African cassava mosaic Zanzibar virus (EACMZV), was isolated from symptomatic plants. This virus was previously only known to occur in Zanzibar and Kenya. During the 19th Century, Zanzibar was governed by Oman and was so important that the Sultan of Oman moved his capital there from Muscat. After a period of colonial rule, the governing Arab elite was overthrown, following independence in the 1960s, and many expatriate Omanis returned to their homeland. Having gained a liking for the local Zanzibar cuisine, it appears that returning Omanis did not wish to do without dishes made from one particular favorite, cassava. Consequently, they carried planting material back to Oman for cultivation in their kitchen gardens. The evidence suggests that this material harbored EACMZV. Recently, Oman has been shown to be a nexus for geminiviruses and their associated satellites from diverse geographic origins. With their propensity to recombine, a major mechanism for evolution of geminiviruses, and the fact that Oman (and several other Arabian countries) is a major hub for trade and travel by air and sea, the possibility of onward spread is worrying. PMID:23085885

  4. Relative Technical Efficiency of Cassava Farmers in the Three Agro-Ecological Zones of Edo State, Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erhabor, P. O.; Emokaro, C. O.

    This study employed the use of the Stochastic Frontier Production Function in the comparative economic analysis of the relative technical efficiency of cassava farmers in the three agro-ecological zones of Edo State. A multi-stage random sampling technique was used to select 156 cassava farmers from the three agro-ecological zones of the State and the differences in the results obtained were discussed. The empirical estimates showed individual technical efficiency values that ranged from 23 to 95%, 43 to 97% and 52 to 98% with a mean of 72, 83 and 91%, for Edo South, Edo North and Edo Central agro-ecological zones, respectively. This shows that systemic differences in relative technical efficiency levels exist between the three zones and these differences were shown to be related to particular farmer`s characteristics. Non-physical factors that served as determinants of technical inefficiency in the three zones were, farmers level of education, age, farming experience and variety of planting materials used. Gender and family size were however, not found to be significant determinants of the technical inefficiency of cassava farmers in the State. Apart from this estimates serving as a guide to potential investors in the cassava industry in the State, the relative variations in technical efficiency is also an indication of the gaps that exist in the current production technologies employed by cassava farmers in the three agro-ecological zones of the State. The gaps should serve as intervention points for government and non-governmental agencies as well as other stakeholders in the emerging cassava industry in Nigeria.

  5. APPLICATION OF CASSAVA PEELS ACTIVATED CARBON IN THE TREATMENT OF OIL REFINERY WASTEWATER – A COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS

    OpenAIRE

    Kigho Moses Oghenejoboh; Smith Orode Otuagoma; Evuensiri Onogwharitefe Ohimor

    2016-01-01

    A comparative analysis of the efficiency of activated carbon produced from fermented cassava peels (CPB), unfermented cassava peels (CPA) and commercial grade activated carbon (CAC) in the treatment of refinery wastewater was carried out. CPB was found to be 8% and 18% more efficient when compared to CPA and CAC in the removal of COD, and 14% and 3% better than CAC and CPA respectively in the removal of BOD5. The removal efficiency of Pb2+ by CPB was 100% compared to 95% and 57% by CPA and CA...

  6. Toxicity of oil from Anacardium humile Saint Hill (Anacardiaceae), on Bemisia tuberculata (Bondar, 1923) (Hemipttera: Aleyrodidae) on cassava plants.

    OpenAIRE

    Andrade Filho, Nézio Neri; Roel, Antonia Railda; Yano, Mami; Cardoso, Claudia Andreia Lima; Matias, Rosemary

    2013-01-01

    The aim was to evaluate the toxic effects of essential oil of Anacardium humile, in different concentrations, on survival and development of the whitefly Bemisia tuberculata on the cassava plants, Manihot esculenta Crantz. The experiment was carried out in a greenhouse at a temperature of 26±4º C. Twenty adults were confined in cages, which contained a leaf of cassava plant and removed after 24 hours. The oil was sprayed in the concentrations of the 0.006%, 0.05%, 0.8% and 2%, when the nymphs...

  7. Action of gamma radiation in the physico-chemical and sensorial characteristics of minimally processed cassava (Manihot esculenta CRANTZ)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nowadays irradiation has been the most studied method of food conservation. The publication of thousand of papers, not just scientific but also technological, economical and social, have proved the technical validity of the irradiation method and showed the ways of how to introduce it in commercial facilities in ali countries of the modem world. Cassava is cultivated almost ali over the world and it is considered one of the most important nutritious sources of calories in human diet. Cassava is a viable food against starving in several poor areas of the world because it is an extremely resistant culture and may reach satisfactory economical yield. Cassava is a quite perishable root, characterized by fast post harvest deterioration. Because of the lack of researches about the effects of radiations in this root, the objective of the present work was to examine the gamma radiation coming from 60Cobalt as a treatment to prolong the shelflife of the root after harvesting, aiming to increase its period of commercialization and to conserve its sensorial characteristics for a longer period. Samples were washed, peeled, cleaned and diced cassava roots packed in polyethylene bags. The treatments were: control; freezing and storage at 18 deg C for 21 days; and irradiation with the doses of 8 and 10 kGy. The control and the irradiated samples were stored under ambient temperature during 21 days. All samples were analyzed at each 7 days for alterations in the physicochemical and sensorial characteristics. The samples were analyzed for pH, acidity, weight, humidity, texture and color. The irradiation did not affect the chemical characteristics of the cassava. Neither the pH nor the acidity, the most relevant variables to verify deterioration in cassava, presented significant alterations during the period of storage. Comparing the irradiated treatments, the dose of 8 kGy was that less affected the physic-chemical characteristics of the cassava and scored the highest notes in the

  8. Sequencing analysis of 20,000 full-length cDNA clones from cassava reveals lineage specific expansions in gene families related to stress response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sakaki Yoshiyuki

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cassava, an allotetraploid known for its remarkable tolerance to abiotic stresses is an important source of energy for humans and animals and a raw material for many industrial processes. A full-length cDNA library of cassava plants under normal, heat, drought, aluminum and post harvest physiological deterioration conditions was built; 19968 clones were sequence-characterized using expressed sequence tags (ESTs. Results The ESTs were assembled into 6355 contigs and 9026 singletons that were further grouped into 10577 scaffolds; we found 4621 new cassava sequences and 1521 sequences with no significant similarity to plant protein databases. Transcripts of 7796 distinct genes were captured and we were able to assign a functional classification to 78% of them while finding more than half of the enzymes annotated in metabolic pathways in Arabidopsis. The annotation of sequences that were not paired to transcripts of other species included many stress-related functional categories showing that our library is enriched with stress-induced genes. Finally, we detected 230 putative gene duplications that include key enzymes in reactive oxygen species signaling pathways and could play a role in cassava stress response features. Conclusion The cassava full-length cDNA library here presented contains transcripts of genes involved in stress response as well as genes important for different areas of cassava research. This library will be an important resource for gene discovery, characterization and cloning; in the near future it will aid the annotation of the cassava genome.

  9. Sequencing analysis of 20,000 full-length cDNA clones from cassava reveals lineage specific expansions in gene families related to stress response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakurai, Tetsuya; Plata, Germán; Rodríguez-Zapata, Fausto; Seki, Motoaki; Salcedo, Andrés; Toyoda, Atsushi; Ishiwata, Atsushi; Tohme, Joe; Sakaki, Yoshiyuki; Shinozaki, Kazuo; Ishitani, Manabu

    2007-01-01

    Background Cassava, an allotetraploid known for its remarkable tolerance to abiotic stresses is an important source of energy for humans and animals and a raw material for many industrial processes. A full-length cDNA library of cassava plants under normal, heat, drought, aluminum and post harvest physiological deterioration conditions was built; 19968 clones were sequence-characterized using expressed sequence tags (ESTs). Results The ESTs were assembled into 6355 contigs and 9026 singletons that were further grouped into 10577 scaffolds; we found 4621 new cassava sequences and 1521 sequences with no significant similarity to plant protein databases. Transcripts of 7796 distinct genes were captured and we were able to assign a functional classification to 78% of them while finding more than half of the enzymes annotated in metabolic pathways in Arabidopsis. The annotation of sequences that were not paired to transcripts of other species included many stress-related functional categories showing that our library is enriched with stress-induced genes. Finally, we detected 230 putative gene duplications that include key enzymes in reactive oxygen species signaling pathways and could play a role in cassava stress response features. Conclusion The cassava full-length cDNA library here presented contains transcripts of genes involved in stress response as well as genes important for different areas of cassava research. This library will be an important resource for gene discovery, characterization and cloning; in the near future it will aid the annotation of the cassava genome. PMID:18096061

  10. Population structure and dynamics of the cassava green mite Mononychellus tanajoa (Bondar and the predator Euseius ho (DeLeon (Acari: Tetranychidae, Phytoseiidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evila C. Costa

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Population structure and dynamics of the cassava green mite Mononychellus tanajoa and the predator Euseius ho (Acari: Tetranychidae, Phytoseiidae. Cassava is attacked by several pests, among which the cassava green mite Mononychellus tanajoa. Predatory mites of the family Phytoseiidae are major natural enemies of pestmites and are naturally found inhabiting cassava plants in the field. We evaluated the temporal variation of the developmental stages of M. tanajoa and the most abundant predatory mite in cassava fields in the study region, the phytoseiid Euseius ho. Densities of all developmental stages of M. tanajoa were low during the rainy season, increasing over the cultivation cycle of cassava and peaking in the dry season. Overall, the larval stage of M. tanajoa presented the lowest densities throughout time. Densities of all developmental stages of E. ho were low and remained constant throughout the cultivation cycle of cassava. The number of eggs, nymphs and adults of M. tanajoa was higher in comparison to the larval stage whereas there were no differences in densities of the stages of E. ho. Densities of all developmental stages of M. tanajoa were negatively correlated with precipitation. Densities of the stages of egg, nymph and adult of M. tanajoa were positively related while the stage of larva was negatively related to temperature. We conclude that it is important to consider the population structure in studies of population dynamics of arthropods as each developmental stage experiences and responds uniquely to the local environment over time.

  11. Direct ethanol production from cassava pulp using a surface-engineered yeast strain co-displaying two amylases, two cellulases, and {beta}-glucosidase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Apiwatanapiwat, Waraporn; Rugthaworn, Prapassorn [Japan International Research Center for Agricultural Sciences (JIRCAS), Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan). Post-Harvest Science and Technology Div.; Kasetsart Univ., Bangkok (Thailand). Nanotechnology and Biotechnology Div.; Murata, Yoshinori; Kosugi, Akihiko; Arai, Takamitsu; Mori, Yutaka [Japan International Research Center for Agricultural Sciences (JIRCAS), Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan). Post-Harvest Science and Technology Div.; Yamada, Ryosuke; Kondo, Akihiko [Kobe Univ. (Japan). Dept. of Chemical Science and Engineering

    2011-04-15

    In order to develop a method for producing fuel ethanol from cassava pulp using cell surface engineering (arming) technology, an arming yeast co-displaying {alpha}-amylase ({alpha}-AM), glucoamylase, endoglucanase, cellobiohydrase, and {beta}-glucosidase on the surface of the yeast cells was constructed. The novel yeast strain, possessing the activities of all enzymes, was able to produce ethanol directly from soluble starch, barley {beta}-glucan, and acid-treated Avicel. Cassava is a major crop in Southeast Asia and used mainly for starch production. In the starch manufacturing process, large amounts of solid wastes, called cassava pulp, are produced. The major components of cassava pulp are starch (approximately 60%) and cellulose fiber (approximately 30%). We attempted simultaneous saccharification and ethanol fermentation of cassava pulp with this arming yeast. During fermentation, ethanol concentration increased as the starch and cellulose fiber substrates contained in the cassava pulp decreased. The results clearly showed that the arming yeast was able to produce ethanol directly from cassava pulp without addition of any hydrolytic enzymes. (orig.)

  12. EXPRESIÓN DE DOS GENES CANDIDATOS A RESISTENCIA CONTRA LA BACTERIOSIS VASCULAR EN YUCA Expression Of Two Resistance Gene Candidates Against Cassava Bacterial Blight In Cassava

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ELÍZABETH CONTRERAS NIETO

    Full Text Available La yuca (Manihot esculenta Crantz, Euphorbiaceae es el cuarto cultivo en importancia a nivel mundial como fuente de calorías para la población humana y cuya producción se ve afectada por la bacteriosis vascular, enfermedad ocasionada por Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. manihotis (Xam. La resistencia a enfermedades en plantas depende de la presencia de genes de resistencia (R, los cuales reconocen a los patógenos y simultáneamente permiten desencadenar la respuesta de defensa. A pesar de recientes esfuerzos encaminados a la identificación de genes R en yuca, aún no se ha logrado clonar el primer gen R en este cultivo. En el presente trabajo se estudió el perfil de expresión de dos Genes Candidatos a Resistencia (RGCs asociados a QTLs de defensa contra la bacteriosis vascular en yuca. A partir de la técnica transcripción reversa y reacción en cadena de la polimerasa (RT-PCR se evaluó la expresión de los genes RXam1 y RXam2 en tallos y hojas de las variedades resistentes SG107-35 y MBRA685 de yuca, después de ser inoculadas con la cepa CIO151 de Xam. Se observó que RXam1 es inducido a partir de los cinco días post-inoculación tanto en tallos como hojas de las dos variedades, mientras que RXam2 es expresado de manera constitutiva en la variedad MBRA685.Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz, Euphorbiaceae is the fourth food crop used as an important energy source for human population worldwide. Cassava Bacterial Blight (CBB is the most important disease of this crop. CBB is caused by the pathogenic bacterium Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. manihotis (Xam. Plants have developed sophisticated mechanisms to detect and respond to infection by pathogens. These mechanisms depend on the presence of resistance (R genes, which recognize proteins produced by pathogens. Although efforts have been conducted to identify R genes in cassava, the first R gene in this crop has not been cloned. The present work studied the expression profile of two resistance gene

  13. Effect of the improved fermentation on physicochemical properties and sensorial acceptability of sour cassava starch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Janete Angeloni Marcon

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to study the effect of improved fermentation on sour cassava starch, aiming to reduce its fermentation time and to enhance its expansion capacity as well as its viscoamylographic properties and its sensorial acceptability. Results showed that the improved process of cassava starch production did not harm starch expansion, physicochemical properties or sensorial acceptability; it also produced starches with different viscoamylographic properties, which compared favourably to those of the sour cassava starch produced through current industrial methods.O Polvilho azedo é caracterizado pelas suas propriedades físicas, químicas e reológicas, as quais são diferentes do amido nativo do qual se originou. A propriedade de expansão é uma das mais importantes características do produto, sendo um parâmetro fundamental de avaliação do polvilho azedo. O resultado do perfil viscoamilográfico também é uma importante maneira de avaliação uma vez que cada amido tem um padrão viscoamilográfico definido de acordo com sua organização granular. Este trabalho determinou o efeito da fermentação melhorada pela adição de glicose, sobre o polvilho azedo, apontando para uma redução no tempo de fermentação e avaliando sua capacidade de expansão, suas propriedades viscoamilográficas e aceitabilidade sensorial. O processo de produção de polvilho azedo melhorado não prejudicou a expansão do amido, suas propriedades físico-químicas e sensoriais, mas sim resultou em amidos com diferentes propriedades viscoamilográficas melhores comparativamente ao polvilho azedo produzido pelo processo industrial atual.

  14. Economic Valuation of Fortified Cassava Peels for Goat Feeding in South-western, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Okojie L. O.

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the economic value that goat farmers in South-western, Nigeria attach to fortified goat feed from waste cassava peels origin. Unavailability of vegetative forage for goat feeding all year round makes this relevant. A multistage sampling procedure was used to select 120 goat farmers. Primary data for the study were obtained with the aid of structured questionnaire. The method of analysis included descriptive statistics and contingent valuation method that terminated into the binary choice logit model. The study indicates the mean Willingness to Pay (WTP for a 25kg of fortified goat feed as N1, 019: = in the study area. This for the 120 sampled farmers was N122, 280: = and for the total population of 7.1million, it was N7.2billion. Respondents’ WTP however increased mainly with level of education and system of goat keeping. Farming system practiced by respondents had the likelihood of positively and significantly (p<0.01 affecting the WTP for fortified goat feed from cassava peels. Income equally had the likelihood of positively and significantly (p<0.05 affecting the WTP in the study area. Education, farm size and experience had the likelihood of positively influencing though not significantly the WTP for the compounded feed. These indicate that there exist economic potentials for the use of cassava waste (peels in goat production in the study area. Adopting intensive system of goat farming and enhancing income of producers will go a long way to motivating investment in the feed making and its adoption in goat production.

  15. Process optimization for bioethanol production from cassava starch using novel eco-friendly enzymes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shanavas, S.; Padmaja, G.; Moorthy, S.N.; Sajeev, M.S.; Sheriff, J.T. [Division of Crop Utilization, Central Tuber Crops Research Institute, Thiruvananthapuram, 695 017 Kerala (India)

    2011-02-15

    Although cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) is a potential bioethanol crop, high operational costs resulted in a negative energy balance in the earlier processes. The present study aimed at optimizing the bioethanol production from cassava starch using new enzymes like Spezyme {sup registered} Xtra and Stargen trademark 001. The liquefying enzyme Spezyme was optimally active at 90 C and pH 5.5 on a 10% (w/v) starch slurry at levels of 20.0 mg (280 Amylase Activity Units) for 30 min. Stargen levels of 100 mg (45.6 Granular Starch Hydrolyzing Units) were sufficient to almost completely hydrolyze 10% (w/v) starch at room temperature (30 {+-} 1 C). Ethanol yield and fermentation efficiency were very high (533 g/kg and 94.0% respectively) in the Stargen + yeast process with 10% (w/v) starch for 48 h. Raising Spezyme and Stargen levels to 560 AAU and 91.2 GSHU respectively for a two step loading [initial 20% (w/v) followed by 20% starch after Spezyme thinning]/initial higher loading of starch (40% w/v) resulted in poor fermentation efficiency. Upscaling experiments using 1.0 kg starch showed that Stargen to starch ratio of 1:100 (w/w) could yield around 558 g ethanol/kg starch, with a high fermentation efficiency of 98.4%. The study showed that Spezyme level beyond 20.0 mg for a 10% (w/v) starch slurry was not critical for optimizing bioethanol yield from cassava starch, although an initial thinning of starch for 30 min by Spezyme facilitated rapid saccharification-fermentation by Stargen + yeast system. The specific advantage of the new process was that the reaction could be completed within 48.5 h at 30 {+-} 1 C. (author)

  16. Gamma irradiation effect on mechanical and barrier properties of foamed articles based on cassava starch

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naime, Natalia; Ponce, Patricia; Lugao, Ademar B., E-mail: nnaime@usp.b [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    With the increasing environmental concern, replacing the traditional non-biodegradable synthetic materials for biodegradable products is the challenge for many researchers and companies. Starch is considered one of the most promising natural polymers for packaging application because of its renewability, biodegradability and low cost. However, there are some limitations in developing starch-based products due to its poor mechanical properties and high moisture sensitivity. These properties can change when subjected to any process of sterilization, especially by gamma radiation. This work aims to study the mechanical and barrier properties of cassava starch in front of gamma radiation, for cobalt-60 ({sup 60}C0), when subjected to doses of 3 kGy, 6 kGy, 12 kGy and 25 kGy for the development of packaging, and then it compares the results to those of conventional packaging, as the expanded polystyrene (styrofoam) and paper cards. The starch foams (packaging) were obtained by thermopressing process. After baking, the foams were conditioned for one month at 23 deg C and 60% relative humidity (RH) before mechanical and barrier testing. Polyethyleneglycol (PEG 300) was selected as plasticizer. The packaging in which the cassava starch was subjected to irradiation had higher resistance to compression and higher flexibility compared to that in which the starch had not been irradiated. The expanded polystyrene and paper card packages are less resistant to compression than the cassava starch packages. The styrofoam is more flexible than the paper cards, which in turn is more flexible than packages of starch. After irradiation, the barrier properties of the foams were improved. (author)

  17. Production of methane by co-digestion of cassava pulp with various concentrations of pig manure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Panichnumsin, Pornpan [The Joint Graduate School of Energy and Environment, King Mongkut' s University of Technology Thonburi, Thungkru, Bangkok 10140 (Thailand); Excellent Center of Waste Utilization and Management, National Center for Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology, Bangkhuntien, Bangkok 10150 (Thailand); Nopharatana, Annop [Pilot Plant Development and Training Institute, King Mongkut' s University of Technology Thonburi, Bangkhuntien, Bangkok 10150 (Thailand); Ahring, Birgitte [AAU, Copenhagen Institute of Technology, Lautrupvang 15, 2750 Ballerup (Denmark); Chaiprasert, Pawinee [School of Bioresources and Technology, King Mongkut' s University of Technology Thonburi, Bangkhuntien, Bangkok 10150 (Thailand)

    2010-08-15

    Cassava pulp is a major by-product produced in a cassava starch factory, containing 50-60% of starch (dry basis). Therefore, in this study we are considering its potential as a raw material substrate for the production of methane. To ensure sufficient amounts of nutrients for the anaerobic digestion process, the potential of co-digestion of cassava pulp (CP) with pig manure (PM) was further examined. The effect of the co-substrate mixture ratio was carried out in a semi-continuously fed stirred tank reactor (CSTR) operated under mesophilic condition (37 C) and at a constant OLR of 3.5 kg VS m{sup -3} d{sup -1} and a HRT of 15 days. The results showed that co-digestion resulted in higher methane production and reduction of volatile solids (VS) but lower buffering capacity. Compared to the digestion of PM alone, the specific methane yield increased 41% higher when co-digested with CP in concentrations up to 60% of the incoming VS. This was probably due to an increase in available easily degradable carbohydrates as the CP ratio in feedstock increased. The highest methane yield and VS removal of 306 mL g{sup -1} VS{sub added} and 61%, respectively, were achieved with good process stability (VFA:Alkalinity ratio < 0.1) when CP accounted for 60% of the feedstock VS. A further increase of CP of the feedstock led to a decrease in methane yield and solid reductions. This appeared to be caused by an extremely high C:N ratio of the feedstock resulting in a deficiency of ammonium nitrogen for microbial growth and buffering capacity. (author)

  18. Fast pyrolysis of sugarcane and cassava residues in a free-fall reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fast pyrolysis of agricultural residues from sugarcane and cassava plantations was carried out in a laboratory-scale free-fall reactor unit. The objectives of this work were to investigate the effects of biomass types and pyroysis conditions, such as reactor temperature, condensation temperature, nitrogen flow rate and run duration, on pyrolysis product distribution, as well as to study the basic properties of the products. The results showed that all of the parameters affected the product distribution. The optimum reactor temperatures for maximising bio-oil yield were in the range of 350–450 °C. About 70 wt% of bio-oil yield could be obtained by pyrolysis of cassava stalk at a reactor temperature of 450 °C and a primary condensation temperature of 10 °C. It was also found that the minimum flow rate of nitrogen for obtaining high bio-oil yield was 1.5 l/min. The product characterisation showed that the bio-oil and char produced from the agricultural residues with the free-fall reactor unit were to a certain extent similar to those produced from different types of biomass with different types of pyrolysis reactor configurations. -- Highlights: ► Fast pyrolysis of sugarcane and cassava agricultural residues was carried out in a laboratory-scale free-fall reactor unit. ► The effects of process parameters on product yields were investigated. ► The process parameters included reactor temperature, condensation temperature, nitrogen flow rate and run duration. Basic properties of pyrolysis products were examined.

  19. Induction and identification of useful mutations for root quality traits in cassava

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cassava is an important crop in tropical and subtropical countries. There is little reported variation for root quality traits. Roots spoil 1-2 days after harvest because of a process known as of post-harvest physiological deterioration (PPD). These two problems limit the impact of this crop to help farmers out of poverty. Cassava seeds were irradiated with gamma rays or fast neutrons. They were germinated and the M1 plants transplanted to the field and self-pollinated to produce M2 seed. Approximately 1500 M2 plants were harvested, about 800 produced roots, and 38 of them were selected because they showed special characteristics. Best results were obtained with gamma rays (200 Gy from Cobalt 60). Results originally observed in the M2 genotypes were confirmed in the cloned plants. Two of these mutations will be described here. The first mutation produced a starch whose granules were half the size compared with that of wild type cassava. Interestingly, this phenotype was observed in self-pollinated progenies from two different M1 plants. In one case, three M2-genotypes derived from the same M1 plant expressed this mutation, indicating a genetic origin. Starch had higher than normal amylose content, the gels it produces did not show any viscosity and had low clarity. Most likely this mutation affected one of the isoamylase genes. The small granule size could be useful for bio-ethanol production (reduced need of degrading enzymes) but the higher levels of amylose may neutralize this advantage. High-amylose starches have commercial advantages and are known as 'resistant starches'. The second mutation involves reduced PPD. Roots were kept for almost three weeks without PPD. Results need further confirmation based on larger number of roots. Most likely the mutation affected one of the self-defense mechanism genes related to PPD. This mutation could have large impact in poverty alleviation. (author)

  20. Production of methane by co-digestion of cassava pulp with various concentrations of pig manure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cassava pulp is a major by-product produced in a cassava starch factory, containing 50-60% of starch (dry basis). Therefore, in this study we are considering its potential as a raw material substrate for the production of methane. To ensure sufficient amounts of nutrients for the anaerobic digestion process, the potential of co-digestion of cassava pulp (CP) with pig manure (PM) was further examined. The effect of the co-substrate mixture ratio was carried out in a semi-continuously fed stirred tank reactor (CSTR) operated under mesophilic condition (37 oC) and at a constant OLR of 3.5 kg VS m-3 d-1 and a HRT of 15 days. The results showed that co-digestion resulted in higher methane production and reduction of volatile solids (VS) but lower buffering capacity. Compared to the digestion of PM alone, the specific methane yield increased 41% higher when co-digested with CP in concentrations up to 60% of the incoming VS. This was probably due to an increase in available easily degradable carbohydrates as the CP ratio in feedstock increased. The highest methane yield and VS removal of 306 mL g-1 VSadded and 61%, respectively, were achieved with good process stability (VFA:Alkalinity ratio < 0.1) when CP accounted for 60% of the feedstock VS. A further increase of CP of the feedstock led to a decrease in methane yield and solid reductions. This appeared to be caused by an extremely high C:N ratio of the feedstock resulting in a deficiency of ammonium nitrogen for microbial growth and buffering capacity.

  1. Toxicity of neem oil to the cassava green mite Mononychellus tanajoa (Bondar (Acari: Tetranychidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda C.B Silva

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Neem (Azadirachta indica A. Juss.-derived pesticides have been used against a wide range of agricultural pests including tetranychid mites. Approaches combining lethal and sublethal toxicity studies of neem pesticides towards tetranychid mites are necessary to a comprehensive evaluation of such products. Here, we evaluated the lethal and sublethal toxicity of the neem oil Bioneem to the cassava green mite Mononychellus tanajoa (Bondar by integrating lethal concentration (LC with population growth and biological parameter studies. According to Probit analyses the concentration of neem oil Bioneem which kills 50% of the population (LC50 of M. tanajoa was 3.28 ¼L cm-2, which is roughly twice the field concentration recommended of this biopesticide to control pest mites (1.7 ¼L cm-2. The growth rate of the cassava green mite steadily decreased with dosages of neem oil. Furthermore, sublethal concentrations of the neem oil corresponding to the LC50 reduced the periods of the immature stages of M. tanajoa resulting in a shorter developmental time. Similarly, the number of eggs per day and the number of eggs per female per day, a proxy for fecundity, were drastically reduced in M. tanajoa females exposed to the LC50 of neem oil. Based on our comprehensive approach we conclude that the neem oil showed lethal as well as sublethal toxicity on growth rate and biological parameters such as duration of immature stages and fecundity of the cassava green mite M. tanajoa and it could be used as an ecological alternative for the management of this pest.

  2. Gamma irradiation effect on mechanical and barrier properties of foamed articles based on cassava starch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    With the increasing environmental concern, replacing the traditional non-biodegradable synthetic materials for biodegradable products is the challenge for many researchers and companies. Starch is considered one of the most promising natural polymers for packaging application because of its renewability, biodegradability and low cost. However, there are some limitations in developing starch-based products due to its poor mechanical properties and high moisture sensitivity. These properties can change when subjected to any process of sterilization, especially by gamma radiation. This work aims to study the mechanical and barrier properties of cassava starch in front of gamma radiation, for cobalt-60 (60C0), when subjected to doses of 3 kGy, 6 kGy, 12 kGy and 25 kGy for the development of packaging, and then it compares the results to those of conventional packaging, as the expanded polystyrene (styrofoam) and paper cards. The starch foams (packaging) were obtained by thermopressing process. After baking, the foams were conditioned for one month at 23 deg C and 60% relative humidity (RH) before mechanical and barrier testing. Polyethyleneglycol (PEG 300) was selected as plasticizer. The packaging in which the cassava starch was subjected to irradiation had higher resistance to compression and higher flexibility compared to that in which the starch had not been irradiated. The expanded polystyrene and paper card packages are less resistant to compression than the cassava starch packages. The styrofoam is more flexible than the paper cards, which in turn is more flexible than packages of starch. After irradiation, the barrier properties of the foams were improved. (author)

  3. Consumption study and identification of methyl salicylate in spicy cassava chips

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nirjana, Marlene, E-mail: marlenenirjana@gmail.com; Anggadiredja, Kusnandar; Damayanti, Sophi [School of Pharmacy, Institut Teknologi Bandung Jalan Ganesha 10, Bandung 40132 (Indonesia)

    2015-09-30

    Spicy cassava chips is a popular snack. However, some news in electronic media reported addition of balsam which is a banned food additives in that product to give extra spicy flavor. This study aimed to determine ITB students’ pattern of consumption, health problems caused by spicy chips consumption, and knowledge about illicit use of food additives in that product, and identify the main content of balsam namely methyl salicylate in 10 samples of spicy cassava chips taken from inside and outside about ITB campus. A total of 300 questionnaires distributed to ITB students then data processing was performed. Spicy cassava chips sample macerated in 50 mL of methanol for 24 hours at room temperature, filtered and analyzed using gas chromatography capillary column with OV-1, nitrogen carrier gas and flame ionization detector. Based on questionnaires, 292 (97%) of 300 respondents had consumed spicy chips. A total of 247 (85%) from 292 respondents spicy chips consumed less than 3 times a week. A total of 195 respondents (67%) had experienced health problems after eating spicy chips. There were 137 (47%) of the 292 respondents who knew about the illicit addition of food additives into spicy chips; only 35 respondents (12%) who knew about balsam’s addition. There were 126 respondents (43%) who did not pay attention to their health because they will keep eating spicy chips despite the addition of banned food additives. Through the verification of the standard addition method in gas chromatography system with a hydrogen pressure of 1.5 bar, injector temperature 200 °C, detector temperature 230 °C, oven temperature 60 °C for 2 minutes and then increased to 230 °C with rate 6 °C/menit; linearity, limit of detection, limit of quantitation, accuracy, precision, and specificity parameters met the acceptance limits. From 10 spicy cassava chips samples which were analyzed, they did not reveal any content of methyl salicylate. Methyl salicylate contained in the positive

  4. Consumption study and identification of methyl salicylate in spicy cassava chips

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nirjana, Marlene; Anggadiredja, Kusnandar; Damayanti, Sophi

    2015-09-01

    Spicy cassava chips is a popular snack. However, some news in electronic media reported addition of balsam which is a banned food additives in that product to give extra spicy flavor. This study aimed to determine ITB students' pattern of consumption, health problems caused by spicy chips consumption, and knowledge about illicit use of food additives in that product, and identify the main content of balsam namely methyl salicylate in 10 samples of spicy cassava chips taken from inside and outside about ITB campus. A total of 300 questionnaires distributed to ITB students then data processing was performed. Spicy cassava chips sample macerated in 50 mL of methanol for 24 hours at room temperature, filtered and analyzed using gas chromatography capillary column with OV-1, nitrogen carrier gas and flame ionization detector. Based on questionnaires, 292 (97%) of 300 respondents had consumed spicy chips. A total of 247 (85%) from 292 respondents spicy chips consumed less than 3 times a week. A total of 195 respondents (67%) had experienced health problems after eating spicy chips. There were 137 (47%) of the 292 respondents who knew about the illicit addition of food additives into spicy chips; only 35 respondents (12%) who knew about balsam's addition. There were 126 respondents (43%) who did not pay attention to their health because they will keep eating spicy chips despite the addition of banned food additives. Through the verification of the standard addition method in gas chromatography system with a hydrogen pressure of 1.5 bar, injector temperature 200 °C, detector temperature 230 °C, oven temperature 60 °C for 2 minutes and then increased to 230 °C with rate 6 °C/menit; linearity, limit of detection, limit of quantitation, accuracy, precision, and specificity parameters met the acceptance limits. From 10 spicy cassava chips samples which were analyzed, they did not reveal any content of methyl salicylate. Methyl salicylate contained in the positive control

  5. Effect of cassava based diet on some heamatological parameters in albino rats fed petroleum contaminated diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A O Adegoke

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The study was carried out to ascertain the effect of a cassava based diet (gari on crude oil heamato-toxicity in albino rats by feeding diet contaminated with various concentrations of crude oil mixed with 20% gari to determine the protective effect of gari. The haematological parameters haemoglobin (Hb, Packed cell volume (PCV and white blood cell count (WBC(Total and differential were monitored in the animals. Gari feeding at 20% caused insignificant dose dependent decrease in Hb and PCV but significant dose dependent white blood cell count in gari fed albino rats compared with Petroleum fed albino rats (P<0.05. Dose dependent decrease in Hb, PCV and white blood cell count was also observed in petroleum fed rats compared with their controls (P<0.05.  The study showed that ingestion of petroleum contaminated diet caused decreased haemoglobin (Hb, Packed cell volume (PCV and white blood cell count, an indicator of possible blood damage but supplementation of the diet with 20% gari decreased the haemoglobin (Hb, Packed cell volume (PCV and white blood cell count observed in petroleum fed albino rats. This study showed that feeding on gari diet did not reverse the damage caused by crude petroleum as evidenced by insignificant differences in Hb and PCV concentrations possibly as result of cyanide present in the gari.Industrial relevanceCassava is a staple food in human diets in over 80 countries (Gomez, et al 1988. Gari a starchy food prepared from cassava (Manihot utilisima tubers is one of the most popular staple foods of the people of the rain forest belt of West Africa. Gari contains mainly starch-20% amylase and 70% amylopectin having lost the soluble carbohydrates. Crude petroleum is capable of eliciting haemolytic toxicity of the blood cells in conditions of long- exposure causing decrease haemoglobin, white cell count and PCV levels. The study was carried out to see the effect of gari, a staple food on haemolytic toxicity caused by crude

  6. Thermoanalytical and starch content evaluation of cassava bagasse as agro-industrial residue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Gustavo Lacerda

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Starch nutritional fractions as well as thermal properties and other analysis are essential for food and industrial application. Cassava bagasse is an important agro-industrial residue and its starch content was evaluated using two alternative methods. Thermal characterization and microscopy analyses helped to understand how hydrolysis digests starchy fraction of cassava bagasse. The melting point of cassava starch occurred at 169.2ºC. Regarding TG analyses, after moisture content, there were observed two main mass losses for all samples. Results suggest hydrolysis carried out using enzyme is less effective in order to convert total starch content in cassava bagasse. However, using sulfuric acid, fibers are affected by analyses conditions.As frações nutricionais bem como as propriedades térmicas e outras análises são essenciais para a indústria de alimentos e suas aplicações O bagaço de mandioca é um importante resíduo agroindustrial e seu teor de amido foi avaliado por dois métodos alternativos. A caracterização por análise térmica e microscopia ajudou na compreensão de como a hidrólise digere a fração amilácea do bagaço de mandioca, O ponto de fusão foi de 170ºC, a análise termogravimétrica (TG mostrou após a perda de umidade do material, duas principais perdas de massa em todas as amostras analisadas. Os resultados sugerem que a hidrólise enzimática é menos eficiente na conversão total de amido no bagaço de mandioca. No entanto, o uso de ácido sulfúrico degradou até mesmo a parcela fibrosa do material, afetando as condições de análise.

  7. Effects of leaf compounds, climate and natural enemies on the incidence of thrips in cassava

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leite Germano Leão Demolin

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine the effects of rainfall, temperature, sunlight and relative humidity, as well as predators and parasitoids, leaf chemical composition and levels of leaf nitrogen and potassium on the intensity of Scirtothrips manihoti (Thysanoptera: Thripidae attack on cassava Manihot esculenta Crantz var. Cacau. The leaf compounds (E-farnesene/trans-farnesol and D-friedoolean-14-en-3-one correlated significantly with the population of S. manihoti. Insect population decreased in the dry and cold season probably due to leaf senescence. Significative correlation was observed between Syrphidae with S. manihoti populations.

  8. Cassava Peels for Alternative Fibre in Pulp and Paper Industry: Chemical Properties and Morphology Characterization

    OpenAIRE

    Ashuvila Mohd Aripin; Angzzas Sari Mohd Kassim; Zawawi Daud; Mohd Zainuri Mohd Hatta

    2013-01-01

    Without a proper waste management, the organic wastes such as cassava peels could result in increased amount of solid waste dump into landfill. This study aims to use non-wood organic wastes as pulp for paper making industries; promoting the concept of ‘from waste to wealth and recyclable material’. The objective  of this study is to determine the potential of casssava peel as alternative fibre in pulp and paper based on its chemical properties and surface morphology characteristic. Quantifie...

  9. Effect of cropping system and mineral fertilizer on root yield of cassava

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of cropping system and fertilizer on the root yield of three introduced high yielding cassava varieties (Afisiafi, Abasafitaa and Tekbankye) and two local varieties (Tuakentenma and Akosuatumtum). Two cropping systems (sole cassava and cassava-maize intercrop and five fertilizer regimes (0-0-0, 30-30-30, 60-60-60, 90-90-90 and 120-120-120 kg ha-I N-P2O5-K2O) were studied in 2000 and 2001. A split-split plot design with four replications was used in the first study and a split-plot design for the second. Cassava-maize intercrop significantly reduced root yield at Mampong (2000) and Asuansi (2001) but not at Wenchi (2001). Afisiafi and Abasafitaa performed better than the local varieties or Tekbankye. At Asuansi and Kpeve, Afisiafi gave significantly greater root yield than Abasafitaa. Root yields of Afisiafi and Abasafita were, however, similar at Mampong and Wenchi in 2000. At Wenchi (2001), Abasafitaa gave significantly greater root yield than Atisiafi. At Mampong (2000) and Wenchi (2001), Afisiafi produced significantly more roots per stand than the local varieties and Abasafitaa gave significantly greater root yield per stand than the local variety. At all the four sites mineral fertilizer resulted in significantly greater root yield over control. At Asuansi (2001), Kpeve (2001) and Mampong (2000), 60-60-60 kg ha-1 N-P2O3-K2O gave significantly greater root yield than the 30-30-30 kg N-P2O5-K2O ha-1 but similar to the 90-90-90 and 120-120-120 kg ha-1 N-P2O5-K2O. At Wenchi (2001) all the rates gave similar root yield. Across locations, Afisiafi and Abasafitaa produced greater root yield than the local varieties and Tekbankye. Mineral fertilizer at 60-60-60 kg ha-1 N-P2O5-K2O was the optimum level for root yields. (au)

  10. Consumption study and identification of methyl salicylate in spicy cassava chips

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spicy cassava chips is a popular snack. However, some news in electronic media reported addition of balsam which is a banned food additives in that product to give extra spicy flavor. This study aimed to determine ITB students’ pattern of consumption, health problems caused by spicy chips consumption, and knowledge about illicit use of food additives in that product, and identify the main content of balsam namely methyl salicylate in 10 samples of spicy cassava chips taken from inside and outside about ITB campus. A total of 300 questionnaires distributed to ITB students then data processing was performed. Spicy cassava chips sample macerated in 50 mL of methanol for 24 hours at room temperature, filtered and analyzed using gas chromatography capillary column with OV-1, nitrogen carrier gas and flame ionization detector. Based on questionnaires, 292 (97%) of 300 respondents had consumed spicy chips. A total of 247 (85%) from 292 respondents spicy chips consumed less than 3 times a week. A total of 195 respondents (67%) had experienced health problems after eating spicy chips. There were 137 (47%) of the 292 respondents who knew about the illicit addition of food additives into spicy chips; only 35 respondents (12%) who knew about balsam’s addition. There were 126 respondents (43%) who did not pay attention to their health because they will keep eating spicy chips despite the addition of banned food additives. Through the verification of the standard addition method in gas chromatography system with a hydrogen pressure of 1.5 bar, injector temperature 200 °C, detector temperature 230 °C, oven temperature 60 °C for 2 minutes and then increased to 230 °C with rate 6 °C/menit; linearity, limit of detection, limit of quantitation, accuracy, precision, and specificity parameters met the acceptance limits. From 10 spicy cassava chips samples which were analyzed, they did not reveal any content of methyl salicylate. Methyl salicylate contained in the positive

  11. Tissue distribution and deposition pattern of a cellulosic parenchyma-specific protein from cassava roots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petrônio A.S. Souza

    1998-06-01

    Full Text Available A protein with a molecular mass of 22kDa was purified from the cellulosic parenchyma of cassava roots. The amino acid composition of the protein was determined and antibodies generated against the purified protein were used to show that the concentration of the protein remains unchanged during root "tuber" formation. By using a tissue printing technique, as well as western blot, it was shown that the cellulosic parenchyma was the only root tissue in which the protein was deposited.

  12. Potential functions of microRNAs in starch metabolism and development revealed by miRNA transcriptome profiling of cassava cultivars and their wild progenitor

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Xin; Xia, Jing; Xia, Zhiqiang; Zhang, Hefang; Zeng, Changying; Cheng LU; Zhang, Weixiong; Wang, Wenquan

    2015-01-01

    Background MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small (approximately 21 nucleotide) non-coding RNAs that are key post-transcriptional gene regulators in eukaryotic organisms. More than 100 cassava miRNAs have been identified in a conservation analysis and a repertoire of cassava miRNAs have also been characterised by next-generation sequencing (NGS) in recent studies. Here, using NGS, we profiled small non-coding RNAs and mRNA genes in two cassava cultivars and their wild progenitor to identify and charact...

  13. The use of PCR techniques to detect genetic variations in Cassava (Manihot esculenta L. Crantz): minisatellite and RAPD analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cassava is an important tuber crop grown in the tropical and subtropical regions. Recently, we developed protocols for efficient somatic embryogenesis using zygotic embryos and nodal axillary meristems in order to reduce the genotype effect. Thereafter flow cytophotometry and randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) markers were used to assess the ploidy level and the genetic fidelity of cassava plants regenerated by somatic embryogenesis. No change in the ploidy level of the regenerated plants was observed in comparison with the control plants. In the same way, monomorphic profiles of RAPD were obtained for the different cassava plants regenerated by somatic embryogenesis. The genetic analysis of calli showed only a few differences. Using two pairs of heterologous micro satellite primers developed in a wild African grass, a monomorphic pattern was also detected. Moreover, cultivars of different origins were also analysed using these PCR techniques. Our data from RAPD and materialistic analyses suggested that these techniques can be efficiently used to detect genetic variations in cassava. (author)

  14. DECOLORISATION OF AQUEOUS SOLUTIONS OF SYNTHETIC DYES BY Lentinus polychrous Lév. CULTIVATED ON CASSAVA RHIZOME

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jirachaya Boonyarit

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Cassava rhizomes are left in fields after harvesting. This agricultural waste is rich in lignocellulosic material which is a substrate for white rot fungi. Disposal of synthetic dyes poses a problem to the environment and it needs to be addressed. The ability of Lentinus polychrous Lév., a white rot fungus, grown on the cassava rhizome chips, to decolorise three kinds of synthetic dye was studied. The effects of the initial moisture content of cassava rhizome used for fungal cultivation, the temperature during the decolorisation, and the pH of synthetic dye solution on the extent of decolorisation were investigated. The decolorisations of Reactive blue 49, Navy blue and Acid blue 62 were affected by the initial moisture content of cassava rhizome. The highest extents of decolorisation of these dyestuffs were observed when the fungus was cultivated at 70% initial moisture content. Temperatures of 30, 37 and 45oC did not alter the extent of decolorisation of the dyestuffs. The most extensive decolorisations of Reactive blue 49 and Acid blue 62 (anthraquinone dyes were at pH 3.0 while that of Navy blue (azo dye was at pH 7.0. Adsorption was the main mechanism of decolorisation of Navy blue. However, both enzymic degradation and adsorption were involved in the decolorisations of Reactive blue 49 and Acid blue 62.

  15. EFFECT OF COMMERCIALIZATION ON PRODUCTIVE CAPACITY AMONG CASSAVA PRODUCING HOUSEHOLDS IN IKWUANO LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA OF ABIA STATE, NIGERIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ogbonnaya Ukeh OTEH

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The study investigated factors affecting commercialization of cassava producing household in Ikwuano Local Government Area, Abia State, Nigeria. It specifically examined the socio-economic characteristics of cassava household; determine commercialization index and analyzed factors that influence commercialization among cassava producing households. The study employed purposive sampling technique in the selection of 120 respondents from one local government area (LGA based on characteristics of interest, nearness and other related features. The selection was done from 6 communities at the rate of 20 respondents per community. Analytically, descriptive statistics, household commercialization index (HCI, and multiple regression analysis were used. The results showed that the mean age of the cassava producing household was about 40 years with a mean farming experience of 14 years. They are mostly married with an average of 5 persons per households. The result further revealed that only a few households (less than 2% have very high commercialization orientation, which exposes the level of farming in the area. With respect to determinants of factors that influence commercialization, value of output, farm size, sex, nearness to market, membership of cooperative and farming experience were significant and found to exhibit varying degree. The study therefore recommends that support policies that sustain and improve the productivity among farming household especially land tenure policy issues, greater incentives policies for farmers in the rural areas; linkages between farm households and the markets; increase access and exchange of information on markets.

  16. Comparative physiological and transcriptomic analyses reveal the actions of melatonin in the delay of postharvest physiological deterioration of cassava

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei eHu

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Melatonin plays important roles in various aspects of biological processes. However, it is less known on the effects and mechanism of melatonin on the postharvest physiological deterioration (PPD process of cassava, which largely restricts the potential of cassava as a food and industrial crop. In this study, we found that exogenous application of melatonin significantly delayed PPD of cassava tuberous roots by reducing H2O2 content and improving activities of catalase and peroxidase. Moreover, 3425 differentially expressed genes by melatonin during the PPD process were identified by transcriptomic analysis. Several pathways were markedly affected by melatonin treatments, including metabolic-, ion homeostasis-, and enzyme activity-related processes. Further detailed analysis revealed that melatonin acted through activation of ROS-scavenging and ROS signal transduction pathways, including antioxidant enzymes, calcium signaling, MAPK cascades, and transcription factors at early stages. Notably, the starch degradation pathway was also activated at early stages, whereas it was repressed by melatonin at middle and late stages, thereby indicating its regulatory role in starch metabolism during PPD. Taken together, this study yields new insights into the effect and underlying mechanism of melatonin on the delay of PPD and provides a good strategy for extending shelf life and improvement of cassava tuberous roots.

  17. Evaluating the Impacts of Selected Packaging Materials on the Quality Attributes of Cassava Flour (cvs. TME 419 and UMUCASS 36).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Opara, Umezuruike Linus; Caleb, Oluwafemi J; Uchechukwu-Agua, Amarachi D

    2016-02-01

    The influence of packaging materials (plastic bucket, low density polyethylene [LDPE] bags and paper bags) on quality attributes of the flour of 2 cassava cultivars (TME 419 and UMUCASS 36) stored at 23 ± 2 °C and 60% relative humidity (RH) were investigated for 12 wk. Cassava flour from each package type was evaluated for proximate composition, physicochemical properties and microbial growth at 4-wk intervals. Total color difference (∆E) of both cassava flour cultivars increased with storage duration. Flour packed in plastic bucket had the lowest change in color (3.2 ± 0.42) for cv. "TME 419ˮ and (4.1 ± 0.87) for cv. "UMUCASS 36ˮ at the end of week 12. Total carotenoid decreased across all treatment, and after the 12 wk storage, the highest total carotenoid retention (1.7 ± 0.02 and 2.0 ± 0.05 μg/mL) was observed in flour packed in plastic bucket. However, cassava flour in paper bag had the lowest microbial count of 3.4 ± 0.03 and 3.4 ± 0.08 log cfu/g for total aerobic mesophilic bacteria and fungi, respectively. PMID:26720296

  18. Induction and evaluation of useful mutants in cassava (Manihot esculenta) and yam (Diascorea sp.) by gamma radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stem cuttings of the cassava cultivar ''Bosom'' were irradiated with gamma rays. A dose of 5000 rad was lethal, but a dose of 3000 rad was found to allow sprouting of 50% of the buds. For tuber cuttings of yam, the LD50 was found to be around 2000 rad. 6 refs, 1 tab

  19. PRAPEMANASAN MENINGKATKAN KERENYAHAN KERIPIK SINGKONG DAN UBI JALAR UNGU [Preheating Improved Crispness of Cassava and Purple Sweet Potato Chips

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    - Rosanna

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Crispness as one of the important parameters for chips quality wants to be pursued. In this research, heat treatments before frying, such as steaming and boiling, were expected can help preparing the porous structure in the chips material before frying through the gelatinization mechanism. The porous structure is an important factor in crispness. Raw materials used were tuber crops, such as cassava and purple sweet potato. The aims of this study were to determine the effect of the heat treatments before frying on the chips crispness and obtain the heating process temperature and time that could produce chips with the best crispness. Chips crispness was analyzed using a rating test as organoleptic test and texture analyzer as physical test. Cassava and purple sweet potato slices steaming and boiling treatments before frying increased the chips crispness (P<0.05. Steaming of cassava slices for 5 minutes at a temperature of 100°C or boiling them for 3 minutes at a temperature of 95°C and steaming of purple sweet potato for 3 minutes at a temperature of 100°C or boiling them for 1.5 minutes at a temperature of 95°C before frying became the best time to improve the chips crispness organoleptically and physically compared with control. The treated cassava chips water and fat content changes didn’t affect their crispness.

  20. Optimization of thermostable α- amylase production by Streptomyces erumpens MTCC 7317 in solid-state fermentation using cassava fibrous residue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kar Shaktimay

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Production of α- amylase under solid state fermentation by Streptomyces erumpens MTCC 7317 was investigated using cassava fibrous residue, one of the major solid waste released during extraction of starch from cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz. Response surface methodology (RSM was used to evaluate the effect of the main variables, i.e., incubation period (60 h, moisture holding capacity (60% and temperature (50(0C on enzyme production by applying a full factorial Central Composite Design. Varying the inoculum concentration (5-25% of S. erumpens showed that 15% inoculum (v/w, 2.5 x 10(6 CFU/ml was the optimum for α- amylase production. Among the different nitrogen sources supplemented, beef extract was most suitable for enzyme production. The application of S. erumpens enzyme in liquefaction of soluble starch and cassava starch was studied. The maximum hydrolysis of soluble starch (85% and cassava starch (70% was obtained with the application of 5 ml crude enzyme (17185 units after 5 h of incubation.