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Sample records for cassava

  1. Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Msikita, Weston; Ihemere, Uzoma; Siritunga, Dimuth; Sayre, Richard T

    2006-01-01

    During the last three years the generation of stably transformed cassava plants having value-added traits has become a reality. Currently, two Agrobacterium-mediated transformation systems are routinely used to engineer cassava. These systems use either somatic embryos or friable embryogenic calli. This paper presents detailed protocols for the transformation of cassava using primary somatic embryos. The effects of explant types, tissue culture conditions, and bacterial and plasmid related factors on transformation efficiency are discussed.

  2. of cassava in africa

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ABSTRACT. This review summarises the available information on the viruses and virus diseases of cassava in Africa. .... Nevertheless, serological tests have been made on more than 150 isolates from mosaic- affected cassava in 22 countries of Africa or the. Indian sub-continent. ...... of Crop Pests in Sub-Saharan Africa.

  3. Cassava as a food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okezie, B O; Kosikowski, F V

    1982-01-01

    This review has attempted to examine information pertaining to the role of cassava (Manihot esculenta) as a major food source for a large part of the world population, particularly the countries of South America, Africa, and Asia, where it is primarily a major source of energy for 300 to 500 million people. Its cultivation, usually on small farms with little technology, is estimated to cover on an annual basis about 11 million hectares providing about 105 million tons, more than half of which is consumed by humans. The importance of cassava as an energy source can be seen by its growing demand in the European economic community countries where it forms up to 60% of the balanced diets for swine. Cassava is one of the crops that converts the greatest amount of solar energy into soluble carbohydrates per unit of area, thus 1 kg of moisture-free cassava meal may yield up to about 3750 kcal which would mean that a yearly production of 15 tons of cassava meal per hectare would yield some 56 million kcal. The major limitations of cassava as food appear to be its poor protein content and quality and the rapid post harvest deterioration of its roots which usually prevents their storage in the fresh state for more than a few days. However, in addition to its use for culinary purposes, cassava finds application in industrial products such as an adhesive for laundry purposes, for manufacturing paper, alcohol, butanol, dextrin, adhesive tape, textile sizing, and glue.

  4. Cassava as an energy crop

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Søren Bech Pilgaard; Birch-Thomsen, Torben; Rasmussen, Kjeld

    2014-01-01

    of the Attieké cassava variety. Little competition with food crops is likely, as cassava most likely would replace cotton as primary cash crop, following the decline of cotton production since 2005 and hence food security concerns appear not to be an issue. Stated price levels to motivate an expansion of cassava...

  5. INTEGRATING CASSAVA VARIETIES AND Typhlodramulus aripo ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ACSS

    The cassava green mite (CGM), Mononychellus tanajoa, is a pest that reduces root yield of cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) by 30-80% in the cassava belts of Africa. The objective of this study was to identify cassava varieties that enhance abundance and persistence of Typhlodramulus aripo on cassava and increase its ...

  6. Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bull, Simon E

    2015-01-01

    Genetic transformation of plants is an indispensable technique used for fundamental research and crop improvement. Recent advances in cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) transformation have facilitated the effective generation of stably transformed cassava plants with favorable traits. Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of friable, embryogenic callus has evolved to become the most widely used approach and has been adopted by research laboratories in Africa. This procedure utilizes axillary meristem tissue (buds) to produce primary and secondary somatic embryos and subsequently friable, embryogenic callus. Agrobacterium harboring a binary expression cassette is used to transform this tissue, which is regenerated via cotyledons and shoot organogenesis to produce rooted in vitro plantlets. This chapter details each step of the procedure using the model cultivar 60444 and provides supplementary notes to successfully produce transgenic cassava.

  7. Cassava For Space Diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katayama, Naomi; Yamashita, Masamichi; Njemanze, Philip; Nweke, Felix; Mitsuhashi, Jun; Hachiya, Natumi; Miyashita, Sachiko; Hotta, Atuko

    Space agriculture is an advanced life support enginnering concept based on biological and ecological system ot drive the materials recycle loop and create pleasant life environment on distant planetary bodies. Choice of space diet is one of primary decision required ot be made at designing space agriculture. We propose cassava, Manihot esculenta and, for one major composition of space food materials, and evaluate its value and feasibility of farming and processing it for space diet. Criteria to select space crop species could be stated as follows. 1) Fill th enutritional requirements. There is no perfect food material to meet this requirements without making a combination with others. A set of food materials which are adopted inthe space recipe shall fit to the nutritional requirement. 2) Space food is not just for maintaining physiological activities of human, but an element of human culture. We shall consider joy of dining in space life. In this context, space foos or recipe should be accepted by future astronauts. Food culture is diverse in the world, and has close relatioship to each cultural background. Cassava root tuber is a material to supply mainly energy in the form of carbohydrate, same as cereals and other tuber crops. Cassava leaf is rich in protein high as 5.1 percents about ten times higher content than its tuber. In the food culture in Africa, cassava is a major component. Cassava root tuber in most of its strain contains cyanide, it should be removed during preparation for cooking. However certain strain are less in this cyanogenic compound, and genetically modified cassava can also aboid this problem safely.

  8. Awareness of Cassava Peel Utilization Forms among Cassava ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Significant quantities of generated peels are been thrown on dumping sites in southwest, Nigeria thereby constituting a source of environmental pollution. This study assessed the awareness of cassava peel utilization forms among cassava processors in rural communities of southwest, Nigeria. Interview guide was used to ...

  9. An assessment of cassava mosaic disease severity in cassava ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Trials were conducted at Uyo, Nigeria in 1995/97 to evaluate the impact of Cassava Mosaic Disease (CMD) on cassava when intercropped with maize. Observations at 3, 6, 9 and 12 months after planting (MAP) showed that CMD severity was generally low. The symptoms decreased from 3 to 9 MAP and then sometimes ...

  10. Evaluation of new cassava genotypes for intercropping in a cassava ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Twenty-one cassava genotypes were screened for their intercrop performance at Umudike between 1997 and 1998 cropping seasons. The 2-year yield data were subjected to Rank-Summation Index (RSI) and Simple Regression (SR) Techniques with the view to determine the performance of the new cassava genotypes ...

  11. Value chain analysis on cassava and cassava based - products in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study examined the value Chain analysis (production process and cost related to each element of production chain to add value) on cassava and cassava products in Imo State specifically to ascertain the farm size holdings of the respondents as well as the ownerships of the land used for production. It also identified` ...

  12. DEVELOPMENT OF A CASSAVA PELLETING MACHINE

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2012-11-03

    Nov 3, 2012 ... can be formed in dough-like fashion manner, includ- ing cassava. Cassava pellet is an unfermented dried cassava product obtained by compressing raw cassava chips under appropriate processing conditions result- ing in the formation of dried bulky product suitable for the animal feed industry with an ...

  13. THE USE OF CASSAVA SPECIES

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    water treatment. With this, an alternative coagulant can be studied so that it can be use in water treatment. The heavy metals content in the two varieties of cassava .... treated cassava, 50g was dissolved in 100ml of distilled water. The mixture was stirred for 1min using the magnetic stirrer and then filtered using filter material.

  14. Cassava biology and physiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Sharkawy, Mabrouk A

    2004-11-01

    Cassava or manioc (Manihot esculenta Crantz), a perennial shrub of the New World, currently is the sixth world food crop for more than 500 million people in tropical and sub-tropical Africa, Asia and Latin America. It is cultivated mainly by resource-limited small farmers for its starchy roots, which are used as human food either fresh when low in cyanogens or in many processed forms and products, mostly starch, flour, and for animal feed. Because of its inherent tolerance to stressful environments, where other food crops would fail, it is often considered a food-security source against famine, requiring minimal care. Under optimal environmental conditions, it compares favorably in production of energy with most other major staple food crops due to its high yield potential. Recent research at the Centro Internacional de Agricultura Tropical (CIAT) in Colombia has demonstrated the ability of cassava to assimilate carbon at very high rates under high levels of humidity, temperature and solar radiation,which correlates with productivity across all environments whether dry or humid. When grown on very poor soils under prolonged drought for more than 6 months, the crop reduce both its leaf canopy and transpiration water loss, but its attached leaves remain photosynthetically active, though at greatly reduced rates. The main physiological mechanism underlying such a remarkable tolerance to drought was rapid stomatal closure under both atmospheric and edaphic water stress, protecting the leaf against dehydration while the plant depletes available soil water slowly during long dry periods. This drought tolerance mechanism leads to high crop water use efficiency values. Although the cassava fine root system is sparse, compared to other crops, it can penetrate below 2 m soil,thus enabling the crop to exploit deep water if available. Leaves of cassava and wild Manihot possess elevated activities of the C4 enzyme PEP carboxylase but lack the leaf Kranz anatomy typical of C4

  15. Information Needs of Cassava Farmers in Delta State of Nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    demand in overseas and domestic markets for cassava has also ... End-use markets for cassava are rapidly expanding. Real opportunities for a boom in the production and processing of cassava roots into cassava chips, edible cassava flour (Lafun), composite flour, cassava starch and garri for international markets exist.

  16. Awareness of Cassava Peel Utilization Forms among Cassava ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hp

    Cassava silage as cattle feed and fibrous waste-based broiler feed are value added products for feed sector and this can aid wealth creation. Industrial products for mini-agricultural business include wafers, gums and liquid adhesives. Immense.

  17. Effect of Cassava Flour Characteristics on Properties of Cassava-Wheat-Maize Composite Bread Types

    OpenAIRE

    Eduardo, Maria; Svanberg, Ulf; Oliveira, Jorge; Ahrn?, Lilia

    2013-01-01

    Replacement of wheat flour by other kinds of flour in bread making is economically important in South East Africa as wheat is mainly an imported commodity. Cassava is widely available in the region, but bread quality is impaired when large amounts of cassava are used in the bread formulation. Effect of differently processed cassavas (sun-dried, roasted and fermented) on composite cassava-wheat-maize bread quality containing cassava levels from 20 to 40% (w/w) was evaluated in combination with...

  18. the whitefly vector of cassava mosaic

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    All rights reserved. BEMISIA TABACI: THE WHITEFLY VECTOR OF CASSAVA MOSAIC. GEMINIVIRUSES IN AFRICA: AN ECOLOGICAL PERSPECTIVE. J. P. LEGG ... amplified polymorphic DNA obtained via the ..... Association between cassava whitefly adult numbers and cassava green mite damage on five month old.

  19. 215 ECONOMIC CONTRIBUTION OF CASSAVA PRODUCTION (A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR. AMINU

    2010-06-01

    Jun 1, 2010 ... ECONOMIC CONTRIBUTION OF CASSAVA PRODUCTION (A CASE STUDY OF. KUJE AREA COUNCIL FEDERAL ... transportation were found to be affecting cassava production in the area. It was recommended ... of the Federal Government policy on cassava production for both local and international.

  20. Better cassava boosts food security | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2010-10-28

    Oct 28, 2010 ... IDRC 's LASTING IMPACTS > FOOD SECURITY AND NUTRITION · Cassava: A hardy vegetable that feeds millions · Decades of cassava research bear fruit · Restoring cassava production in Uganda · International Institute for Tropical Agriculture (IITA) · Agriculture and Food Security Program · IDRC Digital ...

  1. Enhancing the biodegradation process of cassava ( Manihot ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) peels have been implicated in serious environmental pollution. This study was aimed at investigating the effect of N.P.K (15:15:15) and microbial inoculants on the biodegradation process of cassava peels. Fresh cassava peels were subjected to biodegradation process for twenty weeks.

  2. Limitations of Cassava Bacterial Blight: New Advances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camilo López

    2006-07-01

    genomics. The acquired knowledge in the last years for this pathosystem will help to establish better disease control strategies and generate, in a short term, resistant cassava varieties contributing to solve one of the main problems of poor cassava farmers and this effort will open a new horizon to the cassava crop in the world.

  3. Cassava green mite intervention technologies | Yaninek | African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The cassava green mite, Mononychellus tanajoa (Bondar) (Acari: Tetranychidae), became a conspicuous pest of cassava soon after its accidental introduction into Africa in the early 1970s. It has since spread across the entire cassava belt of the continent causing an estimated 30 to 80 percent reduction in yield and ...

  4. Determinants Of Adoption Of Improved Cassava Production ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Descriptive statistics and multiple regression analysis were used to analyse the field data The identified cassava production technologies at different stages of adoption by the respondents are use of improved cassava cuttings, use of herbicides/pesticides, Alternate row/crop geometry in a cassava /maize/yam intercrop, ...

  5. Cassava production and consumption: Health implications

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mr A. O. Akinpelu

    The paper examined health issues on production and consumption of cassava. It was revealed that production of ... cassava is both conservable and transportable over long distances. Cassava (Manihot .... A farmer loses on the average 22 working days when incapacitated by one sickness or the other per time (Ugwu,.

  6. A Process Technology For Conversion Of Dried Cassava Chips Into ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    “Gari”, made from fermented bitter Cassava roots (Manihot esculenta crantz) were successfully processed from already dried Cassava chips at 7% moisture level. Cassava mash at 67% moisture was prepared from dried Cassava chips. This was seeded severally with fresh cassava mash and fermented for 72hours.

  7. A Comparative Study of Some Properties of Cassava and Tree Cassava Starch Films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belibi, P. C.; Daou, T. J.; Ndjaka, J. M. B.; Nsom, B.; Michelin, L.; Durand, B.

    Cassava and tree cassava starch films plasticized with glycerol were produced by casting method. Different glycerol contents (30, 35, 40 and 45 wt. % on starch dry basis) were used and the resulting films were fully characterized. Their water barrier and mechanical properties were compared. While increasing glycerol concentration, moisture content, water solubility, water vapour permeability, tensile strength, percent elongation at break and Young's modulus decreased for both cassava and tree cassava films. Tree cassava films presented better values of water vapour permeability, water solubility and percent elongation at break compared to those of cassava films, regardless of the glycerol content.

  8. Bioethanol production from cassava peels using different microbial ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bioethanol production from cassava peels using different microbial inoculants. ... African Journal of Biotechnology ... Abstract. The potential of bioethanol production using different microbial inoculants for the simultaneous saccharification and fermentation of cassava peels from three cassava cultivars was investigated.

  9. Alternate hosts of African cassava mosaic virus and East African cassava mosaic Cameroon virus in Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alabi, Olufemi J; Ogbe, Francis O; Bandyopadhyay, Ranajit; Lava Kumar, P; Dixon, Alfred G O; Hughes, Jaqueline d'A; Naidu, Rayapati A

    2008-01-01

    Cassava mosaic disease (CMD) caused by African cassava mosaic virus (ACMV) and East African cassava mosaic Cameroon virus (EACMCV) is the major constraint to cassava production in Nigeria. Sequences of the DNA-A component of ACMV and EACMCV isolates from leguminous plant species (Senna occidentalis, Leucana leucocephala and Glycine max), castor oil plant (Ricinus communis), a weed host (Combretum confertum) and a wild species of cassava (Manihot glaziovii) were determined. All ACMV isolates from these hosts showed 96-98% nucleotide sequence identity with cassava isolates from West Africa. EACMCV was found only in four hosts (S. occidentalis, L. leucocephala, C. confertum, M. glaziovii), and sequences of these isolates showed 96-99% identity with cassava isolates from West Africa. These results provide definitive evidence for the natural occurrence of ACMV and EACMCV in plant species besides cassava.

  10. 147__Sale_Cassava1

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    A total of 36 samples of Cassava flour were randomly collected inside clean polythene bag at each point of sale in three (3) major markets in Zaria, these are: Samaru, Sabon Gari and Zaria City Markets and transported to the laboratory for the department of microbiology Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria for further analysis.

  11. Resistant starch in cassava products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruna Letícia Buzati Pereira

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Found in different foods, starch is the most important source of carbohydrates in the diet. Some factors present in starchy foods influence the rate at which the starch is hydrolyzed and absorbed in vivo. Due the importance of cassava products in Brazilian diet, the objective of this study was to analyze total starch, resistant starch, and digestible starch contents in commercial cassava products. Thirty three commercial cassava products from different brands, classifications, and origin were analyzed. The method used for determination of resistant starch consisted of an enzymatic process to calculate the final content of resistant starch considering the concentration of glucose released and analyzed. The results showed significant differences between the products. Among the flours and seasoned flours analyzed, the highest levels of resistant starch were observed in the flour from Bahia state (2.21% and the seasoned flour from Paraná state (1.93%. Starch, tapioca, and sago showed levels of resistant starch ranging from 0.56 to 1.1%. The cassava products analyzed can be considered good sources of resistant starch; which make them beneficial products to the gastrointestinal tract.

  12. Effect of cassava leaf harvest on a cassava green mite predator in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effect of cassava leaf harvest on a cassava green mite predator in the Democratic Republic of Congo. K Tata-Hangy, R Hanna, M Toko, M Solo. Abstract. Typhlodromallus aripo, a predatory phytoseiid species of the cassava green mite Mononychellus tanajoa was introduced to the Democratic Republic of Congo in 1998.

  13. Effect of cassava peel and cassava bagasse natural fillers on mechanical properties of thermoplastic cassava starch: Comparative study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edhirej, Ahmed; Sapuan, S. M.; Jawaid, Mohammad; Zahari, Nur Ismarrubie; Sanyang, M. L.

    2017-12-01

    Increased awareness of environmental and sustainability issues has generated increased interest in the use of natural fiber reinforced composites. This work focused on the use of cassava roots peel and bagasse as natural fillers of thermoplastic cassava starch (TPS) materials based on cassava starch. The effect of cassava bagasse (CB) and cassava peel (CP) content on the tensile properties of cassava starch (CS) biocomposites films was studied. The biocomposites films were prepared by casting technique using cassava starch (CS) as matrix and fructose as plasticizer. The CB and CP were added to improve the properties of the films. The addition of both fibers increased the tensile strength and modulus while decreased the elongation at break of the biocomposites films. Films containing CB showed higher tensile strength and modulus as compared to the films containing the same amount of CP. The addition of 6 % bagasse increased the modulus and maximum tensile stress to 581.68 and 10.78 MPa, respectively. Thus, CB is considered to be the most efficient reinforcing agent due to its high compatibility with the cassava starch. The use of CB and CP as reinforcement agents for CS thermoplastic cassava added value to these waste by-products and increase the suitability of CS composite films as environmentally friendly food packaging material.

  14. Status of cassava mosaic begomoviruses in farmers’ fields in Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen K. Torkpo

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available A survey for cassava mosaic disease (CMD was carried out in Ghana from 2007−2008 to determine the status of cassava mosaic begomoviruses in farmers’ fields. The survey covered cassava growing areas in five major cassava producing regions of Ghana. Out of 136 fields visited, the plants in 5% were not affected by CMD, 18% contained plants with mild symptoms, whereas 77% had cassava with moderately severe or severe symptoms. A total of 412 cassava leaf samples and a symptomatic Manihot glaziovii sample were analyzed using polymerase chain reaction. African cassava mosaic virus (ACMV alone was detected in 42.0% of symptomatic cassava leaves with the remaining 58% being mixed infected by ACMV and East African cassava mosaic virus (EACMV. Mixed ACMV and EACMV infections were detected in symptomatic M. glaziovii, two non-symptomatic cassava samples and in individual whitefly vectors. EACMV was not detected alone in any cassava or whitefly sample. South African cassava mosaic virus (SACMV, Indian cassava mosaic virus (ICMV, East African cassava mosaic Zanzibar virus (EACMZV and the Uganda strain of EACMV were not detected in any cassava or whitefly sample. The occurrence of high proportion of mixed infections of cassava by cassava mosaic begomoviruses (CMBs, which could lead to emergence of new species or variants in the country, require concerted effort to mitigate the CMD problem.

  15. The use of biolistic inoculation of cassava mosaic begomoviruses in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-07-18

    Jul 18, 2008 ... The resistance/susceptibility of 5 cassava cultivars from Ghana to infectious clones of two cassava mosaic viruses (ACMV-[CM] and EACMV/ACMV-[CM]) was investigated in this study. Plantlets of cassava cultivars were obtained using nodal cuttings initiated from tissue culture. These cassava cultivars were ...

  16. Effects of different companion crops on the performance of cassava ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Experiments were conducted at the Teaching and Research Farm of the University of Ibadan in 1998/1999 and 1999/2000 cropping seasons to determine the effects of different intercropping systems which included: sole cassava, cassava/maize, cassava/maize/sweet potato and cassava/cocoyam/sweet potato on the ...

  17. Physicochemical Properties of Fungal Detoxified Cassava Mash and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The physicochemical properties of fungal detoxified cassava mash and sensory characteristics of wheat-detoxified cassava composite doughnuts were investigated. Fungal isolates from soils collected at cassava processing sites were isolated, quantified and identified. Cassava mash from grated tuber was partially ...

  18. Case of escape in cassava, Manihot esculenta Crantz.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nassar, N M A; Mendonza, M

    2017-02-08

    Two cassava escapes where collected from cultivated fields near natural habitat in Bolivia. They are described morphologically and analyzed cytogenetically in this study. It is suggested that they are the product of backcrosses of cassava interspecific hybrids with the cultigen itself, and that selective conditions have developed in which certain forms of cassava segregates have adapted to grow wildly in natural habitats near cassava fields. These segregates may hybridize with cultivated cassava upon coming in contact with such varieties. Because these escapes have incorporated useful genes from the wild into their genetic structure, they could be used for cassava improvement since their genetic barriers with other forms of cassava are very weak.

  19. Exploring the African cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Somatic-embryogenic competence of eleven cassava genotypes was determined in induction media containing 8 and 12 mg/l of the auxin picloram, using axillary meristems and leaf lobes as explants. There were significant differences (p<0.01) among the cassava genotypes for ability to form somatic embryos. Proembryo ...

  20. Cassava household expenditure and anthropometric indices of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In an attempt to verify the myth associated with cassava, that high consumption causes malnutrition, anthropometric measurements of 445 preschool children aged 0 - 5 years in 90 randomly selected farm households of cassava growing areas of Imo State were undertaken. Growth deviations (Z – scores) were calculated ...

  1. Variety Characteristics And Cassava Adoption Among Rural ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Variety Characteristics And Cassava Adoption Among Rural Households In Imo State. DO Onu, DO Ohajianya. Abstract. This study investigated the factors contributing to low levels of adoption of improved cassava varieties in Imo State. A sample of 120 respondents was randomly selected for the study and interviewed ...

  2. LAYER DRYING OF DICED CASSAVA ROOTS

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    opiyo

    moisture content of the cassava cubes. Weather conditions during the experiments were also monitored. A parallel sun drying experiment was carried out to compare thin layer drying on the sun and thin layer drying in the fabricated dryer. For the fresh cassava that was used in the experiments, a duplicate sample was ...

  3. Field Performance of Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Keywords: Tissue culture-derived plantlets, Field plant growth, Yield, Root tuber characteristics,. Cassava. Introduction. Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) is a tropical crop grown in the lowlands of Asia,. Africa and· South America for its thickened and tuberose roots. It produces more calories per unit of land than any other ...

  4. Determinants of improved cassava processing technologies' (ICPT ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Determinants of improved cassava processing technologies' (ICPT) utilization among rural processors in Oyo State. ... Journal of Agriculture, Forestry and the Social Sciences ... Abstract. The study examined the factors determining the utilization of Improved Cassava Processing Technologies (ICPTs) in Oyo State, Nigeria.

  5. ASSESSMENT OF FOOD SAFETY PRACTICES AMONG CASSAVA ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Philips Olusola

    Inferential analysis of results shows that income contributed significantly to the cassava .... food safety practices and the income (p = 0.04) of respondents. ..... Internet Journal of. Food Safety. 2011; 13: 191-197. 19. UNIDO (United Nations Industrial Development Organization) Master plan on Cassava development in Nigeria ...

  6. A MANUALLY OPERATED CASSAVA GRATING MACHINE

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr Obe

    1984-09-01

    Sep 1, 1984 ... substantial losses arising from the inability of the person to hold small pieces of cassava roots for grating. Happily, there now exist various. Versions of mechanical graters which are driven by electric motors or small internal combustion engines. In fact, it may be said that cassava grating has been effectively.

  7. Adoption Of Cassava Production Technologies Among Women ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Findings from the study revealed that the awareness level on cassava production technologies was low (36.9%) and adoption level was also low (21.6%). The study identified 5 important constraints to the adoption of cassava production technologies. These are: inadequate fund, high cost of technologies, inadequate land ...

  8. Antagonistic properties of microogranisms associated with cassava ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The antagonistic properties of indigenous microflora from cassava starch, flour and grated cassava were investigated using the conventional streak, novel ring and well diffusion methods. Antagonism was measured by zone of inhibition between the fungal plug and bacterial streak/ring. Bacillus species were more effective ...

  9. Cassava starch in the Brazilian food industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivo Mottin Demiate

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Cassava starch is a valued raw material for producing many kinds of modified starches for food applications. Its physicochemical properties, as well as its availability, have made it an interesting and challenging ingredient for the food industry. In the present work, food grade modified cassava starches were purchased from producers and analyzed for selected physicochemical characteristics. Samples of sour cassava starch were included, as well as one sample of native cassava starch. Results showed that almost all modified starches were resistant to syneresis, produced pastes more stable to stirred cooking, and some of them were difficult to cook. The sour cassava starches presented high acidity and resulted in clear and unstable pastes during stirred cooking, susceptible to syneresis.

  10. Solid Substrate Fermentation of Cassava Peel for Poultry Feed Ingredient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Cassava peel which is not used during cassava starch extraction is one of potential resources for animal feed. However, cassava peel has low level protein content, high level crude fiber, and high level of toxic cyanogenic compound. These problems limit the utilization of cassava peel as feed. Solid substrate fermentation using mold may be a solution process to increase its nutritional value and decrease toxic level of cassava peel. In this paper, matters that related with cassava peel fermentation process are subsequently described, namely: (i problems of cassava peel; (ii biodegradation and detoxification process; (iii solid state fermentation methods on cassava peel; (iv nutritional quality of fermented cassava peel; and (v application of fermented cassava peel in poultry feed. The fermented cassava peel application is compared with those of cassava root and waste (onggok. Addition of nitrogen inorganic in the fermentation process increases the mold growth and protein content of the product, while fiber and cyanogenic contents are decreased due to mold degradation activity. The fermentation process may be carried out using only the cassava peel as the substrate or mixed with wheat flour, using indigenous microbes, Aspergillus niger or a white rot fungus, Panus tigrinus as inoculum. As well as fermented cassava root and waste, fermented cassava peel can be used to substitute maize as poultry feed, although it is reported that the optimum substitution in broiler ration is only 10%.

  11. Cassava; African perspective on space agriculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katayama, Naomi; Njemanze, Philip; Nweke, Felix; Space Agriculture Task Force, J.; Katayama, Naomi; Yamashita, Masamichi

    Looking on African perspective in space agriculture may contribute to increase diversity, and enforce robustness for advanced life support capability. Cassava, Manihot esculentaand, is one of major crop in Africa, and could be a candidate of space food materials. Since resource is limited for space agriculture in many aspects, crop yield should be high in efficiency, and robust as well. The efficiency is measured by farming space and time. Harvest yield of cassava is about 41 MJ/ m2 (70 ton/ha) after 11 months of farming. Among rice, wheat, potato, and sweet potato, cassava is ranked to the first place (40 m2 ) in terms of farming area required to supply energy of 5 MJ/day, which is recommended for one person. Production of cassava could be made under poor condition, such as acidic soil, shortage of fertilizer, draught. Laterite, similar to Martian regolith. Propagation made by stem cutting is an advantage of cassava in space agriculture avoiding entomophilous or anemophilous process to pollinate. Feature of crop storage capability is additional factor that determines the efficiency in the whole process of agriculture. Cassava root tuber can be left in soil until its consumption. Cassava might be an African contribution to space agriculture.

  12. The effect of cassava and corn flour utilization on the physicochemical characteristics of cassava leaves snack

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambarsari, I.; Endrasari, R.; Oktaningrum, G. N.

    2018-01-01

    Cassava leaves are nutritious vegetable, but often regarded as an inferior commodity. One of the efforts increasing in the benefit of cassava leaves is through processing it into snack. In order to support the food diversification program and to reduce the dependence on imported commodities, the development of cassava leaves snack could be accompanied by optimizing the use of local materials to minimize the use of wheat flour. The aim of this assessment was to learn the effects of cassava and corn flour substitution on the physicochemical characteristics of cassava-leaves snack. The substitution of local flour (cassava and corn) on the snack production was carried on three levels at 15, 30, and 45%. A control treatment was using 100% wheat flour. The results showed that cassava and corn flour were potential to substitute wheat flour for making cassava-leaves snack. The substitution of cassava and corn flour as much as 45% was able to produce crispy products with a brighter color. The substitution of corn flour was resulting in snacks with the lower content of lipid than the other substitution snacks.

  13. Genetic transformation of cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, H Q; Sautter, C; Potrykus, I; Puonti-Kaerlas, J

    1996-06-01

    Genetic engineering can be used to complement traditional breeding methods in crop plant improvement. Transfer of genes from heterologous species provides the means of selectively introducing new traits into crop plants and expanding the gene pool beyond what has been available to traditional breeding systems. The prerequisites for genetic engineering are efficient transformation and tissue culture systems that allow selection and regeneration of transgenic plants. Cassava, an integral plant for food security in developing countries, has until now been recalcitrant to transformation approaches. We report here a method for regenerating stably transformed cassava plants after cocultivation with Agrobacterium tumefaciens, which opens cassava for future improvement via biotechnology.

  14. Consumer’s market analysis of products based on cassava

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unteawati, Bina; Fitriani; Fatih, Cholid

    2018-03-01

    Cassava product has the important role for enhancing household's income in rural. Cassava as raw material food is plentiful as local food in Lampung. Cassava product is one of strategic value addition activities. Value additional activities are a key to create income source enrichment in rural. The household was product cassava as a snack or additional food. Their product cassava was operated in small-scale, traditional, and discontinuous production. They have been lacked in technology, capital, and market access. Measurement the sustainability of their business is important. The market has driven the business globally. This research aims to (1) describe the cassava demand to locally product cassava in rural and (2) analysis the consumer's perception of cassava product. Research take placed in Lampung Province, involved Bandar Lampung and Metro City, Pringsewu, Pesawaran, Central Lampung, and East Lampung district. It is held in February until April 2017. Data were analyzed by descriptive statistic and multidimensional scaling. Based on the analysis conclude that (1) the demand of product cassava from rural was massive in volume and regularity with the enormous transaction. This fact is very important to role business cycles. Consumers demand continuously will lead the production of cassava product sustain. Producers of product cassava will consume fresh cassava for the farmer. Consumption of fresh cassava for home industry regularly in rural will develop balancing in fresh cassava price in the farming gate (2) The consumer's perception on cassava product in the different market showed that they prefer much to consume cassava chips as cassava product products than other. Next are crackers, opak, and tiwul rice. Urban consumers prefer product products as snacks (chips, crumbs, and opak), with consumption frequency of 2-5 times per week and volume of 1-3 kg purchases. Consumers in rural were more frequent with daily consumption frequency. Multidimensional scaling

  15. Cassava processors' awareness of occupational and environmental ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ) is not without hazards both to the environment, the processors, and even the consumers. This study, therefore, investigated cassava processors' awareness of occupational and environmental hazards associated with and factors affecting ...

  16. Evaluation of cassava (Manihot esculenta (Crantz) planting methods ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Evaluation of cassava (Manihot esculenta (Crantz) planting methods and soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merrill] sowing dates on the yield performance of the component species in cassava/soybean intercrop under the humid tropical lowlands of southeastern Nigeria.

  17. Catalase activity of cassava (Manihot esculenta) plant under African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    aghomotsegin

    . E-mail: sabastina.amoako@kintampo-hrc.org. Tel: +233543550743. Abbreviations: CBSD, Cassava brown streak disease; ACMV, African cassava mosaic virus; ROS, reactive oxygen species; H2O2, hydrogen peroxide; BSA, bovine serum ...

  18. Limitation in detecting African cassava mosaic geminivirus in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SERVER

    2007-10-18

    symptomatic (I) stems of the moderately-resistant ... 30001. Key words: African cassava mosaic geminivirus, infection status, cassava genotypes, detection limitations, .... soil maintained in an insect-proof greenhouse. There were ...

  19. Improvement of local cassava germ plasm in Uganda

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    important staple in the country replacing bananas. Cassava ... (multilocational & replicated x 4). On-farm trials. (Farmer participants). Fig. I: Breeding and selection scheme for resistance to cassava pests and diseases ... Performance of selected cassava clones at advanced yield trial stage planted at Serere and Ngetta 97/98.

  20. Challenges of Women in Cassava Production and Processing: A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Information about cassava was sourced from friends (40.0%) often and they hardly use or see extension agent (70%) for research information on cassava production and processing. Despite the poor storage life of cassava, 80.5% of the respondents reported a poor knowledge on the possible ways of storage. The study ...

  1. cyanide cassava genotypes in acid ultisols of south eastern Nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ENGR C.J

    2014-01-29

    Jan 29, 2014 ... cyanide cassava genotypes (TMS 99/2123, TMS 96/1642, TMS 98/0068 and TMS 94/3200﴿ were outstanding in fresh root yield performance. To improve fresh root yield in cassava, the inter- relationships among the various agronomic character of the cassava genotypes demands appropriate attention.

  2. Cassava brown streak disease effects on leaf metabolites and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cassava Brown Streak Disease (CBSD) is a threat to productivity and product quality in East Africa. The objective of this study was to understand the effect of CBSD on the primary photosynthetic apparatus of cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz). Three cassava varieties with varying levels of reaction to infection by CBSD ...

  3. Utilization Of Cassava and Pawpaw Diets By Growing Snails ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    kg M. E). The treatments were T1, T2, T3, T4 and T5. The rations had 10% inclusion of pawpaw leaf (T2) Unripe Pawpaw fruit (T3), Cassava peel (T4) cassava leaf (T5). The treatment without the inclusion of pawpaw and cassava meal served as ...

  4. chemical adjustment chemical adjustment of effluent from cassava

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    eobe

    Cassava waste water from a cassava processing plant in Nsukka was collected and chemically waste water from a cassava processing ... waste water effluents generated from industries and homes are discharged into the rivers, .... engineering sanitary laboratory at the University of. Nigeria Nsukka for further analysis for 20 ...

  5. Controlled transmission of African cassava mosaic virus (ACMV) by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jatropha curcas, a plant with great biodiesel potential is also used to reduce the population of whiteflies, Bemisia tabaci on cassava fields when planted as a hedge. We therefore, investigated the transmission of African cassava mosaic virus (ACMV) by the whitefly vector from cassava to seedlings of 10 accessions of J.

  6. Approaches to diagnosis and detection of cassava brown streak ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cassava brown streak disease (CBSD) has been a problem in the East African coastal cassava growing areas for more than 70 years. The disease is caused by successful infection with Cassava Brown Streak Virus (CBSV) (Family, Potyviridae: Genus, Ipomovirus). Diagnosis of CBSD has for long been primarily leaf ...

  7. Economic Analysis Of Cassava Production In Akwa Ibom State ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... encourage farmers to use recommended rate of fertilizer application, improved varieties of cassava stem for increased efficiency and increased cassava production in the country since there is availability of markets for Nigeria cassava products( chips/pellets) in China, Netherlands, Germany, Belgium and Luxembourg.

  8. Development of putative transgenic lines of cassava variety H-226 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    CMD) caused by the Indian cassava mosaic virus (ICMV) and Sri Lankan cassava mosaic virus (SLCMV). An attempt was done to develop transgenic cassava lines resistant to SLCMV through RNAi vector targeting a conserved 440 bp of 5' end ...

  9. Controlled transmission of African cassava mosaic virus (ACMV) by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sarkodie

    2013-07-10

    Jul 10, 2013 ... Jatropha curcas, a plant with great biodiesel potential is also used to reduce the population of whiteflies, Bemisia tabaci on cassava fields when planted as a hedge. We therefore, investigated the transmission of African cassava mosaic virus (ACMV) by the whitefly vector from cassava to seedlings.

  10. Origin and management of neotropical cassava arthropod pests ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cassava, one of the worlds major food crops is grown throughout the tropical regions of the world. Cassava originated in the neotropics; it was introduced into West Africa from Brazil by slave traders in the 1500's, and taken to Asia during the 17th century. Consequently the greatest diversity of cassava pests, as well as their ...

  11. cassava brown streak disease effects on leaf metabolites

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    Cassava Brown Streak Disease (CBSD) is a threat to productivity and product quality in East Africa. The objective of this study was to understand the effect of CBSD on the primary photosynthetic apparatus of cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz). Three cassava varieties with varying levels of reaction to infection by CBSD.

  12. Cyanide content of cassava products (Garri, Fufu and Abacha ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Cassava is diversified into different food products and these products are available year round thus making cassava an important staple food for many rural households in Nigeria. A safety concern among cassava products consumers arises from the presence of cyanogenicglucoside which upon hydrolysis ...

  13. Use of morphological characters to identify cassava mosaic disease ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Genotypes were scored for resistance to cassava mosaic disease (CMD) and cassava bacteria blight (CBB) attacks in the field. It was evident that identification of cassava genotypes using morphological characters is reliable. Some genotypes were resistant to CMD and CBB attack. It was found that pigmentation and level ...

  14. Soaking and drying of cassava roots reduced cyanogenic potential ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Detoxification of three cassava varieties (NR-44/72, NW-45/72 and NW-44/72) by traditional methods of processing to produce cassava flour was investigated at the college of agriculture, Jimma University during February to May, 2007. The total hydrogen cyanide (HCN) quantitative determination in cassava flour was ...

  15. The use of biolistic inoculation of cassava mosaic begomoviruses in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    These cassava cultivars were challenged with both DNA A and B components of the infectious clones named above using particle gun bombardment. The cassava cultivars showed varying degrees of susceptibility/resistance to the two infectious clones used. All symptoms of Cassava Mosaic Disease (CMD) observed were ...

  16. Evaluation of cassava foliage as a protein supplement for sheep ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Three trials were conducted to evaluate the potential of cassava (Manihot esculenta) foliage (leaves and petioles) as a protein supplement for sheep. In the first trial, nylon bag degradability of cassava foliage was studied. Proximate analysis of cassava foliage was conducted before and after the incubation. Rumen ...

  17. Status of cassava mosaic disease and whitefly population in Zambia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cassava mosaic disease is the most important disease affecting cassava in Zambia. A study was conducted through a survey to determine the status of cassava mosaic disease incidence, severity and whitefly abundance in farmers' fields in six provinces: Lusaka, Northern, North-Western, Luapula, Eastern and Western ...

  18. Nutritive value and sensory quality of fermented cassava soy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this study unfermented cassava mash was prepared and developed into four different samples A, B ,C and D as an approach to add and improve nutritive value. To obtain flour sample (A) containing only 100% unfermented cassava, the mash was dried and milled. Part of the unfermented cassava mash was ...

  19. Quality of fermented cassava flour processed into placali | Koko ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fermented cassava flour was obtained from Yace variety. Cassava roots were washed, peeled and ground. After adding cassava inoculums at 8% (m/m), the pulp was allowed to ferment for 72 hours at ambient temperature. The fermented dough was removed, squeezed and oven-dried for 48 hours at 55 °C. The dried ...

  20. The performance of cassava flour as a water reducing admixture

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    CHINYERE

    concrete with improved strength and durability. In a pilot investigation on the potentials of cassava flour as a set-retarding admixture in concrete [10], it was observed that cassava flour exhibited plasticizing effect in concrete. To further enhance the ample use of cassava flour as admixture in concrete, the plasticizing effect of ...

  1. Biolistic inoculation of cassava ( Manihot esculenta Crantz) with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... East African cassava mosaic virus-Cameroon (EACMV-CM) and a recombinant East African cassava mosaic virus-India/Cameroon (EACMV-CM/IC) can be transmitted easily and repeatedly to Nicotiana benthamiana plants, difficulty in mechanical transmission and multiplication of EACMV-UG and South African cassava ...

  2. Reduction of the cyanide content during fermentation of cassava ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Reduction of the cyanide content during fermentation of cassava roots and leaves to produce bikedi and ntoba mbodi, two food products from Congo. ... the cassava roots is a lactic fermentation (pH 3.8) with Lactobacillus as dominant microflora whereas that of the cassava leaves is an alkaline fermentation (pH 8.5) where ...

  3. Cassava Sun Drying Performance on Various Surfaces and Drying ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    depth and recommended for sun drying of cassava. However; there is need to investigate on whether there is significant quality difference between cassava sun dried at different bed depths investigated in this study. Key words: drying characteristics, weight loss, ambient air temperature, perforated surface, cassava drying ...

  4. Value chain and marketing margins of cassava: An assessment of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cassava is one of the emerging market oriented agricultural commodities with potential to contribute to improved livelihoods of smallholder farmers in Uganda. Besides being a food crop, cassava is attracting more attention as a commercial commodity. The rise in the commercial orientation of cassava is due to the fact that ...

  5. Cassava chips quality as influenced by cultivar, blanching time and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Currently, fried cassava chips and crisps are increasingly being consumed as snacks; and fried cassava chips are produced by street processors. The quality and safety of these products is not known, therefore, the current study was to establish the influence of cassava cultivar, blanching time and slice thickness on quality ...

  6. Factors influencing cassava - pulp fermentation period for gari ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    paper examined factors influencing cassava pulp fermentation period for gari processing among cassava processors in South-eastern Nigeria. Five out of nine states that constitute South-east Agro-ecological zone of Nigeria were purposively sampled on the basis of being notable for cassava production. From each ...

  7. Protein enrichment of cassava peel by submerged fermentation with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) peel is one of the solid wastes produced as a consequence of cassava processing. It is low in protein but contains a large amount of carbohydrate, causing an environmental problem with disposal. In order to add-value to this major cassava processing waste and also reduce its resultant ...

  8. Generation of cyanogen-free transgenic cassava.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siritunga, Dimuth; Sayre, Richard T

    2003-07-01

    Cassava ( Manihot esculenta Crantz.) is the major source of calories for subsistence farmers in sub-Saharan Africa. Cassava, however, contains potentially toxic levels of the cyanogenic glucoside, linamarin. The cyanogen content of cassava foods can be reduced to safe levels by maceration, soaking, rinsing and baking; however, short-cut processing techniques can yield toxic food products. Our objective was to eliminate cyanogens from cassava so as to eliminate the need for food processing. To achieve this goal we generated transgenic acyanogenic cassava plants in which the expression of the cytochrome P450 genes ( CYP79D1 and CYP79D2), that catalyze the first-dedicated step in linamarin synthesis, was inhibited. Using a leaf-specific promoter to drive the antisense expression of the CYP79D1/ CYP79D2 genes we observed up to a 94% reduction in leaf linamarin content associated with an inhibition of CYP79D1 and CYP79D2 expression. Importantly, the linamarin content of roots also was reduced by 99% in transgenic plants having between 60 and 94% reduction in leaf linamarin content. Analysis of CYP79D1/ CYP79D2 transcript levels in transgenic roots indicated they were unchanged relative to wild-type plants. These results suggest that linamarin is transported from leaves to roots and that a threshold level of leaf linamarin production is required for transport.

  9. Improvement of cassava for resistance to insect pests and diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mwanga, R.O.M.

    1997-01-01

    The African cassava mosaic virus and cassava mealybug are devastating the cassava crop in Uganda. Because of the severe widespread occurrence of the virus and mealybug, in vitro cultured cassava plantlets instead of stem cuttings will be irradiated. In addition, the project has incorporated sweet potato. Installation of tissue culture laboratory at Namulonge was completed in early 1993. Work is in progress to establish efficient in vitro culture micropropagation techniques for the two crops. Small numbers of cassava plantlets of varieties 'TMS 30337' and 'TMS 4(2)1425' and sweet potato entry 30 are in vitro culture. Mass irradiation of plantlets is planned in future. (author). 4 refs

  10. Effect of Drying Method and Variety on Quality of Cassava Starch ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cassava tubers are main sources of calories and dietary fibre for Nigerians. Cassava tubers are highly perishable and need to be processed immediately after harvest. Cassava can be used for human consumption, livestock feed or industrial purposes. Cassava starch is one of the main industrial products of cassava ...

  11. An atlas of cassava in Africa : historical, agroecological and demographic aspects of crop distribution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carter, S.; Fresco, L.O.; Jones, P.

    1992-01-01

    This book contains 6 chapters covering: the dynamics of cassava in Africa; the introduction and diffusion of cassava in Africa; current distribution of cassava in Africa; the relationship of cassava distribution to environment and population; distribution and change in cassava production in Nigeria,

  12. Non-Preference for Oviposition Cassava Lace Bug Vatiga illudens (Hemiptera: Tingidae by Cassava Cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harley Nonato de Oliveira

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the non-preference for oviposition Vatiga illudens (Drake, 1922 (Hemiptera: Tingidae in cassava cultivars. The following cultivars were compared: Kiriris, N-25, Fécula Branca, IAC 90, M Ecu 72 and IAC 576, preference tests for oviposition were conducted, with a choice test in semi-field conditions. An adult double V. illudens was released in the leaves of cassava of their cultivars. Allowed to feeding and oviposition of these insects for 72 hours. We evaluated the number of eggs / female / leaf, the number of droppings / couple / sheet and the preference index for oviposition. The cultivar M Ecu 72 demonstrated to be highly resistant to cassava lace bug. This study showed that there are resistance mechanisms to V. illudens in cassava cultivars, which justifies the new studies on these cultivars in breeding programs, aiming to control this pest and identification of such mechanisms.

  13. MOISTURE ISOTHERMS OF CASSAVA BAGASSE COMPOSITES IMPREGNATED WITH CASSAVA STARCH ACETATE SOLUTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kátia N. MATSUI

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available

    The industrial processing of cassava to obtain starch generates a great variety of residues, with bagasse being the main solid residue produced. The improper disposal of this material represents an environmental problem and could be avoided by using this residue as a raw material to obtain biodegradable products. The bagasse produced during the process to obtain starch from cassava was used to prepare composites for disposable trays. Samples of the composites were impregnated with cassava starch acetate at atmospheric pressure and under vacuum condition. Moisture isotherms were determined and adjusted by GAB model. It was observed that the impregnation promoted an important decrease in sample higroscopicity, mainly at high relative humidities. These results suggest that starch acetate impregnation can be an alternative to water proofing biological materials like the composites obtained in this work. KEYWORDS: Cassava; bagasse; starch acetate; impregnation; isotherms.

  14. Revamping Nigerian Economy through Cassava Production

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nneka Umera-Okeke

    Applying the Open System Theory to the paper, the political actors, bureaucrats at the. Federal Ministries of Agriculture, Federal Ministries of Economic Planning, etc. must fashioned out policy and programmes targeted at increasing cassava production in. Nigeria. This policy must percolate to the various interventionist ...

  15. Performance evaluation of prototype mechanical cassava harvester ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Large-scale cassava harvesting, especially during the dry season, is a major constraint to its industrial demand and commercial production. Manual harvesting is slow and ... Results from field trials showed prototype harvesters weighing 268 – 310 kg can achieve optimum performance on ridged landforms. When harvested ...

  16. Standardization of cassava mahewu fermentation and assessment ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cassava root is the main staple for 70% of the population in Mozambique, particularly in inaccessible rural areas, but is known to be low in iron. Anaemia is a public health problem in mothers and preschool children in Mozambique and up to 40% of these cases are probably due to dietary iron deficiency. The World Health ...

  17. EVALUATION OF CASSAVA/SOYBEAN INTERCROPPING SYSTEM ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effects of three cassava genotypes (NR 8212, TMS 91934 and TMS 30572) grown sole or intercropped with soybean were investigated in two field experiments in 2000/2001 and 2001/2002 cropping seasons at Umudike in the lowland humid forest zone of south-eastern Nigeria. The plant height, canopy diameter, ...

  18. Phylogenetic diversity of cassava green mite, Mononychellus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cassava green mite (CGM) of the Mononychellus genus is an invasive species in Africa, introduced from South America. Its phylogenetic diversity over geographical localities has never been assessed in East Africa, where mite density dynamics oscillate from few individuals to a peak of hundreds. The objective of this study ...

  19. Micropropagation of selected cassava ( Manihot esculenta Crantz ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cassava, (Manihot esculenta Crantz) is a perennial woody herb which is cultivated in sub-Saharan Africa, Latin America and Asia for its edible starchy roots and its ability to withstand marginal environmental conditions. Due to high seed dormancy and sluggish germination rate, farmers normally practice propagation of ...

  20. Prospects for genomic selection in cassava breeding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) is a clonally propagated staple food crop in the tropics. Genomic selection (GS) has been implemented at three breeding institutions in Africa in order to reduce cycle times. Initial studies provided promising estimates of predictive abilities. Here, we expand on p...

  1. Adoption of Improved Cassava Production Technologies in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The findings showed that the area has young, experienced, good level of education and high social participation amongst members, which is an advantage for innovation adoption and transfer. Majority inherited their cassava farms and financed them mainly through personal savings. The result showed that extension ...

  2. PHYLOGENETIC DIVERSITY OF CASSAVA GREEN MITE ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ACSS

    Cassava green mite (CGM) of the Mononychellus genus is an invasive species in Africa, introduced from South. America. Its phylogenetic diversity over geographical localities has never been assessed in East Africa, where mite density dynamics oscillate from few individuals to a peak of hundreds. The objective of this study ...

  3. The Post-Genomic Era of Cassava

    Science.gov (United States)

    The genomics era revolutionized our efficiency at gathering and disseminating scientific information required for advancing our understanding of plant biology. In the case of cassava, the genomics revolution has not kept pace with other staple food and fiber crops important to global economies. As a...

  4. Cassava household expenditure and anthropometric indices of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Expenditure on cassava and other staple foods was determined for each household of the preschool children and classified into two groups and the average determined. Significance of difference between the mean Z – scores of the children for above and below average expenditure households was determined by Student ...

  5. Adoption Of Improved Cassava Varieties Among Smallscale ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Adoption Of Improved Cassava Varieties Among Smallscale Farmers In Ikot Ekpene Agricultural Zone Of Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria. ... Global Approaches to Extension Practice: A Journal of Agricultural Extension. Journal Home ... Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, and multiple regression analysis. Results ...

  6. Transgenic cassava lines carrying heterologous alternative oxidase ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Afuape

    2013-07-03

    Jul 3, 2013 ... Organized embryogenic callus development: In our experiment, somatic embryos were developed from leaf lobes collected from transgenic cassava lines carrying the AtAOX1a gene. Immature leaf lobes measuring about 1 to 6 mm obtained from about six weeks old in vitro derived plants were used.

  7. The potential of using biotechnology to improve cassava: a review

    OpenAIRE

    Chavarriaga-Aguirre, Paul; Brand, Alejandro; Medina, Adriana; Pr?as, M?nica; Escobar, Roosevelt; Martinez, Juan; D?az, Paula; L?pez, Camilo; Roca, Willy M; Tohme, Joe

    2016-01-01

    The importance of cassava as the fourth largest source of calories in the world requires that contributions of biotechnology to improving this crop, advances and current challenges, be periodically reviewed. Plant biotechnology offers a wide range of opportunities that can help cassava become a better crop for a constantly changing world. We therefore review the state of knowledge on the current use of biotechnology applied to cassava cultivars and its implications for breeding the crop into ...

  8. CHARACTERISATION OF CASSAVA FIBRE FOR USE AS A BIOMATERIAL

    OpenAIRE

    Lois Larbie; Claude Fiifi Hayford; Elsie Effah Kaufmann

    2012-01-01

    In this study we investigate the cytotoxicity of de-starched cassava fibre granules and fine powder using human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) and examine changes in the composition of Simulated Body Fluid (SBF) resulting from immersion of cassava fibre samples. The purpose of the study was to characterise cassavafibre for possible biomaterial applications. Preliminary results indicate insignificant cytotoxic effects on PBMCs with cassava sample concentrations of 0.1g/ml, 0.025g/ml...

  9. The industrial applications of cassava: current status, opportunities and prospects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shubo; Cui, Yanyan; Zhou, Yuan; Luo, Zhiting; Liu, Jidong; Zhao, Mouming

    2017-06-01

    Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) is a drought-tolerant, staple food crop that is grown in tropical and subtropical areas. As an important raw material, cassava is a valuable food source in developing countries and is also extensively employed for producing starch, bioethanol and other bio-based products (e.g. feed, medicine, cosmetics and biopolymers). These cassava-based industries also generate large quantities of wastes/residues rich in organic matter and suspended solids, providing great potential for conversion into value-added products through biorefinery. However, the community of cassava researchers is relatively small and there is very limited information on cassava. Therefore this review summarizes current knowledge on the system biology, economic value, nutritional quality and industrial applications of cassava and its wastes in an attempt to accelerate understanding of the basic biology of cassava. The review also discusses future perspectives with respect to integrating and utilizing cassava information resources for increasing the economic and environmental sustainability of cassava industries. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  10. Exploiting the combination of natural and genetically engineered resistance to cassava mosaic and cassava brown streak viruses impacting cassava production in Africa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hervé Vanderschuren

    Full Text Available Cassava brown streak disease (CBSD and cassava mosaic disease (CMD are currently two major viral diseases that severely reduce cassava production in large areas of Sub-Saharan Africa. Natural resistance has so far only been reported for CMD in cassava. CBSD is caused by two virus species, Cassava brown streak virus (CBSV and Ugandan cassava brown streak virus (UCBSV. A sequence of the CBSV coat protein (CP highly conserved between the two virus species was used to demonstrate that a CBSV-CP hairpin construct sufficed to generate immunity against both viral species in the cassava model cultivar (cv. 60444. Most of the transgenic lines showed high levels of resistance under increasing viral loads using a stringent top-grafting method of inoculation. No viral replication was observed in the resistant transgenic lines and they remained free of typical CBSD root symptoms 7 month post-infection. To generate transgenic cassava lines combining resistance to both CBSD and CMD the hairpin construct was transferred to a CMD-resistant farmer-preferred Nigerian landrace TME 7 (Oko-Iyawo. An adapted protocol allowed the efficient Agrobacterium-based transformation of TME 7 and the regeneration of transgenic lines with high levels of CBSV-CP hairpin-derived small RNAs. All transgenic TME 7 lines were immune to both CBSV and UCBSV infections. Further evaluation of the transgenic TME 7 lines revealed that CBSD resistance was maintained when plants were co-inoculated with East African cassava mosaic virus (EACMV, a geminivirus causing CMD. The innovative combination of natural and engineered virus resistance in farmer-preferred landraces will be particularly important to reducing the increasing impact of cassava viral diseases in Africa.

  11. A time series transcriptome analysis of cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) varieties challenged with Ugandan cassava brown streak virus

    OpenAIRE

    Amuge, T.; Berger, D. K.; Katari, M. S.; Myburg, A. A.; Goldman, S. L.; Ferguson, M. E.

    2017-01-01

    A time-course transcriptome analysis of two cassava varieties that are either resistant or susceptible to cassava brown streak disease (CBSD) was conducted using RNASeq, after graft inoculation with Ugandan cassava brown streak virus (UCBSV). From approximately 1.92 billion short reads, the largest number of differentially expressed genes (DEGs) was obtained in the resistant (Namikonga) variety at 2 days after grafting (dag) (3887 DEGs) and 5 dag (4911 DEGs). At the same time points, several ...

  12. Effect of chemical and mechanical weed control on cassava yield, soil quality and erosion under cassava cropping system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islami, Titiek; Wisnubroto, Erwin; Utomo, Wani

    2016-04-01

    Three years field experiments were conducted to study the effect of chemical and mechanical weed control on soil quality and erosion under cassava cropping system. The experiment were conducted at University Brawijaya field experimental station, Jatikerto, Malang, Indonesia. The experiments were carried out from 2011 - 2014. The treatments consist of three cropping system (cassava mono culture; cassava + maize intercropping and cassava + peanut intercropping), and two weed control method (chemical and mechanical methods). The experimental result showed that the yield of cassava first year and second year did not influenced by weed control method and cropping system. However, the third year yield of cassava was influence by weed control method and cropping system. The cassava yield planted in cassava + maize intercropping system with chemical weed control methods was only 24 t/ha, which lower compared to other treatments, even with that of the same cropping system used mechanical weed control. The highest cassava yield in third year was obtained by cassava + peanuts cropping system with mechanical weed control method. After three years experiment, the soil of cassava monoculture system with chemical weed control method possessed the lowest soil organic matter, and soil aggregate stability. During three years of cropping soil erosion in chemical weed control method, especially on cassava monoculture, was higher compared to mechanical weed control method. The soil loss from chemical control method were 40 t/ha, 44 t/ha and 54 t/ha for the first, second and third year crop. The soil loss from mechanical weed control method for the same years was: 36 t/ha, 36 t/ha and 38 t/ha. Key words: herbicide, intercropping, soil organic matter, aggregate stability.

  13. Chemical safety of cassava products in regions adopting cassava production and processing - experience from Southern Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nyirenda, D.B.; Chiwona-Karltun, L.; Chitundu, M.

    2011-01-01

    and perceptions concerning cassava and chemical food safety. Chips, mixed biscuits and flour, procured from households and markets in three regions of Zambia (Luapula-North, Western and Southern) as well as products from the Northern, Central and Southern regions of Malawi, were analyzed for total cyanogenic...... of products commercially available on the market. Risk assessments disclose that effects harmful to the developing central nervous system (CNS) may be observed at a lower exposure than previously anticipated. We interviewed farmers in Zambia and Malawi about their cultivars, processing procedures......The cassava belt area in Southern Africa is experiencing an unforeseen surge in cassava production, processing and consumption. Little documentation exists on the effects of this surge on processing procedures, the prevailing levels of cyanogenic glucosides of products consumed and the levels...

  14. Fungal enrichment of cassava peels proteins

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hope&shola

    2006-02-02

    Feb 2, 2006 ... Short Communication. Fungal enrichment of cassava peels proteins. Obadina A.O.1*, Oyewole O.B.2 Sanni .L. O, 3 and Abiola S. S.4 .... 0.22 M KOH solution and a few drops of octanol were added to each sample. The mixtures were again heated for 30 min with constant stirring. The contents of the beaker ...

  15. Progress in cassava technology transfer in Uganda

    OpenAIRE

    Otim-Nape, G. W.; Bua, A.; Thresh, J. M.

    1997-01-01

    This publication contains the full text of papers presented at a Workshop held in Masindi, Uganda, 9-12 January 1996, and sponsored by the Gatsby Charitable Foundation. During the Workshop the need became evident for additional statistics on the multiplication, distribution and uptake of improved varieties of cassava in the six districts where activities are supported by The Gatsby Charitable Foundation and also elsewhere. The results of a subsequent survey in selected sub-counties of each of...

  16. Improvement in the nutritive quality of cassava and its by-products ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A review of the extent of fermentation of cassava and its by-products was made in order to highlight the role played by fermentation on the bio-conversion of cassava and cassava by-products for improved nutrient quality. The reasons for cassava products fermentation mentioned were synonymous with the reasons ...

  17. comparative analysis of type 3 and type 4 cassava peeling machines

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    HOME

    hectares of land [3]. Other major producers of cassava are Congo DR, Thailand, Indonesia, China, Malaysia, ... with type 4 cassava peeling machine. The study seeks an uncomplicated design to make it cost effective just ... The design and development of type 4 cassava peeling machine is similar to type 3 cassava peeling ...

  18. Improvement in the nutritive quality of cassava and its by-products ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-12-29

    Dec 29, 2008 ... A review of the extent of fermentation of cassava and its by-products was made in order to highlight the role played by fermentation on the bio-conversion of cassava and cassava by-products for improved nutrient quality. The reasons for cassava products fermentation mentioned were synonymous with the.

  19. THE PRODUCTION OF A LOW DIETARY BULK DENSITY CASSAVA

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    iya beji

    ABSTRACT. Fermentation is an ancient food-processing technique, employed in the preparation of cassava flours for home consumption. This study compares two fermentation procedures practiced at the village level in Nigeria. In the first procedure, sliced cassava chips are soaked in water for 3 days; in the second ...

  20. Farmers' perceptions of practices and constraints in cassava ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-11-19

    Nov 19, 2008 ... insufficient drying (42%), the use of infected cassava roots by plant pathogenic microbes from the fields (12%), or too ... discolouration, 112 farmers out of a total of 185 who were aware about chips damage, practiced sun- drying, and 21% ... important constraints in cassava chips production. From the results ...

  1. Vitamin A cassava in Nigeria: crop development and delivery | Ilona ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Vitamin A cassava in Nigeria: crop development and delivery. ... African Journal of Food, Agriculture, Nutrition and Development ... By 2016, HarvestPlus and its partners had successfully developed and delivered vitamin A cassava varieties to more than one million farming households in Nigeria and the Democratic ...

  2. control of the cassava mealybug in africa: lessons from a

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    implementing IPM in cassava or other crops? These questions are ... Colombia originally feeding on P. herreni, and from Brazilon P. manihoti, are ...... Crop. Protection 8:147-168. Hammond, W.N.O. 1988. Ecological Assessment of Natural Enemies of the Cassava Mealybug. Phenacoccus manihoti Mat.-Ferr. (Hom.:.

  3. Bemisia tabaci : the whitefly vector of cassava mosaic geminiviruses ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Significant gaps in our understanding of this system remain, particularly concerning the importance of interactions of B. tabaci with other arthropod pests of cassava and the influence of ecological factors such as soil nutrients indirectly through their effects upon cassava. An holistic ecological approach to future work on B.

  4. Assessing arthropod pests and disease occurrence in cassava ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    On-station trials were conducted at CSIR-Crops Research Institute's research farms at Kwadaso and Ejura, Ashanti Region, Ghana, during 2010/2011 cropping season, to assess the pests and disease occurrence in cassava-cowpea intercrop farming systems and their effect on yield of produce. Three improved cassava ...

  5. Socio-Economic Factors Affecting Adoption of Improved Cassava ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The result shows that the major factors affecting adoption of improved cassava varieties were adaptability of the technology compatibility, age, educational status, sex and complexity of the technology. The result also reviewed that more of elderly people farmed cassava in the study area and the farmers were more of women ...

  6. Participation and performance of root crops scientists on cassava ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study was conducted among cassava crops research scientists in Abia State Nigeria in order to evaluate their participation and performance in cassava research. The study described the socio economic characteristics of the researchers ascertain their level of participation in different research activities, identify their ...

  7. WEED FLORA OF CASSAVA IN WEST NILE ZONES OF UGANDA ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ACSS

    Information on weeds of cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) in eastern Africa is limited. The objective of this study was to establish the status of weed flora in selected cassava growing regions of Uganda. This study was conducted in 2013 at Abi Zonal Agricultural Research and Development Institute; (AbiZARDI) in Arua, ...

  8. The effect of different cassava ( Manihot utilissima ) components on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction: Liver is the main organ in vertebrates that is responsible for metabolism of substances ingested. Cassava is a rich source of carbohydrate that provides calories for many Nigerians. It is grossly deficient in protein, fat, some minerals and vitamins. The effect of consumption of the different cassava components on ...

  9. Bemisia tabaci : the whitefly vector of cassava mosaic geminiviruses ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The ecology of the Bemisia tabaci/cassava/African cassava mosaic virus (ACMV) pathosystem is reviewed briefly with special attention given to the parameters affecting the pattern of population development of B. tabaci. Significant gaps in our understanding of this system remain, particularly concerning the importance of ...

  10. Characterization and utilization of fermented cassava flour in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Composite breads of 85% wheat and 15% cassava fermented flour were accepted by a sensory evaluation panellist. Fermented flour has been successfully used in breadmaking and placali preparation. It is a means of diversifying cassava utilization form. Keywords: Gelatinized food, yace cultivar, sensory evaluation, ...

  11. Efficiency of resource - use in cassava production in Kogi State ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... Kogi State to study the efficiency of resource use in cassava production and its implications on food security and environmental degradation. The study reveals that land, family labour, hired labour, fertilizer and planting materials are significant factors influencing the output of cassava. The scale coefficient is 1.304 hence, ...

  12. Quality evaluation of 'gari' produced from cassava and sweet potato ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The quality evaluation of gari produced from mixes of cassava (Manihot esculenta, Crantz) and Sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas) tubers were investigated and reported. This is done to allow for the establishment of the best mixes of cassava and potato tubers to be adopted in the composite gari produced. Gari was produced ...

  13. Functional and pasting properties of cassava and sweet potato ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The functional and pasting properties of cassava starch and sweet potato starch mixtures at different ratios were investigated. Starches from four different cassava genotypes ('Adehye', AFS048, 'Bankye Botan' and OFF146) and one local sweet potato were used for the study. The swelling volume and swelling power of ...

  14. 181 Farmers Adoption Scenarios for the Control of Cassava Mosaic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    exchange earner were highlighted and brought to lime light. ... expansion of postharvest processing and marketing outlets for cassava products. ... Purpose of the Study. The purpose of the study was to determine the farmers' adoption scenarios under the. Cassava Enterprise Development Project in Enugu State, Nigeria.

  15. Optimization of the Ethanol Fermentation of Cassava Wastewater ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This research work focused on the optimisation of the cassava wastewater medium for ethanol fermentation. The main thrust was the investigation of the influence of the glucose concentration, nutrient (NH4Cl) level, and cell concentration on the yield of ethanol from cassava wastewater. Twenty experiments based on ...

  16. Study of the Reproductive Characteristics of Nine Cassava Accessions

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

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    as syrups, ethanol and biodegradable plastics. (Pranamuda et al., 1996; Garcia & Dale,. 1999). With such a wide use to which cassava can be put, the main objective of breeding cassava is to develop varieties superior to those currently cultivated, especially for the economically and, or biologically important traits such as ...

  17. Cassava as feedstock for ethanol production in South Africa

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sanette

    2013-07-31

    Jul 31, 2013 ... fermenting cassava pulp (starch and peels) to ethanol with a surface-engineered strain of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Nitayavardhana et al. (2010) used ultrasound to try and increase the ethanol yield and overall ethanol conversion efficiency when converting cassava starch to ethanol using S. cerevisiae, ...

  18. Effects of submerged and anaerobic fermentations on cassava flour ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Oke Oluwatoyin Victoria

    2015-03-18

    Mar 18, 2015 ... fermentation had greater sensory quality and higher consumer preference than that of anaerobic fermentation. Key words: Cassava fermentation, physicochemical, functional, ... enumerated the influence of age and variety of cassava roots as another constraint. Oyewole and Afolami (2004) investigated the ...

  19. Effects of weather conditions on cassava yield in Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study examines the effect of agro-climatic variables on cassava yield in Nigeria. Secondary data on cassava yields were collected over the period of 40 years (1965 – 2004) from international institute of Tropical Agriculture (IITA) Ibadan. The Linear Trend Model (regression) and Parvin\\'s Model were used for data ...

  20. 13 Comparative Effects of Cassava Starch and Simple Sugar in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Arc. Usman A. Jalam

    Abstract. Comparative effects of simple laboratory quality sugar and cassava starch on grade C35 concrete were studied in the laboratory. The simple white sugar was used at concentrations of 0 to 1% by weight of cement in concrete cured at 3, 7, 14 and 28 days using ordinary Portland cement. Cassava starch of the same ...

  1. Catalase activity of cassava ( Manihot esculenta ) plant under ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African cassava mosaic virus has caused an immersed low yield of the cassava crop. The virus impacts stress on the cellular metabolism of the plant producing a lot of reactive oxygen species and increases the expression of the antioxidant enzymes. The activity of catalase as a response to oxidative stress was investigated ...

  2. Effect of Replacement of Maize with Cassava Root Meal Fortified ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effects of replacement of maize with cassava root meal (CRM) fortified with palm oil on performance of starter broilers were determined in a 28-day feeding trial. Diets T2, T3, T4 and T5 were formulated such that they contained cassava root meal, fortified with 20% palm oil, in the proportions 10, 20, 30 and 40%, ...

  3. The potential of using biotechnology to improve cassava: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chavarriaga-Aguirre, Paul; Brand, Alejandro; Medina, Adriana; Prías, Mónica; Escobar, Roosevelt; Martinez, Juan; Díaz, Paula; López, Camilo; Roca, Willy M; Tohme, Joe

    2016-01-01

    The importance of cassava as the fourth largest source of calories in the world requires that contributions of biotechnology to improving this crop, advances and current challenges, be periodically reviewed. Plant biotechnology offers a wide range of opportunities that can help cassava become a better crop for a constantly changing world. We therefore review the state of knowledge on the current use of biotechnology applied to cassava cultivars and its implications for breeding the crop into the future. The history of the development of the first transgenic cassava plant serves as the basis to explore molecular aspects of somatic embryogenesis and friable embryogenic callus production. We analyze complex plant-pathogen interactions to profit from such knowledge to help cassava fight bacterial diseases and look at candidate genes possibly involved in resistance to viruses and whiteflies-the two most important traits of cassava. The review also covers the analyses of main achievements in transgenic-mediated nutritional improvement and mass production of healthy plants by tissue culture and synthetic seeds. Finally, the perspectives of using genome editing and the challenges associated to climate change for further improving the crop are discussed. During the last 30 yr, great advances have been made in cassava using biotechnology, but they need to scale out of the proof of concept to the fields of cassava growers.

  4. Primary and cyclic somatic embryogenesis in cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Raemakers, C.J.J.M.

    1993-01-01

    Cassava is one of the major food crops in the tropics. Several of the major problems in cassava can probably only be solved by breeding with cellular and molecular techniques, e.g., the introduction of specific genes (virus resistance, protein content, quality aspects and so on). These

  5. Field Screening of Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) Germplasm ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fiifi Baidoo

    Marmey P., Beeching J. R., Hamon S. and Charrier A. (1994). Evaluation of cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) germplasm collection using RAPD markers. Euphytica 74: 203–209. Roa A. C., Maya, M. M., Duque M. M., Tohme J., Allen A. C. and Bonierbale M. W. (1997). AFLP analysis of relationships among cassava and ...

  6. A Biosensor for the Determination of Cyanide in Cassava | Jasper ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A simple biosensor for the determination of total cyanide in cassava is demonstrated. The biosensor was developed based on the use of a cyanide ion selective electrode made from AgI and Ag2S and the enzyme linamarase which was isolated from cassava root cortex. Results are reported on a sensing system which ...

  7. Development and application of transgenic technologies in cassava

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Taylor, N.; Chavarriaga, P.; Raemakers, C.J.J.M.; Sititunga, D.; Zhang, P.

    2004-01-01

    The capacity to integrate transgenes into the tropical root crop cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) is now established and being utilized to generate plants expressing traits of agronomic interest. The tissue culture and gene transfer systems currently employed to produce these transgenic cassava

  8. Understanding the productivity of cassava in West Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ezui, K.S.

    2017-01-01

    Drought stress and sub-optimal soil fertility management are major constraints to crop production in general and to cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) in particular in the rain-fed cropping systems in West Africa. Cassava is an important source of calories for millions of smallholder households in

  9. Economics of Improved and Local Varieties of Cassava among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was based on the economics of improved and local cassava varieties and its welfare effect on producing farmers in Oyo State, Nigeria. A three-stage sampling procedure was used to collect information from 144 cassava farmers in the study area. However, only 120 pieces of questionnaires were retrieved and ...

  10. Effect of lactic acid bacteria starter culture fermentation of cassava ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SERVER

    2007-08-20

    Aug 20, 2007 ... culture fermented cassava fufu flour were not significantly different in terms of color, odor, and texture, but the cassava fufu flour produced using starter culture SL19 had the highest overall acceptability. (P<0.05). Key words: ... human consumption, while in Asia and parts of Latin. America, it is also used ...

  11. Boosting food security in sub-Saharan Africa through cassava ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Boosting food security in sub-Saharan Africa through cassava production: a case study of Nigeria. ... Nigerian Journal of Economic History ... The paper argues that cassava which is widely grown in Sub-Saharan Africa with a lot of variety of food derivatives from it can reduce to the barest minimum the present state of food ...

  12. Weeds and their control in cassava | Melifonwu | African Crop ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Appropriate weed control methods for resource-limited cassava farmers, namely, cultural and biological, as well as an integrated system which combines two or more weed control methods at low input levels are suggested as ways of ensuring sustained production of cassava in developing countries. Key Words: Manihot ...

  13. Sources of resistance to cassava anthracnose disease | Owolade ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A total of 436 African landraces and 497 improved cassava genotypes were planted in 1996, 1997, 1998 and 1999 growing seasons.. These were evaluated for their reactions to cassava anthracnose disease (CAD) under natural infection conditions at Ibadan (a high infection zone). The severity of the disease was ...

  14. Evaluation of a cabinet dryer developed for cassava chips | Taiwo ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Drying is a very important unit operation in the processing of fresh cassava root tubers into chips because it forestalls unprecedented and, sometimes, incalculable amount of losses often incurred by cassava farmers and processors due to spoilage and massive reduction in quality, and by extension, income. This study ...

  15. Processing method influences the effect of Cassava ( Manihot ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cassava is consumed in many tropical countries and is fast becoming the major raw material of many diets, especially in the bakery, brewery and pharmaceutical industries. This study was aimed at determining the effects of various formulations of Cassava feeds on blood lipid profile in rats. Forty adult Wistar rats weighing ...

  16. Differentials in returns and adoption of improved cassava varieties ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study analysed the determinants of adoption of improved cassava varieties by farmers in Umunneochi LGA of Abia State, estimated the level of adoption of the improved varieties and compared the yield and income among adopters and non-adopters of improved cassava varieties. A multistage sampling technique was ...

  17. Adoption of improved cassava varieties in six rural communities in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A survey of 118 randomly selected cassava farmers was conducted in Ukpor, Amichi, Osumenyi, Ezinifite, Ekwulummili and Ebenator, communities in Nnewi South Local Government Area of Anambra State using structured interview schedule, to determine the use of improved cassava and local cassavacultivars in the area.

  18. Farmers\\' Perception Of Improved And Local Cassava Cultivars In ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Quantity of the byproduct of cassava, taste of byproduct, maturity time and disease resistance significantly contributed to farmers' perception of the cassava cultivars. Apart from good agronomic characteristics of disease resistance and early maturity, farmers' perception of cultivars is also tied to food value issues, field ...

  19. Identification and analysis of cassava genotype TME3 bacteria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cassava is an economically important crop in sub-Saharan Africa; however, its yield potential is constrained by cassava mosaic disease (CMD) infection. Classical genetics and biotechnology are being harnessed to overcome the disease and secure yields for farmers. The CMD2 resistance locus flanked by three simple ...

  20. Cassava leaves as protein source for pigs in Central Vietnam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2007-01-01

    The aim of the studies described in this thesis was to evaluate the use of cassava leaves as protein sources for pigs when used at high levels in the diet, either in fresh form or with simplified methods of processing. In twenty cassava varieties taken from the upper part of the plant at the root

  1. Efficency of cassava processing techniques among rural women in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Twenty eight hours was spent in processing cassava tuber into tapioca using traditional methods. It was discovered that using trado-modern and modern methods in cassava tuber processing were more efficient in terms of output, labour input and costs than traditional method. However, there existed no modern technology ...

  2. Soaking and drying of cassava roots reduced cyanogenic potential ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2011-10-12

    Oct 12, 2011 ... Key words: Cassava flour, soaking, total hydrogen cyanide. INTRODUCTION. Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) is one of the most important food crops ... vision, ataxia of gait, deafness and weakness (Howlett,. 1994; Cardoso et al., 2005). These medical conditions caused by cyanide overload could be ...

  3. Effects of submerged and anaerobic fermentations on cassava flour ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cassava tubers for processing into cassava flour, Lafun a Nigerian locally fermented product was subjected to two different types of fermentations: submerged and anaerobic fermentation for 72 h. Physicochemical changes that occurred during fermentation and their influence on the functional, rheological and sensory ...

  4. Comparative Effects of Cassava Starch and Simple Sugar in Cement ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Comparative effects of simple laboratory quality sugar and cassava starch on grade C35 concrete were studied in the laboratory. The simple white sugar was used at concentrations of 0 to 1% by weight of cement in concrete cured at 3, 7, 14 and 28 days using ordinary Portland cement. Cassava starch of the same ...

  5. Investigation of ethanol productivity of cassava crop as a sustainable ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The ethanol productivity of cassava crop was investigated in a laboratory experiment by correlating volumes and masses of ethanol produced to the masses of samples used. Cassava tubers (variety TMS 30555) were peeled, cut and washed. 5, 15, 25 and 35 kg samples of the tubers were weighed in three replicates, ...

  6. Technical Efficiency Among Cassava Farmers im Ikenne Local ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cassava has played and continues to play a remarkable role on the agricultural stage of Nigeria. The inability of the country meeting existing demand has been traced to resource use efficiency of the farmers. The study evaluates the technical efficiency among cassava farmers in Ikenne Local Government Area of Ogun ...

  7. Resource Use Efficency by Rural Poor Cassava Farmers in Imo ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Motivated by this, the study aim is to assess the possibility of alleviating poverty in the rural set-up through efficient and effective use of resources by rural poor cassava farmers in Imo State. It adopts a multistage sampling technique, and a total of 120 cassava farmers were used for the study. The data was analyzed using ...

  8. Inventory of cassava plant protection and development projects in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A total of 303 cassava protection and development projects were identified of which about half are plant protection-oriented. Most activities on cassava protection have been centred on biological control and host plant resistance. The least activity has been on chemical control. The applicability of the collected database is ...

  9. Refined cassava flour in bread making: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johanna Alejandra Aristizabal Galvis

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Different studies have developed a variety of breads using cassava flour, with similar characteristics to wheat flour breads. The use of cassava flour in bread making is a convenient alternative for promoting the use of a local crop as well as reducing imports of wheat flour, promoting the production of high quality cassava flour, offering a gluten-free product and developing biofortified and fortified foods. Although the substitution level of cassava flour is limited, in some products, the incorporation of additives or flours from other crops improve the nutritional value and breadmaking quality of the baked foods. Several limitations have hindered the success of initiatives to promote, in some cassava producing countries, the intensive use cassava flour in bread making. Among these include the costs and efficiency of processing technologies, standards of the quality of cassava flour and lack of favorable policies. Further studies about bioavailability and retention of nutrients on baked foods and evaluation on the effects of processing cassava flour in relation to increasing the resistance starch are required to provide scientific evident for the health benefits of this flour.

  10. Assessment of labour roles by gender in cassava production in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study assessed the labour roles played by different gender in cassava production in Ikpoba-Okha Local Government Area of Edo State, Nigeria. Data were collected from 120 cassava farmers purposively selected from three (3) communities with the aid of questionnaire validated by expert judgment. Data collected were ...

  11. Effects of processing conditions on hydrolysis of cassava starch ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Different procedures for hydrolyzing raw cassava starch were studied, namely: acid, acid-enzyme and enzyme-enzyme hydrolysis. The effects of temperature, initial cassava starch concentration, acid concentration and time on acid hydrolysis using dilute hydrochloric acid were investigated. In addition, the effect of initial ...

  12. Effects of different levels of supplementation with cassava leaves ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effects of different levels of supplementation with cassava leaves ( Manihot esculenta ) on growth, parasite load and some characteristics of blood in the dwarf goat ... Also, supplementations with fresh cassava leaves do not affect red blood cells, white blood cells, haematocrite and sedimentation speed of the blood of Dwarf ...

  13. Economic Efficiency of small and Medium Scale Cassava ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... medium scale enterprises. Small and medium scale cassava processor should therefore focus more on ways of accessing credit while government should ensure more extension visits to the processors. Key words; Economic Efficiency, Small and Medium Enterprise, Cassava Processing Enterprise, Nigeria, Agribusiness ...

  14. Shrimp Waste Meal Supplementation Of Cassava Products Based ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    With the objective of investigating shrimp waste (SWM) and cassava leaf (CLM) meals as cheap alternatives and protein source mixtures that would best complement cassava root-soybean ration in total replacement for maize in broiler diets, six iso-energetic and iso-nitrogenous diets were evaluated using two weeks old ...

  15. Non-Vector Mechanisms for Transmission and Infection of Cassava ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    In replicated screen-house experiments, transmission of CBSV was achieved through cutting tools (22 %) using susceptible cassava cv. Albert as test plants. Up to 54 % ... such recent wide-spread detection of the disease is not known. ..... Legg JP and MD Raya Survey of cassava virus diseases in Tanzania. Intern. J.

  16. Assessment of Extension Service Delivery on Improved Cassava ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SH

    Assessment of Extension Service Delivery on Improved. Cassava Technologies Among Cassava Farmers in Osun. State, Nigeria. 1. Ajala, A. O.,. 1. Ogunjimi, S.I. and. 2. Farinde, A.J.. 1Department of Agricultural Extension and Rural Development, Landmark University, Omu –Aran, Kwara. State. 2Department of Agricultural ...

  17. effect of cassava flour processing methods and substitution level

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    MASAMBA

    produce bread. This study was carried out to assess the effect of using two differently processed cassava flour (fermented and unfermented) and substitution level on proximate ... to improve the bread characteristics from different cassava processing methods and assessing ..... Tobago. Journal of Curriculum and Teaching.

  18. Farmers Accessibility to the Cassava Initiative Elements in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Government cassava initiative was introduced in July 2002 to address the poor linkage between production, marketing and utilization of cassava. This study examined the extent of farmers' accessibility to the elements of this initiative. Data were obtained from individuals who had at least 10 years membership of ...

  19. Effect od Soybean/Cassava Flour Blend in the Proximate ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cassava tubers were also peeled, chopped, dried and milled in a similar fashion. Eventually, the soybean and cassava flour samples were blended individually with the quality protein maize flour in three different proportions: 5:95, 10:90 and 15:85, respectively. Normal maize flour was used as a control for the quality ...

  20. Toxicity of cassava wastewater effluents to African catfish: Clarias ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The relative lethal and sublethal toxicity of cassava wastewater effluents from a local food factory were investigated on Clarias gariepinus fingerlings using a renewable static bioassay. The physico-chemical characteristics of the cassava wastewater effluents showed a number of deviations from the standards of the Federal ...

  1. Isolation and characterization of amylase from fermented cassava ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The processing of cassava tubers for the production of nutrient enriched cassava flour, gari and farinha madioca, is usually accompanied with the production of stinking wastewater which usually constitute nuisance to both terrestrial and aquatic life. Thus, this study sought to assess the potential utilization of the wastewater ...

  2. Sensory evaluation of different preparations of cassava leaves from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aikay Shaikh

    2013-11-13

    Nov 13, 2013 ... Cassava leaves are largely consumed in Africa and are among the top three African indigenous vegetables rich in nutrients. Leaves from bitter (Manihot utilissima), sweet (Manihot dulcis) and wild. (Manihot glaziovii) species of cassava were cooked by boiling in salted (sodium bicarbonate and table.

  3. Sensory evaluation of different preparations of cassava leaves from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cassava leaves are largely consumed in Africa and are among the top three African indigenous vegetables rich in nutrients. Leaves from bitter (Manihot utilissima), sweet (Manihot dulcis) and wild (Manihot glaziovii) species of cassava were cooked by boiling in salted (sodium bicarbonate and table salt) water with the ...

  4. Gender differentials in adoption of cassava value addition ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study investigated adoption by gender of Cassava Value Addition Technologies (CVATs) in Imo State. It identified CVATs disseminated to farmers among other issues. Multi-stage random sampling technique was used in the selection of respondents. A sample size of 150 cassava farmers comprising of 75 male and 75 ...

  5. simple and low-cost strategy for micropropagation of cassava ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    With the aim of transferring micropropagation techniques to cassava seed producers, a simple and lowcost medium for in vitro micropropagation was developed. CM6740-7 cassava cultivar from CIAT was used as planting material. Commercially available nutrients were used in order to substitute the propagation media ...

  6. Toxicity of Cassava ( Manihot esculenta Crantz) effluent on the Nile ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Analysis of cassava tuber was conducted to determine some of the active ingredients and the toxicity of cassava effluent on the fingerlings of the Nile Tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus (L). The phytochemical analysis indicated the presence of hydrogen cyanide, oxalate and phytate. While hydrogen cyanide and oxalate ...

  7. Production Relationships among Cassava Farmers in Etche Local ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study examined production relationships among cassava farmers in Etche L.G.A. of Rivers State, Nigeria. Multistage random sampling technique was used in the data generation exercise. A total of 96 cassava farmers were randomly selected from three out of the five clans for interview using structured questionnaire.

  8. Assessment of Constraints to Cassava Value-Added Enterprises in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The severe constraints of cassava processing were lack of funds, high cost of processing equipment, and scarcity of cassava tubers with respective mean scores ( X ) of 3.44, 3.35 and 3.23. The chi-square test of independence revealed that positive and significant relationship existed between socio-economic characteristics ...

  9. Nutritional potentials of differently processed cassava peels and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Two unconventional feed ingredients (cassava peels and whole bovine blood) were processed and the effect of such processing on their chemical compositions was examined. Cassava peels from the sweet variety TMS 30572 were subjected to 3 different processing methods namely ash treatment (ATD), parboiling (PAB) ...

  10. Characterization of cassava starch attributes of different genotypes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Anggraini, V.; Sudarmonowati, E.; Hartati, N.Sri.; Suurs, L.C.J.M.; Visser, R.G.F.

    2009-01-01

    The genetic variation of starch of Indonesian cassava genotypes with various morphological characteristics of roots and eco-geographical origin was characterized and compared. The morphological characteristics of the roots of 71 collected cassava genotypes were classified into yellow and white for

  11. optimization of the ethanol fermentation of cassava wastewater ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Umo

    Optimising cassava wastewater as the medium for ethanol production would improve the ethanol yield, and thereby reduce the cost of production. KEYWORDS: Ethanol, cassava wastewater, optimization, culture medium, response surface methodology. 1. INTRODUCTION. Biofuels which are fuels derived from biomass ...

  12. Evaluation of the effect of ginger modified cassava starch as ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Raw cassava starch has been used as thickener and binder in the formulation of water based paint, but with a problem of loss of viscosity in a very short period. This study evaluates the modification of cassava starch using active component of ginger extract and its use as a water- based paint thickener. 150 g of starch in ...

  13. Socio-economic factors influencing cassava production in Kuje and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study examined socio-economic factors influencing output level of cassava production in Kuje and Abaji Area Councils of Federal Capital Territory, Abuja. The specific objectives were to:identify the socio-economic characteristics of sampled cassava farmers in the study area; determine the socio-economic factors ...

  14. Quality of gari (roasted cassava mash) in Lagos State, Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Gari is creamy-white, partially gelatinized roasted free flowing granular flour made from cassava roots. It is a major staple consumed in both urban and rural areas due to its convenience. Quality of Gari (roasted cassava mash) in Lagos, Nigeria was investigated. Gari samples were collected at random from different ...

  15. quality and safety characteristics of cassava crisps sold in urban

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ACSS

    QUALITY AND SAFETY CHARACTERISTICS OF CASSAVA CRISPS SOLD IN. URBAN KENYA. G.O. ABONG', S.I. SHIBAIRO, ... This study sought to characterise the quality and safety in terms of cyanide levels of cassava crisps ... Crantz) to food security and incomes for rural communities in sub-Saharan Africa, cannot be.

  16. The contibutions of soil properties to cassava yield parameters in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Collaborative Study of Cassava in Africa (COSCA) undertook cassava yield and soil fertility surveys in sub-Saharan Africa in 1991 with the objectives of obtaining average yields from farmers' fields and determining factors which could account for the yield differences across the various climate, altitude, population ...

  17. Biodegradation Potentials of Cassava Mill Effluent (CME) by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADOWIE PERE

    This work was aimed at assessing the biodegradation potentials of indigenous microbial isolates from cassava mill effluent ... Bioremediation of cassava mill effluent by these microorganisms was manifested in the reduction of biological oxygen demand ... in the manufacturing industries and degradation or transformation of ...

  18. Status of cassava mosaic disease and whitefly population in Zambia

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    2015-08-19

    Aug 19, 2015 ... Table 1. Primer pairs used for amplification of cassava mosaic begomoviruses. Primer. Sequence (5' - 3'). Specificity Strand. DNA component. JSP001a .... Cassava mosaic begomoviruses. EACMVb. ACMV + EACMV. Lusaka. 15 (6.8%). 7 (4.7%). 2 (13.3%). 6 (10.7%). Luapula. 14 (6.4%). 12 (8.1%). 0 (0.0 ...

  19. Anaerobic co-digestion of cassava peels and manure: A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    treatment before use as a substrate, hence, a multi-stage and high rate digestion system might be adop-ted in efficient digestion of cassava peels. To optimize carbon-nitrogen ratio for efficient digestion, cassava sh-ould be co-digested with manure.

  20. Effect of cassava effluent on Okada natural water | Ehiagbonare ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study investigated the effect of cassava effluent on Okada natural water. It was observed that the colour, taste and odour of the water changed after cassava effluent had been discharched into it. This was an indication of pollution. The physico-chemical analysis showed that the characteristics of water analysed varied ...

  1. Economics of cassava farmers' adoption of improved varieties in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study investigated the economics of cassava farmers' adoption of improved varieties in Isoko North Local Government Area of Delta State. Studies on the economic analysis of farmers adoption of improved cassava varieties in the study area is lacking. This therefore constitutes a research gap which must be ...

  2. Selection and in-vitro propagation of five cassava ( Manihot ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Thirteen cassava cultivars were collected from farmers in the Greater Accra Region using a structured questionanire. Five cultivars namely, Ankrah, Bosom nsia, Biafra, Santom and Afisiafi were selected based on popularity, duration to maturity and tolerance to African Cassava Mosaic Virus (ACMV) disease. The cultivars ...

  3. Soil Contamination from Cassava Wastewater Discharges in a Rural ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ten soil samples were collected with a 9mm Dutch auger along two transects for six months for the purposes of investigating the effects of cassava wastewater on the physico-chemical characteristics of soils around a cassava processing plant in a rural community in the Niger Delta. It was observed that the addition of ...

  4. Effect of lactic acid bacteria starter culture fermentation of cassava ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effects of lactic acid fermentation of cassava on the chemical and sensory characteristic of fufu flour were investigated. Two strains of Lactobacillus plantarum were used as starter cultures for the fermentation of cassava to fufu for 96 h. The resultant wet fufu samples were dried at 65oC in a cabinet dryer for 48 h and ...

  5. Effect of Milling Machines and Sieve Sizes on Cooked Cassava ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cassava flour has a wide range of uses and its product stability is a major advantage in exploiting its potentials for opening into new markets beyond the normal use of fresh roots and traditional food products. This study therefore examined appropriate processing methods to meet consumer needs. Dry cassava chips were ...

  6. Isolation and characterization of resistant gene analogs in cassava ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study sheds light on the nature of NBS- leucine-rich repeat (LRR) R genes in cassava and closely related taxa in the family Euphorbiaceae. These candidate sequences mapped to the draft cassava genome with high sequence similarity to predicted NBS-LRR genes. These novel sequences may serve as a stepping ...

  7. Assessment of food safety practices among cassava processors in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Food safety assessment is an effective means of discovering knowledge and data gaps that limit effective risk analysis and at the same time providing information to develop public policies on food safety management. The study assessed the cassava food safety practices among cassava processors in selected rural ...

  8. The effects of cropping systems on cassava whiteflies in Colombia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The cassava whiteflies Aleurotrachelus socialis and Trialeurodes variabilis are outbreak pests which cause high yield losses in the Departments of Tolima and Cauca, Colombia. Studies were undertaken to examine the effects of intercopping and cassava varietal mixtures on whitefly population dynamics and related crop ...

  9. Experimental poisoning by cassava wastewater in sheep

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valdir C. Silva

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: The processing of Manihot esculenta (cassava tubers yield different by-products, including cassava wastewater, which is the liquid pressed out of the tuber after it has been mechanically crushed. Cyanide poisoning after ingestion of cassava wastewater has been reported in ruminants and pigs in Northeastern Brazil. With the aim of studying its toxicity, cassava wastewater was administered orally to six sheep at doses of 0.99, 0.75, 0.70, 0.63, and 0.5 mg of hydrocyanic acid kg-1 body weight, which corresponded to 14.2, 10.6, 9.8, 8.89, and 7.1 mL of wastewater kg-1. On the second day, the sheep received a volume of wastewater which corresponded to 0.46, 0.34, 0.31, 0.28, and 0.23 mg of HCN kg-1. A sheep used as control received 9.9 mL of water kg-1 BW. Sheep that received from 0.75 to 0.99 mg kg-1 of HCN on the first day exhibited severe clinical signs of poisoning, and the sheep that received 0.63 and 0.5 mg kg-1 exhibited mild clinical signs. All sheep were successfully treated with sodium thiosulfate. On the second day, only the sheep that received 0.46 mg kg-1 and 0.34 mg kg-1 exhibited mild clinical signs and recovered spontaneously. The concentration of HCN in the wastewater was 71.69±2.19 μg mL-1 immediately after production, 30.56±2.45 μg mL-1 after 24 hours, and 24.25±1.28 μg mL-1 after 48 hours. The picric acid paper test was strongly positive 5 minutes after production; moderately positive 24 hours after production, and negative 48 hours after production. We conclude that cassava wastewater is highly toxic to sheep if ingested immediately after production, but rapidly loses toxicity in 24-48 hours.

  10. An overview of protein identification studies in cassava.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batista de Souza, Cláudia R; dos Reis, Sávio P; Castelo Branco Carvalho, Luiz J

    2015-01-01

    Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) belongs to the Euphorbiaceae family and is originated from the Southern Amazon basin. The storage root is the most important product of cassava as food for more than 800 million people in Africa, Asia and Latin America. In this review, we present a retrospective of studies aiming the identification of cassava proteins, starting from the first investigations using SDS-PAGE and classical two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2DE) to recent studies with advanced technologies such as high-resolution 2DE, mass spectrometry, and iTRAQ-based analysis that have contributed for characterization of cassava proteome. Several cassava proteins have been identified, including those involved in the storage root formation and post-harvest physiological deterioration processes.

  11. Cassava: an appraisal of its phytochemistry and its biotechnological prospects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blagbrough, Ian S; Bayoumi, Soad A L; Rowan, Michael G; Beeching, John R

    2010-12-01

    The present state of knowledge of the phytochemistry of small molecules isolated from the roots and leaves of cassava, Manihot esculenta Crantz (Euphorbiaceae), is reviewed. Cassava roots are an important source of dietary and industrial carbohydrates, mainly eaten as a source of starch, forming the staple food to over 500 million; additionally, the roots have value as a raw material for industrial starch production and for animal feed giving the crop high economic value, but it suffers markedly from post-harvest physiological deterioration (PPD). The hydroxycoumarins scopoletin and its glucoside scopolin as well as trace quantities of esculetin and its glucoside esculin are identified from cassava roots during PPD. The biotechnological prospects for cassava are also reviewed including a critical appraisal of transgenic approaches for crop improvement, together with its use for bioethanol production, due to cassava's efficient ability to fix carbon dioxide into carbohydrate. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Expanding the Application of Cassava Value Chain Technologies Through UPoCA Project

    OpenAIRE

    Braima Dama James; P. Bramel; E. Witte; R. Asiedu; D. Watson; R. Okechuckwu.

    2013-01-01

    Cassava can play a key role in rural economic growth in Africa, but are we there yet? Cassava varieties with 50% more yielding potential and technologies to boost processing and marketing of cassava are available. However, the sub-sector is constrained by low productivity and marketing difficulties. In 2008, USAID and IITA initiated the project “Unleashing the Power of Cassava in Response to Food Price Crisis (UPOCA) as a multi-country and inter-institutional partnership enabling cassava sub-...

  13. Effect of cassava mosaic disease, soil fertility, plant spacing and their interactions on cassava yields in Zanzibar

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spittel, M.C.; Huis, van A.

    2000-01-01

    Cassava Mosaic Disease (CMD) and low soil fertility are limiting factors for the production of the preferred cassava varWiety Kibiriti mwekundu on the northern part of the island of Pemba in Zanzibar. Because CMD severity, assessed 7 months after planting in shifting cultivation fields at wide

  14. Yellow cassava: efficacy of provitamin A rich cassava on improvement of vitamin A status in Kenyan schoolchildren

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Talsma, E.F.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Biofortified yellow cassava has great potential to alleviate vitamin A deficiency in sub-Saharan Africa and can be used as a complementary approach to other interventions. However, direct evidence whether yellow cassava can significantly contribute to the vitamin A

  15. Properties of thermoplastic starch from cassave bagasse and cassava starch and their blends with poly (lactic acid).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassava bagasse is an inexpensive and broadly available waste byproduct from cassava starch production. It contains roughly 50% cassava starch along with mostly fiber and could be a valuable feedstock for various bioproducts. Cassava bagasse and cassava starch were used in this study to make fiber-r...

  16. Unveiling the Micronome of Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogans, Sarah Jane; Rey, Chrissie

    2016-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are an important class of endogenous non-coding single-stranded small RNAs (21-24 nt in length), which serve as post-transcriptional negative regulators of gene expression in plants. Despite the economic importance of Manihot esculenta Crantz (cassava) only 153 putative cassava miRNAs (from multiple germplasm) are available to date in miRBase (Version 21), and identification of a number of miRNAs from the cassava EST database have been limited to comparisons with Arabidopsis. In this study, mature sequences of all known plant miRNAs were used as a query for homologous searches against cassava EST and GSS databases, and additional identification of novel and conserved miRNAs were gleaned from next generation sequencing (NGS) of two cassava landraces (T200 from southern Africa and TME3 from West Africa) at three different stages post explant transplantation and acclimatization. EST and GSS derived data revealed 259 and 32 miRNAs in cassava, and one of the miRNA families (miR2118) from previous studies has not been reported in cassava. NGS data collectively displayed expression of 289 conserved miRNAs in leaf tissue, of which 230 had not been reported previously. Of the 289 conserved miRNAs identified in T200 and TME3, 208 were isomiRs. Thirty-nine novel cassava-specific miRNAs of low abundance, belonging to 29 families, were identified. Thirty-eight (98.6%) of the putative new miRNAs identified by NGS have not been previously reported in cassava. Several miRNA targets were identified in T200 and TME3, highlighting differential temporal miRNA expression between the two cassava landraces. This study contributes to the expanding knowledge base of the micronome of this important crop.

  17. Vertical Differentiation of Cassava Marketing Channels in Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enete, AA.

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Farming systems in sub-Saharan Africa are inherently risky because they are fundamentally dependent on vagaries of weather. Sub-Saharan Africa is also a region in crises; poverty, civil strife and HIV/AIDS. Attention must therefore be focused on improving the production and marketing of crops that could thrive under these circumstances. Because of its tolerance of extreme drought and low input use conditions, Cassava is perhaps the best candidate in this regard. And cassava is a basic food staple and a major source of farm income for the people of the region. Efficiency in cassava marketing is a very important determinant of both consumers' living cost and producers' income in Africa. Vertical differentiation of marketing channels improves marketing efficiency. Identified in this paper are factors that drive vertical differentiation of cassava marketing channels. The paper is based on primary data collected within the framework of the Collaborative Study of Cassava in Africa. High population density, good market access conditions, availability of mechanized cassava processing technology and cassava price information stimulate vertical differentiation of the marketing channels.

  18. Identification of Cassava MicroRNAs under Abiotic Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Ballén-Taborda

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The study of microRNAs (miRNAs in plants has gained significant attention in recent years due to their regulatory role during development and in response to biotic and abiotic stresses. Although cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz is tolerant to drought and other adverse conditions, most cassava miRNAs have been predicted using bioinformatics alone or through sequencing of plants challenged by biotic stress. Here, we use high-throughput sequencing and different bioinformatics methods to identify potential cassava miRNAs expressed in different tissues subject to heat and drought conditions. We identified 60 miRNAs conserved in other plant species and 821 potential cassava-specific miRNAs. We also predicted 134 and 1002 potential target genes for these two sets of sequences. Using real time PCR, we verified the condition-specific expression of 5 cassava small RNAs relative to a non-stress control. We also found, using publicly available expression data, a significantly lower expression of the predicted target genes of conserved and nonconserved miRNAs under drought stress compared to other cassava genes. Gene Ontology enrichment analysis along with condition specific expression of predicted miRNA targets, allowed us to identify several interesting miRNAs which may play a role in stress-induced posttranscriptional regulation in cassava and other plants.

  19. Sugar cane tip silage with cassava agroindustry residue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Odnei Francisco Gargantini

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The study aimed to determine the effects of adding levels of 0; 5; 10; 15 and 20% of cassava natural matter, peel dried in the sun or bran scan cassava over the nutritional value of sugarcane tip silage. To reach the proposal, 36 experimental silos were used. They were weighed at closing and after 60 days of fermentation, before opening to obtain the gas and effluent losses. Samples were collected for pH determination and chemical composition. Values of dry matter, crude protein, neutral detergent fiber, acid detergent fiber, mineral matter and total digestible nutrients were determined. There were differences between silages for all variables, except for crude protein when cassava peel or cassava bran scan was used. The pH values and effluent production were not affected by the use of the residues. However, the gas losses were lower when cassava peel was added. To improve the quality of sugar cane tip silage, it is recommended the use of cassava peel dried in the sun or cassava bran scan at the level of 20% in natural matter, upon ensilage.

  20. Production of Dextrins from Cassava Starch

    OpenAIRE

    O. S. AZEEZ

    2005-01-01

    This research work is aimed at producing dextrins from cassava starch and also to investigate the effects of acid concentration, roasting temperature and time on dextrin produced using 8 run screen experimental design before the preparation of adhesive.It was shown in the result that the best of white dextrin, yellow dextrin and British gum were obtained at concentrations of acid of 0.3M, 0.3M, and 0.23M and at roasting time of 30, 180 and 180 minutes and at roasting temperature of 60oC, 90oC...

  1. Middlemen and Smallholder Farmers in Cassava Marketing in Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enete, AA.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Cassava is a basic food staple and a major source of farm income in Africa. Efficiency in cassava marketing is therefore a very important determinant of consumers living cost and producers' income. Exploitation of one marketing agent by another in the course of product distribution could contribute to increased marketing costs and hence inefficiency. The paper examines the extent to which the widely held view that middlemen exploit farmers through monopsony purchases and usury apply to cassava farmers. The paper is based on primary data collected within the framework of the collaborative study of cassava in Africa (COSCA. The result of the analysis fails to support the view that middlemen generally engage in monopsony purchases of cassava products, because farmers had on average, higher volume of cassava products for sale in the market than middlemen. Prices of cassava products appeared more stable in Nigeria than in the other countries, because of the more elaborate involvement of middlemen, which encouraged competition. The intermediaries between the farmer and the consumer were at most three in each of the countries – the processor, the semi-wholesaler and the retailer. Cassava farmers and traders combined the role of the processor apparently because of the low development stage of mechanized processing technology. For both farmers and middlemen, transactions in cash were the predominant practice, followed by delayed payments. Advanced payment was non-existent except in Uganda. Marketing margins, though generally high, decline with good market access conditions. And the margins for granules were substantially lower than those of dried roots not only because of substantial differences in processing resource demand but also because of differences in marketing costs. This suggests that investments towards improving market access conditions, and in cost saving processing technologies for the production of granules are needed for the improvement

  2. Growth and development of cassava (Manihot esculenta crantz)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramanujam, T.; Muraleedharan Nair, G.; Indira, P.

    1984-07-01

    The growth and development of twelve cassava genotypes were studied under the shade in a coconut garden. Internodal elongation, thin leaves and absence of branching were the most significant morphological changes noticed under shade. Cross section of leaves grown under shade showed poor starch deposition in vascular region. Most of the photosynthates of shade grown cassava were utilized for shoot growth affecting tuber development significantly. The cultivars H 165 and CI 590 recorded higher yield under shade when compared to other cultivars. Wider spacings of cassava in coconut garden resulted in higher tuber yield. 9 references.

  3. Comparing the regional epidemiology of the cassava mosaic and cassava brown streak virus pandemics in Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legg, J P; Jeremiah, S C; Obiero, H M; Maruthi, M N; Ndyetabula, I; Okao-Okuja, G; Bouwmeester, H; Bigirimana, S; Tata-Hangy, W; Gashaka, G; Mkamilo, G; Alicai, T; Lava Kumar, P

    2011-08-01

    The rapid geographical expansion of the cassava mosaic disease (CMD) pandemic, caused by cassava mosaic geminiviruses, has devastated cassava crops in 12 countries of East and Central Africa since the late 1980s. Region-level surveys have revealed a continuing pattern of annual spread westward and southward along a contiguous 'front'. More recently, outbreaks of cassava brown streak disease (CBSD) were reported from Uganda and other parts of East Africa that had been hitherto unaffected by the disease. Recent survey data reveal several significant contrasts between the regional epidemiology of these two pandemics: (i) severe CMD radiates out from an initial centre of origin, whilst CBSD seems to be spreading from independent 'hot-spots'; (ii) the severe CMD pandemic has arisen from recombination and synergy between virus species, whilst the CBSD pandemic seems to be a 'new encounter' situation between host and pathogen; (iii) CMD pandemic spread has been tightly linked with the appearance of super-abundant Bemisia tabaci whitefly vector populations, in contrast to CBSD, where outbreaks have occurred 3-12 years after whitefly population increases; (iv) the CMGs causing CMD are transmitted in a persistent manner, whilst the two cassava brown streak viruses appear to be semi-persistently transmitted; and (v) different patterns of symptom expression mean that phytosanitary measures could be implemented easily for CMD but have limited effectiveness, whereas similar measures are difficult to apply for CBSD but are potentially very effective. An important similarity between the pandemics is that the viruses occurring in pandemic-affected areas are also found elsewhere, indicating that contrary to earlier published conclusions, the viruses per se are unlikely to be the key factors driving the two pandemics. A diagrammatic representation illustrates the temporal relationship between B. tabaci abundance and changing incidences of both CMD and CBSD in the Great Lakes region

  4. Micro-Propagation of Disease Resistant Cassava Variety in Rwanda ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Micro-Propagation of Disease Resistant Cassava Variety in Rwanda. Isidore Mushiyimana, Emmanuel Hakizimana, Gervais Gashaka, Peter Yao Kanze Sallah, Safia Kalisa, Felix Gatunzi, Theodore Asiimwe, Jane Kahia, Daphrose Gahakwa ...

  5. Gender participation in cassava processing and degree of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... processing activities and degree of commercialization of cassava products. Output of processing households and product commercialization would increase if labor saving technologies were developed through research for the most tedious processing activities. International Journal of Natural and Applied Sciences Vol.

  6. Assessment of Extension Service Delivery on Improved Cassava ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SH

    1Department of Agricultural Extension and Rural Development, Landmark University, Omu –Aran, Kwara. State. 2Department ... production technologies among cassava farmers in Osun State, Nigeria. Multistage ... included fertilizer procurement, agrochemicals, cooperative facilities, social networks, tractor hiring services,.

  7. Productivity of Cassava, Sorghum and Groundnut Intercrop Using ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Productivity of Cassava, Sorghum and Groundnut Intercrop Using Poultry Manure with Chemical Fertilizer Replacement Combinations. II Ibeawuchi, CI Duruigbo, LU Ihenacho, GO Ihejirika, MO Ofor, OP Obilo, JC Obiefuna ...

  8. Performance of cassava intercropped with maize, soybean and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Performance of cassava intercropped with maize, soybean and cowpea in the forest zone of Ghana La performance du manioc intercultive avec le maïs, le soja et le niebe dans la zone forestiere du Ghana.

  9. Mycoflora and nutrient analysis of sundried cassava chips (Manihot ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SARAH

    2014-08-22

    Manihot esculenta) during twenty weeks of storage and the ... The nutritional composition of cassava chips were depleted by the associated fungi during storage. Therefore ... chips by cutting the roots into slices. The slices were.

  10. Detoxification of cyanides in cassava flour by linamarase of Bacillus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    enoh

    2012-04-05

    Ugwuanyi et al., 2007). Effect of enzymatic treatment on cassava flour. An aliquot of 500 .... depends exclusively on endogenous enzyme level which shows considerable variation. Several microorganisms including Bacillus sp. (Amoa-.

  11. Preliminary sampling of arthropod fauna of transgenic cassava in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    COLLINS-NRCRI, UMUDIKE

    2012-03-13

    HCN) content and because it is generally grown in association with maize, beans and vegetables (Hahn et. al., 1979). Some arthropods associated with cassava and their damage. The variegated grasshopper. (Orthoptera:.

  12. Utilization of Cassava Leaves as a Vegetable in Rwanda ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    . The objectives of this study were to determine cassava species from which leaves are harvested as vegetable and identify leaf preparation methods, consumption rate, price variation, storability and perception of post-harvest losses.

  13. Nutritional and toxicological composition analysis of selected cassava processed products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuda Dewage Supun Charuni Nilangeka Rajapaksha

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Cassava (Manihot esculanta Crantz is an important food source in tropical countries where it can withstand environmentally stressed conditions. Cassava and its processed products have a high demand in both local and export market of Sri Lanka. MU51 cassava variety is one of the more common varieties and boiling is the main consumption pattern of cassava among Sri Lankans. The less utilization of cassava is due to the presence of cyanide which is a toxic substance. This research was designed to analyse the nutritional composition and toxicological (cyanide content of Cassava MU51 variety and selected processed products of cassava MU51 (boiled, starch, flour, chips, two chips varieties purchased from market to identify the effect of processing on cassava MU51 variety. Nutritional composition was analysed by AOAC (2012 methods with modifications and cyanide content was determined following picric acid method of spectrophotometric determination. The Flesh of MU51 variety and different processed products of cassava had an average range of moisture content (3.18 - 61.94%, total fat (0.31 - 23.30%, crude fiber (0.94 - 2.15%, protein (1.67 - 3.71% and carbohydrates (32.68 - 84.20% and where they varied significantly in between products and the variety MU51, where no significance difference (p >0.05 observed in between MU51 flesh and processed products' ash content where it ranged (1.02 - 1.91%. However, boiled product and MU51 flesh had more similar results in their nutritional composition where they showed no significant difference at any of the nutrient that was analysed. Thus, there could be no significant effect on the nutrient composition of raw cassava once it boiled. Cyanide content of the MU51 flesh and selected products (boiled, starch, flour and chips prepared using MU51 variety, showed wide variation ranging from 4.68 mg.kg-1 to 33.92 mg.kg-1 in dry basis. But except boiled cassava all processed products had cyanide content <10 mg.kg-1, which

  14. The Symptom and Genetic Diversity of Cassava Brown Streak Viruses Infecting Cassava in East Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. U. Mohammed

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The genetic and symptom diversity of six virus isolates causing cassava brown streak disease (CBSD in the endemic (Kenya, Mozambique, and Tanzania and the recently affected epidemic areas (Uganda of eastern Africa was studied. Five cassava varieties; Albert, Colombian, Ebwanateraka, TMS60444 (all susceptible and Kiroba (tolerant were graft inoculated with each isolate. Based on a number of parameters including the severity of leaf and root symptoms, and the extent of virus transmission by grafting, the viruses were classified as either severe or relatively mild. These results were further confirmed by the mechanical inoculation of 13 herbaceous hosts in which the virulent isolates caused plant death in Nicotiana clevelandii and N. benthamiana whereas the milder isolates did not. Phylogenetic analysis of complete coat protein gene sequences of these isolates together with sequences obtained from 14 other field-collected samples from Kenya and Zanzibar, and reference sequences grouped them into two distinct clusters, representing the two species of cassava brown streak viruses. Put together, these results did not suggest the association of a hypervirulent form of the virus with the current CBSD epidemic in Uganda. Identification of the severe and milder isolates, however, has further implications for disease management and quarantine requirements.

  15. Cassava/sugar palm fiber reinforced cassava starch hybrid composites: Physical, thermal and structural properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edhirej, Ahmed; Sapuan, S M; Jawaid, Mohammad; Zahari, Nur Ismarrubie

    2017-08-01

    A hybrid composite was prepared from cassava bagasse (CB) and sugar palm fiber (SPF) using casting technique with cassava starch (CS) as matrix and fructose as a plasticizer. Different loadings of SPF (2, 4, 6 and 8% w/w of dry starch) were added to the CS/CB composite film containing 6% CB. The addition of SPF significantly influenced the physical properties. It increased the thickness while decreasing the density, water content, water solubility and water absorption. However, no significant effect was noticed on the thermal properties of the hybrid composite film. The incorporation of SPF increased the relative crystallinity up to 47%, compared to 32% of the CS film. SEM micrographs indicated that the filler was incorporated in the matrix. The film with a higher concentration of SPF (CS-CB/SPF8) showed a more heterogeneous surface. It could be concluded that the incorporation of SPF led to changes in cassava starch film properties, potentially affecting the film performances. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Using Transfer Learning for Image-Based Cassava Disease Detection

    OpenAIRE

    Ramcharan, Amanda; Baranowski, Kelsee; McCloskey, Peter; Ahmed, Babuali; Legg, James; Hughes, David

    2017-01-01

    Cassava is the third largest source of carbohydrates for human food in the world but is vulnerable to virus diseases, which threaten to destabilize food security in sub-Saharan Africa. Novel methods of cassava disease detection are needed to support improved control which will prevent this crisis. Image recognition offers both a cost effective and scalable technology for disease detection. New transfer learning methods offer an avenue for this technology to be easily deployed on mobile device...

  17. THE PRODUCTION OF A LOW DIETARY BULK DENSITY CASSAVA

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    iya beji

    Table 2 Energy density in cassava flour gruels at a viscosity of 3000 cP with or without mixing with legumes. Concentration at Energy density. Type of cassava flour. 3000 cP (g). (kcal/g). Sweet unfermented flour. 7.4. 0.27. Sweet unfermented flour + groundnuts. 8.88. 0.37. Sweet unfermented flour +soy beans. 10.2. 0.37.

  18. In vitro Micropropagation of Cassava Through Low Cost Tissue Culture

    OpenAIRE

    Kwame O. Ogero; Gitonga N. Mburugu; Maina Mwangi; Omwoyo Ombori; Michael Ngugi

    2012-01-01

    Adoption of drought-tolerant crops such as cassava can help alleviate food insecurity in sub-Saharan Africa. However, production is constrained by lack of disease-free planting materials. This can be circumvented through tissue culture but the technology is costly limiting its adoption. There is therefore, need to put in place interventions that will reduce the cost of production hence making tissue culture products affordable. In this research, a low cost protocol for cassava tissue culture ...

  19. Microbial load and Microflora of Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The microbial load of cassava tubers that were grown at Awassa, Ethiopia, was analysed. The total viable microbial count of fresh cassava, before cleaning, ranged from 8.7x104 to 2.1x109 c.f.u/g whereas, in thoroughly cleaned product it was reduced to 106 c.f.u/g (% C.V., 19.5). Enterobacteriacae and spore former ...

  20. A Pontential Agriculture Waste Material as Coagulant Aid: Cassava Peel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Othman, N.; Abd-Rahim, N.-S.; Tuan-Besar, S.-N.-F.; Mohd-Asharuddin, S.; Kumar, V.

    2018-02-01

    All A large amount of cassava peel waste is generated annually by small and medium scale industries. This has led to a new policy of complete utilization of raw materials so that there will be little or no residue left that could pose pollution problems. Conversion of these by-products into a material that poses an ability to remove toxic pollutant would increase the market value and ultimately benefits the producers. This study investigated the characteristics of cassava peel as a coagulant aid material and optimization process using the cassava peel was explored through coagulation and flocculation. This research had highlighted that the Cassava peels contain sugars in the form of polysaccharides such as starch and holocellulose. The FTIR results revealed that amino acids containing abundant of carboxyl, hydroxyl and amino groups which has significant capabilities in removing pollutants. Whereas analysis by XRF spectrometry indicated that the CP samples contain Fe2O3 and Al2O3 which might contribute to its coagulation ability. The optimum condition allowed Cassava peel and alum removed high turbidity up to 90. This natural coagulant from cassava peel is found to be an alternative coagulant aid to reduce the usage of chemical coagulants

  1. Microbial population, chemical composition and silage fermentation of cassava residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Napasirth, Viengsakoun; Napasirth, Pattaya; Sulinthone, Tue; Phommachanh, Kham; Cai, Yimin

    2015-09-01

    In order to effectively use the cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) residues, including cassava leaves, peel and pulp for livestock diets, the chemical and microbiological composition, silage preparation and the effects of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) inoculants on silage fermentation of cassava residues were studied. These residues contained 10(4) to 10(5) LAB and yeasts, 10(3) to 10(4) coliform bacteria and 10(4) aerobic bacteria in colony forming units (cfu) on a fresh matter (FM) basis. The molds were consistently at or below the detectable level (10(2) cfu of FM) in three kinds of cassava residues. Dry matter (DM), crude protein (CP) and neutral detergent fiber (NDF) content of cassava residues were 17.50-30.95%, 1.30-16.41% and 25.40-52.90% on a DM basis, respectively. The silage treatments were designed as control silage without additive (CO) or with LAB inoculants Chikuso-1 (CH, Lactobacillus plantarum) and Snow Lacto (SN, Lactobacillus rhamnosus) at a rate of 5 mg/kg of FM basis. All silages were well preserved with a low pH (below 4.0) value and when cassava residues silage treated with inoculants CH and SN improved fermentation quality with a lower pH, butyric acid and higher lactic acid than control silage. © 2015 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  2. Evaluation of some properties of wheat-brewers' spent cassava flour ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    brewers' spent cassava flour blends and that it has a lot of potential in the food industry especially its use as thickener and binding agent in the food systems. Keywords: Brewers' spent cassava flour, wheat flour, proximate, functional properties.

  3. Production of Dextrins from Cassava Starch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. S. AZEEZ

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available This research work is aimed at producing dextrins from cassava starch and also to investigate the effects of acid concentration, roasting temperature and time on dextrin produced using 8 run screen experimental design before the preparation of adhesive.It was shown in the result that the best of white dextrin, yellow dextrin and British gum were obtained at concentrations of acid of 0.3M, 0.3M, and 0.23M and at roasting time of 30, 180 and 180 minutes and at roasting temperature of 60oC, 90oC and 120oC respectively.The best of white dextrin which had the highest solubility of 36.1 per cent was used to formulate the adhesive.

  4. Molecular diagnostics, genetic diversity and generating infectious clones for cassava brown streak viruses

    OpenAIRE

    Musa, Muawiya Abarshi

    2012-01-01

    Cassava brown streak disease (CBSD) threatens cassava production in eastern and southern African countries. Diagnostic protocols currently available for the causal agents of CBSD, Cassava brown streak virus (CBSV) and Cassava brown streak Uganda virus (CBSUV), were unreliable but were urgently needed. In this study, sampling procedures and diagnostic protocols were developed for accurate and reliable detection of both CBSV and CBSUV. The cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) method of RNA ext...

  5. Robust transformation procedure for the production of transgenic farmer-preferred cassava landraces

    OpenAIRE

    Zainuddin Ima M; Schlegel Kim; Gruissem Wilhelm; Vanderschuren Hervé

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Recent progress in cassava transformation has allowed the robust production of transgenic cassava even under suboptimal plant tissue culture conditions. The transformation protocol has so far been used mostly for the cassava model cultivar 60444 because of its good regeneration capacity of embryogenic tissues. However, for deployment and adoption of transgenic cassava in the field it is important to develop robust transformation methods for farmer- and industry-preferred landraces an...

  6. Economic feasibility of on-farm fuel ethanol production from cassava ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A simple process for on-farm bioethanol production from cassava, using cassava koji supplemented with crude liquid enzyme and yeast was described. On a small scale, a fed-batch mode where 4 kg of koji, 2 kg of gelatinized cassava flour and 30 g of yeast cells were mixed and allowed to ferment for two days, followed by ...

  7. Socio-economic analysis of cassava-based cropping system in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An analysis of the Socio-economic factors influencing the value of the outputs of the cassava mixture farming in Rivers State was carried out. Thirty – six farmers were randomly selected from each stratum of the five major cassava crop mixtures, making a total sample size of180 farmers studied. The cassava crop mixtures ...

  8. Comparison of three cyanogen assays for total cyanogens in cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saka, J.D.K.; Mhone, A.R.K.; Brimer, Leon

    1997-01-01

    The sensitivity and reproducibility of three methods for determining the total cyanogenic potential (CNp) of 7 fresh and processed cassava varieties were determined and compared. The total cyanogen content of fresh cassava roots and three cassava products (kondowole, makaka, and starch) were anal...

  9. Cassava haplotype map highlights fixation of deleterious mutations during clonal propagation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) is an important staple food crop in Africa and South America whose fitness may be severely reduced by ubiquitous deleterious variation. To evaluate these deleterious mutations in cassava genome, we constructed a cassava haplotype map by deep sequencing of 241 diver...

  10. Trend Analysis of Cassava Price and Growth Rate in Nigeria | Igwe ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Trend Analysis of Cassava Price and Growth Rate in Nigeria. ... Abstract. The research work was on trend analysis of cassava output and price. The period ... There is need to encourage private sector investment on the industries to expand existing market on the price offer for cassava and encourage large scale production.

  11. Assessment of the use of cassava as alternative energy feedstuff in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    However, there is a dearth of information on the current trend of cassava and cassava products as alternative energy feedstuff for the livestock industry. This study was conducted in three states of southwest Nigeria on the use of cassava as alternative energy feedstuff in livestock feeds. Simple random technique was used to ...

  12. Developing GM super cassava for improved health and food security: future challenges in Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adenle Ademola A

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is an urgent need to solve the problem of micronutrient malnutrition that is prevalent among young children and women in Africa. Genetically modified (GM biofortified cassava has great potential to solve part of this problem, but controversy surrounding GM technology and lack of awareness, limited facilities, biased news and other factors may hinder the adoption of GM cassava in the future. Method Using semi-structured interviews in Ghana and Nigeria, this paper examines the perspectives of scientists, including the BioCassava Plus (BC+ team, on the potential adoption of GM cassava for improving health and food security in Africa. The article also examines issues around the regulatory system and transfer and acceptance of GM cassava among scientists. Results and discussion The result suggests that an overwhelming majority of scientists agree that GM biofortified cassava will benefit the health of millions in Africa, and that GM cassava conferred with disease and pest resistance will increase cassava production as it is currently plagued by cassava mosaic diseases (CMD. However, respondents are wary of long-term effects of GM cassava on the environment and lack of a regulatory framework to facilitate the adoption of GM cassava. Even though scientists expressed little or no concern about health risks of GM cassava, they were concerned that consumers may express such concerns given limited understanding of GM technology. Conclusion The article concludes with a summary of priorities for policy development with regard to adopting biofortified food products.

  13. The Value of Cassava for Growth of Sheep | Job | Nigerian Journal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The treatment groups received either a maize-groundnut meal control diet, a fresh cassava + poultry litter mixture that had been ensiled and later mixed with protein supplement, or dried cassava-groundnut meal diet, during the 70-day experimental period. In Experiment 2, unpeeled fresh cassava roots of the high HCN ...

  14. Potential of cassava flour as a gelling agent in media for plant tissue ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    and height and analysis of variance was performed. Number of shoots proliferating and shoot height from cultures on medium gelled with cassava flour was the lowest. This was attributed to the degradation of the cassava flour gel after two weeks. Performance of the cassava flour mixed with 3.5 g/L agar gel was better than ...

  15. Effects of 12-hour wetting of sun-dried cassava tuber meal on its ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The efficacy of wetting sun-dried cassava tuber meal as a method of reducing its hydrocyanide (HCN) content and improving its nutritive value for broilers was investigated. Cassava tubers were peeled, chopped into pieces, sun-dried and then milled. Part of the sun-dried cassava tuber meal was soaked in water at the rate ...

  16. Cassava starch as an alternative cheap gelling agent for the in vitro ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The potential of cassava starch as an alternative and cheap gelling agent for potato in vitro culture micro-propagation media was investigated. A two-factor experiment in randomized complete block design was conducted. Four levels of gelling agents; 10% (w/v) cassava starch, 8% cassava starch mixed with 0.25% agar, ...

  17. Potential of cassava flour as a gelling agent in media for plant tissue ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The potential of a tissue culture medium gelled with cassava flour to support shoot proliferation of stem nodal sections of Uapaca kirkiana and Faidherbia albida was studied. A two factorial experiment was conducted with the first factor as type of gelling agent (80 g/L cassava flour; 80 g/L cassava flour mixed with 3.5 g/L ...

  18. QTL analysis for early yield in a pseudo F2 population of cassava

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SERVER

    2008-01-18

    Jan 18, 2008 ... Genetic mapping of early bulking in a full-sib population of cassava was continued in a selfed family of. 268 cassava plants derived from a single progeny of the full-sib population. The pseudo F2 population was analysed with 122 segregating SSR markers. A previously constructed linkage map of cassava.

  19. The effect of cassava processing effluent on the physico-chemical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cassava effluent and human activity polluted the water bodies. Since the Iyalamu river ended in Oyo town municipal water supply, there is the need to treat cassava effluents before discharge to protect the populace from water associated chronic exposure to sub-lethal cyanogens. Key Words: Cassava, Effluent, Bacteria, ...

  20. Root growth and NPK status of cassava as influenced by oil palm ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-09-15

    . 4.3. 3.3. 3.8. 3.4. 3.8. MAP = Month after planting; B = bitter cassava; S = sweet cassava. Table 3. Effect of palm bunch ash (OBA) on number of roots per cassava plant at Umudike. 3MAP. 6MAP. 9MAP. 12MAP. OBA (t/ha). B.

  1. Cleaning cassava genotypes infected with cassava frogskin disease via in vitro shoot tip culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, M J S; Oliveira, E J; Souza, A S; Pereira, J S; Diamantino, M S A S; Oliveira, S A S

    2017-05-31

    This study aimed to develop a methodology for eliminating cassava frogskin disease (CFSD) from in vitro shoot tip culture by associating thermotherapy and tetracycline. Cuttings from different accessions (BGM0232, BGM0315, BGM0464, BGM584, BGM0841, and BGM1342), infected with CFSD according to visual inspection of the disease symptoms, were used for cleaning. To verify the absence of other diseases, the plants were indexed for Cassava common mosaic virus - CsCMV (by ELISA) and Cassava vein mosaic virus - CsVMV (by polymerase chain reaction, PCR), proving that the accessions were free of these viruses, except for BGM0315 and BGM0464, which were infected with CsVMV. Subsequently, the cuttings were submitted to different tetracycline concentrations for 3 min, and then subjected to thermotherapy under different temperatures (35°, 38°, 40°, 45°, and 55°C). Shoots of 2 cm were harvested, and their surfaces were sterilized in a laminar flow chamber. Subsequently, the shoot tips of different sizes were removed (0.2, 0.4, 0.5, and 1.0 mm) for inoculation in a culture medium with tetracycline at the same concentrations in which the cuttings were dipped. After 60 days of cultivation, the explants were transferred to a multiplication medium without antibiotics. Thirty days after the transfer, the viability of the regenerated plants was evaluated, which were then acclimatized for 70 days in a greenhouse and transferred to the field. After 7 months, a visual analysis of the symptomatic roots and a PCR analysis were held to prove the elimination of CFSD and CsVMV from the accessions infected with these viruses (BGM0315 and BGM0464), respectively. Most of the treatments resulted in 100% cleaning of CFSD-infected plants. From accessions that were also infected with CsVMV, only 2% of the plants remained infected, also demonstrating the cleaning efficiency of this protocol for this disease.

  2. Engineering cyanogen synthesis and turnover in cassava (Manihot esculenta).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siritunga, Dimuth; Sayre, Richard

    2004-11-01

    Cassava is the major root crop for a quarter billion subsistence farmers in sub-Saharan Africa. It is valued for its ability to grow in adverse environments and the food security it provides. Cassava contains potentially toxic levels of cyanogenic glycosides (linamarin) which protect the plant from herbivory and theft. The cyanogens, including linamarin and its deglycosylated product, acetone cyanohydrin, can be efficiently removed from the root by various processing procedures. Short-cuts in processing, which may occur during famines, can result in only partial removal of cyanogens. Residual cyanogens in cassava foods may cause neurological disorders or paralysis, particularly in nutritionally compromised individuals. To address this problem and to further understand the function of cyanogenic glycosides in cassava, we have generated transgenic cassava in which cyanogenic glycoside synthesis has been selectively inhibited in leaves and roots by antisense expression of CYP79D1/D2 gene fragments. The CYP79D1/D2 genes encode two highly similar cytochrome P450s that catalyze the first-dedicated step in cyanogenic glycoside synthesis. Transgenic plants in which the expression of these genes was selectively inhibited in leaves had substantially reduced (60- 94% reduction) linamarin leaf levels. Surprisingly, these plants also had a greater than a 99% reduction in root linamarin content. In contrast, transgenic plants in which the CYP79D1/D2 transcripts were reduced to non-detectable levels in roots had normal root linamarin levels. These results demonstrate that linamarin synthesized in leaves is transported to the roots and accounts for nearly all of the root linamarin content. Importantly, transgenic plants having reduced leaf and root linamarin content were unable to grow in the absence of reduced nitrogen (NH3) . Cassava roots have previously been demonstrated to have an active cyanide assimilation pathway leading to the synthesis of amino acids. We propose that

  3. Water adsorption isotherms and thermodynamic properties of cassava bagasse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Polachini, Tiago Carregari, E-mail: tiagopolachini@terra.com.br; Betiol, Lilian Fachin Leonardo; Lopes-Filho, José Francisco; Telis-Romero, Javier

    2016-05-20

    Highlights: • Adsorption isotherms and composition of cassava bagasse were determined. • GAB equation was the best-fitted model to sorption data of type II isotherm. • Isosteric heat of sorption was calculated in a range of equilibrium moisture content. • Differential enthalpy and entropy confirmed the isokinetic compensation theory. • Water adsorption by cassava bagasse is considered an enthalpy driven process. - Abstract: Losses of food industry are generally wet products that must be dried to posterior use and storage. In order to optimize drying processes, the study of isotherms and thermodynamic properties become essential to understand the water sorption mechanisms of cassava bagasse. For this, cassava bagasse was chemically analyzed and had its adsorption isotherms determined in the range of 293.15–353.15 K through the static gravimetric method. The models of GAB, Halsey, Henderson, Oswin and Peleg were fitted, and best adjustments were found for GAB model with R{sup 2} > 0.998 and no pattern distribution of residual plots. Isosteric heat of adsorption and thermodynamic parameters could be determined as a function of moisture content. Compensation theory was confirmed, with linear relationship between enthalpy and entropy and higher values of isokinetic temperature (T{sub B} = 395.62 K) than harmonic temperature. Water adsorption was considered driven by enthalpy, clarifying the mechanisms of water vapor sorption in cassava bagasse.

  4. Differential interaction between cassava mosaic geminiviruses and geminivirus satellites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patil, Basavaprabhu L; Fauquet, Claude M

    2010-07-01

    Geminiviruses are often associated with subviral agents called DNA satellites that require proteins encoded by the helper virus for their replication, movement and encapsidation. Hitherto, most of the single-stranded DNA satellites reported to be associated with members of the family Geminiviridae have been associated with monopartite begomoviruses. Cassava mosaic disease is known to be caused by viruses belonging to nine different begomovirus species in the African continent and the Indian subcontinent. In addition to these species, several strains have been recognized that exhibit contrasting phenotypes and infection dynamics. It is established that Sri Lankan cassava mosaic virus can trans-replicate betasatellites and can cross host barriers. To extend these studies further, we carried out an exhaustive investigation of the ability of geminiviruses, selected to represent all cassava-infecting geminivirus species, to trans-replicate betasatellites (DNA-beta) and to interact with alphasatellites (nanovirus-like components; previously called DNA-1). Each of the cassava-infecting geminiviruses showed a contrasting and differential interaction with the DNA satellites, not only in the capacity to interact with these molecules but also in the modulation of symptom phenotypes by the satellites. These observations could be extrapolated to field situations in order to hypothesize about the possibility of acquisition of such DNA satellites currently associated with other begomoviruses. These results call for more detailed analyses of these subviral components and an investigation of their possible interaction with the cassava mosaic disease complex.

  5. Deep Learning for Image-Based Cassava Disease Detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramcharan, Amanda; Baranowski, Kelsee; McCloskey, Peter; Ahmed, Babuali; Legg, James; Hughes, David P.

    2017-01-01

    Cassava is the third largest source of carbohydrates for human food in the world but is vulnerable to virus diseases, which threaten to destabilize food security in sub-Saharan Africa. Novel methods of cassava disease detection are needed to support improved control which will prevent this crisis. Image recognition offers both a cost effective and scalable technology for disease detection. New deep learning models offer an avenue for this technology to be easily deployed on mobile devices. Using a dataset of cassava disease images taken in the field in Tanzania, we applied transfer learning to train a deep convolutional neural network to identify three diseases and two types of pest damage (or lack thereof). The best trained model accuracies were 98% for brown leaf spot (BLS), 96% for red mite damage (RMD), 95% for green mite damage (GMD), 98% for cassava brown streak disease (CBSD), and 96% for cassava mosaic disease (CMD). The best model achieved an overall accuracy of 93% for data not used in the training process. Our results show that the transfer learning approach for image recognition of field images offers a fast, affordable, and easily deployable strategy for digital plant disease detection. PMID:29163582

  6. Deep Learning for Image-Based Cassava Disease Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda Ramcharan

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Cassava is the third largest source of carbohydrates for human food in the world but is vulnerable to virus diseases, which threaten to destabilize food security in sub-Saharan Africa. Novel methods of cassava disease detection are needed to support improved control which will prevent this crisis. Image recognition offers both a cost effective and scalable technology for disease detection. New deep learning models offer an avenue for this technology to be easily deployed on mobile devices. Using a dataset of cassava disease images taken in the field in Tanzania, we applied transfer learning to train a deep convolutional neural network to identify three diseases and two types of pest damage (or lack thereof. The best trained model accuracies were 98% for brown leaf spot (BLS, 96% for red mite damage (RMD, 95% for green mite damage (GMD, 98% for cassava brown streak disease (CBSD, and 96% for cassava mosaic disease (CMD. The best model achieved an overall accuracy of 93% for data not used in the training process. Our results show that the transfer learning approach for image recognition of field images offers a fast, affordable, and easily deployable strategy for digital plant disease detection.

  7. Organic acid profile of commercial sour cassava starch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DEMIATE I.M.

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Organic acids are present in sour cassava starch ("polvilho azedo" and contribute with organoleptic and physical characteristics like aroma, flavor and the exclusive baking property, that differentiate this product from the native cassava starch. Samples of commercial sour cassava starch collected in South and Southeast Brazil were prepared for high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC analysis. The HPLC equipment had a Biorad Aminex HPX-87H column for organic acid analysis and a refractometric detector. Analysis was carried out with 0.005M sulfuric acid as mobile phase, 0.6ml/min flow rate and column temperature of 60° C. The acids quantified were lactic (0.036 to 0.813 g/100g, acetic (0 to 0.068 g/100g, propionic (0 to 0.013 g/100g and butyric (0 to 0.057 g/100g, that are produced during the natural fermentation of cassava starch. Results showed large variation among samples, even within the same region. Some samples exhibited high acid levels, mainly lactic acid, but in these neither propionic nor butyric acids were detected. Absence of butyric acid was not expected because this is an important component of the sour cassava starch aroma, and the lack of this acid may suggest that such samples were produced without the natural fermentation step.

  8. Cassava for food and energy: exploring potential benefits of processing of cassava into cassava flour and bioenergy at farmstead and community levels in rural Mozambique

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zvinavashe, E.; Elbersen, H.W.; Slingerland, M.A.; Kolijn, S.; Sanders, J.P.M.

    2011-01-01

    As in most of sub-Sahara Africa, rural people in Mozambique use firewood as their main source of energy. The use of firewood is associated with several health problems, and the time spent collecting it reduces time for other activities. Cassava is grown as a reserve crop in Mozambique where it is

  9. Quantification of African cassava mosaic virus (ACMV) and East African cassava mosaic virus (EACMV-UG) in single and mixed infected Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) using quantitative PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naseem, Saadia; Winter, Stephan

    2016-01-01

    The quantity of genomic DNA-A and DNA-B of African cassava mosaic virus (ACMV) and East African cassava mosaic virus Uganda (Uganda variant, EACMV-UG) was analysed using quantitative PCR to assess virus concentrations in plants from susceptible and tolerant cultivars. The concentrations of genome components in absolute and relative quantification experiments in single and mixed viral infections were determined. Virus concentration was much higher in symptomatic leaf tissues compared to non-symptomatic leaves and corresponded with the severity of disease symptoms. In general, higher titres were recorded for EACMV-UG Ca055 compared to ACMV DRC6. The quantitative assessment also showed that the distribution of both viruses in the moderately resistant cassava cv. TMS 30572 was not different from the highly susceptible cv. TME 117. Natural mixed infections with both viruses gave severe disease symptoms. Relative quantification of virus genomes in mixed infections showed higher concentrations of EACMV-UG DNA-A compared to ACMV DNA-A, but a marked reduction of EACMV-UG DNA-B. The higher concentrations of EACMV-UG DNA-B compared to EACMV DNA-A accumulation in single infections were consistent. Since DNA-B is implicated in virus cell-to-cell spread and systemic movement, the abundance of the EACMV-UG DNA-B may be an important factor driving cassava mosaic disease epidemic. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. High throughput multiplex real time PCR assay for the simultaneous quantification of DNA and RNA viruses infecting cassava plants

    OpenAIRE

    Otti, Gerald; Bouvaine, Sophie; Kimata, Bernadetha; Mkamillo, Geoffrey; Kumar, Lava; Tomlins, Keith; Maruthi, M.N.

    2016-01-01

    Aims: To develop a multiplex TaqMan-based real-time PCR assay (qPCR) for the simultaneous detection and quantification of both RNA and DNA viruses affecting cassava (Manihot esculenta) in eastern Africa.\\ud \\ud Methods and Results: The diagnostic assay was developed for two RNA viruses; Cassava brown streak virus (CBSV) and Uganda cassava brown streak virus (UCBSV) and two predominant DNA viruses; African cassava mosaic virus (ACMV) and East African cassava mosaic virus (EACMV), which cause t...

  11. Robust transformation procedure for the production of transgenic farmer-preferred cassava landraces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zainuddin Ima M

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Recent progress in cassava transformation has allowed the robust production of transgenic cassava even under suboptimal plant tissue culture conditions. The transformation protocol has so far been used mostly for the cassava model cultivar 60444 because of its good regeneration capacity of embryogenic tissues. However, for deployment and adoption of transgenic cassava in the field it is important to develop robust transformation methods for farmer- and industry-preferred landraces and cultivars. Because dynamics of multiplication and regeneration of embryogenic tissues differ between cassava genotypes, it was necessary to adapt the efficient cv. 60444 transformation protocol to genotypes that are more recalcitrant to transformation. Here we demonstrate that an improved cassava transformation protocol for cv. 60444 could be successfully modified for production of transgenic farmer-preferred cassava landraces. The modified transformation method reports on procedures for optimization and is likely transferable to other cassava genotypes reportedly recalcitrant to transformation provided production of high quality FEC. Because the three farmer-preferred cassava landraces selected in this study have been identified as resistant or tolerant to cassava mosaic disease (CMD, the adapted protocol will be essential to mobilize improved traits into cassava genotypes suitable for regions where CMD limits production.

  12. Robust transformation procedure for the production of transgenic farmer-preferred cassava landraces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zainuddin, Ima M; Schlegel, Kim; Gruissem, Wilhelm; Vanderschuren, Hervé

    2012-07-11

    Recent progress in cassava transformation has allowed the robust production of transgenic cassava even under suboptimal plant tissue culture conditions. The transformation protocol has so far been used mostly for the cassava model cultivar 60444 because of its good regeneration capacity of embryogenic tissues. However, for deployment and adoption of transgenic cassava in the field it is important to develop robust transformation methods for farmer- and industry-preferred landraces and cultivars. Because dynamics of multiplication and regeneration of embryogenic tissues differ between cassava genotypes, it was necessary to adapt the efficient cv. 60444 transformation protocol to genotypes that are more recalcitrant to transformation. Here we demonstrate that an improved cassava transformation protocol for cv. 60444 could be successfully modified for production of transgenic farmer-preferred cassava landraces. The modified transformation method reports on procedures for optimization and is likely transferable to other cassava genotypes reportedly recalcitrant to transformation provided production of high quality FEC. Because the three farmer-preferred cassava landraces selected in this study have been identified as resistant or tolerant to cassava mosaic disease (CMD), the adapted protocol will be essential to mobilize improved traits into cassava genotypes suitable for regions where CMD limits production.

  13. Quality management manual for production of high quality cassava flour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dziedzoave, Nanam Tay; Abass, Adebayo Busura; Amoa-Awua, Wisdom K.

    The high quality cassava flour (HQCF) industry has just started to evolve in Africa and elsewhere. The sustainability of the growing industry, the profitability of small- and medium-scale enterprises (SMEs) that are active in the industry and good-health of consumers can best be guaranteed through...... the adoption of proper quality and food safety procedures. Cassava processing enterprises involved in the productionof HQCF must therefore be commited to the quality and food safety of the HQCF. They must have the right technology, appropriate processing machhinery, standard testing instruments...... and the necessary technical expertise. This quality manual was therefore developed to guide small- to medium-scale cassava in the design and implematation of Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point (HACCP) system and Good manufacturing Practices (GMP) plans for HQCF production. It describes the HQCF production...

  14. Development and application of transgenic technologies in cassava.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Nigel; Chavarriaga, Paul; Raemakers, Krit; Siritunga, Dimuth; Zhang, Peng

    2004-11-01

    The capacity to integrate transgenes into the tropical root crop cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) is now established and being utilized to generate plants expressing traits of agronomic interest. The tissue culture and gene transfer systems currently employed to produce these transgenic cassava have improved significantly over the past 5 years and are assessed and compared in this review. Programs are underway to develop cassava with enhanced resistance to viral diseases and insects pests, improved nutritional content, modified and increased starch metabolism and reduced cyanogenic content of processed roots. Each of these is described individually for the underlying biology the molecular strategies being employed and progress achieved towards the desired product. Important advances have occurred, with transgenic plants from several laboratories being prepared for field trails.

  15. Quality management manual for production of high quality cassava flour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dziedzoave, Nanam Tay; Abass, Adebayo Busura; Amoa-Awua, Wisdom K.

    and the necessary technical expertise. This quality manual was therefore developed to guide small- to medium-scale cassava in the design and implematation of Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point (HACCP) system and Good manufacturing Practices (GMP) plans for HQCF production. It describes the HQCF production......The high quality cassava flour (HQCF) industry has just started to evolve in Africa and elsewhere. The sustainability of the growing industry, the profitability of small- and medium-scale enterprises (SMEs) that are active in the industry and good-health of consumers can best be guaranteed through...... methods, and explanins in practical terms the concept of HACCP/QACCP quality system and procedure for aplication to HQCF production. The procedures described in this manual should help cassava processing enterprises to implement the HACCP/QACCP system from the point of root delivery through every...

  16. Cassava dreg as replacement of corn in goat kid diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferraz, Lucíola Vilarim; Guim, Adriana; Véras, Robson Magno Liberal; de Carvalho, Francisco Fernando Ramos; de Freitas, Marciela Thais Dino

    2018-02-01

    The effects of corn replacement by cassava dreg in diets of crossbred goat kids were evaluated. We tested the impacts of 0, 33, 66 and 100% replacement on intake, digestibility, feeding behaviour, performance and carcass characteristics. Thirty-six goat kids, aged between 4 and 5 months and with initial body weights of 17.61 ± 1.98 kg, were used in a completely randomised design. Analysis of regression revealed a negative linear effect on neutral detergent fibre (NDF) intake and a positive linear effect on non-fibrous carbohydrates (NFC) and hydrocyanic acids (HCN) intake. Cassava dreg use had a positive linear effect on organic matter digestibility and non-fibrous carbohydrates. Based on our results, cassava dreg use did not negatively impact animal performance, feeding behaviour and carcass characteristics, suggesting that it may replace corn up to 100% in the diets of confined goat kids.

  17. Biogas Production From Cassava Starch Effluent Using Microalgae As Biostabilisator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Budiyono

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The rapid growing of Indonesian population is emerging several critical national issues i.e. energy, food, environmental, water, transportation, as well as law and human right. As an agricultural country, Indonesia has abundant of biomass wastes such as agricultural wastes include the cassava starch wastes. The problem is that the effluent from cassava starch factories is released directly into the river before properly treatment. It has been a great source of pollution and has caused environmental problems to the nearby rural population. The possible alternative to solve the problem is by converting waste to energy biogas in the biodigester. The main problem of the biogas production of cassava starch effluent is acid forming-bacteria quickly produced acid resulting significantly in declining pH below the neutral pH and diminishing growth of methane bacteria. Hence, the only one of the method to cover this problem is by adding microalgae as biostabilisator of pH. Microalgae can also be used as purifier agent to absorb CO2.The general objective of this research project was to develop an integrated process of biogas production and purification from cassava starch effluent by using biostabilisator agent microalgae. This study has been focused on the used of urea, ruminant, yeast, microalgae, the treatment of gelled and ungelled feed for biogas production, pH control during biogas production using buffer Na2CO3, and feeding management in the semi-continuous process of biogas production. The result can be concluded as follows: i The biogas production increased after cassava starch effluent and yeast was added, ii Biogas production with microalgae and cassava starch effluent, yeast, ruminant bacteria, and urea were 726.43 ml/g total solid, iii Biogas production without  microalgae was 189 ml/g total solid.

  18. Life cycle cost of ethanol production from cassava in Thailand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sorapipatana, Chumnong; Yoosin, Suthamma

    2011-01-01

    To increase the security of energy supply, lessen dependence on crude oil import and buffer against the impacts of large change in crude oil prices, the Thai government initiated and officially announced the national ethanol fuel program in year 2000. Since then, domestic ethanol demand has grown rapidly. Presently, all commercial ethanol in Thailand is produced from molasses as Thai law prohibits producing it from sugar cane directly. This is likely to limit ethanol supply in the near future. One possible solution is to supply more ethanol from cassava which is widely cultivated in this country. However, its production cost has not yet been known for certain. The objective of this study is to estimate the life cycle cost of ethanol production from cassava and to assess its economic competitiveness with gasoline in the Thai fuel market. Based on the record of cassava prices during the years 2002-2005, it was found that using it as feedstock would share more than 50% of the ethanol from cassava total production cost. It was also found that a bio-ethanol plant, with a capacity of 150,000 l/day, can produce ethanol from cassava in a range of ex-factory costs from 16.42 to 20.83 baht/l of gasoline equivalent (excluding all taxes), with an average cost of 18.15 baht/l of gasoline equivalent (41, 52 and 45 US cents/l gasoline equivalent respectively, based on 2005 exchange rate). In the same years, the range of 95-octane gasoline prices in Thailand varied from 6.18 baht to 20.86 baht/l, with an average price of 11.50 baht/l (15, 52 and 29 US cents/l respectively, based on 2005 exchange rate) which were much cheaper than the costs of ethanol made from cassava. Thus, we conclude that under the scenario of low to normal crude oil price, ethanol from cassava is not competitive with gasoline. The gasoline price has to rise consistently above 18.15 baht (45 US cents)/l before ethanol made from cassava can be commercially competitive with gasoline. (author)

  19. Determination of aflatoxin in processed dried cassava root

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gnonlonfin, Gbemenou Joselin Benoit; Katerere, David R.; Adjovi, Yann

    2010-01-01

    A new method that uses HPLC with a photochemical reactor for enhanced detection was developed and validated for the determination of aflatoxins in cassava flour. Samples were spiked with a mixture of four aflatoxins at 5, 10, and 20 microg/kg mixed with either 1 or 5 g NaCI and extracted with met......A new method that uses HPLC with a photochemical reactor for enhanced detection was developed and validated for the determination of aflatoxins in cassava flour. Samples were spiked with a mixture of four aflatoxins at 5, 10, and 20 microg/kg mixed with either 1 or 5 g NaCI and extracted...

  20. Two Novel DNAs That Enhance Symptoms and Overcome CMD2 Resistance to Cassava Mosaic Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    De León, Leandro; Doyle, Catherine D.; Sseruwagi, Peter; Plata, German; Legg, James P.; Thompson, Graham; Tohme, Joe; Aveling, Theresa; Ascencio-Ibáñez, Jose T.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Cassava mosaic begomoviruses (CMBs) cause cassava mosaic disease (CMD) across Africa and the Indian subcontinent. Like all members of the geminivirus family, CMBs have small, circular single-stranded DNA genomes. We report here the discovery of two novel DNA sequences, designated SEGS-1 and SEGS-2 (for sequences enhancing geminivirus symptoms), that enhance symptoms and break resistance to CMD. The SEGS are characterized by GC-rich regions and the absence of long open reading frames. Both SEGS enhanced CMD symptoms in cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) when coinoculated with African cassava mosaic virus (ACMV), East African cassava mosaic Cameroon virus (EACMCV), or East African cassava mosaic virus-Uganda (EACMV-UG). SEGS-1 also overcame resistance of a cassava landrace carrying the CMD2 resistance locus when coinoculated with EACMV-UG. Episomal forms of both SEGS were detected in CMB-infected cassava but not in healthy cassava. SEGS-2 episomes were also found in virions and whiteflies. SEGS-1 has no homology to geminiviruses or their associated satellites, but the cassava genome contains a sequence that is 99% identical to full-length SEGS-1. The cassava genome also includes three sequences with 84 to 89% identity to SEGS-2 that together encompass all of SEGS-2 except for a 52-bp region, which includes the episomal junction and a 26-bp sequence related to alphasatellite replication origins. These results suggest that SEGS-1 is derived from the cassava genome and facilitates CMB infection as an integrated copy and/or an episome, while SEGS-2 was originally from the cassava genome but now is encapsidated into virions and transmitted as an episome by whiteflies. IMPORTANCE Cassava is a major crop in the developing world, with its production in Africa being second only to maize. CMD is one of the most important diseases of cassava and a serious constraint to production across Africa. CMD2 is a major CMD resistance locus that has been deployed in many cassava

  1. The Effect of Emulsifier and Hydrocolloid on Baking Expansion and Texture of Bread from Modified Cassava

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pudjihastuti Isti

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Indonesia has a very abundant cassava that can be used instead of wheat. Bread made from cassava is safe for celiac sufferers, in which cannot tolerate a protein called gluten found in wheat flour. However, bread from cassava has the disadvantage that it cannot inflate perfectly. Our research goal is to study the effect of emulsifier and hydrocolloid concentration as modifying agents on baking expansion and bread texture (hardness. The test level hedonic preference for bread products results from modified tapioca is also necessary to know the level of customer satisfaction. This study were conducted by three main stages, modification of cassava, baking process, and analyses. Modification of cassava starch was applied using combination of lactic acid solution and ultra violet (UV irradiation. Emulsifier (DATEM and hydrocolloid (xanthan gum were used in baking process. The addition of emulsifier and hydrocolloid can improve baking expansion. The addition of 7% emulsifiers on modified cassava can increase the volume of bread, taste, and texture so it can give greater satisfaction to consumers. Hydrocolloid can replace the function of gluten so the bread can inflate perfectly. The optimal composition of modified cassava in bread making is 25% of modified cassava and 75% of wheat flour. The low value of texture (hardness on bread made from modified cassava indicated a better performance in comparison with native cassava. Baking expansion and texture of the bread is influenced by the modification process. Furthermore, the comprehensive and optimum studies of modification need to be investigated.

  2. Energy efficiency and potentials of cassava fuel ethanol in Guangxi region of China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dai Du; Hu Zhiyuan; Pu Gengqiang; Li He; Wang Chengtao

    2006-01-01

    The Guangxi Zhuang autonomous region has plentiful cassava resources, which is an ideal feedstock for fuel ethanol production. The Guangxi government intends to promote cassava fuel ethanol as a substitute for gasoline. The purpose of this study was to quantify the energy efficiency and potentials of a cassava fuel ethanol project in the Guangxi region based on a 100 thousand ton fuel ethanol demonstration plant at Qinzhou of Guangxi. The net energy value (NEV) and net renewable energy value (NREV) are presented to assess the energy and renewable energy efficiency of the cassava fuel ethanol system during its life cycle. The cassava fuel ethanol system was divided into five subsystems including the cassava plantation/treatment, ethanol conversion, denaturing, refueling and transportation. All the energy and energy related materials inputs to each subsystem were estimated at the primary energy level. The total energy inputs were allocated between the fuel ethanol and its coproducts with market value and replacement value methods. Available lands for a cassava plantation were investigated and estimated. The results showed that the cassava fuel ethanol system was energy and renewable energy efficient as indicated by positive NEV and NREV values that were 7.475 MJ/L and 7.881 MJ/L, respectively. Cassava fuel ethanol production helps to convert the non-liquid fuel into fuel ethanol that can be used for transportation. Through fuel ethanol production, one Joule of petroleum fuel, plus other forms of energy inputs such as coal, can produce 9.8 J of fuel ethanol. Cassava fuel ethanol can substitute for gasoline and reduce oil imports. With the cassava output in 2003, it can substitute for 166.107 million liters of gasoline. With the cassava output potential, it can substitute for 618.162 million liters of gasoline. Cassava fuel ethanol is more energy efficient than gasoline, diesel fuel and corn fuel ethanol but less efficient than biodiesel

  3. Microbiological Qualities of Hawked Retted Cassava Fufu in Aba ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Retted cassava fufu samples obtained from five local government areas in Aba Metropolis were analyzed. Their microbial counts, chemical and organoleptic properties were determined from the day of preparation and every day for the eight days of hawking. There were increases in the microbial counts from initial average ...

  4. development of a motorized parboiled cassava tuber shredding

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2013-03-01

    Mar 1, 2013 ... to present farming and food system in Africa. Of late, the importance of cassava has been ... many disadvantages because it makes land unavailable for further cultivation and quality of root diminishes. .... Inserting the value of M into equation 3, gives Te as 169.94Nm. The equivalent bending moment was.

  5. Decomposition of Cassava and Vegetable Cowpea leaf litters under ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Two related studies using three leaf residue types' cassava and vegetable cowpea leaves were carried out in the field and under controlled laboratory conditions to determine the rate of their decomposition using litter bag technique. The carbon dioxide evolution by the three leaf residues namely, Oven dry leaf litter, fresh ...

  6. Mineral composition of five improved varieties of cassava | Adeniji ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Five new cassava mosaic disease resistant (CMD) varieties released to farmers in Nigeria were evaluated for mineral composition. Results show that TME 419 differed significantly (p<0.05) from other varieties in calcium (900ìg/ g) and manganese (32.3ìg/g) content. The hybrid check (TMS 30572) and TMS 98/0505 were ...

  7. Cassava Diets and Performance of Rats over Two Reproductive ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... growth on the sundried chips, rather than influence of its hydrocyanic acid content. Histopathological examination of thyroid tissue revealed that thyroidal epithetial heights were significantly (P<0.05) lower in the second litter offspring of the fresh cassava group than in others. Alopecia was also observed in these rats.

  8. Quality evaluation of 'lafun' produced from stored cassava roots ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Freshly harvested cassava roots were stored in the soil and some were stored heaped on the floor of a well ventilated store room. These roots were stored for periods ranging from 1 to 9 days and samples were drawn from them respectively at 3 days interval and used to produce Lafun. Also, Lafun was produced from ...

  9. Identification and analysis of cassava genotype TME3 bacteria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tuoyo Aghomotsegin

    2016-07-20

    Jul 20, 2016 ... 130 BACs were identified, but only 23 BACs contained at least CMD2 specific two markers. Whole BAC sequencing identified five clones that mapped to the marker .... AM560-2 genome. In the absence of a fully sequenced and annotated cassava genome from a CMD resistant genotype, bacterial artificial ...

  10. Effects of Partial Replacement of Soybean Meal with Cassava Leaf ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    One hundred and fifty (150) four weeks old broilers were raised in eight litter pens for the period of four weeks to observe the effect of cassava leaf meal (CLM) on the comparative body weight gain, feed intake, feed conversion ratio, feed efficiency and feed cost of the birds. Five experimental broiler finisher diets containing ...

  11. SSR markers reveal genetic variation between improved cassava ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SERVER

    2007-12-03

    Dec 3, 2007 ... Afr. J. Biotechnol. 4(9): 873-881. Mba REC, Stephenson P, Edwards K, Melzer S, Mkumbira J, Gullberg. U. Apel K, Gale M, Tohme J, Fregene M (2000). Simple Sequence. Repeats (SSR) Markers Survey of the Cassava (Manihot esculenta. Crantz) genome: Towards an SSR-based molecular genetic map of.

  12. Farm level practices relevant to cassava plant protection | Nweke ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    There was a high rate of turnover in the land races grown and susceptibility to pests and diseases was one of the most frequently mentioned reasons for this. Key Words: Africa, cassava bacterial blight, fallow, green mite, marketing, mealybug, mosaic virus disease, pests, rotation. Cet article est basé sur une étude menée à ...

  13. Genetic diversity and population structure of sweet cassava using ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the population structure and genetic diversity among 66 sweet cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) traditional accessions collected in Maringa, Parana, Brazil, using microsatellite molecular markers. Population structure was analyzed by means of genetic distances and ...

  14. Cassava and sweetpotato yield assessment in Malawi | Moyo ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) and sweetpotato (Ipomoea batatas Lam) are important food and cash crops in Malawi. However, key information regarding varieties grown, sources of planting materials, post-harvest handling, utilisation and tuber yields is lacking. A study was, therefore, conducted to source this ...

  15. determinants of contact farmers adoption of improved cassava

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    iya beji

    productivity, they (farmers) need to learn and use new scientific, cultural methods and techniques in place of ... natural enemies there has been a 95% reduction in cassava mealybug damage and a 50% reduction in damage ... grow on and hardened in individual plastic bags or nursery beds before being planted in the field.

  16. Synthesis and characterization of reactive dye-cassava mesocarp ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The synthesis of triazine based reactive dyes was carried out. The resultant dyes were characterized by thin layers chromatography, molecular weight, infrared and ultra- violet spectroscopy, and used in dyeing cassava mesocarp to produce dye modified cellulosic substrates. The dyed substrates were tested for dye fixation, ...

  17. Fermentation and protein enrichment of Cassava pulp and rice ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The protein content of pulped cassava and rice husks were enhanced by fermentation using native populations in Rumen digesta as source of inoculum. After three days of fermentation the microbial population increased with microbial succession as the fermentation progressed. A mixed culture of yeast and bacteria were ...

  18. Evaluation of Starch Biodegradable Plastics Derived from Cassava ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    BSN

    Abstract. Starch derived from two cassava cultivars, one with high amylose (TMS 92/0325) and the other with high amylopectin contents (TMS 91/02324), were screened for their ability to produce biodegradable plastics using different compositions of plasticizers and other materials. The rate of degradation of the bioplastics ...

  19. Protocol for cost effective detection of cassava mosaic virus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Early detection of cassava mosaic disease (CMD) is an extremely important step in containing the spread of the disease in Africa. Many nucleic acid based detection tools have been developed for CMD diagnosis but although these methods are specific and sensitive for their target DNA, they are not fast, cost effective, can't ...

  20. Effects of Green River Project on Cassava Farmers Production in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper examined the effects of Green River project on cassava farmers' production in Ogba/Egbema/ Ndoni LGA of Rivers State. Purposive and stratified random sampling techniques were used to select the locations of Green River project, cooperative societies and respondents. Using structured questionnaire, a field ...

  1. Effect of Cassava Processing Effluent on Soil Properties, Growth and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A study, comprising a survey, greenhouse and field experiments was conducted to examine the effect of Cassava Processing Effluent (CPE) on soil chemical properties, maize growth performances and grain yield. In the survey, soil samples were taken (0-15 and 15 – 30cm) of CPE contaminated and non contaminated ...

  2. Biochemical factors associated with cassava resistance to whitefly ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) an important food security crop, is inflicted by whitefly (Bemisia tabaci) worldwide, causing direct damage of up to 80% of yield loss. Although resistance to the pest has been associated with antibiosis, changes that occur in metabolite activity, and their effect on the pest have not been ...

  3. The Cassava Processing Industry in Brazil: Traditional Techniques ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The paper considers the evolution of cassava-based industrial production, processing and marketing in Brazil, in light of the great technological diversification to be found in Brazil. It discusses the private role of the small- and medium-scale food and related processing enterprises in the food industry, as they employ ...

  4. Physiological causes of yield variation in cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veltkamp, H.J.

    1985-01-01

    Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) is an important crop in many parts of the tropics, being mainly cultivated for its storage roots. Farmers' yields are low and one of the constraints to higher yields is the lack of adequate clones. At the beginning of the 1970s an extensive

  5. Composition of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi associated with cassava

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SARAH

    2016-02-29

    Feb 29, 2016 ... Composition of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi associated with cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) cultivars as influenced by chemical fertilization and tillage in Cameroon. Didier Aime Boyogueno BEGOUDE2, Papa Saliou SARR1*, Tatiana Laure Yondi MPON3, Didier Alexis. OWONA2, Miraine Ndacnou ...

  6. Breeding cassava for multiple pest resistance in Africa

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    incorporated in each trial. After the pre-selection simultaneously in the field and in the screenhouse of seedlings under natural pest occurrence, and/or glasshouse as the number of genotypes is artificial inoculation for CBB using the stem reduced. Cassava bacterial blight evaluations in puncture method and infestation for ...

  7. Costs of climate change impacts on output of cassava among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The challenge of climate change in the face of rising food insecurity makes it imperative to analyze the cost impact of climate change on the output of cassava farming households in south eastern, Nigeria. The cost of the impacts and adaptation measures was used to realize with net returns. The study employed primary ...

  8. Response of rabbits to varying levels of cassava and Leucaena ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Response of rabbits to varying levels of cassava and Leucaena leucocephala leaf meal diets. ... Bulletin of Animal Health and Production in Africa ... An experiment was carried out to determine the performance, haematology, carcass characteristics and sensory evaluation of meat from rabbits (n = 30) fed varying levels of ...

  9. Exploration of water-recycled cassava bioethanol production ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Yomi

    2010-09-13

    Sep 13, 2010 ... glucoamylase was added into the slurry for saccharifying at 130 u g-. 1 dry feedstock. After 30 min of the saccharification, a cassava sweet mash was finally obtained. Ethanol fermentation process. Pre-culturing of the yeast strain, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, was carried out in a 250 ml Erlenmeyer flask ...

  10. Enzymatic Production of Ethanol from Cassava Starch Using Two ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cassava starch from TMS 30572 and Idileru were hydrolyzed with ƒ¿-amylase and amylo-glucosidase before fermentation using two strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae from palm wine and bakersf yeast. The per cent yield of sugars and total dissolved solids were 66 % and 26% respectively while pH was 7.

  11. Coordination of cassava starch to metal ions and thermolysis of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cassava starch formed Werner-type complexes with ions of metals from the transition groups. This was proven by conductivity and electron paramagnetic resonance measurements. The coordination of starch to central metal ions influenced the thermal decomposition of starch. As a rule complexes started to decompose at ...

  12. Investigation on modification of cassava starch using active ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effects of ginger grates at concentrations of l, 5 and 20 g per 150 g of cassava starch suspension in 200 ml of water at room temperature were investigated in order to evaluate the potentials of active components of the ginger in modifying pasting and some physicochemical properties of the starch. Pasting properties of the ...

  13. COORDINATION OF CASSAVA STARCH TO METAL IONS AND ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    a

    ABSTRACT. Cassava starch formed Werner-type complexes with ions of metals from the transition groups. This was proven by conductivity and electron paramagnetic resonance measurements. The coordination of starch to central metal ions influenced the thermal decomposition of starch. As a rule complexes started to ...

  14. Sorption of malachite green (MG) by cassava stem biochar (CSB ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cassava stem biochar (CSB) was produced by pyrolyzing CS at 500°C for 2 hours at nitrogen environment. Proximate and ultimate analyses were conducted on CS and CSB. Batch sorption experiment on synthetic MG wastewater was optimized for the sorbent dosage, MG solution pH and contact time. Sorption data was ...

  15. Rates of adoption of improved cassava production technologies by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Rates of adoption of improved cassava production technologies by farm holdings category among farmers in Imo state. EC Matthews-Njoku. Abstract. Journal of Technology and Education in Nigeria Vol. 7(1) 2002: 11-14. Full Text: EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT.

  16. Response of Cassava Variety TMS/98/0505 to Potassium ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Two field experiments were used to study the response of a low cyanide cassava variety TMS/98/0505 to potassium fertilizer and time of harvest in a tropical ultisol in south eastern Nigeria in 2005/06 and 2006/07. In each year, a split plot design was adopted for the experiment with treatments arranged in a randomized ...

  17. Intercropping maize with cassava or cowpea in Ghana | Ennin ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Maize/cassava and maize/cowpea intercrops were evaluated in southern Ghana, over a 5-year period to determine the optimum combination of component crop varieties and component plant population densities to optimize productivity of maize-based intercropping systems. Results indicated that some cowpea varieties ...

  18. Biochemical factors associated with cassava resistance to whitefly

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ACSS

    2017-08-17

    Aug 17, 2017 ... Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) an important food security crop, is inflicted by whitefly (Bemisia tabaci) worldwide, causing direct damage of up to 80% of yield loss. Although resistance to the pest has been associated with antibiosis, changes that occur in metabolite activity, and their effect on the pest ...

  19. Gender and relative economic efficiency in improved cassava farms ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Educational level and extension contact were positive and significant at 5% for both gender farmer groups. Credit was negative but significant at 5% amongst female farmer groups. Gender participation in improved new cassava showed that those energy sapping operations were dominated by male folk while light operation ...

  20. Removal of heavy metals from aqueous media using native cassava ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Graft copolymers of cassava starch and acrylonitrile were synthesized in aqueous solution using ceric ammonium ion as the initiator. Saponification of grafted copolymer was done by reaction with sodium hydroxide and precipitated with methanol. Grafting was confirmed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR).

  1. Improvements of cyclic somatic embryogenesis of cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz).

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Raemakers, C.J.J.M.; Schavemaker, C.M.; Jacobsen, E.; Visser, R.G.F.

    1993-01-01

    In cassava a cyclic system of somatic embryogenesis was developed. Primary (torpedo shaped or germinated) embryos, originating from leaf lobes, could only be obtained after culture on solid medium. Cyclic embryos, originating from embryos, could be obtained in both liquid and on solid medium. The

  2. Influence of cutting growing cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Influence du prélèvement des boutures de manioc (Manihot esculenta Crantz) en cours de vegetation sur la sévérité des maladies et ravageurs : Influence of cutting growing cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) plants on the severity of pests and diseases.

  3. Effect of varying levels of dietary cassava ( Manihot esculenta, Crantz )

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    60 day old Anak 2000 broiler chicks were used for this study which lasted for 7 weeks. Four experimental diets A, B, C and D were formulated and were designed to be both isonitrogenous and isocaloric in formulation. While diet A contained no cassava (Manihot esculenta) leaf meal (CLM) and served as the control, diets B, ...

  4. Factors affecting in vitro propagation of cassava ( Manihot esculenta ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz.) is a perennial shrub of the Euphorbiaceae family native of eastern tropical South America, grown in the tropics of Africa and Asia for its tuberous roots. Its cultivation is constrained by several problems including the use of cuttings infected with diseases and pests, the lack of high quality ...

  5. Cassava tissue culture and long-term preservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) is cultivated mainly for its starchy roots as an important staple food for the tropics. M. esculenta is the only cultivated species in the genus Manihot, which contains 98 species, mostly native to Brazil. In recent years several research groups have reported metho...

  6. Analysis of sources of information for Improved Cassava Production ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Local Government Area, Cross River State saw radio (41.81%) as major source of information for new technologies in cassava production. The television (30%), extension agent (12.73%), friends/ neighbours (8.18%) and information communication technologies (ICTs)(7.27%) were ranked second, third, fourth and fifth ...

  7. Regeneration and transformation of cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz.)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sofiari, E.

    1996-01-01

    This thesis describes different regeneration systems of cassava. In the first system the embryos were highly organized. The use of the auxins NAA and 2,4-D to induce this organized system of somatic embryogenesis were compared in several genotypes. Bombardment of organized tissues did not result in

  8. The use of somatic embryogenesis for plant propagation in cassava

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Raemakers, K.; Jacobsen, E.; Visser, R.

    2000-01-01

    In cassava, somatic embryogenesis starts with the culture of leaf explants on solid Murashige and Skoog-based medium supplemented with auxins. Mature somatic embryos are formed within 6 wk. The cotyledons of the primary somatic embryos are used as explants for a new cycle of somatic embryogenesis.

  9. Ecologically sustainable cassava plant protection (ESCaPP): A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... Brasileira de Pesquisa Agropecüaria (EMBRAPA). The research, training, implementation and evaluation paradigm used in this project can serve as a model for developing appropriate plant protection technologies and pest management strategies for other cropping systems. Key Words: Cassava, pests, diseases, weeds, ...

  10. improvement and popularization of diversified cassava products for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ROPSERVER

    for frying [6]. Only one traditional paste product (kibabu) from Muheza district that was encountered in a Participatory Rapid Appraisal (PRA) study [5] could relate to the yake yake and agbeli kaklo . This product looked promising in broadening the food types of cassava for wider transect of the Tanzanian community but ...

  11. Effects of cassava mill effluent on some chemical and micro ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The paper examines the effects of cassava mill effluent on the Physicochemical and biological properties of soils of Obubra and Odukpani Local Areas in Cross River State after long time of pollution by the effluent. The soil samples were collected with an auger at the depths of 0-15cm and 15-30cm in each of the polluted ...

  12. utilization of ensiled metabolizable mixture of cassava peel and caged

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Toluwande

    2011-09-05

    Sep 5, 2011 ... component of farm animal feed has been documented [8, 9]. Therefore, this investigation was carried out to study the response of broiler chicken to fermented mixture of cassava peel and caged layers' manure (obtained as farm residue or waste) and fed as a component of energy source in the feed.

  13. Fruit, seed and embryo development of different cassava (Manihot ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fruit, seed and embryo developments of different cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) genotypes, as well as embryo rescue, were investigated. The fruits of three genotypes after uncontrolled open pollination presented the same progressive development with similar sizes at different stages. There are large differences in ...

  14. Biodigestion of cassava peels blended with pig dung for methane ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    OKOROIGWE

    2013-10-02

    Oct 2, 2013 ... African Journal of Biotechnology. Full Length Research Paper. Biodigestion of cassava peels blended with pig dung for methane generation. Oparaku, N. F., Ofomatah, A. C* and Okoroigwe, E. C.. National Center for Energy Research and Development, University of Nigeria, Nsukka, Enugu State, Nigeria.

  15. Use of Bacteria that Produce Linamarase in Cassava Processing for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Assessment of the effectiveness of microorganisms involved in gari fermentation in the degradation of cyanogenic glucosides was studied. Alcaligenes faecalis, Lactobacillus plantarum, Bacillus subtilis and Leuconostoc cremoris were isolated from cassava waste water while standard analytical methods were used to ...

  16. Composition of Two Local Cassava Varieties and the Effect of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Two common Nigerian cassava varieties were subjected to proximate analysis with a view to assessing the relative potential nutrient composition of the roots, stems, leaves and seeds. The results obtained shaved that the leaves, seeds and stems in that order are much richer than the roots in protein but higher in crude fibre ...

  17. The influence of root rot incidence on cassava genotype on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PRECIOUS

    2009-11-16

    Nov 16, 2009 ... Key words: Manihot esculenta Crantz., Botryodiplodia theobromae, sensory evaluation, Fusarium spp.,. Nigeria. INTRODUCTION. Even though, cassava as a major food crop in the deve- loping countries of Africa has the potentials of addressing the increasing food demand of the growing African population ...

  18. Adoption Of Improved Cassava Varieties By Farmers In Kogi State ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Improved cassava varieties have been developed and disseminated to farmers in the study area but the rate of adoption has not been ascertained. This gave rise to the study. The data for the study were collected with the aid of structured questionnaire, from 60 farmers randomly sampled from two Local Government Areas ...

  19. Farmers Adoption Scenarios for the Control of Cassava Mosaic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study determined farmers' adoption levels of the cassava varieties and value adding technologies introduced under the project. Data for the study were collected from 260 randomly selected respondents using interview schedule. Farmers' adoption indices were used to summarize information on adoption levels, while ...

  20. Deteminants of market orientation among cassava producers in Abia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study was conducted to empirically investigate determinants of market orientation among cassava producers in Abia State, Nigeria. Structured questionnaire was used to obtain data from the respondents. A multi-stage randomized sampling procedure was used to select 96 respondents for the study. The data collected ...

  1. Evaluation of Trichoderma harzanium treated cassava waste on the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SERVER

    2007-09-19

    Sep 19, 2007 ... The effects of the fungus, Trichoderma harzanium, treated cassava waste on milk quantity and quality were investigated in a ... secondary cell wall with high cellulose and lignin content, both of which are barrier to .... udders were washed clean with warm detergent water and later rinsed with warm water.

  2. Assessing the determinants of adoption of improved cassava ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study showed that in order to enhance adoption of improved cassava varieties, extension services should be intensified, farmers should form or join groups; farmers should also register with the credit union in the district to have access to credit. Policy makers and crop breeders should come out with varieties that best ...

  3. Revenue maximising combination of rice monocrop and cassava ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    To ensure that cassava-based farmers are encouraged to adopt the optimal farm plan, it has been suggested that government evolves appropriate farm credit policy to enable them have easier access to finance with which to acquire more farm land for cultivation. Land consolidation and reform policies and programmes on ...

  4. Effect of supplementation of cassava peel meal based diet with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A four-week experiment was conducted to investigate the effect of Maxigrain® enzyme supplementation on performance, nutrient digestibility and economic indices of broiler finishers fed soaked and sun-dried cassava peel meal (CPM) based diet. CPM was included in the diets replacing maize at 0%, 25%, 50% and 75% ...

  5. Biodegradation of cassava root sieviate with enzymes extracted from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was carried out to investigate changes in proximate, sugars and cell wall components of cassava root sieviates (CRS) treated with extracted enzymes obtained from Aspergillus niger (An), Trichoderma viridae (Tv), Rhizopus stolonifer (Rs) and Mucor mucedo (Mm) applied on autoclaved CRS at 250ml/kg. Another ...

  6. Gender differences in adoption of recommended improved cassava ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study which was designed to investigate the adoption gaps in the recommended improved cassava production technologies by male and female farmers generated its primary data through interview schedule and Focus Group Discussion (FGD) from 48 and 72 male and female farmers respectively. Simple statistic ...

  7. Evaluation of the suitability of cassava and sweetpotato flours for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The results showed that water binding capacity, solubility and swelling power affect the overall quality of pasta. Pasta made from sweetpotato composite flour was too brittle and crumbled easily when pressed between the fingers. Pasta made from 50% cassava (Abasafita)/50% hard wheat performed better and showed no ...

  8. Utilization of ensiled metabolizable mixture of cassava peel and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An experiment was carried out in which dried cassava peel and dried caged layers' manure mixed in ratio 5:1 (w/w) was ensiled for 14 days and the mixture used to partially replace maize, an expensive energy source in broiler diets in most developing countries at 0%, 25% and 50% dietary inclusion levels. The response of ...

  9. Growth, Yield And Disease Responses Of 12 Cassava Genotypes ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Growth, Yield And Disease Responses Of 12 Cassava Genotypes Evaluated For Two Cropping Seasons In A Derived Savannah Zone Of South-Eastern Nigeria. ... TMS 96/0304 precluded their recommendation for release while TMS 96/1672 could be recommended for release to farmers. Agro-Science Vol. 7 (2) 2008: pp.

  10. Insect Pests Of Dried Cassava ('Kokonte\\') in Ashanti and Brong ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Insect Pests Of Dried Cassava ('Kokonte\\') in Ashanti and Brong Ahafo Regions of Ghana. ... the Brong Ahafo region were sun dried compared with 59% from Ashanti. Samples from Ashanti had been ... The coffee bean weevil, Araecerus fasciculatus (Degeer) (Coleoptera: Bostrichidae), was the most predominant species.

  11. Microbiological safety and quality of dried cassava chips and flour

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ACSS

    About 38% of the cassava produced in the coastal lowlands of Kenya is ... processing handling and marketing (Obadina et al., 2008). The objective of this study .... Values = Means ± Standard deviation in duplicates; Means in the same column with different superscripts are significantly different. (P<0.05). TVC = Total viable ...

  12. Returns, productivity and constraints analyses of cassava/maize ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study was conducted in Isi-Uzo LGA of Enugu State, and evaluated the productivity and profitability of cassava/maize/melon mixed cropping with the aim to determine the degree and direction of influence of the production factors and identification of constraints militating against the enterprise. Multistage and purposive ...

  13. Influence of spectral properties on cassava leaf development and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cassava's importance as a food security crop in Sub Saharan Africa will be enhanced by its special traits such as tolerance to drought and high yields under hydrothermal stress. Some of the special traits which include the light reflective and absorptive properties of the leaves that depend on the surface characteristics of the ...

  14. Determinant of the Adoption of Improved Cassava Varieties (Time ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The result of probit model analysis on determinants of adoption of these varieties shows an R2 value of 0.3842 for TME 419 and 0.2677 for NR8082 varieties. This indicates that 38.4% of the variation of adoption of TME 419 cassava variety was explained (or accounted for) by the independent variables considered in this ...

  15. Screening cassava genotypes in two agroecological zones of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Twelve cassava genotypes were evaluated in two agroecological zones (Ibadan: 25 ± 5 oC and Jos: 14 ± 5 oC) to determine the tuberous root poundability at 3, 6, 9 and 12 months after planting (MAP). The results showed that there were no significant differences (P<0.05) in tuberous root poundability between the two ...

  16. Evaluation of Cassava ( Manihot Esculentum Crantz) Genotypes in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Field experiments were conducted during the 2008 and 2009 cropping seasons to evaluate 15 new cassava genotypes and one local check (Okwoko) for adaptation to Nsukka agro-ecology in the face of global climate change. The experiments were sited at the research farm of the Faculty of Agriculture, University of ...

  17. ERRATA:Selected Ghanaian Cassava and Sweet Potato Cultivars ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Studies were conducted on the suitability of flour samples of three cultivars of cassava (Afisiafi, Gblemoduade, and Tekbankye) and sweetpotato (Sauti, Farah, and TIB2) as brewing adjuncts. Significant varietal differences (p<0.05) were observed in fat content and ash of the flours. In addition, the protein content of ...

  18. performance optimization of nce optimization of a cassava pelleting

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    eobe

    as well as relative ease of operation and maintenance. The machine cons e cassava mash through the dies openings, electric motor, pulley drive system was carried out to maximize the solid product recovery, e. The optimization results shows that the responses efficiency, throughp ine were determined as 58%, 75.76kg/hr ...

  19. Design and fabrication of a cassava peeling machine | Akintunde ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... peeling chamber, which consists of two perforated drums rotating in the opposite direction. The machine had an average capacity of 44.50kg/hr, an average peeling efficiency of 83% and an average percent flesh loss of 5.38%. Keywords: cassava, peeling, peeling efficiency. Nigerian Food Journal Vol. 23 2005: 231-238 ...

  20. Simple picrate method for the determination of cyanide in cassava ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The red coloured complex on the strips was extracted with 50% ethanol solution and the absorbance of the extract was measured at 510nm using a spectrophotometer. The method was reproducible and cyanide as low as 1 microgram could be determined. Cyanide levels of all the cassava varieties tested were higher than ...

  1. Optimization of the Protein Nutritive Value of Wheat/Cassava ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objective of this study was to investigate if the addition of 10% cassava flour or more could be accommodated without compromising the nutritive value of bread. The effect of fortifying with limiting amino-acids was also investigated. This study employed a feeding trial and bioassay of tissues from albino rats of Wistar ...

  2. Leaf Chlorophyll Content and Tuberous Root Yield of Cassava in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Two field trials were established in 1996 and 1997 to assess genotypic variability of four cassava (Manihot esculanta) cultivars for adaptability in the inland valley in terms of leaf chlorophyll content and tuberous root yield, using a 4 x 4 Latin square design with four replications arranged along the toposequence.

  3. Ethanol production of banana shell and cassava starch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monsalve G, John F; Medina de Perez, Victoria Isabel; Ruiz colorado, Angela Adriana

    2006-01-01

    In this work the acid hydrolysis of the starch was evaluated in cassava and the cellulose shell banana and its later fermentation to ethanol, the means of fermentation were adjusted for the microorganisms saccharomyces cerevisiae nrrl y-2034 and zymomonas mobilis cp4. The banana shell has been characterized, which possesses a content of starch, cellulose and hemicelluloses that represent more than 80% of the shell deserve the study of this as source of carbon. The acid hydrolysis of the banana shell yield 20g/l reducing sugar was obtained as maximum concentration. For the cassava with 170 g/l of starch to ph 0.8 in 5 hours complete conversion is achieved to you reducing sugars and any inhibitory effect is not noticed on the part of the cultivations carried out with banana shell and cassava by the cyanide presence in the cassava and for the formation of toxic compounds in the acid hydrolysis the cellulose in banana shell. For the fermentation carried out with saccharomyces cerevisiae a concentration of ethanol of 7.92± 0.31% it is achieved and a considerable production of ethanol is not appreciated (smaller than 0.1 g/l) for none of the means fermented with zymomonas mobilis

  4. A Manually Operated Cassava Grating Machine | Odigboh | Nigerian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The design and development of a manually operated cassava grating machine prototype are presented. The prototype grater is shown to be easy to operate at 30 - 45 rpm to give a product whose quality is as good as that from motorized graters at a throughput of 125 - 185 kg/h. The prototype grater is a powerful alternative ...

  5. Processing cassava into chips for industry and export: analysis of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Data collected were analyzed with descriptive (such as frequency, percentage and means) and inferential statistics. Results of the study showed that more women(56.1%) were involved in cassava processing than men (43.9%) and that substantial proportion of the small holder processors were ageing ((59.1%) and no ...

  6. Effects Of Agricultural Extension On Cassava And Maize Production ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was carried out to assess the effects of agricultural extension on food production in Abak Agricultural zone of Akwa Ibom state. Specifically, the effect was measured using the productivity of small-scale maize and cassava farmers between the years 2004 and 2005. Data for the study were collected from 108 ...

  7. Fortification of cassava peel meals in balanced diets for rabbits ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An eight-week feeding trial was conducted with twenty-four individually caged growing rabbits weighing initially 300 - 380g. Six experimental diets were formulated such that diet 1 was a maize-soyabean based control while in diets 2, 3, 4, 5 and 6, cassava peel meal totally replaced maize. There was also a stepwise ...

  8. Controlled transmission of African cassava mosaic virus (ACMV) by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sarkodie

    2013-07-10

    Jul 10, 2013 ... DAS-ELISA detected ACMV in five out of .... plants. Three-week old N. benthamiana indicator plants grown in an insect- proof cage were used for mechanical inoculation. The N. benthamiana ... DAS-ELISA detection of African cassava mosaic virus in leaf extracts of ten accessions of J. curcas seedlings.

  9. Hydrocarbon Degradation In Poultry Droppings And Cassava Peels ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This greenhouse study was aimed at determining the potentials of poultry droppings (PD) and cassava peels (CP) for nutrient-enhanced biodegradation of petroleum hydrocarbon (THC) in a well drained Typic Paleustults using the THC levels and degradation duration as remediation indices. The performance of the organic ...

  10. 24 hydrocarbon degradation in poultry droppings and cassava peels

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    OLUWOLE AKINNAGBE

    2009-01-01

    Jan 1, 2009 ... ABSTRACT. This greenhouse study was aimed at determining the potentials of poultry droppings (PD) and cassava peels. (CP) for nutrient-enhanced biodegradation of petroleum hydrocarbon (THC) in a well drained Typic. Paleustults using the THC levels and degradation duration as remediation indices.

  11. (2) TAIWO ET AL PAPER ON CASSAVA CHIPS

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Adeyinka Odunsi

    Department of Agricultural Engineering, Ladoke Akintola University of Technology, Ogbomoso, Oyo State,. Nigeria. Corresponding Author: A. Taiwo. .... manufacture and customer use, to design and build many different models of crop dryers. (Dorn .... Evaluation of the mechanical- convection (forced-draft) type cassava chip.

  12. Phytochemical, nutritive and anti-nutritive composition of cassava ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The phytochemical, nutritive and antinutritive composition of Cassava (Manihot esculenta L) tubers and leaves were investigated. The presence of alkaloids, flavonoids, tannins, cardiac glycosides, anthraquinone, phlobatinnins, saponins and anthrocyanosides in aqueous and ethanolic extracts of raw tubers and leaves ...

  13. Quality assessment of fermented cassava dough (Agbelima) on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In order to provide baseline data for developing standards for cassava fermented dough (agbelima) and standardizing the production process, an investigation was conducted to determine the extent of variation in certain quality indices of agbelima from various selected markets. Objective assessment of the chemical, ...

  14. (2) TAIWO ET AL PAPER ON CASSAVA CHIPS

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Adeyinka Odunsi

    and in beds of varying thickness. It would be ... Insulated dryer cabinet wall, 5- Perforated pipe, 6- Tray 3, 7- Tray 2, 8- Tray 1, 9-. Insulated dryer .... measuring scale. The hourly mass of the drying cassava chips were used to determine their hourly moisture content on et basis with the use of Equations (1), (2) and (3). The.

  15. Preliminary sampling of arthropod fauna of transgenic cassava in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    COLLINS-NRCRI, UMUDIKE

    2012-03-13

    Mar 13, 2012 ... arthropod fauna of transgenic cassava in a confined field trial (CFT) at National Root Crops Research. Institute (NRCRI), Umudike, Nigeria. The trial took place from August to November, in 2009 and. February to July, in 2010 to identify the major arthropods associated with the crop and to monitor changes ...

  16. Effect of cassava ( Manihot esculenta crentz ) on thyroid status under ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Increased thyroid weight (P < 0.001), inhibited thyroid peroxidase (TPO) activity and reduced thyroid hormone profiles (P < 0.001) were noted in fresh and cooked cassava fed rats, resembling a relative state of morphological as well as biochemical hypothyroidism even in presence of adequate iodine. African Journal of ...

  17. Investigation of effects of different cassava cultivars with respect to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Statistical analysis showed that there was no significant difference (p > 0.05) in the amount of reducing sugars consumed in the CSH as well as the baker's yeast produced. Hence, HCN contents of different cultivars of cassava had no significant effect on both the rate and extent of hydrolysis. Also, the HCN contents did not ...

  18. Study of the Reproductive Characteristics of Nine Cassava Accessions

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... were prepared from the mid-section of healthy cassava stems and planted at a spacing of 1.5 m x 1.0 m while accessions were separated by a distance of 2 m. Ten plants were tagged per accession for the collection of data on key reproductive characteristics. All accessions flowered, suggesting that flower production may ...

  19. Evaluation of rice and cassava processing wastes for suitability as ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    OGBO

    ABSTRACT. The quality of carrier is a vital factor in determining microbial load and shelf life of biofertilizers. Rice husk and cassava peels are abundant and practically of no economic value in many developing countries and thus satisfy two important requirements of biofertilizer-carrier materials. This study evaluated other.

  20. Combination of malted cereals and cassava starch in the production ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The relative capacity of malted cereals and their optimum conditions of temperature and pH in the hydrolysis of starch were studied. Malted cereals prepared from rice, maize, sorghum and millet were used to degrade cassava starch to produce sugar syrup. Effect of pH and temperature on the level of dextrose equivalent ...

  1. The microbiota of Lafun, an african traditional cassava food product

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Padonou, Sègla Wilfrid; Nielsen, Dennis Sandris; Hounhouigan, Joseph D.

    2009-01-01

    Lafun is a fermented cassava food product consumed in parts of West Africa. In the present work the microorganisms (aerobic bacteria (AB), lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and yeasts) associated with the fermentation of Lafun under traditional conditions have for the first time been studied using...

  2. An Automated Cassava Peeling System for the Enhancement of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In most parts of the tropics, cassava is grown on small plots. However, in some countries, e.g. Mexico, Brazil and Nigeria, large plantations have been started and interest in mechanization is growing. The degree of mechanization depends on the size of the land and availability of machines for each unit operation involved in ...

  3. Effect of cassava starch substituion on the functional and sensory ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The starch cake was rinsed four times, dried in the oven at 40oC for 24 hrs, milled and sieved. The cassava starch was used to substitute 10, 20, 30, 40 and 50% of trifoliate yam flour. The control white yam (Dioscorea rotundata) tubers were peeled, washed and diced. The diced yam tubers were parboiled at temperature of ...

  4. Development of Cassava Bioplastics for Consumer Packaging | Affo ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The production of biodegradable polymer materials for consumer packaging in order to reduce the environmental waste menace caused by petroleum based polyethylene prod-ucts has therefore gained worldwide attention. Batch formulations of gelatinized cassava starch, polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) and Chitosan were casted ...

  5. Genotype x enviroment interaction effects on native cassava starch ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Industries hesitate to use cassava starch because the powder sold by some suppliers has been grossly inadequate. This study was ... L'amidon de manioc autochtone peut être utilisé dans les industries pharmaceutiques, de batterie, dans les fabriques de matériel d'emballage et industries textiles en Malawi. Mots clés: ...

  6. apple juice's clarification process by using cassava and rice starch

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SARAH

    2015-11-30

    Nov 30, 2015 ... Conclusion: cassava and rice starch behaviour during cashew apples juice clarification were not similar. Nevertheless, from the results of optimization ... Journal of Applied Biosciences 95:8989 – 9002. ISSN 1997–5902 ..... action of gravity to modify clarity (Benitez & Lozano,. 2007). Clarification of in natura ...

  7. Techno-economic analysis of fuel ethanol production from cassava ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Moncada Botero, J. (Jonathan)

    Remarks. Complexity. Investment in equipment and strain development. 1 .... 1. Standalone medium feedstock. Production Plant capacity 160,000 L/day increased fresh cassava yield (single plant). 2. Standalone .... Some data on physical properties of the components required during the simulation were obtained from the ...

  8. Reducing post-harvest physiological deterioration in cassava ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cassava roots are notable for their short shelf-life due to post-harvest physiological deterioration (PPD). PPD is initiated by mechanical damage, which typically occurs during harvesting and progresses from the proximal site of damage to the distal end, making the roots unpalatable within 72h. The short shelf-life severely ...

  9. CASSAVA IN A SUBTROPICAL SHORT-SEASON ENVIRONMENT

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    sandy loam (fine-loamy, siliceous, thermic Typic. Paleudult). Before land preparation for planting, fe.i'tili .... probably the result of pruning after planting. Number of ~ storage roots per plant varied ... Branching patterns. leaf area index, and number of storage roots of field grown cassava during 1983-1984'. Number of storage.

  10. Pack nitriding of aluminium using cassava waste | Shitta | Journal of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Pack Nitriding is a process analogous to pack carbonizing. In this work, cassava leaves were employed as a source of nitrogen. Upon heating, slow decomposition of the compound provides Nitrogen, the Nitrogen was allowed to interact with aluminium metal surfaces, which were packed nitrided at temperature of 350°c.

  11. Growing pigs fed cassava peel based diet supplemented with or ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    36 growing pigs (average initial weight of 22.74 ± 0.88 kg) were allotted to three dietary treatment groups of 30%maize-based control diet and 30%cassava-peel based diet supplemented with or without Farmazyme® 3000 proenx. Each treatment had three replicates of 4 pigs/replicate (12 pigs/treatment) in a complete ...

  12. Evaluation of Starch Biodegradable Plastics Derived from Cassava ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Starch derived from two cassava cultivars, one with high amylose (TMS 92/0325) and the other with high amylopectin contents (TMS 91/02324), were screened for their ability to produce biodegradable plastics using different compositions of plasticizers and other materials. The rate of degradation of the bioplastics produced ...

  13. Effects zero tillage on cassava ( Manihot esculentsa crantz ) in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A field study was conducted on a sandy clay loamy soil (Alfisol) at Owo, Southwest Nigeria to evaluate the effects of four tillage methods on soil physical and chemical properties and cassava performance. Tillage treatments were: zero tillage, Conventional tillage, manual mounding and manual ridging. Zero tillage had ...

  14. Cassava Sun Drying Performance on Various Surfaces and Drying ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The experiments were done using kiroba cassava variety obtained from the University farm, which was peeled and sliced into thin chips (2-3 mm) then sun dried on wire mesh, black polythene, white polythene and woven mat for three days. The material was dried for 8 hours daily after which it was kept indoors overnight.

  15. Biodegradation Potentials of Cassava Mill Effluent (CME) by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bacillus, Pseudomonas, Aspergillus and Penicillium species which had the highest turbidity were used for bioremediation studies. The consortium of microorganisms demonstrated the highest efficacy. Bioremediation of cassava mill effluent by these microorganisms was manifested in the reduction of biological oxygen ...

  16. Cyanogen removal from cassava roots during sun-drying.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Essers, A.J.; Grift, van der R.M.; Voragen, A.G.J.

    1996-01-01

    Linamarin levels in sun-drying cassava root pieces showed an exponential decrease, parallel with the moisture loss, and stabilized when moisture levels reached about 15%. Linamarin degradation in thin root segments was significantly slower and less complete than in thick ones. Disinfected

  17. Functional genomic analysis of cassava proteins with TIR domains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roman Reyna, Veronica; Lopez, Camilo

    2012-01-01

    Proteins containing a TIR domain (toll interleukin receptor) are involved in plant and animal immunity. The aim of this work was to carry out an overall genomic analysis of cassava proteins with a TIR domain and discern their possible role in resistance to cassava bacterial blight. In total 46 proteins with a TIR domain were identified in the cassava proteome and were classed in four categories according the presence or absence of other domains: TIR (T), TIR -NB (TN), TIR - lRR (TL) and TIR - NB - lRR (TNL). 56.6 % of these 46 proteins have TIR, NB and lRR domains. Using multiple alignments it was possible to demonstrate that not all cassava TIR domains contain the AE region, involved in dimerization and activation of immune responses. Three of the four proteins categories (T, TNL and TN) presented a higher number of synonymous substitutions suggesting that they are not involved in recognition process. two TIR domains not presenting the ae region were analyzed by yeast two hybrid assays and by agro-infiltration, finding that both are able to form homo and heterodimers, but they do not trigger defense responses. With this study it was possible to conclude that TIR domains can function as adaptors in the signal transduction with other resistance proteins. In addition, it became clear that not always the AE region is important for TIR dimerization but it seems necessary to activate defense responses signals.

  18. Labour Arrangements in Cassava Production in Oyo State, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abila, N.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The study examined the effects of labour arrangements on the profitability of cassava enterprises in Oyo North Area of Oyo State, Nigeria. A multi-stage sampling technique was adopted for data collection, while data were analysed using descriptive statistics and budgetary analysis. The results show that the prevalent labour arrangements for cassava enterprises are: a combination of Family, Hired and Contract labour (38.9%; Family-Hired labour (27.8%; Family-Contract labour (31.1%. The gross margin per hectares across labour arrangements are N279481.99 (all-labour, N286044.24 (family-hired, N216940.10 (familycontract, and N235000.00 (family only. The returns on a naira invested on variable costs across different labour arrangements for cassava enterprises are N2.04 (all-labour, N3.66 (family-hired, N2.37 (familycontract, and N2.61 (family only. This implies that a unit (N1 variable cost in the various labour arrangements of all-labour, family/hired, family/contract and family only in cassava production will yield a marginal return of N3.04, N3.66, N2.37 and N2.61 respectively. Family-hired labour arrangement yields higher marginal return per unit of manday and one naira spent than all other arrangements. The study recommends among others the application of laboursaving technologies and an optimum combination of various labour arrangements to reduce the cost of labour used in cassava production.

  19. Induced mutation breeding in Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) cultivar 'Bosom Nsia'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahiabu, R.K.A.; Klu, G.Y.P.

    1997-01-01

    Cassava is one of the most important staple food crops in the lowland tropics. In most cassava producing countries, it is mainly utilized for human consumption. Cassava leaves are a good source of protein and vitamins, and are used as food in Africa. In Ghana, 'Bosom Nsia' is one of the most widely grown cultivars probably because of its good cooking quality and fast maturation in six months. However, this cultivar is highly susceptible to cassava mosaic virus disease (CMV), hence the need to improve its resistance to the disease. Various in vitro techniques have been developed for cassava research, Klu and Lamptey reported irradiation doses of 25 and 30 Gy to be ideal for in vitro mutagenesis of cassava. These doses were applied to in vivo and in vitro mutation for breeding CMV resistance in the cultivar 'Bosom Nsia'. 6 refs

  20. Energy and environmental assessments of bioethanol production from Sri Kanji 1 cassava in Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    M. Hanif; T.M.I. Mahlia; H.B. Aditiya; M.S. Abu Bakar

    2017-01-01

    According to the Malaysia’s biofuel policy, renewable fuels are crucial for energy sustainability in the transportation sector in the future. This study was aimed to evaluate the potential of bioethanol production from Sri Kanji 1 cassava in Malaysia in terms of energy efficiency and renewability, as well to estimate the potential greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions reduction in CO2 equivalent. Bioethanol production process from cassava includes cassava farming, ethanol production, and transportat...

  1. Loss of CMD2?mediated resistance to cassava mosaic disease in plants regenerated through somatic embryogenesis

    OpenAIRE

    Beyene, Getu; Chauhan, Raj Deepika; Wagaba, Henry; Moll, Theodore; Alicai, Titus; Miano, Douglas; Carrington, James C.; Taylor, Nigel J.

    2016-01-01

    Summary Cassava mosaic disease (CMD) and cassava brown streak disease (CBSD) are the two most important viral diseases affecting cassava production in Africa. Three sources of resistance are employed to combat CMD: polygenic recessive resistance, termed CMD1, the dominant monogenic type, named CMD2, and the recently characterized CMD3. The farmer?preferred cultivar TME 204 carries inherent resistance to CMD mediated by CMD2, but is highly susceptible to CBSD. Selected plants of TME 204 produc...

  2. Farm Management Dividends in a Friendly Policy Environment: The Case of Cassava Industry in Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Umeh, Joseph Chinedu; Asogwa, B.C.

    2005-01-01

    Following the radical reorientation of agricultural policy during the SAP years, beginning in the mid-1980's, cassava emerged as an important crop in the national effort to replace imported foods with domestic production. The policy direction of the Nigerian government has encouraged cassava development leading to a new orientation in research-extension-farmers linkage, especially in the IFAD-assisted Cassava Multiplication Programme (CMP). This study evaluated farm management dividends in a ...

  3. EXPLORATION UNDER SHADE PLANTS OF CASSAVA AND IT’S POTENTIAL AS FORAGE

    OpenAIRE

    Novia Qomariyah; M. Agus Setiana; Iwan Prihantoro

    2014-01-01

    Utilization of forage plants growing among cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) is not optimal. Potential for development of integration of both very large and mutually beneficial. Purpose of this study is to explore and identify types of forage that grows in shade of the cassava plant and potential for development as a source of forage. This study took place in March 2014 Month held at IPB Sinar Sari Complex Dramaga. This research method to define area of cassava plants as treat...

  4. Yield and properties of ethanol biofuel produced from different whole cassava flours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ademiluyi, F T; Mepba, H D

    2013-01-01

    The yield and properties of ethanol biofuel produced from five different whole cassava flours were investigated. Ethanol was produced from five different whole cassava flours. The effect of quantity of yeast on ethanol yield, effect of whole cassava flour to acid and mineralized media ratio on the yield of ethanol produced, and the physical properties of ethanol produced from different cassava were investigated. Physical properties such as distillation range, density, viscosity, and flash point of ethanol produced differ slightly for different cultivars, while the yield of ethanol and electrical conductivity of ethanol from the different cassava cultivars varies significantly. The variation in mineral composition of the different whole cassava flours could also lead to variation in the electrical conductivity of ethanol produced from the different cassava cultivars. The differences in ethanol yield are attributed to differences in starch content, protein content, and dry matter of cassava cultivars. High yield of ethanol from whole cassava flour is best produced from cultivars with high starch content, low protein content, and low fiber.

  5. Unraveling complex viral infections in cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) from Colombia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvajal-Yepes, Monica; Olaya, Cristian; Lozano, Ivan; Cuervo, Maritza; Castaño, Mauricio; Cuellar, Wilmer J

    2014-06-24

    In the Americas, different disease symptoms have been reported in cassava including leaf mosaics, vein clearings, mottles, ring spots, leaf distortions and undeveloped and deformed storage roots. Some viruses have been identified and associated with these symptoms while others have been reported in symptomless plants or latent infections. We observed that reoviruses associated with severe root symptoms (RS) of Cassava Frogskin Disease (CFSD) are not associated with leaf symptoms (LS) observed in the cassava indicator plant 'Secundina'. Neither were these LS associated with the previously characterized Cassava common mosaic virus, Cassava virus X, Cassava vein mosaic virus or phytoplasma, suggesting the presence of additional pathogens. In order to explain LS observed in cassava we used a combination of biological, serological and molecular tests. Here, we report three newly described viruses belonging to the families Secoviridae, Alphaflexiviridae and Luteoviridae found in cassava plants showing severe RS associated with CFSD. All tested plants were infected by a mix of viruses that induced distinct LS in 'Secundina'. Out of the three newly described viruses, a member of family Secoviridae could experimentally induce LS in single infection. Our results confirm the common occurrence of complex viral infections in cassava field-collected since the 1980s. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Effect of Climatic and Non-Climatic Factors on Cassava Yields in Togo: Agricultural Policy Implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Boansi

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the effects of climatic and non-climatic factors on cassava yields in Togo using an Autoregressive Distributed Lag (ARDL modelling approach and pairwise Granger Causality tests. Secondary data on production statistics, rural population, climate variables, prices and nominal exchange rate for the period 1978–2009 are used. Results for estimated short- and long-run models indicate that cassava yield is affected by both ‘normal’ climate variables and within-season rainfall variability. An inverse relationship is found between area harvested and yield of cassava, but a significant positive and elastic effect of labour availability on yield in the long run. Increasing within-lean-season rainfall variability and high lean-season mean temperature are detrimental to cassava yields, while increasing main-season rainfall and mean-temperature enhance cassava yields. Through Granger Causality tests, a bilateral causality is found between area harvested and yield of cassava, and four unidirectional causalities from labour availability, real producer price ratio between yam and cassava, main-season rainfall and lean-season mean temperature to cassava yields. Based on the findings from this study, investment in low-cost irrigation facilities and water harvesting is recommended to enhance the practice of supplemental irrigation. Research efforts should as well be made to breed for drought, heat and flood tolerance in cassava. In addition, coupling area expansion with increasing availability of labour is advised, through the implementation of measures to minimize rural–urban migration.

  7. The retail market for fresh cassava root tubers in the European Union (EU)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kolind-Hansen, Lotte; Brimer, Leon

    2010-01-01

    A number of retail shops in Copenhagen sell fresh cassava roots. Cassava roots contain the toxic cyanogenic glucoside linamarin. A survey was made of the shop characteristics, origin of the roots, buyers, shop owner's knowledge of toxicity levels, and actual toxicity levels.......A number of retail shops in Copenhagen sell fresh cassava roots. Cassava roots contain the toxic cyanogenic glucoside linamarin. A survey was made of the shop characteristics, origin of the roots, buyers, shop owner's knowledge of toxicity levels, and actual toxicity levels....

  8. Assessment of cassava supply response in Nigeria using vector error correction model (VECM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Obayelu Oluwakemi Adeola

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The response of agricultural commodities to changes in price is an important factor in the success of any reform programme in agricultural sector of Nigeria. The producers of traditional agricultural commodities, such as cassava, face the world market directly. Consequently, the producer price of cassava has become unstable, which is a disincentive for both its production and trade. This study investigated cassava supply response to changes in price. Data collected from FAOSTAT from 1966 to 2010 were analysed using Vector Error Correction Model (VECM approach. The results of the VECM for the estimation of short run adjustment of the variables toward their long run relationship showed a linear deterministic trend in the data and that Area cultivated and own prices jointly explained 74% and 63% of the variation in the Nigeria cassava output in the short run and long-run respectively. Cassava prices (P<0.001 and land cultivated (P<0.1 had positive influence on cassava supply in the short-run. The short-run price elasticity was 0.38 indicating that price policies were effective in the short-run promotion of cassava production in Nigeria. However, in the long-run elasticity cassava was not responsive to price incentives significantly. This suggests that price policies are not effective in the long-run promotion of cassava production in the country owing to instability in governance and government policies.

  9. Molecular insights into Cassava brown streak virus susceptibility and resistance by profiling of the early host response

    OpenAIRE

    Anjanappa, Ravi B; Mehta, Devang; Okoniewski, Michal J; Szabelska-Berȩsewicz, Alicja; Gruissem, Wilhelm; Vanderschuren, Hervé

    2018-01-01

    Cassava brown streak viruses (CBSVs) are responsible for significant cassava yield losses in eastern sub-Saharan Africa. To study the possible mechanisms of plant resistance to CBSVs we inoculated CBSV-susceptible and -resistant cassava varieties with a mixed infection of CBSVs using top-cleft grafting. Transcriptome profiling of the two cassava varieties was performed at the earliest time-point of full infection (28 days after grafting) in the susceptible scions. The expression of genes enco...

  10. Comparative analysis of virus-derived small RNAs within cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) infected with cassava brown streak viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogwok, Emmanuel; Ilyas, Muhammad; Alicai, Titus; Rey, Marie E C; Taylor, Nigel J

    2016-04-02

    Infection of plant cells by viral pathogens triggers RNA silencing, an innate antiviral defense mechanism. In response to infection, small RNAs (sRNAs) are produced that associate with Argonaute (AGO)-containing silencing complexes which act to inactivate viral genomes by posttranscriptional gene silencing (PTGS). Deep sequencing was used to compare virus-derived small RNAs (vsRNAs) in cassava genotypes NASE 3, TME 204 and 60444 infected with the positive sense single-stranded RNA (+ssRNA) viruses cassava brown streak virus (CBSV) and Ugandan cassava brown streak virus (UCBSV), the causal agents of cassava brown streak disease (CBSD). An abundance of 21-24nt vsRNAs was detected and mapped, covering the entire CBSV and UCBSV genomes. The 21nt vsRNAs were most predominant, followed by the 22 nt class with a slight bias toward sense compared to antisense polarity, and a bias for adenine and uracil bases present at the 5'-terminus. Distribution and frequency of vsRNAs differed between cassava genotypes and viral genomes. In susceptible genotypes TME 204 and 60444, CBSV-derived sRNAs were seen in greater abundance than UCBSV-derived sRNAs. NASE 3, known to be resistant to UCBSV, accumulated negligible UCBSV-derived sRNAs but high populations of CBSV-derived sRNAs. Transcript levels of cassava homologues of AGO2, DCL2 and DCL4, which are central to the gene-silencing complex, were found to be differentially regulated in CBSV- and UCBSV-infected plants across genotypes, suggesting these proteins play a role in antiviral defense. Irrespective of genotype or viral pathogen, maximum populations of vsRNAs mapped to the cytoplasmic inclusion, P1 and P3 protein-encoding regions. Our results indicate disparity between CBSV and UCBSV host-virus interaction mechanisms, and provide insight into the role of virus-induced gene silencing as a mechanism of resistance to CBSD. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Improvement of cassava cooking quality through mutation breeding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asare, E.; Safo-Kantanka, O.

    1997-01-01

    Many high-yielding cassava varieties do not have the desired cooking quality. The objective of this project was to induce mutations to produce varieties with improved cooking quality while maintaining the disease-resistance and high-yielding characteristics. A cassava mutant (ISU-W) was obtained after irradiation of a variety from IITA with gamma rays and selection. Cuttings of the mutant were grown for 12 months in a field trial and investigated for tuber yield and cooking quality. Pest and disease incidence were monitored during the entire growth period. The results showed that the mutant retained the high-yield and disease resistant characters of the parent, and had improved cooking quality based on increased smoothness, mealiness and elasticity of the flour. (author). 7 refs, 5 tabs

  12. Cassava chip (Manihot esculenta Crantz as an energy source for ruminant feeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Metha Wanapat

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz is widely grown in sub-tropical and tropical areas, producing roots as an energy source while the top biomass including leaves and immature stems can be sun-dried and used as cassava hay. Cassava roots can be processed as dried chip or pellet. It is rich in soluble carbohydrate (75 to 85% but low in crude protein (2 to 3%. Its energy value is comparable to corn meal but has a relatively higher rate of rumen degradation. Higher levels of non-protein nitrogen especially urea (1 to 4% can be successfully incorporated in concentrates containing cassava chip as an energy source. Cassava chip can also be processed with urea and other ingredients (tallow, sulfur, raw banana meal, cassava hay, and soybean meal to make products such as cassarea, cassa-ban, and cassaya. Various studies have been conducted in ruminants using cassava chip to replace corn meal in the concentrate mixtures and have revealed satisfactory results in rumen fermentation efficiency and the subsequent production of meat and milk. In addition, it was advantageous when used in combination with rice bran in the concentrate supplement. Practical home-made-concentrate using cassava chip can be easily prepared for use on farms. A recent development has involved enriching protein in cassava chips, yielding yeast fermented cassava chip protein (YEFECAP of up to 47.5% crude protein, which can be used to replace soybean meal. It is therefore, recommended to use cassava chip as an alternative source of energy to corn meal when the price is economical and it is locally available.

  13. Analysis of cassava (Manihot esculenta) ESTs: A tool for the discovery of genes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zapata, Andres; Neme, Rafik; Sanabria, Carolina; Lopez, Camilo

    2011-01-01

    Cassava (Manihot esculenta) is the main source of calories for more than 1,000 millions of people around the world and has been consolidated as the fourth most important crop after rice, corn and wheat. Cassava is considered tolerant to abiotic and biotic stress conditions; nevertheless these characteristics are mainly present in non-commercial varieties. Genetic breeding strategies represent an alternative to introduce the desirable characteristics into commercial varieties. A fundamental step for accelerating the genetic breeding process in cassava requires the identification of genes associated to these characteristics. One rapid strategy for the identification of genes is the possibility to have a large collection of ESTs (expressed sequence tag). In this study, a complete analysis of cassava ESTs was done. The cassava ESTs represent 80,459 sequences which were assembled in a set of 29,231 unique genes (unigen), comprising 10,945 contigs and 18,286 singletones. These 29,231 unique genes represent about 80% of the genes of the cassava's genome. Between 5% and 10% of the unigenes of cassava not show similarity to any sequences present in the NCBI database and could be consider as cassava specific genes. a functional category was assigned to a group of sequences of the unigen set (29%) following the Gene Ontology Vocabulary. the molecular function component was the best represented with 43% of the sequences, followed by the biological process component (38%) and finally the cellular component with 19%. in the cassava ESTs collection, 3,709 microsatellites were identified and they could be used as molecular markers. this study represents an important contribution to the knowledge of the functional genomic structure of cassava and constitutes an important tool for the identification of genes associated to agricultural characteristics of interest that could be employed in cassava breeding programs.

  14. Field testing and exploitation of genetically modified cassava with low-amylose or amylose-free starch in Indonesia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koehorst-van Putten, H.J.J.; Sudarmonowati, E.; Herman, M.; Pereira-Bertram, I.J.; Wolters, A.M.A.; Meima, H.; Vetten, de N.; Raemakers, C.J.J.M.; Visser, R.G.F.

    2012-01-01

    The development and testing in the field of genetically modified -so called- orphan crops like cassava in tropical countries is still in its infancy, despite the fact that cassava is not only used for food and feed but is also an important industrial crop. As traditional breeding of cassava is

  15. Regional heritability mapping provides insights into dry matter (DM) content in African white and yellow cassava populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    The HarvestPlus program for cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) fortifies cassava with beta-carotene by breeding for carotene-rich tubers (yellow cassava). However, a negative correlation between yellowness and dry matter (DM) content has been identified. Here, we investigated the genetic control of ...

  16. Violet diode laser-induced chlorophyll fluorescence: a tool for assessing mosaic disease severity in cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) cultivars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Benjamin; Eghan, Moses J; Asare-Bediako, Elvis; Buah-Bassuah, Paul K

    2012-01-01

    Violet diode laser-induced chlorophyll fluorescence was used in agronomical assessment (disease severity and average yield per plant). Because cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) is of economic importance, improved cultivars with various levels of affinity for cassava mosaic disease were investigated. Fluorescence data correlated with cassava mosaic disease severity levels and with the average yield per plant.

  17. Occurrence of weeds in Cassava savanna plantations in Roraima

    OpenAIRE

    Albuquerque, J.A.A.; Evangelista, M.O.; Mates, A.P.K.; Alves, J.M.A.; Oliveira, N.T.; Sediyama, T.; Silva, A.A.

    2014-01-01

    A phyto-sociological survey is the first step to implement integrated weed management in crops. In this study, weed occurrence was evaluated in cassava plantations in the savannah of Roraima in northern Brazil. Harvest was performed randomly 80 times in 10 crops over four seasons (January, February, March, and April 2012). The harvested plants were cut at ground level, sorted out per species, identified, quantified, and weighed on a 0.01 g precision scale. A descriptive analysis was conducted...

  18. Performance of broiler starter chicks fed graded levels of cassava ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Performance of broiler starter chicks fed graded levels of cassava chips meal as replacement for whole maize. ... Results show that birds on control (0% CCM) and T2 (12.5% CCM) with weight gains 643 g and 625 g; average daily feed intake, 46.7 and 46.9 g average daily weight gain 23.0 and 21.3 g; feed conversion ratio, ...

  19. The Processing and Acceptability of a Fortified Cassava Based ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Key words: gari, cassava, soybean, nutrient composition, processing soybean parts, okora, residue, extraction, soya milk Nigeria Résumé Le “Gari” est un produit amylacé présenté sous forme de granules séchées et qui est préparé à partir des racines de manioc. C'est un élément important entrant dans la composition du ...

  20. Effect of multiple subcultures on Musa shoots derived from cassava ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Shoot tip explants excised from in vitro plantlets of two Musa genotypes (TM3X 15108-6 and TMBX 612-74) were seeded singly into test tubes containing twenty milliliters each of Musa multiplication medium gelled differently in 60 and 70 gL-l cassava starch as well as 5 gL-l agar and placed on shelves under 14 h photo ...

  1. Assessment of Heavy Metal Contamination in Soils around Cassava ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nigerian Journal of Basic and Applied Science (June, 2013), 21(2): 96-104. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/njbas.v21i2.2 ..... possible sources of copper in these sites are engine wear and cassava wastes. With respect to ..... Applied Science Research, 2(26): 515-521. Iwegbue, C.M..A. (2007). Distribution of heavy metals.

  2. The Supply Chain System of Cassava on the Tapioca Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Hardoyo,; Safrudin, Ahmad; Komara, Ahmad

    2013-01-01

    The quantity, quality and continueity guarantee of raw material supply is a one of define factor for the succesfull of production process. To solve the problems of raw material supply on tapioca industry, it is important to develop a correct raw material supply management. That management must be accurate on quantity, quality, continuity and price. One of the developed management is supply chain managementThe purpose of this paper is to make a cassava raw material supply chain on 100 ton prod...

  3. Effects of maize planting patterns on the performance of cassava ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    sola

    The design was a split-plot arrangement, laid out in a randomized ... significant differences (P<0.05) between the treatments in the growth and yield parameters of maize. The mean effects of companion crops on maize leaf area were 0.61, 0.60, 0.60 and 0.52 m2/plant for sole maize, maize / melon, maize / cassava and.

  4. Effects of processing conditions on the hardness of cassava pellets ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The parameters considered were machine speeds of 1.5, 2.5, 3.5, 4.5 mm/min, die diameters of 6, 8, 10, 12 mm and cassava dough of moisture content levels 48.5, 50.5, 52.5 and 54.5%w.b. Result of the statistical analysis of variance showed that all the parameters and their interactions were significant on hardness ...

  5. Prospects of using cassava as temporary shade for cocoa in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It is being contended that the provision of optimal shade could maximise cocoa production. Four cassava varieties (Manihot spp.) were planted as temporary shade tree in September 1995 at three spacing (1.2 m x 0.6 m; x 1.2 m and 1.2 m x 2.4 m) at Akumadan. The level of shade provided by the canopies and the control ...

  6. Assessment of Heavy Metal Contamination in Soils around Cassava ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The concentrations, contamination/pollution index, anthropogenic input and enrichment factors for metals in soil in the vicinity of cassava processing mills in sub-urban areas of Delta State of Nigeria were examined. The concentrations of metals in all sites and depths ranged from 0.1 to 383.2 mg kg-1 for Mn, 4.0 to 11.3 mg ...

  7. Stability of cassava flour-based food bars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erica Caroline da Silva

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The consumption of Brazilian cassava has been reduced due to a lack of adjustment to the modern lifestyle. To reverse this trend, new products could be developed specifically targeted to high-value niche markets. Cereal bars stand out as fast food high in nutritional value. A bar formula mimicking cereal bars was prepared using a mixture of Brazilian cassava flour, hydrogenated vegetable fat, dried bananas, ground cashew nuts, and glucose syrup. After being pressed, the bars were dried for 1 hour at 65 °C, packaged in films, and stored under ambient conditions. Its stability was continuously monitored for 210 days in order to ensure its safety and enable its introduction to the market. Texture loss was observed in the packed bars after 90 days of storage, but the sensory characteristics allowed the testers to perceive this tendency after only 30 days of storage. However, chemical, physical, and microbial analyses confirmed that the bars were safe for consumption for 180 days. The results showed that a 45 g cassava flour-based bar enriched with nuts and dried fruits can meet 6% of the recommended daily fiber intake with a caloric value between that of the common cereal bar and that of an energy bar. Adapting the formula with ingredients (fruits, nuts from different regions of Brazil may add value to this traditional product as a fast food.

  8. Leaf area estimation of cassava from linear dimensions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SAMARA ZANETTI

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The objective of this study was to determine predictor models of leaf area of cassava from linear leaf measurements. The experiment was carried out in greenhouse in the municipality of Botucatu, São Paulo state, Brazil. The stem cuttings with 5-7 nodes of the cultivar IAC 576-70 were planted in boxes filled with about 320 liters of soil, keeping soil moisture at field capacity, monitored by puncturing tensiometers. At 80 days after planting, 140 leaves were randomly collected from the top, middle third and base of cassava plants. We evaluated the length and width of the central lobe of leaves, number of lobes and leaf area. The measurements of leaf areas were correlated with the length and width of the central lobe and the number of lobes of the leaves, and adjusted to polynomial and multiple regression models. The linear function that used the length of the central lobe LA = -69.91114 + 15.06462L and linear multiple functions LA = -69.9188 + 15.5102L + 0.0197726K - 0.0768998J or LA = -69.9346 + 15.0106L + 0.188931K - 0.0264323H are suitable models to estimate leaf area of cassava cultivar IAC 576-70.

  9. Somatic embryogenesis in cassava: A tool for mutation breeding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, K.S.; Duren, M. Van; Morpurgo, R.

    1997-01-01

    Cassava is an important food and livestock feed crop. The effect of gamma radiation on somatic embryogenesis and plant regeneration in cassava clones of African origin was investigated. Explants from young leaves of cassava were cultured on MS medium, supplemented with 18.1 mM 2,4-D and 2 mM CuSO4, solidified with 0.3% Phytagel. Compact and friable calli were observed after 10-15 days of explant culture in dark, which produced somatic embryos in all but one clone. The somatic embryos showed morphological aberrations, such as fused cotyledons, lack of meristematic tip, epicotyl elongation, and had low germination rate; desiccation of embryos increased germination. Histological study showed that the somatic embryos were of multicellular origin. Leaf explants were irradiated with doses between 4 to 38 Gy of gamma rays, and cultured on somatic embryo induction medium. In addition, somatic embryos were irradiated with gamma ray doses from 10 to 18 Gy, and analyzed for germination. LD 50 for embryogenic response of leaf-explants was at around 20 Gy, while that for somatic embryo germination was ca. 10 Gy. (author). 7 refs, 2 tabs

  10. Effect of plant-biostimulant on cassava initial growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Emílio de Souza Magalhães

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Biostimulants are complex substances that promote hormonal balance in plants, favor the genetic potential expression, and enhance growth of shoots and root system. The use of these plant growth promoters in crops can increase quantitatively and qualitatively crop production. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of a commercial biostimulant on the initial growth of cassava. The experiment was arranged in a 2 x 5 factorial design, corresponding to two cassava cultivars (Cacau-UFV and Coimbra and five biostimulant concentrations (0, 4, 8, 12 and 16 mL L-1. At 90 days after planting, the characteristics leaf area, plant height, stem diameter, leaf number, total dry matter and dry matter of roots, stems and leaves were evaluated. The biostimulant promoted linear increases in plant height, leaf number, leaf area, total dry matter, dry matter of stems, leaves and roots. The cultivar Cacau-UFV had a higher growth rate than the cultivar Coimbra. The growth promoter stimulated the early growth of the cassava crop.

  11. Making cassava flour safe using the wetting method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Howard Bradbury

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Many people, particularly in Africa, suffer various conditions from eating bitter cassava which contains poisonous cyanogens. As well as poisoning, which sometimes causes death, these conditions include konzo, an irreversible paralysis of the legs, which affects mainly children and young women, impaired neurocognition in children, tropical ataxic neuropathy in older people, and aggravation of iodine deficiency disorders (such as goitre and cretinism in iodine deficient areas. The wetting method removes residual cyanogens, and is an additional method of processing cassava flour after its preparation by one of the traditional methods. The wetting method is simple and easy to use, the traditional thick porridge (fufu or ugali made from the treated flour tastes very good, and the method is readily accepted by rural women in East and Central Africa. Regular use of the wetting method by rural women in 13 villages in the Democratic Republic of Congo has prevented konzo amongst more than 9,000 people. We recommend that the wetting method be used as an additional method to traditional methods to remove cyanogens from cassava flour in tropical Africa.

  12. Classification of cassava genotypes based on qualitative and quantitative data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, E J; Oliveira Filho, O S; Santos, V S

    2015-02-02

    We evaluated the genetic variation of cassava accessions based on qualitative (binomial and multicategorical) and quantitative traits (continuous). We characterized 95 accessions obtained from the Cassava Germplasm Bank of Embrapa Mandioca e Fruticultura; we evaluated these accessions for 13 continuous, 10 binary, and 25 multicategorical traits. First, we analyzed the accessions based only on quantitative traits; next, we conducted joint analysis (qualitative and quantitative traits) based on the Ward-MLM method, which performs clustering in two stages. According to the pseudo-F, pseudo-t2, and maximum likelihood criteria, we identified five and four groups based on quantitative trait and joint analysis, respectively. The smaller number of groups identified based on joint analysis may be related to the nature of the data. On the other hand, quantitative data are more subject to environmental effects in the phenotype expression; this results in the absence of genetic differences, thereby contributing to greater differentiation among accessions. For most of the accessions, the maximum probability of classification was >0.90, independent of the trait analyzed, indicating a good fit of the clustering method. Differences in clustering according to the type of data implied that analysis of quantitative and qualitative traits in cassava germplasm might explore different genomic regions. On the other hand, when joint analysis was used, the means and ranges of genetic distances were high, indicating that the Ward-MLM method is very useful for clustering genotypes when there are several phenotypic traits, such as in the case of genetic resources and breeding programs.

  13. Modification of Foamed Articles Based on Cassava Starch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ponce, P.

    2006-01-01

    This work reports the influence of radiation, plasticizers and poly vinyl alcohol (PVA) on the barrier properties [water vapour permeability (WVP)) and mechanical properties (tensile strength and elongation; compression resistance and flexibility) of foamed articles based on cassava starch. The starch foam was obtained by thermopressing process. Poly ethylene glycol (PEG, 300) was selected as plasticizer and water was necessary for the preparation of the foams. The foamed articles based on cassava starch were irradiated at low doses of 2 and 5 kGy, commonly used in food irradiation. The mechanical properties of starch foams are influenced by the plasticizer concentration and by irradiation dose. An increase in PEG content showed a considerable increase in elongation percentage and a decrease in the tensile strength of the foams; also increase the permeability of the foams in water. After irradiation, the barrier properties and mechanical properties of the foams were improved due to chemical reactions among polymer molecules. Irradiated starch cassava foams with poly vinyl alcohol (PVA) have good flexibility and low water permeability. WVP can be reduced by low doses of gamma radiation

  14. Production of the first transgenic cassava in Africa via direct shoot ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    2006-10-02

    Oct 2, 2006 ... embryogenic units (CRM)2; Cassava regeneration medium for plantlet conversion of hygromycin-resistant maturing embryos (CRM)3; Liquid medium for multiplication and maintenance of cassava embryogenic suspensions ..... However, these shoots (Figure 2g) failed to develop further in elongation ...

  15. The effect of replacing maize with cassava peel meal on the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A 12-week feeding trial was conducted to determine the optimal replacement level(s) of dried cassava peel meal (DCPM) for maize in diets for weaner rabbits. Four experimentnl diets were formulated such that dried cassava peel meal replaced maize at 0, 50%, 75% and 100% levels, respectively. Each diet was fed to five ...

  16. Efficiency of non-vector methods of Cassava brown streak virus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Several etiological and epidemiological studies have been undertaken to determine the disease causal agent and the mechanism of spread of Cassava brown streak disease (CBSD). Until recently, two distinct potyviruses have been reported to cause the disease. These are Cassava brown streak virus (originated in ...

  17. Optimization of biohydrogen and methane recovery within a cassava ethanol wastewater/waste integrated management system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Wen; Xie, Li; Luo, Gang

    2012-01-01

    Thermophilic co-fermentation of cassava stillage (CS) and cassava excess sludge (CES) were investigated for hydrogen and methane production. The highest hydrogen yield (37.1 ml/g-total-VS added) was obtained at VSCS/VSCES of 7:1, 17% higher than that with CS digestion alone. The CES recycle enhan...

  18. Sensory Quality of Wheat and Cassava Breads as Affected by Some ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effects of some leguminous seed flours (LSF) on the quality of wheat and cassava breads were investigated. Three LSF, namely Brachystegia eurycoma, Detarium microcarpum, and Mucuna sloanei were added into wheat flour and cassava flour at 0 (control), 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, and 2.0% of the flour basis. The different flour ...

  19. Isolation and characterisation of starch biosynthesis genes from cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Munyikwa, T.R.I.

    1997-01-01


    Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) is a tropical crop grown for its starchy thickened roots, mainly by peasant farmers, in the tropics, for whom it is a staple food. There is an increasing demand for the use of cassava in processed food and feed products, and in the

  20. Comparative analysis of type 1 and type 2 cassava peeling machines

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A comparative analysis of type 1 and type 2 cassava peeling machines with nail lengths of 26mm and 20mm were investigated in order to improve peeling techniques of cassava tubers. The machines were evaluated at four (4) different speeds; (80rev/min, 90rev/min, 100rev/min, and 110rev/min), with 750HP petrol engine.

  1. Computational identification of microRNAs and their targets in cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patanun, Onsaya; Lertpanyasampatha, Manassawe; Sojikul, Punchapat; Viboonjun, Unchera; Narangajavana, Jarunya

    2013-03-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a newly discovered class of noncoding endogenous small RNAs involved in plant growth and development as well as response to environmental stresses. miRNAs have been extensively studied in various plant species, however, only few information are available in cassava, which serves as one of the staple food crops, a biofuel crop, animal feed and industrial raw materials. In this study, the 169 potential cassava miRNAs belonging to 34 miRNA families were identified by computational approach. Interestingly, mes-miR319b was represented as the first putative mirtron demonstrated in cassava. A total of 15 miRNA clusters involving 7 miRNA families, and 12 pairs of sense and antisense strand cassava miRNAs belonging to six different miRNA families were discovered. Prediction of potential miRNA target genes revealed their functions involved in various important plant biological processes. The cis-regulatory elements relevant to drought stress and plant hormone response were identified in the promoter regions of those miRNA genes. The results provided a foundation for further investigation of the functional role of known transcription factors in the regulation of cassava miRNAs. The better understandings of the complexity of miRNA-mediated genes network in cassava would unravel cassava complex biology in storage root development and in coping with environmental stresses, thus providing more insights for future exploitation in cassava improvement.

  2. Genome-Wide Discovery and Information Resource Development of DNA Polymorphisms in Cassava

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, Takuhiro; Akiyama, Kenji; Ishitani, Manabu; Seki, Motoaki; Shinozaki, Kazuo

    2013-01-01

    Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) is an important crop that provides food security and income generation in many tropical countries, and is known for its adaptability to various environmental conditions. Its draft genome sequence and many expressed sequence tags are now publicly available, allowing the development of cassava polymorphism information. Here, we describe the genome-wide discovery of cassava DNA polymorphisms. Using the alignment of predicted transcribed sequences from the cassava draft genome sequence and ESTs from GenBank, we discovered 10,546 single-nucleotide polymorphisms and 647 insertions and deletions. To facilitate molecular marker development for cassava, we designed 9,316 PCR primer pairs to amplify the genomic region around each DNA polymorphism. Of the discovered SNPs, 62.7% occurred in protein-coding regions. Disease-resistance genes were found to have a significantly higher ratio of nonsynonymous-to-synonymous substitutions. We identified 24 read-through (changes of a stop codon to a coding codon) and 38 premature stop (changes of a coding codon to a stop codon) single-nucleotide polymorphisms, and found that the 5 gene ontology terms in biological process were significantly different in genes with read-through single-nucleotide polymorphisms compared with all cassava genes. All data on the discovered DNA polymorphisms were organized into the Cassava Online Archive database, which is available at http://cassava.psc.riken.jp/. PMID:24040164

  3. Analysis of heterogeneity of Copia-like retrotransposons in the genome of cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gbadegesin, Micheal A; Beeching, John R

    2011-12-20

    Retrotransposons are ubiquitous in eukaryotic genomes and now proving to be useful genetic tools for genetic diversity and phylogenetic analyses, especially in plants. In order to assess the diversity of Ty1/Copia-like retrotransposons of cassava, we used PCR primers anchored on the conserved domains of reverse transcriptases (RTs) to amplify cassava Ty1/Copia-like RT. The PCR product was cloned and sequenced. Sequences analysis of the clones revealed the presence of 69 families of Ty1/Copia-like retrotransposon in the genome of cassava. Comparative analyses of the predicted amino acid sequences of these clones with those of other plants showed that retroelements of this class are very heterogeneous in cassava. Cassava is widely grown for its edible roots in the tropical and subtropical regions of the world. Cassava roots, though poor in protein, are rich in starch (makes up about 80% of the dry matter), vitamin C, carotenes, calcium and potassium. It has a great commercial importance as a source of starch and starch based products. Realizing the importance of cassava, it stands out as a crop to benefit from biotechnology development. Heterogeneity of Mecops (Manihot esculenta copia-like Retrotransposons) showed that they may be useful for genetic diversity and phylogenetic analyses of cassava germplasm.

  4. Cloning and characterization of a tuberous root-specific promoter from cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koehorst-van Putten, H.J.J.; Wolters, A.M.A.; Pereira-Bertram, I.J.; Berg, H.; Krol, van der A.R.; Visser, R.G.F.

    2012-01-01

    In order to obtain a tuberous root-specific promoter to be used in the transformation of cassava, a 1,728 bp sequence containing the cassava granule-bound starch synthase (GBSSI) promoter was isolated. The sequence proved to contain light- and sugar-responsive cis elements. Part of this sequence

  5. Assessment of the use of cassava as alternative energy feedstuff in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ayoade adetoye

    Assessment of the use of cassava as alternative energy feedstuff in livestock feeds in Nigeria. *1. Bello, K.O.,. 2. Adetoye, A.M., &. 3. Irekhore, O.T.. 1Institute of Food Security, Environmental Resources and Agricultural Research, Federal University of. Agriculture, Abeokuta, Nigeria. 2Investment Promotion Office, Cassava: ...

  6. Weed flora of cassava in west Nile zones of Uganda | Kawooya ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Information on weeds of cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) in eastern Africa is limited. The objective of this study was to establish the status of weed flora in selected cassava growing regions of Uganda. This study was conducted in 2013 at Abi Zonal Agricultural Research and Development Institute; (AbiZARDI) in Arua, ...

  7. Cost-effective nutrient sources for tissue culture of cassava (Manihot ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    shawgi ali

    2012-08-16

    Aug 16, 2012 ... Key words: Tissue culture, cassava, nutrient sources, micropropagation, low cost medium, acclimatization. INTRODUCTION. Cassava ... This situation is exacerbated by lack of healthy planting materials. Farmers often ... a channel for transmission of systemic infections from one generation to other, leading.

  8. Effect of canker size on availability of cassava planting materials in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cassava (Manihot esculenta L.) production is highly limited by cassava anthracnose disease (CAD) which causes significant losses in planting materials. An experiment was laid out at Ihiagwa, Owern in Nigeria with eighteen treatments replicated three times. Disease severity was scored on a scale of 1-5, and disease ...

  9. Cassava and soil fertility in intensifying smallholder farming systems of East Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fermont, van A.M.

    2009-01-01

    Keywords: Cost-benefits, Crop management, Farming systems, Fertilizer, Food security, Generalizations, Income, Labour, Land pressure, Niche, Rainfall, Sub-Saharan Africa, System analysis, Yield gap.
    Cassava is an important crop in Africa. This thesis focuses on cassava production in the mid

  10. socio-economic determinants of production of pro-vitamin a cassava ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PROF. BARTH EKWEME

    vitamin A Cassava varieties by farmers in Etim Ekpo L.G.A., ... KEYWORDS: Socio-economic, production, Pro-vitamin A cassava, and varieties Etim Ekpo. INTRODUCTION ..... Nigeria's food crop needs because it adapts well to most ecological ...

  11. Socio-economic determinants of production of pro-vitamin a cassava ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Socio-economic determinants of production of pro-vitamin a cassava varieties by farmers in Etim Ekpo local government area, Akwa Ibom state, Nigeria. ... It was recommended that essential rural development facilities should be provided for cassava farmers in the rural communities of Etim Ekpo L. G. A and Akwa Ibom ...

  12. On-Farm Evaluation of the Use of Cassava Root Meal as a Partial ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    2011-04-19

    Apr 19, 2011 ... inclusion from day old to market weight. The use of garri in place of cassava ... 35 days on commercial broiler starter ration. All necessary ... market weight. They also suggested the possibility of using fried garri in place of cassava flour to reduce its dustiness and improve the storability of the finished ration.

  13. Utilization Of Iita/Nrcri Cassava Pulp De-Watering Machine In Rural ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cassava-pulp de-watering machine was developed by International Institute of Tropical Agriculture Ibadan and National Root Crops Research Institute Umudike to replace manual methods of expressing water from cassava pulps. The technology was introduced to farmers in South eastern Nigeria over two decades ago.

  14. Exploring the potential of cassava in promoting agricultural growth in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanzidur Rahman

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Cassava is one of the major food crops in Nigeria, with multiple uses from human consumption to industrial applications. This study explores the potential of cassava in Nigerian agriculture based on a review of cassava development policies; performs a trend analysis of the cultivation area, production, productivity, and real price of cassava and other competing crops for the period 1961–2013; identifies the sources of growth in production; and examines the production constraints at the local level based on a survey of 315 farmers/processors and 105 marketers from Delta State. The results revealed that several policies and programmes were implemented to develop the cassava sector with mixed outcomes. Although cassava productivity grew at 1.5% per annum (p.a. during the post-structural adjustment programme period (1993–2013, its real price declined at a rate of 3.5% p.a. The effect of yield is the main source of growth in production, contributing 76.4% of the total growth followed by the area effect (28.2%. The cassava sector is constrained by inadequate market infrastructure, processing facilities, and lack of information and unstable prices at the local level. The widespread diffusion of improved tropical manioc selection technologies and investments in market and marketing infrastructure, processing technologies, irrigation/water provision and information dissemination are recommended to enhance the potential of the cassava sector to support agricultural growth in Nigeria.

  15. The fungal diseases of cassava in the republic of Congo, central Africa

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The main fungal diseases of cassava are listed. They include leaf spot diseases of minor importance caused by Cercospora henningsii Allesher, C. caribaea Chupp. et Cifferi and C. vicosae. They also include stem diseases represented by anthracnose of cassava whose symptoms are formed in two stages: (i) wounding by ...

  16. The presidential special initiative on cassava: a bane or blessing to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper analyses the Presidential Special Initiative on Cassava, a Ghanaian government initiative that seeks to increase substantially the nation's foreign exchange earnings through the transformation of stallholder production methods and the processing of cassava for export. Research work was carried out in the ...

  17. Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) is a widely grown root crop in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Netherlands Liaison Office

    primers previously developed from cassava were used to detect polymorphic 21 alleles in a sample of 69 ... security and in some areas for sale in fresh or processed ... evolving biotic factors as pests and diseases to cassava farming. Genetic diversity can most efficiently be quantified using molecular markers. The simple.

  18. Effect of adoption of improved cassava varieties on the livelihoods of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Over the years, the use of local varieties of cassava by farmers especially in the study area had not appreciably improved the livelihood status of the farmers. This study, therefore, examined the effects of adoption of improved cassava varieties on the livelihoods of the rural farmers in Nsukka Local Government Area of Enugu ...

  19. EXPLORATION UNDER SHADE PLANTS OF CASSAVA AND IT’S POTENTIAL AS FORAGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Novia Qomariyah

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Utilization of forage plants growing among cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz is not optimal. Potential for development of integration of both very large and mutually beneficial. Purpose of this study is to explore and identify types of forage that grows in shade of the cassava plant and potential for development as a source of forage. This study took place in March 2014 Month held at IPB Sinar Sari Complex Dramaga. This research method to define area of cassava plants as treatments that cassava plants were planted separately with another crop (monoculture and cassava crops are planted among crops and horticultural crops such as pariah plants, beans, squash and corn (polyculture. Furthermore, observed and forage samples taken were grown in both location and made herbarium and identified its kind. Results: forage crops are grown between cassava monoculture is more diverse than polyculture. Types of forage crops grown on cassava monoculture is Echinochloa colona, Setaria barbata, Family Juncaceae, Cyperus sp., Conjugatum paspalum, Cynodon dactylon, Stenotaphrum secundatum, Axonophus compressus (Swartz P. Beauv, Eleusine indica and Panicum maximum. Types of forage crops grown on cassava polyculture is colona Echinochloa, Setaria barbata, Family Juncaceae, Cyperus sp., Stenotaphrum secundatum, Eleusine indica and Leucaena leucephala.

  20. comparative analysis of type 3 and type 4 cassava peeling machines

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    HOME

    During the peeling operation, some parts of the cassava may remain unpeeled due to irregularity of cassava tuber shapes or due to shorter peeling time. The machine operational variables such as peeling efficiency, tuber flesh losses, peel retention and peeling time were determined and considered as dependant variables ...

  1. Production of the first transgenic cassava in Africa via direct shoot ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Here we report on the first successful establishment of cassava regeneration and transformation capacity in Africa via organogenesis, somatic embryogenesis and friable embryogenic callus (FEC). As a prerequisite for genetic engineering, we evaluated six African cassava genotypes for the ability of a) induction of FEC b) ...

  2. SCREENING OF CHEMICAL COMPOSITIONS OF CRUDE WATER EXTRACT OF DIFFERENT CASSAVA VARIETIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olajumoke Oke FAYINMINNU

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Chemical composition of three sources of crude cassava water extract (CCWE was evaluated in different varieties of cassava (MS6 Manihot Selection (local variety, TMS 30555 Tropical Manihot Selection (Improved variety and Bulk (crude cassava water from cassava processing site. Crude cassava water extract from the pulp of cassava fresh roots was prepared and the chemical composition was determined in the analytical laboratory. The result of the analysis showed that, hydrocyanic acid (HCN and with elements such as Magnesium (Mg, Manganese (Mn, Iron (Fe, Sulphur (S, Copper (Cu and Zinc (Zn. Nitrogen (N, Phosphorous (P and Potassium (K were found in the extract. The study showed that due to the presence of hydrocyanic acid in the extract, this waste found around the cassava processing sites possesses phytotoxic effects on weeds/vegetation in form of leaf decoloration (yellowing, wilting and eventually death. Crude cassava water extract showed a probable natural herbicide which can be used by the peasant farmers because it is environmental friendly and easily biodegradable into harmless compounds in the environment

  3. Sustaining World Food Security with Improved Cassava Processing Technology: The Nigeria Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter O. Kolawole

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Cassava is a very important food crop that is capable of providing food security. However, a lot of problems prevent the development and use of modern equipment for its production. Most of the cassava produced still comes from peasant farmers who depend on manual tools for their field operations and these farmers have made Nigeria the world’s largest producer of the crop. An increase in production of cassava to sustain the world food security needs improved machinery to allow its continuous cultivation and processing. Reasons for the low success recorded in the mechanization of cassava harvesting and processing were traced, and the attempts that have been made in the recent past by various engineers in Nigeria researching towards achieving mechanized harvesting and processing of cassava are well explained. The machinery required for cassava production in Africa, the development of new machines, and the need for more research and development in harvesting and processing machineries, which can reduce poverty worldwide and make food available and accessible for all, are also discussed. Research efforts made and the challenges facing the engineers, farmers, scientists and food processors towards achieving mechanical harvesting and processing of cassava are presented. Breeding a cassava variety with a regular shape for easy mechanization is one solution that could help the engineers worldwide.

  4. A Comparative Study of the Use of Cassava Species and Alum in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This research was conducted to study the performance of two varieties of cassava as coagulants in waste water treatment and compare them with alum. Heavy metals composition of the two varieties of cassava used were also studied. The results showed that, the acid treated portion of specie A (Manihot palmate) recorded ...

  5. Cyanide Detoxifition in Cassava by-products by Fungal Solid State ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study investigated microbial detoxification of cyanide in cassava peels and leaves in solid state fermentation. Three microorganisms, Mucor Strictus, Rhizomucor miehei and Saccharomyces cerevisiae were used to inoculate the cassava by-products. The levels of cyanide in the substrates after 4, 8 and 12 days on ...

  6. Socio-Economic Relevance of Cassava to Rural Peasant Farmers in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    To this extent, the paper suggests among others that the state pays more attention to research and development with the view to introducing a higher yielding cassava variety that would be suitable for Ghanaian soil type, and to facilitate the development of an integrated cassava industry in Ghana to link peasant farm ...

  7. Reflects of graded levels of cassava peel-based diets on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Eight diets were produced to contain 0, 7.5, 15.0 and 22.5% processed cassava peel at 24 and 20% crude protein levels respectively. The diets were made isocaloric and isonitrogenous and fed to cobb broilers for ten weeks. Results obtain indicated that up to 15.0% cassava peel could be incorporated in broiler diets ...

  8. Cassava starch as an alternative cheap gelling agent for the in vitro ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SERVER

    2007-07-03

    Jul 3, 2007 ... the transplants from the agar gelled medium. The use of 10% cassava starch reduced cost by 42.5% in comparison with use of agar. Key words: Cassava starch, gelling agents, micro-propagation, transplants, potato. INTRODUCTION. Media for in vitro cultures can be classified as liquid or solid. Gelling ...

  9. A time series transcriptome analysis of cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) varieties challenged with Ugandan cassava brown streak virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amuge, T; Berger, D K; Katari, M S; Myburg, A A; Goldman, S L; Ferguson, M E

    2017-08-29

    A time-course transcriptome analysis of two cassava varieties that are either resistant or susceptible to cassava brown streak disease (CBSD) was conducted using RNASeq, after graft inoculation with Ugandan cassava brown streak virus (UCBSV). From approximately 1.92 billion short reads, the largest number of differentially expressed genes (DEGs) was obtained in the resistant (Namikonga) variety at 2 days after grafting (dag) (3887 DEGs) and 5 dag (4911 DEGs). At the same time points, several defense response genes (encoding LRR-containing, NBARC-containing, pathogenesis-related, late embryogenesis abundant, selected transcription factors, chaperones, and heat shock proteins) were highly expressed in Namikonga. Also, defense-related GO terms of 'translational elongation', 'translation factor activity', 'ribosomal subunit' and 'phosphorelay signal transduction', were overrepresented in Namikonga at these time points. More reads corresponding to UCBSV sequences were recovered from the susceptible variety (Albert) (733 and 1660 read counts per million (cpm)) at 45 dag and 54 dag compared to Namikonga (10 and 117 cpm respectively). These findings suggest that Namikonga's resistance involves restriction of multiplication of UCBSV within the host. These findings can be used with other sources of evidence to identify candidate genes and biomarkers that would contribute substantially to knowledge-based resistance breeding.

  10. Bioconversion of industrial solid waste--cassava bagasse for pullulan production in solid state fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugumaran, K R; Jothi, P; Ponnusami, V

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the work was to produce commercially important pullulan using industrial solid waste namely cassava bagasse in solid state fermentation and minimize the solid waste disposal problem. First, influence of initial pH on cell morphology and pullulan yield was studied. Effect of various factors like fermentation time, moisture ratio, nitrogen sources and particle size on pullulan yield was investigated. Various supplementary carbon sources (3%, w/w) namely glucose, sucrose, fructose, maltose, mannose and xylose with cassava bagasse was also studied to improve the pullulan yield. After screening the suitable supplement, effect of supplement concentration on pullulan production was investigated. The pullulan from cassava bagasse was characterized by FTIR, (1)H-NMR and (13)C-NMR. Molecular weight of pullulan from cassava bagasse was determined by gel permeation chromatography. Thus, cassava bagasse emerged to be a cheap and novel substrate for pullulan production. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Pathological and Molecular Characterization of Xanthomonas campestris Strains Causing Diseases of Cassava (Manihot esculenta)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verdier, Valérie; Boher, Bernard; Maraite, Henri; Geiger, Jean-Paul

    1994-01-01

    Fifty-one strains representing Xanthomonas campestris pv. manihotis and cassavae and different pathovars occurring on plants of the family Euphorbiaceae were characterized by ribotyping with a 16S+23S rRNA probe of Escherichia coli and by restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis with a plasmid probe from X. campestris pv. manihotis. Pathogenicity tests were performed on cassava (Manihot esculenta). Histological comparative studies were conducted on strains of two pathovars of X. campestris (vascular and mesophyllic) that attack cassava. Our results indicated that X. campestris pv. manihotis and cassavae have different modes of action in the host and supplemented the taxonomic data on restriction fragment length polymorphism that clearly separate the two pathovars. The plasmid probe could detect multiple restriction fragment length polymorphisms among strains of the pathovar studied. Ribotyping provides a useful tool for rapid identification of X. campestris pathovars on cassava. Images PMID:16349463

  12. Biorefinery approach for cassava-based industrial wastes: Current status and opportunities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ming; Xie, Li; Yin, Zhixuan; Khanal, Samir Kumar; Zhou, Qi

    2016-09-01

    Cassava, an important food crop, has been extensively employed as raw materials for various agri-industries to produce starch, bioethanol and other biobased products/chemicals. These cassava-based industries also generate large quantities of wastes/residues, rich in organic matter and suspended solids, and pose significant environmental issues. Their complex biochemical composition with high organic content endows them with a great potential for bioconversion into value-added products via biorefinery thereby providing economic and environmental sustainability to cassava industries. This state-of-the-art review covers the source, composition and characteristics of cassava industrial wastes and residues, and their bioconversion into value-added products, mainly biofuels (ethanol and butanol), biogas, biosurfactant, organic acids and other valuable biochemicals among others. This paper also outlines future perspectives with respect to developing more effective and efficient bioconversion processes for converting the cassava wastes and residues into high-value products. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Characterisation of Cassava Bagasse and Composites Prepared by Blending with Low-Density Polyethylene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiane Oliveira Farias

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this study was to characterise the cassava bagasse and to evaluate its addition in composites. Two cassava bagasse samples were characterised using physicochemical, thermal and microscopic techniques, and by obtaining their spectra in the mid-infrared region and analysing them by using x-ray diffraction. Utilising sorption isotherms, it was possible to establish the acceptable conditions of temperature and relative humidity for the storage of the cassava bagasse. The incorporation of cassava bagasse in a low-density polyethylene (LDP matrix was positive, increasing the elasticity modulus values from 131.90 for LDP to 186.2 for 70% LDP with 30% SP bagasse. These results were encouraging because cassava bagasse could serve as a structural reinforcement, as well as having environmental advantages for its application in packaging, construction and automotive parts.

  14. Food safety: importance of composition for assessing genetically modified cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz).

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Rijssen, Fredrika W Jansen; Morris, E Jane; Eloff, Jacobus N

    2013-09-04

    The importance of food composition in safety assessments of genetically modified (GM) food is described for cassava ( Manihot esculenta Crantz) that naturally contains significantly high levels of cyanogenic glycoside (CG) toxicants in roots and leaves. The assessment of the safety of GM cassava would logically require comparison with a non-GM crop with a proven "history of safe use". This study investigates this statement for cassava. A non-GM comparator that qualifies would be a processed product with CG level below the approved maximum level in food and that also satisfies a "worst case" of total dietary consumption. Although acute and chronic toxicity benchmark CG values for humans have been determined, intake data are scarce. Therefore, the non-GM cassava comparator is defined on the "best available knowledge". We consider nutritional values for cassava and conclude that CG residues in food should be a priority topic for research.

  15. Marker-assisted selection in common beans and cassava

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blair, M.W.; Fregene, M.A.; Beebe, S.E.; Ceballos, H.

    2007-01-01

    Marker-assisted selection (MAS) in common beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) and cassava (Manihot esculenta) is reviewed in relation to the breeding system of each crop and the breeding goals of International Agricultural Research Centres (IARCs) and National Agricultural Research Systems (NARS). The importance of each crop is highlighted and examples of successful use of molecular markers within selection cycles and breeding programmes are given for each. For common beans, examples are given of gene tagging for several traits that are important for bean breeding for tropical environments and aspects considered that contribute to successful application of MAS. Simple traits that are tagged with easy-to-use markers are discussed first as they were the first traits prioritized for breeding at the International Center for Tropical Agriculture (CIAT) and with NARS partners in Central America, Colombia and eastern Africa. The specific genes for MAS selection were the bgm-1 gene for bean golden yellow mosaic virus (BGYMV) resistance and the bc-3 gene for bean common mosaic virus (BCMV) resistance. MAS was efficient for reducing breeding costs under both circumstances as land and labour savings resulted from eliminating susceptible individuals. The use of markers for other simply inherited traits in marker-assisted backcrossing and introgression across Andean and Mesoamerican gene pools is suggested. The possibility of using MAS for quantitative traits such as low soil phosphorus adaptation is also discussed as are the advantages and disadvantages of MAS in a breeding programme. For cassava, the use of multiple flanking markers for selection of a dominant gene, CMD2 for cassava mosaic virus (CMV) resistance at CIAT and the International Institute of Tropical Agriculture (IITA) as well as with NARS partners in the United Republic of Tanzania using a participatory plant breeding scheme are reviewed. MAS for the same gene is important during introgression of cassava green mite

  16. Chemical composition, functional and pasting properties of cassava starch and soy protein concentrate blends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chinma, Chiemela Enyinnaya; Ariahu, Charles Chukwuma; Abu, Joseph Oneh

    2013-12-01

    The chemical, functional and pasting properties of cassava starch and soy protein concentrate blends intended for biofilm processing were studied. Cassava starch and soy protein concentrates were prepared and mixed at different proportions (100: 0%; 90 : 10%; 80 : 20%; 70 : 30%; 60;40% and 50: 50%). Addition of varying levels of soy protein concentrates to cassava starch led to increases in moisture (from 7.10 to 9.17%), protein ( from 0.32 to 79.03%), ash (from 0.45 to 2.67%) and fat (from 0.17 to 0.98%) contents while crude fiber, carbohydrate and amylose contents decreased from ( 1.19 to 0.38%, 90.77 to 57.01% and 29.45 to 23.04%) respectively . Water absorption capacity and swelling power of cassava starch were improved as a result of soy protein concentrate addition while syneresis and solubility value of composite blends were lower than 100% cassava starch. In general, cassava-soy protein concentrate blends formed firmer gels than cassava starch alone. There were significant (p ≤ 0.05) increases in peak viscosity (from 160.12 to 268.32RVU), final viscosity (from 140.41 to 211.08RVU) and pasting temperature (from 71.00 to 72.32 °C ) of cassava starch due to addition of soy protein concentrate. These results suggest that the addition of soy protein concentrate to cassava starch affected the studied functional properties of cassava starch as evidenced by changes such as reduced syneresis, and solubility that are desirable when considering this biopolymer as an edible biofilm.

  17. Correlation of concentration of modified cassava flour for banana fritter flour using simple linear regression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herminiati, A.; Rahman, T.; Turmala, E.; Fitriany, C. G.

    2017-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the correlation of different concentrations of modified cassava flour that was processed for banana fritter flour. The research method consists of two stages: (1) to determine the different types of flour: cassava flour, modified cassava flour-A (using the method of the lactid acid bacteria), and modified cassava flour-B (using the method of the autoclaving cooling cycle), then conducted on organoleptic test and physicochemical analysis; (2) to determine the correlation of concentration of modified cassava flour for banana fritter flour, by design was used simple linear regression. The factors were used different concentrations of modified cassava flour-B (y1) 40%, (y2) 50%, and (y3) 60%. The response in the study includes physical analysis (whiteness of flour, water holding capacity-WHC, oil holding capacity-OHC), chemical analysis (moisture content, ash content, crude fiber content, starch content), and organoleptic (color, aroma, taste, texture). The results showed that the type of flour selected from the organoleptic test was modified cassava flour-B. Analysis results of modified cassava flour-B component containing whiteness of flour 60.42%; WHC 41.17%; OHC 21.15%; moisture content 4.4%; ash content 1.75%; crude fiber content 1.86%; starch content 67.31%. The different concentrations of modified cassava flour-B with the results of the analysis provides correlation to the whiteness of flour, WHC, OHC, moisture content, ash content, crude fiber content, and starch content. The different concentrations of modified cassava flour-B does not affect the color, aroma, taste, and texture.

  18. Cassava Pulp as a Biofuel Feedstock of an Enzymatic Hydrolysis Proces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Djuma’ali Djuma’ali

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Cassava pulp, a low cost solid byproduct of cassava starch industry, has been proposed as a high potential ethanolic fermentation substrate due to its high residual starch level, low ash content and small particle size of the lignocellulosic fibers. As the economic feasibility depends on complete degradation of the polysaccharides to fermentable glucose, the comparative hydrolytic potential of cassava pulp by six commercial enzymes were studied. Raw cassava pulp (12% w/v, particle size <320 μm hydrolyzed by both commercial pectinolytic (1 and amylolytic (2 enzymes cocktail, yielded 70.06% DE. Hydrothermal treatment of cassava pulp enhanced its susceptibility to enzymatic cleavageas compared to non-hydrothermal treatment raw cassava pulp. Hydrothermal pretreatment has shown that a glucoamylase (3 was the most effective enzyme for hydrolysis process of cassava pulp at temperature 65 °C or 95 °C for 10 min and yielded approximately 86.22% and 90.18% DE, respectively. Enzymatic pretreatment increased cassava pulp vulnerability to cellulase attacks. The optimum conditions for enzymatic pretreatment of 30% (w/v cassava pulp by a potent cellulolytic/ hemicellulolytic enzyme (4 was achieves at 50 °C for 3, meanwhile for liquefaction and saccharification by a thermo-stable α-amylase (5 was achieved at 95 °C for 1 and a glucoamylase (3 at 50 °C for 24 hours, respectively, yielded a reducing sugar level up to 94,1% DE. The high yield of glucose indicates the potential use of enzymatic-hydrothermally treated cassava pulp as a cheap substrate for ethanol production.

  19. Genetic modification of cassava for enhanced starch production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ihemere, Uzoma; Arias-Garzon, Diana; Lawrence, Susan; Sayre, Richard

    2006-07-01

    To date, transgenic approaches to biofortify subsistence crops have been rather limited. This is particularly true for the starchy root crop cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz). Cassava has one of the highest rates of CO(2) fixation and sucrose synthesis for any C3 plant, but rarely reaches its yield potentials in the field. It was our hypothesis that starch production in cassava tuberous roots could be increased substantially by increasing the sink strength for carbohydrate. To test this hypothesis, we generated transgenic plants with enhanced tuberous root ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase (AGPase) activity. This was achieved by expressing a modified form of the bacterial glgC gene under the control of a Class I patatin promoter. AGPase catalyses the rate-limiting step in starch biosynthesis, and therefore the expression of a more active bacterial form of the enzyme was expected to lead to increased starch production. To facilitate maximal AGPase activity, we modified the Escherichia coli glgC gene (encoding AGPase) by site-directed mutagenesis (G336D) to reduce allosteric feedback regulation by fructose-1,6-bisphosphate. Transgenic plants (three) expressing the glgC gene had up to 70% higher AGPase activity than control plants when assayed under conditions optimal for plant and not bacterial AGPase activity. Plants having the highest AGPase activities had up to a 2.6-fold increase in total tuberous root biomass when grown under glasshouse conditions. In addition, plants with the highest tuberous root AGPase activity had significant increases in above-ground biomass, consistent with a possible reduction in feedback inhibition on photosynthetic carbon fixation. These results demonstrate that targeted modification of enzymes regulating source-sink relationships in crop plants having high carbohydrate source strengths is an effective strategy for increasing carbohydrate yields in sink tissues.

  20. Biogas Production Using Anaerobic Biodigester from Cassava Starch Effluent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Sunarso

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available IKMs’ factory activity in Margoyoso produces liquid and solid wastes. The possible alternative was to use the liquid effluent as biogas raw material. This study focuses on the used of urea, ruminant, yeast, microalgae, the treatment of gelled and ungelled feed for biogas production, pH control during biogas production using buffer Na2CO3, and feeding management in the semi-continuous process of biogas production that perform at ambient temperature for 30 days. Ruminant bacteria, yeast, urea, and microalgae was added 10% (v/v, 0.08% (w/v, 0.04% (w/v, 50% (v/v of mixing solution volume, respectively. The pH of slurry was adjusted with range 6.8-7.2 and was measured daily and corrected when necessary with Na2CO3. The total biogas production was measured daily by the water displacement technique. Biogas production from the ungelling and gelling mixture of cassava starch effluent, yeast, ruminant bacteria, and urea were 726.43 ml/g total solid and 198 ml/g total solid. Biogas production from ungelling mixture without yeast was 58.6 ml/g total solid. Biogas production from ungelling mixture added by microalgae without yeast was 58.72 ml/g total solid and that with yeast was 189 ml/g total solid. Biogas production from ungelling mixture of cassava starch effluent, yeast, ruminant bacteria, and urea in semi-continuous process was 581.15 ml/g total solid. Adding of microalgae as nitrogen source did not give significant effect to biogas production. But adding of yeast as substrate activator was very helpful to accelerate biogas production. The biogas production increased after cassava starch effluent and yeast was added. Requirement of sodium carbonate (Na2CO3 to increase alkalinity or buffering capacity of fermenting solution depends on pH-value

  1. Overexpression of Arabidopsis FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT) gene improves floral development in cassava (Manihot esculenta, Crantz).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adeyemo, O Sarah; Chavarriaga, Paul; Tohme, Joe; Fregene, Martin; Davis, Seth J; Setter, Tim L

    2017-01-01

    Cassava is a tropical storage-root crop that serves as a worldwide source of staple food for over 800 million people. Flowering is one of the most important breeding challenges in cassava because in most lines flowering is late and non-synchronized, and flower production is sparse. The FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT) gene is pivotal for floral induction in all examined angiosperms. The objective of the current work was to determine the potential roles of the FT signaling system in cassava. The Arabidopsis thaliana FT gene (atFT) was transformed into the cassava cultivar 60444 through Agrobacterium-mediated transformation and was found to be overexpressed constitutively. FT overexpression hastened flower initiation and associated fork-type branching, indicating that cassava has the necessary signaling factors to interact with and respond to the atFT gene product. In addition, overexpression stimulated lateral branching, increased the prolificacy of flower production and extended the longevity of flower development. While FT homologs in some plant species stimulate development of vegetative storage organs, atFT inhibited storage-root development and decreased root harvest index in cassava. These findings collectively contribute to our understanding of flower development in cassava and have the potential for applications in breeding.

  2. Milk production and economic assessment of cassava bagasse in the feed of dairy cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leandro Pereira Lima

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The addition of 0; 5; 10 and 15% cassava bagasse, based on the dry matter of the total diet of crossbred Holstein v. Zebu cows, was evaluated on milk production and composition and on the impacts of diet costs. The animals, weighing an average of 478.5 kg, were in the middle third lactation period. Diet with 15% cassava bagasse provided a 13.2% increase in production when compared to control. Feed conversion had a quadratic effect with minimum point at 4.2% of cassava bagasse inclusion. Crude protein, the only milk component that changed, increased linearly with the inclusion of cassava bagasse levels. Treatment with 15% cassava bagasse caused a more effective operational cost (42.8% higher when compared to control and the highest leveling point for milk production and price. The lowest leveling points were treatments with 5 and 10% inclusion of cassava bagasse, which had the best economic results. Concentrates caused cost increase, particularly when roughage : concentrate ratio decreased due to higher cassava bagasse inclusion levels.

  3. Evaluation of synergistic effect in vacuum pack, refrigeration and irradiated treatments of minimally processed cassava

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pedroso, Bianca Maria

    2005-01-01

    Cassava is cultivated almost all over the world and it is considered one of the most important nutritious sources of calories in the human diet. Cassava is a viable food against starvation in several poor areas of the world because it is an extremely resistant culture and may reach satisfactory economical yield. We utilized vacuum packed industrialized cassava irradiated with 0,1 kGy, 3kGy and 5kGy and stored under refrigeration for 1, 21, 30 and 50 days. Our objective was to analyse the synergistic effect of vacuum packing, irradiation and refrigeration on the preservation of minimally processed cassava. The samples were analyzed for pH, acidity, weight, humidity, texture and color. The irradiation did not affect the chemical characteristics of the cassava. Neither the pH nor the acidity, the most relevant variables to verify deterioration in cassava, presented significant alterations during the period of storage. Comparing the irradiated treatments, the dose of 1kGy and 3kGy affected the physic-chemical characteristics of the cassava the least during the period of storage and refrigeration for 50 days; the doses of 1kGy,3kGy and 5kGy scored the highest rates the sensorial analysis during the period of storage for 21 days. (author)

  4. Cassava traits and end-user preference: Relating traits to consumer liking, sensory perception, and genetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bechoff, Aurélie; Tomlins, Keith; Fliedel, Geneviève; Becerra Lopez-Lavalle, Luis Augusto; Westby, Andrew; Hershey, Clair; Dufour, Dominique

    2018-03-04

    Breeding efforts have focused on improving agronomic traits of the cassava plant however little research has been done to enhance the crop palatability. This review investigates the links between cassava traits and end-user preference in relation with sensory characteristics. The main trait is starch and its composition related to the textural properties of the food. Pectin degradation during cooking resulted in increased mealiness. Nutritional components such as carotenoids made the cassava yellow but also altered sweetness and softness; however, yellow cassava was more appreciated by consumers than traditional (white) varieties. Components formed during processing such as organic acids gave fermented cassava products an acidic taste that was appreciated but the fermented smell was not always liked. Anti-nutritional compounds such as cyanogenic glucosides were mostly related to bitter taste. Post-harvest Physiological Deterioration (PPD) affected the overall sensory characteristics and acceptability. Genes responsible for some of these traits were also investigated. Diversity in cassava food products can provide a challenge to identifying acceptance criteria. Socio-economic factors such as gender may also be critical. This review leads to questions in relation to the adaptation of cassava breeding to meet consumer needs and preference in order to maximize income, health and food security.

  5. Manual of radiation processing of cassava starch hydrogel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sonsuk, Manit

    2007-01-01

    The radiation processing of natural cassava starch (CS) is described for the improvement of its properties. A series of hydrogels were prepared from gelatinized CS and vinylpyrrolidone by radiation-induced graft copolymerization. Hydrogels were also synthesized from radiation-induced crosslinking of carboxymethyl CS. The optimum condition for the swelling ratio and gel fraction of the obtained hydrogels is irradiation at low dose. The polymeric chelating resins containing the hydroxamic acid groups were synthesized from the polymethyl acrylate (PMA)-grafted CS via gamma radiation. (M.H.)

  6. Nutrition Value Of Development Of Snack Cireng Cassava And Fish

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    Siti Nur Rochimiwati

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Snack are ready-made foods that are self-produced or purchased from sellers or merchants. Snack sellers can be found along the roadside in stalls cake shops around the crowded places like schools offices colleges and so on. The Ministry of Health 2014 states that snack is a given or consumed between two time of meals with an energy value of about 200 Kilocalories and 5 grams of protein. Whereas PMT-US standard Supplementary Feeding of School Children requires 200-300 kilocalories and 5-7 grams of protein. Snacks are sold around the school by unsettled and non-resident sellers in the school stalls or canteens. Various snacks are sold as rice noodles sweet corn fried tempe tofu fried foods meatballs bread cracker potatos jelly cooked rice noodles cimol cilok cireng biscuits milk iced tea iced juices etc Alfid TA Retno I Setho and Yohanes K Bastianus DR Anasari M 2013 The BPOM Food and Drug Supervisory Agency research in Alfid in 2003 stated that from 9465 samples 80 contain harmful ingredients. Snack also has a contribution in the fulfillment of daily nutrition that is energy amounted to 233.11 28.41 Kcal and protein at 6.21 1.39 gram Rachmawati HN 2013. This type of research is experimental with cireng manufacture from cassava and fish cassava cireng Fish and tapioca and cireng original made from tapioca flour. The study aims to determine the taste nutritional value and large of serving portions. The results were obtained for all three products The weighing 50 gram serving portion nutritional value has not reached the standard of the nutritional value of snacks. From the aspect of approaching cireng original flavor is cireng tapioca plus cassava and fish while cireng cassava and fish not like cireng original. It is advisable to develop or further modify in order to achieve nutritional standards of snack and as a healthy and safe snacks and the characteristics of cireng are not lost.

  7. Genotype × environment interaction effects on early fresh storage root yield and related traits in cassava

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robooni Tumuhimbise

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz is an important root crop worldwide. It exhibits substantial differential genotypic responses to varying environmental conditions, a phenomenon termed genotype × environment interaction (GEI. A significant GEI presents challenges in the selection of superior genotypes. The objective of this study was to examine the effect of genotype, environment and GEI on early fresh storage root yield (FSRY and related traits in cassava. Accordingly, 12 cassava genotypes were evaluated in a randomised complete block design at three contrasting locations (Jinja, Nakasongola and Namulonge in Uganda. Trials were harvested nine months after planting and the data collected were analysed using the additive main effects and multiplicative interaction (AMMI model. The AMMI analysis of variance showed significant variation among genotypes for early FSRY and all other traits assessed. Locations were significantly different for all traits except for cassava brown streak disease root necrosis. The GEI effect was non-significant for early FSRY, but significant for other traits. For early FSRY, 48.5% of the treatment sum of squares was attributable to genotypes, 27.3% to environments, and 24.1% to GEI, indicating a predominance of genotypic variation for this trait. Predominance of genotypic variation was also observed for all the other traits. A majority of the genotypes (67% had low interaction effects with locations for early FSRY, with Akena, CT2, CT4 and NASE14 being the most stable genotypes for the trait. Significant negative correlation was observed between cassava mosaic disease severity and early FSRY and storage root number, indicating significant negative effects of cassava mosaic disease on early FSRY and stability in cassava. The information generated will inform future selection initiatives for superior early-yielding cassava genotypes combining resistance to cassava mosaic and brown streak diseases in Uganda.

  8. Chemical composition, functional and pasting properties of cassava starch and soy protein concentrate blends

    OpenAIRE

    Chinma, Chiemela Enyinnaya; Ariahu, Charles Chukwuma; Abu, Joseph Oneh

    2011-01-01

    The chemical, functional and pasting properties of cassava starch and soy protein concentrate blends intended for biofilm processing were studied. Cassava starch and soy protein concentrates were prepared and mixed at different proportions (100: 0%; 90 : 10%; 80 : 20%; 70 : 30%; 60;40% and 50: 50%). Addition of varying levels of soy protein concentrates to cassava starch led to increases in moisture (from 7.10 to 9.17%), protein ( from 0.32 to 79.03%), ash (from 0.45 to 2.67%) and fat (from 0...

  9. Development of friable embryogenic callus and embryogenic suspension culture systems in cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, N J; Edwards, M; Kiernan, R J; Davey, C D; Blakesley, D; Henshaw, G G

    1996-06-01

    Procedures for the production of a new and highly prolific embryogenic culture system have been developed in cassava. The importance of the basal salts and type of auxin in controlling the development of cassava embryogenic tissues has been demonstrated, with culture on Gresshoff and Doy basal medium in the presence of 4-amino-3,5,6,trichloro-picolinic acid (picloram) inducing the formation of friable embryogenic callus from which highly totipotent embryogenic suspension cultures could be established. Plants have been regenerated from these cultures. The availability of embryogenic suspension cultures is considered to have important implications for the application of genetic transformation and other biotechnologies in the agronomic improvement of cassava.

  10. Effect of processing conditions on the texture of reconstituted cassava dough

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    E. Rodríguez-Sandoval

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Deformability modulus, hardness, cohesiveness and adhesiveness of cassava dough reconstituted from precooked flour were evaluated using a lubricated compression test and texture profile analysis. Cassava parenchyma processed under different cooking conditions and left at either -5ºC or -20ºC for 24 h was used to make flour, which was reconstituted into dough. As temperature decreased to -20ºC during the storage period of cooked parenchyma, deformability modulus, hardness and cohesiveness of dough increased significantly. The temperature during the storage period was the most important factor affecting the textural properties of cassava dough.

  11. Resistance to Sri Lankan Cassava Mosaic Virus (SLCMV) in Genetically Engineered Cassava cv. KU50 through RNA Silencing

    KAUST Repository

    Ntui, Valentine Otang

    2015-04-22

    Cassava ranks fifth among the starch producing crops of the world, its annual bioethanol yield is higher than for any other crop. Cassava cultivar KU50, the most widely grown cultivar for non-food purposes is susceptible to Sri Lankan cassava mosaic virus (SLCMV). The objective of this work was to engineer resistance to SLCMV by RNA interference (RNAi) in order to increase biomass yield, an important aspect for bioethanol production. Here, we produced transgenic KU50 lines expressing dsRNA homologous to the region between the AV2 and AV1 of DNA A of SLCMV. High level expression of dsRNA of SLCMV did not induce any growth abnormality in the transgenic plants. Transgenic lines displayed high levels of resistance to SLCMV compared to the wild-type plants and no virus load could be detected in uninoculated new leaves of the infected resistant lines after PCR amplification and RT-PCR analysis. The agronomic performance of the transgenic lines was unimpaired after inoculation with the virus as the plants presented similar growth when compared to the mock inoculated control plants and revealed no apparent reduction in the amount and weight of tubers produced. We show that the resistance is correlated with post-transcriptional gene silencing because of the production of transgene specific siRNA. The results demonstrate that transgenic lines exhibited high levels of resistance to SLCMV. This resistance coupled with the desirable yield components in the transgenic lines makes them better candidates for exploitation in the production of biomass as well as bioethanol.

  12. Modification of cassava starch using combination process lactic acid hydrolysis and micro wave heating to increase coated peanut expansion quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumardiono, Siswo; Pudjihastuti, Isti; Jos, Bakti; Taufani, Muhammad; Yahya, Faad

    2017-05-01

    Modified cassava starch is very prospective products in the food industry. The main consideration of this study is the increasing volume of imported wheat and the demand for modified cassava starch industry. The purpose of this study is the assessing of lactic acid hydrolysis and microwave heating impact to the physicochemical and rheological properties of modified cassava starch, and test applications of modified cassava starch to coated peanut expansion quality. Experimental variables include the concentration of lactic acid (0.5% w/w, 1% w/w; 2% w/w), a time of hydrolysis (15, 30, 45 minutes), a time of microwave heating (1, 2, 3 hours). The research step is by dissolving lactic acid using aquadest in the stirred tank reactor, then added cassava starch. Hydrolysed cassava starch was then heated by microwave. Physicochemical properties and rheology of the modified cassava starch is determined by the solubility, swelling power, and test congestion. The optimum obtained results indicate that solubility, swelling power, congestion test, respectively for 19.75%; 24.25% and 826.10% in the hydrolysis treatment for 15 minutes, 1% w lactic acid and microwave heating 3 hours. The physicochemical and rheological properties of modified cassava starch have changed significantly when compared to the native cassava starch. Furthermore, these modified cassava starch are expected to be used for the substitution of food products.

  13. Analysis of Biodegradation of Bioplastics Made of Cassava Starch

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    Nanang Eko Wahyuningtiyas

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Environmental pollution due to plastic waste taking too long to decompose has become a global problem. There have been numerous solutions proposed, one of which is the use of bioplastics. The use of cassava starch as the main ingredient in the manufacture of bioplastics shows great potential, since Indonesia has a diverse range of starch-producing plants. The aim of the present study is to analyse the effect of glycerol on microbial degradation. This experimental research investigated the use of cassava flour mixed with glycerol plasticizer at various concentrations (0, 2, 2.5, 3% in the synthesis of bioplastics. The aspects studied were biodegradability, moisture absorption (using ASTM D570, shelf life, and morphological properties (using a camera equipped with a macro lens and SEM. This study revealed that complete degradation could be achieved on the 9th day. The addition of a large concentration of glycerol would accelerate the microbial degradation process, increase moisture, and extend the shelf life of bioplastics in a dry place.

  14. Local domestication of lactic acid bacteria via cassava beer fermentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alese M. Colehour

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Cassava beer, or chicha, is typically consumed daily by the indigenous Shuar people of the Ecuadorian Amazon. This traditional beverage made from cassava tuber (Manihot esculenta is thought to improve nutritional quality and flavor while extending shelf life in a tropical climate. Bacteria responsible for chicha fermentation could be a source of microbes for the human microbiome, but little is known regarding the microbiology of chicha. We investigated bacterial community composition of chicha batches using Illumina high-throughput sequencing. Fermented chicha samples were collected from seven Shuar households in two neighboring villages in the Morona-Santiago region of Ecuador, and the composition of the bacterial communities within each chicha sample was determined by sequencing a region of the 16S ribosomal gene. Members of the genus Lactobacillus dominated all samples. Significantly greater phylogenetic similarity was observed among chicha samples taken within a village than those from different villages. Community composition varied among chicha samples, even those separated by short geographic distances, suggesting that ecological and/or evolutionary processes, including human-mediated factors, may be responsible for creating locally distinct ferments. Our results add to evidence from other fermentation systems suggesting that traditional fermentation may be a form of domestication, providing endemic beneficial inocula for consumers, but additional research is needed to identify the mechanisms and extent of microbial dispersal.

  15. Biofuels and Biotechnology: Cassava (Manihot esculenta) as a Research Model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cortes S, Simon; Chavarriaga, Paul; Lopez, Camilo

    2010-01-01

    Fuels such as ethanol and biodiesel, obtained from plants and their constituents, have recently received the world's attention as a true alternative to the global energy supply, mainly because they are cheaper and less contaminant of the environment than the currently used, non-renewable fossil fuels. Due to the pushing biofuel market, the world is currently experiencing an increase of agricultural land devoted to grow crops used to obtain them, like maize and sugar cane, as well as crops that have the potential to become new sources of biofuels. Similarly, this emerging market is boosting the basic research oriented towards obtaining better quality and yield in these crops. Plants that store high quantities of starch, simple sugars or oils, are the target of the biofuel industry, although the newest technologies use also cellulose as raw material to produce fuels. Cassava (Manihot esculenta) is widely grown in the tropics and constitutes a staple food for approximately 10% of the world population. The high starch content of its storage roots, together with the use of conventional and non-conventional breeding turn this crop into an option to obtain better adapted varieties for ethanol production. This manuscript reviews the current state of biofuels worldwide and at the national level,and discusses the benefits and challenges faced in terms of effect on the environment and the human food chain. Finally, it discusses the potential of cassava as a source of raw material for obtaining biofuels in Colombia.

  16. Minimum tillage for cassava production in Khon Kaen Province, Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chindarat Chuenrung

    2003-05-01

    Full Text Available This research paper study on the comparison between no-tillage (NT and conventional tillage (CT incorporated with 3 levels of nitrogen fertilizer application rate (0, 50 and 100 kg N/ha on the fresh root yield of cassava (var. Rayong 72. The field trial has been established since 2000 on the Satuk soil series (fine loamy, silicious, Oxic Paleustults Khon Kaen, Thailand. Under no-tillage practices, the physical soil properties were improved compared to the conventional tillage system and the original soil properties at the start of the trial. The soil structure parameters such as total porosity, soil saturated hydraulic conductivity (Ksat increased in NT plot, whilst soil bulk density (ρb decreased compared to CT plot. Results indicated that the higher yield of fresh root of cassava was observed in the NT plot (P0.05. For the nitrogen application, the yield increased as nitrogen supply increased but the increment was not significant statistically (P>0.05.

  17. Cassava root meal as substitute for maize in layers ration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Anaeto

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The effect of replacing maize with graded levels of cassava root meal (CRM as energy source in the diet of laying hens was evaluated during the eight weeks of feeding experiment on performance and cost benefits on layers. Forty-five Nera black laying hens of 24 weeks of age were allocated to five dietary treatments, with nine birds per treatment in a completely randomized design. CRM was used to formulate the diets at 0, 25, 50, 75, and 100%. The result showed that the feed intake of birds in the control group was significantly (p<0.05 different from those fed the CRM diets. The average weight gain of layers receiving up to 50% CRM was similar to the control birds, but significantly different from layers fed 75 and 100% CRM. No mortality was recorded. Egg production per hen per day and average egg weight were significantly different (p<0.05 for birds consuming more than 50% CRM in T4 and T5. Layer feed ration was made cheaper by the replacement of maize with cassava root meal in the diets.

  18. Improving Genomic Prediction in Cassava Field Experiments Using Spatial Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ani A. Elias

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz is an important staple food in sub-Saharan Africa. Breeding experiments were conducted at the International Institute of Tropical Agriculture in cassava to select elite parents. Taking into account the heterogeneity in the field while evaluating these trials can increase the accuracy in estimation of breeding values. We used an exploratory approach using the parametric spatial kernels Power, Spherical, and Gaussian to determine the best kernel for a given scenario. The spatial kernel was fit simultaneously with a genomic kernel in a genomic selection model. Predictability of these models was tested through a 10-fold cross-validation method repeated five times. The best model was chosen as the one with the lowest prediction root mean squared error compared to that of the base model having no spatial kernel. Results from our real and simulated data studies indicated that predictability can be increased by accounting for spatial variation irrespective of the heritability of the trait. In real data scenarios we observed that the accuracy can be increased by a median value of 3.4%. Through simulations, we showed that a 21% increase in accuracy can be achieved. We also found that Range (row directional spatial kernels, mostly Gaussian, explained the spatial variance in 71% of the scenarios when spatial correlation was significant.

  19. Improving Genomic Prediction in Cassava Field Experiments Using Spatial Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elias, Ani A; Rabbi, Ismail; Kulakow, Peter; Jannink, Jean-Luc

    2018-01-04

    Cassava ( Manihot esculenta Crantz) is an important staple food in sub-Saharan Africa. Breeding experiments were conducted at the International Institute of Tropical Agriculture in cassava to select elite parents. Taking into account the heterogeneity in the field while evaluating these trials can increase the accuracy in estimation of breeding values. We used an exploratory approach using the parametric spatial kernels Power, Spherical, and Gaussian to determine the best kernel for a given scenario. The spatial kernel was fit simultaneously with a genomic kernel in a genomic selection model. Predictability of these models was tested through a 10-fold cross-validation method repeated five times. The best model was chosen as the one with the lowest prediction root mean squared error compared to that of the base model having no spatial kernel. Results from our real and simulated data studies indicated that predictability can be increased by accounting for spatial variation irrespective of the heritability of the trait. In real data scenarios we observed that the accuracy can be increased by a median value of 3.4%. Through simulations, we showed that a 21% increase in accuracy can be achieved. We also found that Range (row) directional spatial kernels, mostly Gaussian, explained the spatial variance in 71% of the scenarios when spatial correlation was significant. Copyright © 2018 Elias et al.

  20. The use of somatic embryogenesis for plant propagation in cassava.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raemakers, K; Jacobsen, E; Visser, R

    2000-03-01

    In cassava, somatic embryogenesis starts with the culture of leaf explants on solid Murashige and Skoog-based medium supplemented with auxins. Mature somatic embryos are formed within 6 wk. The cotyledons of the primary somatic embryos are used as explants for a new cycle of somatic embryogenesis. The cotyledons undergo secondary somatic embryogenesis on both liquid and solid Murashige and Skoog-based medium supplemented with auxins. Depending on the auxin, new somatic embryos are formed after 14-30 d after which they can be used for a new cycle of somatic embryogenesis. In liquid medium, more than 20 secondary somatic embryos are formed per initial cultured embryo. In both primary and secondary somatic embryogenesis, the somatic embryos originate directly from the explants. Transfer of clumps of somatic embryos to a Gresshoff and Doy-based medium supplemented with auxins results in indirect somatic embryogenesis. The direct form of somatic embryogenesis has a high potential for use in plant propagation, whereas the indirect has a high potential for use in genetic modification of cassava. Mature somatic embryos germinate into plants after desiccation and culture on a Murashige and Skoog-based medium supplemented with benzylaminopurine (BA). Depending on the used BA concentration, plants can either be transferred either directly to the greenhouse or after using standard multiplication protocols.